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A collection of Jewish history and current Jewish events, in date format, updated daily in this Jewish history blog.

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    July 20

    356 BCE:  In Macedonia, King Philip II and Queen Olympia give birth to Alexander the Great. You can draw a straight line from Alexander’s Hellenization of Asia Minor to Chanukah to Tisha B’Av, 70 CE.

    70: During the Siege of Jerusalem, Titus, son of emperor Vespasian, storms the Fortress of Antonia north of the Temple Mount. The Roman army is drawn into street fights with the Zealots.

    1263: Pablo Christiani, a converted Jew, and Raymond of Penaforte, compelled King James of Aragon to force a debate between him and Moses ben Nachman (Nachmanides). The Jews were afraid that no matter what the outcome they would lose, so they pleaded with Nachmanides to withdraw. The King ordered him to continue. Although the outcome was preset (the Christians "won"), the King was so impressed that he rewarded Nachmanides with a present of 300 maravedis. Pablo was given permission to continue these debates throughout Aragon with the Jews having to pay his expenses. Two years later Nachmanides was convicted for publishing his side of the debate. Although he was not severely punished by the King, he decided to leave Spain for good and settled in Eretz-Israel.

    1402: During the Ottoman-Timurid Wars, Timur led the forces of the Timurid Empire to victory over the forces of the Ottoman Empire led by Sultan Bayezid I at the Battle of Ankara. This defeat could not have been a source of joy for the Jews living in the Ottoman Empire. Bayezid had proven to be a friend of the Jewish people. “In 1394 Sultan Bayezid invited the French Jews who were molested by King Charles VI, to settle in the Ottoman Empire. They established communities in Edirne and the Balkans. The French Kings had the habit of inviting the Jews to establish commerce and borrowing money from them. However often, when payment was due, they expelled them; only to re-invite them when they needed further financing.” Bayezid died a year after the defeat.

    1588: As the English prepared to meet the Spanish Armada, their fleet “tacked upwind…thus gaining the “weather gage” which would give the smaller fleet an edge in the upcoming battle.

    1624(4th of Av): Rabbi Abraham ben David of Lemberg passed away

    1633 (13th of Av): Rabbi Nathan Shaprio, a leading Kabblist from Cracow and author of Megale Amukot passed away.

    1660: Miguel de Barrios with 152 coreligionists and fellow-sufferers set sail for the West Indies. Soon after his arrival at Tobago his young wife died, and he returned to Europe. He went to Brussels and there entered the military service of Spain

    1706:Shabbethai ben Joseph Bass who had founded printing business in Dyhernfurth, a small town near Breslau which produced its first book, a work by Rabbi Samuel ben Uri of Waydyslav in 1689, was forced to leave Breslau as a result of local hostility to Jews.

    1775: At the request of the Continental Congress, Jews fasted and prayed for the success of the colonies against the British, and to be spared from the "agony of war."

    1790(9th of Av, 5550):Tish'a B'Av

    1808: Napoleon decreed that all Jews of the French Empire must adopt family names.

    1819: Birthdate of Heinrich Bernhard Oppenheim the native of Frankfort-on-Main who was the grandson of Gumpel, the banker of Hamburg who became a distinguished jurist.

    1823: Pius VII, the Pope who rebuilt the walls of the Rome Ghetto and returned the Jews to its confines after they had been freed by Napoleon passed away today.

    1829: Birthdate of Thomas Rowe one of Australia's leading architects of the Victorian era who designed the Great Synagogue in Sydney

    1830: Birthdate of Francesca Janauschek  the Prague native who gained fame as 19th century character actress Fanny Janauschek.

    1834: Birthdate of Jacques Errera, the native of Venice who was a successful banker and the father of botanist Leo-Abram Errera.

    1847: Birthdate of painter and graphic artist Max Liebermann. "Liebermann was one of the leading German impressionist painters." He painted in the manner of the Dutch impressionists rather than the French impressionists. This meant "he often painted people at their everyday tasks and explored the effect of changing sunlight on colors and shadows." When the Nazis came to power in 1933, they included his works in their first showing of "degenerate art." He died in 1935 having been stripped of all his honors and ordered not to paint. Eight years later his was wife committed suicide. I must admit a prejudice. I like his works.

    1855: According to today’s “New by the Mail” column, “A Protestant lady in St. Louis with seven children has joined the Hebrew congregation there.”

    1859: Birthdate of German botanist and Zionist leader Otto Warburg whose family originally came to Germany in the 16th century and who was “one of the members of the El Arish expedition, appointed by Theodor Herzl as the agricultural member of the team led by Leopold Kessler.”

    1862: As General George B. McClellan turned into a disaster, August Belmont wrote Thurlow Weed to express his view that the only way to effect re-union was by negotiations if possible.  He called for a cessation to the war effort because it was too costly in terms of human life and treasure.

    1863: In describing conditions in Memphis, TN, a year after it had surrendered to forces of the Union Army, the New York Times reported that “There remains in the city but a portion of the old citizens, the balance are vagabonding in Dixie, or are carrying a musket in the Southern army, or have left their bones on the hundred battle-fields of the South. Their residences here have been seized by the Government, and to-day the palatial dwellings of many an old aristocrat are occupied by National officials, and the hordes of Jews, who follow in the rear of an army, like wolves behind the hunters.” [Anti-Semitic references like this stand in stark contrast to acceptance of Jews as can be seen by the change in the law allowing Rabbis to serve as chaplains and the reality of the thousands of Jews who fought for the federals, some of whom reached the rank of general.]

    1863: The 11thRegiment of the New York State which was commanded by Colonel Joachim Maidhof when it was mustered into federal service in 1862 was mustered out of United States service today.

    1864: Colonel Frederick Knefler commanded the 79th Indiana Infantry at the Battle of Peachtree Creek, part of Sherman’s audacious campaign to capture Atlanta.

    1869: “The Innocents Abroad” Mark Twain’s travelogue describing his visit to Europe and the Holy Land (including what is now the state of Israel) is published.  For more about the famed American humorist’s attitude towards Jews see

    1870(21stof Tammuz, 5630): Forty year old French journalist Lucien-Anatole Prévost-Paradol the son of Léon Halévy passed away today in Washington, D.C.

    1871: British Columbia joins the confederation of Canada. In 1858, the first large body of Jews arrived in British Columbia along with others seeking their fortunes in the Fraser River Gold Rush.  By 1863, there were enough Jews living in Victoria, B.C. to establish Congregation Emanu-El, now Canada's longest serving synagogue. Ten years after B.C. joined the confederation, the Jewish community would receive its next influx of settlers as refugees from Russian anti-Semitism settled in the Canadian West.

    1876: Birthdate of German mathematician Otto Blumenthal.  Blumenthal converted at the age of 18.  He may have believed that he would find the path to academic success a lot smoother as a Protestant.  In the end, it did not save him from the Nazis.  Blumenthal died in concentration camp in 1944.

    1881: It was reported today that in Neu Stettin, at least 30 anti-Semitic rioters who attacked the editor of the Neu Stettiner Zeitung, were arrested today.

    1881: “Jews In Spain” published today, relied on information from the London Times to report that “In Spain, Praxedes M Sagasta the President of the Council of Ministers wrote to a prominent European Jewish author H. Guedalla that “article 1 of the Constitution of Spain is the most decisive revocation of the edict of banishment against the Jews in the year 1492.  Thus all of your coreligionists who wish can come to Spain without any obstacle whatever…”

    1882: “A Great Fire In Smyrna” published today described the conflagration that left 6,000 people homeless including many of the city’s sizable Jewish population.  The Jews are the primary agents “in the barter and sale of merchandise from Asia, Syria, Baghdad and Persia.”

    1882: During the Freight Handler’s Strike, the strikers stopped providing food for the Jewish and Italian workers whom they had convinced to honor their strike.  Mr. Wolkawoech, the President of the Jewish Freight Handlers’ Union reluctantly provided enough funds to cover the cost of the evening meal.  [Yes there were Russia Jews among the striking workers as well as Russian Jews among what would later be called scabs.]

    1883: In Hungary, as the trial of a group of Jews charged with killing a Christian girl continued, it was reported that a constable testified that he had tortured one of the prisoners with thumbscrews. 

    1884: “Lamb and Mint Sauce” published today described John Brady’s contention that the custom of eating tansy (bitter) puddings and cakes at Easter was introduced by the monk as a symbolic remembrance of the bitter herbs used by Jews at this time of year.  The monks included bacon in their dishes “to denote contempt for Judaism.”  According to Brady, the Jews “have contrived to diminish the bitter flavor” or their tansy “by making a it into pickle for their paschal lamb.”  From all of this has come the custom of combing mint with sugar to create the mint sauce or jelly eaten with the leg of lamb. [This was based on information provided by an annual publication, Clavis Calendaraia.]

    1885: “Jews in Paris” published today summarized a report by the Judische Presse that described the growth of the Jewish population in Paris.  In 1789, there were only 500 Jews living in the French capital.  The numbers have grown: 3,000 in 1806; 12,000 in 1842; 40,000 in 1872; more than 50,000 in 1885.  Jews are more active in the general population as can be seen by the fact that the number of Jewish generals has grown from one in 1821 to five in 1878.

    1887: Mrs. Betty Michaelis “began mandamus proceedings” before Judge Potter today, “in which she asks that the Henrietta Verien be commanded to restore her to membership on the ground that her expulsion was not done according to law.” The legal action stemmed from a fight that she had with Mrs. Henrietta Loser, the President of the Henrietta Verein.

    1887: Louis Keptlovwitch, a Jewish immigrant from Poland, who has been arrested on charges of bigamy, was confronted by both of his wives – the one he married in Poland and the one he married in New York – today. 

    1889: Effective today, Coney Island’s Brighton Beach Hotel announces that it will completely exclude members of the “Hebrew Race” as guests.  The hotel was following the policy adopted by Messers Cable and Breen the lessees of the New York establishment. 

    1890: The manager of the Bank and Steamship Passage at 78 Canal Street and his soliciting agent Louis Silikowitz, were arrested on charges of having swindling their customers, most of whom were Polish and Russian Jews out money with which they had been entrusted to buy tickets for family members still in members.

    1890: It was reported today that Sol B. Solomon has raised $300 from the guests at the Long Beach Hotel to pay for the excursions provided by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children.

    1890: A portion of the 12th annual report of the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children published today showed expenditures of $3,221 and a balance of $7,126 “which is deposited in the seven leading savings banks” in New York City.

    1890: Birthdate of Theda Bara. Born Theodosia Burr Goodman in a wealthy suburb of Cincinnati, Bara’s mother was Swiss and her father was a Jewish tailor. She was known as a "vamp" and one of the first "sex symbols" of the silver screen. She passed away in 1955.

    1891: “Mercy for Russian Jews” published today described a relaxation of “the persecution of the Jews” by the government.  Decrees expelling Jewish artisans from St. Petersburg have “been indefinitely postponed” and “and orders have been seen to the press” to have newspapers “refrain from publishing articles like to excite animosity against the Jews.” 

    1891: “The young man who had killed three Russians” during an attack on the Jewish community near Veile, Russia” and several other Jews were scheduled to go on trial today and when the expected guilty verdict is returned the Jews will be shipped to Siberia.

    1892: As of today, the coroner has not made a determination in the cause of death of Behr Israelson. Doctors claim he died of apoplexy but his Jewish neighbors claimed he was clubbed to death by a policeman. The Jews would not let the coroner’s jury hear the case because there it had no Jewish members.

    1893: Three men who claim to be tailors and Russian Jews were arrested and charged with assault at the Essex Market Police Court based on evidence gathered Alter Shapiro, the Vice President of the Hebrew Protective Society that showed them to be part of a ring that robs and tortures Jews living on the lower east side.

    1893: The Marshall, who had arrived at the apartment of Mrs. Sarah Goldstein at 181 Orchard to execute the order of eviction gave her an extra day to seek relief from the courts since she said her six children who had measles were still too sick to be moved.

    1895: “Hebrew Technical Institute Open” published described the school’s unique summer course for which 200 boys ranging in age from 12 to 15 have enrolled so that they can continue their education in the workshops, laboratories and drawing rooms of the facilities on Stuyvesant Street.

    1895: “Hebrew Technical Institute Open” published today described the summer program which is be offered to 200 boys ranging in age from 12 to 15 at the “workshops, laboratories and drawing rooms” of the schools buildings on Stuyvesant Street.

    1895: Wolf Silverman was arrested tonight and “charged with an attempt to swindle the Empire Life Insurance Company.”

    1896: It was reported today that an ambulance had arrived too late yesterday to save the life of Charles Liebhaber who had been ill for weeks but still insisted on observing the fast for the 9th of Av.

    1896: Herzl meets with the Association des Etudiants Israëlites Russes.

    1897: Funeral services were held today for Mrs. Julia Lauterbach, the widow of Moses Lauterbach, at her home on East 58th Street followed yb burial at Cypress Hills Cemetery.  She was one of those who incorporated the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society of New York, a group which served as Vice President for 11 years.

    1898: Among those serving with the 6th Missouri Volunteer Infantry when it was mustered into service at Jefferson Barracks for service in the Spanish-American War were Captains John H. Goldman and Adolph J. Jacobs as well as Musicians Oscar Bennewitz and Lewis Bloch, Corporal William A Feigel and dozens of privates.

    1903: Herzl writes to Leopold Greenberg (“an English Zionist and future editor of the Jewish Chronicle”) in London to do whatever possible to revive the Sinai enterprise. This is a reference to offers by the British Foreign Office to allow Jews from Eastern Europe to settle in a part of the Sinai Peninsula known as the Brook of Egypt.  Another, better known of these schemes, was the offer to allow Jews to settle in Uganda as a temporary Jewish homeland.  These desperate proposals came against a backdrop of Pogroms in Russia and a general worsening of conditions for Jews in Eastern Europe. While Zionists in German, Austria and Britain were willing to consider such alternatives, the Zionists of eastern Europe rejected them out of hand.  Those living in the greatest physical saw the spiritual danger in accepting anything less than Eretz Israel as the homeland of the Jewish people.  In the man time Herzl wrote desperately, "We must indeed take East Africa, or at least the Charter, but we must not deceive ourselves as to the fact that all the non-English Jews are against East Africa. I shall have to use a great deal of patience for it, whereas El Arish is popular." Herzl also prepares steps to approach Portugal for a Charter for Mozambique, Belgium for a territory in the Congo and Italy for a section of Tripoli. 

    1904(8th of Av, 5664): Eight-two year old Marcus Goldman a German-born American businessman and entrepreneur who founded Goldman Sachs which became one of the world's largest global investment banks passed away.

    1906: Antoine Louis Targe, a French officer whose investigations helped to establish the innocence of Dreyfus was made an officer in the Legion of Honor.

    1906: Dreyfus was made a Knight in the Legion of Honor.

    1907(9thof Av, 5667): Fast not observed because it is Shabbat.

    1908: In a letter to the New York Times, William Maude provides commentary on the antiquity of an ancient copy of the Book of Joshua obtained by Dr. Moses Gaster in Samaria.

    1910: In the Shaarei Chesed neighborhood of Jerusalem founded by Rabbi Shlomo Zalman Porush Rabbi Chaim Yehuda Leib Auerbach, who was rosh yeshiva of Shaar Hashamayim Yeshiva, and Rebbetzin Tzivia gave birth to Rabbi Shlomo Zalman Auerbach, the rosh yeshiva of the Kol Torah yeshiva in Jerusalem, Israel

    1919: Birthdate of Shlomo Zalman Auerbach an Orthodox Jewish rabbi, posek, and rosh yeshiva of the Kol Torah yeshiva in Jerusalem, Israel. “Auerbach was the first child to be born in the Shaarei Chesed neighborhood of Jerusalem founded by his maternal grandfather, Rabbi Shlomo Zalman Porush, after whom he was named.”

    1915(9th of Av, 5675):Tish'a B'Av

    1915: Today the Austrians conquered Russian controlled Lublin, Poland. This would appear to be the realization of a deathbed prophecy by the Chozeh of Lublin (Yaakov Yitzchak Horowitz) came true.  When he died on July 15, 1815 (9th of Av, 5575) he said that 100 years from the day of his death, the Russians would lose their control over Poland. 

    1916(19th of Tammuz, 5676): 2nd Lt. Joel Jacobs who had been at the Perse School, Cambridge before the war was killed today while serving with the Yorkshire Regiment.

    1920: Birthdate of Lev Aronin. Born in the Soviet Union, he became International Chess Master in 1950.

    1921(14thof Tammuz, 5681): Benjamin Bennett Levy, who won the Congressional Medal of Honor during the Civil War, passed away today.

    1922: In Vilna, the administrator of the city’s Jewish Hospital, Solomon Kagan and his wife Leah gave birth to Saul Kagan the refugee from Hitler’s Europe who “was the founding director of the Conference on the Jewish Material Claims Against Germany.” (As reported by Paul Vitello)

    1923: Sadie (née Schindler) and Philip Sendak, a dressmaker gave birth to children’s author Jack Sendak the brother of Maurice Sendak.(As reported by Wolfgang Saxon)

    1924: Birthdate of Ann Gilbert. Born in Szydlowiec, Poland, Ann was a Holocaust survivor. She spent over four years in concentration camps and was liberated in April 1945. She married Fred Gilbert (Felek Gebotszrajber) on Jan. 2, 1946, in Scwabisch Hall, Germany. Ann was a consummate homemaker, an accomplished seamstress, and devoted to her family. She and Fred lived in Cedar Rapids from 1949 to 1986, where she was an active member of Temple Judah and in the community. She was a lifetime member of Hadassah. From 1986 to 2003, Ann and Fred lived in Los Angeles, where she was a much sought after seamstress to film and motion picture stars. Ann and Fred were also very active in the survivor community. They were regular speakers at the Simon Wiesenthal Center-Museum of Tolerance in Los Angeles. She and Fred lectured frequently about their experiences. In 2003, she and Fred returned to Cedar Rapids to be near to Lena. Ann remained a constant source of inspiration until she passed away in 2008 at the age of 84.

    1930:  Maxim Litvinov is named the Soviet Union's Commissar of Foreign Affairs. Born Meir Henoch Mojszewicz Wallach-Finkelstein in 1876, into a wealthy Jewish banking family in Białystok in Congress Poland, he joined the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party in 1898. The party was an illegal organization, and it was customary to use pseudonyms. He changed his name to Maxim Litvinov, but was also known as Papasha and Maximovich. Over the years, his politics become more radical in response to the increasingly repressive policies of the Russian government.  He joined the Bolsheviks where he became a confidante of Lenin.  Litvinov carried out a variety of diplomatic missions for the Soviets after the Russian Revolution.  As Foreign Minister, Litvinov was a key participant that led to recognition of the Soviet government by the United States in 1933.  Litivinov sought to create an anti-fascist alliance with western powers during the 1930’s.  When the British and French caved in at Munich, Stalin decided to work on developing relations with Hitler’s government.  To that end, he removed Litvinov since it would not due to have a Jew negotiating with the Nazi government.  After the Nazis attacked the Soviet Union, Litvinov was sent to Washington to negotiate a Lend-Lease that would provide the arms the Soviets needed to meet the Nazi onslaught.

    1933: Cardinal Pacelli issued a concordant known as the Hitler Concordant. Hitler described it as” unrestricted acceptance of National Socialism by the Vatican." Cardinal Pacelli later became Pope Pious XII. In its spirit all teaching priests were to greet their students with "Heil Hitler, praised be Jesus Christ." (editor’s note: There is not space to review the pernicious effect of this agreement but consider the following When Einstein was told how Pius XII directed a Polish priest to keep silent about the murder of Jews, because of the Concordat the Holy See had signed with Nazi Germany "obliged the Church to tread softly", he replied "There are cosmic laws, Dr. Hermanns. They cannot be bribed by prayers or incense. What an insult to the principles of creation. But remember, that for God a thousand years is a day. This power maneuver of the Church, these Concordats through the centuries with worldly powers... the Church has to pay for it.")

    1933:  In Germany, two-hundred Jewish merchants are arrested in Nuremberg and paraded through the streets.

    1933(26thof Tammuz, 5693):  Seventy-year old Sir Harry Lawson Webster Levy-Lawson, 1st Viscount Burnham GCMG, CH, TD, JP, DL, a British newspaper proprietor and a Liberal Unionist politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1885 and 1916 when he inherited his peerage passed away today.

    1933: In London, 500,000 march against anti-Semitism. This may be seen as part of campanion piece to a rally held in March, 1933 at Madison Square Garden in New York City.  The demonstration in London was certainly not representative of British public opinon or policy.  Many of the movers and shakers in Great Britain were impressed with  the cleansing effect that the Nazis were bringing to Germany, marking them as pro-German, anti-Semitic or both.

    1934:The Court of Appeal today quashed the death sentence passed by the District Court on Abraham Stavsky on June 8 for the murder of Dr. Chaim Arlosoroff, prominent labor leader and member of the Jewish Agency Executive of Palestine. The Appeal Court found that the evidence was insufficient.  Thousands of supporters of Stavsky, who dodged a date with the hangman, reportedly danced in the streets of Jerusalem as they celebrated a victory for the Revisionist faction of the Zionist movement.

    1936(1st of Av, 5696): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1936: Birthdate of Harvey David Luber. The Chicago native became a first rate photographer, a leader of the Little Rock Jewish community and a great friend.

    1936: The Palestine Post reported that since according to the 1935 Official Palestinian Report on Migration certain professions became overcrowded, the government had restricted the admission to the country of all those belonging to the medical, legal and engineering professions. [Editor’s note: This seemingly innocuous ruling came at a time when educated Jews were trying to leave Germany.] Arab snipers shot at British soldiers patrolling the Nablus road in Jerusalem. Lengths of railway track were found removed near Tulkarm. Arab hawkers asked for police protection in order to be able to sell their wares. They complained that the general strike brought them ruin, starvation and death. Several more prominent members of the Arab "National Guard" were interned at Sarafand

    1939(4thof Av, 5699): Dutch sculptor Joseph Mendes da Costa passed away.  “Best known for making sculptures and ornaments for buildings” Mendes da Costa was a member of “Ars et Labor” which would become the Dutch version of Art Nouveau. 

    1939:British policy on Palestine--particularly the latest decision to cut off legal immigration for six months, beginning Oct. 1--came under heavy fire in the House of Commons tonight. The opposition Laborites contended that the decision to suspend immigration was proof of failure of the government's new policy.

    1939:  Birthdate of Judy Chicago.  For over four decades Chicago has been a leading educator, artist and shaper of the feminist movement.  One of her most famous works is the multi-media history of women in Western Civilization entitled “The Dinner Party.”

    1941: A Jewish ghetto at Minsk, Belorussia, is established. 

    1942: The first detachment of the U.S. Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps (WAC’s) begins basic training at Fort Des Moines, Iowa. Among this group of volunteers are twelve Jewish women:Ruth Ginns, Beatrice Berg, Carolyne Casper and Jean Korn from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Kathryne Goldfluss, Rose Ross and Joan Strongin from New York, New York; Bee Rosenberg and Ruth Spivak from Chicago, Illinois; Rita Fink and Isabel Bayley of Buffalo, New York; and Elizabeth Morgenstern of Seattle, Washington.

    1942: The Jews of Kleck tried to revolt as the Germans circled their town. Only a few hundred escaped. The 1,000 remaining Jews were shot dead.

    1942: The Germans murder 1000 Jews at Kleck, Belorussia; 400 flee into forests. Two from the latter group, Moshe Fish and Leva Gilchik (from nearby Kopyl), will form a partisan group;

    1942: The Jews from Kowale Panskie, Poland are deported, to the Chelmno death camp.

    1942:In Warsaw, Rabbi Alexander Zusha Friedman, a “leader in Agudat Israel, called on the people not to oppose the Germans with force.”God will not permit his people to be destroyed. We must wait and a miracle will certainly occur." Agudat Israel, like many groups in the Judenrat, were afraid that any "violent" opposition would mean the liquidation of the ghetto.

    1943(17th of Tammuz, 5703):Tzom Tammuz

    1943(17th of Tammuz, 5703): Five hundred slave laborers are murdered at Czestochowa, Poland.

    1943: Over two thousand Jews are deported from Holland to Sobibór.

    1943: Two Jews escape from Sobibór 

    1943: General Leslie Grove, the director of the Manhattan Project acknowledged J. Robert Oppenheimer’s importance to the program to build the Atomic Bomb when he issued a written order to the Manhattan Engineer District commanding them to approve Oppie’s security clearance regardless of any negative information that might have been gathered.

    1944: As of today, almost all of the Jews of Rhodes “had been captured and were being held in improvised concentration camps” while they were being robbed of their valuables and their homes were being looted by the Nazis. (Editor’s Note: “At this point one should mention the humanitarian stance shown by the Turkish consul, Selahettin Ulkumen, who intervened to save not only Turkish nationals but whole families as well, even at the remotest proof of their Turkish citizenship. He managed to save from the Nazis approximately 40 Jews who would have otherwise been led to death. For his acts, he was awarded after the War the title of "Righteous among the Nations" by Yad Vashem.”)

    1944: The most famous plot to kill Hitler failed. This event has been romanticized by various revisionists. The plotters realized that they could not win the war. They thought that with Hitler gone, they could at least negotiate a peace treaty with the West. The plotters were not only incompetent, they were delusional as well. [For more about people who really worked to opposed Hitler see the recently publish “Red Orchestra.”]

    1945: Laurence Adolph Steinhardt began serving as the United States Ambassador to Czechoslovakia following his service as U.S. Ambassador to Turkey.

    1946: Birthdate of Israel Carmi (Weinstein) the native of Egypt who perished in 1968 at the age of 22 when the Israeli Submarine Dakar sank.

    1946: Arthur Greiser, former Gauleiter of the Warthegau region in Poland, is hanged at Poznan, Poland, after being convicted of war crimes.

    1949: Birthdate of Jean-Louis Cohen, “a French historian of architecture and urbanism.”

    1949: Israel's 19 month War of Independence ended. The government of Syria signed the last of four armistices, which marked the end of open warfare. The cessation of hostilities did not bring peace since the Arab states refused to come to grips with the reality of the existence of Israel.

    1950: Harry Gold, the son of Jewish immigrants from Russia pleads guilty to spying for the Soviet Union by passing secrets from atomic scientist Klaus Fuchs.  Gold’s Jewish pedigree provided fodder for anti-Semites who sought to make being Jewish and being Communist (or disloyal to America) one and the same thing.

    1950: In Israel, doctors employed by the Health Ministry will go on strike today unless their demands for increased pay are met.

    1951: Abdullah Ibn Hussein Jordan's King was assassinated in Jerusalem. He was attending Friday prayers at a mosque when he was killed by those who were afraid he was negotiating with Israel. His grandson, Hussein, became the next King of Jordan. The assassination influenced the young king

    1954:  United States Senator Joseph R. McCarthy accepts the resignation of his aide Roy Cohn.  Roy Cohn was the chief counsel of the Senate Committee that McCarthy used to conduct his investigations that smeared people, ruined lives and unearthed no “Communist conspiracy among those he paraded before the television lights.  All of those right wing anti-Semites seemed to lose sight of fact that McCarthy’s chief henchman was one of those “New York Jews.”

    1959: Birthdate of Samuel Israel III, the New Orleans born incarcerated hedge fund manager who was the subject of Octopus” Sam Israel, the Secret Market and Wall Street’ Wildest Con by Guy Lawson

    1960: The head of the Physics Department at the Israel Institute of Technology, Kurt Sitte, is arrested for espionage.

    1962:  Pope John XXIII sent invitations to all 'separated Christian churches and communities,' asking each to send delegate-observers to the upcoming Vatican II Ecumenical Council in Rome. Vatican II would result in an improvement in the relationship between the Jewish Community and the Roman Catholic Church.  Of course, there are those that would that anything would have to be an improvement over Pope John’s predecessor, Pope Pious, the Pope of the Holocaust.

    1965:  Lyndon B. Johnson nominates Abe Fortas to the Supreme Court. Fortas was a close friend of Johnson’s; one of the few people who could speak frankly with Johnson.  Fortas was “nominally” Jewish and he warned Johnson that the American Jewish Community would not see him as the right person to hold what, since the days of Brandeis, had become “the Jewish chair” on the High Court.

    1969: In response to Nasser’s War of Attrition which was the Arab response to Israel’s attempt to negotiate a peace after the Six Day War, Operation Boxer began with a series of crippling air attacks.

    1969: Israeli commandos successfully complete their attack on Green Island completely destroying the island fortress.  The press hails the attack as an Israeli Navronne, after the fictional island in the movie “The Guns of Navronne.”  But the casualties were not fiction.  Not only were they real, they were higher than expected.  The Israelis learned from the mission and went on to improve the functionality of their units.

    1971: Syria and Jordan’s armies exchange fire over the common frontier. This would prove to be prelude to a Syrian attempt to seize Jordan, part of Syrian President Assad’s goal to create a Greater Syria.  In one of those strange twists,  Israel moved tanks towards the area of conflict which Washington’s way of letting the Syrians know that they should back off and leave Jordan alone.

    1973: Palestinian terrorists hijack a Japan Airlines jet en route from Amsterdam to Japan and force it down in Dubai.

    1976: Today marked the start of what would become the Good Fence Policy along the border with Lebanon. The hope was that the medical treatment of Lebanese citizens in Israel and the beginning of trade between South Lebanon and Israel would start a new era of relations between the two countries. Like so many other peace initiatives this one died at the hand of terrorism.

    1978: Birthdate of Elliott Yamin, born Efraym Elliott Yamin, who is an American singer known for his hit single "Wait for You" and placing third on the fifth season of American Idol.

    1980:  The United Nations Security Council votes 14-0 that member states should not recognize Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. This is another reason that Israel tends not to trust the UN. In 1947, as part of the partition vote, the UN said Jerusalem would be governed by an international body.  When the Jordanians attacked Jerusalem and expelled the Jewish population from the Old City, the UN did nothing.  During the 19 year occupation of the city by the Jordanians Jews, of whatever nationality, were kept out of the city.  The UN did nothing.  But now that the Israelis controlled the whole city and it was open to Christians, Moslems and Jews, the UN acted to support the Arab view of the City of David.

    1981:  The administration of newly elected Republican President Ronald Reagan suspends sales of F-16 fighter jets to Israel. 

    1981(29th of Tammuz, 5739): Seventy-nine year old Joseph N. Katzthe founder and board chairman of Empire Kosher Poultry Inc., passed away today

    1983; The Israeli cabinet votes to withdraw troops from Beirut but to remain in southern Lebanon. The Israelis had gone into Lebanon because the PLO occupied the southern half of the country and was using it as base to attack Israel.  The government of Lebanon either could not or would not remove the PLO so Israel was forced to act or accept the fact that Arafat’s terrorists would have permanent base on Israel’s northern border.

    1994: Israel’s Shimon Peres visits Jordan, the highest ranking Israeli official to do so

    1996(4th of Av, 5756):Raphael Patai passed away.  Born Ervin György in 1910, Patai, was a Hungarian-Jewish ethnographer and anthropologist.

    1997: The Sunday New York Times book section featured reviews of Egypt’s Road to Jerusalem: A Diplomat's Story of the Struggle for Peace in the Middle East by Boutros Boutros-Ghali, Fritz Lang: The Nature of the Beastby Patrick McGilligan and Inventing Memory:A Novel of Mothers and Daughters by Erica Jong.

    1999: Roman Bronfman and Alexander Tzinker formed the Democratic Choice faction.

    2002: As a reminder that Jews were not the only victims of the Nazis, we mark the death of concentration camp survivor and art Jan M. Komski.

    2003: At the Lincoln Center Festival, Israel’s Gesher Theatre gives its opening performance of its adaptation of “The Slave. The troupe has been invited to mark the Centennial of Nobel Laureate Isaac Bashevis Singer's birth by performing two plays based on his novels at the prestigious festival.

    2003:Jewish Women International's first-ever international conference on domestic violence in the Jewish community held its first meeting in Baltimore. Among its approximately 450 attendees, the three-day conference included Reform, Reconstructionist, Conservative, and Orthodox rabbis; social workers; artists; activists; and abuse survivors.

    2003(20th of Tammuz, 5763): Rabbi Bezalel Rakow, “an orthodox rabbi who headed Gateshead’s Jewish community” and who “was the chair of the Council of Torah Sages of Agudas Yisroel of Great Britain” passed away.

    2004 (2nd of Av, 5764): Temple Judah mourned the loss of Rabbi Ed Chesman who passed away unexpectedly while vacationing with family in Florida.

    2004: Ariel “Sharon called on French Jews to emigrate from France to Israel immediately, in light of an increase in French anti-Semitism (94 anti-Semitic assaults were reported in the first six months of 2004, compared to 47 in 2003). France has the third-largest Jewish population in the world (about 600,000 people).

    2006(24th of Tammuz, 5766):Charles Bettelheim passed away. Born in 1913 he “was a French economist and historian, founder of the Center for the Study of Modes of Industrialization (CEMI: "Centre pour l'Étude des Modes d'Industrialisation") at the Sorbonne), economic advisor to the governments of several developing countries during the period of decolonization. He was very influential in France's New Left, and considered one of "the most visible Marxists in the capitalist world."

    2006: The following were among a total of 43 Israeli civilians (including four who died of heart attacks during rocket barrages) and 116 IDF soldiers were killed in the Israel-Hizbullah war:Maj. Benjy Hillman, 27; St.-Sgt. Rafenael Muscal, 21, of Mazkeret Batya; St.-Sgt. Nadav Baeloha, 21, of Karmiel; St.-Sgt. Liran Sa'adiya, 21, of Kiryat Shmona; St.-Sgt. Yonatan (Sergei) Vlasyuk, 21, of Kibbutz Lahav; Maj. Ran Kochva, 37, of Beit Hananya.

    2007: Under the direction of Lauren Reece, The Footlighters ACT II performs "The Diary of Anne Frank” at the Herbert Hoover Library in West Branch, Iowa.  Making this a Jewish as well as community even, Rabbi Portman of Agudas Achim in Iowa City will conduct an outdoor Shabbat Eve services on the grounds of what was Herbert Hoover’s boyhood home. While Jews preferred FDR to Hoover in 1932, it must never be forgotten that Hoover was responsible for putting Justice Cardozo on the Supreme Court when anti-Semitism was on the rise during the Great Depression.

    2007: The Crown Prosecution Service announced that Lord Michael Levy was not to be prosecuted in connection with the so called "Cash for Honours" affair and that there were to be no charges against him.

    2007: World premiere of David Zellnik’s  Ariel Sharon Hovers Between Life and Death and Dreams of Theodor Herzl” at Theatre J in Washington, DC.

    2008: Fast the 17th Day of Tammuz, 5768

    2008(17thof Tammuz, 5768): Israeli mathematician Michael Maschler best known for his contributions in the field of “game theory” passed away today.

    2008: The Washington Post book section features a review of Debra Winger’s memoir, Undiscovered.

    2008: The Sunday New York Times book section features a review of Rapture Ready in which Jewish author Daniel Radosh explores Christian pop culture.

    2009: In upstate New York, Marilyn and Lester Milton Bornstein gave birth to Michael Scott Bornestein who gained fame as Michael Oren the author who served as Israel’s ambassador.

    2009: At the 18th Maccabiah Games, the basketball competition continues as Brazil plays Germany, the USA plays Argentina, France plays Mexico and the hometown Israelis tip off against Canada.

    2009:In an interview given today, Rabbi Eric Yoffie, president of the Union of Reform Judaism said that the vast majority of American Jews back a settlement freeze.   

    2009(28th of Tammuz, 5769):Mark Richard Rosenzweig an American research psychologist who found in animal studies on neuroplasticity that the brain continues developing anatomically, reshaping and repairing itself into adulthood based on life experiences, overturning the conventional wisdom that the brain reached full maturity in childhood passed away at the age of 86.

    2009: Amidst the controversy surrounding the planned screenings of “Rachel,” a film that investigates the death of anti-Israel activist Rachel Corrie, and its invitation to her mother, Cindy Corrie, to speak afterward, the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival Board President Shana Penn resigned from her post, citing “healthy differences on how to approach sensitive issues,” with five months left on a two-year term.

    2010(9th of Av, 5770): Tish'a B'Av: 1,940th anniversary of the destruction of the Second Temple; 1,875th anniversary of the fall of Bethar.

    2010:A judge at Tel Aviv District Family Court today rejected a request for a gag order on the contents of a box containing manuscripts written by Franz Kafka. 

    2010:Elena Kagan, President Obama's Supreme Court nominee, won approval from the Senate Judiciary Committee on a nearly party-line vote today, her next to last hurdle before gaining a lifetime seat on the high court.
     2011: Anat Cohen, an Israeli jazz clarinetist, saxophonist and bandleader, is scheduled to appear at the Berman Center for the Performing Arts at an event sponsored by Detroit Jazz Festival & The JCC Stephen Gottlieb Music Festival.

    2011:Medical residents announced an indefinite strike today as they continued organizing protests throughout the country against a deal being drafted between the Israel Medical Association and the Finance Ministry to end the doctors' strike.
    2011:Reports that an Israeli killed in the New Zealand earthquake in February was an intelligence agent were wrong, Prime Minister John Key said today.
    2011(18th of Tammuz, 5771): Eighty-eight year old portrait artist Lucian Freud, the grandson of Sigmund Freud and the brother of Clement Freud pass away today. (As reported by William Grimes)

    2012(1st of Av, 5772): Rosh Chodesh Av

    2012(1st of Ave, 5772): Thirty year old “Ari Ephraim Rubin, vice chairman of the Jewish Defense League died of a self-inflicted gunshot wound” today.

    2012: Fresh from her triumphal performance in Des Moines, Iowa, renowned soprano Sarah Jane McMahon is scheduled to return to Touro Synagogue in New Orleans this evening for the fifth in a series of musical programs devoted to works by Jewish composers.  [For more about this and other happenings in “The Big Easy” see the Crescent City Jewish News

    2012: “5-Day Kosher Bike Trek” a 420 mile bike ride  that began in and offers Kosher food for all riders is scheduled to end today at Santa Fe, NM.

    2012: As it marks it last Shabbat weekend in its downtown Washington Avenue location, Agudas Achim is scheduled to host a potluck supper before Friday services.

    2012: The tearful funerals of the five Burgas airport suicide-bomb bombings were held in the course of today, drawing hundreds — and in some cases thousands — of mourners. Two sets of childhood friends and a newly pregnant woman, they were blown up on Wednesday at the start of what was supposed to have been a vacation, on the bus that was taking them from their plane to the airport terminal in the Bulgarian Black Sea resort.(As reported by Ilan Ben Zion)

    2012:A suicide bombing that killed Israeli tourists in Bulgaria this week bore hallmarks of Iranian-backed Hezbollah militants but the U.S. Defense Department has not yet concluded who was behind it, a Pentagon spokesman said today. The attack on a bus carrying Israelis at a Bulgarian airport, "does bear the hallmarks of Hezbollah," George Little, the Pentagon press secretary, told reporters.
    2012(1st  of Av):Moshe Silman, the homeless man who set himself on fire at a Tel Aviv rally last weekend, died this afternoon at the Sheba Medical Center at Tel Hashomer after succumbing to the burns which covered over 90 percent of his body.

    2012: A Muslim husband and wife convicted of planning a terror attack against Jews in Manchester, England, were jailed today. Shasta Khan, who was convicted of preparing for acts of terrorism and two counts of possessing information likely to be useful in an act of terrorism, was sentenced to eight years in prison. The 38-year-old hairdresser, who had pleaded not guilty, will serve four years minus the 350 days she spent on remand. (As reported by Miriam Shaviv)

    2013: “More than Carnival,” a season ending summer concert is scheduled to take place at the Eden-Tamir Music Center.

    2013: The Maccabeats are scheduled to perform for a second day at the Hampton Synagogue at West Hampton Beach.

    2013: “The geeky numbers guy who turned the electoral vote counting into a national obsession with his FIveThirtyEight blog is leaving the New York Times for the sports network” (As reported by Forward Staff)

    2013: A leading minister confirmed that Israel would release Palestinian prisoners in exchange for the renewal of peace talks, but said that the government is not bound to a settlement freeze as a precondition for the resumption of negotiations. (As reported by Michael Shmulovich and Ricky Ben David)

    2014: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Falling Out of Time by David Grossman and Friendship by Emily Gould

    2014: Carole Glauber is scheduled to talk about the photographers in her exhibit “Israel in Light and Shadow” at the Oregon Jewish Museum and Center for Holocuast Education

    2014: As of 1:30 a.m. Israeli time, network television reports on the fighting between Israel and Hamas show pictures of Gaza but show no pictures of rockets falling in Israel or Israelis "running for their lives"

    0 0

    July 21

    285: Diocletian appoints Maximian as Caesar, co-ruler. This was part of an attempt to shore up the imperial authority.  In another such step, Diocletian “ordered all the people …to accept his divinity and offer sacrifices to him.  Fortunately for the Jewish people, they were excluded from this decree…”  According to at least one source, “Diocletian’s regime was comparatively favorable to the Jewish people” which may not be saying all that much when you consider the behavior of most Roman rulers.

    1414: In Celle Ligure, Italy,Leonardo della Rovere and Luchina Monleoni gave birth to Francesco della Rovere, the future Pope Sixtus IV who reluctantly authorized the Spanish Inquisition and allowed Jews and Marranos to settle in the Papal Domain in what some as an act of penance caving into Ferdinand and Isabella.  He rejected the notion of “blood libels” and withstood the pressure to canonize Simon of Trent.

    1439 (9th of Av): Rabbi Johanan ben Mattathias Treves, Chief Rabbi of France passed away ten years after the death of his brother Joseph

    1535: The Spaniards sacked Tunis and destroyed the Jewish community in the process.

    1588: The English “fleet engaged he Spanish Armada off Plymouth near the Eddystone Rocks” in the first day of combat on which would hang the outcome of the Inquisition coming to the Netherlands and the British Isles.

    1718(27thof Tammuz, 5473):Shabbethai ben Joseph Bass who was born at Kalisz 1641 and who was the father of Jewish bibliography, and author of the Sifsei Chachamim supercommentary on Rashi's commentary on the Pentateuch passed away.

    1733: A “group of 42 Jews who had sailed from London aboard the William and Sarah” arrived in Savannah today, “months after the colony's founding by James Oglethorpe.”  “Most of them were Spanish and Portuguese Jews, who had fled to England a decade earlier to escape the Spanish Inquisition.  Many of them had been members of the Bevis Marks Synagogue and would be founders of Mickva Israel, Georgia’s oldest Jewish congregation.

    1773: Raphael Hayyim Isaac Carregal, a native of Hebron sailed to Suriname today from the British colonies in North America where his visit had made him the first rabbi to spend time in what is now the United States.

    1774: The Russo-Turkish War came to an end with the signing of the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca marking the defeat of the Ottomans. The end of hostilities provided Sultan Abdul Hamid I with the opportunity to reassert his authority over parts of empire that were slipping away.  He attacked Dhaher al-Omar who had taken control of an area that coincided with modern day northern Israel and had invited Jewish merchants to pursue their commercial ventures under his protection. He also besieged the port of Acre. 

    1816: Birthdate of Paul Julius Reuter. Born Israel Beer Josaphat, he changed his name to Reuter and converted in 1844. He founded what would become Reuter’s news agency in 1849. He used carrier pigeons to carry financial news to those parts of Germany, France and Belgium not yet served by telegraph. He opened his own telegraph service in England where he lived the rest of his life and died in 1899. He converted for the same reason so many other German and Austrian Jews did – it was the only way to advance in the worlds of commerce and art.

    1820:.A small wooden building which had been erected at the northeast corner of Liberty and Whitaker streets Savannah was consecrated by members of Mikveh Israel. This was the first Jewish house of worship to be built in the State of Georgia. Jacob De La Motta delivered the consecration address.  A native of Savannah he graduated from the U of Pennsylvania Medical School and served as a surgeon in the U.S. Army during the War of 1812. He practiced in New York City for a while but returned to the city of his birth where he became a leader in the medical and Jewish communities.

    1825: Birthdate of Matthew Práxedes Sagasta the Spanish political who served as President of the Council of Ministers and who asserted the fact that “article 1 of the Constitution of Spain is the most decisive revocation of the edict of banishment against the Jews in the year 1492.”

    1831: As Belgium gains its independence from the Netherlands of Leopold I of Belgium is inaugurated first king of the Belgians. Upon gaining its independence in 1831, the newly established Belgium parliamentary regime lost little time in recognizing Judaism as an official religious denomination (together with Catholicism, Protestantism, later Greek and Russian Orthodox Christianity and Islam).

    1833:Birthdate of August, (Anshel) Bondi. “The Austrian native was the son of Jews who wanted him to have both a religious and a secular education. Caught up as a participant in the failed liberal revolution of 1848, the Bondi family fled to New Orleans and settled in St. Louis, Missouri. Young Bondi encountered, first hand, the horrors of slavery and was deeply disgusted. In 1855 a New York Tribune editorial urged freedom- loving Americans to "hurry out to Kansas to help save the state from the curse of slavery." Bondi responded immediately. He moved to Kansas and along with two other Jews, Theodore Weiner from Poland and Jacob Benjamin from Bohemia established a trading post in Ossa-watomie. Their abolitionist sentiments very soon brought pro-slavery terrorists upon them. Their cabin was burned, their livestock stolen. Their trading post was destroyed in the presence of Federal troops who did nothing. The three courageous Jews joined a rabid local abolitionist, to defend their rights as citizens and to help rid the horror of slavery from Kansas. The Jews joined the Kansas Regulars under the leadership of John Brown. In a famous battle between the Regulars and the pro-slavery forces at Black Jack Creek, with the bullets whistling viciously above their heads, 23 year old Bondi turned to his 57 year old friend Weiner and asked in Yiddish – "Nu, was meinen Sie jetzt?" (Well, what do you think of this now?) He answered, 'Was soll ich meinen? Sof odem moves' (What should I think? Man's life ends in death). Kansas joined the union as a Free State. Bondi married Henrietta Einstein of Louisville, Kentucky in 1860. Their home became a way station for the Underground Railroad smuggling slaves to the North and freedom. The Civil War began in 1861, Bondi enlisted in the Union army encouraged by the words of his mother. He later wrote in his autobiography "as a Jew I am obliged to protect institutions that guarantee freedom for all faiths." August Bondi died in 1907, a respected judge and member of his Kansas community.”

    1841: In Holstein, German, Dr. Marcus Cohen and his wife gave birth to Minna Cohen who gained fame at the poetess Minna Cohen Kleeberg whose work included ‘Ein Lied vom Salz” (A lyric about salt), a plea for the removal of the tax on salt in Prussia.’

    1846(27thof Tammuz, 5606): Eighty-three year old Benedict (Baruch) Schott who served as tutor in the home of composer Giacomo Meyerbeer before pursuing a career at the long-serving director of the Jacobsonschule in Seesen passed away today.

    1848: Birthdate of French historian Gustave Bloch, the father of historian Marc Bloch the co-founder of École des Annales who was murdered by the Gestapo.

    1851: David Salomons who had been elected to Parliament on June 28 and who had been denied the right to take his seat because, as Jew, he could not take the oath of office, returned to the House of Commons to take part in the debate on the matter. In the debate that followed, Salomons defended his presence on grounds of having been elected by a large majority, but was eventually removed by the Sergeant-at-Arms, and fined £500 for having voted illegally in three divisions of the House.

    1857:During a debate tonight in the House of Lords on the question of "Jewish disabilities,"  Lord Campbell said that a revolution would take place if the Commons acted independently of the Lords in the matter by omitting from their oath the objectionable sentence

    1857:This evening, Lord John Russell renewed his motion to bring in a bill for the admission of Jews into Parliament. Following an animated debated the motion carried by a vote of 246 to 154.

    1861: During the Civil War, the Confederates defeat the Union at the first Battle of Bull Run.  In response to an inquiry written 30 years after the battle Oliver O. Howard, a Major General in the United States Army reported that a Jewish Aid-de Camp who served with him during the battle was “one of the bravest and the best; he is now a distinguished officer of the army, a man of the highest scientific attainment.” He also wrote that he could not release the man’s name without his permission.

    1874: Today’s “Foreign Notes” column reported that “Sir Moses Montefiore” who will celebrate his 90th birthday this October 24, “has been presented with the freedom of the Fishmongers’ Company in recognition of his philanthropic efforts on behalf of the oppressed Jewish in various parts of the world. [Editor’s note – The Fishmongers’ Company dates back to the 12thcentury and was guild for those who sold fish in London.  By the 19th century the company administered a various “charities and trusts” for the underprivileged classes of the UK.  This would account for their bestowing an honor on Sir Moses.]

    1873(23rd of Tammuz, 5633): Sir David Salomons, 1st Baronet, a leading figure in the 19th century struggle for Jewish emancipation in the United Kingdom passed away. . He was the first Jewish Sheriff of the City of London and Lord Mayor of London, and one of the first two Jewish people to serve in the British House of Commons.

    1877: In a letter to the New York Times, Edgar M. Johnson a prominent lawyer from Cincinnati took issue with claims that he had concealed the fact the fact that he was Jewish when he was offered accommodations at the Grand Union Hotel in Saratoga Springs. He reiterated the fact that Mr. Wilkinson, who was employed by Judge Hilton was well aware of the fact as is everybody else.  Whether he is what Hilton calls “a Seligman Jew” is of little consequence since Johnson has no desire to stay at place where Hilton is “the tavern keeper.” Johnson closed by saying that he and his family had enjoyed previous trips to Saratoga Springs where nobody was will “to reject Jew money” but that these would be his last words on any subject related to Hilton.

    1877: In Vienna, 22 year old Ida (Kuhn) Cohen and Eduard Cohen gave birth to Emilie (Mimi) Borchardt

    1878: It was reported today that there has been a serious outbreak of violence between the Jews and Roman Catholics living in Kalisch, a major city in Poland (which was part of the Russian Empire). The origins of the violence can be found in the government’s ban on the Jewish practice of enclosing their houses “with a wire fence to indicate that no one might pass out or in” during the Sabbath. The Jews blamed the Roman Catholics for the government’s decision.  When the Roman Catholics blocked every street corner with altars during their procession on Corpus Christi Day, the Jews reportedly attacked one of the altars which was the excuse of a Catholic attack that destroyed the synagogue and forced the Jews to seek refuge in their own homes. So far twelve people were reported to have been killed during the violence. [Jews had been living in Kalisz (the Polish spelling) since the 12thcentury.  The synagogue that was destroyed dated back to the 14th century.  Jews played an active role in the economy of the community and by the start of WW II they accounted for about 30% of the population.  Most the 20,000 Jews did not survive the war and the town, like so much of Poland, has memories of Jews but no Jewish people.)

    1879(1st of Av, 5639): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1880: The second free excursion sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children will set sail on the East River this morning.  If the society can find more funds, these trips will continue on a weekly basis for the rest of the summer.

    1880: It was reported today that two Postmasters named Barr and Johnson and their Jewish accomplice named Pearlstine are being held by federal authorities in South Carolina on charges of improper use of stamps and making false returns of canceled stamps to increase their pay. [Why Pearlstein was identified as Jew and the religion of the others was not mentioned is a mystery.]

    1881: It was reported today that King Alfonso has invited Russian Jews to settle in Spain, a move that would improve conditions “by bringing a money making class into a country in dire need of it”

    1882: During the Freight Handler’s Strike, Italian and Russian Jewish immigrants returned to the docks looking for work after the strikers stopped providing them with food and expense money as they had promised earlier.  To complicate matters, the ranks of the strikers also included Russian and Polish Jews who had come to the country earlier in the decade.

    1884: A review of T.K. Cheyne’s The Book of Psalms described the authors attempt to present this section of the Bible as literature as well as “holy writ.”  For him, the Psalms should be viewed as literature that has survived “under a Jewish phase.”

    1886: The first free excursion of the ear for poor Jewish moths and their children sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children will set sail this morning.

    1886: The SS State of Georgia arrived at Castle Garden from Glasgow, Scotland, carrying 40 Russian Jewish refugees.

    1886:”A week of General Kissing” published today described the Russian custom of kissing people as a greeting during Easter week. Last year when the Czar came out of his room the first person whom he saw was the guard at his door who remained silent when the Russian ruler greeted him “Christ is risen.”  The Czar found out that the guard was Jewish which accounted for his lack of response.  While the Czar respected his honesty, Jews no longer serve as guards at his palace.

    1887: Louis Keptlovwitch, a Jewish immigrant from Poland, was scheduled to face the Grand Jury on charges of bigamy.  [This is a real life example of letters that would appear in the Forwards about men who “forgot” about the family’s they left behind when they arrived in the New World.]

    1887: “Appeals for Suffering Hebrews” published today described the effects of the catastrophic effects of the fire that swept through “the little Jewish town of Botuschania, Romania.”  A committee of prominent American Jews led by Benjamin Peixotto, has been formed to collect funds to relieve the suffering.  Contributions will forward to Romania by Jesse Seligman who has agreed to serve as the Treasurer of the Relief Fund.

    1887: “Two Ladies At Odds” published today described a conflict between Mrs. Henrietta Loeser, President of the Henrietta Verein, a Jewish charitable organization, and Mrs. Betty Michaelis, the society’s Secretary.  A shouting match devolved into a physical confrontation when the secretary threw the society’s seal and record books at the president.  Loeser than tried to have Micahelis removed from the organization.  Mrs. Micahelis has sought a writ of mandamus so that she can gain readmission to the society.

    1888: Police had to be called out to quell a riot in Drohobycz today when petroleum miners attacked the town’s Jews and trashed the local synagogue.

    1888: A company of 13 police officers was hard pressed to deal with the huge throng that gathered this afternoon at the Norfolk Street Synagogue to hear the inaugural sermon of Rabbi Jacob Joseph. The sanctuary, which was built to hold 1,000, was filled with more than 1,500 people. The rabbi spoke for an hour concluding with a prayer that the Lord would guide and help the Jews in America  to spread his light and cause Israel to become a blessing to this great land of freedom and among the people of the United States.

    1889: “Hebrews Not Wanted,” published today described the decision of “Messrs. Cable and Breen , the lessees of the Brighton Beach at Coney Island” to follow the practice adopted by Judge Hilton at his Saratoga Hotel and ban all members of the “Hebrew Race” as guests.  Hebrews had been coming to the hotel in ever increasing numbers.  While they freely spent their money, there were not enough rooms available for Gentile guests.  Mr. Breen told the Times “that the public sentiment might be against such measures, but it was not so among Gentile patrons.”  The hotel was taking on the appearance of a “Jewish settlement” despite the best efforts of management to make Gentiles feel welcome.  Breen described it as a business decision. “It was self-preservation and the interests of our large number of other guests that caused us to take this step.”

    1890: “Jews in Russia” published today, relied on information that first appeared in the London Daily News described the new regulations that are being applied to Jews living under the Czar. These include a requirement that when Jewish students complete their university studies, they must return “to their native towns.”  The parents of students who fail to do so and evade the authorities will be punished in their place.

    1891: The cloakmakers, most of whom were Polish and Russian Jews, were joined by the cutters and pressers in their strike again Oppenheim & Collins.

    1891 A tribute written today in honor of Nathan Marcus and Hermann Adler said that they “gave their name”, “to a regime, to an era… The system of Rabbinate which had long come to be known as ‘Adlerism’, the keynote of which was the close consolidation of religious government and the concentration of ecclesiastical control… If, therefore, ‘Adlerism’ had its faults and its drawbacks… it has formed a basis on which can now be safely laid a system more fitted to Anglo-Jewry as it is” (As reported by Rabbi Raymond Apple, senior rabbi of the Great Synagogue, Sydney)

    1891: The weekly excursion sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children is scheduled to take place today.

    1891: General James R. O’Beirne, who was “in charge of the immigrants at Ellis Island” wrote to the Secretary of the Treasury recommending that the Jewish immigrants being held at the Barge Office be allowed to land’ since “they are desirable immigrants” who have skills “and are willing to work if they get a chance.”

    1892: During the Homestead Steel Strike anarchist Alexander Berkman went to the office of Henry Clay Frick the chairman of Carnegie Steel Company with the intention of assassinating him; a an attempt that was thwarted because the secretary said Frick was too busy to see him.

    1893: The Marshall and three men working with him returned to the apartment of Sarah Goldstein, a widow living at 181 Orchard Street and executed the order of the court by putting the widow, her six sick children and her furniture on the sidewalk.  Neighbors were afraid to help because the children were sick with measles.

    1893: Policemen are looking for other victims of gang of Russian Jewish thieves who lure other Russian Jews to their room at 81 Chrystie Street where they torture and rob the unsuspecting immigrants.

    1894: “Old Boston Booksellers” published today described the Boston antiquarian book trade of the 1850’s which was dominated by two firms one of which was Burnham Brothers, a firm owned by Theodore, Frederick and Lafayette Burnham, who were either Jewish or “of Jewish origins.”

    1895: The Rhine Gazette announced that the electors of Minden are preparing to hold a meeting demanding the resignation of the Baron von Hammerstein, the disgraced former editor of the Kreuz Zeitung.  Ironically, the Baron who “was a strong anti-Semite and leader of the Jew baiters” was brought to financial ruin by “his enormous expenditures” with which he lavished his Jewish mistress with “every luxury that wealth could purchase.”

    1895: Birthdate of Henry Lynn, Russian born American “film director, screenwriter and producer.”

    1896: Three days after his abortive meeting with Rothschild, Herzl made the decision to organize a Zionist Congress.

    1898: Bishop John H. Vincent, the founder of the Chautauqua movement is scheduled to deliver a lecture entitled The Chautauqua Idea at today’s session of the Summer Assembly of the Jewish Chautauqua Society being held at Atlantic City, NJ.

    1898(2nd of Av, 5658): Seventy year old Benjamin Marks “a wealthy retired merchant” passed away today at the Long Beach Hotel where he was spending the summer. A native of Berlin, he came to the United States at the age of 20 where he went to work for Brooks Brothers.  Several years later he began opening a string of retail stores specializing in woolen goods.  By the time he retired in 1871, he “was one of the largest, if the largest retail woolen merchants in America.”

    1899: Sixty-five year old Robert Ingersoll who earned nickname “The Great Agnostic” for his views on religion passed away. While some Jewish leaders, such as Rabbi Joseph Silverman of Temple Emanu-El gave him credit for showing “to the world of the Church”  they challenged his views on Judaism especially about Moses. But as Rabbi Silverman pointed out, Ingersoll “is not responsible for his mistakes…because he cannot read the Bible in its original language.”

    1900: The uprising in Beijing known as The Boxer Rebellion began today.  Among the Marines who saw action during the month long conflict was William Zion, a Jewish private from Indiana who won the Congressional Medal of Honor for his valor.

    1901(5thof Av, 5661): Seventy-seven year old Bohemian textile manufacturer Isaac Mautner Passed away.

    1902(16thof Tammuz, 5662): Adolph Landau passed away today

    1903: Birthdate of Roy Rothschild Neuberger the co-founder of the investment firm Neuberger Berman and recipient of the National Medal of Arts. He “was an American financier who contributed money to raise public awareness of modern art through his acquisition of pieces he deemed worthy.”

    1904(9th of Av, 5664):Tish'a B'Av

    1906(28th of Tammuz, 5666): Saul Jacob El-Yashar, Hahambashi of Jerusalem passed away at the age of 92.

    1906: Moses Gaster, the Chief Rabbi of the English Sephardic Community and his mother gave birth to Theodor Herzl Gaster, the British born American biblical scholar who published the first English translation of the Dead Sea scrolls. His father named him after his recently deceased friend, Theodor Herzl. (As reported by Andy Wallace)

    1907(10thof Av, 5667): Fast observed since the 9th of Av fell on Shabbat

    1910: Birthdate of Himan “Hi” Brown the son of a tailor from Odessa who was a major producer during the Golden Age of Radio including “Bulldog Drummond,” “Inner Sanctum” and “Radio Mystery Theatre.”

    1911: Birthdate of Felicia Haberfeld, a native of Poland who eventually settled in Los Angles where she worked as a city librarian and, with her husband, founded the 1939 Club, named for the year Germany invaded Poland. She was also instrumental in establishing an endowed chair in Holocaust studies at UCLA.

    1911(25th of Tammuz, 5671): Rabbi Yehouda Jarmon of Tunis passed away at the age of 104.

    1911: During the Mendel Beilis Affair, a small expeditionary force of gendarmes forced its way into the home of Mendel Beilis and arrested him.

    1912: Jennie and Moses Montefiore Kursheedt gave birth to Abigail Hoffman (Kursheedt)

    1918: In Russia, the revolutionary government that had overthrown the Czar removed the ban on Hebrew and Yiddish periodicals. 

    1919: Birthdate of Seymour Pine, “the deputy police inspector who led the raid on the Stonewall Inn, a gay bar in Greenwich Village, on a hot summer night in 1969 — a moment that helped start the gay liberation movement   A graduate of Brooklyn College and a veteran of WW II who served in North Africa and Europe, Pine later apologized the raid and his role in it. (As reported by Dennis Hevesi)

    1920: Sir Herbert Samuel, the British High Commissioner met with newsmen today and announced that he was abolishing the censorship which had been in effect since the Jerusalem riots that began in April.

    1920: Birthdate of Isaac Stern. Born in Russia, this famous violinist came to America at the age of ten months. His family settled in San Francisco and he debuted with the San Francisco Symphony. His career is too rich for this brief entry. Suffice it to say he is one of a long line of Jewish violinists and he has been a supporter of musical endeavors in Israel.

    1921: Birthdate of Arthur Marx, who wrote screenplays for film and television and a best-selling book about his father, “Life With Groucho.”

    1921(15th of Tammuz, 5681):  Benjamin Raphael Haim Moshe, Chief Rabbi of Spain passed away at the age of 74 years

    1922: Birthdate of Bernard Gilbert Hoberman, the native of Chisholm, MN, who helped to save AM by creating All-Talk Radio.

    1926:  Birthdate of director Norman Jewison.  Despite his name and the fact he directed the film version of “Fiddler on the Roof,” Jewison is not Jewish.

    1926: Birthdate of Karel Reisz a “Czech-born British filmmaker who was active in post–war Britain, and one of the pioneers of the new realist strain in 1950s and 1960s British cinema. “Reisz was a Jewish refugee, one of the 669 rescued by Sir Nicholas Winton.”

    1931: Dr. Louis I. Newman will officiate at the funeral service for former state Supreme Court Justice Joseph Newburger who passed away at the age of 78. Following burial in Union Field Cemetery Cantor Nathan Meltzof is scheduled to conduct a memorial service at the home of the deceased The honorary pallbearers include Court of Appeals Justices Benjamin N. Cardozo and Irving Lehman.

    1931: CBS’s New York City stations began broadcasting the first regular seven days a week television schedule in the United States. George Gershwin was one of three people to appear on the first broadcast. That’s right – one third of the "cast" of this landmark television show was Jewish. Of course, CBS was owned by Bill Paley adding to the Jewish twist.

    1933: The port at Haifa was opened to traffic.

    1934:Vladimir Jabotinsky, president of the World Union of the Zionist Revisionists, today issued a statement hailing the acquittal of Abraham Stavsky

    1938: While the rest of the world was embracing the Nazis or turning a blind eye to their depredations, “Pope Pius XI delivers an address to ecclesiastical assistants of Catholic Action in which he argues that Catholicism is opposed to racism, nationalism, and similarly exclusivist ideologies.”  (The differences between Pius XI and his successor Pius XII were far greater than a single Roman numeral.)

    1938(22ndof Tammuz, 5698): Morris Mitchtom, the Jewish immigrant, who along with his wife “invented the Teddy Bear”, passed away today.

    1939:The Jewish Agency for Palestine issued today a statement rejecting Colonial Secretary Malcolm MacDonald's appeal for cooperation with the British Government's new policy for Palestine. The Jewish leadership rejected the White Paper with its limits on immigration and land ownership as being “devoid of moral and legal basis and…calculated to destroy the las and holiest possession of the Jewish people – the national home.

    1940: Hans and Margret Rey left Lisbon aboard the Angola which was headed for Rio.

    1941: In Minsk, 45 Jew were ordered to dig a pit. They were then thrown in and Russian prisoners were ordered to bury them alive. The Russians refused. The Germans then shot the Russians and the Jews in the pit.

    1941: Jews of Upina, Lithuania, were killed by the Nazis.

    1941: A concentration camp opens at Majdanek, Poland.

    1941: “The Riga occupation command decided to concentrate the Jewish workers in a ghetto after which alll Jews were registered and a Jewish Council (Judenrat) was set up.

    1942: One thousand Jews deported from Paris, reached Auschwitz. Many of them were Polish Jews living in France. Six hundred and twenty-five were gassed while 375 selected for labor battalions. Only seventeen would survive the war.

    1942: The Jews of Nieswiez organized a resistance movement and a planned an escape using kerosene and old guns as their weapons. A desperate battle ensued. Jews set fire to their own homes as a diversionary tactic. Some of those who made it to the woods found other Jews from Kleck and Niewswiez. They set up an underground unit.

    1943: Tonight’s performance of “We Will Never Die” at the Hollywood Bowl was broadcast to a nationwide audience thanks to NBC.We Will Never Die was a dramatic pageant…staged to raise public awareness of the ongoing mass murder of Europe's Jews. It was organized and written by screenwriter and author Ben Hecht and produced by Billy Rose and Ernst Lubitsch.”

    1944: Jerzy Bielecki led Cyla Cybulska out of her barrack at Auschwitz and passed a sleepy guard to the woods and freedom.  He was a Roman Catholic who had been imprisoned in 1940 as a member of the Polish Resistance.  She was a young Jewess, who thanks to his courage was the only member of her family to survive the Holocaust.  He was recognized by Yad Vasham as one of the Righteous Gentiles in 1985. (As reported by Dennis Hevesi)

    1944: On the date after the attempt to assassinate Hitler failed, Henning von Tresckow, one of the chief conspirators, staged a partisan attack on his headquarters near Bialystok in Poland, and blew himself up with a grenade. He was buried with military honors, but a month later, when the Gestapo discovered his involvement in the plot against Hitler, his body was exhumed and burned in a crematorium of the Sachsenhausen concentration camp.

    1944: Birthdate of Paul Wellstone, United States from Minnesota. He died in a plane crash in 2002.

    1947: The Exodus, a refugee ship with 4,500 refugees on board, was turned back by the British and returned to Germany. The ship had tried to run the British blockade unsuccessfully: The British forcefully boarded the ship killing 3 Jews and wounding over 100. The pictures of the refugees being forcibly unloaded in Germany was a critical blow to world public opinion and helped force the British out of Eretz Israel.

    1948: David Shaltiel, the district commander of the Haganah in Jerusalem held the last in a series of meetings mediated by the UN with Abdullah el Tell, “the commander of the Arab Legion in the city” where  “they signed a formal cease-fire based on the existing positions of their forces.”

    1951: In its story on the assassination of Jordan’s King Abdullah that occurred on July 21 The Jerusalem Post reported that King Abdullah was known for his efforts to reach an Arab-Israeli peace settlement. In his memoirs he wrote: "I have been astonished at what I saw of the Jewish settlements: They have colonized sand dunes, drawn water from them, and transformed them into paradise."

    1953: Birthdate of award winning economist and hedge fund manager Sanford “Sandy” Jay Grossman.

    1955: Martin and Ruth Bader Ginsburg gave birth to Jane C. Ginsburg “the Morton L. Janklow Professor of Literary and Artistic Property Law at the Columbia Law School.” This could be a case of the fulfillment of genetic predisposition since her mother is a Supreme Court Justice and her father, of blessed memory, was a law professor and internationally renowned expert on tax law.

    1957: Birthdate of comedic actor Jon Lovitz. Lovitz big break came in 1982 when he joined the cast of Saturday Night Live. 

    1969: On the second day of Operation Boxer, “four 109 Squadron Skyhawks attack an Egyptian anti-aircraft battery near Qantarah.”

    1970(17th of Tammuz, 5730): Tzom Tammuz

    1970: Libya's Col. Qaddafi nationalizes all Jewish property

    1970: After 11 years of construction, the Aswan High Dam on the Nile River in Egypt is completed. In 1954, President Nasser sought aid from the U.S. government to build the Aswan Dam.  He saw the building of the dam as being a vital to Egypt’s modernization program.  For a variety of ideological and economic reasons, the Eisenhower Administration eventually rejected the request for aid.  Nasser turned the Soviets who were only too glad to supply economic aid and masses of modern arms to Egypt.  Bolstered by his new Soviet sponsors and angry at Eisenhower and Dulles for what he considered their betrayal of his dreams. Nasser began to promote an agenda of pro-Soviet Pan-Arabism with the destruction of Israel as its emotional focal point.  Nasser also nationalized the Suez Canal because he needed the canal revenue to re-pay the Soviets.  All of this led to the Suez Crisis of 1956 which resulted in a lightening military victory.  Nasser’s vision may have died, but the dam was built.  Such is the law of unintended consequences on This Day in Jewish History.

    1973: In the Lillehammer affair in Norway, Israeli Mossad agents kill a waiter whom they mistakenly thought was involved in 1972’s Munich Olympics Massacre.

    1977: The Tenth Maccabiah comes to an end.

    1977: Seventy-year old Lee Miller, one of the few female combat photographers in WW II, who teamed with David E. Scherman to provide the public with a graphic portrait of the horrors of Buchenwald and Dachau, passed away today.

    1982(1st of Av, 5742): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1982: The first Congress of the European Association for Jewish Studies which was attended by 100 people and where Dr. Geza Vermes was elected president came to an end today.

    1985: Outfielder Mark Gilbert made his major league debut with the Chicago White Sox.

    1985: In “The Biographers As Detective: What Walter Lippman Preferred to Forget,” Ronald Steele author of what some consider to be the definitive biography on Lippman provides insight and background of a Jewish intellectual and author who was witness to and participant in many of the major events of the 20thcentury.

    1988: Pitcher Roger Samuels made his major league debut with the San Francisco Giants.

    1990(28thof Tammuz, 5750): Sixty-five year old Oscar nominated screenwriter and producer Stanley Shapiro passed away.

    1991(10thof Av, 5751): Tish’a B’Av observed since the 9th of Av fell on Shabbat

    1991(10thof Av, 5751): Eighty-seven year old Joseph Dorfman who “received the Veblen-Commons Award in 1974 from the Association for Evolutionary Economics” passed away today. (As reported by Glenn Fowler)

    2000(18thof Tammuz, 5760):Yosef Qafiḥ or Rabbi Kapach, a leader of the Yemenite Jewish in Yemen and then In Israel passed away today. He was the grandson of Yiḥyah Qafiḥ who had been born in 1853 and served as Chief Rabbi of Sana'a, Yemen until his death in 1932. There is no way that this simple blog can do justice to either of these leaders.

    2002: The seventh Congress of the European Association for Jewish Studies opened today in Amsterdam under the presidency of Professor Albert van der Heide.

    2002: The Sunday New York Times features a review of The Ascent of Eli Israel: Waiting for the Messiah a collection of short stories by Joe Papernick, a 31-year-old Canadian who moved to Brooklyn, after having spent several months in Israel following Yitzhak Rabin's assassination in November 1995, A Place to Live And Other Selected Essays by Italian Jewish author Natalia Ginzburg and Reflections and Shadows by Saul Steinberg with Aldo Buzzi.

    2002:The 88th annual national convention of Hadassah opens at Disney’s Coronado Springs Resort in Lake Buena Vista, Florida. The theme of the convention, “Build Tomorrow Today,” directly addresses Hadassah’s historic, present and future relationship with Israel, and is particularly relevant considering the difficulties Israel has experienced since Hadassah’s last convention, which was held in Jerusalem in August, 2001.

    2004(3rd of Av, 5764):Composer Jerry Goldsmith passed away.  Born in Pasadena, California, in 1929, Goldsmith was one of the most prolific composers of television and move themes in the 20th century.  If you watched such television hits as Have Gun Will Travel, The Twilight Zone, Perry Mason or The Waltons, you heard Goldsmith.  If you watched such films as Patton, Planet of the Apes or The Omen, you heard Goldsmith.  And this only scratches the surface.

    2004(3rd of Av, 5764):Richard Adolf Bloch passed away at the age of 78. Born in 1926, he was an American entrepreneur, and philanthropist best known for starting the H&R Block tax preparation and personal finance company with his older brother Henry in 1955. His personal battle with cancer led him to invest in helping others fight and overcome the disease.

    2004(3rd of Av, 5764): On the day before his 22nd birthday, Lance Corporal Mark E. Engel  (USMC) died in a Texas hospital from wounds he suffered while fighting in Al Anbar Province, Iraq.(As reported by Maia Efrem)

    2005: 17th Macaabiah comes to a close.

    2005: “ readers and editors rank Meyer Amschel Rothschild as the seventh most influential businessman of all time.”

    2005: Violinist Anton Polezhayev filed a lawsuit in the State Supreme Court in Manhattan charging the New York Philharmonic with sex discrimination in denying him a job and following a pattern of promoting only female violinists. In part, he based his charge on the fact (accoriding to him) that during his probationary period seven violinist wonn permanent jobs or marched past him in the violin section.  All seven had one common characterists – they were all women.  The Leningrad native came to the U.S. with his parents, including his Jewish mother.

    2006: The Jewish Week publishes a review of Auschwitz Report entitled “Portrait of an Emerging Author” by Liel Lebovitz. Lebiovitz writes that “Auschwitz Report is a previously unpublished manuscript by Primo Levi and Leonardo De Benedetti, a physician who was Levi’s close friend when the two were prisoners at the camp. Scheduled for publication next month, this slim manuscript, less than 100 pages long, came to be when the Soviet Red Army, having liberated Auschwitz, asked De Benedetti and Levi to compile a report about the conditions in the Nazi death camp….Also included here are two short essays by Levi, both of which are eulogies of De Benedetti. Through Levi’s loving eyes, we learn about the life of the doctor who had so inspired his younger, infinitely more famous colleague. This, too, is a nice addition to the biographical body of work concerning Levi. As Holocaust memoirs move further away from the source, written now through the mists of time and memory, a book as raw and unremitting as this one is potent enough to inspire a fresh look at a much-discussed topic. It is with good reason that Gordon chooses to end his introduction by quoting Elias Canetti; “If there were any point in wondering what form of literature is essential to a thinking, seeing human being today,” he wrote, “then it is this.’”

    2006: In its fight to remove threat of Hezbollah,IDF troops uncovered several anti-tank missiles and several surface-to-surface missiles during an operation in the village of Marwaheen. They also found a machine gun, a Kalashnikov assault rifle, and ammunition.

    2006: Haaretz reported on the opening of the first U.S. branch Aroma, the Israeli equivalent of Starbuck.  The first franchise is located on Houston Street in Manhattan. Dressed in t-shirts saying “I Love Aroma New York” the staff prepared for the entry into the coffee and restaurant wars.  There were many unique challenges in the opening including the renaming of one Aroma’s signature sandwiches.  In Israel, the sandwich is called “the Iraqi Sandwich.”  In the U.S. it is called The Oriental Sandwich.

    2007: The San Francisco Jewish Film Festival presents a screening of “His People,” a film about two sons of Jewish pushcart peddlers living on the Lower East Side.

    2007: In Jerusalem at the Sisters of Zion convent, a classical music concert entitled"Music in All the Shades" presents "Popular Melodies in Russian Choral Music," featuring "Musica Eterna" under the direction of Elia Plotkin.

    2007(6th of Av, 5767):Rabbi Sherwin Wine, founder the Birmingham Temple in suburban Detroit in 1963 who also was the driving force behind the creation of the Society for Humanistic Judaism in 1969  died  today in an auto accident at the age of 79

    2007: (6 Av, 5767) Shabbat Chazon; start of the reading of Devarim or Deuteronomy.

    2008: Gordon Brown is scheduled to address the Knesset making him the first British Prime Minister to speak to the Israeli parliament.

    2008: A jury in San Francisco convicted Eric Hunt of false imprisonment with a hate crime allegation, batter and elder abuse for his February 1. 2007 attack on 79 year old Holocuast survivor and Nobel Prize Winner, Elie Wiesel.

    2009: A disciplinary hearing was held today following yesterdays brawl involving coaches and players that followed “Russia's 2-1 defeat of Argentina in the under-18 semifinals at the Maccabiah Games. “It was decided that they would both be immediately removed from the Maccabiah. The gold medal now automatically goes to Israel, and the Silver to Mexico, the two competitors in the second semifinal..Additionally the players and coaches from the two squads have been banned from competing in the 19th Maccabiah due to be held in 2013.

    2009: At the 18th Maccabiah, Australia plays Israel in Women’s Netball

    2009:Israel led the way in the men's half marathon today, taking the Gold, Silver and Bronze medals in Netanya. The winner of the men's race was Zohar Zmiro who came in with a time of 01:10:31. He was closely followed by Dastaho Svanch at 01:10:41.

    2009:The US baseball team capped off its undefeated season today with a 12-6 gold medal-clinching victory against Canada at Sportek in Tel Aviv.
    2009:As the controversy continued to grow because of the planned showing of “Rachel”  “a sympathetic portrait of the American pro-Palestinian activist who was killed in 2003 in Gaza while protesting a home demolition, San Francisco Jewish Film Festival Executive Director Peter Stein apologized “for not fully considering how upsetting this program might be,” though he added that the festival stands by its decision to screen the film.

    2010:An 8-week session program entitled Hebrew Language and Conversation is scheduled to begin at the Historic Sixth & I Synagogue.

    2010:Debra Rubin, Editor of the Washington Jewish Week is scheduled to serve as a moderator of a discussion addressing issues concerning Jewish residents of Montgomery County at the Jewish Community Center of Greater Washington in, Rockville, MD

    2010:An Israeli oil prospecting and production firm announced it has struck a commercial amount of the black substance in central Israel, Army Radio reported today. Givot Olam Oil Ltd notified the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange of the find in its "Megev Five" drill near the town of Rosh Ha’ayin, saying it can produce 470 barrels of oil a day.

    2010:The Ritz Carlton hotel chain announced today that it will build its first kosher hotel in Herzliya. The $160 million project, which will include a hotel and six floors of luxury condominiums, will be outfitted with Shabbat elevators and an upscale kosher restaurant. The hotel will be located on the coastline overlooking the Herzliya Marina.

    2011:The "Angel of Death" Josef Rudolf Mengele's writings are scheduled to be auctioned off by Alexander Historic Auctions of Stamford Connecticut today. The entire collection of documents, which includes Mengele's autobiography, philosophical, eugenical, and political works, poems, stories, illustrations and diaries is over 3,300 pages long.

    2011:Shalom,” American Jewish music legend Paul Simon told reporters in Tel Aviv , on the eve of his first performance in Israel for almost three decades. Simon is set to perform at the Ramat Gan Stadium this evening, in his third show in Israel to date.

    2011:A golden bell ornament that archaeologists believed belonged to a priest or important leader from the Second Temple Period was found in an ancient drainage channel in ruins next to the Western Wall today, the Israel Antiquities Authority announced. The small bell, which has a loop for attaching to clothing or jewelry, was found underneath what is today known as Robinson's arch. The area underneath the arch was the central road of Jerusalem, which lead from the Shiloah Pools in the City of David to the Old City and the Temple Mount.

     2011:As part of the ongoing doctors' work dispute, medical residents at Meir Hospital in Kfar Saba began a hunger strike today

    2011: Libya has become a new source of smuggled weaponry for Palestinians in the Gaza Strip, Vice Prime Minister Moshe Ya'alon said today. "Weapons are available in Libya as a result of the unstable situation there, and Hamas has exploited it to buy weapons from Libyan smugglers," the former IDF chief of staff told foreign journalists in a briefing, without elaborating on the kind of munitions involved.

    2011: The Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington is scheduled to host a luncheon honoring the Collections Committee and Chair Janice Goldblum following the launch of its new on-line catalogue presented by Wendy Turman, JHSGW Archivist.

    2011(19th of Tammuz, 5771): Ninety-one year old Bruce Sundlun, the second Jewish governor of Rhode Island passed away today. (As reported by Margalit Fox)

    2011(19th of Tammuz, 5771): Ninety five year old Hyman “Bookie” Bookbinder a Washington lobbyist known by his trademark bowtie whose friends were a cross section of Washington, DC including Democrat Hubert Humphrey and Republican Betty Ford, passed away today (As reported by T. Rees Shapiro)

    2011(19th of Tammuz, 5771): Ninety-five year old Elliot Handler began Mattel Toy Company with his wife Ruth and helped to make Barbie, Chatty Cathy and Hot Wheels house-hold names passed away today. (As reported by Charles Duhigg)

    2012: Agudas Achim is scheduled to hold its last Shabbat morning service in downtown Iowa City.

    2012:Papercut artist David Fisher is scheduled to speak in Hebrew on "The Lost Synagogues", synagogues destroyed in the Holocaust at Kehillat Yedidya in Jerusalem.

    2012: “Naomi,” a “tight edgy Israeli film noir” is scheduled to be shown at The San Francisco Jewish Film Festival

    2012: “Lee Zurik, WVUE Fox 8 investigative reporter, picked up three first place awards tonight at the 54th annual Excellence in Journalism Awards sponsored by the Press Club of New Orleans”  (As reported by CCJN)

    2012: Singer-songwriter, composer, sound designer and producer Keren Ann Zeidel became a new mom today with the birth of Nico.

     2012: The Bulgarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs dismissed a claim by Qaedat al-Jihad that it was responsible for the terrorist attack in Burgas.Foreign Affairs Ministry spokeswoman Vesela Cherneva dismissed the previously unknown Islamist group’s assertion of responsibility for the attack in an email sent today to Elnashra, a Lebanese newspaper. (As reported by Ilan Ben Zion)

    2012: Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu conveyed his condolences to the American people via a letter to US President Barack Obama late tonight, a day after a gunman stormed a movie theater in Colorado, killing 12.(As reported by Ilan Ben Zion)

    2013: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Worldly Philosopher: The Odyssey of Albert O. Hirschman by Jeremy Adelman

    2013: “Chagall between War and Peace” an exhibition at Paris’ Musee de Luxembourg is scheduled to come to an end.

    2013:The High Court of Justice essentially recommended to the IDF to completely cease using white phosphorus to create smoke screens during military operations as opposed to eliminating its use in urban warfare and reducing its general use. The recommendation was nonbinding. (As reported by Yonah Jeremy Bob))

    2013:”The cabinet approved a four percent budget reduction for government ministries and passed a planning and building reform plan that would ease bureaucracy on home improvements.” (As reported by Nev Elis)

    2014: The 97th annual convention of Hadassah is scheduled to open at Las Vegas, Nevada.

    2014:Willa Schneberg is scheduled to read from Rending the Garment “a series of link poems exploring the life and times of one Jewish family at the Oregon Jewish Museum and Center for Holocaust Education. 

    2014: “The Real Inglorious Bastards” and “The Return of the Violin” are scheduled to be shown at the Berkshire Jewish Film Festival.

    2014: The funerals of 32 year old Captain Tzafir Bar-Or, 28 year old Major Zvi Kaplan, 21 year old Sergeant Oz Mendelovich and 21 year old Gilad Yaakobi, all of whom were killed yesterday are scheduled to take place today.


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    July 22

    1099: During the First Crusade Godfrey of Bouillon elected first Defender of the Holy Sepulcher of The Kingdom of Jerusalem.  Having driven out the Muslims and Jews (including the slaughter of innocent) the Soldiers of the Cross settle in for what they think is an eternity. 

    1209: Forces that included the fanatical monk, Arnold of Citeaux, stormed the city of Beziers as part of the war aimed at destroying the Albigensians.  The destruction of the Jewish community, including the murder of two hundred Jews, was "collateral damage

    1306 (10thof Av): Philip the Fair of France arrested all the Jews, confiscated their property, and expelled them from his lands. Most Jews left to the next Duchy. Gradually they were allowed to drift back.

    1320: King James II of France – in reaction to the excesses in southern France, proscribed support for the Jewish survivors, including an exemption on taxes. At the same time he refused to allow forcibly baptized children to be returned to their parents

    1456: During the Ottoman attempts to expand its power in Europe John Hunyadi, Regent of Kingdom of Hungary defeats Mehmet II of Ottoman Empire during the Siege of Belgrade.  Mehmet’s reign was friendly to the Jewish people including opening his empire to refugees from Christian Europe.  On the other hand, John Hunyadi enjoyed the support of the Italian Monk Jean de Capistrano who had previously convinced King Ludwig of Bavaria to expel his Jewish subjects.

    1489: In Soncino, printer Joshua Solomon Soncino produced the first copy Talmud Bavil, Tractate “Niddah.”

    1570: During the war with Venice, Ottoman forces lay siege to Nicosia, Cyprus. The Jews had been living on Cyprus since Roman times.  Following the conquest by the Ottomans, Cyprus would become a haven for Jews fleeing from the Spanish Inquisition.

    1588: After one of action, the English fleet prepares to take on the Spanish Armada off the coast of Plymouth.

    1598; The Merchant of Venice is licensed for printing.  However, it would be two years before the play featuring Shylock would be printed for the first time.

    1604: King James I sent a letter to Archbishop Bancroft that effectively permitted the English translation of the Bible.  For most people, Jews included, the poetic tones of the King James Bible are the sounds of the TaNaCh that they readily know.

    1648: Ten thousand Jews of Polannoe were killed in the Chmielnicki massacres.

    1686: Albany, New York is formally chartered as a municipality by Governor Thomas Dongan. Public records indicate the presence of Jews as early as 1658. Asser Levy owned property, obtained burgher's rights, and lived in Albany in the 1650s. Other early Jewish merchants and traders who resided in Albany included Jacob Lucena, Hayman Levy, Jonas Phillips, Asher Levy, Levi Solomons and Levi Solomons   Albany’s most famous Jewish resident was Isaac Mayer Wise who began what would become the Reform Movement while serving as a Rabbi in New York’s capital city. 

    1676: Clement X, the Pope who prohibited the custom of chasing Jews through the streets during the carnival, passed away.

    1706: By the time the details of the Treaty of Union which joined Scotland and England were worked out, at least one Jew, David Brown was living in Edinburgh

    1787: In Kuttenplan, Bohemia, Benedikt Baruch Veith and Bräumel Veith gave birth to Johann Emanuel Veith who became “a Bohemian Roman Catholic Priest

    1817: Birthdate of Lazare Eliezer Wogue the French rabbi from Fontainebleau who was director and editor-in-chief of the "Univers Israélite,"

    1823: Birthdate of Louis Raphael Bischoffsheim the Dutch born French banker who founded the Nice Observatory.

    1823: Birthdate of Ludwig Bamberger “political economist” and confidant of Otto von Bismarck

    1833: the House of Commons passed a bill for the emancipation of the Jews of England. The House of Lords would reject the bill.

    1849: Birthdate of the poet Emma Lazarus. She became famous as the author of "The New Colossus" written in 1883, four years before her death. This poem appears at the base of the Statue of Liberty and is a celebration of America as the land of the immigrant. To give one a sense of the times in which she lived the New York Times described her not as a Jew, but as who belonged "to one of the best known and oldest Hebrewfamilies of the city..."

    1850: In New Olreans, the cornerstone is laid for a new Synagogue, Shangaray Chassed.

    1853: In a sign of how quickly Jews were accepted into pre-Civl War American society an article published today describing events surrounding Columbia College’s upcoming commencement exercises reported that while most of the college’s trustees have been Episcopalians, members of other religious denominations have served in that capacity including one or more Jews.

    1864: During the Civil War Union forces under General Sherman defeat the Confederates at the Battle of Atlanta which was actually one of series of clashes that would lead to the fall of the South’s major transportation and manufacturing center. Among those serving with Sherman was Edward S. Salomon whose distinguished service at the Battle of Gettysburg earned him the rank of Brevet Brigadier General.

    1870: The St. Louis Democrat reported that a property dispute between two Jewish congregations in St. Louis that stretches back to the 1840’s has resulted in civil litigation.  B’nai El Congregation is suing the trustees of Emanuel Congregation over the transfer of property that the plaintiffs contend the Respondents have never completed

    1872: The New York Herald published an editorial “that deplored the widely held opinion ‘that American Jews would remain forever content to study Hebrew and German for the sake of Worshipping God in those languages…Give them religious as well as secular instruction in their vernacular and there will not be much cause to complain of empty pews and neglected synagogues..’”  The editorial was written in response to a “report that the English speaking rabbis of Temple Emanu-El and Congregation B’nai Jeshurun had resigned their pulpits and that the congregations were having great difficulty in finding replacements.” The Herald had previously published an editorial praising plans for the creation of a seminary at Cincinnati to train rabbis for the American Jewish community.  The Herald believed that if services were conducted in English, Jewish throngs would fill their congregations.  What is amazing is the fact that a leading secular paper would involve itself in this issue.

    1874(8th of Av, 5634): Erev Tish'a B'Av

    1877:“Heine’s Love, Apostasy and Agony” published today described the two most painful events in the German poet’s life.  The first was his star-crossed love affair with Amalie Heine. The second was his decision to convert to Christianity so that he could gain favor with his Prussian patrons.  The conversion failed to bring the acceptance he sought.  These frustrations led him to write “I often get up in the night, and stand before the glass and curse myself.”

    1877: “The Hebrew Controversy” published today presented a fulsome account of the controversy created by Judge Hilton’s ban on Jewish guests at his hotel in Saratoga Springs that includes correspondence that reveals much about the attitude and values of those involved in the matter. 

    1878: Birthdate of Janusz Korczak, Polish born Jewish pediatrician who used the pen name of Henryk Goldszmit as an author of children’s book.  He died in August, 1942

    1879: Mr. Austin Corbin, President of of the Manhattan Beach Railway Company, says that Jews, as a class, have made themselves offensive to those who patronize his railroad and hotel on Coney Island.”  He said “that they are vulgar and unclean…and that he will leave nothing undone to get ride of them in order to save his business from ruin.  While no official action has been taken by the Board of Directors to support Corbin’s position, “many stockholders agree with him.

    1879: Prominent Jews have condemned Austin Corbin’s derogatory comments, calling him “a narrow-minded bigot whose proper country is Romania.”  Abram Dittenhoefer, the former judge and leader of the Jewish community, said Corbin “has not insulted the Jews, but all Americans who are opposed to intolerance.

    1880: Michael Gernsheim, a partner in Kuhn, Loeb & Co is scheduled to leave for Europe today aboard the SS Scythia.  He plans to be gone for four months.

    1881: I.A. Engelhardt was elected President of the Society for Improving the Sanitary Conditions of Poor Israelites in New York at its meeting today.  The society seeks to improve “the sanitary conditions” of the city’s poor Jews “by providing them with the necessary information” regarding housing, including the enforcement of sanitary regulations and the means of eradicating the causes and sources of disease from their homes.

    1881: Based on information supplied by the Daily News, an English paper, it was reported today that England, Austria, Holland, and possibly some other European powers are planning on sending a joint communique to Russia express their concern over that nation’s “harsh laws against the Jews.”

    1882:”The Vicar of Bray,” a comic opera by Anglo-Jewish composer and conductor Edward Solomon opened at the Globe Theatre in London.

    1883: It was reported today that Julius Hallgarten, a Jewish Philanthropist has established a trust in the amount of $5,000 to support the Art Schools of the National Academy of Design.  Dr. Felix Adler is among those who have been appointed to serve as trustees to manage the gift.

    1883: “Not Fond of Israelites” published today described a lawsuit Louis Batist has filed a suit against the Manhattan Railway Company seeking $5,000 in damages after a conductor pushed him back so that he could not board the elevated train after saying “You are a Jew! We don’t permit Jews on this train.”

    1884: Rabbis Wise and Huebsch are scheduled to officiate at the funeral retired merchant Mayer Schutz who passed away in his 80th year while vacationing at Coney Island.

    1884: Miss Florence Schloss married Daniel Guggenheim today.

    1886: It was reported today that 40 Russian Jews who had arrived in the United States yesterday will be sent back to Europe on the next State Line Steamer because they are destitute and “had no definite ideas as to how they were to earn a living.”

    1887(1stof Av, 5647): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1887: Birthdate of Gustav Hertz. This German-born quantum physicist won the Nobel Prize in 1925.

    1888: “Hearing the New Rabbi” published today described the first sermon of Rabbi Jacob Joseph as being delivered in “a language which is a mixture of Hebrew, German and Polish.” The younger members of the audience complained that they “had difficulty in understanding…the language” he used.  [It would appear that the sermon was delivered in Yiddish which would have had a strange sound to those used to hearing such talk in German.]

    1888: Approximately 1,500 Jews living on the Lower East Side, including a large number of children took an excursion boat to Raritan Beach.  The trip was sponsored by a liquor dealer named Ehrlich.  According to eyewitness accounts, Ehrlich, who had the drink concession, salted the drinking water, forcing mothers to buy beer and soda to slake the thirst of their children.

    1888: Rabbi De Sola Mendes, of New York’s 44th Street Synagogue officiated at ceremonies dedicating The House of Miriam, the new synagogue in Long Branch, NJ. S.T. Meyer of New York contributed the land and several wealthy New York Jews who spend their summers at the New Jersey resort defrayed the cost of Construction. [The congregation exists today as Beth Miriam, a Reform Temple.]

    1889: “Pilgrims by the Sea” published today described the thriving ocean resort scene in New York and New Jersey including the presence of Jewish guests at Brighton Beach Hotel.  Mr. Breen, one of the new managers of the hotel said that reports that Jewish guests were unwelcomed and had been excluded were false.  They had been circulated by a disgruntled former employee.  The hotel admitted guests strictly on the basis of their behavior and not ethnicity.

    1889: In Boston, MA, Rabbi Raphael Lasker officiated at the funeral of Count L.B. Schwab.  Burial took place at the cemetery of the Union Park Street temple.  Among the pallbearers were Nathan Waxman and George Adams of the Hebrew Benevolent Society; Alexander Simons and James H. Cohen of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association; and Isaac Young and Usher Hyman of Adath Israel.

    1890: Plans for the next free excursion sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children were published today.

    1890: As the Cloakmakers Strike continued “a Russian Jew named Germain Oxehandler” was arrested for attacking a clerk and labor leader Joseph Barondees went around “repeating vague remarks about ‘streets flowing in gore.’”

    1890: “A Jewish Settlement” published today described the growth of Alliance over the last eight years fo acres of wild brush in Salem County, NJ to a flourishing village of 612 Jewish immigrants from Russia.  The Hebrew Aid Society helped them by the land which at the time sold for $12 per acre but is now valued at more than $100 per acre thanks to the efforts of the Jews.

    1891: It was reported today that Jesse Seligman and A.S. Solomons, Trustees of the Baron de Hirsh Fund have told authorities that the apparently impoverished Jewish Immigrants they are holding are in fact honest hard workers who were “robbed of all of their money’ at the Russian border.

     1892: “The Vicar of Bray, “a comic opera by Edward Solomon…opened at the Globe Theatre in London…for a run of only 69 performances.”  “An 1892 revival at the Savoy Theatre” last for 143 performances.

    1893: A reporter for the New York Timesvisited the home of 32 year old Adolf Bruckman, whose grandfather had been the chief rabbi at a city in Russian Poland and his family at a tenement on Ludlow Street. The destitute family had been forced to leave Russia because of imperial decrees that denied Bruckman of a chance to earn a living.

    1894: Josephine and Henry Morgenthau, Sr. gave birth to Ruth Naumburg Knight

    1894: “Jews at Buckingham Palace” published today described a visit by the Austrian Archduke to England where he was greeted by fifty of his subjects the royal home, forty of here were Jewish.  This should have come as no so surprise since it is believe “that in Vienna there are no fewer than 2,500 persons bearing the Jewish name of Kohn.”

    1895: Wolf Silverman was accompanied by is counsel Abraham Joseph when he was arraigned on charges of having attempted to swindle the Empire Life Insurance Company.

    1895:Seventy-eight year old Rudolf von Geist, the Protestant leader of the Berlin society fighting anti-Semitism passed away today.

    1896: Fourteen year old Julius Henry had a fight with his 16 year old sister Dora following which he told their parents of her secret marriage to George Webb, a twenty year old non-Jew.  Dora’s mother asked Webb to give her a divorce and when he refused, her husband Isaac had him arrested on charges of abduction.

    1896(12thof Av, 5656): Julia Frank-Zeckendorf the native of Hanover whose marriage to William Zeckndorf spawned a multi-generational real estate empire passed away today.

    1896: Herzl visits Karlsbad, where he obtains an audience with Prince Ferdinand of Bulgaria. The prince is a well-connected “royal” who will actually sit on the Bulgarian throne.  This appears to be one more attempt on Herzl’s part to use influence and connection to create the Jewish homeland.

    1897(22ndof Tammuz, 5657): Seventy-five year old Lewis May, President of Temple Emanu-El passed away this morning at Dobbs Ferry.

    1897:  In a very emotional manner, Vice President James Seligman announced at special meeting of the Board of Trustees of Temple Emanu-El that their President, Lewis May had passed away following which resolutions of expressing condolence to the family were adopted by the Board.

    1899: It was reported today that Oscar S. Straus, the Minister to Turkey, is a member of the United States Section of The International Congress of History.

    1899: Joseph Reinach writes from Paris to explain that while the story of Captain Dreyfus appears to be complicated, it is really quite simple because “it confines itself to the manner in which the bordereau the work of Esterhazy has been attributed to Dreyfus.”

    1902:Herzl and Wolffsohn leave for Constantinople with hopes that the Sultan will support a Jewish Homeland in the Ottoman Empire.  The trip did not go well as can be seen when Herzl writes his conclusions when the visit ends on August 5.

    1903: Francis Lewis Cardozo, the first African American to hold statewide office in South Carolina passed away today.  The son Isaac Cardozo, a Sephardic Jew working in the customhouse in Charleston and Lydia Weston, a free black woman, Cardozo’s life reads more like a novel than anything else.  He was raised as Christian and is the “Cardozo” in Washington, DC’s Cardozo Senior High School.

    1907(11th of Av): Rabbi Isaac Blaser, leader of the Musar movement and the author of Peri Yizhak, passed away

    1913(17th of Tammuz, 5673): Tzom Tammuz

    1914: Before the visit of his daughter Anna to Britain which was to be chaperoned by Ernest Jones, Sigmund Freud wrote, “She does not claim to be treated as a woman, being still far away from sexual longings and rather refusing man. There is an outspoken understanding between me and her that she should not consider marriage or the preliminaries before she gets two or three years older". “A tentative romance between Anna” and Jones who became Freud’s official biographer, “did not survive” Freud’s “disapproval.”

    1917: In Russia, Kerensky, the Jewish former Minister of War became the premier. After the Czar abdicated, he took over the Russian government and formed a liberal provisional government, which lasted four months. Although well intentioned, he was not a strong leader and couldn't negotiate between the subversive forces between right and left. His government would be ousted by Lenin, ending Russia’s brief flirtation with Western style democracy.

    1918: British General Allenby approves a town-planning scheme for Jerusalem complete with an expanded road network, new parks and municipal and residential buildings. 

    1920: Establishment of Keren Hayesod (Palestine Foundation Fund)

    1921: Winston Churchill, Lloyd George and Lord Balfour met with Chaim Wiezmann at Balfour’s House in London in an attempt “to reassure Wiezmann that British policy in support of the Balfour Declaration and the Jewish home in Palestine had not changed.”

    1921: Birthdate of Phillip Burgher, a native of Niles, Illinois who served in World War II.

    1922: The League of Nations Council confirmed the British Palestine Mandate. The Balfour Declaration is part of the terms of the mandate.

    1923: Tisha B’Av, 9th of Av, 5683

    1926: Jacob Fishman, managing editor of the “Jewish Morning Journal,” is supposed to be one of the attendees at the Zionist Action Committee Meeting scheduled to start today in London.

    1927: The convention of Palestine Jewish Labor Federation which had been meeting in Tel Aviv for the past fortnight comes to an end.  The convention adopted several resolutions including ones calling for greater freedom for Jews to immigrate to Palestine and more aggressive government action to deal with the problems of unemployment.

    1927: Birthdate of Israeli Mathematician Michael Bahir Maschler known for his contributions to the field of game theory.

    1934(10th of Av, 5694):Tish'a B'Av observed

    1934: Dr. Solomon Deutsch, a Bronx Dentist and a leader of the JNF, and his family are scheduled to set sail today for Palestine where they plan on settling at Netanya. (As reported by JTA)

    1936: The Palestine Post reported that the insurrection of Monarchists and Fascists in Spain was gaining momentum and was seriously threatening the democratic regime. Arabs killed Abraham Donagi, a watchman at Even Yehuda, and severely wounded Abraham Bauer in Jerusalem. Bombs exploded in Jaffa and the Iraqi Petroleum Co. pipeline was severely damaged. All this was part of the on-going Arab Riots aimed at destroying the Jewish community in Palestine.

    1936: A British soldier was killed in an Arab ambush near Tulkarm. Arab attacks were reported from Ein Harod and Kfar Yehezkel. Arabs celebrated the 100th day of their insurrection with demonstrations, calls for prayer and donations. But the Arab Nashashibi Party proposed that the Arab Higher Committee should resign as a protest against the non-fulfillment of their promises and leave the people to decide the fate of their prolonged general strike by themselves

    1939: Eichmann’s Central Office for Emigration, (of Jews) in Prague, officially opened

    1941 France's Vichy government begins expropriation of Jewish businesses.

    1942:  On the day before Tisha B’Av German authorities and Ukrainian and Latvian guards in SS uniforms surround the walls of the Warsaw Ghetto. Six thousand Warsaw Jews were told to gather for deportation. Over the next seven weeks as many as 300,000 Jews would be sent by train to the three gas chambers of Treblinka. The railway master at Treblinka was notified of a shuttle line being set up between Warsaw and its railroad station for "Settlers.” THIS WAS THE LARGEST SLAUGHTER OF ANY SINGLE COMMUNITY DURING THE HOLOCAUST. From July 22 through September 12, 1942: 4,000 Warsaw Jews per day would be gassed in Treblinka. Only those with special cards stamped with ‘Operation Reihnard', an eagle and the swastika were saved from deportation. Resisters or those taking flight would be shot on the spot by Ukrainians, Latvians, Lithuanians and German SS officers. Orphanages, children homes, hospitals, were all emptied. Each train was comprised of sixty cars. Each car was packed with human cargo.

    1942: “When (Gerhard) Richter obtained Mihai Antonescu's assent to the deportation of the Jews to the extermination camps in Poland, the clandestine Jewish Council immediately learned of the details of the deportation program and used personal contacts to achieve the repeal of the agreement.” (Jewish Virtual Library)

    1943: Because the U.S. State Department continues to delay any action on the Riegner Plan to save 70,000 Jews, American Rabbi Stephen Wise pleads with President Franklin Roosevelt to support the plan. Roosevelt allows the plan to be killed because of "strenuous British objections."

    1944: German troops withdraw from Parczew Forest, Poland, the site of numerous Nazi searches for Jewish fugitives and partisans.

    1944: Survivors of a July 13 mass execution of Jewish slave laborers at Bialystok, Poland, reach Red Army lines after crawling for nine nights.

    1944: The Red Army occupied Chelm. The 68,000 Jews left in Vilna hope the Soviets will arrive before the Nazis can finish them off.

    1944: During the so-called “Blood for Goods” negotiations Edmund Veesenmayer a member of the SS sent a cable to the German Foreign Office stating that Joel Brand and Andor Grosz had been sent to Turkey on the orders of Himmler

    1945: Birthdate of award winning British biochemist Sir Philip Cohen.

    1946: The Irgun bombed the King David Hotel in Jerusalem. The King David was the headquarters of the British civil and military administration. Ninety people, including Jews, lost their lives. The Irgun, led by Menachem Begin, claimed that they had called ahead to warn of the bombing. The British denied receiving any such call. The Jewish Agency, the de facto government of the Jews in Palestine and other Jewish leaders, denounced the attack. There was a "moment of mourning" on July 23 as the Jewish community paused to honor the dead. The attack marked a split between the recently agreed to alliance between the Haganah and the Irgun. What is amazing about the response of the Jewish community was that in the weeks prior to the bombing the British had imprisoned all a couple of the leaders of the Jewish Agency and seized its records in an attempt to squelch the Zionist movement. However terrible the British occupation was, the terrorism of the Irgun was not to be the Jewish answer.

    1947: “In Beverly Hills, California, Thelma Leeds (née Goodman), a singer and actress, and Harry Einstein, a radio comedian who performed on Eddie Cantor's radio program and was known as Parkyakarkus gave birth to Albert Lawrence Einstein who changed his name to Albert “Al” Brooks after leaving college in the late 1960’s to become a comedian, director and actor who was nominated for an Academy Award for his role as the “nebbish newsman” in Broadcast News.

    1948: The Israelis opened the refineries at Haifa.  They had been closed since the British shut them down on April 26 in the waning days of the Mandate.

    1949:U.S. Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas today revealed here that he was “converted to Zionism” by the late Justice Louis D. Brandeis saying in Haifa that “I pledge to continue my sympathies for Israel and to do whatever I can for its welfare.” (As reported by JTA)

    1949: In New York dentist Norman Menkin and his wife Judith gave birth to composer Alan Irwin Menken who won Academy Awards for The Little Mermaid, Beauty and the Beast, Aladdin and Pocahantis.

    1950: Captain Moshe Idelovitch, Assistant Superintendent of Police in Israel said that “Arab infiltration of Israeli territory could be stopped within twenty-four hours if Jordan cooperated.” Captain Idelovitch is commander of the Petah Tigva area, where most of the border marauders and murderers penetrate

    1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that 69-year-old King Abdullah of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan was assassinated inside al-Aksa Mosque in the Jordanian-held Old City of Jerusalem. Emir Naif, his second son, was declared regent. King Abdullah was known for his efforts to reach an Arab-Israeli peace settlement. In his memoirs he wrote: "I have been astonished at what I saw of the Jewish settlements: They have colonized sand dunes, drawn water from them, and transformed them into paradise..."

    1951: As ceremonies were being planned for the burial of King Abdullah of Jordan in Amman, the Arab Legion turned the Jordanian-occupied Old City of Jerusalem into an armed camp in pursuit of the suspected Palestinian assassins.

    1951: Israel observed the 47th anniversary of Theodore Herzl's death with a solemn ceremony held on Mount Herzl in Jerusalem.

    1951: White Sox pitcher Marv Rotblatt appeared in his last major league game.

    1952: In Washington, DC David Brinkley and his wife gave birth to Joel Graham Brinkley, the Jerusalem bureau chief for the New York Times from 1988 to 1991.

    1954: Premiere of “Seven Brides for Seven Brothers’ directed by Stanley Donen with music co-authored by Saul Chaplin.

    1967:  Poet Carl Sandburg passes away.  Sandburg was not Jewish.  In 1999 a group of previously unknown Sandburg poems was published.  The collection included a poem entitled “To Jacob M. Loeb” that contains the same raw power of such poems as “Chicago” – the one that begins:

    “Hog Butcher for the World

    Tool Maker, Stacker of Wheat...”


    “To Jacob M. Loeb” has that same kind of elemental power, but takes on the form of a letter challenging Loeb.  Before reading it, a little background is in order courtesy of the Chicago Jewish Historical Society.  Loeb was a real person.  He was born in Chicago to German-Jewish parents who had enjoyed economic success.  Loeb himself went into the insurance business where he too was quite successful.  The Loeb’s were active in the community giving both of their time and their money.  Loeb’s mother worked a B’nai Brith type organization that provided educational and recreational opportunities for the children of Chicago’s immigrant (largely eastern European) population.  Along with the famous Julius Rosenwald, Loeb helped to found the Jewish Institute and followed Rosenwald in the presidency.  Loeb was a major fund raiser in the fight to aid the Jews of Europe during and after World War I.  Loeb was also active in the civic affairs of the city of Chicago.  In 1914 he was appointed to School Board and later became President of that body.  And that is the source of the conflict described in the poem.  During Loeb’s time on the board, the school teachers went on strike for the right to unionize.  Loeb led the successful fight to give the board the right to fire any teacher who joined the union.  Sandburg could not understand how a Jew, whose people had a history of being part of the downtrodden, could turn on the working class once they had money and power.  He saw Loeb’s behavior as a betrayal of his Jewish origins.  The poem is not anti-Semitic.  There were plenty of Jews among the ranks of the teachers and the poem sites by name several Jewish labor leaders.  The conflict between the teachers and the school district highlighted an anomaly of Jewish history that was seen most often in the garment industry.  The owners were Jewish (usually Germans who arrived earlier) and the workers were also Jewish (eastern Europeans.)  The strike at Hart, Shaftner and Marx had pitted Jewish owners against Jewish garment workers.  The poem highlights this dichotomy.  Sandburg wanted to believe that Jews, of all people, would, once they had power and influence, support the less fortunate and not, in his view “sell out.”  He was expressing the same kind of outrage that other generations of Jews have expressed over southern Jews owning slaves.  How could the descendants of Pharaoh’s chattel take other human beings as chattel.  Since the purpose of these little daily exercises is to provide some context as well as raw information about Jewish history, you will find the poem quoted in its entirety below.  Those who know me, know that I am a fan of Sandburg’s so this poem took on special meaning for me.   


    “To Jacob M. Loeb:

    You are one of the Jews sore at Georgia for the way

    they hanged Leo Frank and called him a damned Jew

    there in Atlanta.

    And you’re talking a lot about liberty and the rights

    of school children.

    You came from Kovno in Russia and you ought to

    know something about liberty;

    And how school boards, police boards, military

    boards and czars have gone on year after year

    To choke the Jews from having societies,

    organizations, labor unions,

    Shoving bayonets into the faces of the Jews and

    driving them to the ghettoes.

    You know what I mean. You know these European

    cities where they call the Jews a despised race;

    And anybody who spits in a Jew’s face is not

    touched by the police.

    D’ye get me? I’m reminding you what you already


    You’re the man who is leading the school board

    fight on the Teachers’ Federation.

    And you forget, your memory slips, your heart

    doesn’t picture

    How you and your fathers were spit upon in the


    And how the soldiers and police misused your


    Just because they were Jews, and in Kovno

    Anybody could get away with what they did to a

    Jew woman or a Jew girl;

    And now you, a Jew stand up here in Chicago and

    act proud

    Because you have in effect spit in the faces of

    Chicago women, accused them, belittled them.

    First you tried to cut their wages, back here in May,

    a seven-and-a-half per cent cut,

    And now you’re going to make it a law that teachers

    can’t have a labor union;

    And they got to take what you and Rothmann and

    Myer Stein hand ‘em.

    I don’t think you’ll get away with it.

    Sam Gompers, an English Jew, will speak tonight at

    the Auditorium,

    And Jacob LeBosky and Sam Alschuler and other

    Jews in this town

    Are against the game of shackling the teachers and

    repeating Kovno and Kiev and Odessa here in Chicago.

    In fact, five hundred Jews are already in revolt at

    your Kovno trick

    Of slamming the door on the free speech at the

    Hebrew Institute.

    These five hundred are the real blood of the Jew


    That give it a clean flame of heroism.

    You belong with the trash of history, the oppressors

    and the killjoys.

    1972:Follies, a musical with music and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim and a book by James Goldman, opened at the Shubert Theatre  in Century City, CA.

    1976: The visiting governor of the Bank of Spain, Luis Coronel del Palma, expressed hope of "a considerable improvement of relations between Spain and Israel."

    1976: According to American experts the recent events in Lebanon and the Syrian intervention there threatened the total dismemberment of the PLO and the demise of Yasser Arafat who had lost control of all his forces.

    1976: Mossad hit teams were reported to have been waging a concerted assassination program against all Palestinian terrorists who murdered 11 Israeli athletes at the 1972 Munich Olympiad. For those who consider the Israeli behavior "cold blooded" remember what happened.  The Munich Olympics went on almost as if the terrorists had not struck.  The response of the world community was to invite Yassar Arafat, complete with is pistols, to address the UN General Assembly.  And for good measure the UN passed the Zionism is Racism Resolution. 

    1976: The Jerusalem Post reported that the Ministry of Agriculture had decided to enforce the law against squatting to counter the widespread increase in the illegal Arab settlement on state lands. The popular TV show Kolbotek was suspended following the discovery of irregularities in connection with one of its programs. The Mossad was reported to have informed Prime Minister Golda Meir and Defense Minister Moshe Dayan of Arab plans to attack Israel two days before the outbreak of the 1973 Yom Kippur War, but this information was disregarded.

    1979(27thof Tammuz, 5739): Ninety-one year old immunologist Reuben Leon Kahn who developed a test for syphilis passed away in Miami.

    1980(9th of Av, 5740): Tish'a B'Av

    1980: The Knesset voted by ninety-nine votes to fifty-one to annex east Jerusalem declaring that ‘Jerusalem, complete and undivided, is the capital of Israel.’

    1981:Immanuel Jakobovits, Chief Rabbi of the United Hebrew Congregations of the Commonwealth “was created a life peer in 1988, as Baron Jakobovits, of Regent's Park in Greater London, becoming the first rabbi to receive this honor.”

    1982: Marigold Merlyn Baillieu Myer, the daughter of Merlyn and Sidney Myer married Sir Robert Southey.

    1984: The second convention of The European Association for Jewish Studies (EAJS) opened today at Hertford College under the presidency of Geza Vermes.

    1993: Israeli Supreme court Justice, Aharon Barak, was present at Yad Vashem to watch seventy-six-year-old Ceslovas Rakevicius plant a tree.  Rakevicius had saved the eight year old Barak, his brother and his parents and more than twenty other Jewish families by smuggling them out of the Kovno Ghetto in 1944. 

    1997(17th of Tammuz, 5757): Tzom Tammuz

    1999(9th of Av, 5759): Tish'a B'Av

    1999(9th of Av, 5759): David N. Myers of Cleveland, OH who died at the age of 99. He was a dedicated leader and benefactor of the Jewish and secular communities. As a long-time supporter of American Friends of the Hebrew University, he supported numerous programs and established the David Meyers Skin Laboratory and David and Inez Meyers Scholarship Endowment at The Hebrew University.

    1999: Major league baseball player Bruce Ausmus and his wife Liz gave birth to their second child Abigail.

    2001: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including ''Regarding Film'' by Stanely Kauffmann and “Walking the Bible” by Bruce Feiler.

    2002: Israel assassinates Salah Shahade, the Commander-in-Chief of Hamas’s military arm, the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades.

    2005: In the evening, with the start of Shabbat, Rabbi Aaron Sherman officiates at his first service as the new spiritual leader of the Cedar Rapids, Iowa, Jewish Community.

    2006: Israel ousted Hezbollah guerrillas from a stronghold just inside Lebanon after several days of fierce fighting, the army said, as it bombarded targets across the south of the country. Israel Defense Forces ground forces commander Major-General Benny Gantz said troops took the hilltop village of Maroun Ras, where four soldiers were killed last Thursday, inflicting dozens of casualties on Hezbollah. IDF troops took positions in the vicinity of Maroun Ras, in southern Lebanon, on Saturday and carried out operations to detect rocket launchers and underground bunkers where Hezbollah militants are holed up.

    2006:  At least 100 Katyusha Rockets fired by Hezbollah forces in Lebanon land in northern Israel.  At least nineteen Israeli civilians are reported injured.  In his weekly radio address, President Bush blames Hezbollah and its supporters – Iran and Syria – for the latest round of violence in the Middle East.  In the meantime Israeli forces continue operations in Gaza in response to the kidnapping of an Israeli soldier and the launching of rockets by Hamas. 

    2007: Sharon Fichman was the runner-up in today’s tennis tournament in Hamilton, Canada.

    2007: The Sunday New York Times book section featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and or of special interest to Jewish readers including The House that George Built With a Little Help From Irving, Cole, and a Crew of About Fifty by Wilfrid Sheed describing a musical era dominated by George Gershwin “and a few of his friends” and POP! Why Bubbles Are Great for the Economy by Daniel Gross whose earlier writings included “Can the Jews Save Christmas: Chanukah is Late this Year. Will this help retailers?”

    2007: Brad Ausmus “recorded his 100th career stolen base today, becoming the 21st catcher all time to record that many steals

    2008: The Karmiel Dance Festival opens. This year, this most Israeli of festivals celebrates the country's 60th birthday via a retrospective of Israeli dance from 1948 to the present day, yet the central event - Let Us Grow in Peace - is a poignant reminder that for most of those 60 years, our land has known conflict.

    2008. Senator Barack Obama begins his visit to Israel where he is expected to meet the country's top leaders: President Shimon Peres, Prime Minister Ehud Olmert, Defense Minister Ehud Barak, Foreign Minister Tzipi Livni and Likud Party leader Benjamin Netanyahu. The publicity of this trip is a far cry from the comparatively anonymous trip the Senator made to Israel in 2006 when he visited the town of Fassouta,

    2008:For the second time in three weeks, an Arab bulldozer driver from east Jerusalem rammed his construction vehicle into a city bus and several cars on a central thoroughfare in the capital  wounding 15 people before being shot dead by a Druse border police officer and a civilian passerby. The early afternoon attack on King David Street was seen as a failed copy of July 2's lethal bulldozer rampage on Jaffa Road in which Husam Taysir Dwayat killed three people and wounded dozens before he was killed.

    2009(1st of Av, 5769): Rosh Chodesh Av

    2009(1st of Av, 5769:Lynn Pressman Raymond, a leading toy manufacturing executive , passed away today at the age of 97. (As reported by William Grimes

    2009:U.S. congressman Henry Waxman discusses his new book, “The Waxman Report: How Congress Really Works,” at the Sixth & I Historic Synagogue,

    2009:The Randi & Bruce Pergament Jewish Film Festival features a screening of “Holyland Hardball,” which describes what happens “when a Boston baker with no sports management experience wanted to form the Israel Baseball League”

    2009: Gen. Norton Schwartz, the chief of staff of the Air Force and the first Jewish commander of the U.S. Air Force completed a four-day visit to Israel.

    2010:In Metro-Detroit, MI, The Jean and Theodore Weiss Partners in Torah Program is scheduled to sponsor a program entitled "Life After Death," which will cover such topics as:The journey of the soul, a study of scriptural passages referencing the World to Come, the eternal nature of the soul, a look at testimonials of near death experiences, the relevance of the soul.

    2010:The Israel Navy went on high alert today amid forecasts that a flotilla of two vessels from Lebanon was preparing to depart for the Gaza Strip in an effort to break the blockade by the end of the week.

    2011(20th of Tammuz, 5771): Yahrzeit of “Rabbi Na'eh best known for his halachic works Ketzot ha-Shulchan and Shiurei Torah ("measurements of the Torah"), in which he converted archaic halachic measurements into modern terms.” He passed away on the 20thof Tammuz (July 21) 1954.

    2011: The 92nd Street Y is scheduled to sponsor its Shabba bakery which will give children a chance roll and braid their own challah which they can take home and bake.

    2011:Jailed Jewish-American aid contractor Alan Gross told Cuba's Supreme Court today he had no intentions of hurting the Cuban government or its people.

    2011:At least 200 medical students from all departments staged a protest outside of Ichilov Hospital in Tel Aviv today, demanding improvements in Israel's healthcare system and pledging support for the months long battle being waged by doctors and residents across the country.
    2012: In Sandy Springs, GA, Rabbi Rachel M. Bregman is scheduled to officiate at the graveside service for Laura Lynn Becker, a very accomplished Atlanta defense attorney for the past 30 years. A native of Cedar Rapids, Iowa, Ms. Becker was the daughter of Harold Becker and Arlene Gabert Becker of blessed memory.

    2012: The Center for Jewish History and American Jewish Historical Society are scheduled to present screenings of “Radio Days,” “Broadway Danny Rose” and “Annie Hall.”

    2012: The 12th Annual Summer Institute for Synagogue Musicians, Mifgash Musicale is scheduled to begin today on the HUC-JIR campus in Cincinnati, OH.

    2012: In Columbus, Ohio, Tifereth Israel is scheduled to sponsor a HAZAK lox and bagel brunch that will included a tour of Motts Military Museum

    2012: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The New Religious Intolerance:Overcoming the Politics of Fear in an Anxious Age by Martha C. Nussbaum

    2012: Complaining that the Olympic movement is still ignoring their pain, Israelis marked the 40th anniversary of the Munich massacre today with a modest service in the atrium of a London apartment block.

    2012(3rd of Av, 5772): Ninety-year old “Dr. Warren Winkelstein Jr., a physician and researcher whose groundbreaking studies connected unprotected sex between men to AIDS, smoking to cervical cancer and air pollution to chronic lung disease” passed away today. (As reported by Denise Grady)

    2012(3rd of Av, 5772): Eighty-nine year old urban legend and art collector Herbert Vogel passed away today. (As reported by Douglas Martin)

    2012: The world’s intelligence community is on the alert for terror attacks at the London Olympics, and Israel knows only too well that it can be targeted at such events, Defense Ministry Ehud Barak said this morning (As reported by Gabe Fisher)

    2012: Gunmen opened fire on today at a bus of Israeli soldiers that was traveling near the Israel-Egypt border. The bus was hit when it was on Route 10 near Har Sagi, southwest of Mitzpe Ramon. No casualties were reported but damage was done to the bus.

    2013: The annual Madridanza festival at the Suzanne Dellal Center in Tel Aviv is scheduled to come to a close.

    2013: Amos Phinhasi is scheduled to perform “Mediterraneo” at the Between the Seas Festival.

    2013: The second of two billboards sponsored by the pro-Israel group StandWithUs is scheduled to go up today at Helena, the capital of Montana. “The StandWithUs billboards read, “The U.S.-Israel Relationship Creates Hundreds of Thousands of Jobs in America” and “Israel Celebrates Diversity.”

    2013(15thof Av): Tu B’Av – Jewish Valentine’s Day

    2013: “A new report from the Anti-Defamation League has found a 14 percent decline in recorded anti-Semitic incidents across the United States, the organization said today.The audit of 2012 records identified 17 physical assaults, 470 cases of harassment or threat, and 440 cases of vandalism in which the target was Jewish and the motive allegedly hatred.” (As reported by Michael Wilner)

    2013: Former MVP Ryan Braun, the left field for the Milwaukee Brewers known as “the Hebrew Hammer” was “suspended by MLB commissioner Bud Selig for the remainder of the 2013 season for violating the league's drug policy.;”

    2014: Israeli-American violinist Gil Shaham is scheduled to join the National Youth Orchestra of America when it makes it Carnegie Hall debut with a program that begins with Leonard Bernstein’s Symphonic Dances from “West Side Story.”

    2014: Sun Kil Moon is scheduled to perform at the Historic 6th&I Synagogue.

    2014: In Las Vegas, Hadassah is scheduled to hold the second day of its 97thannual convention.

    2014: The Washington Jewish Film Festival is scheduled to open with a “Coen Brothers” double feature.


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    July 23

    501: A violent earth quake hit Eretz Yisrael. The town of Akko was totally destroyed.

    636: Following the Battle of Yarmuk Arabs took control of most of Eretz Yisrael from the Byzantine Empire.

    1253: The Jews were expelled from Vienne, France by order of Pope Innocent III

    1298(13th of Av): Massacre of the Jews of Wurzburg, Germany.

    1312:King Frederick II order today that in Palermo Jews must live outside the city wall in a ghetto; and although they were soon afterward allowed to come into the city, they were still compelled to live in one quarter.

    1588: The English fleet foiled the attempt of the Armada to establish a base off the Isle Wight from which the Spanish could invade the British Isles.

    1626: Birthdate (on the secular calendar) of Sabbatai Zevi, the most famous of the Jewish false messiahs. He died in 1676 after converting to Islam and becoming a low-level official in the Turkish government.

    1649: Birthdate of Giovanni Francesco Albani, the future Clement XI. In 1704, Clement issued a bull that dealt with Jewish converts to Catholicism.  “The bull dealt with the education of potential converts, encouraged forced preaching to Jews, and emphasized the importance of providing financial assistance to Jews who converted. It asserted that new converts were to be fully accepted into the Catholic community.”

    1713:Rabbi Tzvi Hirsch ben Yaakov Ashkenazi placed Nehemiah Chiya Chayun under the ban, because the investigating committee appointed by the Sephardic directorate had not yet made its report. In consequence of this measure, both Ashkenazi and Moses Chagiz were subjected to street attacks, more particularly at the hands of the Portuguese, who threatened to kill them. In the midst of the constantly increasing bitterness and animosity, the report of the committee, which had been prepared by Solomon Ayllon, Chacham of the Portuguese congregation, alone, was publicly announced. It was to the effect that the writings of Chayun contained nothing which could be construed as offensive to Judaism. It was publicly announced in the synagogue that Chayun was to be exonerated from every suspicion of heresy.

    1768(9th of Av): Rabbi Isaac Spitz, author of Birkat Yizhak passed away.

    1787: The Jews of Austria were required to take family names.

    1803: Birthdate of Benzion Judah Ben Eliahu Berkowitz, the Russian author whose texts dealt with the “Targum Onkelos’ (the Aramaic translation of the TaNaCh)

    1811(2ndof Av, 5571): Abraham Abrahamson, medalist and  “the master of the Prussian mint” whose medals included one he created commemorating the Enfranchisement of the Jews in Westphalia passed away today.

    1832: Birthdate of violinist Adolph Pollitzer the native of Budapest who “became leader at Her Majesty's Theatre under Sir Michael Costa and also led the new Philharmonic Orchestra and the Royal Choral Society.”

    1839: Birthdate of Simon Sterne, the Philadelphia born New York lawyer whose clients included the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railroad Company and whose civic endeavors included taking a leading role in overthrowing the “Tweed Ring.”

    1846:The Montefiore Baronetcy, of East Cliff Lodge in the Isle of Thanet and County of Kent, was created in the Baronetage of the United Kingdom today for the banker and philosopher Moses Montefiore in recognition of his services to humanitarian causes on behalf of the Jewish people. He was childless and the title became extinct on his death in 1885.”

    1846:Rabbi Isaac Meyer Wise arrives in New York from Europe.

    1847: Prussian Jews were granted equality.

    1854(27th of Tammuz, 5614): Engraver and artist Leopold Dick who was “appointed professor of the art of engraving at the Royal District Industrial School of Kaiserslautern in the Palatinate” in 1848 passed away today.

    1857:The resignation of Baron Rothschild was announced today and new writ was published in London calling for an election to choose his successor. In London, the electors responded by holding a public meeting in which they pledged to return Rothschild to Parliament as their representative.  They also passed a resolution calling the government to do everything in its power to immediately settle the Jewish question

    1858: Passage of the Oaths and Jewish Relief Acts in Great Britain. The act allowed each House to decide the wording for the oath of office.  It allowed Jewish office holders not to have recited the words, “I make this declaration upon the true Faith of a Christian. For the full text of the oath see:

    1860:A review of Life in the Desert; or Recollections of Travel in Asia and Africa by Colonel L. Du Couret, entitled “Asiatic Exploration.; The Journey of Du Couret through the Arabian Desert” reports that “in the heart of Arabia, our traveler found a considerable number of Jews, whose social condition seems to have been even worse than their, political state, which, in itself, is bad enough. More Jews are found at Doan, a populous place, some leagues further on the route to the eastward. "Many of these Jews," says Du Couret,, "are brokers, and some of them make a living by the manufacture of buskins and palm leaf mats. They also lend out money at usurious interest to merchants trading to Sana, the Indian Ocean and the Persian Gulf; but they carefully avoid any display of wealth, to save themselves from the extortion of the Mussulmans, who exact tribute from them. Such, under the rod of the Islam, are the modern descendants of the prophet Isaiah and of King Solomon." There is something unpleasantly suggestive in the following passage from our author's narrative: "Doan, which is, in all probability, the Dan spoken of by Ezekiel, is, at the present day, one of the largest and most important towns in Hadramaut, ranking next after Schibam and Terim.”

    1862: Jacob and Amalia Nathansohn Freud gave birth to Pauline Regine (Pauli), a sister of Sigmund Freud who was deported to Treblinka in 1942.

    1862:An article entitled "Escape of Mr. W.H. Hurlbert from Richmond" published today described the year-long Southern sojourn of Charleston born author William Hurlbert, a Union sympathizer who claimed that he visited the Richmond at the invitation of Judah P. Benjamin, “the eminent Jew” with whom he found himself in total disagreement.   Hurlbert then visited Charleston where he was seized by a mob that refused Secretary Benjamin’s order to set him free.  Hurlbert was then imprisoned in Richmond over the objections of Secretary Benjamin where he languished for almost a year before escaping.  [Editor’s note - For those trying to figure how much credence to give Hurlbert’s account consider the following.  He was in Richmond  during the Peninsula Campaign and later reported that the  Confederate  forces  numbered between 80,000 and 90,000 (wildly exaggerated) most of whom were facing  Union General Fitz Jon Porter (accurate) which means that had General McClellan pushed forward  he would have  Richmond virtually unoccupied (accurate)]

    1872: W.P. Wood and a Jew from Baltimore named Blumenberg are scheduled to arrive in Raleigh, North Carolina tonight.  The two men have reportedly been sent to North Carolina by the Liberal Republican Committee in an attempt to carry out a Tammany style ballot box stuffing.  Wood has been given $9,000 for his part in the scheme.  Blumenberg, who has served two years in the State Prison for Perjury was given $7,000.

    1872: E.A. Rosenbluth wrote a letter to the New York Times in which he declared that he “and all my Jewish acquaintances” “will vote for” General Grant.

    1874: It was reported today that as soon as $160,000 can be raised for a new Hebrew Theological College will be built in Cincinnati.  The late Emanuel Deutsch was the leading candidate to head the school but since his demise, Dr. Wise has renewed his efforts to obtain the services of the best available scholar to lead the effort.  The school is to be so amply endowed that students will not have to pay tuition or fees.  Henry Mack has been elected to serve as President of the Board of Governors. 

    1874: Melissa Rogers Pinner and Moritz Pinner gave birth to Rogers Adolphe Pinner, a senior partner of the Mutual Electric Company

    1874(9th of Av, 5634):Tish'a B'Av

    1876: A reported published today described the scene witnessed by a group of “Cook pilgrims” when they visited the “The Wailing Place of the Jews on the west side of the Temple enclosure” in Jerusalem. The Jews come to the Wall where they can touch the stones (which the writer erroneously believed were from the times of King Solomon) and read from Lamentations and Psalms “in a wailing voice.” The Jews “occasionalyly cry aloud in a chorus of lamentation, weeping. Blowing their longs notes with blue cotton handkerchiefs” while “kissing the stones” worn smooth “owing to centuries of osculation.”

    1879:Mr. Austin Corbin told a Times reporter today that he had received numerous letters from "nice people" approving the course he had taken in relation to the Jews, and urging him to persevere. He refused to permit copies to be taken for publication, on the plea that the matter had had enough notoriety, and he wished to let it die out.

    1879: Birthdate of German archaeologist Ernest Herzfeld who contended that structure currently identified as Queen Esther’s tomb “may actually belong to Shushan Dokht, the Jewish queen of King Yazdagerd I (ca. 399-420 CE), who is credited with securing permission for Jews to live in Hamadan.

    1879: It was reported today that “A Berlin dispatch to the Pall Mall Gazette says: ‘Germany has declined to entertain any proposals from the Roumania for the modification of the provisions of the treaty of Berlin relative to the emancipation of the Jews.’”

    1882: “The Jews and Wagner” published today expressed bewilderment at the German composer’s expression of disdain for Jews.  According to the author, it was an un-named Jew who gave him his first piano.  And Giacomo Meyerbeer, the German-Jewish composer, was the “first men who helped him.” Wagner claims that the Jews of Vienna have conspired to harm his career, but his three most noted critics –Hanslick, Scheel and Speidl- are Viennese Catholics.

    1884(1stof Ave, 5644): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1884: Robert Pinkerton, whose detectives had arrested Mrs. Fredericka Mandelbaum yesterday, described what he said was  her 25 year career as the “most successful…receiver of stolen goods – silks, diamonds” and other “swag” from burglars” that had brought her to the attention of law enforcement officers throughout the United States. (Mandelbaum was Jewish; Pinkerton was not)

    1885: Sixty-three year old President U.S. Grant,  the General who saved the Union passed away today. While some brand his an anti-Semite for issuing General Order 11, such was not the case.  Grant had many prominent Jewish supporters including the Seligmans. The vast majority of Jews voted for Grant when he ran for President and while President he contributed to Adas Israel and attended the dedication of the congregations new sanctuary.  For a complete, highly readable description of Grant’s relationship with the Jewish people see When General Grant Expelled the Jews by Jonathan Sarna

    1889(24thof Tammuz, 5649): Miss Openheimer, an 18 year old Jewess who was the daughter of well-known Pittsburgh clothing merchant, died today at Harmony, PA when a horse-drawn wagon in which she was riding collided with a train.  Miss Oppenheimer was vacationing in Butler Country.  Her brothers and father who were in Atlantic City have not heard about the tragedy.

    1890: Plans for the upcoming festival intended to raise funds for the Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews sponsored by the B’nai Brith were published today.

    1890:  In memory of Mrs. Stern, Isaac Stern is paying all of the expenses related to today’s excursion sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children for enjoyment of impoverished Jewish youngsters and their mothers.

    1890: “The Cloakmakers’ Strike” published today described the violent labor confrontation between manufacturers and the workers who were led by Joseph Barondess

    1891: Birthdate of movie mogul Harry Cohn, The son of Russian Jewish tailor, Cohn quit school and found work in vaudeville. He began working in the infant motion picture industry in 1913. He founded Columbia Pictures where, as a producer he won an Academy Award in 1934 for It Happened One Night. Cohn was noted for his vulgarism and bizarre quotes. One of his most famous was, "Give me two years and I will make her an overnight success." Cohn was one of several Jews who dominated the film industry in its early years. The interesting thing is that they did not make Jewish movies or movies about Jews. They gained success by giving the audiences slices of Americana. The created, or at least nurtured a vision of America that Middle America wanted to see. He passed away in 1958.

    1891: In Philadelphia, PA, the Jewish Alliance of American presented its plan of action for dealing with the immigration of Russian Jews.

    1892: “Reacting to claims that Jews don't really murder Christians to get their blood, L'Osservatore Romano, the Vatican's official newspaper, carries an article stating: ‘Unfortunately, although they tried to deny that the Talmud's followers commit such an atrocious act, one cannot reasonably deny its existence.’"

    1892: During the Homestead Steel Strike anarchist Alexander Berkman failed in his attempt to assassinate steel magnate Henry Clay Frick.


    1892: The “first terrorist act in America,” as its perpetrator described it, occurred today Alexander Berkman, known as Sasha, a 20-year-old Russian immigrant outraged at the brutal suppression of the strike at Carnegie Steel’s Homestead plant, burst into the office of Henry Clay Frick, the plant’s manager, shot him twice, then tried to stab him. (As reported by Elsa Dixler)

    1893(10thof Av, 5653): Tish’a B’Av observed the 9th of Av fell on Shabbat

    1893(10thof Av, 5653): Issac Burnheimer, a retired millionaire who was over the age of 80 and suffering from ill health passed away today at the Grand Union Hotel in Saratoga Springs.

    1893: “Victims of the Czar’s Ukase” published today described the plight of Jewish refugees as seen through the eyes of one family who arrived in the United States with only seventeen dollars, eight of which they had to spend on rent and the rest was spent on purchasing the necessities of life which have left them broke.

    1894: Young men “went among the audience selling copies…of The Arbeiter Freund, an anarchist paper printed in Hebrew and published in London” before tonight’s meeting of anarchists at Clarendon Hall.

    1894: “What Shall Royalties Do?” published today speculates on how Europe’s impecunious nobility will support themselves and includes the possibility that someday, we may see “a Hapsburg taken into partnership with a Rothschild.”

    1894: Lizzie Berus, a 17 year old Russian Jewish immigrant from Paterson, NJ is to go on trial in New York today on charges of having “procured diamonds by bogus check from several jewelry firms in Upper Broadway.

    1894: Police are currently looking for George Patterson, the nephew of a prominent Presbyterian minister, who is the husband of Lizzie Berus and thought to be the mastermind behind a series of jewel robberies.

    1895: As Wolf Silverman sits in jail facings charges of fraud related to an insurance policy purchased for his wife, the district attorney has also brought charges against the woman known as “Jane Doe” who impersonated his wife when he bought the policy and the insurance agent known as “Richard Roe” who sold the policy. It is believed that Silverman is involved in a wider fraud ring that involves several insurance companies and their employees.

    1897: Mr. and Mrs. Jacob Black, Russian Jews from Kiev who are 104 and 100 respectively were awakened early this morning by a barking dog which is what saved them from dying as their apartment at 184 Clinton Street went up in smoke.

    1899: In Haverhill, MA, founding of Beth Jacob which owns a cemetery on Merrimack Road.

    1899: The United Hebrew Charities acknowledged that it had collected $148.50 (with contributions ranging from 50 cents to $25) to help settle a poor family that had become chronic invalids from overwork in rural location where they can work and take care of their children.

    1899: The United Hebrew Charities acknowledged that it had collected $148.50

    1901: Seventy-seven year old Isaac Mautner, who passed away yesterday was buried today

    1902:Mrs. John M. Gitterman was the first to drink from the bronze fountain that was presented today to the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals in memory of her father, the late Simon Sterne.

    1903 (28thof Tammuz, 5663): Sixty-five year old British born author Benjamin Farjeon passed away today.

    1906(1st of Av, 5666): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1911: Arthur Welsh set one of his many records today when he was joined by a passenger “to establish a new American two-man altitude record of 1,860 feet.”

    1912: Birthdate of Meyer Howard “Mike” Abrams, the son of Jewish immigrants, who became a leading American literary critic.

    1913: Arabs attacked the Jewish settlement of Rehovot.

    1918: Birthdate of Abraham ('Appie') Bueno de Mesquita, the Amsterdam born comedian who survived the Holocaust.

    1920:The Zionist Conference here, probably the most important gathering of Jews ever held, concluded today with the election of United States Supreme Court Justice Louis D. Brandeis as honorary President of the Zionist organization; Professor Chaim Weizmann, President, and Nahum Sokolow, Chairman of the Executive Committee.

    1923: The New York Times reviews volume 4 of The Life of Benjamin Disraeli; Earl of Beaconsfield by George Earle Buckle which covers the years 1855 to 1868.

    1926:  Fox Film buys the patents of the Movietone sound system for recording sound onto film.  Sol M. Wurtzel was the producer responsible for Fox moving its operations to California and for making this purches.  Following the Stock Market Crash of 1929, Fox would be purchased and become part of production giant 20th Century Fox. 

    1928: Birthdate of famed pianist, teacher and conductor, Leon Fleisher.  Fleisher is doubly famous.  When at the height of his successful career as a pianist, he lost the ability to use his right hand.  Fleisher then discovered a body of music written for the left-hand and gained greater fame for this accomplishment.

    1930: Birthdate of French historian Pierre Emmanuel Vidal-Naquet whose interest included Jewish history and who was an active opponent of Holocaust denier Robert Faurisson.

    1931(9th of Av, 5691):Tish'a B'Av

    1933:More than twenty leaders of the extreme wing of the Zionist Revisionist party were arrested today in various parts of the country, including Jerusalem, Tel Aviv and two Jewish villages, Kfarsaba and Kalmania, when the police simultaneously raided houses in connection with the murder of Dr. Chaim Arlosoroff, member of the Jewish Agency Executive of Palestine. Dr Arslosoroff was killed while walking on beach at Tel Aviv with his on June 16.  This was no random killing since Arslosoroff’s killer held a flashlight into his face, asked “Are you Dr. Arslosoroff” and only fired the three fatal shots after the doctor had answered in the affirmative.

    1936: The Palestine Post reported that a British soldier was killed in an Arab ambush near Tulkarm. Arab attacks were reported from Ein Harod and Kfar Yehezkel. Arabs celebrated the 100th day of their insurrection with demonstrations, calls for prayer and donations. But the Arab Nashashibi Party proposed that the Arab Higher Committee should resign as a protest against the non-fulfillment of their promises and leave the people to decide the fate of their prolonged general strike by themselves.

    1936: Arab terrorists threw a bomb at a small religious school (Talmud Torah) in the Yemenite Quarter of Tel Aviv. Nine children were injured. One of the terrorists was later caught by a British constable and arrested.

    1936: The British government officially declared that there would be no change of policy in regard to the issue of Jewish immigration into Palestine until the Royal Commission was able to visit the country, study the subject and publish its findings. Britain expected that all Arab terrorist activities would stop before the commission's arrival in the country. The British were wrong. The violence did not stop.

    1938:  Jews in Germany are ordered to apply for identity cards to be shown to police on demand.

    1940: Birthdate of Daniel Saul Goldin who was appointed as the 9th Administrator of NASA by President Bush in 1992 and served under three different Presidents.

    1940: Hans Frank issues order revoking the autonomy of all Jewish, Ukrainian and Jewish independent aid organizations in the General Government.

    1941: In White Russia an Einsatzkommando unit commander reported that some Jews were able to ‘escape into the surrounding forests and swamps’ because they “had managed to organize a ‘signal service’ between villages” that warned of the approach of the Nazi killing squads.

    1942 (9thof Av, 5702): Tisha B’Av

    1942 (9thof Av, 5702): Adam Czerniakow took his own life. Born in 1880, Czerniakow was the leader of the Jewish council of Warsaw, the Judenrat. Czerniakow had held the position for 3 years and kept a diary of over 1000 pages chronicling the formation of the ghetto up to the beginning of the forced transports. The Germans had ordered him to provide them with a list of names for deportation. His response was a list of his own name written hundreds of times. The day before his suicide, the Nazi officer in charge of the deportation procedure threatened to shoot his wife if he didn’t cooperate. In his suicide note he wrote "I am powerless, my heart trembles in sorrow and compassion. I can no longer bear all this."

    1942 SS Senior Colonel General Viktor Brack advises Heinrich Himmler that all healthy Jews should be castrated or sterilized, and the remainder annihilated.

    1942: The German Foreign Minister, Von Ribbentrop, warned the Italian Chief of Staff, that Italy should not resist efforts to deport the Jews of Croatia.

    1942: The Nazis opened the Treblinka Extermination Camp.

    1942: Deportation of Jews from Dobsina, Slovakia, to Auschwitz

    1943(20th of Tammuz, 5703): Forty-year-old Mandel Langer, a Jewish French partisan who was active as an anti-Nazi saboteur since the end of 1942, is captured and executed in Toulouse, France.

    1943: Colonel Josiah Clement Wedgwood, 1st Baron Wedgwood, passed away.  Swimming against the establishment stream, he opposed the British decision to create an Arab state east of the Jordan River, seeing it as a betrayal of promises to the Zionists.  He opposed the 1939 White Paper on the same grounds.

    1944:  Soviet troops liberate the abandoned death camp at Majdanek, where about 500 inmates are alive.

    1944:  The Nazis deport 1700 Jews from Rhodes to Auschwitz “while the Italian authorities who had governed the island from 1912 until 1943 idly stood by.”

    1945: In what was their first joint operation after having “resolved to against British rule” a joint unit of Irgun and Lehi fighters, under the command of Yehoshua Weinstein (Benyamin) blew up a railway bridge near the village of Yibne.” (Jewish Virtual Library)

    1948(16th of Tamuz, 5708): In Jerusalem, two more Israeli soldiers were killed by Arab firing from Abu Tor.

    1948: Arab shelling from the village of Silwan damages the King David Hotel in Jerusalem.

    1948:The possibility loomed today that the Israeli Government might conduct negotiations with Soviet Russia for a supply of crude oil to be refined at Haifa.

    1949: The Turkish government authorized an Israeli, Victor Elyachar, to open an office in Istanbul to answer questions about the new state of Israel. In October of the same year, Elyachar was appointed Consul General of Israel at Turkey. 

    1951: Thousands of mourners led the black-draped gun carriage carrying the coffin of King Abdullah of Jordan to the royal cemetery in Amman. The Jordanian police rounded over 70 suspects in connection with the king's assassination, including two relatives of the former Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin el-Husseini. There were clashes in the Jordanian-occupied Old City of Jerusalem between Arab Legion Bedouin and the local Arabs.

    1951: The first immigrant from the U.S.S.R., 73-year-old Tova Lerner from Soviet Bessarabia, arrived in Israel together with 993 newcomers from Romania.

    1952: General Neguib overthrew the monarchy and seized power. Some Israelis thought this change presaged a possible improvement in relations with the Egyptians. The last King of Egypt, Farouk, was man known for his personal and political corruption. The Israelis thought the revolutionaries would bring Western style reforms and that they would be more accepting of the Jewish State. Obviously this did not happen. One of the men behind what was known as "The Colonels’ Revolt" was Nasser. Nasser would soon seize the reins of power and make the destruction of Israel a cornerstone of his Pan-Arab policy. In a lesson that has still not been learned, Nasser said that he did not hate the West because of Israel but hated Israel because it was Western. In other words, anti-Western philosophy has been a staple of the Arab/Moslem world long before the appearance of Bin Laden.

    1950:Based on the wording of the Official Citations, today marked the beginning of a series of heroic acts on the part of Corporal Tibor Ruman during the darkest days of the Korean War that would lead to him being awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.

    1955: Cordell Hull, Tennessee political leader and U.S. Secretary of State passed away.  Appointed by FDR, he served in the post until 1944 which made him the longest serving Secretary of State.  He won the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1945 for his role in creating the United Nations, which at its inception, played a positive role in the creation of Israel.  Hull blocked the admission of Jews fleeing Hitler as can be seen in his role with the SS St. Louis and the SS Quanza. Hull’s wife was reportedly Jewish, a fact they worked to keep from public knowledge lest it impede his public career.

    1960: In New York City, Edie and Ely A. Laundau gave birth to Jon Landau, the producer of Titanic and co-producer of science fiction blockbuster Avatar.

    1967: Herb Gray,Canada's first Jewish federal cabinet minister,Gray married lawyer Sharon Sholzberg, with whom he had two children: Jonathan David and Elizabeth Anne.

    1968: For the first time, the PLO hijacked an El Al plane. El Al was the first airline to put sky marshals on its flights and the first airline to introduce the security measures that many tried to emulate after 9/11.

    1969(8thof Av, 5729): Erev Tish’a B’Av

    1969(8thof Av, 5729): Seventy-seven year old “Sidney J. Weinberg, whose financial acumen earned him the sobriquet ‘Mr. Wall Street’” passed away today.  (As reported by Alden Whitman)

    1969: Birthdate of Rachel Goslins, the director of “God’s House,” a documentary about Albanian Muslims who save Jews during World War II based on Besa: Muslims Who Save Jews in World War II by Norman Gershman.  A member of Adas Israel, she has served as the Executive Director of the President’s Committee on the Arts and Humanities.

    1971: Birthdate of journalist Joel Stein.

    1973:  Birthdate of White House Intern, Monica Lewinsky.

    1976: The Jerusalem Post reported that the visiting governor of the Bank of Spain, Luis Coronel del Palma, expressed hope of "a considerable improvement of relations between Spain and Israel." According to American experts the recent events in Lebanon and the Syrian intervention there threatened the total dismemberment of the PLO and the demise of Yasser Arafat who had lost control of all his forces. Mossad hit teams were reported to have been waging a concerted assassination program against all Palestinian terrorists who murdered 11 Israeli athletes at the 1972 Munich Olympiad.

    1978: The Israeli cabinet rejected Sadat's call for return of 2 Sinai areas.

    1978: In “Sex, Torah, Revolution,” Alan Lelchuk reviewed Shosha by Isaac Bashevis Singer.

    1980(10thof Av, 5740): Eighty-four year old Dr. Max Kadushin, a leading Conservative Rabbi, passed away today.

    1987:Fifty American volunteers pulled out of an archeological excavation site here today after a group of rigorously Orthodox Jews mobilized international pressure to halt digging in the area, which they say is an ancient burial ground. While 100 Israeli policemen, armed with riot sticks and tear gas, separated them from three busloads of angry Orthodox protesters, the American archeological volunteers spent the morning clearing dust off a fifth-century mosaic sidewalk in Caesarea, a historic coastal city 25 miles north of Tel Aviv. But shortly after the volunteers, representing 22 American colleges and universities, finished a midmorning breakfast, the project director, Robert J. Bull, an archeology professor at Drew University in Madison, N.J., received a telegram from his university president. The president, Paul Hardin, had instructed him to withdraw from the site immediately, two weeks before the four-week expedition was scheduled to end. Drew University is a Methodist school. ''I said I would abide by the law of the land, and I have, but now I've been threatened with dismissal from my college post,'' said Dr. Bull, head of the Joint Expedition to Caesarea, endorsed by the American Schools of Oriental Research, as he explained his reasons for leaving the site. He said the telegram from Mr. Hardin had included an implied threat. By the time Dr. Bull had broken the news to the volunteers, three busloads of Orthodox men in long black coats had arrived at the roadblocks erected by policemen two miles away from the site. Some men started walking to the site, but the majority stood and prayed by the barricades, holding posters, one of which read, ''Let the dead rest in peace, not pieces.'' One young Orthodox man ran around in circles screaming, ''Harlot! Harlot!'' for several minutes, until a young woman standing nearby slipped a long-sleeved shirt over her sleeveless top. Meanwhile, the police averted a confrontation by arranging a hasty meeting to inform representatives of Atra Kadisha, the organization dedicated to preserving grave sites in Israel, of Dr. Bull's decision. They also dispatched patrol cars to pick up protesters who were hiking to the excavation site. A Garbage Dump, Some Say No one disputes that some human bones have been found on the site, but there is disagreement whether these bones are part of a Jewish cemetery. Respect for the dead, and reverence for the human body after death, are of great importance in Jewish belief. When bones were first reported at the site, Israel's Antiquities Department, which licenses all excavations, sent out inspectors, who concluded the bones were not part of a Jewish cemetery. ''There are some bones here, but this wasn't a cemetery, it was a garbage dump,'' said Yehuda Neeman, antiquities inspector for the Hadera region, which includes Caesarea. ''The garbage was dumped in the last 100-150 years, on top of what was the market of the Byzantine Christian area of the historic city.'' Dr. Bull notes that Jews were traditionally buried outside the city walls, not inside, where the embattled site lies. And, he says, a Jewish cemetery has been discovered almost a mile away from the site in question. In addition, he said, he has found broken pieces of Arabic tombstones in the area, indicating the bones found may have been Moslem. The Pattern of the Bones Atra Kadisha representatives who examined the site disagree, and say the bones were laid out in a distinctly Jewish pattern, from the distance between the bones to the location of stones around the bodies. ''We have brought experts in who have examined this site, and said it is clearly a Jewish burial site,'' said Rabbi Zeev Berlin, of the Atra Kadisha. He said some professional Israeli archeologists agreed, but did not want their names made public. ''We are very pleased they stopped their work, but we are pained they already succeeded in destroying some of the graves, and we hope the bones will be brought to burial,'' he said. A spokesman for Drew University, interviewed by telephone today, said the college had received requests from both Israeli and American Orthodox rabbis, asking that the digging be halted. ''We have asked for a moratorium on the digging until a compromise can be worked out,'' he said. ''We are trying to be sensitive to religious sensibilities involved here and abroad, being a church-related school ourselves.'' As the volunteers wrapped up their work on the site today, they snapped photographs of the policemen who had stood outside the site for three days, as the guards posed atop a Corinthian capital. For the policemen, the episode was one more chapter in the continuing struggle between Israel's Orthodox minority and secular majority. The Atra Kadisha succeeded in suspending digging at the City of David in Jerusalem in 1981, and more recently interrupted construction of a new road in Tel Aviv because of claims that it ran through an old cemetery. 'The religious won - as always,'' a plainclothes policeman shouted to another officer, as he drove away. ''Where next?

    1996(7thof Av, 5756): Sixty-nine year old New Jersey State Chief Justice Robert Wilentz passed away today. (As reported by David Stout)

    1997: According to a report released today the July 14th collapse of a pedestrian bridge at the Maccabiah Games was caused by a chain of failures involving the bridge's planning and construction.

    1998: In Toledo, the sixth congress of the European Association for Jewish Studies (EAJS) under the presidency of Professor Angel Sáenz Badillos came to a close today.

    2000: In the following article entitled “Jerseyana: A Fading Jewish Haven,” Robert Strauss describes a disappearing slice of Jewish life unknown to most Jews, that centered around rural and small-town New Jersey

    2001: 16thMaccabiah comes to a close.

    2001:Matt Bloom lost the WWF Intercontinental Championship to Alliance member Lance Storm in Buffalo, New York

    2001: “Issues in Jewish Philosophy,” a colloquia sponsored by The European Association for Jewish Studies (EAJS) opened today.

    2002:The Knesset approved the Tal Law as an attempt to reach a compromise to the public demand that the Israeli ultra-Orthodox citizens would share an equal extent of obligations which other Israeli citizens are required to fulfill, specifically requiring them to serve in the Israel Defense Forces.

    2002: The IDF bombed the building in which Hamas leader Salah Shehade was sleeping.  He was the mastermind behind a series of suicide attacks that claimed the lives of hundreds of Israeli civilians.

    2003: Best-selling author Peggy Orenstein and Academy Award winning filmmaker Steven Okazaki gave birth to their daughter Daisy Tomoko.

    2003: President Bush presents Edward Teller with the Medal of Freedom, six weeks before Teller’s death.

    2005: Pitcher Craig Breslow made his major league debut with the San Diego Padres.

    2005:  Several explosions rocked the Egyptian resort of Sharm el-Shiek in the early morning hours.  The attacks were aimed at a number of resort hotels catering to tourists from Egypt, Europe and Israel.  Preliminary reports indicate that at least forty five were killed and untold hundreds were wounded. 

    2005:  The Jerusalem Post reported that Ariel Sharon will not change the date of the evacuation from Gaza.  The evacuation date is August 17.  Sharon fought attempts in the Knesset by the anti-disengagement forces to postpone the evacuation.  He has also dismissed suggestions from those favoring the evacuation, including the Vice Premier and Shimon Peres to advance the date of the evacuation.  The evacuation date is a matter of law, having been enacted in legislation passed by the Knesset.  It would take three votes to change the law, something Sharon does not care to attempt.  At the same time, he will not act unilaterally to move the date because it is critical that Israel maintain itself as society that accepts and respect the rule of law.

    2006: The San Francisco Chronicle reviewed How This Night Is Different by Elisa Albert

    2006:  The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers Fear: Anti-Semitism in Poland After Auschwitz - An Essay in Historical Interpretation by Jan T. Gross and  the recently released paperback edition of Freud's Requiem: Mourning, Memory, and the Invisible History of a Summer Walk by Matthew Von Unwerth an “elegantly meandering look at Sigmund Freud's life and the intellectual world he moved in that examines an obscure 1915 essay, ‘On Transience,’ in which Freud records a conversation with the poet Rainer Maria Rilke and the psychoanalyst Lou Andreas-Salomé.”

    2006: The following were among a total of 43 Israeli civilians (including four who died of heart attacks during rocket barrages) and 116 IDF soldiers were killed in the Israel-Hizbullah war:Shimon Glickblich, 60, of Haifa; Habib Awad, 48, of Ibellin.

    2007: In Krakow, Poland, the Cinema Pod Baranami / Festival of Jewish Culture presents a screening of “Hungry Hearts,” which is “based on the short stories of Anzia Yezierska, the first writer to bring stories of American Jewish women to a mainstream audience.”

    2007: The New Republic features reviews of 1967: Israel, the War, and the Year That Transformed The Middle East by Tom Segev and Foxbats over Dimona: The Soviets’ Nuclear Gamble in the Six-Day War by Isabella Ginor and Gideon Remez by Israeli historian and author Benny Morris as well Nathan Glazer’s review of Robert Moses and the Modern City: The Transformation of New York.

    2008:At the Karmiel amphitheater Let Us Grow showcases 3,000 children from all over the country in a mosaic of dances choreographed especially for them featuring such singers as Tal Mosseri and Yoav Yitzhak.

    2008: Dina Gottliebova-Babbitt an artist and Holocaust survivor had surgery today after having been “diagnosed with an aggressive form of abdominal cancer.”

    2008: Mark Zuckerberg announced Facebook Connect, a version of Facebook Platform for users.

    2008:In an example of interfaith at its best, members of Temple Judah load their cars with clothing items shipped to Cedar Rapids by Chabad of Des Moines and take them to Community of Christ Church for distribution to victims of the Cedar Rapids Flood of 2008.

    2008(25th of Tammuz, 5768:Officer David Chriqui of Rishon Lezion, 19-year-old border policeman who was shot near the Lions' Gate in the Old City of Jerusalem on July 11 died of his wounds today. Officer David Chriqui of Rishon Lezion was shot in the head at close range by a man thought to be a Palestinian. Jerusalem police officer Imad Gadir from Kafr Zarzir in the Western Galilee has recovered from his wounds.

    2008: Senator Barack Obama opened a day of talks with Israeli and Palestinian leaders sharing breakfast with Ehud Barak before traveling to the West Bank to meet ith Mahmoud Abbas.

    2009: Closing ceremony of the 18th Maccabiah takes place at Latrun

    2009:Chicago’sMillennium Park celebrated its fifth anniversary with a blockbuster event of song and spoken word called SHELebration: A Tribute to Shel Silverstein. This night of song and performance honoring the legendary Chicago poet, author, illustrator and Grammy Award-winning songwriter took place at the Jay Pritzker Pavilion.

    2009: In New York City, rooftop premiere of Keren Cytter's feature length film, "The Great Tale." The Tel Aviv native “creates films that appropriate and transform different cinematic genres, such as film noir, melodrama, documentary, and soap opera.

    2009: Several rabbis were arrested as part of a public corruption and international money-laundering investigation in New Jersey. According to reports, among the 44 people arrested this morning by the FBI along with the rabbis were the mayors of three New Jersey towns, a deputy mayor and a state assemblyman. They were to appear in federal court in Newark later in the day. The money-laundering

    2010: As part of “Downtown Shabbat”Robyn Helzner, one of the leading interpreters of world Jewish music, and Cantor Larry Paul are scheduled to lead a Carlebach-inspired service at the Historic Sixth & I Synagogue in Washington, D.C.

    2010:An Israeli government decision to shelve a controversial bill on Jewish conversions drew praise today from liberal Jewish groups in Israel and the U.S. who opposed the legislation and waged a vocal campaign to get it thrown out. Government spokesman Nir Hefetz announced an agreement that will see the bill withdrawn for six months as the sides try to hammer out an alternative.

    2010: From L.A. to Cedar Rapids and points unknown, family and many friends celebrate the birthday of Charlene Wolfe, a “balabus” par excellence.

    2010((12thof Av, 5770):  Daniel Schorr, whose aggressive reporting over 70 years as a respected broadcast and print journalist brought him into conflict with censors, the Nixon administration and network superiors, died today at the age of 93. (As reported by Robert D. Hershey, Jr)

    2010: In “At War With Itself” Leo Damrosch provides a detailed reviews of Dreyfus: Politics, Emotion and the Scandal of the Century by Ruth Harris.

    2011: In Iowa City, Agudas Achim Sisterhood's annual Mitzvah Fund Event will include this evening’s University Repertory Theater production of Neil Simon's "Lost in Yonkers."

    2011: The Daniel Ori Trio is scheduled to perform three sets of originals and new arrangements from the upcoming album Emuna at the Barn Next Door in NYC.

    2011:Ten of thousands gathered in central Tel Aviv tonight for a mass rally against soaring housing prices and Israel's high cost of living.

    2011:The first-ever reunion of the Ritchie Boys began today at the Holocaust Memorial Center in Farmington Hills, Michigan.

    2011(21st of Tammuz, 5771):Jewish-British singer Amy Winehouse, whose hit single "Rehab" became the anthem for troubled celebrity culture, has been found dead at her home in north London, Sky News reported today.

    2011(21st of Tammuz, 5771): Ninety-two year old Robert C.W. Ettinger, the “founding father” of the cryonics movement, passed away today. (As reported by Paul Vitello)

    2012: Shiva services for Lauren Becker, of blessed memory, are scheduled to be held at the home of her father Harold in Cedar Rapids, Iowa.

    2012: “One Day After Peace” is scheduled to have its American premiere at the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.

    2012:The Knesset Control Committee is scheduled to discuss the aspects of the annual State Comptroller’s Report that deal with the Temple Mount, including security and unsupervised building. (As reported by Melanie Lidman)

    2012: As it prepares to move to its new location, members of Agudas Achim under the leadership of Rabbi Jeff Portman gather at the Agudas Achim Cemetery to bury old prayersbooks, bibles, talisim and other religious artifacts in the time honored manner of the Jewish people.

    2012: Today Pesident Shimon Peres condemned Syrian government statements that it would deploy chemical weapons in the event of a foreign invasion, and said Israel would do whatever it takes to eliminate the threat these weapons pose to the Jewish state.(As reported by Ilan Ben Zion)

    2012: DNA evidence believed to belong to the culprit and his female accomplice in last week’s bombing at the Burgas Airport was reportedly found at the Hotel Perfekt in Varna, Bulgaria, Bulgarian TV station BTV reported today (As reported by Aaron Kalman and Ilan Ben Zion)

    2013: The 17th annual Jerusalem 3x3 Streetball tournament sponsored by the Jerusalem Municipality is scheduled to open at Safra Square.

    2013: From Cedar Rapids to California and lots of other places, people celebrate the birthday of Charlene Wolff, a culinary wizard and pillar of the Jewish community

    2013: Coalition and Labor MKs praised the passing of the government's haredi enlistment plan in its first reading today, after a long debate in which haredi MKs used creative means to demonstrate their opposition. (As reported by Lahav Harkov)

    2013: Prince William and Kate Middleton, the Duchess of Cambridge walked out of St. Mary’s Hospital with their infant who was born in the Lindo Wing which was named for Frank Charles Lindo, a member of a famous British Sephardi family who paid for the wing in 1937.

    2014: The Historic Sixth & I Synagogue is scheduled to host “The Great Walk of Chinatown” which explores the history of this unique Washington neighborhood.

    2014: The 97thNational Convention of Hadassah is scheduled to come to an end in Las Vegas.

    0 0

    July 24

    1148:  Louis VII of France lays siege to Damascus during the Second Crusade. The Second Crusade gained nothing for the Christians.  The failure of the crusade may help explainthe long period of persecution that included French clergyman giving frequent anti-Semitic sermons. In some cities, such as Beziers, Jews were forced to pay a special tax every Palm Sunday. In Toulouse, Jewish representatives had to go to the cathedral on a weekly basis to have their ears boxed, as a reminder of their guilt. France’s first blood libel took place in Blois in 1171 and 31 Jews were burned on the stake.”

    1298(14th of Av): During the Rindfleisch massacres, the Jewish community of Bischofsheim on the Tauber, Germany perished

    1349(8thof Av): The Jews of Frankfort were killed in what would be called the Black Death Massacres

    1518: Sefer ha-Harkavah, a Hebrew grammar written by Elijah Levita (Bahur) was published in Rome today.  249

    1716: Anti-Jewish riots broke out in Posin

    1825(9thof Av, 5585): Tish’a B’Av

    1836: Birthdate of Jan Gotlib Blich the Polish banker who converted to Calvinism to avoid the disabilities the Czar placed on Jews but who remained sympathetic to the plight of his people and who was an eaerly supporter of the Zionist Movement.

    1840: Birthdate of Abraham Goldfaden,a Russian-born Jewish poet, playwright, stage director and actor in the languages Yiddish and Hebrew, author of some 40 plays who is considered the father of the Jewish modern theatre.

    1848: The will of Mr. Isaac D ’Israeli was “proved” today by Benjamin D ’Israeli, his son and “sole executor.”

    1855(9th of Av, 5615):  Tish'a B'Av

    1858: In reporting on a case of alleged war profiteering in the boot business that took place at Weedon in England, the New York Times correspondent writes that “if the Jews are excluded from Parliament they are certainly compensated in some measure by the handsome share the Government allows them in the pretty pickings of such places as Weedon.”

    1862: Martin Van Buren, 8th President of the United States passed away.  Martin Van Buren was the first President to order an American consul to intervene on behalf of Jews abroad. In 1840 he instructed the U.S. consul in Alexandria, Egypt to protect the Jews of Damascus who were under attack because of a false blood ritual accusation.”  Van Buren ordered his diplomats “to extend ‘the active sympathy and generous interposition of the Government of the United states’ on behalf of ‘an oppressed and persecuted race, among whose kindred are found some of the most worthy and patriotic of our citizens.’”

    1864:Union General James A. Mulligan was mortally wounded as he led his troops Second Battle of Kernstown, near Winchester, Virginia. The last entry in his diary read, “The last thing in it, written that day, is: "Well, our cause is gloomy; we will conquer the South about the time the Jews all return to Jerusalem." (The general was not Jewish.  But his statement shows the depth of his despair and the universal symbolism that Jews had come to represent.)

    1865: On this date, Baron Lionel de Rothschild signs his last will and testament.  The will is in his own handwriting.  Among the terms of the will is a request that “ ‘my good wife’ shall give 10,000 pounds to Jewish charities.”

    1865(1st of Av, 5625): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1865: In Vienna, Ignatz and Anna Rosenbaum Grossmann to Rudolph Grossman who would serve as associate Rabbi at Temple Beth El before becoming the spiritual leader of Rodef Sholom in New York City.

    1867: In Vienna Ignatz and Anna Rosenbaum Grossman gave birth to Rudolph Grossman who became a Reform rabbi in the United States.

    1874: Today’s “Foreign Notes” column reported that “Jaffa is to be dismantled.  The walls and turrets are advertised for sale and the old fortifications will soon be utterly razed.”

    1876: In New Haven, CT, Mark Fisher and his wife gave birth to Henry M. Fisher the graduate of Yale and HUC who became the Rabbi of Congregation Beth Israel in Atlantic City.

    1877: Henry Ward Beecher, a friend of Joseph Seligman's, preached a sermon against anti-Semitism. Beecher was the father of Harriet Beecher Stowe, author of Uncle Tom's Cabin.  He was an ardent abolitionist and a champion of what today we would call civil rights. Despite this appeal to reason, the policy of social discrimination soon became widespread. Though the Grand Union Hotel was not the first incident in the U.S., it received a great amount of publicity. Seligman was a renowned philanthropist and helped the Union cause during the Civil War. In recognition, President Grant offered him the post of Secretary of Treasury.

    1877: The New York Times published a letter from Edgar M. Johnson, a prominent Jewish lawyer from Cincinnati, Ohio.  He stated that he did not like to engage in a “newspaper controversy…especially one on such a disagreeable topic as the Seligman-Hilton imbroglio.”  However, he took issue with the false statements that he had tried to hide his religion when making reservations to stay at the Grand Union or that Judge Hilton’s employees did not know he was Jewish when they offered to let him stay at the hotel. He included the text of the communication in his letter and ended by saying that hotel owners in Saratoga Springs  had not had any problem accepting his “Jew money” when he had stayed there in the past.  But they need not concern themselves with the matter, since he had no intention of ever visiting again.

    1880: Birthdate of Swiss-born American composer Ernest Bloch.

    1880:  The Rochester (NY) Union reported that Rabbi Max Moll has officiated at the conversion ceremony of Mrs. Morse. Her husband is a member of Aitz Raanon.  The ceremony included a detailed examination on Jewish customs and laws which the young woman promised to obey.  The ceremony ended with the appropriate benedictions and the announcement that her name was now Sarah.

    1881: “Notes of Foreign Life” reported that funds have been collected in Brussels to aid the persecuted Jews of Russia.

    1882: Professor Felix Adler sent a check for one hundred dollars to the striking freight handler’s.

    1883: “Burdened With an Insane Wife” published today described the attempts of David Holtz, a young Jewish immigrant to annul his marriage to Pauline Moses on grounds that he was misled as to the nature of the ceremony, that he has had to have her committed to an asylum and that he family concealed her history of mental illness from him prior to the marriage.

    1883: In Munich artist Alfred Pringsheim and Hedwig Dohnm Pringsheim gave birth to musical marvel Kalus Pringsheim ,Sr.

    1883 In Munich artist Alfred Pringsheim and Hedwig Dohnm Pringsheim gave birth to Katharina "Katia" Pringsheim, the twin sister of Klaus Pringsheim, Sr. who was the wife of author Thomas Mann.

    1883: It was reported today Jews dominated a recent chess tournament.  Six of the fourteen players were Jewish and the Jews won first, second and fifth place.  This was should come as no surprise because since “the times of the Talmud, Jews have been pre-eminent at games similar to chess, while in modern time” Jews have been some of the best players for several generations.

    1884: “A Queen Among Thieves” described the career and capture of Mrs. Fredericka Mandelbaum, a German born Jewess who is one of the most important and famous receiver of stolen goods.  Her reputation and criminal activities which have been going on for 25 years, are national in scope. The Pinkerton detectives have been tracking her for years and said that some of her confederates include her husband,, her brother-in-law Hirsh, “Mose” Erich and “Jew” Harris.  Don’t be deceived by the names; she dealt with crooks of a variety of ethnic origins.

    1888: Mrs. Solomons, one of the Jews who had been on an excursion to Raritan Beach, went to the police to complain about a scheme by one of the organizers to force the patrons to buy beer and other drinks to slake their thirst.

    1890: In Kippenheim, Germany, Dr. Julius and Emilie (Durlacher) Stern gave birth to historian and archivist Selma Stern-Taeubler.

    1891: W.D. Owens, the Superintendent of Immigration arrived from Washington, DC and met for several hours with the Acting Superintendent of Immigration at the Barge Office to discuss policies related to the detention of Jewish immigrants from Russia and Poland.

    1891: In New York, Coroner Ferdinand Levy succeeded in finding bondsman who would post $1,000 for the six Jewish families Russia being held at the Barge Office so that they could enter the United States.

    1892: “Berkmann An Anarchist” published today provided a profile of Alexander Berkman, the Lithuanian born Jewish anarchist who attempted to assassinate  Henry Clay Frick whom he held responsible for the murder of nine striking steelworkers during the infamous Homestead Steel Strike.

    1892: In commenting on the shooting of Henry Clay Frick by Alexander Berkman, one “workingman was heard to say, “Served him right to be shot by a Russian Jew!  He was a Pole and” Frick “has brought thousands of pauper Polish laborers in this country.” (Frick was one of the many industrialists who used the contract labor system to bring in workers from eastern and southern Europe with a view to driving down the pay for workers.)

    1893(11thof Av, 5653): Sixty-one year old Priscilla J. Joachimsen, the widow of Judge Joachimsen passed away today.  Born in Plymouth, England, she married the Judge when she was eighteen. The marriage last forty seven years during which they founded the Hebrew Orphan Asylum and were active in the Hebrew Lying-In Asylum, the Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews and the Deborah Nursery.

    1893: Simon Bernheimer, the senior partner of Bernheimer and Schmidt, is among those mourning the passing Isaac Burnheimer, the founder of the real estate and property management firm.

    1894: “Meeting In Clarendon Hall” described the lecture delivered by Charles Wilfred Mowbray, “the English labor agitator and anarchist” to an audience that included a contingent of Jewish anarchists as can be seen by the fact that literature printed in Hebrew was distributed to throng.

    1895:While on vacation, Sigmund Freud carries out his first lengthy dream analysis”

    1895(3rd of Av, 5655): Abram C. Bernheim of the firm of Shekan & Bernheim who was a member of Temple Emanu-El passed at Arverne, Long Island.

    1897: The Special Board of Inquiry approved the entry of Adolf Bernstrom a Polish Jew who had arrived aboard the SS Lahn after his son, an east side tailor, had given “the necessary assurance that” he “would become a charge on the community.”

    1897: It was reported today that the dispensary of the Brooklyn Hebrew Hospital, under the direction of Dr. Solo, which is open from 3 to 5 in the afternoon, provides free treatment to 40 or 50 patients each day.

    1898: “The Persecution of Polish Jews Still Going On” published today described “the pillaging of Jews” and the burning of Jewish property which has been going on for the past three weeks.

    1898: Following his funeral today, Benjamin Marks, who is survived by his widow Esther Cohen Marks and six children, will be buried in Cypress Hills Cemetery.

    1898: In Atlantic City, NJ, the second Summer Assembly of the Jewish Chautauqua Society is scheduled to come to an end.

    1899: According to a summary of the annual report of the Bureau of Immigration for the fiscal year ending last June, most of the 29,000 immigrants from Poland and the 2,000 immigrants from Russia were Jewish.

    1899: “Mistakes Made in Philippines” published today described the challenges facing the Americans in this Pacific Island change including the fact that the many of the military units are composed of unqualified recruits including “a low class of Romanian, Russian and Polish Jews.”

    1902: “Simon Sterne Fountain” published today included a description of Sterne’s affection for horses and his support for the Society of the Prevention of Cruelty to Anmials.”

    1909: On the Saturday before his 60th birthday The New York Times reviews an anniversary volume of essays and speeches by the Zionist leader Max Nodeau. In the chapter on Zionism, the Hungarian born leader writes “Zionism is but a new name for a very old cause, in as much as it merely expresses the longing of the Jewish race toward Zion.”

    1909: George Picquart, the French officer who risked everything to expose the falsehood of the Dreyfus Conviction completed his service  as Minister of War in the cabinet of Georges Clemenceau.

     1911: Fire in Balata district of Constantinople destroys Boys' and Girls' Schools of the Alliance Israelite Universelle, four synagogues, and 1,000 houses, about 600, which belonged to Jews.  

    1914: Birthdate of Jan Kozielewski, who as Jan Karski, risked his life to infiltrate the Warsaw Ghetto and then escaped to the West bringing a first-hand account of the Holocaust.

    1914: In Colonial Beach, Virginia, David and Anna Mirvish gave birth to Yehuda Mirvish, who gained fame as Canadian businessman and philanthropist Edwin “Honest Ed” Mirvish.

    1918:On Mt. Scopus in Jerusalem, Dr. Chaim Weizmann laid the cornerstone for Hebrew University. It would be several more years before construction began and the university would actually become a reality.

    1919: Birthdate of Peter Zinner, Austrian born American Oscar winning film editor.  He passed away at the age of 88 in 2007.

    1920: Birthdate of Bella Abzug. Born Bella Savitzky in the Bronx, she was the second daughter of Russian Jewish immigrants. Her father Emanuel Zavtizky was a butcher who ran the Live and Let Live Meat Market. Abzug became a lawyer and a politician. She was a feminist and anti-Viet Nam War Activist. While in Congress, she was a strident critic of the war and an unabashed supporter of liberal causes. She passed away in 1998 at the age of 77.

    1921(18th of Tammuz, 5681): Since the 17th of Tammuz fell on Shabbat, observance of Tzom Tammuz

    1922: The League of Nations confirmed Britain’s mandate over Palestine.

    1923: In Switzerland, The Treaty of Lausanne was signed today officially ending the state of war between the Ottoman Empire and the Allies with the exception of the United States. The treaty marked the end of the Ottoman Empire, the reverberations of which are being felt in the 21st century. Albert Karasu covered the negotiations leading up to the signing of the treaty for the French-language Istanbul newspaper Le Journal d’Orient he founded in 1918. Born at Salonika in 1885, he passed away in 1982, five years after the newspaper closed down.

    1923: Birthdate of Gerard Irwin Nierenberg, the Queens born lawyer who authored The Art of Negotiating and How To Read a Person Like a Book.

    1924: Birthdate of Max Palevsky, a pioneer in the computer industry and a founder of the computer-chip giant Intel who used his fortune to back Democratic presidential candidates and to amass an important collection of American Arts and Crafts furniture.

    1924: In London, Sir Herbert Samuel, High Commissioner of Palestine, told the Actions Committee of the World Zionist Organization that substantial progress in the building up of Palestine has been made in the past four years,

    1924: The World Chess Federation FIDE is founded in Paris.  Approximately 47% of the world’s chess champions have been Jewish.)

    1924: Matteo Mathieu Maurice Alfassa became (acting) Governors-general of French Equatorial Africa at Brazzaville. The community had a population of 4,500,000. Alfassa served till 16 Oct 1924. Today the country is called Republic of the Congo.

    1926: Birthdate of Zvi Dinstein, the Tel Aviv native who served as member of the Knesset from 1965 to 1974.

    1926: Premiere of “Mantrap,” a product of the Famous-Players-Lasky Corporation co-produced by B.P. Schulberg.

    1932:Hope for improvement in the serious water situation in Jerusalem is seen in an announcement by the High Commissioner, Sir Arthur Wauchope, that the concession previously held by a British firm had been terminated and immediate steps were being taken to float a loan to meet the cost of a new water supply which will be undertaken by the government. The project will take at least year to complete which means water rationing will be enforced to deal with any shortage. 

    1933: Birthdate of George Martin Rosenkoff the native of  West Philadelphia, who as George M. Ross, became a Goldman Sachs executive and a philanthropist and the driving force behind the establishment a major museum of Jewish history in Philadelphia for which he raised  $154 million.

    1933: Sir Harry Lawson Webster Levy-Lawson, 1st Viscount Burnham was buried today at Beaconsfield, Buckinghamshire.

    1934 (12th of Av, 5694): Hans Hahn “an Austrian mathematician who made contributions to functional analysis, topology, set theory, the calculus of variations, real analysis, and order theory” passed away.

    1936: The Palestine Postreported that Arab terrorists threw a bomb at a small religious school (Talmud Torah) in the Yemenite Quarter of Tel Aviv. Nine children were injured. One of the terrorists was later caught by a British constable and arrested. The British government had officially declared that there would be no change of policy in regard to the issue of Jewish immigration into Palestine until the Royal Commission was able to visit the country, study the subject and publish its findings. Britain expected that all Arab terrorist activities would stop before the commission's arrival in the country.

    1937: Alabama drops rape charges against the so-called "Scottsboro Boys." This turn of affairs was a result of two Jewish lawyers from New York with connection to the Communist Party, Samuel Leibowitz and Joseph Brodsky.

    1938: Artie Shaw recorded ‘Begin the Beguine,’ the song that helped to make him a household name.

    1938: Near Athlit, Arab snipers fired on a large party of American tourists who were returning to the liner Roma docked at Haifa. The fifteen shots did not claim victims. 

    1938: At Acre, a Jew was wounded when a sniper opened fire on a Jewish owned bus.

    1941(29th of Tamuz, 5701): The entire Jewish male population of Grodz, Lithuania was killed by the Nazis.

    1941 A ghetto is established in Kishinev, Ukraine.

    1941: An Einsatzgruppe report stated that 4,435 Jews were liquidated in the town of Lachowicze.

    1942: Opening of Treblinka II, which is a mile from Treblinka I.  The opening is part of Operation Reinhard, the Nazis’ plan for wiping out Polish Jewry.  

    1942(10th of Av, 5702): Three thousand Jews were killed in the Dereczyn action

    1942: Martin Luther, undersecretary of state at the German Foreign Ministry, alerts Nazi Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop to the fact that the Italian authorities are resistant to the German plan to deport Jews from Italian-held regions of Croatia.

    1943: The Spanish government saved 367 Sephardic Jews by diverting them in transport from the death camp of Birkenau to the camp at Bergen-Belsen. Six months later they were released back to Spain.

    1943: During World War II, Operation Gomorrah begins. British and Canadian airplanes bomb Hamburg by night, those of the Americans by day. I do not know who was responsible for naming this round-the-clock bombing campaign. But it must have been somebody who had read the Book of Bereshit or Genesis. The name Gomorrah as in Sodom and Gomorrah conjures up the image of fiery destruction that the Allies sought to inflict on the Nazis.

    1943: Twenty-one young Jewish partisans in Vilna, Lithuania, join forces with Soviet partisans fighting behind German lines. North of Vilna, nine Jews were killed in an ambush at the Mickun Bridge. Three days later, 32 relatives of the nine dead partisans are seized by the Gestapo at Vilna, taken to nearby gravel pits at Ponary, and executed. Bruno Kittel, head of the Gestapo in Vilna, announces that the entire family of any Jew who escapes the ghetto to the forest will be executed. If an escapee has no family or roommates, all residents of his building will be executed. Further, if any ten-man Jewish labor gang comes back short, the remaining gang laborers will be executed.

    1944: The Russian army liberated the concentration camp at Lublin.

    1944: The deportations continued from Sarvar, Hungary, despite the fact that the German Army was retreating. One thousand, five hundred were sent to Birkenau. The fact that a retreating army would take time and resources for this is just one more reminder that the War Against the Jews was an intrical part of the German military plan.  Contrary to what the Holocaust Deniers and their fellow-traveling Revisionist Historians say, the destruction of the Jews was a critical part of the Nazi program and not just a mere after-thought.

    1944: Soviet forces entered Majdanek. For the first time, Allied soldiers saw the gas chambers, crematoria and the remains of thousands of charred human remains.

    1944: The Nazis seize 258 Jewish orphans from Paris and the surrounding areas.  By now the Anglo-American armies have landed at Normandy, broken out of the hedgerow country and are sweeping across France.  If the war had only been about defeating the Allies, all German efforts would have been focused on stopping this advance.  This minor episode serves as a vivid reminder that the German war effort was indeed about wiping out the Jewish people. 

    1944: At Bourges, France, Gestapo agents and militiamen massacre 28 Jewish men and eight Jewish women active in the Resistance. Some victims are thrown alive into a well.

    1944: The German Army adopts the Nazi salute, abandoning the standard military salute.

    1944: Time magazine reported that Louis “Waldman believes that the strength of Communism in the U.S. is now reaching a new peak in the C.I.O.'s Political Action Committee ‘the catch-all for the political activities of unions dominated by Communists, militant Socialists and others willing to cooperate with them… Unless the New Deal casts out the seeds of left-wing totalitarianism, which it fosters today, it may either lead to an American variety of Communism, or, what is more likely, provoke an American expression of unadorned fascism.’"

    1944: Premiere of “The Seventh Cross,” directed by Fred Zinnemann, filmed by cinematographer Karl Freund with a script by Helen Deutsch.

    1948: During War of Independence, Israeli forces launched an assault as part of Operation Shorter on an area south of Haifa called the "Little Triangle." With “six 65 mm Napoleonchik cannons…stationed about 3 km to the west of the village and mortars placed to the southeast, a Golani company left a farm near Mazar (north of Jaba') to attack the Arab positions. “They encountered an ambush and retreated after 6–9 soldiers were injured.”

    1948: At a Mapai Center meeting held today during the War of Independence, Prime Minister Ben-Gurion accused Mapam of hypocrisy regarding its treatment of Arabs in the combat zone.

    1950: The first World Congress for the Promotion of the Hebrew Language and Culture met in Jerusalem

    1951:The Jerusalem Post reported that thousands of mourners led the black-draped gun carriage carrying the coffin of King Abdullah of Jordan to the royal cemetery in Amman. The Jordanian police rounded over 70 suspects in connection with the king's assassination, including two relatives of the former Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin el-Husseini. There were clashes in the Jordanian-occupied Old City of Jerusalem between Arab Legion Bedouins and the local Arabs. The first immigrant from Russia, 73-year-old Tova Lerner from Soviet Bessarabia, arrived together with 993 newcomers from Romania. The committee appointed to study the cost-of-living index found that it was not a true judge of Israeli living standards.

    1952: Premiere of Western classic “High Noon” directed by Fred Zinnemann with a most memorable score by Dimitri Tiomkin that included “Do Not Forsake Me, Oh My Darlin’”

    1956 At New York City’s Copacabana Club, Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis perform their last comedy show together.

    1967: Zvi Dinstein was appointed Deputy Minister of Finance.

    1969: Operation Boxer continued with IAF attacking a radar station at Gebel Ataka and SAM sites.

    1969: IAF pilots Shmuel Gordon, Michael Zuk and Ran Goren were responsible for shooting down three Egyptian aircraft today.

    1976: As conditions between Uganda and Kenya continue to worsen President Idi Amin cut off supplies to its African neighbor.  The core of the dispute is based on reports that Israeli planes that had conducted the raid on Entebbe had refueled in Nairobi.

    1979(29th of Tammuz, 5739): Eighty-three year old Dr. Jacob Furth a pioneering pathologist passed away today. (As reported by George Goodman, Jr.)

    1984: Radio Luxembourg reported that Ya'acov Nimrodi, an intimate of leaders across the Israeli political spectrum, had met in Zurich with the deputy defense minister and the top intelligence officer of Iran and with Rif'at al-Assad, the brother of Syrian President Hafez al-Assad. Swiss government sources said that the meeting resulted in a deal to ship 40 truckloads of weapons a day from Israel to Iran, via Syria and Turkey.

    1986(17th of Tammuz, 5746): Tzom Tammuz

    1986(17th of Tammuz, 5746): Fritz Albert Lipmann, American biochemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine passed away.

    1991(12th of Av, 5751: Author Isaac Bashevis Singer passed away. Singer was born near Warsaw.  His father was a rabbi and his mother came from a family of rabbis.  He moved to the United States in 1935.  Singer’s genre of choice was the short story.  His language of choice was Yiddish.  Many of his works first appeared in the “Forwards,” the popular Yiddish language daily. Singer received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1978.  He was the first Yiddish writer to win the prestigious award

    1992(23rd of Tammuz, 5752): Seventy-one year old Gavril Abramovich Ilizarov (a Soviet physician, known for inventing the Ilizarov apparatus for lengthening limb bones and for his eponymous surgery” passed away today.

    1992(23rd of Tammuz, 5752):  Samuel “Sam” Berger passed away.  Berger was a driving force behind the Canadian Football League.  At different times he owed the Ottawa Rough Riders and the Montreal Alouettes. In 1986 he was made a Member of the Order of Canada, Canada's highest civilian honor, for "his commitments to the sport and to the City of Montreal".  In 1993 he was inducted into the Canadian Football Hall of Fame.

    1993(6thof Av, 57530: On Shabbat Chazon, ninety-four year old “Dr. Abram Leon Sachar, a historian who led the Hillel Foundation for 22 years and was the founding president of Brandeis University” passed away. Sachar was a descendant of Gedaliah ibn Yahya ben Joseph the 16th century Italian Talmudist whose ‘chief work was the Sefer Shalshelet ha-Ḳabbalah, called also Sefer Yaḥya, on which he labored for more than forty years.’ (As reported by Richard D. Lyons)

    1995(26th of Tammuz, 5755):Mordechai Tuvya, 38, Nehama Leibowitz, 61, Zehava Oren, 60, Rahel Tamari, 65, Moshe Shkedi, 75 and Zvia Hacohen, 62 were killed and 30 Israeli civilians were injured when a Hamas suicide bomber detonated 33 pounds of TNT aboard No. 20 commuter bus in Ramat Gan near the Diamond Exchange.

    1997: 15thMaccabiah comes to a close.

    2000: Medieval Hebrew Poetry in its Religious and Secular Context, a colloquia sponsored by The European Association for Jewish Studies (EAJS) is scheduled to being today.

    2000: Negotiations that had begun on July 11 at Camp David between Barak and Arafat under the auspices President Clinton came to end with a final announcement to be made tomorrow.

    2001: Jewish American real estate mogul Larry A. Silverstein signs a $3.2 billion, 99-year lease on the entire World Trade Center complex, 7 weeks before the September 11, 2001 attacks .

    2002: Hadassah’s 88th annual national convention comes to a close

    2002(15th of Av, 5762):Aaron Albert “Al” Silvera, a journeyman outfielder who played for two seasons with the Cincinnati Reds in the mid-1950’s passed away. This meant he was a teammate of such talented players as Johnny Temple, Roy McMillan and Slugger Ted Kluszewski. He was also the nephew of former Major League pitcher "Subway Sam" Nahem.

    2003: At the Lincoln Center Festival, Israel’s Gesher Theatre gives its opening performance of of its adaptation of “Shosha.” The troupe has been invited to mark the Centennial of Nobel Laureate Isaac Bashevis Singer's birth by performing two plays, including “Shosaha” which are based on his novels at the prestigious festival.

    2004: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Spinning the Globe: The Rise, Fall, and Return to Greatness of the Harlem Globetrotters by Ben Green.

    2005: In “Giving Hitler Hell,” Matthew Brzezinski recounted the travels of Arnold H. Weiss from youthful refugee from Nazi Germany to his return as an intelligence officer in the U.S. Army to his ultimate triumph as a successful businessman and philanthropist.

    2005(17th of Tammuz, 5765): Shiva Asar Be-Tammuz (Fast of the Seventeenth of Tammuz).

    2005: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Bernard Goldberg’s 100 People Who Are Screwing Up America which lists Jewish comedian Al Frankin as number 37.

    2006: It was reported today that Randy Lerner, the son of the late Al Lerner intended to purchase Premier League club Aston Villa.

    2006: During the 2006 Lebanon War, the IDF begins its attack on Bint Jbeil   

    2006:"Army chief of staff Dan Halutz has given the order to the air force to destroy 10 multi-storey buildings in the Haret Hreik ("Dahiya") district (of Beirut) in response to every rocket fired on Haifa," a senior air force officer told army radio today.

    2006:”The Association for Civil Rights in Israel appealed to Defense Minister Amir Peretz after IDF Chief of Staff Lt.-Gen. Dan Halutz apparently said that “for every Katyusha barrage on Haifa, 10 more buildings in the Dahiya neighborhood of south Beirut will be bombed.” “The group also condemned the "grave and illegal" attacks carried out on the Israeli civilian population by Hezbollah” (As reported by Aviram Zino)

    2006: The following were among a total of 43 Israeli civilians (including four who died of heart attacks during rocket barrages) and 116 IDF soldiers were killed in the Israel-Hizbullah war:St.-Sgt. Koby Smileg, 20, of Rehovot; Col. Zvi Luft, 42, of Hogla; Sec.-Lt. Lotan Slavin, 21, of Hatzeva; Lt. Tom Farkash, 23, of Caesarea.

    2007(9th of Av, 5767): Tish'a B'Av

    2007(9thof Av, 5767):Psychoanalyst Albert Ellis “a founder of the now widely practiced cognitive behavioral therapy” whose “blunt advice to patients included “forget god-awful pasts, face fears and change actions”  passed away at the age of 93.

    2008: The three day Karmiel Dance festival comes to an end. in English

    2008: Begin reading the Ezekiel as part of the “Daf Yomi Program” on DownHomeDavar

    2009 (3rd of Av, 5769): One hundred twenty-eight anniversary of the arrival of “the first shipload of Russian Jewish immigrants who arrived in New York City” on 3rd of Av, 1881. “This began the mass immigration of eastern European Jews to America, and in the next half-century over 2 million Jews would flee Russian pogroms for the safety of the U.S. This influx indelibly altered the demographics of American Jewry; according to the U.S. census of 1940, 1.75 million Jews spoke Yiddish at home.”

    2009(3rd of Av, 5769:Ninety year old George Weissman, the businessman and patron of the arts, who revamped Philip Morris, passed away today. (As reported by Douglas Martin)

    2009: The Junior Philharmonic gives its annual Jerusalem performance at the YMCA with a program that includes Beethoven’s Symphony #6 – Pastoral, Ravel’s Bolero and Prokofiev’s Romeo and Juliet.

    2009: Scottish actress Ronni Ancona appeared on the BBC’s “The One Show”

    2009: Amid another round of political scandals, New Jersey Governor Jon Corzine named state Sen. Loretta Weinberg (D-Teaneck), a self-described “Jewish grandmother from Bergen County” ashis new pick for lieutenant governor.

    2010: In Cedar Rapids, Jacob Sarasin, son Amanda Colehour and Dr. Dan Sarasin (President of Temple Judah) is scheduled to be called to the Torah as a Bar Mitzvah.

    2010: Opening night of the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.

    2010:Palestinian Authority terrorists in Gaza launched a number of rocket attacks on southern Israel today. At least four rockets and mortars were fired at Jewish communities in the Gaza Belt region throughout the day, including one attack on Kibbutz Nachal Oz. Several rockets exploded in the Ashkelon Regional Council district. No one was wounded in any of the attacks.One of the missiles appeared to be a special “import” (possibly from Iran)– a more advanced version than the missiles usually fired at Israel that had apparently been smuggled into the region

    2011: Bruce Sundlin, the second Jew to serve as Governor of Rhode Island “was buried at Sons of David and Israel Cemetery (Temple Beth El Cemetery) in Providence, Rhode Island”

    2011: The Northern Virginia Hebrew Congregation is scheduled to host an Ice Cream Social For New and Prospective Members

    2011: The Ritchie Boys Exhibit which will give visitors a chance to “witness how a small group of misfit intellectual Jewish boys formed a US Army intelligence unit and waged warfare against the Nazis during World War II” is scheduled to take place at the Holocaust Memorial Center in Farmington Hills, Michigan Guy Stern, one of those "Ritchie Boys” is scheduled to attend the event.

    2011: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including An Anatomy of Addiction: Sigmund Freud, William Halsted, and the Miracle Drug Cocaine b y Howard Markel and the recently released paperback edition of Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg: The Letters, edited by Bill Morgan and David Stanford

    2011:A group of university students interrupted a Knesset Finance Committee meeting in Ramat Gan today, as part of the current protests against housing prices.

    2011: At the International Math Olympiad that came to an end today, “Israeli whiz kids walk away from competition with 1 gold, 4 bronze medals, as Israel reaches 23rd spot out of 101 teams.”

    2012(5th of Av, 5772): Eighty-eight year old Irvin Faust, the high school guidance counselor who found time to write novels and short stories that critics likened to the magic realist fiction of South America” passed away today (As reported by Douglas Martin)

    2012: “God’s Fiddler,” a documentary about Jascha Heifitz and “The Moon is Jewish” are scheduled to have their west coast premieres at the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.

    2012: Marbin which first started in 2007 as an improvised music duo consisting of Israeli-American guitarist Dani Rabin and Israeli saxophonist Danny Markovitch, is scheduled to perform at the Bowery Electric in New York

    2012: Today, Foreign Minister Avigdor Liberman said any attempt by Hezbollah to attain non-conventional weapons from Syria would prompt Israeli military intervention (As reported by Raphael Ahren)

    2012: Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said today that the government will have to raise taxes by August 1. He said the move was necessary to head off economic crisis. His plan includes a hike in VAT, which is sure to cause friction with protesters already concerned at economic inequalities in Israel. (As reported by Michal Shmulovich)

    2013: The Oregon Jewish Museum is scheduled to host a screening of “REFUSENIK,” the first retrospective documentary to chronicle the thirty-year movement to free Soviet Jews

    2013: “Broadway Babes,” a musical revue that “is a tribute to the female voice on Broadway” is scheduled to open at 9 pm in Modi’in.

    2013:The exquisite dancers of L-E-V, including Sharon Eyal herself, are scheduled to perform the provocative work HOUSE in its U.S. debut

    2013(17th of Av): Yarhrzeit of Isidor Bush, publisher of Israel’s Herald, a German language publication that was the first Jewish weekly published in the United States.

    2013(17th of Av): Seventy-eight year old Art Ginsburg the founder of Art’s Deli passed away today. (As reported by Steve Chawkins)

    2013:Rabbis Yitzhak Yosef and David Lau defeated Shmuel Eliyahu and David Stav to win ten-year terms as chief rabbis of Israel today, in a victory for Shas and United Torah Judaism over religious Zionism and Bayit Yehudi (As reported by Gil Hoffman)

    2013: A middle-aged Jewish man was stabbed in the upper torso and arm during an unprovoked attack in a public bathroom at Bloomfield Park in Jerusalem this afternoon, allegedly by an Arab assailant (As reported by Daniel K. Eisenbud)

    2014: American-Israeli violist Gil Shaham is scheduled to perform at Tanglewood with the National Youth Orchestra of the United States.

    2014: Poet Davi Walders and Dr. Jenna Weissman Joselit the Charles E. Smith Professor of Judaic Studies, The George Washington University  are scheduled to speak at the luncheon honoring Laura Cohen Apelbaum’s 20th anniversary as Executive Director of the Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington.

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    July 25

    306: Constantine I was proclaimed Roman emperor by his troops. Under the rule of Constantine, Christianity would in effect become the official religion the Roman Empire. This was the beginning of a downward spiral in the life of European Jewry.No century was more decisive for Jewish-Christian relations than the fourth century. The Edict of Milan issued by Emperor Constantine in 313 CE granted freedom of worship to all religious groups, including Jews. But Christianity quickly was to become the chief beneficiary of this decree, while Jewish fortunes were to sink to a new low. In 323 CE Christianity was granted a special position within the empire. Judaism theoretically continued as a legal religion, but it was frequently abused by Christian preachers and people without any action being taken by the imperial government. By the time Emperor Constantine converted to Christianity on his deathbed in 329, the imperial government had already begun to institute restrictive measures against Jewish privileges. By the end of the fourth century the civil status of Jews was in serious danger and their image had greatly deteriorated. The Jew was now seen as a semi-satanic figure, cursed by God, and specially set apart by the civil government.

    404:Emperors Arcadius and Honorius repeal an earlier law which prohibits the Jewish patriarchs from collecting their own taxes.” (As reported by Austin Cline)

    864: Charles the Bald orders defensive measures to be taken against the Viking marauders.  Regardless of whatever others may think of him, Charles the Bald, who was King of France, comes up on the plus side in Jewish history when compared to other monarchs since he resisted enforcing the anti-Semitic edicts of the Archbishop of Lyon.  Charles motives were political and economic, not religious.

    1100: Jewish residents of Haifa joined with the Fatimids of Egypt in defending the city. Tancred, who unsuccessfully attacked Haifa, was reprimanded for his lack of success and told that he made "a mockery of the God of the Christians." Once the city fell, the remaining Jews were massacred by the crusading forces.

    1196: Al Mohades despoiled the Jewish community of Castille, taking the Codes Hilleli, a 600 year old Biblical manuscript considered to be the oldest Hebrew copy of the Bible in Spain.

    1261: The city of Constantinople is recaptured by Nicaean forces under the command of Alexios Strategopoulos.  As head of the Byzantine Empire, Alexios followed the pattern of toleration towards the Jewish people started by his father despite pressure from leaders of the church to do otherwise.

    1360: Anti-Jewish riots in Breslau resulted in many deaths and the expulsion of those that remained alive.

    1492: The book of Proverbs with commentaries of Levi ben Gershom (Gersonides) and Menham Meiri was published in Leira Portugal by Abraham d’Ortas

    1492:Innocent VIII passed away.  The Pope’s Jewish doctor had made a last ditch attempt to save Innocent’s life by providing him with a transfusion of human blood.  This was an experimental operation and all three attempts failed. The Jewish doctor fled when it did not work.

    1547: Coronation of King Henry II of France to whom Italian Rabbi Obadiah ben Jacob Sforno dedicated his commentary on the Book of Ecclesiastes and to whom he sent a copy of Or Ammim which he had translated into Latin.

    1572 (5th of  Av 5332): Isaac Luria the foremost rabbi and Jewish mystic in the community of Safed in the Galilee region passes away.. He is considered the father of contemporary Kabbalah. He is known for the interpretation of his teachings in Kabbalah known as Lurianic Kabbalah. There is no way that this simple blog can do justice to his writings and their effect.

    1603: James VI of Scotland, son of Mary Queen of Scots is crowned first king of Great Britain and becomes King James I.  During his reign Jews were still not allowed to return publicly to England, but there was an active community of Marranos living in the British Isles.  Kings James is most famous for the King James Bible, a translation commissioned during his reign completed in 161l.  Most Americans, including a large number of Jews, only know the words of this translation of the Bible.

    1670: The Jewish community of Vienna was expelled.

    1720: A Cuban named Jose Dias Piamena was burned at a grand auto-de-fe in Seville. A pirate, Piamena had been imprisoned in Cadiz. In his cell he wrote an anti-Christian tirade on Isaiah 53. When he escaped from jail, he left a message saying he, "desired to live and die for Judaism." He was sentenced because he had converted to Judaism while in Curacao, and married a Jewish girl.

    1739: Fifty-six year old Johann C. Wolf the “German Christian Hebraist” who authored the 4 volume Bibliotheca Hebræa which “brought together almost all the accessible information relating to Jewish authors and their works, as well as to the writings of Christians on Jewish subjects.”

    1799: At Aboukir in Egypt, Napoleon defeats 10,000 Ottomans under Mustafa Pasha. This was part of Napoleon’s opening gambit to fulfill his imperial designs which would include promises during the siege of Acre about the creation of a Jewish home in Palestine.

    1804 Jacbo Abraham de Mist, the Dutch commissioner-general issued a proclamation in Cape Town instituting religious equality for all which allowed for the Jews, among others, to practice their religion openly in public.

    1818: In Baghdad, David and Hannah Sassoon gave birth to Sir Albert Abdullah David Sassoon.

    1835: The Jews of Hebron were attacked.

    1848: Birthdate of Arthur Earl Balfour.  Balfour will serve as Prime Minister in the first decade of the twentieth century.  But his real claim to fame came during World War I with the issuance of the British policy statement that bears his name – The Balfour Declaration.

    1853: Birthdate of theatrical producer and writer, David Belasco. Belasco was highly prolific. He was involved in the production of almost 400 plays during a career that spanned one of the most dynamic periods in American theatrical history. He passed away in 1931

    1855: Birthdate of Edward Solomon, the English composer, pianist, and orchestra conductor.Solomon was the composer and first night conductor of two works at the Savoy - The Nautch Girl in 1891 and The Vicar of Bray in 1892.

    1857: The New York Times carried a report that an English paper, The Advertiser, says there will be a new election for the city of London because Baron Rothschild had explicitly promised to resign if the bill for the removal of Jewish disabilities was not carried during this session of Parliament.

    1858:After a five-and-twenty years' wrangling the admissibility of the Jews to Parliament has been conceded.

    1875: Sir Moses Montefiore arrived in Jerusalem.

    1878: It was reported today that “some officers of a Jewish synagogue in Liverpool” have recently been “tried for cruelty to animals” because they allowed a bullock to bleed to death “instead of slaughtering him in the usual way.  Professional experts testified that there was no cruelty…and the charge was dismissed.” 

    1879: A report publish today described the desperate conditions in Russia brought on by an extended heat wave and an infestation of locust.  Towns in Poland and Lithuania towns “are swarming with…a large…unemployed Jewish population” that has caused the government to establish “more agricultural colonies in the various Provinces” because those created several years ago for the Jews surprisingly enough “have shown signs of prosperity.”  

    1879(1stof Av, 5739): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1880: It was reported today that the Southeby’s has just completed a showing and sale of the works of George Cruikshank whose works include an illustration of Dickens’ “Fagan” – “the foiled Jew sitting in his cell more like an evil bird of prey than any human thing.”

    1881: It was reported today the estate of the late Earl Beaconsfield was valued at approximately £76.687 and after deducting for debts and funerals a net value of £63,312.  His executors include Sir Philip Rose, a prominent gentile lawyer and Sir Nathaniel Mayer de Rothschild.

    1882(9thof Av, 5642): Tish’a B’Av

    1882: The Turkish government added to the list of “bad things” that happened to Jews on the 9th of Av when it barred immigration of Russian and Romanian Jews and forbade the sale of land in Eretz Israel to Jews. The irony is that the Turks feared the Jews because they were Russians. Russia had cast covetous eyes on Turkish territory as it sought a warm water port.

    1883: Among those arriving aboard the SS Persian Monarch from England were a Hungarian Jew named Anton Simony along with his wife and two children and Russian Jew named Nathan Smilansky along with his wife and six children.  The Hebrew Relief Society of London had paid for their tickets.  Both families were destitute.  [This is an example of what appears to be a pattern – European Jewish agencies buying tickets for eastern European refugees to make sure they would not settle in English and other cities.]

    1883: Maria Kozorswska, a Jewish immigrant who had arrived in the United States from Russia in June, was swindled out of 25 dollars today. For some inexplicable reasons she a stranger the money so that he would buy her a ticket on a steamship that would take her back to Europe.

    1884: It was reported today the conspirators who had tried to kill the Czar on his visit to Warsaw planned to start a rebellion in Poland and Western Russia that would include a plundering of the Jews.

    1885(13th of Av, 5645): On Shabbat Nachamu, Sir Moses Montefiore passed away at the age of 101. Although he was an English man, Jews celebrated his 100th birthday around the world and his passing was marked in the same way. Born in 1784, Montefiore was a successful businessman and civic leader. He was recognized as a leader of the Jewish community and was knighted in 1837. He was a brother-in-law to the head of the English branch of the House of Rothschild. Montefiore was an observant Jew and a frequent visitor to Eretz Israel. He donated large sums of money for the development of agricultural settlements and built the first modern Jewish housing complex outside the walls of what is called the Old City. In other words, he started the expansion of what is Jerusalem today. He also provided funds for a windmill for grinding corn which is now known as “Montefiore’s Windmill.” It still stands today in Jerusalem as a testament to a man who supported the Jewish homeland and worked to alleviate the suffering of European Jewry.

    1886: “Baron de Worm’s Suit” published today provides details of the divorce action brought Baron Henry de Worms.  He sued his wife Baroness Fannie de Worms (nee Von Todesco) on grounds of adultery and named Mortiz von Leon as correspondent. The Baron is a member of a prominent Jewish family and a Member of Parliament.  His wife was an Austrian Jewess.  At the end of the hearing the President of the court granted the petition and awarded custody of the children to the father.

    1886: Jacob Novek and Samuel Sturmak two Russian Jewish peddlers went to the police station in New York and asked when the balloon would be leaving for Hamburg.  They explained that any single person who made the trip would be paid five hundred dollars and married travelers would be paid one thousand dollars.  The two said they were willing to go since they were starving.  The police made inquiries and discovered that the two immigrants were the victims of a hoax perpetrated by a boy who ran a soda water stand on Canal Street.

    1888: “Put Salt in the Water” published today described a scheme to victimize poor east side Jews seeking relief on excursion to Raritan Beach.

    1889: Herzl married Julie Naschauer in Reichenau. The young couple traveled to Switzerland and France and awaited the completion of their home in Vienna.

    1889: Ohaveth Sholum (lovers of peace) was founded today in Seattle, Washington, making it the first Jewish congregation in the state’s largest city.

    1890: “For Charity’s Sake” published today described the upcoming fund-raiser that B’nai Brith is sponsoring for the benefit of the Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews at Yonkers.

    1891: All but two of the members of the United States Immigration Commission returned to London from Liverpool today where they have been investigating the involvement of the steamship companies and railways in sending “pauper immigrants” to the United States including Jews who had originally lived in Russia.

    1892(1st of Av, 5652): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1892(1st of Av, 5652): Washington Nathan died today in Boulogne, France. Nathan was the son of Benjamin Nathan, the prominent New Yorker, whose murder 12 years ago has never been solved.  There are those who are still convinced that Washington Nathan was involved in his father’s murder.

    1892: Modest Aronstam arrived in Pittsburgh intending to finish the botched attempt on the life on Henry Clay Frick but panicked and went back to New York when newspaper articles identified him as a possible assassin

    1893: A crowd of about 2,000, a third of whom were Jewish immigrants listened to the band concert tonight at Paradise Park.

    1893(12thof Av, 5653): Eighty-four year old Asher Kursheedt passed away in New York City.

    1894(21st of Tammuz, 5654): Fifty-two year old Dr. Isidor Cohnstein, the husband of Ida Cohnstein, who was an author as well as a physician passed away today in Berlin-Charlottenburg, Germany

    1895: The Sanitarium for Hebrew Children’s rail excursion is scheduled to leave this morning at 9:20.

    1895: It was reported today that out of the nearly five million people in Belgium only 4,000 are Jews.

    1896: On Shabbat, striking Jewish tailors and those who had not yet joined the strike, attended a mass meeting at Walhalla Hall

    1896: The Chairman of the State Board of Mediation and Arbitration offered his services to the General Executive Committee of the Brotherhood of Tailors, most of whom were Jewish in an effort to end their strike with their employers.

    1897: The funeral services for Lewis May are scheduled to be held at 11 A.M. this morning at Temple Emanu-El the congregation he served as President up until the time of his death.

    1897: A party of thirty young Jewish men and women who were enjoying “some refreshments” after having visited the New Mount Sinai Cemetery at Woodside were accosted by a man claiming to be a police officer who said he would arrest them “unless he was paid to leave them alone.”

    1898: In Hoboken, NJ, during a dispute over landownership, workmen arrived at the Moses Montefiore Congregation and used jack-screws to raise the building thirty feet in the aire.

    1900: Percy George de Worms married Sir Harry Simeon Samuel’s only daughter, Nora, today. Although he was an English barrister and philatelist he was descended from Austrian nobility; his great-grandfather having been made a Baron by Emperor Franz Joseph.

    1903: “Theodor Herzl arrived in St. Petersburg, Russia to intervene with the Russian government to life the prohibition of Zionist activities and stop the persecution of Zionists.”

    1903: At the Sun-Rise Hill Climb near Edgehill in Warwickshire Dorothy Levitt was the official passenger of S.F. Edge because her Gladiator was a non-starter. Levit was born Dorothy Elizabeth Levi, the daughter of a tea dealer named Jacob Levi.

    1905: In Ruse, Bulgaria, Jacques Canetti and Mathilde née Arditti gave birth to Elias Canetti who won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1981.

    1907: Birthdate of actor Jack Gilford. Born Jacob Gellman in New York City, Gilford’s "rubber-face" led him to play numerous character roles in films, televisions and commercials. One of his most famous roles was in “Cocoon” where he played the role of a gravelly voiced "doubting Thomas.”

    1915: Sephardic Bikur Holim Synagogue opens in Seattle, Washington.

    1915: In Chicago, a special summer course sponsored by HUC came to a close today.

    1918: Louis N. Hammerling, President of the of Association of Foreign Language Newspapers was arrested today on a charge of him criminally libeling Vaclav G. Hajek a former investigator for the Department of Justice.

    1921: Birthdate of Murray Handwerker, “who transformed his father’s Brooklyn hot dog business, Nathan’s Famous, into a celebrated national fast-food chain.”

    1923: Birthdate of “David Gerber, an Emmy- and Peabody Award-winning television producer who brought forward-thinking series like “Police Story” and “Police Woman” to prime time in the 1970s and produced more than 50 television films and mini-series during a four-decade career.”

    1924: Birthdate of Hans Arnold Wangersheim who fled to the United States from Nazi Germany as a 13-year-old and as Arnold Hans Weiss returned as an American soldier during World War II, becoming a principal in the investigation that led to the discovery of Hitler’s last will and political testament.”

    1925: In Ohio, the Sandusky Star Journal ran “an uncredited illustration of Louis Wolheim.

    1926: Birthdate of Ray Solomonoff, the son of Julius and Sarah Solomonoff, “the inventor of algorithmic probability, and founder of algorithmic information theory, who was an originator of the branch of artificial intelligence based on machine learning, prediction and probability.”

    1927: The Jewish Telegraphic Agency announced that “Nathan Straus will build a $75,000 health center” at Tel Aviv.  Straus has already funded a similar clinic in Jerusalem.

    1928: Birthdate of “Igor Birman, a Russian émigré economist who virtually predicted the collapse of the Soviet Union years before its fall.”

    1929:Ahdut HaAvoda and Hapoel HaTzair, the two major labor parties in Eretz Israel officially merge.

    1929:Tzom Tammuz, 5689

    1929: Birthdate of Yosef Alon, an Israeli Air Force officer, who was murdered in suburban Maryland while serve as Air Attaché.  The murder has never been solved.

    1931(11th of Av, 5691):Dr. Lee K. Frankel passed away.

    1934: The Nazis attempted to overthrow the Austrian government. Chancellor Dollfus was assassinated, but the putsch failed and Kurt von Schuschnigg was appointed Chancellor. He in turn tried his best to curtail Nazi influence in Austria.

    1935: Birthday of Larry Sherry.  Along with his brother Norm, they formed an all Jewish battery combo that led the L.A. Dodgers to the World Series Championship in 1959.

    1938: Fifty three persons were killed and fifty-eight were today as a bomb exploded at the entrance of the Arab market in the heart of Haifa.  While Arabs rioted in response to the violence, Jewish newspapers called for an investigation to find out who was responsible “demanding that the guilty parties, whether Jew or Arab, be brought to justice.”

    1938(25th of Tammuz, 5698: A Jewish farmer was killed by a land mine planted near Ein Vered and Jewish guard was killed at Kfar Haroesh when he was attacked by a band of 25 armed Arabs.

    1938: A group of Jewish laborers were fired on this morning as they worked in quarry in Tiberias.  One worker was killed and another was wounded.

    1938: Tonight, the National Council of Palestine Jews issued a proclamation holding the Arabs accountable for the horrific outbreak of violence in Haifa saying that “the outrages” were an attempt to bring about a civil war in Palestine.

    1939(9th of Av, 5699):Tish'a B'Av

    1940: French army officer and rabbi, David Feuerwerker was demobilized today following France’s defeat by Germany. He was awarded the Croix de guerre with a bronze star for his service as chief of artillery communications during which he showed “drive, courage”…and contributed to maintain “the fighting spirit” of those around him.

    1940:A cable from Simon Davidovitch Kremer, Secretary to the Soviet Military Attaché in London specifically identified Ivor Montagu as the head of the X Group spy ring “Ivor Montagu (brother of Lord Montagu) sic, the well-known local communist, journalist and lecturer.”

    1941: “Immediately after the Germans occupied the city of Lvov, Ukrainian militia commanders proclaimed Petliura Day (in memory of the Ukrainian nationalist hero who was assassinated in 1926 during his exile in Paris by a Jewish avenger) and embarked on a three day pogrom that massacred 6,000 Jews.

    1941: In five separate incidents, Jews in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, throw gasoline bombs at Nazi cars.

    1941: A two day long Pogrom began in Kovno, Lithuania which would claim the life of 3, 800Jews.

    1942: In Belgium, The Jewish Council completed a comprehensive list of the names and addresses of approximately 56,000 Jews living in the country. The SS ordered the creation of the list which was no available through existing governmental channels since Belgium did not track citizens by their religious affiliation. The SS told the Jews they needed the list so they could organize labor groups to be sent East to work. When the Jewish Council did not produce the list quickly enough, the SS threatened to start grabbing Jews off the street and shipping them East regardless of age, sex or physical description. What the Jewish Council did not know was that the SS was implementing the first steps of the Final Solution that had been agreed to in January, 1942. This list of Jews would in fact be used to prepare the transports for Auschwitz.

    1943: Mussolini was dismissed from office. It was hoped that his downfall would ease the situation for Italy's Jews. In point of fact, things would actually get worse as the Nazis seized control of the Italian mainland.

    1943: John Garfield and his wife Roberta Seidman gave birth to their second child and only son David Garfield whose middle name was Patton in honor of the famous general.

    1943: Birthdate of actress Janet Margolin. Born in New York City, she first gained popular acclaim for her role in the 1962 film David & Lisa.

    1944: Three tankers carrying more than 1600 Jews from the Italian-held island of Rhodes stop at the island of Kos, where 94 additional Jews are forced aboard

    1944: Thirty-one faked postcards from deportees arrive at the Lódz (Poland) Ghetto. The writers claim to have been happily resettled, when in reality they have been gassed at Chelmno.

    1944: Lord Walter Moyne, chief British official in the Middle East, finally approves British military training for Jewish Palestinians who are being sent on suicide missions into Occupied Europe. He writes: "The scheme would remove from Palestine a number of active and resourceful Jews.... The chances of many of them returning in the future to give trouble in Palestine seem slight."

    1945: Following duty in England and on the Seine River, the SS President Warfield arrived at Norfolk, Virginia. After deactivation and re-sale, the President Warfield would gain fame as the SS Exodus.

    1945: Kurt Gerstein, the former head of the Waffen-SSInstitute of Hygiene in Berlin and an advocate of euthanasia hangs himself in prison.

    1946: Theodore Levin was confirmed by the United States Senate to a seat on the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan vacated by Edward Julien Moinet.

    1946: Dean Martin (the Italian crooner) and Jerry Lewis (the Jewish clown) perform together for the first time.  During the next ten years, Martin and Lewis would move from clubs, to movies to a hit television program.

    1948: During Operation Shoter, Israeli forces renewed their attack on an area south of Haifa known as the “Little Triangle.”

    1950: The government of Lebanon protested to the United Nations claiming that an Israeli fighter plane had crossed into its territory and fired on a civilian airliner.  According to the Israelis, the airliner had violated Israel’s airspace when it flew over the northern Galilee.  When the plane failed to obey signals to land, the Israeli fighter fired warning shots.  The Israelis said they also planned to file a protest with the UN.

    1951: The Jerusalem Post reported from Poland that former SS General Jurgen Stroop and Captain Franz Konrad were sentenced to death in Warsaw for the extermination of the Jewish population of the Warsaw Ghetto. In Jaffa, Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion, addressing a crowd of 10,000, mostly new immigrants, insisted that food and other government controls were necessary to fulfill the aim of reaching a population of two million and to establish 1,000 new settlements, even if this meant a temporary shortage of food and housing. "The newcomers will build their own homes and will grow their own food," he concluded.

    1952: Birthdate of Ephraim “Effi” Eitam, the native of kibbutz Ein Gev whose political career has included membership in the Knesset from 2003 until 2009

    1956: The Jordanians attacked UN Palestine truce keepers.

    1957:  The Republic of Tunisia is proclaimed. Despite the fact that Jews like André Barouche had played an active role in Tunisia’s struggle for independence and the fact that it was a Pierre Mendes France, the Jewish Prime Minister of France, who granted Tunisia her independence, the conditions for Tunisia’s Jews deteriorated rapidly. The newly chosen President,  Habib Bourguiba “ordered the dissolution of all Jewish organizations into one body known as the Jewish Religious Council, the members of which were appointed by the President...Under an order for slum clearance, the ancient Jewish quarter was razed to the ground, thereby demolishing the oldest and most historic synagogue in Tunis.” Things were so bad that 40,000 Jews (about 40% of the 1948 Jewish population) left for Israel.  (This is the Refugee Problem that nobody talks about)  

    1958(8th of Av, 5718): Movie mogul, Harry Morris Warner passed away. Along with his three brothers, Harold Warner founded Warner Brothers Studio in 1923. These Jews made American movies. There first major star was a dog, “Rin Tin Tin.” The canine hero made 26 films for them and these hits were a big help in providing cash for the brothers. Warner Brothers took a gamble in 1927 and produced the first talking motion picture, The Jazz Singer. Harold apparently was not originally enthusiastic about the project since one of his most famous quotes is, "Who wants to hear actors talk?"

    1959(19th of Tammuz, 5719:  Rabbi Isaac Halevi Herzog passed away. Rabbi Herzog was the second Chief Rabbi of Israel, serving from 1936 until his death in 1959 at the age of 71. Born in Poland 1888, the son of a rabbi, Herzog spent his childhood in England and France. A brilliant student, he completed the study of the Talmud at the age of 16. He pursued secular academic excellence as well, earning a doctorate from London University. His thesis was uniquely Jewish – "The Dyeing of Purple in Ancient Israel." Herzog served as the Chief Rabbi of the Irish Free State before moving to Palestine to succeed the great Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook. Herzog worked diligently to try and save Jewish children trapped in Europe. After the creation of the state of Israel, he was faced with the challenge of applying halachah to life in a modern Jewish state, something nobody had done since the fall of Jerusalem in 70. His two most famous works are Main Institutions of Jewish Law and his responsa entitled Hekhal Yitzhak. Herzog’s life is life is a testament to the best in combining Orthodoxy and Zionism.

    1960(1st of Av, 5720): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1964: Birthdate José Joaquín Bautista Arias who may have been the only Jewish baseball player from the Dominican Republic to pitch in the Major Leagues.

    1964: In Washington, DC, Harvey M. Applebaum, a Covington and Burling partner, and Elizabeth Applebaum of the Corcoran Gallery of Art gave birth to Pulitzer-prize winning author Anne Elizabeth Applebaum.

    1965: Bob Dylan (born Robert Allen Zimmerman) goes electric as he plugs in at the Newport Folk Festival, signaling a major change in folk and rock music.

    1969: As Operation Boxer continues, IAF aircraft continue to pound Egyptian positions.

    1969: In Highland Park, Illinois, Elise and Henry Loeb gave birth to screenwriter and producer Allan Loeb

    1976:The Jerusalem Post reported that the Asian Games Federation resolved that it was in the interest of Israel and for the safety of other nations' athletes that Israel should not participate in the 1978 Asian Games. [In the early days of the War on Terror, this is an easy victory for the forces of terror.]  The Defense Ministry announced that it intended to allow Arabs living in Southern Lebanon to work inside Israel and that there would be no discrimination between Christians and Moslems willing to come. Israel had also sent truckloads of food to the Lebanese civil war victims. [This would be the start of what was known as The Good Fence Policy.] In his address to the Israeli Press Council, Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin severely criticized the country's press and other media for "failing to check facts and for not presenting a balanced picture of news."

    1976 (27th of Tammuz, 5736): One soldier was killed and three more were wounded when a terrorist set off a bomb in a restaurant in Batala.

    1976: The first performance of the Philip Glass opera Einstein on the Beach

    1979: Another section of the Sinai Peninsula is peacefully returned by Israel to Egypt.

    1981: On the second day of The Battle of Bint Jbeil Brigadier General Gal Hirsch prematurely announced that the town had been taken.

    1981(23rd of Tammuz, 5741): Former MK Yosef Goldschmidt passed away today.  Born at Frankfurt in 1907, he was certified as a high school science teacher before he made Aliyah in 1935.  After leaving the Knesset, he served as Deputy Mayor Jerusalem.

    1990: Roseanne “Barr performed "The Star-Spangled Banner" before a baseball game between the San Diego Padres and Cincinnati Reds at Jack Murphy Stadium.”

    1991(14thof Av, 5751): Ninety-seven year old Lazar Moiseyevich Kaganovich, one of the last of the original Bolshevik revolutionaries passed away today. (As reported by Francis X. Clines)

    1993: The IDF crosses into Lebanon in Operation Accountability.  The week long incursion was brought on by Hezbollah’s rocket attacks on Israeli settlements and the PLFP’s a killing of Israeli soldiers.  

    1994: Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and Jordan's King Hussein signed a declaration at the White House ending their countries' 46-year-old state of war.

    1996: Yakov Kreizberg performed the United Kingdom premiere of Berthold Goldschmidt's Passacaglia op.4 today in the presence of the composer just months before he died.

    1996(9thof Av, 5756): Tish’a B’Av

    1996:In an article entitled “Jewish Studies: Part of the Canon,” Jonathan Mahler warns that “the quarrel at Queens College over the selection of a non-Jewish professor to lead the school's Jewish studies program provides a lesson in the dangers of combining academic disciplines with identity politics. “

    1997: In Jerusalem, The Dead Sea Scrolls: Fifty Years After Their Discovery a conference organized by Emanuel Tov came to an end.

    1999: The New York Times featured an article entitled “Streetscapes /Giorgio Cavaglieri; Near 88, a Preservationist Is Still a Maverick describing the importance of the Jewish, Italian born, architect.

    1999: The New York Times features reviews books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Legacy: A Biography of Moses and Walter Annenberg by Christopher Ogden and recently released paperback edition of The Process: 1,100 Days That Changed the Middle East by Uri Savir

    2000: The Trilateral Statement on the Middle East Peace Summit at Camp David was issued today.

    2000: The INS Tkuma was commissioned today.

    2001: The SS Regent Sun formerly the SS Shalom of the Israeli Zim line, sank off the coast of South Africa.

    2001: “Issues in Jewish Philosophy,” a colloquium sponsored by The European Association for Jewish Studies (EAJS) came to a close today.

    2001: After four hours of searching for the body of Chandra Levy under a broiling summer sun in Rock Creek Park, 28 police candidates break off the hunt not knowing that that missing interns body was a mere 79 yards below the trail where they had stopped.

    2002: In Amsterdam, the seventh conference of The European Association for Jewish Studies (EAJS) under the presidency of Professor Albert van der Heide came to an end.

    2003(25thof Tammuz, 5763): Seventy-seven year old film director John Schlesinger passed away today.

    2003: Gesher gives its last performance of “Shoshah” a play based on a novel of the same name by Isaac B. Singer at the Lincoln Center in New York City.

    2004: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including the recently released paperback edition of When Hollywood Had a King: The Reign of Lew Wasserman, Who Leveraged Talent Into Power and Influence  Connie Bruck’s ''fascinating book which is a methodical portrait of an often secretive mogul whose vindictiveness, cunning and temper matched his shrewdness and prescience.''

    2006(29th of Tammuz, 5766):Seventy-eight year old Professor Ezra Fleischer, an Israeli poet whose scholarly work re-defined views on the antiquity of prayer, passed away today.(As reported by Ari L. Goldman)

    2006: Eliot Spitzer took part in a gubernatorial debate at Pace University prior to the Democratic primary which is scheduled for September.

    2006: At Jerusalem’s Confederation House, the third and last concert in the series based on baskot (requests), songs of supplication traditionally sung during the early hours of Shabbat morning in Middle Eastern Jewish communities.

    2006: The following were among a total of 43 Israeli civilians (including four who died of heart attacks during rocket barrages) and 116 IDF soldiers were killed in the Israel-Hezbollah war:Doua Abbas, 15, of Mughar; David Mazen, 75, of Haifa.

    2006: Blu Greenberg, best known for her work on behalf of feminism within Orthodox Judaism, was honored with Hadassah's highest honor, the Henrietta Szold award for outstanding leadership in the Jewish community. Greenberg, who shared the award jointly with her husband, Rabbi Irving "Yitz" Greenberg, thus joined a list of prominent world leaders—from Elie Wiesel to Yitzchak Rabin, Shimon Peres, and Golda Meir—to be so honored

    2007: In Jerusalem, a celebration of International Jewish Music entitled “Come to the Jewish Music Marathon,” features Jewish musicians from around world including, Daniel Kahan of Germany, PSOY of Russia, DJ Yonatan from Oi Va Voi of England, Trio Karfion of Israel, and Oy Devision of Israel.

    2007: The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum's traveling exhibition Fighting the Fires of Hate: America and the Nazi Bookburning opens in Baltimore, at the Enoch Pratt Free Library.

    2008: A powerful explosion ripped through a car on a busy Gaza City killing four and wounding 23, Hamas security officials said. It was the third mysterious blast of the day in Gaza after a relatively calm period that has followed a cease-fire between Israel and Hamas. No one in Gaza blamed Israel for the violence and it is likely internal Palestinian battles.

    2008: At Manhattan’s Museum of Jewish Heritage, an exhibition that tells the story of Jewish refugees who took Trujillo up on his offer and settled in the town of Sosua, on the Dominican Republic’s northeastern shore comes to an end.

    2009: A screening of “Rachel.” a controversial film that purports to investigate the death of anti-Israel activist Rachel Corrie, is scheduled to take place the Castro Theatre in San Francisco.

    2009:In the following article entitled “Shabbat special for C.R. congregation,” Molly Rossiter of the Gazette describes upcoming events at Temple Judah.

    The Shabbat service on Aug. 1 at Temple Judah will have triple significance for the congregation there. The Shabbat is the first for the congregation’s new rabbi, Todd Thalblum. The day also marks the Shabbat Nachamu, the Sabbath of Consolation, which follows the Jewish fast of Tishah B’Av, the first of seven services leading up to Rosh Hashanah. And for the third year, it is also the Raoul Wallenberg Sabbath, a day marked by Gov. Chet Culver in 2007 to remember the man who helped the Jews in Budapest avoid the concentration camps. Thalblum joins the congregation after being named rabbi last month. Thalblum, 41, last served a congregation in Texas. He said last month that he was “looking forward” to returning to the Midwest and to serving as rabbi at Temple Judah. “The first priority is going to be getting to know the congregation, that’s going to come first,” he said. But he plans to get actively involved fairly early in community interests, as well. “The congregation has talked very much about what they’ve enjoyed about the rabbi being involved in the community,” he said.

    2009:This year’s “World Outgames,” a festival of sports and culture hosted by the gay community in a different city every four years opens in Copenhagen where it pays tribute to Tel Aviv’s Centennial celebration by converting on of Copenhagen’s canal into a Tel Aviv Beach and hosting leading Israeli artists, Israeli music and beach games.

    2009: In JerusalemBeit Avi Chai's Saturday night music line, directed by Shaanan Street, presents Amir Lev in a new concert marking the release of his album Hakol Kan. The concert features familiar and new songs about the lives of ordinary people, with their laughter and tears. The concert will include a special piyyut for Tisha B’Av.”

    2010: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or special interest to Jewish readers including The Cookbook Collector by Allegra Goodman and Dreyfus: Politics, Emotion, and the Scandal of the Century by Ruth Harris

    2010: Hadassah 95th annual convention opened today.

    2010: “Jews and Baseball: An American Love Story” premiered at the Stony Brook Film Festival

    2010:During the afternoon session of the annual Hadassah Convention, Deborah Rosenbloom, Jewish Women International (JWI) program director, was a presenter at a workshop that will provide resources and a Jewish context for parents to help their daughters identify and develop healthy relationships entitled “Dating, Sex and Love: How to Help Our Daughters Develop Healthy Relationships,” based on two national curricula—Love Shouldn’t Hurt and Strong Girls, Healthy Relationships.

    2010:Israel and the United States signed an agreement today under which the Defense Ministry will receive full funding for the development and production of the Arrow 3 ballistic missile defense system. The agreement was signed in Tel Aviv by head of the ministry’s MAFAT Research and Development Directorate, Brig.-Gen. Ofir Shoham, and the head of the US Missile Defense Agency, Lt.-Gen. Patrick O’Reilly.

    2010: The ninth congress of The European Association for Jewish Studies (EAJS) opened today in Ravenna

    2010:First Annual New York Sephardic Jewish Book Fair presented by ASF opened at noon today.

    2010:Rabbi Manfred Gans announced his retirement after 60 years behind the pulpit that now stands in Forest Hills.

    2011: The Silver-Garburg Piano Duo is scheduled to perform at Mannes College The New School for Music. “Sivan Silver, born in Israel in 1976, and Gil Garburg, born in Israel in 1975, studied with Prof. Arie Vardi at Tel-Aviv University and at the “Musikhochschule” in Hanover, Germany.”

    2011: Israeli born dancer and choreographer Dana Ruttenberg is scheduled to conduct a Contemporary Dance Workshop at the Peridance Capezio Center in New York City.

    2011:The chairman of the Israel Medical Association, Dr. Leonid Eidelman, announced that he was going on a hunger strike today to protest the state of the health care system in Israel, after exhausting all efforts to reach a negotiated agreement with the Finance Ministry

    2011:After 5 protesters were arrested for blocking traffic in Jerusalem this morning, at least 200 protesters demonstrating against soaring rent prices gathered in Kikar Paris outside the Prime Minister's Residence in Jerusalem today, blocking traffic on Aza Road.

    2011: Nobel prize winning economist Joseph “Stiglitz participated in the "I Foro Social del 15M" organized in Madrid (Spain) expressing his support for the 2011 Spanish protests.”

    2011: The first ever reunion of the Ritchie Boys, a unique intelligence unit that served in Europe from D-Day to VE-Day came to a close today at the Holocaust Memorial Center in Farmington Hills, Michigan.

    2012: The North American Premiere of “Ameer Got His Gun” and the West Coast Premiere of “Just 45 Minutes from Broadway” are scheduled to take place at the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.

    2012: In New Orleans, Gates of Prayer and Beth Israel are scheduled to present part 2 of Tevye’s World, their combined continuing education program. (For more about Jewish life in the Big Easy,

    2012: Israel’s gas mask distribution centers are reporting a significant rise in the number of civilians seeking protection against chemical weapons. Over the past two days distribution centers gave out 3,700 gas mask kits each day, Maariv reported today. By comparison, since the beginning of February 2010 the distribution centers, located in post offices and malls around the country, distributed kits to about 2,200 people a day.(As reported by Stuart Winer)

    2012: “Mogul’s Latest Foray Courts Jews for G.O.P.” published today described Sheldon Adelson’s multi-million dollar effort to gain Jewish votes for Mitt Romney.

    2012: White House counter-terrorism adviser John Brennan arrived in Israel today for talks with several senior officials, according to a statement from the National Security Council spokesman.  (As reported by Sam Ser)

    2012: Under the Lone Star, the Star of David is blessed when Abbie and Feivel Strauss gave birth to their first child this evening in Houston, TX.  Mother and son are doing well as is the dad and the proud maternal grandparents Dr. Bob & Laurie Silber.

    2012: Former Citigroup chairman Sanford Weill publicly changed his views on banks as the financial supermarket, when he told CNBC that “what we should probably do is go and split up investment banking from banking, have banks be deposit takers, have banks make commercial loans and real estate loans, have banks do something that’s not going to risk the taxpayer dollars, that's not too big to fail."

    2012(6th of Av, 5772): Sixty-four year old Suzy Gersham the author of 16 “Born to Shop Guides” including Born to Shop New York passed away today in San Antonio, TX. (As reported by Dennis Hevesi)

     2013: “Next Stop, Greenwich Village,” “a semi-autobiographical account of Paul Mazursky’s life” is scheduled to be shown this evening as part of the Only In New York Summer Film Series

    2003: The 17th annual Jerusalem 3x3 Streetball tournament at Safra Square is scheduled to come to an end today.

    2013:  After a busy year that has included a trip to Jerusalem and a move to Columbus, Ohio, Jacob Strauss celebrates his first birthday.

    2013: In the southern Russian state of Dagestan, Rabbi Ovadia Eisekoff, a Chabad “emissary in the city of Derbent who was shot in the chest by an unkown assailant was taken to a hospital for emergency treatment at 1 a.m. this morning.

    2013: Following an increase in violence that has included a double homicide two days ago and a stabbing last week, authorities in Jerusalem are stepping up their patorls in the Israeli capital. (As reported by Daniel Eisenbud)

    2014: Following services at Riverside Memorial Chapel, Madeline Amgott, one of the female pioneers in the field of television news production is scheduled to be interred at Beth Israel Cemetery in Norwalk, CT.

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    July 26

    412: “Emperors Theodosius II and Honorius ban compulsion of public service or court appearances for Jews on the Sabbath or any other Jewish holy day. Thus all legal issues involving Jews must be completed between Monday and Friday, and the Jewish Sabbath receives general protection. By the same token, Jews should not summon Christians to court on Christian holy days.”

    657: Caliph Muawiya defeated Caliph Ali at the Battle of Siffin.  Muawiya was the founder of the Umayyad dynasty.  Earlier, he had been instrumental in the founding of a synagogue in Tripoli (in modern day Lebanon).  The Umayyads would take control of Jerusalem, allow the Jews to live openly in the city and build one of their most famous mosques.  This battle may be “ancient history” to westerners but for some followers of Islam it resonates in the Sunni vs. Shiite conflict we see in the 21stcentury.

    1139: Count Alfonso, who declared independence from Leon,  proclaimed himself the first king of Portugal and entered history as King Alfonso I. King Afonso I of Portugal entrusted Yahia Ben Yahi III, a Sephardic Jew born in Cordoba with the post of supervisor of tax collection and nominated him the first Chief-Rabbi of Portugal.

    1267:Clement IV issued “Turbato corde” a Papal Bull that forbids Christians from embracing Judaism.

    1267: Pope Clement IV established the Inquisition at Rome.

    1305:Today, Rashba, who “was opposed to the philosophic-rationalistic approach to Judaism often associated with Rambam, and” who “was part of the beit din (rabbinical court) in Barcelona that forbade men younger than 25 from studying secular philosophy or the natural sciences (although an exception was made for those who studied medicine) wrote: ‘In that city [Barcelona] are those who write iniquity about the Torah and if there would be a heretic writing books, they should be burnt as if they were the book of sorcerers.’” Rashba is the Hebrew acronym for the title and name of Rabbi Shlomo ben Aderet, “a Medieval rabbi, halakhist, and Talmudist. The Rashba was born in Barcelona, Spain, in 1235. He became a successful banker and leader of Spanish Jewry of his time. He served as rabbi of the Main Synagogue of Barcelona for 50 years. His teachers were the Ramban and Rabbeinu Yona. Among his numerous students were the Ritva, Rabbeinu Behaye, and the Ra'ah. The Rashba was considered an outstanding rabbinic authority, and more than 3,000 of his responsa are known to be extant. Questions were addressed to him from Spain, Portugal, Italy, France, Germany, and even from Asia Minor. His responsa, which cover the entire gamut of Jewish life, are concise and widely quoted by halakhic authorities. The Rashba's responsa also illustrate his opposition to messianism and prophetic pretensions as a general phenomenon, with examples against Nissim ben Abraham and Abraham Abulafia. The Rashba defended Rambam (Maimonides) during contemporary debates over his works, and he authorized the translation of Rambam's commentary on the Mishnah from Arabic to Hebrew.” He passed away in 1310.

    1309:  Henry VII is recognized King of the Romans by Pope Clement V.  Pope Clement V is first pope to threaten Jews with an economic boycott in an attempt to force them to stop charging Christians interest on loans.”

    1534: After a papal commission had attested to atrocities committed by the Inquisition against pseudo-Christians, Pope Clement VII issued a brief to the nuncio of the Portuguese court to press for the release and absolution of 1200 imprisoned Marranos.  The Pope would die before action could be taken on his order and the effort ended with his death.

    1555: The Jews of Rome were forced into a ghetto by order of Pope Paul IV

    1581: Adoption of the Plakkaat van Verlatinghe (Act of Abjuration), the declaration of independence of the northern Low Countries from the Spanish king, Philip II. For Christians this is part of the battle between Protestants and Catholics; for Jews it is a conflict that will result in the independence of the Netherlands, a Protestant nation that would be a haven of tolerance for European Jews.

    1605: A Jesuit Missionary traveling though China wrote a letter describing his meetings with Ai T'ien, a Chinese Jewish teacher. Most of what we know regarding the Kaifeng Jewish community is from this correspondence.

    1645: Alexis Mikhailovich succeeded his father as the “second czar of the Roman of dynasty.” The czar employed a Jewish physician named Stephan von Gaden. Unlike many other Russian rulers who pursued anti-Jewish policies, this Czar’s record is a mixed bag. “During his reign a considerable number of Jews lived in Moscow and the interior of Russia.”  “From the edicts issued by Alexis Mikhailovich, it appears that the czar often granted the Jews passports with red seals (gosudarevy zhalovannyya gramoty), without which no foreigners could be admitted to the interior; and that they traveled without restriction to Moscow, dealing in cloth and jewelry, and even received from his court commissions to procure various articles of merchandise.”  On the other hand he expelled Jews from various “newly acquired cities” in Poland and Lithuania.

    1669:It was finally decided, today to expel a number of Jews from Vienna and Lower Austria; 1,346 persons were affected by this decree of banishment. In their dire need the Jews of Vienna once more sent a memorial to the emperor; but in vain, for the commission had attributed to them all kinds of crimes.

    1670: The last Jews left Vienna, following expulsion orders. According to tradition, this took place on Tish'a b'Av.

    1719 (10th of Av: Rabbi Samuel Filorintin, author of Olat Shemel passed away today.

    1788: New York ratifies the United States Constitution and becomes the 11th state of the United States. The fate of the Jewish people and the state of New York has been intertwined since the earliest days of settlement in what is now the United States.  For example, Isaac Moses was a co-founder of the New York Chamber of Commerce in 1768.  There were approximately 350 Jews living in New York City at the time of the American Revolution.  Many of them fled during the British occupation and did not return until after the war.  Jews were active in New York politics from the early days of the Republic as can be seen by Solomon Simpson’s role as a founder of the famed Tammany Society (the cornerstone of the Democratic Party) in 1794.

    1788: British “colonists” settle in Sydney, Australia.  These “colonists” were part of an English transport of convicts shipped to New South Wales.  Australia was founded as penal colony.  According to at least one source there were eight Jews among the first shipment of eight hundred prisoners including “sixteen year old Esther Abrahams of London sentenced for stealing a piece of lace.”

    1799: Birthdate of Oskar Ludwig Bernhard Wolff the German Jewish author who “published under the pseudonym ‘Pliny the Youngest.’”

    1806: Napoleon formed the Conference of Notables to deal with the relationship between the Jews and the French State. It consisted of 112 deputies from all parts of the French Empire. At the assembly, led by the financier Abraham Furtado and Rabbi Joseph David Sinzheim, the delegates were confronted with a questionnaire on polygamy, usury, loyalty and intermarriage. Pleased with their answers, he decided to reenact the Sanhedrin, with representatives from all congregations under his careful direction. Even though the assembly was to be held on the Sabbath (some claim as a loyalty litmus test) it was decided to attend and not risk the wrath of the Emperor.

    1815: Birthdate of Dr. Robert Remak, “embryologist, physiologist, and neurologist” who was denied academic tenure and credit for his work because he was Jewish.

    1816(1st of Av, 5576): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1832: In Brono, Johanna Jeitteles and Dr. Aloys Isidor Jeittels gave birth to women’s right activist Ottilie Bondy.

    1844:Today, during the last weeks of his life, Aron Chorin wrote from his sick-bed a declaration expressing his full accord with the Rabbinical Conference of Brunswick, and on August 11 he sent an address to the conference of Hungarian rabbis at Páks. He died at Arad, Hungary.

    1844: Sixty-four year old Carl Streckfuss the German lawyer who championed Jewish emancipation passed away.

    1847: The Republic of Liberia declares its independence.  One hundred years later, in November of 1947, Liberia would be one of 33 nations to vote for partition which would lead to the creation of the state of Israel.

    1850:Rabbi S. M. Isaacs, of New York, officiated at the dedication of the new Synagogue in Buffalo, NY.  Those attending donated a sum of six hundred dollars following the ceremony.  Rev. Isaacs is the spiritual leader of Gates of Prayer in New York City.

    1856: Birthdate of William Rainey Harper, the Professor of Hebrew at Yale, whose writings included “The Jews of Babylon” and “The Return of the Jews from Exile.” He was the first President of the University of Chicago where Emil Gustav Hirsch was among the first faculty members.

    1858: Sir Lionel Nathan Rothschild (the first Lord Rothschild), took his seat in the House of Commons after a long and bitter fight. The Christian oath was amended so that non-Christians could also serve in the House. He became the first Jew to sit in the House of Commons because a new oath of office was agreed upon that did not refer to Christianity.

    1861: In Hamburg, Emmeline and Berman Bernays gave birth to Martha Bernays the wife of Sigmund Freud.

    1861: At the start of the Civil War Elias Leon Hyneman, the son of Benjamin Hyneman,enlisted as a volunteer in Company C, Fifth Pennsylvania Cavalry. He fought in the Peninsula Campaign of 1862, at Gettysburg in 1863 and in the Wilderness in 1864 before being taken prisoner.  He died at the infamous Andersonville Prison.

    1862: The following telegram was sent today:

    To Brif.-Gen. J.T. Quimby, Columbus, Ky.:

    GENERAL: Examine the baggage of all speculators coming South, and, when they have specie, turn them back. If medicine and other contraband articles, arrest them and confiscate the contraband article. Jews should receive special attention.

    (Signed) U.S. Grant  Major-General

    1863(10th of Av, 5623): Tish'a B'Av; the 9th of Av fell on Shabbat.

    1865: Birthdate of Philip Scheidemann, German political leader and first Chancellor of the Weimar Republic. Scheideman was not Jewish but his first government included four Jews which provided ammunition for the anti-Semites and opponents to this post-war attempt at democracy in Germany.  He left Germany when the Nazis came to power and died in exile in Denmark. 

    1869: Birthdate of anarchist Emma Goldman.

    1874: Birthdate of Dr. Sergei Aleksandrovich Koussevitzky the Russian born conductor best known for his long tenure as music director of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, a position he held from 1924 to 1949.

    1881: It was reported today that Young Men’s Hebrew Association of Harlem plan on taking an excursion to Staten Island next month.

    1881: Birthdate of Clara Ferrin, the native of Tucson, AZ who taught at Stafford Elementary School before marrying merchant David Bloom becoming Clara Ferrin-Bloom a local civic and Jewish communal leader.

    1891: Riots took place at Baerwald, Pomerania during which “a quantity of Jewish property was destroyed.”

    1882: In San Francisco, Samuel L. Sachs disappeared after having shot his wife today.  Sachs, the son of Louis Sachs, a co-owner of Sachs, Heller &Co is Jewish which his wife, whom doctors say will survive her wounds, is the daughter of Thomas Shanon, a prominent Christian who has severed as Collector of the Port..

    1882: As the Freight Handler’s strike continued things became so violent that a group of Russian Jews working at the Red Star dock in Jersey City began fighting among themselves.

    1883: In New York, the Board of Estimate and Apportionment disbursed over $32,000 to a variety of charities including $1,870.57 to the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society.

    1886: “Life at Saratoga” published today reported that the section of Broadway that separates the Grand Union from Congress Hall is referred to as “the Red Sea” because it separates Jew from Gentile.  Ever since Judge Hilton announced his policy of banning all Jews from the Grand Union, New York Jewish Gentry led by the Seligman family, has been staying at the Congress.  According to Colonel Texas Ochiltree only two suspected Jews have stayed at the Grand Union – Jacob Hess and Abraham Hummel.  The latter is considered to be a Bulgarian so he does not pose a threat.

    1886: Several New York rabbis and a representative of the Hebrew Immigration Society met with Immigration Superintendent Jackson at Castle Garden.  They asked him not send the Russian Jews currently staying at Ward’s Island back to Europe.  They offered to post bonds so that the immigrants would not be treated as paupers.  Jackson said he would refer the request to the Committee of Commissioners of Emigration.

    1887:  L. L. Zamenhof publishes Dr. Esperanto's International Language. The father of Esperanto was a physician, the son of Lithuanian Jews.  Before his work with Esperanto, Zamenhof had published a Yiddish grammar book.

    1887: Birthdate of Reuben Leon Kahn, the Lithuanian-American immunologist who developed the Kahn Test for syphilis.

    1890: The officers of the synagogue on Stone Avenue in Williamsburg that was incorporated today include Alter Birn, President; Jacob Alter, Vice President, Joseph November, Treasurer; Wolf Jakobowits, Secretary; Loeb Waldmann, Isaiah Zwinckel and Louis Zwickel, Trustees.

    1890; “Amusements” in The Los Angeles Heraldpreviewed the upcoming performance of the “Shatchen”  a drama by Charles S. Dickson featuring Frank Mordaunt.

    1890(9th of Av, 5650) Shabbat Chazon: Erev Tish'a B'Av

    1890: Even though the Cloakmakers strike was settled, “very little work was in any of the factories” today because most the workers were Jews who do not work on Saturday.

    1890: The headquarters of the Cloakmakers’ Union on Ludlow, Suffolk and Orchard street were decorated with American and Red flags while the workers praised Joseph Barondees “who had so completely vanquished the manufacturers.

    1891: “Phases of City Life” published today described the relation between the new chef at the Democratic Club and famed thespian Sarah Bernhardt.  Emanuel Bernard is her cousin and she adopted one of his girls, part of a family 15 children, after he wife died two years ago.

    1891: While in London, Colonel John Weber, the former Congressman who is now the Commissioner of Immigration at Ellis Island said that “reports” of “the reshipment of destitute Russian Jews from England” “are unfounded.  (There was a belief in the United States that western European countries and Great Britain were buying tickets for eastern European immigrants to travel to America.)

    1891: Officials at the Hamburg-American Packet company issued “indignant denials” to charges that the company is providing Russian-Jewish passengers tickets “at reduced rates.”  The “exiles’ committee pays full price for each passenger” but the company allows them to deduct the commission associated with these bookings.

    1891: France annexes Tahiti. The first Jew probably arrived in 1769 with Capt. James Cook. According to Virtual Jewish History, Alexander Salmon, a Jew, moved to Tahiti, and later entered the Tahitian royal family when he married Arrioehau, a Polynesian princess. Today there are approximately 200 Jews living in Tahiti.

    1892(2ndof Av, 5652): Forty two year old Yonah Halevi Ettinger who was born at Brody in 1850 passed away today.

    1893: “No Mercy For Sick Children” published today described events surrounding the eviction of a widow, Mrs. Sarah Goldstein  and her eight children which resulted  which has led to a suit against her landlords Theodor Fischer and Marshal George Haztzel in which she is being represented by Maurice B. Blumenthal.

    1895: Rabbi Gustav Gottheil officiated at the funeral of Abram C. Bernheim a partner in the firm of Shekan & Bernheim which was held this morning at Temple Emanu-El on Fifth Avenue.

    1895: In Russia, today is the deadline for all Jews “who had resided in Moscow for a long time” to comply with the government’s order to lead the city.  All other Jews living in Moscow have already been driven out under a government program that began last summer.

    1895: The will of Bertha May was filed for probate in the office of the Surrogate today.

    1896: The condition of Henry Clay Frick, the steel magnate who was shot by Jewish anarchist during the Homestead Steel Strike was said to be improving and that he would soon be out of danger.

    1896: “Webb Charged With Abduction” published today described the case of Dora Henry and George Webb, the 16 year old Jewish girl and 20 year old Lutheran man who were secretly married but never lived together after the ceremony.

    1896: According to Meyer Schoenfield, the contractors will join the tailors, most of whom are Jewish, today in their strike against the manufactures

    1896: The clothing salesmen will join the tailors in their strike today if the owners refuse their demand for a ten hour work and a guarantee that they will not be laid off during “slack season.”

    1899: Dr. J.H. Hertz addressed a meeting of “Uitlander” on the issue of excluding Russian and Romanian born Jews from the right to vote in South Africa. Hertz would later be expelled from the country for this and other similar addresses on this subject.

    1897: Rabbi Kaufman Kohler was the principal speaker at today’s session of the National Jewish Chautauqua Assembly in Atlantic, NJ.

    1897: A group of Jews who had gone to Woodside to visit the new Mount Sinai Cemetery and were robbed and beaten by a group of thugs, are in the jail in the town hall after having been charged with using the grounds as a picnic grounds which is against the law.  In the meantime, their attackers have not been captured.

    1909(8th of Av, 5669): Erev Tish'a B'Av

    1911(1st of Av, 5671): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1919: Famed painter and President of the Royal Academy Sir Edward John Poynter passed away.  Poynter was noted for his large canvases many of which drew on Biblical themes – “Visit of the Queen of Sheba,”  “King Solomon” and “Israel in Egypt.”  The latter was his first great artistic and commercial success.

    1920: In Paris, Béatrice de Camondo and composer Léon Reinach gave birth to their daughter Fanny who passed away in 1944.

    1922: On New York’s Lower East Side, William and Bella Berger gave birth to “character actress” Anna Berger

    1926: In Amsterdam, diamond cutter Emanuel Emden and seamstress Rosa Emden-Devries gave birth Bloeme Emden a childhood friend of the Frank girls who survived the Holocaust and gained famed as Bloeme Evers-Emden a teacher and psychologist who has written four books on the “hidden children” of WW II.

    1928(9thof Av, 5688): Tish’a B’Av

    1928: Birthdate of director Stanley Kubrick.

    1929: Birthdate of Netiva Ben Yehuda “an Israeli author, editor, and former soldier of the Palmach” whose “writings, including a dictionary of Hebrew slang (written with Dan Ben Amotz) and several books on pre-state Israeli music, made her one of the aforementioned fighting force's most famous members.”

    1928: Birthdate of Sarah A. Viner the native of Dublin and daughter of a diamond cutter who rose to become an MP, government minister and life peer known as Sally Oppenheim-Barnes, Baroness Oppenheim-Barnes and who served in Parliament with her son Phillip Oppenheim.


    1929: Birthdate of Bulgarian born pianist Alexis Weissenberg. (As reported by Margalit Fox)

    1934: In Jersey City, NJ, Michael and Esther Novick gave birth to Dr. Peter Novick, the University of Chicago history professor who challenged the seemingly overbearing centrality of the Holocaust among American Jewry.

    1934: ThePalestine Post reports that on July 14, 1934 a Jewish delegation from Adrianople spoke with the Turkish government, to ensure they do not remove all the police from the Adrianople towns in order to prevent the looting of abandoned homes.

    1936; The Palestine Post reported that a serious catastrophe, which might have involved a serious loss of life, was avoided only by chance when rails were loosened only a few minutes before a passenger train from Haifa was due to reach Lydda. A goods train, however, was derailed near Ras el-Ain. The Jerusalem water-pipeline pumping station was also sabotaged there. 

    1938:As Arab violence continued to grow, a group of 80 American tourists who had arrived in Jerusalem yesterday are scheduled to leave for Jaffa today where their ship is waiting for them.  The group arrived from Egypt at the same time that an explosion rocked Haifa.  Ensuring concerns about their safety forced cancelation of part of their tour.

    1939: Adolf Eichmann “established a Central Office for Jewish Emigration. It's purpose is to expel Jews from the Czech region now controlled by the Nazis. Eichmann was in charge of the previous office of Jewish emigration that had been established in Vienna in 1938.”

    1941: The Germans occupied Boguslav, a city in Kiev, today.  By the end of the year they will have murdered most of the Jews in the town, living alive only some artisans whom they would execute in July of 1943.

    1941: In the second of a pogrom and roundup of Jews in Lvov, three of Rabbi Ben Zion Halberstam's sons-in-law Rabbi Yecheskel Halberstam (son of Rabbi Yeshayale Tchechoiver), Rabbi Moshe Stempel and Rabbi Shlome Rubin were taken prisoner.

    1943: American born expatriate poet Ezra Pound was indicted for treason today for his pro-Fascist, anti-American (and anti-Semitic) radio broadcasts that he made after Italy declared war on the United States.

    1944: The Soviet army enters Lvov, a major city of western Ukraine, liberating it from the Nazis. Only 300 Jewish survivors left, out of 160.000 Jews in Lvov prior to Nazi occupation.

    1944: The first German V-2 hits Great Britain. The V-2 was vast “improvement” over the V-1.  Unlike the V-1 which was essentially a flying bomb, the V-2 was a true Guided Missile, posing a much greater threat to the British and the Allied forces already in Europe.  Anglo-American military leaders were forced to alter their strategy to deal with this immediate threat.  This diverted forces from driving into the German heartland which prolonged the war and the agony of the Holocaust.

    1945: The Labour Party wins the United Kingdom General Election, removing Winston Churchill from power. Labor’s Prime Minister Atlee betrayed the hopes of Jewish leaders by continuing to enforce the White Paper.  The new Foreign Minister would demonstrate a streak of anti-Semitism when he declared that the Jewish survivors of the Holocaust were “pushing their way to the head of the cue” demonstrating the pushiness which is a Jewish trait.

    1946: The Czech government, through the influence of its foreign Minister Jan Masaryk, opened its borders to Jews wishing to flee Poland. Within 3 months over 70,000 Jews using transportation paid by the Czechs would use this route on the way to Eretz-Israel.

    1946: Warner Bros. distributed “Two Guys from Milwaukee,” a comedy co-authored by I.A. L. Diamond with music by Friedrich Hollaender.

    1948” Operation Shoter came to a successful conclusion as the three villages south of Haifa in an area called the “Little Triangle” surrendered to Israeli forces.

    1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that the former Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin el-Husseini, called in Cairo on heads of all Arab states to check the "brutal campaign of terror," carried out by the Jordanian authorities against Palestine Arabs, accused of carrying out the assassination of King Abdullah of Jordan. The new Jordanian Cabinet included only four Palestinians, out of 11.

    1951: David Ben-Gurion visited Jerusalem as part of his successful campaign for re-election as Prime Minister.  Included in the trip were visits with evacuees from the Jewish Quarter of the Old City.

    1952: King Farouk I of Egypt abdicated in the wake of a coup led by Gamal Abdel Nasser. Nasser was the power behind the throne and did not immediately take power.

    1953: Armistice signed today ended the Korean War. Over 150,000 Jewish men and women served in the military during the Korean Conflict. Israel supported the American war effort in Korea and “sent $100,000 in foodstuffs to South Korea.”

    1955: There was an 82.8% voter turnout as Israelis went to the polls to choose the members of the 3rd Knesset.

    1956: Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal. This action would lead to the Suez Crisis in the fall of 1956 that would include a lightning strike by Israeli troops across the Sinai that would take all of one hundred hours.

    1956: Haim Laskov replaced Yitzhak Pundak, as the commander of the IDF armored forces.

    1960(2nd of Av, 5720):Rogers Adolphe Pinner “senior partner of the Mutual Electric Company” passed away. He was the son of Moritz and Melissa Pinner; the husband of Effie Woodruff; and the father of Karl Pinner.

    1963: Pitcher Alan Koch made his major league debut with the Detroit Tigers.

    1965: Birthdate of Jeremy Piven the New York born actor who was raised in Evanston, Illinois and is best known for his role as Ari in the television series “Entourage.”

    1969: Operation Boxer continued with more strikes by the IAF.

    1969(11th of Av, 5729: Composer Frank Loesser passed away at the age of 59.  His Broadway hits include Guys and Dolls, The Most Happy Fella, and How to Succeed In Business Without Really Trying.

    1971(4thof Av, 5731): Forty-eight year old Diane Arbus the photographer who used the camera to create a unique form of black and white art, passed away today.

    1973(26th of Tammuz, 5733): Sixty nine year old hydraulic engineer Hans Albert Einstein “the second child and first son of Albert Einstein and Mileva Marić” passed away today.

    1976: In “6 Film Studios Vie Over Entebbe Raid,” Robert McFadden describes the intense interest to be first to make hey at the box office by telling the story of the Israeli rescue mission that took place less than three weeks ago.

    1976: In “Book About Raid Says 50 Israeli Agents Paved Way in Kenya,” Robert Tomasson reviewed 90 Minutes at Entebbe in which author William Stevenson reveals the key role that intelligence gathering played in the successful rescues of the Jewish hostages.  The book takes on an added authoritative tone since Stevenson is the author of A Man Called Intrepid.

    1981: New York Mayor Ed Koch is given Heimlich maneuver in a Chinese restaurant.

    1982: Yuval Ne’eman began serving as the first Minister of Science and Development

    1984: The second congress of The European Association for Jewish Studies (EAJS) came to an end.

    1987: ''East End Synagogues: From the Shtiebel to Duke's Place,'' an exhibit at the Heritage Center in London is scheduled to come a close.

    1987: The third congress of The European Association for Jewish Studies (EAJS) opened at Schloss Glienicke under the presidency of Professor Arnold Goldberg.

    1996(10thof Av, 5756):Uri Munk, 53, and his daughter-in-law, Rachel Munk, 24, of Moshav Mevo Betar, were killed in a drive-by shooting attack near Beit Shemesh. 30-year-old Ze'ev Munk, Rachel's husband, was critically wounded and died in the hospital the following week.

    1997: “Early Rabbinic Judaism,” a colloquium sponsored by the The European Association for Jewish Studies (EAJS) came to an end.

    1998: The New York Times featured books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The International Encyclopedia of Dance, edited by dance historian Selma Jeanne Cohen and the recently released paperback edition of The Puttermesser Papers by Cynthia Ozick

    2000: A federal judge in New York approved a $1.25 billion settlement between Swiss banks and more than a half million plaintiffs who alleged the banks had hoarded money deposited by Holocaust victims

    2002(17th of Av, 5762): Four people including a rabbi were killed and two children were wounded by terrorist gunfire south of Hebron.

    2006: Hezbollah fired an additional 130 rockets into northern Israel wounding at least five Israelis.

    2006(1st of Av, 5766): Rosh Chodesh Av

    2006(1st of Av, 5766): In an act of unbelievable self-less courage, Major Roi Klie threw himself on a live grenade, sacrificing his life so that his comrades would live.  The action took place on the second day of the Battle of Bint Jbeil. 

    2006(1st of Av, 5766): The following were among a total of 43 Israeli civilians (including four who died of heart attacks during rocket barrages) and 116 IDF soldiers were killed in the Israel-Hezbollah war:Maj. Ro'i Klein, 31, of Eli; Lt. Amihai Merhavia, 24, of Eli; Cpl. Ohad Klausner, 20, of Beit Horon; Lt. Alex Schwarzman, 23, of Acre; St.-Sgt. Shimon Dahan, 20, of Ashdod; Cpl. Asaf Namer, 27, of Kiryat Yam; St.-Sgt. Idan Cohen, 21, of Jaffa; Sgt. Shimon Adega, 20, of Kiryat Gat; Lt. Yiftach Shrier, 21, of Haifa.

    2007: The Vilna Shul / Boston Center for Jewish Heritage presents a screening of “Shalom Y’All,” a documentary that examines life of Jews living the South.

    2007: Aluf David Ben Ba’ashat ended his service as commander of the Israeli Navy. 

    2008: In Jerusalem, Beit Avi Chai's Saturday night concert series continues with a performance by Rona Keinan, daughter of the famous Israeli author Amos Keinan and singer of “Through Foreign Eyes” – her 2006 hit single - fame. Keinan, who began singing at a young age and quickly rose to prominence through her collaboration with noted Israeli artists including Dana Berger and Eran Zur, is also an icon of Israel's gay and lesbian community.

    2009: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including A Safe Haven:Harry S. Truman and the Founding of Israel by Allis Radosh and Ronald Radosh and Is real is for Real:An Obsessive Quest to Understand the Jewish Nation and Its History by Rich Cohen

    2009: The Washington Post featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Essays of Leonard Michaels. “Leonard Michaels writes in perfectly shaped sentences. This would be cause for admiration and celebration in any writer, but surely it is far more so for one who did not begin to speak English until he was 5 years old. His parents immigrated from Poland to Manhattan's Lower East Side only steps ahead of the Holocaust – ‘When the Nazis seized Brest Litovsk, my grandfather, grandmother, and their youngest daughter, my mother's sister, were buried in a pit with others’ -- and in their tiny apartment the language spoken was Yiddish. That, and Jewishness, permeate his writing, as no one knew more keenly than he did;”

    2009: The Cedar Rapids Gazette published an article entitled “Morocco challenges Mideast mind-set on Holocaust” which described the North African Kingdom’s attempt to deal with the Shaoh.,7340,L-3751982,00.html

    2010(15th of Av, 5770): Tu B’Av

    2010:Rabbi Zerach Greenfield, an expert scribe, is scheduled to be at Tifereth Israel in Columbus to check your Tefillin and discuss repairs and for questions about any other ritual objects that people need reviewed.

    2010: A screening of Hungry Hearts is scheduled to take place at the Castro Theatre during the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.

    2010:The parents of missing Druze soldier Majli Halabi demanded today  that authorities investigate convicted murderer Yichya Farhan regarding the case of their son, according to Israel Defense Forces Radio. Farhan told the Ma'ariv news service over the weekend that he has information that could lead to solution of the Halabi case. Halabi's father Nazbi told reporters at a news conference in family's Daliat-Al-Carmel home, "Although there's a chance that he's lying, it's the state's obligation to check the matter thoroughly."

    2010:After three years of renovation, the Israel Museum in Jerusalem reopened to the public firmly reestablishing itself as Israel’s national museum and the most important repository of Jewish culture in the world.

    2010:The head rabbi of a prominent yeshiva in the West Bank settlement of Yitzhar was arrested today for writing a book that allegedly encourages the killing of non-Jews. Rabbi Yitzhak Shapira is the alleged author of the book "The King's Torah," which deems as legal, according to "Jewish law," the killing of non-Jews.

    2010: The Israel Air Force demolished a weapons plant in northern Gaza early on Monday morning. The operation came in response to recent attacks by Gaza terrorists on Israelis in the western Negev. Planes also took out two smuggling tunnel along the border between Gaza and Egypt. Pilots reported direct hits, and all planes returned safely back to base.

    2010(15th of Av, 5770): Six members of the IDF -Lt. Col (Res.) Avner Goldman, 48, from Modi'in; Lt. Col. Daniel Shipenbauer, 43, from Moshav Kidron; Maj. Yahel Keshet, 33, from Hatzerim; Maj. Lior Shai, 28, from Tel-Nof; Lt. Nir Lakrif, 25, from Tel- Nof; and Staff Sergeant Oren Cohen, 24, from Rehovot – were killed when their helicopter crashed in Roumania.

    2011:The International Master Course for Violinists is scheduled to begin at Kibbutz Eilon “amid the scenic mountains of the western Galilee.”

    2011: Avi Issacharoff, the Palestinian and Arab Affairs Correspondent, Haaretz, is scheduled to deliver an address entitled “Shifting Sands: The Mainstreaming of Hamas, Hezbollah and the Muslim Brotherhood” in Waukee, IA.

    2011: The Hamas government in the Gaza Strip hanged a father and son at dawn today for collaborating with Israel, a government spokesman said. The two were found guilty of helping Israel target a top Hamas leader and identify other militants who were later killed by Israeli forces, said Ihab Ghussein, a spokesman for the Interior Ministry in Gaza.

    2011:Protesters in Tel Aviv's impromptu "tent city" housing protest dismissed Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu's latest plan today, saying that he was trying to create divisions within the protesters, by offering discounts only to students.

    2011:An Israeli orchestra broke a taboo today as it played the music of Adolf Hitler's favorite composer, Richard Wagner, in Germany. Some 700 spectators in Wagner's hometown of Bayreuth loudly applauded the Israel Chamber Orchestra as its 34 musicians concluded their concert with the Siegfried Idyll, becoming the first Israeli ensemble to perform a Wagner piece in Germany.

    2011:The Anti-Defamation League is organizing a free "community briefing" tonight on First Amendment religious freedoms which will explain why it is concerned about Texas Governor Rick Perry's Christian-only day of prayer in Houston next month

    2011: “Olive and the Bitter Herbs” is scheduled to have its first preview performance at 59E59 Theaters  

    2012: University of Pennsylvania Law School Professor Harry Reicher is scheduled to deliver a lecture entitled “The Future of International Justice” at the Illinois Holocaust Museum & Education Center

    2012: “Harbor of Hope” is scheduled to have its West Coast Premiere at the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival while “Sharqiya” is slated to have its California Premiere at the same venue.

    2012:The 12th Annual Summer Institute for Synagogue Musicians, Mifgash Musicale is scheduled to come to an end today at the HUC-JIR campus in Cincinnati, OH.

    2012: Jibril Rajoub, the former head of the Preventive Security Force and current president of the Palestinian Olympic Committee, expressed his approval the IOC’s decision not observe a moment of silence at the opening of the Olympics in memory of those athletes murdered at the Munich Olympics.  Apparently the killers do not want to be reminded of their crime.

    2012(7th of Av, 5772): Ninety-four year old Miriam Porat, the first woman appointed to the Supreme Court of Israel passed away today. (As reported by Tomer Zarchin)

    2013: “Jew New York” an exhibition at Zach Feuer Gallery and Untitled Gallery is scheduled to come to an end today.(As reported by Nathan Burstein)

    2013: In Coralville, Iowa, Agudas Achim is scheduled to host the final session of the “Yiddish Film Festival.”

    2013: Mercedes Bend, Boom Pam, Vaadat Charigim are among the bands scheduled to perform in Jerusalem at the Indie City Music Festival.

    2013: San Diego Mayor Bob Filner’s announcement today that he will undergo two weeks of intensive therapy amid sexual harassment allegations me with a negative reaction from members of the city council (As reported by Tony Perry)

    2013: “Los Angeles Mayor Eric Garcetti said Friday that he “won’t be pushed” into a quick deal on a new labor contract for workers at the Department of Water and Power. (As reported by Michael Finnegan and Kate Linthicum)

    2013: In Paris, prosecutors said dthat Dominique Strauss-Kahn is to stand strial on charges of pimping. In France, the offense of “pimping” covers a wide range of crimes includes aiding or encouraging prostitution. (As reported by Kim Willsher)

    2013: In what might be called a tale of Three Jewish Musketteers “In Tug of of War Over New Fed Leader” published today described the competition between Janet Yellin and Lawrence Summers, both of whom are Jewish, to replace Ben S. Bernanke who is also Jewish as Federal Reserve Chairman is described.

    2013: 60th anniversary of the end of the Korean Conflict

    2013: “Israel has agreed to release 24 Israeli Arab prisoners serving life sentences who were incarcerated before the 1993 Oslo Accords, having already agreed to free 82 pre-Oslo Palestinian prisoners, Israel Radio reported today. The releases would be carried out in phases, the radio report said, in parallel with progress at Israeli-Palestinian peace talks which are set to resume next week. (As reported by Michal Shmulovich and Elhanan Miller) 

    2013: Art Ginsberg the founder of Art’s Deli in Los Angeles who kibitzed with his customers “amid the knishes and the kreplach” was buried today at Sholom Memorial Park in Sylmar. (As reported by Steve Chawkins)

    2014: “Vertigo,” a leading Israeli dance company is scheduled to perform on the open night of the American Dance Festival in New York.

    2014: “The Hidden Passages,” an exhibition organized by Avi Lubin, a curator and head of the theoretical studies and the visiting artists at the postgraduate program, Ha’midrasha Art school.



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    July 27

    1192: As Richard the Lionheart and Saladin continued their conflict during the Third Crusade, Saladin laid siege to Jaffa.

    1214: French King Phillip II defeats the forces headed by Otto IV, the Holy Roman Emperor and King John of England at the Battle of Bouvines.  For the Jews, this is a lose-lose proposition.  King John and King Phillip were both notorious for the mistreatment of their Jewish subjects. Four years before the battle, King John had locked a group of Jews at Bristol Castle and said he would only free them if a 66,000-mark ransom were paid.  King Phillip began exploiting and expelling Jews from the start of his reign in 1180.  At the time of the battle, the king had actually allowed Jews back in his realm so he could take further financial advantage of them.  Otto gets a pass because his relations with Jews are a “blank slate.”

    1245: At the First Council of Lyons Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor is deposed by Pope Innocent IV, the pope who will condemn the Blood Libel in 1249 but who will authorize the use of torture against Jews by Spanish inquisitors in 1252. The First Council of Lyons would follow in the footsteps of the Fourth Lateran Council and adopt decrees compelling Jewish creditors to renounce all claims to interest on debts or similar ordinances which supposedly would encourage men to “take up the Cross” and become Crusaders.

    1290: Following his edict expelling the Jews from England, King Edward issued the following concerning how they were to be treated as they left the country. “The King to all his wardens, officers and sailors of the Cirque ports, greeting…You should ensure that their passage is safe and speedy…free from danger.”   According to Elliot Rosenberg, “the king meant what he said.  When a ship’s captain took passage money from a group of Jews, then left them stranded on asandbank to drown at high tide, Edward ordered him hanged.” 

    1400: King Ladislas offered the Jews of Naples a charter which would give them economic equality.

    1588: After having been driven back across “the Channel” the Spanish Armada anchored at Calais where its leaders found out that the greatly reduced Spanish Army of invasion was not ready to attack England which meant that the Inquisition was still not a fact of life for the Netherlands and the British Isles.

    1655: Jews in New Amsterdam request a place to bury their dead. "Abraham de Lucena, Salvador d'Andrade and Jacob Cohen, Jews in the name of the others, petition the Honorable Director General this day to be permitted to purchase a burying place for their nation…." Less than a year after arriving, the Jews of New Amsterdam requested permission to open a cemetery in 1655. Permission was initially denied and was finally granted a year later. Very often, the formation of a burial society and the start of a cemetery preceded the organization of the Synagogue or Temple. In fact these community organizations were often the progenitors of the house of worship which would follow as the community grew.

    1656: Spinoza was excommunicated in Amsterdam. . Spinoza had been accused together with Juan de Prado of denying the being of Angels, the immortality of the soul and that the Torah was given by God. De Prado apologized but Spinoza refused. The council forbade anyone to communicate with him in any fashion or to read any of his books.

    1671(20thof Av, 5431)Abraham de Fonseca ḥakam of the Portuguese community at Glückstadt, and later at Hamburg and author of Ene Abraham” passed away today.

    1782(16th of Av): Rabbi Jacob Raphael Hezekiah Hazak (Forti) author of Meginnei Erez passed away

    1789: The United States Congress creates the Department of Foreign Affairs which later be renamed the United States Department of State.  A Jew would not get the top job at State until 1973 when Richard Nixon appointed Henry Kissinger to position of Secretary of State.

    1825: Forty-six year old Jakob Salomon Bartholdy the Jewish born German diplomat who converted to Christianity and was the brother-in-law of Abraham Mendelssohn passed away today.

    1836 (13th of Av): Rabbi Abele Poswoler a leading Lithuanian Talmudist passed away

    1846: Joseph B. Montefiore, his wife, nine daughters and two sons accompanied by two servants arrived in Adelaide where he went into “business with his nephew Eliezer Levi Montefiore as importers and shipping agents."

    1849: Birthdate of Herman Naphtali Hyneman, the Philadelphia born painter whose works included “It Might Have Been” and “Marguerite in Prison."

    1851: In Great Britain, Mayer de Rothschild and his wife Juliana, née Cohen gave birth to their only child, Hannah de Rothschild who would marry the 5thEarl of Rosebery and become Hannah Primrose, Countess of Rosebery.

    1853: Jewish architect Leopold Eidlitz and Lazelle Warner, his non-Jewish wife gave birth to Cyrus L.W. Eidlitz who designed One Times Square and the New York Times Building on Times Square.

    1855: Today’s issue of The Israelite was published by Edward Bloch.  Bloch replaced Charles F. Schmidt who had been publishing The Israelite since it was founded by Rabbi Isaac Meyer Wise in 1854.  Bloch would also publish another publication founded by Rabbi Wise, Die Deborah.

    1855: On the day before the death of Solomon Rothschild, the French poet Joseph Mery "said in his weekly article: If I owned the Hotel of the Rue Lafitte (Rothschild's) where ennui and lassitude reign undisputedly, I would do so and so and it would the first time in which a million was ever of benefit to mankind."

    1857: The “Foreign Correspondence” column reported today on the status of the “Jewish Oaths Bill” now before Parliament, specifically, the House of Lords.

    1860: "Remarkable Archaeological Discovery in Ohio" published today reported that “several New-York Archaeologists have, within the past week, received various communications concerning the discovery of a very curious stone relic, covered with Hebrew inscriptions, said to have been found by Mr. Wyrick of Newark, Ohio, in one of those artificial earthworks so numerous in that vicinity.” The inscription on the stone, which may easily be rendered by any Hebrew scholar, reads as follows

    1. Kedosh Kedoskim -- The Holy of Holies.

    2. Torath, Jehovah -- The Law of God.

    3. Melec Erets -- The King of the Earth.

    4. Devar Jehovah -- The Word of the Lord.

    “Some have suggested that the stone might be a Masonic emblem -- the keystone which Master Masons anciently deposited in the corner-stone of their temples. (But, unfortunately for this hypothesis, the shape is not the same.) Others have supposed it furnished evidence of the presence of the lost tribes of Israel. Copies of the inscription have been submitted to some of our learned Rabbis, who generally agree that the above is a fair rendering of the text. But a difference of opinion has been expressed with regard to the antiquity of the characters, some carrying them back to the rime of Ezra, whilst others think them more modern.” To date, there has been no agreement on the antiquity or sources of the stone.

    1860: “A Jewish Republican Candidate” published today reported that “an expression having been made in a Republican meeting, at St. Louis, that ‘even the Jews’ were represented on the Republican legislative ticket of Missouri, Mr. Isidor V. Bush takes the remark as the text of a communication to the Democrat. Mr. Bush is a Jew and a Republican candidate for the Legislature. He contends that neither he nor his people have any personal or selfish ends to serve in politics, but that the Jews unite their interests with those of the State. He adds the following suggestive observations: ‘At the same time you will find the Jews, with few exceptions, in favor of our party, and naturally so -- first, from the impression's received in early youth by the teachings of the Bible, (Exodus xxi., Deuteronomy xv., Leviticus xxv.) "And ye shall proclaim liberty throughout all the land, unto all the inhabitants thereof;" secondly, from his own historic recollections. His daily prayers remind him that his forefathers were slaves in the land of Egypt, freed and brought forth by the Lord; and almost like slaves, worse than free negroes here, burdened with exceptional laws, disfranchised, were our fathers -- are to this very day millions of Jews in some other countries. From sympathy, therefore, the Jew cannot and will not vote for those who enact such cruel, inhuman laws as the selling of free Negroes into Slavery again.’"

    1862: The Richmond Enquirer printed in full what it terms "an eloquent invocation for the success of the Confederate Army," which was pronounced in the synagogue on Mayo-street ( Bayeth Ahabah)  by Rabbi J.M. Michelbacher.

    "We give Thee thanks, O God of Israel for Thou hast brought the vaunting and insulting army of our enemy to naught -- they boasted of strength and valiant deeds, and Thou hast made them weak and caused them to flee. Their wisdom and their cunning arts of war they exalted and enthroned as the minor of might, to be reflected upon the numerous hosts that believed their standards to anticipated triumphs; but Thou, O Eternal God of Israel; hast debased their proud exaltation, and brought it down in its pride, its vanity and its foolishness. Their vain and forward words were like the sound of threatening thunder from an approaching and lowering cloud -- as to meet David, Thy servant, so they come forth to the army of people who trust in Thee; and Thou hast caused their threatenings and their vain is to be heard me more! For all these manifestations of Thy divine care and goodness we desire, with  of hearts, to other the cure of our worship of thanks to Thee with dispositions of joy and gladness in the presence of the country unity shining light of Thy visible and emitting protection."

    The following is its conclusion:

    "O, God, continue Thy protecting care of our army -- and our soldiers to deeds of self-sacrifice and value in the battles for the liberty and independence of our country. Be with them, O Lord! in the lights and push them with Thy right hand against the enemy, and give them a firm foot-hold upon the trend, and let them think of Thee, and call upon Thy name, that they may be always led to victory -- let one of them be as ten thousand in the sight of the toe; and giant that in all engagements our soldiers may win the victory by the presence of Thy countenance. O, God! the perpetuity of a patriotic and just government, with counsellors and refers of wisdom, is a great blessing from Thee to the people; therefore, we pray Thee, that the Government of the Confederate States of America may be firmly established, and that Thou be unto it the rock upon which it shall be founded. Let the nations of the earth respect and revere it, and [???] its just resentment; let the dispensation of its laws be equal and just, and let its exaltation consist in the righteousness of the people. Protect and defend it from enemies abroad and foes within; and grant that the hearts of the people may be ever turned toward Thee, both in the public and private affairs of life. Grant that the Ministers of Government may have a constant fear of Thee, and a continual desire to subserve the best interests of the common welfare. We earnestly pray Thee to inspire the President of the Confederate States of America with true piety, courage, wisdom, prudence and foresight. Give unto him a just fear of disobeying Thy divine laws, and let his heart do reverence at the mention of Thy great and glorious name, that our people may be blessed in the Chief of their choice. Keep him in the path of patriotism and rectitude, that he may be a model the people of an upright citizen that [???] the Lord. Endow our Governor with all the attributes meet and proper for his station; and let his private and official conduct redound to the honor had best interests of the State of Virginia, and the happiness and prosperity of the people.

    1862: The Knoxville Register reported that it has been informed that certain parties in Huntsville, who were unpatriotic enough to sell their cotton to the Jews who swarmed there from the North, were paid by them in bogus gold. “The galvanized coating has worn off the pewter, and these gentlemen have lost their cotton as effectually as if they had burned it like other true Southerners.”

    1863: As the United States implemented a draft during the Civil War that resulted in a major riot in July of 1863, today a man, said to be a “Jew broker, made his appearance in Westchester, Penn., accompanied by a dozen others, whom he represented as anxious to serve as substitutes, for a consideration. Although some of the men, it is said, boasted of having taken part in the New-York riots, yet they were eagerly caught up by drafted men, and engaged at various prices as substitutes. Two of the number were sharp enough to get their money before being mustered in, and they immediately skedaddled. Four others were accepted by the Enrollment Board, and sent to the barracks, but three out of the number turned up missing the next morning. They were pursued by the Deputy Provost-Marshall and by dint of threats, and the more powerful argument of a loaded revolver, were induced to return, when they were lodged in jail for safe keeping. Three others escaped, and have not yet been caught.

    1868: Birthdate of Milton S. Florsheim, the native of Chicago, Illinois who founded the Florsheim Shoe Company in 1892.

    1870: Playwright and poet Hermann Hersch passed away today in Berlin.

    1874(13th of Av, 5634):  Baron Anselm Salomon von Rothschild, the second generation leader of the Austrian branch of the House of Rothschild passed away. Born in 1803 in Frankfurt am Main he was the son of Baron Salomon Mayer von Rothschild and his wife Caroline. In 1826 he married his cousin Charlotte Nathan Rothschild, daughter of Nathan Mayer Rothschild from the London branch of the family; they had eight children.

    1879: In the wake of Austin Corbin’s announcement banning Jews from Manhattan Beach, it was reported that “they are not prohibited on account of their religious principles from buying Humphrey’s Parisian Diamonds” which are on sale at Humphrey’s Jewelry Store at the corner of Broadway and 12th Street.

    1880: Theodore Herzl passes his first legal exam.

    1881: Forty-eight year old Michael Meyer, a Jewish immigrant from Germany, lies in a hospital bed in Jersey City fighting for his life.  Meyer, a popular cattle driver, was attacked by a bull this morning leaving him with crushed ribs and a mangled right leg.  Meyer, who lives in Brooklyn with his wife, had begun working in the cattle business in Germany before coming to the United States.

    1881: “The Affairs of Russia” published today described the outbreak of new violence aimed at the Jews of Pultava in the Ukraine.

    1882: In San Francisco, CA, nobody has seen Samuel L. Sachs since he shot his wife yesterday.  Sachs is the son of Louis Sachs and a partner in Sachs, Heller & Co, a firm that specializes in importing dry goods. 

    1884: “Lessing” published today provided a summary of the writings and philosophy of Gotthold Ephriam Lessing best known for “Nathan the Wise” that portrays religious toleration in mythical meeting of a Jewish merchant, Saladin and a nameless Templar during the Crusade.

    1885: “The Russian Idea of Cowboys” published today described the offer of a Polish born Jew living in Dallas, TX to supply to supply the Czar with 106 cowboys if he should go to war with England. (Considering the oppressive treatment of Jews in Russia, this is a bizarre offer to say the least.)

    1887: It was reported today in New York that Joseph Levy will act as business agent for Booth-Barrett.

    1887: It was reported today that John Howson has been chosen to play the part of “the Jew” in “Pawn Ticket No. 1,525) a play by Clay M. Green which is an adaptation of the novel Court Royal

    1887(6th of Av, 5647): Long-time Brooklyn resident, Hirsch Harris who was known as “Rabbi Hirsch” passed away today at the age of 109. A native of a small town near Warsaw, Harris made his fortune making and selling kimmel a liqueur made from cumin, fennel and caraway seeds. He came to the United States in 1850 where he continued to enjoy success manufacturing kimmel. His nickname came from his scrupulous observance of Jewish laws and customs.

    1888: The managers of the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children have collected $179 to pay for next week’s excursion.  Since the children are poor and the excursions are free, the public can send additional donations to Nathan Lewis, Hezekiah Kohn and Joseph Davis.

    1889: The general public is invited to attend the upcoming lecture by Cyrus Adler of Johns Hopkins University that will be delivered at the Jewish Theological Seminary in New York City.

    1889: It was reported today that the 5th free excursion sponsored by the Sanitarium For Hebrew Children will take place next week.  The cruise will be limited to children six years and younger.

    1890: In St. Petersburg, Russia, the Minister of the Interior “has ordered the local authorities to prevent foreign missionaries from” proselytizing among the Jews since it infringes on the  Orthodox Church’s “exclusive right of conversion “

    1890: “A Queer Sort of Victory” published today described the victory of the workers led by Joseph Barondees over the Cloak Manufacturers Association during a season of strikes that spread throughout the New York area.

    1891: Members of the United States Immigration are scheduled to leave Great Britain for the European continent where they will continue their investigation into abuses of the system including the practice of buying cut-rate tickets for Russian Jews to sail for America so they will not remain in France and England.

    1891: The U.S. Secretary of the Treasury received a communication from Simon Wolf and Lewis Abraham written on behalf of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations objecting to Russian Jewish immigrants being classified as “paupers or assisted immigrants” “when hands of help to elevated them to the exalted position of American citizenship without demanding any contributions from national or local taxes.”

    1892: The New York Times reported that Washington Nathan had died in France.  Nathan was the son of Benjamin Nathan, the prominent New Yorker who was murdered in 1870.  The murder has never been solved.  There are those who think that the son was involved in his father’s murder.

    1892: Police continue to scour the area around Pittsburg looking for other anarchist who may have been part of the plot in which the Jewish-born anarchist Alexander Berkman shot Henry Clay Frick during the Homestead Steel Strike.

    1893: The funeral of Priscilla J. Joachimsen, President of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum and the widow of Judge Joachimsen is scheduled to take place this morning.

    1893: Fire broke out this afternoon at 123 Clinton Street, a double tenement occupied by sixteen Russian-Jewish families when the stove of Mrs. Morris Lewenthal exploded.  Her husband operates a butter and provision store on the ground floor next Meyer Norman’s poultry and meat store.

    1894: In Minneapolis, MN formation of Council No. 9 of the National Council of Jewish Women with Nina M. Cohen serving as President and Mrs. Mamie Lehmaler serving as Secretary.  (Council No 10 would be formed at Duluth in September and Council No. 11 would be formed at St. Paul in October giving the state three chapters of this major national Jewish women’s organization.

    1895: Herzl leaves Paris and will never return as a resident. He will become an editor for the Neue Freie Presse at a reduced salary.

    1895(6th of Av, 5655): Austrian physician Karl Bettelheim passed away.

    1895: The resolution adopted by the Council of the University Settlement  Society of New York published today expressed the members’ sense of loss at the death of Abram C. Bernheim and acknowledged his contributions including  the organization of the first free art exhibition on the Lower East Side which has become an annual event.

    1897: “National Jewish Chautauqua” published today described events at the second assembly which is meeting at Atlantic City including Dr. Henry Berkowitz’s report on the work of the society and a talk by Dr. M.H. Harris on Ezra the Scribe.

    1904: Birthdate of author Isaac Bashevis Singer. Singer won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1978. He passed away in 1991.

    1905: The seventh annual Zionist Congress opened today in Basle, Switzerland.  Dr. Max Nordau was elected President at the afternoon session and Rabbi Judah L. Magnes was elected as Secretary of the English-speaking section.

    1909(9th of Av, 5669): Tish'a B'Av

    1909: In Dunedin attorney Henry Brash (born Hyam Brasch) and Helene Mary Fels gave birth to Charles Orwell Brasch New Zealand poet and patron of the arts.

    1909: Turkish Parliament passed a law allowing Jewish societies to have the privilege of purchasing land in their own names.

    1915: During WW I, in Berlin, Albert Einstein was among a group of 91 prominent German intellectuals who signed a declaration opposing all territorial annexations and calling for a compromise peace

    1916: It was announced today that many of the philanthropic organizations working in New York City had come together to form The Federation of Jewish Philanthropies.  The new organization should increase efficiency both in the soliciting and distribution of funds.  Based on the experience of other cities, there should be a 30% increase in the amount of money raised.  Abram I. Elkus, whom President Wilson recently named to serve as Ambassador to Turkey is the Chairman of the new federation.  Alfred M. Heinsheimer kicked off the donation process with a contribution of $25,000.

    1916 Ed Wynn the Jewish comedian whose career ran from Vaudeville to Television and Hilda Keenan gave birth to actor Keenan Wynn.

    1918: Birthdate of cellist Leonard Rose. Born in Washington DC, Rose was the concert cellist with the New York Philharmonic from 1943 to 1951.

    1920: Keren Hayesod (Eretz-Israel Foundation Fund) was created in London at the London Zionist Conference. It was intended for education, absorption and the development of rural settlements in Eretz-Israel.

    1922: Birthdate of television producer Norman Lear. Yes, the man who made Archie Bunker a national institution, who created the “Jeffersons” which provided a acting vehicle for numerous Afro-American performers and who got Americans to look at their own prejudices, is Jewish.

    1920: Chaim Weizmann was elected president of the World Zionist Organization.

    1924:  The Eighth Olympic Games close in Paris.  The 1924 Olympics were the focal point of the movie hit “Chariots of Fire” which featured the struggle of Harold Abraham to gain social acceptance and athletic success.  The real Abraham had lost in his attempt to win a medal in the 1920 Olympics. In 1924, he surprised everybody by winning the Gold Medal in the 100 meter race, making him the first European to win in one of the sprint competitions. 

    1925: Birthdate of Marion “Meg” Dulin.  Dulin, a native of Vinton, Iowa, served with the 423rd Medical Collecting Company during World War II and “was among the young Americans who entered Buchenwald Concentration Camp to free prisoners” an event that must have been of some significance in his life since it was specifically mentioned in his obituary when he passed away in July, 2009 at the age of 83.  While there are those who have been quick to criticize America for its lack of effort to save Jewish lives during the Holocaust, Dulin is an example of the American G.I.’s who literally liberated the remnant of our co-religioinst from “the Night.”

    1926: Birthdate of Bernard Harper Friedman, known as Bob to his friends, “a real estate executive who gave up his business career to write well-received novels and art criticism and whose books include an early biography of Jackson Pollock.”

    1927(29thof Av, 5687): Less than two months before his 67th birthday, Solomon Joseph Solomon the acclaimed artist who was the brother of Lily Delissa Joseph, who was also an artist, passed away today.

    1929: Birthdate of Alan Lloyd Haberman, the native of Worcester, MA, who led the industry committee that chose the bar code over other contenders in 1973.and then spent years afterward cajoling manufacturers, retailers and the public to accept the strange new symbol, which resembles a highly if irregularly compacted zebra. (As reported by Margalit Fox)

    1930: Birthdate of Anthony Janoff Weiner, the New Jersey native who became a noted futurist after he co-authored The Year 2000: A Framework for Speculation on the Next Thirty-three Years (As reported by Douglas Martin)

    1934: A dispatch to The Timesfrom Palestine calls the attention of the British Government and people to the fact that the Jewish national home is turning out to be something very different from what they expected and even from what the first Zionists expected. The Anti-Jewish Campaign in Germany has sent a flood of immigrants to Palestine. In the mean time the Revisionists appear to be gaining recruits and support.

    1935: As the condition of German Jews continues to deteriorate an “article entitled ‘Finish Up with the Jews’ urges German girls to wake up and not go with Jews any longer.”  Equating social interaction with economic activity, the article continues, ‘Gewrman woman, if you buy froms, and German girl if you carry on with Jews, then both of your betray your German Volk and its Fuhrer, Adolf Hitler, and commit a sin against your German volk and its future.’”

    1936: The Palestine Post reported that 12 Arabs were known to have been killed in a battle with British troops in the hills, off the Jerusalem-Jaffa highway. Barbed-wire barricades and other police precautions were evident in Jaffa as Arabs observed the 100th day of their national strike and uprising. The Iraq Petroleum Co. pipeline and railway lines were damaged and the government imposed heavy collective fines on villages suspected of sabotage. Arabs attacked Ramat Hakovesh and other settlements near Kfar Saba but were beaten off.

    1937 A ritual-murder trial of five Jews opens in Bamberg, Germany

    1940: With Mel Blanc providing the voice Bugs Bunny makes his official debut in the animated cartoon A Wild Hare. The Bunny had the voice of the Jew without a Yiddish accent.

    1941: German and Rumanian troops entered Kishinev, Soviet Union. Five thousand Kishinev Jews would be executed within a week.

    1941(3rdof Av, 5701): Jews were taken from the Kovno and executed by Lithuanian militia at the Seventh Fort.

    1941(3rd of Av, 5701): In retaliation for Jewish resistance, 1,200 Jews were taken from Belgrade to the labor camp at Tasmajdan. One hundred twenty of them were taken to Jajinci and shot. In other words, one out of every ten captives is shot. The reality is that they would all have been killed at some point in time as part of the Final Solution.

    1941: A second pogrom known as the "Petliura Days",which had been  named for Symon Petliura came to an end.  “For three straight days, Ukrainian militants went on a murderous rampage through the Jewish districts of Lwów. Groups of Jews were herded out to the Jewish cemetery and to the prison on Łąckiego street where they were shot. More than 2,000 Jews were killed and thousands more were injured.”

    1941: The clothing of Jews murdered in Ponas, Ukraine, is sold by the Ukrainian and Nazi killers

    1941: In Holland, a collaborationist military force with ties to the SS, Freiwillingen Legion Niederlander (Dutch Volunteer Legion), is established.

    1942: The Nazis take Rostov for a second time, touching off another wave of slaughter for the Jews that would take the life of Sabina Spielrein, the first female psychoanalysts.

    1942: The Germans distributed a proclamation stating that any Pole or Ukrainian who tried to help a Jew would be shot.

    1942: The first Belgian Jews arrived at Mechelen. The ancient fortress in this small town between Brussels and Antwerp was actually the first stop for the Jews being transported to Auschwitz. The Jews thought they were going to work in factories in the East. Mechelen would serve as the collection point. Each time a thousand Jews were brought together, a train would leave for the death camp in Poland.

    1943: While combing the ruin of the Warsaw Ghetto for loot, the Germans uncovered hidden Jews, most of who are shot on the spot.

    1943:  The Leon Group escaped from the ghetto in Vilna.  The Leon Group was made up of 21 Jewish partisans under the command of Joseph Glassman.  Michael Kovner, brother of Abba Kovner was a member of the group.  The Leon Group was the first group of what were intended to be many groups of partisans that Abba Kovner would send into the woods beyond Vilna to take part in guerilla warfare against the Nazis and their allies.  As the group of 21 made the fifty mile trek to the forests they were ambushed.  Nine of the Jews died in the brief, uneven fight.  A search of the corpses produced the names and addresses of the victims.

    1944: Siauliai, Lithuania, is liberated by the Red Army, 12 days after German deportations of 7000 local Jews and the murder of 100 left behind.

    1944: Dvinsk, Latvia, is liberated by the Soviet Union two years too late to save the Jewish community. When the Germans occupied Dvinsk at the end of June 1941, the Nazis organized a Pogrom. Synagogues were burned down or taken over by the army. A ghetto was set up in July 1941 including Jews from the surrounding localities. In October, 1941, most of the Jews in the Ghetto were murdered and the Ghetto was liquidated in May, 1942

    1944: The Wehrmachtretreats from Lvov, Ukraine. Only a few of the city's Jews, many of them hiding in sewers, have lived through the German occupation

    1945(17thof Av, 5705): Shakne Epshtein, the “Jewish-Russian journalist and the secretary and editor of the Eynikayt (Unity) the newspaper published by the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee who championed the creation of a Jewish republic in the Crimea passed away today.

    1946(28th of Tammuz, 5706):  Gertrude Stein passed away.

    1946: Theodore Levin received his commission to serve as a judge on the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan He served as chief judge of that court from 1959 to 1967, and thereafter served until his death.

    1946: In Metuchen, New Jersey, Helen and Stanley Cowen gave birth to Scott Cowen who served as President of  Tulane during the challenging times brought on by Hurricane Katrina.

    1947(10th of Av, 5707): Tish’a B’Av observed since the 9thof Av fell on Shabbat

    1947: Jews who had tried to enter Palestine aboard the Exodus, observed the fast of Tish’a B’Av as the Empire Rivaltransported them back to France.

    1948(20th of Tammuz, 5708): Forty-four year old S.J. “Skid” Simon the native of Harbin who gained fame as a bridge player and author of comic works including Don't, Mr. Disraeli!  passed away today.

    1948(20th of Tammuz, 5708): Fifty-two year old Joel Woolf Barnato, the British financier, racing driver and RAF veteran passed away today.

    1949: In Brooklyn, Irving and Clarice Chaykin gave birth to Maury Alan Chaykin, Canadian character best known to many for his portrayal of detective Nero Wolfe. (As reported by Bruce Weber)

    1950: New Zealand recognized Israel.

    1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that Israel had asked the UN Security Council to instruct Egypt to open the Suez Canal for Israeli cargoes and shipping "permanently and unconditionally." Final plans were made for the new Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center in Jerusalem, including a 430-bed hospital, a nursing training school and nurses' home and a medical school.

    1953: King Hussein of Jordan declared that east Jerusalem was the ‘alternative capital of the Hashemite Kingdom.’  In fact, the Jordanians would do all they could to discourage development of the portion of Jerusalem they had occupied since 1948.

    1955(8thof Av, 5715): Erev Tish’a B’Av

    1955(8thof Av, 5715): A plane bound for Israel was shot down by Bulgaria. Fifty one passengers and seven crew members were killed. This episode took place at the height of the Cold War when such incidents were not that uncommon. The plane was flying from Vienna to Tel Aviv when Bulgarian fighters forced the El Al plane to land at Sofia, Bulgaria’s capital. As the plane was circling to land, it was shot out of the sky by the Bulgarians. The Israeli government claimed the bodies and buried them in Israel. The episode provided opponents of El Al with an argument for doing away with a national airline as a luxury the infant state could not afford. But the government stuck to its guns. There were no other such incidents and El Al continued to fly.

    1955: Forty year old Pinchas Porat who was one of Israel’s pilots who flew with 101 Squadron died today while serving as the co-pilot aboard El Al Flight 402 which was shot down by Bulgaria.

    1956: Birthdate of Carol Leifer, an American comedian, writer, producer and actress who describes herself as a Jewish lesbian vegan.

    1961: Birthdate of Israeli performer Erez Tal whose “first hit program was "Ma Yesh" ("What's Up"), broadcast on Galattz, Israel's Army radio.”

    1968(2ndof Av, 5728): Seventy-five year old Czech architect Otto Eisler passed away today a Bron.

    1969(12th of Av, 5729): Seventy-three year old Vivian de Sola Pinto the British poet who served at Gallipoli in World War and who “appeared for the defense in the obscenity trial regarding Lady Chatterley’s Lover in 1960 passed away. (For the ultimate literary experience consider the during WW I he served in a company in which he was second in command to Siefgried Sasson – were the orders in prose or poetry)

    1969: As Operation Boxer continues “several 109 Squadron Skyhawks carried out a nighttime attack.”

    1976: The Jerusalem Post reported that the US State Department sought to downplay the significance of its contacts with the PLO, stressing that they were only "technical" and designed to assure a safe departure of American citizens from Lebanon. The management of the Koor Industries decided to close the Steel City until further notice, after one of the workers, unhappy with his job, locked the gates and accompanied by his wife stopped 900 workers from entering the factory.

    1979: Zuheir Mohsen, head of PLO military operations was killed by unknown parties as he exited a casino in the fames French resort of Cannes.

    1980(14th of Av, 5740):  A Jewish boy from France was killed and others were injured when terrorists threw grenades at a group of children in Antwerp, Belgium.

    1981(25th of Tammuz, 5741): Award winning movie director William Wyler passed away. There is no way that this blog can do justice to his career.!topic/alt.obituaries/Wx2KzqNjebo

    1991:TV Guide publishes its 2000th edition. This icon of American culture was created by Jewish millionaire publishing magnate Walter Annenberg. 

    1993: “The Senate today confirmed the nomination of Arthur Levitt Jr., President Clinton's selection as chairman of the Securities and Exchange Commission.”

    1993: The Senate confirmed the nomination of Joseph Stiglitz to serve on President Clinton’s Council of Economic Advisers.

    1995: In “Dead Birdie” published today, Gerald Thomson pans the Davis Production of Charles Strouse’s musical “Bye Bye Birdie.”

    1997: The Sunday New York Times features a review of Bloomberg by Bloombergby Michael Bloomberg

    1998:G. Oliver Koppell, a candidate for the Democratic nomination for state attorney general, attacked two of his rivals on of which was Elliot Spitzer, today for accepting campaign contributions from members of the Tisch family, which controls the Lorillard Tobacco Company.

    2000: Medieval Hebrew Poetry in its Religious and Secular Context, a colloquium sponsored by The European Association for Jewish Studies (EAJS) came to an end.

    2003: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including History of Britain by Simon Schama, Support Any Friend by Warren Bass and My Anecdotal Life: A Memoir by Carl Reiner.

    2004(9th of Av, 5746): Tish’a B’Av

    2004: A revival of Stephen Sondheim’s “Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street” opened today at the Watermill Theatre in Newbury, England

    2006: Police interrogated Haim Ramon for seven hours today, the same day on which, in an unrelated matter he said "Everyone in southern Lebanon is a terrorist and is connected to Hezbollah”

    2006: During the first round of what would become his 15th tour title, Jewish golfer Corey Pavin broke the record for the fewest number of strokes needed to complete nine holes at a PGA Tour event, with an 8-under par score of 26.

    2006: Yaakov Edri “was named Minister without Portfolio responsible for Jerusalem Affairs.”

    2007: Toby Press publishes the thirtieth anniversary edition of Brothers by Chayym Zeldish.

    2007: In Jerusalem, Zubin Mehta leads the Israel Philharmonic in a concert to celebrate the birthday of philanthropist Edmund Safra and the 40th anniversary of united Jerusalem.

    2007: Ralph A. Alpher awarded the National Medal of Science, the highest such honor in the United States, which was presented to his son Dr. Victor S. Alpher because he could not travel to receive the award due to failing health.

    2007: The U.S. Post Office released a full-sheet pane of Marvel Super Heroes. Ten of the stamps are portraits of individual Marvel characters and the other 10 stamps depict individual Marvel Comic book covers. According to the credits printed on the back of the pane, Jack Kirby's artwork is featured on: Captain America, The Thing, Silver Surfer, Amazing Spider-Man #1, The Incredible Hulk #1, Captain America #100, X-Men #1, and Fantastic Four #3

    2008: The Saul Steinberg: Illuminations travelling exhibition, which displays original Steinberg works at various museum and galleries around the world has its final showing the  Fondation Cartier-Bresson, in Paris.

    2008: The Sunday New York Times book section featured a review of Moral Clarity A Guide for Grown-Up Idealistsby Jewish author Susan Neiman.

    2008(27th of Tammuz, 5768): Eighty-four year old Mexican multi-millionaire Isaac Saba Raffoul, the son of an immigrant from Aleppo, passed away today.

    2008: The Washington Post book section featured reviews of a children’s book entitled Little Brother by Canadian born Jewish author Cory Doctorow and The Fall and Rise of the Islamic State by Noah Feldman.

    2008: In TheWashington Post, “The Poet’s Choice” column features reviews of the work of Jewish poet Allen Grossman including "A Pastoral,""The Piano Player Explains Himself"and"The Work" from The Ether Dome and Other Poems: New and Selected

    2009: In Jerusalem, it is Open Mic Night In English at the Off the Wall Comedy Basement on Ben Yehuda Street.

    2009: In Jerusalem, Agite Drive plays Balkan music at the Biblical Zoo aka, The Tisch Family Zoological Gardens (Biblical Zoo)

    2009: Newsweek magazine reads like a copy of the Forwards with a spate of articles about Jews and/or of special interest to Jews including “Israel Fights Wire With Wire,” “Hit Squad vs. Mossad,”  “The Israel Trail,” about a 600-mile footpath “that ambles from the country’s…border with Egypt…to the edge of Lebanon”,  a profile on the views of economist Joseph Stiglitz and the semi-positive quote from “the normally pessimistic economist Nouriel Roubini” that “the light at the of the tunnel, for once, is not an incoming train.”

    2010:Random House is scheduled to publish Gary Shteyngart’s third novel, Super Sad True Love Story

    2010: As part of WJFF Year-Round, a creening of Eli & Ben is scheduled to take place in Washington, D.C.

    2010: After a 29-year hiatus, the Annual National Bible Quiz for Adults is once again underway with 2,078 contestants taking part in the first round in Jerusalem today.

    2010: “Junk food junkies” were saddened today at the passing of 90 year old Morrie Yohai, the “developer of Cheez Doodles. (As reported by Dennis Hevesi)

    2010(16th of Av, 5770): Sixty-one year old character actor Maury Chaykin, passed away today in Toronto. (As reported by Bruce Weber)

    2011: Rabbi Mordechai Becher is scheduled to deliver a lecture entitled “Two Great Jewish Mystics – The Ramcal and the Maharal of Prague at the Philadelphia Ethical Society on Rittenhouse Square.

    2011: YJAM-Young Jewish Adults of Milwaukee is scheduled to provide a free nosh for those attending the Battle of the Bands at River Rhythms.

    2011: Planet Money reporters Alex Blumberg and Adam Davidson are scheduled to offer a practical and humorous field guide to America's economic future at Washington’s Sixth and I Historic Synagogue.

    2011: Today, the French Foreign Ministry circulated comments made by its minister Alain Juppe last week saying that any solution to the Middle East will need to recognize Israel as the nation-state for the Jewish people.

    2011: Histadrut chairman Ofer Eini pledged support today for demonstrators protesting across the country for affordable housing, saying the Histadrut would join protests "at all levels" if the government did not invite the labor organization to discuss real solutions to the issues facing the middle and lower classes, Israel Radio reported

    2011(24th of Tammuz, 5771)): Ninety-three year old Admiral Maurice “Mike” Rindskopf, a hero of the Silent Service during WW II passed away today. (As reported by Dennis Hevesi and  Emily Langer)

    2012: Donald Sanford, the 400 meter runner, is scheduled to be part of the Israeli team representing the Jewish state at the Olympics which open today in London.

    2012: The Tel Aviv International Children’s Festival which features 30 films for children between the ages of 3 and 13 is scheduled to come to an end today.

    2012: Since the IOC has sided with the killers and decided against “a moment of silence” to honor the memory of those slaughtered at 40 years ago at Munich  the following prayer composed by Rabbi Jonathan Sacks is scheduled to be offered by many Jews throughout the world

    2012: The faces of the 11 murdered Munich Olympians, flashed on the screen in Israel as the Israeli delegation marched into the stadium.
    2012: Terrorists fired two Kassam rockets from Gaza into southern Israel this evening.

    2012: Ninety-eight year old Tony Martin, the son of Polish immigrants, whose singing career spanned eight decades passed away today. (As reported by Frank J. Prial)

    2013: The Arab-Hebrew Theatre is scheduled to present “Eyes based on the works of Palestinian Poet Mahmoud Darwish in New York City.

    2013: “Joe Papp in Five Acts” is scheduled to be shown at the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.

    2013: Avital Raz is scheduled to debut her newest album in Jerusalem.

    2013(20th of Av, 5773): Seventy-seven year old Rabbi Jacob Immanuel Schochet passed away today.

    2013(20th of Av, 5773): Eight-six year old pioneering television newsman Herbert Kaplow passed away today. (As reported by Douglas Martin)

    2014: In a sign of that summer is ending, Temple Judah is scheduled to hold its Religious School In-Service.

    2014: “A Serious Man” and “The Big Lebowski” are scheduled to be shown at the Washington Jewish Film Festival.

    2014: The Illinois Holocaust Museum & Education Center and the ADL are scheduled to host “Family Day” where attendees can explore identity through art.

    2014: The New York Times reviewed books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Good Spy: The Life and Death of Robert Ames by Kai Bird, Good Hunting: An American Spymaster’s Story by Jack Devine and Vernon Loeb, Lucian Freud: Eyes Wide Open by Phoebe Hoban, The Golden Age Shtetl: A New History of Jewish Life in East Europe by Yohanan Petrovsky-Shtern and The Essential Ellen Willis edited by Nona Willis Aronowitz.

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    July 28 

    450:Theodosius II the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Emperor from 408 to 450 passed away. His reign was not a good period for the Jews people. In 425 “on the death of the Jewish Patriarch Gamaliel II, the patriarchate, and the Jewish council associated with it, is ended.” In 429 the “Roman empire formally abolished the Jewish Patriarchate and diverted the Jewish temple tax to the imperial treasury. In 439 The Theodosian Code was “published which, among others, imposed the death penalty on any Jew who tried to convert a Christian to Judaism” and excluded Jews from holding public office.

    532: “Emperor Justinian issues a new law condemning Manichaeans, Samaritans, and heretics. In the process, he categorizes Jews as being heretics” "Since many judges, in deciding cases, have addressed us in need of our decision, asking that they be informed what ought to be done with witnesses who are heretics, whether their testimony ought to be received or rejected. We therefore ordain that no heretic, nor even they who cherish the Jewish superstition, may offer testimony against orthodox Christians who are engaged in litigation, whether one or the other of the parties is an orthodox Christian." (

    1232: In a grant issued today, King Henry III gave Peter de Rivel “the office of Treasurer and Chancellor of the Irish Exchequer, the king's ports and coast, and ‘the custody of the King's Judaism in Ireland’” which meant that all Jews in Ireland shall be intentive and respondent to Peter as their keeper in all things touching the king".

    1294: Adolf of Nassau “issued an order” forbidding Jews in Worms to acquire real estate and banning them from occupying “the commons” i.e. territory belonging to the commonwealth.

    1315:Nine years after he had expelled the Jews (1306), King Louis X of France issued an edict that permitted “the Jews to return for a period of twelve years, authorizing them to establish themselves in the cities in which they had lived before their banishment. He issued this edict in answer to the demands of the people. Geoffroy of Paris, the popular poet of the time, says in fact that the Jews were gentle in comparison with the Christians who had taken their place, and who had flayed their debtors alive; if the Jews had remained, the country would have been happier; for there were no longer any moneylenders at all (Bouquet, xxii. 118). The king probably had the interests of his treasury also in view. The profits of the former confiscations had gone into the treasury, and by recalling the Jews for only twelve years he would have an opportunity for ransoming them at the end of this period. It appears that they gave the sum of 122,500 livres for the privilege of returning. It is also probable, as Vuitry states, that a large number of the debts owing to the Jews had not been recovered, and that the holders of the notes had preserved them; the decree of return specified that two-thirds of the old debts recovered by the Jews should go into the treasury. The conditions under which they were allowed to settle in the land are set forth in a number of articles; some of the guaranties which were accorded the Jews had probably been demanded by them and been paid for. They were to live by the work of their hands or to sell merchandise of a good quality; they were to wear the circular badge, and not discuss religion with laymen. They were not to be molested, either with regard to the chattels they had carried away at the time of their banishment, or with regard to the loans which they had made since then, or in general with regard to anything which had happened in the past. Their synagogues and their cemeteries were to be restored to them on condition that they would refund their value; or, if these could not be restored, the king would give them the necessary sites at a reasonable price. The books of the Law that had not yet been returned to them were also to be restored, with the exception of the Talmud. After the period of twelve years granted to them the king might not expel the Jews again without giving them a year's time in which to dispose of their property and carry away their goods. They were not to lend on usury, and no one was to be forced by the king or his officers to repay to them usurious loans. If they engaged in pawn broking, they were not to take more than two deniers in the pound a week; they were to lend only on pledges. Two men with the title "auditors of the Jews" were entrusted with the execution of this ordinance, and were to take cognizance of all claims that might arise in connection with goods belonging to the Jews which had been sold before the expulsion for less than half of what was regarded as a fair price. The king finally declared that he took the Jews under his special protection, and that he desired to have their persons and property protected from all violence, injury, and oppression.”

    1586:  The first potato arrived in Britain.  Since the potato is indigenous to Peru and Bolivia this date means that European Jews could not have enjoyed such delicacies as Latkes and Potato Knishes until at least the 17thcentury.

    1609: Bermuda is first settled, by survivors of the English Sea Venture, en route to Virginia. “Historically, few Jews moved to Bermuda because of the harsh policies of the English toward Jews on the island in the 18th century. There is one place on the island, Jews Bay, which proves Jewish origins in Bermuda. The name of the bay dates back to the early 1600s, and is considered to be named after a group of Jews who did business on the island." (Jewish Virtual Library)

    1627: Emperor Ferdinand II, “the terror of the Protestants” sent a “threatening letter” to the senate in Hamburg expressing his indignation that “the Lutheran city on the Elbe would not allow Catholics to build a church” but would allow the Jews open a synagogue because of their importance in the trading life of the city.  The city relied on the support of Portuguese Jews living in Amsterdam for financial support and had allowed a group of them to settle in the city.

    1648: Three thousand Jewish children were killed by Chmeilnicki's hordes in Konstantnow.

    1764:  Birthdate of Solomon Etting, the Baltimore businessman and politician who led the successful fight to end Maryland’s laws that banned non-Christians from holding public office and practicing law.

    1776: Jonas Phillips “sent a letter to a relative and business correspondent of his in Holland, Gumpel Samson by way of the Dutch Island of St. Eustatius. The letter begins by discussing his last letter and other business matters. He moves on to discuss the conflict with England and laconically mentions that the Americans have 100,000 soldiers to the British 25,000. He finishes the letter with an appendix of items he want sent to America so he may sell them.  There are two important things about this letter. First, Jonas enclosed within the letter a newly-minted copy of the Declaration of Independence. And secondly, Jonas wrote the letter in Yiddish. Since at war with Britain Jonas would have expected the letter to be intercepted, but by writing in Yiddish they would not be able to read it. The British did intercept the letter and not knowing in language it was written concluded it was in code.” Phillips was born in Germany in 1736 and came to America in 1756.  After working as an indentured servant in Charleston SC, he moved North, eventually settling in New York City where he became a successful merchant who was active in the Jewish community of both NYC and Philadelphia and supporter of the American Revolution.  He was the grandfather of Uriah Phillips Levy, the first Jewish Commodore in the United States Navy.

    1789(5th of Av, 5549): Meir ben Saul Barby the scholar who escaped poverty and served as rabbi at congregations at Halberstadt and Halle-on-the-Salle.

    1794:  French political leader and revolutionary, Maximilien Robespierre meets his fate with the guillotine.  Whatever his other shortcomings, Robespierre took the unpopular stance of advocating full rights for the Jews of France when the subject first was debated in 1789. In part he stated, “How can you blame the Jews for the persecution they have suffered in certain countries?  These are, on the contrary, national crimes that we must expiate by restoring to them the imprescribable rights of man of which no human authority can deprive them…Let us give them back their happiness, their country and their virtue by restoring them their dignity as men and citizens…The vices of the Jews are born of the abasement in which you [Christians] have plunged them.  Raise their condition and they will speedily rise to it!”

    1789 (5th of Av): Rabbi Meir ben Saul Barby of Pressburg, author of Sefer Hiddushei Halakhot, passed away

    1808: Birthdate of Salomon (Solomon) Formstecher, “a German rabbi and student of Jewish theology.”

    1814: Birthdate of Betty Berta Warburg.

    1821: Jose de San Martin declares Peru’s independence from Spain. San Martin was one of the great leaders in the fight to free South America from Spanish rule.  At the time of Peru’s liberation from Spanish rule, whatever Jewish population existed in “the land of the Incas” was made of conversos or secret Jews.  The Jewish Peruvians slowly made their presence known but it was not until the middle of the 19th century that they would become an open, functioning community.

    1834(21stof Tammuz, 5594):Abraham Hirsh Lwow passed away today.

    1836(14thof Av, 5596): Nathan Mayer Rothschild, the founder of the London branch of the House of Rothschild passed away. The Jewish Virtual Library provides an interesting synopsis of his life.

    1836: Herman and Johanna Diamant gave birth to Jeanette Johanna Herzl, who married Jacob Herzl and became the mother of Theodor Herzl.

    1849: The First National Assembly of Hungary led by the revolutionary leader Kossuth, granted complete political and civil rights to the Jews in recognition of their loyalty.

    1851: Birthdate of Samuel Sachs, the Maryland native who gained fame as part of Goldman-Sachs.

    1852: Rabbi Lyon officiated at the wedding of P.S. Jacobs from Columbia, SC and Mary Ann Adler of Charleston, SC.

    1855(13th of Av, 5615):Eighty-year old Salomon Mayer von Rothschild the second son of Mayer Amschel Rothschild  and the founder of the Viennese branch of the House of Rothschild whose children were Anselm Salomon von Rothschild  and Betty Salomon passed away today. A measure of his accomplishments can be seen by the fact that in 1822 Emperor Francis I awarded him the hereditary title of “Baron” making the Jewish financier a part of the Austrian nobility.

    1855: Today’s “Foreign Extracts” column reported that John Abrams, a Polish Jew, has been charged with trying to induce members of the Foreign Legion stationed at Shorncliffe to desert. Based on the questioning of officers and enlisted men, it is believed that Abrams is an agent of the Russian government.  [This episode took place during the Crimean War when Britain and France were fighting Russia.]

    1861:A review of History of Civilization by Thomas Buckle reports that "Jews and heretics were persecuted with unrelenting vigor" in pre-711 Spain when Arian Visigoths and the orthodox Franks were contesting for power.

    1863:As the United States implemented a draft during the Civil War that resulted in a major riot in July of 1863, The New York Times reported that “a Jew broker, from New-York, reached West Chester with a dozen men to hire out as substitutes. The men boasted that they were from New-York, and were engaged in the late riots.”

    1868: The 14th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States is certified, establishing African-American citizenship and guaranteeing due process of law. The“Due Process Clause” prohibits state and local governments from depriving persons of life, liberty, or property without certain steps being taken to ensure fairness. This clause has been used to make most of the Bill of Rights applicable to the individual states, which was a boon for Jewish interests because of the language in the First Amendment that guarantees freedom of religion.

    1868: Birthdate of French poet and Zionist André Spire

    1870: On what would turn out to be the last night of his life, prominent New Yorker Benjamin Nathan went to sleep on mattresses on the second floor reception room of his mansion.  Nathans’ house was being renovated so he could not spend the night in his bedroom. His son Frederick returned to the house to before midnight.  His other son, Washington, returned after midnight when his father was already asleep.

    1875: Sir Moses Montefiore visited the large Ashkenazi synagogue in Jerusalem where he was greeted by Haham Bashi who later entertained the British nobleman at his home.  A crowd of 20,000 that included Jews, Muslims and Christians, greeted the Baronet as he walked the streets of the City of David.

    1876: The German parliament passed the Austrittsgesetz, which allowed Jews to secede from their religious community which led “Samson Raphael Hirsch of Frankfurt, who had campaigned for the law to be passed, to declare that Orthodox Jews in Frankfurt had the duty to officially secede from the non-Orthodox Grossgemeinde.”

    1879(8th of Av, 5639): Erev Tish'a B'Av

    1881: “The Troubles In Russia” published today described “the disinclination” of the United States to join European governments in a proposed communique being sent to the Czar to protest Russia’s treatment of her Jews since it has “already instructed its Minister to Russia on the subject.”

    1882: The Polish Jews traveling in steerage got the fright of their life today when the SS. Gellert caught fire as it sailed from New York to Hamburg.  The fire which was caused by smoldering tobacco  melted part of the iron deck before it was extinguished

    1883: At Nyireghyhaza, Hungary, where a group of Jews has been charged with murdering a Christian girl the prosecution and defense gave their summations today.  The prosecution contended that for the Jews, “ritual murder was common and frequent.”  The defense “derided the charge” that Jews shed Christian blood as part of their rituals and said the charge was a lie used to “excite Christians against Jews.”

    1884: James R. Osgood & Company has published Stray Leaves from Strange Literature, a collection of myths and legends including some from the Jewish people, by Lafacdio Hearn.

    1884:A court circular from Marlborough House dated today noted that Walter Goodman had submitted the portrait of The Duke of Albany to the Prince and Princess of Wales, from where it was currently displayed at The Guildhall. Goodman was the second generation of Jewish painters in his family since his mother was Julia Salaman.

    1885(16th of Av, 5645): Sir Moses Montefiore, one of the most famous and influential Jew of the 19th century passed away in the 101st year of his long and fruitful life. Ironically, while many Jews living in the 21stcentury have heard the name Montefiore in connection with a particular institution or building, including the famous Windmill in Jerusalem, few know much about his lifetime of accomplishments.  There is no way that this Blog can do him justice.  These websites should help fill in some of the gaps.

    1886: “Europeans in Persia” published today described the impact that westerners were having on Tehran including the local Jewish population which has benefited from the arrival of a Jewish dentist, doctor and “chemist” (pharmacist).

    1886: The Castle Garden Committee of the Commissioners of Emigration is scheduled to meet today to consider the offer of several New York rabbis to provide financial guarantees for recently arrived Jewish immigrants from Russia so that they would not be deported as paupers.

    1887: Lipman Emanuel "Lip" Pike, reportedly one of the first professional Jewish players played his last game today as a member of the New York Metropolitans. (This 19th century team should not be confused the modern day NY Mets)

    1890: “Manning and the Jews” published today described the plans of several prominent English Jews including “Dr. Adler, the acting chief rabbi, Sir Julian Goldsmid, Mr. Frederick D. Mocatta, Sir John Simon Mr. Claude G. Montefiore and others” to present Cardinanl Manning “with an illuminated address of congrational on the occasion of his silver jubilee” on “behalf of the Jews of Great Britain.”  The gift shows the high esteem in which the Cardinal is held by the Jewish community who greatly appreciated his efforts on behalf of the Jews of Russia.

    1891: The Russian Jews who came to Boston on board the SS Kansas have been detained because of the requirements of the new immigration laws.

    1889: Dr. Cyrus Adler of John Hopkins University will deliver a lecture on “The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser” at Cooper Union in New York.  The lecture is part of the Summer Course sponsored by JTS.

    1891: The Sanitarium for Hebrew Children is scheduled to sponsor an excursion that will sail up the Hudson River.

    1893:The Philadelphia Jewish Exponent announced that Henrietta Szold would be moving to Philadelphia from her home in Baltimore to serve as the secretary and first paid employee of the Jewish Publication Society (JPS). Szold had been elected as the only female member of the JPS publication committee when the organization was founded in 1888 in order to provide a steady series of substantive works of Jewish culture to an American audience. Despite the initial apathy and opposition that the JPS encountered, Szold committed herself to the society, at one point "personally addressing eleven hundred circulars and membership blanks" although in the end they only yielded 75 responses. She had already served the organization as an author, translator, and editor, but now she would be a paid employee. While Henrietta Szold's most significant impact on Jewish life would come after she founded Hadassah, the Zionist women's organization in 1912, her work at JPS constituted a major contribution to the creation of an American Jewish culture. The Jewish Exponentarticle about her move to JPS suggests that, even before the formal commencement of this work, Szold was recognized as a woman who had and would continue to play an important role in the American Jewish community. Szold had already established herself as an educator and, through newspaper columns, as an astute observer of Jewish life. According to the Exponent article, "no one better equipped could be found than Miss Szold." Upon being offered the job of secretary in 1893, Szold withdrew from her positions in Baltimore, including her role as superintendent of the Russian night-school of the Hebrew Literary Society. As the school's founder, superintendent, fundraiser and one of its teachers, she had, according to the article, surrounded herself with teachers "whom she has made thoroughly conversant with her masterful manner of teaching English to Russo-Jewish immigrants and in the sympathetic manner of engaging their undivided attention so as to develop in them an appreciation of American ideals." Szold's work for JPS was monumental. Although she worked under the title and salary of secretary, she served as translator, indexer, fact checker, proofreader, statistician, administrator, and editor, overseeing the publication of 87 books during her tenure. Szold's clear mind, exhaustive dedication, and meticulous attention to detail enabled the Society to offer a remarkable literary and scholarly array. Many of the translations and original works published by JPS during this time still inform contemporary American Jewish culture and scholarship. A new Bible translation and the series of American Jewish Year Books that commenced publication in 1900 began to define the contours of a distinctive American Jewish intellectual world. After twenty-two years, Szold withdrew from JPS work in 1916 when a group of Zionists offered to provide her with an annuity in order to support her growing work for Hadassah.”

    1893: “Driven From Home By Fire” published today described the aftermath of the tenement on Clinton Street which included Morris Lewenthal’s loss of his butter and provision store which cost the Russian Jewish immigrant $500 in losses that were not insured.

    1895: “Jordan Ceased To Flow” published today includes a summary of an article by Lt. Col C.M. Watson of the Royal Engineers that had appeared in the last quarterly of the Palestine Exploration of London which described “a stoppage in the flow of the River Jordan” that had occurred in the 14th century which bore “a likeness to the miraculous” stoppage “of the river at the time of the…Israelites.”

    1895: Founding of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association in Springfield, MA.

    1896: Twenty year old George H. Webb will appear in court today to face charges of abduction after having failed to agree to divorce Dora Webb, a sixteen year old Jewess whom he secretly married but never lived with.

    1896: The City of Miami is incorporated. According to one source Samuel Singer was reportedly the first Jew to move to Miami, arriving there in 1895. Others report that Isidor Cohen who signed the city’s charter in 1896 deserves the honor. There were enough Jews in the city when it was founded to hold regular religious services.  But the population dwindled in the first decade of the 20th century.  The anti-Semitic practices of early developers hampered the growth of what today is one of the largest Jewish communities in the United States.

    1899: John Ireland, the Roman Catholic archbishop of St. Paul, MN told friends in New York that while in France he did not see as much “turmoil over the Dreyfus” as reported in the press and “that the decision of the court-martial, whatever it may be, will be accepted as final since the matter is no longer seen as involving the honor of the army.”

    1899: Messrs. Heinemann announces the publication of two books of interest because of the Dreyfus case. One is by Lionel Decle, an Anglicized Frenchman. The other is The Modern Jew, by Arnold White.

    1901: The fifth annual session of the summer assembly of the Jewish Chautauqua Society came to an end.

    1901: After more than a month of effort, Arnold Schönberg completes his work “on the opera-fragment "Die Schildbürger" (dramatic setting of Gustav Schwab's short story of the same name).”

    1902(23rd of Tammuz, 5662): Rabbi Jacob Joseph passed away.Born in Krozhe, a province of Kovno, in 1840, he studied in the Volozhin yeshiva under the Netziv, where he was known as "Rav Yaakov Charif" because of his sharp mind. He was one of the foremost students of Rabbi Yisrael Salanter. He became successively rabbi of Vilon in 1868, Yurburg in 1870, Zhagory and then Kovno. His fame as a preacher spread, so that in 1883 the community of Vilna selected him as its maggid. He came to the United States in 1888 where he served as chief rabbi of New York City's Association of American Orthodox Hebrew Congregations, a federation of Eastern European Jewish synagogues. The Rabbi Jacob Joseph School is named after him, and a playground is named after and honors the memory of a great-grandson of Rabbi Jacob Joseph who carried his name.

    1903: The High Commissioner delivered an address at the opening meeting of the Jewish Board of Deputies for the Transvaal and Natal

    1904: Birthdate of Austrian born, British philosopher, Sir Karl Raimund Popper.  In an all too common pattern, Popper left Austria in 1937 to avoid the pending Nazi takeover.  He made his was to New Zealand where he continued his academic work.  In 1946 he moved to England where he gained further fame as a member of the faculty of the London School of Economics.

    1904: Vyacheslav von Plehve, the director the Czar’s Secret Police and Interior Minister was killed by a bomb thrown by a revolutionary.  Plehve was the Interior Minister during the Kishinev Pogrom of 1903.  He reportedly gave orders for government forces not to interfere with the rioters during the three days of carnage.

    1905:The New York Timesreported that Max Nordau gave an “eloquent eulogy” in memory of Dr. Theodor Herzl, founder of the Zionist movement at the opening session of the Seventh Annual Zionist Congress. Herzl passed away in 1904.

    1909: The cornerstone for Gymnasia Herzliya’s new build on Herzl Street in the Ahuzat Bayit neighborhood of Tel Ave took place. Founded at Jaffa in 1905, it was the first Hebrew high school in what would become the state of Israel.

    1909: British Ambassador Sir Gerald Lowther visited the Hahambashi (Chief Rabbi) in Constantinople.

    1909: Birthdate of Harry "Pittsburgh Phil" Strauss, a contract killer for Murder, Inc.

    1910: In Zurich, Albert Einstein and his first wife Mileva Maric gave birth to their second Eduard Einstein.

    1911: The King of Spain, who exercises sovereignty in Mellila, Morocco, replies favorably to the petition of these Moroccan Jews for equal rights since they pay taxes and serve in the army.. The liberal press commends the Spanish Monarch's attitude, and hopes for annulment of discriminatory laws still in force against the Jews.

    1913: In what turn out to be the worst single act of anti-Semitism in the United States, Leo Frank went on trial charged with the murder of Mary Phagan. 

    1914: According to an appraisal filed today by the State Tax Assessor, the estate of the late Dr. Morris Loeb has a gross value of $2, 474, 585.  The largest beneficiary of the estate was his widow, Mrs. Eda K. Loeb and Harvard College.  He left several bequests to numerous Jewish and non-Jewish charities the Hebrew Technical Institute and the Solomon and Betty Loeb Memorial Home for Convalescents.  "Mrs. Loeb, Felix M. Warburg, Paul Warburg and Julius Goldman are the executors of the estate."

    1914:  The Austro-Hungarian Empire declares war on Serbia thus starting World War I.  The war will prove devastating for the Jews of Eastern Europe.  Even worse, it will sow the seeds for the Second World War.  There is a straight line between the decisions reached in the heat of the summer of 1914 and the ashes of Auschwitz.

    1915: The infamous Leo Frank trial began today in Georgia. 

    1916: Birthdate of Gerhart Friedlander, “a veteran of the Manhattan Project…and a pioneer of nuclear chemistry who later exploited the first particle accelerators to do major research as head of the chemistry department at Brookhaven National Laboratory.”

    1918: Gavrilo Princip, “the assassin who started WW I” by killing the Archduke Ferdinand died of tuberculosis in Theresienstadt, the same Theresienstadt that would the show ghetto during World War II.

    1922: Birthdate of William Coblentz, one of California’s most influential lawyers who battled Govenor Ronald Reagan, represented hostage/fugitive Patti Hearst and was “a donor both to the S.F.-based Jewish Community Federation and the Jewish Community Endowment Fund.”

     1922: On being released from prison after serving a four week long sentence, Hitler declares, “The Jewish people stands against us as our deadly foe and will so stand against us always, and for all time.”

    1922: The Archbishop of Canterbury, Randall Davidson, writes Churchill expresses his (and other un-named supporters) opposition to Zionist activity in Palestine.

    1923: In Moscow, Victoria and Isaac Raeff gave birth to Marc Raeff who became one of America’s “scholars of Russian history.”  (As reported by Bruce Weber)

    1923: Opera life began in pre-statehood Israel today with the performance of Verdi’s “La Traviata. The performance brought to life the vision of Mordechai Golinkin described in his thesis “The Vision of the Hebrew Art Temple of Opera Work in Palestine.”  Since there were opera houses in the new Jewish city, the performance took place in a movie theatre.

    1925: Birthdate of Baruch “Barry” Samuel Blumberg, “the Nobel Prize-winning biochemist and medical anthropologist who discovered the hepatitis B virus, showed that it could cause liver cancer and then helped develop a powerful vaccine to fight it, saving millions of lives.”

    1929: Charles M. Bender is the delegate from Texas attending the 16th World Zionist Congress in Zurich.

    1930: Birthdate of singer Firoza Begum


    1931(14thof Av, 5691): German Jewish physicist Emil Gabriel Warburg, a member of the famous Warburg family, passed away today.

    1936(9th of Av, 5696): Tisha B’Av

    1936:The New Masses publishes “The Travels of Lester Cohen,” Robert Gessner’s review of Two Worlds by Lester Cohen.

    1936: It was reported today that this September, Henry Holt will publish Spring Up Oh Well by Dorothy Ruth Kahn. The book describes the growth of the Jewish community in Palestine, including the development of Tel Aviv and surrounding “hamlets.”

    1937: Kfar Menahem, a moshav that had been abandoned in 1936 during the Arab Revolt “was re-established as part of the tower and stockade program.

    1937:In Neuilly-sur- Seine Pierre-Gilles Veber, who was Jewish and his wife who was Armenian gave birth to Paul Veber.  He escaped the fate of his grand-uncle Tristan Barnard who was sent to Drancy since he was baptized.

    1939: On the Mediterranean Sea north of Tel Aviv, “authorities detained 373 Jews today as unauthorized immigrants after the British destroyer Imperial halted the Colorado, a vessel flying” the Panamanian flag.

    1940: Hitler called for an intensification of anti-Jewish actions in Slovakia.

    1940: Hugo Gutman and his family arrived in Vichy after escaping from Brussels and received the emigration permit today that would let them enter Portugal.

    1941:David Rose marries Judy Garland.  It is the second of Rose’s three trips to the altar.  The third visit will be the one that lasts.

    1941: In Scranton, PA, Rabbi Melech Schachter and his wife gave birth to Rabbi Herschel Schachter who followed in his father’s footsteps to serve as a rosh yeshiva at Yeshiva University.

    1941: In Lithuania, the Nazis killed the Jews living in Aniksht and Vilkovishk.

    1941: As German troops over run Russian territory, the killings of Jews increased in frequency and numbers.

    1941: Local police and militiamen, acting with the acquiescence of SS troops at the prison at Drogobych, Ukraine, use guns, clubs, and fists to slaughter hundreds of Jews. The streets are choked with badly injured fleeing Jews and mangled corpses.

    1941(4th of Av, 5701): German occupation troops in and around Belgrade, Yugoslavia, execute 122 Communists and Jews for resistance.

    1941(4thof Av, 5701): Sixty-seven year old Ben Zion Halberstram the Second Bobover Rebbe was murdered today.

    1941(4th of Av, 5701): Forty mental patients from Lódz, Poland, are taken from a hospital and executed in a nearby forest.

    1942(14th of Av, 5702): The Nazis killed 10,000 Jews in Minsk.

    1942: SS chief Heinrich Himmler writes to a senior SS official that the Occupied Eastern Territories "are to become free of Jews."

    1942(14th of Av, 5702): Jewish parents in Tarnów, Poland, are forced to watch as their children are shot by Gestapo agents. The parents and other adults are subsequently deported to the camp at Belzec for extermination.

    1942: In the Lódz (Poland) Ghetto, two male Jews, one just 16 years old, are hanged after escaping a work gang.

    1942: Young members of the Warsaw Ghetto establish Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa (ZOB; Jewish Fighting Organization). At this time, the only weapon in the ghetto is a single pistol.

    1942: Over the next three days 30,000 Jews are killed in Minsk, Belorussia.

    1942: As Operation Reinhard entered its sixth day, a Jewish resistance group was set up. Their arsenal consisted of two pistols. Operation Reinhard was the name given to the German plan to wipe out the Jewish population of occupied Poland.

    1942(14th of Av, 5702): In Tarnow, Poland, the Jewish children were taken to the edge of town and shot. The rest of the town's Jews were taken to Belzec

    1942: Eighty-nine year old Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie passed away. The famed archaeologist made his first of many trips to Palestine in 1890 when led a dig at Tell el-Hesi.  His most famous discovery came in 1896 when he identified the ‘Israel’ or Merneptah stele.

    1943:  Using the information they found on the dead bodies of the members of the Leon Group, the Nazis entered the ghetto at Vilna and arrested 32 friends and family members of the murdered partisans.  The 32 were taken to the killing grounds of Ponar where they were executed.  The Germans published an announcement warning the family and friends of anybody else who planned to escape the ghetto that a one-way ticket to Ponar would be their reward as well.

    1943: Jan Karski, the Polish officer who risked his life to bring first reports of the conditions facing the Jews of Europe, including the mass murders and concentration camps met with President Roosevelt for an hour in the Oval Office.  British Foreign Minister had not shown any interest in his report and Prime Minister Churchill was “too busy” to see him.  Before meeting with Roosevelt, Karski had met with Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter who said, “I am unable to believe you.´Karski began by describing the activities of the Polish underground. The president listened with fascination, asked questions and offered unsolicited advice, some of it a bit eccentric -- such as his idea of putting skis on small airplanes to fly underground messengers between England and Poland during the winter. But when Karski related details of the mass killings of the Jews, Roosevelt had nothing to say. The president was, as Karski politely put it, "rather noncommittal." (Editor’s note – The British were too busy, FDR was not.  As to being “noncommittal” the reality was that the war was not going well and that is a gross understatement.  At this point the Allies had just landed in Sicily, were still trying to win the Battle of the Atlantic and had only scratched the surface of the Island Hopping Campaign against Japan

    1943: During World War II the British bomb Hamburg causing a firestorm that kills 42,000 German civilians. In a twist of irony, the mission is named Operation Gomorrah.  (There is no record of an air mission called Operation Sodom.)

    1943: Birthdate of guitar playing composer Mike Bloomfield.

    1948” Leon Blum began serving as Vice Premier of France in the government of Prime Minister Andre Marie.

    1948: “United Nations peace envoy, Folke Bernadotte, issued a statement which said that there was ‘no evidence to support claims of massacre’” at al-Tira, a village near Haifa, that had been made by Azzam Pasha, the Secretary General of the Arab League. 

    1949: Today’s proposal by the Ben-Gurion to the UN that would allow 100,000 Arabs to return to Israel touched off a wave of opposition that would later lead to its withdrawal.

    1956(20th of Av, 5716):Abraham Telvi “a Jewish-American mobster and hitman for New York labor racketeer Johnny Dio, known most notably for blinding crusading New York journalist Victor Riesel with acid” was gunned down today.

    1959: Premiere of “North by Northwest” the suspense thriller with a script by Ernest Lehman, music by Bernard Hermann and featuring Martin Landau in one of his early roles.

    1964: Birthdate of Ian Paul Livingston, Baron Livingston of Parkhead the Scottish businessman who is “The fourth generation son of Polish-Lithuanian Jews who arrived in Scotland 120 years ago.”

    1969: Operation Boxer came to an end with a dogfight between IAF Mirages and Egyptian MIG-21s during which neither side was able to score a victory.

    1969: Opening of the Eighth Maccabiah

    1971: Marvin Israel discovered the body of photographer Diane Arbus two days after she had taken her own life.

    1982(8th of Av, 5742): Erev Tish'a B'Av

    1984: The 1984 Summer Olympics opened in Los Angeles where Bernard Rajzman earned a Silver Medal as a player with the Brazilian Volleyball Team

    1988: Jordan canceled a $1.3 billion development plan in the West Bank.

    1988:Israeli diplomats arrived in Moscow for their first visit in 21 years.

    1988: Jack Lang completed his first term in office as Member of the French National Assembly for Loir-et-Cher

    1989: Units of the IDF crossed into Lebanon and seized Sheik Abd al-Karim Obeid a Hizballah cleric and military commander of Islamic Jihad. This took place during what is now called the First Infitada. 

    1993: Catcher Brad Ausmus made his major league debut with the San Diego Padres.

    1995(1st of Av, 5755): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1995(1st of Av, 5755): Ninety-three year old Harry Zimmerman, the physician who helped found Albert Einstein College of Medicine and made major contributions in dealing with diseases of the nervous system, passed away today. (As reported by Robert Thomas, Jr.

    1996: The newly opened William Breman Jewish Heritage Museum is the site of a reception for the Israeli Olympic team and a commemoration of the 1972 massacre at the Games in Munich when terrorists killed 11 of the country's athletes and officials.

    1998: Monica Lewinsky receives transactional immunity so that she can testify against President Clinton.

    2000(25th of Tammuz, 5760): Abraham Pais, Dutch-born American physicist and science historian passed away.  Pais was the son of a father from the old Dutch Sephardic community while his mother was Ashkenazik.  His trials and tribulation during World War II are the kind of harrowing tale that would make a great adventure novel.  Yet they were true.  His academic achievements were equally amazing.

    2002: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including American Sonnets by Jewish poet Gerald Stern and Man Walks Into A Room, the first novel by Jewish poet Nicole Krauss

    2002: David Levy and his breakaway Gesher faction left the government due to their opposition to the budget.

    2003: “Monitoring Calls in New World of Quality Assurance” described the role that software is playing in fulfilling Shlomo Shamir’s vision of changing call centers from being “cost centers” to being “strategic centers.” Shamir is the President of the American arm of Nice, an Israeli company that is the leader in this software field. (As reported by Claudia H. Deutsch) 

    2005: As reported in the Oakland (CA) Tribune, Pacifica resident Lillian Greenwald is praised for having volunteered at the Jewish Home for nearly 25 years. Although this is a significant achievement by itself, it is the quality of her service that is exceptional. Lillian Greenwald is an exemplary role model for any volunteer program, and the Jewish Home is fortunate to have her.”

    2006:  Five Katyushas struck Peki'in and one directly hit a home next the yard where a family was preparing for an afternoon wedding. Ten people were lightly wounded and treated for shock.Peki'in is an agricultural settlement in the Upper Galilee.

    2007 In Jerusalem, a classical music concert entitled"Music in All the Shades" took place at the Sisters of Zion convent presented "Songs, Trombone, and Piano," featuring Galina Chipper Blat, mezzo-soprano, Natalia Jadanov on piano, and Olga Melchovski and Yuri Prokofchok on the oboe.

    2007(13th of Av, 5767: Shabbat Nachamu  

    2007: In Calgary Sharon Fichman was the runner-up in today’s professional tennis match.

    2008:In Washington, D.C., veteran Jewish photography editor Leora Kahn discusses and signs Darfur: Twenty Years of War and Genocide in Sudan

    2008: In Washington, D.C., Michaele Weissman discusses and signs her new book, God in a Cup: The Obsessive Quest for the Perfect Coffee

    2009: Father Patrick Desbois, secretary to the French Conference of Bishops for relations with Judaism as well as an adviser to the Vatican on the Jewish religion, discusses The Holocaust by Bullets: A Priest's Journey to Uncover the Truth Behind the Murder of 1.5 Million Jews, an investigation of German atrocities in the Ukraine in World War II, at the Sixth & I Historic Synagogue in Washington, D.C.

    2009:Police dismantled the West Bank outpost of Mitzpe Avihai near the town of Hebron 

    2010: Hadassah 95th annual convention is scheduled to come to a close today.

    2010:"Surviving Hitler: A Love Story,” is scheduled to be shown today at The San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.

    2010:Ninety-year old Samuel Kunz, a former Nazi death camp guard has been charged with participating in the murder of 430,000 Jews and other crimes during the Third Reich, German prosecutors said today.

    2010: The New York Times featured a review of 97 Orchard: An Edible History of Five Immigrant Families in One New York Tenement by Jane Ziegelman

    2010:Terra Olivio, the first Mediterranean international olive oil competition and conference, which attracted over 120 people from Israel and abroad was held today at Jerusalem’s Inbal Hotel.

    2011:LIVE FROM JERUSALEM: An Evening with the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra,” conducted by Zubin Mehta With Renee Fleming and Joseph Calleja is scheduled to be shown at more than 480 select movie theaters nationwide this evening.

    2011: The 92nd St Y is scheduled to present “Always: Irving Berlin,” an evening filled with the music of one of America’s great composers and lyricists.

    2011: The Foreign Ministry announced today that Israel has established full diplomatic relations with the government of the newly UN-recognized South Sudan.

    2011:Histadrut Labor Federation Chairman Ofer Eini told Army Radio today that he does not intend on "bringing down the government" by joining the housing protests, but stressed that it must take action to lower housing prices and cost of living.

    2012(8th of Av, 5772): Ninety-three year old pioneer in children’s theatre Judith Martin passed away. (As reported by Douglas Martin)

    2012: The California premiere of “Six Million and One” is scheduled to take place at the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.

    2012: Thousands of people attended a Tisha B’Av prayer service at the Western Wall in Jerusalem tonight

    2012:Four rockets fired from the Gaza Strip hit southern Israel today landing in unpopulated areas and causing no direct damage. Two of the rockets landed in an open field near Sderot and two more in an open field in the Eshkol region.

    2012: Rabbi Yossi Nemes service of The Gerson Katz Chabad Center in Metairie, LA is scheduled to officiate at tonight’s memorial service in honor of the athletes murdered in Munich including wrestler David Berger a graduate of Tulane University who made Aliyah shortly before the Olympics

    2013: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including This Town: Two Parties and a Funeral — Plus Plenty of Valet Parking! — in America’s Gilded Capital by Mark Leibovich,  The Love-Charm of Bombs Restless Lives in the Second World War by Lara Feigel, Fools by Joan Silber and Rendezvous With Destiny: How Franklin D. Roosevelt and Five Extraordinary Men Took America Into the War and Into the World by Michael Fullilove

    2013: The Washington, DC is scheduled to sponsor an outing to the ballpark featuring the Nats against the Mets in “Hadassah Plays Ball!”

    2013: “Hannah Arendt” is scheduled to shown this evening at the Castro Theatre as part of the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.

    2013: “A brand new festival called Machaol Olam – World Dance” that began in Israel on July 11 is scheduled to come to a close.

    2013: 99th anniversary of the start of World War I, a conflict about which so many know so little while its effects continue to reverberate into our lives in the 21st century.

    2013: The cabinet voted 13 to 7 today to approve talks with the Palestinians and to allow a ministerial committee to release 104 imprisoned Palestinian terrorists over the next 9 months. (As reported by Herb Keinon)

    2013: Justice Minister Tzipi Livni and Yitzhak Molcho left for Washington to take part in peace talks under the aegis of U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry.

    2013:A robber carrying an automatic pistol stole jewellery and watches belonging to Israeli diamond mogul Lev Leviev worth millions of euros from the luxury Carlton Hotel in Cannes today, police and judicial sources said. 

    2014: "Brave Miss World & Hunting Elephants" are scheduled to be shown at the Berkshire Jewish Film Festival.

    2014:The Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies, US Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM) and The Wiener Library host a workshop "The Holocaust in Eastern Europe in the Records of the International Tracing Service Digital Archive," which is scheduled to open today at the USHMM in Washington, DC.
    2014: One hundredth anniversary of the start of World War I – “the war to end all wars.”

    2014(1stof Av, 5774): Rosh Chodesh Av



    0 0

    July 29

    1099:  Pope Urban II, the man behind the First Crusade, passed away.  Considering the impact of the Crusades on the Jews of Europe, his impact on Jewish history is self-obvious.

    1336: Led by John Zimberlin, a self-proclaimed prophet, a group of peasants in Germany known as the Armleder (for their leather straps warn on their arms) attacked Jewish communities in Franconia and the Alsace region. They also destroyed Jewish communities in Bohemia, Moravia and elsewhere along the Rhine. Roughly 1500 Jews were murdered. Eventually when the Armleder began to attack non-Jews, they were opposed by local Lords.

    1567: James VI is crowned King of Scotland. Scotland’s King James VI will enter history as King James I of Great Britain, the monarch who gave his name to the King James Bible, the English translation of the holy book whose text most Americans (including many Jews) will think of as the real words of God.

    1588: English naval forces under command of Lord Charles Howard and Sir Francis Drake defeats the Spanish Armada off the coast of Gravelines, France. The defeat of the Spanish Armada meant that the Catholics and their Inquisition would not take control of the British Islesor re-take the Netherlands, the Protestant nation that was haven for European Jews.  Morrano spies reportedly provided information to the English which helped them to know when and where to expect the arrival of the Armada.

    1612(29thof Tammuz, 5372): Abraham Portaleone, the Italian physician who studied under Jacob Fano and who was granted special dispensation so he could treat such prominent Christians as the Dukes Guglielmo and Vincenzo of Mantua and Pope Gregory IV passed away today.

    1644: Urban VIII, the Pope who issued an edict in 1625 forbidding Jews in Rome from erecting gravestones, passed away.

    1808: As he prepared for surgery, Rothschild drew up his last will and testament.

    1819: David Moses Dyte and Hannah Lazarus gave birth to Charles Dyte, who married Evelina Nathan and with whom he had five children.

    1830: Abdication of Charles X of France. Charles abdicated in favor of his grandson.  But the Chamber of Deputies rejected this move and chose Louis-Philippe, duc d'Orleans, to fill the vacant throne.  This proved to be a good thing for the French Jews since Louis would ratify a motion putting Judaism on a par with Christianity, granting State support to Synagogues and their Minister of Religion. This meant that France extended financial support to Jewish religious institutions on par with Christian institutions.

    1840: Birthdate of Simon Baruch, a physician, who was born in Schwersen, Germany (now part of Poland). He attended German schools and received a degree from the Medical College of Virginia (1862); was surgeon for the Confederate Army (1862-1865); and practiced in Camden, South Carolina, until 1881, then in New York. He was the Chairman of the South Carolina Board of Health (1880) and was the author of books on the use of hydrotherapy. He married Isabel Wolfe in 1867. His greatest claim to fame was that he was the father of Bernard Baruch, the famed financier and advisor to Presidents.

    1847: Grace Aguilar made her last entry in her Frankfort Journal, a 34,000 word long effort that recorded her family’s journey through Belgian and Germany.  It was also her last literary effort since she would pass away in September.

    1849: In Pest, Gabriel Südfeld, a Hebrew poet and his wife gave birth to Simon Maximilian Südfeld who gained fame as Max Nordau, the Zionist leader, physician, author, and social critic. He was a co-founder of the World Zionist Organization together with Theodor Herzl, and president or vice president of several Zionist congresses. Nordau died in Paris, France in 1923. In 1926 his remains were moved to Tel Aviv.

    1850(20th of Av, 5610): Sarah Moses, the daughter of Abraham Moses and the wife of Lazarus Moses, passed away and was buried in Chatham, Kent, England.

    1864: In article describing President Jefferson Davis' cabinet, the Richmond Sentinel reported that "The whole burden of the objections to the Secretary of State seems to have dwindled down to the fact that he is a Jew, for all admit his distinguished abilities. The time is at hand when his abilities will be needed, and we feel confident that when the occasion occurs he will not be found wanting, but will ably sustain the dignity of his office and his already acquired high reputation. "

    1870: Benjamin Nathan’s body was discovered at 5:50 a.m. in his New York mansion. “Mr. Nathan was found lying dead with his skull smashed in…A heavy iron instrument used by ship carpenters called a ‘dog’ was found near the body.”  This was the murder instrument. Apparently, Mr. Nathan was killed when he interrupted a robbery that was taking place at his home. (Despite the offering of a large reward and numerous arrests, the murder remains unsolved.)

    1870: An “excitable weekly” called the Sunday Mercury published an unsigned article accusing Washington Nathan of murdering his father, Benjamin Nathan

    1870: The New York Stock Exchange offered a $10,000 reward for the arrest and conviction of the murder or murderers of Benjamin Nathan.  Nathan had been a member of the Exchange for thirty years.

    1873:At Castle Garden (NY), the President of the Romania Society presented a letter at today’s meeting of the Commissioners of Emigration requesting “that the board take charge of five Rumanian emigrants and send them back home.”  The five are Orthodox Jews who could not exist on the food prepared at the commission’s Ward’s Island facility. The letter also stated that if the Commissioners would send the Jews home, the Society’s President would see to it “that the emigration” would be stopped in Roumania. The commission agreed to send them back and expressed “regret that the American Consul in Roumania had not stopped the emigration” in the first place.

    1875: Suffering from the effects of his trip to Palestine, a fatigued Sir Moses Montefiore spends the day rest in bed.

    1875: While visiting Palestine, Sir Moses Montefiore wrote a letter to Hayyim Guedalla in which he described the marked increase in the number of dwellings in Jerusalem, and, given the increasing density of the population, the need to start building “suitable dwellings” beyond the current city limits.

    1876(8th of Av, 5636): Shabbat Chazon, Erev Tish'a B'Av

    1877: It was reported today that the Jews have established Young Men’s Hebrew Associations in New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Chicago and Cincinnati.  They are modeled after the YMCA’s. The Jewish Messenger “thinks the system should be extended to other cities” because they have the “power to mold American Judaism.”

    1877: “Any Change in Turkey For the Better” published today relying on information from the Duke of Argyll that first appeared in the Contemporary Review, described conditions in the Ottoman Empire in which “Moslem tyranny” exercises control “over the whole non-Moslem population while the government “has been friendly to the Jews”  “this toleration is nothing” in reality “but equal and indiscriminate contempt.”

    1878: “Palestine” published today described “the model of the entire country” now on exhibit at on the grounds near the Round Lake Hotel built on a scale of “two and a half feet to the mile” that allow “visitors” to walk from Jaffa to Jerusalem to the Dead Sea and after having taken a dip in the Jordan River to visit Bethlehem and Mt. Hermon

    1879(9th of Av, 5639):Tish'a B'Av                                                                                    

    1879: The Standard’s Constantinople dispatch reported today that the Jewish quarter at Orta Keui, a village on the Bosporus, has been destroyed by “a terrific fire.”

    1881: The first ships containing large numbers of Russian Jews arrived in New York following pogroms in Russia. This was the beginning of mass immigration to the U.S. during that would change the face of the American Jewish Community.  The great waves of immigration would slow with World War I and come to a halt during the 1920's when an isolationism, nativism and racism closed the doors of America to most immigrants. 

    1882: In Hungary, Solomon Schwarz, Abraham Buxbaum, Leopold Braun, and Hermann Wollner, were charged with murdering a Christian girl named Esther Solymosi . Josef Scharf, Adolf Jünger, Abraham Braun, Samuel Lustig, Lazar Weissstein, and Emanuel Taub, were charged with voluntarily assisting in the crime. Anselm Vogel, Jankel Smilovics, David Hersko, Martin Gross, and Ignaz Klein, were charged with abetting the crime and smuggling the body. This case which turned into a blood libel began in April and would rile the kingdom for at least another two years.

    1883: “Scenes on the East Side” published a visitors account of what he saw when he visited this section of Manhattan including “a colony of foreign-born Jews of the lower classing inhabiting the southern end of Allen-Street” and polyglot neighborhoods on Essex, Ludlow and Hester Streets that included a poor immigrants of many nationalities including Jews from Russia.

    1884: It was reported today two of the rioters who participated in the anti-Jewish riots at Zaleszozuky, Hungary were sentenced to five years in prison and another was sentenced to four years in prison. This was the Hungarian town that was the home of Esther Solomossy, a Christian girl who was allegedly killed by Jews as part of their religious ritiuals.

    1885: In Cincinnati, Ohio, Bernard Goodman and Pauline Louise de Coppetti gave birth toTheodosia Burr Goodman who gained fame as Theda Bara, the silent screen star known as “The Vamp.

    1885: The Chaplain of the British Embassy in Vienna has completed a census of the religious affiliations of Englishmen and Americans living in the Austrian capital.  The Anglo-American population of 1,316 included 111 Jews.

    1885: The “majority of the shops” in Ramsgate are closed today because the town is in mourning over the death of Sir Moses Montefiore.  The Town Hall is draped as sign of mourning and the municipal authorities including the Mayor plan to at tend the funeral for the Jewish philanthropist

    1886: At their meeting this afternoon, The Commissioners of Emigration listened to an appeal by several Jewish leaders including a representative of the Hebrew Immigration Society on behalf of eastern European immigrants being detained on Ward’s Island. The commissioners accepted the argument by the Jewish leaders that the immigrants had friends who would take care of them and were not therefore not indigent.  With the exception of a couple of the families in question, the rest were allowed to pass through Castle Garden on their way to a new life in the New World.

    1887: in Gross-Kanizsa, which at that time as part of the Austro Hungarian Empire, Adam and Clara Rosenberg gave birth to Siegmund Rosenberg who gained fame as composer and conductor Sigmund Romberg.

    1887: Isaac Ullmann, Jr. the secretary of the Utopia club obtained an injunction today restraining  the club from keep him from exercising his rights a member.  The members of the Utopia Club are wealthy New Haven (Ct) Jews.  Ullmann had been banned for a year when it was discovered that he had not paid a fine levied against him.

    1887: Adolph Reich, who had been convicted of murdering his wife is scheduled to be hung today.  When the Judge had pronounced the death penalty he expressed his surprise at a Jew being brought before him on such a charge, “since they were, as a rule orderly, law-abiding citizens.” He could not remember ever sentencing a Jew to be hanged.

    1889: A three story house owned on Main Street, Sing Sing, owned by David Ross which was home to numerous Jewish peddlers burned in a fire that started at three in the morning.  A machine shop owned by Abram Kipp then caught fire and, by the time it was over, only the walls remained.

    1889(1st of Av, 5649): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1890: “City and Suburban News” published today described plans for the upcoming benefit sponsored by B’nai B’rith as a fundraiser for the Home for old and Infirm Hebrews.

    1890: “The Shatchen” by Charles S. Dickson, featuring M.B. Curtis who starred in “Sam’l of Posen” is scheduled to open today at the Grand Opera House in Los Angeles.

    1890: Four Russian Jewish immigrants were stopped from going to work for Marcus Ullman, a peddler on New York’s east side when it was discovered that he was going to pay them $12 a month while the Labor Bureau had found work for them at salaries of $14 to $17 per month.

    1891(23rdof Tammuz, 5651): Sixteen year old Louis Rabinowitz, a Russian Jew, passed away today at New Haven, CT.

    1891(23rdof Tammuz, 5651): Jacob Levy, one of the suspects in the “Ripper Murders” passed away this evening at in the asylum for the mentally ill where had been confined.

    1891: Birthdate of Bernhard Zondek, the German born Israeli gynecologist who developed the first reliable pregnancy test.

    1891: Thirty Russian immigrants who sailed from Liverpool on the SS Norseman arrived in Boston today where they have been refused permission to land..

    1891: “The Russian Jew Persecutions” published today described the burning of “a little farming settlement four Russian miles from Veile” where fourteen Jews were burned today and twenty more were seriously injured. “All the time the Russians were rushing wildly about shouting, ‘Kill the Jews!  Kill the Jews!’”

    1892: Henry Heller, who had served as a Sergeant in Company A of the 66th Ohio Infantry during the Civil War was issued his Medal of Honor today for voluntary crossing into enemy lines under heavy fire to bring a Confederate officer who provided his superiors with “invaluable information” concerning the position of the enemy during the Battle of Chancellorsville, which was one of the worst defeats suffered by the Army of the Potomac.

    1893(16th of Av, 5653): Shabbat Nacahamu

    1893(16thof Av, 5653): Sixty-two year old historian Julius Aronius who was working on Regesten zur Geschichte der Juden in Deutschland at the time of his death passed away today.

    1894: As of today, the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children has provided excursions for 2,647 children and 1,213 mothers free of charge.  In addition 233 sick infants and children have been cared for at the Rockaway facility.

    1894: Contributions needed for the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children to continue its work may be sent to its managers – Nathan Lewis, Hezekiah Kohn and Joseph Davis.

    1894: “Germany In Earliest Times” published today provides a review of A History of Germany In The Middle Ages in which the author begins with a critical overview of the efforts of past historians including Josephus who he said “wrote of the same events in his Antiquities as in the War of the Jews and reported them differently.
    1895(8th of Av, 5655) Erev Tish'a B'Av

    1895(8th of Av, 5655):Less than a month before his 84th birthday Joseph Derenbourg, or Joseph Naftali Derenburg, a Franco-German orientalist, who wrote an Essai sur l'histoire ella geographie de la Palestine passed away today.


    1897: The Protective Musical Union Band will provide the entertainment at the second annual outing of the Brooklyn Hospital Society which is being held at Wissel’s Ridgewood Park.

    1898: “The Russian Jew in America” by Abraham Cahan, the man who ran the Forverts  for 40 years appeared in the Atlantic Monthly bringing togetherone of those unlikely combinations – the immigrant Jew and the classical WASP intellectual journal.

    1898: Birthdate of physicist Isidor Isaac Rabi Poland. His exploration of the atom earned him a Nobel Prize in 1944.

    1898: Isaac F. Goldenhorn, the attorney for Michael Aaronberg, Abraham Hoffman, Mendal Bloomkey, Jacob Joseph and Adolph Horowitz, the Trustees of the Moses Montefiore Congregation in Hoboken, NJ, went into court today to seek an injunction to keep David Engler from removing the building from its location at 76 Grand Street.

    1899: In describing his trip to Europe, John Ireland, the Archbishop of St. Paul, MN is reported to have told friends “that there is not so much turmoil over the Dreyfus Affiar as would appear from the press reports and that the decision of the court-martial whatever it may be will be accepted as final.” (Editor’s note – boy was he wrong)  He also said that the issue was no longer the guilt or innocence of Dreyfus but the honor of the army. (He was right about that)

    1899: “The treaties, declarations and final acts of the Hague Peace Conference which Jan Bloch attended were signed today.”

    1899: “Book News In London” published today described a English language translation of a monograph by Jules Huret on Sarah Bernhardt which has a preface by Edmond Rostand, the author of Cyrano de Bergerac.

    1905: Birthdate of American poet Stanley Kunitz.  Kunitz was poet laureate in 2000.

    1904: Mathew Nathan succeeded Sir Henry Arthur Blake as the Governor of Hong Kong.

    1907: Lt. Col. Mathew Nathan completes his service as the 13th Governor of Hong Kong.

    1914: Birthdate of comedian and actor, "Professor" Irwin Corey

    1919(2ndof Av, 5679): Twenty-eight year Jewish American racketeer Johnny Spanish was murdered by three unknown gunmen while entering a restaurant at 19Second Avenue in Manhattan.

    1921: In Germany Hedwig Ehrenberg and Max Born gave birth to Gustav Victor Rudolf Born who served as the Sheild Professor of Professor of Pharmacology at Cambridge. He is the father of Professor Georgina Born and the uncle of singer Olivia Newton-John

    1921: Adolf Hitler becomes leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party.

    1923: The New York Times features a review of The Soul of Woman: A Reflection on a Life by Gina Lombroso, the Italian-Jewish sociologist.

    1923: In Bennington, VT, Congregation Beth El, dedicated its new synagogue “at the corner of North and Adams Streets.”  The congregation had been founded in 1909.

    1928: The Day, a Jewish newspaper printed in New York City, published a report from its correspondent in Palestine that Frieda and Goldina Rubinson, two sisters born in Hamburg now living in Tel Aviv claimed that the late composer Giacomo Pucini had plagiarized the score of his opera “Turnadot” from them. They claim to have proof that they composed the work in 1896 at which time they obtained a copyright in Germany and the United States.  The two sisters plan on making a trip to the United States to pursue their claim against, among others, the Metropolitan Opera Company which produced the work in 1927.

    1929: Dr. Arthur Ruppin addressed the second session of the 16th Biennial Zionist Congress in Zurich, Switzerland today.  He said that “conversion to other faiths, intermarriage, a decreasing birth rate and unchanged mortality rate” were “disintegrating forces menacing the continued existence of the Jews as a people.”  

    1930: Birthdate of Sol Steinmetz, the Hungarian born American “lexicographer, author and tenured member of Olbom (As reported by Margalit Fox)

    1931: Birthdate of Art Ginsburg the native of Troy, NY, who gained fame as the television chef and author known as “Mr. Food.

    1933: In Vienna, Sara and Herman Kirchenbaum gave birth to Peretz Kidron who became a noted Israeli writer, journalist, and translator

    1934: The New York Times publishes an article by Sir Herbert Samuel in which the first British High Commissioner for Palestine describes the progress and problems facing the country.  His lengthy commentary is based on his first visit to Palestine in nine years.

    1935: Publication of Seven Pillars of Wisdom, T.E. Lawrence’s somewhat overwrought account of the “Arab Revolt” during World War I.  Lawrence supported the interests of Feisal against the Europeans including his own British Foreign Office.  Lawrence believed that there was room in the Middle East for both a Jewish homeland and an Arab Caliphate.

    1936: The Palestine Post reported that a British constable and 10 Arabs fell in a day-long battle near Nablus. Among the many arrested, one Arab claimed that he was forced to join the marauders. The Royal Air Force joined the land forces in their organized pursuit of the rebels, many of whom escaped into the more inaccessible areas, carrying their wounded. Arab terrorists warned local Arab villagers living near Motza and other neighborhoods close to Jerusalem that they would be killed and their property destroyed unless they submitted to all their demands. Six Jewish communists were deported to Russia and one to Poland.

    1936:The plan of the Austrian Government to broadcast to Germany the Salzburg festival performances has run afoul of Arturo Toscanini. It has just leaked out from circles in close contact with the Italian conductor that Mr. Toscanini has threatened to leave Salzburg immediately, never to return, if any performance conducted by him is broadcast to Germany.

    1938(1st of Av, 5698): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1938(1st of Av, 5698): Confronted with the realities of life in Nazi Germany, Dr. Friedreich Gernsheim and his wife Rosa committed suicide

    1939: Ben Zion Meir Hai Uziel is installed as Chief Sephardic Rabbi of Haifa.

    1940: In a case of misplaced hosannas, Lifemagazine “praised António de Oliveira Salazar as ‘the greatest Portuguese since Henry the Navigator’” because Portugal was “seen…as a haven of hospitality for” Jewish refugees.  In point of fact,  Salazar destroyed the career of Aristides de Sousa Mendes the diplomat who rescued thousands of Jews in defiance of the dictator’s wishes.

    1940: Orson Welles films the first scene of his classic “Citizen Kane.”  Herman J. Mankiewicz shared the Oscar for best screenplay for his work on this epic.  Who actually wrote the screenplay would become a source of controversy with many critics siding with Mankiewicz.

    1941(5th of Av, 5701): Twenty-nine Jewish mental patients from Lotz were taken away by truck and shot in the woods

    1941: The Second Lvov Pogrom came to an end. “According to Yad Vashem 6 thousands Jews were killed by Einsatzgruppen, some Ukrainian nationalists and some Ukrainian militia.

    1942: A religious youth center, Tiferet Bachurim, was secretly opened in the Kovno ghetto

    1942: Signs were put up in the Warsaw Ghetto offering free bread for any family volunteering to be deported. This was a scheme designed to make the German job of rounding up 6,000 Jews a day a little easier.

    1943:Admiral Sir Barry Edward Domvile  a distinguished Royal Navy officer who turned into a leading British Pro-German anti-Semite in the years before the Second World War was released today after having been interred for three years under Defense Regulation 18 B which allowed the government to inter people for their pro-Nazi sympathies. (The British had no trouble with his anti-Semitism, just his views on Hitler, et al.

    1944: 3520 Jews are forced on a death march westward from Warsaw. More than 200 die.

    1945: Rabbi Martin Riesenburge celebrated the first wedding at Berlin’s Rykestrasse Synagogue since the Nazis closed it in 1940/

    1946: The New York State Supreme Court revoked the charter of the Ku Klux Klan thanks in no small part to the efforts of Nathaniel Goldstein, the New York State Attorney General.

    1947(12th of Av, 5707):Leo Stein passed away in Florence, Italy. Born in 1872 in Allegheny, Pennsylvania, he was an American art collector and critic. In addition to being elder brother to Gertrude Stein, he is also remembered as an influential promoter of 20th-century paintings.

    1948: For the first time since the infamous 1936 Berlin Olympics, London hosts the Fourteenth Olympiad where two American Jews each won Gold Medals. Frank Spellman won his for weightlifting and Henry Wittenberg won his in freestyle wrestling.

    1948: As the United Nations investigates claims by Azzam Pasha, the Secretary General of the Arab League, that Israeli forces had committed atrocities during Operation Shorter, a team of UN observers came to survey the damage” at al-Tira “and did not find any bodies…”

    1951(25thof Tammuz, 5711): On the day before his 71st birthday, Bernhard Weiss, the most prominent Jewish member of the Berlin police department who challenged the Nazi Party and successfully sued Joseph Goebbels, passed away.

    1951: United States Premiere of Billy Wilder’s “Ace In The Hole” a film that provides a dark look at the values of a newspaper man starring Kirk Douglas and

    1951:The Jerusalem Post reported that the stage was set for the elections to the Second Knesset. The number of eligible voters reached 900,000. The Ministry for Foreign Affairs signed an agreement with the UN providing for the training of nine experts in various economic, social and administrative fields.

    1954:The 1953 Stephen S. Wise award for an outstanding contribution to Jewish welfare was presented today to Youth Aliyah. The citation described the organization's work as "rescuing more than 65,000 children from over seventy-two lands during the past twenty years and educating them for creative citizenship in the land of Israel."

    1957(1st of Av, 5717): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1965: Premiere of “Ship of Fools” the cinematic treatment of the novel by the same name set at the start of the Nazi era directed and produced by Stanley Kramer with a script by Abby Mann and music by Ernest Gold.

    1966(12th of Av, 5726): One day after his 98th birthday French poet and Zionist Andre Spire passed away today.

    1969: Under the leadership of General Sharon, the Head of the IDF’s Southern Command, Israeli frogmen attacked Green Island during the War of Attirition.

    1970(25th of Tammuz, 5730):  Hungarian born conductor George Szell passed away.  From 1946 until his death, Szell led the Cleveland Symphony Orchestra.

    1974(10th of Av, 5734:  Cass Elliott passed away.  Born Ellen Naomi Cohen in Baltimore in 1941, Elliott dropped out of school, changed her name and headed for New York. She found fame in fortune performing with the singing group, Mamas and Poppas.

    1975: President Gerald R. Ford became the first U.S. president to visit the site of the Nazi concentration camp Auschwitz in Poland as he paid tribute to the camp's victims.

    1976(2ndof Av, 5736): Sixty-two year old mobster Mickey Cohen passed away today.

    1976: “Rescuing the Entebbe Hostages” published today provides a detailed review of 90 Minutes At Entebbe, William Stevenson’s “hurriedly published paperback account of the” hostage rescuing raid. Stevenson, who is best known for A Man Called Intrepid, appears to won the race to publish the first account, if not the most thorough one.

    1976: The Jerusalem Post reported from Washington that contrary to earlier reports, the US had had direct contacts with the PLO "for some time" and that they would continue. Three hundred Americans were evacuated from Lebanon as Syrians and the PLO reached an agreement on this issue. The price of meat rose by two to three shekels per kilo as agreed between the Ministry of Commerce and Agriculture and the Histadrut's Consumer Authority.

    1979(5th of Av, 5739): Herbert Marcuse leftist German born, American philosopher passed away.  Marcuse influenced a whole generation of leftists, radicals and anarchists including Angela Davis and Abbe Hoffman.

    1979: A fifteen-day conference organized by Gerda Lerner and co-sponsored by Sarah Lawrence, the Women's Action Alliance and the Smithsonian Institution, which was intended for female leaders came to an end today.

    1981(27th of Tammuz, 5741):  Robert Moses passed away.  Born into a well-to-do German Jewish family, Moses gained fame as New York’s master builder.  Both his critics and his supporters agreed that he was one of the 20th century’s influential urban planners.

    1981: A bus was attacked in the entrance to Kibbutz Ma'ale Hahamisha near Jerusalem. A boy of 12 and a girl of 17 were wounded.

    1982(9th of Av, 5742): Tish'a B'Av

    1982: Sir Zelman Cowen, who was the 19th Governor-General of Australia, completed his term of office.

    1986(22nd of Tammuz, 5746): Seventy-seven year old Richard David Barnett passed. A product of Cambridge and a veteran of WW II, he was a distinguished academic who was elected a Fellow of the British Academy. He also served a President of the Jewish Historical Society of England and Chairman of the Anglo-Israel Archaeological Society.

    1986(22nd of Tammuz, 5746): Fifty-five year old Israeli poet and Holocaust survivor Dan Pagis passed away today.  A native of Romania, one of his most famous poems is “written in pencil in the sealed railway car.”

    1986: Chaim “Drukman left Morasha and returned to the NRP

    1987: Ben & Jerry's agree on a new flavor -  Cherry Garcia

    1990(7th of Av, 5750): Bruno Kreisky passed away.  When Kreisky became Prime Minister of Austria during the 1970’s, he was the first Jew to hold that position.

    1992: Aryeh Gamliel begins serving as Deputy Minister of Housing and Construction.

    1993: The Israeli Supreme Court acquits accused Nazi death camp guard John Demjanjuk of all charges and he is set free

    1997:The documentary film Blacks and Jews, written and directed by Deborah Kaufman and Alan Snitow, was aired on PBS.

    1998(6th of Av, 5758): Jerome Robbins, American choreographer passed away.  The Tony Award winner’s list of famous musical is almost endless including West Side Story, The King and I, Gypsy and The Pajama Game.

    2000:In “The Bible, as History, Flunks New Archaeological Tests; Hotly Debated Studies Cast Doubt on Many Familiar Stories,” Gustav Neibur described the supposed conflict between the tales of the Bible and findings of modern archaeology:

    2001: The New York Times book section includes a review of Blue Diary by Jewish author Alice Hoffman

    2001: Two people were injured today in a Jerusalem car bombing.

    2003: President Bush and Prime Minister Ariel Sharon met at the White House.

    2004: A photo exhibit designed to memorialize Anne Frank in what would have been her 75thyear closes at the Kraushaar Galleries in New York City.

    2006: On Shabbat Chazon, Jews respond to a request from the Governing Council of the Chief Rabbinate by continuing to recite Psalms 83, 130 and 142 on a daily basis.

    2006(4thof Av, 5766): Seventy six year old French historian Pierre Vidal-Naquet passed away today. (As reported by Margalit Fox)

    2007: The National Gallery of Art presents a screening of “The Dybbuk,” the Yiddish film based on Ansky’s celebrated drama.

    2007: In Jerusalem,Off the Wall Comedy Empire presents "Find Me a Wife: Find You a Husband," an annual Tu B`Av special event show starring David Kilimnick. Kilimnick approaches the issues of the single man/woman in Jerusalem.

    2007:  The Washington Post book section features reviews of a biography of America’s first Jewish Secretary of State entitled Henry Kissinger and the American Century by Jeremi Suri and a novel entitled Kalooki Nights by Howard Jacobsen.The novel which purports to be an “examination of a Jewish sub-culture is a convoluted combination of family saga and semi-tepid murder mystery, focusing on its narrator, Max Glickman, a Jewish cartoonist with a hefty persecution complex and a series of anti-Semitic non-Jewish ex-wives.”

    2007:Ariel Sharon Hovers Between Life and Death and Dreams of Theodor Herzl” has its final performance at Theatre J.

    2007:The first edition of Yisrael Hayom (Israel Today) appeared.

    2007(14th of Av, 5767): Raya Czerner Schapiro, psychiatrist, Holocaust educator and author passed away at the age of 73 in Chicago.  After a harrowing experience, Mrs. Schapiro arrived in the United States at the age of 5 after fleeing from Nazi occupied Czechoslovakia.  She was inspired to pursue a medical career in memory of her uncle, a doctor, who had sheltered her before her escape and who died during the Holocaust.

    2007: Rep. Anthony Weiner and Rep. Jerrold Nadler (D-N.Y.) objected to a $20 billion arms deal that the Bush Administration had negotiated with Saudi Arabia because they do not want to provide "sophisticated weapons to a country that they believe has not done enough to stop terrorism," also noting that 15 of the 19 hijackers of September 11, 2001 were from Saudi Arabia. Weiner made the announcement outside of the Saudi Arabian consulate in Washington, stating that "We need to send a crystal clear message to the Saudi Arabian government that their tacit approval of terrorism can't go unpunished."

    2008: Robert Wexler, a six-term Jewish U.S. congressman from Florida, discusses and signs Fire-Breathing Liberal: How I Learned to Survive (and Thrive) in the Contact Sport of Congress(written with David Fisher) at the Sixth & I Historic Synagogue in Washington, D.C.

    2009(8th of Av, 5759): Fast begins at sundown

    2009(8th of Av, 5769): Eighty-six year old Dina Babiit who used her artistic skills to survive Auschwitz and to save her mother’s life, passed away.(As reported by Bruce Weber)

    2009:The Randi & Bruce Pergament Jewish Film Festival came to a close with aClosing Night Bash!” - A gala dessert reception and a chance to win membership and fitness benefits at the JCC.

    2009:An archeologist announced today that a unique Aramaic inscription on a stone cup commonly used for ritual purity during the first century has been uncovered in a dig on Mount Zion in Jerusalem. The six-week excavation is being carried out within the Gan Sobev Homot Yerushalayim national park, close to the Zion Gate of the Old City.

    2009: In the aftermath of the fatal shooting of a security guard at the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C., a seven count indictment was handed up in U.S. District Court charging white supremacist James von Brunn in his murderous attacked on museum guard Stephen T. Johns.

    2009: The New York Times reviews books by Jewish authors including Cooperstown Confidential: Heroes Rouges, and the Inside story of the Baseball Hall of Fame by Zev Chafets.

    2010: “A Film Unfinished,” a rigorous and profound documentary that simultaneously exposes the perversity of Nazi propaganda, honors its victims and pays tribute to the resiliency of the filmmaker’s own grandmother and the other survivors of the Ghetto is scheduled to be shown at the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.

    2010: The Washington Postreported today that Jewish nonprofit group whose leader was accused of fabricating dramatic stories about rescued sefer Torahs has reached a deal with Maryland investigators forbidding it from publicizing such stories about sacred scrolls unless it can prove them. The agreement ends an investigation into the Rockville-based Save a Torah and its driving force, Rabbi Menachem Youlus.

    2010:Israel is tied with Canada, Switzerland, and Australia as the world's eighth happiest country out of 155 surveyed, according to a Gallup World Poll posted by Forbes today.  Israel far outstripped its neighbors in happiness, with Jordan ranking 52, Lebanon 73, Egypt and Syria 115. The Palestinian Territories were 88 on the list.

    2010: The 9th Congress of The European Association for Jewish Studies (EAJS) came to a close in Ravenna today.

    2010: Congressman Anthony “Weiner criticized Republicans for opposing the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act. This act would provide for funds for sick first responders to the 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Center, many of whom reside in Weiner's district.

    2011(27th of Tammuz, 5771): Eight-year old Shulamit Shamir, wife of Yithak Shamir, passed away today in Tel Aviv. (As reported by Gabe Kahn)

    2011:“Sarah’s Key,” a French film that centers on events that began with the roundup of French Jews in 1942, is scheduled to open in major US cities today.

    2011: Starting at 1 pm, a Beach Party, complete with eighty-tons of sand brought in just for the event, is scheduled to take place at the Malcha Mall in Jerusalem.

    2011:Following a day of advocacy and meetings at the White House, grassroots leaders from about twenty Jewish social justice organizations are scheduled to gather for Shabbat services and dinner at the Historic Sixth & I Synagogue in Washington, DC.

    2011: As the doctor’s labor dispute entered its 132nd day Israel Medical Association chairman Dr. Leonid Edelman continued his one-man hunger strike

    2011(27th of Tammuz, 5771): Tens of thousands mourned the death of Rabbi Elazar Abuchatzeira at his Jerusalem funeral this afternoon, after he was stabbed to death in the early hours of the morning.  Police arrested a suspect, Asher Dahan, 42 from Elad

    2011: After finishing his career at Wisconsin, Gabe Carimi signed a four year contract with the Chicago Bears.

    2011: Minor league pitcher Josh Zeid who had played his college ball at Tulane  was traded to the Houston Astros today.

    2012(9th of Av, 5772): Tish’a B’Av

    2012: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or special interest to Jewish readers including the recently released paperback editions of The Emperor of Lies by Steve Sem-Sandberg and An Anatomy of Addiction: Sigmund Freud, William Halsted and the Miracle Drug Cocaine by Howard Markel 

    2012: The fundraiser being held for US Republican presidential candidate Mitt Romney while he’s in Israel is scheduled to start at 9:30 p.m. this evening well after Tisha B’Av ends at sundown. The fundraiser will reportedly cost $60,000 a plate.

    2012: “Glickman,” a documentary about Marty Glickman, is scheduled to have its Bay Area Premiere at the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.

    2012:Police closed the Temple Mount to Jewish visitors this morning, the fast of Tisha Be’av, due to fears of “provocation” – despite a promise last night that the holiest site in Judaism would be open to Jewish worshipers

    2012: Shahar Peer was the last Israeli to play today, and she too lost in the first round. The tennis player was eliminated from competition at the London Games by Russian medal favorite Maria Sharapova, ending a disappointing day for the blue-and-white team. (As reported by Aaron Kalman)

    2012:US Defense Secretary Leon Panetta today touted the close security relationship between Israel and the US, suggesting that Israel remained on board with international efforts to pressure Iran on its nuclear program and had not decided to unilaterally strike the Islamic Republic.

    2012: Ninety year old August Kowalczyk the last survivor of the June 10, 1942 breakout from Auschwitz passed away today.

    2013: “The Last Sentence” a movie about Swedish anti-Nazi journalist Torgny Segerstedt is scheduled to be shown at the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.

    2013: Leading Jerusalem chefs are scheduled to lead a “Mahane Yehuda Shuk Outing!”

    2013: An Israeli negotiating team led by Justice Minister Tzipi Livni is scheduled to meet with Palestinian negotiators at the Washington, DC home of U. S. Secretary of State John Kerry prior to the start of peace negotiations which are scheduled to begin in earnest on July 30. (As reported by Herb Keinon)

    2013: A full-capacity crowd gathered this evening at the capital’s newly-launched Jerusalem Press Club to hear a panel discussion among luminaries Dr. Mehmet Oz, Rabbi Shmuley Boteach and Jewish Agency chairman Natan Sharansky about Jewish values and its impact on society. (As reported by Daniel K. Eisenbud)

    2013: Former Bank of Israel Governor withdrew his nomination to return to the position, Channel 2 reported today, following an ongoing scandal over an alleged shoplifting incident at a Hong Kong duty free store. (As reported by Nev Elis)

    2014: The JDC Archives is scheduled to host a presentation by Dr.Gerald Steinacher the Hymen Rosenberg Professor of Judaic Studies at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln entitled “The Red Cross, Jewish Relief Agencies, and the Holocaust” at the Center for Jewish History.

    2014: The Washington Jewish Film Festival is scheduled to host a Coen Brothers double header with showings of “Blood Simple” and “No Country For Old Men.”

    2014: The Historic 6th& I Synagogue is scheduled to host an hour of “Jewish Sangha.”

    0 0

    July 30

    762:Caliph Al Mansur founded the city of Baghdad. By the start of the 10th century wealthy Jewish merchants were playing the role of “court bankers” and were reportedly lending funds to the caliphs and his their minister. 

    1192: The forces of Saladin successfully stormed the walls of Jaffa forcing the remaining Crusaders to take refuge in the town’s citadel.

    1360: A butcher’s license for a carniceria was issued to a Christian named Bernard Arlouin. In Spain, Jews were not allowed to have butchers licenses.  In other words, they operated butcher shops, but were not allowed to own them. In this case, a Spanish Jew named Jafudenus Amilus operated the shop.

    1488: Sixteen Jews were burned at the stake in Barcelona.

    1492(9thof Av, 5252): The entire Jewish Community, numbering 200,000 souls was expelled from Spain.

    1492: Don Isaac Abravanel gave up his power, wealth and prestige to join his fellow Jews on their perilous road out of Spain.

    1729:  Baltimore, Maryland is founded.  Jews were already living in the colony of Maryland when Baltimore was founded.  The Jewish community in Baltimore is one of the oldest in the country. However, the first building that was built as a synagogue, the Lloyd Street Synagogue, was not constructed until 1845.

    1756:In London Elie and Hana Pinto Vega gave birth to Abraham Furtado the President of the Assemblee des Notables and the assistant of the Mayor of Bordeaux.

    1825:  Birthdate of Ignaz Gorssman, the Hungarian born Rabbi who came to the United States in 1873 to Congregation Beth Elohim.

    1825: Birthdate of Chaim Aronson, a Lithuanian Jew, who was inventor and academic. Aronson's inventions, which included several machines for mass producing cigarettes, a clockwork calculator, a prototype for an early movie camera, and the microdiarama, were, for their time, ground breaking. Aronson, however, is better remembered for a series of memoirs he wrote, published long after his death in the book A Jewish Life Under the Tsars This is an autobiography of Aronson's own difficult life, but it also describes insightfully, the life of ordinary society in Imperial Russia.

    1829: Daniel O’Connell best known for his work in favor of the Emancipation of Catholics but who also supported Emancipation for Irish Jews and the repeal of the British law "De Judaismo",  was elected to Parliament today

    1836: Birthdate of Gustav Solomon Oppert, “German Indologist and Sankriist who was the brother of Julius Oppert.

    1851: Rabbi Lyons officiated at the wedding of Mr. Solomons from Savannah, GA and Frances Joseph from Charleston, SC

    1856: In New York Asher Kursheedt and Abigail Kursheedt gave birth to Lionel Judah Kursheedt

    1860: The New York Times reported on "The Fast of Ab." -- "Yesterday was the fast of the month of Ab, the anniversary of the destruction of the temple of Solomon by Nebuchadnezzar, and of the second temple by Vespasian, among the Hebrew population all over the world; and was fully observed in the synagogues of this City. The fast of Ab is really one of abnegation. No meat is eaten, and but very little bread is broken. The synagogues yesterday were hung with black, and the Book of Lamentations was read in the original Hebrew."

    1862: During the American Civil War, General William T. Sherman wrote a letter from Union-occupied Memphis, Tennessee stating, "I found so many Jews and speculators here trading in cotton, and secessionists had become so open in refusing anything but gold, that I have felt myself bound to stop it. The gold can have but one use - the purchase of arms and ammunition... Of course, I have respected all permits by yourself or the Secretary of the Treasury, but in these new cases (swarms of Jews), I have stopped it."

    1863: The New York Times reported that “a Jew broker, made his appearance in Westchester, Penn., accompanied by a dozen others, whom he represented as anxious to serve as substitutes, for a consideration. Although some of the men, it is said, boasted of having taken part in the New-York riots, yet they were eagerly caught up by drafted men, and engaged at various prices as substitutes.” [The Times did not report on the ethnic or religious origins of any of the other participants in this scheme. This story was part of a series on the Draft Riots that racked New York in the summer of 1863.  Did the Times identify the rioters as “Catholics” or Irish Catholics? ]

    1863: Birthdate of American automaker Henry Ford. For Americans, Ford is the man who made the Model-T. For Jews, he is the man who popularized the "Protocols of the Elders Of Zion." Towards the end of his life, Ford apologized for his involvement with this anti-Semitic literature that still infects the world today.

    1863:Chief Rabbi Nathan Marcus Adler consecrated the new building housing the Bayswater Synagogue.

    1864:  During the American Civil War, Union Army Sergeant Major Abraham Cohn distinguished himself at the Battle of the Crater at Petersburg, VA.  Cohn would be awarded the Medal of Honor for his fighting during the Wilderness Campaign and the Siege of Petersburg.

    1870: Newspapers carry full accounts of what is called “A Horrible Murder” – the murder of prominent New Yorker Benjamin Nathan – and the so far fruitless efforts of the police to solve the crime.

    1871: It was reported today that “the industrious Jews” are “annoying Christians.” In New York, the Alanson M.E. Church on Norfolk Street occupies a building adjacent to a tenement house that is “occupied almost exclusively by” Orthodox Jews. The Jews go to the synagogue on Saturday and work on Sunday.  Many of them work as tailors “and the ceaseless whirr of their sewing-machines has proved very annoying to the worshipers in the church.” One of the Jews offered to stop working if the church members would pay him for his lost time.  The trustees have declined his offer and are considering taking legal action against the Jewish worker.

    1876(9th of Av, 5636): Tish'a B'Av

    1876: “A Jewish Festival,” an article published today, reported that Tish’a B’Av, “a Jewish festival” commemorating “the destruction of Jerusalem was begun at 9 o’clock last evening in many of the synagogues” in New York City “and will be generally observed today at the various Jewish temples of worship, notably those of the orthodox Jews.  In the churches of the latter, the services will consist of chants and prayers for the re-establishment of the Jewish hierarchy.”  In addition to praying and singing, “the festival is…observed…by a fast of twenty-four hours duration.”  [Ed. Note – It is worth noting that this brief but detailed description of a minor Jewish fast day appeared in the New York Times.

    1878: Birthdate of Adolf Guttman, one of the Jews from Kleinstinach who served in the German Army during WW I.

    1878: German elections resulted in the reactionary element having a dominant voice in the Reichstag. This date is considered the birthday of modern German anti- Semitism.

    1880: Birthdate of Colonel Robert R. McCormick who gained famed as the editor and publisher of the Chicago Tribune in an era when newspapers were the dominant voice of the media in the United States.  He was a founder of the American First Committee, a powerful organization dedicated to keep the United States out of World War II which took on a decidedly anti-Semitic viewpoint. 

    1880: Birthdate of Bernhard Weiss, the German born lawyer who served as a top ranking police official during the Weimar Republic and fearlessly confronted the Nazis.

    1880: “Resting at Schooley’s Mountain” published today provided a brief history of this famous New Jersey resort area. The area had become so popular with Jewish vacationers that two of the cottages, Heath House and Belmont Hall, effectively banned Jewish guests. The ban was lifted when the locals saw its negative impact.  (This was one of only of series of bans instituted at hotels, etc. following the Civil War.)

    1881: “Foreign Topics” published today described the nightly anti-Semitic demonstrations taking place in Hammerstein, West Prussia.  The riots are similar to ones that have already taken placed in Baerwald, Pomerania.

    1881: It was reported today that troops fired on rioters in Poltava who have been attacking Jews, killing four and wounding two.

    1884: Theodor Herzl is admitted to the bar in Vienna.

    1884: Two New York detectives apprehended Samuel Barnett, a Polish Jew who reportedly has been committing a series of robberies over the last three months in Harlem.

    1884: In Nashville, TN, the jury hearing the case of Meyer Moskowitz and “Zeke” White was discharged this evening.  Moskowitz, a Jew and White had been charged with murdering Meyer Fried of Nashville.  The jury had acquitted White but was deadlocked on the issue of Moskowitz ‘s guilt.

    1885: Myer S. Isaacs presided over a meeting of the Board of Delegates of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations which had been called to determine how to respond to the death of Sir Moses Montefiore.  The board decided to recommend that all Jewish congregations hold special memorial services on Friday night and Saturday morning in honor of the late philanthropist.  Plans will be made a later date for a more formal memorial service to be held in September.

    1885: “Two young gentlemen of Hebrew extraction who were engaged selling bullet-like green apples from a wagon at the rate of one cent per quart” unsuccessfully tried to escape Dr. Cyrus Edson, Chief of the Secondary Sanitary Division, and his officers during a raid on the lower east side as part of Edson’s drive to put an end to the sale of unsanitary produce.

    1886: Among the institutions that received money from the Board of Estimate and Apportionment today was the Hebrew Guardian Society in the amount of $2,858.29

    1886: “Jew and Gentile Wedded” published today described the elopement of Nellie Goodwin and Meier Weil.  Goodwin the 16 year old daughter of Reverend W.R. Goodwin of the Centenary Methodist Episcopal Church and Weil, the son of prominent Jewish merchant, have left Jacksonville, Illinois for parts unknown.

    1887: “Wealthy Hebrews Worried” published today described Isidor Freedman’s inability to gain membership in the Utopia Club, a social club for wealthy Jews living in New Haven, CT.  Freedman, part of the firm of Mendel & Freedman had been blackballed by Isaac Ullmann. (Not exactly the kind of story they taught us in Hebrew School)

    1888: Forty-five year old Irish-American playwright Barley Campbell author of “Siberia” a drama about the persecution of the Jews of Russia passed away

    1888:In Enghien-les-Bains, Val-d'Oise, dramatist Tristan Bernard and his wife gave birth to French playwright Jean-Jacques Bernard

    1890: “The Juvenile Band of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum” will play at today’s concert sponsored by B’nai B’rith for the benefit of the Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews in Yonkers. 1892: Waldemar Mordecai Wolff Haffkine, a Russian born Jewish bacteriologist, reported the results of his test of his cholera vaccine to the Biological Society in London.

    1890: The Times of London reported that the Russian government has ordered the enforcement of the edicts of 1882 which were aimed at limiting the economic opportunities for Jews and forcing them to live “in certain towns.”

    1890: The New York Times will forward a check for $30.50 that it received from Mrs. S.J. Nathan to the Hebrew Sanitarium, the charity for which the people of Sucassunna, NJ collected the money.

    1891: Morris Goodhart of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society was among those who testified as to the harmful effects of the Standard Gas Company works on the riverfront at east 114th Street.

    1891: The Russian immigrants who arrived at Boston yesterday from Liverpool will not be admitted into the country are because “they are deemed likely to be a pubic charge.”

    1892: John Collins chaired the meeting of Fourth Assembly District Republicans held at the Hebrew Institute Hall.

    1892: Dr. C.H. Goodman and Mrs. Goodman set sail today aboard the SS Gallia for Liverpool.

    1893(17thof Av, 5653): Seventy-six year old Solomon Heyman who operated a successful dry goods business and was one of the Directors of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum passed away while on vacation in Long Branch.

    1893: “Sir Richard Burton’s Life” published today provided a detailed review of The Life of Capt. Sir Richard F. Burton, the author of The Jew, The Gypsy and El Islam

    1894:Birthdate of Blanche Wolf Knopf. “Although her name and work have been overshadowed by those of her husband, Blanche Wolf Knopf carved out her own place in the publishing industry as vice-president and president of Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. Blanche Knopf was raised in New York, where she met Alfred Knopf in 1911. They were married in 1916; the year after Alfred Knopf launched his eponymous publishing firm. Blanche Knopf was involved in the firm from the start, and in 1921, she became a director and vice-president. In addition to running the office, Blanche Knopf's duties included frequent travel to meet with and recruit new authors for the press. By all accounts, she excelled in establishing relationships with writers on three continents. Under her leadership, Knopf published translations of French writers Albert Camus, André Gide, Simone de Beauvoir, and Jean-Paul Sartre; South American writers Jorge Amado, Gilberto Freyre, and Eduardo Mallea; and the first American edition of Sigmund Freud's Moses and Monotheism. Knopf published American classics, but under Blanche Knopf's urging the firm also published such new American writers as H.L. Mencken, Willa Cather, Dashiell Hammett, and Raymond Chandler. For her work in support of French literature in America, she was named a Chevalier de la Légion d'Honneur by the French government in 1949 and made an officer in 1960. Similarly, she was honored by the Brazilian government in 1950 with the Order of the Southern Cross. In 1957, Alfred Knopf became chairman of the board, and Blanche Knopf took over as president. However, in 1960, the firm was sold to Random House, which maintains the Knopf imprint as an independent entity. Blanche Knopf remained involved at the helm of the Knopf imprint until her death in 1966. Her New York Times obituary said that her "alertness and perspicacity in recruiting writers ... and her driving energy as an executive contributed immensely to the success of the house of Knopf." In a field dominated entirely by men, in which she was virtually the only woman in her time to take a leading role, Blanche Knopf had a lasting impact on Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., on the world of publishing, and on American letters.

    1894: “Socialist Leaders Went Too Far” described the conflict among the Cloakmakers nearly all of whom are Jewish which was resolved when they chose Socialist Joseph Barondess to serve as their president. One of the points of contention was the Socialist demand that the Union Zeitung which is published in Hebrew with a circulation of 10,000 paid subscribers should be replaced with the Arbeiter Zeitung, “a Hebrew Socialist organ.”

    1894: “Five jurors were impaneled” today “in part I. of the Court of General Sessions to try Policeman Jeremiah S. Levy” who is Jewish, “of the Thirty-first Precinct for birbery.

    1894: Max Lefkowitz signed an affidavit today say that Officer Jeremiah Levy was not the man who had cheated him out of $25 in a scheme to provide testimony that would have freed his brother Ignatz who was facing charges of grand larceny.

    1895(9th of Av, 5655): Tisha B’Av

    1895(9thof Av, 5655): New York banker Simon Wormser passed away today.

    1895: The strike of the Brotherhood of Tailors, most of whom were Jewish, seemed to be coming to an today as could be seen by Meyer Schoefield that “at least seventy contractors had already signed an agreement to give the strikers what they demanded” and that another twenty were prepared to sign.

    1895: Samuel Gompers addressed a group of strikers tonight at Cooper Union.

    1895: Otto von Bismarck passed away.

    1898: Moses Montefiore Congregation in Hoboken, NJ is contesting the claim by David Engler that he actually owns the surface rights to the lot on which the synagogue sits and that he has the right to lift the building off of its foundation so that he can build a store on the property.

    1899:”The United Hebrew Charities acknowledged” today that it had received a total of $180.50 to help resettle a family of four in the country.  The parents have become chronic invalids from their work in the city and seek to support themselves in a rural area.

    1901: Fifty-one year old historian Herbert Baxter Adams who wrote “valuable papers on the services” contributed by the “patriotic Jew” Chaim Salomon when others challenged his accomplishments, passed away today.

    1902: Over 50,000 mourners followed the casket of Rabbi Jacob Joseph during his funeral in New York today.

    1905(27thof Tammuz, 5665): Tobacconist Solomon Wallenstein passed away.  Born 1831, he married Esther Hellman Wallenstein, the founding president of the Hebrew Infant Asylum, in 1865.

    1905: In Bialystok, during the anti-Jewish riots, physicians were prevented from treating Jewish victims.

    1908: Dr. Franz Kafka walked into the building housing the Worker’s Accident Insurance Institute for the Kingdom of Bohemia in Prague and began working as an assistant in the legal department.  He would retire in 1922 because of complications from a lung disease.

    1911(5thof Av, 5671): Moritz Pinner, the father of Rogers Pinner, who was known as ‘Captain Mortiz Pinner’ passed away today.

    1914: In a move the results of which resonant throughout the Middle East and beyond to this day, two days after the outbreak of WW I, the Ottoman Empire formed a secret alliance with Germany aimed specifically at Russia.

    1916(29thof Tammuz, 5676): Dr.Albert Ludwig Sigesmund Neisser passed away.

    1918(21st of Av, 5678): Rabbi Chaim Soloveitchik, the son of Rabbi Yosef Dov Soloveitchik  and author of the Chiddushei Rabbeinu Chaim, a commentary on the teachings of Maimonides, passed away today. Born in 1853, he was known as Reb Chaim Brisker because of the methodology he developed for studying Talmud.

    1921: Birthdate of U.S. Army Alvin David Ungerleider who as a 23 year old lieutenant stormed Omaha Beach during the Normandy landings and helped to liberate the Concentration Camp at Nordhausen in 1945.

    1922: Birthdate of Henry W. Bloch, the co-founder and (since 2000) the chairman emeritus of H&R Block. Henry and his brother, Richard Bloch, founded H&R Block in 1955 in Kansas City, Missouri. Bloch was born in Kansas City. He attended Southwest High School, and was an undergraduate at University of Missouri–Kansas City and the University of Michigan, graduating from Michigan in 1944. Through the Army Air Corps he received graduate training at the Harvard Business School. Bloch and his wife Marion married in 1951 and live in the Kansas City metropolitan area. The Henry Wollman Block fountain in front of Union Station in Kansas City is named in his honor, as is The Henry W. Bloch School of Business and Public Administration at the University of Missouri–Kansas City and the Bloch Building, a major addition to the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art. Mr. Bloch was inducted into the Junior Achievement U.S. Business Hall of Fame in 2001.

    1925: Birthdate of Jakob Josef Petuchowski a native of Berlin, Germany. He was brought from Germany to London, in a children's transport, prior to the outbreak of World War II. After receiving a B.A. with honors in psychology from the University of London in 1947, Petuchowski moved to the United States in 1948 and earned his rabbinic ordination, masters degree  and Ph.D. from Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati, Ohio.  Petuchowski served in the congregational rabbinate in Welch, West Virginia and Washington Pennsylvania. He was also the High Holiday rabbi of Temple B'nai Israel, Laredo, Texas, from 1956 through 1991.

    1928: Claims by Frieda and Goldina Rubinson, two sisters born in Hamburg now living in Tel Aviv that they are the authors of the opera now known as “Turnadot” and that Puccini plagiarized the score from them were greeted with scorn and ridicule by sources in New York including William J Guard of the Metropolitan Opera Company and G. Ricordi & Co, the music publishers. 

    1929: In Zurich, at the second session of the sixteenth Biennial Zionist Congress, statistician and agricultural expert Dr. Arthur Ruppin of Tel Aviv delivers an address in which he described the negative impact that conversion, intermarriage, decreasing birth rate and an unchanged mortality rate were having on the survival of the Jewish people.

    1932: The 1932 Olympics opens in Los Angeles. Attila Petschauer a gold medal winning swordsman was part of the Hungarian Fencing Team.  The 1999 film Sunshine is a multi-generational study of Petschauer’s family and vividly depicts his death at the hands of the Nazis in 1943. Jewish Gold Medal winners includedIstvan Barta, Hungary water polo, Gyorgy Brody, Hungary, water polo; Lillian Copeland, USA, athletics, discus throw; George Gulack, USA,
    gymnastics, flying rings; Endre Kabos, Hungary, fencing, team saber; Miklos Sárkány, Hungary
    water polo.

    1933: “The editor of Der Surmer, Julius Streicher, newly appointed Reich Commissar for Franconia, gave orders that 250 Jewish tradesmen in Nuremberg should be arrested, and ‘set to plucking the grass out of a field with their teeth.’”

    1933: Catcher Harry Danning made his major league debut with the New York Giants.

    1934: Birthdate of Bud Selig, Commissioner of Baseball and owner of the Milwaukee Brewers.

    1934: In Lodz, Poland, Eljasz (Edward) and Natka Skornicki gave birth to Paulina Skornicka.

    1936: The Palestine Post reported on the appointment in London of the Royal Commission for Palestine, chaired by Earl Peel. Other members were Sir Horace Rumboldt, Sir Laurie Hammond, Sir Morris Carter, Sir Harold Morris and Professor Reginald Coupland. The commission's terms of reference were "to ascertain the underlying causes of the disturbances... to inquire into the manner in which the Mandate was implemented in relation to the obligations of the Mandatory towards the Arabs and Jews... to study legitimate grievances and make recommendations for their removal and for the prevention of their recurrence."

    1936: General Franco declared his Fascist government and the Spanish Civil War broke out. During the Second World War, Spain officially remained neutral, yet Franco sent troops to fight against the Russians, and Spain later served as a refuge for fleeing Nazis.

    1937: Pierre-Marie Gerlier who would be posthumously awarded the title Righteous among the Nations by Yad Vashem in 1981 was named Archbishop of Lyon today.

    1937: In Memphis, TN, Lewis Glick and Sylvia Kleinman Glick gave birth to Milton D. Glick, nationally renowned academic leader who served as the 15th president of the University of Nevada, Reno

    1939: Birthdate of movie director Peter Bogdanovich.

    1939(14th of Av, 5699): Dutch sculptor Joseph Mendes da Costa passed away.

    1939: In a private letter Neville Chamberlain, Prime Minister of Great Britain described Germany's jealousy of the Jews' superior cleverness and states: "No doubt Jews aren't a lovable people; I don't care about them myself; but that is not sufficient to explain the Pogrom."

    1939: Reacting to German anti-Jewish policies and reflecting the attitude of many other officials in Great Britain and Western Europe, British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain writes: "No doubt Jews aren't a lovable people; I don't care about them myself. But that is not sufficient to explain the pogrom."

    1940: Birthdate of producer Stanley Jaffe, the man who gave us Fatal Attracations.

    1941(6th of Av, 5701): At Ponar, outside of Vilna, approximately, 150 Jews are shot.  Most of the victims are elderly.

    1942: German industrialist Eduard Schulte, whose company has mines near Auschwitz, reveals to a Swiss colleague that Hitler and the German Reich have decided to round up the millions of Jews of Occupied Europe, concentrate them in the East, and murder them using prussic acid starting in the fall of 1942. The information is soon communicated to Swiss World Jewish Congress representative Gerhart Riegner.

    1942(16th of Av, 5702): German SS kills 25,000 Jews in Minsk, Belorussia

    1942:Esther "Etty" Hillesum was transferred to Westerbork.

    1942: The U.S. government established the Navy WAVES, or Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency Service, program. Though Navy women would not be allowed to serve outside the continental U.S., or even to go to sea, the military hoped that the recruitment of 10,000 women, who would work in onshore bases, would free sufficient numbers of men to fight overseas. Although women had served as nurses in the navy as early as the Spanish-American War, and officially in the Navy Nurse Corps since 1908, the WAVES program was by far the largest-scale effort to recruit women to active duty in the Navy. In the WAVES program, thousands of women performed nearly every possible job at over 500 naval stations through the Second World War. As military leaders had hoped, they enabled male officers and enlisted men to staff the ships that were responsible for the Allied victory in the Pacific theatre. Among the earliest group of women to enlist in the WAVES was Miriam Miller. Although her parents felt that military nursing "wasn't the life for a nice Jewish girl," Miller enlisted soon after her graduation from the Wilkes-Barre General Hospital School of Nursing, in Pennsylvania. She was assigned first to the Great Lakes Naval Station and then to the San Diego Naval Hospital. Later, when the Navy relaxed its prohibition on women serving outside the continental U.S., she worked in Guam, where she cared for soldiers injured in the battles of Iwo Jima and Okinawa. Active in veterans' affairs after the war, Miller was elected President of the Jewish War Veterans National Ladies Auxiliary in 1961.

    1943: First publication of Mishmar, a newspaper owned by Hashomer Hatzair that would be re-named Al HaMishmar

    1944(10th of Av, 5704): Since the 9th of Av fell on Shabbat, Tish'a B'Av is observed today.

    1944: Three tankers, carrying some 1750 Jews from the Italian-held islands of Kos and Rhodes, arrive at Piraeus, Greece, where the Jews are bullied onto trucks and driven to the Haidar detention camp near Athens

    1944: More than 100 Jews are deported from Toulouse, France, to Auschwitz.

    1944: Edi Weinstein, his father and his friend Berl Goldberg, all of whom who had escaped from Treblinka were discovered by German soldiers.  They killed Goldberg. Weinstein and his father survived and Edi Weinstein actually joined the Polish Army in 1945 helping to fight the Nazis in the waning days of the WW II. 

    1945: The administration of Germany is assumed by the Allied Control Council.

    1946: A three-day pogrom begins in Miskolc, Hungary.

    1950: James G. McDonald, the U.S. Ambassador to the state of Israel has submitted his resignation.  McDonald is coming to the end of a normal two year posting at Tel Aviv.

    1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that more than 1,500 polling stations opened to admit an estimated 880,000 voters for the Second Knesset. There were 17 lists of political parties contesting for the election of 120 Knesset members. About 75,000 Arabs were eligible to vote.

    1951: Voter turnout for today’s elections for the 2nd Knesset reaching 75.1%

    1951: Birthdate of Indian born, British artist and designer Gary Judah. For a look at his work go to

    1953: Senator Robert Taft of Ohio passed away. Most people do not remember Senator Taft.  But in his day he was a political power.  Known as “Mr. Republican” Taft was considered a “shoe-in” for the Republican nomination for President in 1952.  However, his plans were upset by the surprise entry of Ike Eisenhower into the battle for the nomination.  Ike won and the rest is history. As a Conservative Republican, Taft opposed most the social legislation that was popular among the Jews of his day.  The Taft-Hartley Act was seen as a piece of anti-labor legislation that limited the power of labor and therefore the influence of many Jewish leaders.  However, Taft joined Senator Wagner of New York (his political opponent on most domestic issues) in introducing a resolution supporting a Jewish homeland in Palestine.  The resolution was introduced in October of 1945 and demonstrated the changing attitude towards Jews and the increasingly broad support for the Zionist cause among non-Jews.

    1956:In Tashken, Avner and Chana Leviev gave birth to Lev Avnerovich Leviev the businessman and philanthropist who served as president of the World Congress of Bukharian Jews.

    1965: US President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Social Security Act of 1965 into law, establishing Medicare and Medicaid. Wilbur Cohen, a man whose active career ran from the New Deal through the Great Society and was serving as Under Secretary of H.E.W. in 1965 was considered to be the driving force behind this landmark legislation that removed the fear of ill health for senior citizens and their families.  Johnson would later name Cohen, the Wisconsin born son of Jewish immigrants, to the position of Secretary of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare.

    1969:Barbra Streisand opens for Liberace at International Hotel, Las Vegas

    1970: Israeli airmen shot down four MIGs flown by Russian pilots over the Suez Canal. This marked the first military encounter between Israeli and Russian forces

    1976: Two French tourists were wounded when a bomb went off on a Jerusalem sidewalk.

    1976: The Jerusalem Post reported that Britain severed relations with Uganda after Idi Amin's regime failed to provide information on the fate of Dora Bloch, the British-Israeli dual national dragged from a Kampala hospital after her fellow hijacked Air France hostages had been rescued from the Entebbe airport by Israeli commandoes

    1976(2ndof Av, 5736): Seventy-five Emile Solomon Sachs, the Lithuanian born South African labor leader passed away today.

    1980: The Knesset passed the “The Jerusalem Law” establishing Jerusalem as the capital of the State of Israel.

    1983(20th of Av, 5743): MGM executive Howard Dietz passed away.

    1992(29th of Tammuz, 5752):  Ken Meyer, the son of Australian entrepreneur and businessman Sidney Myer, and his wife died today in plane crash.

    1992(29th of Tammuz, 5752):  Joe Shuster, co-creator of Superman, passed away.

    1997(25th of Tammuz, 5757):  Double suicide bombings to place in Jerusalem that would eventually claim the lives of fourteen Israeli victims.

    1997(25thof Tammuz, 5757):Lev Desyatnik, 60, of Jerusalem; Regina Giber, 76, of Jerusalem; Valentina Kovalenko, 67, of Jerusalem; Shmuel Malka, 44, of Mevaseret Zion; David Nasco, 44, of Mevaseret Zion; Muhi A-din Othman, 33, of Eilabun; Simha Fremd, 92, of Jerusalem; Gregory Paskhovitz, 15, of Jerusalem; Leah Stern, 50, of Jerusalem; Rachel Tejgatrio, 83, of Jerusalem; Liliya Zelezniak, 47, of Jerusalem; Shalom (Golan) Zevulun, 52, of Jerusalem and Mark Rabinowitz, 80, of Jerusalem were murdered by Hamas today at Mahane Yehuda Market.

    1999: The INS Dolphin was commissioned today.

    1999: Russian born American conductor led Bournemouth Symphony Orchestra in the premiere of Peteris Vasks's Symphony No. 2 at the Royal Albert Hall

    2000: The African American/Jewish Coalition for Justice hosts a picnic at Seward Park in Seattle, Washington.

    2000: Bruce Fleisher carded a three day score of 198 to win the Lightpath Long Island Classic.

    2000: The New York Times features reviews books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Driving Mr. Albert: A Trip Across America With Einstein's Brain by Michael Paterniti, Inside the Halo and Beyond: The Anatomy of a Recovery by Jewish born author Maxine Kumin and Millicent Dillon's new novel entitled Harry Gold about Harry Gold, the American Jewish chemist who acted as a spy for the Soviet Union in the 1930's and 40's.

    2002(21st of Av, 5762): Five people were injured by a suicide bomber on Hanevi’im Street in Jerusalem

    2003(1st of Av, 5763): Rosh Chodesh Av

    2006: Jewish golfer Corey Pavin won the U.S. Bank Championship in Milwaukee.

    2006: The New York Times features reviews books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including the recently released paperback edition of Freud's Requiem: Mourning, Memory, and the Invisible History of a Summer Walk by Matthew Von Unwerth. “This elegantly meandering look at Sigmund Freud's life and the intellectual world he moved in examines an obscure 1915 essay, "On Transience," in which Freud records a conversation with the poet Rainer Maria Rilke and the psychoanalyst Lou Andreas-Salomé.”

    2006: Hezbollah fired a record 140 Katyusha rockets at targets in northern Israel today wounding at least eight people, including a Haaretz correspondent.

    2006(5th of Av, 5766): Murray Bookchin, American libertarian and socialist, passed away.

    2007: In Jerusalem, Peretz Eliyahu and Victoria Chana collaborate to perform original music tied to ancient texts about love at a Tu B’Av event.

    2007: Victoria Redel, author of The Border of Truth based on the experiences of Jewish refugees aboard the SS Quanza, presents a reading at the Fine Arts Work Center in Provincetown, NY.

    2007(15th of Av, 5767): Tu B'Av.

    2008:Prime Minister Ehud Olmert of Israel, embroiled in a high-profile corruption investigation, announced that he would resign his office after his party chose a new leader in September elections. 

    2009(9th of Av, 5769): Tish'a B'Av

    2009:Randi & Bruce Pergament Jewish Film Festival presents a screening of “Max Minsky & Me,” a delightful comedy set in contemporary Berlin in which Nelly, a bookish bat mitzvah candidate, who wants to be on her school basketball team so she can meet her prince charming recruits a reluctant coach who offers her athletic training and ultimately, his respect.”

    2009: In an interview today the head of the Israel Defense Forces' ground troops during the Gaza disengagement said the decision to evacuate Gaza Strip settlements in 2005 was "utter nonsense." Israel Defense Forces General (Res.) Yiftach Ron-Tal made the comment during an interview on Army Radio, a day before the fourth anniversary of the disengagement on the Hebrew calendar.

    2010:A Grad-type Katyusha rocket fired by Palestinian militants in the Gaza Strip struck close to an apartment building in a residential area of Ashkelon on today, while two mortar shells exploded in the western Negev just a few hours later.

    2010:An Israeli Air Force Boeing aircraft carrying the coffins of six IAF servicemen killed in Monday's Yasour helicopter crash in the Carpathian Mountains landed at the Tel Nof air base. The funerals of the fallen soldiers will be held at various military cemeteries throughout the day today. Lt.-Col. (Res.) Avner Goldman will be buried at 12:15 p.m. in Modi'in; Lt.-Col. Daniel Shipenbauer will be buried at 3:00 p.m. in Gdarot; Maj. Yahel Keshet will be buried at 1:00 PM in Sharona; Maj. Lior Shai will be buried at 2:00 p.m. in Hod Hasharon; Lt. Nir Lakrif will be buried at 12:30 p.m. in Haifa; and St.-Sgt. Oren Cohen will be buried at 1:00 p.m. in Rehovot.

    2010;It was reported today that the three bidders still in the mix to buy Newsweek magazine, according to the New York Times, are audio equipment tycoon Sidney Harman; tastefully named hedge fund guy Marc Lasry; and Mort Zuckerman chum Fred Drasner. All three are Members of the Tribe.

    2010: “With Curious George” published today the plans for “Illumination Entertainment, the animation company founded by former Fox Animation President Chris Meledandri and whose movies Universal finances and distributes, is developing a new version of ‘Curious George,’"  the creation of the Jewish team of Hans and Margret Rey.

    2011:Gefen Books is scheduled to releaseConfidential: The Life of Secret Agent Turned Hollywood Tycoon Arnon Milchan, by brothers-in-law Meir Doron and Joseph Gelman, which “tells the story of an Israeli nuclear intelligence agent who found his way into the film business.”

    2011(28th of Tammuz, 5771): Yahrzeit of Rabbi Moshe Teitelbaum of Uhely, Hungary, author of Yismach Moshe and patriarch of the Hungarian Chassidic dynasties who passed away on the 28th of Tamuz, 5601 (July 17, 1841).

    2011: “Blood Relation” and “77 Steps” are scheduled to be shown at the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.

    2011:Those who are protesting the spiraling cost of living in Israel are planning to hold five marches tonight, in Tel Aviv, Jerusalem, Be'er Sheva, Haifa and Nazareth.

    2011: Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu was expected to put together a team to examine the burden of indirect taxes on the public in the coming days, Army Radio reported today.

    2011:An explosion was reported at a depot along the Egyptian natural gas pipeline in Sinai that normally supplies Israel with gas, Army Radio reported today. The attack on the pipeline was the third this month and the fifth since the beginning of 2011. It also followed a shootout between Egyptian security forces and apparent Islamic militants yesterday.

    2011:Hundreds of thousands of Israelis took part in protests held in cities across the country tonight, the largest collaborative protest yet in a popular movement over social issues that has swept the country in the past two weeks.

    2012: The Northern California Premiere of “Papirosen” is scheduled to take place at the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.

    2012: “Yossi,” a sequel to “Yossi and Jagger” is scheduled to be shown at the JCC in Manhattan.

    2012:Knesset Speaker Reuven Rivlin (Likud) today slammed proposals calling for IDF conscription of Arabs. “You don’t have to be a genius to realize that it’s impossible to draft the Arab public. Any initiatives of this sort smack of hypocrisy and even malice,” Rivlin said at a Ramadan Iftar feast at Kafar Qara

    2012:Following a day of mostly disappointing results for Israel at the London Olympic Games, two Israelis advanced to the semi-finals in their events in swimming and judo this morning. Amit Ivri set a new Israeli record in the 200 meter women's medley relay this morning. Ivri finished the race in 2:13:29, putting her in 12th place and allowing her to advance to the semi-finals this evening.

    2012: (11th of Av, 5772): Ninety-one year old philanthropist Fred Worms passed away today.(As reported by Greer Fay Cashman)

    2012: “In what appears like a clear endorsement of a presidential candidate, Defense Minister Ehud Barak said tonight that Barack Obama has been the most supportive president on matters of Israeli security throughout the two countries’ diplomatic relations.” (As reported by Yaakov Katz)

    2012:The climactic denouement of the Daf Yomi seven-year study cycle of the Talmud was staged in Tel Aviv and Jerusalem tonight, with tens of thousands of haredi men crowding into venues in the two cities to celebrate their having completed the study of the ancient work of Jewish law.(As reported by Jeremy Sharon)

    2013: A conference on “The Bible in the Iberian World: Fundaments of a Religious Melting Pot is scheduled to open at Leipzig, Germany.”

    2013: “Sukkah City” and “Neil Diamond: Solitary Man” are scheduled to be shown at the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.

    2013: Dancers from the Paris Opera are scheduled to appear at Haifa’s Rappaport Hall.

    2013: The Maccabiah Games are scheduled to come to an end.

    2013: Ninety-nine year old Berthold Beitz, the head of ThyssenKrupp who “was remembered for his efforts to save hundreds of Jews and Poles from the Nazis while stationed in Poland during World War II” passed away today. (As reported by Melissa Eddy)

    2013: Josh Zeid pitched in his first major league game as a member of the Houston Astros.

    2013:Senator Dianne Feinstein of California introduced a bill tonight that would have the Senate resolve itself to supporting Secretary of State John Kerry's push for a two-state solution.(By Michael Wilner)

    2013(23rd of Av, 5773): Ninety-four year old Ottie Schecthman, one of the pioneering stars of the NBA passed away today. (As reported by Richard Goldstein)

    2014: Historic 6th& Synagogue is scheduled to host Trivia Night sponsored by B’nai B’rith.

    2014: The Washington Jewish Film Festival is scheduled to host another night of Coen brothers’ films.

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    July 31

    904: Thessaloniki, which is also known as Salonica, is sacked and looted by Saracens (an Arab group).  The Jewish population of Thessaloniki dates back at least to the first century of the Common Era.  By the time Benjamin of Tudela visited the city in the 11th century the Jewish population numbered a significant “hundred souls.”  Salonica’s Jewish population would grow when the Ottomans made it a refuge for Sephardic Jews following their expulsion in 1492.

    1009:  Pope Sergius IV becomes the 142nd pope, succeeding Pope John XVIII. During the Papacy of Sergius, the Fatimid caliph al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah destroyed the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem. There was a two-fold response in the West. Sergius issued a papal bull calling for Islam to be driven from the Holy Land and the Jews were attacked because rumors were circulated blaming them for inciting the Caliph to destroy the church.

    1255: An English boy who would become known as Little Saint Hugh of Lincoln disappeared setting the stage for the one of the more notorious blood libels in English history.

    1305: In Barcelona it is decreed that anybody who reads works of science and metaphysics before the age of 25 or who adheres to allegorical interpretations which rject the notion of revelation will be excommunicated.

    1390: Solomon Halevi converts and takes the name of Pablo de Santa Maria.  He became the Bishop of Burgos and Chancellor to the King of Castille.

    1391: Joshua Loki wrote to Pablo de Santa Maria, known as Solomon Halevi before he converted, rejecting Pablo’s interpretation of the messianic role of Jesus.  Lorki would convert ten years later and become a leading tormentor of the Jewish people.

    1492: The Jews are expelled from Spain when the Alhambra Decree takes effect.

    1527: Birthdate of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor. “In his diary entries, Maximilien described the Jews as a quarrelsome and deceitful people who denounced one another, gave usurious loans to miners and artisans and traded in inferior medals.  Between 1567 and 1573 the emperor repeatedly issued mandates to expel Jews” from Lower Austria.

    1556:  Ignatius Loyola, Spanish priest and founder of the Jesuits passed away. When accused of being crypto-Jew or having Jewish ancestry he replied If only I did! What could be more glorious than to be of the same blood as the Apostles, the Blessed Virgin, and our Lord Himself?" Robert Maryks, “an expert on the history of early Jesuits details the significant role of “conversos’’ — Jews and their descendants who were pressured to convert to Catholicism before and during the Spanish Inquisition in his recently published book, The Jesuit Order as a Synagogue of Jews: Jesuits of Jewish Ancestry and Purity-of-Blood Laws in the Early Society of Jesus 

    1571: The ghetto in Florence, Italy was established.

    1610: Paul V issued “Apostolicae Servitutis ,” a papal bull concerning the need for monks to learn Hebrew.

    1725: During the reign of Charles VI, an imperial order fixed the number of registered Jewish families in Moravia at 5,106 and threatened any locality which accepted Jews where they had not been previously settled with a fine of 1,000 ducats. (As reported by the Jewish Virtual Library)

    1743(10thof Av, 5503: In Jerusalem, Chaim ben Moses ibn Attar,Talmudist and Kabbalist passed away. He was buried on the Mount of Olives, Jerusalem. Born at Mequenez, Morocco in 1696 he was one of the most prominent rabbis in Morocco. In 1733 he decided to leave his native country and settle in the Land of Israel, then under the Ottoman Empire. En route he was detained in Livorno by the rich members of the Jewish community who established a yeshiva for him. Many of his pupils later became prominent and furnished him with funds to print his “Ohr ha-Chaim” or “The Light of Life,” a commentary on the Pentateuch. He was received with great honor wherever he traveled. This was due to his extensive knowledge, keen intellect and extraordinary piety. In the middle of 1742 he arrived in Jerusalem where he presided at the Beit Midrash Knesset Yisrael. One of his disciples there was Rabbi Chaim Joseph David Azulai, who wrote of his master's greatness: "Attar's heart pulsated with Talmud; he uprooted mountains like a resistless torrent; his holiness was that of an angel of the Lord ... having severed all connection with the affairs of this world. A prolific author, two of his other published works were “Hefetz Hashem or “God’s Desire,” consisting of dissertations on four Talmudic treatises and “Peri Toar” or “Beautiful Fruit,” a novella based on the Shulchan Aruch.

    1776(15th of Av, 5536): Francis Salvador, one of the most prominent Jews of the American Revolutionary period, , was shot and scalped by Indians after riding 28 miles to raise a militia after attacks occurred on settlers. His father (also named Francis Salvador) was a wealthy London Jew who financed the earliest Jewish settlers of Savannah, Georgia

    1806: In Baltimore, MD, Jacob Myers of Georgetown, SC, married Miriam Etting the daughter of prominent Jewish merchant Solomon Etting.

    1821: Lazarus Magnus, the son of Simon Magnus and the husband of Sarah Moses, passed away today in Chatham, Kent, England.

    1840(1st of Av, 5600): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1840(1st of Av, 5600): Nachman Kohen Krochmal, one of “the first Jewish historians to treat Jewish history as an integral part of all human history” passed away.  A native of Brody, Galicia, one of his most famous works was Moreh Nebuke ha-Zeman (Guide for the Perplexed of the Time).

    1841; The Ouse Valley Viaduct which had been designed in part by David Mocatta, was opened and in use.

    1845: In Great Britain, Parliament passes the Act for the relief of Persons of the Jewish Religion elected to Municipal Offices.

    1854: Birthdate of Fritz Hommel author of Ancient Hebrew Tradition in which “he attacked the Graf Wellhausen hypothesis” and “controverts the method deployed by the higher critics of the Old Testament.”

    1856:  Christchurch New Zealand is chartered as a city. According to Robert Case, the first Jews settled in Christchurch during the 1850’s. By 1860, there were fewer than four hundred Jews living in all of New Zealand.    Although the Jewish Community of Christchurch has always been a small one, it built a synagogue in 1890.  Today the Christchurch’s Canterburgy Hebrew Congregation consists of a synagogue, Temple Beth-El that offers regular Shabbat services as well as cheder classes, Bar and Bat Mitzvah training, conversion support, holiday services and a variety of social activities. It is also home to the South Island chapter of Habonim Dror and the Christchurch Council of Jewish Women. The community also has a Chevra Kedisha and Chabad House.

    1870:In the wake of the reported massacre of Jews in Romania, letters have been received in Washington, DC that states that Article 21 of the new constitution guarantees freedom of conscience to all.  These letters claim that the 400,000 Jews in Romania have 176 synagogues in which they “worship in the manner prescribed by their religion.”   The letters conclude by asking if religious persecution really existed why would the Jews be allowed to have so many synagogues which they are free to use

    1878(1st of Av): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1878(1st of Av): Abraham Benisch, the journalist and theologian who was a “Zionist” before Herzl, passed away.

    1878: Birthdate of philanthropist and child-welfare activist Madeleine Borg. Borg, who lived her whole life in New York City, was educated at Columbia University, where she studied the causes of juvenile delinquency. Subsequently, she held leadership positions in more than a dozen major child welfare organizations. Her roles included chair of the executive committee of the Jewish Board of Guardians of New York, director of the Child Welfare League, member of the executive committee of the Girls' Service League of America, and trustee of the Training School for Jewish Social Work. She also served on the executive boards of the American Jewish Committee and the Federation for the Support of Jewish Philanthropic Societies of New York. Borg's largest contribution to child welfare was probably her role in founding the Big Sister movement, beginning in 1912. Modeled on earlier Big Brother programs targeted at troubled boys, Big Sister programs provide young girls with role models and companions. In 1914, Borg was among the founders of the Jewish Big Sisters, which sought to help poor and troubled girls by providing them with role models from a similar ethnic and cultural background. Today, Jewish Big Brothers/Big Sisters programs also match adults with disabilities with non-disabled friends. Always interested in child welfare, Borg was also active in promoting psychiatric clinics as part of the study of child behavior. In 1954, the Jewish Board of Guardians renamed its Child Guidance Institute in Borg's honor. Borg's public roles also extended beyond child welfare and beyond the Jewish community. In 1929, then-Governor Franklin Roosevelt appointed her to the New York State Old Age Pensions Committee; she also served on the executive committee of the New York City Crime Prevention Bureau. In 1939, she became a trustee of the New York World's Fair. Also in 1939, she became president of the New York Federation of Jewish Philanthropies, the first woman to hold that post. Borg died on January 9, 1956.

    1881: It was reported today that the English publishers of the late Lord Beaconsfield’s works are about to issue a new edition of his works called the “Hughenden Edition.”  Surprise has also been expressed that so many of the Disraeli’s possessions have been sold instead of being preserved as family mementoes.

    1881: It was reported today after receiving payments from “wealthy Jewish capitalists,” the Sultan has agreed to allow a Jewish colony to be established on 1,500 acre tract in the districts of Gilead and Moab.

    1881: “Jews In Russia” published today said that Jews in Russia were not hated because they are richer than their Christian counterparts.  The Jews are hated because they do not practice the vices of the gentile counterparts.  “If the Jews would only get drunk and spend their money recklessly, there would be very little temptation to persecute them.”

    1882: “Russian Persecutions” published today, relying on information that first appeared in the London Telegraph described the conditions of the Jews in Kiev where the “persecution by the population” has been replaced by “legal proceedings” that are “less noisy” but even crueler and more effective in persecuting the Jews.

    1882: Rishon Lezion or First For Zion was founded by a group of 10 families in Eretz Israel. The settlement marked the beginning of the first Aliyah (going up) to Eretz- Israel, and the beginning of Rothschild’s deep involvement with settlement activities. Later that year, Baron Edmund De Rothschild in response to the Russian pogroms and a plea by Rabbi Samuel Mohilever agreed to help the new Moshava

    1882: Ten members of the Hovevei Zion (Lovers of Zion) led by Zalman David Levontin  founded Rishon LeZion (First to Zion) which has become the fourth largest city in Israel.

    1882: Eliezer Ben-Yedhuda, the “father of modern Hebrew” and his wife gave birth to Ben-Zion Ben-Yehuda

    1882: Today’s review of National Religions and Universal Religions, a collection of lectures by Dr. Abraham Kuenen the Dutch theologian teaching at the University of Lyden, states that “the finest part of the lectures is the analysis of early Jewish religion under the prophets.”

    1883: Jewish leaders met in Baltimore, MD , tonight in response to a request for funds to support an agricultural  colony of approximately 60 Russian Jewish immigrants at Middlesex, Va.  They were being asked to raise $200 per month to meet the pressing needs of the colonists.  (The settlement at Middlesex was part of an effort to settle Jews away from the major eastern cities in the United States.  These colonies would be found in South America and Canada as well as in the rural United States.)

    1884: Samuel Barnett, a Polish Jew, was arraigned before Justice Welde on multiple charges of theft and burglary.  Barnett immediately pleaded guilty to at least one of the charges.  His wife, who had been arrested as an accomplice, was released.  Many of the victims of Barnett’s criminal activities came to the police station looking for their possessions among the many items that had been seized at Barnett’s home at 136 Orchard Street.  This would have put him in close proximity to 97 Orchard Street, the tenement made famous by Jane Ziegleman in her book by that name.

    1885: Memorial services were held this evening B’nai Jeshurun in New York City to mark the passing of Sir Moses Motefiore who had died in England on July 28.  Rabbis Henry S. Jacobs and Alexander Kohut delivered the eulogies.  At the end of his remarks, Rabbi Jacobs said, “He conquered prejudice not by yielding to it, but by rising far superior to its pettiness, like the other hero whose loss America is mourning today.” (This closing comment was in reference to President U.S. Grant who had passed away on July 23.  This positive comparison between this larger than life Jewish leader and Grant is further evidence that the Jews of his time did not consider him an anti-Semite.)

    1887(10th of Av, 5647): Tish’a B’Av observed since the 9th fell on Shabbat.

    1887: “Diamonds and Vulgarity” published today describes the increasing presence of Jewish families and their friends at the New Jersey resort city of Long Branch.

    1889: The Sanitarium for Hebrew Children’s fifth free excursion which was paid for entirely by Isaac Stern is will from a pier at the foot of the 5thStreet and the East River.

    1889: During today’s session of the House Commons, Sir James Fergusson responded to reports that the Russian government intends to enforce the anti-Jewish edicts of 1882. According to the British Charge de Affaires at St. Petersburg, the government is not considering any “fresh measures” aimed at denying the Jews “any of the privileges they now enjoy.” (This begged the question since enforcing edicts from 1882 might not be considered as “fresh measures)

    1890: “Persecuting the Jews” published today provided a summary of the edicts  now being enforced which state  that prohibit Jews from owning mining stocks or working in mines; allow Jews to live in only 16 provinces; debar Jews from government posts and serving as officers in the military; prohibits Jews from practicing law, medicine or engineering and “entering any other professions.

    1890: It was reported today that Russian government hopes that enforcing the anti-Jewish edicts promulgated in 1882 will force one million Jews to leave the country. (This is a contemporary reference to the Czar’s “one third; one third; one third” policy under which one third of the Jews would convert, one third would leave and one third would die)

    1891: “Persecution of Jews” published today provided “harrowing stories…of the extremely unjust laws in force against the Jews” and “the general atrocities practiced upon” them “by the Russian soldiers.” “Any Russian Christian…, who wishes to possess himself of the property of a Jewish neighbor, can obtain it by paying one-tenth of its value to the Mayor or government representative.”

    1891: In Washington, DC, Acting Secretary of State William F. Wharton asserted that the Department of State does not have any information regarding any new edicts issued by the Russian government aimed at depriving the Jews of their rights.

    1891: A private letter received in Washington “from Moscow asserts that things are worse than ever in Russia” for the Jews.

    1891: “A dispatch was received in Wall Street from London” today stating that  Messrs. C. J. Hambro & Son of that City” has “been appointed bankers to the Russian Government” replacing the Rothschilds who have been their bankers for years.

    1892: “Still Persecuting The Jews In Russia” published today described the fate the Jews who have been expelled from Moscow.  Many of these families “had resided in Moscow a long time” and had been given a year to get out.  In the end, they were not able to sell their homes and businesses and they were “unable to get a penny of compensation for their splendid synagogue…which while they were to sell at once.”

    1892: In the period starting with June 28 and ending today, 93 mothers and children were admitted for treatment at the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children. The sanitarium cannot keep up with demand since “more applications for admission are being received than can be accommodated.”

    1893: During the Panic of 1893, there was a run on several New York financial institutions including the Dry Dock Savings Bank on the Bowery, most of whose depositors are Russian Jews.  Today $41,000 was withdrawn and only $14,000 was deposited.

    1893: During a stop in New York, Dionysius Latas, a leading Greek archbishop told reporters “he intends to oppose the persecution of Jews” in his homeland.

    1894: Abraham Levy is the lawyer for Jeremiah J. Levy, the Jewish policeman whose case is being heard by a jury, some of whose members are also Jewish.

    1894: “Seventy-five little sewing school children held their closing celebration at the roof garden of the Hebrew Institute at East Broadway and Jefferson Street where they enjoyed a generous supply of ice cream.

    1895: Colonel George Waring, Jr. a leading sanitary engineer and civic reformer met with 2,000 children at the Hebrew Institute, most of whom were poor and spoke little English.  Waring “told them what children had done and could do for the cleanliness of the city.

    1895: In Brownsville, the striking tailors issued a manifesto countering the one issued by the contractors written in Hebrew asking the landlords “to have no mercy on the strikers” who cannot pay their rent.

    1897: “Rabbinical Excommunication” published today relied on information that first appeared in The American Hebrew described a response by rabbis in Jerusalem to aggressive Christian attempts to gain converts among the city’s Jews.  Any Jew supplying their institutions with Kosher meat will have to deal with the threat of “cherem.”

    1897: Victor Joze has dedicated “his new book entitled La Tribu d’Isidore,  “the first volume of a series of historical novels about a Jewish family to Emile Zola, the defender of Dreyfus.

    1898(12thof Av, 5658): Fifty-three year old New York realtor and clothing merchant who came to the United States from Germany at the age of 22 passed away at his country home in Forest, PA.

    1898(12thof Av, 5658): Fifty-five year old Samuel Firuski, who had spent 22 years as an auctioneer in Brooklyn and was a member of Temple Israel in Brooklyn, passed away today at Pavilion Hotel in Sharon Spring

    1898: Samuel Gompers arrived in Springfield, Illinois where he planned to attend the upcoming state convention of the American Federation of Labor.  Mr. Gompers spoke out against the condition of workers in the territories recently annexed after the Spanish American War; specifically he demanded that slave labor be stamped out there in and in Hawaii.

    1899:”What Paris Talks About” published today described the French reaction “to the sudden death from apoplexy of Baroness Nathaniel de Rothschild…the sister of Baron Alphonse de Rothschild, head of the French branch of the family and the first cousin of…Lord Rothschild,” head of the English branch of the family. The loss was felt even more by the artistic community than the financial community.  In her younger days she “showed real talent as a watercolorist.”  Later in life she bought the paintings of many “modern painters” before they gained fame as an act of generosity.

    1900: Herzl leaves Altaussee and travels to Luzern, Paris and London.  The trip will take a toll on his health and he will be ill by the he gets to London on August 7.

    1902: “Riot Mars Funeral of Rabbi Joseph” published today descried the outbreak of violence that occurred when the procession of mourners for the Grand Rabbi passed by the R. Hoe & Co. The workers who were at lunch began jeering,  threw buckets of water and finally bombarded the Jews with “paper saturated with oil, bits of iron, small blocks of wood and other missiles” which caused a violent recation.

    1902(26th of Tammuz, 5662): Seventy-two year old Benjamin Szold passed away.  Born in Hungary in 1829, he came to the United States in 1859 to serve as the first rabbi at Temple Oheb Shalom in Baltimore.  While he accomplished a great deal serving in this capacity, his greatest claim to fame may that he was the father of Henrietta Szold, the founder of Hadassah.

    1906(9th of Av, 5666):Tish'a B'Av

    1912: Birthdate of newspaper and Chicago literary institution Irv Kupcinet.

    1912: Birthdate of economist and Federal Reserve Chairman Milton Friedman. Friedman won the Nobel Prize in 1976.

    1914: Fifty-four year old Jean Jaurès who was “one of the most energetic defenders of Alfred Dreyfus” was assassinated today by a French nationalist today.

    1914: In Vesoul, Haute-Saône, France Albert Samuel and Hélène Falk gave birth to Raymond Samuel who would gain fame as French Resistance leader Raymond Aubrac.

    1914: German Jewish industrialist Walter Rathenau published an article in the Berliner Tageblatt protesting Germany’s blind loyalty to Austria; a loyalty which he felt was leading to a great European war.  

    1918:Joseph Schlossberg, General Secretary Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America and Abraham Epstein, President Workmen's Circle were among the leaders of a meeting of a Conference of Trade Unions, Branches of the Workmen's Circle, and other Progressive Labor Organizations of Greater New York scheduled to be held be held in Webster Hall, 119 East 11th Street, for the purpose of organizing the workers into a permanent central body for aiding all persons prosecuted who are in need of help, and of arousing public opinion against the further suppression of constitutional rights and liberties.  The Conference will be held under the auspices of the Liberty Defense Union, and has been endorsed by the United Hebrews Trades and the National Executive Committee of the Workmen's Circle.

    1919: Birthdate of the Italian-Jewish writer and chemist Primo Levi. Levi spent time fighting with Partisans during the war and survived Auschwitz. These experiences provided much of the material for his writings. He passed away in 1987. (We do not have the space to do his work justice and you are urged to read any of his several works which are available in English.)

    1923: Birthdate of Richard Schifter, a native of Vienna who served as Assistant Secretary of State for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs from 1985 to 1992.  Schifter was a  member of unique WW II intelligence unit known as the Ritchie Boys.

    1923: In Montreal, Alton Goldbloom and Annie Ballon gave birth to Victor Charles Goldbloom who served as Minster of the Environment and CEO of the Canadian Council of Christians and Jews.

    1923: A Hebrew version of Verdi’s “Traviata” was performed in Jerusalem this evening.  The performance was described as “brilliant.”  The Hebrew version of the opera had previously been performed in Tel Aviv.

    1926: Birthdate of Dr. Bernard N. Nathanson, the self-described Jewish atheist who converted to Roman Catholicism.  Nathanson was “a campaigner for abortion rights who, after experiencing a change of heart in the 1970s became a prominent opponent of abortion and the on-screen narrator of the anti-abortion film “The Silent Scream.” (As reported by William Grimes)

    1928: When MGM introduces its first “talkie,” “White Shadows on the South Seas” the famed Lion Logo makes its first appearance.  With so many Jews involved in MGM, including Harry Rapf, Irving Thalberg, Louis B. Mayer and Nicholas Schenck one might wonder if the choice of the Lion was subtle reference to the Lion of Judah. 

    1928: Bobbie Rosenfeldwon gold and silver medals in the 1928 Olympics. “Bobbie Rosenfeld was well known as a star of Canadian track and field. Born Fanny Rosenfeld in Dnepropetrovsk, Russia in 1904, she moved to Canada as an infant; she was later nicknamed "Bobbie" because of her bobbed hair. Growing up in Barrie, Ontario, and then in Toronto, Rosenfeld was an enthusiastic athlete from a young age, playing basketball, softball, hockey and tennis, as well as running. Despite widespread belief that strenuous exercise was damaging to women's bodies, Rosenfeld's family supported her athletic pursuits. In 1923, Rosenfeld burst onto the national scene when she entered the 100-yard dash at a picnic on a dare from a softball teammate. At the time, Rosenfeld was working in a Toronto chocolate factory. Rosenfeld not only won the race but also beat the Canadian national champion, Rosa Grosse. Two years later, Rosenfeld and Grosse would share the world record for the 100-yard dash, at eleven seconds. Later in 1923, she entered her first major race at the Canadian National Exhibition. In the 100-yard dash, she again beat Grosse and also beat American and world-record holder Helen Filkey. The same evening, after the race, Rosenfeld joined her softball team and helped lead them to the city championship. Over the next decade, Rosenfeld came to symbolize Canadian women's sport. She went from success to success, leading ice hockey, basketball, and softball teams to championships and winning the Toronto Ladies Grass Courts tennis tournament in 1924. She claimed victory in so many sports that one author later wrote that "the most efficient way to summarize Bobbie Rosenfeld's career ... is to say that she was not good at swimming." A consummate athlete, she was also applauded for her sportsmanship. Both these qualities would soon be evident on the world stage. In 1928, Rosenfeld was chosen as one of the "matchless six" on the Canadian women's Olympic track and field team. The Olympics of 1928 were the first in which women were allowed to compete in track and field, although only on a trial basis. On July 31, 1928, Rosenfeld won the silver medal in the 100-meter race, though many spectators thought she had actually finished first. A few days later, Rosenfeld competed in the 800-meters, a race in which she had been entered only to encourage teammate Jean Thompson, and for which she had not trained. Coming from the rear, Rosenfeld ran alongside Thompson through most of the race, allowing her teammate to finish fourth while she placed fifth; this was considered a great act of compassion and sportsmanship, as Rosenfeld could easily have pulled ahead and earned a medal in the race. Finally, on the last day of track and field events, Rosenfeld got her gold medal when she led her team to victory in the 400-meter relay. On the team's return to Toronto, 200,000 people lined the streets to cheer a celebratory parade. Rosenfeld had helped to show that women's competition could be a worthy part of the Olympics; after the Games closed, the delegates of the International Amateur Athletic Federation voted 16-6 to continue women's track and field events at future Olympics. The Canadian delegate voted against women's participation. Back at home, though Rosenfeld had received a hero's welcome, she went back to work at the chocolate factory to pay her bills. In 1928, no endorsement contracts or professional sports opportunities were available to women. Rosenfeld continued to play sports, even starring on championship ice hockey and softball teams, but recurrent attacks of severe arthritis ended her athletic career in 1933. She moved to coaching track and softball, and then, in 1937, to writing about sports. For nearly twenty years, she wrote the "Sports Reel" column for the Toronto Globe and Mail. She retired from the Globe and Mail in 1966 and died on November 14, 1969. Rosenfeld's legacy is one of breaking down barriers. First as an athlete, and then as the only woman on the sports staff of the Globe and Mail, she carved new paths for women in sports, making it clear to skeptics that, as she put it in a column, "girls are in sports for good." These contributions were recognized both during Rosenfeld's lifetime and after her death. In 1950, a press poll of sportswriters named her Canada's Female Athlete of the Half Century; in 1955, she was among the earliest inductees to Canada's Sports Hall of Fame. Her portrait recently appeared on a Canadian postage stamp, and every year the Bobbie Rosenfeld trophy is awarded to Canada's Female Athlete of the Year.”

    1932: National elections are held in Germany and the Nazi Party won 230 seats in the Reichstag.

    1933: By now, approximately 30,000 people are interned in Nazi concentration camps.

    1936(12th of Av, 5696):Rabbi Moses Simon Sivitz, renowned Jewish historian died in Montefiore Hospital ... He also wrote five books on Moses after years of research.

    1936: The Palestine Post reported from London that the newly-appointed Royal Commission was expected to arrive in Palestine in October. Meanwhile a new wave of Arab rioting spread towards Tiberias where many Jews were compelled to leave the Old City. There were assaults, arson, and stone-throwing. The Arab police and the British authorities dealt with the rioters in a diffident and condoning manner.

    1939: Isadore Breslau, the Zionist leadership's chief representative in Washington, writes a letter showing  that former Associate Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis actively supported Aliyah in defiance of British policy as outlined in the May 1939 White Paper that severely limited the immigration of Jews to then British-run Palestine. The letter reveals that the widely respected jurist, who had just retired after nearly a quarter century on the court, held views on Jewish immigration to the Land of Israel that were in direct opposition to those of the British government, the Roosevelt administration and mainstream American Jewish groups and leaders."Speaking on the question of the immigration he [Brandeis] said that Jews would continue to immigrate regardless of the White Paper," the letter written by Isadore Breslau reads. "When someone suggested that it was illegal, he said that the Jewish people considered it legal in view of the fact that any attempt to curtail immigration was in violation of the terms of the Mandate; that it may be considered illegal by Great Britain, but that we Jews considered it to be legal."

    1940: According to The Olkusz Memorial book “a German police unit arrived in Olkusz” today and gathered all the Jewish men in the main square. There the Jews were forced to lie on the ground while the policemen and members of the SD “registered them”. During this process, the Germans brutally beat the Jews, shooting one of them. In order to further humiliate them, Rabbi Moshe Yitzhak Hagerman was forced to don his tallith (prayer shawl) and tefillin (phylacteries) that had been defiled, and to stand barefoot and pray next to the prostrate men of the Jewish community. At the end of the day, the Jews were permitted to return home, and the Germans left. Due to the beatings suffered by the Jews, the event was subsequently referred to as ‘Bloody Wednesday’”. (For a photo see  )

    1941: The Nazis officially undertook The Final Solution. Hermann Goring instructs SS Reich Security Service chief Reinhardt Heydrich by letter "to carry out all the necessary preparations with regard to organizational and financial matters for bringing about a complete solution of the Jewish question in the German sphere of influence." - That influence now covered a dozen countries. - "I further charge you with submitting to me promptly an overall plan... for the execution of the intended FINAL SOLUTION of the Jewish question."

    1942:  Governor Wilhelm Kube reports to Hinrich Lohse, Reichskommissar of the Baltic regions and Belorussia, that "Jewry has been completely eliminated" in the Minsk area.  According to Kube ‘16,000 Jews were liquidated in Lida, 8,000 in Slonim.’  In the previous ten weeks, 55,000 Jews have been liquidated.

    1942 (17th of Av, 5702):  Bluma Rozenfeld, 19, leaps to her death from a fifth-floor window in the Lódz (Poland) Ghetto.

    1942: Israel Lichtenstein writes from the Warsaw Ghetto: "At present, together with me, both of us get ready to meet and receive death. I wish my little daughter to be remembered. Margalith, twenty months old t