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A collection of Jewish history and current Jewish events, in date format, updated daily in this Jewish history blog.

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    314: In his quest to consolidate his power, Constantine I, the man who will become the first Christian Roman Emperor defeats his rival Licinius at the Battle of Cibalae. Constantine will officially transform the Roman Empire into an anti-Semitic entity. 

    1075:  Dmitar Zvonimir is crowned King of Croatia. At this point Roman Catholicism was the dominant religion of Croatia.  But the King did have Jewish subjects. Some of them might have been able to trace their ancestry to the 3rdcentury when Jews first arrived in the Balkan principality.  Others may have part of the legendary Khazars who lived in the region in the 10th century.

    1408: The city of Jassy (Hungarian) or Yas (Yiddish) is mentioned in business correspondence between Prince Alexander the Good (Alexandru cel Bun) and merchants from Lviv then a part of Poland. The Romanian city of Yas would become a center of Jewish settlement as well as the site of the largest massacre of Jews in Romania in World War II.

    1573: In what would prove to a turning point in the Eighty Years War, the Dutch score their fist victory when the Spanish siege of the Dutch city of Alkmaar comes to an end.  The war would last until 1648.  When it was over, the independence of the Netherlands would be a reality.  The Dutch Republic would provide a haven for European Jews, especially those fleeing Spain and its inquisition. 

    1576: The Sultan ordered 1,000 wealthy Jews to move from Safed to Cyprus. The Jews would be requested to take with them their possessions and riches. The firman ordering the moved utilized wording which warned the Turks that they would  be severely punished if they accepted bribes from the Jews to have their names removed from the list.  A year later another 500 Jewish families would be forced to move from Safed to Cyprus.  Population movements like this were not unusual in the Ottoman Empire.  It was the Sultan’s way of encouraging economic development throughout the empire.

    1600: San Marino, a small patch of land on the Italian peninsula that “claims to be the oldest surviving sovereign state and constitutional republic in the world” adopted a written constitution. According to surviving documents, Jews have lived there since 14th century and Jews were living there when the constitution was adopted since “measures and resolutions regarding the Jews and their trades were repeatedly passed by the government in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.”

    1713: Birthdate of Yechezkel ben Yehuda Landau who would gain fame as an expert on Halachah, Jewish ritual law

    1780(9thof Tishrei, 5541): A week after Major John Andre is hung as a spy marking the end to Benedict Arnold’s treason, an event that unfairly implicated his Jewish aide-de-camp, Colonel Franks, Jews heard Kol Nidre.

    1781: Birthdate of Abraham David, the brother of Jonas Daniel Meijer, the first Jewish lawyer in the Netherlands.

    1784(23rdof Tishrei, 5545): Simchat Torah

    1791(10th of Tishrei, 5552): For the first time in history, Jews in France observe Yom Kippur as equal citizens having been “emancipated” on September 28 of this year.

    1799(9thof Tishrei, 5560): Erev Yom Kippur; Kol Nidre is chanted for the last time in the 18th century.

    1805(15thof Tishrei, 5566): Sukkoth

    1810(10thof Tishrei, 5571): Yom Kippur

    1821: In Rawicz, Germany, Jewish cloth merchant Heimann Strassman and Judith Guhrauer gave birth to Dr. Wolfgang Strassman

    1835(15thof Tishrei, 5596): As Mexican forces move to put down the rebellion in Texas, Jews celebrate Sukkoth

    1837(9thof Tishrei, 5598): For the first time during the Presidency of Martin Van Buren, Kol Nidre is chanted.

    1838: In Great Britain, Frederick Goldsmid and his wife Caroline Samuel gave birth to Sir Julian Goldsmid.

    1841(23rdof Tishrei, 5602): Simchat Torah

    1845: The Sephardic Synagogue of Kingston, Jamaica celebrated taking possession of a new Sefer Torah." The service was conducted by the Isaac Lopes, who served as rabbi for the congregation.

    1848: On the day after Yom Kippur Joseph Wile, Samuel Marks, Joseph Katz, Gabriel Wile, Meyer Rothschild, Henry Levi, Jacob Altman, Joseph Altman, A. Adler, Elias Wolff, Abram Weinberg, and Jacob Gans met in Rochester, NY and formed Congregation Berith Kodesh. 

    1851: “Europe” published today told the story of a  Jewish con artist working in the British Isles. “An old Jew” had advertised in an English country town,” that among other wondrous things he would get into a quart bottle. At the appointed time his room was filled with eager spectators. He came on the stage, and after a deal of preparation, did nothing he had promised. ‘A swindle! A swindle !’ cried one of the cheated company, who had paid his shilling to the door-keeper” who by then had disappeared.  “Amid the noise, the Jew came forward, and with imperturbable gravity said, ‘Ladies and Gentlemen; it is a svindle and vat then?’”

    1857: In the Recorders Office, Nathan Levins testifies against Israel Steinhardt in a case brought by Levins claiming that Steinhard robbed him of 940 pounds in English Sterling notes. Steinhard then has a chance to rebut Levins’ claims.  The story is a tale that takes the court across Europe and involves a variety of convoluted transactions.  The story is even harder to understand because neither party speaks English nor testimony has to be translated.  Apparently the 20 Jews attending the hearing were not affected by the language barrier since, like the plaintiff and defendant they came from Germany or Hungary.  The case was continued until tomorrow.

    1862(14thof Tishrei, 5623): Erev Sukkoth

    1862: During the Civil War, in Kentucky, Union forces defeat the Confederates at the Battle of Perryville which means the family of future Supreme Court Justice Louis D. Brandeis who supported Abraham Lincoln’s candidacy will continue to live under the Stars and Stripes.

    1862: "Brooklyn Backs the President" published today described the support being given Mr. Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation. The speech by James S. Wadsworth demonstrates how deeply the story of the Exodus from Egypt inspired the Abolitionist Movement showing once again the important role that Jewish ideals and idioms have played in man’s march towards freedom. General Wadsworth told the crowd that “In ancient times, when the Hebrews, escaping out of the house of bondage, stood upon the shores of the Red Sea, with the hosts of Pharaoh hovering on their rear, conservatism shrunk back and feared to wet its sandals in the angry waves. But the Book of Books tells us that the Lord said unto Moses, "Speak unto the children of Israel that they go forward!" They obeyed, and Pharaoh and his his hosts sank like lead in the waters. The age of miracles is past. In our country, vox populi, vox Dei. Our great cause confronts a sea of difficulties, before which timid souls stand appalled. But, the Proclamation reveals to us the land of promise, the Canaan beyond the floods. Let the people, the vox Dei, say unto the President, ‘Abraham, speak unto the armies of the Union that they go forward!’”

    1865(18thof Tishrei, 5626): Chol Ha Moed Sukkoth

    1856(18thof Tishrei, 5626): Fifty-three year old Moravian born violinist and composer Heinrich Wilhelm Ernst passed away in Nice.

    1867(9thof Tishrei, 5628): Erev Yom Kippur

    1869:  President Franklin Pierce passed away.  Pierce was one of those forgettable mediocrities who served in the White House in the decade before the Civil War. His record of dealing with Jews is limited and mixed.  Franklin Pierce was the first and maybe the only President whose name appears on the charter of a synagogue. Pierce signed the Act of Congress in 1857 that amended the laws of the District of Columbia to enable the incorporation of the city's first synagogue, the Washington Hebrew Congregation.  Washington Hebrew Congregation is one of the oldest and largest Reform Congregations in the Washington Metropolitan Area.  But two years before, in November of 1855, Pierce signed a treaty with Switzerland that had been ratified by the Senate.  The treaty allowed the Swiss government to discriminated again American citizens who were Jews so that the treatment of American Jews would be consistent with the treatment of Swiss Jews by their government.

    1871(23rdof Tishrei, 5632): Simchat Torah

    1871:  The Great Chicago Fire made its impact felt in the area settled by Jews of German origins.  It was referred to by some as The Golden Ghetto.  This was in contrast to the area where eastern European and Russian Jews settled which was known as just The Ghetto.  This area suffered a fair amount of damage in the less famous Fire of 1874.

    1873: It was reported today that the Jews of Cleveland, Ohio have raised $800 which they have sent to Shreveport , LA and Memphis, TN to help those suffering from the current Yellow Fever Epidemic.

    1877: It was reported today that Dr. De Sola Mendez is scheduled to give a lecture on “Young America” at an upcoming meeting of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association.

    1881(15thof Tishrei, 5642): Sukkoth

    1882: It was reported today that sometime in the first two weeks of November, Edward Harrigan’s new play, “Mordecai Lyons” will premiere at the Theatre Comique.  The play tells the story of a Jewish father who forces her to marry a man not of her choosing.  The play is “both humorous and dramatic” and portrays a father who loves a daughter who has been touched by misfortune.

    1882: “Romance of the Jews” published today provides a detailed review of The Jews of Barnow, a collection of stories by Karl Emil Franzos.

    1882: “Songs of a Semite” published today provides a detailed review of Songs of a Semite: The Dance to Death and Other Poems by Emma Lazarus.

    1883: Birthdate of Nobel Prize winner, Otto Heinrich Warburg, the son of Emil Warburg who was related to the famous family of the Jewish financier.  However, Warburg’s father had converted to Christianity as a result of an undisclosed family dispute.

    1886: It was reported today that Kaiser Wilhelm has sent the Sultan of Morocco a gift – 12 volumes of the Talmud in Hebrew. (I have no idea why the German Emperor would send the Muslim monarch such a gift.)

    1886(9th of Tishrei, 5647): Erev Yom Kippur

    1886: “Yom Kippur” published today opens with the following “From sunset this evening until tomorrow at sunset there will be observed by some seven or eight million Israelites scatter all over the globe the…solemn festival of Yom Kippur or Day of Atonement.” In describing the history and customs of the day, J.S. Moore contends that “there is no other religion…that has a similar festival.  The great object is…that one a year one day out of the 365 shall be set apart for no other purposed than to commune with God, confess the errors of life and perchance resolve to amend them.”

    1886: “Veteran Rosenberg’s Death” published today described the life and death of Joseph Rosenberg, the 102 year old Jewish citizen of New Orleans who was buried yesterday.  A native of Baden, Germany, he served with Napoleon’s French Army when he captured Moscow.  He came to the Crescent City in 1852 where he raised a family that included 3 daughters.

    1886: “A Suicide in the Tombs” published today described how Solomon Goldberg, a Polish Jew, being held in the jail was able to hide a knife from authorities which he then used to kill himself.

    1886: It was reported today that Emperor of Germany has sent the Sultan of Morocco 12 volumes of the Talmud, in Hebrew, as a gift. (I cannot find a reason for this)

    1886: Theatre receipts were considerably less tonight than normal because the Jewish patrons were observing “the Jewish fast of Yom Kippur.”

    1887: In New York City Josephine Morgenthau and Henry Morgenthau, Sr. gave birth to Alma Morgenthau.

    1888: “Eating The Old Mare” published today described a dinner hosted by Dr. Rush S. Huidekeper, Chief of the Veterinary School of the University of Pennsylvania during which he told his guests that “the only beef that is properly inspected is that eaten by the” Jews, “which is killed according to their rules.”

    1889: Members of Ahavath Chesed met tonight “and voted to all they could” to help raise money for the establishment of a “Jewish Cooper Union.”  At the same meeting, “a delegation from the Young Men Hebrew’s Association” pledged their support for this endeavor.

    1890: “An Impossible Shekel” published today described the discovery of coin which the owner claims to be a shekel from the time of Simon the Macabee which is impossible because it has markings  including a Star of Bethlehem, that were never used on the genuine coins which made of silver and copper while this one is make of gold, bronze and platinum.

    1891: “A dispatch from the St. Petersburg to the New York Daily News says that the United States Immigration Commissioners who have been visiting Russia” were impressed the conditions of suffering under which the Jews of Russia were living.

    1891(6th of Tishrei, 5652): Seventy-two year old Dr. Jacob Eduard Polak “the pioneer of modern medicine in Iran” who served as personal physician to the Shah passed away today.

    1892: A fire that started in the rooms of Moritz Feinman, spread to the rest of the tenement at 100 Suffolk Street which drove the nearly 100 residents all of whom were Jewish out into the street.

    1892: In New York, Jewish Americans begin the observance of Columbus Day which marks the 400th anniversary of the discovery of the New World..

    1892: At Park East Synagogue Rabbi Bernard Drachman delivered a sermon entitled “Israel’s Debt of Gratitude to Columbus and America.

    1893: In the elections for the Reichstag, “the Anti-Semites” are running against the Conservatives and National Liberals in seven districts of which they “may capture four.”

    1893: Birthdate of Ada Fishman who made aliyah in 1912, played an active role in the development of pre-State Palestine and as Ada Maimon was a member of the first Knesset.

    1894: “The east side Hebrew Anarchists have completed preparations to burlesque the fast of Yom Kippur” which begins tomorrow evening, with an evening that will include dancing, singing and a speech by anarchist Emma Goldman at the Clarendon Hall.

    1895: German born American-Jewish inventor/businessman, Emil Berliner founded the Berliner Gramophone Company which was to produce “flat gramophone records” or what would be called phonograph records.  He designed the disc model which replaced Edison’s cylinders.

    1895: Birthdate of future Laborite MP and death penalty foe, Sydney Silverman.

    1895: The Executive Committee of the Central Conference of American Rabbis is scheduled to meet this morning in Cincinnati, Ohio.

    1896: In Oregon, Joseph Simon was elected to the U.S. Senate, making him the first Jew to represent the Beaver State in the Upper Chamber of Congress. 

    1896: It is reported today that the Sultan is demanding a payment of $220,000 from the Grand Rabbi following rioting in Hasskeuy.

    1897: “Care of Russian Jews” published today includes a denial by prominent Jewish leaders including Oscar S. Strauss and Jacob Schiff that “the Baroness de Hirsch has given directions” to end the financing of schemes to send Russian Jews to Argentina and “has ordered that the balance of the funds…be devoted to the establishment of technical and industrial schools in Russia.”

    1898(22ndof Tishrei, 5669): Shemini Atzeret

    1898: In response to the announcement by Ismail Bey, the Civil Governor of Crete that Turkish troops are being withdrawn from the island as demanded by Great Britain, Russia, France and Italy, Jews, Christians and Moslems are crowding aboard steamers leaving Crete.

    1898: “Gladstone” published today provided a review of The Story of Gladstone’s Life by Justin McCarthy includes chapters on “the long with duel with Disraeli in the House of Common” and his “advocacy of the admissions of Jews to Parliament.”

    1900(15thof Tishrei, 5661): Sukkoth

    1900: Birthdate of Serge Ivan Chermayeff, “a Russian born, British architect, industrial designer, writer, and co-founder of several architectural societies, including the American Society of Planners and Architects.”

    1900:Herzl met with the Austro-Hungarian Prime Minister, Ernest von Koerber.

    1904: Edmonton, Alberta was incorporated as a city today. Jews had been living there for more than a decade. The first Jews, Abraham and Rebecca Cristall -  came to what was then an unincorporated community in 1893.  George and Rose Cristall were the first Jews born in the town. By the time of incorporation there were 17 Jews living in what would become Alberta’s capital city. 

    1904: Prince Albert, Saskatchewan was incorporated as a city. By this time two colonies had been established by Baron Hirsch’s Jewish Colonization Society – the second of which was called Hirsch, Saskatchewan founded in 1892. Among the Jews who had come to Saskatchewan and left before the incorporation of Prince Albert were Ekiel and Mindel Bronfman of Seagram’s Whiskey fame. Two years after the incorporation, Jewish immigrants from Lithuania would establish The Edinbridge Hebrew Colony, another of the settlements created by the Jewish Colonization Society

    1905:Founding of the Society for domestic art and industry in Palestine.

    1908: Mr. and Mr. William E. Dodd gave birth to Martha Dodd. Martha accompanied her father to his posting as FDR’s first ambassador to Hitler’s Germany.  A romantic figure, she finally became aware of the danger presented by the Nazi regime

    1909(23rdof Tishrei, 5670): Simchat Torah

    1912(27th of Tishrei, 5673): Dr. Morris Loeb, Professor of Chemistry and Columbia, who was a noted scientist and philanthropist, passed away today.  He is survived by his widow, Mrs. Eda K. Loeb.

    1917(22nd of Tishrei, 5678): Shemini Atzeret

    1918: During World War I, in France, on the Western Front U.S. Army Corporal charged an enemy bunker that was inflicting severe causalities and using hand-grenades neutralized the enemy position allowing the unit to continue his advance.  He was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for his action.

    1924(10th of Tishrei, 5685): Yom Kippur

    1926: The New York Times reported that Jews in Palestine have called upon the British government not to let Arabs be the ones to repair Rachel’s Tomb.

    1927:With Jewish editor Herman Bermstein acting as interpreterMordachai Golinkin, conductor of the Palestine Opera and former director of the Petrograd Opera, told reporters at the Ansonia Hotel how he, his wife, Lea, lyric soprano, and G. Giorini, dramatic tenor, had been detained on Ellis Island for three days. Golinkin had nothing but praise for the way in which he was treated during the internment and expressed a desire to return to the Island to give a concert.  Golinkin is in this country to raise $200,000 to build an opera house in Palestine.  Nathan Struas and Herman Bernstein “were greatly impressed by the artistic merits” of Golinikin’s productions in Israel which have included performances of Fause and Aida in Hebrew.

    1927(12thof Tishrei, 5688): Judith Solis-Cohen passed away.

    1928:  Joseph Szigeti, the Jewish Hungarian violinist, gives the first performance of Alfredo Casella's Violin Concerto.

    1928(24th of Tishrei, 5689): Silent screen comedian Larry Semon reportedly passed away. Semon directed, wrote and starred in the silent screen version the Wizard of Oz. There are those who contend that this is not the date of Semon’s death. According to them, Semon was in financial trouble and he faked his death to get away from his creditors.  However, they have not been able to come up with alternative date for his death.

    1928: Hungarian born Joseph Szigeti performed in the début of Alfredo Casella's Violin Concerto. Szigeti is one more in a long line of Jewish virtuoso violinists.

    1928: Several people were injured today and three were arrested in “a clash between Hebraist and partisans of the Yiddish language” at Tel Aviv.  “The occasion for the clash was a celebration by the Poale Zion Club commemorating the 20th anniversary of the Czernowitz Conference, where Yiddish was proclaimed as ‘a national language’ of the Jewish people.” G’dud Magginei Ha’saf-fah “a youth organization ‘for the protection of the Hebrew language’ was responsible for the attack.  Among the injured was M. Wescher, a Poale Zion leader and member of the Tel Aviv Municipal Council.

    1930: In Pittsfield, MA, Harry and Ruth Klein Kaufman gave birth to Donald Kaufman, the Vice President of KB Toys who was responsible for creating “one of the largest and most valuable collections of antique toy cars and trucks in the world.”

    1931:Berlin Alexanderplatz: die Geschichte Franz Biberkopfs(Berlin Alexanderplatz: the story of Franz Biberkopfs) with a script co-authored by Bruno Alfred Döblin premiered today.

     1931: The Habima Theater opened in Tel Aviv. Founded by Nahum Zemach in 1917 in Moscow, Habima (Hebrew word meaning “the stage”) was one of the first Hebrew language theatre groups.  The group left the Soviet Union in 1926 and went on tour before finally settling in Tel Aviv.  Habima was designated as the national theatre in 1958.

    1931(27th of Tishrei, 5692):General Sir John Monash, who was the highest ranking Jewish officer to serve in the Australian Army during  the World War I and who served with distinction at Gallipoli and on the Western Front passed away.

    1932: In Brooklyn, electrical engineer Irwin Appel and the former Lillian Sender gave birth to Kenneth Ira Appel, a “mathematician who harnessed computer” (As reported by Dennis Overbye)

    1935(22ndof Tishrei, 5697): Shemini Atzeret

    1936: Birthdate of Rona Barrett.  Born Rona Burstein, she gained fame as a Hollywood gossip columnist.

    1937:The Palestine Post reported that the Franco-Luxembourg-German borders were closed to Jews. All trains arriving at the border were searched and Jews were turned back. Jews seeking to return to Germany were also turned back. In Germany Jews were called to police stations and asked point-blank when they were going to emigrate, or they would face serious consequences.

    1938: The Slovak Peoples' Party establishes Hlinkova Garda (Hlinka Guard), an anti-Semitic militia that will collaborate with the Germans.

    1938:Jewish composer David Rose marries Martha Raye

    1939: Birthdate of Harvey Pekar, the son of Jewish immigrants from Poland, whose autobiographical comic book “American Splendor” would “a cult following for its unvarnished stories of a depressed, aggrieved Everyman negotiating daily life in Cleveland” and would become “ the basis for a critically acclaimed 2003 film.”

    1939: The Nazis ordered to the establishment of a Ghetto in Piotrkow, Poland. This was the first of a series of ghettos and camps planned by Heydrich.

    1939: The Nazis orchestrated a pogrom against the Jews of Lodz.

    1939: Hitler declared that Będzin would be among the Polish territories annexed by Germany which marked the start of the resettlement of 30,000 Jews from other communities in the Polish city.

    1939: Germany annexed Western Poland marking the next level of the downward spiral that would come to be known as the Final Solution.

    1939: At the annual conference of the Order of the Sons Of Zion a resolution was adopting terming Hitler’s reported plan to establish a Jewish State in Polish territory “a hypocritical scheme fraught with the gravest of dangers to European Jewry.”

    1939: Pastor John Hayes Holmes of the Community Church delivered a sermon giving reasons for the United States to remain neutral based in part on the unworthiness of the government of Poland “a place where Jews were a little more miserable than in Germany.”
    1940: Dr. Louis L. Mann, the rabbi of Temple Sinai, is scheduled to officiate at the funeral of Henry Horner, the Governor of Illinois. Follow the funeral, the Governor will be interred at Mount Mayriv Cemetery in a grave next to his mother.

    1941(17th of Tishrei, 5702: Third Day of Sukkoth

    1941(17th of Tishrei, 5702: The Vitebsk (Belorussia) Ghetto is liquidated; more than 16,000 Jews are killed.

    1942: The USS Drum, the ship on which Maruice Rindskopf spent all of World War II, contacted a convoy of four freighters, and defying the air cover guarding the ships, sank one of the cargo ships before bombs forced her deep.

    1943(9th of Tishrei, 5704):Erev Yom Kippur

    1943(9th of Tishrei, 5704):: Three thousand Italian prisoners of war are murdered by the SS and Ukrainian guards at La Risiera di San Sabba, Italy, south of Trieste. Of 1,920 Jews in Trieste, 620 are murdered by the SS.

    1943(9th of Tishrei, 5704): On the eve of the Jewish Day of Atonement, several thousand ill or weak Jewish men are gassed at Auschwitz.

    1943: Birthdate of R.L. Stine.  Born Robert Lewis Stine, the author is known for his science fiction works.

    1944(21st of Tishrei, 5705): Hoshana Rabbah

    1945(1st of Cheshvan, 5706): Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan

    1945(1st of Cheshvan, 5706): Austrian born author, Felix Salten passed away.  Born Siegmund Salzmann, Salten is best known as the creator of Bambi.  Salten fled the Nazis and spent the last years of his life in Switzerland.

    1945: As part of the protest against British treatment of the Jews in Palestine and those trying to reach Palestine Rabbis throughout Palestine are scheduled to add Psalm XX which beings “Let the King hear us when we call” to the daily prayer service.

    1945: As part of the protest against British policy in Palestine, 50,000 Jews attended a rally in Tel Aviv and tens of thousands more attended a rally at Edison Hall in Jerusalem where they demanded an end to the White Paper.

    1945: In an attempt to spare European Jewish refugees another winter in displaced person camps, Zionist leaders spent two and half hours with the new Colonial Secretary, Arthur Creech Jones, discussing ways to improve British-Jewish relations” in Palestine.

    1945: In a sign of Jewish frustration with the continued British enforcement of the White Paper, the Stern Gang reportedly resorted to a new wave of violence tonight with attacks that resulted in the death of two British soldiers and the wounding of scores of others.

    1948: In Egypt, “the issuance of export and import licenses to Jewish merchants was forbidden,.”

    1948: A group of settlers from Hungary founded Kibbutz Ga’aton in the hill country east of Nahariya. According to some it is named for the Ga’aton River which flows nearby.  According to others, it is named for a town thought to have existed in the area before the Babylonian exile.  Regardless, the kibbutz fell under immediate attack from Arabs shooting from the surrounding hills.

    1951: “The third government of Israel was formed by David Ben-Gurion

    1952: The Jerusalem Postreported that Dov Shilansky, Gavriel Lichtman, a taxi driver, and Ya'acov Lotan, a regular contributor to the Herut newspaper, were remanded by police in connection with the attempt to sabotage the Israel-German reparations agreement by bombing one of the Foreign Ministry buildings in Jerusalem's Hakirya.

    1959: LA Dodgers beat the Chicago White Sox, 4 games to 2 in the 56th World Series.  The Dodgers team featured two Jewish players who were brothers – the pitcher Larry Sherry and the catcher Norm Sherry.  Larry Sherry was a rookie who appeared as a relief pitcher in all four of the Dodgers’ victories.

    1962(10thof Tishrei, 5723): Yom Kippur

    1973: During the Yom Kippur War, two Israeli attempts to reach the east bank of the Suez were beaten back by Egyptian soldiers equipped with Soviet supplied anti-tank weapons.  IDF forces facing Syria were more successful.  Although outnumbered, the IDF forces halted the advance of the Syrians into Israel and by the end of the day have driven them back to the 1967 Armistice Lines and beyond. 

    1973: During the Yom Kippur War, Gabi Amir's armored brigade attacks Egyptian occupied positions on the Israeli side of the Suez Canal, in hope of driving them away. The attack fails, and over 150 Israeli tanks are destroyed.

    1973: Buoyed by initial Egyptian and Syrian military success, numerous Moslem and Arab states offered aid and support to the aggressors.  The Algerians sent squadrons of planes.  The King of Morocco called on soldiers in his army to volunteer to fight with the Egyptians.  Idi Amin ordered all Ugandan officers in Egypt to join in the fight.  And the Prime Minister of Bangladesh sent telegrams stating the his 75 million countrymen supported the Egyptians and the Syrians “in your just cause” 

    1973: Israelis were alarmed by news from the front, which was fragmentary and not good.  Their fears were heightened when a civil defense spokesperson urged Israelis who did not have a shelter to start digging one and that those who had small shelter should enlarge them.  The only good news was Australian volunteers were arriving to perform the work of civilians who had been mobilized and that American Jews had already raised $100 million for the Israeli war effort. 

    1973: After touring both battle fronts, Maj. Gen. Haim Bar-Lev and Minister Yigal Allon reported to Prime Minister Meir this evening that the Israeli forces' situation is beginning to improve, while the enemy forces are beginning to suffer serious damage."What they achieved today as compared to yesterday is enormous," Allon said. "The front was breached yesterday. If the Syrians had been more daring, they'd have made significant gains."Bar-Lev explained the Egyptian and Syrian successes as being partly due to technological superiority. "Both have the new Soviet tank plus infrared," he said. "They have an advantage there. On the first night we were surprised; we only knew they had it in theory ... Today we know about it and take it into account."

    1973: The 17th Battalion of the Golani Brigade moved up the slopes of Mt. Hermon in the opening round of the Second Battle of Mount Hermon.

    1973:Tonight, the Israeli missile boats repeated their success of last night off the Egyptian coast, with three Egyptian missile boats sunk and no Israeli vessel hit. For the remainder of the war, neither the Syrian nor Egyptian fleets would venture out again, enabling more than 100 freighters carrying vital supplies to safely reach Israel, which was in the throes of a brutal, two-front ground war.

    1973: Kobi Hayun, Micahel Dvir, Shabtai Ben-Shua, Yoram Peled and Boaz Lerner all made it safely back to Israeli lines when their F-4E Phantom Jets were shot down Syrian SAM’s or Egyptian Anti- Aircraft fire.

    1973: Yoram Shachar was taken prisoner after his F-4E Phantom Jet was shot down by a Syrian Surface to Air Missile.

    1973: As the Vale of Tears Battle entered its third day the outmanned and outgunned 7th Brigade fought off attacks by the 7th Infantry Division, the 3rd Armored Division and the Assad Republican Guards which by the end of the day left the Israelis with at least fifty dead, untold more wounded and less than 45 working tanks but the IDF continued to blunt the Syrian advance.

    1976: Paramount releases “Marathon Man,” the movie version of the book by William Goldman starring Dustin Hoffman.

    1977: White supremacist Joseph P. Franklin shot and killed three people outside of a suburban St. Louis synagogue including Gerald Gordon.

    1981(10th of Tishrei, 5742): Yom Kippur

    1981(10th of Tishrei, 5742): Heinz Kohut an Austrian-born American psychoanalyst best known for his development of Self psychology, an influential school of thought within psychodynamic/psychoanalytic theory which helped transform the modern practice of analytic and dynamic treatment approaches passed away.

    1985: The hijackers of the Achille Lauro cruise liner surrendered after the ship arrived in Port Said, Egypt. Before surrendering, the hijackers threw Leon Klinghoffer, a wheel-chair bound passenger, over the side of the boat.

    1985(23rdof Tishrei, 5746): Simchat Torah

    1986: The Providence Journal "Navy Rabbi To Join Iceland Team: Russian immigrant's grandson picked to lead staff services,” a story about the role of Rabbi Arnold E. Resnicoff, the U.S. Navy Chaplain sent to Iceland to lead services during the meetings laying the groundwork for the Reagan-Gorbachev Summit.

    1987(15thof Tishrei, 5748): Sukkoth

    1990: Israeli police kill 17 Palestinian rioters. The riots occurred at the Temple Mount and were part of the orchestrated violence against Israelis now known as the First Intifada.  For those of you who like symmetry or have a sense of irony, the Second version of this organized terror would begin in the same place at the same time of the year when Arafat rejected Barak’s peace offer. 

    1992:  Willy Brandt, former Chancellor of Germany, passed away.  The winner of the Nobel Peace Prize had opposed the Nazis when he was a youth living in Germany.  In 1970, Brandt made a highly emotional visit to Warsaw where he fell to his knees in front of the Memorial to the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. This silent act of contrition spoke volumes to the world about the new Germany and the willingness take responsibility for its past. In writing about the trip Brandt said, “An unusual burden accompanied me on my way to Warsaw. Nowhere else had a people suffered as in Poland.  The machine-like annihilation of Polish Jewry represented a heightening of bloodthirstiness that no one had held possible.  On my way to Warsaw [I carried with me] the memory of the fight to the death of the Warsaw ghetto. As moving as these words were then, they are even more so now as another generation of leaders has risen filled with inclination to minimize their personal pasts and the Jewish element that made the Holocaust unique.

    1997(7th of Tishrei, 5758): American architect Bertrand Goldberg best known for the Marina City complex in Chicago, Illinois, the tallest residential concrete buildings in the world at the time of completion passed away.

    2000(9thof Tishrei, 5671): Erev Yom Kippur

    2000:The Sunday New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or on topics related to Judaism including Quarrel & Quandry: Essays by Cynthia Ozick,Einstein In Love: A Scientific Romance by Dennis Overbye, Dream Catcher: A Memoir by Margaret A. Salinger and The Second Coming of Steve Jobs by Alan Deutschman

    2000: In an article entitled “Flash Point: Temple Mount is Holy Ground; Muslims Must Recognize Shrine’s Importance to Judaism” Aron U Raskas of the Baltimore Sunwrote “Ten days ago, former defense minister had the good fortune to be able to do that which Jews dispersed for centuries in the diaspora could only hope, dream and pray for: On the eve of Rosh Hashanah, the Jewish New Year - the liturgy of which is replete with recollections of [Abraham]'s selfless act on the Temple Mount and with prayers for a restoration of the divine presence to this site - Sharon dared to peacefully tread upon this hallowed Jewish ground. The second lesson is that, even after seven years of delusional thinking by Pollyannaish Israelis, the Palestinian people and their leaders are completely unwilling to recognize the Jewish legacy of the Temple Mount, the historic connection of Jews to that place and their inalienable right to worship on that holy ground.”

    2001: Forbes published an article entitled “Riklis Driving” that described how Meshulam Riklis drained assets from Dylex Limited, one of Canada’s largest retailers and funneled them into other companies he controlled.

    2004:  Haaretz reported that at least thirty-five people were killed and over 100 injured in three separate attacks on holiday resorts in the Sinai Desert that were packed with Israelis celebrating the holiday of Sukkoth.  Among the hotels attacked on Thursday was the Taba Hilton. According to reports that appeared in the October 8th edition of the paper, Israeli officials believe the blast at Taba was caused by an explosive laden truck.  There were reports of two more explosions at other locations within two hours of the Taba attack. Late reports in the Jerusalem Post raised the toll to 37 dead and 150 wounded.  A terror group that nobody had heard of up until now claimed credit for the attack.  It said the attacks were in response to the killings of Palestinians and Iraqis. If these attacks are the work of terrorists, it would be consistent with a pattern of attacking on Jewish holidays going back to the original outbreaks of the latest wave of Arab terror that began on Rosh Hashanah. 

    2004: Fiamma Nirenstein was an official speaker at the Boston Conference of on 'Anti-Semitism, the Press and Europe'.

    2004(23rd of Tishrei, 5765): Simchat Torah

    2005(5th of Tishrei, 5766): Shabbat Shauvah is observed by Jews all over the world.

    2005: Award winning singer-songwriter, musician, poet, and novelist Leonard Cohen sued Kelley Lynch, alleging that she had misappropriated over US $5 million from Cohen's retirement fund leaving only $150,000.”

    2005: Hundreds of Jews lit candles and prayed near the Babi Yar ravine, where the Nazis killed tens of thousands of Ukrainian Jews during World War II, as Jewish leaders expressed concern over recent anti-Semitic acts in the former Soviet republic.

    2005: Jonathan Mandell of Chicago took a photograph of a Hebrew inscription in the Cathedral of Monreal which is a testimony to the 1400 years of Jewish settlements in Sicily.

    2005: Thanks to Katrina, Rita, OPEC, et al, Americans are confronted with paying record high prices of gasoline and natural gas.  Now, American Jews face an additional financial threat.  According to The Jerusalem Post, people will be paying record high prices for their lulavs this year. Following Egyptian moves to limit the export of Lulavs, one Israeli importer has “cornered the market” by surreptitiously importing 250,000 Lulavs.  Because of his almost complete control of the limited supply, Avi Belali is charging wholesalers five dollars for an item that usually costs one dollar.  Retailers claim they will have to charge as much as twenty dollars to break even and that does not include the cost of the Etrog.  Unbeknownst to most Americans, the lulav industry is “a pretty shady business” where various tricks are tried each year by dealers looking for a way to make a fast buck.  Some Israeli Rabbis are so concerned about profiteering that they have issued a special Halachahic dispensation allowing for the use of branches from the more numerous canary dates may be used for Lulavs.  Apparently, the sages don’t just know about the Law of Moses, they also know about the law of supply and demand. 

    2006: The Washington Post featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Primo Levi’s Auschwitz ReportandDaniel Mendelsohn’s The Lost: A Search for Six of Six Million and an essay written by Elie Wiesel under the title “Why Memory?”

    2006: The Sunday New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or on topics related to Judaism including The Shakespeare Wars: Clashing Scholars, Public Fiascoes, Palace Coupsby Ron Rosenbaum and Five Germanys I Have Known by Fritz Stern.

    2006: The Israeli Interior Ministry ruled that Valery Dubinin, who had made Aliyah from the Ukraine seven and half years ago, is not a Jew.  This case is newsworthy because the Interior Ministry was overruling the Petah Tikva Rabbinical Court which had provided documents attesting to his Jewishness.

    2006(16th of Tishrei, 5767): Second Day Sukkoth; since the first of Sukkoth fell on Shabbat this is the first time, blessings are recited over the Lulav and Etrog.

    2007:Shelley Cohn, the former Executive Director of the Arizona Commission on the Arts, is the recipient of the Actor Equity Association's  2007 Arizona Theatre Service Award. The award was presented to Ms. Cohn at the Union's membership meeting at the Phoenix Theatre

    2007: Time Magazinefeatures an article about Jerry Seinfeld entitled “Jerry Seinfeld Goes Back to Work” and reviews of The Coldest Winter by David Halberstam and Exit Ghosts by Phillip Roth.

    2008(9th of Tishrei, 5769: Erev Yom Kippur

    2008:A riot in Acre shattered the Yom Kippur calm on Wednesday night as hundreds of the city's Arab residents vandalized Jewish-owned property.

    2009: In New Haven, Yale University presents a double-header with an address byTzipi Livni, former Foreign Minister, Member of Knesset and head of the Kadima party, will speak as a Chubb Fellow and a talk by Brandon Friedman, Research Fellow at the Center for Iranian Studies at Tel Aviv University, entitled "Iran: Ideology and Foreign Policy"

    2009: In New Britain, CT,Ethan Bronner, the New York Times' Israel Bureau Chief delivers a talk entitled "Israel & Palestine: What Happens in 2009?" at Central Connecticut State University, during which he examines what has happened, and what to expect.

    2009:As tensions flare once again over a Jerusalem holy site claimed by Israel and Palestinians as their own, one of the most influential leaders of Israel's religious community told the president today that Jews should not make pilgrimages to the Temple Mount so as not to evoke global outrage. "According to halacha (Jewish religious law), it is forbidden to ascend to Temple Mount," Rabbi Yosef Sholom Elyashiv is quoted by Israel Radio as telling President Shimon Peres.

    2009:Romania unveiled a monument in memory of 300,000 Jews and Gypsies killed during the Holocaust in the country, which at times in the past had denied that the extermination even occurred.

    2010:The 92Y Resource Center for Jewish Diversity and the Ethiopian Jewish community in New York are scheduled to co-host a a festive and authentic Ethiopian Shabbat dinner.

    2010: The Telegraph (UK) reported that Professor Mary Beard of Cambridge University has condemned the appointment of historian and presenter Simon Schama as the Coalition Government's new history tsar. She described the announcement as an example of Michael Gove, the education secretary, "playing to the populist gallery".   She described Schama as “a celebrity.”  She did not mention the fact that he was Jewish.

    2011(10th of Tishrei, 5772): Yom Kippur

    2011(10th of Tishrei): In a tribute to diversity and inclusion, congregants at Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids will be able to attend either a Reform or Traditional Yom Kippur Service.  The Traditional Service is rooted in Beth Jacob - a synagogue founded 105 years ago.  Temple Judah is preparing to celebrate its 90th anniversary. When one considers the fate of Jewry in many of America’s small cities and towns, this is quite an accomplishment.

    2011:Hours after far-right-wing graffiti was reported to police in Muslim and Christian cemeteries in Jaffa, a Molotov cocktail was thrown at a synagogue in the area today.

    2012(22nd of Tishrei, 5753): Shemini Atzeret

    2012(22nd of Tishrei, 5763): One hundred year old Eda Mirsky Mann, the mother of Erica Jong passed away today.


    2012: In the United States, observance of Columbus Day which means, for once, the Jewish and Gentile worlds will be celebrating holidays on the same day, even though they are of a completely different nature.

    2012: The Alexandria Kletztet is scheduled to play at the Simchat Torah service for Congregation Etz Hayim in Arlington, VA.

    2012:Palestinian terrorists in the Gaza Strip fired more than 30 rockets and mortars — with some Israeli media outlets reporting over 50 rockets — into southern Israel early this morning, causing damage to a residential building

    2013: The Charles E. Smith Life Communities which seeks “to fulfill Jewish values by providing a continuum of quality services for elders and their families” is scheduled to sponsor “An Evening with Tony Kornheiser” at Woodmont Country Club.

    2013: The Consulate General of Israel in New York co-hosts this evening’s scheduled screening of “Blues by the beach.”

    2013: A staged reading of the new play “Stealing Home: The Mystery of Moe Berg” is scheduled to be performed today by member of the Actors Studio in New York.

    2013: In Washington, DC, Mark Cohen, author of Overweight Sensation: The Life and Comedy of Allen Sherman is scheduled to speak at The Hyman S. & Freda Bernstein Jewish Literary Festival

    2013: Today, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences “announced the full list of nations that had submitted a movie for consideration for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film including “Yuval Adler’s “Bethlehem,” which explores a difficult relationship between a Shin Bet agent and a Palestinian teenager and “Transit,” a Philippine film about foreign workers in Israel. (As reported by Debra Kamin)

    2013: Eighty-year old Holocaust survivor François Englert, a Sackler Professor by Special Appointment in the School of Physics and Astronomy at Tel Aviv University won the 2013 Nobel Prize.
    2014(14thof Tishrei, 5775): Erev Sukkoth

    2014: The Center for Judaic Studies and Contemporary Jewish Life at the University of Connecticut is scheduled to sponsor a noontime “Yiddish Tish”.

    2014: Friends and family celebrate the birthday of author Noam Friedlander the daughter of Evelyn Friedlander and Rabbi Albert Friedlander

    2014:SukkahPDX, an annual juried outdoor design competition held in Portland, OR, at the Oregon Jewish Museum and Center for Holocaust Education in partnership with Mittleman Jewish Community Center is scheduled to begin today.


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    768: Carloman I and Charlemagne are crowned Kings of The Franks. Charlemagne treated to his Jewish subjects well, even if it meant parting from the doctrine of the Church. For example, he extended the rights previously granted to the Jews of Narbonne by his father. Jews “mingled freely at the Frankish court in defiance of canon law…Disputes between Jews were resolved in Jewish courts.” The increased protection and freedom offered to the Jews by Charlemagne resulted in increased commercial and financial activity, especially trade with the Islamic world.

    1184: Judah ben Elijah Hadassi a Karaite Jewish scholar who lived in Constantinople began working on Eshkol ha-Kofter, “a treatise on the Ten Commandments.”

    1217: During the 5th Crusade, a force led by King Andrew II of Hungary landed on Cyprus “from where they sailed to Acre and joined John of Brienne, ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem” and others who were preparing to fight the Ayyubids of Syria.

    1238: In Spain, King James I of Aragon founded the Kingdom of Valencia. In 1263, James I presided over the disputation between Nachmanides and a convert to Christianity named Paul Christian.

    1264: The army of King Alfonso the Wise of Castile conquered the Spanish city of Jerez that had been held by the Moors since 711. The Jewish community of Jerez, complete with a separate Juderia or Jewish quarter had existed since the time of the Moors. At the time of the Spanish conquest, the city had two synagogues with Don Yucaff and his son Don Todros each living in one of the “houses of the rabbis” Among those Jews to whom the king gave houses and/or lands were “Don Yehuda Mosca who made translations from Arabic into Spanish for the king; the "almoxarife" Don Mayr, or rather Mür de Malhea, and his son Çag (Isaac); Çimha (Simḥah) Xtaruçi, whose father lost his life and the whole of his large fortune during the rebellion of the city; Don Vellocid (Vellecid), "ballestero del rey a caballo"; Solomon Ballestero; and Axucuri Ballestero—the last three being in the king's army.” [Editors Note – As can be seen from this entry, the image of the Spanish Jews flourishing under the Moors and suffering under the Christians is not an accurate one.]

    1334: Casmir the Great (Poland) renewed the Charter of Boleslav, granting Jews the freedom of residence in all areas of the kingdom. This document was instrumental in encouraging Jews to begin to flee Germany and move east. King Kazimierz showed how favorably disposed towards Jews he was when he confirmed the privileges granted to Jewish Poles in 1264 by Boleslaus V. Under penalty of death, he prohibited the kidnapping of Jewish children for the purpose of enforced Christian baptism. He inflicted heavy punishment for the desecration of Jewish cemeteries. He invited Jews who were being persecuted elsewhere to settle in Poland, protecting them as 'people of the king'

    1526: Today, the Queen regent Maria, the widow of Louis II, continued her anti-Jewish policies first displayed when by expelling the Jews of Sopron by allowing the city of Pressburg, to expel its Jewish citizens.

    1547: Christening of the Don Miguel de Cervantes, the author of Don Quixote. According to some sources, Cervantes mother, Lenor de Cortinas was a descendant of Conversos, Jews who chose Christianity over death or despoliation of their wealth.

    1580: Immanuel Tremellius, the Italian Jewish convert to Catholicism who then became a Protestant and was the Regius professor of Hebrew at Cambridge before becoming the Professor of Old Testament at the University of Heidelberg passed away today.

    1635: Colonial American Separatist Roger Williams was banished from Massachusetts for preaching that civil government had no right to interfere in religious affairs. (Williams was seeking to establish freedom of worship through the separation of church and state.) Rhode Island would provide the model for the rest of the United States on this issue. In addition to which, William's policy would Rhode Island an attractive place for Jews to settle during the colonial and Revolutionary War periods.

    1666(10th of Tishrei, 5427): Yom Kippur

    1666(10th of Tishrei, 5427): In Hamburg, Germany, blessings were offered in honor of Sabbatia Zvi during Yom Kippur. The Hamburg community was unaware of the fact the self-proclaimed Messiah had converted to Islam in September of 1666.

    1701: The Collegiate School of Connecticut (later renamed Yale University) is chartered in Old Saybrook, Connecticut. In 1805, Moses Simons became the first Jew to attend Yale. Seventeen years later, Judah P. Benjamin attended Yale Law School, making him the school’s second Jewish student. Benjamin left without graduating. According to recent records 1,200 of Yale’s 5,300 undergraduate students are Jewish while 200 of the 1,200 graduate students are Jewish. The school offers 45 Jewish courses and a minor in Jewish studies but no major. This is a vast improvement over the situation for Jews at Yale as late as the 1960’s when administrators, faculty and alumnae sought to limit Jewish enrollment at the Ivy League school through quotas and other forms of social pressure. You have to wonder if these people knew that Elihu Yale’s Jewish mistress, after whom the school was named, had born him a son. Would the Yalies have accepted Yale’s son?

    1771:  Count Jan Klemens Branicki, the Polish nobleman who proclaimed the Jews of Bialystok to be subject to bylaw and other local laws on an equal footing with the other townsmen, passed away

    1775(15thof Tishrei, 5536): Sukkoth

    1780(10th of Tishrei, 5541): Yom Kippur

    1784: Benjamin Nones, a native of Bordeaux, France who served with distinction during the American Revolution became a naturalized citizen of the United States today.

    1789: Birthdate of Meno Burg, “the first and for a long time the only Jew serving as a Prussian staff officer.”

    1794(15thof Tishrei, 5555): Sukkoth

    1797(19th of Tishrei, 5558): Chol Hamoed Sukkoth

    1797(19th of Tishrei, 5558): The Vilna Gaon passed away.  There is no way that we can do justice to this Giant of Judaism.  We urge you all to consult the numerous books, websites and other sources that can give you some sense of the importance of this sage who was such an expert in matters of Torah, Talmud and Halachah that even the descendants of those to whom he stood in opposition recognize his merit.

    1798: In Bamberg, the chief rabbi and his wife gave birth to German jurist Karl Feust.

    1799(10thof Tishrei, 5560): Final Yom Kippur of the 18th century

    1803(23rdof Tishrei, 5564): Simchat Torah

    1809: Birthdate of Adolphe Franck the French philosopher whose work on the Kabbalah was popular with the public and was President of the Société des Etudes Juives

    1813(15thof Tishrei, 5574): Sukkoth

    1817: Johanna Benzinger and Secekel Loeb Wormser, “the Wonder Rabbi of Michel City” gave birth to Jaidel Wormser

    1832(15thof Tishrei, 5593): Sukkoth

    1833: In Laupheim, Jewish merchant Viktor Steiner and his Sophie gave birth to German banker and industrialist Kilian von Steiner.

    1837(10thof Tishrei, 5598): As the economic crisis known as the Panic of 1837 grips the United States Jews observe Yom Kippur.

    1840: Birthdate of British painter Simeon Solomon. [There is no way to do justice to this complex man’s life and work in this small space. Among other sites, look at

    1843(15thof Tishrei, 5604): Sukkoth

    1845: The Sephardic Synagogue of Kingston, Jamaica celebrated taking possession of a new Sefer Torah." The service was conducted by the Isaac Lopes, who served as the congregation’s rabbi.

    1846: In New York City linguist and orientalist Elias Markens and his wife gave birth to author Isaac Markens.

    1848: In Lübeck, laws were adopted that “abolished all the disabilities” of the Jews thus making them true citizens of the city

    1856: “A God-Send For The Express” published today reported that “the German organ of the Buchanneers in Philadelphia accuses Fremont of being a Hebrew by birth and having been educated in the Mosaic faith besides being born in Alsace. As the Express must by this time be tired of calling Col Freemont a Jesuit, it will be delighted of an opportunity to accuse him of being a descendant of Abraham.” Fremont is John C. Fremont, a native of Virginia, an Episcopalian, military hero and explorer known as the Great Pathfinder. He was also the Republican Party’s first Presidential nominee.

    1857: In New York, the Recorder heard a second day of testimony in the case where Nathan Levin, a recently arrived Jewish immigrant from Hungary, had accused Israel Steinhardt, a fellow Hungarian co-religionist of stealing 940 pounds in Bank of England notes. A witness named Francois Guilland testified that he and Steinhardt had sailed on the same ship in September and that he had seen Steinhardt holding several of the bank notes that Levins claim Steinhardt had stolen from him just two days ago in New York. Two other witnesses testified that Levins had not the bank notes in his possession when they met with him just before the theft. It would appear Levins’ accusation that his fellow Jew had violated the 7th commandment was false and that Levins was attempting a swindle. The Recorder is holding the case over until tomorrow at which time a decision will be made as to which Jew is trying to cheat which Jew.

    1858: An article entitled "Chronology of Comets" published today reported that "Josephus the historian includes the appearance of a comet among the miracles which announced the destruction of Jerusalem and the ruin of its temple." In 1208, "the Jews of the West" thought that a very bright comet that appeared for two weeks foretold the coming of the coming of the Messiah.

    1859: In Mulhouse, Alsace, Raphael and Jeannette Dreyfus (née Libmann) gave birth to the ninth child, Alfred who would enter history as Captain Alfred Dreyfus, the Jewish army officer at the center of scandal that rocked France for a decade and helped to produce the modern Zionist movement.

    1860: Birthdate of Count Walter Puckler-Muskau, the anti-Semitic agitator known as "Dreschgraf" (the thrashing count) for the calls for violent attack against the Jews that fill his speeches.

    1862(15thof Tishrei, 5623): Sukkoth

    1862: During the American Civil War, as the Jews on both sides observed Sukkoth, JEB Stuart’s Confederate Cavalry humiliated Union General George McClellan by riding around the Army of the Potomac completely unscathed.

    1864(9thof Tishrei, 5625): Yom Kippur

    1864: As Sherman’s victorious Union Army completed the occupation of Atlanta during the Civil War, one wonders if the Jewish soldiers serving under him joined the Jews of Atlanta in observing Yom Kippur.


    1866: The Law Reports column published today described in detail the breach of contract case brought by a young Jewess named Nanna Solomon against Jewish tailor named Bernard Brown. According to the evidence presented, there was no dispute over the fact that the two were engaged to married and that there had been ample public ceremonies to celebrate the event. There is no dispute that the marriage did not take place. Miss Solomon claimed that the Brown did not marry here because of interference from her mother. Brown implied that Miss Solomon had been seeing other men and was not the stellar character she had presented herself to be. In the end, the jury found for the plaintiff but awarded her only five hundred dollars in damages when she had sought $10,000.

    1867(10th of Tishrei, 5628): Yom Kippur

    1867(10th of Tishrei, 5628): Abraham Mapu “one of the first, and finest, of the novelists to write in Hebrew” passed away. “Heavily influenced by a wide range of sources--the Bible, the Romantic Novelists, and renewed pride in ancient Jewish history--his works recall the finest works of writers such as Flaubert and other great romantic novelists. His first novel, Ahavat Ziyyon (The Love of Zion), published in 1853, won immediate acclaim. Its sixteen editions attest to its continued popularity. (As reported by Toby Press)

    1873: Birthdate of violinist Carl Flesch whose pupils included Jewish violinists Szymon Goldberg, Ivry Gitlis, Ida Haendel, Yfrah Neaman, Eric Rosenblith, Max Rostal, Henryk Szeryng, Henri Temianka and Roman Totenberg

    1875(10thof Tishrei, 5636): Yom Kippur which the secular price described as “a solemn fast universally observed among the orthodox Jews by abstaining from food or drink of any nature whatever for twenty-four hours and spending the entire day in continuous attendance at their places of worship.”

    1876(21stof Tishrei, 5637): Hoshana Rabah

    1867: Fanny Janauscheck the Austrian actress who would perform in “Zillah,  The Hebrew Mother” made her American stage debut at the Academy of Music in New York.

    1876: The New York Times featured a review of “Daniel Deronda” by George Elliot. George Elliot was the penname of Mary Anne Evans. This was her last novel and it featured a sympathetic portrayal of Jewish characters and was sympathetic to the concepts of Zionism.

    1877: Charles Stein, who is described the most dangerous confidence man of our times, was arrested in St. Louis, MO. [It can’t always be about Nobel Prize Winners]

    1878(12thof Tishrei, 5639): Seventy-eight year old Abraham Oppenheim who had begun his career as a partner in the banking house of his father Salomon Oppenheim passed away.

    1879(22ndof Tishrei, 5640): Shemini Atzeret

    1880(4thof Cheshvan, 5641): Sixty-four year old Joseph Mayer Montefiore, a nephew of Sir Moses Montefiore who was a member of the Board of Deputies and a director of the Alliance Insurance Company and the National Provincial Bank of Ireland, passed away today.

    1880: “Persecution of the Jews of Morocco” published today relies on information that originally appeared in the Petit Marseillais and the Pall Mall Gazette, to describe the brutal murder of a Jew named Bendahan's by the Moslem governor of Estifa.  Bendahan’s crime was that he had taken a Moslem women into his home during the recent famine and provided her with food and shelter.  When the governor heard of this he summoned the Jew and him beaten to death. Apparently, any relationship between a Moslem and a Jew was unacceptable even if was only intended to save a life.

    1881: Birthdate of Victor Klemperer, a businessman, journalist and eventually a Professor of Literature, specializing in the French Enlightenment at the Technische Universität Dresden. His diaries detailing his life, successively, in the German Empire, the Weimar Republic, Nazi Germany and in the German Democratic Republic were published in 1995. He passed away in 1960.

    1881: It was reported that the Minister of Justice in Hungary has introduced a bill in the lower house of the Diet that would legalize marriages between Jews and Christians.

    1881: It was reported today that the Russian government “intends to all Jews to acquire land in places where there is no fear of collision between them” and the non-Jewish locals.

    1881: “The Wandering Jew in Hull, 1769” recounts the history of this anti-Semitic tale which reinforced the view of the Jew as an evil villain who has walked the earth since the days of the Crucifixion

    1881: “Old York,” published today provides a brief history of this ancient English castle and city, including the time when it was “the scene of a gruesome tragedy” when a group of “landless knights” and “broken men” penned up the Jews in the castle with the intent to “plunder” and “murder them.”  However, most of the Jews, their intended victims, “with desperate courage, forestalled them by burning their property and killing their families and themselves.

    1882: It was reported today that G.P. Putnam’s Sons will be publishing Fundamental Questions Relating to the Hebrew Scriptures, a liberal view of the subject by Edson L. Clarke.

    1886(10thof Tishrei, 5647): Yom Kippur

    1886: In “Yom Kippur” published today J.S. Moore, a non-Jew, provides a complete description of the observance of the holiday including the observations that “no other religion…has a similar festival” “ and that “ it may be safely predicted that nations, empires and peoples may and will pass and be only remembered in history while the ‘Yom Kippur’ will retain its hold upon a race which has already during the vicissitudes of thousands of years withstood annihilation and bids fair to hold fast to its religion as long as this globe is populated.”

    1886: The Uptown Gossip column published today attributed the low attendance rate at theatres in New York yesterday to the fact that the Jews were observing the “fast of Yom Kippur.”  “Jewish people are the most liberal patrons of the theaters, and any fast day which they observe makes a very marked difference in the receipts of theatre’s treasury.”


    1886: “Big Hebrew Fair” published today described efforts to host a fundraiser this December that provides funds for the establishment of a “Jewish Cooper Institute.”  The project has the support of the city’s temples and synagogues as well as the Young Men’s Hebrew Association.

    1887: “Levitcal Names” published today contends that there is strong evidence of an Egyptian connection between the Levites – the leading tribe of the Exodus – and those who enslaved them.  The names of Moses, Miriam and Pinhcas,  Aaron’s grandson, have an Egyptian etymology . The mother of Pinchas was the daughter of Putiel, a name with an Egyptian rather than Hebrew etymology.   Finally, Aaron’s ability to address Pharaoh would indicate a knowledge of the Egyptian language that would be more consistent with an educated Egyptian than a wandering Semitic nomad.

    1887(21stof Tishrei, 5648): Sukkoth Chol HaMoed

    1887(21stof Tishrei, 5648): Sixty-two year old Czech born American musician and impresario Maurice Strakosch, whose autobiography Souvenirs of an Impresariowas published in 1886 passed away today in Paris.

    1888: As the London police investigated the murder of Catharine Eddowes, The Evening News reported that Jacob Levy, the son of butcher from Aldgate, was “obstinate” when questioned, refusing “to give the slightest information “ leaving “one to inter that he knows something but…is afraid to be called” during the inquest.
    1889(14thof Tishrei, 5650): Erev Sukkoth


    1889(14thof Tishrei, 5650): Sir Benjamin Samuel Phillips, the son of Samuel Phillips, a London tailor, who founded the publishing house of Fauudel, Phillips & Sons, was a leader of the Anglo-Jewish community and the first  Jewish Lord Mayor of London, passed away today.

    1890: In Germany, Das Volk accuses the committee “engaged in gathering the municipal addresses” which are to be presented to Count Von Moltke on his 90thanniversary as being made up of “Jews….seeking pecuniary benefit from their connection with the movement to honor the Count.”


    1891: “A Fire on Fifth Avenue” published today described  the fire that swept through the New York home of August Belmont.


    1892: In the wake of a decision by the Reform movement that circumcision is no longer a necessary part of the conversion process, a “conclave of rabbis” is scheduled to begin meeting today in New York.

    1892: “Phases of City Life” published today described eastside Jews as being “as careful with their money as any people in the world” who will “part with the dollars freely under two conditions –sickness or death in the family” as can be seen by the round the clock medical care being provided for a child who was scaled two weeks ago which has required all of the to “work harder than ever to get the money for it all.”

    1892: Construction began on a building that would be called the Frances Jacobs Hospital in Denver, Colorado. Frances Jacobs, known as Colorado's "Mother of Charity," devoted her life to community service. She is the only woman included among the sixteen Colorado pioneers depicted through stained glass portraits in the state's Capital Rotunda. Born in Kentucky and raised in Cincinnati, Jacobs moved with her husband to Colorado in 1863; they settled in Denver in 1870. Jacobs quickly became involved in Denver's Jewish and non-Jewish communities. Jewish issues were especially important to Jacobs. Soon after moving to Colorado with her husband in 1874, she became president of the Hebrew Benevolent Ladies Society (today known as Jewish Family Service of Colorado). By 1872, she was president of the Hebrew Ladies' Benevolent Society and in 1874 helped found the nonsectarian Denver Ladies' Relief Society. She pushed for the creation of Denver's first kindergarten and helped organize Denver's Charity Organization Society, a forerunner to the United Way, in 1877. Jacobs also pushed the Denver Jewish community to attend to the care of the many Jewish tuberculosis sufferers who came to Denver. At that time, the only known treatment for tuberculosis was clean air and sunshine; since Denver had both of these resources in abundance; it became a popular destination for infected immigrants from the industrial Northeast. When these immigrants arrived in Denver, they found no facilities available to treat or even shelter them, and the community ignored their plight. Jacobs did her best to help those who were ill on an individual basis, but worked to convince the Jewish community to help, leading to the construction of the hospital, whose motto became "None may enter who can pay, and none can pay who enter". Jacobs died, at the age of 49, weeks after the hospital's cornerstone had been laid. The hospital's trustees voted to name the hospital after her. Today the institution is known as the National Jewish Medical and Research Center, and is the only medical and research center in the United States devoted entirely to respiratory, allergic, and immune system diseases. Jacobs died, at the age of 49, weeks after the hospital's cornerstone had been laid. The hospital's trustees voted to name the hospital after her. Today the institution is known as the National Jewish Medical and Research Center, and is the only medical and research center in the United States devoted entirely to respiratory, allergic, and immune system diseases.

    1892: The 15 Jewish families living in the tenement at 100 Suffolk lost personal property in yesterday’s fire that was valued today at approximately $2,000.


    1893: It was reported today that villages on the German borders with Austria and Russia are crowded with Jewish “families who have been expelled from Russia and are eager to come to United States but are so destitute that they “prostrate themselves before travelers and beg for bread or money.”


    1894: It was reported today that Mrs. Elke Rubenstein the widow of convicted murderer Pesach Rubenstein has been ordered to leave the country because she might become a public charge and without having been able to claim the $1,000 which her husband when police arrested him for the murder of Sara Alexander.


    1894: It was reported today that Brooklyn resident Nathan Bernstein must have died a happy man since he lived to see his son John married by a rabbi to Miss Ida Korne.

    1894(9thof Tishrei, 5655): Erev Yom Kippur

    1894(9thof Tishrei, 5655): Sixty year old Wolf Cohn “dropped dead while attending services at Adelphi Hall on 52nd Street and 7th Avenue.

    1894: John Most is scheduled to play the lead in “Die Weber” which is part of the anti-Yom Kippur revelry planned for tonight by the Hebrew Anarchists at the Clarendon Hall.

    1894: Voter registration is set to begin in New York City which will be a problem because the sites owned by the Jews will have to close well before the official 9 pm closing time due to the Jewish Holiday.

    1894: “Anti-Semitic Groups Combine” published today described the formation of the German Social Reform Party which was created by the delegates to a conference led by Jew baiters at Eisenach Germany

    1895: Abraham Stern, a wealthy real estate lawyer, filed a the will of his late aunt, Mrs. Babet Karl, for probate today and discounted reports that there was another will which had been prepared under the influence of Rabbi Aaron Wise and son Otto who is an attorney.

    1895: Tonight Tammany Hall nominated Joseph E Newburger, a graduate of Columbia Law School, a Judge on the City Court, a director of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum and the President of Rodolph Sholom to run for a position on the Court of General Sessions in New York.

    1897(13thof Tishrei, 5658): On Shabbat, in Newark, NJ, 45 year old Simon Davis “one of the best known” Jews in the city who has been a partner for the last twenty years in a catering service with his brother, passed away today.
    1898(23rd of Tishrei, 5659):Simchat Torah

    1898: Herzl has another audience with Grossherzog Friedrich of Baden. On the same day Herzl is received by Foreign Minister Bernhard von Bülow and Reich’s Chancellor Hohenlohe.

    1898: “Sixty or seventy of the most prominent lawyers” in Chicago attended a banquet at the Union League Club in honor of the 70th birthday of Julius Rosenthal who began his career in 1854 as clerk at the banking of house of R.K. Swift before passing the bar.

    1901(26thof Tishrei, 5662): Seventy-year old Sigmund von Henle who represented the city of Munich in the Bavarian Diet from 1873 to 1881 and who served on the board of trustees “of several Jewish societies” passed away today.

    1911: Birthdate of Joe Rosenthal. In 1945, at the age of 33, Rosenthal snapped the most famous of all World War II photos – The Raising of the American Flag on Iwo Jima.

    1911: Birthdate of Jacob L. Trobe, the son of an Orthodox rabbi, who as a representative of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee was among the first relief workers to enter the concentration camps.
    1914: It was reported today that at Columbia University, John Dyneley Prince will teach several foreign language courses including one in Hebrew.

    1917(23rdof Tishrei, 5678); Simchat Torah

    1917(23rdof Tishrei, 5678); After enduring three days of torture at the hands of the Ottoman authorities Sarah Aaronsohn committed suicide rather than betray her comrades. Aaronsohn was a member of Nili, a Jewish spy ring working for the British in Palestine. Aaronsohn had been born in Palestine in 1890 and was motivated to work for the British when she the aftermath of the Armenian Genocide. She was buried in the cemetery in Zichron Yaakov. There are those who make an annual pilgrimage to her grave on the anniversary of her death so the memory of this brave young Jewess will always be part of the heritage of the Jewish people.


    1919(15thof Tishrei, 5680): Sukkoth

    1919: The Cincinnati Reds defeat the Chicago White in the World Series that would become known as the Black Sox Scandal. According to many “experts” Arnold Rothstein, a Jewish born gambler of unsavory reputation, supplied the money to bribe selected members of the White Sox. Abe Attell, a former boxer known as “The Little Hebrew,” was Rothstein’s bagman. According to information left on this blog “Attell was Jewish, but he grew up in an Irish neighborhood. Because of that, he often found himself involved in fights, and according to him, he would get involved in as many as 10 bouts each day as a kid. Attell's father abandoned his family when Attell was 13, and Attell had to sell newspapers to support his family. He used to sell them on the streets and corners, and while selling newspapers, he got a chance to witness the fight between Solly Smith and George Dixon for the world's Featherweight championship. With that, Attell and two of his brothers were convinced that maybe they had a future in boxing.”

    1922: In Brownsville immigrant tailor Harry Finkel and his Mary gave birth to Philip “Fyvush” Finkel the
    veteran of the Yiddish Theatre, Finkel won an emmy for his role as a lawyer in the television hit “Picket Fences.”

    1922: Elinor Fatman Morgenthau and Henry Morgenthau, Jr. who would serve as FDR’s Secretary of the Treasury gave birth of Dr. Joan E. Morgenthau, the wife of Fred Hirschhorn, Jr.

    1923: Birthdate of Israeli, poet, novelist, journalist and filmmaker, Haim Gouri. A sabra. Gouri worked with Jewish refugees in Hungary after WW II and fought with the Palmach in the Negev during the War for Independence before pursuing his literary career. He has won the Bialik, Israel and Uri Zvi Grinberg awards.

    1925(21stof Tishrei, 5686): Hoshana Rabah

    1926: Max Derfiner, a pioneer silk manufacturer who arrived in New York from Tel Aviv last week continued to tout the possibilities for developing the silk industry in Palestine. Derfiner who already expressed his belief that in ten years Tel Aviv can become a “second Lyon” said today that one of his keys to success was his ability “to concentrate in one plant all the processes of silk manufacturing…which in France, Switzerland or America would be performed in separate establishments.” Derfiner also said that the Zionists had “developed the ‘Made in Palestine’ label into a commercial asset...” In Jewish homes through the world the name Palestine had a business value as well as a sentimental appeal.

    1929: “June Moon,” a play co-authored by George S. Kaufman premiered on Broadway at the Broadhurst Theatre.

    1930: As Dr. Drummond Shiels, British Under-Secretary for Dominions, left his hotel today an angry crowd shouted “Away with Parliament which does do justice to Jews,” “Shame to the British Government” and “Remember Hebron, Safed and Motza,” a reference to the 1929 sites of bloody Arab attacks on defenseless Jews. The crowd sang Hatikvah as Shiels sped away under the protection of the local police. “The demonstration was caused by a report from London that Shiels had promised an Arab delegation that a Parliament for Palestine” would be established. Creation of such an institution was part of a plan to circumvent the creation of a Jewish home in Palestine and guarantee that Jews would always be a minority in Eretz Israel.

    1930: An article entitled “Sir John Monash” published one day after his death stated that “It is not an exaggeration to say that Sir John Monash…was one of the ablest soldiers that the British colonies sent to the World War.”  Monash was known for his ability to train troops as could be seen from his work with the Third Australian Division.  A brave soldier, he was an able tactician and strategist who played a key role in the great assault that broke the Hindenburg Line which forced the Germans to sue for peace. It was said of him “that he would command a division better than a brigade and corps better than a division.” [Nowhere in the article that traced Monash rise to prominence was it mentioned that he was Jewish.]

    1933: Birthdate of Martin Gottfried “a drama critic and the author of several biographies of entertainers and playwrights as well as two influential studies of the Broadway musical.”  (As reported by Daniel Slotnik)

    1935: U.S. premiere of “A Midsummer Night’s Dream” directed by Max Reinhardt at the Warner Bros. Hollywood Theatre in New York City.

    1936(23rdof Tishrei, 5697): Simchat Torah

    1939: In London, Bill Sedley and his wife gave birth to British jurist Sir Stephen Sedley.

    1939: Himmler declared that 550,000 Jews living in Polish provinces should be relocated

    1940: Adina Gerstel and Rabbi Louis Wefel were married today.  Werfel would gain fame for his role as a chaplain during WW II who was known as the flying Rabbi.  Unfortunately, his would be cut short when he died when his aircraft crashed in 1943 while he was bring the joy of Chanukah to U.S. troops fighting in North Africa.

    1940: In Great Britain, the Committee of Privileges reported that the detention of the anti-Semitic MP Archibald Maule Ramsay under Regulation 18B that applies to people “suspected of disloyalty” “was not a breach of privilgege.” He would be released in 1944 and would return to the House of the House of Commons where he introduced a resolution calling for the banishment of the Jews as had been done by King Edward I.

    1941: The Nazis murdered 3,726 Jews including 717 children in the Poligon barracks near Swieciany, Lithuania.

    1941: A recruiting rally was held in Tel Aviv as part of a campaign to get another 5,000 Jews from Palestine to enlist in the British Army. Currently there are approximately 10,000 Jews from Palestine serving in the British Army and RAF throughout the Mediterranean and Middle East. The leading Jewish institutions sponsoring the campaign have adopted the slogan “Jews are fighting with the Allies for victory.”

    1941: Parades of Jewish veterans of World War I were greeted by cheering throngs in Haifa and Tel Aviv. The parades were the climax of week’s long effort to recruit more Jewish recruits for the British military. Jewish leaders encouraged every man who can be spared to “enroll under the Union Jack” to “help in the fight against Adolf Hitler.”

    1941: Hans Frank told the ministers of the General Government in Cracow; "As far as Jews are concerned . . . I want to tell you quite frankly that they must be done away with one way or another."

    1941: The Nazi-allied government led by Marshal Ion Antonescu began deporting Jews to camps located in Transnistria, an occupied area in the former Soviet Union.

    1941: Two months before the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor, President Roosevelt approved what became known as the Manhattan Project, America’s unprecedented effort to build an atomic bomb.  The number of Jews involved in this decision including Einstein is surpassed only by the number of Jewish scientist involved in the effort.

    1942: Eighty one year old Jesse Houghton Metcalf, the former Republican Senator from Rhode Island passed away.  In 1933, Metcalf was one of the Senators who spoke out against the German treatment of the Jews. While addressing the chamber declared, “We as a notion can only declare the existence of racial or religious prejudice to be untenable as a national ideal.

    1942: Anne Frank, who was hiding with her family in an Amsterdam warehouse, wrote in her diary: “The British radio speaks of their (the Jews) being gassed.”

    1942: In Brussels, Belgium, five of six leading members of the Belgian Jewish community are released from incarceration following the intervention of Cardinal Joseph-Ernst van Roey and Belgium's Queen Elizabeth.

    1942: The USS Drum, the submarine on which Maurice Rindskopf served throughout WW II survived a heavy depth charge attack from the vessels escorting the cargo ships she had sunk the day before.

    1942: Thousands of Jews from Miedzyrzec, Poland, are deported to the Treblinka death camp.

    1943(10th of Tishrei, 5704): Yom Kippur

    1943(10th of Tishrei, 5704): On Yom Kippur, over 1,000 men and women at Birkenau, deemed too sick to work, were gassed to death. At Plaszow, 50 Jews were murdered. Ironically, 600 Jews were permitted to pray in Sobibor

    1943(10th of Tishrei, 5704): Hundreds of Jews were deported from Trieste and shipped to Auschwitz.
    1943(10th of Tishrei, 5704): In Anconcia, a Catholic priest, Don Bernadino, warned the local Rabbi, Elio Toaff, of the impending deportation of the Jewish population. The Jews went into hiding, most of them being sheltered by Christian families. Only ten Jews would be caught and deported and one of them survived the war.

    1943: A unnamed Jewish pilot went to Yom Kippur Services in the Grande Synagogue in Tunis “and spent almost the entire day in prayer and please for life and safety and happiness.” (As reported by Rabbi Louis Werfel, the chaplain known as “The Flying Rabbi”)

    1944(22ndof Tishrei, 5705): Shemini Atzeret

    1944: At Birkenau, 650 boys involved with the Birkenau revolt were locked in the barracks together. Most of them would be tortured and then killed on October 20.

    1944: Mordechai Adler (who became Mordechai Eldar) “celebrated his 15thbirthday at Auschwitz-Birkenau and cheated death today. Having been “selected” at Auschwitz and having already stripped naked, for some unknown reason German officers had Eldar and 49 others step outside, put on shoes and uniforms, and sent them to work in Canada, the facility where the Germans had prisoners sort and store all the possessions of those who arrived at the Death Camp.

    1944: The SS arrests three Jewish women at the Auschwitz munitions factory for complicity in the smuggling of explosives used in the uprising of October 6-7


    1945: Tonight, "security at the Atlit Detention Center near Haifa - a camp for 'illegal' Jewish immigrants in Mandatory Palestine - was breached; 200 detainees mainly Holocaust survivors and recent arrivals from Europe, were released in a daring operation launched by the Palmach."

    1945: After his trial in Paris, Pierre Laval, head of the Vichy Government is executed by firing squad. General Petain was the titular head of the Vichy Government. Laval really ran the show. Vichy was the name of the French collaborationist government that worked with the Nazis during World War II. Vichy’s supporters included France’s own, home-grown anti-Semites. The Vichy government was so eager to ingratiate itself with the New German Order, that it was rounding up Jews and turning them over to the Nazis before the Nazis asked them to do so.


    1945: Loy Henderson, the head of the Office of Near Eastern and African Affairs at the United States State Department who was an Arabist opposed to the creation of Jewish state in Palestine sent Secretary of State James Byrnes “a memo regarding what he called ‘urgent problems relating to the Palestine.’”

    1946: An announcement was made today that “Israel Aron Friedman, a member of the board of directors of General Mercantile Corporation of Palestine, Ltd., has arrived in New York from Tel Aviv. “The corporation is concerned with the procurement of raw materials and machinery for the basic Jewish industries of Palestine.”


    1946: Birthdate of Gustin L. Reichbach, the Columbia University protest leader who went on to a career in the law and as a distinguished jurist. (As reported by Jim Dwyer)


    1947: “The Jewish Agency…called upon…Jewish veterans of the North African and Italian campaigns” now living in Palestine “to form the nucleus of a Jewish army that would be ready for a ‘life or death showdown’ with Arab forces. Mrs. Gold Meyerson, head of the Agency’s political department told veterans assembled at Tel Aviv that salvation for Palestine Jews rested not at Lake Success but ‘right here. If the Arab leaders have their way, we must either give up the link between the Jews and Palestine or die in a last-ditch struggle…We are not looking for trouble, but we are ready for it.’”


    1947: President Truman learned that the Arab League Executive had requested its member nations to dispatch troops to the Palestine border as part of a plan to invade the Mandate Territory. Truman responded by instructing Secretary of State Marshall to support the planned partition of Palestine.

    1948: During the War for Independence, Egypt launched a major attack in the Negev. This
    attack constitutes a major violation of the UN brokered truce. This Egyptian offensive along with other violations will lead to a major Israeli military effort later in the month of October.

    1951(9thof Tishrei, 5712) Erev Yom Kippur

    1951: Birthdate of actor Robert Wuhl who played the title role in the HBO hit “Arli$$.”

    1952: The Jerusalem Postreported that since 1948, Youth Aliyah had absorbed more than 5,000 young people from Morocco. Their parents were given a choice of three types of educational institutions: Orthodox, traditional (keeping of Sabbath, festivals and Kashrut), and non-religious.

    1955(23 of Tishrei, 5716): Simchat Torah


    1956: Arab terrorists cross the border, murdering two Israeli workers at Even Yehuda and cutting off the victims’ ears.


    1958:HMS Springer an S class submarine of the Royal Navy was sold to the Israeli navy today and renamed the Tanin

    1958: Pope Pius XII passed away 19 years after being elevated to the Papacy. The Pope’s role in the Holocaust has been too well documented to need to be covered here.

    1963: Birthdate of journalist Daniel Pearl who was brutally murdered by Moslem terrorists on February 21, 2002.

    1967(5th of Tishrei, 5728): French author Andre Maurois, born Emile Salomon Wilhelm Herzog, passed away at the age of 82.

    1971: “The Incomparable Max” a play co-authored by Jerome Lawrnece based on a short story by Max Beerbohm had its first “preview” performance today.

    1972: Birthdate of Etan Kalil Patz

    1973: On the third day of the Yom Kippur war a pessimistic Moshe Dayan addresses a group of journalist leading them to believe that Israeli forces are in such precarious shape that they will have to surrender most of the Sinai to the advancing Egyptians and make a stand in the eastern edge of the peninsula. Prime Minister Golda Meir is so alarmed by Dayan’s emotional about-face that she refuses to let him address the nation on television in the evening. Israeli news broadcasts reported for the first time that the Egyptian attack had driven Israeli forces from the east bank of the Suez Canal. While Syrian artillery was able to shell villages in the Jezreel Valley, Israeli planes had attacked installations in around Damascus. Inadvertently, one of the attacks had hit the Soviet Cultural Center in the Syrian capital. In a television later in the evening an Israeli general pointed out that the Soviets had been arms into the Arab states for the past six years creating a military imbalance of striking proportion. He also said that Israeli forces would not cease operation action until the Arab states learned that they could not violate a truce with impunity without paying a high price.


    1973: During a meeting of the war cabinet, Defense Minister Dayan voiced confidence in the Israeli forces' ability to overcome Syria and asked permission to bomb targets in Damascus. "There's an order: No retreat on the Golan," he said. "Fighting to the death and not moving ... What I'm suggesting and asking for approval of [is] bombings inside the city." Prime Minister Meir asked whether he meant within the city itself, and Dayan confirmed this. He said the IDF can't muster a column to march on Damascus even as a decoy, but bombing in and around the city could "break the Syrians" - though he conceded, "You can't say the population wouldn't be hurt."Why would it necessarily break them?" Meir asked. "Would a bombing here break us?” General Elazar replied: "A heavy bombing here, on Reading and Ramat Aviv, would seriously disrupt things."

    1973: Aharon Sagi, Harel Gilutz and Yosef Ye'ari made it back safely to Israeli lines after their F-4E Phantom Jets were shot down.

    1973: Lt. Col. Yossi Ben Hanan who had cut short his honeymoon in Nepal at the outbreak of the Yom Kippur War “took command of a scratch force of Israeli tanks that had been put together by Shmuel Askarov, one of the survivors of the decimated 188th Armored Brigade. Leading his command in a desperate battle against overwhelming numbers of Syrian T-62s, Ben Hanan restored the tactical situation but at the cost of most of his command and his own Centurion tank. Blown out of the turret when his tank was hit by a Sagger anti-tank missile, Ben Hanan lay wounded on the battlefield until he was rescued from behind enemy lines by Yonatan Netanyahu, a legendary member of the IDF's elite Sayeret Matkal.”  A Sabra, born in 1945, Hanan was a second generation military leader.  He father, Michael Ben Hanan had been a Haganah commander in Jerusalem.

    1973: As of today those parts of the Golan that were the responsibility of the Golani Brigade were back under Israeli control, and the Syrians had been pushed back over the Purple Line. The Purple Line was the name given to the cease fire line drawn between Israel and Syria after the 1967 war.

    1973: “Against orders, reserve Maj. Gen. Ariel Sharon launches a counterattack against Egyptian forces in the canal area. Sharon’s actions lead to moves for his dismissal.”(As reported by JTA)

    1973: U.S. Jewish leader Max Fisher urges President Richard Nixon in a meeting at the White House to “please send the Israelis what they need.” That night, Nixon tells Israeli Prime Minister Golda Meir that “all your aircraft and tank losses will be replaced.” (As reported by JTA)

    1973: Lt. Colonel Avigdor Kahalani was awarded the Medal Valor for his leadership and valor shown starting today during the Yom Kippur War when “he commanded a hastily assembled group of tanks and crews from different armor units” that “repelled a vastly superior Syrian force which had overrun the Israeli positions  in the first days of the war.”  The scene of the fighting was so “littered with hundreds of burned tanks that it was renamed “Emek Ha-Bacha” (the Valley of Tears)

    1973: Birthdate of Erin Daniels. Born Erin Cohen the Vassar College grad is known for her career as a television actress.

    1974: Oskar Schindler, the Schindler in “Schindler’s List” passed away.


    1980(20th of Tishrei, 5741): A bomb planted in a motorcycle saddlebag outside the Copernic Street synagogue in a wealthy eastern Paris neighborhood exploded on a Friday night, killing three Frenchmen and Aliza Shagrir, 42, and wounding 22 others. Shagrir, an Israeli cinematographer, was walking past the synagogue with her 15-year-old son, Haggai, who would eventual go to work at the Foreign Ministry. Aliza Shagrir was the wife of Micha Shagrir a well-known television, film and documentary producer who lives in Jerusalem and who established the Aliza Shagrir Fund prize for outstanding documentaries in her name. Eventually, Hassan Diab a Lebanese native living in Canada would be charged with crime.


    1981: Los Angeles Superior Court Judge Thomas T. Johnson ruled in favor of Mel Mermelstein, finding that he had provided sufficient evidence to prove his claim that Jews were gassed in the gas chambers at Auschwitz. The Court issued a judgment requiring the Institute for Historical Review (IHR) to pay Mermelstein $50,000, plus $40,000 for personal suffering, and to write a public apology to Mermelstein.


    1986: Senator Claiborne Pell (D- R.I.) enters into the Congressional Record an article, "Navy Rabbi To Join Iceland Team: Russian immigrant's grandson picked to lead staff services," published in the Providence Journal that described the role played in by Rabbi Arnold Resnick, a U.S. Navy Chaplain in leading Yom Kippur services in Greenland during the planning meetings for the latest Soviet-American summit

    1985: A day after having murdered Leon Klinghoffer, a wheel-chair bound Jewish American passenger and then throwing his body overboard, the Arab/Moslem terrorists who had high jacked the Achille Lauro negotiated with authorities as the ship steamed towards Port Said

    1987: Claire Boothe Luce passed away. Most people remember her as the wife of Henry Luce, the man who created the Time-Life publishing empire. Others remember her as a Republican Party political figure and ambassador. But Mrs. Luce considered herself first and foremost a playwright, a role that brought her great success before World War II. In 1939, she wrote Margin for Error, a comedy about a policeman assigned to protect the German consul in New York. The Consul is a Nazi. The police officer is an American Jew. The play was considered the first successful anti-Nazi play to reach Broadway.

    1988: Active polio viruses have been discovered in sewage and a water purification plant in four more Israeli cities, bringing the total number of infected areas to nine, Israel Radio said today.


    1989: Penthouse Magazine'sHebrew edition hits the newsstands

    1990: Saddam Hussein threatens to hit Israel with a new missile.

    1993(24thof Tishrei, 5754): On Shabbat, “Dror Forer and Aran Bachar were murdered by terrorists in Wadi Kelt in the Judean Desert. The Popular Front and the Islamic Jihad 'Al-Aqsa Squads' each publicly claimed responsibility.”


    1994(4th of Cheshvan): Holocaust survivor, successful businessman and founder of the NYC Marathon, Fred Lebow, passed away.( As reported by Michael Janofsky)
    1994: Corey Pavin won the Tokai Classic.  The golf tournament was Japanese; the golfer was Jewish.

    1995(15thof Tishrei, 5756): Sukkoth

    2000(10thof Tishrei, 5761): Yom Kippur observed for the first time in the 21st century.

    2003: The Israeli Gesher Theater starts its tour of Moscow. The Moscow critics have already called the tour the biggest event of the theater season. The Gesher Theater was founded in 1990 in Tel Aviv by Russian immigrants

    2004: The first National Day of Commemorating the Holocaust was held in Romania. October 9 was chosen as a date for this event because it marks the beginning of Romanian deportations of Jews to Transnistria, in 1942.

    2004: Final performance of the London production of Stephen Sondheim’s “Sweeny Todd.”

    2004(24th of Tishrei, 5765): On Shabbat Jews begin the cycle of Torah readings with Bereshit.


    2004(24th of Tishrei, 5765: Philosopher Jacques Derrida passes away at the age of 74

    2005: The Romanian Minister for Foreign Affairs, Mihai Răzvan Ungureanu, participated in the laying of a wreath at the Holocaust Memorial in Iasi and the inauguration of The Centre for Hebrew Studies. During the inaugural National Day of Commemorating the Holocaust, the National Institute for Studying the Holocaust in Romania was also opened.


    2005: The Histadrut labor federation renews the strike against the Religious Councils. Funerals will be performed only at night and there will be no registration of marriages or Kashrut supervision in restaurants, hotels and catering halls.


    2005: Despite threats from suicide bombers and other terrorists, Israelis work to develop a fruitful society and create an air of normalcy. For example, Haaretz reported that Israel’s 2 – 1 victory over Faroe Islands in a World Cup soccer qualifier in the Ramat Gan stadium means Israel still has a chance of qualifying for the World Cup in Germany 2006.

    2005: Bishop Von Galen, the German bishop known as the "Lion of Muenster" for his courageous anti-Nazi sermons during World War II took a step on the road to sainthood when he was beatified in St. Peter’s Basilica. The Nazis deported 37 priests to concentration camps 10 of whom perished in von Galen's place as punishment for the homilies, according to a brief biography by Reinhard Lettmann. However von Galen was not arrested. The Nazis were worried that if von Galen were arrested and killed, Muenster's residents would be angered and "written off as lost during the duration of the war," Lettmann wrote. Von Galen helped a Protestant pastor to hide a Jewish boy in an institute belonging to the bishop's office and took responsibility for the youth, who after the war was reunited with his mother, according to testimony carried by Vatican Radio.

    2005(6th of Tishrei, 5766): Comedian Louis Nye passed away. (As reported by James Barron)

    2005: The New York Timesreviewed The Pagoda in the Garden: a Novel in Three Parts by Wendy Lesser.

    2005: The Times of Londonreviewed We Are at War: The Remarkable Diaries of Five Ordinary People in Extraordinary Times by Simon Garfield

    2006: A ceremony took place for setting the keystone of the National Holocaust Memorial in Bucharest. The ceremony was attended by the President, Foreign Minister Affairs Minister and Culture Minister, as well as representatives of the Romanian and international Jewish community. A commemoration march also took place through Bucharest in order to remember the Roma victims of the Holocaust and to demand greater recognition by the government of Roma Holocaust victims.

    2006: Haaretz reported that Holocaust survivor groups here have joined the recommendation of the Polish president, Lech Kaczynski, to award the Nobel Peace Prize to 96-year-old Irena Sandler who was a member of the Polish underground group Zegota that was dedicated to saving Jews

    2007: A special preview screening of The Counterfeiters takes place as part of the UK Jewish Film Festival. “The Counterfeiters is based on the true story of the largest counterfeiting operation in history, set up by the Nazis in 1936.”

    2008(10th of Tishrei, 5769): Yom Kippur

    2008: At Adas Israel in Washington, D.C. during a late afternoon break between Musaf and Mincha, Washington Post columnist Marc Fisher and Emily Yoffe of Slate lead a learning session that opens with the study of a classic text on the use of speech in public followed by a discussion of the ethical dilemmas of reporting and the spiritual importance of truth-telling.

    2008: In Acre, both Jews and Arabs clashed with police in various parts of the ethnically divided city, leading to 10 arrests.

    2009: Michael Chabon, author of The Mysteries of Pittsburgh, Wonder Boysand the Pulitzer Prize-winning The Adventures of Kavalier and Clay,discusses his first book of nonfiction, Manhood for Amateurs: The Pleasures and Regrets of a Husband, Father, and Son, at Lisner Auditorium, George Washington University, Washington, D.C.

    2009: Scott Turow, the bestselling author of the legal thrillers Presumed Innocentand The Burden of Proof, presents a lecture, "Confessions of a Death Penalty Agnostic," drawn from his book "Ultimate Punishment: A Lawyer's Reflections on Dealing with the Death Penalty," at the Fairfax County Government in Fairfax, Va..

    2009: Kol Shira will be performing at Java House in downtown Iowa City. Kol Shira is an all women sextet known for its eclectic fusion performances of International Jewish music, including songs from Russia, Cuba, Eastern Europe, Iraq, Yemen, France, Spain, Middle East, Italy, Romania, Algeria and more. The group features vocals, flute, guitar, piano, bass, cello and hand-held percussion. Jim Musser, music reviewer for the Iowa City Press Citizen, described Kol Shira as “remarkable” and “exquisite.” At the end of 2004, Musser ranked their CD as one of the top six independent releases from the Eastern Iowa area.

    2009 (21 Tishrei, 5770): Hoshanah Rabbah

    2009: While Friday prayers ended without incident at the al-Aksa Mosque on the Temple Mount, Palestinian rioters clashed with police in the Jerusalem neighborhoods of Issawiya, Ras el-Amud and Sur Baher this afternoon.

    2009(21stof Tishrei, 5770): “Stuart M. Kaminsky, a film scholar-turned-detective novelist who was widely known for his prodigious output, complex characters, and rich evocations of time and place, including Hollywood in its Golden Age, died today at the age of 75.” (As reported by Margalit Fox)

    2009 (21st  Tishrei, 5770): Richard W. Sonnenfeldt, who fled Nazi Germany as a teenager, became the chief interpreter for American prosecutors at the Nuremberg war crimes trials and interrogated some of the most notorious Nazi leaders of World War II, died today  at his home in Port Washington, N.Y. at the age of 86.(As reported by A.G. Sulzberger)

    2009: Even on Hoshanah Rabah there is no rest from reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Anne Frank: The Book, The Life, The Afterlife by Francine Prose (Los Angeles Times) and Michael Bloomberg: Money, Power, Politics by Joyce Purnick (NY Times)
    2010: A special Ethiopian Shabbat luncheon is scheduled to take place at the 92nd St Y in Manhattan.

    2010(1 Cheshvan, 5771): Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan

    2010: Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas has told Arab leaders he may seek U.S. recognition for a Palestinian state, which would include all of the West Bank, should peace talks with Israel break down, an aide said today.

    2010: In a case of Jew versus Jew, Andy Samberg played the part of Mark Zuckerberg  in Saturday Night Live’s lampoon of Facebook and its creator.

    2011: StrorahSteps is scheduled to present Norah’s Rainbow at the 14th Street Y in Manhattan.

    2011: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including “Lucky Bruce:A Literary Memoir” by Bruce Jay Friedman.

    2011: A top Israeli security official is visiting Cairo, the Egyptian newspaper Al-Ahram reported today, amid recent tensions between Israel and Egypt over security arrangements in the Sinai.
    2011:The Yom Kippur War ceremony in Tel Aviv was almost canceled today after not a single government minister attended, causing uproar among the bereaved families. The ceremony, held annually at the Kiryat Shaul Cemetery which is the resting place of 780 soldiers who were killed during the Yom Kippur War in 1973, was supposed to begin at 4 pm but was delayed after government representatives failed to arrive.
    2012: A screening of Amos Gati’s “Field Diary” is scheduled to take place at the New York Film Festival at Lincoln Center.

    2012: “Fill the Voice,” “the first film about haredi life directed by an insider for a secular audience” is scheduled to have US premiere at the New York Film Festival

    2012(23 of Tishrei, 5773): Simchat Torah for Orthodox and Conservative Jews.

    2012: The funeral for Dr. Joan Morgenthau Hirschhorn is scheduled to take place Temple Emanu-El in New York City followed by a private burial.

    2012: Two Kassam rockets fired by terrorists from the Gaza Strip tonight landed near the southern Israeli town of Sderot, while three Grad rockets fell outside the nearby town of Netivot.

    2012: Serge Haroche, a French-Jewish physicist, has won the Nobel Prize in Physics jointly with David Wineland from the United States. (As reported by JTA)

    2013: Jerry Dauber, author of The Worlds of Sholem Aleichem: The Remarkable Life and Afterlife of the Man Who Created Tevye is scheduled to deliver The Bernard Wexler Lecture on Jewish History in Washington, DC

    2013: “Meditations on Equilibrium: Works in Glass and Paper” by Alex Hirsch is scheduled to open at the Oregon Jewish Museum

    2013: “Bat Mitzvah Comes of Age” is scheduled to open at the Oregon Jewish Museum.

    2013, Janet Yellen was officially nominated to replace Ben Bernanke as head of the Federal Reserve.

    2013: Prof. Arieh Warshel, who was born in Israel and now lives in California, and Prof. Michael Levitt, a South African native who made aliya and now splits his time between the US and Israel, Prof. Martin Karplus, an Austrian native who fled to the US before the Holocaust won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry today. Warshel and Levitt are Israel’s 11th and 12th Nobel Prize laureates. (As reported by Judy Siegel-Itzkovich)

    2013: Pope Francis told Knesset Speaker Yuli Edelstein (Likud) he would visit Israel, but did not specify a date.

    2013: Michael Applebaum, the first Jewish Mayor of Montreal, is scheduled to make his first court appearance after having been “arrested and indicted on 14 charges including fraud, conspiracy, breach of trust, and corruption in municipal affairs.”

    2013: Two IDF soldiers were hurt today after two mortar shells fired from Syrian territory landed near their position in the Golan Heights

    2013(5thof Cheshvan, 5774): Sixty-nine year old Roger Richman, the son of a rabbi who became a major “talent agent” passed away today. (As reported by William Yardley)

    2013(5thof Cheshvan, 5774): Ninety-seven year old movie critic Stanley Kaufman passed away today. (As reported by William Grimes)

    2014(15thof Tishrei, 5775): Sukkoth

    2014: In Romania observance of “National Day of Commemorating the Holocaust.”

    2014: “Gett,”a stark divorce drama from brother-and-sister duo Ronit and Shlomi Alkabetz” is one of the films scheduled to be shown at the Hamptons International Film Festival which opens today.


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    OCTOBER 10

    680: At the Battle of Karbala, Shia Imam Husayn bin Ali, the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad, was decapitated by forces under Caliph Yazid I. This is commemorated by Shi'a Muslims as Aashurah. This is part of the split between the Shiites and the Sunnis that has led to so much violence and had an impact on the terrorist war against Israel and other nations of the world.

    732: At the Battle of Tours which was fought near Poitiers, France, the leader of the Franks (modern day French) Charles Martel and his men, defeat a large army of Moors, stopping the Muslims from spreading into Western Europe. This meant that the territory south of the Pyrenees – Spain – would remain in Islamic hands for the better part of the next seven centuries while the rest of Europe would remain in Christian hands for the time being. This demarcation would lead to the development of different variants of Judaism depending up whether the Jews lived in Moslem and Christian dominated parts of Europe.

    1384: A judicial inquiry was held in a castle at Châtel, by order of Prince Amadeus, Count of Savoy with purpose of confirming the charges by his Christian subjects that the Jews were guilty of poisoning the wells, springs “and other things which the Christians use.” Numerous Jews of both sexes have been imprisoned based on these charges. The case rested, in part, on the admission of Jew named Agimet from Geneva, who confessed after having been subject to only “a little” torture that he had engaged in such practices.

    1619(2nd Cheshvan, 5380): Rabbi Joseph Pardo passed away today in Amsterdam.


    1674(10thof Tishrei, 5435): David Cohen de Lara, the “Haham, lexicographer and writer on ethics” passed away today in Hamburg.

    1723: The party responsible for slandering a group of Jews was put to death in an auto-de-fe at Lisbon. The person had alleged groups of men were assembling to practice Jewish customs. The men were later arrested and jailed where many of them had died.

    1755: In a 4 month period ending today, eight Jewish merchants were listed in the Custom House records of New York.

    1777(9thof Tishrei, 5538): Erev Yom Kippur -- Kol Nidre is chanted for the third time during the American Revlution.

    1792(24thof Tishrei, 5553): Seventy-nine year old Dutch born businessman, Talmudist and Hebrew language poet passed away after spending the last six months of his life as honorary secretary of the Spanish-Portuguese community at Amsterdam.

    1802: In Philadelphia, a group of German Jews formed a society that they called the “Hebrew German Society Rodef Shalom” which was one of the earliest German Jewish congregations in America. “The society was reorganized and chartered in 1812. Among the earliest rabbis were Wolf Benjamin, Jacob Lipman, Bernhard Illowy, Henry Vidaver, Moses Sulzbacher, and Moses Rau.”

    1818(10thof Tishrei, 5579): Yom Kippur

    1823: Birthdate of Russian scholar and philanthropist Joshua ben Aaron Zeitlin.

    1830(23rdof Tishrei, 5591): Simchat Torah

    1845: Founding of the U.S. Naval Academy. Today there are approximately 140 Jewish Midshipman at the Naval Academy. The dedication of the multi-million dollar Uriah P. Levy Jewish Center and Chapel in 2005 marked a major milestone in the development of Jewish life at the Annapolis institution. For more about the history of the Jews at the U.S. Naval Academy see “The Judaic Experience at the U.S. Naval Academy” by Joel Ira Holwitt

    1847: In Hamburg, Germany, Julie and Samuel Lewishon gave birth to Leonard Lewisohn who gained fame and fortune in the United States as a businessman and philanthropist.

    1847: A constitution was adopted forming 'The Ladies Sewing Association, of the Congregation Shearith Israel, of New York.' The society consisted of an initial fifty members who would make garments for the needy.

    1851: Communications pioneer Paul Julius Reuter “established a telegraph office at the I Royal Exchange Buildings, near the London stock exchange. From this location he transmitted stock market quotations between London and Paris, using the new Calais-Dover telegraph cable under the English Channel. Recognizing the need for a news service, Reuter would the next seven years working hard to build the agency and promote his services to newspapers.”

    1853: An article entitled “Jewish Educational Institute” published today described the cornerstone laying ceremony for a Jewish Educational Institute to be built in New York next to B’nai Jeshraun Synagogue on Greene Street. Rabbi Morris Raphall’s address to the attendees included the statement that he was as proud of the establishment of this academy for Jewish study as he was of the role he had played in establishing a similar such institution in Birmingham, England. He stressed the importance of Jews receiving both a secular and religious education. He spoke of the unique benefits Jews enjoyed in the United States. And he predicted that a day would come when the United States would surpass the United Kingdom and when the Jews of the United States would have to assume a leadership role for Jews throughout the world.

    1854: The Jewish Theological Seminary, “the first rabbinical seminary in Central Europe, opened today in Breslau.

    1862: Zillah and Samuel Henry Beddington gavie birth to Ada Beddington  who married Ernest Leverson and as Ada Leverson became a noted British author and friend to the famous.

    1864(10th of Tishrei, 5625): Yom Kippur

    1864: Jews gathered at the home of a merchant in Salt Lake City to observe Yom Kippur. This was probably the first communal Jewish activity to take place in this Mormon dominated regioned.

    1864: The New York Timesreported that “To-day will be generally observed by our Jewish fellow-citizens as a rigid fast-day and period of strict religions observance. It is known as Your Kippur Day of Atonement. Every Israelite in every part of the world, who believes in the Law of Moses and the doctrine of a future world, keeps the day as a strict fast-day. From sunset yesterday till sunset to-day no food or drink is indulged in. Every Jew and Jewess, and children above thirteen, must observe the fast. According to Jewish tradition, on the first day of the New Year, the Israelites are summoned in judgment before their Creator, but sentence upon their misdeeds is reserved till the tenth day Your Kippur. If, during the ten intermediate days, called the Arsareth Yermi Tersluaro, ten day of repentence, penitence is made, and the "sinner turneth from the evil of his ways," the anger of the Lord is assuaged, and on the day of atonement forgiveness is accorded. When the Isralites worshipped in the Temple at Jerusalem, the service of this day was equally solemn and splendid. It was the only day throughout the year on which even the Cohen Hagodol (High priest,) presumed to enter the most holy sanctuary of the temple, or to pronounce the renevated and deladed name of the Deity which at any other time it was unlawful even for him to utter. The glories of this day are commemorated in the musaf or midday service of the synagogue. According to Jewish tradition, also the Your Kippur even before the giving of the law was a day of atonement and pardon. Adam did penance and was pardoned on this day. Abraham entered the covenant of the circumcision on this day. Moses, after he had broken the first tables, ascended the Mount again on the first day of Elul, so that the second forty days expired with the Your Kippur. The eve is allotted to solemn feasting, and at sunset the twenty-four hours fast and continued prayers commence. It is also customary in the evening for parents to bestow a solemn benediction on their children. Whosoever meet on that day, be they previously acquainted or complete strangers, salute each other with brotherly love and sincerity. If any dispute exists between the Jews, it is obligatory on them to become reconciled before either of them presumes to appear in the presence of his God. The law which ordains the observance of the day likewise commands the Jew "to afflict his soul." The affliction of the soul by means of the body, according to Jewish custom, consists in abstaining from five indulgences -- eating and drinking, bathing, perfuming, wearing shoes and sexual enjoyment. The observance of the festival is most strict by every one who claims the name of Jew, and even those who make light of other observances throughout the year, pay due regard to this day. The exercises in the synagogue are of a striking and impressive character, the edifice is thronged with worshippers, the ministers and officials are draped in white shrouds while prayers of lamentation and penitence are heard on all sides. The services are divided into five parts the kol nidri, or eve service for last night; the sharcheris, or morning service; the musaf, or midday service! the mincha, or afternoon service; the nela, or conclusion. The synagogues open to-day at 6 A.M., and remain open till sunset.

    1864(10th of Tishrei, 5625): Jews of Tunis and Tripoli were massacred.

    1865: Joseph M. Montefiore, the President of the Board of Deputies and his wife gave birth to Sir Francis Abraham Montefiore who served as the High Sheriff of the counties of Kent and Sussex and as Chairman of the Executive Committee of the English Zionist Federation.

    1871(25th of Tishrei, 5632): Sixty-seven year old Joseph Zedner passed away.  Born in Germany, he served as librairian of the Hebrew Department of the British Museum from 1845 until 1869 when he resigned and returned to Germany due to his failing health.

    1869(5thof Cheshvan, 5630): Eighty-five year old Rabbi Abraham Sutro who was an ardent advocate for Jewish emancipation in Prussia passed away today.

    1871: Birthdate of “German rabbi and folklorist” Max Grunwald.

    1871(25thof Tishrei, 5632): Sixty-seven year old Joseph Zender the German born librarian of the Hebrew department of the British Museum in London passed away today.

    1871: On the last day of the Great Chicago Fire it was noted that a void now existed in the city. The Hebrew Relief Association’s Hospital had been destroyed during the catastrophic conflagration.

    1874: Ceremonies were held this evening in New York City marking the formal opening of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association. Lewis May, the president of the organization opened the event with a brief address followed by Dr. Mark Blumenthal’s speech would provided a brief history of YMHA. Judge Philip J. Joachimsen and Rabbi Isaacs of the 19th Street Synagogue were among the dignitaries who attended the event.

    1875: According to reports published today that while the Moslems have political control of Jerusalem, the Jews, who number 8,000 souls and even more during festivals, make up a majority of the city’s population.

    1876(22nd of Tishrei, 5637): Shemini Atzeret

    1879(23rd of Tishrei, 5640): Simchat Torah

    1879: Daniel Edward Bandmann played Shylock in tonight’s opening performance of “The Merchant of Venice” at the Standard Theatre in New York City. His portrayal of Shakespeare’s Jew differs from that of Edwin Booth who creates an “over-tragic and impassioned” figure.

    1879: Birthdate of Eugen Täubler who wrote his dissertation on Josephus and lectured at the Higher Institute for Jewish Studies in Berlin.

    1883(9thof Tishrei, 5644): Erev Yom Kippur

    1883: Three hundred boys attended Kol Nidre services at the Hebrew Orphan Asylum that were led by Dr. Herman Baar, the Superintendent.

    1884(21st of Tishrei, 5645): Hoshanah Rabbah

    1884(21stof Tishrei, 5645): Seventy six year old Johanna Goldschmidt the wife of Moritz David Goldschmidt who was a philanthropist, author and an advocate for the right’s of women passed away today in Hamburg.

    1884(21st of Tishrei, 5645): Dr. Adolph Huebsch, “one of the most popular and influential…rabbis” in New York “died suddenly from heart disease from heart disease” from “heart disease” at 4:30 this morning. Born in Hungary in 1830, earned a doctorate at the University of Prague after which he took a pulpit in that Czech city.  In 1886, he came to the United States where began serving as rabbi at Ahaveth Chesed. In addition to leading his congregation through a period of growth that included the building of a new sanctuary, he was a noted scholar.

    1885: George S. Stinson, a special agent of the Internal Revenue Department discovered today that “crooked whiskey was being manufactured by four Hebrews at Bruynswick, NY.

    1886(11th of Tishrei, 5647): David Levy Yulee, the first Jewish United States Senator passed away. David Yulee (also spelled Yule) was known simply as David Levy for the first three and half decades of his life. He had been born on the West Indian island of St. Thomas and brought to Florida by his father Moses Levy. The younger Levy turned Yulee was a successful planter and lawyer, a perfect background for a further career in politics. When Florida became a state in 1845, Yulee was chosen to serve as one of her senators. Yulee was not active in Jewish communal life and married a non-Jew. However, his political opponents did not ignore this fact. When the Civil War broke out, Yulee joined the other Jewish senator, Judah P. Benjamin in secession. During the war he served in the Confederate Congress. After the war, he served a year in prison on for reasons not recorded. He had been arrested while on his way to Washington, D.C. in an effort to gain Florida’s re-entry into the Union. It is ironic that the only claim to fame of a Jew who sought to assimilate is tied to that very Jewishness.

    1886(11th of Tishrei, 5647): In St. Louis, Frank Sandmeyer, a Jew who was employed as a waiter at Esher’s Variety Theatre took his own life after killing his wife.

    1886: It was reported that an actor named “Curtis” will be appearing at the 14thStreet Theatre in New York.  His forte is his comic portrayal or “caricature” of “the superficial traits of the modern German” Jew.

    1889(15thof Tishrei, 5650): Sukkoth

    1890: The Vossiesche Zeitung declared that the charges published in the Das Volkattacking the committee honoring Count von Moltke as being Jews seeking to make money from the event are “a calumny.”

    1890: The anti-Semitic May Laws were modified to allow Jews to rent, but not buy, lands within certain city limits that will be used for grazing purposes only.

    1890: “Plans were filed with the Building Bureau…for the erection of a five-story orphan asylum for the Hebrew Shelter and Guardian Society” in New York City.

    1891(8thof Tishrei, 5652): Shabbat Shuva

    1891: In Paris, author and humorist Tristan Bernard and his wife gave birth to director and screenwriter Raymond Bernard.

    1891(8thof Tishrei, 5652): Thirty-five year old Anna Hilkofsky who suffered from epilepsy died this evening when she died in a fire that started while she was cooking and fell into the stove.

    1891:”Alleged Great Expectations” published today described the action being taken by 23 year old Charles Horowitz, a Jewish peddler who came to the United States from Russia two years ago to obtain his share of his late uncle’s estate who reportedly died in San Francisco leaving his heirs $30,000,000.

    1893(30th of Tishrei, 5654): Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan

    1893(30th of Tishrei, 5654): Lipman Emanuel "Lip" Pike, the first professional Jewish baseball player passed away.

    1893: In Jersey City, NJ, the Moral Reform Society, an organization composed of representatives from various Protestant Churches met for the first time and decided to include Jews and Catholics in its membership.

    1894(10thof Tishrei, 5655): Yom Kippur

    1894: “Died at the Services” published today described the death of sixty year old Wolf Cohn who passed away during Kol Nidre services.

    1894: Due to the observance of the Day Atonement, the 1,000 Jewish registrars who would have served both the Republicans and Tammany Hall will not be able to serve.

    1894: “Business on the Stock Exchange…was restricted owing to the absence of many operators who were away observing the Hebrew fast of the Atonmenet.”

    1894: In New York, Temple Beth-El will use “the new order of services for Yom Kippur adopted at the Central Conference of American Rabbis at the meeting in Atlantic City.  In a more shocking move, German will no longer be used and all prayers will be in English or Hebrew.

    1895: “Two Wills In A Week” published today described a dispute over the estate of Mrs. Babet Karl involving Rabbi Aaron Wise of Congregation Rodoph Sholom and his son Otto Irving Wise on one side family members including her nephew Abraham Stern on the other side.

    1896: It was reported today that a rare copy of William Blake’s “Jerusalem” had been sold at action by Bangs & Co for $14.50.

    1897(14thof Tishrei, 5658): Erev Sukkoth

    1897: At Temple Israel on 125th Street and 5th Avenue Rabbi Maurice Harris officiated at services which included an address by Daniel P. Hays, President of the congregation.

    1897: Samuel D. Levy presided over the 18th annual meeting of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society

    1898(24thof Tishrei, 5659): Author and numismatist David Henriques de Castro passed away in Amsterdam the city where he was born in 1832.

    1899: The New York Timesbegins publishing a supplemental section devoted to reviewing books. The New York Times Book Sectionhas provided numerous reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or special interest to Jewish readers for over a century. It has been an invaluable resource for this blog.

    1900: During the “Konitz Affair,” an episode of Jewish blood libel, “Jacob Jacoby of Tuchel, was sentenced to confinement for one year in the penitentiary for perjury.”

    1900: In Detroit, Congregation Beth El made the decision to build a new Temple which will be located at the corner of Woodward Avenue and Eliot Street.

    1902 (9th of Tishrei, 5663): Erev Yom Kippur

    1906(21st of Tishrei, 5667): Hoshanah Rabah

    1907: Ernesto Nathan, a Jew, was elected Mayor of Rome.

    1908(15thof Tishrei, 5669): Sukkoth

    1910: Birthdate of Photographer Julius Shulman. Born in Brooklyn, the son of Russian Jewish immigrants, his family moved to a farm in Connecticut, where Shulman first developed a love of nature that, he said, awakened him to light and shadow and influenced his life's course. When Julius was 10, his father moved the family to the Boyle Heights neighborhood of Los Angeles, which at that time was predominantly Jewish, and opened the New York Dry Goods Store. His father died of tuberculosis in 1923, leaving Julius' mother to run the business and raise five children.

    1910: Ten Jewish men founded Tau Episolon Phi (TEP) fraternity at Columbia University.

    1912: Today, Dr. Joseph Silverman officiated at the funeral of Professor Morris Loeb. The funeral which was attended by more than 500 people representing most of the Jewish charitable and religious organizations of New York and many of its educational institutions was held at Temple Emanu-El Cemetery, Salem Fields, Cypress Hills. Dr. Samuel Schulmann of Temple Beth-El gave the closing prayer.

    1913(9thof Tishrei, 5674): Erev Yom Kippur – Kol Nidre is heard for the last time before the start of World War I when, as the British Foreign Minister said, the lights went out all over the world and we do not know if we shall ever see them turned again.”

    1915: In the Ukraine, Elie Gottmann and Sonia-Fanny Ettinger gave birth to their only child French geographer Jean Gottman.

    1917:  In Brownsville, Pincus Schacter, “a seventh generation shochet” and his wife “the former Miriam Schimmelman” gave birth to Herschel Schacter the first US Army Chaplain to enter and participate in the liberation of the Buchenwald concentration camp and the chairman of the Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations

    1923: Birthdate of major league pitcher, Saul Rogovin.

    1925(22nd of Tishrei, 5686): Shemini Atzeret

    1926: The weeklong campaign of the Jewish Welfare Board to raise $150,000 is scheduled to come to an end today.

    1929: Die gelbe Jacke (The Yellow Jacket) an operetta with a libretto co-authored by Fritz Lohner-Beda was performed, at the Metropol Theatre, Berlin for the first time today.

    1930: Birthdate of English playwright and Nobel Prize Winner, Harold Pinter.

    1933(20th of Tishrei, 5694): Sixth day of Sukkoth

    1933(20th of Tishrei, 5694): The Nazis killed Dr Theo Katz at Dachau. According to Martin Gilbert, Katz had worked in the camp hospital before his murder.

    1935: George Gershwin's "Porgy & Bess" opened on Broadway. The Jewish music master used his talents to bring the life of African-Americans to mainstream entertainment.

    1937: The Palestine Postreported that the Mandatory Administration assured the British government that no question of security would interfere with the plans to send a new commission to Palestine. This new commission will be well protected and will be well able to consider how to implement the country's partition, as requested by the Mandatory Commission of the League of Nations at their General Assembly meetings in Geneva.

    1937: The Postreported that a tax collector's van was robbed by armed Arabs on the Nablus-Jenin road.

    1938: Sh'chita (Jewish ritual slaughter) is banned in Italy.

    1938: In accord with the terms of the Munich Agreement signed in September, German troops took control of the Sudetenland and gained de facto control over the rest of Czechoslovakia. The agreement gave the Nazis direct control over another portion of Europe’s Jewish population. More importantly, it was one more bloodless victory for Hitler. It helped drive the Soviets to sign a non-aggression pact with Hitler’s Germany which led to the invasion of Poland which led to…well you know the rest.

    1938: In statement issued today, U.S. Representative Emanujel Celler of New York urged President Roosevelt “to remind Prime Minister Neville Chamerlain of Great Britain’s solemn pledge in the Balfour Declaration for a Jewish national homeland in Palestine and to declare that the United States ‘views with great conern and alarm a departure by Great Britain from its obligations under that pact.’” Celler went on to express concern that the promise of the Balfour Declaration was about to be “scrapped.”

    1939: “A memorial to Felix Warburg will be started today when foundations are laid for seventy farms at Kfar Felix Warburg in southern Palestine.

    1939: The period of forced labor for Jewish men in Slovakia is scheduled to come to an end today.

    1939: The Germans create a Generalgouvernement in Poland. It is an administrative area not incorporated into Greater Germany. The Germans will locate their death camps in the Generalgouvernement.

    1941(19th of Tishrei, 5702): Fifth Day of Sukkoth

    1941: Marshal Walther von Reichenau instructed his troops that, "The soldier must fully understand the need for severe but just atonement of the Jewish sub-humans." Contrary to one of the myths surrounding the Holocaust, the German army was a willing accomplice in the slaughter of the Jews. The use of gas vans by the roaming Eisengruppen would not put an end to the involvement of German soldiers in the destruction of European Jewry.

    1941(19th of Tishrei, 5702): Eliaho Hayeem Victor Cohen, a Lieutenant with the 9th Jat Regiment of the British Indian Army was killed in an accident today during World War II. Although he is buried in the Penang Jewish Cemetery which is believed to be the oldest Jewish cemetery in Malaysia, his grave is maintained by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission.

    1941: Thousands of Slovak Jews are sent to labor camps at Sered, Vyhne, and Nováky.

    1941: Slovak, Bohemian, and Moravian Jews are forced from their homes and into ghettos.

    1942: The SS issued a decree to “cleanse all concentration camps of Jews.”

    1943(11thof Tishrei, 5704): Twenty-six year old German-Jewish artist Charlotte Salomon died today at Auschwitz.

    1943: A non-Jewish Latvian named Yanis Lipke rescues three Jews in Riga by offering ghetto guards two packs of cigarettes for "some Yids to work in my kitchen garden"

    1943: At the Sobibór death camp, a revolt is planned by Jewish laborers and Jewish Red Army POWs.

    1943(11thof Tishrei,5704): On the day after Yom Kippur, a pilot who had spent -the Day of Atonement praying at the Grande Synagogue in Tunis “flew on a mission and never returned.”  (As reported by Louis Werfel, “the flying chaplain”)

    1944(23rd of Tishrei, 5705): Simchat Torah

    1944: Fourteen men from the Sonderkommando who escaped during the revolt of October 7 are found. They are tortured along with many other picked up during the prior two days. But none gave away the locations of the hiding survivors. None of the men would survive the interrogation.

    1944: Four additional women involved in smuggling explosives used in the October 6-7 uprising at Auschwitz are arrested, including an inmate named Roza Robota. Fourteen men from the camp's Sonderkommando unit also are arrested. The sole surviving conspirator, a Greek Jew named Isaac Venezia, will later die of starvation after Auschwitz inmates are evacuated by their captors to Ebensee, Austria.

    1945: According to reports from Jerusalem, Dr. Chaim Weizmann will resign as President of the World Zionist Organization if the British government reaches decisions that are “unfavorable to the Jewish cause in Palestine.” David Ben Gurion, who is expected to return from London next week, is mentioned as his most likely successor.

    1945: The Palmach freed two hundred “illegal” Jewish immigrants who had been rounded up by British troops and were being held at a detention facility near Haifa.

    1945: Joseph Darnard who had served under Pierre Laval as the commander of the Vichy militia was executed by a firing squad today.

    1946: Birthdate of Arnold E. Resnicoff the Washington D.C. native who became a Conservative Rabbi and served as a chaplain in the U.S. Navy for a quarter of a century.

    1947: “Deputy Mayor John H. Bennett spoke at the presentation of a piece of fire apparatus to the volunteer fire brigade of Tel Aviv” which a gift from the New York City Fire Department.

    1948: “The intensity of the Egyptian shelling on the southern suburbs (of Jerusalem) was such that the United Nations observers believed that a full-scale Egyptian assault on the city was imminent.

    1949: U.S. premiere of “Thieves’ Highway” directed by Jules Dassin, co-starring Lee J. Cobb (Leo Jacob) as “Mike Figlia” with music by Alfred Newman.

    1951(10thof Tishrei, 5712): Yom Kippur

    1951: Twentieth Century Fox released “Love Next,” an American comedy-drama directed by Joseph Newman and written by I.A.L. Diamond

    1951: Mrs. Alfred F. Hess read a statement at today's meeting of the Board of Trustees of Barnard College expressing their sorrow at the recent death of Mrs. Annie Nathan Meyer, one of the founders of and original trustees of Barnard.

    1952: The Jerusalem Postreported that the Palestine Conciliation Commission had announced that Israel agreed to release one million in sterling. These funds belonged to Palestinian Arabs who had fled Israel during the fighting when the Arabs tried to destroy the state of Israel at the moment of its birth. The commission commented that the Israeli move was "an important step towards the settlement of the differences existing between Israel and her neighbors." The Israelis hoped that this act of good will would help lead to a peace agreement and that the Arab states would now give the Jews who had fled such places as Iraq would now have access to the funds they had been forced to leave behind. As has happened so many times, the hope proved illusory.

    1956: At the urging of Moshe Dayan, the cabinet agreed to an attack aimed at destroying the Kalkilya police fort in response to murders at Even Yehuda. The attack would be led by Mordechai Gur who would later be IDF Chief of Staff. The attack was costly in terms of Israeli casualties and brought an end to the period of night-time tit-for-tat reprisal raids.

    1961: U.S. premiere of “Splendor in the Grass,” with music by David Amram and filmed by Boris Kaufman.

    1961: Milk and Honey opened on Broadway in the Martin Beck Theatre and ran for 543 performances. “Milk and Honey is a musical…music and lyrics by Jerry Herman. The story centers on a busload of lonely American widows hoping to catch husbands while touring Israel and is set against the background of the country's fight for recognition as an independent nation.”

    1963: In Princeton, NJ, Ruth and Judea Pearl gave birth to journalist Daniel Pearl whowas kidnapped by Pakistani terrorists  and later murdered by Al-Qaeda member Khalid Sheikh Mohammed in Pakistan.

    1964(4th of Cheshvan, 5725): Eddie Cantor passed away. The comedian with the “banjo eyes” enjoyed a career that ran from vaudeville to the crazy days of live television variety shows. One of Cantor’s famous running gags centered around the fact that he had five children – all girls. He passed away at the age of 72.

    1966: The Jewish musical duo, Simon and Garfunkel, released the album “Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme.”

    1970(10th of Tishrei, 5731): Yom Kippur

    1972: Jews in Moscow held a press conference expressing their support of the Senator Henry Jackson’s legislation granting trade benefits to the East Bloc nations in turn for liberalization of their immigration policies (which would make it possible for Jews to leave the Soviet Union and go to Israel)

    1973: 14th of Tishrei, 5734): Economist Ludwig von Mises passes away at the age of 92.

    1973: 14th of Tishrei, 5734): Erev Sukkoth; as Jews around the world prepare to celebrate Sukkoth, all thoughts are turned to Israel’s fight for survival that had begun on Yom Kippur.

    1973: Fighting continued during the Yom Kippur War. A morning counter-attack launched against the Syrians drove their tanks back to line from which they had launched their sneak attack four days ago. General Elazar wanted to push on, but Defense Minister Dayan wanted to stop lest penetration towards Damascus upset the Soviets. Golda Meir sided with Elazar who made plans to attack across the old cease fire line. In the evening, Mrs. Meir addressed the nation describing Israel’s perilous position. The Soviets had armed the Arabs with all matter of modern weaponry and were re-supplying them even as Mrs. Meir spoke. She urged King Hussein not to repeat his mistake of 1967 when he joined the Egyptians and the Syrians. She said that Jews could not allow themselves “the luxury of despair.” She had but one prayer in her heart, “that this will be the last war.

    1973: In an effort to relieve Israeli pressure on the Syrian front, where the IDF has gained back the southern Golan, Egyptian forces move further into the Sinai, beyond the range of their SAM umbrella which creates an opportunity for the IAF to go on the offensive.

    1973(14th of Tishrei, 5734): Israeli political leader and former MK Ada Maimon passed away at the age of 80 today.

    1974(24thof Tishrei, 5735): Just two months shy of his 64th birthday, historian and Holocaust survivor Joseph Wulf passed away.

    1974: Birthdate of Asi Cohen, the native of Ashdod who gained fame as a comedian and actor.

    1980: Private Benjamin, a film produced by and starring, Goldie Hawn was released in theaters across the United States.

    1982: The New York Timesbook section included a review An Orphan in History: Retrieving a Jewish Legacy by Paul Cowan describing the “beautiful and moving account of his search for his religious and cultural roots.”

    1983: Ruby Myers, who was the Indian actress known as Sulochana passed away today.
    1983: Israel's Knesset voted 60-53 to endorse Yitzhak Shamir as Prime Minister. Shamir was part of the Right Wing Likud and a successor to Menachem Begin.

    1983: Mordechai Tzipori completed his service as Deputy Minister of Defense.

    1983: Haim Meir Drukman “broke away from the NRP and attempted to form a Knesset faction by the name of Zionist Religious Camp, but was refused permission to do so by the House Committee.”

    1983: As Israel changed governments, David Levy retained his position as Deputy Prime Minister.

    1984: In the U.K. premiere of “1984” Michael Radford’s cinematic treatment of George Orwell’s novel by the same name.

    1985: U.S. fighter jets forced an Egyptian plane carrying the hijackers of the Italian cruise ship Achille Lauro to land in Italy, where the gunmen were taken into custody. This was part of a farce that resulted in the hijackers getting off without punishment for their murderous act of piracy.

    1986: Israel Prime Minister Shimon Peres resigned. Peres was and is a leader of what was the original Labor Zionist movement that dominated the governments of Israel for the first two decades of its existence.

    1987: Birthdate of Danny Rosenbaum who played for Xavier University and was drafted by the Washington Nationals.

    1994(5th of Cheshvan, 5755): Tzvi Gal-chen, the father of author Rivka Galchen, and a scientist known for his work on wind and thermodynamic variables passed away today.

    1995: As part of Israel’s agreement with the PLO, two members of the PLO’s former Jerusalem Committee crossed into Israel from Jordan as a prelude to becoming Governors of Ramallah and Nablus. Twenty years earlier these same to men had masterminded the bombing in Zion Square which killed fourteen civilians, including three Arabs.

    1995: As Israel turned over control of 460 West Bank villages to the Palestinian Authority, a banner flew over the village of Salfit declaring “Today Salfit, tomorrow Jerusalem.”

    1996: Yad Vashem decided to recognize Baron Friedrich von Oppenheim as Righteous Among the Nations

    1997(9thof Tishrei, 5758): Erev Yom Kippur

    1999: Bruce Fleischer won The Transamerica golf tournament.

    1999: The Sunday New York Timesfeatured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or on topics related to Judaism including We Can Report Them by Michael Brodsky, When Pride Still Mattered: A Life of Vince Lombardi by David Maraniss and The Magic of Dialogue: Transforming Conflict Into Cooperation by Daniel Yankelovich.

    2001(23rdof Tishrei, 5762): Simchat Torah

    2001: “A Man of Good Fortune” published today tells the story of the Moussaieff family.

    2002: Richard Blumenthal was awarded the Raymond E. Baldwin Award for Public Service by the Quinnipiac University School of Law.

    2002: Representative Shelley Berkley of Nevada was among the 81 House Democrats who voted in favor of authorizing the invasion of Iraq.

    2003(14thof Tishrei, 5764): Erev Sukkoth

    2003(14thof Tishrei, 5764): Sixty-year old Atara Chana Beile Marmor the daughter of David Feuerwerker and Taube Rachel Feuerwerker passed away today.

    2003(14thof Tishrei 5764): Eighty-five year old Max Rayne the British businessman and philanthropist who was knighted and later made a life peer so that he was known as Baron Rayne passed away.

    2004: The Sunday New York Timesfeatured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or on topics related to Judaism including Harold Blum’s Where Shall Wisdom Be Found?

    2004: In an article designed to encourage gardeners to follow proper transplanting procedures, the Times of London writes approvingly of the practices of “the great rhododendron enthusiast Lionel de Rothschild who used to move fully mature rhododendrons around his garden at his estate.”

    2005: Sociology professor Majd el-Haj was named Haifa University's next dean of research, making him the first Arab faculty member to serve at the vice presidential level of an Israeli university.

    2005: With a sigh of great relief the feared Lulav Shortage has been avoided. Thanks to aggressive action by the Ministry of Agriculture, the sound of shaking frond will be heard at Sukkah time after all.

    2006: H.B.O presents the premiere of "The Journalist and the Jihadi: the Murder of Daniel Pearl."

    2007: In Australia, Richard Pratt was formally accused of price fixing in what would be that nation’s largest case of its kind.

    2007: The third and final performance of “Idan Raichel Songs for Peace: The Acoustic Series” takes place at the Museum of Jewish Heritage-A Living Memorial to the Holocaust in New York City.

    2007: Johtje Vos, a modest Dutch woman who saved three dozen Jews during World War II passed away in Saugerties, NY at the age of 97.

    2007: Nearly 200 Israeli sailors who served in the British Royal Navy during World War II gathered at the home of the British ambassador to Israel who, together with Deputy Defense Minister Matan Vilnai, awarded them the Veterans Badge to commemorate the victory over the Nazis. The ceremony was held at the Ramat Gan home of Ambassador Tom Phillips.

    2007: Attendees at a conference in Jerusalem, "Sephardic Jews and Ladino," hope to revive what some refer to as the Spanish Jews answer to Yiddish. 

    2007 The New York Times reported that the Israelis had shared the dossier showing proof of their strike on the Syrian nuclear reactor in the Deir –ez Zor region with Turkey.

    2008: While in Paris for the, inaugural meeting of the European Council on Tolerance and Reconciliation - a forum established by European Jewish Congress head Moshe Kantor and former politicians from 10 European countries whose stated goal is to further initiatives that promote dialogue and coexistence Aleksander Kwasniewski, the former president of Poland sat down with The Jerusalem Post to talk about his own vision of tolerance and the special connection Poland has with the Jewish people.

    2009 (22 Tishrei, 5770): Shemini Atzertz

    2009: Drew University hosts lunch and discussion with graphic artist and author David Stromberg who is also the book review editor for Zeek.

    2010: As part of Sigid, the Ethiopian Jewish Festival and Dance Performance is scheduled to take place at the 92nd Street Y.

    2010: The New York Timesfeatured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Nemesis by Phillip Roth, Final Verdict: What Really Happened in the Rosenberg Case by Walter Schneir and The Invisible Harry Gold: The Man Who Gave the Soviets the Atom Bomb by Allen M. Hornblum

    2010: The Los Angeles Timesfeatured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Great House by Nicole Krauss

    2010: Earth: A Visitors Guide to the Human Race by Jon Stewart, the fake newsman who was the subject of an anti-Semitic diatribe earlier in the week tops the October 10 LA Times Best Seller List.

    2010: Cabinet ministers today approved by a majority vote a controversial amendment which would require every non-Jew wishing to become a citizen of Israel to pledge loyalty to "the State of Israel as a Jewish and democratic state."

    2010: Israeli artists, writers and intellectuals held a demonstration today against the cabinet's approval of a controversial amendment to the citizenship bill, requiring non-Jews seeking citizenship to pledge allegiance to Israel as a Jewish and democratic state.

    2010: During today’s radio show, Glen “Beck described how George Soros, who was born in Hungary to Orthodox Jewish parents, ‘used to go around with this anti-Semite and deliver papers to the Jews and confiscate their property and then ship them off. And George Soros was part of it. He would help confiscate the stuff. It was frightening. Here’s a Jewish boy helping send the Jews to the death camps.’” [This statement would draw a response from ADL national director Abe Foxman who released a statement slamming the Fox News commentator's criticism of Soros.]

    2011: Aluf Ram Rothberg assumed command of the Israeli Navy.

    2011: The Lo Tishkach Foundation is scheduled to sponsor memorial services in the Ukrainian town of Tarascha in honor of the Jews who were slaughtered there in 1941 during World War II.

    2011: Center for Jewish History and Center for Traditional Music and Dance are scheduled to present The Hidden Musical Treasures of Romania –A Fulbright Scholar’s Quest a program that explores “the deep roots that connect Romanian music and klezmer music.”

    2012: A reception sponsored by the Hebrew Union is scheduled for tonight to mark the opening of “The Sexuality Spectrum,” “a groundbreaking exploration of sexual orientation through the creativity of over fifty international contemporary artists.”

    2012:The Jewish Community Relations Council of Greater Washington and The Israel Project is scheduled to present “A Presidential Candidate Surrogate Debate featuring Congressman Robert Wexler, representing the Democrats and Under Secretary Dov Zakheim representing the Republicans.

    2012:Robert Lefkowitz, a Jewish physician and biochemist, won the Nobel Prize in chemistry with Brian Kobilka, a Stanford University researcher.

    2012: "French police found an explosives lab that they say was used by a "jihadist cell" in the bombing of a kosher store near Paris. Francois Molins of the Paris prosecutor’s office said at a news conference today that the firearms and “all the elements necessary to produce explosive devices” were discovered the previous day at a parking lot in the eastern Paris suburb of Torcy."

    2012:The exhibition, “Zionism 2000 Collection, 1920-1960,” which has been on displayed at Shenkar College of Engineering and Design in Ramat Gan, is scheduled to come to an end.

    2012: The National Book Award finalists announced today included Iron Curtain: The Crushing of Eastern Europeby Anne Applebaum and The Passage of Power: The Years of Lyndon Johnsonby Joseph Caro

    2013: In the best sense of Tikun Olam, Agudas Achim is scheduled to host “Interfaith Gathering for Prayer and Sharing co-sponsored by the National Alliance on Mental Illness of Johnson County and the Consultation of Religious Communities of Johnson County.

    2013: Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids is scheduled to host the first in a series of lectures “Engaging Israel, Foundations for a New Relationships”

    2013: The JCC of Northern Virginia is scheduled to sponsor the Middle East Forum on “Iran – The Nuclear Threat and Implications for the Greater Middle East.”

    2013: Arkadi Zaides, an independent choreographer born in the Soviet Union in 1979, who immigrated to Israel in 1990, is scheduled to perform his interpretation of “Dig Deep” in New York City.

    2013: “In a display of muscle-flexing to Tehran ahead of nuclear talks between Iran and world powers, Israel made a rare announcement today that its air force had conducted a series of drills in which fighter aircraft practiced midair refueling and a simulated strike on a distant target.” (As reported by Gavriel Fiske)

    2013(6th of Cheshvan, 5774): Colonel (Res.) Seraiah Ofer was killed in an attack outside his home in the Jordan Valley settlement of Brosh Habika at 10 P.M. tonight and his  wife Monique was moderately wounded, but managed to escape and contact police. (As reported by Chaim Levinson, Gili Cohen and Eli Ashkenazi)

    2013:The clandestine World War II work of champion cyclist Gino Bartali was recognized today when a ceremony was held in Jerusalem to mark his help in rescuing Jews in his native Italy. (As reported by Andrew Dampf)

    2014(16thof Tishrei, 5775): Second day of Sukkoth

    2014: Moishe House, OJMCHE and MJCC are scheduled to bring you a party under the sukkah canopies in NW Portland, with live music, beer and great vegetarian food as part of Shabbat in the Sukkah.

    2014: Professor Robert Cargill is scheduled to deliver a lecture on the Book of Ecclesiastes at Agudas Achim in Coralville, Iowa.

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    OCTOBER 11

    1138: Massive earthquake strikes Aleppo, Syria.  According to tradition, the Jewish community traces its origins back to the time of King David.  This is based on the description of the conquest of the city by Joab found in the Book of Samuel.  The Great Synagogue, the most famous Jewish edifice in the city was originally built in the fifth century of the Common Era. The real importance of the community can be traced to the Aleppo Codex,the earliest known manuscript containing the entire text of the Bible. Tradition states that Maimonides consulted the Aleppo Codex when he set down the exact rules for writing Torah scrolls.”The Codex was copied by the scribe Shlomo Ben-Buya'a over 1,000 years ago. It was deposited with the Aleppo community at the end of the 14th Century and kept in a small vault in the Cave of Elijah under the Joab Ben Zeruiah Synagogue of Aleppo. The community guarded it for over 600 years." Whatever loss the community suffered during the earthquake, we know it survived and thrived since it was visited by Rabbi Petachya of Regensburg (Germany) starting in 1170 and Benjamin of Tudela in 1173.  Benjamin’s visit was part of his “round the world tour” which he described in his literary work entitled the Travels of Benjamin.

    1285: Following a false charge that the Jews had purchased a Christian child from an old woman and then killed, a mob in Munich attacked the Jews community.  Those who escaped the mob took refuge in the synagogue which the mob then burned killing 180 Jews.

    1347: Emperor Louis IV, the German ruler who had given Gottfried von Eppstein permission to settle Jews in Eppstein, Homburg and Steinheim in 1335, passed away.

    1394: Ordination of Benedict XIII, one of the Avignon Popes whom the Catholic Church classifies as an Anti-Pope.  In an attempt to gain acceptance of his Papacy, Benedict attacked the Jews.  Not content to adopt oppressive laws at aimed Children Of Israel, he initiated the Disputation of Tortosa in 1413 one of those one-sided debates that the Church loved.  As a result of this one, the works of Maimonides were burned and copies of the Talmud were to be confiscated so that they could be censored.

    1727: George II and Caroline of Ansbach are crowned King and Queen of Great Britain. King George II was the monarch who gave “the royal assent” to the Jewish Naturalization Act of 1753.  Unfortunately, the act was repealed a year later.

    1727: “Zadok the Priest,” an anthem composed by George Frederic Handel based on First Kings 1:38-40 which describes the coronation of King Solomon was performed today during the coronation of King George II.

    1741: George Fredrick Handel completed the second of “Samson,” his oratorio based on the figure from the Book of Judges.

    1777(10thof Tishrei, 5538): Four days after the Americans completed their game-changing victory at the Battle of Saratoga, Jews observe Yom Kippur

    1783(15thof Tishrei, 5544): Sukkoth

    1792(25thof Tishrei, 5553): Seventy-nine year old Hebrew poet and businessman David Franco Mendes passed away today in his home town of Amsterdam.

    1796(9thof Tishrei, 5557): Erev Yom Kippur; Kol Nidre is chanted for the last time during the Presidency of George Washington.

    1821(15thof Tishrei, 5582): Sukkoth observed for the first time during the second term of James Monroe who gained all but one electoral vote when he ran for re-election.

    1826(10thof Tishrei, 5587): Yom Kippur

    1845(10thof Tishrei, 5606): The day after the United States opened the Naval Academy in Annapolis whose most famous Jewish graduated was Admiral Hyman Rickover, Jews observe Yom Kippur

    1845(10thof Tishrei, 5606): A minyan led by Mayer Klein and Philip Newberg held services in Chicago, Ill, marking the first time that his occurred in “The Windy City”

    1846: Birthdate of Carlos Enrique José Pellegrini, the Argentine President who was sympathetic to attempts to settle Jewish refugees in his country.

    1850: The University of Sydney, Australia’s oldest university, opened its doors. Percy Marks, described as “Jewish Renaissance Man” was one of its earliest and most famous Jewish graduates. The Australian Union of Jewish Students or AUJS is an on campus organization whose aim is to promote Jewish continuity.  Today the University has a Department of Hebrew, Biblical and Jewish studies whose website asks and answers the following:  “Why enroll in Jewish Studies at the University of Sydney?? * Challenging: Where else would you find such a stimulating fusion of diverse ethnic and religious groups studying together? Learn about religion and politics in an open and fun environment.

    * Educational: Further your knowledge and insights into Jewish Studies. Learn about the issues around assimilation and Jewish civilization and master classical or Modern Hebrew or Yiddish.
    * Practical: For undergraduate students, taking one of these courses will count towards qualifications in General Studies or part of your Arts, Arts/Law or Education degrees. It will also enable budding teachers to pursue a career in Modern Hebrew, Jewish Studies and Tanach.
    * Unique: Delve into Jewish philosophy, history and politics, delivered by expert lecturers in their fields.
    There is a Jewish club called AUJS (Australian Union of Jewish Students) which has many purposes, one of which is to promote Jewish continuity!

    1851(15th of Tishrei, 5612): Sukkoth

    1852: Famed German mathematician Ferdinand Eisenstein passed away at the age of thirty.  Eisenstein’s fate was typical of many Germans.  His parents were Jewish, but they converted to a Protestant denomination before their son’s birth to gain full entrée into German society.

    1853(9thof Tishrei, 5614): Erev Yom Kippur; Kol Nidre is recited for the first time during the Crimean War which had just begun earlier this montn

    1855: Johann Ludwig Schneller, a German Lutheran missionary “bought from the people of Lifta, a parcel of land outside LIfta, approximately 3 kilmotres (1.9 miles) northwest of Jaffa Gate.

    1863(15thof Tishrei, 5764): Sukkoth

    1863: An article entitled “The House of Rothschild” published today based on information from the London Globe provided a fascinatingly detailed contemporary look at this most prominent of Jewish dynasties.

    “A few days ago, our Paris correspondent told us that a congress of the members of the illustrious house of Rothschild has been sitting at Paris. The purport of the meeting was nothing less than to rearrange the dominions of the great banking dynasty. In one word, the great object of the Rothschild congress was to reduce the five branches of the house who now rule Europe to four, and following the example of Garibaldi, to strike another sovereign of Naples from the list of reigning monarchs. Henceforth there are to be but four kings of the house of Rothschild, with secure thrones at London, Paris, Vienna, and Frankfort. It is now exactly a hundred years since a poor Jew, called Mayer Anselm, made his appearance at the City of Hanover; barefooted, with a sack, oa his shoulders, and a bundle of rags on his back. Successful in trade, like most of his co-religionists, he returned to Frankfort at the end of a few years, and set up a small shop in the "Jew-lane," over which hung the signboard of a red shield, called in German roth-schild. As a dealer in old and rare coins, he made the acquaintance of the Serene Elector of Hesse Cassel, who, happening to be in want of a confidential agent for various open and secret purposes, appointed the shrewd-looking Mayer Anselm to the post. The Serene Elector being compelled soon after to fly his country. Mayer Anselm took charge of his cash, amounting to several millions of florins. With the instinct of his race, Anselm did not forget to put the money out on good interest, so that, before Napoleon was gone to Elba, and the illustrious Elector had returned to Cassel, the capital had more than doubled. The ruler of Hesse Casse thought it almost a marvel to get his money safely returned from the Jew-lane of Frankfort, and at the Congress of Vienna was never tired of singing the praise of his Hebrew agent to all the Princes of Europe. The dwellers under the sign of the Red Shield laughed in their sleeves; keeping carefully to themselves the great fact that the electoral two million florins had brought them four millions of their own. Never was honesty a better policy.  Mayer Anselm died in 1812, without having the supreme satisfaction of hearing his honesty extolled by kings and princes. He left five sons who succeeded him in the banking and money-lending business, and who, conscious of their social value, dropped the name of Anselm, and adopted the higher sounding one of Rothschild, taken, from the sign board over the paternal house. On his deathbed their father had taken a solemn oath from all of them, to hold his four millions well together, and they have faithfully kept the Injunction. But the old City of Frankfort clearly was too; narrow a realm for the fruitful sowing of four millions; and, in consequence, the five were determined after a while to extend their sphere of operations by establishing branch banks at the chief cities of Europe. The eldest son, Anselm, born 1773, remained at Frankfort; the second, Salomon, born in 1774, settled at Vienna; the third, Nathan, born in 1777, went to London; the fourth, Charles, the infant terrible of the family, established himself in the soft climate of Naples, and the fifth and youngest, James, born 1792, took up his residence at Paris. Strictly united, the wealth and power of the five Rothschilds S was vested in the eldest born; nevertheless, the shrewdest of the sons of Mayer Anselm, and the heir of his genius, Nathan, the third son, soon took the reins of government into the own hands. By his faith in Wellington and the flesh and muscle of British soldiers, he neatly doubled the fortune of the family, gaining more than a million sterling by the sole battle of Waterloo, the news of which he carried to England two days earlier than the mail. The weight of the solid millions gradually transferred the ascendancy in the family from Germany to England, making London the metropolis of the reigning dynasty of Rothschild. Like the royal families of Europe, the members of the house of Rothschild only intermarry with each other. James Rothschild married the daughter of his brother Salomon: his son Edmond heir apparent of the French line, was united to his first cousin, the daughter of Lionel, and granddaughter of Nathan Rothschild; and Lionel again-M.P. for London -- gave his hand in 1836 to his first cousin Charlotte the daughter of Charles Rothschild, of Naples. It is unnecessary to say that, though these matrimonial alliances have kept the millions wonderfully together, they have not improved the race of old Mayer Anselm, of the Red Shield. Already signs of physical weakness are becoming visible in the great family. So, at least, hint the French papers in their meager notices about the Rothschild congress at Paris. From all that can be gathered out of a wilderness of canards, thin faces and thick fiction, it appears that the sovereigns of the Stock Exchange met in conference for the double purpose of centralizing their money power and widening their matrimonial realm. In other words, the five reigning kings; descendants, according to the law of primogeniture, of the five sons Mayer Anselm, came to the decision to reduce their number to four by cutting off the Neapolitan branch of Charles Rothschild; while it was likewise decided that permission should be given to the younger members of the family to marry, for the benefit of the race, beyond the range of first cousinship. What has led to the exclusion of the Neapolitan line of Rothschild seems to have been the constant exercise of a highly blameable liberality, unheard of in the annals of the family. Charles, the prodigal son of Mayer Anselm, actually presented, in the year 1846, 10,000 ducats to the orphan asylum of St. Carlo, at Naples, and the son and heir of Charles (Gustavus) has given repeated signs of his inclination to follow in the footsteps of his father. Such conduct, utterly unbecoming of the policy of the house of Rothschild, could not be allowed to pass unnoticed, and, accordingly -- we quote the rumor of Paris journalism -- the decheance of the Neapolitan line has been pronounced. However, Baron Gustavus De Rothschild is not to retire into private life, like famous Charles V., with only a cassock on his shoulders and a prayer-book in his hand, but is allowed to take with him a small fortune of 150,000,000 francs, or about six millions sterling -- a mere crumb from the table of the descendants of poor Mayer Anselm, who wandered shoeless through the electorate of good King George III. It is certain that no romance of Royalty is equal to the romance of the house of Rothschild

    1864: Campina Grande was elevated to the status of city in Brazil.  Campina Grande is in northeast Brazil.  Based on a recent documentary many Catholics in that region follow various Jewish customs without being aware of their origin, In all likelihood, the region was originally settled by Marranos or Conversos.  Their descendants continued practicing rituals such as not eating pork, circumcising new born males, reciting special prayers on the first day of the month and a variety of customs relating to dealing with the dead without being aware of their origins. 

    1864 The General News column today reported that “In consequence of a Jewish feast occurring yesterday, there were fewer buyers at the yards, and the gentiles had the business of buying and selling to themselves, -- this gave less annimation to the sale yards. It is thought that the Jews will bring in some stock to-morrow, and that there will be considerable business transacted.”

    1874(30th of Tishrei, 5635): Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan

    1874: During today’s opening session of the Supreme Lodge of the Order of Kesher Shel Barzel, in the Bowery. J.P. Solomon of New York was chosen as Supreme Rosh. Other officers elected were, Deputy Rosh, L.H. Cohen of Ohio and Supreme Sopher, A.T. Jones of Pennsylvania.

    1876(23rd of Tishrei, 5637): Simchat Torah is celebrated for the last time during the Presidency of U.S. Grant

    1878(14th of Tishrei, 5639): Erev of Sukkoth

    1878: A fire broke out tonight in New York City “in the temporary building erected in the yard at #67 Hester Street for the celebration of…Sukkoth.”  The fire took place during services which created panic among the worshippers all of whom escaped without injury

    1878: It was reported today that dispatches sent from Berlin by The Pall Mall Gazette (a British publication) say the European Powers are still refusing to recognize the independence of Romania until the government at Bucharest fulfills its treaty obligations granting full rights to its Jewish citizens.  The Romanian government has been using a series of legal gimmicks to avoid granting the Jews the civil rights that had been promised during negotiations in Berlin.

    1879: Citizens of Bolivar County, Mississippi, meeting at Bolivar Landing passed a resolution denouncing Edward Storm, the Republican nominee for Supervisor as “a dishonest Jew, the servile tool of the slave owner before the war and convenient and abandoned ally of the corrupt carpet-bagger” since the end of the Civil War. (This maybe a reference to Edward Storm, a native of Berlin, Germany who served in the Confederate Army from 1861 until 1865 and is buried in Greenville, MS

    1879: It was reported today that there are between six and seven million Hebrews in the world which is about the same number that were alive in the days of King David. This includes 5 million Jews in Russia, 200,000 in Asia, 80,000 in Africa and a million to a million and a half in America. Russia has the largest European Jewish population followed by Austria. There are only about 500,000 Jews living in Germany 45,000 of whom reside in Berlin.  Most of the African Jews live in Algeria and Ethiopia.  The 13,500 Jews living in Jerusalem constitute over half of that city’s total population.

    1881: In Prague, Adolf Kelsen and Auguste Löwy gave birth to jurist and philosopher and Hans Kelsen.

    1883(10th of Tishrei, 5644): Yom Kippur

    1883: Rabbi Kaufman will deliver today’s sermon in German at Temple Beth-El in New York City.

    1884(22nd of Tishrei, 5645): Shemini Atzeret

    1884: It was reported today that the funeral of Dr. Adolphus Huebsch, the rabbi who has led Ahavet Chesed since 1866 and passed away suddenly last night will be held on the day after Simchat Torah.

    1884: Birthdate of Eleanor Roosevelt.  Contrary to what the anti-Semites said, neither FDR nor his wife was Jewish.  However, Mrs. Roosevelt certainly had numerous Jewish friends.  As a champion of the downtrodden including Jews seeking to escape Hitler’s Europe and those seeking to create a Jewish homeland, she certainly enjoyed a certain kind of celebrity and popularity with Jews living during the middle of the twentieth century.

    1884: “Hebrew Charity For Children” published today presented a summary of the annual report of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society.  Since its opening in September of 1879, this New York Institution has received applications for admission from more than 600 boys and girls.  In addition to maintaining sex segregated facilities for those needing residential assistance, the society provided 7,983 free meals to “poor people and children” not living in one of these facilities.  Mrs. P.J. Joachimsen will continue to serve as President for another year.

    1884: It was reported today that two Jews named “Ritter and Strochlenski” have been found guilty and sentenced to death in Poland for having “murdered a Christian girl.”

    1885: According to reports published today, there are 100,000 people living in Bagdad, 30,000 of whom are Jews struggling “for a bare subsistence.”

    1885: It was reported today that officials had destroyed an illegal still near Newburg, NY, that was reputed to be owned by four Jews who escaped apprehension.

    1886: In St. Louis, MO, an inquest was scheduled to be held today to determine the facts concerning death of Josie Martel who was supposed to have been killed by her husband Frank Sandmeyer, a Jewish waiter who took his own life after taking hers.

    1887(23rd of Tishrei, 5648): Simchat Torah

    1888: Rabbi Kaufmann Kohler’s address at tonight’s meeting of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association was followed by musical program that was conducted by Frederick Brandies.

    1890: Novostiexpresses the opinion that “the expulsion of the Jews from the districts not specifically assigned to them is one of the main causes of the present critical condition of commerce.”

    1890: A list published today of the newly elected officers of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society Orphan Asylum included: President – Mrs. Phillip J. Joachimsen; Vice President – Mrs. Teller; Treasurer –Mrs. Barnett; Secretary – Mrs. Meyer.

    1891: Unless friends or relations claim the body, “the Hebrew Charities Organization” will bury Anna HIlkofsky, the thirty-six year old epileptic who died tragically yesterday in a fire.

    1891(9th of Tishrei, 5652): Erev Yom Kippur.

    1891: “The Fast of Yom Kippur Published "today described the differences in observance between the Orthodox and Reformed Jews while acknowledging that the holiday is so “popular” that “temporary places of worship have been established in a number of public halls, particularly on the east side of the city to accommodate those who are not regular members of any congregation.”

    1891: “University of Rochester” published today included a summary of a speech delivered by David Jayne Hill the school’s president to the Query Club on “Higher Education” in which he “referred to the achievements of many of the Jews” whom “he said…were among the leaders of advanced thought and in literature, art, music and other departments they had brought honor upon the race. A people without a country, they have made the world their home.”

    1892: In New York, today’s Columbus Day Parade included a group of “very little boys from the Hebrew Orphan Asylum, some of them scarcely five years old” marking behind “their tiny Drum Major;” a scene that drew “many cheers” from the onlookers.

    1892: One of the Columbus Day Parades had a total of 24, 620 participants, 128 of whom were from the Hebrew Orphan Asylum.

    1893(1st of Cheshvan, 5654): Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan

    1894: Otto Slimbach, a well-known bully in the eastern district of Brooklyn was mortally stabbed by an unknown assailant this evening after having engaged in drinking at several saloons, beating his mother and going through the “Hebrew quarter” and indulging in Jew-baiting for further amusement.”

    1894: An unknown number of striking cloakmakers, many of whom were Jewish, were clubbed tonight in Rutgers Place.

    1894: General Mercier, the Secretary of War meets with three leaders including Charles Dupuy, the President of the Cabinet before moving ahead with the arrest of Captain Dreyfus on charges of selling secrets to a foreign power.

    1894: “Who The Nominees Are” published today provides biographies of the those nominated by Tammany Democrats including Nathan Strauss who is their candidate for Mayor.

    1895: The list of Tammany Judicial candidates published today included Joseph E. Newburger, a graduate of Columbia Law School who is a director of the of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum and President of Rodoph Sholom.

    1896: In Moscow, Osip and Anna Jakobson gave birth to Roman Jakobson, “the father of modern structural linguistics who elaborated sophisticated theories of language and communication that had profound effects on such disciplines as anthropology, art criticism and brain research…”

    1897(15th of Tishrei, 5658): Sukkoth

    1897: “Thirty-four new cases of yellow fever were reported today in New Orleans, four of which were found at the Jewish Home” and they will be treated at Tuoro Infirmary, a non-sectarian medical facility supported by the city’s Jewish population.

    1897: “The Feast of Tabernacles” published today provided a description of the celebration of Sukkoth which is immediately followed by the celebration of Simchat Torah, “The Rejoicing of the Law,” “when the last section of the law is read in the temples by what is called ‘The Bridegroom of the Law.’”

    1898: Colonel Theodore Roosevelt delivered his first stump speech tonight during which he talked about the Rough Riders where all members were treated on their “merits as a man” whether Protestant, Catholic or Jew.” (Yes the famous regiment had Jewish members and Teddy valued the Jewish vote, most of which went to his Republican Party in those days)

    1902(10th of Tishrei, 5663): Yom Kippur

    1906(22nd of Tishrei, 5667): Shemini Atzeret

    1906: Birthdate of Charles Revson, Canadian born founder of Revlon Cosmetics.

    1912:Louis D. Brandeis addressed some 200 social workers from the charitable and philanthropic organizations of New York and Brooklyn today at a meeting in the United Charities Building. Mr. Brandeis in his speech told the workers they might expect much help from Gov. Woodrow Wilson if he is elected President.

    1912: According to reports published today, a special meeting of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society of New York was held to pass a lengthy a resolution marking the recent death of Professor Morris Loeb

    1913(10th of Tishrei, 5674): Yom Kippur

    1913: In Rochester, NY, Rose and Harry Simon gave birth to Hymie Simon, who gained fame as Joe Simon the writer and illustrator who created Captain America. (As reported by Bruce Weber)

    1914(21st of Tishrei, 5675): Hoshanah Rabah observed for the first time during World War I.

    1918: Birthdate of film director Jerome Robbins.  He is best known for directing Leonard Bernstein’s musical version of Romeo and Juliet called “West Side Story.”  He died in 198l.

    1921(9thof Tishrei, 5682): Jews hear Kol Nidre for the first time during the Presidency of Warren G. Harding.

    1924: Birthdate of Maurice Sanford Fox, “the son of poor Russian Jewish immigrants” who became “an American geneticist and molecular biologist, and professor Emeritus of Biology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.”

    1925(23rdof Tishrei, 5686): Simchat Torah

    1926: Birthdate of major league baseball player Myron Nathan “Joe” Ginsberg.

    1927(15thof Tishrei, 5688): Sukkoth

    1929: In Manhattan, Irving Westin and the former Etta Furman gave birth to Alan Furman Westin “a legal scholar who nearly half a century ago defined the modern right to privacy in the incipient computer age” (As reported by Margalit Fox)

    1931: Formation of the Harzburg Front, a right wing alliance that included the Nazi Party which was formed to undermine the democratically elected government of Chancellor Heinrich Bruning, the person who held that post for the longest period of time during the Weimar Republic.

    1933(21stof Tishrei, 5694): Hoshana Raba observed for the first time during the Presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt.

    1936: In  “Life in Tel Aviv, That Sudden Town,” published today Katherine Woods reviews Spring Up, O  Well by Ruth Kahn, a book that describes the Jewish “resettlement of Palestine”

    1937: Birthdate of actor Ron Leibman.  Born in New York City, his portrayal of the union organizer in the film hit Norma Rae won him kudos even if Sally Fields got the Oscar.

    1937: The Palestine Post published an extensive report on the deteriorating condition of Jews in Polandand German Upper Silesia. According to Alexander Kahn, the vice-chairman of the Joint Distribution Committee in Poland, entire Jewish communities in towns and villages were subjected to unspeakable brutalities of local nationalists, anti-Semites and hooligans. There were riots at the Vilna and Lvovuniversities where Jewish students were beaten and, when forced to seat on the left side, preferred to stand instead. The Polish administration welcomed an economic anti-Jewish boycott while trade organizations urged to create "a ghetto" for Jewish tradesmen in the markets. In the village of Mushlatovaa Jewish merchant and his wife were murdered at night, the fifth such crime in that district. Note that these outbreaks took place two years before the Nazis occupied Poland.  Anti-Semitism was part of the European cultural landscape.  It was this reality that helped to make the Final Solution possible.  “They did not hear our cries, not because they were deaf, but because they did not want to hear them.”  Anon

    1938: In Cairo, at the concluding session of the Moslem Congress, the Proposals Committee presented a resolution making nine demands on the British government including nullification of the Balfour Declaration, cessation of Jewish immigration into Palestine, an end to any plans to partition Palestine and end to the mandate which would mirror the earlier end to the British Mandate in Iraq.

    1939:  President Franklin Roosevelt received a letter signed by Albert Einstein urging that the United States begin an urgent program to develop what would become the atomic bomb.  It was Einstein’s support that garnered Roosevelt’s support for what would be known as the Manhattan Project – America’s program to build the Atomic Bomb.  At the time, it was viewed as a race which, if won by the Germans, would have cost the Allies the war.

    1940(9thof Tishrei, 5701): Erev Yom Kippur

    1940: As the deportation of the Jews of Cracow continued a group of un-named Jews were captured at prayer by an unknown photographer.

    1940(9thof Tishrei, 5701); Eight-year old Italian Mathematician Vito Volterra passed away in Rome.

    1941: Birthdate of Edmond E. Levy the native of Bara who made Aliyah at the age of 10 and rose to become an Israeli judge of the Supreme Court of Israel.

    1941: A Jewish ghetto at Chernovtsy, Romania, is established.

    1941(20th of Tishrei, 5702: Sixth Day of Sukkoth; Shabbat

    1941(20th of Tishrei, 5702: Thousands of Jews are murdered at Edineti, Romania.

    1942(30th of Tishrei, 5703):Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan

    1942(30th of Tishrei, 5703):Over the next 48 hours eleven thousand Jews from Ostrowiec-Swietokrzyski, Poland, are killed at the Treblinka death camp

    1943: An article in Time magazine entitled “Quality of Mercy” describes the rescue of the Danish Jews and their trip to Sweden. “Across the narrow waters of the Ore Sund word came to Sweden last week that 1,800 Gestapo men sent to Copenhagenspecialty for the job had broken into Jewish homes and synagogues during Rosh Hashanah, arresting most of Denmark’s 10,000 Jews.  The reports said the Germans planned to ship their prisoners to the charnel houses of Poland.  Next day the Swedish government told the German Government that there was immediate, unconditional sanctuary for all Danish Jews in Sweden.  The Germans ignored the offer. At the end of the week, end upwards of 1,000 wretched Jews from Denmark had found their way across the cold Ore Sund to merciful Sweden.

    1943: One day after rescuing three Jews from the Riga (Latvia) Ghetto by asking guards for Jews to labor on his property, Yanis Lipke rescues additional Jews using the same ruse.\

    1943: Heinrich Himmler appeared on the cover of Time magazine

    1943: The trains kept rolling to Sobibor. According to Alexander Pechersky – on this day “the crematorium burned longer than usual. Helpless and distressed, we looked at the bodies of our brothers and sisters."New arrivals paniced and ran toward barbed wire, only to be machine-gunned by guards.

    1944: U.S. premier of “To Have and Have Not” co-starring Laruen Bacall (the cousin of Shimon Peres) in her first major film role.

    1945: According to reports published today, “Fritz Wiedemann, former German consul in San Francisco will be a leading Allied witness in the prosecution of Nazi war criminals” who will be tried according to rules established by the International Court of Justice. Wiederman had been the lover of Princess Stephanie who had spied on top Nazis.

    1945: Early this morning, a group of armed Jewish attackers overpowered the guards at the British Army camp at Rehovot and stole a quantity of weapons and ammunition which they loaded into stolen trucks that were used to make a clean get—away.

    1945: The USS President Warfield was struck from the U.S. Naval Vessel Register.  This was but one of the many steps that would lead this packet steamer to re-emerge as the Exodus in 1947.

    1946: Rabbi Phillip Bernstein of Rochester, NY, who serves as an adviser to Generals Joseph T. McNarney and Mark Clark” commanders of the American zones of occupation in Germany and Austria is returning to Germany today after meeting with President Truman at the White House.  Truman expressed concern for the plight of the Jews and said he wanted more firsthand information.  Bernstein said that the “original concept of resettling 100,000 European Jews is untenable” since the number of Jewish displaced persons is closer to 225,000.

    1946: One hundred fifty of the four hundred Jews imprisoned at the Latrun detention camp began partial hunger strike in protest over their lengthy detention without ever having been charged let alone tried with any crime.

    1946: An organization called the Arab Higher Fighters executed “two Arab land brokers” accused of having sold land to Jews.

    1947: “Twenty British constables armed with Sten guns guarded the American consulate against possible Arab attack today after the United States announced its support of the partition of Palestine…The precautionary measures followed the bombing of the Swedish consulate…by Arabs…which was believed to have been an answer to a speech by the Swedish chairman of the United Nations special committee on Palestine” at the United Nations which is meeting a Lake Success, NY.

    1948:At , former Gov. Herbert H. Lehman and Dr. Nelson Glueck, president of Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion, speak in a pre-Yom Kippur broadcast of the American Jewish Committee carried by WCBS and the Columbia Broadcasting System.

    1951: In Paris, Ruth Ambrunn and Alter Mojze Goldman gave birth to Jean-Jacques Goldman a Grammy Awards-winning French singer-songwriter, who is hugely popular in the French-speaking world and since 2003, was the second-highest-grossing French living pop singer, after Johnny Hallyday.

    1952:Howie Greenfield knocked on Neil Sedaka’s door and asked him if “he wanted to write songs” with him.  Sedaka “didn’t know how to write songs and didn’t have any inclination” to learn how to.  Greenfield would convince him to change his mind and Sedaka later said it was a good thing “because we ended up writing over 300 songs together over the next 20 years.”

    1953: NBC broadcast Paddy Chayefsky’s teleplay “The Bachelor Party” on the Philco Television Playhouse.
    1953: General Mordechai Makleff, the 3rd Chief of Staff of the IDF, and at 32 the youngest to hold the position, announced his intention to resign after repeated disputes with government leaders.
    1955: In Los Angeles, premiere of “Oklahoma,” the cinematic version of the Rogers and Hammerstein musical directed by Fred Zinnemann.
    1959(9thof Tishrei, 5720): Erev Yom Kippur
    1959(9thof Tishrei, 5720): Yitzchok Zev Soloveitchik, the Brisker Rov passed away. A native of Belarus, he escaped the Holocaust and settled in Jerusalem. A leader of the Haredi community, he advocated completed withdrawal from involvement with the state of Israel.  Unlike others, this meant he opposed accepting any financial aid from the state.   

    1961(1st of Cheshvan, 5722): Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan

    1961(1st of Cheshvan, 5722):Leonard "Chico" Marx passed away at the age of 74.

    1961: U.S. Premiere of “King of Kings,” the biblical blockbuster produced by Samuel Bronston

    1961: U.S. Premier of the 3rd version of “Back Street” based on a novel by Fannie Hurst

    1962: Pope John XXIII convened the Second Vatican Council or Vatican II. The Council marked a turning point in improving relations between the Catholic Church and the Jewish People.

    1963:  Popular French singer Edith Piaf passed away.  Piaf was accused by some of collaborating with the Nazis while they occupied Parisduring the war.  In her defense, Piaf’s supporters pointed that she helped the Jewish composer Michael Emer escape from occupied France. More to the point during the war she carried on an affair with the Jewish pianist Norbert Glanzberg, Okay, so it’s not Schindler’s List or Raoul Wallenberg; but saving Jews is saving Jews.

    1965(15thof Tishrei, 5726): Sukkoth

    1973(15thof Tishrei, 5734): Sukkoth

    [Editor’s note – the next three entries are incomplete.  They are not a catalogue of failure, but a record of very brave men, fighting against great odds, not unlike those members of the RAF who fought so courageously during the Battle of Britain – never have so have so many owed so much to so few)

    1973: An F-4E Phantom carrying Kobi Hayun and Uri Arad was shot down by an Egyptian MiG-21

    1973: An F-4E Phantom carrying Yonatan Ofir and Eran was shot down by an Egyptian MIG-21

    1973: An F-4E Phantom carrying Asher Snir was shot down by a SAM or anti-aircraft batteries.

    1973: During the Yom Kippur War, after pushing Syrian troops from the Golan Heights, Israeli troops under General Raful Eitan counterattacked into Syrian territory. During the battle for the Golan, the Syrian army lost approximately 1,100 tanks. Some 3,500 Syrians were been killed, and 370 prisoners taken. At the end of the battle “a special paratroop unit led by a young officer called Yoni, made its way through Syrian-occupied territory, and in a dramatic rescue operation,” evacuated Lieutenant-Colonel Naty Yossi, who had led a gallant tank attack. The Yoni mentioned here is none other than Yoni Netenyahu, the man who will lose his life three years later on the rescue mission at Entebbe.  His second in command described the scene, “Yoni attacking, shooting and his leading his men into battle, leading them, not giving orders from behind.”  By nightfall, the Israelis were ten kilometers inside Syria and literally on the road to Damascus.  Despite this moment of victory, the fate of the Jewish state still hung in the balance and the situation was quite precarious to say the least.  

    1975: Debut of Saturday Night Live, produced by Lorne Michaels, or, as he was known when growing up in Canada, Lorne Michael Lipowitz

    1977(29th of Tishrei, 5738): Five days before his 67th birthday Sir Misha Black founder of the Artists’ International Association and winner of the Minerva Medal, the Chartered Society of Designers highest award.

    1977:The Jerusalem Post reported that Foreign Minister Moshe Dayan told the UN General Assembly that for the past 10 years, 1967-1977, Israel was committed, but to no avail, to territorial concessions on the West Bank and in the Gaza Strip in return for a genuine peace. There was no sign that Arabs were ready for a settlement. And the same can still be said today.

    1978(10thof Tishrei, 5739): Yom Kippur

    1981: “One Day At A Time” starring Bonnie Franklin opens on CBS for its seventh season.

    1981: U.S. premiere of “My Dinner with Andre” produced by George W. George the son of cartoonist Rube Goldberg.

    1984(15thof Tishrei, 5745): Sukkoth

    1985: Birthdate of actress Michelle Trachtenberg.

    1993: A month after the signing of the Declaration of Principles had taken place in Washington, D.C.between Israeland the PLO, the Israeli Foreign Minister “sent a letter to the Norwegian Foreign Minister in which he confirmed that ‘the Palestinian institutions of East Jerusalem and well-being of the Palestinians of East Jerusalem are great importance and will be preserved.’”

    1997(10thof Tishrei, 5758): Yom Kippur

    1998: The New York Times book section featured a review of Phillip Roth’s novel, I Married A Communist.

    2000: Avraham Shochat began serving as Minister of Energy and Water Resources (AKA – Ministry of National Infrastructure)

    2000: In addition to his other duties, Binyamin Ben-Eliezer began serving as Minister of House and Construction

    2000: Portions of the INS Dakar, the Israeli submarine that sank in 1968, were raised from the floor of the Mediterranean Sea. (They were later placed at the memorial to the sub and its crew located at the National Military and Police Cemetery on Mt. Herzl.)

    2001: The Polaroid Corporation filed for bankruptcy marking the end of a company founded on the dream and the genius of Edwin Land and his instant photography.

    2003(15thof Tishrei, 5764): Sukkoth

    2004: At the start of the Knesset winter session, Prime Minister Ariel Sharon “outlined his plant to start legislation for the disengagement” from Gaza “beginning in November.”

    2005: Israeli mathematician Robert J. Aumann and Thomas C. Schelling won the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Science for their work in game theory, which explains the choices that competitors make in situations that require strategic thinking.
    2005: The Maltz Museum of Jewish Heritage opened in suburban Cleveland.  It is named for Milton Maltz and his wife, Tamar. The museum describes the heritage of the Jewish community through sound, visuals and interactive displays. The museum shares a campus with The Temple-Tifereth Israel. Founded in 1850, it's one of the oldest reform congregations in the United States.

    2006(14th of Tishrei, 5767): A double barreled celebration as Sukkoth and Shabbat both begin on Friday night.

    2006: reported that Randy Weinstein is regretfully resigning the from Student Government Association (SGA) at Georgia Tech when that organization decided to provide funding for the Students for Justice in Palestine (SJP) so that it could put on a program that provided “a one-sided attack on Israeli anti-terrorism policy.”

    2006: As of today, General Universal Stores (GUS) which had been under the control of Leonard Wolfson since 1970, was listed as two separate entities – Home Retail Group and Experian - on the London Stock Exchange.

    2007: In Washington, D.C. the DCJCC as part of the  Hyman S. and Freda Bernstein Jewish Literary Festival a time discussion of Jewish Washington: Scrapbook of an American Community, a fascinating and authoritative chronicle of the history and heritage of Washington's vibrant Jewish community.

    2007: The Oxford Union debating society raised ire among student groups and activists on Thursday after its president announced that he had invited Holocaust denier David Irving to come speak at the university.

    2008: At the Jerusalem Cinematheque, a screening of the short film “So We Said Goodbye” ( “נפרדנו כך”) in which “65-year-old Yaakov is saying goodbye to his sons and grandchildren, who are leaving Israel and recalls the moment when as a child he bid farewell to his family in 1937 Poland.

    2009 (23 Tishrei, 5770): Simchat Torah

    2009:Israeli poet Efrat Mishor reads at Prairie Lights Bookstore in Iowa City, IA.

    2009:American fans of Maccabi Tel Aviv will have the opportunity this fall to watch their team in action at Madison Square Garden, tonight when the Israeli team takes to the court against the New York Knick in a rematch of the teams' meeting in 2007.

    2009: The Sunday edition of the Washington Postincluded reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Why the Dreyfus Affair Really Matters by Louis Begley

    2009: The Sunday edition of the Los Angeles Timesincluded reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Book of Genesis Illustrated by R. Crumb

    2009: The New York Times included reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Anne Frank: The book, the Life, the Afterlife by Francine Prose and Mike Bloomberg: Money, Power, Politics by Joyce Purnick.

    2010: Israeli author Joshua Sobol is scheduled to take part in a reading at McNally Jackson bookstore in New York City.

    2010: The Knesset is scheduled to convene for its Winter Session.

    2010: Steve Linde reported today that “Irene Rosenfeld, an American Jewish businesswoman who is chief executive of Kraft Foods, came in second place on Forbes magazine’s list of the world’s 100 most powerful women published this month. The list, which is headed by first lady Michelle Obama, features several other prominent Jewish women:

    • Mary Schapiro, the head of the US Securities and Exchange Commission (17th),

    • Elana Kagan, the new Supreme Court justice (25th), • Sarah Jessica Parker, the attractive actress in Sex in The City (45th),

    • Suze Orman, a personal finance expert, author and TV host (61st),

    • Sheryl Sandberg, Facebook’s chief operating officer (66th), and

    • Donna Karan, the famous fashion designer (96th).

    2010:The 2010 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Science was awarded to three recipients today including Peter A. Diamond, a professor of MIT.

    2010(3rd of Cheshvan, 5771): Seventy four year old Carla Cohen who Politics and Prose was a bookstore was more a cultural landmark than a commercial venture, passed away today. (As reported by Ashley Parker)

    2010(3rd of Cheshvan, 5771): Ninety four year old real estate developer Robert V. Tishman, whose work included the World Trade Center, passed away today. (As reported by Dennis Hevesi)

    2011: Ethan Halpren is schuedled to host an Israeli Dance Workshop and Marathon at the Jewish Community Center of Northern Virginia featuring internationally recognized choreographer and instructor Ira Weisburd.

    2011: Israeli pianist Ran Dank is scheduled to perform the works of Chopin and Beethoven at the Merkin Concert Hall in New York City.

    2011: Under the agreement, announced today, Israel is to free 1,027 Palestinian prisoners in exchange for its soldier, Gilad Shalit, held captive in Gaza for the past five years.

    2011:Unknown vandals scrawled "Death to the Jews" on four synagogues and a vehicle in the northern city of Safed on tonight.


    2012: “The Gatekeepers,” a film created by Israeli director Dror Moreh is scheduled to be shown at the New York Film Festival

    2012: In Washington, DC, Robin Jacobson, the Librarian at Adas Israel is scheduled to lead a discussion about Comedy in a Minor Key which “tells the story of a Dutch couple who harbor a Jew during the Holocaust and the consequences of their relationship.”

    2012:Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu announced today that the elections for the 19th Knesset will be held on Tuesday, January 22, 2013.

    2012: Barbra Streisand performed before the sold out crowd at the Barclays Center in Brooklyn tonight.

    2012:The leader of Hezbollah claimed responsibility today for launching an Iranian-made drone aircraft into Israeli airspace earlier this week, adding more tension to an already explosive Mideast atmosphere.

    2012:Over seven years after he vanished without a trace, a Daliat al-Carmel resident discovered the remains of missing Druse soldier Majdi Halabi two weeks ago in a forest near Usfiya, the IDF confirmed today. Halabi went missing in May 2005.

    2012: “Fill the Void,” “the award-winning movie debut from Israel’s Rama Burshtein” is scheduled to have its Israeli premier. (As reported by JTA and Times of Israel)

    2013: The Eden-Tamir Music Center is scheduled to host “Mozart’s Women – Cose fan tutte”

    2013: Shrek is scheduled to open at the Lawrence Family JCC in San Diego, CA

    2013: The Ninth Grade is scheduled to lead Shabbat Eve services at Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, IA.

    2013: The Hyman S. & Freda Bernstein Jewish Literary Festival is scheduled to present “The Great Children’s Read: Bringing Books to Life” featuring Pamela Mayer, author of Don’t Sneeze at the Wedding.

    2013:Construction and Housing Minister Uri Ariel (Bayit Yehudi) today called on Israel to halt direct talks with the Palestinians following the fatal attack of an Israeli man overnight in a settlement in the northern Jordan Valley, Army Radio reported. (As reported by JP Staff)

    2014(17thof Tishrei, 5775): Shabbat Chol Hamoed Sukkoth

    2014: In Washington, Adas Israel is scheduled to hold Shabbat services for the first time since  Gil Steinhauf, the congregation’s senior rabbi informed the community that he and his wife are divorcing while declaring “I have come to understand that I am gay.”


    2014: Lewis Black is scheduled to perform this evening at the Pabst Theatre in Milwaukee, WI.

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    OCTOBER 12

    539 BCE: The Persian armies of Cyrus the Great captured Babylon.  Within the year, Cyrus would make it possible for the Jews to return to their homeland.

    1129: The tombstone of Elijah ben Simon dated October 12, 1129 is among the oldest evidence of the Jewish settlement in Nuremberg goes back to the 12th century.

    1285: The Jews of Munich (Germany) were caught in a claim of blood libel which resulted in the death of most the Jewish community.  When 180 Jewish survivors refused baptism, they were burned alive in their synagogue.

    1366:  In Sicily, Jews were forbidden to decorate the outside of their houses of worship.

    1491: During the Blood Libel tied to the Holy Child of La Guardia, inquisitors arranged for a meeting between Yucef Franco and Benitor Garcia, the two Jews accused in this event.

    1492: After sailing across the Atlantic Ocean, Italian explorer Christopher Columbus sights a Bahamian island, believing he has reached East Asia. His expedition, including Hebrew speaker Luis de Torres (the translator) went ashore the same day and claimed the land for Isabella and Ferdinand of Spain, who sponsored his attempt to find a western ocean route to China, India, and the fabled gold and Spice Islands of Asia. Louis de Torres, a Marrano, was the first member of Columbus’ expedition to set foot in the Western Hemisphere. He discovered and introduced tobacco into Europe. He saw a bird he thought to be a peacock and called it a "tuki" (Hebrew for peacock - I Kings X22). Today that bird is known as a turkey. (There are those who say that the story of the Turkey is pure fiction.  All that I can say is “Of this I do not know.”)

    1576:  Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor passed away. Maximilian reversed the decree that had banished the Jews from Prague. Furthermore, he allowed them to return to other towns in Bohemia and to settle in Austria.  The life of the Jews in these domains was far from tranquil thanks to pressure from the Catholic Church.  But under Maximilian II it was better than it had been under his predecessor Ferdinand.

    1589(2ndof Cheshvan, 5350): Rabbi Samuel ben Moses Medina (RaShDaM) passed away in Salonica.  Born in 1505, his disciples included Abraham de Boton and Joseph ibn Ezra and his grandson was Samuel  Hayyun, author of “Bene Shemuel “

    1711: Charles VI who sought to limit the number of Jews living in Austria and Hungary began his reign as Holy Roman Emperor. Among his subjects was Ḥayyim Judah Löb Ettinger, the Austian Rabbi who was the son of Eliezer ha-Levi Lichtenstein Ettinger and the brother-in-law of Chaim Cohen Rapport, who served as a rabbi in Lemberg.

    1772(15thof Tishrei, 5533): Six month old David Riccardo "celebrates" Sukkoth for the first time.

    1775: The Continental Congress creates the United States Navy. Some of the famous Jews to serve in the U.S. Navy include: Commodore Uriah P. Levy who played a key role in ending flogging as a punishment for seamen; Admiral Hyman Rickover, the father of the Nuclear Navy; Admiral Jeremy Michael Boorda, Chief of Naval Operations.

    1778: In Denmark, Philip Hartvig Rée and Hanna Hartvig von Essen gave birth to Hartvig Philip Ree.

    1789(22ndof Tishrei, 5550): Shemini Atzeret is observed for the first time during the Presidency of George Washington. 

    1793:  The cornerstone of Old East the oldest state university building in the United States is laid on the campus of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.  This is an important date in Jewish history because my sister, Judy Sharon (Levin) Rosenstein, of blessed memory was a Tar Heel Grad.  She met her husband, Larry Rosenstein of blessed memory, at Chapel Hill.  All three of their sons are also Carolina grads. Of such moments are real Jewish history made.

    1796(10thof Tishrei, 5557): Yom Kippur is observed for the last time during the Presidency of George Washington.

    1796: Israel Baer Kursheedt observed Yom Kippur as the only Jew aboard an American sloop sailing to the United States from Hamburg.

    1797(22ndof Tishrei, 5558): Shemini Atzeret is observed for the first time during the Presidency of John Adams.

    1800(23rdof Tishrei, 5561): Jews celebrate Simchat Torah for the first time in the 19thcentury and for the last time during the Presidency of John Adams.

    1819(23rdof Tishrei, 5580): Simchat Torah

    1822: Birthdate of Seligman Solomon, the German born American businessman and philanthropist best known for his support of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum in New York City

    1830: Birthdate of Antony Mayer de Worms, a London born descendant of Amschel Moses Rothschild and Schoenche Lechnich

    1837(13thof Tishrei, 5598): Seventy-five year old Talmudist, interpreter of Halacha and moel Rabbi Akiva Eger passed away today in Poznan

    1838(23rdof Tishrei, 5599): Simchat Torah

    1848(15thof Tishrei, 5609): Sukkoth

    1853(10th of Tishrei, 5614): Yom Kippur

    1853: Rabbi Raphall led services today at the Greene Street Synagogue in New York.

    1854: Birthdate of Ida Kuhn, the daughter of Clara Regina Kuhn who became Ida Cohen after marrying Eduard Cohen

    1864:The General News column reported today, Wednesday, that Monday’s livestock market was fairly active despite “the absence of the Hebrews, who” were “observing the Day of the Atonement, one of their principal fasts.” Tuesday’s market was more active than usual, in part, because “on account of the numbers of Jews present.”

    1865: In a column styled “Our London Correspondence,” The New York Times reported that, “If you want a present proof that Mammon rules here, take the fact that yesterday Mr. Phillips, a gentleman of the Hebrew persuasion, was elected Lord Mayor of London. Not that a Jew has not teeth, hands, organs, dimensions, and all that, as well as any other man; but, in the face of English prejudice, money and money alone could make a man who is a Jew by birth and religion, member of Parliament or Lord Mayor.” “Mr. Phillips” referred to Benjamin Samuel Phillips, a prominent British citizen and leader of the Agnlo-Jewish community who had been elected Lord Mayor in September of 1865.  He served with such distinction that Queen Victoria knighted him for his service. Phillips was the second the Jew to hold the post; the first being David Salomons.  His son, Sir George, would also served as Lord Mayor. The level of anti-Semitism displayed in this items stands in stark contrast with the detailed and sympathetic description of Jewish holidays that this paper was publishing in the 19th century.

    1865(22nd of Tishrei, 5626): Shmini Atzeret

    1872(10thof Tishrei, 5633): Yom Kippur

    1873(21stof Tishrei, 5634): Hoshanah Rabah

    1873:  “Curiosities of Superstition” published today traces the history of “host desecration” including a description of the 38 Jews who were burned to death in 1510 “because they had tortured the consecrated host until bled.”

    1875: Birthdate of Yaakov Ben Zion Morein who gained famed as Rabbi Yaakov Ben Zion HaCohen Mendelsohn who served a congregation in Glasgow, Scotland before settling in the United States where he founded “his own shul, Congregation Beis Hamedrash Hagadol.”

    1877: An application was made to Judge Barrett on behalf of the two children of the late Abraham Weisberg to order the Public Administrator to turn the two hundred dollars that constituted his estates to Rabbi Ash of the Ludlow-Street Synagogue so that he could send the money to the children living in Poland.  Weisberg was a Jewish peddler who had been murdered two years ago in New York’s Westchester Country.  The judge denied the application saying a guardian for the minor children would have to be appointed before going forward with the dispersal of funds.

    1878(15thof Tishrei, 5639): Sukkoth

    1878: The strict anti-Socialist legislation passed today outlawed, for all practical purposes,  the German Socialist Democratic Party whose leaders included Eduard Bernstein

    1879: An article published today devoted to describing the rich variety of shell-fish used by cooks in Morocco pointed out that these are “utterly tabooed” when it comes to the local Jewish population.

    1882: It was reported today that the Prime Minister told members of the Hungarian Chamber of Deputies, that the recent anti-Jewish riots in Pressburg “might …degenerate into” an event “of a socialistic character.” He declared that would he would not tolerate “such excesses.” 

    1884(23rdof Tishrei, 5645): Simchat Torah

    1884: As the effects of the sever economic recession, which has necessitated the closing of many major employers, including the Falls Cotton Mills, grip New England, it is reported that the Polish Jews living in Baltic, a city 8 miles north of Norwich, Conn, are reduced to begging from door to door.

    1884: Roderick Waters, who is Christian and Michael Hauman, who is Jewish nearly came to blows today as they vied for the affections of a Jewish widow in St. Mark’s Place.

    1884: “News of the World” published today described the change in fortunes for Mahmoud Pasha, aka Jacob Freund   The Sultan has brought him back from the Island of Rhodes where he had been living in exile since 1876 and restored him to his former position of prominence.  Mahmoud Pasha was a Polish born Jew named Jacob Freund who had fled Hungary after the revolution there failed and, after converting, became “the ablest of Turkish Generals.

    1885: David J. Seligman and Adelaide (Addie) Seligman gave birth to Gladys Seligman who, after she married Henri Wertheim became Gladys Wertheim.

    1885: “The Only One In America” published today described the opening of the first and only “Hebrew-Christian Church” in the United States.  Located in New York, it is the only congregation that has been established by Jewish converts to Christianity. (Editor’s note – Jews for Jesus type movements are obviously note a creation of the late 20thcentury.)

    1886: “The Anchroia’s Long Trip” described the perilous ocean crossing of a steamer that that had its propeller shaft brake causing havoc among the crew and passengers. Fortunately, only two passengers died in the chaos, one of whom was an unnamed Polish Jew who was buried at sea.

    1888(7thof Cheshvan, 5649): Just two months before his 76th birthday, Joseph Moses Levy, the English newspaper editor and publisher whose properties included The Daily Telegraph passed away.

    1888: “The Fifteenth Season” published today described the first event of 1888-1889 season sponsored by the Young Men’s Hebrew Association.  Among those who addressed those attending the gala at Chickering Hall was Chauncey M. Depew. (Depew was not Jewish. He was an attorney who became President of the New York Central Railroad and U.S. Senator from New York. His willingness to speak at the YMHA gathering gives an indication of the importance of the organization.)  The speeches were followed by an evening of choral music with violin accompaniment.

    1889: Max Maretzek, the Moravian born American opera conductor and composer, celebrated his Golden Jubilee

    1890: “Russia’s Milling Industry” published today attributed the decline in the country’s grain milling industry and the decline in the price of corn to “the persecution of the Jews.”

    1891(10th of Tishrei, 5652): Yom Kippur

    1891:  Several “temporary places of worships have been established” in New York city “public halls” to accommodate the large number of people attending services, especially on the Lower East Side.

    1891: In Columbus, GA, more than fifty Jewish owned stores closed because of the Day of Atonement.

    1891: In Brooklyn, Sophie and Pincus Weinberg gave birth to Sidney James Weinberg

    1891: An Indictment of Russia” published today described the view of the Jews that Nicholas I who reigned from 1825 to 1855 was “a Second Haman” whose 30 year reign “was filled with special hardship for” them. Much to their surprise, the reign of Alexander III has proved to be even worse.

    1891:  Birthdate of Edith Stein who later converted to Catholicism.  When she became a nun she took the name "Teresia Benedicta ac Cruce."  Sister Teresia left Germanyfor Hollandafter the Nazis came to power.  In 1942, the Nazis ordered the arrest of Catholics of Jewish origin living in Holland.  This included clergy like Sister Teresia.  Sister Teresia was once again Edith Stein.  She died in Auschwitzin August of 1942.  If people who converted to Catholicism are really Catholics it is hard to understand how the Pope gave up these members of his flock. Eventually, Edith Stein would be made Saint.  Cynics would say that in one respect the Church has remained consistent.  It loves Jews, as long as they are dead.

    1891: Today, Jews in Missouri are upset by the recent attack John T. Blake the manager for William Warner, the Republican candidate for governor has made on Mr. Isaac Isaacs, Secretary of the Republican clubs that included a “roast of the Jews.”

    1892(21stof Tishrei, 5653): Hoshana Rabah

    1892: In New York, a conference of Orthodox rabbis which has dealt with changes espoused by the Reform including doing away requiring circumcision as part of the conversion ceremony, is scheduled to come to an end

    1892: Carlos Pellegrini, who has a German-Jewish brother-in-law, completed his term of office as President of Argentina during which he expressed his support for Baron Hirsch’s plan to settle a half a million Russian Jews in the Argentine Republic.

    1893: Julius Bien, the President of B’Nai B’rith is scheduled to address the opening session of a three day affair marking the Golden Anniversary of the Jewish fraternal organization.

    1894: Alfred Gobert, “the handwriting expert from the Bank of France,” was summoned to the rue Saint-Dominique where he spent the day examining the treasonous documents supposedly written by Captain Dreyfus.(For more see The Dreyfus Affair by Piers Paul Read)

    1894: This evening, General de Boisdeffre told Commandant du Paty de Calm that “he had been chosen to arrest Dreyfus.”  Du Paty tried to avoid the task but the general insisted.

    1897: In Kansas City, clothing store owner Jacob Epstein and his wife gave birth to Jane Epstein, the future wife Goodman Ace who became half of the comedy team known as “Easy Aces.”

    1897: Expenses estimates submitted at today’s meeting of the Board of Estimate and Apportionment included: Aguilar Free Library $41, 500; Maimonides Free Library $5,000; Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum $324,992; Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society $89,000; Sanitarium for Hebrew Children $5,500; Mt. Sinai Hospital $26,000

    1903(21stof Tishrei, 5664): Hoshana Rabah

    1906(23rdof Tishrei, 5667): Simchat Torah

    1906: In Australia, Sir Isaac Alfred Isaacs began serving as Puisne Justice of the High Court of Australia.

    1910(9thof Tishrei, 5671): Erev Yom Kippur

    1910: Birthdate of Canadian screenwriter Ben Barzman who fell afoul of HUAC and ended up on one of its infamous blacklists.

    1911: Multiple telegrams were received in Londonfrom Malta, Gabes and Djerba, appealing for help for the many thousands of Jewish refugees who had come from Tripoli

    1912: Birthdate of Elizabeth H. Friedman, the wife of Sylvan N. Friedman, the Jewish political leader who served in both houses of the Louisiana state legislature.

    1914(22ndof Tishrei, 5675): Shemini Atzeret

    1914: Birthdate of Mauricio Leib Lasansky, “an Argentine-born master printmaker who was equally well known for a series of drawings depicting the horrors of Nazism…” (As reported by Margalit Fox)

    1916(15thof Tishrei, 5677): Sukkoth

    1918: Dr. Madisen Clinton Peters, the former pastor of the Bloomingdale Church and author whose works included Justice to the Jew, The Jews as Patriot, The Wit Wisdom of the Talmud, The Jews in America and the Jews Who Stood by Washington, passed away after losing his week-long fight with Spanish Influenza.

    1918:Upon hearing that the German government had accepted President Wilson’s condition for negotiation, “the German born Zionist Arthur Ruppin noted in his diary how he ‘went for a long walk and continuously repeated to myself the one word: Peace! How much it means.’” Ruppin’s joy was premature and it would be another month before Peace would become a reality.

    1919: The New York Times includes a review of Past and Present: A Collection of Essays by Dr. Israel Friedlander, a noted member of the faculty of the Jewish Theological Seminary and an author of several volumes on Jewish history.

    1921(10thof Tishrei, 5682): Yom Kippur

    1921: According to New York City political leaders yesterday's drop in voter registration, as compared with both the first day's registration and that of last year was mainly due to the fact that the Jewish holiday, Yom Kippur began yesterday evening.  “In many instances Jewish registration inspectors left their booths at sundown” which delayed registration for those waiting in line.  “The Jewish holiday kept the registration down on the East side of Harlem” and other East side locations because Jews did not come out to register on the eve of Yom Kippur.  The importance of observing Yom Kippur was a universal factor among Jews regardless of affiliation as can be sen by the fact that Jacob Schiff, who was serving as Chairman of one of the registration boards and a co-religionist serving on the board “quit work at sunset.”  When Schiff was challenged by waiting voters he replied, “We are sorry, but you observe your holidays and we must observe ours.”  The Board of Elections admitted that it had not even considered the disruption that would take place when voter registration coincided with the most important holiday on the Jewish calendar.

    1923:  Birthdate of Jean Nidetch, founder of Weight Watchers. “The story of the establishment of Weight Watchers International begins with the personal story of a New York housewife who wanted to succeed at losing weight. In 1963, Mrs. Jean Nidetch , a Jewish woman in her forties, who had experienced many failed attempts at losing weight and gaining weight, decided to lose weight forever.”  So begins the saga as described by the Weight Watchers Program.  There are those who say the program is very Jewish.  Like Moses, Ms. Nidetch started with a list of foods you could not eat and book.

    1924: Birthdate of Erich Gruenberg, the Austrian born violinist who studied at the Jerusalem Conservatory and “led the Palestine Broadcasting Corporation Orchestra from 1938 to 1945.

    1925: Birthdate of Julius Bronstein, a 34 for year veteran of the Chicago Police Department

    1925: Birthdate of Alan Howard Abelson, the New York native who became an editor of Barron’s magazine where he wrote “a pugnacious, sagacious stock market column that denounced Wall Street hucksterism and routinely rocked share prices (As reported by Douglas Martin

    1925(24thof Tishrei, 5685):  Thirty-two year old Polish born circus performer known as the “Strongest Man in the World” passed away today in Berlin after having injured himself during a performance.

    1926: Birthdate of Dr. Ruth L. Kirschstein, a National Institutes of Health pathologist who helped develop and refine tests to ensure the safety of vaccines for polio and measles, organized the NIH response to the AIDS epidemic, and became the first woman appointed director of an NIH institute.”

    1927: Anna Boudin, Mrs. Jacob Panken and Florence Dolowitz organized the first meeting of the Women's American ORT (WAO). (As reported by the Jewish Women’s Archives)

    1929: The British High Commissioner sends a telegram to the government in London warning that the Arabs of Palestine had recently obtained a considerable number of arms from Transjordanand the Hedjaz which they intended to use in attacks on the Jewish population.

    1930: Birthdate of New Rochelle native Jack Gottlieb, a noted composer who “served as President of the ASJM for a number of years.”

    1933(23rd of Tishrei, 5694): Simchat Torah

    1933: William E. Dodd, FDR’s newly appointed Ambassador to Germany, defied the conventional wisdom and gave a speech to the American Chamber of Commerce in Berlin in which he was highly critical of the Nazi regime.  Among the high-ranking Nazis in attendance were Goebbels and Alfred Rosenberg.

    1934: Birthdate of architect, Richard Meier.

    1934: U.S. premiere of “The Bay Divorcee,” a musical directed by Mark Sandrich with a score by Max Steiner.

    1935(15thof Tishrei, 5695): Sukkoth

    1939: The first Jewish deportees left Viennaand Bohemia.

    1939: Hans Frank is appointed governor-general of Occupied Poland.

    1940(10th of Tishrei, 5701): Yom Kippur; it is also Shabbat.

    1940:For the first time in 940 years, non-Christian religious services were held in Iceland. Approximately twenty five Jewish soldiers from England, Scotland and Canada gathered with eight Jewish refugees and Hendrik Ottósson, who had married a Jewish woman to observe Yom Kippur. Ottósson, served as their Shammash. The Icelandic authorities offered a chapel in Reykjavík's old cemetery. Ottósson found the suggestion insulting and rented a hall of the Good Templars' Lodge. They borrowed the only Torah scroll available in town.

    1940: On this Jewish Day of Atonement, German loudspeakers in Warsaw, Poland, announce that all Jews in the city must move to the Jewish ghetto by the end of the month.

    1940(10th of Tishrei, 5701): The Nazis executed 3,400 Jews in Galicia.
    1941(21st of Tishrei, 5702): Hoshanah Rabah

    1941: InStanislawow, Eastern Galicia, all of the Jews living in the district, were driven out of their homes into the center of the town where massive graves had been dug. SS troops and Ukrainian militia commence machine gunning of the gathered populace. Estimates of the number of Jews murdered range from a low of 6,000 to a high of 12,000. For the Jews, it was Hoshanah Rabbah, (the Great Prayer day.) The Ukrainian and German killers throw a "Bloody Sunday" victory celebration.

    1941: At Sabac, Yugoslavia, hundreds of Gypsies are murdered. Jews were the primary victims of genocide, but not the only victims.

    1941: The head of the University ofLouisville expresses his gratitude for a bequest by the late Supreme Court Justice Louis D. Brandies to the school’s Law Library.  About two decades ago, Justice. Brandies selected the LawSchool of the University of Louisville as beneficiary of specific current gifts from him because, in his judgment, this university is much less liable to political influence than institutions under complete public control.

    1944: Gerda Baier was deported to Auschwitz where she was subsequently murdered.

    1944(25thof Tishrei, 5705): The wife and young daughter of chess champion Salo Landau were gassed today at Auschwitz.

    1945: Forty women rescued from Nazi concentration camps were the first to be sheltered in the new sixty-bed wing opened” today “at the Women’s League for Palestine home at Haifa.  In New York, “Mrs. David L. Isaacs, who head the Palestine committee of the league” described “the welcome given the group rescued from Bergen-Belsen, Buchwald and Auschwitz.”

    1945: British authorities continued their search of a secret radio that was “attempting to rally Jewish resistance forces.”  Shortly before a secret radio station “that was attempting to rally Jewish resistance forces…broadcast the announcement ‘Listen to the voice of Israel!  This is not a terrorist station.  This is the station of Hebrew resistance. Never again will Jews be deported from their homeland.  Our patience is over.  No power in the world shall break our determination.”

    1946: U.S. premiere of “Nobody Lives Forever” starring John Garfield (Jacob Julius Garfinkle)

    1948(9thof Tishrei, 5709): Erev Yom Kippur; in the evening Kol Nidre is chanted for the first time in almost two thousand years in an independent Jewish state.

    1948(9thof Tishrei, 5709): Eighty year old Alfred Kerr passed away today.

    1948: Egypt, Syria and Lebanonrecognize the All Palestine Government.  Jordan’s King Abdullah had already refused to grant this entity any power in territory seized by his Arab Legion.  In other words, there was to be no Palestinian control over what is now called the West Bank and the OldCitysection of Jerusalem.

    1952(23rdof Tishrei, 5713): Simchat Torah is celebrated for the last time during the Presidency of Harry S. Truman, “the godfather of Israeli independence”

    1953:  The “Caine Mutiny Court Martial” opened at the Plymouth Theatre in New York.  This Broadway dramatic hit was based on the novel The Caine Mutiny by Herman Wouk.  Wouk has had a successful writing career dealing with both non-Jewish and Jewish themes.  More to the point, he has been successful without compromising his very strong belief in traditional Judaism and the state of Israel.

    1954(15thof Tishrei, 5715): Sukkoth

    1954: In Philadelphia, PA, Congressman Joshua Eilberg and his wife Gladys gave birth to Amy Eilberg, the first female rabbi ordained by the Conservative movement.

    1955(26th of Tishrei, 5716):Arthur Hammerstein passed away. Born in 1872, this son of Oscar Hammerstein I and uncle of Oscar Hammerstein II, “was an opera producer and one of the writers of the song "Because of You," a major hit (#1 for 10 weeks) for Tony Bennett in 1951. Hammerstein wrote the song in 1940. It was used in the film I Was an American Spy (1951). He was the producer of the musical comedies The Firefly (1912), and Rose Marie (1924), which he did along with his nephew. He also was the producer of the film The Lottery Bride (1930), and made an appearance as himself in an episode of the film series Popular Science in 1949. Arthur Hammerstein was born and educated in New York City. Arthur's daughter, Elaine Hammerstein was a well-known stage and film actress.”

    1956: In response to a request from a very worried Jordanian King, the British government informed Israel that, in accordance with the treaties with Jordan and Iraq, Britain would go to the aid of both these countries if they were attacked by Israel.  The irony was that Israel was negotiating with France and Britain over plans to attack Egyptand seize the Suez Canal.

    1957: Publication of Ayn Rand’s Atlas Shrugged which, in 2007, will be described as one of the most influential business books ever written.

    1958: Fifty sticks of dynamite exploded in the entryway of Atlanta's Hebrew Benevolent Society -- the oldest and largest Reform congregation, commonly known as the Temple.Five men, all associated with white separatist groups like the National States' Rights Party, were tried and acquitted. No one was ever convicted for the crime. The bombing came as Rabbi Jacob Rothschild was becoming increasingly active in the Civil Rights movement.

    1959(10thof Tishrei, 5720): Yom Kippur

    1959: The Play of the Week broadcast David Susskind’s production of Media as its first broadcast.

    1960(21stof Tishrei, 5721): Hoshanah Rabah

    1960; U.S. premiere of “Inherit the Wind,” the cinematic adaptation of the play co-authored by Jerome Lawrence, directed and produced by Stanley Kramer.

    1963: Archaeological digs began at Masada, Israel.  Masada was the site of the famous “last stand” during the “War Against Rome” that ended with the destruction of the SecondTemple.  The archaeological dig was important because it gave credence to Jewish history.  Of course the debate continues to this day as to who was right – the Jews of Masada or the Jews of Yavnah.

    1963: “A virulent anti-Semitic book, Judaism Without Embellishment, by Trofim Kichko was published in the USSR today.”

    1967:  In discussing his latest archeological finds, Dr. Yigael Yadin, Israel's leading archeologist contends that King Solomon may have indulged a passion for building during his long reign from 960 to 922 B.C., but he did not build the stables at Megiddo

    1969(30thof Tishrei, 5730): Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan

    1969(30thof Tishrei 5730): Seventy-two year old Dr. Max Schur, the friend and confidant of Sigmund Freud passed away

    1971(23rdof Tishrei, 5732): Simchat Torah

    1973: Moshe Koren safely ejected from his F-4E Phantom Jet after it fell victim to Lebanese anti-aircraft fire and was recovered by IDF forces.

    1973: Ran Goren and Micha Oren were safely recovered by IDF forces after their F-4E Phantom Jet was shot down by an Egyptian MiG-21.

    1973: A week after the Yom Kippur War began; Avraham Lanir scored his third and last aerial kill, downing a Syrian MiG-17 in the vicinity of Kuneitra while flying Mirage 5

    1973: As many as 15,000 Iraqi troops had reached the Syrian front and were prepared to attack Israeli forces. The Israelis lucked out and spotted a lead contingent of fifty Iraqi tanks. When the Iraqis reached to within three yards of the outnumbered Israelis, the IDF tanks opened fire destroying 17 tanks and halting the assault The Soviets completed a twenty-four hour air lift during which eighty large Soviet transport planes landed in Syria filled with a wide variety of arms that more than compensated for the Syrian losses during the first week of fighting. On the southern front, Egyptian tanks and troops continued to pour across the Suez Canal posing a new threat to the Israelis. 

    1973:  In the midst of the perilous first week of the Yom Kippur War a dispute broke out between the Sephardic Chief Rabbi and his Ashkenazi counterpart.  October 12, 1973was a Friday.  As the sun was setting the Sephardic Rabbi announced that it was a sin to bake bread on Shabbat, even in war time.  The Ashkenazi Chief Rabbi, Shlomo Goren, the man who had been chief rabbi of the IDF in the 1967 war said that it was perfectly permissible to break the rules of Shabbat and bake bread during war time.  Doesn’t this remind you of Jerusalemduring the Roman Siege?

    1975: Birthdate of Aharon Mordechai Rokeach the only child and heir of the current Rebbe of Belz, Rabbi Yissachar Dov Rokeach. Born in Jerusalem, Israel, he was named after his father's uncle, Rabbi Aharon Rokeach, the fourth Belzer Rebbe, and his father's father, Rabbi Mordechai of Bilgorai.

    1978: Representatives of Israel and Egypt opened peace talks in Washington, D.C.

    1984: It was reported today that memoirs of Jaroslav Seifert, the newly named Nobel Prize winner in Literature, contain a “selection, titled 'Russian Bliny,' is about Roman Jakobson, a Russian born Jewish scholar who emigrated to Czechoslovakia after World War I and came to the United States during World War II.”

    1987(20th of Tishrei, 5748): Sixth Day of Sukkoth

    1987(20th of Tishrei, 5748):Oliver Louis Zangwill an influential British neuropsychologist passed away today. Born in 1913, he was Professor of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, 1952-81, then Professor Emeritus. He was the son of Israel Zangwill and the grandson of William Edward Ayrton. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1977

    1988: Israel and China signed a trade agreement and made plans for establishing diplomatic relations.

    1989:A Syrian Air Force major flying a Soviet-made fighter-bomber landed in Israel today, stunning Israeli officials who said the pilot had asked for political asylum. Syria asserted that the MIG-23 plane had suffered mechanical problems and made an emergency landing, though the Syrian statement did not explain why the pilot had flown more than 50 miles into Israel. Defense Minister Yitzhak Rabin hastily left a Cabinet meeting as soon as he heard of the defection at about today. Joined by several other military officials, he rushed to the site of the landing, a small crop-duster air strip outside Megiddo in the central Galilee, and personally questioned the pilot. Syria is this nation's most bitter enemy and has been at a state of war with Israel since the nation was founded in 1948. Its political leaders oppose any form of accommodation with Israel. No Syrian pilot has ever defected to Israel before now. The last defection of an Arab pilot to Israelwas in August 1966, when an Iraqi air force captain flew his MIG-21 to Israel. Israeli officials reported that a second MIG-23 from the same unit landed in Alexandria, Egypt, today. But the Egyptian Government denied that, and there has been no independent confirmation. Without making any mention of the report of a plane landing in Egypt, the Syrian Government said it planned to ask the International Committee of the Red Cross for help in winning the return of the plane and the pilot that landed in Israel. ''Fire and smoke were reported coming out of the plane's engine before its pilot was forced to bring it down in Israel,'' a Syrian Defense Ministry statement said. Syria intends ''to work for repatriating the pilot,'' it added. Israeli officials scoffed at the idea that either the plane or its pilot would be returned. They said the major was already cooperating with Israeli officials, who began interrogating him almost immediately. Being Held at Air Base He was identified as Maj. Adel Bassem, 34 years old. Israeli officials have not said so far whether he has explained the reason for his defection. He is being held at an air base in the northern Galilee. Military officials said that the plane was one of several on maneuver near the Golan Heights and that it and the others were being tracked by radar even before it veered west, crossing into Jordanian and then Israeli airspace and flying west on its own. A MIG-23 is capable of flying at Mach-2, twice the speed of sound, and officials said the plane probably was airborne over Israel for only three or four minutes. Once it landed, Israel Radio reported, workers at the small airstrip said the Syrian major climbed down, spread his arms and in Arabic said, ''I have no hostile intentions.'' The workers offered the pilot water, which he accepted and then told them he wanted to request political asylum. No military or security officials arrived at the airfield for more than 20 minutes, said the workers on the scene, who were quoted by the Israeli radio. The Soviet Union has supplied the MIG-23, a single-seat, swing-wing fighter known as the ''flogger'' in NATO parlance, to several Arab nations, and it remains the principal plane of the Syrian and Iraqi air forces.

    1990(23rdof Tishrei, 5751): Simchat Torah

    1992(15thof Tishrei, 5753): Sukkoth is observed for the last time during the Presidency of George Bush.

    1997: In “Neighborhood Report: Corona –New Worshipers Are Bane, Not Balm, for Old Synagogue,” Charlie Leduff describes the challenges faced at Tifereth Israel as an influx of  Bukharan Jews face the aging members of the nine decades old synagogue.

    1997:The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or about topics of special interest to Jews including The Myth of Rescue: Why the Democracies Could Not Have Saved More Jews From the Nazisy by William D. Rubinstein, Shtetl: The Life and Death of a Small Town and the World of Polish Jewsby Eva Hoffman and God & The American Writer by AlfredKazin.

    2000: Ben Weider received the French Legion of Honor.  A successful body builder and businessman, Weider was a student of history who worked to prove that Napoleon had been poisoned.

    2000(13thof Tishrei, 5761): Vadim Nurhitz and Yossi Avrahami, two Israeli reservists who entered Ramallah by mistake were arrested by the PA. While in the custody of the PA, a mob savagely murdered them and then mutilated their bodies.

    2000: During the Infitada, “vandals…desecrated the building” housing the mosaic that had been part of the Shalom Al Yisrael Synagogue, Jewish house of worship that dates back “to the late 6th or early 7th century and was discovered in 1936 “by Dr. Baramki of the Antiquities Authority under the British Mandate.”

    2002: In Massachusetts, Boston College, a Catholic institution of higher learning, installed “a copy of the Torah in the worship center, where it is expected to be used” for future Friday and Saturday services.

    2003:The New York Timesfeatured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or about topics of special interest to Jews including Madam Secretaryby Madeleine Albright with Bill Woodward and Why America Slept: The Failure to Prevent 9/11by Gerald Posner.
    2005(9th of Tishrei, 5766): Erev Yom Kippur

    2005: New York Times reporter Judith Miller testified one last time before the federal grand jury before being “relieved of contempt charges” in matters related to the Scooter Libby leak case.

    2006(20th of Tishrei, 5767): Sixth Day of Sukkoth

    2006(20thof Tishrei, 5767): Sixty-one year old Don Novick, loving husband of Denise Novick and father of Rochelle and Cassie Novick passed away. The son of Russian immigrant Jews, he was raised as an Orthodox Jew in Cheynne, Wyoming.  A member of Temple Judah, he was a pillar of the Cedar Rapids, Iowa Jewish community who gave freely of his time and cuillanary skills to so many worthwhile events.  Among his many virtues, was the ability to cook anything you wanted to perfection, including the best falafel west of Tel Aviv.  A quite man, he touched many lives and will never be forgotten.

    2006: In New York, the Albany County District Attorney acknowledged that he was investigating the hiring of a chauffeur by the Comptroller of New York, Alan Hevesi.

    2007(30th of Tishrei, 5768): Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan

    2007: The film “Jewish Life in Cracowis screened at the GuggenheimMuseum in New York City

    2007: Yaakov Katz the military correspondent and defense analyst for The Jerusalem Post, the Middle East's leading English daily speaks at the Hillel House at the University of Iowa 

    2007:Some of the world's best klezmer musicians gathered in a New York neighborhood that was once home to poor immigrant Jews for a 10-day festival of the music rooted in their Eastern European cultures.

    2008: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or about topics of special interest to Jews including My Father’s Paradise: A Son’s Search for His Jewish Past in Kurdish Iraq by Ariel Sabar and The Partnership:The Making of Goldman Sachsby Charles D. Ellis.

    2008: The Washington Post featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or about topics of special interest to Jews including Hitler’s Empire:How the Nazis Ruled Europe by Mark Mazower and two paperback offering: A Little History of the World by E.H. Gombrich; Translated from the German by Caroline Mustill and Just Say Nu Yiddish for Every Occasion (When English Just Won't Do)by Michael Wex.

    2008: In Atlanta, members of The Temple gathered to observe the 50th anniversary of the blast that shook the congregation, recalling , recalling its terrifying aftermath and the way it changed their congregation's mission to promote racial equality. The bombing of a prominent Atlantasynagogue in 1958 claimed no lives, but the community outrage that it prompted helped galvanize the city's nervous Jewish community to embrace the civil rights movement."What could have been a terribly tragic event had the effect of making the congregation more confident, and more willing to get involved in controversial events," said Ellen Rafshoon, who curated an exhibit on the bombing at Emory University's rare manuscripts library. The Reform congregation, housed in a handsome cluster of buildings on one of Atlanta's busiest streets, had for years discouraged conflicts with Atlanta's dominant Christian community. But the synagogue's message changed when it hired Rabbi Jacob Rothschild to lead the congregation in 1946. Sermons encouraging racial equality soon became an annual tradition on Jewish holidays, and the rabbi slowly pushed his congregants to work for integration. "He suspected all along that he was endangering the congregation and his family," said Rothschild's widow, Janice Rothschild Blumberg, who remarried after the rabbi's death in 1973. "But he felt he had to do it, that this was his duty — as a rabbi and a human being." On the early morning of Oct. 12, 1958, some 50 sticks of dynamite exploded in the synagogue's entryway, destroying a part of the building. At least six other synagogues around the nation had been targeted by bombs in the previous year. But it was a particular shock for congregants who believed Atlanta— whose leaders fostered a reputation as a bustling, progressive city — was immune from the hate crimes spreading across other parts of the South. "We were so naive at the time," said Jill Shapiro Thornton, a Templemember and a ninth-grade student at the time of the bombing. The city's Jewish community worried the bombing would be met with a halfhearted response, as had happened in the aftermath of the 1915 lynching of Leo Frank, a Temple member who was killed by a white mob. Instead, the Templewas flooded with letters and donations, messages of support from Girl Scout troops, concerned clergy — even a white citizens council in Alabama. Atlanta Mayor William Hartsfield visited the Templeand quickly went on television to condemn the bombers and the politicians who he said should share the blame. "Whether they like it or not, every political rabble-rouser is the godfather of these cross burners and dynamiters who sneak about in the dark and give a bad name to the South," he said. "It is high time the decent people of the South rise and take charge." Dozens of city, state and federal investigators fanned out across the area, arresting five suspects with ties to anti-Semitic groups. One suspect, George Bright, was acquitted in a high-profile trial, and charges against the other four co-defendants were dropped. Rothschild, meanwhile, continued to urge his flock to embrace racial equality. Among his proudest accomplishments was co-hosting an integrated dinner after Martin Luther King Jr. had won the Nobel Prize in 1964. Some 20 percent of the event's donors were Jewish, Rafshoon said. "Jews had become complacent and afraid, reluctant to stick their necks out," said Rafshoon. "The rabbi had pushed the congregation to take a stand, to support the civil rights movement. After the bombing, the big hug that came their way made Jews in Atlanta feel they could have the confidence to move forward on this controversial issue." Congregants on Sunday mingled with residents who came to pay respects in a new building near the site of the explosion. Some recalled it as a terrifying introduction to racism. Some said it cemented the Jewish community's role in Atlanta. To Blumberg, it was an act of violence that ultimately proved to be positive. "I felt it was like lancing a boil, like a surgeon opening a wound that didn't heal right," she said. That helps explain the surprising name she coined for the blast that shook Atlanta: "The bomb that healed."

    2008:A critically acclaimed fully staged off-Broadway production of Joseph Stein’s “Enter Laughing: The Musical” came to a close at The York Theatre. It was nominated for a 2009 Lucille Lortel Award for outstanding revival.”

    2009: Time magazine published an article entitled “How Moses Shaped America” by Bruce Feiler.

    2009:Israel and the U.S. are scheduled to begin their biggest joint air-defense exercise today. Code named  "Juniper Cobra," the maneuvers will be overseen by Adm. Mark Fitzgerald, chief of the U.S. Navy's Sixth Fleet and are designed to test the missile interceptors that would serve as a strategic bulwark in any future showdown with Iran.

    2009: As part of The New School's "Jewish Text" seminar series David Stromberg will be reading from and discussing his newest book, Baddies.

    2009(24th of Tishrei, 5770): Ninety-six year old Mildred Cohn who overcame gender and religious discrimination to make major advances in biochemistry and who received the nation's most prestigious award in science passed away today. (As reported by Matt Schudel)

     2010:Joshua Sobol is scheduled talk about his novel Cut Throat Dog at program sponsored byWesleyan University Jewish and Israel Studies program in Middleton.

    2010:YIVO Institute for Jewish Research is scheduled to present “Protocols of Justice: Inside the Rabbinical Court of Metz, France (1771-1789).”

    2010:After six years of construction, the American Consulate in Jerusalem is scheduled to open its new facility for consular services on Rehov David Flusser in the southern Arnona neighborhood today.

    2010:British Jewish author Howard Jacobson was the surprise winner of the Man Booker Prize today for The Finkler Question, the first comedy to scoop one of the English-speaking world's most coveted literary awards.

    2010(4thof Cheshvan, 5771):Ninety-five year old best-selling author Belva Plain passed away today (As reported Elsa Dixler)

    2010: The Guardian published Shabtai Rosenne: Eminent International lawyer, teacher and Israeli diplomat” by Malcom Shaw.

    2011(14thof Tishrei, 5772): Erev Sukkoth

    2011: Israeli cellist Inbal Segev is scheduled to perform at the Bulgarian Concert Evening in Carnegie Hall.

    2011:Galid Shalit's parents, Noam and Aviva, arrived this evening in their home in Mitzpe Hila in northern Israel, after leaving the protest site they had been encamped at in Jerusalem.

    2012: NFTY/HUC/AJA Teen Study Weekend is scheduled to begin in Cincinnati, Ohio.

    2012:The US State Department confirmed today that it had attempted to renew peace talks between Jerusalem and Damascus in 2010, before the outbreak of violence in Syria. The information partially confirmed an article in today’s Yedioth Ahronoth that stated that Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu agreed in principle to withdraw from the Golan Heights during indirect talks with Syrian President Bashar Assad in 2010.(As reported by Yoel Goldman and Ron Friedman)

    2012:Palestinian terrorists from the Gaza Strip fired a Grad rocket towards Netivot today, causing one civilian to suffer shock symptoms, according to the Negev Police.

    2013: In Jerusalem, the Ensemble Millennium is scheduled to perform “Night Music,” a concert that will include works by Mozart, Schubert, Liszt and Schoenberg.

    2013: The Hyman S & Freda Bernstein Jewish Literary Festival is scheduled to present “American Savage: Insights, Slights and Fights on Faith, Sex, Love and Politics” featuring Dan Savage.

    2013: Iran said it arrested three Israelis suspected of spying and attempting to recruit Iranian citizens to gather intelligence for Israel, Iranian news agency Mehr reported today.

    2013:"The State should act forcefully to send a message to these people," said Monique Ofer, wife of retired IDF Colonel Seraya Ofer, 61, who was murdered in a terror attack outside his home in the northern Jordan Valley early yesterday. "He was an amazing man, and two bastards took his life," she said.   (As reported by Ahiya Raved)

    2014: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Birth of the Pill: How Four Crusaders Reinvented Sex and Launched a Revolution by Jonathan Eig

    2014: “Race: Are We So Different?” is scheduled to open at the Illinois Holocaust Museum & Education Center.

    2014: The Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington is scheduled to host a new walking tour “Downtown Synagogues and D.C.’s Urban Evolution.”

    2014: The Jewish Museum of London is scheduled to host “Zangwill’s Ghetto: An East End Story” which is a walking tour of the author’s childhood neighborhood held to commemorate the 150th anniversary of Zangwill’s birth.

    2014: In honor of Sukkoth, the Oregon Jewish Museum and Center for Holocaust Education is scheduled to host “Pita in the Hut.”


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    OCTOBER 13

    54: Roman Emperor Claudius passed away.  For Jews, Claudius has to rate as one of the best of the Roman rulers. Among other things, he took the side of the Jews when they were attacked in Alexandria; he maintained a genuine friendship with Agrippa and allowed the Jews to elect their own high Priest while refraining from tampering with the Temple treasury.

    54: Nero ascends to the Roman throne. Nero would appoint four increasingly incompetent and venal governors whose misrule would play a key role in the outbreak of the Great Revolt.  When the Jews did rebel, Nero appointed Vespasian to put down the revolt.

    1307: In France, Phillip IV ordered the arrest of hundreds of Knights Templar on charges of heresy.  What Phillip was really after was control of the wealth of the Templars.  A year earlier, he had expelled the Jews from France after stripping them of their wealth.  Philip’s behavior is just one more example of greed hiding behind a façade of religious belief.

    1398:Richard Whittington was elected Lord Mayor of London. Whittington was one of those who defied the ban on Jews living in England when it suited his purposes. He brought a physician named Samson de Mirabeau into the realm for care for his wife in 1409.  Whittington was in good company when it came to ignoring the ban since King Henry IV brought Elias Ben Sabbetai from Bologna to serve as his physician in 1410.

    1483: Isaac Ben Judah Abravanel (also spelled Abarbanel) started his exegesis on the Bible. Born in Portugal 1437, Abravanel was one of the most colorful and interesting characters of the final decades of during which Jews lived in Spain and Portugal. He was part of a distinguished family and he was well educated in Jewish and secular studies.  Abravanel was a financier, tax collector and advisor to the King Alfonso of Portugal.  When Alfonso died, Abravanel had falling out with his successor.  It was at this time that Abravanel decided to give up his political duties and devote himself to writing commentaries.  For reasons that are too complex for this brief entry, Abravanel was forced to flee to Spain where he returned to his tax collecting duties.  He left Spain in 1492 and ended up in Naples where he ended up as financier and tax collector again.  He passed away in 1503 leaving behind a body of commentaries on the Torah and the Prophets. According to some authorities, his work is solid, but not original.  He is, however seen as being the last in a long line of Jewish commentators and philosophers who were part of the Sephardic culture that flourished from the 8th to the 15thcenturies.

    1534: Papacy of Paul III began. In response to the threat of the Protestant Reformation, Paul “established a system of tribunals, administered by the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Universal Inquisition’, and staffed by cardinals and other Church officials. This system would later become known as the Roman Inquisition.”  Unfortunately for the Jews, this iteration of the Inquisition also dealt with the “crimes” relating to Judaism including the attempts by Jews who had been forced to convert to return to the faith of their ancestors.

    1654: (2nd of Heshvan 5415): On this date Isaac Rodriguez Cunha, a citizen of Curacao, writes a letter which is addressed “to the illustrious Gentlemen, the Mahamad of the Holy Congregation Mikvah Israel, Curacao.” This is one of the first written pieces of evidence used in fixing the dates for the founding of the Jewish community and the synagogue in Curacao. Mahamad is a term used for the “board of directors of a Spanish-Portuguese Congregation

    1759(22ndof Tishrei, 5520): Shemini Atzeret

    1773: It was reported today that “a gentleman” who has “returned from the interior parts of North America, beyond the Ohio,” claims to have discovered “a nation of Jews” living among the Indians, “who call themselves Naphthali.” (Naphtali was the second son born to Jacob the concubine Bilhah)

    1788: In Kremenetz, Judah Levin, a grandson of Jekuthiel Solomon and his wife gave birth to Isaac Baer Levinsohn a leader of the Haskalah movement

    1789(23rdof Tishrei, 5550): Simchat Torah

    1791 :( 15th of Tishrei, 5552): Sukkoth

    1797(23rdof Tishrei, 5558): Simchat Torah

    1796: Censorship of Jewish books in Russia became official policy.

    1891: Birthdate of Emil Roediger the German orientalist and Hebrew linguist who edited books on Hebrew grammar.

    1816: In New York, Michael and Elizabeth Daly gave birth to Judge Charles Patrick Daly author of The Settlement of the Jews in North America.

    1820: Birthdate of Sir John William Dawson the Canadian geologist who “traveled extensively in Egypt and Syria” and whose works included “Archaia” Studies on the Cosmogony and Natural History of the Hebrew Scriptures.

    1821: Birthdate of Rudolf Virchow, the German biologist and anthropologist whose family may have at one time been Jewish and who studied the biological characteristics of thousands of Jewish schoolchildren as part of his attempt to “provide a rational for the sense of Jewish acculturation” even though “he still assumed that Jews were a separate and distinct racial category.”

    1823: Francis Ephriam Cohen who would change his name to Francis Palgrave married Elizabeth Turner following his conversion to Anglican Christianity, a move that no doubt advanced his career as an historian and archivist.

    1843: B'nai Brithwas founded under the leadership of Henry Jones at Sinsheimer's cafe on Essex Street in New York. Its original mission was the maintenance of orphanages and homes for the elderly and widows. It extended its work to many spheres of American Jewish life, including combating anti-Semitism. (A.D.L.) and working with students on campus (Hillel).

    1844: An election was scheduled to be held today to choose the Orthodox Chief Rabbi of the British Empire.  The election was won by Dr. Nathan Marcus Adler who held the position from 1845 until his death in 1890.

    1846(23rdof Tishrei, 5607): Simchat Torah

    1846: Birthdate of Hebrew poet and Yiddish author Isaac Rabinowitz the native of Kovno many of whose works can be found in Zemirot Yisrael and who passed away in the New York City where he went to join his children.

    1847(3rdof Cheshvan, 5608):Rabbi Jizchok Arye, (Isaac Loew Matthes Wormser) also called the Wonder Rabbi Michel city and Baal Shem of Michel City passed away today.

    1853: “Hebrew Ceremonial” published today reported that the Jews were absent from their businesses on New York City’s Chatham Street yesterday because they were observing the “Day of Atonement, which the Hebrew still duly celebrates though three thousand years have elapsed Moses delivered his Levitical command” concerning this Fast Day.  It is the “same statute” the Jews have observed “by the rivers of Poland, in the streets of York, in the valleys of the Aragon” or now “by the banks of the Hudson” river.

    1862: In Manchester, Rabbi Gustav Gottheil and his wife gave birth Birthdate of RabbiRichard James Horatio Gottheil

    1865(23rd of Tishrei, 5626): Simchat Torah celebrated for the first time during the Presidency of Andrew Johnson.

    1871(28th of Tishrei, 5632): Fifty-eight year old Moses Millaud, French banker, businessman and founder of Le Petit Journal passed away today.  He was a supporter of Louis Napoleon (Emperor Napoleon) and was involved in some of the more infamous financial scandals of his time.

    1873(22ndof Tishrei, 5634): Shemini Atzeret

    1873: Today, the Hebrew Society of St. Joseph, MO, sent five hundred dollars to aid people in Memphis, TN caught in the grips of a Yellow Fever Epidemic.

    1875(14thof Tishrei, 5636): Erev Sukkoth

    1875(14thof Tishrei, 5636): Sixty-four year old Judah Leib "Leopold" Löw, the Hungarian Rabbi who incorporated elements of modernity in his Orthodox world passed away Szeged where he had been leading the community since 1850 despite many offers to lead large communities including Bucharest.

    1875: It was reported today that a survey expedition composed of English officers and soldiers was attacked by marauders at their camp at Ain el Beida in Palestine. The group was conducting a triangulation exercise in western Palestine, specifically the Galilee and most important of all Safed “one of the ‘Holy Cities’ of the Jews’…” According to the report, Lieutenant Kitchener was of the English officers who was involved in this minor skirmish. [History would come to know him as Lord Kitchener, who was involved in all of those 19th British Imperial Campaigns from Egypt, to Sudan, to Khartoum to South Africa. He played a critical role in Britain’s early war effort in WWI before being drowned while on his way to Russia.  But all of that began here, in Palestine, when a 24 year old lieutenant faced an armed enemy for the first time.]

    1876: In New York, Clara Koffman and Joseph B. Bloomingdale gave birth to Rosalie Stanton Bloomingdale.

    1877: It was reported today that New York State Supreme Court Judge Barrett has turned down the application of Rabbi Ash of the Ludlow Street Synagogue to be given the $200 that had belonged to the late Abraham Weisberg so that he could send it to a rabbi the Polish village where the descendant’s children live.  Under the law, Barrett said that a guardian for the minor children would have to appointed before he could take action. (This is an example of the myriad conflicts that arose from the fact that fathers and husbands came to the U.S. ahead of their families with the intent to bring them to America once they had earned enough to pay for passage.)

    1878(16thof Tishrei, 5639): Second Day of Sukkot

    1878(16thof Tishrei, 5639): Twenty three days before his 71st birthday Seligman Baer Bamberger who was serving as the rabbi of Wurzburg passed away today.

    1878: “Lord Beaconsfield’s Policy” published today, claimed that Great Britain has shifted her foreign policy for the first time in over 135 years to one of annexation and aggressive imperialism.  This change is the result of Beaconsfield’s ability to dissemble and confuse the English people which is due, in part, to the fact that he is a Jew.

    1880: Birthdate of Sasha Cherny, the pen name of Russian poet and satirist Alexander Mikhailovich Glikberg

    1881: Eliezer Ben-Yehuda and friends decided to speak Hebrew exclusively, marking the beginning of the revival of the language in modern times.  Born Eliezer Perlman in Lithuania, Ben- Yehuda is proof that one person can make a difference.  As a youngster, a rabbi gave Ben-Yeuda a Hebrew translation of Robinson Crusoe.  That experience convinced him that Hebrew should be a modern, spoken language as well as a language of prayer.  He devoted the rest of his life to the idea of living in the land of Israel where Hebrew would be the spoken language.  He arrived in Jaffa with his bride In 1881 and he became associate editor of a Hebrew Language journal.  His task of creating a modern Hebrew language was not an easy one.  He was attacked both in print and physically by those who thought he was desecrating the holy tongue.  At the same time, he had to keep inventing words since much had happened since Hebrew was last a an active language.  Life was a real challenge for his children.  It was difficult for them to have playmates since they were the only people who spoke Hebrew.  Ben-Yehuda did not give up his dream.  He lived to see Hebrew become one of the three official languages of Palestine under the Mandate after World War I.  Such was his success that by the time he died in 1922, a majority of the Jews in Palestine listed Hebrew as their native tongue on the census forms.

    1884: “Two Love-Sick Ducks” published today described an altercation between a Jew and a Gentile who were competing for the affections of Jewish widow living in St. Mark’s Place. The two became so violent that they ended up in front of a Judge who agreed to release them “with the hope that Providence will improve the quality of your brains.

    1884: Funeral services were held today for Rabbi Adoph Huebsch at Ahavath Chesed in New York City.  The overflow crowd included numerous Jewish leaders from across the United States the most prominent of whom was Rabbi Wise of Cincinnati, the leader of the Reform Movement in the United States. Rabbi Theodore Guenzberg, Huebsch’s assistant, led the worship service.  Temple Emanu-El’s Rabbi Gottehiel delivered a sermon in German.  Rabbi Jacob delivered the English language sermon.  Following the funeral services the rabbi was interred in Linden Hill Cemetery on Long Island. 

    1885: Harry Hershfield who has been described as “the Jewish Will Rogers” was born in Cedar Rapids, Iowa

    1885:  The Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), home of the Yellow Jackets, is founded in Atlanta, Georgia. Today, Tech’s undergraduate and graduate population of 19,000 includes approximately 600 Jewish students.  There are several Jewish organizations on campus including AEPi Fraternity, Hillel and Jackets for Israel which co-sponsors the annual Israel-fest.

    1888: At the insistence of his future wife, Otto Pierre Siegelstein married Mary Bubis at City Hall; a fact that he would later contest in his attempt to have the marriage annulled.

    1891: As the famine in Russia worsens, it was reported that “the destitute Jews who have expelled from Kiev, Moscow and Odessa are swelling the ranks of the famished” populated primarily by Christian peasants.

    1891: Birthdate of Jennie Loitman Barron, judge, lawyer, and suffragist. Born in Boston's West End, Barron attended Boston University where she earned her BA, LL.B, and LL.M. degrees and was active in Boston University's League for Equal Suffrage. Barron started her own law firm after graduation and created a new firm with her husband Samuel Barron, Jr. when they married four years later.Barron was elected president of the Massachusetts Association of Women Lawyers and campaigned for uniform marriage and divorce laws, as well as for women's right to serve on juries. She also worked to mobilize women to exercise their newly established right to vote. Barron began her thirty-five year career as a judge in 1934 when she was appointed by the governor as a special justice of the Western Norfolk District Court. In 1937, she was named to be an associate of the Boston Municipal Court. She left this position when she became an associate of the Massachusetts Superior Court in 1957 -- the first woman to hold this position. Throughout her career, Barron remained active in the Jewish community serving as the first president of the Women's Auxiliary of Boston's Beth Israel Hospital, on the first board of Brandeis University National Women's Committee, and as the first president of the New England Women's Division of the American Jewish Congress. Barron died in March 1969, one year after her husband's death. (As reported by Jewish Women’s Archive)

    1892(22ndof Tishrei, 5653): Shemini Atzeret

    1892: “A Republican Insult To Jews” published today described the problems facing William Warner, the Republican candidate for Governor of Missouri, following the denouement of Isaac Isaacs, the Secretary of the League of Republican Clubs and the “roasting” of the Jews  by his personal manager John T. Blake.

    1892: Isaac Issacs, the deposed Secretary of the League of Republicans who is Jewish said that the Jews would not accept an apology from Mr. Blake, the campaign manager for Major Warner, the Republican candidate for governor of Missouri. “The only thing that will conciliate the Jewish vote will be the removal of Mr. Blake.

    1893: Edward Everett Hale delivered an address at the Lake Mohonk Conference of Friends of the Indians in which “he spoke of the great success of Massachusetts in assimilating the Hebrew immigrants by breaking up their clannishness and scattering them among the American populations and asked why the same principle should not apply to the Indian.”

    1893: The Hebrew Journal express praise for the opposition of the New York Times to an upcoming prize fight between and American and an English man which is supported by powerful interest in New York and Brooklyn.

    1893: Congressman Rayner of Maryland gave a speech in the House of Representatives expressing his views on the Geary Chinese Registration and Exclusion Act which “closed with a fervid appeal…to not commit a great national crime, as gross and wicked as the treatment accorded by Russia to the unfortunate Jews in her dominion and against which our own Government had protested.”

    1893: “Curious Coincidences” published today described recently discovered connections between Columbus and the Jewish people including evidence that “Hebrews were among the sailors that composed crews of the three vessels,” the role of Luis de Toress and the evidence produced by Dr. Moses of Kayserling of Budapest that Columbus set sail on the 9th day of Av and made landfall in the New World on the “Seventh Day of the Jewish Feast of Tabernacle, the da of the great Hosanas.”
    1893: Because it is erev Shabbat, there will be a pause in the festivities marking the Golden Anniversary of the B’Nai B’rith.

    1893(3rdof Cheshvan, 5654): Eighty-one year old the Confederate officer who “pioneered the commercial growing of peaches in “the Peachtree State” passed away today in Belgium.

    1894: “A Bully’s Career Ends in Death” published today described the demise of Otto Slimbach a Brooklyn bully who on the night he was mortally stabbed by an unknown party had beaten his mother and gone through the Jewish neighborhood indulging “in Jew-baiting for his further amusement.”

    1894: In New York, Police Inspector Williams began an investigation into charges that the police had beaten the striking cloakmakers many of whom were Jewish including Israel Groman.

    1894: Alfred Dreyfus is arrested by Commandant du Paty de Clam, an assistant to the Army Chief of Staff and charged with treason.  Dreyfus was left alone with a pistol, having been encouraged to do “the honorable thing.”  When Dreyfus refused he was marched off to prison where he would be kept in solitary confinement for the next five days.

    1898:The Zionist Delegation including Joseph Seidener, Moses T. Schnirer, Theodor Herzl, David Wolffsohn and Max Bodenheimer takes the Orient Express to Constantinople as they pursue Herzl’s dream of top-down Zionism.

    1903(22nd of Tishrei, 5664): Shemini Atzeret

    1903(22nd of Tishrei, 5664): Dr. Marcus M. Jastrow a noted Hebrew scholar and educator who was  rabbi emeritus of Rodef Shalom, a synagogue in Philadelphia, PA, passed away today at his home in Germantown, PA.  Born in Pozen in 1829 he graduated from the University of Berlin.  He came to the United States in 1866 and became the Rabbi at Rodef Shalom, a position he held until his retirement in 1892.  His major literary work was “A Dictionary of the Targumim, Talmud Babli, Talmud Yerushalmi and Midrashic Literature.”

    1905: Sixty-seven year old Sir Henry Irving the British actor manager whose first great career success came with his portrayal of Mathias in “The Bells” (an adaptation of “Le Juif Polonais” and whose portrayal of Shylock provided him with a dignity not usually seen in other actors, passed away today.

    1909: Birthdate of Herbert Lawrence Block, the Pulitzer Prize winning political cartoonist who gained fame as Herblock and set the standard by which all practice this genre are evaluated.

    1910(10th of Tishrei, 5671): Yom Kippur

    1911: Multiple telegrams were received in London from Malta, Gabes and Djerba, appealing for help for the many thousands of Jewish refugees from Tripoli.

    1912: Birthdate of Hugo David Weisgall, the Moravian born American composer and conductor “who served as aid-de-camp to General Patton” during WW II.

    1912: Israel Abrahams, a Reader in Rabbinics at the University of Cambridge and a leader of the UK’s liberal Jewish movement addressed a meeting held in his honor at New York’s Astor Hotel.  Dr. Henry M. Leipziger, President of Judeans, presided over the meeting and introduced Mr. Abrahams.  Among the other speakers were Rabbi Joseph Silverman of Temple Emanu-El and Rabbi Stephen S. Wise of the Free Synagogue.  Oscar S. Straus, Progressive Party candidate for Governor of New York, who was to have delivered an address, sent a message expressing his regrets at having been unavoidably detained. Abrahams spoke about a favorite topic of the time “The Jewish Problem.”  In a unique twist, Abrahams defined it as “The eternal question of living two lives harmoniously.”

    1913: According to legend, German-Jewish philosopher Franz Rosenzwieg attended Yom Kippur services for what he thought would be his last visit to a Jewish house of worship before converting to Christianity.  “But that prayer service moved him so profoundly that he gave up the idea of converting and became a committed Jewish philosopher, who saw his religion as preferable to Christianity.

    1914(23rd of Tishrei, 5676): Simchat Torah

    1914(23rd of Tishrei 5676): 50 year old Mrs. Rose Baruch Streng, the wife of Bernard Streng, a native of Landau, Germany passed away at her home on West 143rd Street in New York.

    1914: “Russian Treaty Approved” published today the decision of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations to approve a peace treaty with Russia which  might be a prelude to the signing of new treaty of commerce “to take the place of the treaty of 1832 abrogated by the United States because of Russia’s treatment of American Jews.”

    1914: “Foreign Legion Of Jews published today provides Israel Zangwill’s view that Jews support the Allies over the cause of the Kaiser as can be seen by the number of Jews who have tried to enlist in the Jewish Territorial Organization which is a Zionist organization under the misconception that it is part of the British Army – proof that “it would be easy to form a foreign legion of Jews grateful for Britain’s sympathy” as can already be seen by the thousands of Jews already serving in the military.

    1914: “15 Poisoned at Feast” published today described the unfortunate events at the Sukkoth Meal eaten by the large family of Samuel Horowitz where several of the attendees came down with ptomaine poisoning after having some tainted fish.

    1914: Judge Leon Sanders, the President of the Hebrew Shelter and Immigrant Aid Society, has organized “a special Relief Committee for the Jewish suffers in all of the nations at war, following an appeal sent to the Austro-Hungarian Legation in New York by Jews in Austria.

    1920: In Berlin chess champion Mimi (née Heller) and psychiatrist Harry Marcuse gave birth to Albert Marcuse who was raised as a Lutheran because “his family considered their Jewish heritage a liability” and who gained fame as American composer and actor Albert Hague.

    1924(15th of Tishrei, 5685): Sukkoth

    1925: Birthdate of Lenny Bruce. Born Leonard Alfred Schneider he was a controversial comedian and satirist. He passed away in 1966

    1928(29thof Tishrei, 5689): Seventy year old German Jewish otolaryngologist Wilhelm Fliess passed away today

    1929(9thof Tishrei, 5690): Erev Yom Kippur

    1929: In Manhattan, Joseph and Sylvia Slifka gave birth to twins – Barabara and Alan Bruce Slifka, “a New York investment manager who used his fortune to promote harmony among Israeli Arabs and Jews and to give the Big Apple Circus its start.” (As reported by Dennis Hevesi)

    1937:The Palestine Post reported that a slight earth tremor was felt in Jerusalem. It lasted about a second, and caused in some cases a definite sway of upper stories of buildings. There were sporadic Arab attacks, accompanied by heavy firing, at Hadera, Safed and on Kibbutz Gordonia. A curfew was imposed on Safed. Robbers operated in the no-man's-land between the Palestinian and Lebanese French border posts at Nakura. The attackers were protected by other well-armed men in surrounding area.

    1939: Chaim Kaplan, the director of a Hebrew School in Warsaw, described the Jewish reactions to the Soviet occupation of Poland with the following diary entry: “The Jews there looked upon the Bolsheviks as redeeming messiahs.  Even the wealthy, who would become poor under Bolshevism, preferred the Russians to the Germans.  There is plunder on the one hand and plunder on the other, but the Russians plunder one as a citizen and a man, while the Nazis plunder one as a Jew.  The former Polish government never spoiled us, but at the same time never overtly singled us out for torture.  The Nazi is a sadist, however.  His hatred of the Jews is psychosis.  He flogs and derives pleasure from it.  The torment of the victim is a balm to his soul, especially if the victim is a Jew.

    1939: New York premiere of “Babes In Arms,” a musical produced by Arthur Freed with songs by Richard Rogers, Lorenz Hart, Harold Arlen and E.Y. Harburg.

    1940: Jews from Warsaw's suburbs were ordered into the Warsaw Ghetto.

    1941(22ndof Tishrei, 5702): Shemini Atzeret

    1942: Birthdate of singer and composer Paul Simon.

    1943: One hundredth anniversary of the founding of B’nai B’rith

    1943: A revolt took place in Camp Number I at Sobibor.  Alexander Pechersky distributed knives and hatchets to other prisoners. Nine SS and two Ukrainians were killed in the fighting. Three hundred of the prisoners from Camp Number I' escaped. The other 300 would be killed. However, as a result of this revolt, Sobibor ended its operation.

    1944: The Soviet Troops entered Riga. Only a handful of Jews had survived in city where there were 30,000 Jews just ten years earlier.

    1945 (6th of Cheshvan, 5706):  On Shabbat, Leon Recanati, Sephardic leader of Palestine and formerly of Salonika passed away. Recanati was a "happy admixture of a learned Jew with his Biblical wisdom on the one hand and a man of affairs with a sense of reality on the other."

    1946: “Three masked gunmen” believed to members of the Irgun “escaped with $12,000 after a daring daylight robbery in down town Tel Aviv.

    1946: Members of Hashomir Hatzair (Young Guard), a left-wing Zionist organization, “distributed pamphlets in Tel Aviv calling on the Jewish community in Palestine to take ‘active measures’ against Jewish terrorist organizations.”

    1948(10th of Tishrei, 5709) Yom Kippur

    1948: An Israeli army unit held Yom Kippur services on Mt. Zion, right outside the [then] sealed Zion's Gate of the Old City of Jerusalem. There they blew the Shofar, the closest place to the Western Wall they could get.

    1948: U.N. “observers reported that the Arabs had fired with automatic weapons ‘for several hours, from an area under UN supervision, and with any provocation by Jewish Forces.’”

    1950: U.S. premiere of “All About Eve,” a drama written and directed by Joseph L. Mankiewicz with music by Alfred Newman.

    1952: The Jerusalem Post reported that the cabinet had appointed a seven-member Board of Directors of the German Reparations Purchasing Company. The board was responsible, through Foreign Minister Levi Eshkol, to a five-man ministerial committee which was aided by a 13-member Planning Committee and an Advisory Council of 25 members. You might recognize the name of Levi Eshkol.  He would be Prime Minister in June of 1967 when Israel defended itself against its Arab neighbors and reunited the city of Jerusalem

    1953(4th of Cheshvan, 5714): “Arab terrorists called Fedayeen, infiltrate into the Israeli village of Yahud and kill Suzanne Kinyas and two of her children (the youngest of which was only 18 months old) in their sleep bringing the toll of Israeli civilian victims to 124.

    1955: Premiere of “Will Success Spoil Rock Hunter” written by George Axelrod, whose father was Jewish.

    1955: “The Pajama Game,” the Richard Adler and Jerry Ross musical opened in London, UK today for the first of 588 performances.

    1957(18thof Tishrei, 5718): Sukkoth IV

    1957(18thof Tishrei, 5718): Sixty-four year old literary critic and philologist Erich Auberbach passed away today.

    1960(22ndof Tishrei, 5721): Shemini Atzeret

    1960: Birthdate of Ari Fleischer, former Press Secretary for President Bush

    1962(15thof Tishrei, 5723): Sukkoth

    1960: In the seventh game of the World Series, as future hall of famer  Bill Mazeroski rounded first base after having hit the series winning home run, he runs past first base coach, Lenny Levy, the Pittsburgh native who spent most of his life serving in some capacity with the Pirates organization.

    1967(9th of Tishrei, 5728): Erev Yom Kippur

    1968: B’nai B’rith celebrates its 125th anniversary

    1968: “A Birthday Today For B’nai B’rith” published today traces the history and contributions of the Jewish fraternal organization from its inception during the Presidency of John Tyler to the middle of the twentieth century.

    1971(24th of Tishrei, 5732): Fifty-seven Phoebe Ephron, part of a noted artistic family passed away today in New York City.

    1971: Birthdate Sacha Baron Cohen, the British born comedian who first gained fame portraying his highly successful comedy character Ali G.

    1973: Jordan entered the Yom Kippur War.  Thinking that initial Arab victories would spell the demise of Israel, King Hussein thought he would get back the West Bank and east Jerusalem.  In the end he lost again and ended up having to surrender his claims to these lands to the PLO.

    1973: During the Yom Kippur War, Egyptian reinforcements continued to cross the Suez Canal and began attacking Israeli forces. 

    1973:  Israeli forces confronted large numbers of Iraqi tanks both on the road to Damascus and on the Golan Heights.  In both battles, Israeli forces destroyed considerable number of the Iraqi tanks while sustaining minimal losses.  Israeli aircraft refrained from shooting down the Soviet transports that were landing at Damascus.  However, Israeli forces did destroy at least two Soviet craft once they had landed sparking threats from Moscow. 

    1973:  After much hesitation and despite opposition from America’s Western Allies, President Nixon ordered a massive airlift of supplies for the IDF.  The material helped offset the tons of modern weaponry being shipped into the region by the Russians.  Many Jews shifted their allegiance to Nixon and the Republicans based on the airlift.  However, they seemed to have forgotten that if the Nixon administration had not kept the Israelis from conducting a pre-emptive strike against the Egyptians before they crossed the Canal, none of this would have been necessary in the first place.

    1973: Avraham Lanir was scrambled for a reconnaissance mission deep in Syrian territory. During his return to Israel, Lanir was caught in a missile ambush and his Mirage was hit in the rear, forcing him to eject. The wind carried the parachuting pilot back over the border into Syrian territory and he landed in the area of Mazra'at Beit Jinn. Israeli Armor Corps soldiers witnessed him land and attempted to rescue him, but he was captured by a Syrian jeep patrol that reached him first. Lt. Col.  Lanir was tortured to death by his Syrian captors. His body was finally returned by the Syrians in 1974. “Former Israel Air Force Commander Mordechai Hod noted that Lanir had information that would have placed the existence of Israel at risk had he revealed it to the Syrians.”

    1973:Ady Bnaya and David Ya'ir made it back safely to Israeli lines after their F-4E Phantom Jet was shot down by Syrian anti-aircraft fire.

    1973: Iftach Zemer and Itzhak Amitai returned safely to Israeli lines when they were forced to eject from their F-4E Phantom Jet after it suffered a technical malfunction.

    1973: After his Phantom F-4E Jet fell victim to “friendly fire,” Uri Bakal safely ejected and made it back to Israeli lines.

    1974: Seventy-two year old Austrian conductor Josef Krips, whose father was Jewish which meant he had to leave his native land to pursue his career while the Nazis were in power, passed away today.

    1977:The Jerusalem Post reported that US President Jimmy Carter welcomed the Israeli cabinet's approval of a "working paper" on procedures for reconvening of the Geneva Middle East peace conference. "I am pleased with that," he said. His officials explained that what the US had in mind was the creation of some sort of a Palestinian "borough" on the West Bank and in Gaza which would be linked with Jordan. Asked directly whether he advocated an "entity," Carter simply replied, "I have never advocated an independent Palestinian state."  These negotiations of 25 years ago provide a tragic-comical backdrop to the so-called peace negotiations that have been taking place since the Camp David Meetings hosted by President Clinton.

    1977: Four Palestinians hijacked a Lufthansa Airlines flight to Somalia and demand release of 11 members of the Red Army Faction. Yes, twenty-five years ago, terrorists were interconnected, often sharing resources, training facilities and killing assignments.

    1986:Rita Levi-Montalcini’s pioneering work on nerve growth earned her the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.  (As reported by the Jewish Women’s Archive)

    1989: Israeli soldiers killed an 18-year-old Palestinian in a West Bank village, Qalqilya, after they were attacked by masked youths.

    1990: Syria invaded Lebanon killing over 500.  There was no noticeable protest from Arab states or the U.N.

    1993: 150thanniversary of the founding of B’nai B’rith.

    1993: U.S. Premiere of the Notre Dame football film “Rudy” co-starring Jon Favreau with music by Jerry Goldsmith

    1994: Fifty thousand Jews gathered at the Wailing Wall to pray for the life of Nachshon Wachsman, a nineteen year old Israeli soldier who had been kidnapped by Hamas.

    1995(19th of Tishrei, 5756): Fifth Day of Sukkoth

    1995(19th of Tishrei, 5756): Eighty-nine year old Henry Roth, author of Call It Sleeppassed away. Born in 1906, Roth was ignored for most of his career and was reduced to holding a variety of jobs since he could not support himself as a writer.  Later in life, he enjoyed a re-birth of interest which continued for at least a decade after his death. (As reported by Richard Nicholls)

    1997:  Syria Invaded Lebanon again.  Actually, Syrian troops had occupied parts of Lebanon since 1977.  Lebanon is more like a satellite of Syria, than a truly independent nation.  The late President Assad had a vision of ruling Greater Syria – nation that would include Syria, parts of Jordan, Lebanon and Israel.

    2002: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or about topics of special interest to Jews includingThe Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature, by Steven Pinker, Jackie Robinson and the Integration of Baseball by Scott Simon and Rereading Sex: Battle Over Sexual Knowledge and Suppression in Nineteenth-Century American by Helen Lefkowitz

    2004(28th of Tishrei, 5765): In London, Bernice Rubens passed away at the age of 76.  The prolific British novelist drew on her Jewish upbringing to tell stories of vice and grimness with warmth and humor.  “She won Britain’s’ prestigious Booker Prize for fiction in 1970 for The Elected Member, the story of a Jewish family whose secrets drive one son insane.”

    2005(10th of Tishrei, 5766): Yom Kippur is observed by Jews all over the world.

    2006(21st of Tishrei, 5767): Hoshana Rabah

    2006: “Stage Killing: Solving an Attempted Murder” published today provides Faith Jones account of the love triangle surrounding David Levinson, Morris Finkel and Yiddish theatre star Emma Thomashefsky Finkel.

    2006: The End, Lemony Snicket’s final novel is scheduled to come out today.

    2007: Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan, 5768(Second Day) – First of Cheshvan

    2007: Yaakov Katz the military correspondent and defense analyst for The Jerusalem Post, the Middle East's leading English daily speaks at Agudas Achim in Iowa City, IA.

    2007:Haaretz reported that in Lakewood, New Jersey, a man wielding an aluminum baseball bat attacked an Orthodox Jewish rabbi walking to synagogue critically injuring the 53-year-old man and threatening to strain the already tense ethnic relations in a New Jersey city, officials and residents said. The beating of Mordechai Moskowitz, reportedly at the hands of am African-American man, has put residents on edge in Lakewood, a diverse city of 70,000 near the Jersey Shore that is home to a large Orthodox Jewish population, as well as black and Hispanic communities.
    2008(14th of Tishrei, 5769): Erev Sukkoth


    2008: Paul Krugman, the Princeton University scholar and New York Times columnist, won the Nobel Prize in Economics for his analysis of how economies of scale can affect trade patterns and the location of economic activity

    2009:  Chronic City, a novel by Jonathan Lethem, was published today.

    2009: Assaf Ramon, the son of Colonel Ilan Ramon who died on the Columbia in 2003, was commemorated today during a military rememberance ceremony marking the 30-day anniversary of his death.

    2009: Former Agriproccessor executive Shlomo Rubashkin is scheduled to go on trial in St. Louis, MO.

    2009: Channel Two reported that Dalia Itzik spent NIS 75,000 of taxpayers' money on an unnecessary hotel upgrade during a 2006 4-night trip to Paris, France.

    2009: The Library of Congress opens a new exhibition "Herblock!," highlighting the life and works of the great political cartoonist.

    2009:A Massachusetts judge has denied a motion by Brandeis University to dismiss a lawsuit brought by three overseers of the school’s Rose Art Museum who are seeking to stop the university from closing the museum and selling its works.

    2009(25thof Tishrei, 5770):Seventy-seven year old movie producer and studio executive Daniel Melnick passed away today. (As reported by Douglas Martin)

    2010(5thof Cheshvan, 5771): Eighty year old lexicographer, author and tenured member of Olbom (On Language’s Board of Octogenarian Mentors) Sol Steinmetz passed away today.  (As reported by Margalit Fox)

    2010:David Grossman and Nicole Krauss are scheduled to talk about their new novels, To the End of the Land and Great House at the New York Public Library.

    2010:Among the 20 finalists for the National Book Awards that were announced today was Nicole Krauss for her third novel, Great House,  a sprawling story of memory and loss

    2010: Ron Charles reviewed The Finkler Question the Howard Jacobson comic novel about anti-Semitism which just won the Man Booker Prize for Fiction in London.

    2011(15thof Tishrei, 5772): Sukkoth

    2011(15thof Tishrei, 5722): Yahrzeit of William Schueller, husband of Eleanor Schueller and father of Deb Levin

    2011:Milan's La Scala opera house said today that Israeli pianist and conductor Daniel Barenboim would serve as its new music director for the next five years.

    2011:IDF Chief of General Staff Lt.-Gen. Benny Gantz met with Noam and Aviv Schalit this evening, confirming that their son Gilad Schalit would be returning to Israel on October 18, Channel 2 reported.

    2011:  Hamas-affiliated media outlets began today publishing names of imprisoned terrorists who will reportedly be set free by Israel in exchange for captive soldier Gilad Schalit.

    2012: Six13 “a six-man vocal band that brings an unprecedented style of Jewish music to the stage” is scheduled to appear in the Jewish Community Center of Northern Virginia Performing Art Series.

    2012: Israeli films “Chasing A Star” and “One Day After Peace” are scheduled to be shown at the Syracuse Film Festival in Syracuse, NY.

    2012: Tosha Skolnik, an 8th grader at Alice Deal, is scheduled to be called to the Torah as Bar Mitzvah at Adas Israel in Washington, DC.

    2012: Seventy year old Barbra Streisand is scheduled to “return to her roots” with a concert at Barclays Center in Brooklyn, NY.

    2012(27thof Tishrei, 5773): The cycle begins again as Jews all over the world read Bereshit.

    2012: One man was reportedly killed and two others were injured tonight in an IAF attack in Jabalia, in the northern Gaza Strip. The strike targeted Islamic Jihad members who had reportedly planned to carry out an attack against Israelis during the Sukkot holiday. They were said to belong to the Mujahideen Shura Council, an armed group linked to al-Qaeda.

    2012: Iran hinted today that it was responsible for a drone that flew deep into Israel on October 6, before being shot down by the Israeli Air Force.

    2013: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Devil That Never Dies: The Rise and Threat of Global Anti-Semitism by Daniel Johnah Goldhagen and the Kraus Project: The Essays of Karl Kraus translated and annotated by Jonathan Franzen as well as an interview with Scott Turrow whose latest work is Identical.

    2013:Passages through the Fire: Jews and the Civil War” is scheduled to open today at the Maryland Museum of Jewish History

    2013: “Her” starring Puerto Rican born Jewish actor Joaquin Phoenix is scheduled to debut at the New York Film Festival.

    2013: The Hyman S & Freda Bernstein Jewish Literary Festival is scheduled to host a Local Author Fair featuring Melissa Ford, author of Measure of Loveand David Bruce Smith, author of American Hero: John Marshall, Chief Justice of the United States

    2013: After almost a year, “It’s a Thin Line: The Eruv and Jewish Community in New York and Beyond comes to an end at the Yeshiva University Museum

    2013:Skokie: Invaded, But Not Conquered” is scheduled to shown this afternoon at the Illinois Museum and Education Center.

    2013: Led by Amy Barnum, Hadassah is scheduled to hold its annual dinner at Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, Iowa.

    2014: In Scarsdale, NY, thhe funeral for Edward M. Davidowitz, retired Justice of the Supreme Court of the State of New York is scheduled to be held Westchester Reform Temple

    2014: As part of its series on the Jewish Experience in the Trenches and at the Homefront” during WW I, the Center for Jewish History is scheduled to show La Grande Illusion (The Grand Illusion), a 1937 French war film directed by Jean Renoir

    2014: The JCC of Northern Virginia is scheduled to host a presentation by Bill Schneider entitled 2014 Election – Viewpoint from the Nation’s Electionmeister.”

    2014: Members of the House of Commons are scheduled to vote on a motion “that is being put forward by Labor MP Grahame Morris” calling for recognizing “the Palestinian state.” (As reported by Times of Israel)

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    OCTOBER 14

    680:Wamba, the Visigoth King of Hispania, abdicated.  During his reign, he issued an order expelling the Jews from Spain.  This was part of an on-going policy of abuse, mistreatment and humiliation the Jews suffered under the Catholic Visigoth monarchs.
    996: Beginning of the reign of the Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim who ordered Christians to put on half-meter wooden crosses and Jews to wear wooden calves around their necks
    1066: William and his Norman army were victorious at the Battle of Hastings.  The Jewish community in England dates from the Norman conquest of the British Isles. William brought a group of Jews from Rouen, part of his holdings in Normandy.  That decision probably did not sit well with the Pope.  William probably wanted the Jews to settle in England because of their commercial skills.  The Jews were limited in their activities.  For example, William conformed to the Pope’s decree that Jews were not allowed to keep Christian bondsman or to use Christians as nurses.
    1165 (4th Marcheshvan): Maimonides and his family arrive in Jerusalem. When the Almohades, a group of Muslim fundamentalists, conquered Cordoba and threatened the Jewish community, Maimonides’ father decided it was time to leave Spain. The family settled for a while in Fez, Morocco where the Rambam wrote his commentary on the Mishnah and then moved on to Eretz Israel where they lived for a short period before finally settling in Egypt.
    1270 (4 Cheshvan 5031): Moses Ben Nachman - known as Nachmanides or as the Ramban, passed away. Born in 1194, Gerona, Spain, Nachmanides was trained as a doctor and served King James of Aragon as court physician.  At the same time the Jews of Spain viewed him as their spiritual leader due to his prowess as a Talmudic scholar and sage The turning point came in his life came when he was forced by the King to defend Judaism in a debate with Pablo Christiani, a heretic Jew, in Aragon 1263.  Nachmanides was so successful that the debate was called off after four days without the usual claim of Christian victory.  Nachmanides was so bold that at one point, in discussing the concept of Jesus as the “peace of prince” that he declared, “from the time of Jesus until the present the world has been filled with violence and injustice and the Christians have shed more blood than all other peoples.:  To make a long story short, the Dominicans forced Nachmanides to flee.  He moved to Eretz Israel where he first settled in Jerusalem in 1267.  After working to refurbish the community there, he moved to Acre where he worked on his extensive Torah commentaries until his death in 1270. Nachmanides was one in long series of great Sephardic teachers, many of whom combined a secular career as physician with the role as scholars and sages.  Some people confuse the Ramban (Nachmanides) with the Rambam (Maimonides).
    1494: Based on an edict issued by Grand Duke Alexander Jagellon, “it appears that the customs duties of Brest and its districts were farmed by Jews of Brest and Lutzk.”
    1633: Birthdate of King James II of England and VII of Scotland.  James reigned during a period when the Jews were trying to gain re-admittance to England, a cause to which he showed some partiality. He ordered his Attorney General not to take any action against the Jews and see to it that they be allowed to practice their religion freely as long as they obeyed the laws of the realm.
    1644: Birthdate of William Penn founder of Pennsylvania.  The Quaker leader founded a colony that adopted the Great Law, a humanitarian code which became the fundamental basis of Pennsylvania law and which guaranteed liberty of conscience.  This liberal fundamental law made Pennsylvania an early home to many non-conformists including Jewish settlers.
    1663: An entry in the diary of Samuel Pepys describes his visit to a synagogue on Simchat Torah.“…after dinner my wife and I, by Mr. Rawlinson's conduct, to the Jewish Synagogue: where the men and boys in their vayles, and the women behind a lattice out of sight; and some things stand up, which I believe is their Law, in a press to which all coming in do bow; and at the putting on their vayles do say something, to which others that hear him do cry Amen, and the party do kiss his vayle. Their service all in a singing way, and in Hebrew. And anon their Laws that they take out of the press are carried by several men, four or five several burthens in all, and they do relieve one another; and whether it is that everyone desires to have the carrying of it, I cannot tell, thus they carried it round about the room while such a service is singing. And in the end they had a prayer for the King, which they pronounced his name in Portugall; but the prayer, like the rest, in Hebrew. But, Lord! to see the disorder, laughing, sporting, and no attention, but confusion in all their service, more like brutes than people knowing the true God, would make a man forswear ever seeing them more and indeed I never did see so much, or could have imagined there had been any religion in the whole world so absurdly performed as this.” (Editor’s note: I have not been able to find any explanation for the visit.)
    1759(23rd of Tishrei, 5520): Simchat Torah
    1778(23rd of Tishrei, 5539): Simchat Torah
    1780(15th of Tishrei, 5541): Sukkoth
    !792: Birthdate of August Lewald, the Konigsberg native who in 1835 founded the periodical Europa which published the first novel written by his cousin Fanny Lewald.
    1799(15th of Tishrei, 5560): Sukkoth
    1808(23rd of Tishrei, 5569): Simchat Torah
    1808: The Republic of Ragusa including its major city of Dubrovnik, is annexed by France. “The Old Synagogue in Dubrovnik, is the oldest Sephardic synagogue still in use today in the world and the second oldest synagogue in Europe. It is said to have been established in 1352, but gained legal status in the city in 1408.” Jewish merchants living in Ragusa must have been successful since Christian merchants moved to have them expelled during the 16th century. There are records of Jewish merchants and physicians living in Ragusa as far back as the 16th century. The annexation by the French marked the first time that the Jews of the region enjoyed the rights of full citizenship.  The victory was short lived since when the French were defeated the Austrians took back what the French had given.
    1829: Birthdate of Eduard Lasker, the German Jewish political leader who supported the unification that led to the creation of the modern German state.
    1837(15th of Tishrei, 5598): Sukkoth
    1843: The Synagogue of Beracha Veshalom Vegmiluth Hasidim (Congregation of Blessing, Peace and Loving Deeds) in St. Thomas holds the first confirmation ceremony for Jewish youth ever in the Western Hemisphere. The St. Thomas synagogue has held a weekly service since it first opened its doors in 1833; reportedly, it's the oldest synagogue in continuous use under the American flag and the second oldest in the Western Hemisphere. Acclaimed Impressionist painter Camille Pissarro was a member.
    1835(21st of Tishrei, 5596): Hoshanah Rabah
    1853: During their Friday meeting, the Assistant Board of Alderman voted to accept an invitation from the Directors of the Jews Hospital to attend the cornerstone laying ceremony scheduled to take place on Thanksgiving Day.
    1867(15th of Tishrei, 5628): Sukkoth
    1882: Birthdate of Eamon De Valera, Irish prime minister and president.  As Prime Minister during the 1930’s De Valera modified the Irish Constitution so that it gave recognition to many non-Catholic religious groups including the Jewish community. “The behavior of de Valera's government towards Jewish refugees fleeing the Holocaust is also controversial. Ireland's Justice Minister Michael McDowell later described the Irish government's treatment of Jewish refugees as ‘antipathetic, hostile and unfeeling’. Dr Mervyn O'Driscoll of University College Cork reported on the unofficial and official barriers that prevented Jews from finding refuge in Ireland: ‘Although overt anti-Semitism was untypical, the Irish were indifferent to the Nazi persecution of the Jews and those fleeing the third Reich’.However, this attitude towards Jewish refugees differed little from other Western Governments - as exemplified by the abject failure of the Evian Conference-who were unwilling to admit Jews fleeing Nazism.”
    1886(15thof Tishrei, 5647): Sukkoth
    1866: A column styled “Law Reports: Business in the Surrogates Courts" published today reported that will  of the late Solomon D. Moses is among those that have been admitted for probate during this past week. Under the terms of Mr. Solomon's will payments of two hundred dollars are to be made to the Jews Hospital of New York and the Hebrew Orphan Asylum
    1869: Birthdate of Sir Joseph Duveen, the London native who became one of the most influential art dealers of his time.
    1871: During his sermon today, Rabbi J.J. Lyons called upon the members of the West 19th Street Portuguese Synagogue to contribute to aid the people of Chicago who are suffering from the effect of a great fire that consumed much of the city. Since money cannot be handled on Shabbat, a special meeting will be held tomorrow to deal with this.
    1871: In Trieste, Italy Michele Levi and Emma Perguia gave birth to Professor Giusepp Levi “a pioneer of in vitro studies of cultured cells.”
    1873(23rd of Tishrei, 5634): Simchat Torah
    1875(15th of Tishrei, 5636): Sukkoth
    1879: In the on-going battle to have the Romanian government honor its promise to grant full rights to the Jews, it was reported today that 58 deputies in Bucharest are opposed to the government’s bill granting emancipation to the Jews.  This has increased fears that the bill will not get the two-thirds majority required for passage.
    1881: John W. Carroll, the actor whose fame rested in part for his portray of Fagin, the Jew in ‘Oliver Twist,’” passed away today in New York City at the age of 44.
    1881:”Russian Hebrew Exiles” published today described the activities of the committee formed in New York designed to help the newly arrived Jewish immigrants from the Czar’s anti-Semitic empire. The most recent group of arrivals number 120 and plans have already been to send 70 of them to “various sections of the country” since there is no way to find all of them employment in New York.  Committees have been formed in Houston, New Orleans, Louisville, St. Louis and Wilmington, NC to help with the re-settlement plans. (This marked the first year of what prove to be a tidal wave of immigration that would last until World War I.  These well-intentioned plans would soon be overwhelmed by the unprecedented number of immigrants)

    1881: “An assignment for the benefit of creditors by Hirsch Levy to Isidore Hirsch with $600 preferences was filed in the County Clerk’s office” today.

    1882: It was reported today that “Mordecai Lyons,” a new play by Edward Harrigan that features an array of Jewish characters is scheduled to open at the Theatre Comique next week.
    1882: It was reported today “there is a singular set of lunatics in England who are devoting all their energies to the rather hopeless taks of proving that the so-called Anglo-Saxon race is not Anglo-Saxon but Jewish.  They believe that all Englishman belong to the tribe of Manasseh annall Americans to the tribe of Ephriam and that the Irish belong to the rest of the long-lost ten tribes.”
    1882: There was a “serious disturbance” among the Russian Jewish immigrants on Ward’s Island, the New York entry point for those arriving from Europe.
    1884: “Funeral of Rabbi Huebsch” published today described the procession for Rabbi Huebsch which began at his home on Lexington Avenue, then moved to Ahavath Chesed, before finishing on Long Island where he was interred at Linden Hill Cemetery.

    1888: “Some Glances Backward” published today provided a retrospective on the fight in California to halt Chinese immigration and to ban them from living here including a speecby A.A. Haight the Democratic Governor of California in which he said that the “same argument” made “today in this country against the Chinese were used two centuries ago against the industrious Jews of Europe…. But it did not take” these bigots “a hundred years before they found out their mistake because the Jews too industry along with them and enriched the new countries in which they settled.  It will work with the same with the Chinese..if our laws permit us to drive them from the State.”
    1888: “Old World News by Cable” published today described events surrounding the recent death of J.M. Levy whom many mistakenly thought was the founder of the Daily Telegraph. Actually Joseph Moses Levy bought it from the founder in 1855 three months after its opening for $4,000.  “He and his son” then “made it one of the half dozen great newspaper properties of the world.  “A very good man, charitable, just and simple manners and tastes, as was the last professing Jew of his fmily, all of whom now bear the name Lawson.”
    1888: “Jews Leaving Russia” published today relied on dispatches from the London Daily News to describe the exodus of nearly 2,500 Jews from Odessa (Russia) during the law three months.  The Jews are leaving because of the Expulsion Law enacted last Spring.  The number of Jews leaving is being swollen by those who are taking advantage of the recent relaxation in the conscription laws which were designed to have just that effect.  Most of them are going to America or England but lack the capital to open business on their own.
    1890:  Birthdate of General of the Army and U.S. President Dwight David Eisenhower. In a recently published history about three World War II generals entitled 15 Stars, Stanley Weintraub described a hither-to little known story about Ike and the Jewish people.  While serving in the Philippines in 1938 as a Lt. Colonel, “Eisenhower got to know some of the 1,200 emigres who had fled Hitler who could find no sanctuaries in the uncaring West, including his own country.” At this time “he was made a surprising and hugely remunerative offer.  Almost certainly it came from Alex Frieder, one of three brothers from Cincinnati who had opened a cigar factory in Manila, and who played bridge and poker with…Ike.  ‘I was asked to take a job seeking in China, Southeast Asia…and every country where they might be acceptable, a haven for Jewish refugees from Nazi Germany.  The proposed pay would be $60,000 a year with expenses…Te offer was, of course, appealing for several reasons.  But…I had become so committed to my profession that I declined.’” Given other facts of Ike’s life during this period and the revulsion he demonstrated when Allied troops liberated the Concentration Camps, no one should think Ike’s decision was tainted by antipathy toward Jews and that it was made for the reasons he stated. Given the political environment of the 1950’s as a Republican President, Ike was only going to have a limited amount of popularity among Jewish voters.  To his credit, he became the first President to participate in national television show sponsored by a Jewish organization.  In this case it was a program celebrating the 300th anniversary of the American Jewish Community. For many Jews living during the 1950’s Ike was the American President who sided with the Arabs against Israel.  During the Suez Crisis of 1956, the Eisenhower administration threatened Israel with economic ruin if it did not withdraw from the Sinai. This policy had four effects.  It left Gaza as a place from which terrorist could attack Israel.  It gave Nasser a new lease on life thus setting the stage for another decade of un-rest in the Middle East that reached its next crescendo in the Six Day War. During the crisis, the Americans actually sided with the Soviets who threatened the French and the British with nuclear attack if they did not remove their forces from Suez.  From the French point of view, the Americans had shown that the nuclear umbrella did not protect France when she did not agree with the United States, so the French started to build their own independent nuclear force.  This is one of those times where Jewish history is world history and world history is Jewish history.  As is so often the question, where does one begin and the other end?
    1890: Chaie X. Hishovitz signed a release in the presence of Mortiz Tolk that stated in consideration of a payment of $8.00 she release Kopel Harris  from their marriage, promises not to bring any further legal action against and gives him permission to marry any other person he may so desire.
    1891: “The Indictment of Russia” published today speaks approvingly of Harold Fredric’s use of “cold, rigid, facts to present the date relating to the” harsh treatment of the Jews in Russia which some have “transformed into an indictment against the victims” to justify the acts of the Czar’s government.
    1891: “The Local Tickets” published today analyzed the Republican and Tammany Candidates in the upcoming New York City elections including  Ferdinand Levy one of the Tammany candidates for Coroner and Meyer S. Isaacs
    1892(23rdof Tishrei, 5653): Simchat Torah
    1893: Because it is Shabbat, there will be a pause during the day in the festivities marking the Golden Anniversary of the B’Nai B’rith.
    1893: This evening in New York five hundred people are scheduled to attend a banquet celebrating the Golden Anniversary of B’Nai B’rith where the guests of honor will include President Cleveland, Governor Flower and Mayor Gilroy.
     1894(14th of Tishrei, 5655): Erev Sukkoth
    1894: Officer Grier of the Macdougal Street Station arrested 15 year old John Shevlin after he saw him and a group of boys “chasing two old Hebrew men” whose beards they pulled and then kicked after throwing them to the ground.
    1894: Marquis du Paty de Clam, a French General Staff officer is designated as Officer of Judiciary Police a position from which he masterminds enquiry against Dreyfus and invents the scenario of his hostile interrogation and handwriting test. His son will be appointedhead of Jewish Bureau under Vichy government.
    1903(23rdof Tishrei, 5664): Simchat Torah
    1903: “Dr. Marcus Jastrow” published today reported that among the survivors of the recently deceased rabbi were his two sons, “Morris Jastrow, the widely-known philologist and Joseph Jastrow, the well-known psychologist.”
    1906: Birthdate of author and commentator Hannah Arendt.  Many know her for her writings about the Nazis and the originator of the term “the banality of evil.”Living amidst the political turmoil of Europe greatly shaped Arendt's studies and interests. Initially a philosophy and theology student, Arendt shifted her focus to the rising anti-Semitism permeating the German polity in the 1930s. In addition to her writing, Arendt became involved in the German Zionist Organization in 1933 and worked to bring Nazi atrocities to global attention. Arendt was arrested for investigating anti-Semitic propaganda, but befriended a Berlin jailer who enabled her escape. Fleeing to Paris, Arendt worked with Youth Aliyah to help rescue Jewish children from the Third Reich by bringing them to Palestine. While in Paris, Arendt met her second husband and both were sent to internment camps in southern France. In 1941, both were able to reach America and reunite with Arendt's mother. In America, Arendt published numerous articles in Jewish studies journals, and was in charge of Jewish Cultural Reconstruction, a program created by historian Salo W. Baron to recover and restore lost and damaged Jewish archives and cultural markers. The publication of her book The Origins of Totalitarianism in 1951, made Arendt an intellectual celebrity as America, searching for answers to the horrors of World War II, careened into the Cold War. The Origins of Totalitarianism sought to explain the rise and appeal of both Hitler and Stalin. Arendt went on to publish several other books including her most controversial work, Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evilin 1963.Arendt taught at the University of Chicago and Wesleyan and was the first female full professor at Princeton. She continued to lecture and teach until her death in 1975.
    1910: A Jew, David Effendi Molcho, the First Interpreter of Imperial Divan of the Ottoman Empire is appointed member of the Senate. On this same day, Samuel Effendi of Salonica is appointed Chief of Police for the coast districts of Constantinople.
    1912: It was reported that a veritable “who’s who” of American Jewry including Judge Julian W. Mack, Justice Samuel Greenbaum, Henry Morgenthau, Cyrus Sulzberger, Louis Marshal and Professor Solomon Schechter, attended the lecture at the Astor Hotel delivered by Israel Abrahams.  The British academic is a firm believer in the need to maintain a strong Jewish identity as the Chosen People develop national identities in the various home-countries.
    1914: Sir Alfred Knox, the British military attaché described the condition of the Jews on the Eastern front when he wrote today, “It is said that a Hew was caught carrying a German officer in a sack across the bridge at Ivangorod. Both were hung.  (Jewish misery would only increase as can be seen by the 20 Jews who were killed by Coassacks at pogrom in Lemberg during November or the 64 Jews in Warsaw were arrested and detained as alleged members of a conspiracy to raise prices through speculation.  As was all too common their property was confiscated by the authorities) p 393 Max Hastings.
    1914: “To Aid Jewish Sufferers” published today described the work of Leon Sanders, the President of the Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Society to form a special committee that will provide assistance to the Jews trapped on the battlefields of eastern Europe whose members include Jacob H. Schiff, Chairman; Louis Marshal, Cyrus L. Sulzberger, Dr. J. L. Magnus, Samuel Dorp, Dr. Cyrus Adler of Philadelphia and Judge J.W. Mack of Chicago.
    1915: According to the Maccabean, “a large number of Jewish privates as well as officers have been killed and wounded… at the Battle of Loos” – a three week long British offensive that failed to dislodge the Germans -- which ended today
    1917 (28th of Tishrei, 5678): Over 250 people, including students, faculty and alumni attended exercises marking the formal opening of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America.  Dr. Cyrus Adler, acting President of the Seminary gave the keynote address in which he urged everyone “to get behind the Government in the successful prosecution of the war.”  Additional addresses were given  by two of the most prominent leaders of the Jewish community -  Louis Marshall, Chairman of the Board and Professor Louis Ginzberg.
    1917: U.S. premiere of “Cleopatra” starring Theda Bara (Theodosia Burr Goodman) in the title role.

     1918:  “An ‘inter-communal’ Jewish congress was organized in Vienna.” As World War I was coming to an end, it became apparent that the Austro-Hungarian or Habsburg Empire would dissolve into a group of small nations based around national constituencies. “Arriving from the principal Habsburg cities, the delegates elected a Jewish National Council and issued a policy statement that was intended as a message to the Allied Powers.  Whatever the empire’s fate, they declared, the Jews expected to be awarded the identical civil and collective recognition, and the identical protection, extended to any other nationality.
    1918: Accompanied by another officer, Major Julius O. Adler was supervising the work of clearing the enemy from St. Juvin where they suddenly came upon a party of the enemy numbering 150. Firing on the enemy with his pistol, Major Adler ran toward the party, calling on them to surrender. His bravery and good marksmanship resulted in the capture of 50 Germans, and the remainder fled (For this he was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross)
    1923: The American Jewish Congress will meet today in New York.  The congress was originally to meet in Boston.  The meeting was moved to accommodate the schedule of Israel Zangwill whose schedule only had an opening for him to meet in New York.
    1923:Tonight, at Carnegie Hall Israel Zangwill, Jewish scholar, author and publicist, in an address which he referred to earlier in the day as "the greatest labor of my life" declared that the Jews must forego their political hopes in Palestine "rather than kindle a conflagration which may ravage the whole world."
    1929(10th of Tishrei, 5690): Jews observe the first Yom Kippur of what would become the Great Depression
    1929: “Louis Fleisher, Harry Fleisher, and Henry Shorr, three members of the Purple Gang attended services at Orthodox Congregation B’nai David in Northwest Detroit.” (As reported by Robert Rockaway)
    1933: Germany withdrew from the League of Nations. This was the first of Hitler’s moves to overturn the Treaty of Versailles, which was in turn part of his plan to create his Jew free Third Reich.
    1937:The Palestine Postreported from Warsaw that a new Polish Labor Party resolved to oppose totalitarianism, but to stimulate Jewish emigration.
    1937: The Palestine Post reported that court proceedings were taken in Romania against Jews guilty of having Jewish National Fund blue boxes in their houses.  Yes, the little blue box that we use to this day was part of a criminal activity in Romania.  Anti-Jewish measures like this provide further proof that the Holocaust was possible, in part, because of pre-existing conditions throughout Europe.
    1938: The Jewish-Americans living in Palestine of which there are eight to nine thousand made “plans today for a conference” for all of their number who have made investments in Eretz Israel to let the British and American governments know about their opposition to any move to restrict Jewish immigration into Palestine.  The Jewish-Americans intend to use the conference as a way to remind the British that their investments had been predicated on the pledges made in the Balfour Declaration which were incorporated in the League of Nations Mandate that provides the basis for British rule over Palestine.  These investments have totaled more than forty million dollars.
    1938: Herman Goering, Hitler’s second in command, announced plans for ghettoizing Jews in all big cities.
    1939:  Birthdate of Ralph Lauren. Born Ralph Lifschitz in the Bronx, the famous fashion designer began by working with Brooks Brothers before striking out on his and riding his “polo pony” to fame and fortune.
    1939: Dr. Ludwig Halberstädter of Tel Aviv, a Professor of Medicine at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem left the United States today aboard the American export liner Excalibur after having attended the International Cancer Congress at Atlantic City, New Jersey.Ludwig Halberstädter obtained his doctorate in 1901 in Breslau (now Wroclaw, Poland). From 1901 to 1907 he worked at the surgical clinic in Königsberg (now Kaliningrad, Russia) under Carl Garré (1857-1928) and then dermatology with Albert Neisser (1855-1916) in Breslau. He was habilitated for dermatology and radiation therapy in Berlin in 1922 and in 1926 became "nicht beamtlicher ausserordentlicher Professor". His interest in irradiation resulted in studies on its effects on lower forms of life and on tissues and cells. He became director of the Radiation Department at the Institute for Cancer Research, Berlin-Dahlem and used thorium in an effort to treat cancer. Halberstädter demonstrated sensitivity of the ovary to irradiation in 1904. In 1907 he was a member of the research expedition on syphilis which went to Java under Albert Neisser’s direction. After 1933 he was one of 276 Jewish dermatologists who were able to leave Nazi Germany. He settled in Palestine that year and became director of radiation therapy at the Hadassah Hospital, Jerusalem. He brought with him a tiny amount of radium and opened the first radium and X-ray institute in the Middle East. Working together with cytologist Dr. Leonid Doljansky, he was able to provide the first treatment for cancer in the country.
    1940: "Four months after they had bicycled out of Paris" Margret and Hans Rey arrived in New York, their new home and the new home for Curious George.
    1940: The Nazis move non-Jews out of a designated section of Warsaw, Poland, and import Jews to replace them.
    1941(23rdof Tishrei, 5702): Simchat Torah
    1941: At the intervention of the Union of Jewish Communities in Romania, an order was given today to stop the deportations of Jews from Bessarabia, Bukovina, and the Dorohoi district
    1942: One thousand Jews living inPiotrkow, Poland are dragged from their homes in the middle of the night. Those too ill or old to move were shot on the spot. This was first of eight straight days of terror resulting in the deportation of 20,000 Jews. All of them were sent to Treblinka to be killed. The Shtetel of Piotrkow had had a Jewish population since at least the start of the fifteenth century.  At the start of World War II, the Jews made up a third of the town’s population.  After the Holocaust there were so few Jews left that they were less than one percent of the population.
    1943(15th of Tishrei, 5704): Sukkoth I
    1943(15th of Tishrei, 5704): Led by Alexander Pecherski and a few other Jewish members of the Red Army, a revolt broke out in the Sobibordeath camp when a number of SS guards were killed. Prevented from fleeing through the gates, 130 Jews died trying to escape through the mine fields. Thirty found their way to freedom. The remaining 140 were captured and shot. The camp itself was closed immediately. Yes, you did read a description of the same event on October 13.  Apparently different sources disagree on the date of this heroic act.  If there can be such a lack of agreement on the date of so recent an event, we should not be surprised when we have difficulty providing exact dates for ancient events.
                                                         Or, a different version
    1943(15th of Tishrei, 5704): Leon Feldhendler and Jewish Soviet officer Aleksandr Pechersky, interned at the Sobibór death camp since September, instigate an inmate revolt and escape, during which 11 German SS guards and two or three Ukrainian SS guards are killed. Two hundred of 600 Jews in the camp are killed by gunfire and exploding mines; among them is 33-year-old Dutch painter Max Van Dam. Of the 300 who escape, only 100 are recaptured; many of the remaining 200 escapees join Soviet partisan forces. Of these, only 50 to 70, including Pechersky, will survive the war.
    1943(15th of Tishrei, 5704): Dr. Saul Tchernichovsky, the physician-poet who translated Macbeth and The Odyssey into Hebrew died today the age of 68 after settling in Eretz Israel ten years ago after fleeing from Nazi Germany.  According to the New York Times, he was born in the Ukraine, practiced medicine in St. Petersburg and Berlin. “In My Dream,” his first Hebrew poem was published in the United States in a magazine called Hagispah (Summit).  “His original verse and translations made him a leading figure in the world of modern Hebrew literature.  The government of Finland decorated him for translating the Finnish national epic, “Kalevala: and during his later years he won the Bialik Prize for his poetry.”  He also served as one of the governors of Hebrew University.  During the First World War, he “served as a Russian Army doctor on the Eastern Front.  He practiced medicine for a year in Palestine during the middle 1920’s before settling in Berlin where he was a successful physician until the Nazis came to power.
    1944:  Soviet Troops entered Riga. Only a handful of Jews survived where there were 30,000 just ten years earlier.
    1944: In Hungary, the Horthy government promises to release imprisoned Jewish-Palestinian paratroopers.
    1944: As he attempts to negotiate for the safety of Hungarian Jews, Dr. Rudolf Kastner “travelled for the second time to St Margathen.”
    1945: Birthdate of Alan Blinder a Professor of Economics at Princeton who served as Vice Chairperon of the Federal Reserve System during the Clinton Administration.
    1947: The Palestine Supreme Court ruled that “the government must give Gershon Friedmann of Tel Aviv and his wife Erna, legal status because years ago two certificates had been deducted for them from the official immigration court.”  The decision is “a test case that may provide legal status for more than 2000 Jews who migrated to Palestine without proper certificates.”
    1948:Brandeis University opened its doors to its first undergraduate class of 120 first-years.
    1948: During the War for Independence major fighting between Egypt and Israel resumed.  The Egyptians found out that the Israelis would not be any easier to defeat in “round two” of the fighting.
    1949: In the U.K. premiere of “Give Us This Day” with a score by Benjamin Frankel.
    1952: Birthdate of Steve Rothman, who was first elected to Congress from the 9thDistrict of New Jersey in 1997.
    1953: Unit 101, together with a unit of regular paratroopers, all under the command of Ariel Sharon carried out a reprisal raid on the Arab village of Kibya on the night after an Israeli woman and her two infant children were murdered by Arab terrorists from Jordan.
    1958: Foundation stone of the Knesset laid in Jerusalem.  The Knesset is the Israeli parliament.  Knesset is a Hebrew word that means “meeting.”
    1959: Alexander "Alex" Bittelman’s planned memoir was condemned by Gus Hall and other leaders of the Communist Party in the United States.  This was part of Bittleman’s shift in views in the wake of the exposure of Stalin’s crimes and the Hungarian uprising in 1956.
    1960(23rdof Tishrei, 5721): Simchat Torah
    1961: Birthdate of fashion designer Isaac Mizrahi

    1962: NBC broadcast the first show of the final season "The Dinah Shore Chevy Show" starring Dinah Shore.
    1965:  Sandy Koufax hurled his 2nd shutout of the World Series beating Twins 2-0.  Koufax is still regarded as the greatest southpaw and the leading Jewish athlete of his time.
    1964: The Episcopal Church cleared Jews of the charge of killing Jesus.  The Roman Catholic Church reached a similar conclusion during this period.  While this action was a cause for optimism about the future of relations between Christians and Jews, recent comments and actions by the Episcopal Church concerning the state of Israel have clouded some of this optimism.
    1967(10thof Tirshrei, 5728): Yom Kippur is observed in a united Jerusalem.
    1971(25thof Tishrei, 5732): Seventy-two year old Samuel Spewack, the husband and writing partner of Bella Spewack passed away today.
    1973:David Zeit and Eli Tovel ejected from their F-4E Phantom Jet after it was shot down by either a MiG or a SAM.  Both were recovered by Israeli forces.
    1973: During the Yom Kippur War, Egyptian tanks mount a major attack against Israeli forces.  Their goal is to seize the Mitla and Gidi Passes in the Central Sinai which will then open the road to eastern Sinai Peninsula and the Negev.  Two thousand tanks were involved in the battle.  This is more tanks than were used in any single battle of World War II except for the great battle of Kursk.  In other words, this was one heck of big fight over a very limited front.  At the end of the day, the Israelis held the line.  That evening, despite the opposition of Moshe Dayan, the Chief of Staff of the Israeli Army ordered Israeli forces to prepare to cross the canal on the following night and begin a major assault on the Egyptian bridgeheads.  He correctly believed that the heavy Egyptian losses had weakened the Arab army.  He also had already been convinced that the only way to end the war was to cut the supply line to the Egyptian forces attacking east of the Suez Canal. Despite the battlefield successes of the last forty-eight hours, moral on the homefront was low as the Israeli casualty lists lengthened and the war moved into its second full week.  To make matters even worse, The Soviets continued to rush tons of supplies by sea and air to both Cairo and Damascus. 
    1973: In one of the largest tank-to-tank battles ever fought, Israel is estimated to have lost 10 tanks, the Egyptians anywhere from 250 to 300. Iraq and Jordan send troops to the Golan, in response to appeals for assistance from Syria. (As reported by JTA)
    1980: In something that is unique to Israeli government, MK Yitzhak Yitzhaky left Likud and formed “a one man party called One Israel.”
    1982: In Manhattan, Mary Amanda Dargan and Steven Joel Zietlen, founder of City Lore gave birth to Benjamin Harold "Benh" Zeitlin “the 2012 recipient of Smithsonian magazine's American Ingenuity Award in the Visual Arts category.”
    1986: VHS release of “The Cage” which was supposed to have been the first pilot episode of Star Trek, featuring Leonard Nimoy as “Mr. Spock” and Malachi Thorne as “The Keeper.”
    1986: Holocaust survivor and human rights advocate Elie Wiesel was named winner of the Nobel Peace Prize
    1989: Sixty-three year old German historian and war crimes expert Martin Broszat passed away. (As reported by Eric Pace)
    1989:The Syrian fighter pilot who defected to Israel in a Soviet jet fighter on Wednesday said today that his flight was ''a very difficult mission'' since he flew at about 800 miles an hour and was only about 100 to 150 feet off the ground. In a meeting with journalists, the pilot, Maj. Mohammed Bassem Adel, said that the monitors on his Soviet-made MIG-23 showed that Israeli air-defense radar tracked him all along the way, and that he was worried because he knew that ''the section I was crossing is spread all over with missiles.'' But the major said he believed that he was not shot down before he landed because ''a country that has confidence in itself cannot be afraid of one single plane and would take the time to evaluate what was going on before taking action.'' Major Adel, whom the Israelis had initially identified as Maj. Adel Bassem, is balding and has a mustache, and he looks far older than his 34 years. The Israeli military allowed journalists to interview him this afternoon at a military base just north of Tel Aviv. He still wore his deep green Syrian flight jumpsuit. Two dozen Israeli military officers sat in the room as he talked. He said he fled Syria, leaving a family and fiancee behind, because ''I wanted to change my life - I wanted to live in a democratic country where people are free to express their views.'' He would not elaborate. He decided to leave three months ago but did not make his ''operational plans'' until Wednesday morning, he said. He was influenced by what he read of Israel and saw on television. ''I was not in contact with anyone here before I came; no one was expecting me,'' he added. ''I've no connection whatsoever with anyone in Israel before now.'' Before leaving, Major Adel said, he told no one what he intended to do. Once he lifted off from his base in Syria, he said he was in the air 20 minutes, and over Israeli airspace only between three and four minutes, before he landed near the town of Megiddo. On Thursday the military opened an investigation to determine how Major Adel flew into Israel in a potentially hostile fighter plan without interference. He appeared to give much of the explanation today. He said all his active electronic systems were off. Without any of his target radars armed - conditions easily monitored from the ground - air defense officers could probably see he had no immediate hostile intent. He said he did not know where he would land. ''I didn't know if there would be a facility I could land at and thought I might have to land on a highway,'' he said. ''I thought I might be intercepted by Israeli planes. But I kept flying, looking for a place to land.'' After he landed, he waited 20 minutes for security officials to arrive, and in that time he told a ground technician at the airfield that police in Syria had beaten him up after he had asked for better housing several months ago. Today, he declined to discuss his life in Syria. He said his treatment here so far has been ''gentle.'' West Bank and Gaza Killings
    1990(25th of Tishrei, 5751): Composer and conductor Leonard Bernstein passed away.  During his 72 years, Bernstein drew on a variety of themes from traditional Judaism to Shakespeare and racial conflicts that divided the teenage gangs of New York. There is no way that this blog can do justice to this musical genius and social icon.  The man who gave the world West Side Story was an ardent supporter in its darkest days. He came to Israel during the War for Independence to perform and his concert on Mt. Scopus after the June War is a treasure in more than one way.
    1993: The Wldodawa Museum which erected the first monument to Sobibór victims in 1965 “established a separate Sobibór branch today.
    1994 (9th of Cheshvan, 5755): Nachsho Wachsman, a nineteen year old Israeli soldier who had been kidnapped by Hamas, was killed when Israeli forces attempted to rescue him.  “His father Yehuda was an advocated of improved Jewish-Arab relations, and a supporter of the peace process.’”
    1994:  Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, and Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres receive the Nobel Peace Prize.
    1997(13th of Tishrei, 5758): American novelist Harold Robbins passed away.
    1997: First broadcast of “The Dream Team” a British television series with scripts by Noam Friedlander.
    2000(15thof Tishrei, 5761): As Israelis cope with the violence of yet another round of Arab terrorism, the first day of Sukkoth is observed.
    2001:The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish author or of special interest to Jewish readers including  Will the Circle Be Unbroken?:Reflections on Death, Rebirth, and Hunger for a Faith by Studs Terkel.
    2001: Delta Flight 458 from Atlanta, Georgia to Newark, New Jersey, is diverted to Charlotte/Douglas International Airport, and passengers are taken off the flight while officials investigate a report of two "Middle Eastern men" making threats in a foreign tongue -- two Orthodox Jews peacefully praying.
    2003: Following today’s celebration of the 60th anniversary of the revolt at Sobibór “the grounds of the former death camp received a grant largely funded by the Dutch government to improve the exhibits.”
    2004: "FDR's Auschwitz Secret," by Michael Beschloss appears in Newsweek Magazine. The article is an excerpt from Beschloss’ latest book and makes the claim that it was FDR himself who made the decision not to bomb the Nazi death camp.
    2005:  As part of an interview with the Israeli Interior Minister, the Jerusalem Post reported that Jewish extremists were continuing with plots against the life of Prime Minister Sharon.  While the capabilities of the Israeli security forces had improved since the murder of Prime Minister Rabin ten years ago, the Jews who are willing to murder other Jews still posed a major threat.  The Interior Minister called for the same kind of Administrative Detention be used in dealing with Jews plotting to kill government officials or blow up the Temple Mount as was used against Arab terrorists.
    2006: International Haifa Film Festival comes to a close.
    2006: A show featuring the works of Lazar (El) Markovich Lissitzky opens at the Phillips Collection in Washington.   According to an article in the Forwards, the “prints in the Phillips show are from his “Victory Over the Sun” drawings for an opera set.”  Lissitzky was a contemporary of Chagall with whom he was often confused.  The paintings from this period represent Lissitzky’s attempt to break from “Chagall Shadow.”
    2006(22nd of Tishrei, 5767): Shemini Atzeret, 5767.
    2007:The New York Times cited U.S. and Israeli military intelligence sources saying that the target of the attack in Syria had been a nuclear reactor under construction by North Korean technicians, with a number of the technicians having been killed in the strike.”
    2007: The Sunday Washington Post book section featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including  Lost Genius: The Curious and Tragic Story of An Extraordinary Musical Prodigy by Kevin Bazzan which is a biography of pianist Ervin Nyiregyhazi -- pronounced, "air-veen nyeer-edge-hah-zee"– “who was born in Budapest of Jewish ancestry.” 
    2007: The Sunday New York Times book section featured a slew of reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or that featured Jewish topics including, The Age of Turbulence: Adventures in a New World by Alan Greenspan, The Bulldozer and The Big Tent by Jewish author Todd Gitlin,The Year of Living Biblicallyby A.J. Jacobs, Lords of the Land: The War Over Israel’s Settlements in the Occupied Territories,1967-2007 by Idith Zertal and Akiva Eldar; translated by Vivian Eden and The Castle on Hester Streetby Linda Heller, a book for children that is a zestful tale of Russian-Jewish immigration at the turn of the last century.
    2007: As a sign of the vitality and growth of the Jewish Community, The Washington Post reported that Charles County, Maryland, is getting its first synagogue. Congregation Sha'are Shalom, which has been holding services for the last sixteen years at St. Paul's Episcopal Church in Waldorf, has located an acceptable site after a five year search.  Speaking about the benefits of building a permanent home, congregation treasurer Lee Weinberger said, “With the construction of the synagogue, we will be able to expand our educational and social activities and be able to offer all our activities and services at one location."
    2007: The New York Times Magazine featured an article entitled “The SY Empire” describing the growth of the Syrian Jewish Community.
    2007:Rabbi Shais Taub of the Chabad Lubavitch of Wisconsin led a group of 10 Orthodox Jewish football fans on a pilgrimage from Milwaukee deep into Green Bay Packerland. They tailgated across the street from Lambeau Field, in a grass-covered parking lot, next door to Kroll's West, where butter burgers - definitely not kosher - are a specialty.

    2007: Rafael Armament Development Authority Ltd. Changed its name to  to Rafael Advanced Defense Systems Ltd.

    2008(15th of Tishrei, 5769): First Day Sukkoth

    2008: In Canada today, a “Battle of the Booths”; Canada’s Conservative Party chooses to hold elections on the first Day of Sukkoth giving Jews the choice between the voting booths or the Festivals of Booths.  Jews can vote ahead of time, but many Jewish leaders object because holding the election on a Jewish holiday limits Jewish participation in the electoral process.  Others express no objection.
    2008:Canter's Deli, a famous Jewish style delicatessen in the Fairfax District of Los Angeles, California, near the border of West Hollywood, celebrated its 60th anniversary today. To mark the occasion, the deli reduced the price of their "famous" corned beef sandwich to its 1948 price of 60 cents, limited to one per customer, for a period of 12 hours.
    2008(15th of Tishrei, 5769): Seventy-six year old Irish author and feminist June Levine author of Sisters passed away today.

    2009: The Jewish Agency is scheduled to hold citizenship ceremonies for new immigrants on the roof of a Yeshiva overlooking the Western Wall.  Up until today the ceremonies had been held at the Western Wall plaza.  The agency changed the location for the ceremony because the rabbi responsible for the site “had demanded gender separation at the ceremonies.” 

    2009: The UN Security Council is expected to meet today instead of October 20 and is expected to discuss the Goldstone Report which reported on Israeli actions during the anti-terrorist incursion into Gaza known as Cast Lead.

    2009(26th of Tishrei, 5770): Sixty one year old investment banker Bruce Wasserstein passed away today.

    2009:The Center for Jewish History and Leo Baeck Institute present: Music in the Age of the Wittgensteins, Part 1. The Wittgenstein Century began in the early 19th century and ended after WWI. During this period the dynasty rose from humble origins to become the wealthiest family in Austria-Hungary and produced one of the most influential philosophers of the 20th century, Ludwig Wittgenstein.  

    2010:Two Thousand Years of Jewish Life in Morocco” an exhibition sponsored by American Sephardi Federation that tells the story of one of the oldest Jewish communities in the world is scheduled to open in New York.

    2010:“Surveying Judy Chicago: 1970-2010,” a one-woman exhibit, opens at the AC Galleries, in New York.

    2010: Rabbi Joseph Ehrenkranz, was presented with CCJU's prestigious Nostra Aetate Award for "his outstanding contributions to a world at peace."

    2010:In an article entitledVague, Opaque and Ambiguous: Israel’s Hush-Hush Nuclear Policy, Ethan Bronner reviewed The Worst-Kept Secret: Israel’s Bargain With the Bomb by Avner Cohen

    2010:According to reports published today,”The world's youngest billionaire, Dustin Moskovitz, is 26, born just eight days after his former Harvard roommate and Facebook co-founder Mark Zuckerberg. While Zuckerberg is no longer the youngest member of the Forbes 400, he is this year's biggest percentage gainer: His net worth has jumped to $6.9 billion from $2 billion. The third Facebook billionaire, 28-year-old Eduardo Saverin, left the company in a legal dispute, settled with Saverin reportedly getting a 5% stake in the company.”  All three are Jewish.

    2010: The Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust, the city’s second Holocaust museum was dedicated today at Pan Pacific Park in the city’s heavily newish Beverly-Fairfax neighborhood.

    2010(6th of Cheshvan, 5771):Eighty-five year old “maverick mathematician” Benoît B. Mandelbrot passed away today. (As reported by Jascha Hoffman)

    2010(6th of Cheshvan, 5771): Ninety-two year old legal scholar Louis Henkin passed away today. (As reported by William Grimes)

    2011(16th of Tishrei, 5772):  Second Day of Sukkoth      

    2011(16th of Tishrei, 5772):  Eighty-seven year old Morris Chaftez, the first director of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism passed away today. (As reported by William Grimes)


    2011: Following Friday night services at Auguda Achim in Iowa City, IA, congregants are scheduled to view “Ushpezin,” a comedy in which an impoverished Jerusalem couple is visited by a pair of escaped convicts “become their guests (ushpezin) in the Sukkah”

    2011:The disagreements and tensions within Hamas over the Gilad Shalit prisoner swap are reportedly pitting group detainees against each other in Israel's prisons. A website affiliated with Fatah reported today that great tensions emerged between Hamas prisoners from the West Bank and their counterparts from the Gaza Strip as result of the swap's characteristics.
    2011:Bereaved families filed a petition with the High Court of Justice today, the first against the Gilad Shalit deal which will see 1,027 Palestinian prisoners being released in exchange for the Hamas-held soldier. They are claiming the deal is a "wholesale release of murderers" and have asked that the implementation of the exchange be delayed.

    2012: The Jewish Historical Society is scheduled to sponsor a walking tour of Downtown Jewish Washington that will include a look at “the historic 7th Street, NW neighborhood from 1850 to 1950.”
    2012: “Outsiders in Israel” and “Who Shot My Father” are scheduled to shown at the Syracuse (NY) Film Festival.

    2012: History of Jewish Giving: Jews and Charity, a “symposium organized by Debra Kaplan, Yeshiva University and Judah Galinsky, Bar-Ilan University” is scheduled to take place in New York City.
    2012: Today,the cabinet approved a resolution calling for new elections to be held in 101 days, on January 22, 2013.
    2012:The Hezbollah drone that infiltrated the Negev last week beamed back live images of secret Israeli military bases, the Sunday Times reported today.
    2012(28th of Tishrei, 5773): Eighty-two year old Arlen Spector, long-term senator from Pennsylvania passed away today
    2012(28th of Tishrei, 5773): Eighty-seven year old broadcast magnate and philanthropist Joseph Rosenmiller passed away today. (As reported by Leslie Kaufman)
    2012: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including I’m Your Man: The Life of Leonard Cohen by Sylvie Simmons, The Machine That Kills Secrets:How WikiLeakers, Cypherpunks, and Hacktivists Aim to Free the World’s Information by Andy Greenberg and the recently released paperback edition of The Quest: Energy, Security and the Remaking of the Modern World by Pulitzer Prize winner Daniel Yergin.
    2013: In Manhattan, the Israel Real Estate Exhibition is scheduled to come to a close.
    2013: The Center for Jewish History is scheduled to host “Creating Identity: Yiddish across a Spectrum of Jewish Communities Today” featuring Isabelle Barrière and Sarah Benor
    2013: Maj.-Gen. (res.) Eli Marom, who served as the commander of the Israeli Navy during Operation Cast Lead and during the raid on the Gaza-bound Mavi Marmara vessel, was held for questioning at around noon today at London's Heathrow Airport upon his arrival in Britain (As reported by YNet)
    2013: Ten Jewish men were detained by police after they were accused of praying and bowing inside the Temple Mount enclosure on Monday morning (As reported by Stuart Winer)
    2014: The Oregon Jewish Museum and Center of Holocaust Education is scheduled to host “Ray of Hope Concert” with Alika Hope and Ray Morant.
    2014: Tziporela, the award winning Israeli theatre is scheduled to perform its latest production, “Odd Birdz.”
    2014: The Wiener Library is scheduled to host Hitler’s First War: Adolf Hitler and the First World War during which author Thomas Weber will present a picture of the German dictator’s military service which is at odds with the myth he created.
    2014: The Center for Jewish History is scheduled to present “The Haunted Sukkah.”
    2014: “From Moses to Moses,” a three week course taught be Dr. Maurice Mirahi is scheduled to begin tonight at the JCC of Northern Virginia.
    2014: Tel Aviv Noir, an anthology of Gadi Taub’s short stories published by Akashic Books is scheduled to go on sale today.

    0 0

    OCTOBER 15

    586 BCE (Cheshvan, 3338): King Zedekiah was blinded and taken into captivity. He was the last king of Judea. Zedekiah’s ("Tzidkiyahu") original name was Matanya. He was torn between the two great powers of Egypt and Babylon. Unfortunately, Egypt under Hopra was no match for Nebuchadnezzar who pushed out the Egyptians and laid siege to Jerusalem. Zedekiah tried to flee from Jerusalem but was captured along with his sons in Jericho. He ended his life in a Babylonian prison.
    412: Theophilius passed away clearing the way for Cyril an anti-Semite who had incited a Greek mob to kill Jew to become Patriarch of Alexandria.

    912: Abdullah ibn Muhammad, Emir of Córdoba passed away. Abdullah passed away just when Cordoba was on the brink of becoming a major center of Jewish culture and learning.  Menahem ben Sharuk, the great grammarian was two years old when the Emir passed away and Hasdai Ibn Shaprut would not be born until three years after his birth.  The rise of Cordoba as a Jewish center coincided with its reemergence as a power on the Iberian Peninsula.
    1218: Birthdate of Hulagu Khan, the Mongol rule who conquered Palestine in 1260 who showed toleration to all three major religions – Jews, Christians and Moslems.

    1485: At Soncino, Italy, Joshua Solomon Soncino printed “The Former Prophets” with a commentary by Kimhi.  [Kimihi probably refers to David Kimihi, the 13th century rabbi known as RaDak.  But it cannot be said with certitude that it does not refer to his father Rabbi Joserph Kimhi  and his brother Rabbi Moses Kimhi.] The Soncinos were a family of Sephardic Jews who had begun operating printing presses in the town of Soncino, Italy in 1483.  Yes the town was the inspiration for the last name.

    1582: Pope Gregory XIII implements the Gregorian calendar. In Italy, Poland, Portugal, and Spain, October 4 of this year is followed directly by October 15. The change from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar helps to explain the challenge in matching dates on the Hebrew calendar with the dates on the civil calendar.

    1585: Birthdate of Louis Cappel, the French Huguenot Scholar “accepted the chair of Hebrew at Samur” at the age of 28 who “made a special study of the history of the Hebrew text, which led him to the conclusion that the vowel points and accents are not an original part of the Hebrew language, but had been inserted by the Massorete Jews of Tiberias, no earlier than the 5th century.”

    1739(13th of Tishrei, 5500): António José da Silva “was garroted and burnt at a Lisbon auto-da-fe.” Born in 1705, he “was a Portuguese-Brazilian dramatist, known as "the Jew" (O Judeu)”

    1655(Tishrei, 5416): The Jews of Lublin, Poland were massacred.

    1733: Birthdate of Raphael Hayyim Isaac Carregal the native of Hebron who is reported to have been the first rabbi to visit the colonies that would become the United States of America.

    1737: After a slave denounced them to the Holy Office, Portuguese dramatist António José da Silva and his wife “were both imprisoned on the charge of ‘judaizing’”

    1764: Edward Gibbon observes a group of friars singing in the ruined Temple of Jupiter in Rome, which inspires him to begin work on The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. In his classic history of the Roman Empire, Gibbon had the following to say about the Jewish people. (Editor’s Note: This long entry has been included to help decided if Gibbon was an anti-Semite in the sense that we understand that term.  Also, by reading Gibbon you will may gain a greater understanding of the variety of views held by English men women when it comes to the Jewish people.  After all, this is designed as a learning experience, not just a collection of dates.

    In Chapter XVI, Gibbon wrote:

    “Rebellious Spirit of the Jews: Without repeating what has been already mentioned of the reverence of the Roman princes and governors for the temple of Jerusalem, we shall only observe that the destruction of the temple and city was accompanied and followed by every circumstance that could exasperate the minds of the conquerors, and authorize religious persecutions by the most specious arguments of political justice and the public safety. From the reign of Nero to that of Antonius Pius, the Jews discovered a fierce impatience of the dominion of Rome, which repeatedly broke out in the most furious massacres and insurrections. Humanity is shocked at the recital of the horrid cruelties which they committed in the cities of Egypt, of Cyprus, and of Cyrene, where they dwelt in treacherous friendship with the unsuspecting natives;(1) and we are tempted to applaud the severe retaliation which was exercised by the arms of the legions against a race of fanatics whose dire and credulous superstition seemed to render them the implacable enemies not only of the Roman government, but of human kind. The enthusiasm of the Jews was supported by the opinion that it was unlawful for them to pay taxes to an idolatrous master, and by the flattering promise which they derived from their ancient oracles, that a conquering Messiah would soon arise, destined to break their fetters, and to invest the favorites of heaven with the empire of the earth. It was by announcing himself as their long-expected deliverer, and by calling on all the descendants of Abraham to assert the hope of Israel, that the famous Barchochebas collected a formidable army, with which he resisted during two years the power of the emperor Hadrian

    Toleration of the Jewish Religion: Notwithstanding these repeated provocations, the resentment of the Roman princes expired after the victory, nor were their apprehensions continued beyond the period of war and danger. By the general indulgence of Polytheism, and by the mild temper of Antonius Pius, the Jews were restored to their ancient privileges, and once more obtained the permission of circumcising their children, with the easy restraint that they should never confer on any foreign proselyte that distinguishing mark of the Hebrew race.(4) The numerous remains of that people, though they were still excluded from the precincts of Jerusalem, were permitted to form and to maintain considerable establishments both in Italy and in the provinces, to acquire the freedom of Rome, to enjoy municipal honors, and to obtain at the same time an exemption from the burdensome and expensive offices of society. The moderation or the contempt of the Romans gave a legal sanction to the form of ecclesiastical policy which was instituted by the vanquished sect. The patriarch, who had fixed his residence at Tiberias, was empowered to appoint his subordinate ministers and apostles, to exercise a domestic jurisdiction, and to receive from his dispersed brethren an annual contribution. New synagogues were frequently erected in the principal cities of the empire; and the Sabbaths, the fasts, and the festivals, which were either commanded by the Mosaic law or enjoined by the traditions of the Rabbis, were celebrated in the most solemn and public manner. Such gentle treatment insensibly assuaged the stern temper of the Jews. Awakened from their dream of prophecy and conquest, they assumed the behavior of peaceable and industrious subjects. Their irreconcilable hatred of mankind, instead of flaming out in acts of blood and violence, evaporated in less dangerous gratifications. They embraced every opportunity of over-reaching the idolaters in trade, and they pronounced secret and ambiguous imprecations against the haughty kingdom of Edom.

    The Jews Were A People Which Followed The Christians, a Sect Which Deserted the Religion of Their Fathers: Since the Jews, who rejected with abhorrence the deities adored by their sovereign and by their fellow-subjects, enjoyed, however, the free exercise of their unsocial religion, there must have existed some other cause which exposed the disciples of Christ to those severities from which the posterity of Abraham was exempt. The difference between them is simple and obvious, but, according to the sentiments of antiquity, it was of the highest importance. The Jews were a nation, the Christians were a sect: and if it was natural for every community to respect the sacred institutions of their neighbors, it was incumbent on them to persevere in those of their ancestors. The voice of oracles, the precepts of philosophers, and the authority of the laws, unanimously enforced this national obligation. By their lofty claim of superior sanctity the Jews might provoke the Polytheists to consider them as an odious and impure race. By disdaining the intercourse of other nations they might deserve their contempt. The laws of Moses might be for the most part frivolous or absurd yet, since they had been received during many ages by a large society, his followers were justified by the example of mankind, and it was universally acknowledged that they had a right to practice what it would have been criminal in them to neglect. But this principle, which protected the Jewish synagogue, afforded not any favor or security to the primitive church. By embracing the faith of the Gospel the Christians incurred the supposed guilt of an unnatural and unpardonable offence. They dissolved the sacred ties of custom and education, violated the religious institutions of their country, and presumptuously despised whatever their fathers had believed as true or had reverenced as sacred. Nor was this apostasy (if we may use the expression) merely of a partial or local kind; since the pious deserter who withdrew himself from the temples of Egypt or Syria would equally disdain to seek an asylum in those of Athens or Carthage. Every Christian rejected with contempt the superstitions of his family, his city, and his province. The whole body of Christians unanimously refused to hold any communion with the gods of Rome, of the empire, and of mankind. It was in vain that the oppressed believer asserted the inalienable rights of conscience and private judgment. Though his situation might excite the pity, his arguments could never reach the understanding, either of the philosophic or of the believing part of the Pagan world. To their apprehensions it was no less a matter of surprise that any individuals should entertain scruples against complying with the established mode of worship than if they had conceived a sudden abhorrence to the manners, the dress, or the language of their native country.

    1780: Birthdate of Eva Meijer, the sister of Abraham David Meijer and Jonas Daniel Meijer, the first Jewish lawyer in the Netherlands and a leader in the fight to gain full rights for all Dutch Jews.

    1786(23rd of Tishrei, 5547): Simchat Torah

    1787: In the Netherlands, the Jews of Amersfort including Benjamin Cohen celebrated today as a holiday because the Orange forces liberated the town.

    1794(21st of Tishrei, 5555):Hoshanah Rabah

    1809: In Mecklenburg, Jacob H. Marcus and his wife Judy Levi gave  birth German lawyer and political leader Lewis Jacob Marcus.

    1809: Birthdate of Friedrich A. Philippi, the son of a wealth Jewish banker who converted to Christianity following a pattern similar to that of the Mendelssohn family with which he was friends.

    1818(15th of Tishrei, 5579): Sukkoth

    1821: Birthdate of German poet Moritz Hartmann.  Hartmann was as well known for his political activities as for his poetry.  He was a liberal and took part in the revolutions that rocked Europe in the 1840’s.  “Hartmann's poems are often lacking in genuine poetical feeling, but the love of liberty which inspired them, and the fervor, ease and clearness of their style compensated for these shortcomings and gained for him a wide circle of admirers.”

    1829(18th of Tishrei, 5590): Chol HaMoed Sukkoth

    1829(18th of Tishrei, 5590): Twenty year old Hindel Henriette Warburg passed away today.

    1835(22nd of Tishrei, 5596): Shemini Atzeret

    1843(21st of Tishrei, 5604): Hoshana Raba

    1844: Birthdate of Friedrich Nietzsche, German philosopher. According to some Nietzsche was an anti-Semite.  In reality, his big complaint against Judaism was that it gave rise to Christianity.  Nietzsche’s sister and brother-in-law were anti-Semites.  Nietzsche did not approve of them or their politics.  However, the Nazis misrepresented his beliefs.  After Nietzsche’s death, his sister became the keeper of his literary estate and she was only too glad to bend it to fit Hitler’s will.

    1854(23rd of Tishrei, 5615): Simchat Torah

    1855:  The New York Times reported that Mlle. Rachel has returned from performing in Boston and is scheduled at the Academy of Music on nights when the opera is not being performed. Mademoiselle Rachel is Elizabeth-Rachel Félix, the daughter of Alsatian Jews who was prominent actress as well as the mistress to prominent Europeans including at least one member of Napoleon I’s family.

    1859: Birthdate of “Austrian physician, medical author and dramatist” Alois Pick.

    1861: At their regular meeting which was held today, the Board of Councilmen (of New York City) examined a report from the Board Alderman that favored donating thirty thousand dollars to the Hebrew Benevolent Association “, for the erection of a building for the poor and orphans of that persuasion.” It was opposed by Mr. Lent who contended that the city had already done its share by donating the land on which the building was to be erected. The donation was supported by Mr. Barney, who proposed that the money should be paid in installments based on the progress of construction without more than 25 per cent to be paid at any one time. Following further discussion, the whole subject was referred to the Finance Committee.

    1862(21st of Tishrei, 5623): Hoshana Rabah

    1863: The Board of Alderman met today and adopted the Report of Committee on Donations and Charities that appropriate steps be taken to ensure that a lot adjacent to the Orphan Asylum of the Hebrew Benevolent Society would become the property of the Hebrew Benevolent Society.

    1864(15th of Tishrei, 5625): Sukkoth

    1866: In Merkine (Meretz), Hinde Bernstein and Isaac Margolis gave birth to Max Leopold Margolis the Lithuanian-born American philologist whose accomplishments included serving as “editor-in-chief of the Jewish Publication Society's translation of the Bible into English, the finished product being published in 1917.”

    1869: Birthdate of American painter Ernest Peixotto. The son of Raphael Peixotto, “he studied at the Académie Julien in Paris for five years under Benjamin Constant and Jules Lefèbvre. His work has been exhibited in the Paris Salon. He exhibited also at the Columbian Exposition held in 1893.

    1871(30th of Tishrei, 5632) Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan

    1871: An article published today entitled “English Jews” reported that the Jews of the United Kingdom are “divided into two sects- orthodox and reformers.” The Orthodox are led by Dr. Nathan Marcus Adler, the Chief Rabbi of the United Kingdom who delivered a sermon declaring “that the oral law and written law are equally Divine.  The Reform or Liberal Jews are led by Professor David Woolf Marx.  A smaller group, they use a synagogue in Upper Berkeley Street, Portman Square.  Their numbers are described as “very small” and “the services lifeless.”  According to four speeches given by Professor Marx, the Reform believe in the “sufficiency of the law of Moses as the guide of Israel.”  The article goes on to describe, in some detail, the Jewish dietary laws and Sabbath, which it finds a joyful in event. In the end, among English Jews, their ritual is “little better than an empty shell.” For example Jews pray for next year in Jerusalem but would not move if given a chance to down and Jews pray for blessings on the Royal Family while ignoring the Parliament yet most Jews are Liberals.

    1871: Following yesterday’s Shabbat sermon in which Rabbi J.J. Lyons made an appeal for financial aid for those who have suffered during the Great Chicago Fire, a committee is scheduled to meet today at the West Nineteenth Street Spanish-Portuguese Synagogue to discuss how to disperse the expected large number of contributions.

    1873: At today’s meeting of the Free Religious Association, Jewish author and editor Moritz Ellinger said that it was “eminently proper that the Jewish religion” should be a part of the association since “it was found upon reason, had not priests, but only teachers.  It had no creed, but simply belief in a creator, and did not point men to a future rewsard, but to a reward on earth.  He argued…that the Jewish religion was not based on miracles.”  Finally like other members of the association, “Jews did not look toward the past for their Savior, but kept their face toward the future.” [The Free Religious Association was formed two years after the Civil War.  Its leaders sought to “emancipate religion from dogmatic traditions” and supernaturalism.  Non-Orthodox Jews were drawn to the organization which included Quakers, Unitarians agnostics and theists.]

    1875(16th of Tishrei, 5636): Second Day of Sukkoth

    1875: School Board member Fritz A. Meyer introduced a resolution at tonight’s meeting of the Board of Education in Union Hill, NJ, to abolish the mandatory reading of the Bible at the start of each school day.  Besides raising constitutional issues, the resolution points out the fact that the Bible being used is not the text of the Catholics or the Jews and this makes the activity a matter of sectarian religious practice.

    1877: “Fine Arts In America,” an article published today comments on the works of several 19th century artists including Washington Allston’s “Jeremiah” which is owned by Yale University.  The  work has many fine points, but the artist has failed “to express the exaltation of an inspired prophet.” You may judge for yourself at

    1878: In New York City, Sarah Weiler or Wheeler, the widow of a rabbi, was tried on charges that she had abducted a 16 year old girl named Mary O’Connor for immoral purposes and had compelled her “to commit an act of self-abasement.”  She was sentenced to two years in the state prison after having been found guilty of one of the two counts of the indictment.

    1880: “Whipped With Cat-O’-Nine-Tails” published today described the decision rendered by Justice Kilbreth in the case of Mrs. Lizzie Wenke who was accused of horse-whipping Isaac Stern a fellow Jew living in the tenement at 192 Broome Street.

    1881: The London Telegraph reported that the Turkish governor of Jerusalem has received orders from the Sultan to resume work on the restoration of the Temple of Solomon which had stopped five years ago after having been begun by Sultan Abdul Aziz.

    1881: “Work of the Young Hebrews” published today provided a summary the annual report issued by the Young Men’s Hebrew Association.  The Association has about a thousand members, sponsored 8 lectures and has accumulated a library of 2,016 volumes.  The executive committee called for a fair to raise funds for a new building and “grand Chanukah ball” to be held at the Academy of Music.
    1881: It was reported today that in New York, “an assignment for the benefit of creditors, by Hirsch Levy to Isidore Hirsch, with $600 preferences” has been filed in the County Clerk’s office.

    1882: “Plays and Actors” published today included a dispute over the portrayal of the Jewish characters in Edward Harrigan’s new play, “Mordecai Lyons.”  A Jewish correspondent disparaged it as “another Jew play” which is coarse at best while others contend that “the Jewish part of this drama” is thought to be “serious and valuable.”

    1882: “Varied Old World Topics” published today described conditions in Germany. Surprise was expressed that the “anti-Semitic agitation is gaining ground.”  Some of the support may be coming indirectly from Chancellor Bismarck would be using to it intimidate the Jews “who have been opposing his program on financial matters.”

    1882: “Religious Ideas” published today described the anomaly that “Christianity was founded by Jews, preached by Jews and died for by Jews, yet Jews are the only people living directly and always within its influence upon whom, in 1,800 years, that creed has made no impression at all.”

    1882: “A Riot Among the Russian Jews” describe events surrounding an outbreak of violence among the 400 Jewish immigrants temporarily housed on Ward’s Island.  The violence broke out during mealtime when Jacob Rabota, a native of Warsaw protested the way they were being fled.  The attack was in reaction to ill-will between the Jews and the staff brought on by mistreatment sanction by the Superintendent and Assistant Superintendent. Rebbec Bochtel told those investigating the matter “a pitiful story of maltreatment” that “was corroborated by other women.”

    1882:”Suit About A Play” published today described litigation surrounding “Siberia,” a drama about “the persecution of the Jews of Russia” written by Barley Campbell.  Plaintiffs Imrl and Bolossi Kiralfy claim they provide Campbell with the idea for the play and he agreed to write it so that they could perform it.

    1884: It was reported today that Smyrna, which is second only to Constantinople “as an eastern centre of commerce” has population of 250,000, 30,000 of whom are Jews.

    1887: It was reported today that another 100 Jewish families have been expelled from Kiev.

    1888: Democrat Martin Foran’s victory in the election for the 21st Congressional District from Ohio was reportedly due in part to his Republican opponent having lost the support of Jewish voters in the district.

    1889: In Great Britain the press has reported that Baron Hirsch is negotiating with Lord Cholmondeley for the purchase of Houghton Hall estate.  The purchase will probably cost the Baron 300,000 English pounds.  Baron Hirsch's desire to purchase the estate in England may have been stimulated by "the snub he recently received from the French Jockey Club."

    1890: Ferdinand Forzinetti was named commandant of military prisons in Paris, a position he held when Captain Dreyfus was imprisoned.  Later Dreyfus would credit him as one of the people who dissuaded him from taking his own life and "who knew how to combine the strict duty of a soldier with the highest feelings of humanity."

    1890: Birthdate of Leib Kvitko, the Ukrainian born Yiddish poet.  He was a member of the Jewish Ant-Fascist Committee, an organization Stalin supported as a vehicle to gain foreign support for the Soviets during WW II.  Stalin repaid him for his efforts by making him one of the victims of the “Night of the Murdered Poets.”

    1892: Kinloch Cooke is named editor of the Pall Mall Gazette following its purchase by the Lowenfield syndicate, which according to unsubstantiated rumors is backed by Baron Hirsch.  Furthermore, other rumors include reports of a desire of members of the Jewish community to gain control of this or some other major English publication.

    1893: The Jubilee Celebration of B’nai B’rith is scheduled to end this evening with services at Temple Beth-El followed by a business meeting.

    1893: Colonel J.E. Bloom, the manager of the Baron de Hirsch Trade School defended his decision to “turn out” five students from their boarding house without warning because they had refused to follow the school’s rules and the school felt no obligation to support young men undermining the school.

    1893: A review of “The Woollen Stocking published today described the addition of a “the Jewish politician who ‘pulls together’ with the Irish” as the newest character added to this comedy.

    1894(15th of Tishrei, 5655): Sukkoth

    1894: “Literary Notes” published today described the publication by A.C. Armstrong & Son of The Historical Geography of the Holy Land  by George Adams which provides an outline of Palestine that includes six maps prepared by John George Bartholomew.

    1894: Birthdate of Moshe Sharett, second Prime Minister of Israel. Born Moshe Shertok in the Ukraine, Moshe Sharett emigrated to Palestine in 1908 where  his family was one of the founders of Tel Aviv  Sharett was the first Foreign Minister of Israel.  He was a key figure in establishing the Armistice Agreements that ended with a Jewish victory in the War for Independence.  When Ben Gurion resigned as Israel’s fist Prime Minister in 1953, Sharett was the logical choice to succeed him.  He was ousted by Ben Gurion in 1956 and he returned to the Foreign Ministry.  He passed away in 1965.

    1894: Justice McMahon dismissed that assault case brought by Nathan Hirsch in Yorkville.

    1894: John Shevlin who had been arrested by Officer Grier after he saw him lead a crowd chasing and beating two old Jews was released from custody when the victims could not be found to appear at the Jefferson Market Police Court.

    1894: Louis Rothschild was elected treasurer of the newly formed Cloak and Suit Manufacturers Association whose 85 members met tonight and voted not to “entertain any communications from any of the trade unions.”

    1895: At a meeting held at Tammany Hall this afternoon, it was agreed that Jacob A. Cantor would be the Democratic Party’s nominee in the Twentieth Senate District.  Before entering politics, Cantor, the son of two Jews from London, was a newspaper man and lawyer.  He would go on to a successful political career that would include serving in the U.S. House of Representatives.

    1897: Herzl publishes his article "Mauschel" in Die Welt. Die Welt was the name of a weekly publication founded in 1897 by Theodor Herzl in Vienna as organ of the Zionist movement. In the article entitled “Mauschel” Herzl did not deny that the anti-Semitic stereotype of the Jew had a basis in reality.  Rather he identified the stereotype with the Jewish opponents of Zionism and used it against them.

    1898: Theodor Herzl was invited to a private audience with Kaiser Wilhelm today when the Kaiser stopped in Constantinople for a State visit. The Kaiser asked Herzl what he wished him to ask of the Sultan:’ “A Chartered Company – under German protection,” was Herzl’s request.

    1898: “The new home of the Hebrew Infant Asylum of the city of New York” is scheduled to “be fully furnished and ready for occupancy” today.

    1906; Major Alfred Dreyfus took command of the artillery unit at St. Denis, a northern suburb of Paris.

    1906: The Anglican Bishop of Shangai, a convert from Judaism named Samuel Isaac Joseph Schereschewsky passed away today.

    1906: Bruno Alfred Döblin, a German-Jewish author and doctor best for his novel Berlin Alexanderplatz took up a position at the Berlin psychiatric clinic in Buch where he worked as an assistant doctor for nearly two years.

    1907: Birthdate of Varian Fry, known as the American Schindler for his gallant rescue of those fleeing Hitler and the Nazis. . Some of those he saved were Marc Chagall, Hannah Arendt and Alma Mahler. In 1995 Varian Fry became the first United States citizen to be listed in the Righteous Among the Nations at Israel's national Holocaust Memorial, Yad Vashem (in 2006, fellow Americans Waitstill Sharp and Martha Sharp were added to the list). He was awarded the additional honor of "Commemorative Citizenship of the State of Israel" on 1 January 1998. The film Varian’s War provides a cinematic treatment of Fry’s wartime activities

    1907(7th of Cheshvan, 5668): Seventy-four year old award winning French astronomer Maurice (Mortiz) Loewy passed away today.

    1909: Birthdate of American astronomer Jesse Leonard Greenstein.

    1911(23rd of Tishrei, 5672): Simchat Torah

    1911: At the request of David Levontin, Director of the Anglo-Palestine Bank, Jews assemble to pray for the welfare of the Sultan and for victory of the Turkish Army. 

    1915: Birthdate of Israeli Prime Minister Yitzchak Shamir.

    1915: In Portsmouth, VA, Reb Yisroel Gifter and his wife gave birth to Mordechai Gifter, the future rosh yeshiva of the Telz Yeshiva in Cleveland, Ohio.

    1915: Louis D. Brandies of Boston is identified as the attorney leading the opposition to the increase in freight rate charges that the railroads are presenting to the Interstate Commerce Commission.

    1922(23rd of Tishrei, 5683): Simchat Torah

    1923: Birthdate of Walter Zacharius, the Brooklyn native, “who rode the passion-swollen wave of romance fiction in the early 1980s to build the Kensington Publishing Corporation into a leading purveyor of bodice-rippers and other romance genres…” (As reported by William Grimes)

    1927: Jacob “Little Augie” Orgen was mortally wounded while standing on a street corner during a turf war with Jacob Shapiro and Louis “Lepke” Buchalter.

    1930(23rd of Tishrei, 5691): Simchat Torah

    1930: Dr. Drummond Shiels, Under-Secretary for the Colonies left Palestine today with “a long memorial” from the Society of Young Christians “in which they protested against Moslem demands for the abolition of the British mandate in Palestine. 

    1930: Birthdate of Heiko Augstinus Oberman author of Luther: Man Between God and the Devil who noted that Rabbi Josel of Rosheim’s attempt to get relief from John Frederick’s anti-Jewish decree “as being significant in Luther's attitude toward the Jews: "Even today this refusal is often judged to be the decisive turning point in Luther's career from friendliness to hostility toward the Jews;"yet, Oberman contends that Luther would have denied any such "turning point." Rather he felt that Jews were to be treated in a "friendly way" in order to avoid placing unnecessary obstacles in their path to Christian conversion, a genuine concern of Luther.”

    1930: The High Commissioner put an end to the proceedings against six Jews who had been arrested at Tel Aviv for protesting against Dr. Drummond Shiels when he arrived in Palestine last week.  The prisoners were released to a joyful crowd who had been angered by reports that Shiels supported creation of Parliament in Palestine that would guarantee Moslem rule and put an end to the creation of a Jewish homeland as promised by the Balfour Declaration.

    1931:In the Bronx, NY, Alfred Epstein, a pharmacist from Poland and Eva Epstein, a former modern dancer from Russia, gave birth to Edmund Lloyd Epstein, “a literary scholar who, as a book editor in the late 1950s, was so taken by a well-reviewed but not especially popular first novel by a largely unknown British writer that he decided to reprint it in paperback, thus enabling the extravagant American success of “Lord of the Flies” and its author, the future Nobel Prize winner William Golding…” (As reported by Bruce Weber)

    1935: Wilhelm Frick, Minister of the Interior called for codifying laws that would impose legal restrictions on Jews taking part in trade and industry.  The Nazi rise to power and the early days of the final solution were all couched in terms of the German legal code.  The Nazis hid their evil behind a façade of laws.

    1937: Birthdate of comedic actress Linda Lavin who played the wisecracking waitress on the television hit “Alice.”

    1937: David Feuerwerker, French born rabbi and resistance leader began his service in the French Army which would earn him the Croix de Guerre with a bronze star.

    1937: The Palestine Post reported on the end of the temporary cease-fire, and an intense revival of the Arab anti-Jewish and anti-British terror activities throughout the country. Bullets and bombs hit Jewish transport, buses in particular. The Iraqi Petroleum Company pipeline was damaged and the oil flowing from Iraq set on fire near Beit She’an. A passenger train from Haifa and a goods train were derailed. The settlements of Ginegar, Afula, Rosh Pina, and Migdal Tzedek were exposed to persistent firing and 12 Jews were injured. Telephone lines were cut. The authorities closed the Syrian border and imposed a curfew in Jerusalem.

    1937: The Palestine Post reported that Jewish students in Warsaw went on strike to protest against the introduction of the so-called "ghetto benches" on the left side of the lecture halls at Polish universities.

    1940: "The Great Dictator," a satiric social commentary film by and starring Charlie Chaplin, was released. The film was a satiric attack on Hitler, Mussolini and fascism.  Chaplin felt so strongly about the need to expose the threat posed by the Nazis and their allies, that he was willing to break his film silence.  The Great Dictator was his first “talkie.”

    1941: The Nazis began the first mass deportation of German Jews to Eastern European ghettos.

    1941: As of today, “the Nazis had murdered up to 30,000 of the approximately 60,000 Jews that had not been able to flee Latvia before the German occupation.”

    1941: According to a proclamation, Jews caught outside the Polish Ghetto walls could be put to death.  I am not sure what this entry really means considering the plight of the Jews of Poland at this time.

    1942: An SS Aktion is undertaken against Jews of Piotrków Trybunalski, Poland that would last until October 21.  During this time untold numbers of Jews are shot in their homes and 22,000 are deported to the Treblinka death camp.

    1942: The Nazis murdered 2,000 Jews living in the second ghetto at Bar in the Ukraine.

    1942: The Nazis murder 25,000 Jews from Brest-Litovsk, Belorussia. Jewish resistance, led by Hana Ginsberg, attempts to fight back.

    1943: Birthdate of Stanley “Stan” Fischer, the native of the British colony of Northern Rhodesia who became a leading economist and vice chair of the U.S. Federal Reserve System.

    1944: Joseph Bau, who had been at Gross Rossen, was sent to Brunnitz where he went to work in the Schindler factory which made him one of those on “Schindler’s List.”

    1944: Truce talks between the Hungarians and the Allies collapsed.  The Arrow Cross, a Hungarian fascist organization regained power through a coup. A Hungarian Nazi, Ferenc Szálasi, is installed as regent. There are 170,000 Jews still alive in Hungary out of a half million that had been alive at the beginning of the year.  After a three month period without deportations to the death camps, this remnant was once again vulnerable as potential fodder for the Nazi killing machine.

    1944: The Germans emptied Plaszow Camp at Cracow.  Included in the evacuation were 700 of the Jews protected by Oscar Schindler. They were sent to the concentration camp at Gross Rosen. Schindler managed to retrieve these Jews, claiming the essential nature of their contribution to his factory and the war effort. Schindler also fought for release of 300 other of "his" Jews who were sent to Auschwitz.

    1945:  Execution of Pierre Laval former premier of Vichy France.  Laval was one of history’s more vile characters.  At the same time, he was the fall guy for Vichy.  Marshall Petain, the famous French Marshall who was the head of the Nazi puppet state was spared.  The French could not bring themselves to punish the hero from World War I.

    1945: The Alsos Mission, part of the Manhattan Project, of which Samuel Goudsmit served as the scientific leader came to an end today.

    1945: In a press conference at Tel Aviv, David Ben Gurion, chairman of the Jewish Agency for Palestine, declared that “Judah will arise anew as an independent state and the Jews will return freely to their own land.” In a statement that was construed to mean that the Yishuv was developing a shadow government that would assume official authority when the British left Palestine, Ben-Gurion said “Palestine’s Jews will have ‘to constitute a kind of state before the final and orderly state machinery comes into being.’”

    1945: As part of the movement to bring Jewish refugees to Palestine, despite the British blockade, two ships capable of carrying more than 13,000, were in the Black Sea preparing to load Jews from Romania, Bulgaria and Hungary.

    1946: Hermann Goering Nazi Reich marshal who had been found guilty at Nuremberg beat his scheduled date with the hangman.  He poisoned himself.

    1947(1st of Cheshvan, 5708): Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan

    1947(1st of Cheshvan, 5708): Eighty year old Abram I Elkus, a distinguished New York attorney and former ambassador to Turkey passed away tonight. 

    1948: Following numerous violations of the UN Truce by Egypt. The Israel Army and Air force took the offensive and launched Operation 'Yoav. Since the UN would not act the Israelis felt compelled.  In addition to the immediate tactical considerations, the strategic goal of Operation 'Yoav' was to open a corridor to the Negev, cut the Egyptian lines of communications along the coast and on the Beersheba-Hebron-Jerusalem road, isolate and defeat the Egyptian forces, and ultimately to drive them out of the country. On the eve of 15 October, Gaza, Majdal and Beith Hanun were bombed, and part of the Air Force at El-Arish was put out of action. This action kept most of the Egyptian frontline fighters out of the skies and gave the IDF air superiority for the first time.

    1949(22nd of Tishrei, 5710): Shemini Atzeret

    1950: David Ben Gurion resigned as Prime Minister of Israel forcing the formation of a new government.

    1951(15th of Tishrei, 5712): Sukkoth

    1951: During the 1951  general election, Herbert Samuel became the first British politician to deliver a party political broadcast on television when he appeared before the cameras today.

    1954: “Sabrina” a chic comedy produced, directed and co-authored by Ernest Lehman Billy Wilder was released for general showing to theatres across the country.

    1956: On the day in which Iraqi troops entered Jordan in what Israel saw as a menacing move, Ben Gurion ordered a partial mobilization of Israeli forces and told the Knesset that “Israel reserves to herself freedom of action.

    1962: Louis Katz, who would be known as “Mr. Katz” went to work for the Forward

    1965(19th of Tishrei, 5726): Fifth day of Sukkoth

    1965(19th of Tishrei, 5726): Sixty-four year old Israeli mathematician Abraham Frankel, the first Dean of Mathematics at Hebrew University passed away today.
    1965: The Dodgers and Sandy Koufax won the 7th game of the World Series.

    1966: Broadway composer Moose Charlap and singer Sandy Stewart gave birth to jazz pianist William Morrison Charlap.

    1968(23rd of Tishrei, 5729): Simchat Torah

    1969: Birthdate of game show host Paige Davis.

    1970(15th of Tishrei, 5731): Sukkoth

    1970: Final day of publication for The American Examiner which traces its origins back to the American Hebrew, which first appeared in 1879.

    1973: During the Yom Kippur War, start of the Battle of the Chinese Farm.

    1973:  During the Yom Kippur War, General Arik Sharon led an attack on the Egyptian side of the Suez Canal. Joined by Generals Adan and Magen, within a week the IDF cut off the main road from Cairo to Suez and surrounded Egypt’s 3rd Army. The hold on the West Bank greatly improved Israel's negotiating position with the Egyptians and the morale of the country.  Regardless of how one may feel about Sharon’s politics, he was a bold general.  His successful cross canal attack completely changed the military equation of the Suez War.

    1973: Binyamin Livne and Rahamim Sofer were taken prisoner after their F-4E Phantom Jet was shot down by either a MiG or Egyptian anti-aircraft fire.  Tragically, Sofer would die while being held prisoner.

    1989: In Justice v Justice, Bernard Schwartz reviewed The Antagonists: Hugo Black, Felix Frankfurter and Civil Liberties in Modern America.

    1992: Title to Temple Israel in Leadville, CO passed from the William H. Copper Family Trust

    1995(21st of Tishrei, 5756): Hoshana Rabah

    1999:  Marquette University Law School Dean Howard Eisenberg delivers a speech entitled “What's a Nice Jewish Boy Like Me Doing in a Place Like This? Some Thoughts on Spirituality, the Legal Profession and Religious Diversity” at a Law School retreat.

    2000(16th of Tishrei); Second Day of Sukkoth; first day for blessing the Lulav & Etrog

    2000: The New York Times featured reviews of Bellow: A Biography by James Atlas, Off Camera Private Thoughts Made Public by Ted Koppel and Women and Human Development: The Capabilities Approach by Martha C. Nussbaum

    2000(16th of Tishrei, 5761): Second Day of Sukkoth

    2000(16th of Tishrei, 5761): Nobel Prize Winner Dr. Konrad Emil Bloch passed away.  Born in Germany in 1912, Bloch fled Nazi Germany in 1934.  He arrived in where he furthered his education while serving on the faculties of Yale Medical School, Columbia, the University of Chicago and Harvard.  He shared the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1964 with Feodor Lynen for their discoveries related to the regulation of cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism.

    2003: Golda's Balcony, starring Tovah Feldshuh, opened at Broadway's Helen Hayes Theatre In this one-woman show, Feldshuh plays the role of former Israeli Prime Minister Golda Meir. Golda's Balcony is set during 1973's Yom Kippur War. It splits between those events and reflections upon Meir's life, from her childhood in Milwaukee to her role in founding the Jewish state. Golda Meir is certainly not the only dramatic Jewish woman that Feldshuh has played during her illustrious Broadway career. Feldshuh has earned three Tony nominations for best actress, including the title role in Yentl (1975). She has also won four Drama Desk Awards, including one for Golda's Balcony. Her roles on television have included a Czech freedom fighter in Holocaust (1978), a role for which Feldshuh was nominated for an Emmy. She has appeared in a number of movies, including Kissing Jessica Stein (2001) and A Walk on the Moon (1999). Feldshuh is also a supporter of Seeds of Peace, a non-profit organization that helps teenagers from regions of conflict. She is a recipient of the Eleanor Roosevelt Humanitas Award, the Israel Peace Medal, and the National Foundation for Jewish Culture's Jewish Image Award.  

    2003: Three Americans were killed and one wounded at the Beit Hanoun junction in the Gaza Strip when a massive bomb demolished an armor-plated jeep in a convoy carrying U.S. diplomats and CIA personnel. Both the militant Islamic Jihad and Hamas movements denied responsibility for the attack.

    2005:  Haaretz reported that dozens of Jewish worshippers attacked the head of the Israel Defense Forces Manpower Branch Major General Elazar Stern at the Western Wall plaza in Jerusalem. Stern was in civilian dress when he came to pray at the Western Wall, accompanied by his family. Worshippers surrounded him, yelling insults, and attempted to prevent him from reaching the wall. Though police officers immediately surrounded him, the worshippers began throwing stones and other objects in his direction. Stern was not hurt, and a police officer lightly wounded in the head did not require medical treatment. The attackers were apparently motivated by Stern's role in Israel's disengagement from the Gaza Strip, completed last month.

    2006: Police said that complaints that five women had filed against Moshe Katsav “would not be pursued because the statute of limitations had run out.

    2006: The Los Angeles Times book section features a review of The Wicked Son: Anti-Semitism, Self-Hatred, and the Jews by David Mamet.

    2006: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Through The Children’s Gate: A Home in New York by Adam Gopnik and Hubris: The Inside Story of Spin, Scandal, and the Selling of the Iraq War by Michael Isikoff and David Corn

    2006: “Pelech,” a unique progressive Torah/Talmud based educational opportunity for women in Israel, marks its 40th anniversary.

    2006: Professor Robert (Yisrael) Aumann, the Israeli-American scholar who won the Nobel Prize for economics last year, said this week that Israel may not be capable of continuing to exist in the long-term. "Too many Jews don't understand why they are here," said Aumann, who moved from the United States to Israel in the 1950s and helped found the Center for Rationality at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, an interdisciplinary research body that focuses on game theory. "If we don't understand why we are here, and that we are not America or just a place in which to live, we will not survive," he said in a speech at the College of Judea and Samaria in Ariel. "The desire to live like all the nations will sustain us maybe another 50 years, if we are still here."

    2007: In Washington D.C., Nextbook Presents: Shalom Auslander, Foreskin's Lament: A Memoir, as part of the Hyman S. and Freda Bernstein Jewish Literary Festival.

    2007: The Nobel Prize in economics was awarded to three Americans Leonid Hurwicz, Eric S. Maskin, a professor at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, N.J., and Roger B. Myerson, a professor at the University of Chicago.

    2007: Time magazine reviewed Foreskin’s Lament by Sahlom Auslander.  “Behind the worst title of the year lurks one its best memoirs.…”

    2008(16th of Tishrei, 5769): Second Day Sukkoth 

    2009(27th of Tishrei, 5770): Seventy-nine year old toy collector Donald Kaufman passed away. (As reported by Dennis Hevesi)

    2009: The Counter-Terrorism Bureau at the National Security council issued a new, more sever warning today against traveling in India.  The warning comes a month before the anniversary of the November, 2008 Mumbai attacks which an attack on the Chabad House.

    2009: The Library of Congress hosts a discussion of the illustrated volume "Herblock: The Life and Works of the Great Political Cartoonist," published to mark the 100th anniversary of the birth of syndicated cartoonist Herbert Block, with its editors Haynes Johnson, the Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist, and Harry Katz, curator of the Herb Block Foundation Collection and the editor of "Cartoon America: Comic Art at the Library of Congress. The retrospective, published in cooperation with the Library of Congress, coincides with the library's new exhibition, "Herblock!,"

    2009: Frances Goodrich and Albert Hackett’s “The Diary of Anne Frank” is performed at Kimmel Theatre on the campus of Cornell College in Mt. Vernon Iowa. The production is based on Wendy Kesselman’s acclaimed new adaptation of the play that makes thoughtful use of recently recovered segments of Anne’s diary to deepen our understanding both of the cultural context of the events and to present a much more complex (and less sentimental) Anne.

    2009: Israeli poet Efrat Mishor reads at The Mill in Iowa City, IA.

    2010: Holocaust historian leads a noon time discussion at  the University of Iowa Hillel in Iowa City.

    2010: Mort Fertell is scheduled to speak at the Friday night dinner following the MesorahDC traditional Shabbat service at the Historic Sixth & I Synagogue in Washington, DC.

    2010: Hitler and the Germans — Nation and Crime," which opens today at the German Historical Museum, juxtaposes the Nazis' propaganda images and artifacts such as 1930s Hitler busts with footage and documentation on the regime's brutality and Germans' involvement in it.

    2010: It took seven years to write and just a few days to sew together, but today the first Torah scroll written entirely by a group of women was attached to its wooden poles and declared complete.The ceremony was held at Seattle’s Kadima Reconstructionist Community, which sponsored the project

    2010: Tomer Chelouche reviewed The Arab Jew From Algeria by Joanna Paraszczuk

    2011(17th of Tishrei, 5772): Shabbat Chol Hamoed Sukkoth

    2011(17th of Tishrei, 5772): Batsheva Esther Kanievsky, the wife of Rabbi Chaim Kanievsky, oldest daughter of Rabbi Yosef Shalom Eliashiv and granddaughter of Rabbi Aryeh Levin, passed away today.

    2011(17th of Tishrei, 5772): Seventy-nine year old super-agent Sue Mengers passed away today (As reported by Michael Cieply)
    2011: The Season’s Opening Concert, featuring the “Four Seasons” is scheduled to take place at the Eden Tamir Music Center. What better way to celebrate the joys of Sukkoth than to listen to Vivaldi in Jerusalem!?

    2011: Israeli gymnast Alexander Shatilov won a bronze medal at the Artistic Gymnastics World Championships in Tokyo this morning, securing a place at the London Olympics in 2012.

    2011: Hundreds of Israelis gathered in Tel Aviv, Jerusalem, Haifa and Kiryat Shmona today, in solidarity with economic demonstrations being held around the world.

    2011: The Justice Ministry this evening gave President Shimon Peres' office the list of Palestinian prisoners expected to be pardoned and released as part of the Gilad Shalit exchange deal, with the recommendation of Justice Minister Yaakov Neeman.

    2012: The ARZA Board and Leadership Council Annual Meeting is scheduled to come to an end.

    2012: As Hadassah members gather to celebrate its 100th anniversary the Keepers of the Gate Reception is scheduled to take place in Jerusalem

    2012: The YIVO institute for Jewish Research is scheduled to present  a lecture by Victoria Sake Woeste entitled  ” Henry Ford's War on Jews and the Legal Battle against Hate Speech.”

    2012: Alvin E. Roth was awakened at the three o’clock this morning by a phone call that told him he was a co-winner of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Science.

    2012: Defense Minister Ehud Barak said today that he is currently refraining from drafting into the IDF yeshiva students, who have until now been receiving military service deferrals, until after elections, despite the current lack of any legal framework for them to avoid national service following the expiration of the Tal Law in August.

    2013: As part of the Hyman S & Freda Bernstein Jewish Literary Festival, Judy Blume is scheduled to participate in a discussion of Tiger Eyes, the first of her books to be turned into a movie.

    2013: A dynamic ensemble comprising strings, winds, harp and piano which is part of the Israeli Chamber Project is scheduled to perform at the Merkin Concert Hall

    2013: Glenn Greenwald announced and The Guardian confirmed that he was leaving to pursue a "once-in-a-career dream journalistic opportunity that no journalist could possibly decline.”

    2013: Members of the Netzah Yehuda, (Nahal Hareidi) Brigade captured Arab terrorists who had infiltrated the community of Eina.  Troops have been extra vigiliant since the shooting of 9 year old Noam Glick and and the murder of retired IDF Colonel Seraya Opher – events that have taken place within the last ten days.

    2013: Bob Filner, the former Mayor of San Diego who was forced to resign because of his outrageous sexual antics pleaded guilty today  “to a felony and two misdemeanors for unwanted physical contact with three women at public events.”

    2014(21st of Tishrei, 5775): Hoshana Rabbah

    2014: The Wiener Library for the Study of the Holocaust & Genocide is scheduled to present a lecture by Yvette Walczak, “a Polish child survivor who will speak about her experiences growing up in Poland, the Soviet invasion and later her escape with reference to her autobiography ‘Let Her Go!’,

    2014: “The Kehilla Residential Programme will hold its fourth annual “Sukkahville” international design competition at Nathan Phillips Square in downtown Toronto today to draw attention to the issue of affordable housing in the Toronto area.”


























    1947(1st of Cheshvan, 5708): Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan

    1947(1st of Cheshvan, 5708): Eighty year old Abram I Elkus, a distinguished New York attorney and former ambassador to Turkey passed away tonight.

    1948: Following numerous violations of the UN Truce by Egypt. The Israel Army and Air force took the offensive and launched Operation 'Yoav. Since the UN would not act the Israelis felt compelled.  In addition to the immediate tactical considerations, the strategic goal of Operation 'Yoav' was to open a corridor to the Negev, cut the Egyptian lines of communications along the coast and on the Beersheba-Hebron-Jerusalem road, isolate and defeat the Egyptian forces, and ultimately to drive them out of the country. On the eve of 15 October, Gaza, Majdal and Beith Hanun were bombed, and part of the Air Force at El-Arish was put out of action. This action kept most of the Egyptian frontline fighters out of the skies and gave the IDF air superiority for the first time.

    1949(22nd of Tishrei, 5710): Shemini Atzeret

    1950: David Ben Gurion resigned as Prime Minister of Israel forcing the formation of a new government.

    1951(15th of Tishrei, 5712): Sukkoth

    1951: During the 1951 general election, Herbert Samuel became the first British politician to deliver a party political broadcast on television when he appeared before the cameras today.

    1954: “Sabrina” a chic comedy produced, directed and co-authored by Ernest Lehman Billy Wilder was released for general showing to theatres across the country.

    1956: On the day in which Iraqi troops entered Jordan in what Israel saw as a menacing move, Ben Gurion ordered a partial mobilization of Israeli forces and told the Knesset that “Israel reserves to herself freedom of action.

    1962: Louis Katz, who would be known as “Mr. Katz” went to work for the Forward

    1965(19th of Tishrei, 5726): Fifth day of Sukkoth

    1965(19th of Tishrei, 5726): Sixty-four year old Israeli mathematician Abraham Frankel, the first Dean of Mathematics at Hebrew University passed away today.

    1965: The Dodgers and Sandy Koufax won the 7th game of the World Series.

    1966: Broadway composer Moose Charlap and singer Sandy Stewart gave birth to jazz pianist William Morrison Charlap.

    1968(23rd of Tishrei, 5729): Simchat Torah

    1969: Birthdate of game show host Paige Davis.

    1970(15th of Tishrei, 5731): Sukkoth

    1970: Final day of publication for The American Examiner which traces its origins back to the American Hebrew, which first appeared in 1879.

    1973: During the Yom Kippur War, start of the Battle of the Chinese Farm.

    1973:  During the Yom Kippur War, General Arik Sharon led an attack on the Egyptian side of the Suez Canal. Joined by Generals Adan and Magen, within a week the IDF cut off the main road from Cairo to Suez and surrounded Egypt’s 3rd Army. The hold on the West Bank greatly improved Israel's negotiating position with the Egyptians and the morale of the country.  Regardless of how one may feel about Sharon’s politics, he was a bold general.  His successful cross canal attack completely changed the military equation of the Suez War.

    1973: Binyamin Livne and Rahamim Sofer were taken prisoner after their F-4E Phantom Jet was shot down by either a MiG or Egyptian anti-aircraft fire.  Tragically, Sofer would die while being held prisoner.

    1989: In Justice v Justice, Bernard Schwartz reviewed The Antagonists: Hugo Black, Felix Frankfurter and Civil Liberties in Modern America.



    1992: Title to Temple Israel in Leadville, CO passed from the William H. Copper Family Trust

    1995(21st of Tishrei, 5756): Hoshana Rabah

    1999:  Marquette University Law School Dean Howard Eisenberg delivers a speech entitled “What's a Nice Jewish Boy Like Me Doing in a Place Like This? Some Thoughts on Spirituality, the Legal Profession and Religious Diversity” at a Law School retreat.

    2000(16th of Tishrei); Second Day of Sukkoth; first day for blessing the Lulav & Etrog

    2000: The New York Times featured reviews of Bellow: A Biography by James Atlas, Off Camera Private Thoughts Made Public by Ted Koppel and Women and Human Development: The Capabilities Approach by Martha C. Nussbaum

    2000(16th of Tishrei, 5761): Second Day of Sukkoth

    2000(16th of Tishrei, 5761): Nobel Prize Winner Dr. Konrad Emil Bloch passed away.  Born in Germany in 1912, Bloch fled Nazi Germany in 1934.  He arrived in where he furthered his education while serving on the faculties of Yale Medical School, Columbia, the University of Chicago and Harvard.  He shared the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1964 with Feodor Lynen for their discoveries related to the regulation of cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism.

    2003: Golda's Balcony, starring Tovah Feldshuh, opened at Broadway's Helen Hayes Theatre In this one-woman show, Feldshuh plays the role of former Israeli Prime Minister Golda Meir. Golda's Balcony is set during 1973's Yom Kippur War. It splits between those events and reflections upon Meir's life, from her childhood in Milwaukee to her role in founding the Jewish state. Golda Meir is certainly not the only dramatic Jewish woman that Feldshuh has played during her illustrious Broadway career. Feldshuh has earned three Tony nominations for best actress, including the title role in Yentl (1975). She has also won four Drama Desk Awards, including one for Golda's Balcony. Her roles on television have included a Czech freedom fighter in Holocaust (1978), a role for which Feldshuh was nominated for an Emmy. She has appeared in a number of movies, including Kissing Jessica Stein (2001) and A Walk on the Moon (1999). Feldshuh is also a supporter of Seeds of Peace, a non-profit organization that helps teenagers from regions of conflict. She is a recipient of the Eleanor Roosevelt Humanitas Award, the Israel Peace Medal, and the National Foundation for Jewish Culture's Jewish Image Award.  

    2003: Three Americans were killed and one wounded at the Beit Hanoun junction in the Gaza Strip when a massive bomb demolished an armor-plated jeep in a convoy carrying U.S. diplomats and CIA personnel. Both the militant Islamic Jihad and Hamas movements denied responsibility for the attack.

    2005:  Haaretz reported that dozens of Jewish worshippers attacked the head of the Israel Defense Forces Manpower Branch Major General Elazar Stern at the Western Wall plaza in Jerusalem on Friday night. Stern was in civilian dress when he came to pray at the Western Wall, accompanied by his family. Worshippers surrounded him, yelling insults, and attempted to prevent him from reaching the wall. Though police officers immediately surrounded him, the worshippers began throwing stones and other objects in his direction. Stern was not hurt, and a police officer lightly wounded in the head did not require medical treatment The attackers were apparently motivated by Stern's role in Israel's disengagement from the Gaza Strip, completed last month.

    2006: Police said that complaints that five women had filed against Moshe Katsav “would not be pursued because the statute of limitations had run out.

    2006: The Los Angeles Times book section features a review of The Wicked Son: Anti-Semitism, Self-Hatred, and the Jews by David Mamet.

    2006: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Through The Children’s Gate: A Home in New York by Adam Gopnik and Hubris: The Inside Story of Spin, Scandal, and the Selling of the Iraq War by Michael Isikoff and David Corn

    2006: “Pelech,” a unique progressive Torah/Talmud based educational opportunity for women in Israel, marks its 40th anniversary.

    2006: Professor Robert (Yisrael) Aumann, the Israeli-American scholar who won the Nobel Prize for economics last year, said this week that Israel may not be capable of continuing to exist in the long-term. "Too many Jews don't understand why they are here," said Aumann, who moved from the United States to Israel in the 1950s and helped found the Center for Rationality at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, an interdisciplinary research body that focuses on game theory. "If we don't understand why we are here, and that we are not America or just a place in which to live, we will not survive," he said in a speech at the College of Judea and Samaria in Ariel on Sunday. "The desire to live like all the nations will sustain us maybe another 50 years, if we are still here."

    Aumann said one of the primary reasons for the recent war in Lebanon was national fatigue and quoted Prime Minister Ehud Olmert as having said that Israel is tired of wars and sacrifices. "Fatigue, in the State of Israel's situation, will lead to death, as occurs with mountain climbing," said Aumann. "If a mountain climber is caught on the side of a mountain and it starts to snow, if he falls asleep, he will die. He must remain alert." Aumann, who lost his son Shlomo in the first Lebanon war, accused Israelis of being overly sensitive to casualties of war. "We are too sensitive to our losses, and also to the losses of the other side," he said. "In the Yom Kippur War, 3,000 soldiers were killed. It sounds terrible, but that's small change." In addition, said Aumann, last summer's disengagement from the Gaza Strip was a "tactical and ethical mistake" that gave the Palestinians the wrong message and was another factor leading to this summer's Lebanon war. "Looking at the other side is an important element of game theory," he said. "The Arabs' understanding in the wake of the expulsion was that they had succeeded, and that they have to continue on the same path. The expulsion, therefore, brought about the launching of Qassams on Israel and the abduction of the soldiers. The expulsion transmitted the message that we can be moved even from Tel Aviv, and not just from Gush Katif.""Last summer we set back peace and understanding with our neighbors by at least 10 years," said Aumann. "After the expulsion, no words will convince them that we intend to stay here forever."

    2007: In Washington D.C., Nextbook Presents: Shalom Auslander, Foreskin's Lament: A Memoir, as part of the Hyman S. and Freda Bernstein Jewish Literary Festival.

    2007: The Nobel Prize in economics was awarded to three Americans Leonid Hurwicz, Eric S. Maskin, a professor at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, N.J., and Roger B. Myerson, a professor at the University of Chicago.

    2007: Time magazine reviewed Foreskin’s Lament by Sahlom Auslander.  “Behind the worst title of the year lurks one its best memoirs.…”

    2008(16th of Tishrei, 5769): Second Day Sukkoth 

    2009(27th of Tishrei, 5770): Seventy-nine year old toy collector Donald Kaufman passed away.

    (As reported by Dennis Hevesi)



    2009: The Counter-Terrorism Bureau at the National Security council issued a new, more sever warning today against traveling in India.  The warning comes a month before the anniversary of the November, 2008 Mumbai attacks which an attack on the Chabad House.

    2009: The Library of Congress hosts a discussion of the illustrated volume "Herblock: The Life and Works of the Great Political Cartoonist," published to mark the 100th anniversary of the birth of syndicated cartoonist Herbert Block, with its editors Haynes Johnson, the Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist, and Harry Katz, curator of the Herb Block Foundation Collection and the editor of "Cartoon America: Comic Art at the Library of Congress. The retrospective, published in cooperation with the Library of Congress, coincides with the library's new exhibition, "Herblock!,"

    2009: Frances Goodrich and Albert Hackett’s “The Diary of Anne Frank” is performed at Kimmel Theatre on the campus of Cornell College in Mt. Vernon Iowa. The production is based on Wendy Kesselman’s acclaimed new adaptation of the play that makes thoughtful use of recently recovered segments of Anne’s diary to deepen our understanding both of the cultural context of the events and to present a much more complex (and less sentimental) Anne.

    2009: Israeli poet Efrat Mishor reads at The Mill in Iowa City, IA.

    2010: Holocaust historian leads a noon time discussion at  the University of Iowa Hillel in Iowa City.

    2010: Mort Fertell is scheduled to speak at the Friday night dinner following the MesorahDC traditional Shabbat service at the Historic Sixth & I Synagogue in Washington, DC.

    2010: A major Berlin museum is launching an exhibition that seeks to explore how Adolf Hitler won and held mass support among Germans for his destructive regime."Hitler and the Germans — Nation and Crime," which opens today at the German Historical Museum, juxtaposes the Nazis' propaganda images and artifacts such as 1930s Hitler busts with footage and documentation on the regime's brutality and Germans' involvement in it.

    2010: It took seven years to write and just a few days to sew together, but today the first Torah scroll written entirely by a group of women was attached to its wooden poles and declared complete.The ceremony was held at Seattle’s Kadima Reconstructionist Community, which sponsored the project.“We had the idea 10 years ago, but when we looked around for women scribes, we realized there weren’t any,” said Kadima member Wendy Graff, one of the volunteers who shepherded the project from its inception. To remedy the dilemma, Kadima supported two women as they trained to be scribes. Four others trained on their own. Ultimately the six female scribes, or sofrot, worked on the scroll in four countries: two in Israel, two in the United States, and one each in Brazil and Canada. The panels were checked by experts in Jerusalem and New York, who made the minor tikkunim, or corrections, permitted by Jewish law. Major errors require a complete redo of the page.  Last week the panels were flown to Seattle, where another group of women sewed them together. The Torah mantle, including wooden poles, or atzei chayim, and other traditional accoutrements were created by seven local artists. The scribes were paid, but the others who worked on the project donated their time. According to Orthodox tradition, women are not permitted to be Torah scribes. Over the last decade, however, a handful of women have trained as scribes. It’s an exacting process. Torahs must be written by hand on parchment made from the skins of kosher animals, and scribes must state their intentions out loud each time they prepare to write God’s name. In September 2007, Jen Taylor Friedman of New York completed the first Torah scroll known to have been written by a woman, for the United Hebrew Congregation of St. Louis, Mo. Friedman advised the Women’s Torah Project and was one of the experts who checked for small errors. She is among a number of women at work on other Torah scrolls, including Julie Seltzer of San Francisco, one of the six scribes on the Seattle project. Seltzer wrote four of the Seattle Torah’s 62 panels in the summer of 2009, when she was living in New York. Since October 2009, she has been writing a Torah scroll at the Contemporary Jewish Museum in San Francisco as part of the yearlong exhibition, “As it is Written: Project 304,805.” Seltzer began the year doing all her writing in public at the museum, so visitors could watch and ask questions. She soon realized, however, that she would never complete the scroll by her December 2010 deadline, so Seltzer writes mainly at home now and spends several days a week at the museum talking to the public. “Jewish learning and text was my entryway to Jewish practice and spirituality, and continues to be one of the primary ways I connect,” Seltzer told JTA, saying she feels honored to be able to write a Torah scroll. “To be this close to the text, on the elemental level of the letters, is extraordinary.” Seltzer says she doesn’t feel that her experience writing a Torah is any different from a male scribe. But the fact that her Torah, and the one completed by the Women’s Torah Project, were written by women means they will not be accepted for use in Orthodox congregations. On her website,, Friedman tells female scribes they need to be upfront about that when they are commissioned to work on a Torah. “Why is a soferet like a swordfish?” she writes. Swordfish, she says, is not considered kosher by most Orthodox Jews, although Conservative Jews will eat it. “If I repair a Torah and then let Orthodox congregations use it,” she wrote, it’s “an appalling desecration of trust. If we want respect, as Jews or as human beings, we have to give respect, and part of that is accepting that other Jews' rule systems are valid despite being different from ours.”

    2010: Tomer Chelouche reviewed The Arab Jew From Algeria by Joanna Paraszczuk

    2011(17th of Tishrei, 5772): Shabbat Chol Hamoed Sukkoth

    2011(17th of Tishrei, 5772): Batsheva Esther Kanievsky, the wife of Rabbi Chaim Kanievsky, oldest daughter of Rabbi Yosef Shalom Eliashiv and granddaughter of Rabbi Aryeh Levin, passed away today.

    2011(17th of Tishrei, 5772): Seventy-nine year old super-agent Sue Mengers passed away today (As reported by Michael Cieply)

    2011: The Season’s Opening Concert, featuring the “Four Seasons” 1s scheduled to take place at the Eden Tamir Music Center. What better way to celebrate the joys of Sukkoth than to listen to Vivaldi in Jerusalem!?

    2011: Israeli gymnast Alexander Shatilov won a bronze medal at the Artistic Gymnastics World Championships in Tokyo this morning, securing a place at the London Olympics in 2012. Shatilov, Israel's leading male gymnast, tied third in floor exercise to Diego Hypolito of Brazil, with a score of 15.466. Japan's Kohei Uchimura, who on Friday night became the first man in history to win three all-around titles, took the floor exercises title with 15.633 points. This was his second gold medal in about 18 hours. Zou Kai, the Beijing Olympic and 2009 world floor champion, won the silver medal with 15.500 points. Shatilov, who won Israel's first-ever World Championship medal in 2009, will be Israel's great Olympic hope, when he sets out for London in 2012.

    2011: Hundreds of Israelis gathered in Tel Aviv, Jerusalem, Haifa and Kiryat Shmona today, in solidarity with economic demonstrations being held around the world. The events in Israel included discussion circles and activities for children. "We saw what is going on around the world, we saw the October 15th events, and we decided to initiate local events to connect Israel with the world," said Dor Nahman, the spokesman for October 15th events in Israel. Demonstrators rallied on Saturday across the world to accuse bankers and politicians of wrecking economies, but only in Rome did the global "day of rage" erupt into violence. Galvanized by the Occupy Wall Street movement, the protests began in New Zealand, rippled east to Europe and were expected to return to their starting point in New York. Demonstrations touched most European capitals and other cities.

    2011: The Justice Ministry this evening gave President Shimon Peres' office the list of Palestinian prisoners expected to be pardoned and released as part of the Gilad Shalit exchange deal, with the recommendation of Justice Minister Yaakov Neeman. The legal department at the presidential residence will gather the materials for the pardon documents that will be submitted to Peres for his signature. The names of the Palestinian prisoners to be released as part of the Shalit swap deal will be published on the website of the Israel Prison Service tomorrow to allow for opponents of the deal to present petitions to Israel's High Court against the deal's implementation. Under an agreement reached between Israel and Hamas that was announced last Tuesday, Israel is to free 1,027 Palestinian prisoners in exchange for Shalit. Gilad Shalit been held incommunicado in the Gaza Strip since being captured by Palestinian militants during a cross-border raid on June 25, 2006.

    2012: The ARZA Board and Leadership Council Annual Meeting is scheduled to come to an end.

    2012: As Hadassah members gather to celebrate its 100th anniversary the Keepers of the Gate Reception is scheduled to take place in Jerusalem

    2012: The YIVO institute for Jewish Research is scheduled to present  a lecture by Victoria Sake Woeste entitled  ” Henry Ford's War on Jews and the Legal Battle against Hate Speech.”

    2012: Alvin E. Roth was awakened at the three o’clock this morning by a phone call that told him he was a co-winner of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Science.


    2012(29th of Tishrei, 5773): Ninety-three year old Sarah “Reva” Golad, the mother of Helen Slvay passed away today in Arizona.


    2012: Defense Minister Ehud Barak said today that he is currently refraining from drafting into the IDF yeshiva students, who have until now been receiving military service deferrals, until after elections, despite the current lack of any legal framework for them to avoid national service following the expiration of the Tal Law in August.


    2013: As part of the Hyman S & Freda Bernstein Jewish Literary Festival, Judy Blume is scheduled to participate in a discussion of Tiger Eyes, the first of her books to be turned into a movie.


    2013: A dynamic ensemble comprising strings, winds, harp and piano which is part of the Israeli Chamber Project is scheduled to perform at the Merkin Concert Hall

    2013: GlennGreenwald announced and The Guardian confirmed that he was leaving to pursue a "once-in-a-career dream journalistic opportunity that no journalist could possibly decline.”

    2013: Members of the Netzah Yehuda, (Nahal Hareidi) Brigade captured Arab terrorists who had infiltrated the community of Eina.  Troops have been extra vigiliant since the shooting of 9 year old Noam Glick and and the murder of retired IDF Colonel Seraya Opher – events that have taken place within the last ten days.

    2013: Bob Filner, the former Mayor of San Diego who was forced to resign because of his outrageous sexual antics pleaded guilty today  “to a felony and two misdemeanors for unwanted physical contact with three women at public events.”

    2014(21st of Tishrei, 5775): Hoshana Rabbah

    2014: The Wiener Library for the Study of the Holocaust & Genocide is scheduled to present a lecture by Yvette Walczak, “a Polish child survivor who will speak about her experiences growing up in Poland, the Soviet invasion and later her escape with reference to her autobiography ‘Let Her Go!’,

    2014: “The Kehilla Residential Programme will hold its fourth annual “Sukkahville” international design competition at Nathan Phillips Square in downtown Toronto today to draw attention to the issue of affordable housing in the Toronto area.”



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    OCTOBER 16

    521 BCE (10th of Tishrei): Darius, the Persian monarch under whose rule the Second Temple was completed, and six companions killed another claimant to throne and cemented his position as ruling monarch.

    912: Abd-ar-Rahman III began his reign as Emir of Cordoba. The Emir appointed Hasdai ibn Shaprut to serve as his physician.  Their relationship developed to the extent that the Jewish physician became the confidant and advisor to the Muslim ruler.

    976: Sixty-one year old Al-Hakam II  the second Caliph of Córdoba, whose subjects included Enoch Ben Moses, who followed his father as Rabbi of Cordoba and whose students included Samuel ha-Nagid.

    1384: Jadwiga, the youngest daughter of Louis I of Hungary is crowned King of Poland. In 1385, she married Wladislaus II which meant that Lithuania was united with the kingdom of Poland. Now the rights enjoyed by Polish Jews would be extended to Lithuanian Jews.

    1529:Suleiman the Magnificent gives up on the siege of Vienna which means  that a large section of central Europe and all of Western Europe will remain under Christian domination as opposed to becoming part of Muslim Empire.

    1649: The American colony of Maine passed legislation granting religious freedom to all its citizens, on condition that those of contrary religious persuasions behave acceptably.  This early evidence of religious tolerance demonstrates why Jews would flourish in the land that would become the United States.

    1655(Tishrei, 5416): Joseph Solomon Delmedigo a rabbi, author, physician, mathematician, and music theorist passed away. Born in Candia, Crete in 1591 he moved to Padua, Italy, throughout most Europe and north Africa, and finally died in Prague. Yet in his lifetime wherever he sojourned he earned his living as a physician and or teacher. His only known works are Elim (Palms), dealing with mathematics, astronomy, the natural sciences, and metaphysics, as well as some letters and essays. He followed the lectures by Galileo Galilei, during the academic year 1609-1610. Elim (1629, published by Menasseh ben Israel, Amsterdam) is written in Hebrew, in response to 12 general and 70 specific religious and scientific questions sent to Delmedigo by a Karaite Jew, Zerach ben Natan from Troki (Lithuania). The format of the book is taken from the number of fountains and palm trees at Elim in the Sinai Peninsula, as given in Numbers, xxxiii, 9: since there are 12 fountains and 70 palm trees at Elim, Delmedigo divided his book into twelve major problems and seventy minor problems. The subjects discussed include astronomy, physics, mathematics, medicine, and music theory. In the area of music, Delmedigo discusses the physics of music including string resonance, intervals and their proportions, consonance and dissonance.

    1655(15thof Tishrei, 5416): Sukkoth

    1655(15thof Tishrei, 5416): Sixty-four year old Joseph Solomon Delmedigo, passed away.  A native of Crete, he was known for his work as a philosopher, mathematician, physician and the author of Elim (Palms) a wide ranging tome on numerous scientific subjects.


    1656: Thomas Burton, who recorded Oliver Cromwell’s assurance to Antonio Fernandez Carvajal that Jews could return to England in his famous diary appeared before parliament where he successfully defended himself against “a charge of disaffection towards the existing government.

    1773: In Braunschweig, Rabbi Meyer Hall and his wife Hale gave birth to their third son Samuel Meyer Ehrenberg the directo of the Jewish Samson School in Wolfenbuttel.

    1753: Birthdate of Johann G. Eichhorn, the German Old Testament scholar who was a pioneer in "higher criticism," which evaluated Scripture through literary analysis and historical evidence, rather than by the unquestioned authority of systematized religious tradition as can be seen in his seminal work Introduction to the Old Testament.

    1777(15thof Tishrei, 5538): Sukkoth

    1783: Birthdate of Jeanette Wohl, the native of Frankurt am Main who “was a longtime friend and correspondent of Ludwig Börne.”

    1794(22ndof Tishrei, 5555): Shemini Atzeret

    1805(23rdof Tishrei, 5566): Simchat Torah

    1810(18th of Tishrei, 5571): Fourth Day of Sukkoth

    1810: (18th Tishrei), 5571  Nachman of Breslov also known as Reb Nachman of Bratslav, Nachman from Uman, or simply as Rebbe Nachman (in local Yiddish reb Nokhmen Broslever) passed away. “Born in 1772, he was the founder of the Breslov Hasidic dynasty.Born at a time when the influence of his great-grandfather, the Baal Shem Tov, was waning, Rebbe Nachman breathed new life into the Chasidic movement by combining the esoteric secrets of Judaism (the Kabbalah) with in-depth Torah scholarship. He attracted thousands of followers during his lifetime, and after his death, his followers continued to regard him as their Rebbe and did not appoint any successor. Rebbe Nachman's teachings continue to attract and inspire Jews the world over.”  Some of his most famous quotes are:

    ·        "It is a great mitzvah to be happy always."

    ·        "If you believe that it is possible to break, believe it is also possible to fix."

    ·        "And know that a person needs to traverse a very, very narrow bridge, but the fundamental and most important principle is to have no hesitation or fear at all…" (This saying has been set to music in Hebrew as the song Kol Ha-Olam Kulo

     For more information about Rebbe Nachman see the attached or go to

    1812: Birthdate of Lazarus W. Powell, the Kentucky Senator who sought to have Congress condemn General Grant for issuing General Order No.11.  Powell was animated more by his anti-war views than he was by affection for the Jews.

    1826(15thof Tishrei, 5587): Sukkoth

    1835(23rdof Tishrei, 5596): Four-month old Ada Isaacs Menken,  celebrated her first Simchat Torah

    1841: Founding of Queen’s University in Kingston, Ontario, Canada.  Today Queen’s University offersJewish Studies courses that may be taken as electives by any student, or as part of a Minor in Jewish Studies. The Minor can be the main focus of a three-year BA or a secondary focus in a 4-year Honours BA.” The University is also home to Queen's University Hillel, the Jewish Student Union.

    1841(1st of Cheshvan, 5602): Rosh Chodesh

    1841: In Germany, on a Shabbat that was also Rosh Chodesh Chesvan, Issac Bernays, the Chief Rabbi of Hamburg condemned the newly issued Prayerbook for the Israelites and the rabbis who had authored it.  This was part of dispute that had been taking place at The Hamburg Temple among the orthodox members and the reformers who were led by Gabriel Riessler.  It was part of larger dispute that was rocking German Jewry as it dealt with issues of Reform, Orthodoxy, and coping with modernity. (If this sounds familiar, it is since we continue to deal with these issues in the 21st century.  Considering the rancor and ill will that was created, some would say that the German experience in the 19th century is primer for how not to deal with these issues.)

    1843(22nd of Tishrei, 5604): Jews observe Shemini Atzeret on the same day that Fear and Trembling by Søren Kierkegaard was published.

    1845(15th of Tishrei, 5606): Jews in Texas observe Sukkoth for the first time as citizens of the United States since the citizens of what had been the Lone Star Republic approved the new constitution and the statute of annexation three days before.  Today, Houston, Dallas and Austin are home to three of the most vibrant Jewish communities in the United States.

    1847:District Rabbi Jonas Wiesner and Estra (Therese) Wiesner Schur gave birth to their daughter Fanny Abeles Wiesner.

    1851: “The News by the Mails” column published today reported that “The New York correspondent of The Republic replies to the animadversions of certain parties here, in relation to his former statement that there were no Jews on Wall Street.   The letter-writer substantiates his assertion by citing names, etc; and states that the fact was mentioned in order to prove that the Jewish people have no natural aptitude for the brokerage business, and are only driven into the money-dealing business by the disabilitities which shut them out of other honorable employment.

    1854: Birthdate of Oscar Wilde, the Anglo-Irish author who is remembered as much for his sexual orientation as for his literary works.  In The Picture of Dorian Gray, Wilde presents us with a Jewish theatre manager named Isaacs.  The depiction of the character can only be described as anti-Semitic.  One critic attributes Wilde’s creation of the character to a dispute he was having with the author George Eliot.  Since Eliot had created a sympathetic Jewish figure in one of her works, Wilde felt compelled to do just the opposite. 
    1855(4th of Cheshvan, 5616): Seventy-seven year old Jeremiah Heinemann, the son of Rabbi Joachim Heinemann and the brother of Moses Heinemann who had published a translation of “Kohelet” passed away today.


    1859: Abolitionist John Brown, whose followers included August Bondi, Jacob Benjamin and Theodore Weiner,  leads the raid on the arsenal at Harpers Ferry.

    1861:A. Eger, the Secretary of Congregation Emanu-El in San Francisco wrote to I.J. Benjamin that the congregation has “set aside the sum o