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A collection of Jewish history and current Jewish events, in date format, updated daily in this Jewish history blog.

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    JUNE 5 In History

    70: Titus and his Roman legions breach the middle wall of Jerusalem.
    1191 After conquering Cyprus, Richard the Lionheart and his Crusaders set sail for “the Holy Land.” This crusading left England in the control of Prince John who, amongst other things, exploited the Jewish subjects in a way that the King would not have approved of.

    1257:  Kraków, Poland receives city rights. Jews were probably among the earliest settlers of Krakow which was settled by traders from Germany.  Jews had been moving to Poland from Germany since the days of the Crusades.  Certainly there was a Jewish population in the town by the middle of the 14th century since the oldest synagogue in the town dates from a visit from Casimir the Great.

    1305:Raymond Bertrand de Got is elected Pope under the name Clement V. According to Elizabeth D. Malissa, “Pope Clement V is the first pope to threaten Jews with an economic boycott in an attempt to force them to stop charging Christians interest on loans.”

    1705(13th of Sivan): Manuel (Isaac Hayyim) Teixeira de Sampaio, passed away   202

    1740(10th of Sivan)” Rabbi Eliezer Rokeah of Amsterdam, author Maaseh Rokeah passed away

    1788: As the newly formed United States groped for a form of government that would be an improvement over the Articles of Confederation, former Harvard President and leading clergyman “Samuel Langdon addressed the New Hampshire state legislature on the subject of “The Republic of the Israelites an Example to the American States.”  Langdon was one of those who saw the ancient Israelite society as providing the prototype for an American republic.  For example, he saw the Seventy Elders selected by Moses as a “Senate” and proof that the Israelites had a voice in the government, something he desired for the emerging United States of America.

    1805: Lisa & Kahn one of the oldest banking houses in the Netherlands was founded today by two Polish Jews – Hirschel Eliazer Kahn and Moses Calmus Lissa.

    1806: Louis Napoléon Bonaparte, the brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, began his reign as King of Holland.Louis was supportive of his Jewish subjects and sought to make them full-fledged citizens of his Dutch kingdom. He “changed the market-day in some cities (Utrecht and Rotterdam) from Saturday to Monday” and abolished the use of the "Oath More Judaico" Henceforth, Jews and Christians would swear to the same oath when testifying. in the courts of justice, and administered the same formula to both Christians and Jews. In an attempt to improve their skills in the art of war, ‘’he formed two battalions of 803 men and 60 officers, all Jews.” Prior to his reign, the Jews  had been until then excluded from military service. [Editors Note – It may seem strange to westerners living in the 21stcentury, but at that time, serving in the military was considered a sign of full-citizenship. If you will remember the story of Asser Levy and his fight to serve in the militia in New Amsterdam you will understand the importance of what Louis did.]

    1829: Birthdate of Marcus Jastrow, the Polish born Talmudist who would become the Rabbi at Rodeph Shalom in Philadelphia, PA.

    1832: Thanks to the work of the late Ezekiel Hart who had been denied his seat in the legislature in 1809 and his son Samuel Hart, the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada, passed the 1832 Emancipation Act that ultimately guaranteed full rights to people practicing the Jewish faith.  Canada was a trend setter since it would be 27 years before such a measure was passed any place in the British Empire.

    1837: Houston, Texas is incorporated by the Republic of Texas. By 1854, there were enough Jews living in Houston for the establishment of cemetery and by 1859 the Jewish community was large enough to get a charter for what was the first congregation in Texas in 1859. The Congregation, Beth Israel, began as an Orthodox synagogue, but became a Reform congregation some fifteen years later.

    1843(7th of Sivan, 5603): Second Day of Shavuot

    1849: In Denmark, article 84 of the new constitution negated discrimination of "any person on the basis of religious grounds." This removed the last restriction on the Jews making them full citizens

    1855: In New York City, “The Jews’ Hospital” opened for patients today.  While the hospital may have been intended to serve destitute and newly arrived Jews, its mission soon changed.  During the Civil War it treated untold number of Union casualties beginning with those who were wounded during McClellan’s Peninsular Campaign. It was originally located on West 28th Street in Manhattan. It changed its name to Mt. Sinai Hospital in 1866.

    1860:Emily Jane Mires, the daughter of Franco-Jewish financier Jules Mires, married Prince Alphonse de Polignac the second son of President of the Council of Ministers. In 1861 the couple had a daughter named Jeanne

    1861: During the American Civil War,Frederick Knefler was promoted from the rank of lieutenant to captain in the 11th Indiana Infantry.  Knefler would eventually work his way up to the chain of command to become a Brigadier General.  His commanding officer in the 11thIndiana was Lew Wallace, author of Ben Hur, the 19th century classic set in Judea with a Jewish hero.  Wallace and Knefler were friends before the war.

    1870: Today's "Foreign Items" column reported that Warsaw, Poland, has a population of 254,561 of which 67,584 are Jews.

    1870: Birthdate of German born oncologist Ferdinand Blumenthal.

    1870(6th of Sivan, 5630): First Day of Shavuot

    1870: During Shavuot Services, seven young ladies and four young men took part in Temple Israel’s first ever Confirmation Ceremony.  Services were led by Rabbi Raphael D.C Lewis of Brooklyn, NY. The service began at ten in the morning with the hymn Adon Olom which was sung to the accompaniment of organist Morris Abrahams.

    1870: Members of the Temple Israel confirmation class and their parents visited the home of Rabbi D.C. Lewin this evening where they presented him with a pair of engraved silver goblets as a token of their appreciation for his work with them.

    1870: In New York City, a meeting is scheduled to be held at Temple Israel, which is led by Rabbi Raphael D.C. Lewin, to discuss the outbreak of anti-Semitism in Romania.

    1870: According to reports published today, Temple Emanuel located on New York’s Fifth Avenue had a total income of $97, 627.70 this past fiscal year with expenses of $38,179.52 that included such items as salary for the staff (21,500); choir and organ (5,425.76); school (1,708.44) and insurance (2,301.39).  The income included payments for pews in the amount of 34,425.92 and 17,344.70 from “the charity collection for the year.  As to membership, the Temple “has 3059 pew owners and 61 seat holders.”

    1870:The New Persecution of the Jews” published today described the persecution of Jews at the hand of Romanian Christians as being “so savage and so causeless, the civilized world can be one sentiment – that of immeasurable indignation.” After providing a succinct, sympathetic picture of Jewish history while drawing a picture of Jewish suffering at the hands of Christians the article describes the positive nature of the American Jew.   “Not one of all the multitude of nationalities which we have received among us can boast of so large a proportion of peaceful and law-abiding members.  A Jew in prison is a thing almost unheard of; a Jew soliciting public charity has yet to be found; a Jew who boast of his caste, grows noisy over his religion or reviles that of his neighbors, if he exist at all, has become known to the general community…It is only bigotry which represents a Jew as an object of hatred or aversion.  To that race we owe much of our civilizations, and all the religion we possess.  It has endured persecution through generation after generation and has never evinced any disposition to retaliate….It is to be hoped that the United States Government will do all in its power to check the hideous massacre lately begun in Rumania.”

    1876: “A Moor stabbed eleven Jews” today at Alcassar, a Moroccan city in the Province of Fez.  Among the wounded are Moses Abecasis.

    1877: Reports reaching Bucharest that American Jews have petitioned Secretary of State W.M. Evarts on behalf of their co-religionists in Romania and Turkey “has created considerable ”amount of“ astonishment” among Jews and non-Jews alike.

    1877: Jacob and Therese Schiff gave birth to Mortimer Leo Schiff, banker, philanthropist and early support of the Boy Scouts of America.

    1881: A group of Polish Jews fought back today on Hester Street when two members of the “border gang” –John Reilly and Thomas Sinclair – began torment them.  Reilly responded to the Jewish resistance by drawing his revolver and shooting indiscriminately at the Jews. Louis Wolf was wounded by one of the shots which was heard by two 7th Precinct Detectives who chased down the fleeing thugs and arrested them.

    1881: In “An Eastern Story,” a reviewer examines the recently published Rabbi Jeshua, a book that is described as “peculiar” because of the “parallelism which exists between the history of Rabbi Jeshua and the founder of Christianity.

    1882: It was reported today that an Austrian physician had seen more than 125 “mutilated Jews” at a hospital in Odessa.  He described the wounds as being “of a very dangerous character.”  The attackers showed a spirit of cruelty by pouring spirits and petroleum into the wounds. One woman had her breast cut off while her one year old child had its eyes put out with a red hot iron.  At this time there are 3,000 homeless orphans wondering the area. (Editor’s note – You can draw a straight line from these reports to the meetings being held in the United States on how to cope with the rising tide of Jews fleeing Russia)

    1882: It was reported today that “a colonization society” with a capitalization of a million dollar is to be formed to implement plans to settle Russian Jews in homesteads and other agricultural settlements in the American West.

    1882 (18th of Sivan, 5642): Alexander Abraham de Sola passed away. Born in 1825, he was a Canadian Rabbi, author, Orientalist, and scientist. Originating from a large renowned family of Rabbis and scholars, De Sola was recognized there as one of the most powerful leaders of Orthodox Judaism in the United States during the latter half of the nineteenth century. Born in London, England, the sixth child of David Aaron de Sola and Rebecca Meldola, his maternal grandfather was Haham Raphael Meldola, a prominent English Rabbi. His sister Eliza, married Rabbi Abraham Pereira Mendes, and was the mother of Dr. Frederick de Sola Mendes.In 1873, by invitation of President Ulysses S. Grant's administration, De Sola opened the United States Congress with prayer. This invitation might have had a double significance at the time.  By asking a rabbi to provide the opening prayer, Grant was once against providing evidence that he was not an anti-Semite.  By asking a British rabbi to provide an opening prayer, the administration might have been signaling its desire to improve relations with Great Britain.

    1882: The Musée Grévin, opened today in Paris. Arthur Meyer was the co-founder of what has become a very popular waxwork museum.  The grandson of a Rabbi, he was born in Le Harve in 1844 and became a major publisher in the French newspaper business.  His role as “press baron” reminds one of that played by Jews in other countries.  Like other Jewish moguls of journalism, he converted, in his case to Catholicism and he was a member of the anti-Dreyfus forces.

    1883: Birthdate of English economist John Maynard Keynes, whom most people know as the father of Keynesian Economics but do not know as “a venomous anti-Semite who could have given Richard Wagner a run for his money” who said the Jews “have in them deep-rooted instincts that are antagonistic and therefore repulsive to the European, and their presence among us is a living example of the insurmountable difficulties that exist in merging race characteristics, in making cats love dogs ...It is not agreeable to see civilization so under the ugly thumbs of its impure Jews who have all the money and the power and brains.”

    1886: On Shabbat most of the Rabbis in Philadelphia spoke to their congregations about the unwillingness of the school superintendent to allow the Jewish students to make-up the final exams which are scheduled to be given on Shavuot.  The superintendent has refused to make any accommodation and failure to take the exams could result in failing for the school year.  The Rabbis “cautioned the young of their congregations against attending school on the upcoming festival.”

    1886:William Eugene Blackstone, the author of the Blackstone Memorial, married Sarah Lee Smith.  The Blackstone Memorial was a petition signed by many prominent Americans calling for the return of the Jews to Palestine which was sent to President Benjamin Harrison.

    1887: It was reported today that rumors are circulating concerning a proposal to make Pope Leo XIII King of Palestine under a protection of all the Catholic powers.  Some see this is a way to compensate the Pope for having lost his temporal powers in Italy at the time of the reunification.  The proposal does not take into consideration the fact that the Russians, who are Orthodox, feel they have a special role to play in the Holy Land as do the Anglican British. The report concedes that nobody has taken into consideration how the Jews and Moslems would feel about governance under a Papal monarch.
    1889(6thof Sivan, 5649): Shavuot

    1892: Founding of the Jewish community of Oslo, Norway.

    1892: Congregation B’nai Jeshurun hosted its annual reception for its religious school this afternoon.

    1893: The Jewish shirtmakers expect that five hundred of them will be “locked out” by the Shirt Contractors’ Association today as the association moves to “break” the union.
    1895: Samuel Castin is being held by authorities on charges that he sold $4,500 worth of jewelry that did not belong to him and kept the money for himself.  Castin is known as “Jew Sam.” (Everybody was not a Talmud student)

    1899(27th of Sivan, 5659): German printer, publisher and bookseller, Hirsch Fishl passed away in Berlin. Sometime after 1860, while living in Halberstadt, Hirsch developed a specialty of buying and selling Hebrew books and manuscripts.  Hirsch provided Joseph Zender with many of the incunabula and rare books that were part of the first collection of Hebrew Books created for the British Museum.  He also provided assistance for The Bodleian Library and the Rosenthal Library at Amsterdam when they sought to acquire Jewish and Hebrew Books.  (As reported by Singer and Van Straalen)

    1908(6th of Sivan, 5668) Shavuot

    1908: In White Plains, NY, Felix and Frieda Warburg give birth to their fifth and youngest child Edward Mortimer Morris Warburg

    1912: Birthdate of Arnold Forster, an American Jewish leader, lawyer and writer who became a longtime executive of the Anti-Defamation League of B’nai B’rith.

    1916: After a bruising confirmation process laced with anti-Semitism that lasted for more than four Louis Brandeis became the first Jewish Justice of the United States Supreme Court when he took the oath of office in the courtroom of the United States Supreme Court.  The chamber was filled to capacity with family members, well wishers and government officials including Secretary of War Baker, Attorney General Gregory, Senator Nelson of Colorado and Senator Martin of Virginia. “The oath was administered to Mr. Brandeis today by virtue of the action of the Senate in waiving its three-day notification rule providing that a person confirmed by the Senate shall not assume office until three days after he is notified of his appointment.”

    1917: During World War I, in the United States registration began under the Selective Draft Act covering all men between the ages of twenty one and thirty.  According to historian Martin Gilbert, the New York Times declared that this act gave “’gave a long and sorely needed means of disciplining a certain insolent foreign element in this nation.’ The reference was to America’s Jews, whose pacifist elements were no greater, by proportion than those of other Americans.  Universal military service, one American rabbi insisted, was an institution deriving from the time of Moses.  In support of this pro-war view there was also a verse in the Psalms which British Jews had cited two years earlier as a religious justification for to war: ‘Blessed be the Lord, my Rock, Who teaches my hands to war and my fingers to fight.’ Within two months of the passage of the Selective Draft Act, Jews made up 6 per cent of the American armed forces, though they were only 2 per cent of the population.”  The most of those Jews in uniform would be Irving Berlin.

    1919(7th of Sivan 5679) Second Day of Shavuot

    1921: Funeral services are scheduled to be held today for Dr. Simon Baruch, father of Bernard Baruch, at the West End Synagogue in New York City.

    1930:Birthdate of Jerome Howard Abrams who, as Jerry Ames, became a major force in the field of American Tap Dance. The 2006 recipient of the Flo Bert Award for his lifetime contribution to tap dance changed his name, like many other performers of his era, because his “Jewishness” could hinder his career. 

    1932: Dr. Cyrus Adler announced that Dr. Morris D. Levine has been appointed to a full professorship at the Jewish Theological Seminary of America.

    1932: Dr. Cyrus Adler was honored today during the commencement exercises at the Jewish Theological Seminary for his thirty years of service to this flagship institution of the Jewish community.

    1932: Ten new rabbis will be ordained today at the 7th annual commencement exercises of the Jewish Institute of Religion. The chairman of the board of Trustees, Judge Julian W. Mack will preside at the event being held at Carnegie Hall and Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, President of the Institute will confer the degrees on the newly minted clergyman.

    1933: Arturo Toscaninii boycotts a German music festival to protest Nazi repression of what the regime classified as “degenerate artists.”

    1934: Tensions began to rise today in Eastern Thrace that would lead to full blown violence during June and July known as the Thrace Pogroms which was the name given to a series of violent attacks on the Jews by Moslem Turks in the “cities of Tekirdağ, Edirne, Kırklareli, and Çanakkale.” The violence began with boycotts of Jewish shops and products which “was followed by vandalizing of Jewish houses and shops.”  There is a dispute as to who caused the violence.  Some attribute it to leaders who were pro-Nazi while others attribute it to members of Atatürk's Republican People's Party.  Who started the violence may be a matter of dispute but the effects are a matter of record. “Over 15,000 Jews had to flee from the region.”

    1935: The Metropolitan League of Jewish Community Associations honored The American Jewish Olympic team which recently competed in the Maccabiah games held in Tel Aviv at a reception held at the 92nd Street Y.M.H.A. The three hundred attendees included E.J. Londow, the chairman, Judge Jonah Goldstein and Rabbi Louis I. Newman. Among the honorees were Jance Lifson, Dores Kelm, William Steiner and Martin Weintraub.

    1937: Birthdate of Benjamin Jerry Cohen the native of  Ossining, New York who I”s the Louis G. Lancaster Professor of International Political Economy at the University of California, Santa Barbara.… where he has been a member of the faculty since 1991” and “teaches undergraduate and graduate courses on international political economy.”

    1940: “With the ever-increasing threat of war in the Eastern Mediterranean” the New York Times described preparations being made to defend Palestine from attacks by Axis forces.  Palestine is an attractive target because Haifa is the terminus of the oil pipeline from Iraq and has become one of the busiest ports in this part of the world. Additionally, Palestine has become “one of the largest manufacturing centers in the Near East” thanks in large part to the influx of Jewish settlers from Germany and other parts of Europe over the last seven years. The Jews of Palestine are committed to the defense of area and are determined to stay put and deal with any invasion.

    1940: Birthdate of David Brudnoy, Boston talk radio host

    1942: In Cracow; Poland, thousands of Jews were rounded up for deportation.

    1942: Eisengruppen report stating efficiency of Gas vans; "Since 1941, 97,000 have been processed in the three vehicles in operation without any malfunctions in the vehicles."

    1942: The SS reports that 97,000 persons have been "processed" in mobile gas vans.

    1942: During a roundup of Jews in Kraków, Poland, SS men brutally torment two men--one who has just one leg and another who had lost his eyesight while fighting for Germany in World War I.

    1943: The Nazis deported 1266 Jewish children under the age of 16 from Vught, Holland to the Sobibór death camp where they are gassed upon arrival.

    1943(2nd of Sivan, 5703): In Minsk Mazowiecki, Poland, more than 100 Jewish workers at the Rudzki factory are shot.

    1943:  When the National Headliners' Club included women in its ranks of prizewinning journalists for the first time in 1943, Sylvia Porter was one of just two women to receive a Headliners' award. Today she was honored for "outstanding" work in financial and business reporting. By then, Porter had been working in journalism for a decade, but the award was only the first of many Porter would earn over a career that spanned half a century.

    1943: Etty Hillesum voluntarily returned to Westerbork where she “continued to provide a bit of support for the people as they were preparing themselves for transport. It was for this reason that Etty Hillesum consistently turned down offers to go into hiding. She said that she wished to "share her people's fate".

    1944: Joel Brand was arrested by the British as he tried to get to Palestine during negotiations which he thought would help save the Jews of Hungary from the Final Solution.

    1944: The Allies marched into Rome, 1944. Jews emerged from their hiding places and the gate of the great synagogue was opened. There has been a great deal written about the Pope's failure to come to the aid of the Jews during the war.  But we must not lose sight of the heroic efforts on the part of many individual Italians many of whom were priests and nuns who risked their lives to hide the Jews of Italy.  The stories of people being hidden in monasteries, nunneries and in Catholic cemeteries are tales of courage and daring do that even Tom Clancy or Ian Fleming could not have invented.

    1944: In the weekly internal report of the War Refugee Board, it states that notice was recently sent to Algeria about the evacuation of 1,000 refugees now in southern Italy to be accepted by the United States. Among the countries which refugees originated from were Bulgaria, Greece, Spain, Turkey and Yugoslavia.

    1945: Birthdate of Nechama Rivlin, wife of former Speaker of the Knesset, Reuven Rivlin

    1945:Binem Wrzonsk “joined a group of boys and young teenagers, known as the "The Buchenwald Boys" who were brought to France in a special convey under the sponsorship of the O.S.E” Among the boys were Elie Wiesel and Kalman Kaliksztajn.

    1946: Jews from Palestine visited the ruins of the Warsaw Ghetto

    1948: Israeli armed forces captured Yavneh.

    1950: European diamond manger, Jacques Torczyner, warns that unfair labor practices by the West German diamond industry will have a negative impact on other diamond cutting centers including the one at Tel Aviv.

    1950: Eliahu Elath flies to London to begin serving as Israel’s first ambassador to Great Britain “which has recently accorded Israel full recognition…”

    1951(1st of Sivan, 5711): Rosh Chodesh Sivan

    1954:  The last new episode of the hit comic variety program, Your Show of Shows, airs. The show co-starred Sid Caesar and included Carl Reiner and Howie Morris as “second bananas.”  Writers for the show included Mel Brooks, Woody Allen and Neil Simon.

    1956: It was reported today that the Mizrachi Women’s Organization of American has $1,165,000 in the past year to support projects in Israel including “several children’s villages, vocational high schools, nurseries and settlement houses.”

    1957(6th of Sivan, 5717): First Day of Shavuot

    1959: Dr. Bernard Mandelbaum was appointed provost of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America.

    1959: Ogden Rogers Reid was appointed U.S. Ambassador to Israel.

    1963: Release date for Billy Wilder’s “Irma la Douce.”

    1967: Zvi Dinstein completed his term as Deputy Minister of Defense

    1967: Operation Focus (Mivtza Moked) began at 07:45

    1967: War broke out between Israel and the Arab nations.   This day marks the first of six of the most momentous days in Jewish history.  In May of 1967, Egypt ordered the U.N. peacekeeping force out of the Sinai and sent Egyptian forces into the Sinai Peninsula.  Both of these acts were violations of the agreements that had ended the Suez Crisis of 1956-57.  Egypt also closed the Straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping effectively blockading the port of Elath.  Such a blockade is an act of war under international law. The Egyptians also formed a joint military command with the Syrians and the Jordanians.  For a month, Israel heeded the voices of caution from the international community.  However, nothing was done to relieve the desperate situation.  So on the morning of June 5, 1967, the Israeli Air Force struck the Egyptian Air Force, destroying much of it on the ground.  This was an act of real daring since the Israelis had left only 12 fighters to cover the rest of the country in case of air attack.  Following the successful air action, Israeli troops entered the Sinai and engaged the larger Egyptian forces.  The world waited and held its breath. At the same time, the Israelis used three different channels to try and convince the Jordanians not to enter the fight.  The Jordanian response was to begin shelling the western section of Jerusalem and to begin to move troops forward.  Reluctantly, Israeli forces moved into the eastern section of Jerusalem.  Two days later, the city would be united as the capital of the Jewish state and the Western Wall would once again be open to the Jews from throughout the world. (For more details on the war you might want to read Six Days of War by Oren, Israel’s Fight for Survival by Donovan, or Israel by Martin Gilbert.  As these accounts, all written in different eras after the war confirm, Israel had no grand strategy to conquer the Sinai, the West Bank and the Golan. The attacks aimed at the Egyptians were part of a grand design, but the fight against the other states was in response to unfolding events on the ground.  For example, the destruction of the Egyptian Air Force was a strategic move.  The destruction of the Jordanian, Syrian and Iraqi air forces was a tactical move that took place when the planes from these three Arab nations crossed into Israeli air space in mid-morning of June 5.)

    1967(26th of Iyar, 5727): Arthur Yitzhak Biram, Israeli philosopher, philologist, and educator, passed away in Haifa.  Born in Bischofswerda in Saxony in 1878, the son of a modest, but successful businessman Biram attended school in Hirschberg, Silesia. His sister Else Bodenheimer became a well known art sociologist. He studied languages, including Arabic, at University of Berlin and at University of Leipzig and earned a doctorate Dr. phil. at the University of Leipzig in 1902, discussing the philosophy of Abu-Rasid al-Nisaburi.[1] In 1904 he concluded the rabbi seminar at the Hochschule für die Wissenschaft des Judentums. Afterwards he taught languages and literature at the Berlinisches Gymnasium zum Grauen Kloster. Biram was one of the founders of the Bar-Kochba club, and a member of the German liberal religious stream 'Ezra', which recognized the importance of high school education. In 1913, he emigrated to Ottoman Palestine. Dr. Arthur Biram was appointed the first principal of the Hebrew Reali School in Haifa but a few months later, World War I broke out, and Dr. Biram was drafted by the German army and stationed in Afula. In 1919, he returned to school. He married Hannah Tomeshevsky, and they had two sons. Both sons were killed: Aharon died in an accident while on reserve duty, and Binyamin, an engineer at the Dead Sea Works, was killed by a mine. As part of Dr. Biram's philosophy of education, in 1937, he implemented compulsory Hagam  training for girls in the Hebrew Reali School in Haifa, laying the foundation for recruitment of women in the Haganah, and later the Israel Defence Forces. In 1948, he resigned his post as principal, and on his 75th birthday, he authored a collection of essays on the Bible. Altogether, he wrote about 50 publications in Hebrew, German, English, and Arabic.

    1967: The Israeli army captured the city of Gaza. Gaza had been occupied by the Egyptians since 1948 and was a base for terrorists.  

    1967: The town of Latrun, overlooking the old road to Jerusalem was captured.  Latrun dominated the road to Jerusalem and had been the cite of great deal of hard fighting during the War For Independence in 1948.   The city of Qalqilya was also captured on the same day.

    1967: The U.N. Security Council unanimously ordered a cease-fire in the Middle East War.   This was the same U.N. that had betrayed the Israelis by removing its forces from the Sinai and had sat silently while the Arab states tightened the noose around Israel's neck.

    1967: In Cairo, Dr. Fraouk Shabtai and two of his brothers were taken to Abu Zaabal prison and later transferred to an internment camp at Tourah where they would spend the next two years.  They were part of at least “425 Jewish males – the vast majority of the Jewish community’s men – who were detained in Egypt during the Six Day War.”

    1967:Avraham "Avi" Lanir flew his plane the “Black Mirage” in attack on the Egyptian air base at Fayid.  The plane earned its nickname when it was scorched during Lanir’s dogfight with the Syrians in April of 1967.

    1967: Mob violence broke out in Tunis. One hundred shops were systematically looted and burnt; cars belonging to Jews were overturned and set ablaze; forty scrolls of the Law were taken out of the main synagogue by the pillagers and were desacrated before they were burnt; the main synagogue was itself set on fire until it lay a smouldering ruin, the police having stood by and watched. President Bourguiba made an impassioned plea on radio and television to stop the rioting, apologising to the Jewish community and promising to punish the perpetrators. The Jews had little confidence in the government’s ability to protect them.  The population went from 105,000 to 23,000 by the end of 1967 and 9,000 by 1900. In the 21st century, terrorists would burn an ancient Tunisian synagogue.

    1967:Today, on the first day of war,Yonatan "Yoni" Netanyahu’s battalion fought the battle of Um Katef in Sinai, then reinforced the Golan Heights. During the battle, Yonatan received a wound to his elbow while helping rescue a fellow soldier who lay wounded deep behind enemy lines.

    1968: Sirhan Sirhan shot Bobby Kennedy, who died the next day. Kennedy was the Senator from New York and a candidate for the Democratic nomination for President.   At one point, this Arab assassin claimed that he shot Kennedy because he supported Israel. Regardless of the reason (mental health problems were also given as a defense), long before 9/11 Arabs violently intruded their way into the American political scene and had a defining affect on altering history.

    1969: Dr. Shabtai and his wife Laila were married in Paris two years to the day after Dr. Shabtai had been seized by Egyptian authorities at the start of the Six Days War.

    1969:  The University of Texas at San Antonio was founded.  Today there are approximately 150 Jewish students UTSA.  The Hillel House serves students at UTSA as well those at other colleges and universities in San Antonio.

    1975: The Suez Canal opened for the first time since the Six Day War of 1967.

    1982: Israel launched Operation Peace for Galilee against the PLO and other hostile forces after the assassination attempt on the life of Shlomo Argov, Israel’s ambassador to the United Kingdom.

    1987: Ted Koppel hosts a "National Town Meeting on AIDS" on a special four-hour long live broadcast of Nightline.

    1988:An exhibition at the Historical Museum of the City of Vienna that presents a large private collection illustrating Jewish life in that city is scheduled to come to an end.  The exhibition includes “historic objects from Jewish homes and houses of worship in Vienna, as well as books, parchments, charts, artworks and handicrafts, all assembled over the last three decades by the collector Max Berger.”

    1995(7th of Nisan, 5755) Second Day of Shavuot

    1995: Bose-Einstein condensate is first created for the first time. The collapse of the atoms into a single quantum state is known as Bose condensation or Bose-Einstein condensation. This phenomenon was predicted in the 1920s by Satyendra Nath Bose and Albert Einstein, based on Bose's work on the statistical mechanics of photons, which was then formalized and generalized by Einstein.  (And you thought he stopped with the E= MC squared.)

    1998: Author and commentator Alfred Kazin passed away on his 83rdbirthday. His last published work was God and the American Writer which appeared in 1997.

    1999(21st of Sivan, 5759):Melvin Howard “Mel” Tormé nicknamed The Velvet Fog, “an American musician, known for his jazz singing” passed away.  “He was also a jazz composer and arranger, a drummer, an actor in radio, film, and television, and the author of five books. He co-wrote the classic holiday song "The Christmas Song" (also known as "Chestnuts Roasting on an Open Fire") with Bob Wells.  [And you thought that Irving Berlin was the only Jew writing Christmas songs.]

    1999: At Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, IA, Aufruf for Deb and Mitchell Levin.

    2002(25th of Sivan, 5762):Of the 17 Israelis who were killed this morning when a stolen car packed with explosives pulled alongside a public bus and exploded near the northern town of Megiddo, 13 were soldiers, most of them conscripts. Seven were buried today at the Hadera military cemetery.At least five of the victims were immigrants from the former Soviet Union, young people whose parents had brought them out of Dagestan and Moldova and Ukraine.One of the victims, Violetta Hizgayev, a shy, 19-year-old sergeant in the ordinance corps, had struggled more than most.Gennadi Issakov, 20, who also was killed in the attack, had been a sergeant in Jenin for the District Civil Liaison office, a military unit set up under Oslo peace accords to staff checkpoints, supervise the delivery of international relief aid and issue the rare permits for West Bank Palestinians to travel inside Israel.

    2003(5th of Sivan, 5763): Erev Shavuot

    2003(5th of Sivan, 5763):Meir Vilner “an Israeli communist politician and Jewish leader of the Communist Party of Israel (Maki), which consisted primarily of Israeli Arabs” passed away. “He was the youngest and longest surviving signatory of the Israeli Declaration of Independence in 1948.” He was the cousin of Abba Kovner who certainly did not share his views.

    2005(25thof Sivan, 5762):Cpl. Dennis Bleuman was one of 17 Israeli soldiers murdered today by an Arab terrorist.

    2005:The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Luckiest Man:The Life and Death of Lou Gehrig by Jonathan Eig.

    2005:Acclaimed historian Gerda Lerner received an honorary doctorate from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. In granting the degree, the president and rector of the HebrewUniversitynoted, "For many young people, your remarkable academic career, achieved despite the harrowing experiences suffered during the Nazi era in Europe, provides a model of what may be accomplished in the face of adversity." The following day, as part of a conference in her honor, she gave a keynote address titled, "What Is Women's History and Why Should We Study It?" Lerner is widely regarded as uniquely positioned to answer that question, having shaped the field of women's history from its earliest beginnings.

    2007: In London, the Zionist Federation and St. John Wood’s Synagogue present “The Six Day War 40 Years On: Where Next for Israel?” with David Horovitz, Editor-In-Chief of the Jerusalem Post.

    2007: In a court case tied to the Bush Administration’s behavior that led to the war in Iraq, I. Lewis "Scooter" Libby, former chief of staff to Vice President Cheney, was sentenced today to 30 months in prison and fined $250,000 for lying to investigators about his role in leaking the identity of an undercover CIA officer named Valery Plame.  Both Libby and Plame are Jewish.

    2008: Pinchas Zukerman returns as a soloist playing with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra under the direction of Leonard Slatkin.

    2008(2nd of Sivan, 5768):Amnon Rosenberg a 51 year oldfather of three from Nirim lost his life during a noontime mortar attack on the Kibbutz Nir Oz factory where he was working.   Two others were seriously wounded and a fourth suffered light wounds in the noontime attack.

    2009: The Tenth Annual Washington Jewish Music Festival presents “ShirLaLa: Family Shabbat Service and Dinner” featuring Shira Kline whose “creative songs delight children, parents and grandparents alike, making Shabbat a fun, interactive experience.”

    2009: At Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, Sophie Shiffman and her family begin her Bat Mitzvah Shabbat by participating in Friday evening services.

    2009: President Obama toured Buchenwald concentration camp today with Chancellor Merkel, Nobel laureate and Holocaust survivor Elie Wiesel and survivor Bertrand Herz. At 3:10 p.m. local time, the group placed white, long-stemmed roses on a memorial site.  Following remarks by Merkel, Obama commented on his visit: "I will not forget what I have seen here today." Thanking "my friend Elie Wiesel," Obama told the story of President Eisenhower's instruction that soldiers, townspeople, congressmen tour the camps. Obama lauded Merkel and the German people: "It's not easy to look into the past in this way and acknowledge it and make something of it...a determination that they will stand guard against acts like this happening again.

    2010: During Shabbat services at Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, IA, Jonathan Kerbis, son of Esther and Sergio Kerbis, is scheduled to be called to the Torah for his last Aliyah before making Aliyah and beginning his training with the IDF.

    2010:Scott Ballan, the son of the lead bond lawyer for the financing of the $1.5 billion new Yankee stadium is scheduled to celebrate his Bart Mitzvah today.

    2010: After Shabbat had ended, Orthodox boxer Yuri Foreman'sd defended his title in a bout with former welterweight champion Miguel Cotto (34-2).  Foreman lost the fight for the WBA junior middleweight crown at Yankee Stadium in a TKO in the 9th round ending a streak of 29 undefeated fights..

    2010:An Egyptian appeals court today upheld a ruling that orders the country's Interior Ministry to strip the citizenship from Egyptians married to Israeli women.
    2011: The Annual Cantor’s Concert is scheduled to take place at Tikvat Israel featuring Cantor Rochelle Helzner and Rabbi Joshua Maroof

    2011: The Gold Coast Film Festival is scheduled to present “Homecoming” a documentary about “three teenagers who were born in Israel to foreign workers who came to Israel in search of a better life.”

    2011: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish author and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including “The Ballad of Bob Dylan: A Portrait” by Daniel Mark Epstein and “Hank Greenberg:The Hero Who Didn’t Want to Be One” by Mark Kurlansky

    2011: The Los Angeles Times features reviews of books by Jewish author and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including “The Secret Knowledge: On the Dismantling of American Culture” by David Mamet.

    2011:An estimated 30,000 people marched up New York's Fifth Avenue in the annual Celebrate Israel Parade amid a sea of blue-and-white flags. Tens of thousands lined the streets to view the parade. The marchers were led by New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg accompanied by Israel's minister of information and Diaspora, Yuli Edelstein; Israel’s ambassador to the United States, Michael Oren; and Israel’s consul general in New York, Ido Aharoni. Elected officials and politicians from New York, New Jersey and Connecticut were in attendance, as were congressmen who made the trip from Washington. The Israel parade, which started in 1964, is held to mark the founding of the State of Israel. It is regarded as the world's largest celebration of Israel Independence Day; the event was formerly called the Salute to Israel Parade.

    2011:Two Palestinian teenagers were indicted in the murder of five members of the Fogel family from the West Bank settlement of Itamar.

    2012: “Mary Lou”, a cinematic creation of Israeli director Eytan Fox, is scheduled to be shown at the JCC in Manhattan

    2012: The opening reception for "Equus Ambiguity -The Emergence of Maturity,” Moshe Givati’s solo exhibition is scheduled to take place at the Jadite Galleries in New York.

    2012: The Skirball Center for Adult Jewish Learning is scheduled to present the “He & She” the 10th Annual Exhibition of Works of The Artists’ Beit Midrash

    2012: “With his bill to legalize West Bank outposts facing defeat in the Knesset, National Union MK Ya'acov Katz … slammed a government plan to carry out the Supreme Court's orders to evacuate houses in the Ulpana outpost outside of the Beit El settlement, dubbing it "destruction for the sake of destruction." (As reported by Lahav Harkov)

    2012(15thof Sivan, 5772): Ninety-one year old “Eugene Ferkauf the founder of the E. J. Korvette chain of discount department stores, whose 1950s strategy of low prices, quick turnover and high volume helped shape today’s retail landscape” passed away today.(As reported by Douglas Martin)

    2013: Dr. Sanjay Subrahmayan is scheduled to present a lecture styled Jews And "New Christians" In Portuguese Asia, 1500-1500 at the Library of Congress

    2013: Zemer Chai, “DC’s Premier Jewish Choir” is scheduled to present ‘Sing Halleluyah’ at Ohr Kodesh in Chevy Chase, MD.

    2013: In Wisconsin, Tikkun Ha-Ir’s Glean Machine, which collects clothing, household items toiletries, books toys, art supplies and nonperishable food, ends its spring and summer supply drive.

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    JUNE 6 In History

    1242: Two dozen wagonloads of Talmudic volumes and 200 other rabbinic manuscripts were burned at Paris.

    1247: Pope Innocent IV contacts the king of Navarre. In a dispatch he requested the king compel Christian debtors to pay off their debt to Jewish lenders.

    1249: King Louis IX, the French King who made great effort to convert Jews, occupied Damietta Egypt during the 7th Crusade.

    1391: Ferrand Martiniz of Seville incited a mob to attack the Jewish quarter. It soon spread to all of Spain except for Granada. Over 10,000 Jews were killed; many others chose conversion and became New Christians. Of these, many continued to practice Judaism in secret, while paying lip service to the Church. This eventually led to the Inquisitions. In Barcelona, the Jewish quarter, located for over 400 years near the castle, was totally destroyed.

    1487: In Soncino, Italy, Joshua Solomon Soncino completed the printing of a Pentateuchwith a commentary by Rashi.

    1490: After being interrogated by the Vicar-general of the Bishopric of Astorga, Benitor Garicia confessed to having secretly returned to practicing Judaism five years ago and that he had encouraged two other conversos – a man named Franco from Tembleque and Juan Juan de Ocaña, from La Guardia – to return to Judaism.  Eventually all three would be put to death on charges of having participated in ritual murder of one who came to be known as the Holy Child of La Guardia.

    1506: Birthdate of King John III of Portugal.  Persecution of Marranos and Conversos intensified during his reign with the arrival of the Inquisition.  On the other hand he met with David Reubeini in 1525 and the two negotiated over the possibility of the King supplying this adventurer with as many as eight ships to use in a fight against the Moslem leader, Selim I.  Since much of the life of Reubeni is shrouded in myth and half truths, we cannot be sure as to the reason the negotiations failed.

    1536: The Inquisition was introduced into Mexico.  Convsersos, Sephardic Jews who had been forcibly converted to Catholicism arrived in Mexico with Cortes and the Conquistadores.  Among these first arrivals was Hernando Alonzo who built the boats used by Cortes during his conquest of Mexico.  The most famous of these early arrivals was a Luis de Carvajal, the noble who established the New Kingdom of Leon in what today is part of northern Mexico.  The arrival of the Inquisition had an inimical effect on the Conversos, many of whom secretly practiced Judaism.  The descendants of these people may be found among the crypto-Jews of New Mexico who began trying to reconnect with their Jewish roots in the last decades of the 20th century

    1629 (14th of Sivan): Rabbi Joseph ben Benjamin Samegah author of Mikrae Kodeshpassed away

    1716: The SS Restoration arrived in Massachusetts carrying several Jewish merchants who would help to form the core of the Jewish community in the Bay Colony.

    1775(28th of Iyar): Leib Epsitein, author of Or ha-Shanim passed away

    1808: Birthdate of Jacob Raphael De Cordova, Texas land agent and colonizer. A native of Jamaica, he settled in Philadelphia in the 1820’s with his father before moving to Texas in 1839.  Jacob and his brother Phineas De Cordova operated one of the largest land agencies in Texas. Jacob was one of three men who helped lay out Waco in 1848.  He passed away in 1868.

    1821(6thof Sivan, 5581): Shavuot

    1821: Birthdate of Leone Levi, the native of Ancona, Italy who emigrated to London where he became a successful jurist, statistician and Presbyterian.

    1832: English philosopher Jeremy Bentham passed away. For a detailed account of Bentham’s complex view of the Jewish people see “Jerry Bentham: Critical Assessments, Volume 4” starting on page 319.

    1851(6thof Sivan, 5611): Shavuot

    1855: Isaac Kaatz, Gottlieb Milhelm and Anton First were arrested today on charges of having been involved in the theft of eight cows from a farm belong to Colonel Lewis Morris.  The three carcasses found in the possession of the accused all bore a mark indicating that they were Kosher.

    1859: In Australia, Queensland is established as a separate colony from New South Wales. By 1865, there were enough Jews living in the Queensland city of Brisbane that a congregation was formed that held services in a local Masonic hall until 1886 when a sanctuary with a seating capacity of 400. In 1879, the Jews of Toowoomba, Queensland, built a synagogue which, as the community shrunk in size, was only used on the High Holidays.

    1865: Birthdate of Dr. Max Rosenthal, the son of Herman Rosenthal, the gynecologist who served as House surgeon at St. Mark’s Hospital and the Montefiore Home in New York City. His young brother George became the manager of the Edison General Electric Company at St. Louis.

    1870(7th of Sivan, 5630): Second Day of Shavuot

    1872: The New York Times reported that “the Greeks in the Levant have hit on a new mode of converting Jews.”  After hearing the “stale old fable…that a Christian child had been killed…by the Jews so as to mix its blood with their bread at Passover” the Greeks have been “inflamed…with a fine spirit of proselytism” that began with the seizure of Polish Jew whose hair and beard they smeared with tar before setting it on fire.  After enough Jews were tortured in a similar fashion, they sought shelter with the local Moslems.

    1873: Today’s Minor Topics column described the progress that Jews of England have made during the 19th century. Thirty years ago a Jew could not sit in Parliament. And now Sir George Jessel, who was appointed Solicitor General last year, is about to named Master of the Rolls, a position so prestigious that is just below the post of Lord High Chancellor.

    1875: Birthdate of Novelist Thomas Mann. Mann was not Jewish but in 1905 he married Katia Pringsheim, daughter of prominent family of Jewish intellectuals.  They had six children.  Mann left Nazi German in 1933, four years after having won the Nobel Prize for Literature.  He lived in the United States for many years.  He died in Switzerland in 1955, never having lived in his native land again.

    1877: Anglo-Jewish author Benjamin Leopold Farjeon married Margaret Jane “Maggie” Jefferson, the daughter of Joseph Jefferson, a member of a distinguished American acting family.

    1878(5th of Sivan, 5638): Erev Shavuot

    1878: In article entitled “The Pentecost Festival” published today, the New York Times reported that “The Festival of Pentecost, which will be celebrated this evening at sunset by all the Jewish congregations in the world, is the second of the three great feasts which mark the calendar of the Hebrew Church. These are the Passover Festival, or Feast of Unleavened Bread; the Pentecost Festival, or Feast of Weeks, and the Tabernacles.” The article traces the history of the holiday from its origins as an agricultural festival to a celebration of the giving of the Decalogue to its modern observance which includes the ceremony of Confirmation.

    1879: It was reported that problems of the Jews in Romania are not a matter of religion but a matter of money.  Supposedly until 1864 the Jews and the Romanians lived peacefully side by side. The Jews would lend money to the Romanians at exorbitant rates of interest which the Romanians gladly paid since they had no intention of paying off the loan.  Furthermore, the loans were secured by mortgages; mortgages on which the Jews could never collect because they were not classified as citizens and only citizens could own real estate.  That all changed when Napoleon III demanded that the Jews be made citizens.  Reportedly, the Jews began foreclosing on the mortgages, expelling the Romanians from lands their families had held for centuries. This forced the Romanians to begin shooting and hanging the Jews or driving them from the country. The Jews were being persecuted but not for reasons of religion.  At the same time, the Romanian government contended that it was not violating the edict of the Berlin Congress regarding the treatment of Romanian Jews because the Jews living in Romania were “foreigners” and not citizens of the country. [Editor’s note – people may run out of money but they never run out of rationalizations for cheating and killing Jews.]

    1880: In “Man Before Adam” the reviewer of Preadmites: The Existence of Man Before Adam points that Dr. Alexander Winchell challenges several Biblical based conventions including that creation took place 4,000 before our era, that Adam was created on the 6th, that Eve was from Adam’s Rib, that Adam lived for 930 years, that 1,656 after creation there was a great a flood that destroy everybody except Noah, his family and the animals on the ark and that the origin of the human species took place in Western Central Asia. [Winchell was a Protestant minister.  His book is an example of the challenges to the literal reading of the Bible taking place in the 19th century among many denominations.  For Jews, this was a dominant motif of the Reform movement and many German-Jewish biblical critics.]

    1880: It was reported today that The Young Men’s Hebrew Association of Harlem will be hosting a strawberry festival later this month to raise funds for the organization.

    1880: It was reported today that the last religious census in France showed that there were almost 36 million Roman Catholics in the country but only 50,000 Jews.

    1880: Rabbi Meisner of the Rivington Street Synagogue officiated at the wedding of Miss Essie Pakulski and Louis Mendelson, the son of the synagogue’s president  The ceremony took place at Irving Hall and followed the Reform ritual.

    1882: Samuel Obrieght, a young Jewish man who was a partner in his family’s liquor business, suddenly married a Christian woman.  This fact became part of the public record during Obreight’s sanity hearing.

    1882: A festival to raise funds for Russian Jewish immigrants is scheduled to be held this afternoon in the 23rd Ward Park in NYC.  Speakers will include Algernon S. Sullivan and Steward L. Woodford. The Philharmonic Society under the direction of Max Maretzek will provide the musical entertainment.

    1883: It was reported today that the cornerstone laying ceremony for the Hebrew Orphan Asylum in Brooklyn will take place later this month.

    1885(23rdof Sivan, 5645)Bernard L. Jaworower, the agent of the United Hebrew Charities serving at Castle Garden fell overboard while leaving the steamer George Starr at the Castle Garden dock. 

    1885: In Wilkes-Barre, PA, a fist fight broke during Shabbat services between two Polish Jews – Abraham Rosenthal and Abraham Zubunsky – after “Rosenthal accused Zubunsky of being more of a Christian than a Jew.”  Both men left the synagogue and went to Justices of the Peace and charged each other with assault and battery.  Not much shalom in their Shabbat.

    1887: Testimony resumed today in the trial of Adolph Reich, the Hungarian Jew who has been charged with murdering his wife.

    1888: Albert Levy sent a letter from San Francisco to his wife Katie in New York saying the he had filed for a divorce and was going to Australia.  [This correspondence came to light during an alienation of affection suit that was brought by the Roman Catholic Katie Levy against her Jewish mother-in-law, Pauline Levy.]

    1889: A group of Jews met at the Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue to begin making plans for observing the 400th anniversary of the discovery of America by Columbus and the expulsion of the Jews from Spain.

    1890: It was reported today that the managers of the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children has received $3, 688.50 in contributions which will be used to finance outings for underprivileged children and their mothers. 

    1892: It was reported today that Rabbi Henry S. Jacobs delivered an historical poem entitled “The Genius of Hebrew History” to those attending graduation of Congregational B’nai Jeshurun’s religious school. The poem recounted the history of the Jewish people which he subdivided into a series of epochs, each with its own set of verses.

    1892: A group of prominent Jews met this afternoon at the Jewish Theological Seminary and formed The American Jewish Historical Society.  The meeting was chaired by Dr. Cyrus Adler who “explained that the object was to collect, preserve and publish data having reference to the settlement and history of Jews in America.

    1893: The funeral for Joshua Hendricks, the fourth generation head of Hendricks Brothers, is scheduled to be held at his home on Cliff Street followed by interment at Cypress Hill.

    1894: Governor Davis H. Waite ordered the Colorado state militia to protect and support the miners engaged in the Cripple Creek miners' strike. Famed financier Bernard Baruch was one of those who got his start in the “strike it rich” world of Cripple Creek.  Arriving from the east, Baruch bought shares of stock in the San Francisco mine.  During the day he worked as a “mucker” and at night he played at the roulette wheel in a local gambling joint where he was so successful that he was barred by the owners.  Baruch took his winnings and headed back to New York where he gained fame and fortune.  Sam Butcher, a Hungarian Jew, was one of the few Jews who actually made money in industrial mining in Cripple Creek.  Because many of his fellow miners were blatant anti-Semites, Butcher “took pains to conceal his identity” until he had gained financial success.   Sam and Bertha Flax were one of the first, if not the first Jewish couple to marry in Cripple Creek.  They tied the knot in 1909.  Sam was not much of a miner but he would prove be a successful restaurant owner in Denver, Colorado.

    1897(6th of Sivan, 5657): For the first time during the Presidency of William McKinley, observance of Shavuot.

    1889(7thof Sivan, 5649): Second Day of Shavuot

    1900:  Birthdate of Manfred Joshua Sakel, Polish born neurophysiologist and psychiatrist.  Like so many others of his generation Sakel would leave Europe during the Hitler period.  He died in New York City in 1957.

    1901: Bella Weretnikow, who became the first Jewish woman lawyer in Washington State, was admitted to the Bar of Washington State.

    1903: Dr. Kaufmann Kohler, for twenty-four years rabbi of Temple Beth-EI, delivered his farewell sermon this morning before going to his new duties as the head of the Hebrew Union College of Cincinnati. At the conclusion of the service the congregation individually bade farewell and Godspeed to the retiring rabbi.

    1906: Birthdate of David Kessler, the man who would play the leading role in making the Jewish Chronicle one of the most respected Jewish weeklies in the world.

    1907: Dropsie College for Hebrew and Cognate Learning, a graduate school for biblical and rabbinical studies, was chartered in Philadelphia.

    1908(7thof Sivan, 5668): Second Day of Shavuot

    1909: Birthdate of David Kessler, the man most responsible for making the Jewish Chronicle one of the most respected Jewish weeklies in the world

    1912: Julia Richman, superintendent of New York City Public Schools set sail for France where she hoped to rest and improve her French language skills.

    1917: Birthdate of Selma Goldstone, who as Selma Goldstone Hirsch would become a noted humanitarian and an author who would enjoy a long association with the American Jewish Committee.

    1921: “It was stated tonight on high authority that President Harding” is planning on naming Jewish advertising mogul Albert D. Lakser, President of the Lord and Thomas Advertising Company of Chicago to be Chairman of the Shipping Board.

    1922: American actress and singer Lillian Russell who had been married to the Anglo-Jewish composer Edward “Teddy” Solomon passed away.

    1925: Birthdate of poet and novelist Maxine Kumin.  Kumin published her first collection of poetry, Halfway in 1961. Influenced by the confessional style of poetry, it was followed in 1965 by The Privilege and in 1970 by The Nightmare Factory, both of which explore her Jewish identity and family. She won the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry in 1973.

    1926: Second baseman Andy Cohen makes his major league debut with the New York Giants.

    1926(24th of Sivan, 5686): As Meyer London, one of only two members of the Socialist Party elected to Congress, was crossing Second Avenue at 15th Street, he was caught in the middle of heavy automobile traffic passing in both directions. London became confused and when he halted in the middle of the road he was struck by a car, suffering internal injuries. The driver rushed him to Bellevue Hospital, where London’s daughter was an intern. When she saw her father London’s only concern was that the driver not be punished. "It’s not his fault", said London "and he is a poor man." London died at 10 o'clock that night at the age of 56, after physicians had labored for 11 hours to save him.

    1932(2nd of Sivan, 5692): Dr. A.S. Waldstein who helped to found Paole Zion in the United States in 1904 passed away in Tel Aviv at the age of 58.

    1932(2ndof Sivan, 5692): Fifty-five year old Benjamin Schlesinger, who served two terms as President of the International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union who suffered from Hodgkin’s Lymphoma passed away.

    1933: The Council of the League of Nations conducted a second day of hearings on “the persecution of the Jews in Germany” in official response to the Bernheim Petition. “Many of the speakers severely censured Germany for the treatment of its Jews and demanded that they be accorded minimum human rights.” At the end of the hearing, the Council took the “bold step” of requesting Germany to provide  “information on further developments.”

    1934: President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the Securities Act of 1933 into law, establishing the Securities and Exchange Commission (S.E.C.) as part of the fabled New Deal.  One of the purposes of the S.E.C. was to create a level playing field for all investors.  The regulatory agency was created to end the kind of stock fraud and manipulation that had been rampant in the 1920’s and helped cause the Great Depression.  Like many other New Deal agencies, the S.E.C. provided employment for the college educated offspring of Jewish immigrants who had come to the United States prior to World War I.  In the case of the S.E.C., it gave several Jewish lawyers a chance to practice securities law, a branch of the law to which they had limited access because of the WASP dominated culture of the financial industry. Among those who worked for the SEC was Joseph B Levin an attorney who rose through the ranks to become Assistant General Counsel.

    1936: The British military commander of the Southern District published an order prohibiting all Jewish motor traffic from entering or leaving Tel Aviv.  This “blockade” of Tel Aviv, was in response to the murder of an Arab kerosene vender who was shot while riding on a highway between Tel Aviv and Petach Tikvah.

    1937: The Palestine Post military correspondent reported that according to reliable sources, the number of British battalions present in the country depended entirely on the security situation and the attitudes of the various sections of the population. Britain had resolved not to take any more risks by reducing the defense force of the land to a mere police force, as the situation existed before the organized Arab troubles of 1936, which left such a bloody aftermath.

    1937: The Palestine Post reported that a mass meeting was held at the Tel Aviv's Mograbi building during which the participants vowed active support for the beleaguered Polish Jewry.

    1939: The Jewish city of Tel Aviv was virtually cut off from the outside world today when, by order of the British military commander of the Southern District, all Jewish motor traffic into or out of the city was prohibited until tomorrow night. Only medical and milk transportation is permitted.

    1940: The New York Times reported that the Nazis had moved “through Amsterdam with ready-made lists of enemies and Jews, rounding them and having them shot en masse.

    1942: Following a failed attempt in 1940, the Nazis succeed in ordering Belgian Jews to wear the Yellow Star.

    1942: During his sermon today, Rabbi Israel Goldstein told the congregants of New York’s Temple B’Nai Jeshurun that Japan's air raid on Dutch Harbor, Alaska, was the "final shattering blow to the illusion of those who until recently coddled themselves with the thought that oceans can protect us from air attacks."

    1942: In his sermon today, Rabbi Jacob Katz of the Montefiore Synagogue “advised parents to have their children trained in mechanical skills as well as in cultural subjects.”

    1942: During his sermon today, Rabbi Hyman J. Schachtel urged the congregants of the West End Synagogue to do their part in the war effort by signing up with the civilian protective services.

    1942: During his sermon at the Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue, Rabbi David de Sola Pool said, “The first great challenge to the fuehrer concept was thrown down by Moses…It is not without reason that the Fuehrer has singled out the people and the religion of Moses for his most venomed hostility.”

    1942: In Cracow, Poland, thousands of Jews were rounded up for the second day in a row for deportation. Eichmann, worried about appearances asks that the words ‘deportation to the East’ not be used, but instead, that ‘people are emigrated elsewhere.'

    1942:  Adolf Eichmann insists via a telegram sent to Gestapo officials that residents of a mental institution must be included in a planned mass deportation of Jews from Coblenz, Germany, to Lublin, Poland.

    1942:  The Jewish ghetto at Kraków, Poland, is liquidated; 6000 Jews from the city are murdered at Belzec.

    1942: The Nazis burned the village of Lidice Bohemia, as reprisal for killing Heydrich.

    1943: Helga Deen saw 1,300 children leave Vught, a Dutch internment camp, for Sobibor and Auschwitz. In her diary she wrote, “Transport.  It’s too much.  I’m destroyed and tomorrow again.” Deen would later be shipped to Sobibor where she was murdered by the Nazis.

    1943:  Jacob Gens, the leader of the Jewish Council in Vilna, argued that Vilna's Jews will have an improved chance of survival if they demonstrate their usefulness as workers.

    1943: “We Will Never Die” was performed at the Boston Garden, with guest stars Ralph Bellamy, Lionel Atwill, Howard Da Silva, Berry Kroger, and Jacob Ben-Ami in prominent roles. The Boston Jewish Advocate reported: “This spectacle must have impressed and stirred the imagination of the many who saw it to a degree impossible to achieve through the printed word.” (Jewish Virtual Library)

    1943(3rd of Sivan, 5703): Germans execute all 1000 Jews still remaining in the Rohatyn (Poland) Ghetto after German authorities discover a plot of local Jewish policemen to purchase weapons.

    1944: Allied forces led by the United States land on the beaches of Normandy. While no exact figures exist for the number of Jews who took part in “The Longest Day” the graves marked by Stars of David attest to the fact that Jews were not only present but paid the last full measure.  According to one source 550,000 Jews served in World War II in the U.S. military. Of those, 11,000 were killed, 40,000 were wounded, and 52,000 were decorated for gallantry. Jews made up some 3.5 percent of the U.S. military during the war.

    1944: Among the units landing at Normandy today were a contingent of the Ritchie Boys.  The Ritchie Boys was a special U.S. Army intelligence unit of approximately 10,000 German speaking soldiers most of whom were Jewish refugees from Germany and Austria.  Trained at Fort Richie, Maryland, they were able to use their special language skills and intimate knowledge of the culture to infiltrate behind German lines, capture and interrogate prisoners and conduct disinformation campaigns.

    1944: Robert Capa is part of the first wave of troops to land at Omaha Beach.  He goes in with Company E armed with a Contax camera.  After ninety minutes of shooting, he heads back to London with ten rolls of films that capture the first moments of the invasion.  Due to mistakes made by the lab technician employed by Life Magazine, only 11 of the 106 pictures survive the development process. 

    1944: Lt. Bert Katz is among those scrambling across Omaha Beach in what some call “The Longest Day.” This is the same Bert Katz who returned to Cedar Rapids, Iowa where he became a successful businessman, philanthropist and leader of Temple Judah and the Jewish community.

    1944: Major Benjamin “Ben” Dunkelman, who had enlisted as private in The Queen’s Own Rifles of Canada in 1939 landed at Juno, the beach assigned to the Canadians during the Normandy Invasion.

    1944: When German authorities become aware that news of the Allied invasion is circulating through the Jewish ghetto at Lódz, Poland, a search is mounted for illegal radios. Six Jews are arrested. On the same day the Germans rounded up all 1,795 Jews on the Greek Island of Corfu and deported them to Birkenau death camp where 1,500 were murdered by gas upon arrival. The Germans also captured 260 Jews this day on the Island of Crete.

    1944(15th of Sivan, 5704): A German deportation ship with approximately 260 Canean Jews aboard is sunk off the coast of Crete. Latter-day accounts conflict as to the details: In one version, the ship carried the corpses of Jews murdered by Nazis, who set the ship afloat and sank it to destroy evidence of the crime. In another, the ship was bound for Auschwitz but was torpedoed and sunk by a British submarine. Besides Jewish people, the ship may have carried 300 Italian POWs and 400 Greek civilians.

    1944(15th of Sivan, 5704): In Poland, 150 police, all of whom were Nazi sympathizers ambushed Jacob Allweiss and his two sons Zygie and Sol.  Jacob is murdered.  The two sons escape.

    1944: Two more Auschwitz inmates, Arnost Rosin and Czeslaw Mordowicz, arrived in Zilina. They reported that trainloads of Hungarian Jews were being massacred.

    1944: In Corfu, Greece, the Germans rounded up 1,795 Jews. One thousand, five hundred of them were then gassed at Birkenau.

    1944: Birthdate of Rene Rivkin, Australian entrepreneur, investor, investment adviser, and stockbroker. He was a well-known stockbroker in Australia for many years until his conviction for insider trading.

    1945: Robert Capa meets Ingrid Bergman for the first time.  The meetings marks the beginning of passionate love affair between the Jewish was photographers and the Scandinavian cinema star.  Their relationship will be part of the plot for the Alfred Hitchcock thriller “Rear Window.”

    1946: Birthdate of Tony Levin, bassist for King Crimson.

    1950: Mrs. Martha Sharp left New York tonight by plane to visit “her 20,000 children” in Israel. “These thousands of Israeli boys and girls are Mrs. Sharp’s charges by long-range adoption since she is a founder and national vice chairman of Children to Palestine, Inc., an American organization that is bringing them out of starved and fear-ridden backgrounds to a new life in a new land.” Mrs. Sharp is the wife of a Unitarian minister in Chicago. In the next month she will help some of them move into the only real homes they have ever known and watch others learn to play children's games for the first time.

    1952: The Jerusalem Post reported on the ground- breaking ceremony for the projected $10 million Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical School on the bare Judean hills, west of Ein Kerem. Speakers declared that this construction did not mean the abandonment of Hadassah facilities on Mount Scopus which were effectively under Arab control in violation of existing U.N. guarantees

    1954: Birthdate of actor Harvey Fierstein

    1955:  Birthdate of actress Sandra Bernhard

    1956: David Marshall, Singapore's first Chief Minister resigns. David Saul Marshall was born in Singapore in 1908 to a Jewish family that had originally come from Iraq.  He became a lawyer and a leading leader of the left wing.  In later years he would serve in several diplomatic postiions before retiring after a dispute with the Prime Minister of Singapore.

    1957(7th of Sivan, 5717): Second Day of Shavuot

    1957: The Soviet government informed the Jewish community that it would permit the opening of a yeshiva in Moscow for the training of rabbis. The announcement was made on Shavuot, probably to "impress" world Jewry that the USSR was doing a wonderful thing for Jews and Judaism. It turns out that this was mostly "smoke". The laymen's council of the yeshiva was dissolved in 1961. The bulk of the students had come from Georgia. After Pesach of 1962, these students were denied permits by the local government to return to Moscow. Thus the yeshiva, reduced to a handful of students, could no longer hope to provide rabbis for Russian Jewry.

    1961: Carl Jung, the man Freud called "his adopted eldest son, his crown prince and successor" but who later broke with his mentor, passed away today. Jung was one of the few non-Jews who was drawn to Freud and his teachings when they were in their infancy.

    1963: Birthdate of Representative Eric Cantor serving from Virginia’s Seventh District and the Majority Leader in the House of Representatives making him one of the most powerful elected Jewish officeholders in the Republican Party.

    1965(6th of Sivan, 5725): First Day Shavuot

    1967: This marked the second day of Israel's Six Day War. Now that the Israelis had control of the skies, their armor and infantry could begin advancing against the numerically larger Arab armies. As accounts of the fighting will attest, this was no cakewalk.  The fighting in Sinai involved some of the largest clashes between tanks since World War II.  And the Jordanians fought tenaciously along the Green Line around east Jerusalem.

    1967:  At six o’clock in the morning the Supreme Command of the Arab armed forces began broadcasting on the great lies that is still believed to this day.  Repeating a report that Nasser had made to King Hussein the night before, the Arab military leaders claimed that the Egyptian and Jordanian air forces had been demolished on the first day of the war by U.S. planes attached to the Sixth Fleet and by British warplanes flying from unspecified bases.  This tale had not no basis in fact.  It gave Nasser a chance to save face with the Arab masses and to provide his Soviet patrons with an excuse for intervening.  The Cold War is already becoming a distant memory to those living in the 21st century.  However, the conflict between the U.S. and the Soviet Union was very real in 1967.  The Soviets were actively looking for a way to gain control in the Middle East and the Communist Bloc was Nasser’s patron, a factor that was part of the military and political equation facing the Israelis.

    1967: Defense Minister Moshe Dyan still refused to allow any military action to be taken along the Golan Heights.  With fighting raging in the Sinai to the South, he did not need additional military worries.  What did worry Dyan was that the U.N. might impose a cease fire before Israeli forces could seize Sharm el-Sheik, the choke-point held by the Egyptians that made it possible for them to close the Straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping.  Dyan ordered Chief of Staff Rabin to move with all speed to seize Sharm.  Rabin completed planes for a combined assault that was to be carried out the next evening. 

    1967:  Egyptian troops are ordered to fall back to the Suez Canal.  In the evening, unbeknownst to the Israelis, Egypt evacuated the strategically important position of Sharm el-Sheik.  

    1970: Peggy and Dr. Milton D. Glick, who would eventually become President of the University of Nevada, Reno, gave birth to their son David.

    1974: The Syrians returned the body of Avraham “Avi” Lanir.  The Syrians captured him during the Yom Kippur War and tortured him to death in an attempt to extract information from him about Israel’s nuclear program.

    1982: 1982: Israeli troops enter Lebanon to drive out PLO.  The PLO had established itself as a "state within a state."  The government of Lebanon was incapable or unwilling to put an end to this source of terror so the Israelis acted accordingly. The triggering event was the attempted assassination of the Israeli ambassador in London.  The invasion would become a divisive and corrosive event for the Israelis that, to put it mildly, was not one of their shining moments.

    1982: Members of the famous Golani Brigade attacked Beaufort Castle which was held by the PLO.

    1984(6thof Shavuot, 5744): Shavuot

    1985: The grave of "Wolfgang Gerhard" is exhumed in Embu, Brazil; the remains found are later proven to be those of Josef Mengele, Auschwitz' "Angel of Death". Mengele is thought to have drowned while swimming in February 1979.

    1986(28thof Iyar, 5746) Yom Yerushalayim

    1988: Pitcher Steve Rosenberg makes his debut with the Chicago White Sox.

    1991(24thof Sivan, 5751):  Stan Getz passed away. Born Stanley Gayetzky in 1927, Getz was the leading tenor sax player of his time.  Even people who did not like jazz enjoyed listening to the smooth sound of Stan Getz.

    1994(27thof Tammuz, 5754): Sixty-nine year old Yohai Ben-Nun, the sixth commander of the Israeli navy passed away today.

    1999: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including the recently released paperback editions of Confederates in the Attic: Dispatches From the Unfinished Civil War by Tony Horwitz, Damascus Gate by Robert Stone and Tender at the Bone: Growing Up at the Table by Ruth Reichl.

    1999: Deb and Mitchell Levin marry at Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, Iowa.  He moved up in class and she got an adult child to try and housebreak.  For those of you who have not figured it out, she is the one who makes this daily work possible.  On top of being an Ayshish Chayel in the truest sense of the word, she is also is great at everything from creating blogs to making homemade Kosher pizza, to creating memorable siddurim to hosting the visiting chazzan who is a kosher vegetarian. 

    2001: An Arab suicide bomber massacred 21 young Jewish teenagers and injured a hundred more outside a Tel Aviv discotheque.

    2004: First day of a Birthright trip to Israel - Towards a Sustainable Future for Israel: An Environmental Leadership Seminar for Students and Young Professionals – focused on the environment sponsored as a joint project of COEJL, the Heschel Center for Environmental Leadership and Learning, the Jewish Agency for Israel, and Hillel.

    2004: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including the recently released paperback edition of “Sloan-Kettering: Poems” the Israeli poet and famed partisan Abba Kovner’s poetic chronicle of his losing battle with cancer which he describes with ruthless honesty, even as he celebrates his tenacious grip on the world he is leaving.

    2004: Prime Minister Ariel Sharon’s government approved an amended plan for disengagement form Gaza.

    2004: Avigdor Lieberman completed his term as Minister of Transport, National Infrastructure and Road Safety

    2005: Majdi Halabi was officially listed as M.I.A. (missing in action).

    2005 (28th of Iyar): Observance of Yom Yerushalayim (Jerusalem Day). Jerusalem Reunification Day celebrates the reunification of Jerusalem on June 7, 1967 which was the 28th day of the month of Iyar.  The observance follows the Jewish calendar so it seems to “float” on the secular calendar.  On the 28th of Iyar, soldiers of the Israeli Defense Force (IDF) reunited the Old City of Jerusalem which had been illegally occupied by the Jordanian Army since 1948 with what was then referred to as the New City of Jerusalem.  (Please note, there never was a city called “East Jerusalem.” The term east Jerusalem is strictly geographic as in the southeast side of Cedar Rapids.) This was the first time that all of Jerusalem was under Jewish sovereignty since the days of the Second Temple.

    2006: The New York Times and The Washington Post reported that “the C.I.A. knew where Eichman was hiding” and made no attempts to inform the government of Israel, which was actively looking for him and other Nazi war criminals.  This revelation came to light as large quantities of government documents describing U.S. relationships with ex-Nazis after World War II were declassified.  While it had been known for some time that the U.S. and later the West German government employed former Nazis in their intelligence agencies, these documents show the depth and the folly of the involvement.  Apparently many of these former Nazis turned out to be double agents who working for the Soviets and who did a great deal of harm to Western intelligence efforts during the Cold War.

    2006: British author Naomi Alderman has won the 2006 Orange Award for New Writers with her debut novel Disobedience.  The novel is set in the Orthodox Jewish community of Hendon, London where Alderman grew up.

    2007: Jack Markell officially launched his candidacy for Governor of Delaware

    2007: An exhibition styled “Image of His Soul" Max Liebermann – Works on Paper opens at the Hecht Museum in Haifa.

    2007: The Sir Zelman Cowen Prize in medical research is awarded to Prof. Nir Friedman at the Hebrew University's Board of Governors' meeting by fund trustee Michael Dunkel, a member of the Board of Governors.

    2008: At the JCC in Washington, D.C. cantor, composer, arranger, choral conductor, and director of the ensemble Vocolot, Linda Hirschhorn will co-lead a musical Erev Shabbat service with Rabbi Robert Saks of Congregation Bet Mishpachah, the event’s co-sponsor. Linda Hirschhorn will play the guitar during the service.

    2008: Opening of “You Don’t Mess with the Zohan” starring Adam Sandler playing an Israeli assassin turned hairdresser.

    2009: Alysa Stanton the first African-American female rabbi is ordained at Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion in Cincinnati. Stanton, a convert and mother to an adopted 14-year-old daughter, is a trained psychotherapist who specializes in trauma and grief. In August, she will become the spiritual leader of Congregation Bayt Shalom in Greenville.

    2009: At Temple Judah, in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, Sophie Shiffman, daughter of Howard Shiffman of Toronto, Ontario and Peggy and Don Aungst of Independence, IA is called to the Torah as a Bat Mitzvah.

    2009: The Vatican says it has "taken action" to track down Jewish children who were hidden by the Church and Catholic families during the Holocaust and later "disappeared."
    2010: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Alone With You by Marissa Silver

    2010: Members of the Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington are scheduled to lead a special tour of Jewish sites in Old Town Alexandria that will include visits to the sites of two former synagogues and several Jewish businesses.

    2010: The Washington Jewish Music Festival is scheduled to open with a screening of the Jazz Baroness and a performance by Danny Sanderson.

    2010(24th of Sivan, 5770): Rabbi Jacob Milgrom passed away today in Jerusalem at the age of 87. He was “considered by many the worlds’ foremost authority on the biblical Book of Leviticus. Milgrom’s three-volume series on Leviticus, interpreting Jewish dietary and purification rituals and the Bible’s position on homosexuality, concluded that the ban on homosexuality applies only to Jewish men.”

    2011: “Music and Healing” a program designed to acquaint attendees with “contemporary, folk and traditional songs that can help them through times of need and comfort is scheduled to take place at Tefereth Israel in Washington, DC.

    2011: The Children of Israel Journeyed: Selections from the Chagall Bible Series, an exhibit at the Jewish Museum of Milwaukee, “showcasing twenty-one hand-painted etchings by Marc Chagall” and  The  Haggerty Museum’s massive Chagall Tapestry is schedule to come to a close.  The Haggerty is part of Marquette University.

    2011:Israeli military officials disputed today the casualty figures announced by Syria a day earlier, after Israeli forces fired on protesters who had tried to breach the Syrian frontier with the Israeli-held Golan Heights.

    2011: Dominique Strauss-Kahn pleaded not guilty today in a New York court appearance.

    2011: New York Congressman Anthony Weiner admitted that his twitter account had not been hacked and that he had been sending pictures of himself to at least six female followers.

    2011: Eighty-five year old Zev Birger, the concentration camp survivor who reinvigorated the Jerusalem International Book Fair passed away today.(As reported by Isabel Kershner)

    2012: A Young Leadership Concert featuring Itamar Zora and the Salome Chamber Orchestra is scheduled to take place at Congregation Shearith Israel (The Spanish & Portuguese Synagogue)

    2012: The Los Angeles dance company BODYTRAFFIC is scheduled to perform the world premiere of the latest work by Israeli choreographer Barak Marshall with guest artist Margalit Oved at the Joyce in New York City.

    2012: In Chevy Chase, MD, Ohr Kodesh is scheduled to host a concert presented by Zemer Chai.

    2012: The Wiener Library in the UK is scheduled to present ‘Target Heydrich: Laurent Binet on HHhH’ in which the author will talk about her historical novel about the two men who killed the man known as “Himmler’s Brain.”

    2012: It is lucky 13 for me as we celebrate our anniversary. And it is lucky for anybody who reads this because if it weren’t for Deb none of this would exist!

    2012:Israel's Knesset voted down a bill that aimed at legalizing homes on the Ulpana Hill neighborhood in the West Bank settlement of Beit El, which were built on privately owned Palestinian land. In a preliminary reading, 69 Knesset members voted against the bill, while 22 voted for it. The vote was held a day after Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu announced that the government position was to oppose the bill, and threatened that any minister who supported it would be fired. (As reported by Jonathan Lis and Oz Rosenberg)

    2012:Defense Minister Ehud Barak acknowledged Israel's offensive cyberspace operations for the first time. Speaking during a conference at Tel Aviv University, Barak stressed that in cyber warfare, as opposed to conventional warfare, it is more important to invest in defense than offense, and admitted for the first time that Israel has been developing and working on both tactics. "Our goal with cyber defense, which is the more important and difficult component, is to prevent damage," Barak said. "It is more than we can benefit from an offensive action, even though both aspects exist." (As reported by Gili Cohen and Oded Yaron)

    2012: Opening of National Hebrew Book Week

    2013:The Associates of AFIPO are scheduled to present “Vintage Thursday,” a winetasting and silent auction evening to benefit the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra,

    2013: In London, the Weiner Library is scheduled to present “Film Talk” ‘Kosher Nostra’ – Screening the Memory of the Jewish-American Gangster in ‘The Godfather Part II’”

    2013: Israel’s Gesher Theater is scheduled to perform “Enemies, A Love Story” by Isaac Bashevis Singer at New York’s Lincoln Center.


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    JUNE 7 In History

    421: Theodosius II, the Emperor whose code sought to reinforce Christianity as the state religion at the expense of Judaism, married Aelia Eudocia Augusta, a pagan who converted so that they could be married by the Church.

    1099:  During the First Crusade, the Christians begin the siege of Jerusalem.The armies of the First Crusade (1096-99) reached the walls of Jerusalem. The First Crusade would prove to be the most successful of all of the crusades in terms of meeting the goal of reclaiming the Christian Homeland from the Moslem infidel.  Forgotten in all of this were the true titleholders – the Jews – except when it came to massacring them.  It is ironic that events on this same seventh day of June set matters to right.

    1233: For the first time, Jews were ordered to wear distinctive clothing was mandated in Spain. The following year Pope Gregory IX developed guidelines for this, sent in the form of a letter to the King of Navarra: "Since we desire that Jews be recognizable and distinguished from Christians, we order you to impose upon each and every Jew of both sexes a sign, viz, one round patch of yellow cloth of linen to be worn on the uppermost garment."

    1365: Urban V issued “Sicuti judaeis non debet” a Papal Bull that forbade people from molesting Jews or forcing them to be baptized.

    1494: Spain and Portugal signed the Treaty of Tordesillas which divided the New World between the two countries. Considering the Inquisition and the Expulsion from Iberia, this division could have meant that Jews would have been banned from the Western hemisphere.  Fortunately for the Jews, Protestant Holland and Anglican England (as well as France) did not recognize the treaty and had other plans for dividing the lands of the New World

    1594(18thof Sivan 5354): Roderigo Lopez a Marrano physician was hanged in England. Born in 1525, he supposedly arrived in England as Francis Drake's prisoner of war. He rose in importance to become Queen Elizabeth's physician (1586). Accused by other members of the court of being a Spanish spy who was trying to poison the Queen, he was arrested but the Queen refused to carry out the death sentence. In June 1594 she finally consented and he was hanged. Throughout his trial he was vilified as being a "Jew".   According to some accounts, Lopez was a foolish person who got in way over his head playing politics at the Court of Queen Elizabeth.  In the days of Good Queen Bess, the rule of thumb was "when in doubt, hang 'em."

    1654: Louis XIV was crowned King of France. Louis’ record in dealing with the Jews was, uneven to say the least.  In keeping with the mercantilist policies of his minister Colbert, Louis issued a charter of liberty for Jews under royal authority in 1671.  Among other things, this opened up the port of Marseilles as a harbor where Jews could trade freely, much to the consternation of the local Christian merchants.  When the merchants complained, Louis (in a reply probably written by Colbert) responded: “Commercial envy will always impel the Christian merchants to persecute Jews.  But you should be above such motives that issue from personal interests.  You should take into consideration the benefits the government derives from the industrial activity of the Jews, which comprises all the parts of the world thanks to their association with their coreligionists.” This benign attitude did not last forever.  As Colbert fell from favor and Louis grew more pious as he grew older, he acceded to demands to ban Jews from various parts of his empire.  In 1710, “He ordered Jews ‘to leave the kingdom without any belongings,’ and told local officials to take any and all means to expel Jews ‘because that is our wish.’”

    1692:  Port Royal, Jamaica is hit by a catastrophic earthquake; in just three minutes, 1600 people are killed and 3000 are seriously injured. Jew first started arriving in Port Royal in 1663, eight years after the British took the island from the Spanish.Sadly, there is little documentation of Jewish life in Port Royal, but earthquake survivor Edmund Heath's account of the infamous 1692 event, notes the existence of a Jew's street and synagogue which records locate on New Street running parallel to Cannon Street. The Jewish legacy in Port Royal also includes a cemetery at Hunt's Bay. During the 17th century it was not unusual to see Jewish families carrying their loved ones by boat across the harbor to be buried.

    1733: George Frideric Handel completed “Athalia,” an oratorio based on a play of the same name by Racine.  Both works depict the life of the widow of the King of Judah whose murderous ways make her “a Jewish Lady MacBeth

    1753:In Great Britain, an Act of Parliament styled “The Jewish Naturalization Act 1753” received royal assent today. The Act gave foreign-born Jews to become naturalized by making application to Parliament.  This meant that foreign born Jews would enjoy the same rights as native born English Jews. While the act enjoyed support in the House of Lords, it was repealed in 1754 due to opposition from the Tories in the House of Commons. [Ed. Note – When the “Jew Bill was introduced in the 19thcentury, the pros and cons would be just the opposite with the Commons supporting the bill and the Lords opposing it.

    1798(Sivan 23): In Pesaro, Italy Jews were murdered following the retreat of the French Army.  The day became a fast day

    1821(7thof Sivan, 5581): Second Day of Shavuot

    1837: Birthdate of Alois Schicklgruber, the son of an unwed mother who would change his name to Alois Hitler, the father of Adolph Hitler

    1848(6thof Sivan, 5608): As Europe is rocked by revolutions, Jews observe Shavuot

    1851(7thof Sivan, 5611): Second Day of Shavuot

    1852: Birthdate of David Kaufman, the native of Moravia who became one of the leading scholars in the fields of history and the philosophy of religion.

    1854: The New York Times reported that Frederika Bremer has written a warm appeal to the Swedish Parliament on behalf of the Jews.


    1857: The New York Times reported that the Weekly Gleaner: A Voice of Israel, a Jewish newspaper, is now being published in San Francisco. Rabbi Julius Eckman was the paper's publisher.

    1858:An article entitled "New York City: The Rogue's Portrait Gallery" published today says that Number 169 is a likeness of an old vagabond called "Jew Mike

    1861: Today subscribers across the country opened the Jewish Messenger  to read a response by the fledgling Shreveport Jewish community to column entitled "Stand By the flag" written by Rabbi Samuel Isaacs. The resolution, signed by M. Baer, President of the Shreveport community, proclaims: “We solemnly pledge ourselves to stand by, protect, and honor the flag, with its stars and stripes, the Union and Constitution of the Southern Confederacy with our lives, liberty, and all that is dear to us.” In harsh language, Baer identifies Isaacs as “an enemy to our interest and welfare,” and accuses him of raising “hatred and dissatisfaction in our midst, and assisting to start a bloody civil war amongst us.”

    1865: Ferdinand James Anselm von Rothschild married his cousin Evelina de Rothschild the daughter of Lionel de Rothschild

    1870: The attorney representing Sigmund, Joseph and Julius Walberg who are “charged with making false revenue returns as brokers” made a motion for discharge

    1870: The news that a congregation in Charlottesville had voted to join the Reform Movement was greeted with applauses at today meeting of the Rabbinical Council being held in Cincinnati, Ohio.

    1870: The Rabbinical Council adopted a resolution providing for a “uniform reading” of the Torah over a three year period at Sabbath services.  The selections should omit “antiquated laws.”

    1871: In Cincinnati, Ohio, a meeting of the Rabbinical Council, the governing body of the Reform Movement, the Prayerbook Committee was authorized to publish their new work as soon as it was ready.

    1871: An article entitled “Russian Tyranny and Jewish Resistance” published today reported that Jews in Poland have resisted the government orders to do away with their traditional attire, hair styles and beards.  Since the Jews are not following the news edicts, the police are stepping in to shorten the long coats favored by some Jews and cutting off their “curls.”  Lengthening the short pants of the Jews has been more of  a problem.  But the greatest challenge is getting rid of the beards.  In one rural town, the police grabbed an 80 year old Jew and began cutting his beard.  He cried out and when his co-religionists came to his aid, they were pounced on, forced into chairs, and sheared in “a hurried and rough manner” that was deemed less than “pleasant.”  While the Warsaw Police have avoided such extreme measures up until now, they will adopt them to ensure that the government’s edicts are carried out. 

    1872: Birthdate of painter and musicologist Rodolphe d'Erlanger.

    1873:An article published today entitled “Hebrew Orphans’ Excursion” reported that the managers of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum and Free schools have made plans provide the youngsters in their care with excursions this summer starting on June 23..

    1875: An article entitled “Ancient Libraries” provides a series of interesting sketches of the great libraries of the world including the following comments about the Jews and their ancient literature.  The author assumes that the Biblical city Kiryat Sefer took its name from the fact that it was a repository for works written by or inspired by Moses as well as “rhapsodies of prophets, the verses of poets, works of historians and dark sayings of proverbial philosophers.  Prominent among these must have the contributions of the great King Solomon who spoke 3,000 proverbs, whose songs were 1,005” who spoke with “scientific method and precision about beasts, fowl creeping things and fishes as well as plants  including the Cedars of Lebanon and hyssop growing out of the walls.  The author assumes that these Jewish libraries were “swept out of existence” and much of the literature was lost except for fragmentary references  which can be found in books which have been preserved for religious purposes.

    1876: Alois Schiclgruber is officially recognized as the son of Johann Georg Hiedler and his name is changed to Alois Hitler, a linguistic move that could not have been anything but useful to the future Nazi murderer.

    1878(6th of Sivan, 5638): First Day of Shavuot

    1878: Rabbi Gustav Gotthel is scheduled to lead Shavuot Services at Temple Emanuel in New York City

    1878: Rabbi Adolph Huebsch is scheduled to lead Shavuot Services at Ahavaht Chesed on Lexington Avenue & 55th Street

    1878: Rabbi Henry S. Jacobs is scheduled to lead Shavuot Services at B’nai Jeshrun on 34thStreet.

    1878: Rabbi Frederick De Sola Mendes is scheduled to Shavuot Services at Shaaray Tefillah on 44thStreet.

    1878: A man named Dixon was hung today in Vicksburg, MS, having been convicted of brutally murdering a 45 year old Jewish peddler named Bachman while he was traveling on the steamboat Fair Play in December of 1877.

    1880: The New York Times published a review of The Poetry of the Talmud by Simon Seckles.

    1881:Oliver Hazard Perry Belmont graduated from the Naval Academy.  His father was August Belmont, the Jewish financer for whom the Belmont Stakes is named.  His mother was the daughter of Oliver Hazard Perry and was not Jewish.

    1881: At the Republican State Convention, Louis Seasongood, a Jewish leader from Cincinnati is among those being considered as the party’s nominee for Lieutenant Governor.  Seasongood had been defeated by General Hickenlooper for the position two years ago.

    1881: It was reported today from St. Petersburg, that the “excitement against the Jews here has abated but has not entirely disappeared.”  [Editor’s note – what charming euphemisms for anti-Semitic riots; as can be seen from the entries below, there was no abatement. ]

    1882: It was reported today that the Mansion House Committee for the Relief of Russian Jews has collected over eighty-two thousand British Pounds of which it has spent all but 25 thousand pounds.  The Committee is going to send representatives to Hamburg to oversee the departure of the Russian Jews from the German seaport.

    1882: At today’s session of the Republican State Convention being held in Columbus, the party adopted the following resolution. “We condemn the terrible persecutions inflicted upon the Jews of Russia and other sections of Europe, and while he heartily approve the action of the Government in its efforts to ameliorate the condition of these unfortunate people, we earnestly solicit a continuance of its most energetic efforts to that end.” 

    1886: “Indignant Rabbis” published today described the refusal of Mr. Taylor, the principal of Central High School in Philadelphia, PA to excuse the Jewish students for missing the upcoming final exams which have been scheduled on the days of Shavuot.  Despite pleas from the city’s rabbis to reach some kind of accommodation, Taylor has remained adamant which means the Jewish children could fail through no fault of their own.

    1889: “To Celebrate Two Anniversaries” published today took note of the fact that the year 1892 “will witness the four hundredth anniversaries of the expulsion of the Hebrews from Spain and the discovery of America and described plans already being made by those meeting at the Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue to honor both of these events.

    1891: “The committee for the relief of Russian Jews reports” that many of the Jews arriving at Charlottenburg “were wounded while fleeing from the Russian police.” Even more Jews were killed and the exodus is assuming such vast proportion” that the German Government will be forced to intervene “since private charity will soon be powerless to cope with the demands”.

    1891: “Friends of the Jews Who Want Them Not” published today described “the indignation of Western Europe” to “Russia’s barbaric expulsion of the Jews” which is beginning to be mixed with a desire “to pass the exiled horde” on to some other nation or nations. “The various organizations and committees which have been formed” in Berlin, Vienna, Paris and London “to look out for the comfort and safety of the Jews after they leave Russia” reportedly spend a large amount of their funds on purchasing “passage tickets to Ameica”

    1891: “The Field of Future of Wars” published today described the little known eastern portion of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, a primitive place where “the village inns – low drinking places at best – are generally kept by Jews, who entice by all means in their power, the peasants to come an consume as much ‘wodka’ as possible.”

    1891: “High Sheriff Benjamin Disraeli” published today reports that “an Irish antiquarian has just discovered that the ‘Benjamin D’Israeli, Esq.,’ who was High Sheriff of the Count of Carlow in 1810, was an uncle of Lord Beaconsfield.”  He died in 1814 and is buried in St. Peter’s Church in Dublin. [Editor’s Note – If this report is accurate and if this High Sheriff Disraeli was Jewish it makes one wonder what oath he swore when he took the office. 

    1892: Founding of the American Jewish Historical Society

    1896: In New York, “Dr. Isaac M. Haldeman” delivered a sermon at the First Baptist Church in which he said “that the Jews had been persecuted by all the civilized nations of the world, so that they were driven to lying, cheating and other vices.  No tongue could describe the tortures inflicted on them – not by pagans, but by Christians…

    1896: Professor Isaac Franklin Russell of NYU Law School delivered a lecture at the Hebrew Institute on “Tom Paine.

    1896: “Mayor Strong Asked to Aid Peddlers” published today described the plight of two Jewish peddlers who have been “driven from the streets by police” because they like so many others have deprived of their livelihood i.e. selling collar buttons and suspenders from various street corners

    1896: The Hebrew Orphan Asylum Band will perform at a strawberry festival this afternoon sponsored by the Lebanon League which is raising funds for the Lebanon Hospital at Westchester and Cauldwell Avenues.

    1896: “Beginnings of a Prime Minister” published today described the handicaps that Benjamin Disraeli had to overcome in making his way to the top of the English political ladder.  It noted that he did “not have the advantages of wealth or connected enjoyed by so many of his race.  His father was a “renegades” who educated his son at “second class private schools” where he was not able to make the friendships and associations that “wealthy Jews nowadays” make at “public schools and universities.”

    1897(7th of Sivan, 5657): Second Day of Shavuo

    1897:No Orthodox Jew voted in the judicial elections held in Chicago today since marking the ballot would violate the prohibition against writing on a Jewish festival.

    1897: Birthdate of Austrian born composer and conductor, George Szell. He was best known for his long, successful career as musical director of the Cleveland Symphony Orchestra.  He held the position from 1946 until 1970

    1897: “Myer S. Isaacs, President of the Board of Trustees of the Baron de Hirsch Fund, has received a draft for $400,000, from the Baroness de Hirsch, as the first advance on the donation of $1,000,000 recently made by the Baroness to assist the poor of New York City.”

    1899: During ten days of meetings at the Hague that would end on June 17 Herzl met several of the most representative Russian leaders. Baroness Bertha Von Suttner introduced him to Russian State Counselor Ivan von Bloch who is responsible for the calling of the Conference. The meetings result in Herzl's name being brought favorably to the attention of the Czar. Herzl also met with Nouri Bey, General Secretary of the Turkish Foreign Office who promises to get together a group of officials to arrange an audience with the Sultan.

    1901: Birthdate of Sam Katzman, an American film producer and director who began working in the industry at the age of 13 when it was centered on the east coast.  He moved west with the industry and enjoyed a successful 40 year career in film.  He passed away in 1973.

    1904(24thof Sivan, 5664): Moishe Finkel took his own life after shooting his wife and actor David Levinson who was a romantic rival.  Born in 1850, Finkel was a leading member of the Yiddish theatre in the United States. His tempestuous personal life would have fine material for tragedy or melodrama.  His professional life was intertwined with such greats of the Yiddish theatre as Jacob Adler and Boris Thomashefsky.  And he was the father in law of famed Hollywood actor, Paul Muni

    1908: Founding of Kinneret

    1910: Eighty-six year old Goldwin Smith the British born Canadian academic who was a political opponent of Benjamin Disraeli, passed away. “A pathological anti-Semite, Smith disseminated his hatred in dozens of books, articles and letters. Jews, he charged, were "parasites," "dangerous" to their host country and "enemies of civilization." His bilious anti-Jewish tirades helped set the tone of a still unmoulded Canadian society and had a profound impact on such young Canadians as W.L. Mackenzie King, Henri Bourassa and scores of others. Indeed in 1905 in the most vituperative anti-Jewish speech in the history of the House of Commons, borrowing heavily from Smith, Bourassa urged Canada to keep its gates shut to Jewish immigrants.

    1912: Evening schools to be opened in New York City for Turkish Jews to learn English during the summer months.

    1914: The Federation of Oriental Jews held its second annual meeting today PS 91 in NYC.  The federation is made of representatives of 28 different organizations which have approximately 3,000 members.  The federation estimates that there are between 10,000 and 15,000 Oriental Jews living in New York.  The term refers to Sephardic Jews most of whom are recent immigrants from areas that have been under Ottoman rule including Greece.  Unlike their northern and eastern European co-religionist, they do not speak Yiddish, relying instead on Ladino for much of their colloquial conversation.

    1914: Twenty-one men received diplomas and five were ordained as Rabbis at today’s graduation exercises held by the Jewish Theological Seminary at the Aeolian Hall.  Louis Marshall presided over the event and read a speech prepared by Dr. Solomon Schechter who was unable to be present because of ill health.

    1914: Simon F. Rothschild delivered the opening address at today’s ceremony dedicating the newly constructed building in Brownsville that will house the Hebrew Educational Society.  Among other speakers were Felix Warburg, Abram Elkus and from the world of New York politics, Controller William A. Pendergast.

    1914: Over a thousand people attended today’s opening of a new building to house the Harlem Hebrew School  The school was begun five years and is supported by the Yeishva Torah Chaim of Harlem.  Almost 500 children attend the school which provides courses in Hebrew, the Bible and Jewish history before and/or after public school hours.

    1919: Conditions of Jews in the Palestine cities of Safed, Tiberias and Kfra Saba are described as bad. The death rate is appalling. Thousands of Jews are starving.

    1921: President Warren Harding is scheduled to meet with Albert D. Lasker and discuss his appointment to serve as Chairman of the Shipping Board.

    1926: The body of Meyer London, one of only two Socialists to serve in the House of Representatives “was taken to the Forward building, where it lay in state while 25,000 men, women, and children filed past the casket, paying their respects.

    1929: The Lateran Treaty which normalized relations between Italy and the Vatican is ratified.  The agreement gave Mussolini, the Italian Prime Minister, a greater measure of respectability.  The Mussolini Connection would set the tone for the Vatican’s relationship with Hitler when he came to power.  Italy's anti-Jewish laws of 1938 prohibited marriages between Jews and non-Jews, including Catholics. The Vatican viewed this as a violation of the Concordat, which gave the church the sole right to regulate marriage between Catholics. But this was not enough of an issue to disrupt the relationship between Rome and the Vatican.

    1936: Leon Blum the first Socialist and the first Jew to serve as Prime Minister of France presented his list of ministerial appointments to the Chamber of Deputies. Blum is attacked in anti-Semitic diatribe by right wing deputy named Xavier Vallet who will later serve as an official with the Vichy Government.

    1936:Five Arabs were killed and many were wounded this afternoon in a clash with British troops and policemen after an attack on several Jewish-owned buses outside Jerusalem. A British soldier and a British police corporal were seriously wounded

    1936: “A large Jewish-owned timber depot in the heart of Jerusalem was set afire by Arabs tonight and the flames spread to several nearby stores.  The damage to the timber depot was put at $40,000.00.

    1936: “Nazi pamphlets printed in Arabic were distributed in Acre blaming the British for “favoring” the Jews.

    1936: A young American tourist who would come to be known as President John F. Kennedy arrives in Jerusalem during a visit to the Middle East.

    1937: The Palestine Post reported that the London Evening Standard protested editorially against the long delay in the publication of the report of the Royal (Peel) Commission on Palestine, while all sectors of the Palestine population "waited for a real peace." The House of Commons was told that no fees were paid to the Commission members, but one of them continued to draw his salary of £4,500 a year, as president of the Industrial Court. The cost of the commission's subsistence allowances, traveling and other expenses amounted to £2,837, 18 shillings and 3 pence.

    1937: The Palestine Post reported that refugees from Nazi Germany recalled the circumstances of the secret execution in Berlin of an American Jew, Helmut Hirsch, who was accused of spying.

    1939: “Another ship attempting to land 260 illegal (Jewish) immigrants north of Haifa was captured today. 

    1939:Palestine was today the scene of further Jewish and Arab terrorism. One life was lost in the retaliation and counter-retaliation, and six Jews and one Arab were injured, in addition to considerable damage to government property. The tension continues to run high. A bomb was exploded today on the main railway line 150 yards from the main station.  There were four other bombing attacks in Tel Aviv during the rest of the day. 

    1940: “After the evacuation of the British Expeditionary Force from Dunkirk, David Ben-Gurion, Chairman of the Jewish Agency, wrote to his wife from London about Churchill’s speech following the evacuation. “I know that you cannot stand against Hitler with speeches,  Without planes and tanks and bombs and cannons we will not destroy the ‘Mechanized Attila’…But Churchill’s speech was undoubtedly the steadfast and stubborn persistence of the English nation to stand and fight to the end.”  “The phrase ‘Mechanized Attila’ had been coined by Leon Blum the first Jew to serve as Prime Minister of France.  After quoting Churchill’s speech that included the immortal words “we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender…” Ben Gurion writes his wife that these words ‘were not merely a jest.  This is the spirit of the rebellious England and in it a guarantee for better days – even if not the soonest.

    1942(22nd of Sivan, 5702): The Jewish ghetto at Krakow, Poland, is liquidated; 6000 Jews from the city are murdered at Belzec.

    1942(22nd of Sivan, 5702): A Jewish woman who has escaped from the Warsaw Ghetto into the city proper is dragged back to the ghetto and shot.

    1942: The Jewish Yellow Star is made mandatory in Occupied France

    1942(22nd of Sivan, 5702): Alan Blumlein died when his Halifax bomber crashed. The British-born radar and electronics expert was on active duty with the Royal Air Force (RAF).  He was part of an elite group of specialist working on the electronic counter measures and devices that helped to give the Allies an edge over the Axis in the dark days of World War II.  His death was described in The Daily Telegraph as a national loss. Air Chief Marshall Sir Phillip Joubert described it as a catastrophe for the war effort, and Sir Archibald Sinclair, Secretary of State for Air, wrote that ‘it would be impossible to over-rate the importance of the work on which they were engaged’, which had undoubtedly saved thousands of lives.”

    1943 Dr. Klaus Clauberg reports from Auschwitz that the apparatus to sterilize 1000 Jewish women a day is being set in place.

    1944: The first phase of the deportation and mass murder of the Hungarian Jews is complete. Nearly 290,000 Jews have been killed in 23 days.

    1944: At the height of the deportation of Hungarian Jews, Hannah Szenes crossed the border into Hungary.

    1944: Joel Brand arrived at Aleppo today where two men, who later were identified as British intelligence, “pushed him into a waiting Jeep with its engine running.”

    1945(26thof Sivan, 5705): Eighty-one year old Dr. Charles Isaiah Hoffman, Rabbi Emeritus of Oheb Shalom Synagogue passed away today.  Born in Philadelphia, he graduated from the University of Pennsylvania and practiced law from 1886 until 1900 when he began studying for the Rabbinate at JTS.  Six months after his graduation in 1904, he filled the pulpit of the Newark, NJ congregation while helping to create several Jewish periodicals including “The Jewish Exponent.” [Editor’s note – Dr. Hoffman’s decision to pursue the pulpit as “a second career” was as uncommon in his day as it apparently has become common in our own times.]

    1947:The Oujda and Jerada pogrom which took place in northeastern Morocco began today.  

    1948: Edvard Beneš resigns as President of Czechoslovakia rather than signing a Constitution making his nation a Communist state. Beneš was one of the most decent and democratic leaders of his time.  As a leader of the Czech government-in-exile during World War II he condemned the treatment of European Jewry and supported a Jewish homeland in Palestine.

    1948: Mordechai Weingarten the Jewish community leader who had participated in the negotiations that resulted in the surrender of the Old City to the Arabs was placed under house arrest when he returned to western Jerusalem.

    1950: Mrs. Martha Sharp, the wife of a Unitarian minister from Chicago and the vice chairman of Children to Palestine, visited the children’s village of Ben Shemen in Kfar Vitkin, thirty miles north of Tel Aviv. A grant of $25,000 from her organization is being used to build housing for children who escaped from the European Holocaust and have known no real home.  The Village is named after Reverend Samuel A. Eliot, “the organizer of this interfaith rescue movement.

    1950: The Mizrahi Women’s Organization of American hosts the second day of a two-day donor luncheon series for 3,000 members of its metropolitan branches to initiate an all-year silver jubilee celebration.  Mizrahi in Israel has grown from a single home for adolescent girls in Jerusalem to a networked of 49 projects including 13 institutions for children. 

    1953: Birthdate of Joan Stein, a Tony-winning theater and television producer who helped to launch several long-running L.A. stage productions, including "Love Letters," "Forever Plaid" and Steve Martin's "Picasso at the Lapin Agile."

    1954(6thof Sivan, 5714): Shavuot

    1961: Holocaust survivors provided shocking testimony at today’s session of the trial of Adolf Eichmann. [Editor’s note – In a time when there a myriad of Holocaust Memorial Museums dotting the landscape and the Shoah was talked of only in hushed tones, the following article by Homer Bigart provides what, for its time was a blinding revelation.

    1965:The $64,000 Question premiered on CBS-TV. Louis Cowan who has worked to rescue Jews from Germany before the war, created the show. Hal March, a Jewish comic and actor whose real name was Harold Mendelson was the show’s host.  Charles Revson, the Jewish Canadian Cosmetic King, had his company, Revlon, sponsor the show.

    1965(7th of Sivan, 5725): Second Day Shavuot

    1965(7th of Sivan, 5725): Comedic actress Judy Holiday passes away at the age of 42

    1967: Dorothy Parker passes away.Born Dorothy Rothschild in 1893, Dorothy ("Dottie" or "Dot") Parker was an American writer and poet best known for her caustic wit, wisecracks, and sharp eye for 20th century urban foibles.

    1967: Israel captured the Old City of Jerusalem uniting the city for the first time since the establishment of the state. On June 7, 1967 at 10:15, with the radio confirmation, "The Temple Mount is in our hands," the Israeli flag was raised above the Western wall.

    1967 (28 Iyar, 5727): Yom Yerushalayim (Jerusalem Unification day). Prior to the 6-Day War, Israel had sent repeated requests to King Hussein of Jordan appealing to him remain outside the conflict (trying, therefore, to prevent a three-front war). Due to Arab League pressure, Jordan began to shell Jerusalem on June 5. When the Jordanian force crossed the cease-fire line at Government House, Israel retaliated. General Uzi Narkis brought in Colonel Motta Gur to lead the attack in Eastern Jerusalem.

    1967:  Israeli forces captured Jericho, Bethlehem, Sharm-el-Sheikh, and lifted the blockade of the Gulf of Eilat. The entire Jordanian bulge on the western bank of the Jordan came under Israeli control. Hostilities between Israel and Jordan came to an end upon their acceptance of the cease-fire demanded by the Security Council of the U.N., 1967.

    1967: On the third day of fighting, the IAF destroyed hundreds of Egyptian vehicles trying to flee across the Sinai in convoys and trapped thousands more in narrow Sinai passes.

    1967: By the end of the third day Jordan's air force of 34 combat aircraft had essentially ceased to exist and the Jordanian military was no longer in the fight.

    1967: A successful joint attack by armor units and elements of the Golani led to the capture of Nablus this afternoon.

    1971:Singer-songwriter Carole King achieved stardom with the release of her album Tapestry

    1972: German Chancellor Willy Brandt visited Israel

    1977: The Jerusalem Post reported that according to Aviation Week Israel was having second thoughts about buying the American F-16 fighter, and planned to design its own fighter plane. Egypt started digging a tunnel under the Suez Canal, about 20 km. north of Suez city

    1981: The Israeli air force attacks and destroys the Iraq nuclear reactor at Osiriq. Both the United States and leaders in the Israeli opposition condemned Menachem Begin. After Operation Desert storm the American State department belatedly praised his actions, admitting it had saved countless lives.

    1984(7th of Sivan, 5744): Second Day of Shavuot

    1984: “The Revolt of Job,” “a gently told story of one Jewish couple's attempt to defeat their family's extinction in the Holocaust by adopting a non-Jewish boy, a child who would survive to carry on their line” is scheduled to have its last screening at the Vandam Theatre in New York. (As reported by Seth Mydans)

    1987: An article published today entitled “Celebrating the East End’s Jewish Heritages” provides a brief overview of the history of the Jews who settled in London and a schedule of the events for this summer's Jewish East End Celebration.

    1993: Yitzhak Rabin completes his term as Interior Minister

    1993: Prof. Shimon Shetreet completed his term as Science and Technology Minister of Israel

    1993: Shulamit Aloni replaced Moshe Shahal as Minister of Communication.

    1993:Aryeh Deri begins his term as Interior Minister.

    1993: Moshe Shahal succeeded Amnon Rubenstein as Energy and Water Resources Minister

    1995:Uzi Baram completes his term as Minister of Internal Affairs.

    1996(20th of Sivan, 5756): Max Factor passed away.  Factor arrived in the United States at the start of the 20th century.  He was a pioneer in the cosmetics industry who parlayed his work with Hollywood movie stars into his own cosmetics company, the name of which survives under the Max Factor Cosmetics label.

    1998: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Process:1,100 Days That Changed the Middle East by Uri Savir

    2001: David Wright Miliband assumed office as a Member of Parliament for South Shields.

    2002:Seven soldiers were buried today at the Hadera military cemetery today.  They were part of a group of 17 Israelis, including 13 soldiers who were killed when a stolen car packed with explosives pulled alongside a public bus and exploded near the northern town of Megiddo.

    2004:The Supreme Court ruled that the 88-year-old niece and heir of an Austrian Jewish art collector can pursue her lawsuit against the Austrian government and its national art gallery for the return of six paintings by Gustav Klimt that belonged to her family before the Nazi takeover. The court did not rule on the merits of the lawsuit, filed in federal court in California by the woman, Maria V. Altmann,.
    2006:  Hebrew Book Week begins.Despite the name, the “week” will last for 10 days. This year's theme is “Developing the Galilee and the Negev.” The fair's main event will be held in Beer Sheva, in the presence of Vice Prime Minister Shimon Peres, who is scheduled to hold a public reading. In an unintended tribute to the intellectual vitality of the Israelis, Haaretzreported on the popularity of “Hebrew Book Week,” the annual book buying orgy being held this week and a burgeoning crop of literary journals that are capturing the attention of the Israeli literary world. The 2006 Hebrew Book Week lasts until June 16, 2006. During this week leading Israeli authors and poets will meet with the readers in organized fairs all over the country. Poetry readings, lectures, literary workshops, street theaters, comics happening and other activities for young and adults will also take place. The Hebrew Book Week originated in 1926 as a “one day event” taking place in Rothschild Boulevard, Tel-Aviv. The founder of Masada Press, Bracha Peli, launched the first Book Day in 1926, offering books at a discount. Since 1961, Hebrew Book Week has become a country wide, weeklong event taking place every year during the summer. The Hebrew Book Week is a unique event. Many countries attempt to arrange similar fairs but never to the scale and popularity of the Israeli one.The National Library in the Hebrew University of Jerusalem is entrusted with keeping Israel’s cultural assets for future generations. For this purpose the “law of books” was legislated, obligating every book publisher in the country to deliver two copies of the book to the National Library. Towards the Hebrew Book Week the National Library publishes a report on the books, magazines, cassettes or disks published in Israel during the passing year. From this report we learn that an amazing number of 6,840 new books were published during 2005. The majority of the books published in Hebrew are originally written in Hebrew. The report also brings to light that more then 22% of the books published during 2005 were directed at the religious population.

    2006: The Central Council of Jews, Germany’s main Jewish organization elected Charlotte Knobloch as its leader.  The 73 year old Holocaust survivor from Munich is the first woman to hold this post.

    2007: In an article entitled “Rebuilding Jewish Life in New Orleans,” Bruce Noland describes how “financial incentives and other effort are starting to pay off” in a post-Katrina World.

    2007: In London, Israel Connects presents “Portraits of Israel.”  The exhibition is a collection of the photographs of Rudi Weissenstein taken from 1932 through 1999. Weissenstein was the official photographer at the signing of the Israeli Declaration of Independence in 1948.

    2008: In Washington, D.C. The JCC presents David Buchbinder's Odessa/Havana.”An exciting Jewish-Cuban musical fusion, Odessa/Havana is led by award winning trumpeter and composer David Buchbinder and includes some of today’s most accomplished jazz musicians.

    2008: As a foretaste of celebrating Shavuot, in Cedar Rapids, at Temple Judah, traditional Shabbat morning services at Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids features a “Sundaes on Saturday” Kiddush.

    2008(4th of Sivan, 5768): Ninety-one year old Dr. Montague Ullman passed away today.

    2008; Sportscaster Jim McKay past away at the age of 86. “His professionalism and sensitivity melded in 1972. During the Munich Olympics, as he left the hotel sauna and was about to go into the swimming pool on his only day off, he received word that Arab terrorists had invaded the Israeli living quarters in the Olympic Village. Mr. McKay hurried to the studio, and for 16 consecutive hours he anchored ABC’s extraordinary news coverage, with field reporting from Peter Jennings, Howard Cosell and others. The episode ended with the murder of 11 Israeli athletes, coaches and trainers. When that word reached Mr. McKay, he said he thought that he would be the person who told the family of David Berger, an Israeli-born weight lifter whose family lived in Shaker Heights, Ohio, “if their son was alive or dead.” He looked at the lens and said, “They’re all gone.” When ABC finally signed off, Mr. McKay, physically and emotionally spent, returned to his hotel room. Only then did he realize he had been wearing a wet swimsuit beneath his trousers. The next day, Mr. McKay received this cable from an old CBS colleague: “Dear Jim, today you honored yourself, your network and your industry. Walter Cronkite.” Mr. McKay’s work at Munich won him an Emmy Award for news coverage, the first for a sportscaster, and the George Polk Award. Through the years, he won 12 more Emmys.”

    2009: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Red and Me by Bill Russell, Red Orchestra by Anne Nelson and the recently published paperback edition of Audition: A Memoir by Barbara Walters.

    2009: The Washington Post featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including American Passage: The History of Ellis Island by Vincent J. Cannato.

    2010: The New Yorker is scheduled to publish its “20 Under 40” list of fiction writers worth watching that included Jewish authors Jonathan Safran Foer, 33;Rivka Galchen, 34;Nicole Krauss, 35;Gary Shteyngart, 37;David Bezmozgis, 37.

    2010: Sirius/XM Radio star and Broadway pianist Seth Rudetsky is scheduled to perform at the Washington Jewish Music Festival.

    2010(6th of Sivan, 5770):Rabbi Mordecai Eliyahu passed away.

    2010(6th of Sivan, 5770): Eighty-seven year old Rabbi Jacob Milgrom considered by many the world’s foremost authority on the biblical Book of Leviticus passed away today in Jerusalem.,

    2010:Shahar Pe'er, an Israeli professional tennis player, was ranked Number Fourteen today which was her career-high rating as a single’s player.

    2010:Former Agriprocessors executive Sholom Rubashkin has been acquitted of allowing minors to work at the Postville slaughterhouse. Today, Jurors acquitted him of all 67 counts of child labor violations.

    2010:The funeral for Steve Averbach, the former Monmouth County resident who was paralyzed in an attempt to thwart a suicide bomber in Jerusalem in 2003 was scheduled to take place today in Israel.

    2010:Navy commandoes foiled a major terrorist attack from the Gaza coast shortly before dawn today morning, and the Air Force strafed a rocket launching cell. Four armed terrorists were killed and three others were missing in the Navy counterterrorist maneuver.

    2010(25th of Sivan, 5770):Rabbi Mordecai Eliyahu former chief rabbi who encouraged Israelis to oppose removal of settlements and blamed Reform Jewry for the Holocaust passed away at the age of 81.

    2010: Joe Schlesinger, the Canadian television journalist and author “received an Honorary Doctorate of Laws from Queen's University in Kingston and delivered the convocation speech to a part of the graduating class of 2010 from Queens Faculty of Arts and Sciences. He declared that the students would forget a good part of what they learned but they can find out what they need to know in the realm of facts by ‘googling it’!”

    2011: Congregation Beth Israel in Glendale, Wisconsin, is scheduled to present a program entitled “The Levite & His Concubine.”

    2011(5th of Sivan, 5771): Erev of Shavuot

    2011(5th of Sivan, 5771): Ninety-one year old Mietek Pemper, the secretary who actually compiled what became known as “Schindler’s List” passed away today.  (As reported by Douglas Martin)

    2011(5th of Sivan, 5771): Eighty-eight year old Leonard B. Stern, the man who created “Mad Libs” passed away today in California. (As reported by Margalit Fox)

    2011: Bradlee Birchansky and Jon Burstain, two outstanding young men, were confirmed this evening during Shavuot services at Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, Iowa.

    2011:Rep. Steve Chabot (R-Ohio) introduced a resolution calling for the withholding of U.N. funding if the General Assembly recognizes a Palestinian state. Chabot said today that he hopes to dissuade any effort by the Palestinians to circumvent peace negotiations by going directly to the United Nations for statehood recognition when the General Assembly convenes in September.

    2011:U.S. President Barack Obama said today he and German Chancellor Angela Merkel agreed that any Palestinian effort to seek UN recognition for statehood should be avoided. Obama, who was reiterating his own position on the issue, was speaking at a news conference after White House talks with Merkel.

    2012: The Carmen at Masada Opera Festival is scheduled to open,

    2012: The Anat Cohen Quartet is scheduled to perform in Washington, DC.

    2012:Israel’s Defense Ministry announced today that it will erect between 20,000-25,000 tents for African migrants at various detention centers by the end of the year.

    2013: “Fill the Void,” a film about an orthodox Chasidic family from Tel Aviv, is scheduled to open at several theatres across the United States including the Clay in San Francisco, the Bethesda Row Cinema in Bethesda, MD and Shrilington 7 Theatres in Arlington, VA.

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    June 8 In History

    65 CE: Jewish insurgent forces captured the fortress of Antonia in Jerusalem. This battle marked the outbreak of the Jewish revolt against Rome. This revolt would end with the destruction of the SecondTemple in 70 C.E.

    68: The Roman Senate accepts Galba as the new Emperor. Galba was the second of men who would claim title of Emperor in the eleven months between June, 68 and July, 69.  The first of the five was Nero and the last of the five was Vespasian.  There are those who contend that there is direct connection between this Imperial anarchy and the destruction of Jerusalem and the Second Temple.  Vespasian was determined to secure the throne and to promote is son Titus as his heir.  He decided to take the unusual step of completely destroying the Jewish capital and its house of worship as a way of demonstrating that he had the power to hold the throne and put an end to the revolving door Emperors. 

    570: Religion of Islam founded in Mecca. Like Christianity, Islam is rooted in Judaism.

    632: According to tradition, the anniversary of the death of Mohammed, founder of Islam. Mohammed had expected the Jews of Arabia to accept his new faith. When they did not, he turned on them. This is an oft told tale in Jewish history.

    1191: Richard I arrives in Acre thus beginning his crusade.

    1374: Geoffrey Chaucer is appointed Comptroller of Customs and Subsidy of Wools, a position that pays ten pounds per year.  This steady income gave him the freedom to write The Canterbury Tales which contained the “Prioress Tale” complete with its anti-Semitic featuring an eight year old Christian child who is murdered in the Jewish quarter of the town while singing hymns in praise of his faith.  At the end, the Jewish community is wiped out as punishment for the death of the Christian child.

    1662: Asser Levy bought a lot from Barent Gerritsen on Hoogh Straat (
    Stone Street
    ) in New Amsterdam [New York City].  By doing this Levy became the first Jewish landowner in what is now the United States of America.

    1664: King John Casimir of Poland denied the Jews of Vilna the right to deal in non-Jewish books

    1723(5th of Sivan): Rabbi Isaac Vita Cantarini, author of Pahad Yizhak passed away

    1753(6th of Sivan, 5513): Shavuot

    1787: Birthdate of Emanuel Aguilar, father of author Grace Aguilar.

    1789:  James Madison introduces a proposed Bill of Rights in the House of Representatives.  Those favoring ratification of the U.S. Constitution promised that a Bill of Rights (what would be the first ten amendments to the Constitution) would be enacted as soon as the new federal government was formed.  The First Amendment is of particular importance to Jews because it guarantees freedom of religion in the nation’s organic document.  This has made the experience of Jews in the United States different from all other Diaspora Communities.

    1810(6th of Sivan, 5570): Shavuot

    1810: Israel Jacobson introduced an organ for the first time at a Reform service in Berlin.

    1815: During negotiations intended to guarantee Jewish rights in the Treaty of Vienna, the Mayor of Bremen inserts language in “Article 16” that will effectively end the rights gained by most German Jews during the military successes of Napoleon.

    1815: Birthdate of Rabbi Samuel Hirsch.  Born in Germany, Hirsch was a leading advocate of radical Reform Judaism.  "He was among the first to propose holding Jewish services on Sunday."  He passed away in 1889 in Chicago, Illinois.

    1815: Napoleon was defeated at Waterloo. The immediate effect of Napoleon's deposition on the Jews was a return to the previous state of less freedom. At the Vienna Congress which was the peace conference intended to create a new order in Europe in the wake of two decades of almost non-stop war, the Jews sent a Christian attorney, Carl Buchortz, to act on their behalf. An agreement was reached whereby "Jews were given rights in proportion to accepting the duties of citizenship." This was the first time that Jewish rights became a European political issue.

    1848(7th of Sivan, 5608): Second Day of Shavuot

    1857: An English Jew named Theodore Seymour was arrested in Boston this evening on charges of having stolen an unspecified number of gold bracelets from Tiffany & Co, the famous New York jewelry store.  Mr. Seymour who also used aliases of Leman and Simon had worked there for a year before being recently discharged.  The police recovered the merchandize valued at $500 during the arrest.  Seymour will be sent back to New York City to stand trial.
    1859(6th of Sivan, 5619): Shavuot

    1867: Birthdate of Frank Lloyd Wright who designed the house of worship used by Beth Sholom Congregation in Elkins Park, PA (suburban Philadelphia). “Construction began in 1953 and was completed in 1959. Wright designed the building to look like a "luminous Mount Sinai," with an extravagant fountain at its entrance, carpet that's meant to look like desert sands, and a mountain-like roof that looks a bit like a Klingon spacecraft. The building,…has been accorded status as a National Historic Landmark. Wright's design surrounds congregants with meaningful symbols, adding a new spiritual dimension to the very act of going to synagogue.”

    1869: With her health declining Jewish born feminist and abolitionist Ernestine Louise Rose and her Christian husband William Ella Rose set sail from the United States for a trip to England.

    1871:Birthdate of Julius Fleischmann, the son of Charles Louis Fleischmann of Fleischmann’s Yeast, who would become mayor of Cincinnati before dying an untimely death in 1925.

    1871: At today’s meeting of the Rabbinical Conference in Cincinnati, Ohio, Dr, Max Lillienthal reported that he had not been able “to effect a reconciliation between the members of the Conference that had met at Philadelphia in 1869, and those who were attending the current Conference.

    1871: Today’s meeting of the Rabbinical Conference in Cincinnati, Ohio, adopted the report of the Committee on the Establishment of a Rabbinical Seminary favoring the development of such an institution and instructed the committee to develop a “a more detailed course of study.”  This is one of the steps that led to the creation of Hebrew Union College.

    1872: In London Alice le Strange married Laurence Oliphant. Oliphant was a British journalist and MP who became a devoted advocate of settling Jews in Palestine as can be seen by his fundraising activities, his attempts to gain a lease from the Ottomans on a portion of Eretz Israel for that purpose and his employment of Naftali Herz Imber as his personal secretary.

    1872: A special meeting was held tonight at the synagogue on East 57th Street where resolutions were adopted to express the Jewish community’s sense of loss following the recent death of James Gordon Bennett, the fouder, owner and editor of the New York Herald.  Besides describing him as a fearless, honest and upright champion” of the general population, the resolutions said “that in him the Israelites generally had an honest supporter and a true friend and that the New York Herald…always gave firm and true support to our creed.”
    1878(7th of Sivan, 5638): Second Day of Shavuot

    1879:Rabbi Isaac C. Noot officiated at the corner-stone laying ceremony for the new synagogue being built by Congregation B’Nai Israel.  The building located at 289 East Fourth Street will be the home to this Orthodox congregation which had been founding in 1847.  A copper box was placed in the cornerstone containing a variety of items including copies of New York newspapers and the issue of Frank Leslie’s Monthly that contained a history of the Jews of New York.  Dr. Lyon Berhard, the oldest member of the congregation was given the honor of laying the cornerstone.

    1878(7th of Sivan, 5638): Second Day of Shavuot

    1879: The officers and members of B’nai Israel lead the cornerstone for the building that will house their new synagogue on E. 44th Street in New York. The congregation is currently worshipping at its temporary home on Rivington Street which it has been using since it sold its building on Stanton Street so that it could afford to construct the new building.

    1881: In Cleveland, Ohio, Louis Seasongood, “a rich Hebrew from Cincinnati” lost his bid for the second time to be nominated as the party’s choice for Lieutenant Governor.

    1882: It was reported today that the body of young man thought to be a Jew was taken to the morgue after it had been found hanging in New Jersey’s Glendale Woods. [Editor’s note – it took me a few minutes to figure out why they assumed he was Jewish]

    1883: A jury in Westchester Country found Theodore Hoffman guilty of murdering a Jewish peddler named Zife Marks.  The judge sentenced the prisoner to death by hanging.

    1885: “Explorations in the Delta” published today describe the recent explorations conducted in the Nile Delta region under the auspices of the Egyptian Exploration Fund Society. As a result of these archeological activities Edouard Naville has produced a memoir about Pithon, the Biblical city built by the Israelite slaves.

    1885: In Pennsylvania Reverend D.E. Shaw of Keokuk, Iowa has been elected Professor of Hebrew at Lincoln University. [Since I am from Iowa, I could not resist the entry]

    1885: Attendees at a meeting of Baptist Ministers called to examine the new translation of the Old Testament were critical of the liberties taken with translating the Hebrew text into English feeling in several cases that the new translation did not reflect the accurate meaning of the Hebrew.  They suggested that the translators return to their work so that, for instance, in Genesis, the text would reading the and the morning of the first day, rather than the one day.

    1889: The Hebrew Relief Fund made a contribution of $161 to aid those suffering from the effects of the Conemaugh Floods.

    1889(30th of Sivan, 5659): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1890: “Judah” the new play by Henry Arthur Jones which will be performed next winter at Palmer’s Theatre in New York is reported “to have been praised without stint” during its performances in London.  The hero of the play is Judah Llewellyn the son of Welch mother and a Jewish mother who falls in love with a character named Vashti.

    1890: Julian Nathan presided over the closing exercises of the Sunday School of the United Hebrew Charities which were held this morning.

    1890: “Jewish Annals” published today provided a detailed review of Outlines of Jewish History From B.C. 586 to C.E. 1890 which had been revised by Michael Friedländer

    1891: Birthdate of South African cricketer Manfred John Susskind in Johannesburg, Transvaal
    1892:  Today, the Tegeblatt confirmed recent rumors that Emin Pasha had died of smallpox in Africa. Born Isaak Eduard Schnitzer, the physician and naturalist was baptized at the age of 7 when his widowed mother married a Lutheran.  (The rumors were just that rumors since he passed away in October of 1892)

    1893: The American Israeli published what some considered to be an exposé about Immigration Commissioner Joseph Senner.

    1897: “Baptist Worship With Jews” published today described the joint service held at the Belden Avenue Baptist Church in Chicago which was led by Rabbi Julius Newman and Reverend M.W. Haynes.

    1897: “Jew Refrain From Voting” published today attributed the light turn out during the recent judicial election in Chicago to the fact that it was held on a Jewish holiday when the Orthodox members of that faith would not be at the polls.

    1898: Rabbi Henry Pereira Mendes provide over the opening session of conference of Jews from the United States and Canada  meeting today at the Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue

    1898: The Hebrew Orphan Asylum Band will play at today’s “patriotic tea in honor of Alexander Hamilton sponsored by the Hospital and Charitable Committee of the Parish Guild of St. Luke’s Church

    1898: The Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America was organized. Or Chaim was one of the founding congregations. The Orthodox Union has grown to be one of the largest umbrella organizations for Orthodox Judaism in North America.  One of its earliest accomplishments was the establishment of Elchanan Theological Seminary, a modern academic institution designed to train Orthodox Rabbis.  It was the original School of what is now YeshivaUniversity.  The familiar sign of the OU can be found on numerous food products indicating that they are Kosher.
    1899: Mr. and Mrs. Isaac Beerman hosted their annual garden party for those living at the Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews.
    1913: Eleven students of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America became rabbis this afternoon at the graduating exercises in Aeolian Hall, when Dr. Solomon Schechter, the President of the seminary, conferred the degrees. The services marked the tenth anniversary of the seminary's reorganization.
    1918: Birthdate of Esther Vilenska, a native of Poland who gained fame as an author and a member of the Communist Party in Israel

    1920:Osip Maksimovich Brik, the son of Jewish jeweler and avant garde author, joined the Cheka, the early version of the Soviet secret police.

    1924(6th of Sivan, 5684): First Day of Shavuot


    1928: Attorney General Albert Ottinger’s investigation into complaints made by the Hebrew Religious Protective Association concerning the practices of certain New York area cemeteries continued today.  Among the complaints was an allegation by Harry Kaplan, President of Adath Israel, that his brother was buried in a grave at the Baron Hirsch Cemetery in Port Richmond on Staten Island that contained four feet of water
    1929: Birthdate of Jerry Stiller. Born in Brooklyn, this comedic actor is best known as part of the team of Stella and Meara.

    1930: Birthdate of Robert John Auman the German born Israeli-American mathematician and member of the National Academy of Sciences. Among other things he and Michael Maschler used the Game Theory to analyze sections of the Talmud.

    1933: Birthdate of comedian and game show player Joan Rivers.

    1934:A death sentence was pronounced today against Abraham Stavsky, who, with Zvi Rosenblatt, was on trial for the murder on June 16, 1933, of Dr. Chaim Arlosoroff, labor leader and member of the Jewish Agency Executive of Palestine. Rosenblatt was acquitted on the ground of insufficient evidence. Notice of appeal has been filed on behalf of Stavsky.

    1936: In Jerusalem, the Jewish community joins in the celebration of King George’s birthday.
    1936: As Arab violence mounts two Arabs died and 26 Arabs and Armenians were injured by a bomb which exploded inside the Jaffa Gate today

    1937: Chaim Weizmann presented his reasoning for supporting partition at private dinner given by Sir Archibald Sinclair where his fellow diners included Winston Churchill, James de Rothschild and several parliamentary supporters of Zionism.  Weizmann was willing to “settle for a Small state at once” rather than wait for a “Large state” that might come in some distant future. Churchill opposed partition and contended that the Jews should wait for their state in all of Western Palestine as envisaged by the White Paper issued in 1922.

    1938: A year before the Nazis invade Poland, anti-Semitic riots begin in Warsaw.

    1939: In Palestine, Sir Harold MacMichael, British High Commissioner hosted a garden party in honor of the King’s birthday.  All Jewish leaders had declined the invitations as a way of expressing their displeasure with the recent White Paper that, if enforced, will put an end to Jewish immigration an the hope of a Jewish home in Palestine.

    1939: In response to an order by Chief Rabbi Herzog, all synagogues pronounced the usual prayers for the King and his family in honor of the monarch’s birthday.

    1941: During World War II, "mixed squads, some made up of Palestinian Jews and Australians, others entirely Jewish" went into operation for the first time in Lebanon and Syria which were controlled by Vichy Government.  It was during this combat that Moshe Dyan lost his eye and began wearing his famous eye-patch.

    1942: In Poland, at the urging of the Jewish Council of Pilca, hundreds of Jews flee for the forests.

    1943(5th of Sivan, 5703): Erev Shavuot, The Jewish community at Zbaraz, Ukraine, is destroyed.

    1943: Dr. Albert Menasche arrived at Auschwitz from Greece. He "joined" the camp orchestra. The orchestra would play as the new arrivals entered the camp.  The orchestra came to public notice after the war in the film, "Playing For Time.:  Dr. Menasche was the only one of a family of more than thirty to survive.

    1943:A transport arrived in Auschwitz today and after a selection 220 men and 88 women are admitted into the camp. The other 572 deportees are murdered in the gas chambers.

    1943: What may have been the last transport of Jews sent from Salonica left for Bergen-Belsen today.  Included in the transport was the Chief Rabbia of Salonica, Rabbi Zvi Koretz and his family. A list of all of the Jews of Salonica with their addresses and ages was given to a Jew named Vital Hasson by the chief rabbi. Hasson was said to have escaped to Albania.

    1944: “President Franklin Roosevelt signed a memorandum directing the establishment of an Emergency Refugee Shelter at Fort Ontario, Oswego, NY.”

    1944: "The Greek tanker Tanias, commandeered by the Germans was torpedoed by the British submarine HMS Vivid 53 kilometers west of Heraklion, capital of the Greek island of Crete.  On board were all of the 265 Jews of Crete including many children, all of whom perished.

    1947:The Oujda and Jerada pogrom came to an leaving 42 Jews dead and approximately 150 injured.  The excuse for this pogrom in northeastern Morocco was the local Muslim reaction to fighting in Palestine.

    1948(1st of Sivan, 5708): Rosh Chodesh Sivan

    1948: "The Milton Berle Show" premiered on NBC TV. This aging Jewish vaudevillian would come to "own" Tuesday night. He was the first national star of the infant medium.

    1948:  During The War of Independence, David Ben-Gurion orders his military leaders to attack the fortress at Latrun for a third time. This is one time that Ben-Gurion will not be able to bully the opposition into doing things his way.  Ben-Gurion is desperate to break the Arab stranglehold on the road to Jerusalem and to ensure that the “City of David” is part of the new Jewish state.  Yigal Allon, the chief of staff and his brigade commanders oppose the attack.  Allon’s position gains additional credibility when Mickey Marcus adds his voice to the opposition.  Marcus is a West Point graduate who reached the rank of Colonel in the American Army during World War II.  No longer on active duty, Marcus is serving as “military advisor” to Ben-Gurion.  In fact, under the name Stone, Marcus has been given the responsibility of opening the road to Jerusalem.  The military leaders all oppose the attack for the same reason it will fail just as the first two attacks have with great loss of life.  Besides which, they do not see the capture of Latrun as being the key to opening the road to Jerusalem.  Two Israeli soldiers have discovered an alternative route to Jerusalem.  It is a donkey trail that goes beyond Latrun.  If the Israelis are lucky, the can widen the path, turn it into a passable road and break the siege.  The Jews must work on the project at night and quietly enough that they will not attract attention from the Arab army.  If their presence is discovered, they will be sitting ducks, the road will not be completed and Jerusalem will not be united with the Tel Aviv before the impending cease-fire.

    1949: Numerous celebrities including Helen Keller, Dorothy Parker, Danny Kaye, Frederic March, John Garfield and Edward G. Robinson were named in an FBI report as members of the Communist Party.  The disproportionate number of Jews named in what later was proven to be a bogus report, set the stage for claims that the Jews were responsible for the Communist menace.

    1949:  Birthdate of Ukrainian born American pianist Emanuel Ax. He first captured public attention in 1974 when, aged 25, he won the first Arthur Rubinstein International Piano Competition in Tel Aviv.

    1950: According to reports published in the New York Times, the government of Israel, in response to a request from Secretary State Dean Acheson, is investigating charges of the mistreatment of Arab infiltrators who have crossed into the Jewish state from Jordan. Acheson’s request was triggered by complaints from Arab states, who, it should be noted, still consider themselves to be officially at war with the state of Israel.

    1951: Oswald Pohl, chief of the economic office of the SS, Otto Ohlendorf, responsible for the murder of 90,000 Ukrainian Jews, and Colonel Paul Blobel, organizer of the massacre of the Jews of Kiev, were hanged.
    1952: Movie producer Sidney Luft, the son of Jewish immigrants, married film star Judy Garland. His marriage to her is his only real claim to fame.

    1953: Alexander Korda married Alexandra Boycun.

    1954(7th of Sivan, 5714): Second Day of Shavuot

    1954: Society for the Protection of Nature in Israel Founded

    1962(6th of Sivan, 5722): Shavuot

    1966: Birthdate of American actress Julianna Margulies.

    1967:  In the one sour note of the Six Day War, Israeli planes accidentally attack the American Naval ship, U.S.S. Liberty.  Despite numerous investigations that proved otherwise, there are anti-Semites, those who are anti-Israel and assorted conspiracy buffs who claim that the attack was deliberate.  American ships had been ordered out of the area. Apparently word did not reach the Liberty.  We know from the episode of the U.S.S. Pueblo the following year, that the American government did have some problems in dealing with electronic listening or spy ships.  Some of the killed and wounded among the Liberty's crew were Jewish.  They were on the vessel because of the knowledge of Hebrew.  Attached please find the most recent article on this event based on the most recently released transcripts of the communication between the pilots and their controllers.

    1967: President Nasser of Egypt accepted the cease-fire ordered by the Security Council. This came too late to save the Egyptian military.  In a change of plan, Dyan had already given orders for the Israeli forces to push on to the Suez Canal. The Egyptians continued to fight and in the end would leave 15,000 dead in the Sinai.  There was still no agreement among the Israelis as to how to deal with Syria, whose provocative, bellicose behavior had helped to feed the flames of war.  The settlers living under the guns of the Golan Heights and the general in commanded of the Northern Frontier pressured Prime Minister Eshkol to take action and end the Syrian menace to the Galilee.  Moshe Dyan showed the same reluctance he had when it came to taking Jerusalem and opposed action against the Syrians.  At the end of the meeting, the settlers and the generals drove North, thinking that they had lost and Syria would continue to menace them after the fighting stopped. 
    1970(4th of Sivan, 5730): American psychologist Abraham Maslow, famous for his Hierarchy of Needs, passed away.

    1981(6th of Sivan, 5741): Jews observe Shavuot for the first time during the Presidency of Ronald Reagan.

    1986: Former United Nations Secretary-General and veteran of Hitler’s Army, Kurt Waldheim, is elected president of Austria. Before the presidential elections, the Austrian weekly newsmagazine Profil revealed that there had been several omissions about Waldheim's life between 1938 and 1945 in his recently-published autobiography. A short time later, it was revealed that Waldheim had lied about his service as an officer in the SA-Reitercorps (stormtroopers), a paramilitary unit of the NSDAP (Nazi Party) before the war, and his time as an ordinance officer in Saloniki, Greece from 1942 to 1943. It is known and documented that many crimes against civilians were committed during the military occupation of Greece. Instead, Waldheim had incorrectly stated that he was wounded and had spent the last years of the war in Austria. Speculation grew, and Waldheim was accused of being either involved, or complicit, in "war crimes".  During his Presidency Waldheim was not welcome in most capitals of the world.  One of the few exceptions to this treatment was the Vatican which he visited twice during his Presidency.

    1987: Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir and Foreign Minister Shimon Peres agreed today to appoint a career diplomat, Moshe Arad, as Israel's next ambassador to Washington.

    1991: Outfielder Ruben Amaro, Jr. who has a Jewish mother made his major league debut with the California Angels.

    1997: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Promiscuities: The Secret Struggle for Womanhood  by Naomi Wolfe, Ovitz:The Inside Story of Hollywood's Most Controversial Power Broker by Robert Slaterand the recently released paperback edition of The Temple Bombing by Melissa Fay Greene in which“the author shows the intertwining of racism and anti-Semitism in the South in the 1950's, when Rabbi Jacob Rothschild, a Northerner, came to Atlanta to lead its oldest synagogue. Enraged by Rothschild's support of black civil rights, white supremacists bombed the temple in 1958.”

    2000(5th of Sivan, 5760):Joshua Myron, one of the last of the camel-mounted Zionist brigade that fought with Vladimir Jabotinsky against Turkey in Palestine during World War I, passed away today  in Manhattan at the age of 102. With the outbreak of World War I, Mr. Jabotinsky, then a Russian journalist, realized that the Ottoman Empire was likely to lose to the British and that it would pay for the Zionist settlers in Israel to back the winning side. He spread the idea of forming a Jewish Brigade, sometimes called the Jewish Legion, to fight beside the British. The British Army unit, which recruited Jews from both the Middle East and Europe, used camels to move from front to front, and Mr. Myron rose to become company sergeant in charge of transport. The brigade is believed to have contributed significantly to the British war effort, and Mr. Jabotinsky believed its aid was a major factor in winning the Balfour Declaration of 1917, in which Britain announced support for a Jewish national home in Palestine. ''Half the Balfour Declaration belongs to the Legion,'' Mr. Jabotinsky wrote. Among the other members of the brigade was David Ben-Gurion, later the first prime minister of Israel. Mr. Myron was born at Rishon Lezion, the first officially Zionist settlement in Palestine, and devoted his life first to battling for a Jewish homeland, then to supporting Israel after its establishment in 1948. After emigrating to New York and becoming a pharmacist, he remained active in raising arms and money for Israel. Mr. Myron's father, Feivel Miransky, left Russia with a group of pioneers called the Biluim to go to Palestine as one of the founders of Rishon Lezion. Jews already lived in Palestine, but had not banded together in settlements in support of the Zionist ideal. The settlement of Rishon and other Zionist towns was financed by Baron Edmond de Rothschild, who established a large vineyard there. Mr. Miransky set up a carriage service to link Rishon with Jaffa, which became Tel Aviv. At the time, the trip took more than two hours on a sandy, muddy road. Mr. Myron was born on Aug. 17, 1897, into a frontier existence. His grandson Marc Lubin told of the time some of Mr. Myron's father's horses were stolen when he was 16. He reported the theft to the police and was told he was on his own. He ended up crossing the Jordan River and taking his horses back. After the war, Mr. Myron decided to move to the United States. He immediately experienced what he regarded as a stinging insult and a great inconvenience when the British refused to grant him traveling papers, saying he was officially a Turkish subject. So, officially at least, he arrived in America as a Turk. He had intended to study veterinary medicine at Columbia University but the school was not accepting new students at that time. He studied pharmacy at Albany College of Pharmacy. While there, he married Sybil Berkowitz, who died in 1973. In the early 1930's, they returned to Palestine, where their daughter, Naomi Scheurer, was born. She now lives in Manhattan; Mr. Myron is also survived by three grandchildren. Eventually, the Myrons moved to Suffern, N.Y. Mr. Myron commuted to Manhattan, where he owned two Midtown pharmacies. Before the modern state of Israel was created, he sent money and arms to those fighting to create it, his grandson said, and he never lost his pugnacious streak. At his funeral, the rabbi remembered his response to a move in his synagogue, the Congregation of the Sons of Israel, to share more equally the honor of reciting prayers during holy days. It was decided that each member would be limited to just one reading. Mr. Myron said that sounded good. Then he asked, ''Which two things am I doing?''

    2001: “Arafat’s Failed Utopia,” Amos Perlmutter’s last column appeared in the Jerusalem Post

    2006: Nobel Prize-winning author Elie Wiesel has called on Israel to take in refugees from Darfur. Wiesel, a Holocaust survivor, says, "We as Jews are obliged to help not only Jews. I was a refugee and therefore I am in favor of admitting refugees. I thought it was very laudable when Israel became the first country to admit the Vietnamese boat people. History constantly chooses a capital of human suffering, and Darfur is today the capital of human suffering. Israel should absorb refugees from Darfur, even a symbolic number."

    2007: Haaretz reported that “despite the increasing tensions with Syria, Israel will not ask to widen the mandate of the United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF) on the Golan, which is due to be extended at the end of the month, government sources in Jerusalem said.”

    2008:In San Francisco the Contemporary Jewish Museumofficially opened the doors to its new building today with a community-wide celebration.

    2008: Erev Shavuot 5768

    2008: At Temple Judah, in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, Erev Shavuot Confirmation Service for  Gabriel Kringlen and Jacob Muesham.

    2008: The Sunday New York Times book section features a review of The German Bride, a novel set among the German-born merchants and traders who in the middle of the 19th century left Europe for the raw possibilities of the American West written by Joanna Hershon

    2008: Thomas Friedman described the future of Israel. “From outside, Israel looks as if it’s in turmoil, largely because the entire political leadership seems to be under investigation. But Israel is a weak state with a strong civil society. The economy is exploding from the bottom up. Israel’s currency, the shekel, has appreciated nearly 30 percent against the dollar since the start of 2007. The reason? Israel is a country that is hard-wired to compete in a flat world. It has a population drawn from 100 different countries, speaking 100 different languages, with a business culture that strongly encourages individual imagination and adaptation and where being a nonconformist is the norm. While you were sleeping, Israel has gone from oranges to software, or as they say around here, from Jaffa to Java.” For the entire article go to;

    2008:An 18-year-old Palestinian was arrested at the Hawara checkpoint near Nablus after military police on duty discovered he was carrying six pipe bombs, an ammunition cartridge and bullets, and a bag of what appeared to be gunpowder. Three weeks ago, another Palestinian carrying five pipe bombs, which he had attached and strapped to his chest in the manner of an explosives belt, was stopped at Hawara. Earlier in the day, the IDF announced that Israel had removed 10 roadblocks in southern Hebron. The IDF said that the removal was part of a series of relief measures that the army and Civil Administration were implementing for West Bank Palestinians.

    2009:Center for Jewish History and United States Holocaust Memorial Museum present a program entitled  “A Discussion of Refugees and Rescue: American Diplomat James G. McDonald and the Jewish Refugee Crisis, 1935-1945”The remarkable efforts of James Grover McDonald to call attention to the threat faced by European Jewry and his tireless attempts to relay these concerns to the highest levels of government are explored in the acclaimed new volume Refugees and Rescue: The Diaries and Papers of James G. McDonald, 1935-1945, edited by Richard Breitman, Barbara McDonald Stewart, and Severin Hochberg.

    2009:David W. Jourdan, a former submariner in the U.S. Navy and the founder/president of Nauticos, an ocean exploration company, discusses and signs his new book, Never Forgotten: The Search for Israel's Lost Submarine Dakar at the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C.

    2009:Israel Defense Forces soldiers early today killed at least four Palestinian militants who were trying to cross into Israel from the Gaza Strip. An IDF source said that the group was planning to launch an attack on an Israeli community bordering the Strip. The defense establishment said later that the militants also planned to abduct IDF soldiers once inside Israel.At least ten militants - some on horseback - opened fire on an IDF patrol on the Israeli side of the fence, which returned fire. There were no injuries reported among the IDF troops. Residents said the Palestinian militants fired anti-tank weapons and set off explosives against the patrol.

    2009(16th of Sivan, 5769):Sheila Finestone, who had had a distinguished career as a Canadian Member of Parliament and Senator passed away at the age of 82.

    2010:The Naming,” the new multi-disciplinary work by Persian Jewish innovator Galeet Dardashti, the driving force behind the popular band Divahn  is scheduled to be peformed at the Washington Jewish Music Festiv

    2010:President Shimon Peres, in South Korea to boost economic ties today, also did his part for Israel's aliyah (immigration of Jews to Israel) effort, encouraging a special robot to get "upgraded" in Israel. President Peres' visit aims to boost economic ties between Seoul and Jerusalem and will address the issue of sanctions against Iran.
    2011: Canadian television journalist Joe Schlesinger received an Honorary Doctorate of Letters from the University of Alberta in Edmonton[ for his long and distinguished career. He also delivered a speech to the 2011 graduating class of the Faculty of Arts, impressing on the new alumni that learning is a life-long endeavor, and that one should not be complacent and allow their minds to stagnate. His speech received a standing ovation

    2011(6th of Sivan, 5711): First Day of Shavuot

    2011: Contemporary Israeli Dance Week is scheduled to begin this evening at La MaMa in New York City.

    2012: The Gallim Dance Company, which takes its name from the Hebrew word for waves, is scheduled to have its opening night performance at The Joyce in NYC.

    2012: Planet Brass is scheduled to perform an evening of music created by Israeli Rafi Malkiel at the David Greer Recital Hall.

    2012: In Iowa City, at Agudas Achim, Professor Robert Cargill is scheduled to facilitate  a digital media presentation on "The Coronation of the King: The Importance of the Gihon Spring and the Kidron Valley to the Early Jewish Monarchy and to Later Prophets and Christian Interpretive Traditions."

    2012:Thousands of people participated in Tel Aviv's 14th Gay Pride Parade today, including many tourists arrived in Israel to attend the annual gay pride week-long events.

    2012(18th of Sivan, 5772):  In a tragic reminder of the high pirce that Israel continues to apy for its vary survival Corporal Dor Gan died tragically today in roll-over accident while patrolling on the Goland Heights.


    2013: The Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington is scheduled to celebrate the 100th birthday of Henry Brylawski.

    2013: At Adas Israel in Washington, DC, Judith Hauptman, Professor of Talmud and Rabbinic Culture at The Jewish Theological Seminary, is scheduled to deliver the d’var Torah at the service honoring Rabbi Charles Feinberg’s 40th anniversary in the Rabbinate.

    2013(30th of Sivan, 5773): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

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    JUNE 9 In History

    68: The Emperor Nero died in Rome. Nero had appointed four governors of Judea each of whom was crueler and greedier than his predecessor. The Jewish Revolt in 66 was caused, in part, by this succession of disastrous appointments by Nero. Nero had ordered Vespasian to invade the Galilee and suppress the revolt of the Jews. The political unrest that followed Nero's death as various parties vied for the throne slowed down the final defeat of the Jews. In the end, Vespasian was made Emperor thanks to the support of his legions and he sent his son Titus to conquer Jerusalem.

    423:Emperors Honorius and Theodosius II forbid Jews from building any new synagogues

    721: At the Battle of Toulouse, Odo of Aquitaine defeated the Moors led by Al-Samh ibn Malik al-Khawlani, the governor of Al-Andalus. Al-Andalus refers to that part of the Iberian Peninsula which was under the control of the Moslems. While the defeat at Toulouse (in modern day France) helped to confine the forces of Islam to territory south of the Pyrenees mountains, it served to reinforce the fact that Spain would not be ruled by Christians. For a limited period of time, this created what some called a Golden Age for the Jews of Spain. The reality is a little more complicated. It would more than seven centuries for the Christians to dislodge the Moslems from the Iberian Peninsula. Depending on the whims and needs of various rulers (both Christian and Moslem), Jewish fortunes waxed and waned. It would all end with the expulsion of 1492.

    1171(4th of Tammuz):  A few days after decreeing that the 20th of Sivan should henceforth be a day of fasting and mourning in honor of the 51 Jews burned at the stake Blois, Rabbi Jacob Ben MeirTam, the grandson of Rashi passed away
    1595: Birthdate of King Wladislaus IV who was King of Poland at the outbreak of The Khmelnitsky Uprising and failed to check it at its inception. This failure contributed to the worst massacre of Jews until the 20th century and the Holocaust.

    1672: Birthdate Tsar Peter I of Russia, known as Peter the Great. He may have been “great” to the worst of the world but not so great as far as the Jews were concerned since he banned Jews from his domain even as he sought to modernize it.

    1693(5th of Sivan): Rabbi Gershom Ashkenazi author of Avodat ha-Gershuni passed away.


    1732: James Oglethorpe was granted a charter to establish the colony of Georgia. The colony was settled in June of 1733. In July of 1733, “forty Sephardic Jews arrived in Savannah” marking the beginning of the Jewish community in Georgia.

    1753(7th of Sivan, 5513): Just a month (July 7)  before royal assent is given to the Jewish Naturalization Act in Great Britain, the  Second Day of Shavuot is observed

    1787: Birthdate of Sarah (nee Dias Fernandes) Aguilar the wife of Emanuel Aguilar and the mother of author Grace Aguilar.

    1790(27th of Sivan, 5550): Purim of Florence is celebrated by Florentine Jews because on the 27th of Sivan, 1790 they were saved from a mob by the efforts of the bishop. The festival is preceded by a fast on the 26th of Sivan. The details of the occurrence are related in full by Daniel Terni in a Hebrew pamphlet entitled "Ketab ha-DaṬ," published in Florence in 1791.

    1799(6th of Sivan, 5559): Shavuot

    1810(7th of Sivan, 5570): Jews observe the Second Day of Shavuot on the birthdate of Otto Nicolai the German born musician who succeeded Felix Mendelssohn (the grandson of Moses Mendelssohn) as Kapellmeister at the Berlin Cathedral

    1815: The Congress of Vienna came to an end. Europe enters into a period of political reaction following the defeat of Napoleon. “After Napoleon's defeat and the Congress of Vienna, the Germans took their revenge on the French and the Jews. The Congress of Vienna had provided for full civil and political rights "to differing parties of the Christian religion," but the "civil betterment" of the Jews was put off for further study. The Congress stated that Jews could retain such rights as they already had, but nearly everywhere in Germany the rights that the Jews had won were disavowed and rescinded. (Prussia was an exception: only some Jewish rights were abolished; most were retained.) A period of reaction set in, in which anti-Semitism was a major component.” Surprisingly enough, Prince Metternich, the reactionary Austrian Foreign Minister played a positive role for Jews living in the German cities of Frankfurt, Lubeck and Bremen while the Congress was in session. When the ruling bodies of those cities attempted to take away rights previously granted to the Jewish communities, the Jews appealed to Metternich for help. Metternich interceded on behalf of the Jews because depriving them of their rights would have been a violation of the guarantees made by the Congress of Vienna. Metternich was not a philo-Semite. Rather he was aware of the economic power of these Jewish leaders and he knew that they would be a force for stability. Also, Metternich based Austria’s foreign policy on the decisions of the Congress and he was opposed to anything that would undermine the agreements reached there. 1843: The Voice of Jacob reported that Mr. Woolfson and Mr. Marks laid the foundation for the new synagogue on St. Helier, Jersey, Channel Islands

    1837(6th of Sivan, 5597) Shavuot

    1838(16th of Sivan, 5598): Thirty-eight year old Amalie Friedlander (nee Heine) a cousin of the famous

    poet Heinrich Heine passed away today in Berlin.  Heine fell in love with his cousin but she did not return his affection which he found frustrating. 

    1854: The New York Times reports that “It is said that there is not a single Jew in the United States engaged in agriculture.”

    1856: Birthdate of Aaron David (A.D.) Gordon, the founder of Hapoel Hatzair.

    1859(7th of Sivan, 5619): Second Day of Shavuot

    1863: During the Civil War, Jacob Ezekiel Hyneman, a native of Richmond, VA serving with the Union Army was wounded at the Battle of Brandy Station, the most important clash of cavalry in the east which help to set the stage for the Battle of Gettysburg.

    1867(6th of Sivan, 5627): Shavuot

    1869(28th of Iyar, 5629): Solomon ben Judah Aaron Kluger, Polish born rabbi and chief dayyan passed away today at Brody, Galicia

    1870: Author Charles Dickens passed away. Dickens was considered an anti-Semite by some because of his character Fagin in Oliver Twist. Dickens defended himself against what he considered a false claim. In a later work, Our Mutual Friend, Dickens created the sympathetic Jewish character Mr. Riah who is the victim of a Christian moneylender. "The Jewish people are a people for whom I have a real regard and to whom I would not willingly have given an offense...for any worldly consideration."

    1871: It was reported today that French Banker Jules Mires has passed away.

    1871: The three-day long Rabbinical Conference, a meeting of leaders of the Reform Movement, came to an end in Cincinnati, Ohio.  Twenty-three congregations were represented at the meeting.  The Conference agreed to provide “a modern prayer book” which would not contain any references to a return of the Jews to Jerusalem, the offering of sacrifices or a personal messiah. It was also agreed that services would be conducted primarily in English instead of Hebrew. In the field of education, the Conference approved the establishment of seminary to train rabbis and the development of a uniform course of study for congregational Sabbath Schools. 

    1875(6th of Sivan, 5635): Shavuot

    1875: In New York, a large number of Jews met at Adath Israel to memorialize the passing of the James Gordon Bennett., the founder editor and publisher of the New York Herald.  Those in attendance adopted a series of memorial resolutions that were to be sent to his widow and son which described Bennett as  “an honest supporter and true friend” of the Jewish people who “always gave firm and true support to our creed.”

    1876: President U.S. Grant and Thomas Ferry, the President Pro Tempore of the United State attended the consecration services of Adas Israel, the new orthodox synagogue in Washington, DC. The service was bilingual with prayers in Hebrew and an address by Rabbi George Jacobs of Philadelphia in English. Adas Israel has moved twice since this event but still remains located in the District of Columbia.  It is one of the leading Conservative Congregations in the United States.

    1880:  In New York City, the Young Men’s Hebrew Association is scheduled to host a strawberry festival and concert at Lyric Hall tonight to raise funds for its library.

    1880(30thof Sivan, 5640): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1881: It was reported today that the government is conducting a census among the Jews living in Kiev with the goal of expelling those from the city who do not have a right to live their under the restrictive residency laws applied to them.

    1882: “Death After Fasting Seven Month” published today described the death of a Polish Jew named Adolph Schomger who stopped eating after having been sentenced to the penitentiary in Nebraska after having been convicted of stealing.  Schmoger was transferred to “an insane asylum” but his starvation tactics continued causing his weight to fall from 150 to 80 pounds to his death.
    1886(6th of Sivan, 5646): Shavuot

    1886: Final exams are scheduled to be given at Central High School in Philadelphia, PA despite the face that it is Shavuot.  The principal has refused to make any accommodation for the Jewish students despite pleas from the city’s Rabbis.

    1887: Dr. Sabato Morais, the rabbi at Mikveh Israel in Philadelphia, became the first Jew recognized by the University of Pennsylvania with an honorary degree of Doctor of Laws.

    1887: In New York, Adolph Reich was convicted of murdering his wife and sentenced to death.  Court officials said that it was rare for Jews to be charged with murder since they were “as a rule orderly, law-abiding citizen” and they could not remember one ever being executed.

    1891: I.S. Isaacs of the United Hebrew Charities was among those who will be attending a special meeting of the Board of Estimate and Apportionment where the United Charities Association will present a proposal to establish a “free lodging house” in New York.

    1891(3rd of Sivan, 5651): Eighty-one year oldSamuel Adler “a leading German-American Reform rabbi, Talmudist, and author” passed away. He was also the father of Felix Adler, the well-known founder of the Society for Ethical Culture.” Born at Worms in 1809, he came to the United States to serve as Rabbi at Temple Emanu-El in New York; a position he held for seventeen years before accepting the position as Rabbi Emeritus. He was an outspoken opponent of slavery and a staunch supporter of Abraham Lincoln.  One of the happiest moments of his life came when saw Major Anderson, the Union officer who had defended Fort Sumter, in his congregation.  After service “he laid his hands on the soldier’s head and pronounced…the anciently priestly blessing…”

    1892: “Emin’s Death Confirmed published today described the demise of Emin Pasha, who had been born Isaak Eduard Schnitzer to a Jewish family in Silesia.  (The only problem is that Emin Pasha did not die until October of 1892)

    1893: Birthdate of Samuel Nathaniel Behrman, the Worcester, Massachusetts native, who gained success writing scripts of stage and screen as well as doing profiles for the New Yorker. Among his subjects were Chaim Weizman, George Gershwin, Max Beernbohm, Joseph Duveen and Eddie Cantor.The Worcester Account is an account of his childhood from 1893 to shortly after he moved to New York City in 1917.

    1895: The closing exercises of the Louis Downtown Sabbath and Daily Technical Schools took place this afternoon at Temple Emanu-El.

    1895: It was reported today that the “anti-Semitic craze” that “has been making such wild headway lately in Vienna” and the rest of Austria is not only not losing strength “in several other great Continental states” but is growing in Germany.  A congress of a newly formed anti-Semitic party that just me in Berlin has adopted a program which regards any family that has one Jewish member during the last three generations is Jewish. Furthermore, all such “Jewish families” must be “excluded from the army, journalism, the legal, medical and educational professons and prohibited from owning land or taking public contracts (Shades of the Nazis)

    1895: The Sunday Closing laws were strictly enforced today in New York City as police arrested any Jews or gentiles found in violation of the strictures which included closing all stores by ten in the morning and all barber shops at one in the afternoon.

    1895: “Napoleon’s Times Pictured” provided a review George Duval’s The Romance of the Sword a novel whose plot revolves around a mythic blade that the Count d’Artois sold to Samuel the Jew

    1896: Birthdate of Nathaniel Lawrence Goldstein whose service as New York State Attorney General paralleled the gubernatorial of Thomas E. Dewey

    1896: Just days before his 38thbirthday the Marquis de Morès, a French anti-Semitic politician, was killed as he journeyed to meet the Mahdi, the Muslim leader responsible for the death of General Charles “Chinese” Gordon.  De Morès was a member of The Antisemitic League of France who challenged Ferdinand-Camille Dreyfus, a Jewish member of the Chamber of Deputies, to a duel after Dreyfus wrote an article about him with which he disagreed.

    1898: A conference of Jews from the United States and Canada meeting at the Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue adopted a constitution which “provided that the name” of the new organization “should be the Orthodox Jewish Congregational Union of America.

    1898: Mr. and Mrs. I. Bierman hosted a garden party for the residence of the Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews.

    1899(1st of Tammuz, 5659): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1899: Prompt action today avoided a clash between those acting on behalf of Congregation Sheavith Israel of New York and Jews living in Newport each of whom are trying to assert control over the famous Rhode Island synagogue.

    1899: “Garden Party for Aged Hebrews” published today described the annual social event held at the Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews which was attended by 230 residents who ranged in age from 60 to 90.  In addition to enjoying refreshment attendees enjoyed the music of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum Band.

    1899: In Albany, NY, a certificate of consolidation was filed with the Secretary of State which join the Educational Alliance and the Hebrew Free School Association under the name of The Educational Alliance.

    1899: The French cruiser Sfax arrived at Devil’s Island. The ship’s mission was to bring Dreyfus home after four years and three months of being imprisoned for a crime he did not commit.

    1902(4th of Sivan. 5662): Sixty-seven year old Jacob Herzl, Theodore Herzl's father dies in Vienna. Herzl goes back to Vienna for the funeral.

    1903: In New York, Bernard Glick and opera singer gave birth to Marcia Glick who gained fame as author and critic Marcia Davenport.

    1905(6th of Sivan, 5665): Shavuot

    1905: Pogrom began in Lodz, Poland

    1911: The Jewish community of St. Thomas, Danish West Indies, publishes a protest against the appeal of the Anglican Church to raise funds designed to “gather Jews into the fold” i.e. create proselytes

    1916: Birthdate of Louis Werfel who gained fame as “The Flying Rabbi” when he served as a chaplain during World War II. Werfel was one of only six Jewish chaplains who died during WW II.  He died while returning from conducting Chanukah services at Casablanca in 1943.

    1917: In Alexandria, Egypt,Leopold Percy Hobsbaum and Nelly Hobsbaum (née Grün) gave birth to British Marxist historian Eric John Ernest Hobsbaume.

    1921: Birthdate of Rabbi Arthur Hertzberg, leading Jewish author, philosopher and fighter for civil rights of all. He passed away in 2006.

    1922: Silent film star Beatrice Carpenter and Herman Axelrod gave birth to George Axelrod. Axelrod’s father was a Russian Jew while his mother was not Jewish. His breakout work was “The Seven Year Itch” which was a successful play and film.

    1924(7th of Sivan, 5684): On the same day that Mallory and Irvine reportedly died in their quest to reach the top of Mt. Everest, Jews observe the Second Day of Shavuot

    1926: Congressman Meyer London’s funeral was held in New York City with tens of thousands filling the streets in his honor.

    1928: Delegates representing 400 organizations are expected to attend today’s’ convention The Hebrew Religious Protective Association at the Broadway Central Hotel

    1930: Birthdate newscaster, author and educator, Marvin Kalb. Kalb first gained fame as a correspondent with CBS Television News. Kalb has an equally famous brother, Bernard, with whom he sometimes shares the lecture circuit much to the delight and enlightenment of the attendees.

    1931: Birthdate of comedian Jackie Mason.

    1935(8th of Sivan): Dr. Shermaryahu Levine passed away

    1935: Anti-Jewish riots occur in Grodno, Poland.

    1936: John F. Kennedy, future President of the United States left Jerusalem for Lebanon and Syria.

    1936: Arabs attempted to attack Kfar Yeheskiel, a Jewish workmen’s settlement in the Jezreel Valley. Jospeh Tavory, a Jewish truck driver was wounded during the unsuccessful attack.

    1937: The Palestine Post reported that according to French press reports the British government was expected to propose, at the June 18 session of the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations in Geneva, the establishment of a Jewish republic and a joint Arab Palestinian-Jordanian state under Emir Abdullah.

    1937: Chaim Weizmann gave an account of his dinner of the previous night where he had dined with Winston Churchill and other Zionist supporters in Parliament to a number of leading Zionists then visiting London including David Ben-Gurion

    1938: The Main Synagogue in Munich was burned down. Two thousand Jews throughout Germany were arrested and were sent to concentration camps to do hard labor.

    1939: Birthdate of Letty Cottin Pogrebin, who has become one of the most well-known figures in both the Jewish and secular feminist movements.

    1941: Abraham Pais obtained his doctoral degree in theoretical physics today, just five days before the deadline. His was the last Ph.D. issued to a Dutch Jew until after the war. Abraham Pais

    1942: Lord Wedgwood opened the debate in the British House of Lords by urging that the mandate over Palestine be transferred to the United States, since Britain had reneged on its commitments. He stated with bitterness: "I hope yet to live to see those who sent the Struma cargo back to the Nazis hung as high as Haman cheek by jowl with their prototype and Führer, Adolf Hitler

    1942(23rd of Sivan, 5702): When a Jewish mother at Pabianice, Poland, fights fiercely for her baby during a deportation, the baby is taken from her and thrown out a window.

    1942: A gassing van is sent to Riga, Latvia, for the execution of Jews.

    1942: German criminal police in the Lodz Ghetto reported that 95 Jews ‘have been hung publicly here.

    1943(6th of Sivan, 5703): First Day of Shavuot

    1944: Jewish-Hungarian poet and Jewish-Palestinian paratrooper Hannah Szenes is arrested in Hungary after completing her mission for the British in Yugoslavia. She was attempting to help the Hungarian Jews who were being transported to Auschwitz. Born in Hungary in 1921, Szenes witnessed the rise of anti-Semitism in pre-World War II Hungary. She became a Zionist and moved to Palestine in 1938. By 1941 she had joined a kibbutz and the Haganah. She was one of many European born Jews living in Palestine who joined the British Army and agreed to be dropped behind enemy lines. There purpose was two-fold - to add anti-Nazi partisan forces and to help the Jews facing extermination. Just before her death at the hands of her Hungarian captors Szenes wrote the following poem: “One-two-three... eight feet long, Two strides across, the rest is dark... Life hangs over me like a question mark. One-two-three... maybe another week, Or next month may still find me here, But death, I feel, is very near. I could have been twenty-three next July; I gambled on what mattered most; The dice were cast. I lost." Most Israelis can recite the following lines, "Blessed is the match consumed in kindling flame. Blessed is the flame that burns in the secret fastness of the heart." Her most famous work is one that is often sung in Hebrew and English.

    "Lord, my God,

    I pray that these things never end:

    The sand and the sea,

    The rush of the waters,

    The crash of the heavens,

    The human prayer

    1944: During the trucks for Jews negotiations, Adolf Eichmann (who probably was never serious about saving the Hungarians) said: “If I do not receive a positive reply within three days, I shall operate the mill at Auschwitz.”

    1945: Prime Minister Winston Churchill rejects a written request by Chaim Weizmann for an end to all restrictions on Jewish entry into Palestine now that the war with Germany is over saying “”There can I fear be no possibility of the question being effectively considered until the victorious Allies are definitely seated at the Peace table.” This statement effectively ended Weizmann’s leadership role. Many Zionists viewed this as a betrayal by the British in general and by the supposedly pro-Zionist Churchill in particular.

    1946: In “Wholesale Rescue” published today Julian Meltzer described how “nearly twenty thousand children were spirited away from Hitler’s Europe.”

    1947(21st of Sivan, 5707): Jacob Shapiro, one of the organizers of Murder, Inc. died of a heart attack at Sing Sing.

    1948: The INS Wedgewood was commissioned today.  A Flower class corvette, it was named after Josiah Wedgewood.

    1948:INS HaTikvah (K-22) was commissioned today.

    1949(12th of Sivan, 5709): Eighty-six year old Dr. Moses Hyamon, the native of Russia and distinguished scholar who served as Chief Rabbi of the British Empire before World War I and who had been Rabbi of New York’s Orach Chaim passed away

    1949: Mira (Miriam) Shefer left Cyprus on the SS Sha’ar Yishuv.  After having survived the Holocaust, she traveled from Poalnd, crossed the Alps into Austria before arriving in Italy where she boarded the SS Kadima.  Although the ship was equipped for 400 passengers, this desperate voyage took 800 Jews through the British blockade to Haifa.  Unfortunately for Mira and the rest of the passengers, the British sent them all to Cyprus where she endured life in an internment camp until the creation of the Jewish state.

    1950: Jefferson Caffery, the United States Ambassador to Egypt, said that “last month’s declaration by the United States, Britain and France on the Middle East was not intended to picture the present frontiers between Israel and her Arab neighbors as permanent borders.”

    1950: Israel responded to charges of mistreatment of infiltrators from Jordan by telling the Arabs to “keep on your own side of the border.” The Israelis claim that there only responsibility is to “escort the infiltrators to a point near the border and send them on their way.” According to the agreement signed at Rhodes in 1949 that ended hostilities between Israel and Jordan, “neither troops nor civilians could pass into each other’s territory.”

    1951: The last group of Nazis convicted of war crimes during World War II is hanged in Nuremberg.

    1952: The Jerusalem Post reported that banknotes issued in 1948 by the Anglo-Palestine bank as Israel’s legal tender had to be exchanged for new notes, in different colors, issued by Bank Leumi L’Israel. A 10 percent compulsory deduction for a 15-year loan, at 4%, was to accompany each exchange of the old notes for the new, and a similar deduction was to be carried out automatically on all bank deposits. The loan was expected to bring IL 25 million for the Treasury. Three hundred new immigrants marched in Tel Aviv demanding better housing.

    1952: Birthdate of Uzi Hitman, Israeli singer, songwriter, composer and television personality who died of a heart attack in 2004 at the age of 52

    1961: Birthdate of Aaron Sorkin producer and writer for television hit, “The West Wing

    1962(7th of Sivan, 5722): Second Day of Shavuot

    1962: In Tel Aviv, Yossi and Ilana Banai gave birth to Israel pop rock start Yuval Banay.

    1962(7th of Sivan, 5722): Madame and bordello owner, Polly Adler, passed away.

    1963: Barbra Streisand appeared on "The Ed Sullivan Show."

    1964(29th of Sivan, 5724): Just weeks before his 80th birthday, Russian born American pianist and composer Louis Gruenberg passed away

    1963: Rabbi Stanley Rabinowitz of Adas Israel attended the ground breaking ceremonies for the Abraham S. Kay Spiritual Life Center, the American University in Washington, D.C.,

    1967: In a change of mind and policy, Defense Minister Moshe Dayan told Chief of Staff Yitzchak Rabin that the IDF would take the Golan Heights after all. Rabin began moving forces from the Central Command to the North. The fighting was tough as the IDF advanced against the well-fortified Syrian positions. By nightfall, the IDF seemed to be taking control of the battlefield and there was already talk about advancing on the Syrian capital of Damascus. The Israelis were concerned about the fate of the 15,000 Jews living in Syria. For years the Syrian government had held them under virtual arrest, denying any of them the right to leave the country.

    1968: In an article entitled “This Piece of Earth,” Chaim Potok reviewed “Light on Israel” by Maurice Samuel, “The Road to Jerusalem: The Origins of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1967” by Walter Laqueur, “Under Fire: Israel’s 20 Year Struggle for Survival”, edited by Donald Robinson, “The Resurrection of Israel” by Ann Latour; translated by Maragaret S. Summers and “The Hand of Mordechai” by Margaret Larkin.

    1975: Malcolm Toon is appointed U.S. Ambassador to Israel.

    1977: President Gerald Ford received the first annual Yonatan Netanyahu Memorial Award.

    1977: The Jerusalem Post reported that, according to US Assistant Secretary of State Alfred Atherton, it would be "perfectly reasonable" for Israel to seek compensation from the Arab states for the property left behind by Jewish refugees who came to Israel after 1948. The Prime Minister designate, Menachem Begin, assured the press that his election wouldn't affect Israeli relations with Germany

    1981(7th of Sivan, 5741): Two days after the IAF destroyed the Osirak nuclear reactor Jews celebrate the Second Day of Shavuot

    1981: Birthdate of actress Natalie Portman. Born Natalie Hershberg, in Jerusalem, Portman took her grandmother’s maiden name for her stage name. A 2003 graduate of Harvard she has Queen Amidala in “Star Wars” and appeared in other major productions including “Cold Mountain” and “Garden State.”

    1982: Units of the Golani Brigade and the Barak Armored Brigade began their attack on Doha and Kafr Sil, two villages on the outskirts of Beirut

    1987:The trial of Klaus Barbie took a new turn today as historians, led by the niece of Charles de Gaulle, began testifying over the objections of Mr. Barbie's attorney. Genevieve de Gaulle, 66 years old, a survivor of the Nazi Ravensbruck camp, told how gypsy girls were sterilized by X-ray and Polish girls were mutilated in experiments. A historian, Leon Poliakov, 76, said the killing of Jews, gypsies and mentally ill Germans was the cornerstone of Hitler's drive to conquer the world. Countering claims that SS officers such as Mr. Barbie were unaware of the fate awaiting Jews in the camps, Mr. Poliakov quoted Heinrich Himmler, the SS leader, as telling officers in 1943: ''The Jews will be exterminated. It is clear. It is part of our program.'' (As reported by Reuters)

    1992: On the 25 anniversary of the 1967 Middle East War, an article, entitled “Voices of Israel: To Many, the Fruits of the '67 War Taste Bitter,” The New York Times reported on how some Israelis view the road their country has traveled since that June.

    1993(20th of Sivan, 5753): Seventy-seven year old Anglo-Jewish political scientist Samuel Edward Finer passed away today. (As reported by Dennis Kavanagh

    1994(30th of Sivan, 5754): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1999: Haaretz reported that Israel and the U.S. are both demanding the immediate release of 13 Jews arrested in Iran on charges of espionage, saying the charges are trumped-up and may be motivated by anti-Semitism. The 13 Jews, from Shiran and Isfahan in southern Iran, were arrested on the eve of Passover and accused of spying for the "Zionist regime" and "world arrogance" - references to Israel and the United States respectively. However, the arrests only became public knowledge on Monday. Those arrested include a rabbi, a ritual slaughterer and teachers.

    2000(6th of Sivan, 5760): First Day of Shavuot

    2002: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including “Back Then” by Anne Bernays and Justin Kaplan and “Nuremberg: The Real Trial of the Century” by William F. Buckley Jr.

    2005: Yisrael Meir Lau reinstalled as Chief Rabbi of Tel Aviv

    2007: In Cedar Rapids, Jonathan Chadick becomes a Bar Mitzvah at Temple Judah.

    2007: In an effort to encourage people to get out of their cars and start riding bikes instead, municipal authority packed Tel Aviv's Rabin Square with bicycles for riders who wish to spend part of their day on an urban bicycle trek. A total of 600 street bicycles and 100 bikesfor children above age 6, are offered free of charge to those who want to get to know Tel Aviv on two wheels and use this opportunity to learn about bike-riding as an alternate means of transportation. Dr. Moshe Tiomkin, head of the Tel Aviv Authority for Traffic, Transportation and Parking, explained that the municipality plans to create a web of paths connecting the entire city, so residents may ride bicycles from one point to another, "to work and class, and to run errands on bicycles."

    2007(23rd of Sivan, 5767): Centenarian plus two Rudolf Arnheim, a refugee from Nazi German whose knowledge of psychology, philosophy  and critical skills were the mark of what used to be called an “educated man” and also made him an outstanding professor of the psychology of art at Harvard, passed away today. (As reported by Margalit Fox)
    2008(6th of Sivan, 5768): First Day Shavuot

    2008: U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates nominated General Norton Schwartz a Jewish 35-year-old veteran with a background in Air Force special operations, as the new Air Force chief of staff.  When the Jewish Community Centers Armed Forces and Veteran's Committee presented its Military Leadership Award to Schwartz in 2004, he said he was "Proud to be identified as Jewish as well as an American military leader."

    2009: The Foundation for Jewish Studies Northern Virginia Lunch & Learn presents Paul Forbes, teaching “Traditional Biblical Stories: Fact or Fiction?” (The archeological evidence available about the Garden of Eden, Noah’s Ark and Sodom & Gomorrah) at the Jewish Community Center of Northern Virginia

    2009: U.S. special Mideast envoy George Mitchell assured Israel today that Washington would remain its close ally despite differences over West Bank settlements and peacemaking with the Palestinians.

    2009: Jody Wagner won the Democratic nomination for Lt. Governor in Virginia.

    2010: The Uri Gurvich Quartet is scheduled to perform at the Washington Jewish Music Festival.

    2010: Gilad Hekselman Quartet is scheduled to perform at the Jazz Standard in New York City.

    2011(7th of Sivan, 5771): Second Day of Shavuot

    2011: The Ivri Lider Electronic Trio, featuring Ivri Lider – “one of Israel’s biggest selling artists of all time” – is scheduled to perform at (Le) Poisson Rouge in New York City.

    2011: Carolyn Fine, the valedictorian at a northern California high school is planning to deliver her graduation address via a pre-recorded audio message in order to observe Shavuot.


    2011: Today was the 135th anniversary of the dedication of the oldest synagogue in the national capital city. On June 9, 1876, less than the month before the nation's centennial, Adas Israel Congregation dedicated its first synagogue.  Flowers and "festoons of evergreens" decorated the sanctuary and American flags "drooped gracefully" over the Ark. The room was filled to capacity and several latecomers were turned away. President Ulysses S. Grant, the first U.S. president to attend synagogue services, sat at the front of the sanctuary on a sofa rented especially for the occasion. He donated $10 to the synagogue's building fund, the equivalent of $200 today.Grant's attendance reflects the unique relationship between the Washington, D.C, Jewish community and national leaders. His presence also held special meaning because, as a Union Army general during the Civil War, Grant issued General Orders No. 11, expelling Jews "as a class" from the areas under his command.  Grant dodged charges of anti-Semitism throughout his political career and perhaps attending this dedication was an overture to the Jewish community.The three-hour dedication ceremony was covered in several local and national newspapers, including The National Republican, The Jewish Messenger, and the Washington Chronicle. In fine detail, the articles described the decorations, prayers, and sermon given by visiting Rabbi George Jacobs of Philadephia's Congregation Beth El Emeth. [As reported by The Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington]

    2012: Ufruf of Jacob Kline and Alice Baker is scheduled to take place at Aguas Achim in Iowa City, IA.

    2012: Ambassador Princeton N. Lyman is scheduled to deliver a talk entitled “Sudan Twenty Seven Years after Operation Moses” which will begin with a reminder of the “evacuation of 9,000 Jewish Ethiopian refugees from Sudan in 1984.”

    2012(19th of Sivan, 5772): Eighty-two year old “Israel Shenker, a scholar trapped in a newsman’s body who was known to readers of The New York Times for his vast erudition and sly, subversive wit,” passed away today at Kibbutz Shoval in southern Israel (As reported by Margalit Fox)

    2012: Today, Shabbat, approximately 200 people rode buses commissioned by the Meretz Party as part of a campaign calling for public transportation on the Shabbat.
    2012: Speaking in Tel Aviv, Israeli political leader Shelly Yechimovich called on the international community impose a complete embargo on Assad’s Syria.

    2013: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Slippage by Ben Greenman

    2013: The Jewish Federation of Greater Washington is scheduled to host “Israel@65”

    2013: The Maccabeats are scheduled to perform at Temple Oheb Shalom in Baltimore, MD

    2013: This year’s Dan Prize Awards Ceremony is scheduled to take place at Tel Aviv University. Among the winners is Leon Wieseltier the literary editor of The New Republic who wrote the must readKaddish

    2013: The Hillel Milwaukee is scheduled to receive “a Torah scroll owned by the former Beth El Ner Tamid Synagogue before it combined with Congregation Beth Israel to form Congregation Beth Israel Ner Tamid.

    2013: When Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, holds its congregational meeting this evening, Laurie Silber will complete her tenure as President of the Congregation which will mark the end of an era.  For decades, Laurie has served the Cedar Rapids Jewish community in ways too numerous to count. These include Sunday School Teacher (second and third grade for 26 years), Sisterhood President and two terms as President of the Congregation.  She was the driving force behind several initiatives that enriched the community including the quarterly Musical Shabbats and the Shabbat Alive appearances by Rick Recht. Laurie joins a group of unique Jewish women that includes Jochebed, Tzipporah and the daughters of Zelophehad all of whom were more concerned about getting things done right instead of getting to stand in the limelight.  We will miss her steady hand, her iron-willed determination, her passion for her people and the joy she brought to Judaism.  Others may follow in her footsteps, but none will be able to fill her shoes.

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    July 16 In History

    622: The Prophet Mohammed begins his Hijra from Mecca to Medina. This marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar.  The importance of this to Jewish history should require no explanation.

    1099: As the Crusaders sacked Jerusalem, they burned an untold number of Jewish scrolls and books.  According to Matti Friedman, the Christian soldiers spared the some of the texts with the hope that Jews in other communities would ransom them.  Among these books was the Aleppo Codex. [For more on this topic see The Aleppo Codex by Matti Friedman]

    1212: In Spain, an Almohades Army was defeated by a coalition of Catholic forces at The Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa,. The Almohades were a puritanical Moslem sect that had taken control of the southern portion of the Iberian Peninsulas. As can be seen by their attack on the Jewish community of Castille during which they seized the Codes Hilleli, a 600 year old Biblical manuscript considered to be the oldest Hebrew copy of the Bible in Spain and the decision of the family of Maimonides to leave Spain rather than live under their rule, the Almohades did not practice the policies of religious acceptance attributed to other Islamic sects at this time.  At the time the Christian victory seemed liked a plus for the Jews of Spain.  However, this proved to be illusory since the victory was a major step in The Reconquista – the uniting of Spain under Christian monarchs which would culminate with the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492.

    1216: Pope Innocent III, a prelate who had an inimical effect on the Jewish people died. He presided over the Fourth Lateran Council which among other things which enacted a series of anti-Semitic canons including those that required the Jews to wear a distinctive badge on their clothing and to pay for unfunded Christian tithes. Other banned Jews from holding public office and denied Jews who had converted to Christianity the right to return to the faith of their fathers.  In 1215 the Fourth Lateran Council, called by Pope Innocent III, decreed that, on the basis of Numbers 15:37-41, Jews should wear distinctive dress (a restriction also applied to Saracens and later to heretics, prostitutes and lepers. In addition, a distinctive mark was imposed on their clothing -- centuries before the Nazis' Yellow Star -- the badge of shame, the shape and color of which varied from country to country. The badge of shame made Jews social outcasts, exposing them to both physical and verbal abuse.

    1391: Valencia's King Pedro IV ordered that all Jews who had hidden in Christian houses were to be allowed to return to their homes unmolested. Furthermore he decreed that synagogues were not to be turned into churches. This did not prevent him from personably confiscating all the property of those Jews who had either been murdered or fled.

    1588: Negotiations between the Spanish and the English broke off and the English fleet at Plymouth prepared to do battle against the Spanish Armada as soon as its location could be ascertained.  Victory for the Spanish would be a disaster for the Jews since it would mean an end to the haven in Protestant Holland and the spread of the Inquisition to the British Isles.

    1782: First performance of Mozart's opera The Abduction from the Seraglio. Seventeen eighty-two also marked the beginning of  the relationship between Mozart and Lorenzo da Ponte, the son of a Jewish convert who had trained as a priest. Together, they co-produced such classics as "The Marriage of Figaro", "Don Giovanni" and "Cosi fan tutte".

    1790: The District of Columbia is established as the capital of the United States after the signing of the Residence Act. Isaac Pollock, the grandson of one of the founders of the Newport Jewish community, reportedly arrived in D.C. in 1795 making him the city’s first Jewish resident. [For more information about the Washington Jewish Community see Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington ]

    1825(1stof Av, 5585): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1825(1stof Av, 5585): Ephriam Hart, one of the founders of the New York Stock Exchange, passed away today.  Born in Furth, Bavaria, he served as a private in the Continental Army during the American Revolution. While living in Philadelphia, he joined Mickvé Israel in 1782 and married Frances Noah, sister of Manuel Noah in the following year.  By 1787, he hand moved to New York where his success as a businessman led to him being one of the founders of the Board of Stock Brokers in 1792.

    1829: Birthdate Graziadio Isaiah Ascoli, a native of Austria who was the “godfather” of all Italian philologists.

    1832: Henry Clay, the Senator from Kentucky, wrote a letter to Solomon Etting a Jewish businessman from Baltimore, MD.  Etting had written a letter to Clay complaining about the Senator’s derogatory use of the term “Jew.”  In his letter, Clay apologized since his use of the term Jew was intended to describe one person name either Moses Meyers or Meyer Moses and was not used to cast aspiration on the Jewish people. Clay claimed that he judged people as individuals and he was sure that there were individual Jews, Christians and Moslems who were bad people.  Furthermore, Clay claimed to have many Jewish friends and acquaintances including the Gratz’s of Lexington, KY who are relatives of the Gratz family of Philadelphia, PA.

    1841(28thof Tammuz):Moshe Teitelbaum, the Rebbe of Ujhely in Hungary passed away today.  Born in 1759 he also was  known as the Yismach Moshe,(Moses Rejoiced)  which was also the name of text containing homilies on the Torah which was first published in 1849. Some of his descendants became leaders of the Satmar Chassidim.

    1848:Today, the Hebrew Education Society of Philadelphia was formally organized, with Solomon Solis as its first president.

    1855(1st of Av, 5615): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1858: An article published today entitled "Progress of Liberal Ideas in England" states that The Jew Bill, which has so often met its fate at the portals of the House of Lords, has at last managed to secure a majority of forty-six on a second reading, and all doubt as to its ultimate triumph may now be considered at an end. No measure, since the Reform bill, has met with so many reverses, and has had so little reason arrayed against it.

    1863: During the American Civil War, Jacob C. Cohen who was serving with the 27thOhio Infantry wrote to the Jewish Messenger from Memphis, Tennessee.

    1874: In Cleveland, Ohio, the Council of American Hebrews heard the report of the Committee on Theological Institute which presented the laws for the organization and governance of an institution of higher learning which will be called the Hebrew Union College which is “to be permanently located in Cincinnati.”

    1879(25thof Tammuz, 5639): Italian politician and journalist Giacomo Dina passed away.  Born into poverty in 1824 at Turin, he became a teacher before founding Opinione, a journal that he edited for 30 years and used as a springboard to serving in the Parliament as deputy from Imola, Bologna.

    1880: It was reported today that the National Rabbinical Association has elected Dr. Max Lilienthal as its President and chosen Chicago as the location for its meeting in 1881.

    1880: “Not A Hebrew After All” published today described the confusion over the ethnic origins of an unidentified body found on the Newark, NJ Turnpike near Hackensack. Since the undertaker reported him to be Jewish, the Jews of Hoboken, NJ took up a collection to provide him with a decent burial.  After finding out that this was not the case, the Jews asked the undertaker to return the money. He refused and told them that they would have to sue him.

    1882: “Trouble in a Synagogue” published today described the impact of the addition of some prayers in English at the St. Constant Street Jewish Synagogue in Montreal.  Police were stationed in the synagogue during services after some members who were upset by the change threatened to cause trouble.

    1882: As of today, there were 250,000 Jews living in the United States.  Sixty thousand of them live in New York and another 14,000 live in Brooklyn.  San Francisco, with a population of 16,000 and St. Louis with a population of 6,500 are the only two cities found in a list of 20 cities with the largest Jewish populations.  New Orleans, with a population of 5,000 Jews is the only Southern city found in this same list. Cincinnati, the home of Reform Judaism has a Jewish population of 8,000. With a total population of over 80,000, New York State had the largest population while at the other end of the spectrum, the Dakota Territories were home to only 19 Jews.

    1882: A young Jewish woman named Rudolpha Leischinsky who had come to New York from Europe several months again was taken to the Castle Garden Hospital today shortly before she had attempted to commit suicide by cutting her throat.

    1882: As the Freight Handler’s Strike continues in New York, five hundred dollars will be given to the Jews today who have stopped working and joined the strikers.

    1882. The Committee of Persuasion, made up of striking freight handlers sent out representatives to various ethnic groups, including the Jews, to convince them to join the strikers.  The representatives are fluent in the language to the particular group to which they are appealing.

    1884: Lazarus Lemisch, his wife and five children arrived in New York aboard the SS Amerique. Their passage had been paid for by the Hebrew Relief Society of Paris.

    1884: Russian Jewish Markus Holz, Gerson Selkowitz, Adolph Lazarus and Samuel Rasenzweig and their family members who arrived from Hamburg yesterday are being held Ward’s Island from which they will be shipped back to Europe because they do not meet the requirements to show they will not become public charges.

    1884: It was reported today that a young un-named Jew has openly embraced Christianity at the Boston Industrial Home.  This is believed to the first time in the history of Boston that a Jew has responded directly to conversion attempts by Christian missionaries. [The Boston Industrial Home may refer to a rescue mission]

    1885: The will of Edward J. King was admitted to probate today.  Among the bequests were $2,000 to Mount Sinai Hospital; $1,000 in cash and $2,000 in bonds to the Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum; $2,000 to the Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews of New York; $2,000 to the United Hebrew Charities; $500 to Congregation B’nai Jeshrun; $500 to be held in trust by the congregation, the income of which is used to pay the expenses to maintain the testators cemetery plot.  The bulk of the estate went to King’s wife, sons and son-in-law.

    1887: As of today, the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children had raised $1,944 to provide free summer excursions for poor Jewish children and their mothers.

    1887: Berthold Riese was being held in the Jefferson Market Police Court on charges of abandoning his wife.  Riese, who is Jewish, claimed that he had never married the woman because she had never divorced her first husband, John T. Kennedy.  The woman in question is a Catholic who claims they were married by a Lutheran minister as an act of religious compromise.

    1887: In New York, Simon Kleber and Judah Waser, two Jewish peddlers, have filed a complaint against Frederick Timme, a police officer stationed at the 14thPrecinct.  According to the complaint the two men werea attacked by a bartender when they went into a liquor store to sell their wares.  When they were driven into the street, they called out to the policeman for help.  He responded by clubbing them and driving them away.  This was not the first complaint filed against this police officer. [Note – charges of police brutality by immigrants are something that have survived into the 21stcentury; the only change is in the immigrant group.]

    1890: It was reported today that as part of the Russian government’s new “stringent measures against the Jews, the newspaper Novostihas been “suppressed” and the editor has been ordered to leave the country

    1891: The large number of Russian Jews who arrived in Montreal yesterday have been found to be “poor people in a sickly condition.”

    1892: The School of Applied Ethics under the leadership of Dr. Felix Adler is holding classes today at the Old High School Building on Main Street in Plymouth, MA.

    1893: It was reported today that “the story about the Grand Duke Michael personally saving the Jews of the Caucasus from expulsion may be dismissed as apocryphal” since the Grand Duke has little influed with the Czar and this region has been “exempted from the anti-Jewish edicts” enforced in other parts of the empire.

    1893: It was reported today that while the number of anti-Semites in the Reichstag has been growing, in a strange twist, a Jew has been elected to the Town Council of Rostock which was one of the last cities in Germany “to abrogate the medieval laws against the Jews.”

    1893: Between July 3 and today, “nearly 2,000 mothers and children” have enjoyed “a day’s outing at the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children at Rockaway Park.

    1893: At the Essex Market Police Court, Police Justice Ryan “remitted the ten dollar fine he had imposed on 25 year old Morris Goodman’ who had been arrested on charges “obstructing the sidewalk” and assault, after he delivered a talk on his view of Jews whom he feels do not respect the law and the rights of Christians.

    1893: The delegates from the Hebrew Typographical Union complained that Joseph Barondess and Samuel Gompers had tried to get some of their members from an office where they were working as printers.

    1894: It was reported today that Herman Ahlwardt has composed a pamphlet while serving time in prison that is “so rabidly anti-Semitic as to suggest the insanity of the author.”

    1894: The Baltimore Sun reported today that a Judge Dennis has signed a decree giving Jacob and Henry Herman to the right to remove the bodies of their parents from the cemetery of Shearith Israel so that they could be re-interred at the cemetery of the Baltimore Hebrew Congregation.

    1894: “Mr. Straus Has A New Plan” published today described the success of the 14 depots selling low-cost sterilized and modified milk and the benefit that sick children have enjoyed from drinking the sterilized beverage.  Nathan Straus is so pleased with the results that he has commissioned plans for a year-round depot for which construction will begin this fall.

    1897: Herzl publishes his article "Protest rabbiner" - "Protest Rabbis" in the German newspaper, “"Die Welt.”  The Protest Rabbis refers to western Rabbis who were opposed to Zionism. 

    1897(16th of Tamuz, 5657): Emanuel Rich, co-founder of Rich’s Department Store, passed away.

    1899: “Slavonic and Semitic Books” published today described the growth of the Jewish Department of the New York Public Library which now contains over 4,000 volumes in modern and ancient languages including Yiddish.”

    1899(9th of Av, 5659): Tish'a B'Av

    1899: “The Marquise de Mores has addressed an appeal to the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassaction” in which she charges that there were serious errors made in the investigation of the death of her husband Marquis de Mores by the Court in Algiers. Her husband, an officer in the French Army, was a vocal anti-Semite who had befriended those who framed Dreyfus and instigated duels in which he killed at least one Jewish officer.  Ironically, the Marquise’s maiden name was Mendora von Hoffman, the daughter of Louis von Hoffman a prominent Jewish banker.

    1899: “Contribution to a Poor Family” published today described the efforts of the United Hebrew Charities of the City of New York to raise $400 settle a family of four in the country because the husband and wife have become “chronic invalids through overwork in the city.”

    1899: Birthdate of comedian and movie director Larry Semon.  Semon appeared with Laurel and Hardy.  In the 1920’s he directed the silent screen version of “The Wizard of Oz.”

    1903: The British Foreign Office sent a second telegram to Herzl informing him that his idea to establish a Jewish settlement in the Sinai as first step towards establishing a Jewish homeland in Eretz Israel was not practical.

    1907: The will of the late Isidor Worsmer was filed with the Surrogate today.  Among the bequests left by the successful banker were $5.000 to Temple Emanu-El; $2,500 to both the Mount Sinai Hospital and the United Hebrew Charities Association; $1,000 to the Roman Catholic Orphan Asylum, the Montefiore Home, the Hebrew Technical Institute, the Educational Alliance and the Tuskegee Institute.  The rest of the sizable estate was left to family members and employees of I & S Wormser.  [Contributions to non-Jewish institutions were par for the course.  The surprise here is the contribution to Tuskegee, the newly established institution for African-Americans headed by Booker T. Washington in rural Alabama.]

    1911: Eighty-five Jews from Shiraz, Persia appeal for assistance to go live in Palestine.

    1912: Harry Horowitz and three other Jewish gangsters gunned down bookmaker Herman Rosenthal two days after he had complained that that “his illegal casinos had been badly damaged by the greed of New York City Police Lt. Charles Becker and his associates

    1914: Dr. Schmarja Levin of Berlin who was a member of the first Russian Duma is scheduled to speak in Brooklyn, NY, tonight.

    1916(15th of Tammuz, 5676): Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov Russian microbiologist and winner of the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1908 passed away.

    1918: The execution of Czar Nicholas II brought an end to a dynasty guilty of many crimes against Jews. Unfortunately, the regime that replaced it was no better for the Jews.

    1922: German born American Jewish inventor and businessman Emil Berliner and his son Henry Berliner demonstrated a working helicopter for the United States Army.  Berliner had moved from Hanover, Germany and settled in Washington, D.C. where he is buried in Rock Creek Cemetery.

    1924: Birthdate of Bess Myerson.  Ms Myerson was crowned the first Jewess to be crowned Miss America. When she won the crown in 1945, it demonstrated a certain level of acceptance of Jews in the general American culture. She went on to a successful career that included hosting daytime game shows in the 1950’s.

    1926:  Birthdate of chemist and Nobel Prize Winner, Irwin Rose.  When Rose won his Nobel Prize in 2004, five out of the six winners of Nobel Prizes in the sciences were Jewish.

    1927: An out of court settlement was announced today in the defamation suit that Aaron Sapiro had brought against Henry Ford, Sr. after The Dearborn Independent had published claims that Sapiro and a group of Jewish bankers and merchants were seeking to control the nation’s wheat farming. Ford would eventually close his anti-Semitic newspaper and apologize for his role in published The International Jew. Those who thought this demonstrated a change in Ford’s hatred of Jews were disabused of that notion when Ford accepted the Grand Cross of the German Eagle from the Nazis in 1938. (As reported by the Jewish Virtual Library)

    1929: Victor Luitpold Berger, the first member of the Socialist Party to be elected to the U.S. House of Representatives suffered a fracture skull today when he was hit by streetcar in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The injury would prove to be fatal.

    1930: Civilization and its Discontents by Sigmund Freud is published for the first time in the United States.

    1933: In an interview with a deputation of representatives of the Jewish Community of Briinn, Czech President Thomas G. Masaryk declares that the waves of anti-Semitism “will not overflow into the country's borders”.

    1934: The body of Chaim Nachman Bialik arrived in Tel Aviv today.  Tens of thousands of Jews from all walks of life and from all parts of the political spectrum were on hand to mark this historic moment. It was the largest funeral in the history of the Jewish homeland.  While there was no lack of notables in attendance, at the request of the widow, no speeches were delivered.

    1934: Morris Rothenberg, President of the ZOA, presided over the memorial service for Chiam Nachman Bialik held at New York’s Carnegie Hall.  The near capacity crowd heard a wide spectrum of speakers and then listened to Canter David Putterman of the Park Avenue Synagogue chant the Hazkarah and Jewish actress Miriam Elias recite two of Bialik’s poems including “When I am Dead.”

    1936: The Palestine Post reported that British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden declared that the British Mandate in Palestine would not be relinquished. Two British officers and a Jewish driver were wounded near Nablus when Arabs opened fire on a military patrol. Shots were fired on a train near Lydda. The High Commissioner, Sir Arthur Wauchope, visited the new Tel Aviv port. He hoped that over a million cases of citrus would be handled there in the next season. The Manchester Guardian wrote that Jewish immigration to Palestine had never been allowed to keep pace with the "absorptive capacity." The Arab population had increased from 500,000 in 1922 to 850,000 in 1936, because Palestine became more attractive by the Jewish influx

    1936: At a meeting in the Hotel New Yorker, Rose Schneiderman was elected vice chairman of the New York State Labor Party.

    1937: The Buchenwald concentration camp opens when the first 300 inmates arrive the installation outside of Weimar.

    1939: In an article entitled “New Bach Arrangement,” Dr. Peter Gradenwitz describes a performance by the Palestine Symphony Orchestra in Tel Aviv of Bach’s “Art of the Fugue” using a new orchestration by Swiss composer Roger Vuataz.  The orchestra performed under the baton of Dr. Hermann Scherchen the famous German musician who left his native land in protest over the policies of the current régime.

    1942: The first train with Jews from Holland left for a killing camp.

    1942: On order from Pierre Laval, the Prime Minister of the Vichy French government, between 13,000 and 20,000 Jews living in Paris were rounded up by the French police for deportation. This was known as “La Grande Rafle” or the Big Sweep. The group of Jews in this round up is primarily German and Austrian born Jews who were living in the French capital.  The first one thousand would be deported three days later on a so-called "Eichmann Train." There were no protests from the Parisians.

    1942(2nd of Av, 5702): A large number of Jews were killed in Molxzadz.

    1943: In Vilna, Lithuanian police raided a meeting of the United Partisan Organization attended by the head of the Jewish Council. Jewish partisans rescued the head of the resistance.

    1943: Theophil Wurm, bishop of the Evangelical Church in Württemberg, Germany, sends a letter to Berlin in which he asks that the persecution of "members of other nations and races" be halted immediately.

    1944: The first five thousand Brazilian Expeditionary Force (BEF) soldiers, the 6th Regimental Combat team that had left on July 2nd arrived in Italy. Among the members of the Brazilian Expeditionary Force was Salomao Nauslausky who served so courageously that he was “mentioned in dispatches.”

    1945: The United States successfully tested an atomic bomb at the Trinity sit near Alamogordo, New Mexico. The Jewish involvement in the decision to build and the actual construction of the bomb is a well-documented fact. Thanks to these Jews, America beat Germany in the race to build the bomb. Regardless of how some may view the decision to use the bomb against Japan, the fact is that a lot of Allied service men lived through the war because there was no invasion of Japan. The estimated casualties for the invasions and pacification were in the million plus category.

    1948: After fierce fighting, the Israelis successfully took Nazareth.

    1948: The Irgun planned to make one more attempt to re-take the Old City, “a day before the second cease-fire” was set to begin.

    1948: The Arab Liberation Army completed its evacuation of Ein Kerem, a village which would be incorporated into the municipal boundaries of Jerusalem.

    1948: During Operation Dekel, the Israeli 7th Armored Brigade took the villages of Amqa, al-Damun and Lubya.

    1948: Operation Death to the Invader, an Israeli military operation designed “to link Jewish villages in the Negev with the rest of Israel” began this evening.

    1948: David Ben Gurion noted in his diary today the arrival of three B-17’s in Israel “and mentioned that they had already been used for several bombing runs in Egypt.  These were the only “heavy bombers” the Israelis had.  Known as 69 Squadron they had been obtained by Charles Winters who was known as “the godfather of the Israeli air force.”

    1948: While Israel was waging its War of Independence (and survival) world-renowned violinist Pinchas Zukerman was born in Tel Aviv.

    1950:Foreign Minister Moshe Sharett declined to commit himself today on Israel's answer to the request of United Nations Secretary General Trygve Lie for aid in the Korean War. He said that the matter would be considered by the Cabinet this week, but implied that Israel's defense needs must be considered

    1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that thousands of apartment-seeking Israelis registered for the government's popular housing scheme. There were long queues for domestic ice delivery in Jerusalem. Shoe sales increased considerably after 17 new shoe ration points went into effect.

    1951: J.D. Salinger's novel The Catcher in the Rye was published. Jerome David Salinger was born in New York in 1919.  His father was Jewish.  His was mother was Irish-Catholic.  This genealogy according to some critics was the source of some of Salinger's inner-conflict that came out in his writings and in his decision to become the most famous literary hermit of the century.

    1955: Birthdate of Zohar Argov “a popular Israeli singer” who provided “a distinctive voice in the Mizrahi music scene.”

    1956(8th of Av, 5716): Erev Tish'a B'Av

    1956:  Birthdate of Pulitzer-prize winning playwright Tony Kushner. One of his most notable works was “Angels in America.”

    1957(17th of Tammuz, 5717): Tzom Tammuz

    1965: Sixty-two year old German born Brazilian pianist composer passed away today.  The non-Jolles left Germany because of the rise of the Nazis.  He was a student of Kurt Weil the German-Jewish composer with whom he wrote at least one composition before 1933.

    1967: A young Kibbutznik got out of his jeep at Aalleiqa, an abandoned Syrian Army base on the Golan Heights, and became the first settler in the Golan.  He would be joined by other secular Jews in the next few days and they would form the kibbutz now known as Merom Golan.

    1970(12th of Tammuz, 5730): Haim-Moshe Shapira, an Israeli political leader who was one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence in 1948 passed away.  Born in Grodno in 1902, he was a founder of Young Mizrachi who made Aliyah in 1925. He was Israel’s first Minister of Health and Minister of Immigration. 

    1970: Avner-Hair Shaki entered the Knesset as a replacement for Haim-Moshe Shapira of blessed memory.

    1970: Golda Meir replaced the late Haim Moshe Shapira as Minister of Internal Affairs.

    1970: Yosef Goldschmidt completed his first term as Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs.

    1971: Birthdate of actor Corey Feldman.

    1973: During the Watergate Scandal former White House aide Alexander P. Butterfield informs the United States Senate of the existence of heretofore unknown recording system that taped all conversations that took place in the White House’s Oval Office.  The system had been installed by President Nixon.  The tapes would prove to be Nixon’s undoing and lead to his leaving office.  The tapes all revealed a nasty anti-Semitic streak in President Nixon.  They also revealed anti-Semitic remarks by the Reverend Billy Graham.

    1976: The Jerusalem Post reported that Israel and the US were pleased at the outcome of the UN Council's debate in which a resolution censuring Israel for the raid on Entebbe failed to receive the necessary nine votes. It was in effect an acknowledgement of "Israel's right to act in the way it did."

    1976: Birthdate of Russian born, Israeli tennis player, Anna Smashnova.

    1994: "The Sisters Rosensweig," a play by Wendy Wasserstein that focuses on three Jewish-American sisters and their lives comes to a close after 556 performances at the Ethel Barrymore Theatre.

    1994(8th of Av, 5754): Julian Schwinger winner of the 1965 winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics passed away.

    1995(18th of Tammuz, 5755): Since the 17th of Tammuz fell on Shabbat today is Tzom Tammuz

    1995(18th of Tammuz, 5755): Lt. Gen. Mordechai "Motta" Gur, former Chief of Staff of the IDF passed away.  He is best remembered as the commander of the brigade that liberated the Old City of Jerusalem in June, 1967.(As reported by Joel Greenberg)

    1999:Morocco's King Hassan II passed away.The king's father, Mohammed V, is widely credited with having saved Morocco's Jews from deportation during World War II, and Hassan continued the philo-Semitic policies of his father. Although there was an outbreak of anti-Jewish incidents following the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, the Jewish community was generally safe under the protection of both Mohammed and Hassan, who proudly considered the Jews "Moroccans of Jewish origin." “Hassan was considered a moderate in the Middle East. During his 38-year reign, he at first discreetly, then openly, promoted ties with Israel at a time when most of the rest of the Arab world rejected such contact. His efforts helped pave the way for the 1978 Camp David accord between Israel and Egypt. King Hassan also played a role in preparing for the 1991 Madrid peace conference and welcomed Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin in September 1993, making Morocco the first Arab nation outside of Egypt to officially receive an Israeli leader. In 1994, Hassan hosted the first Middle East regional economic conference, which included Israel, in the Moroccan city of Casablanca. After the euphoria of the 1993 Oslo accords between Israel and the Palestinians, Israel was allowed to establish a consular office in Rabat, and an estimated 40,000 Israeli tourists visited Morocco in 1995 and 1996.” “The Moroccan Jewish community in Israel observed a seven-day period of mourning for the late king.”

    2000: “Music; Still a Sly Wit, Now Mostly for Himself” published today described the career of Tom Lehrer, the Harvard mathematician who has entertained generations of listeners with his satirical, musical wit.

    2000: The New York Times features reviews books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including My Love Affair With America: The Cautionary Tale of a Cheerful Conservative by Norman Podhoretz and The Harold Letters,1928-1943: The Making of an American Intellectual by Clement Greenberg

    2001: Opening of the 16th Macaabiah

    2002: Simon and Garfunkel released the album "Live In New York City."

    2002: The New York Times reports in an obituary: "The American Sephardi Federation joins with all Sephardim of the world in mourning the loss of the eminent Chief Rabbi David Asseo, the spiritual leader of the vital Jewish community of Turkey. We recall his warmth, his grace and words of wisdom on the many occasions he received our delegations from America.

    2005: The Cedar Rapids Gazette reported that Professor Chanan Eshel, an archeologist from Tel Aviv’s Bar Ilan University, had announced the discovery of two scroll fragments near the Dead Sea.  “The two small pieces of brown animal skin inscribed I Hebrew with verses from the book of Leviticus, are from the “refugee” caves in Nachal Arugot, a canyon near the Dead Sea where Jews hid from the Romans in the second century…The scrolls are being tested by Israel’s Antiquities Authority” to determine their authenticity and era in which they were written.  In a repeat of history, the fragments were discovered by a Bedouin who may have been looking for artifacts in the area.  If the documents prove to be authentic, they will be the first scrolls discovered in the Judean Desert since the 1960’s.

    2006: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Full Swing: Hits, Runs and Errors in a Writer's Life by Ira Berkow and the recently released paperback edition of Salonica, City Of Ghosts: Christians, Muslims and Jews, 1430-1950 by Mark Mazower. “For over half a millennium Salonika, a port city in northern Greece, was a place where Europe met the Middle East. Mazower, a professor of history at Columbia University, sets the history of Salonika and its Orthodox Greeks, Egyptian merchants and Spanish Jews within a "single encompassing historical narrative." He reconstructs this once vibrant city as it thrived under the Ottoman Empire (1430-1912), reverted to Greek control after World War I, and saw its Jewish population deported en masse by the Nazis in 1943

    2006: In an article entitled “Marching as to War,” The Washington Post reported on the efforts of Mikey Weinstein, graduate of the U.S. Air Force Academy and the father of an academy graduate, to stop the missionary work of Christian ministers at the Air Force Academy.  In particular he is targeting the Officer’s Christian Fellowship who says its goal is a “spiritually transformed military with ambassadors for Christ in in uniform, empowered by the Holy Spirit.”

    2006: The following were among a total of 43 Israeli civilians (including four who died of heart attacks during rocket barrages) and 116 IDF soldiers were killed in the Israel-Hizbullah war:Eight railway workers in Haifa: Shmuel Ben-Shimon, 41; Asael Damti, 39; Nissim Elharari, 43; David Feldman, 28; Dennis Lapidus, 24; Rafi Hazan, 30; Reuven Levy, 46; and Shlomo Mansura, 35.

    2006: “INS Hanit Suffers Iranian Missile Attack” published today

    2007: Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice arrives in Israel and the Palestinian Authority for her first visit to the region since Hamas seized power in the Gaza Strip.

    2007(1st of Av, 5767): Rosh Chodesh Av.

    2007:On the first anniversary of the Hezbollah-Israel War a “Free the Soldiers Rally” takes place in New York City. It commemorates the one long year has passed since Israel Defense Forces soldiers Gilad Shalit, Ehud Goldwasser, and Eldad Regev were kidnapped by Hamas and Hezbollah.” 

    2007:A group representing thousands of children of Holocaust survivors filed a class-action lawsuit against the German government demanding that Germany pay for their psychiatric care. The Israelis, calling themselves second-generation Holocaust survivors, say the scars of the Nazi genocide on their parents have crossed generations.

    2008: In Los Angeles, Hadassah’s 94th Annual Convention comes to an end.

    2008:The John W. Kluge Center at the Library of Congress sponsors a lecture, "The Moral Conscience of the World: The United Nations and Palestine in 1947," by William Roger Louis, a professor of English history and culture at the University of Texas at Austin.

    2008:  Dr. Rory Miller, senior lecturer at King’s College in London gave a presentation at the Jerusalem Center For Public Affairs as part of its fourth annual series of lectures on changing Jewish communal policies and attitudes in which he said that “the future of the Jewish community in Ireland is bleak as its committed members age and the young immigrate to other European countries and Israel.”  The average age of the Jewish community is 65.  According to the 2006 census the Jewish population in Ireland has dwindled down to about 2,000 and has gone from being the third largest religious group to number 15.

    2008: At the WorkShop Theatre, as part of the Midtown International Theatre Festival, the world premier of “Yom Kippur,” Meri Wallace’s new drama based on the 1973 war.

    2009: At the 18th Maccabiah Games, in Rugby, South Africa plays Australia, Israel plays Canada and the USA plays Chile.

    2010: Taglit-Birthright Israel alumni and young professionals plan to gather at the Historic 6th& I Synagogue for “Shabbat Hoppin’: Summer Style.”

    2011: The work of Tel Aviv native Dana Levy is scheduled to be part of the Art Omni Weekend which is scheduled to open today.

    2011: The Jerusalem Film Festival is scheduled to come to an end this evening.

    2011: A group of close to 800 ultra-Orthodox protestors tried to block a central Jerusalem thoroughfare today, in an attempt to prevent what they consider the desecration of Shabbat. In a unique observance of Shabbat as a Day of rest, Orthodox Jews were throwing rocks and other objects at officers
    2011:An IDF spokeswoman confirmed that an aerial attack was launched today under cover of darkness against Gaza terrorists preparing to fire a rocket into Israel, from near Gaza City.


    2012 Director Dan Cohen is scheduled to discuss “An Article of Hope,” his documentary about Israeli astronaut Illan Ramon after a noon-time showing at the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C. 

    2012: Secretary of State Hillary Clinton is scheduled to meet with top Israeli leaders in Jerusalem to discuss panoply of issues.

    2012: A memorial service will held today for Alex Okrent, the 29 year old Evanston native who has been working for President Obama since his senatorial campaign in 2004, at the Jewish Reconstructionist Congregation in Evanston.

    2012:Thousands of ultra-Orthodox children took to the streets of Jerusalem this evening to protest the possible inclusion of yeshiva students in the military draft.

    2012: A 43-year-old woman started a fire at a National Insurance Institute branch in today. The woman lit the fire in protest of what she called a lack of financial help from the Institute, Army Radio reported.(As reported by Greg Tepper)

    2012:A man tried to set himself on fire at the entrance of the Beersheba municipality building today. The man, who is known to the welfare services, was not injured in the incident as a security guard and passersby at the scene prevented him from starting the fire.  (As reported by Stuart Winer)

    2012: “Parents of Dead Billionaire Heiress Eva Rausing Want Jewish Burial” published today described the efforts of her parents to have her buried in South Carolina in accordance with Jewish law.

    2013(9thof Av, 5773): Tisha B’Av.  Since Jews do not partake of food for the body we may want to partake of food for the mind by reading about the Destruction of the First Temple as described in Chapter 36 of Chronicles II; by reading about the Destruction of the Second Temple in Rome and Jerusalem or The Ruling Class of Judaea both by Martin Goodman; or by reading about the fall of Betar in Bar Kochba: The rediscovery of the legendary hero of the second Jewish Revolt against Rome by Yigael Yadin. 

    2013: The annual Madridanza festival is scheduled to open at the Suzanne Dellal Center in Tel Aviv.




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    July 17 In History

    1203:  The Knights of the Fourth Crusade capture Constantinople forcing the Byzantine emperor Alexius III Angelus to flee from his capital into exile.  Unlike other Crusades, the focus of the Fourth Crusade was the Byzantine Empire and its capital Constantinople rather than Jerusalem.  The Fourth Crusade was really a clash between two different groups of Christians and a fight over commercial interests.  Unlike the other crusades, the Fourth did not produce any great overt anti-Semitic activities.  But it did keep the crusading spirit alive and subsequent crusades did result in more harm to various Jewish communities.  The most significant lesson of the Fourth Crusade was that it was a classic example of religion being manipulated for reasons that had nothing to do with God or His teachings; something that haunts the Jews of the world down to modern times.

    1245: Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II who refuted the concept of Jewish ritual murders was found guilty of sacrilege at the First Council of Lyons.

    1272: Pope Gregory X issued a bull prohibiting accusations of blood-ritual killings

    1287: Forty Jews - men, women and children - were killed by a mob in Oberwesel (Germany) after a ritual murder accusation. The rioting spread down the Rhineland.

    1392: King Pedro I (1357–67) of Portugal ordered the compliance of the bull of Pope Boniface IX protecting Jews from forced baptism. He also extended it to Spanish Jewish Refugees.

    1402: Start of the reign of Chinese Ming Emperor Yongle who bestowed “honors on Jewish physician, Y’en Ch’eng

    1414: A new edict was issued by the regent in the name of her infant son Don Ferdinand that offered some slight improvement to the conditions of the Jews of Castile. 

    1588: Mimar Sinan, the chief architect and leading civil engineer under Suleiman the Magnificent passed away today. It Suleiman who ordered that fortress like walls be built around Jerusalem, walls that can be seen today when one enters “the Old City.”

    1549: All Jews and Marranos were expelled from Ghent, Belgium.

    1762: Catherine II becomes Tsarina of Russia upon the murder of Peter III of Russia.  Known to history as Catherine the Great, Russia’s ruler participated in the partition of Poland along with Prussia and Austria.  In acquiring her section of Poland, Catherine acquired a large Jewish population.  Although her first reaction to these new Jewish subjects was restrained but comparatively enlightened, in the last years of her reign, Catherine took the first measures which would lead to what became known as the Pale of Settlement.  

     1763: Birthdate of John Jacob Astor. Born in Germany he parlayed his role in the fur trade into one of America’s early fortunes. There is a great deal of debate surrounding Astor’s ethnic origins. In this case, we will give him the benefit of the doubt.

    1786: Birthdate of Henri Castro, a native of Bayonne, France who brought hundreds of families to Texas where they settled in an area of west of San Antonio.  The town of Castroville, Texas and Castro County are named after him which attests to his importance.

     1793: Second of the three partitions of Poland takes place as Russia, Prussia and Austria divide this once proud kingdom home to one of Europe’s largest Jewish communities.  As a result of the partitions, Russia, which had worked to remain Jew free would find itself home to millions of Jews.

    1806: The last auto-de-fe ordered by the Inquisition of Peru was held today.

    1810:Reform Judaism was born in the town of Seesen in central Germany with a stated mission to modernize Judaism and create a bridge between Jewish life and the surrounding culture.

    1815: In France, Napoleon surrenders at Rochefort, Charente-Maritime to British forces. Napoleon’s final defeat would lead him to permanent exile on St. Helena.  His final defeat brought a wave of reaction as the remnants of the old régime in France and Europe sought to regain their old power and undo the changes wrought by the French Revolution.  This reactionary wave would have a negative effect on the Jewish people and would be one of the driving forces that led to next wave of Jewish immigration to the United States.

    1841(28th of Tamuz, 5601): On the secular calendar, Rebbe Moshe Teitelbaum of Ujhel, known as the Yismach Moshe, founder of the Satmar sect, passed away.

    1854: An excerpt published today from Little’s Living Age described Doctor Wolff as being the real Wandering Jew, who is not the melancholy figure “of the poet and novelist” “but a  “fat, jolly Jew for ‘whom the law having a shadow of good things to come.’”

    1859: Samuel Isaac Joseph Schereschewsky, a Lithuanian born Jew was ordained today at St. George’s Church in New York City.

    1862: Legislation abolishing discrimination against the service of chaplains in the United States army became a law.  In other words, Rabbis could now serve as Chaplains.

    1862: At the request of the Lincoln administration, the chaplain act was amended to provide for the appointment of Catholic, Protestant and Jewish chaplains.

    1863(1st of Av, 5623): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1868: Birthdate of Henri Nathansen, “a Danish writer and stage director, today best known for the play Inside the Walls (Danish: Indenfor Murene” who passed away in 1944.

    1873(22ndof Tammuz, 5633): Fifty two year old Babette Stettheimer, a sister of Joseph Seligman passed away today.

    1874: Professor C. H. Brigham of Ann Arbor, Michigan, read a paper on the “Falacha Language of Abyssinia” at a convention of linguists meeting in Hartford, Conn.  According to Professor Brigham, who based his paper on the work of Dr. Joseph Haling, “the Flachas are descendants of a tribe of Jews which settled in Abyssinia…” who have lost their knowledge of Hebrew as both a written and spoken language. Their literature is based on the translation of the book of Jonah and “four short prayers.

    1877: During the Russo-Turkish War, the first Battle of the Shipka where Jewish soldiers displayed “dauntless courage began today.

    1878: Schedules showing the liabilities and assets of Barnet L. Solomon, Solomon B. Solomon Judah H. Solomon and Simon Solomon, the owners of B.L Solomon’s Sons, the major upholstery dealers who recently filed for bankruptcy, were filed in the Court of Common Pleas.  Their assets totaled $224. 799/31 and their liabilities totaled $1,144,753.88. The firm’s demise was caused by a combination of poor business conditions and a down turn in the real estate market.

    1879: A concert and festival sponsored by the Young Men’s Hebrew Union is scheduled to take place at the Terrace Garden

    1879(26th of Tammuz, 5639):Maurycy Gottlieb, Jewish painter who came from a family of Polish-speaking Galician Jews passed away.  Two of his more famous paintings are “Shylock and Jessica” and “Jews Praying in the Synagogue on Yom Kippur.”

    1880: Harper’s Weekly published illustrations depicting scenes from the Seawanhaka tragedy among whose victims was former 12th District Assemblyman Joseph I. Stein.

    1881: An English quarterly publication, The Contemporary Review examined the life of the late Ferdinand Lassalle.  Base on the way he lived his life the epitaph etched on his tomb “Ferdinand Lassalle, thinker and fighter” was deemed to be quite appropriate.  Lassalle was a rare combination of philosophical think, political agitator and oddly enough fashion dandy “noted for his dress for dinners and his addiction for pleasures.”

     1882(1st of Av, 5642): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1882: As the Freight Handler’s Strike entered its fifth week, the workers took steps to keep “scabs” away from the piers and docks. The Russian Jews have gathered at Standard Hall on East Broadway where they are being three meals a day: bread and coffee in the morning; meat and soup at noon; tea and bread in the evening.  The strikers are also providing them with lodging in a tenement to keep these destitute people from being “scabs.”  Similar efforts are being made with other immigrant groups.

    1882: A report published today attributed “the incapacity” of Russian Jews to perform manual labor when compared to their “muscular Irish and German” counterparts to diet. “A single piece of black bread soaked in water and a banana or tow constitute a full meal…Occasionally their bill of fare embraces beer and cheese and crackers but it is seldom that any of them eat meat or potatoes.  The effect of this light diet is plainly visible in the shrunken forms, the listless actions and lack of endurance that so plainly distinguish the Russian Jews…from other working men.”

    1884: It was reported today that Lazarus Lemisch, his wife and five children who had just arrived in the United States were being sent back to Europe because, by his own admission, he was destitute with no prospects for financial assistance.

    1884: Wolf Finkelstein, a Russian Jewish immigrant arrived in New York on the SS Bohemia and was immediately sent to Ward’s Island.

    1884: It was reported today that many of the Russian Jews who fled to Cyprus during the recent anti-Semitic violence have returned to Odessa.  They were not able to support themselves on the Mediterranean Island which is a British possession.  This means that the returning Jews are now British subject which means the British Consul General in the Russian port city has to provide them with some sort of assistance.

    1885: It was reported today that in Great Britain, juror was excluded from hearing the case of De Worms versus Hughes because he was Jewish

    1886: “Art To Be Seen At Rouen” published today described the “stain glass pottery and relics of old wars” that can be seen at the Museum of Antiquities including a series of five stain glassed windows that depicts :the history of the rich Jew who bribes a poor woman to bring him a consecrated wafer which he then stabs with a dagger.”   (The myth of Host Desecration ranked with the Blood Libel as cause for slaughter of Jews during the Middle Ages)

    1887: Birthdate of  Beatrice Fox Auerbach, the longtime proprietor of the G. Fox & Company department store in Hartford, Connecticut.[some sources say July 7, 1887]. Auerbach was raised in Hartford, where her father ran the department store originally founded by and named after his father, Gerson Fox. In 1911, Auerbach moved to Salt Lake City to help her new husband run his family's department store there. The couple returned to Connecticut six years later when the G. Fox & Company building burned. Beatrice Auerbach's husband became secretary and treasurer of the rebuilt store, which occupied a twelve-story Art Deco building that dominated Hartford's Main Street. When her husband died in 1927, Auerbach stepped into his business roles. She proved so good at running the business that when her father died in 1938, she became president of G. Fox & Company. Over the next three decades, Auerbach built G. Fox into the largest privately-held department store in the United States. Under Auerbach's leadership, the store was known for excellent service, but it was also remarkable for the benefits extended to employees. Auerbach was among the first employers to introduce paid vacations and sick leave, and also among the first to hire African-Americans in meaningful positions. Auerbach sold G. Fox & Company to the May Company, owner of Macy's, in 1965, although she remained involved in the day-to-day operations of the store. The sale allowed Auerbach to increase the charitable contributions for which she was already well-known in Connecticut. The Service Bureau for Women's Organizations that she had established in 1945 taught leadership skills to members of women's groups. She also collaborated with Connecticut College for Women for over twenty years (1938-1959) in a retailing program that allowed participants to try out theories in the G. Fox store. Among the other beneficiaries of Auerbach's philanthropy were Trinity College, Wesleyan University, the University of Connecticut, and several Hartford-area cultural organizations. Auerbach died on November 29, 1968. G. Fox & Company closed permanently in 1992. The building, still a Hartford landmark, was later converted for use as a community college and retail shops.

    1888(9thof Av, 5648): Tish’a B’Av

    1888: Birthdate of Israeli novelist, Shmuel Agnon. Author of numerous books, including the Day Before Yesterday, Agnon won the Nobel Prize in 1966.

    1889: “Here is Comfort for Cantor” published today offered reassurance to State Senator Jacob Cantor that he should not be bothered by the fact that the Harlem Club is rejecting him because he was Jewish.  “In the face of this foolish and un-Christian prejudice” he should remember that the “Blessed Redeemer would be rejected on the same grounds.”

    1890: Almost all of the striking cloak cutters, the vast majority of whom were Jewish, returned to work this morning with only one outstanding point of contention – the strikers demanded that all of the replacement workers or “scabs” must be terminated.

    1891: Thirty-one Jewish immigrants from Russia were not allowed to land at the Barge Office in New York “on the ground that they were like to become public charges.

    1891: As of today the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children has received $2,777.12 to help fund its summer programs.

    1892: “Preparations for the Cholera” published today described the outbreak of the disease which now has foothold in Odessa and Moscow.  The effort to combat Cholera has been hampered because “throughout Russia a large proportion of the capable physicians have been driven away because they were Jewish.”

    1892: “Summer Study of Ethics” published today previewed the lectures to be offered The School of Applied Ethics including a series on the religious ideas of the Hebrews: “The Prophets” by George Moore that beings with the religion of Israel before the prophets; “The Religion of Ancient Persia and its Relations to Judaism by Professor A.V. Williams Jacksons; “The Ritual and Law by Professor Morris Jastrow; :The Psalter” by Professor John P. Peters; “The Wisdom Books” by Professor Crawford H. Toy and “The Talmud” by Dr. Emil G. Hirsch.

    1892: Arthur Richard of New York arrived in New London, CT on his way to inspect the Jewish colony at Chesterfield which is being supported by contributions by the Baron Hirsch Fund.

    1893: Register Levy, a leader of the Jewish community on New York’s Lower East Side, expressed his surprise when asked about the derogatory, stereotypically anti-Semitic remarks attributed to Police Justice John J. Ryan who complained about that the Hebrews flouted the law, had no fear of policemen and would claim that they were the victims of religious persecution when they were charged with crimes.  “I have never known him to bear any malice or prejudice against any co-religionists.”

    1893: Police Justice John J. Ryan claimed today that he had been misquoted and that he had “ no desire to denounce Hebrews” and had in fact “always been their friends.”  Ryan said that all he had meant to say, and all that he had really said, was that he enforce the law against all “wrongdoers” including Hebrews regardless of their connections or pressure from local citizenry.  Ryan’s contention that he had been “misquoted” and that the remarks of others were wrongly attributed to him, was supported by Mark Alter, the attorney for the Hebrew Protective Association. [Ed. Note: When taken together, these comments read like modern day “damage control.”  What is fascinating is that as early as the last decade of the 19thcentury, the Jewish population was of a size that New York politicians had to be cognizant of their feelings and views. This must have come as a shock to those who arrived in the last ten years from Romania and Russia where the governments did not even know that Jews had opinions let alone political rights.]

    1895(25thof Tammuz, 5655): Forty-three year old Simon M. Ehrlich, the Chief Just of the City Court in New York, passed away today after battling typhoid fever for the last three weeks at his summer home in Throgg’s Neck, Long Island. Born in Boston, at the age of five he moved to New York where he graduated from City College and Columbia Law School. After passing the bar in 1872, he was elected to a variety of judicial positions with the support of Tammany Hall.

    1897: Alexander Grossman provided over tonight’s meeting of the Russian-American Citizens’ League where the candidacy of Seth Low for Mayor of New York was endorsed by the attendees.

    1898: According to a  summary of the tenth annual report of the Jewish Publication Society of America published today  the society has grown from 600 members to 4,790 members 808 of whom live in Pennsylvania and 797 of whom live in New York state.

    1902:  Herzl finishes a journey to London where he had been seeking support for his plans for a Jewish homeland.

    1903: Birthdate of Hiram "Harry" Bingham IV, a member of distinguished old New England family who saved the lives of thousands of Jews while serving as Vice-Consul in Marseille, France.

    1903: The Jewish quarter of Ofran, Morocco was pillaged.

    1906: Birthdate of Yitzhak Ben Aharon who when he died in 2006 was the last living icon of the left-wing of the Israeli Labor Party.

    1907(7th of Av, 5667): Fifty-four year old geologist, paleontologist and explore Angelo Heilprin passed away

    1910: Smallpox epidemic breaks out in Jerusalem.

    1913: Birthdate of American born architect Bertrand Goldberg who is best known for the Marina City complex in Chicago, Illinois, the tallest residential concrete buildings in the world at the time of completion.

    1914: In Salonica a campaign against the Jews continued in the newspapers. The dispute was over Greeks and Jews who worked in a Jewish owned tannery. The dispute became a violent political discussion all throughout Macedonia. It originated over Jews wearing the Turkish Fez, which was a symbol of their fondness for the previous Turkish administration.

    1915: An inmate at Milledgeville State Penitentiary tried to kill Leo Frank by slashing his throat with a butcher knife. 

    1917: John Henry Patterson was made commander of the 38th Battalion of the Royal Fusiliers, one of three battalions of the Jewish Legion, recruited from British and foreign Jews. Patterson was promoted to full Colonel. In February of 1918, Patterson proudly led soldiers of the 38th Fusiliers Battalion, one of the components of the Legion, in a parade in the Whitechapel Road, before they were shipped off to Palestine. They met a tumultuous and joyous reception among the Jews of London, as well as generating amazement among other bystanders, as related in this article about the parade of the Jewish Legion in London. [Unlike many British officers, not only was Patterson not anti-Semitic, he was philo-Semitic numbering many Jews among his friends throughout the rest of his life and pushing for the creation of the Jewish Brigade during World War II.]

    1917:  Birthdate of comic Phyllis Diller. 

    1917: Birthdate of all-star shortstop and Cleveland Indian manager, Lou Boudreau.  Boudreau’s mother was Jewish.  But he was adopted by a Roman Catholic family who raised him in their faith.

    1917: Birthdate of Morris E. Lasker, who would serve as a federal judge in New York and Massachusetts for four decades

    1917: In San Antonio, Texas, David and Riva Rapoport, Jewish immigrants who had fled Russia after participating in an anti-czarist uprising, gave birth to Bernard Rapoport, the Jewish businessman “who built an insurance empire and spent his last decades giving his wealth away to universities, Democratic campaigns and charitable causes in Israel and his adopted hometown of Waco…” (As reported by J.B. Smith)

    1918: By order of Lenin, Czar Nicholas II and his family were executed at Yekaterinburg marking the end of the Romanov dynasty and a turning point in the history of Russia, Europe and the World.

    1919: During the war with the Russian Bolsheviks, Jewish leaders met with Symon Petlura and pledged their support for him and the creation of an independent country of Ukraine.

    1920: Birthdate of Rabbi Louis Jacobs,the first leader of Masorti Judaism (also known as Conservative Judaism) in the United Kingdom,

    1935:Joseph "Yosky" Toblinsky, a member of the “Yiddish Black Hand,” a Jewish criminal band active in the first decades of the 20th century was taken into custody on charges of hijacking a truck filled with pharmaceutical drugs.

    1936: The Palestine Post reported that there was heavy firing on the Hatikva Quarter in Tel Aviv and the Bayit Vegan Quarter of Jerusalem. A bomb was found hidden in a shipment of Norwegian cheese. It was believed that it was inserted while transported from Haifa to Jerusalem. Jacob Gerzon, victim of a sniper's bullet, succumbed to his wounds. He was the 32nd Jewish victim of the Arab disturbances which began on April 19. Three new battalions of British troops arrived in Haifa from Malta. The government ordered the demolition of the old Jaffa slums and for the construction of two new roads for the benefit of that quarter and of the town as a whole.

    1936: The Spanish Civil War began as the armed forces, eventually to be led by Francisco Franco rose up against the recently elected Popular Front Government.  Franco’s rebellious army was a fascist force and the received active help from both Mussolini and Hitler. Anti-fascist forces rallied to the support of the French Republicans.  For reasons of their own, the French, British and U.S. governments provided no support to balance that being provided by Germany and Italy.  While thousands of volunteers from these western countries took up the cause of the Republic, the Soviet Union was the only government to provide aide.  And that aide helped to what had begun as a broad left-wing coalition into Communist dominated fighting force.  The Left saw Spain as a place to stop the march of fascism.  The Fascists saw Spain as an easy victory and testing ground for the weapons that they would later employ in World War II.  One of the most famous volunteer groups supporting the Spanish Republicans was the Lincoln Brigade, a fighting force that had a disproportionately large Jewish Population.  For a vivid, yet fictional picture of Jewish involvement in the Lincoln Brigade and left-wing causes in the 1930’s, read Davida’s Harp by Chaim Potok.  The fascist victory in Spain, including the failure of the Western allies to act, emboldened Hitler and Mussolini while frightening Stalin.  All three felt the West would never stand against the Germans and Italians.  For Stalin, this meant signing a non-aggression with Hitler.  For Hitler, this meant he had a green line to do as he pleased in Europe.  For the Jews it meant that the Final Solution was one step closer to reality. Numerous historians consider the Spanish Civil War that broke out in July 1936 a prelude to World War II. Spain, with a population of 28 million, became a bloody battleground of conflicting forces, testing their arsenals in preparation for the battle of the giants that was to emerge shortly. Jews did not sit on the sidelines in this crucial contest. Jewish participation, as a matter of fact, was stunningly extensive. In 1987, at a 50th anniversary commemoration of the Spanish Civil War, Chaim Herzog, then president of Israel, stated: "There were people who realized just what a fascist victory in Spain would mean. Courageous men from many nations volunteered to help the Republicans. Among them were democrats, socialists, communists... Typically there was a relatively high number of Jews among the volunteers - the highest proportion of any other group... I salute them as comrades in arms in the war against the Nazis." Jewish participation in the Spanish Civil War offers a fascinating, relatively unknown, chapter of Jewish resistance to Nazi and fascist tyranny. Up to 25 percent of the fighters in the International Brigades were Jewish, whereas the total global Jewish population at the time did not exceed 4%. It is ironic that Jews even formed their own Jewish Brigade in Spain, which fought heroically in crucial battles 70 years ago for the freedom of the Spanish people that had expelled them from its midst. The Spanish Civil War attracted volunteers from about 55 countries who knew the dangers they were facing in that bloody conflict. Nevertheless, they came in substantial numbers to join the ranks of the Popular Front. Figures of participants differ. Ernest Hemingway claimed that "over 40,000 volunteers from 52 countries flocked to Spain between 1936 and 1939 to take part in the historic struggle between democracy and fascism known as the Spanish Civil War." The lowest estimate speaks of about 32,000, but one estimate is as high as 59,380. The largest contingents came from France (7,000), Poland (5,000), the US (3,000), Britain (between 2,000 and 4,000) and Russia (in the thousands). Despite the conspicuous presence of Jews in International Brigades, Jewish participation in the fighting has generally not been acknowledged. There could be various reasons for that. Firstly, Jews were usually registered under the name of the country they came from. Secondly, in some cases the Jews used aliases, concerned that their being Jewish might expose them to greater than usual dangers in a war against fascist elements. Lastly, Jewish community organizations that would eagerly underwrite research on Jews fighting against fascists and Nazis were hesitant to do so in the instance of the Spanish Civil War, since those joining would be counted as communists and fellow travelers. While it is true that two-thirds of the American Abraham Lincoln Brigade were communists, many Jews were not. One volunteer wrote: "I am as good an anti-fascist as any communist. I have reason to be. I am a Jew and that is the reason I came to Spain. I know what it means to my people if Fascism should win." Hyman Katz from New York did not tell his mother that he was determined to leave for Spain. When wounded, he decided to explain why he enlisted against her wishes. He wrote: "Don't you realize that we Jews will be the first to suffer if fascism comes?" Samuel Levinger from Columbus, Ohio, son of Rabbi Lee J. Levinger, was killed in battle at Brunette. Throughout the war, the father remained a loyal friend of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade. In-depth research, especially in the last 10 years, has proven that the extent of Jewish presence in that crucial war was truly impressive. Though Jews were only 10% of the Polish population, 45% of the Polish volunteers - 2,250 out of 5,000 - were Jewish. Jews, 4% of the US population, formed 38% of its volunteers. In France, 0.5% of the population and 15% of the volunteers were Jews. Britain, with a Jewish population of 0.5%, had 11% to 22% Jewish volunteers. Palestine had a Jewish contingent of 500, 498 Jews and two Arabs. For some reason, Jews from Palestine were distributed among diverse national units. There were Palestinian Jews in the Hungarian "Rakosi" Battalion, in the French "Six Fevrier" Battalion and others. The most conspicuous Jewish presence in the Spanish Civil War emerged from a group called the "Naftali Botwin Company." Naftali Botwin, a 24-year-old Jewish radical, was executed in Poland in 1925 for assassinating a Polish Secret Service agent. The special Jewish company was formed in the Palafox Battalion of the Polish Dombrowsky Brigade in December 1937. The company issued a Yiddish newspaper. The orders were written in Yiddish. It had a distinct Jewish banner, and the last stanza of the company's hymn proudly proclaimed " Jewish Botwin soldiers drove out the fascist plague!" The Botwin group was the only one in which Jews fought as a distinct group. Hence it became the major symbol of Jewish presence in Spain. In general, the International Brigades were utilized by the Popular Front as shock troops in the most dangerous places that drew the heaviest casualties. The Botwin Company was no exception - 120 of its men were thrown into an assault at the battle of Estramadura, in the defense of Madrid; only 18 survived. The company's courage earned it the "Medalla de Valor" from the Spanish government. Whatever motives brought volunteers of the International Brigades to Spain, with the Jews the ideological motive was dominant. Many of them may have been socialists or communists, but they clearly perceived that simultaneously they were fighting a sworn enemy of the Jewish people. The Jewish-Zionist angle was no less significant than the socialist-communist. It is no coincidence that the first casualty of the International Brigades was Leon Baum from Paris, and the last casualty was Haskel Honigstern, who was given a state funeral in Barcelona. The Spanish poet Jose Herrera wrote of him: "Haskel Honigstern, Polish worker of the Jewish race, son of an obscure land, killed in the light of my homeland." It is also no coincidence that when Juan Negrin, head of the Republican government, announced in September 1938 the unilateral withdrawal of the International Brigades from Spain for diplomatic reasons, the Botwin Company formed the rear guard of the troops as they withdraw across the border into France. Jewish participation in the Spanish Civil War put to a lie the assertion that Jews are by nature "timid and non-combative... that Jews did not resist the Nazi murderers because... submission is in their national character." When the first shots of World War II were fired, in the prologue of that ghastly war, Jews were not only present in overwhelming numbers, but they incontrovertibly proved their heroism.

    1938(18th of Tammuz, 5698): Tzom Tammuz

    1938(18th of Tammuz, 5698): Three more Jews were killed today – two of them were watchmen at an orange grove and one was a workman from Tel Aviv.  At the same time, “the Jewish owner of watch factory in Acre was seriously wounded” by Arab attackers.

    1938: Credible reports are circulating in Palestine that some of the attacks on Arabs are “merely part of Nazi intrigue to gain Arab sympathy and impair British prestige in the Near East.”

    1939(1st of Av, 5699): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1940(10thof Tammuz, 5700): Hauptscharführer Blank murdered Werner Scholem at Buchenwald.  A Jew and a Communist, he was arrested in 1933 by the Nazis who shipped him to Buchenwald when it was opened in 1938.  He was held there until he was shot by the Nazi officer.  He was the brother of Gerhard Scholem who gained fame as Gershom Scholem first Professor of Jewish Mysticism at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

    1940: The Vichy French government issued orders prohibiting employment of aliens (Jews) not born in France. This is one more example of how eager those at Vichy were to serve their new Nazi comrades.

    1941(22nd of Tamuz, 5701): Twelve hundred Jews are murdered at Slonim, Belorussia

    1941 Alfred Rosenberg is appointed Reich minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories to administer lands seized from the Soviet Union.

    1941(22nd of Tammuz, 5701): This marks the first day of the a fourteen day slaughterof the Jews at Kishinev in the Soviet Union; During those 14 days over 10,000 Jews would be slaughtered by the Nazis and their local collaborators

    1942: The 2,000 Jews from Holland reached Auschwitz. All but 449 were given their numbered tattoos. The 449 were gassed.

    1942:  A Nazi delegation headed by SS chief Heinrich Himmler tours the death camp at Auschwitz, where Himmler observes a mass gassing of inmates.

    1943: Birthdate of Shlomo Ben-Ami, the native of Tangiers who made Aliyah in 1955 and earned a doctorate from Oxford.  After serving as head of the School of History at Tel Aviv University, he served as Israel’s Ambassador to Spain before pursuing a career in politics.

    1943: Yitzhak Wittenberg, a partisan leader, surrendered to the Gestapo to prevent the razing of the Vilna (Lithuania) Ghetto.

    1945: Today “Leo Szilard and 69 co-signers at the Manhattan Project "Metallurgical Laboratory" in Chicago petitioned the President of the United States

    1945: The Potsdam Conference opens in Potsdam, Germany. The leaders of the Big Three, Harry Truman, Winston Churchill and Joseph Stalin with the aim of settling outstanding issues related to the end of World War II in Europe including the fate of conquered German and liberated Poland.  It was the fist meeting between the U.S. President and the Soviet leader.  It was the last meeting with Churchill who would be replaced during the conference the new Laborite Prime Minister Clement Atlee. For public consumption, it appeared that the war time Allies were committed to punishing Germany for its Nazi atrocities.  The relations between Truman and Stalin soured from this time forward into what became the Cold War.  An argument can be made that Truman’s decision to recognize Israel was a product of this Cold War environment.

    1947:Mordechai (Motke) Eldar and his sister arrived at Haifa today but were forced to return to Hamburg by the British.  A year later he returned aboad the Kedmah and began a thirty year career with the IDF where he reached the rank of Colonel before retiring.

    1947: Supposedly Raoul Wallenberg died in a Soviet prison on this date. An air of mystery still surrounds the death of one of the few people who came to the aid of the Jews during the Holocaust. Since nothing was done to establish the fate of Ambassador Wallenberg after he was last seen going to the headquarters of the Red Army in Budapest, nobody really knows if he was shot in Moscow, died in prison, or lived out a long anguished life in the Gulag.

    1948: A two-pronged attack by Israeli forces designed to drive Arab Legion forces from the eastern section of Jerusalem failed.  The Old City would remain under Jordanian occupation until 1967.  During this time, Jews were barred from the Old City and no Arabs demanded that the Old City be made the capital of a Palestinian state.

    1948: On the second day of Operation Death to the Invader, an Israeli military operation designed to connect settlements in the Negev with the rest of Israel, a series of Israeli assaults failed in their attempt to take their objectives.

    1948: During Operation Dekel, Israeli forces took the villages of Hittin and Nimrin.

    1950:Valerian Trifa, the Romanian Cleric who hid his role in the fascist, anti-Semitic Iron Guard, took advantage of the Displace Persons Immigration Law to move to the United States today. His lies and his role in the Holocaust would eventually be exposed by Israeli author Zev Goland

    1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that the Ministry of Finance denied charges that the Custodian of Enemy Property had transferred valuable land in Tel Aviv to high government officials and Mapai and Histadrut leaders, at prices far below the prevailing market valuations. Minister of Finance Eliezer Kaplan, vigorously denied such charges and intended to take legal actions against the editor of Haboker, the General Zionist daily, and the mayor of Tel Aviv, Israel Rokach, for having spread such allegations. The Knesset Finance Committee asked the State Comptroller to investigate the whole affair.

    1956(9th of Av, 5716): Tish'a B'Av

    1959(11th of Tammuz, 5719):  Eugene Meyer publisher and owner of the Washington Postpassed away.  Meyer is the father of Katherine Graham.  While Graham has earned a reputation for making the Washington Post into one of the nation’s leading papers, the process was actually begun by her father who took over the bankrupt paper and proceeded to vanquish several stout competitors including the now defunct Times Heraldand Evening Star.

    1960: Binyamin Mintz, a member of Agudat Israel Workers, was appointed Minister of Postal Services by David Ben-Gurion today, serving until his death the following May.

    1969:  Israeli trucks drive through the Sinai heading for the east bank of the Gulf of Suez.  They are carrying the equipment for the commandos who will be attacking the Green Island, the Egyptian for in the middle of the Gulf of Suez.

    1972: Avner Shaki left the cabinet today where he had been serving as Deputy Minister of Education and Culture.

    1975: Birthdate of Israeli actor and comedian Eli Finish.

    1979: Birthdate of Nathan B. “Nate” Bruckenthal, the Petty Officer 3rdClass who became the first Coast Guardsman to be killed in action since the Viet Nam war when he was killed by suicide bombers during a waterborne assault on the Khawr Al Amaya oil terminal

    1981: In response to a major rocket attack on northern Israel by the PLO from southern Lebanon, the AIF launched a massive attack on PLO headquarters in downtown Beirut.  Civilian casualties were inevitable given the Palestinian military for hiding among non-combatants.  The AIF also attacked PLO positions in southern Lebanon from where the rocket attacks were launched.

    1981: Two girls were wounded in Katyusha bombardments on the Galilee.

    1994: Pitcher Andrew Lorraine made his major league debut with the California Angels.

    2001(26th of Tammuz, 5761):Yehiel De-Nur, a Polish born Israeli author whose writings often employed themes based on his time at Auschwitz, passed away.

    2003(17th of Tammuz, 5763): Tzom Tammuz

    2003: New York Review of Books features a review Stalin's Last Crime: The Plot Against the Jewish Doctors, 1948–1953y Jonathan Brent and Vladimir P. Naumov

    2005: Haaretz reported that The Federal Bureau of Investigation is probing whether two United States citizens arrested recently planned to carry out an attack on the Israeli consulate in Los Angeles and a synagogue in the area.  The two suspects who had recently converted to Islam had been arrested for taking part in at least ten robberies.  Evidence of their involvement in a possible attack against Jewish institutions came to light after their arrest. 

    2006: In accordance with instructions of the Home Front Command, the Carmiel Festival, scheduled to begin on July 18, 2006 will be postponed until October because of the Hezbollah attacks on northern Israel.

    2007: An exhibition of manuscripts of scientist Sir Isaac Newton – never before revealed to the public which opened on June 18, 2007, at the Jewish National and University Library at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, comes to an end today. Of special interest in this exhibition are manuscripts and illustrations relating to the Temple as well as a passage copied by Newton from Maimonides' writings; manuscripts containing Newton's comments on Hebrew expressions, and excerpts from the Shema prayer; Newton's calculations of the end of the world, which he estimated to be in 2060; and Newton's rejection of the Trinity.For further details about the exhibition, please visit the following site:

    2008: In Kensington, Maryland, Robert Wexler, a six-term U.S. congressman from Florida, discusses and signs Fire-Breathing Liberal: How I Learned to Survive (and Thrive) in the Contact Sport of Congress(written with David Fisher) at Borders Books

    2008:The military funerals for Eldad Regev and Ehud Goldwasser the two Israeli soldiers abducted in 2006 by Hezbollah, whose bodies were returned yesterday as part of a prisoner swap take place today in their respective hometowns.

    2008:Robert Magnus, who served as the 30th Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps from September 8, 2005 to July 2, 2008 retired today after more than 39 years of service.

    2009: At the18th Maccabiah Games round five in the Chess Competition.

    2009: The Jerusalem Film Festival features a screening “Bar Mitzvah” in which Boris Thomashefsky plays Israel, a widower whose wife Leah was lost at sea ten years earlier en route to America.

    2009(25th of Tammuz, 5769): General Meir Amit passed away at the age of 88. A soldier during the War for Independence, Amit was commander of the famed Golani Brigade, a graduate of Columbia and a major general in the IDF.  His greatest claim to fame was his service as head of Mossad during which he managed the activities of Eli Cohen and provided the intelligence estimates that were helpful in during the Six Day War. When word of the death of this popular general reached Israeli President Shimon Peres he said, “Generations of Israelis, entire generations of children, owe Meir Amit a debt of gratitude for his immense contribution - a large part which remains secret - in building the strength and deterrence of Israel...He was a natural leader, whom people trusted, and at the same time he was a visionary for the state.”  Amit’s autobiography, A Life in Israel's Intelligence Service: An Autobiography, was published a month after he died.

    2010: Israeli artist Shahar Marcus is scheduled to be the Homecoming Artist as part of The Art Omi International Artists Residency.

    2010:Senior Fatah member Mohammed Dahlan announced today that the Palestinian Authority will not hold direct negotiations with Israel at this time.

    2010: Nir Bergman’s Intimate Grammar won the Haggiag Award for Best Full-Length Feature Film at the 27th Jerusalem Film Festival, which ended tonight.

    2011: The first annual NYC Schlep is scheduled to begin today at 9 a.m. in Battery Park.

    2011: The New York Times includes a review of Lipman Pike:  America’s First Home Run King by Richard Michelson and illustrated by Zachary Pullen, “a short biography of Lip Pike, credited with being the first paid professional as well as the first Jewish ball player (a combination that did not always please fans).”

    2011:The IDF denied reports that their planes had struck at Gaza today despite the fact that falling three Qassam rockets had been fired into southern Israel during the night.

    2011(15thof Tammuz, 5771):Ninety-four year old Alex Steinweiss passed away. You may not know his name, but if you have ever bought an LP or long-playing record you know his work since he was the designer of the modern LP album cover. (As reported by Steven Heller)

    2012:  “The Flat” is scheduled to be shown as part of the Mizel Summer Film Series in Denver, Colorado.

    2012:The national unity government formed in Israel two months ago unraveled on today, when the head of the centrist Kadima Party, Shaul Mofaz, announced that he was withdrawing because of intractable differences with Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and his Likud Party over a proposed universal national service law.

    2012: The remains of a 2,300-year-old naval pier have been uncovered in Acre, adding to the coastal city’s long and varied history by showing it was a substantial port in the Hellenistic period. The remains, unveiled at the site by the Israel Antiquities Authority today, were uncovered by marine archaeologists this month during restoration work on Acre’s southern seawall.

    2013: Layla Lavan, “an epic night of Israeli food, drinks and music” is scheduled to take place at Hudson Station in Manhattan.

    2013: In Cedar Rapids, the Hadassah Book Club is scheduled to discuss The Girl in the Green Sweater by Chrystyna Chiger.



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    July 18 In History

    64: During the reign of Emperor Nero, the Great Fire begins in Rome.  After the fire, Nero avoided the initial inclination to blame the blaze on the Jews.  Instead, he targeted the nascent Christian sect which had recently become active in the city.  Possibly Nero who saw himself as a god felt personally threatened by Christianity which also worshipped a Divinity who had come to earth in human form.

    392: “Emperors Valentinian II, Theodosius I, and Arcadius order that anyone who disturbs the Catholic faith must be exiled.” This edict is actually not aimed at the Jews but at those Christians who deviate from accepted religious principles.  Of course, this use of state power to protect Catholicism is one more indication of the “second class” status that the Jews are having to do deal with.

    1195: The Moslem Almohads (‘Proclaimers of the Unity of Allah’) score a great victory over the Christian Catilian King Alfonso VIII at the Battle of Alacros.  The Almohads were a sect of Moslem fundamentalists who invaded the Iberian Peninsula from North Africa.  They were determined to defeat the Christian forces fighting to take Iberia back from the Moslems.  As part of their agenda, the Almohads also punished the Moslems living in Spain for having become ‘soft’ and moderate in their views on Islam.  They also punished the Jews of Spain who lived among the Moslems for being agents of their corruption. Many Jews would flee Spain as the Almodhades consolidated their power, thus marking the end of the Golden Age.  One of those departing because of the Almodhades was Maimonides and his family.

    1290: Edward I (England), pressured by his barons, the Church and possibly by his mother, announced the expulsion of all the Jews. The expulsion came on Tisha B’Av, adding to that days list of Jewish sorrows. By November approximately 4000 had fled. The Jews had to pay their own passage, mostly to France. They were allowed to take movables (i.e. clothing). A number of Jews were robbed and cast overboard during the voyage by the ship captains. The Jews did not return to England until 1659. This was the first national expulsion of the Jews.

    1716: A decree banishing Jews from Brussels was today; but it was not enforced: a gift to the crown overcame all difficulties. A similar decree issued forty years later had the same result. Several Jews received the right of citizenship in Brussels. Among them was one named Philip Nathan, who, in 1783, requested the government to assign a place for a new cemetery for the Jews; the old one, situated near the Porte de Namur, having disappeared in consequence of the dismantling of the fortress1860: A report of the bankruptcy case of Lord William Godolphin Osborne includes a list of his creditors among whom was a “Jew money lender.” 

    1784: In New York, the Trustees of Shearith Israel met to discuss the expansion of the Jewish cemetery.  After he was re-elected as Chairman, Myer Myers informed his colleagues  that, “Mr. Hayman Levy and Mr. Solomon Simson had bargained with Mr. Isaac Roosevelt for the ground adjacent to the Burying place for eighty pounds, one half to be paid on delivery of the deed, and the other half in twelve months or sooner." “The board voted to purchase the land.”

    1800: Birthdate of Daniel Levy Maduro Peixotto  the eldest son of Moses Levy Maduro Peixotto who was born in Amsterdam, educated in Curaçao and gained fame as an American “physician, scholar, author, and philanthropist.”  

    1829: Birthdate of Babette Steinhardt the native of Dresden who will become Babette Seligman following her marriage to Joseph Seligman

    1838: “In reaction to various political revolts that have given freedom to Jews, Pope Gregory XVI issues an edict critical of how Catholic measures against Jews have fallen by the wayside in recent years.” The Pope wrote: "The unfortunate political events that recently afflicted the Pontifical dominions have produced among other disorders the failure to observe Apostolic Constitutions and the other Edicts regarding the Jews." (As reported by Austin Cline)

     1862:It was reported today that the will of Isidor Bemlord, which has now been admitted to probate, leaves $500 to the Jews' Hospital in New York City.

    1864: A review of The History of Friedrich the Second, Called Friedrich the Great by Thomas Carlyle reports that “a closely printed chapter of twenty-two pages is devoted to M. Voltaire’s ‘powerful Jew law-suit,’ a wretched and obsolete stock-jobbing squabble.”

    1870: The First Vatican Council decrees the dogma of papal infallibility. The First Vatican Council had been summoned by Pope Pious IX  who repealed certain laws aimed at limiting occupations open to Roman Jews and opened the doors of the Ghetto and yet was also known as the Pope who refused to return Edgardo Mortara and insisted on him being raised as a Catholic.

    1873(23rd of Tammuz, 5633):Sir David Salomons, 1st Baronet, a leading figure in the 19th century struggle for Jewish emancipation in the United Kingdom passed away. . He was the first Jewish Sheriff of the City of London and Lord Mayor of London, and one of the first two Jewish people to serve in the British House of Commons.

    1876: At today’s opening session of the American Philological Society in New York, Dr. George R. Entler read a paper on “The Origin of the Hebrew Article” that disputed “the theory that the Hebrew article ‘ha’ has the same origin as the Arabic ‘al.’” According to Entler, “in Hebrew both the article and the conjunction ‘vav’ are derived from the substantive ‘avah’ and connected with the demonstrative pronoun ‘hu.’”

    1877(8th of Av, 5637):Erev Tish'a B'Av

    1877: Rabbi H. P. Mendes of Manchester, England, officiated at Tisha B’Av services this evening at the synagogue on West 19th Street in New York City.  The only light in the sanctuary came from “four candles on the reading desk and the little tapers” with which the worshippers were provided.  Rabbi Mendes is the newly appointed assistant for Rabbi J.J. Lyons

    1877: Judge Hilton denied reports that he was weakening or wavering in what he termed as his ban on “Seligman Jews” from the Grand Union Hotel in Saratoga Springs, NY.

    1877: An article published today described the role of M.A. Shaffenburg  a German Jew who had been serving as U.S. Marshal for the Territory of Colorado, in the election of Jerome B. Caffee to the U.S. Senate from Colorado.

    1878: It was reported today that Isaac Schwartz who owned a dry goods store on 3rdAvenue in New York filed for bankruptcy today.  He showed liabilities of $10,029 with no assets.

    1880(10th of Av, 5640): Since the 9th of Av fell on Shabbat, Tish'a B'Av is observed today.

    1882: Samuel Obreight, a young Jew who became the subject of a sanity hearing after he married Mary Myers, a Christian, appeared in court today.  The judge decided to release him in the custody of his wife until he can make a final ruling.

    1882: Rudolpha Leischinsky, a young Jewish woman recently arrived from Europe, is scheduled to be transferred to the Emigrant Insane Asylum on Ward’s Island today.  She had originally been taken to Bellevue after a failed suicide attempt.

    1882: It was reported that Rebbeca Gold, the wife of a Russian Jew committed suicide last night in Athens, GA. The death remains a mystery but she left a mirror and two knives in a cradle by the side of her young infant.

    1882: The striking freight handlers continued their efforts to keep foreign born workers away from the docks.  While Italian workers were fed sandwiches, the Russian Jews were getting three meals including a dinner consisting of boil meat prepared by a Jewish cook.  Both groups will be getting $.25 a day as an additional incentive not to cross the picket line.

    1883: In Hungary, the court that is trying several Jews on charges that they murdered a Christian girl, Esther Salomossy, went to Tisza Ezlar today where Moritz Scharf was forced to look through the key-hole in the door of the synagogue through which he claims to have seen the murder committed. It was obvious that the witness could have only seen one person at a time and that it was impossible to have seen a group of people.  [In early reports, Scharf claimed that his testimony came only after he had been abused and threatened.]

    1884: Four families of Jewish immigrants who are being held at Castle Garden have sent a request of the Commissioners of Emigration to be allowed to “join their friends’ in New York City who are willing to support them so that they will not become “public charges.”

    1885: Rebecca Marcus who owns a grocery store on Broome Street charged Solomon Schulman, a Russian born rabbi with larceny in Essex Market Court.  She claimed he came into her store and stole $31.  He denied the charge and said he was in the store to collect the $8 she owed him for tuition.

    1887: It was reported today that the Hebrew Standardhas declared that “a diet of crabs and lobsters is not only un-Jewish” it is also unhealthy.

    1888: At the bride’s home in St Kilda, Australia, the future Sir Isaac Alfred Isaacsmarried 18-year-old Deborah (Daisy), daughter of Isaac Jacobs, a tobacco merchant who had been president of the St Kilda Hebrew Congregation and in 1889-90 was to be president of the Chamber of Manufactures.

    1890: As of today, the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children has received $5,132.25 to be used for summer excursions.

    1890: “The Secretary of the United Hebrew Charities has learned that the family of Solomon Rasinkoff” which was mistakenly sent back to Europe by the Hamburg Line several weeks ago is now in Russia.  The steamship company has offered to bring the family back to New York if the Hebrew Charities can raise the funds to get them from Russia to the port of Hamburg.

    1891: The twenty-three Jews who arrived from Rotterdam aboard the Massadam will be returned to that port by the ship that brought them to the United States. Five other Jews who had arrived from Glasgow will suffer a similar fate.  (This method is part of the government’s plan to make the trafficking in pauper immigrants a losing business proposition for the shipping lines.)

    1891: In a letter to the Washington Star, Simon Wolf explained decision of the Democratic National Convention at Cleveland to adopt a plank for its platform “regarding the Czar’s treatment of the Jews in Russia.”

    1892: The governor of Pennsylvania has issued the papers seeking the extradition from Canada  of two Jewish peddlers named Harris and Charley who are accused of killing another peddler in Wyoming County

    1892: In his quest to create an anti-cholera vaccine, Dr. Waldemar Haffkine, a Russian born Jew, risked his own life by testing his vaccine for the first time on himself.

    1892: Arthur Richard of New York inspected the Jewish colony at Chesterfield, CT.  The colony which is home to forty families and contains hat factory as well as a creamery plant, is the first such colony funded by Baron Hirsch in New England.

    1893: The manager of the Thalia Theatre at 46 Bowery “has declared vengeance” against those who vandalized his theatre on July 15.  The vandals acted in response to a boycott against Isidor Lindemann and his Windsor Theatre by the Hebrew Trade Unions that had spread to the Thalia.

    1894: Birthdate of Isaac Emmanuilovich Babel. Born in Odessa, Babel would survive the Pogroms of 1905 and go to become a journalist and author in the Soviet.  Arrested by Stalin, he died in Siberia in 1940.  He would be exonerated after Stalin’s death.

    1894: “Sectarian Appropriations” published today provided a breakdown of the excise money collected that had been collected in 1893 and distributed to different charitable organizations including $178, 275 that went to Protestant and Jewish institutions as compared with $609,748.32 to Catholic institutions.

    1895: “Col. Waring’s Little Helpers” published today described the formation of a children’s street clean brigade which was formed during a meeting at the Hebrew Institute.

    1896: First and only meeting between Herzl and Baron Edmond de Rothschild, whose financial sponsorship the Zionist leader was seeking.

    1897: “Women Here and There” published today includes a description of a club named after Louisa Mae Alcott located in Boston that was started by Jewish women to provide educational and cultural programs for young Jewish girls including concerts, workshops and “talks on various subjects…of the most elevating tendencies.

    1898: The will of the late Jacob Berk was filed for probate in the Surrogate’s office today.

    1898: “For Jewish Publications” published described the work of the JPS which includes the recent publications of Dreamers of the Ghetto by Israel Zangwill and “an index volume of Graetz’s History the Jews  as well as the upcoming publication of Jewish Services in the Synagogue and the Home by L.N. Dembitz.

    1902: Mark Matveyevich Antokolski, the Litvak who became a world class sculptor was buried in St. Petersburg today.  The train carrying his body from Paris where died made a special stop in his native Wilno before reaching its final destination.

    1903: Wenzel von Plehv is ready to receive Herzl. Von Plehv was the Czar’s Minister of the Interior, and like many of his class and nationality, an active anti-Semite.

    1906: “The court, all chambers united, gave its judgment. After a lengthy review of the case it declared unanimously that the whole accusation against Dreyfus had been disproved, and it quashed the judgment of the Rennes court-martial sans renvoi. The explanation of the whole case is that Esterhazy and Henry were the real culprits; that they had made a trade of supplying the German government with military documents; and that once the Bordereau was discovered they availed themselves of the anti-Jewish agitation to throw suspicion on Dreyfus” (As reported by Global

    1906: Birthdate of Clifford Odets, the native of Philadelphia who wrote the script for the play "Waiting for Lefty" and the screenplay for "Sweet Smell of Success."

    1907: In Harrogate (UK), Rose Samson Hart and Simeon Hart gave birth to Herbert Lionel Adolphus Hart (H.L.A. Hart) who became a Professor of Jurisprudence at Oxford and authored numerous legal tomes including The Concept of Law.


    1911(22nd of Tammuz, 5671):Rabbi Dr. Hermann Adler CVO, the Chief Rabbi of the British Empire from 1891 to 1911 passed away. The son (and successor as Chief Rabbi) of Nathan Marcus Adler, the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica writes that he "raised the position [of Chief Rabbi] to one of much dignity and importance. “Born in Hanover, like his father, he had both a rabbinical education and a university education in Germany, and like him he subscribed to a modernized Orthodoxy. He attended University College School in London from 1852-54. He graduated at Leipzig; he later received honorary degrees from Scottish and English universities, including Oxford. He was head of a congregation in Bayswater during his father's lifetime, and his father's assistant from the time his father's health began to deteriorate in 1879, before succeeding him on his death in 1891.In 1909 he was appointed a Commander of the Royal Victorian Order. Adler wrote extensively on topics of Anglo-Jewish History and published two volumes of sermons. He was a vigorous defender of his co-religionists and their faith, as well as their sacred Scriptures.

    1913(13th of Tammuz, 5673):Edward Selig Salomon “a German immigrant to the United States who served as a Union brigadier general in the American Civil War and later became governor of Washington Territory and a California legislator” passed away. In an unusual twist, Salomon fought with Union Armies in the East and the West. He distinguished himself at the Battle of Gettysburg where he had two horses shot out from under him.  He then led his regiment in Sherman’s victorious campaign that led to the capture of Atlanta.  Salomon was appointed to his post as territorial governor of Washington by President Grant which provides further proof that the latter was not an anti-Semite.

    1917: A draft of what would become the Balfour Declaration was submitted to Lord Balfour.

    1921: In Brooklyn, Solomon Goldman, a jeweler, and the former Sarah Goldstein, who had immigrated from Russia gave birth to “Jacob E. Goldman, a physicist who as Xerox’s chief scientist founded the company’s vaunted Palo Alto Research Center, which invented the modern personal computer…” (As reported by John Markoff)

    1922:  Birthdate of American academic and philosopher, Thomas Samuel Kuhn.

    1923: Birthdate of William M. Birenbaum, the product of the Waterloo, Iowa school system who became the nationally known university administrator who helped rescue Antioch College from looming insolvency during his tenure as president there in the 1970s and ’80s. (As reported by Maraglit Fox)

    1925:  Adolf Hitler publishes his personal manifesto Mein Kampf.

    1928(1stof Av, 5688): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1934: The Jewish National Fund Council for Greater New York is sponsoring this evening’s farewell dinner for Bronx dentist and JNF activist Dr. Solomon Deutsch at the Farm Food Vegetarian Restaurant. Dr. Deutsch and his family are making Aliyah. (As reported by JTA)

    1934: In one of several efforts by Zionist leaders to reach a compromise with the Arabs, David Ben-Gurion and Dr. Magnes met with Auni Abdul Hadi, the leader of the movement devoted to Palestinian Arab independence.

    1934: A lengthy article in a Nazi newspaper attacked Egyptian Jews. The Germans stated some Jewish boys insulted the Swastika flag on the German Consul's car. The paper stated the boys were arrested.

    1937(10thof Av, 5697): Tisha B’Av observed because the 9th of Av fell on Shabbat.

    1939: The entire Jewish community of Palestine, regardless of political persuasion, participated in a general strike aimed at protesting Colonial Secretary Malcolm MacDonald’s announcement that Jewish immigration would be banned for the next six month.

    1940:Chiune Sugihara “a Japanese diplomat who served as Vice-Consul for the Empire of Japan in Lithuania” began issuing life-saving visas to Polish and Lithuanian Jews in violation of instructions from his superiors.

    1940: The Florence Times described plans for the arrival of Dr. Leopold Wallach from Stuttgart, Germany who will become the Rabbi at Temple B’Nai Israel in Sheffield, Alabama

    1941: “The first news of the Eastern killings reached England through intercepted German police messages which told of the mass shooting of ‘Jews, Jewish plunderers, Jewish bolshevists’…in numbers ranging from a hundred to several thousand at a time.”

    1942: SS Captain Theodor Dannecker inspected Camp Gur, the internment facility in southwestern France and order the inmates to prepare for transportation to Eastern Europe.  Unbeknownst to them, this meant Auschwitz.

    1942: Nine hundred Jews fled to the woods near Szarkowszczynzna as the Germans entered the town. Six hundred of them did not make it to safety and were killed

    1943(15th of Tamuz, 5703): Two hundred slave laborers are murdered at Miedzyrzec, Poland.

    1943: One thousand Jews are deported to Auschwitz from Paris

    1944: The Jews living on the island of Rhodes were ordered to assemble for what would become a transport of Hungary. The community dated back to 1492, the time of the expulsion of the Jews from Spain.

    1947: The British seized the SS Exodus carrying 4000 "illegal" immigrants. Its defiance of the British navy and its ultimate return to Germany formed one of the most dramatic episodes in post-war Jewish history. This was only one of many ships seized, turned around or actually sunk as the Jews defied the British blockade and tried to make their way to Palestine.  This episode gained additional fame because it provided the core for the famous novel and film Exodus.

    1947: Dr. Joshua Cohen was among those on board the SS Exodus when it was seized by the British. “With limited medical equipment, Cohen” had “set up impromptu clinics on every deck to care for more than 4,500 passengers, including 655 children.” Following the seizure of the ship, After the British had seized the ship, Cohen negotiated with the British doctors to have many of the wounded sent by ambulance to Haifa.  Following his experience on the Exodus, Cohen returned to the UK, only to be recruited by the British Army. He eventually returned to Israel and served for four years in the Israeli Medical Corps. Later, he was director general of the Poriya Hospital outside Tiberias, as well as deputy director of Rambam Hospital in Haifa.

    1947: Mordechai (Motke) Eldar who had survived Auschwitz, Sachsenhausen, Mauthausen and Gunskirchen and his sisters were among the passengers on the Exodus whom the British would forcibly ship back to Hamburg.   Eldar returned to Tel Aviv a year later. He joined the IDF where he served for thirty years reaching the rank of Colonel.

    1948: The HMCS Norsyd, a flower class corvette was re-commissioned today as the INS Haganah

    1948: On the final day of Operation Dekel, Israeli forces take the villages Sh’ab and Al-Birwa.

    1948: Benjamin (Ben) Dunkelman, a Jewish veteran of the Canadian Army, commanded the 7th Brigade and its supporting units throughout Operation Dekel that came to an end toda.

    1948: As part of Operating Death to the Invander, Israeli continued their  offensive in the Negev attacking Egyptian invaders at Hatta and Karatiyya. After initial Israeli success, the Egyptians counter-attacked with tanks.  An Israeli soldier named Ron Feller risked his life in a successful effort to destroy two of the tanks using a hand held anti-tank weapon for which he had only two rounds. He received the Hero of Israel Citation for his bravery.

    1948:  A fourth and final attack by Israelis on the fortress of Latrun failed.  Latrun would remain in the hands of Jordan’s Arab Legion until 1967. 

    1948: Israeli forces take Ayin Karem ending the threatened Egyptian invasion of Jerusalem.

    1948: During the War of Independence, after ten days of fighting (July 8- July 18), a second truce went into effect.

    1948: As of today, the entire lower Galilee from Haifa Bay to the Sea of Galilee was under Israeli control.

    1948:  Over the next thirty-six hours, Dr. Stanley Levin, a volunteer surgeon from South Africa “performed 28 successive surgeries” without stopping for a break.

    1948: Modi Alon scored his third aerial victory today when he shot down a Royal Egyptian Air Force Spit fired piloted by Wing Commander Said Afifi al-Janzuri.  The Spitfire had been the backbone of the RAF during the Blitz in 1940.  Alon had received served in the RAF during the war but had flown the American made P-51.

    1948: Birthdate of Graham Spanier who was forced to resign as President of Penn State University for his role in the school’s sex abuse scandal.

    1951:The Jerusalem Post reported that while the Knesset voted for equal rights for women, the word ba'al (the word for husband which literally means also a master) was replaced with ish (man, meaning husband as well). The Women's Equal Rights Bill was unanimously opposed at the annual conference of four Israeli kadis (Moslem religious officials), held in Jerusalem. The kadis, however, eased the divorce laws for separated wives. Henceforth Israel's Arab women whose husbands were abroad would become eligible to remarry, if they wished to press divorce proceedings.

    1967:Germaine Ribière, a French Catholic member of the Resistance born in 1917 “was recognized as a Righteous Among the Nations by Yad Vashem.

    1970: Menahem Eini was taken prisoner when his F-4E Phantom II was shot down during the War of Attrition.

    1970(14th of Tammuz, 5730): Shmuel Hetz was killed when his F-4E Phantom II was shot down during the War of Attrition.

    1976:The Jerusalem Post reported that during his electoral campaign, Jimmy Carter, the US presidential candidate, announced that he believed strongly that "Israel made enough concessions, and it was time that Arabs made some."

     1978: Egyptian & Israeli officials begin 2 days of talks.

    1979:A fifteen-day conference co-sponsored by Sarah Lawrence, the Women's Action Alliance and the Smithsonian Institution, began on this date at Sarah Lawrence College. Intended for female leaders, it was attended by a diverse range of participants representing 43 different women's organizations.The institute was organized by Sarah Lawrence professor Gerda Lerner One of the pioneers of women's history, Lerner hoped to introduce a diverse group of varied backgrounds to the possibilities of women's history. Lerner described the 15-day course as equivalent to a semester-long seminar. In addition to ongoing afternoon workshops and evening cultural events, each morning's program featured one lecture by the seminar instructors. Joining Lerner as the principle instructors were Alice Kessler-Harris and Amy Swerdlow, both pioneering feminists and women's historians.

    1982(27th of Tammuz, 5742): Eighty-five year old “Roman Jakobson, an internationally known authority on Slavic languages and literatures” passed away today at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston which was not far from his home  in Cambridge, Mass.

    1983(8th of Av, 5743):Erev Tish'a B'Av

    1994(10th of Av, 5754):In Buenos Aires a car bomb exploded outside the building housing the AMIA, the Asociación Mutual Israelita Argentina (Argentine Israelite Mutual Association, or AMIA) building killing 85 people and wounding more than 200 others in what remains the most deadly anti-Semitic incident anywhere since World War II and came two years after 29 people died in a similar attack on the Israeli Embassy in Argentina.

    1995: Ehud Barak succeeded David Libai as Interior Minister.

    1997(13th of Tammuz, 5757):Sir James Goldsmith, a flamboyant British-French financier who maintained three families, homes in four countries and used his billions to fight the European Union, passed away today at the age of 64 after having battled pancreatic cancer for four years.  His father was Jewish.  His mother was not.

    1999: The New York Times reviews books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including “Spinoza: A Life” by Steven Nadler.

    2001: Daniel C. Kurtzer presented his credentials as U.S. Ambassador to Israel.

    2004: At the Teatro dell'Opera di Roma,  the fifth and final performance of the Biblical opera "Nabucco" by Giuseppe Verdi in which acclaimed Israeli theatre and opera director Jacobo Kaufmann,  directs and designs the scenery. He is the first Israeli ever to be hired to direct an opera in Italy.

    2004: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including the recently released paperback edition of “In Praise of Nepotism: A History of Family Enterprise From King David to George W. Bush” by Adam Bellow, the son of novelist Saul Bellow, who succeeds in canvassing much of Western history (not to mention Confucian and Hindu traditions) to argue that kinship is ''both natural and necessary.''

    2004:With President Néstor Kirchner looking on, Argentine Jewish leaders today marked the 10th anniversary of a deadly anti-Semitic attack here by delivering blistering attacks on his predecessors and European institutions they say have blocked efforts to bring the perpetrators to justice. The bombing killed 85 people and wounded about 300 at a Jewish recreation and education center, commonly known as AMIA, its Spanish initials. Though a group of police officers are on trial for having procured the vehicle in which the bomb was placed, Argentina has been thwarted in efforts to prosecute Iranian government officials it says organized the attack.In a sharp speech, Abraham Kaul, the president of the community group, criticized Britain's refusal to allow the extradition of a former Iranian ambassador to Argentina who was indicted here last year, and also complained about a lack of cooperation in Switzerland in determining how the attack was financed. ''They have betrayed us,'' Mr. Kaul said. But the harshest criticisms were reserved for Carlos Saúl Menem, who was president of Argentina at the time of the bombing and has been accused by a defector from Iranian intelligence of having deliberately undermined the official inquiry into the attack. Mr. Menem is now living in self-imposed exile in neighboring Chile rather than submitting to questioning in relation to corruption charges pending against him here.'' Carlos Menem is the culprit and is a criminal fugitive,'' said Marina Degtiar, who spoke on behalf of relatives of the victims. Because of Mr. Menem's efforts to cover up the case, she said, ''so many facts still lie with impunity beneath the ruins.'' There has long been resentment here over the botched investigation, but the anger has grown in recent months as a result of the train bombings that killed 190 people in Madrid in March. Although the Spanish government initially blamed the attack on Basque separatists, its ability to identify and apprehend fairly quickly the people suspected of being Islamic militant organizers has been repeatedly contrasted here with the Argentine government's ineptitude or unwillingness to act. In recent months, there has also been talk here of seeking ''a Lockerbie solution,'' in which Argentina would relinquish some of its legal claims so that the accused Iranians could stand trial in a third country. But Iran, which threatened to ''adopt appropriate measures'' if Argentina did not revoke the indictments, has offered no indication it is interested in such a deal. With the recent release of government documents, ordered by Mr. Kirchner, Jewish community groups are also pushing for a belated investigation into a Syrian link to the attack. Among the questions they have raised is why Mr. Menem, himself of Syrian descent, allowed various Syrian citizens who were then under surveillance to leave Argentina in the wake of the bombing, including one who is said to be a cousin of Hafez al-Assad, who was then the president of Syria. Mr. Kirchner, who took office 14 months ago, is the first Argentine president to attend the annual AMIA ceremonies. In April, he described the unsolved case as such ''a national disgrace'' that it required him to ''find the historical truth,'' and on Sunday he was hugged, kissed and greeted with cries of ''keep on pushing, Mr. President,'' by relatives of many of the victims. But his wife, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, generated criticism last week when in an interview with a local Jewish publication she suggested that some Jewish leaders aided in the cover-up. Mrs. Kirchner, a prominent senator and member of a legislative commission that also investigated the bombing, was understood to be referring to an ally of Mr. Menem who controlled a financially troubled bank that received questionable government support. Mr. Kirchner is scheduled to meet Monday with members of a delegation representing the American Jewish Committee. In an interview, David A. Harris, executive director of the group, said resolving the AMIA case will ''require extraordinary political will and courage'' and urged Mr. Kirchner ''to translate good intentions into concrete results.'' ''That is going to be a mountain of a challenge,'' Mr. Harris said. ''It's late in the day.''

     2005: Rabbi Aaron Sherman officially assumes the pulpit at Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 

    2006: The following were among a total of 43 Israeli civilians (including four who died of heart attacks during rocket barrages) and 116 IDF soldiers were killed in the Israel-Hizbullah war:Andrei Zelinsky, 36, of Nahariya.

    2007: The 93rdannual national Hadassah Convention comes to an end.

    2008: In Cedar Rapids, Iowa, weather permitting, Temple Judah is scheduled to celebrate Friday night Shabbat Services in the new Silber Family Outdoor Sanctuary.

    2008: In an article entitled “The Floods of 2008,” George C. Ford describes the impact of the worst natural disaster in the history of Cedar Rapids on the Siegel family, who has been prominent members of the business community for over six decades and pillars of the Jewish community.

    Sixty-eight years after Siegel’s Jewelry & Loan opened in downtown Cedar Rapids, the business was forced to relocate following last month’s flooding. Ken Siegel and his brother, Jary, who operated the store at 105 Third Ave. SE, signed a lease for a vacant store at 3525 First Ave. SE within days after learning the extent of the damage to their business.
    “When we were finally allowed back into downtown to check our business on June 16, we found the windows were broken and blackened,” Ken Siegel said. “Looking inside the store, we saw the walls were buckled in, display cases had been flipped upside down and torn apart and there was really complete devastation.” Although Jary Siegel and store employees had moved merchandise like plasma televisions and guitars from the basement to the top of the showcases on the first floor, the floodwaters destroyed virtually everything but jewelry stored in two safes. “All of our retail jewelry and diamonds were stored in the safes,” Ken Siegel said. “Unfortunately, the safes had digital locks that were shorted out by the floodwaters and we were stuck for about a week. We looked all over the country for someone to get the safes open until Jeremy at John’s Lock & Key in Cedar Rapids was able to get them open.” Siegel said more than 3,000 envelopes containing diamonds and other jewelry had to be opened by hand.“We had between 10 and 12 people cleaning the jewelry, matching the diamonds with certificates, creating new paperwork and cataloging each item,” he said. “We also had about 3,000 or 4,000 DVDs in our inventory. We were able to recover about 2,000, but we had to throw away the cases because they were submerged. “We literally lost thousands of items. I would estimate that we lost at least $250,000 worth of merchandise.” Cy Christenson, 92, who has repaired watches at Siegel’s since 1976, lost all of his tools as well as “enough parts and crystals for five shops,” according to Siegel. “We’re still recovering customers’ watches left for repair.” Siegel said getting the business up and running was a priority.“We’re in essence like a bank, so if a bank closes, customers get upset when they can’t get their money,” he said. “We’re also a loan institution as well, so we had hundreds of people calling to find out if they could get their merchandise.” Siegel said customers who pawned merchandise other than jewelry likely will not be able to redeem their items.
     “The national pawn contract says that we’re not responsible for catastrophic events like fire and floods,” he said. “We have insurance for everything but flooding.” Siegel said customers who pawned merchandise usually were loaned anywhere from 50 percent to 60 percent of the value when it was pawned.“Most of the customers we have talked with have been very understanding,” he said.Asked if the business will return to the building it bought in 2005 after being a tenant for 65 years, Siegel does not have an answer.“We’re trying to rescue a $500,000 investment,” he said.“We would like to go back downtown. We love the downtown area, but we will have to see what develops over the next few years.”

    2009: Fifteenth anniversary of the AMIA bombing attack.  The following was sent to us by an anonymous Argentine Jew whose pain has not been dimmed by the passing of time.

    The AMIA Bombing was an attack on the Asociación Mutual Israelita Argentina (Argentine Israelite Mutual Association, or AMIA) building in Buenos Aires on July 18, 1994, that killed 85 people. Carried out under Carlos Menem's presidency (1989-1999), it was Argentina's deadliest bombing. Argentina is home to a Jewish community of 200,000, the largest in Latin America. It was one of the Largest Attacks against Jews after the holocaust. I'm an Argentine Jew, not only I've lost people close to my life in this attack but our lives as Jews in Argentina changed forever, we lost everything we had, including our voices. As we continue to hear the silence of the international community and the lack of care of our own community. Now isn’t it sad to read the level of ignorance that the Jewish community worldwide has about this. I have questioned myself every year, why? Why would people care so little about this? They attacked us for not only being Jews but as they see us as a way to attack Israel, so at least for that basic reason, even if you don't care about the Jews in Argentina, don't you care about an attack towards Israel? Even if Israelis didn't die.. We died due to that... As every year not only I ask tons of people if they know about this day, and obviously they are totally ignorant, Do you think you might have a little place in your heart to remind yourselves that we as well represent the Jewish population, that 85 people died and 300 severely injured and put this solemn day of remembrance in your little calendar... I'd say just for respect. Just at least for respect even if you don't care....I'm the daughter of a holocaust survivor... the same way I remember all of my family and all of the victims of the holocaust, I as well make a very special place in my heart to remember the AMIA and the Bombing of the Israeli embassy in Argentina. And we still don't have support, and we still don't have justice, and still the world continues to ignore our cries of help....Shame shame, shame on ignorance... shame that people just don't care.

    [Ed. Note; We hope that by publishing this as it was written, we have in some small way atoned for previous failure to note this tragic event in our people’s history.  Zachor – Remember and remember we will.]

    2009: The Jerusalem Film Festival features a screening of Harlan-In the Shadow of the Jew Suss.

    2010: In Bethlehem, PA, table games began today at a casino owned by Sheldon Adelson

    2010:Controlled Chaos and Brawny Braininess Watcha Clan with Charming Hostess” are scheduled to appear on the final day of the 25th Annual Jewish Music Festival in San Francisco.

    2010:  The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including   Where I Live:New and Selected Poems 1990-2010 by Maxine Kumin, the Philadelphia born Jewish poet.

    2010:Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu leaves for Egypt today to discuss with President Hosni Mubarak the possibility of launching direct negotiations between Israel and the Palestinian Authority.

    2010:Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu today said he opposes the conversion bill proposed by Yisrael Beiteinu, which would give sole authority over Israel's conversions to the Chief Rabbinate, saying it will "tear apart the Jewish people."

    2011: In an article published today entitled “Roseanne’s New Reality” the aging Jewish born comedian reveals that “every Friday night for Shabbat from sundown until 2 a.m., she gets high, drinks red wine, and does a meditation Rav Berg taught her.”

    2011: In an article published today entitled “Egypt’s Rising Power” examined the career of Amr Moussa the leading candidate to be the next President of Egypt. What his “supporters love most “about him “is his long and vocal history of anti-Israel diatribes.”  Moussa insisted that he would honor the treaty despite his opposition to Sadat’s peace moves.

    2011:A 50-year-old Jewish man from the Beit Zayit suburb of Jerusalem was arrested by police today afternoon on suspicion of being responsible for the forest fire in Jerusalem yesterday.

    2011:The Malaysian government-backed newspaper said in an editorial that foreign Jewish groups will try to use a current push for reform to interfere in the country. “At a time when the drumbeats in the name of human rights are getting boisterous, it will give the best opportunity for pro-Jewish groups to interfere in any Muslim countries," the Utusan Malaysia daily said in an editorial today. "Muslims and Malaysians should not allow any party, especially the Jews, to discreetly interfere in the country’s administration.""The success and prosperity of Malaysia as a model Islamic nation has created jealousy to a certain country and this is made worse by Malaysia’s firm stand in fighting against violence by the Jews in Palestine," the editorial continues. "The Jews will find ways to destroy our prosperity and well-being. "We probably think that this is a misplaced concern, but we must not forget the fate of certain countries which have been victims of the hidden hands," it concludes. The editorial does not provide evidence of a Jewish plot. Malaysia has no diplomatic ties with Israel and supports the Palestinian cause. Some 20,000 people marched in the Malaysian capital of Kuala Lumpur on July 9 demanding electoral reform.

    2012: Center for Jewish History and American Jewish Historical Society are scheduled to present screenings of “Hester Street” and “Sweatshop Cinderella.”

    2012: The Illinois Holocaust Museum & Education Center is scheduled to present “A Magical Eve with James Conlon” during which Maestro Conlon will share insights about his "Breaking the Silence" series featuring music from composers whose work had been silenced by the Nazis.

    2012(28thof Tammuz, 5772): One-hundred two year old Rabbi Yosef Shalom Eliashiv passed away today. (As reported by Matti Friedman)

    2012(28thof Tammuz, 5772).Seven people were killed and 32 injured when a bomb exploded on an Israeli tourist bus at the airport of the Bulgarian city of Burgas today, the 18th anniversary of the Iran-sponsored attack on the AMIA Jewish center in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Six of the victims died on the spot, and the seventh in the hospital following the attack, Bulgarian officials confirmed. Two of the victims were said to be Bulgarian -- the bus driver and tour guide.(As reported by Yaakov Katz, Herb Keinon, Yaakov Lappin)

    2013: In Waukee, Iowa is scheduled to sponsor “Keeping The Homeland Safe: Israel and Iowa Together” featuring Sheriffs Paul A. Fitzgerald, Ted Kamatchus and Bill McCarthy.

    2013: The Maccabiah Games are scheduled to officially open this evening at Teddy Stadium in Jerusalem.

    2013: The late André Tchaikowsky's opera "The Merchant of Venice" is scheduled to be premiered at the Bregenz Festival.

    2013: In New Orleans, “The World of Fiddler on the Roof” a three part program sponsored by Reform Congregation Gates of Prayer and Orthodox Congregation Beth Israel is scheduled to begin this evening with “Marc Chagall’s World.”  For more see Crescent City Jewish News  the place to go for news about the Jewish community of Greater New Orleans

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    July 19 In History

    64: During the reign of Nero, The Great Fire at Rome comes to end. According to the Jewish Encyclopedia, Jews had been living in Rome since the second century before the Common Era since  “the pretor Hispanus issued a decree expelling all Jews who were not Italian citizens” in 139 BCE. “Under Nero the Jews of Rome had a comparatively peaceful time, owing to the favorable attitude of the empress Poppæa Sabina” a situation that would change the aftermath of the Great Revolt that would begin in two years.

    362: The Roman Emperor Julian, known to Christians as Julian the Apostate, left Constantinople and arrived in Antioch to prepare for the invasion of Persia.  While preparing for the invasion he met Jewish leaders to whom he promised he would re-build the Temple.  Julian’s short reign would come to an end in the following year and nothing came of his plans for the Third Temple.

    711:  Muslim forces under Tariq ibn Ziyad defeat the Christian Visigoths led by their king Roderic at the Battle of Guadalete.  This decisive Moorish victory was the key to the Moslems establishing their rule over the Iberian Peninsula.  Jews living in Christian Spain had suffered under the Visigoths and helped the Moors.  The Battle of Gaudalete was one of the events that led to the five century period known as the Golden Age of Spain for the Jewish people.

    1195: In Spain the Almohades defeat the Christians under Alfonso I of Toledo. The Jews of Toledo had willingly helped to finance the impoverished Alfonso ini his fight against the Almohades despite recent anti-Jewish violence that had claimed the life if Abraham Ibn-David among others. 

    1385 (10th of Av): Rabbi Menachem ben Aaron ibn Zerah, author of Zeidah la-Derekh passed away.

    1490: Yucef Franco, aged 20, a cobbler who had been arrested by the Inquisition, along with his 80 year old father at the beginning of the month, fell ill.  He asked the doctor who was treating him if he would arrange for a Rabbi to visit him.

    1510: In Brandenburg, Prussia, Joachim the Elector burned 38 Jews at the stake on a charge of desecrating the host. Another two accepted Christianity and were mercifully beheaded.

    1588: The Spanish Armada was spotted off the coast of Cornwall but the English could not do anything about it since their fleet “was trapped in Plymouth Harbor by the incoming tide.” (In an era when people think they have overcome nature in times of war, it is humbling to remember that there was a time when the future of religious freedom was at the mercy of the tides and the winds)

    1785: Birthdate of Mordecai Manuel Noah, the native Philadelphian who, according to some “was the most influential Jew in the United States in the early 19th Century.” Educated as a lawyer in Charleston, South Carolina, Noah settled in New York where he was a politician, newspaper editor, diplomat and the visionary who wanted to create a Jewish colony in New York called Ararat.  

    1797:While visiting Amsterdam, Moses Levy Maduro Peixotto, a rabbi and merchant born in Curaçao, married Judith Lopez Salzedo.  Eventually Peixotto would settle in the United States where he served as the head of Congregation Shearith Israel

    1817: “Romilda e Costanza,” an opera composed by Giacomo Meyerbeer premiered in Padua, Italy

    1821: George IV is crowned King of Great Britain and Ireland. King George would actively oppose legislation introduced in the 1830’s designed to grant Jews full rights of civil and political citizenship.

    1834: In Williamsport, KY, Abraham Jonas and Louisa Block gave birth to Benjamin Jonas who was served as a U.S. Senator from Louisiana, making him the third Jew to serve in that legislative body. (All three of them came from southern states – 2 from Louisiana and one from Florida.)

    1849: In Islington, London, Samuel Meldola and his wife gave birth to their only , Raphael Meldola who served as Professor of Organic Chemistry at the University of London and invented Meldola’s Blue Dye.

    1863: Birthdate of Hermann Bahr, the Austrian author and critic who sued the Jewish journalist Karl Kraus because he felt had been unfairly attacked in Die Fackel (The Torch) a newspaper founded and published by Kraus.

    1865: Birthdate of Yisroel Aaron Fishel, the native of Meretz (Russia) who came to the United States at the age of 20 where he gained fame and fortune as Harry Fishel, New York businessman and supporter of numerous Jewish causes.  In 1931 he founded The Harry Fischel Institute for Talmudic Research. He passed away in 1948.

    1870:  The Franco-Prussian War begins when Napoleon III declares war on the Germans.  The two states were each looking to be the dominant power in Europe.  The immediate cause of the conflict was a clash over who would rule Spain.  The war, which ended in May, 1871, was a total disaster for the French.  In addition to the general humiliation of having her capital occupied by the Prussians, the French were force to give up the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine and to pay a large indemnity to the German state.  This loss of territory and the desire to avenge the humiliation of 1870 were part of the causes of World War I. “A number of Jews, including Jules Moch and Leopold See, attained high rank in the French army. See later became Secretary General of the Ministry of the Interior. The war also marked the beginning of Rabbis serving as chaplains in the German army.” After the War, Many Jewish families preferred to emigrate from Alsace and Lorraine rather than be under German rule.

    1870: A “Hebrew clothier” from Albany was taken to court today by his maid who claimed he had prevented her from carrying away her clothing despite the fact that he owed her for two years in back wages.

    1874: Har Sinai, a Reform Congregation in Baltimore, Maryland, unanimously elected Joseph Meyer of Cleveland to serve as its rabbi.

    1877(9th of Av, 5637): Tish'a B'Av;

    1877: “The Fast of AAB,” an article published in today’s New York Times reported that “Today is the ninth day of Aab” the fast marking “the anniversary of the temple and of Jerusalem. The reformed Israelites have abandoned the observance, but it is held in veneration and kept by both orthodox Jews, both in Europe and America with fasting and gloomy services…Today is the 1,825thanniversary of the second destruction of the temple.”

    1877: At sunset, with the end of Tisha B’Av the black crepe draperies will be removed from the pulpit and furniture at the synagogue on West 19th Street in New York and the usual lighting will be returned to the structure.

    1880: It was reported today that the August edition of the Atlantic Monthly will include “The Preceptor of Moses” in which Francis H. Underwood “reconstructs a chapter of Hebrew History.” [Underwood was an American biographer who founded the Atlantic Monthly as part of the fight against slavery.  In its comments about the article, the Uitca (NY) Gazette, said that it should been included as a work of fiction since “it does not possess any particular value as a historical study.”

    1881: Two thousand people attended an “anti-Jewish” meeting in Berlin today.

    1882: As the Freight Handler’s Strike continued, today was a bad day for the Russian Jews.  An extra detachment of police had to be called out protect the Jews from the strikers at one of the piers in Jersey City while 35 Jews were fired at the Star Union Pier in New York. 

    1883: Birthdate Max Fleischer, pioneer animator and film producer. He passed away in 1992.

    1884(26thof Tammuz): Mayer Schutz, passed away today at the Brighton Beach Hotel on Coney Island.  Born in Bavaria in 1814, he came to the United States in 1840 where he “made his fortune” in the wholesale dry goods business.  He retired fifteen years so he could devote himself  “to charitable and benevolent work” including membership in the Hebrew Benevolent Society, serving as a director of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum and the Mount Sinai Hospital and holding the Presidency of Rodef Sholom.  [All glory is fleeting]

    1884: Wolf Finkelstein is being held Ward’s Island until arrangements can be made to send him back to Russia. The Jewish immigrant has a brother in Chicago who is a peddler but there is no means of getting him there and thus avoid being “a public charge.”

    1885: It was reported today that among the new rules that theatrical director Heinrich Conried has imposed on the performers of the Casino Company is one that states, “Any principle member seen talking with a rival manager will be regarded…as lukewarm to the present management” and “will subject himself to being talked about in Hebrews.” [Note - No explanation is given for this apparently odious use of the language of the Bible.  Conried was no crackpot since he would later serve as director the Metropolitan Opera.  He was from a Jewish family in Silesia, so this may have been his way of saying they would be subject to verbal abuse that they would not understand.]

    1885: In Portugal, Maria Angelina Ribeiro de Abranches de Abreu Castelo-Branco and José de Sousa Mendes gave birth to José de Sousa Mendes the Portuguese diplomat who defied his government and issued visas to 30,000 people fleeing the Nazis in 1940 including 12,000 Jews.

    1887: A free excursion for underprivileged Jewish children sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children and partially underwritten by the staff of the Hebrew Journal will take place today.

    1887:After his wife and child arrived from Europe, Louis Keptlovwitch a Jewish immigrant working as a printer in upstate New York was arrested today on charges of bigamy.  It seems that Mr. Keptlovwitch had forgotten about his Polish family and had married a Jewish woman from Newburg, NY. 

    1888: The third free excursion sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children will leave at nine o’clock this morning from a pier at 5th Street and the East River.  [There were usually three such boat trips each summer intended to get poor little children and their mothers out of the tenements on the Lower East Side. These Jewish efforts mirrored the work of Julia Hull.]

    1891: “Famine In Russia” published today expressed the fear that Czar may cope with the problem in the traditional manner, starting a war with a nation on one of its borders.  The French are trying to calm the situation by extending credit but they are being hampered by the hostility of “all the great Jewish financial houses in Western Europe” brought by the shameful persecution of the Jews.

    1891: “Aid For A Worthy Charity” published today described the excursions that the Santiarium for Hebrew Children is offering on a weekly bases “to poor Jewish women and children.” Approximately 700 people take part in each outing which includes two “substantial meals” for each of the travelers.

    1892: Coroner Lindsay attempted to hold an inquest to determine the cause of death for Berhr Israelson, whom the doctors said died of apoplexy but whom the Jews living in the building said died after being clubbed by a police officer named Clarke.

    1895: The Children’s Street Cleaning Brigade is scheduled to have its second meeting tonight at the Hebrew Institute.

    1895: The funeral of Simon M. Erhlich, the Chief Justice of the City Court, is scheduled to take place at Temple Emanu-El this morning.

    1896(9thof Av, 5656): Tish’a B’av

    1896(9thof Av, 5656): Fifty-five year old Charles Liebhaber, who had just gotten out of the hospital, passed away today while attending services at Congregation Tifereth Israel on 126 Allen Street in New York.

    1897: Birthdate of Theresa Wolfson,  the daughter of Russian immigrants who became a professor of economics and labor relations at Brooklyn College.

    1898: "Novelist Emile Zola fled France after being convicted of libel against the French Army in the...Dreyfus affair."  Zola had written a famous letter to the newspaper entitled "J'Accuse" (I Accuse).  The letter exposed the conspiracy at the highest level of the French military establishment to convict Dreyfus and then to cover up the fact that he another officer was guilty of crime of which Dreyfus had been accused. 

    1898: A list of bequests by the late Jacob Berk published today including $1,000 each to the Montefiore Home, the Hebrew Orphan Asylum, Mount Sinai Hospital, the Hebrew Technical Institute and the Home of the Independent Order of B’nai B’rith at Yonkers, NY.

    1908:  Emma Goldman's personal manifesto, "What I Believe," was published by the New York World.

    1909(1st of Av, 5669): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1918: Persian Jews in Hamadan wire the Zionist headquarters in Petrograd, asking that representation be made to the Russian government on behalf of 20,000 Jews who were robbed and left homeless by the Bolshevik troops before their departure.  

    1919: Lawyer-statesman, Louis Marshall, addressed an overflow crowd of Jews at Carnegie Hall.  They were there to celebrate Marshall’s achievement of having the rights of Polish Jews recognized by the Minorities Treaty.

    1921:  Birthdate of Nobel Prize Winner Dr. Rosalyn Sussman Yalow.  When she won the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1977, she was only the second woman to win the prize in the field of Medicine. "

    1928:Sir Harry Charles Luke, a British colonial official, assumed the position acting Chief Secretary to the Government of Palestine today. In 1929, he would make an unsuccessful attempt to mediate an agreement between Jewish and Arab leaders.

    1928: Joseph Lefkowitz is scheduled to be executed today at Sing Song for arranging the drowning of Benjamin Goldstein so that he could collect on an $80,000 insurance policy issued by Metropolitan Life.

    1931(5thof Av, 5691): Seventy-eight year Joseph E. Newburger who had served as a state Supreme Court Justice and President of the Board of Trustees of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum passed away today at Bluff Point, NY.

    1934: Birthdate of Larry Zolf, a Canadian journalist and commentator.

    1936:The Palestine Post reported that four more Jews were killed by Arabs in various separate murderous assaults throughout the country. This raised the number of Jewish victims of Arab disturbances to 47 since April 19. Guards at Ein Harod and Kfar Saba repulsed Arab attacks. Six Arab terrorists were killed when they bombed a military convoy near Tulkarm. A gaping hole was reported to have been made by Arab terrorists in their first attempt to sabotage the Iraqi Petroleum Co.'s pipeline. Police protection was promised for the traditional visit of religious Jews to Rachel's Tomb on the Bethlehem road, during the month of Av.

    1937: Dr. Chaim Weizmann records the details of conversations held with William Ormsby-Gore, the British Colonial Secretary in which the two leaders discussed the recommendations of the recently released report by the Royal Commission.

    1940: Dr. Leopold Wallach is scheduled to lead his first Friday Night Service at Temple B’Nai Israel in Sheffield, Alabama. The 30 year old rabbi arrived in the United States 10 months ago from Germany and is “the first full-time Rabbi” employed by the rabbi for many years.

    1942: Himmler sent a directive to SS Lieutenant-General Wilhelm Kruger, head of the German police forces in the General Government. The directive ordered "the resettlement of the entire Jewish population of the General Government be carried out and completed by December 31.The General Government was the term for the Nazi administration in occupied Poland. The order was issued "in the name of the New Order, security and cleanliness of the German Reich."

    1941:Vinnitsa, Ukraine was captured by German troops which would eventually lead to the massacre of the town’s 28,000 Jews.

    1942: Deportations to the Auschwitz death camp begin for Parisian Jews who have been held at Drancy, France, since July 16.

    1942: The Family Hostage Law is announced in Occupied France. Under its provisions, fugitive "terrorists" who do not surrender to German authorities can expect their male relatives to be killed, female relatives sent to work camps, and children sent to special schools for political reeducation.

     1943: Three thousand, five hundred Jews were taken from the Birkenau camp to the ruins of the Warsaw Ghetto. Their task is to comb the ruins for valuables left by the Jews

    1944: Twelve hundred Hungarian Jews from Kistarcsa are trucked to Rákoscsaba, Hungary, and then loaded onto trains bound for Auschwitz.

    1944: Relying on information leaked by British intelligence, “BBC Radio broadcast a story that two emissaries of the Hungarian government had appeared in Turkey, proposing that all Jews in Hungary would be allowed to leave if England and America supplied pharmaceuticals and transport to the Germans, with a promise from the Germans that the equipment would not be used on the Western front. The proposal, which the BBC called "humanitarian blackmail," was reported as a crude attempt to set the Allies against each other. The report added that it was not clear whether the plan had the approval of the German and Hungarian authorities.” [This is part of one of the most improbable tales from the Shoah in which Eichmann supposedly was ready to swap a half million Hungarian Jews for equipment that he  could only have been used to fight the Soviets]

    1944: Angelo Roncalli, the future Pope John XXIII, appeals to Admiral Miklós Horthy on behalf of 5000 Hungarian Jews with Palestinian visas. Roncalli provides baptismal certificates for Jews in hiding.

    1947: Birthdate of famed trumpeter and leading conductor, Gerard Schwarz.  In addition to his many professional honors and accomplishments, Schwarz is active in the Jewish community.Schwarz was a founding member of Music of Remembrance, an organization dedicated to remembering Holocaust victim musicians. He is also an active member of Seattle’s Temple De Hirsch Sinai and has lectured on Jewish music there and at various Jewish Federation events, both local and regional.”

    1947:The Runnymede Park, Ocean Vigour and Empire Rival, three deportation ships under British control, which were filled with Jewish refugees from the SS Exodus, set sail from Haifa bound for Port-de-Bouc, France.   The British sailed the commandeered ship into Haifa port, where its passengers were transferred to three more seaworthy deportation ships, Runnymede Park, Ocean Vigour and Empire Rival. The event was witnessed by members of UNSCOP. These ships left Haifa harbour on July 19 for Port-de-Bouc. Foreign Secretary Bevin insisted that the French get their ship back as well as its

    1948: After ten days of fighting, the road from Haifa to Nazareth was firmly in Israeli hands.

    1948: The “Second Truce” goes into effect.  The state of Israel had survived for two months despite two rounds of fighting with invading Arab Armies.  The Jewish state was still not one contiguous unit.  Egyptian forces were still in the Negev.  The Jerusalem corridor was a slender strip of land and some northern settlements were cut-off from the rest of the country by Arab forces. Despite the truce, there would still be more fighting before the armistice documents would be signed in 1949.  Still and all, the Jewish nation, even a precarious state, was a reality.

    1948: In Jerusalem, Israeli forces drive off an Arab attack designed to penetrate the new, modern, Jewish section, of the city

    1948:The main Cairo store owned by Cicurel family was damaged by a bomb today. The attack was thought to be the work of the Muslim Brothers. The store was part of a chain started by the family of Moreno Cicurel had migrated to Cairo from Izmir in the mid-nineteenth century

    1951: Sir Laurence Olivier presided at the opening of the Irving Memorial Garden, built to honor memory of Sir Henry Irving who as an actor was known for his portrayal of Shylock and as a theatre manager for the production of “The Bells”, a version of Erckmann-Chatrian's “Le Juif polonaise” by Leopold Lewis. According to contemporaries, “he invested” his portrayal of Shylock with a “dignity” that was a marked “departure from the traditional interpretation of the role.”

    1951:The US, Britain and France were prepared to back Israel's protest to the UN Security Council against the Egyptian blockage of the Suez Canal for shipping destined for Israel. The Egyptian blockade was a violation of international law. It would take the war in 1967 to finally establish Israel’s right to have access to the international waterway.

    1951: In New York, John Blandford, the new director of UNWRA, was planning a tour of the Arab countries in order to provide the Palestine Arab refugees with homes and constructive work. This was the beginning of the "Arab Refugee Problem" created, in part, by the unwillingness of Arab states to allow the Palestinians to live in the homelands of their fellow Arabs.

    1953:Birthdate of Howard Schultz, founder of Starbucks.

    1955: The Yarkon water project was opened. The Yarkon River flows near Tel Aviv.

    1969:  Israeli commandos begin a night attack on Green Island, a major military installation in the Gulf of Suez.  The attack is one of the most difficult undertaken by Israel’s special operations forces.  It would be a joint attack included forces from the Army’s Sayeret Matkla unit (a cross between the Green Berets and the Rangers) and the Navy’s Sayetet 13 or Flotilla 13, commonly known as Ha’commando Ha’yami, similar to the U.S. Navy’s SEALS.

    1969: For the feats of heroism performed today during Operation Bulmus Ami Ayalon was awarded the Medal of Valor, the IDF’s version of the Congressional Medal of Honor.

    1970: Yosef Goldschmidt began his second term as Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs.

    1973: Ninth Maccabiah comes to a close.

    1976: The Jerusalem Post reported that the Israeli pound was again devalued by 2 percent, to IL 8.12 to the dollar. But the cabinet ended its exclusive linkage to the dollar, and altered the year-old system of creeping devaluations to make their dates harder to guess. The pound was linked to a basket of currencies (including the dollar). The special ministerial committee was empowered to devalue the pound by up to 8 percent within the set four-month period in any way it chose. The Histadrut Executive decided to increase the membership dues and allowed Kupat Holim to charge its members for doctors' prescriptions

    1981(17th of Tammuz, 5741): Tzom Tammuz

    1981(17th of Tammuz, 5741): A boy of 17 was killed and 15 people were injured as a result of Katyusha bombardments on western Galilee.

    1983(9th of Av, 5743): Tish'a B'Av

    1985(1st of Av, 5745): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1985(1st of Av, 5745): Captain (Hon). Ewen Edward Samuel Montagu, RNR, CBE, QC, DL passed away. Born in 1901, he was a British judge, writer and Naval intelligence officer. Montagu was the second son of the prominent peer Louis Samuel Montagu, 2nd Baron Swaythling. During World War II, Montagu served in the Naval Intelligence Division of the British Admiralty, rising to the rank of Lieutenant Commander RNVR. While Commanding Officer of NID 17M, Squadron Leader Charles Cholmondely, RAFVR and he conceived Operation Mincemeat, on the war’s most successful act’s of deception.  Thanks to Operation Mincemeat, the forces of Operation Husky, the invasion of Sicily, enjoyed the element of surprise that helped to make the invasion a success. For his role in Mincemeat, he was awarded the Military Order of the British Empire. He wrote The Man Who Never Was in 1953 which was an account of Operation Mincemeat that was made into a movie three years later. He was president of the United Synagogue, 1954-62, and vice-president of the Anglo-Jewish Association.

    1985: Five children were stabbed and wounded by a terrorist from Dura in the centre of Jerusalem.

    1989(16thof Tammuz, 5749): Seventy-year old Israeli author and sculptor Benjamin Tammuz passed away.


    1994(11th of Av, 5754)Gottfried Reinhardt, the German born film director and producer who was the son of the Austrian theater director Max Reinhardt, passed away in Los Angeles

    1998: The New York Times featured books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Stephen Sondheim: A Life by Meryle Secrest, Explaining Hitler: The Search for the Origins of His Evil by Ron Rosenbaum, Summer Sistersby Judy Blume and The Last Kabbalist of Lisbon by Richard Zimler

    2002: “In his regular column for the National Catholic Reporter, John L. Allen Jr. quotes unidentified Vatican officials who suggest that Jewish bias against the Roman Catholic Church is partially responsible for the widespread media coverage and bias in the sexual abuse scandal.”

    2004(1st of Av, 5764): Rosh Chodesh Av

    2004: Eliezer Sanburg swapped ministerial portfolios today as he  began serving as Minister of Energy and Infrastructure after completing his term as Minister of Science and Technology

    2006: “Strike on Israeli Navy Ship” published today reported that after having been suffered damage from a missile attack off the coast of Lebanon, “ the INS Hanit stayed afloat, got itself out of the line of fire, and made the rest of the journey back to Ashdod port for repairs on its own

    2006:  The second in a series of three concerts takes place at Jerusalem’s Confederation House featuring bakashot (prayers of request in the Sephardic fashion). This concert focuses on the bakashot of Morocco.

    2006: The following were among the total of 43 Israeli civilians (including four who died of heart attacks during rocket barrages) and 116 IDF soldiers who were killed in the Israel-Hezbollah war:St.-Sgt. Yonatan Hadassi, 21, of Kibbutz Merhavia; St.-Sgt. Yotam Gilboa, of Kibbutz Maoz Haim, Rabiya Abed Taluzi, three, and his brother Mahmoud, 7, of Nazareth.

    2007: In Jerusalem, The Zeek Gallery at the Yellow Submarine presents an exhibition entitled "Chance Music."

    2008:Less than a month after meeting the chairman of the US Joint Chiefs of Staff in Israel, IDF Chief of General Staff Lt.-Gen. Gabi Ashkenazi left for the United States for a week of talks - with a focus on Iran - with top US defense and diplomatic officials. The visit is Ashkenazi's first to the US as chief of General Staff and comes following two visits Chairman of the US Joint Chiefs of Staff Adm. Michael Mullen has made to Israel in the past seven months.

    2009:A stretch of Vienna’s Danube River will be transformed into a sunny beachfront from April through October. Today’s official launch party pays tribute to Tel Aviv’s Centennial with Israeli music, concerts and an upbeat summer party.

    2009: At the 18th Maccabiah Games the Israel cricket team plays a team from South Africa and Great Britain plays India as the round robin matches continue.

    2009: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Kissinger:1973, the Crucial Yearby Alistair Horne.

    2009: The Governor of Kentucky announced that Jerry Abramson would be running of Lt. Gov. on his ticked in 2011.

    2010: An advanced screening of “Lebanon,” a film based on Post-screening discussion with director Samuel Maoz’s own experience during the war with Lebanon in 1982, is scheduled to take place at The Museum of Jewish Heritage in New York.

    2010: It was announced today that The IDF and Shin Bet (Israel Security Agency) have arrested a Hamas terror cell that was operating in the West Bank and was behind a shooting attack last month in the southern Hebron Hills which killed policeman Shuki Sofer.

    2010(8th of Av, 5770): Eighty-six year old particle physicist  Gerson Goldhaber, whose accomplishments earned him the title of California Scientist of the Year and the Panofsky Prize of the American Physical Society. (As reported by Jascha Hoffman)

    2011: In New York City, The Dor Chadash Book Salon series is scheduled to present Dorit Rabinyan, the Israeli author of A Strand of a Thousand Pearls,

    2011:IDF Chief of Staff Benny Gantz ordered the Israel Navy to intercept the French yacht Dignite-Al Karame after it had refused to stop heading toward the Gaza shore.

    2011:The New Zealand Security Intelligence Service (SIS) suspected that Israeli spies may have been among the Israeli casualties in the powerful 6.3 earthquake which hit New Zealand earlier this year, killing 181 people including three Israelis, New Zealand newspaper The Southland Times reported today. Israel's Ambassador to New Zealand, Shemi Tzur dismissed the charge as "science fiction."

    2011(17thof Tammuz, 5771) Fast of the 17th of Tammuz

    2012: The Illinois Holocaust Museum & Education Center is scheduled to present “Seeking Justice,” a lecture by Eli Rosnebam, “the longest-serving prosecutor and investigator of Nazi criminals and other perpetrators of human rights violations.”

    2012: “Hava Nagila” (the movie) is scheduled to be shown on the opening night of the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.

    2012: Twenty of those “lightly injured” in yesterday’s terrorist attack in Bulgaria are scheduled to be flown to Israel starting today.

    2012: Aairplane carrying 32 Israeli tourists wounded in the attack in Burgas yesterday landed in Ben Gurion Airport this afternoon. Three victims remained in serious condition at a hospital in the Bulgarian capital of Sofia. Military medical staff currently in Bulgaria have yet to determine whether they will be flown to Israel later in the day.

    2012: The five Israelis killed in yesterday’s terror attack in Bulgaria arrived in Israel late tonight, as their plane touched down at Ben-Gurion Airport in Tel Aviv shortly after 12:30 a.m. Tourism Minister Stas Misezhnikov oversaw an official ceremony for the victims, whose relatives were present for their arrival. The victims were named this evening as Amir Menashe, 27; Itzik Kolengi, 27; Maor Harush, 26; Elior Priess, 26; and Kochava Shriki, 42.

    2012: Israel has raised its military alert on the northern border, and cancelled some weekend furloughs, amid fears that the situation in neighboring Syria is rapidly spiraling out of control. Touring the border area today, Defense Minister Ehud Barak found himself within earshot of mortar shells fired between Syrian Army and rebel forces, which landed just a few hundred yards away, and he and senior Israeli army officers watched clouds of smoke rising from conflict zones that were being shelled

    2013: In Trancoso, “a learning center” devoted to the history of the Jewish community in Portugal is scheduled to open today. (As reported by Cnaan Liphshiz)

    2013:The Snowy Day and the Art of Ezra Jack Keats”  the first major exhibition in this country to pay tribute to award-winning author and illustrator Ezra Jack Keats whose beloved children’s books include Whistle for Willie, Peter’s Chair, and The Snowy Day is scheduled to open at the National Museum of American Jewish History.

    2013: The Maccabeats are scheduled to perform at the Hampton Synagogue in West Hampton.

    2013: “Mamele” is scheduled to be shown this evening as part of the “July Yiddish Film Festival at Agudas Achim” immediately after Shabbat Eve services.

    2013: A directive from the “European Union that bars its 28 members from all cooperation withIsraeli entities in the West Bank and East Jerusalem and requires that any contracts between EU member countries and Israel henceforth include a clause stating that East Jerusalem and the West Bank are not part of the State of Israel is scheduled to take affect today. (As reported by Gavriel Fiske)


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    July 20 In History

    356 BCE:  In Macedonia, King Philip II and Queen Olympia give birth to Alexander the Great. You can draw a straight line from Alexander’s Hellenization of Asia Minor to Chanukah to Tisha B’Av, 70 CE.

    70: During the Siege of Jerusalem, Titus, son of emperor Vespasian, storms the Fortress of Antonia north of the Temple Mount. The Roman army is drawn into street fights with the Zealots.

    1263: Pablo Christiani, a converted Jew, and Raymond of Penaforte, compelled King James of Aragon to force a debate between him and Moses ben Nachman (Nachmanides). The Jews were afraid that no matter what the outcome they would lose, so they pleaded with Nachmanides to withdraw. The King ordered him to continue. Although the outcome was preset (the Christians "won"), the King was so impressed that he rewarded Nachmanides with a present of 300 maravedis. Pablo was given permission to continue these debates throughout Aragon with the Jews having to pay his expenses. Two years later Nachmanides was convicted for publishing his side of the debate. Although he was not severely punished by the King, he decided to leave Spain for good and settled in Eretz-Israel.

    1402: During the Ottoman-Timurid Wars, Timur led the forces of the Timurid Empire to victory over the forces of the Ottoman Empire led by Sultan Bayezid I at the Battle of Ankara. This defeat could not have been a source of joy for the Jews living in the Ottoman Empire. Bayezid had proven to be a friend of the Jewish people. “In 1394 Sultan Bayezid invited the French Jews who were molested by King Charles VI, to settle in the Ottoman Empire. They established communities in Edirne and the Balkans. The French Kings had the habit of inviting the Jews to establish commerce and borrowing money from them. However often, when payment was due, they expelled them; only to re-invite them when they needed further financing.” Bayezid died a year after the defeat.

    1624(4th of Av): Rabbi Abraham ben David of Lemberg passed away

    1633 (13th of Av): Rabbi Nathan Shaprio, a leading Kabblist from Cracow and author of Megale Amukot passed away.

    1660: Miguel de Barrios with 152 coreligionists and fellow-sufferers set sail for the West Indies. Soon after his arrival at Tobago his young wife died, and he returned to Europe. He went to Brussels and there entered the military service of Spain

    1706:Shabbethai ben Joseph Bass who had founded printing business in Dyhernfurth, a small town near Breslau which produced its first book,  a work by Rabbi Samuel ben Uri of Waydyslav in 1689, was forced to leave Breslau as a result of local hostility to Jews.

    1775: At the request of the Continental Congress, Jews fasted and prayed for the success of the colonies against the British, and to be spared from the "agony of war."

    1790(9th of Av, 5550):Tish'a B'Av

    1808: Napoleon decreed that all Jews of the French Empire must adopt family names.

    1823: Pius VII, the Pope who rebuilt the walls of the Rome Ghetto and returned the Jews to its confines after they had been freed by Napoleon passed away today.

    1829: Birthdate of Thomas Rowe one of Australia's leading architects of the Victorian era who designed the Great Synagogue in Sydney

    1830: Birthdate of Francesca Janauschek  the Prague native who gained fame as 19th century character actress Fanny Janauschek.

    1834: Birthdate of Jacques Errera, the native of Venice who was a successful banker and the father of botanist Leo-Abram Errera.

    1847: Birthdate of painter and graphic artist Max Liebermann. "Liebermann was one of the leading German impressionist painters." He painted in the manner of the Dutch impressionists rather than the French impressionists. This meant "he often painted people at their everyday tasks and explored the effect of changing sunlight on colors and shadows." When the Nazis came to power in 1933, they included his works in their first showing of "degenerate art." He died in 1935 having been stripped of all his honors and ordered not to paint. Eight years later his was wife committed suicide. I must admit a prejudice. I like his works.

    1855: According to today’s “New by the Mail” column, “A Protestant lady in St. Louis with seven children has joined the Hebrew congregation there.”

    1862: As General George B. McClellan turned into a disaster, August Belmont wrote Thurlow Weed to express his view that the only way to effect re-union was by negotiations if possible.  He called for a cessation to the war effort because it was too costly in terms of human life and treasure.

    1863: In describing conditions in Memphis, TN, a year after it had surrendered to forces of the Union Army, the New York Times reported that “There remains in the city but a portion of the old citizens, the balance are vagabonding in Dixie, or are carrying a musket in the Southern army, or have left their bones on the hundred battle-fields of the South. Their residences here have been seized by the Government, and to-day the palatial dwellings of many an old aristocrat are occupied by National officials, and the hordes of Jews, who follow in the rear of an army, like wolves behind the hunters.” [Anti-Semitic references like this stand in stark contrast to acceptance of Jews as can be seen by the change in the law allowing Rabbis to serve as chaplains and the reality of the thousands of Jews who fought for the federals, some of whom reached the rank of general.]

    1864: Colonel Frederick Knefler commanded the 79th Indiana Infantry at the Battle of Peachtree Creek, part of Sherman’s audacious campaign to capture Atlanta.

    1869: “The Innocents Abroad” Mark Twain’s travelogue describing his visit to Europe and the Holy Land (including what is now the state of Israel) is published.  For more about the famed American humorist’s attitude towards Jews see

    1871: British Columbia joins the confederation of Canada. In 1858, the first large body of Jews arrived in British Columbia along with others seeking their fortunes in the Fraser River Gold Rush.  By 1863, there were enough Jews living in Victoria, B.C. to establish Congregation Emanu-El, now Canada's longest serving synagogue. Ten years after B.C. joined the confederation, the Jewish community would receive its next influx of settlers as refugees from Russian anti-Semitism settled in the Canadian West.

    1876: Birthdate of German mathematician Otto Blumenthal.  Blumenthal converted at the age of 18.  He may have believed that he would find the path to academic success a lot smoother as a Protestant.  In the end, it did not save him from the Nazis.  Blumenthal died in concentration camp in 1944.

    1881: It was reported today that in Neu Stettin, at least 30 anti-Semitic rioters who attacked the editor of the Neu Stettiner Zeitung, were arrested today.

    1881: “Jews In Spain” published today, relied on information from the London Times to report that “In Spain, Praxedes M Sagasta the President of the Council of Ministers wrote to a prominent European Jewish author H. Guedalla that “article 1 of the Constitution of Spain is the most decisive revocation of the edict of banishment against the Jews in the year 1492.  Thus all of your coreligionists who wish can come to Spain without any obstacle whatever…”

    1882: “A Great Fire In Smyrna” published today described the conflagration that left 6,000 people homeless including many of the city’s sizable Jewish population.  The Jews are the primary agents “in the barter and sale of merchandise from Asia, Syria, Baghdad and Persia.”

    1882: During the Freight Handler’s Strike, the strikers stopped providing food for the Jewish and Italian workers whom they had convinced to honor their strike.  Mr. Wolkawoech, the President of the Jewish Freight Handlers’ Union reluctantly provided enough funds to cover the cost of the evening meal.  [Yes there were Russia Jews among the striking workers as well as Russian Jews among what would later be called scabs.]

    1883: In Hungary, as the trial of a group of Jews charged with killing a Christian girl continued, it was reported that a constable testified that he had tortured one of the prisoners with thumbscrews. 

    1884: “Lamb and Mint Sauce” published today described John Brady’s contention that the custom of eating tansy (bitter) puddings and cakes at Easter was introduced by the monk as a symbolic remembrance of the bitter herbs used by Jews at this time of year.  The monks included bacon in their dishes “to denote contempt for Judaism.”  According to Brady, the Jews “have contrived to diminish the bitter flavor” or their tansy “by making a it into pickle for their paschal lamb.”  From all of this has come the custom of combing mint with sugar to create the mint sauce or jelly eaten with the leg of lamb. [This was based on information provided by an annual publication, Clavis Calendaraia.]

    1885: “Jews in Paris” published today summarized a report by the Judische Presse that described the growth of the Jewish population in Paris.  In 1789, there were only 500 Jews living in the French capital.  The numbers have grown: 3,000 in 1806; 12,000 in 1842; 40,000 in 1872; more than 50,000 in 1885.  Jews are more active in the general population as can be seen by the fact that the number of Jewish generals has grown from one in 1821 to five in 1878.

    1887: Mrs. Betty Michaelis “began mandamus proceedings” before Judge Potter today, “in which she asks that the Henrietta Verien be commanded to restore her to membership on the ground that her expulsion was not done according to law.” The legal action stemmed from a fight that she had with Mrs. Henrietta Loser, the President of the Henrietta Verein.

    1887: Louis Keptlovwitch, a Jewish immigrant from Poland, who has been arrested on charges of bigamy, was confronted by both of his wives – the one he married in Poland and the one he married in New York – today. 

    1889: Effective today, Coney Island’s Brighton Beach Hotel announces that it will completely exclude members of the “Hebrew Race” as guests.  The hotel was following the policy adopted by Messers Cable and Breen the lessees of the New York establishment. 

    1890: The manager of the Bank and Steamship Passage at 78 Canal Street and his soliciting agent Louis Silikowitz, were arrested on charges of having swindling their customers, most of whom were Polish and Russian Jews out money with which they had been entrusted to buy tickets for family members still in members.

    1890: It was reported today that Sol B. Solomon has raised $300 from the guests at the Long Beach Hotel to pay for the excursions provided by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children.

    1890: A portion of the 12th annual report of the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children published today showed expenditures of $3,221 and a balance of $7,126 “which is deposited in the seven leading savings banks” in New York City.

    1890: Birthdate of Theda Bara. Born Theodosia Burr Goodman in a wealthy suburb of Cincinnati, Bara’s mother was Swiss and her father was a Jewish tailor. She was known as a "vamp" and one of the first "sex symbols" of the silver screen. She passed away in 1955.

    1891: “Mercy for Russian Jews” published today described a relaxation of “the persecution of the Jews” by the government.  Decrees expelling Jewish artisans from St. Petersburg have “been indefinitely postponed” and “and orders have been seen to the press” to have newspapers “refrain from publishing articles like to excite animosity against the Jews.” 

    1892: As of today, the coroner has not made a determination in the cause of death of Behr Israelson. Doctors claim he died of apoplexy but his Jewish neighbors claimed he was clubbed to death by a policeman. The Jews would not let the coroner’s jury hear the case because there it had no Jewish members.

    1893: Three men who claim to be tailors and Russian Jews were arrested and charged with assault at the Essex Market Police Court based on evidence gathered Alter Shapiro, the Vice President of the Hebrew Protective Society that showed them to be part of a ring that robs and tortures Jews living on the lower east side.

    1893: The Marshall, who had arrived at the apartment of Mrs. Sarah Goldstein at 181 Orchard to execute the order of eviction gave her an extra day to seek relief from the courts since she said her six children who had measles were still too sick to be moved.

    1895: “Hebrew Technical Institute Open” published described the school’s unique summer course for which 200 boys ranging in age from 12 to 15 have enrolled so that they can continue their education in the workshops, laboratories and drawing rooms of the facilities on Stuyvesant Street.

    1896: It was reported today that an ambulance had arrived too late yesterday to save the life of Charles Liebhaber who had been ill for weeks but still insisted on observing the fast for the 9th of Av.

    1896: Herzl meets with the Association des Etudiants Israëlites Russes.

    1897: Funeral services were held today for Mrs. Julia Lauterbach, the widow of Moses Lauterbach, at her home on East 58th Street followed yb burial at Cypress Hills Cemetery.  She was one of those who incorporated the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society of New York, a group which served as Vice President for 11 years.

    1903: Herzl writes to Leopold Greenberg (“an English Zionist and future editor of the Jewish Chronicle”) in London to do whatever possible to revive the Sinai enterprise. This is a reference to offers by the British Foreign Office to allow Jews from Eastern Europe to settle in a part of the Sinai Peninsula known as the Brook of Egypt.  Another, better known of these schemes, was the offer to allow Jews to settle in Uganda as a temporary Jewish homeland.  These desperate proposals came against a backdrop of Pogroms in Russia and a general worsening of conditions for Jews in Eastern Europe. While Zionists in German, Austria and Britain were willing to consider such alternatives, the Zionists of eastern Europe rejected them out of hand.  Those living in the greatest physical saw the spiritual danger in accepting anything less than Eretz Israel as the homeland of the Jewish people.  In the man time Herzl wrote desperately, "We must indeed take East Africa, or at least the Charter, but we must not deceive ourselves as to the fact that all the non-English Jews are against East Africa. I shall have to use a great deal of patience for it, whereas El Arish is popular." Herzl also prepares steps to approach Portugal for a Charter for Mozambique, Belgium for a territory in the Congo and Italy for a section of Tripoli. 

    1904(8th of Av, 5664):Marcus Goldman a German-born American businessman and entrepreneur passed away. He was born in Trappstadt, Germany and immigrated to the United States in 1848. He was the founder of Goldman Sachs, which was one of the world's largest global investment banks and is now a bank

    1906: Antoine Louis Targe, a French officer whose investigations helped to establish the innocence of Dreyfus was made an officer in the Legion of Honor.

    1906: Dreyfus was made a Knight in the Legion of Honor.

    1907(9thof Av, 5667): Fast not observed because it is Shabbat.

    1908: In a letter to the New York Times, William Maude provides commentary on the antiquity of an ancient copy of the Book of Joshua obtained by Dr. Moses Gaster in Samaria.

    1919: Birthdate of Shlomo Zalman Auerbach an Orthodox Jewish rabbi, posek, and rosh yeshiva of the Kol Torah yeshiva in Jerusalem, Israel. “Auerbach was the first child to be born in the Shaarei Chesed neighborhood of Jerusalem founded by his maternal grandfather, Rabbi Shlomo Zalman Porush, after whom he was named.”

    1915(9th of Av, 5675):Tish'a B'Av

    1915: Today the Austrians conquered Russian controlled Lublin, Poland. This would appear to be the realization of  a deathbed prophecy by the Chozeh of Lublin (Yaakov Yitzchak Horowitz) came true.  When he died on July 15, 1815 (9thof Av, 5575) he said that 100 years from the day of his death, the Russians would lose their control over Poland. 

    1920: Birthdate of Lev Aronin. Born in the Soviet Union, he became International Chess Master in 1950.

    1921(14thof Tammuz, 5681): Benjamin Bennett Levy, who won the Congressional Medal of Honor during the Civil War, passed away today.

    1924: Birthdate of Ann Gilbert. Born in Szydlowiec, Poland, Ann was a Holocaust survivor. She spent over four years in concentration camps and was liberated in April 1945. She married Fred Gilbert (Felek Gebotszrajber) on Jan. 2, 1946, in Scwabisch Hall, Germany. Ann was a consummate homemaker, an accomplished seamstress, and devoted to her family. She and Fred lived in Cedar Rapids from 1949 to 1986, where she was an active member of Temple Judah and in the community. She was a lifetime member of Hadassah. From 1986 to 2003, Ann and Fred lived in Los Angeles, where she was a much sought after seamstress to film and motion picture stars. Ann and Fred were also very active in the survivor community. They were regular speakers at the Simon Wiesenthal Center-Museum of Tolerance in Los Angeles. She and Fred lectured frequently about their experiences. In 2003, she and Fred returned to Cedar Rapids to be near to Lena. Ann remained a constant source of inspiration until she passed away in 2008 at the age of 84.

    1930:  Maxim Litvinov is named the Soviet Union's Commissar of Foreign Affairs. Born Meir Henoch Mojszewicz Wallach-Finkelstein in 1876, into a wealthy Jewish banking family in Białystok in Congress Poland, he joined the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party in 1898. The party was an illegal organization, and it was customary to use pseudonyms. He changed his name to Maxim Litvinov, but was also known as Papasha and Maximovich. Over the years, his politics become more radical in response to the increasingly repressive policies of the Russian government.  He joined the Bolsheviks where he became a confidante of Lenin.  Litvinov carried out a variety of diplomatic missions for the Soviets after the Russian Revolution.  As Foreign Minister, Litvinov was a key participant that led to recognition of the Soviet government by the United States in 1933.  Litivinov sought to create an anti-fascist alliance with western powers during the 1930’s.  When the British and French caved in at Munich, Stalin decided to work on developing relations with Hitler’s government.  To that end, he removed Litvinov since it would not due to have a Jew negotiating with the Nazi government.  After the Nazis attacked the Soviet Union, Litvinov was sent to Washington to negotiate a Lend-Lease that would provide the arms the Soviets needed to meet the Nazi onslaught.

    1933: Cardinal Pacelli issued a concordant known as the Hitler Concordant. Hitler described it as” unrestricted acceptance of National Socialism by the Vatican." Cardinal Pacelli later became Pope Pious XII. In its spirit all teaching priests were to greet their students with "Heil Hitler, praised be Jesus Christ."

    1933:  In Germany, two-hundred Jewish merchants are arrested in Nuremberg and paraded through the streets.

    1933(26thof Tammuz, 5693):  Seventy-year old Sir Harry Lawson Webster Levy-Lawson, 1st Viscount Burnham GCMG, CH, TD, JP, DL, a British newspaper proprietor and a Liberal Unionist politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1885 and 1916 when he inherited his peerage passed away today.

    1933: In London, 500,000 march against anti-Semitism. This may be seen as part of campanion piece to a rally held in March, 1933 at Madison Square Garden in New York City.  The demonstration in London was certainly not representative of British public opinon or policy.  Many of the movers and shakers in Great Britain were impressed with  the cleansing effect that the Nazis were bringing to Germany, marking them as pro-German, anti-Semitic or both.

    1934:The Court of Appeal today quashed the death sentence passed by the District Court on Abraham Stavsky on June 8 for the murder of Dr. Chaim Arlosoroff, prominent labor leader and member of the Jewish Agency Executive of Palestine. The Appeal Court found that the evidence was insufficient.  Thousands of supporters of Stavsky, who dodged a date with the hangman, reportedly danced in the streets of Jerusalem as they celebrated a victory for the Revisionist faction of the Zionist movement.

    1936(1st of Av, 5696): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1936: Birthdate of Harvey David Luber. The Chicago native became a first rate photographer, a leader of the Little Rock Jewish community and a great friend.

    1936: The Palestine Post reported that since according to the 1935 Official Palestinian Report on Migration certain professions became overcrowded, the government had restricted the admission to the country of all those belonging to the medical, legal and engineering professions. [Editor’s note: This seemingly innocuous ruling came at a time when educated Jews were trying to leave Germany.] Arab snipers shot at British soldiers patrolling the Nablus road in Jerusalem. Lengths of railway track were found removed near Tulkarm. Arab hawkers asked for police protection in order to be able to sell their wares. They complained that the general strike brought them ruin, starvation and death. Several more prominent members of the Arab "National Guard" were interned at Sarafand

    1939(4thof Av, 5699): Dutch sculptor Joseph Mendes da Costa passed away.  “Best known for making sculptures and ornaments for buildings” Mendes da Costa was a member of “Ars et Labor” which would become the Dutch version of Art Nouveau. 

    1939:British policy on Palestine--particularly the latest decision to cut off legal immigration for six months, beginning Oct. 1--came under heavy fire in the House of Commons tonight. The opposition Laborites contended that the decision to suspend immigration was proof of failure of the government's new policy.

    1939:  Birthdate of Judy Chicago.  For over four decades Chicago has been a leading educator, artist and shaper of the feminist movement.  One of her most famous works is the multi-media history of women in Western Civilization entitled “The Dinner Party.”

    1941: A Jewish ghetto at Minsk, Belorussia, is established. 

    1942: The first detachment of the U.S. Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps (WAC’s) begins basic training at Fort Des Moines, Iowa. Among this group of volunteers are twelve Jewish women:Ruth Ginns, Beatrice Berg, Carolyne Casper and Jean Korn from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Kathryne Goldfluss, Rose Ross and Joan Strongin from New York, New York; Bee Rosenberg and Ruth Spivak from Chicago, Illinois; Rita Fink and Isabel Bayley of Buffalo, New York; and Elizabeth Morgenstern of Seattle, Washington.

    1942: The Jews of Kleck tried to revolt as the Germans circled their town. Only a few hundred escaped. The 1,000 remaining Jews were shot dead.

    1942: The Germans murder 1000 Jews at Kleck, Belorussia; 400 flee into forests. Two from the latter group, Moshe Fish and Leva Gilchik (from nearby Kopyl), will form a partisan group;

    1942: The Jews from Kowale Panskie, Poland are deported, to the Chelmno death camp.

    1942:In Warsaw, Rabbi Alexander Zusha Friedman, a “leader in Agudat Israel, called on the people not to oppose the Germans with force.”God will not permit his people to be destroyed. We must wait and a miracle will certainly occur." Agudat Israel, like many groups in the Judenrat, were afraid that any "violent" opposition would mean the liquidation of the ghetto.

    1943(17th of Tammuz, 5703):Tzom Tammuz

    1943(17th of Tammuz, 5703): Five hundred slave laborers are murdered at Czestochowa, Poland.

    1943: Over two thousand Jews are deported from Holland to Sobibór.

    1943: Two Jews escape from Sobibór 

    1943: General Leslie Grove, the director of the Manhattan Project acknowledged J. Robert Oppenheimer’s importance to the program to build the Atomic Bomb when he issued a written order to the Manhattan Engineer District commanding them to approve Oppie’s security clearance regardless of any negative information that might have been gathered.

    1944: The most famous plot to kill Hitler failed. This event has been romanticized by various revisionists. The plotters realized that they could not win the war. They thought that with Hitler gone, they could at least negotiate a peace treaty with the West. The plotters were not only incompetent, they were delusional as well. [For more about people who really worked to opposed Hitler see the recently published Red Orchestra.]

    1945: Laurence Adolph Steinhardt began serving as the United States Ambassador to Czechoslovakia following his service as U.S. Ambassador to Turkey.

    1946: Birthdate of Israel Carmi (Weinstein) the native of Egypt who perished in 1968 at the age of 22 when the Israeli Submarine Dakar sank.

    1946: Arthur Greiser, former Gauleiter of the Warthegau region in Poland, is hanged at Poznan, Poland, after being convicted of war crimes.

    1949: Birthdate of Jean-Louis Cohen, “a French historian of architecture and urbanism.”

    1949: Israel's 19 month War of Independence ended. The government of Syria signed the last of four armistices, which marked the end of open warfare. The cessation of hostilities did not bring peace since the Arab states refused to come to grips with the reality of the existence of Israel.

    1950: Harry Gold, the son of Jewish immigrants from Russia pleads guilty to spying for the Soviet Union by passing secrets from atomic scientist Klaus Fuchs.  Gold’s Jewish pedigree provided fodder for anti-Semites who sought to make being Jewish and being Communist (or disloyal to America) one and the same thing.

    1950: In Israel, doctors employed by the Health Ministry will go on strike today unless their demands for increased pay are met.

    1951: Abdullah Ibn Hussein Jordan's King was assassinated in Jerusalem. He was attending Friday prayers at a mosque when he was killed by those who were afraid he was negotiating with Israel. His grandson, Hussein, became the next King of Jordan. The assassination influenced the young king

    1954:  United States Senator Joseph R. McCarthy accepts the resignation of his aide Roy Cohn.  Roy Cohn was the chief counsel of the Senate Committee that McCarthy used to conduct his investigations that smeared people, ruined lives and unearthed no “Communist conspiracy among those he paraded before the television lights.  All of those right wing anti-Semites seemed to lose sight of fact that McCarthy’s chief henchman was one of those “New York Jews.”

    1959: Birthdate of Samuel Israel III, the New Orleans born incarcerated hedge fund manager who was the subject of Octopus” Sam Israel, the Secret Market and Wall Street’ Wildest Con by Guy Lawson

    1960: The head of the Physics Department at the Israel Institute of Technology, Kurt Sitte, is arrested for espionage.

    1962:  Pope John XXIII sent invitations to all 'separated Christian churches and communities,' asking each to send delegate-observers to the upcoming Vatican II Ecumenical Council in Rome. Vatican II would result in an improvement in the relationship between the Jewish Community and the Roman Catholic Church.  Of course, there are those that would that anything would have to be an improvement over Pope John’s predecessor, Pope Pious, the Pope of the Holocaust.

    1965:  Lyndon B. Johnson nominates Abe Fortas to the Supreme Court. Fortas was a close friend of Johnson’s; one of the few people who could speak frankly with Johnson.  Fortas was “nominally” Jewish and he warned Johnson that the American Jewish Community would not see him as the right person to hold what, since the days of Brandeis, had become “the Jewish chair” on the High Court.

    1969: Israeli commandos successfully complete their attack on Green Island completely destroying the island fortress.  The press hails the attack as an Israeli Navronne, after the fictional island in the movie “The Guns of Navronne.”  But the casualties were not fiction.  Not only were they real, they were higher than expected.  The Israelis learned from the mission and went on to improve the functionality of their units.

    1971: Syria and Jordan’s armies exchange fire over the common frontier. This would prove to be prelude to a Syrian attempt to seize Jordan, part of Syrian President Assad’s goal to create a Greater Syria.  In one of those strange twists,  Israel moved tanks towards the area of conflict which Washington’s way of letting the Syrians know that they should back off and leave Jordan alone.

    1973: Palestinian terrorists hijack a Japan Airlines jet en route from Amsterdam to Japan and force it down in Dubai.

    1976: Today marked the start of what would become the Good Fence Policy along the border with Lebanon. The hope was that the medical treatment of Lebanese citizens in Israel and the beginning of trade between South Lebanon and Israel would start a new era of relations between the two countries. Like so many other peace initiatives this one died at the hand of terrorism.

    1978: Birthdate of Elliott Yamin, born Efraym Elliott Yamin, who is an American singer known for his hit single "Wait for You" and placing third on the fifth season of American Idol.

    1980:  The United Nations Security Council votes 14-0 that member states should not recognize Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. This is another reason that Israel tends not to trust the UN. In 1947, as part of the partition vote, the UN said Jerusalem would be governed by an international body.  When the Jordanians attacked Jerusalem and expelled the Jewish population from the Old City, the UN did nothing.  During the 19 year occupation of the city by the Jordanians Jews, of whatever nationality, were kept out of the city.  The UN did nothing.  But now that the Israelis controlled the whole city and it was open to Christians, Moslems and Jews, the UN acted to support the Arab view of the City of David.

    1981:  The administration of newly elected Republican President Ronald Reagan suspends sales of F-16 fighter jets to Israel. 

    1981(29th of Tammuz, 5739): Seventy-nine year old Joseph N. Katzthe founder and board chairman of Empire Kosher Poultry Inc., passed away today

    1983; The Israeli cabinet votes to withdraw troops from Beirut but to remain in southern Lebanon. The Israelis had gone into Lebanon because the PLO occupied the southern half of the country and was using it as base to attack Israel.  The government of Lebanon either could not or would not remove the PLO so Israel was forced to act or accept the fact that Arafat’s terrorists would have permanent base on Israel’s northern border.

    1994: Israel’s Shimon Peres visits Jordan, the highest ranking Israeli official to do so

    1996(4th of Av, 5756):Raphael Patai passed away.  Born Ervin György in 1910, Patai, was a Hungarian-Jewish ethnographer and anthropologist.

    1997: The Sunday New York Times book section featured reviews of Egypt’s Road to Jerusalem: A Diplomat's Story of the Struggle for Peace in the Middle East by Boutros Boutros-Ghali, Fritz Lang: The Nature of the Beastby Patrick McGilligan and Inventing Memory:A Novel of Mothers and Daughters by Erica Jong.

    2002: As a reminder that Jews were not the only victims of the Nazis, we mark the death of concentration camp survivor and art Jan M. Komski.

    2003: At the Lincoln Center Festival, Israel’s Gesher Theatre gives its opening performance of its adaptation of “The Slave. The troupe has been invited to mark the Centennial of Nobel Laureate Isaac Bashevis Singer's birth by performing two plays based on his novels at the prestigious festival.

    2003:Jewish Women International's first-ever international conference on domestic violence in the Jewish community held its first meeting in Baltimore. Among its approximately 450 attendees, the three-day conference included Reform, Reconstructionist, Conservative, and Orthodox rabbis; social workers; artists; activists; and abuse survivors.

    2003(20th of Tammuz, 5763): Rabbi Bezalel Rakow, “an orthodox rabbi who headed Gateshead’s Jewish community” and who “was the chair of the Council of Torah Sages of Agudas Yisroel of Great Britain” passed away.

    2004 (2nd of Av, 5764): Temple Judah mourned the loss of Rabbi Ed Chesman who passed away unexpectedly while vacationing with family in Florida.

    2006(24th of Tamuz, 5766):Charles Bettelheim passed away. Born in 1913 he “was a French economist and historian, founder of the Center for the Study of Modes of Industrialization (CEMI : "Centre pour l'Étude des Modes d'Industrialisation") at the Sorbonne), economic advisor to the governments of several developing countries during the period of decolonization. He was very influential in France's New Left, and considered one of "the most visible Marxists in the capitalist world."

    2006: The following were among a total of 43 Israeli civilians (including four who died of heart attacks during rocket barrages) and 116 IDF soldiers were killed in the Israel-Hizbullah war:Maj. Benjy Hillman, 27; St.-Sgt. Rafenael Muscal, 21, of Mazkeret Batya; St.-Sgt. Nadav Baeloha, 21, of Karmiel; St.-Sgt. Liran Sa'adiya, 21, of Kiryat Shmona; St.-Sgt. Yonatan (Sergei) Vlasyuk, 21, of Kibbutz Lahav; Maj. Ran Kochva, 37, of Beit Hananya.

    2007: Under the direction of Lauren Reece, The Footlighters ACT II performs "The Diary of Anne Frank” at the Herbert Hoover Library in West Branch, Iowa.  Making this a Jewish as well as community event, Rabbi Portman of Agudas Achim in Iowa City will conduct an outdoor Shabbat Eve services on the grounds of what was Herbert Hoover’s boyhood home.
    2007: The Crown Prosecution Service announced that Lord Michael Levy was not to be prosecuted in connection with the so called "Cash for Honours" affair and that there were to be no charges against him.

    2007: World premiere of David Zellnik’s  Ariel Sharon Hovers Between Life and Death and Dreams of Theodor Herzl” at Theatre J in Washington, DC.

    2008: Fast the 17th Day of Tammuz, 5768

    2008: The Washington Post book section features a review of Debra Winger’s memoir, Undiscovered.

    2008: The Sunday New York Times book section features a review of Rapture Ready in which Jewish author Daniel Radosh explores Christian pop culture.

    2009: In upstate New York, Marilyn and Lester Milton Bornstein gave birth to Michael Scott Bornestein who gained fame as Michael Oren the author who served as Israel’s ambassador.

    2009: At the 18th Maccabiah Games, the basketball competition continues as Brazil plays Germany, the USA plays Argentina, France plays Mexico and the hometown Israelis tip off against Canada.

    2009:In an interview given today, Rabbi Eric Yoffie, president of the Union of Reform Judaism said that the vast majority of American Jews back a settlement freeze.   


    2009(28th of Tammuz, 5769):Mark Richard Rosenzweig an American research psychologist who found in animal studies on neuroplasticity that the brain continues developing anatomically, reshaping and repairing itself into adulthood based on life experiences, overturning the conventional wisdom that the brain reached full maturity in childhood passed away at the age of 86.

    2009: Amidst the controversy surrounding the planned screenings of “Rachel,” a film that investigates the death of anti-Israel activist Rachel Corrie, and its invitation to her mother, Cindy Corrie, to speak afterward, the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival Board President Shana Penn resigned from her post, citing “healthy differences on how to approach sensitive issues,” with five months left on a two-year term.

    2010(9th of Av, 5770): Tish'a B'Av: 1,940th anniversary of the destruction of the Second Temple; 1,875th anniversary of the fall of Bethar.

    2010:A judge at Tel Aviv District Family Court today rejected a request for a gag order on the contents of a box containing manuscripts written by Franz Kafka. The BBC aired a special report on the case, in which experts and researchers discussed whether the manuscripts by the Jewish Czech author, who died in 1924, should be published, or destroyed, as he wished in his will.

    2010:Elena Kagan, President Obama's Supreme Court nominee, won approval from the Senate Judiciary Committee on a nearly party-line vote today, her next to last hurdle before gaining a lifetime seat on the high court.

     2011: Anat Cohen, an Israeli jazz clarinetist, saxophonist and bandleader, is scheduled to appear at the Berman Center for the Performing Arts at an event sponsored by Detroit Jazz Festival & The JCC Stephen Gottlieb Music Festival.

    2011:Medical residents announced an indefinite strike today as they continued organizing protests throughout the country against a deal being drafted between the Israel Medical Association and the Finance Ministry to end the doctors' strike.

    2011:Reports that an Israeli killed in the New Zealand earthquake in February was an intelligence agent were wrong, Prime Minister John Key said today.

    2011(18th of Tammuz, 5771): Eighty-eight year old portrait artist Lucian Freud, the grandson of Sigmund Freud and the brother of Clement Freud pass away today. (As reported by William Grimes)

    2012(1st of Av, 5772): Rosh Chodesh Av

    2012(1st of Ave, 5772): Thirty year old “Ari Ephraim Rubin, vice chairman of the Jewish Defense League died of a self-inflicted gunshot wound” today.

    2012: Fresh from her triumphal performance in Des Moines, Iowa, renowned soprano Sarah Jane McMahon is scheduled to return to Touro Synagogue in New Orleans this evening for the fifth in a series of musical programs devoted to works by Jewish composers.  [For more about this and other happenings in “The Big Easy” see the Crescent City Jewish News

    2012: “5-Day Kosher Bike Trek” a 420 mile bike ride  that began in and offers Kosher food for all riders is scheduled to end today at Santa Fe, NM.

    2012: As it marks it last Shabbat weekend in its downtown Washington Avenue location, Agudas Achim is scheduled to host a potluck supper before Friday services.

    2012: The tearful funerals of the five Burgas airport suicide-bomb bombings were held in the course of today, drawing hundreds — and in some cases thousands — of mourners. Two sets of childhood friends and a newly pregnant woman, they were blown up on Wednesday at the start of what was supposed to have been a vacation, on the bus that was taking them from their plane to the airport terminal in the Bulgarian Black Sea resort.(As reported by Ilan Ben Zion)

    2012:A suicide bombing that killed Israeli tourists in Bulgaria this week bore hallmarks of Iranian-backed Hezbollah militants but the U.S. Defense Department has not yet concluded who was behind it, a Pentagon spokesman said today. The attack on a bus carrying Israelis at a Bulgarian airport, "does bear the hallmarks of Hezbollah," George Little, the Pentagon press secretary, told reporters.

    2012(1st  of Av):Moshe Silman, the homeless man who set himself on fire at a Tel Aviv rally last weekend, died this afternoon at the Sheba Medical Center at Tel Hashomer after succumbing to the burns which covered over 90 percent of his body.


    2012: A Muslim husband and wife convicted of planning a terror attack against Jews in Manchester, England, were jailed today. Shasta Khan, who was convicted of preparing for acts of terrorism and two counts of possessing information likely to be useful in an act of terrorism, was sentenced to eight years in prison. The 38-year-old hairdresser, who had pleaded not guilty, will serve four years minus the 350 days she spent on remand. (As reported by Miriam Shaviv)

    2013: “More than Carnival,” a season ending summer concert is scheduled to take place at the Eden-Tamir Music Center.

    2013: The Maccabeats are scheduled to perform for a second day at the Hampton Synagogue at West Hampton Beach.

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    July 21 In History

    285: Diocletian appoints Maximian as Caesar, co-ruler. This was part of an attempt to shore up the imperial authority.  In another such step, Diocletian “ordered all the people …to accept his divinity and offer sacrifices to him.  Fortunately for the Jewish people, they were excluded from this decree…”  According to at least one source, “Diocletian’s regime was comparatively favorable to the Jewish people” which may not be saying all that much when you consider the behavior of most Roman rulers.

    1414: In Celle Ligure, Italy,Leonardo della Rovere and Luchina Monleoni gave birth to Francesco della Rovere, the future Pope Sixtus IV who reluctantly authorized the Spanish Inquisition and allowed Jews and Marranos to settle in the Papal Domain in what some as an act of penance caving into Ferdinand and Isabella.  He rejected the notion of “blood libels” and withstood the pressure to canonize Simon of Trent.

    1439 (9th of Av): Rabbi Johanan ben Mattathias Treves, Chief Rabbi of France passed away ten years after the death of his brother Joseph

    1535: The Spaniards sacked Tunis. The Jewish community was destroyed.

    1718(27thof Tammuz, 5473):Shabbethai ben Joseph Bass who was born at Kalisz in 1641 and who was the father of Jewish bibliography, and author of the Sifsei Chachamim supercommentary on Rashi's commentary on the Pentateuch passed away.

    1733: A “group of 42 Jews who had sailed from London aboard the William and Sarah” arrived in Savannah today, “months after the colony's founding by James Oglethorpe.”  “Most of them were Spanish and Portuguese Jews, who had fled to England a decade earlier to escape the Spanish Inquisition.  Many of them had been members of the Bevis Marks Synagogue and would be founders of Mickva Israel, Georgia’s oldest Jewish congregation.

    1773: Raphael Hayyim Isaac Carregal, a native of Hebron sailed to Suriname today from the British colonies in North America where his visit had made him the first rabbi to spend time in what is now the United States.

    1774: The Russo-Turkish War came to an end with the signing of the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca marking the defeat of the Ottomans. The end of hostilities provided Sultan Abdul Hamid I with the opportunity to reassert his authority over parts of empire that were slipping away.  He attacked Dhaher al-Omar who had taken control of an area that coincided with modern day northern Israel and had invited Jewish merchants to pursue their commercial ventures under his protection. He also besieged the port of Acre. 

    1816: Birthdate of Paul Julius Reuter. Born Israel Beer Josaphat, he changed his name to Reuter and converted in 1844. He founded what would become Reuter’s news agency in 1849. He used carrier pigeons to carry financial news to those parts of Germany, France and Belgium not yet served by telegraph. He opened his own telegraph service in England where he lived the rest of his life and died in 1899. He converted for the same reason so many other German and Austrian Jews did – it was the only way to advance in the worlds of commerce and art.

    1820:.A small wooden building which had been erected at the northeast corner of Liberty and Whitaker streets Savannah was consecrated by members of Mikveh Israel. This was the first Jewish house of worship to be built in the State of Georgia. Jacob De La Motta delivered the consecration address.  A native of Savannah he graduated from the U of Pennsylvania Medical School and served as a surgeon in the U.S. Army during the War of 1812. He practiced in New York City for a while but returned to the city of his birth where he became a leader in the medical and Jewish communities.

    1825: Birthdate of Matthew Práxedes Sagasta the Spanish political who served as President of the Council of Ministers and who asserted the fact that “article 1 of the Constitution of Spain is the most decisive revocation of the edict of banishment against the Jews in the year 1492.”

    1831: As Belgium gains its independence from the Netherlands of Leopold I of Belgium is inaugurated first king of the Belgians. Upon gaining its independence in 1831, the newly established Belgium parliamentary regime lost little time in recognizing Judaism as an official religious denomination (together with Catholicism, Protestantism, later Greek and Russian Orthodox Christianity and Islam).

    1833:Birthdate of August, (Anshel) Bondi. “The Austrian native was the son of Jews who wanted him to have both a religious and a secular education. Caught up as a participant in the failed liberal revolution of 1848, the Bondi family fled to New Orleans and settled in St. Louis, Missouri. Young Bondi encountered, first hand, the horrors of slavery and was deeply disgusted. In 1855 a New York Tribune editorial urged freedom- loving Americans to "hurry out to Kansas to help save the state from the curse of slavery." Bondi responded immediately. He moved to Kansas and along with two other Jews, Theodore Weiner from Poland and Jacob Benjamin from Bohemia established a trading post in Ossa-watomie. Their abolitionist sentiments very soon brought pro-slavery terrorists upon them. Their cabin was burned, their livestock stolen. Their trading post was destroyed in the presence of Federal troops who did nothing. The three courageous Jews joined a rabid local abolitionist, to defend their rights as citizens and to help rid the horror of slavery from Kansas. The Jews joined the Kansas Regulars under the leadership of John Brown. In a famous battle between the Regulars and the pro-slavery forces at Black Jack Creek, with the bullets whistling viciously above their heads, 23 year old Bondi turned to his 57 year old friend Weiner and asked in Yiddish – "Nu, was meinen Sie jetzt?" (Well, what do you think of this now?) He answered, 'Was soll ich meinen? Sof odem moves' (What should I think? Man's life ends in death). Kansas joined the union as a Free State. Bondi married Henrietta Einstein of Louisville, Kentucky in 1860. Their home became a way station for the Underground Railroad smuggling slaves to the North and freedom. The Civil War began in 1861, Bondi enlisted in the Union army encouraged by the words of his mother. He later wrote in his autobiography "as a Jew I am obliged to protect institutions that guarantee freedom for all faiths." August Bondi died in 1907, a respected judge and member of his Kansas community.”

    1841: In Holstein, German, Dr. Marcus Cohen and his wife gave birth to Minna Cohen who gained fame at the poetess Minna Cohen Kleeberg whose work included ‘Ein Lied vom Salz” (A lyric about salt), a plea for the removal of the tax on salt in Prussia.’

    1851: David Salomons who had been elected to Parliament on June 28 and who had been denied the right to take his seat because, as Jew, he could not take the oath of office, returned to the House of Commons to take part in the debate on the matter. In the debate that followed, Salomons defended his presence on grounds of having been elected by a large majority, but was eventually removed by the Sergeant-at-Arms, and fined £500 for having voted illegally in three divisions of the House.

    1857:During a debate tonight in the House of Lords on the question of "Jewish disabilities,"  Lord Campbell said that a revolution would take place if the Commons acted independently of the Lords in the matter by omitting from their oath the objectionable sentence

    1857:This evening, Lord John Russell renewed his motion to bring in a bill for the admission of Jews into Parliament. Following an animated debated the motion carried by a vote of 246 to 154.

    1861: During the Civil War, the Confederates defeated the Union at the first Battle of Bull Run.  In response to an inquiry written 30 years after the battle Oliver O. Howard, a Major General in the United States Army reported that a Jewish Aid-de Camp who served with him during the battle was “one of the bravest and the best; he is now a distinguished officer of the army, a man of the highest scientific attainment.” He also wrote that he could not release the man’s name without his permission.

    1874: Today’s “Foreign Notes” column reported that “Sir Moses Montefiore” who will celebrate his 90th birthday this October 24, “has been presented with the freedom of the Fishmongers’ Company in recognition of his philanthropic efforts on behalf of the oppressed Jewish in various parts of the world. [Editor’s note – The Fishmongers’ Company dates back to the 12thcentury and was guild for those who sold fish in London.  By the 19th century the company administered a various “charities and trusts” for the underprivileged classes of the UK.  This would account for their bestowing an honor on Sir Moses.]

    1873(23rd of Tammuz, 5633): Sir David Salomons, 1st Baronet, a leading figure in the 19th century struggle for Jewish emancipation in the United Kingdom passed away. . He was the first Jewish Sheriff of the City of London and Lord Mayor of London, and one of the first two Jewish people to serve in the British House of Commons.

    1877: In a letter to the New York Times, Edgar M. Johnson a prominent lawyer from Cincinnati took issue with claims that he had concealed the fact the fact that he was Jewish when he was offered accommodations at the Grand Union Hotel in Saratoga Springs. He reiterated the fact that Mr. Wilkinson, who was employed by Judge Hilton was well aware of the fact as is everybody else.  Whether he is what Hilton calls “a Seligman Jew” is of little consequence since Johnson has no desire to stay at place where Hilton is “the tavern keeper.” Johnson closed by saying that he and his family had enjoyed previous trips to Saratoga Springs where nobody was will “to reject Jew money” but that these would be his last words on any subject related to Hilton.

    1878: It was reported today that there has been a serious outbreak of violence between the Jews and Roman Catholics living in Kalisch, a major city in Poland (which was part of the Russian Empire). The origins of the violence can be found in the government’s ban on the Jewish practice of enclosing their houses “with a wire fence to indicate that no one might pass out or in” during the Sabbath. The Jews blamed the Roman Catholics for the government’s decision.  When the Roman Catholics blocked every street corner with altars during their procession on Corpus Christi Day, the Jews reportedly attacked one of the altars which was the excuse of a Catholic attack that destroyed the synagogue and forced the Jews to seek refuge in their own homes. So far twelve people were reported to have been killed during the violence. [Jews had been living in Kalisz (the Polish spelling) since the 12thcentury.  The synagogue that was destroyed dated back to the 14th century.  Jews played an active role in the economy of the community and by the start of WW II they accounted for about 30% of the population.  Most the 20,000 Jews did not survive the war and the town, like so much of Poland, has memories of Jews but no Jewish people.)

    1879(1st of Av, 5639): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1880: The second free excursion sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children will set sail on the East River this morning.  If the society can find more funds, these trips will continue on a weekly basis for the rest of the summer.

    1880: It was reported today that two Postmasters named Barr and Johnson and their Jewish accomplice named Pearlstine are being held by federal authorities in South Carolina on charges of improper use of stamps and making false returns of canceled stamps to increase their pay. [Why Pearlstein was identified as Jew and the religion of the others was not mentioned is a mystery.]

    1881: It was reported today that King Alfonso has invited Russian Jews to settle in Spain, a move that would improve conditions “by bringing a money making class into a country in dire need of it”

    1882: During the Freight Handler’s Strike, Italian and Russian Jewish immigrants returned to the docks looking for work after the strikers stopped providing them with food and expense money as they had promised earlier.  To complicate matters, the ranks of the strikers also included Russian and Polish Jews who had come to the country earlier in the decade.

    1884: A review of T.K. Cheyne’s The Book of Psalms described the authors attempt to present this section of the Bible as literature as well as “holy writ.”  For him, the Psalms should be viewed as literature that has survived “under a Jewish phase.”

    1886: The first free excursion of the ear for poor Jewish moths and their children sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children will set sail this morning.

    1886: The SS State of Georgia arrived at Castle Garden from Glasgow, Scotland, carrying 40 Russian Jewish refugees.

    1886:”A week of General Kissing” published today described the Russian custom of kissing people as a greeting during Easter week. Last year when the Czar came out of his room the first person whom he saw was the guard at his door who remained silent when the Russian ruler greeted him “Christ is risen.”  The Czar found out that the guard was Jewish which accounted for his lack of response.  While the Czar respected his honesty, Jews no longer serve as guards at his palace.

    1887: Louis Keptlovwitch, a Jewish immigrant from Poland, was scheduled to face the Grand Jury on charges of bigamy.  [This is a real life example of letters that would appear in the Forwards about men who “forgot” about the family’s they left behind when they arrived in the New World.]

    1887: “Appeals for Suffering Hebrews” published today described the effects of the catastrophic  fire that swept through “the little Jewish town of Botuschania, Romania.”  A committee of prominent American Jews led by Benjamin Peixotto, has been formed to collect funds to relieve the suffering.  Contributions will forward to Romania by Jesse Seligman who has agreed to serve as the Treasurer of the Relief Fund.

    1887: “Two Ladies At Odds” published today described a conflict between Mrs. Henrietta Loeser, President of the Henrietta Verein, a Jewish charitable organization, and Mrs. Betty Michaelis, the society’s Secretary.  A shouting match devolved into a physical confrontation when the secretary threw the society’s seal and record books at the president.  Loeser than tried to have Micahelis removed from the organization.  Mrs. Micahelis has sought a writ of mandamus so that she can gain readmission to the society.

    1888: Police had to be called out to quell a riot in Drohobycz today when petroleum miners attacked the town’s Jews and trashed the local synagogue.

    1888: A company of 13 police officers was hard pressed to deal with the huge throng that gathered this afternoon at the Norfolk Street Synagogue to hear the inaugural sermon of Rabbi Jacob Joseph. The sanctuary, which was built to hold 1,000, was filled with more than 1,500 people. The rabbi spoke for an hour concluding with a prayer that the Lord would guide and help the Jews in America  to spread his light and cause Israel to become a blessing to this great land of freedom and among the people of the United States.

    1889: “Hebrews Not Wanted,” published today described the decision of “Messrs. Cable and Breen , the lessees of the Brighton Beach at Coney Island” to follow the practice adopted by Judge Hilton at his Saratoga Hotel and ban all members of the “Hebrew Race” as guests.  Hebrews had been coming to the hotel in ever increasing numbers.  While they freely spent their money, there were not enough rooms available for Gentile guests.  Mr. Breen told the Times “that the public sentiment might be against such measures, but it was not so among Gentile patrons.”  The hotel was taking on the appearance of a “Jewish settlement” despite the best efforts of management to make Gentiles feel welcome.  Breen described it as a business decision. “It was self-preservation and the interests of our large number of other guests that caused us to take this step.”

    1890: “Jews in Russia” published today, relied on information that first appeared in the London Daily News described the new regulations that are being applied to Jews living under the Czar. These include a requirement that when Jewish students complete their university studies, they must return “to their native towns.”  The parents of students who fail to do so and evade the authorities will be punished in their place.

    1891: The cloakmakers, most of whom were Polish and Russian Jews, were joined by the cutters and pressers in their strike against Oppenheim & Collins.

    1891 A tribute written today in honor of Nathan Marcus and Hermann Adler said that they “gave their name”, “to a regime, to an era… The system of Rabbinate which had long come to be known as ‘Adlerism’, the keynote of which was the close consolidation of religious government and the concentration of ecclesiastical control… If, therefore, ‘Adlerism’ had its faults and its drawbacks… it has formed a basis on which can now be safely laid a system more fitted to Anglo-Jewry as it is” (As reported by Rabbi Raymond Apple, senior rabbi of the Great Synagogue, Sydney)

    1891: The weekly excursion sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children is scheduled to take place today.

    1891: General James R. O’Beirne, who was “in charge of the immigrants at Ellis Island” wrote to the Secretary of the Treasury recommending that the Jewish immigrants being held at the Barge Office be allowed to land’ since “they are desirable immigrants” who have skills “and are willing to work if they get a chance.”

    1893: The Marshall and three men working with him returned to the apartment of Sarah Goldstein, a widow living at 181 Orchard Street and executed the order of the court by putting the widow, her six sick children and her furniture on the sidewalk.  Neighbors were afraid to help because the children were sick with measles.

    1893: Policemen are looking for other victims of gang of Russian Jewish thieves who lure other Russian Jews to their room at 81 Chrystie Street where they torture and rob the unsuspecting immigrants.

    1894: “Old Boston Booksellers” published today described the Boston antiquarian book trade of the 1850’s which was dominated by two firms one of which was Burnham Brothers, a firm owned by Theodore, Frederick and Lafayette Burnham, who were either Jewish or “of Jewish origins.”

    1895: The Rhine Gazette announced that the electors of Minden are preparing to hold a meeting demanding the resignation of the Baron von Hammerstein, the disgraced former editor of the Kreuz Zeitung.  Ironically, the Baron who “was a strong anti-Semite and leader of the Jew baiters” was brought to financial ruin by “his enormous expenditures” with which he lavished his Jewish mistress with “every luxury that wealth could purchase.”

    1895: Birthdate of Henry Lynn, Russian born American “film director, screenwriter and producer.”

    1896: Three days after his abortive meeting with Rothschild, Herzl made the decision to organize a Zionist Congress.

    1898: Bishop John H. Vincent, the founder of the Chautauqua movement is scheduled to deliver a lecture entitled The Chautauqua Idea at today’s session of the Summer Assembly of the Jewish Chautauqua Society being held at Atlantic City, NJ.

    1898(2nd of Av, 5658): Seventy year old Benjamin Marks “a wealthy retired merchant” passed away today at the Long Beach Hotel where he was spending the summer. A native of Berlin, he came to the United States at the age of 20 where he went to work for Brooks Brothers.  Several years later he began opening a string of retail stores specializing in woolen goods.  By the time he retired in 1871, he “was one of the largest, if the largest retail woolen merchants in America.”

    1899: Sixty-five year old Robert Ingersoll who earned nickname “The Great Agnostic” for his views on religion passed away. While some Jewish leaders, such as Rabbi Joseph Silverman of Temple Emanu-El gave him credit for showing “to the world of the Church”  they challenged his views on Judaism especially about Moses. But as Rabbi Silverman pointed out, Ingersoll “is not responsible for his mistakes…because he cannot read the Bible in its original language.”

    1900: The uprising in Beijing known as The Boxer Rebellion began today.  Among the Marines who saw action during the month long conflict was William Zion, a Jewish private from Indiana who won the Congressional Medal of Honor for his valor.

    1902(16thof Tammuz, 5662): Adolph Landau passed away today

    1903: Birthdate of Roy Rothschild Neuberger the co-founder of the investment firm Neuberger Berman and recipient of the National Medal of Arts. He “was an American financier who contributed money to raise public awareness of modern art through his acquisition of pieces he deemed worthy.”

    1904(9th of Av, 5664):Tish'a B'Av

    1906(28th of Tammuz, 5666): Saul Jacob El-Yashar, Hahambashi of Jerusalem passed away at the age of 92.

    1906: Moses Gaster, the Chief Rabbi of the English Sephardic Community and his mother gave birth to Theodor Herzl Gaster, the British born American biblical scholar who published the first English translation of the Dead Sea scrolls. His father named him after his recently deceased friend, Theodor Herzl. (As reported by Andy Wallace)

    1907(10thof Av, 5667): Fast observed since the 9th of Av fell on Shabbat

    1910: Birthdate of Himan “Hi” Brown the son of a tailor from Odessa who was a major producer during the Golden Age of Radio including “Bulldog Drummond,” “Inner Sanctum” and “Radio Mystery Theatre.”

    1911: Birthdate of Felicia Haberfeld, a native of Poland who eventually settled in Los Angles where she worked as a city librarian and, with her husband, founded the 1939 Club, named for the year Germany invaded Poland. She was also instrumental in establishing an endowed chair in Holocaust studies at UCLA.

    1911(25th of Tammuz, 5671): Rabbi Yehouda Jarmon of Tunis passed away at the age of 104.

    1911: During the Mendel Beilis Affair, a small expeditionary force of gendarmes forced its way into the home of Mendel Beilis and arrested him.

    1918: In Russia, the revolutionary government that had overthrown the Czar removed the ban on Hebrew and Yiddish periodicals. 

    1919: Birthdate of Seymour Pine, “the deputy police inspector who led the raid on the Stonewall Inn, a gay bar in Greenwich Village, on a hot summer night in 1969 — a moment that helped start the gay liberation movement   A graduate of Brooklyn College and a veteran of WW II who served in North Africa and Europe, Pine later apologized the raid and his role in it. (As reported by Dennis Hevesi)

    1920: Sir Herbert Samuel, the British High Commissioner met with newsmen today and announced that he was abolishing the censorship which had been in effect since the Jerusalem riots that began in April.

    1920: Birthdate of Isaac Stern. Born in Russia, this famous violinist came to America at the age of ten months. His family settled in San Francisco and he debuted with the San Francisco Symphony. His career is too rich for this brief entry. Suffice it to say he is one of a long line of Jewish violinists and he has been a supporter of musical endeavors in Israel.

    1921: Birthdate of Arthur Marx, who wrote screenplays for film and television and a best-selling book about his father, “Life With Groucho.”

    1921(15th of Tamuz, 5681):  Benjamin Raphael Haim Moshe, Chief Rabbi of Spain passed away at the age of 74 years

    1926:  Birthdate of director Norman Jewison.  Despite his name and the fact he directed the film version of “Fiddler on the Roof,” Jewison is not Jewish.

    1926: Birthdate of Karel Reisz a “Czech-born British filmmaker who was active in post–war Britain, and one of the pioneers of the new realist strain in 1950s and 1960s British cinema. “Reisz was a Jewish refugee, one of the 669 rescued by Sir Nicholas Winton.”

    1931: Dr. Louis I. Newman will officiate at the funeral service for former state Supreme Court Justice Joseph Newburger who passed away at the age of 78. Following burial in Union Field Cemetery Cantor Nathan Meltzof is scheduled to conduct a memorial service at the home of the deceased The honorary pallbearers include Court of Appeals Justices Benjamin N. Cardozo and Irving Lehman.

    1931: CBS’s New York City stations began broadcasting the first regular seven days a week television schedule in the United States. George Gershwin was one of three people to appear on the first broadcast. That’s right – one third of the "cast" of this landmark television show was Jewish. Of course, CBS was owned by Bill Paley adding to the Jewish twist.

    1933: The port at Haifa was opened to traffic.

    1934:Vladimir Jabotinsky, president of the World Union of the Zionist Revisionists, today issued a statement hailing the acquittal of Abraham Stavsky

    1938: While the rest of the world was embracing the Nazis or turning a blind eye to their depredations, “Pope Pius XI delivers an address to ecclesiastical assistants of Catholic Action in which he argues that Catholicism is opposed to racism, nationalism, and similarly exclusivist ideologies.”  (The differences between Pius XI and his successor Pius XII were far greater the a single Roman numeral.)

    1939:The Jewish Agency for Palestine issued today a statement rejecting Colonial Secretary Malcolm MacDonald's appeal for cooperation with the British Government's new policy for Palestine. The Jewish leadership rejected the White Paper with its limits on immigration and land ownership as being “devoid of moral and legal basis and…calculated to destroy the las and holiest possession of the Jewish people – the national home.

    1940: Hans and Margret Rey left Lisbon aboard the Angola which was headed for Rio.

    1941: In Minsk, 45 Jew were ordered to dig a pit. They were then thrown in and Russian prisoners were ordered to bury them alive. The Russians refused. The Germans then shot the Russians and the Jews in the pit.

    1941: Jews of Upina, Lithuania, were killed by the Nazis.

    1941: A concentration camp opens at Majdanek, Poland.

    1942: One thousand Jews deported from Paris, reached Auschwitz. Many of them were Polish Jews living in France. Six hundred and twenty-five were gassed while 375 selected for labor battalions. Only seventeen would survive the war.

    1942: The Jews of Nieswiez organized a resistance movement and a planned an escape using kerosene and old guns as their weapons. A desperate battle ensued. Jews set fire to their own homes as a diversionary tactic. Some of those who made it to the woods found other Jews from Kleck and Niewswiez. They set up an underground unit.

    1943: Tonight’s performance of “We Will Never Die” at the Hollywood Bowl was broadcast to a nationwide audience thanks to NBC.We Will Never Die was a dramatic pageant…staged to raise public awareness of the ongoing mass murder of Europe's Jews. It was organized and written by screenwriter and author Ben Hecht and produced by Billy Rose and Ernst Lubitsch.”

    1944: Jerzy Bielecki led Cyla Cybulska out of her barracks at Auschwitz and passed a sleepy guard to the woods and freedom.  He was a Roman Catholic who had been imprisoned in 1940 as a member of the Polish Resistance.  She was a young Jewess, who thanks to his courage was the only member of her family to survive the Holocaust.  He was recognized by Yad Vasham as one of the Righteous Gentiles in 1985. (As reported by Dennis Hevesi)

    1944: On the date after the attempt to assassinate Hitler failed, Henning von Tresckow, one of the chief conspirators, staged a partisan attack on his headquarters near Bialystok in Poland, and blew himself up with a grenade. He was buried with military honors, but a month later, when the Gestapo discovered his involvement in the plot against Hitler, his body was exhumed and burned in a crematorium of the Sachsenhausen concentration camp.

    1944: Birthdate of Paul Wellstone, United States from Minnesota. He died in a plane crash in 2002.

    1947: The Exodus, a refugee ship with 4,500 refugees on board, was turned back by the British continued its trip to Germany. The ship had tried to run the British blockade unsuccessfully: The British forcefully boarded the ship killing 3 Jews and wounding over 100. The pictures of the refugees being forcibly unloaded in Germany was a critical blow to world public opinion and helped force the British out of Eretz Israel.

    1951: In its story on the assassination of Jordan’s King Abdullah that occurred on July 21 The Jerusalem Post reported that King Abdullah was known for his efforts to reach an Arab-Israeli peace settlement. In his memoirs he wrote: "I have been astonished at what I saw of the Jewish settlements: They have colonized sand dunes, drawn water from them, and transformed them into paradise."

    1955: Martin and Ruth Bader Ginsburg gave birth to Jane C. Ginsburg “the Morton L. Janklow Professor of Literary and Artistic Property Law at the Columbia Law School.” This could be a case of the fulfillment of genetic predisposition since her mother is a Supreme Court Justice and her father, of blessed memory, was a law professor and internationally renowned expert on tax law.

    1957: Birthdate of comedic actor Jon Lovitz. Lovitz big break came in 1982 when he joined the cast of Saturday Night Live. 

    1970(17th of Tammuz, 5730): Tzom Tammuz

    1970: Libya's Col. Qaddafi nationalizes all Jewish property

    1970: After 11 years of construction, the Aswan High Dam on the Nile River in Egypt is completed. In 1954, President Nasser sought aid from the U.S. government to build the Aswan Dam.  He saw the building of the dam as being a vital to Egypt’s modernization program.  For a variety of ideological and economic reasons, the Eisenhower Administration eventually rejected the request for aid.  Nasser turned the Soviets who were only too glad to supply economic aid and masses of modern arms to Egypt.  Bolstered by his new Soviet sponsors and angry at Eisenhower and Dulles for what he considered their betrayal of his dreams. Nasser began to promote an agenda of pro-Soviet Pan-Arabism with the destruction of Israel as its emotional focal point.  Nasser also nationalized the Suez Canal because he needed the canal revenue to re-pay the Soviets.  All of this led to the Suez Crisis of 1956 which resulted in a lightening military victory.  Nasser’s vision may have died, but the dam was built.  Such is the law of unintended consequences on This Day in Jewish History.

    1973: In the Lillehammer affair in Norway, Israeli Mossad agents kill a waiter whom they mistakenly thought was involved in 1972’s Munich Olympics Massacre.

    1977: The Tenth Maccabiah comes to an end.

    1982(1st of Av, 5742): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1985: Outfielder Mark Gilbert made his major league debut with the Chicago White Sox.

    1988: Pitcher Roger Samuels made his major league debut with the San Francisco Giants.

    1991(10thof Av, 5751): Tish’a B’Av observed since the 9th of Av fell on Shabbat

    1991(10thof Av, 5751): Eighty-seven year old Joseph Dorfman who “received the Veblen-Commons Award in 1974 from the Association for Evolutionary Economics” passed away today. (As reported by Glenn Fowler)

    2000(18thof Tammuz, 5760):Yosef Qafiḥ or Rabbi Kapach, a leader of the Yemenite Jewish in Yemen and then In Israel passed away today. He was the grandson of Yiḥyah Qafiḥ who had been born in 1853 and served as Chief Rabbi of Sana'a, Yemen until his death in 1932. There is no way that this simple blog can do justice to either of these leaders.

    2002: The Sunday New York Times features a review of The Ascent of Eli Israel: Waiting for the Messiah a collection of short stories by Joe Papernick, a 31-year-old Canadian who moved to Brooklyn, after having spent several months in Israel following Yitzhak Rabin's assassination in November 1995, A Place to Live And Other Selected Essays by Italian Jewish author Natalia Ginzburg and Reflections and Shadows by Saul Steinberg with Aldo Buzzi.

    2002:The 88th annual national convention of Hadassah opens at Disney’s Coronado Springs Resort in Lake Buena Vista, Florida.

    2004(3rd of Av, 5764):Composer Jerry Goldsmith passed away.  Born in Pasadena, California, in 1929, Goldsmith was one of the most prolific composers of television and move themes in the 20th century.  If you watched such television hits as Have Gun Will Travel, The Twilight Zone, Perry Mason or The Waltons, you heard Goldsmith.  If you watched such films as Patton, Planet of the Apes or The Omen, you heard Goldsmith.  And this only scratches the surface.


    2004(3rd of Av, 5764):Richard Adolf Bloch passed away at the age of 78. Born in 1926, he was an American entrepreneur, and philanthropist best known for starting the H&R Block tax preparation and personal finance company with his older brother Henry in 1955. His personal battle with cancer led him to invest in helping others fight and overcome the disease.

    2004(3rd of Av, 5764): On the day before his 22nd birthday, Lance Corporal Mark E. Engel  (USMC) died in a Texas hospital from wounds he suffered while fighting in Al Anbar Province, Iraq.(As reported by Maia Efrem)

    2005: 17th Macaabiah comes to a close.

    2005: “ readers and editors rank Meyer Amschel Rothschild as the seventh most influential businessman of all time.”

    2005: Violinist Anton Polezhayev filed a lawsuit in the State Supreme Court in Manhattan charging the New York Philharmonic with sex discrimination in denying him a job and following a pattern of promoting only female violinists. In part, he based his charge on the fact (accoriding to him) that during his probationary period seven violinist won permanent jobs or marched past him in the violin section.  All seven had one common characterists – they were all women.  The Leningrad native came to the U.S. with his parents, including his Jewish mother.

    2006: The Jewish Week publishes a review of Auschwitz Report entitled “Portrait of an Emerging Author” by Liel Lebovitz. Lebiovitz writes that “Auschwitz Report is a previously unpublished manuscript by Primo Levi and Leonardo De Benedetti, a physician who was Levi’s close friend when the two were prisoners at the camp.


    2006: In its fight to remove threat of Hezbollah,IDF troops uncovered several anti-tank missiles and several surface-to-surface missiles during an operation in the village of Marwaheen. They also found a machine gun, a Kalashnikov assault rifle, and ammunition.

    2006: Haaretz reported on the opening of the first U.S. branch of Aroma, the Israeli equivalent of Starbuck.  The first franchise is located on Houston Street in Manhattan. Dressed in t-shirts saying “I Love Aroma New York” the staff prepared for the entry into the coffee and restaurant wars.  There were many unique challenges in the opening including the renaming of one Aroma’s signature sandwiches.  In Israel, the sandwich is called “the Iraqi Sandwich.”  In the U.S. it is called The Oriental Sandwich.

    2007: The San Francisco Jewish Film Festival presents a screening of “His People,” a film about two sons of Jewish pushcart peddlers living on the Lower East Side.

    2007: In Jerusalem at the Sisters of Zion convent, a classical music concert entitled"Music in All the Shades" presents "Popular Melodies in Russian Choral Music," featuring "Musica Eterna" under the direction of Elia Plotkin.

    2007(6th of Av, 5767):Rabbi Sherwin Wine, founder the Birmingham Temple in suburban Detroit in 1963 who also was the driving force behind the creation of the Society for Humanistic Judaism in 1969  died  today in an auto accident at the age of 79

    2007: (6 Av, 5767) Shabbat Chazon; start of the reading of Devarim or Deuteronomy.

    2008: Gordon Brown is scheduled to address the Knesset making him the first British Prime Minister to speak to the Israeli parliament.

    2008: A jury in San Francisco convicted Eric Hunt of false imprisonment with a hate crime allegation, batter and elder abuse for his February 1. 2007 attack on 79 year old Holocuast survivor and Nobel Prize Winner, Elie Wiesel.

    2009: A disciplinary hearing was held today following yesterdays brawl involving coaches and players after “Russia's 2-1 defeat of Argentina in the under-18 semifinals at the Maccabiah Games.

    2009:The Pet Shop Boys play a one-off performance in Tel Aviv becoming the latest British mega band to perform on Israeli soil after a Depeche Mode concert in May.

    2009: At the 18th Maccabiah, Australia plays Israel in Women’s Netball

    2009:Israel led the way in the men's half marathon today, taking the Gold, Silver and Bronze medals in Netanya. The winner of the men's race was Zohar Zmiro who came in with a time of 01:10:31. He was closely followed by Dastaho Svanch at 01:10:41.


    2009:The US baseball team capped off its undefeated season today with a 12-6 gold medal-clinching victory against Canada at Sportek in Tel Aviv.

    2009:As the controversy continued to grow because of the planned showing of “Rachel”  “a sympathetic portrait of the American pro-Palestinian activist who was killed in 2003 in Gaza while protesting a home demolition, San Francisco Jewish Film Festival Executive Director Peter Stein apologized “for not fully considering how upsetting this program might be,” though he added that the festival stands by its decision to screen the film.

    2010:An 8-week session program entitled Hebrew Language and Conversation is scheduled to begin at the Historic Sixth & I Synagogue.

    2010:Debra Rubin, Editor of the Washington Jewish Week is scheduled to serve as a moderator of a discussion addressing issues concerning Jewish residents of Montgomery County at the Jewish Community Center of Greater Washington in, Rockville, MD

    2010:An Israeli oil prospecting and production firm announced it has struck a commercial amount of the black substance in central Israel, Army Radio reported today. Givot Olam Oil Ltd notified the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange of the find in its "Megev Five" drill near the town of Rosh Ha’ayin, saying it can produce 470 barrels of oil a day.

    2010:The Ritz Carlton hotel chain announced today that it will build its first kosher hotel in Herzliya. The hotel will be located on the coastline overlooking the Herzliya Marina.

    2011:The "Angel of Death" Josef Rudolf Mengele's writings are scheduled to be auctioned off by Alexander Historic Auctions of Stamford Connecticut today.


    2011:A golden bell ornament that archaeologists believed belonged to a priest or important leader from the Second Temple Period was found in an ancient drainage channel in ruins next to the Western Wall today, the Israel Antiquities Authority announced. The small bell, which has a loop for attaching to clothing or jewelry, was found underneath what is today known as Robinson's arch.

     2011:As part of the ongoing doctors' work dispute, medical residents at Meir Hospital in Kfar Saba opened up in a hunger strike today

    2011: Libya has become a new source of smuggled weaponry for Palestinians in the Gaza Strip, Vice Prime Minister Moshe Ya'alon said today.
    2011: The Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington is scheduled to host a luncheon honoring the Collections Committee and Chair Janice Goldblum following the launch of its new on-line catalogue presented by Wendy Turman, JHSGW Archivist.

    2011(19th of Tammuz, 5771): Ninety-one year old Bruce Sundlun, the second Jewish governor of Rhode Island passed away today. (As reported by Margalit Fox)

    2011(19th of Tammuz, 5771): Ninety five year old Hyman “Bookie” Bookbinder a Washington lobbyist known by his trademark bowtie whose friends were a cross section of Washington, DC including Democrat Hubert Humphrey and Republican Betty Ford, passed away today (As reported by T. Rees Shapiro)

    2011(19th of Tammuz, 5771): Ninety-five year old Elliot Handler began Mattel Toy Company with his wife Ruth and helped to make Barbie, Chatty Cathy and Hot Wheels house-hold names passed away today. (As reported by Charles Duhigg)

    2012: Agudas Achim is scheduled to hold its last Shabbat morning service in downtown Iowa City before moving to its new building in suburban Coralville, Iowa.

    2012: “Naomi,” a “tight edgy Israeli film noir” is scheduled to be shown at The San Francisco Jewish Film Festival

    2012: “Lee Zurik, WVUE Fox 8 investigative reporter, picked up three first place awards tonight at the 54th annual Excellence in Journalism Awards sponsored by the Press Club of New Orleans”  (As reported by CCJN)

     2012: The Bulgarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs dismissed a claim by Qaedat al-Jihad that it was responsible for the terrorist attack in Burgas.Foreign Affairs Ministry spokeswoman Vesela Cherneva dismissed the previously unknown Islamist group’s assertion of responsibility for the attack in an email sent today to Elnashra, a Lebanese newspaper. (As reported by Ilan Ben Zion)

    2012: Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu conveyed his condolences to the American people via a letter to US President Barack Obama late tonight, a day after a gunman stormed a movie theater in Colorado, killing 12.(As reported by Ilan Ben Zion)

    2013: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Worldly Philosopher: The Odyssey of Albert O. Hirschman by Jeremy Adelman

    2013: “Chagall between War and Peace” an exhibition at Paris’ Musee de Luxembourg is scheduled to come to an end.

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    July 22 In History

    1099: During the First Crusade Godfrey of Bouillon elected first Defender of the Holy Sepulcher of The Kingdom of Jerusalem.  Having driven out the Muslims and Jews (including the slaughter of innocent) the Soldiers of the Cross settle in for what they think is an eternity. 

    1209: Forces that included the fanatical monk, Arnold of Citeaux, stormed the city of Beziers as part of the war aimed at destroying the Albigensians.  The destruction of the Jewish community, including the murder of two hundred Jews, was "collateral damage

    1306 (10thof Av): Philip the Fair of France arrested all the Jews, confiscated their property, and expelled them from his lands. Most Jews left to the next Duchy. Gradually they were allowed to drift back.

    1320: King James II of France – in reaction to the excesses in southern France, proscribed support for the Jewish survivors, including an exemption on taxes. At the same time he refused to allow forcibly baptized children to be returned to their parents

    1456: During the Ottoman attempts to expand its power in Europe John Hunyadi, the Regent of Kingdom of Hungary defeats Mehmet II of Ottoman Empire during the Siege of Belgrade.  Mehmet’s reign was friendly to the Jewish people including opening his empire to refugees from Christian Europe.  On the other hand, John Hunyadi enjoyed the support of the Italian Monk Jean de Capistrano who had previously convinced King Ludwig of Bavaria to expel his Jewish subjects.

    1489: In Soncino, printer Joshua Solomon Soncino produced the first copy Talmud Bavil, Tractate “Niddah.”

    1570: During the war with Venice, Ottoman forces lay siege to Nicosea, Cyprus. The Jews had been living on Cyprus since Roman times.  Following the conquest by the Ottomans, Cyprus would become a haven for Jews fleeing from the Spanish Inquistion.

    1598; The Merchant of Venice is licensed for printing.  However, it would be two years before the play featuring Shylock would be printed for the first time.

    1604: King James I sent a letter to Archbishop Bancroft that effectively permitted the English translation of the Bible.  For most people, Jews included, the poetic tones of the King James Bible are the sounds of the TaNaCh that they readily know.

    1648: Ten thousand Jews of Polannoe were killed in the Chmielnicki massacres.

    1686: Albany, New York is formally chartered as a municipality by Governor Thomas Dongan. Public records indicate the presence of Jews as early as 1658. Asser Levy owned property, obtained burgher's rights, and lived in Albany in the 1650s. Other early Jewish merchants and traders who resided in Albany included Jacob Lucena, Hayman Levy, Jonas Phillips, Asher Levy, Levi Solomons and Levi Solomons   Albany’s most famous Jewish resident was Isaac Mayer Wise who began what would become the Reform Movement while serving as a Rabbi in New York’s capital city. 

    1676: Clement X, the Pope who prohibited the custom of chasing Jews through the streets during the carnival, passed away.

    1823: Birthdate of Louis Raphael Bischoffsheim the Dutch born French banker who founded the Nice Observatory.

    1833: the House of Commons passed a bill for the emancipation of the Jews of England. The House of Lords would reject the bill.

    1849: Birthdate of the poet Emma Lazarus. She became famous as the author of "The New Colossus" written in 1883, four years before her death. This poem appears at the base of the Statue of Liberty and is a celebration of America as the land of the immigrant. To give one a sense of the times in which she lived the New York Times described her not as a Jew, but as who belonged "to one of the best known and oldest Hebrew families of the city..."

    1850: In New Olreans, the cornerstone is laid for a new Synagogue, Shangaray Chassed.

    1853: In a sign of how quickly Jews were accepted into pre-Civl War American society an article published today describing events surrounding Columbia College’s upcoming commencement exercises reported that while most of the college’s trustees have been Episcopalians, members of other religious denominations have served in that capacity including one or more Jews.

    1864: During the Civil War Union forces under General Sherman defeat the Confederates at the Battle of Atlanta which was actually one of a series of clashes that would lead to the fall of the South’s major transportation and manufacturing center. Among those serving with Sherman was Edward S. Salomon whose distinguished service at the Battle of Gettysburg earned him the rank of Brevet Brigadier General.

    1870: The St. Louis Democrat reported that a property dispute between two Jewish congregations in St. Louis that stretches back to the 1840’s has resulted in civil litigation.  B’nai El Congregation is suing the trustees of Emanuel Congregation over the transfer of property that the plaintiffs contend the Respondents have never completed

    1872: The New York Herald published an editorial “that deplored the widely held opinion ‘that American Jews would remain forever content to study Hebrew and German for the sake of Worshipping God in those languages…Give them religious as well as secular instruction in their vernacular and there will not be much cause to complain of empty pews and neglected synagogues..’”  The editorial was written in response to a “report that the English speaking rabbis of Temple Emanu-El and Congregation B’nai Jeshurun had resigned their pulpits and that the congregations were having great difficulty in finding replacements.” The Herald had previously published an editorial praising plans for the creation of a seminary at Cincinnati to train rabbis for the American Jewish community.  The Herald believed that if services were conducted in English, Jewish throngs would fill their congregations.  What is amazing is the fact that a leading secular paper would involve itself in this issue.

    1874(8th of Av, 5634): Erev Tish'a B'Av

    1877:“Heine’s Love, Apostasy and Agony” published today described the two most painful events in the German poet’s life.  The first was his star-crossed love affair with Amalie Heine. The second was his decision to convert to Christianity so that he could gain favor with his Prussian patrons.  The conversion failed to bring the acceptance he sought.  These frustrations led him to write “I often get up in the night, and stand before the glass and curse myself.”

    1877: “The Hebrew Controversy” published today presented a fulsome account of the controversy created by Judge Hilton’s ban on Jewish guests at his hotel in Saratoga Springs that includes correspondence that reveals much about the attitude and values of those involved in the matter. 

    1878: Birthdate of Janusz Korczak, Polish born Jewish pediatrician who used the pen name of Henryk Goldszmit as an author of children’s book.  He died in August, 1942

    1879: Mr. Austin Corbin, President of of the Manhattan Beach Railway Company, says that Jews, as a class, have made themselves offensive to those who patronize his railroad and hotel on Coney Island.”  He said “that they are vulgar and unclean…and that he will leave nothing undone to get ride of them in order to save his business from ruin.  While no official action has been taken by the Board of Directors to support Corbin’s position, “many stockholders agree with him.

    1879: Prominent Jews have condemned Austin Corbin’s derogatory comments, calling him “a narrow-minded bigot whose proper country is Romania.”  Abram Dittenhoefer, the former judge and leader of the Jewish community, said Corbin “has not insulted the Jews, but all Americans who are opposed to intolerance.

    1880: Michael Gernsheim, a partner in Kuhn, Loeb & Co is scheduled to leave for Europe today aboard the SS Scythia.  He plans to be gone for four months.

    1881: I.A. Engelhardt was elected President of the Society for Improving the Sanitary Conditions of Poor Israelites in New York at its meeting today.  The society seeks to improve “the sanitary conditions” of the city’s poor Jews “by providing them with the necessary information” regarding housing, including the enforcement of sanitary regulations and the means of eradicating the causes and sources of disease from their homes.

    1881: Based on information supplied by the Daily News, an English paper, it was reported today that England, Austria, Holland, and possibly some other European powers are planning on sending a joint communique to Russia express their concern over that nation’s “harsh laws against the Jews.”

    1882:”The Vicar of Bray,” a comic opera by Anglo-Jewish composer and conductor Edward Solomon opened at the Globe Theatre in London.

    1883: It was reported today that Julius Hallgarten, a Jewish Philanthropist has established a trust in the amount of $5,000 to support the Art Schools of the National Academy of Design.  Dr. Felix Adler is among those who have been appointed to serve as trustees to manage the gift.

    1883: “Not Fond of Israelites” published today described a lawsuit Louis Batist has filed a suit against the Manhattan Railway Company seeking $5,000 in damages after a conductor pushed him back so that he could not board the elevated train after saying “You are a Jew! We don’t permit Jews on this train.”

    1884: Rabbis Wise and Huebsch are scheduled to officiate at the funeral retired merchant Mayer Schutz who passed away in his 80th year while vacationing at Coney Island.

    1886: It was reported today that 40 Russian Jews who had arrived in the United States yesterday will be sent back to Europe on the next State Line Steamer because they are destitute and “had no definite ideas as to how they were to earn a living.”

    1887(1stof Av, 5647): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1887: Birthdate of Gustav Hertz. This German-born quantum physicist won the Nobel Prize in 1925.

    1888: “Hearing the New Rabbi” published today described the first sermon of Rabbi Jacob Joseph as being delivered in “a language which is a mixture of Hebrew, German and Polish.” The younger members of the audience complained that they “had difficulty in understanding…the language” he used.  [It would appear that the sermon was delivered in Yiddish which would have had a strange sound to those used to hearing such talk in German.]

    1888: Approximately 1,500 Jews living on the Lower East Side, including a large number of children took an excursion boat to Raritan Beach.  The trip was sponsored by a liquor dealer named Ehrlich.  According to eyewitness accounts, Ehrlich, who had the drink concession, salted the drinking water, forcing mothers to buy beer and soda to slake the thirst of their children.

    1888: Rabbi De Sola Mendes, of New York’s 44th Street Synagogue officiated at ceremonies dedicating The House of Miriam, the new synagogue in Long Branch, NJ. S.T. Meyer of New York contributed the land and several wealthy New York Jews who spend their summers at the New Jersey resort defrayed the cost of Construction. [The congregation exists today as Beth Miriam, a Reform Temple.]

    1889: “Pilgrims by the Sea” published today described the thriving ocean resort scene in New York and New Jersey including the presence of Jewish guests at Brighton Beach Hotel.  Mr. Breen, one of the new managers of the hotel said that reports that Jewish guests were unwelcomed and had been excluded were false.  They had been circulated by a disgruntled former employee.  The hotel admitted guests strictly on the basis of their behavior and not ethnicity.

    1889: In Boston, MA, Rabbi Raphael Lasker officiated at the funeral of Count L.B. Schwab.  Burial took place at the cemetery of the Union Park Street temple.  Among the pallbearers were Nathan Waxman and George Adams of the Hebrew Benevolent Society; Alexander Simons and James H. Cohen of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association; and Isaac Young and Usher Hyman of Adath Israel.

    1890: Plans for the next free excursion sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children were published today.

    1890: “A Jewish Settlement” published today described the growth of Alliance over the last eight years fo acres of wild brush in Salem County, NJ to a flourishing village of 612 Jewish immigrants from Russia.  The  Hebrew Aid Society helped them by the land which at the time sold for $12 per acre but is now valued at more than $100 per acre thanks to the efforts of the Jews.

    1891: It was reported today that Jesse Seligman and A.S. Solomons, Trustees of the Baron de Hirsh Fund have told authorities that the apparently impoverished Jewish Immigrants they are holding are in fact honest hard workers who were “robbed of all of their money’ at the Russian border.

     1892: “The Vicar of Bray, “a comic opera by Edward Solomon…opened at the Globe Theatre in London…for a run of only 69 performances.”  “An 1892 revival at the Savoy Theatre” last for 143 performances.

    1893: A reporter for the New York Timesvisited the home of 32 year old Adolf Bruckman, whose grandfather had been the chief rabbi at a city in Russian Poland and his family at a tenement on Ludlow Street. The destitute family had been forced to leave Russia because of imperial decrees that denied Bruckman of a chance to earn a living.

    1894: “Jews at Buckingham Palace” published today described a visit by the Austrian Archduke to England where he was greeted by fifty of his subjects the royal home, forty of here were Jewish.  This should have come as no so surprise since it is believe “that in Vienna there are no fewer than 2,500 persons bearing the Jewish name of Kohn.”

    1895: Wolf Silverman was accompanied by is counsel Abraham Joseph when he was arraigned on charges of having attempted to swindle the Empire Life Insurance Company.

    1896: Herzl visits Karlsbad, where he obtains an audience with Prince Ferdinand of Bulgaria. The prince is a well-connected “royal” who will actually sit on the Bulgarian throne.  This appears to be one more attempt on Herzl’s part to use influence and connection to create the Jewish homeland.

    1897(22ndof Tammuz, 5657): Seventy-five year old Lewis May, President of Temple Emanu-El passed away this morning at Dobbs Ferry.

    1897:  In a very emotional manner, Vice President James Seligman announced at special meeting of the Board of Trustees of Temple Emanu-El that their President, Lewis May had passed away following which resolutions of expressing condolence to the family were adopted by the Board.

    1899: It was reported today that Oscar S. Straus, the Minister to Turkey, is a member of the United States Section of The International Congress of History.

    1902:Herzl and Wolffsohn leave for Constantinople with hopes that the Sultan will support a Jewish Homeland in the Ottoman Empire.  The trip did not go well as can be seen when Herzl writes his conclusions when the visit ends on August 5.

    1903: Francis Lewis Cardozo, the first African American to hold statewide office in South Carolina passed away today.  The son Isaac Cardozo, a Sephardic Jew working in the customhouse in Charleston and Lydia Weston, a free black woman, Cardozo’s life reads more like a novel than anything else.  He was raised as Christian and is the “Cardozo” in Washington, DC’s Cardozo Senior High School.

    1907(11th of Av): Rabbi Isaac Blaser, leader of the Musar movement and the author of Peri Yizhak, passed away

    1913(17th of Tammuz, 5673): Tzom Tammuz

    1914: Before the visit of his daughter Anna to Britain which was to be chaperoned by Ernest Jones, Sigmund Freud wrote, “She does not claim to be treated as a woman, being still far away from sexual longings and rather refusing man. There is an outspoken understanding between me and her that she should not consider marriage or the preliminaries before she gets two or three years older". “A tentative romance between Anna” and Jones who became Freud’s official biographer, “did not survive” Freud’s “disapproval.”

    1917: In Russia, Kerensky, the Jewish former Minister of War became the premier. After the Czar abdicated, he took over the Russian government and formed a liberal provisional government, which lasted four months. Although well intentioned, he was not a strong leader and couldn't negotiate between the subversive forces between right and left. His government would be ousted by Lenin, ending Russia’s brief flirtation with Western style democracy.

    1918: British General Allenby approves a town-planning scheme for Jerusalem complete with an expanded road network, new parks and municipal and residential buildings. 

    1920: Establishment of Keren Hayesod (Palestine Foundation Fund)

    1921: Winston Churchill, Lloyd George and Lord Balfour met with Chaim Wiezmann at Balfour’s House in London in an attempt “to reassure Wiezmann that British policy in support of the Balfour Declaration and the Jewish home in Palestine had not changed.”

    1921: Birthdate of Phillip Burgher, a native of Niles, Illinois who served in World War II.

    1922: The League of Nations Council confirmed the British Palestine Mandate. The Balfour Declaration is part of the terms of the mandate.

    1923: Tisha B’Av, 9th of Av, 5683

    1927: The convention of Palestine Jewish Labor Federation which had been meeting in Tel Aviv for the past fortnight comes to an end.  The convention adopted several resolutions including ones calling for greater freedom for Jews to immigrate to Palestine and more aggressive government action to deal with the problems of unemployment.

    1927: Birthdate of Israeli Mathematician Michael Bahir known for his contributions to the field of game theory.

    1934(10th of Av, 5694):Tish'a B'Av observed

    1934: Dr. Solomon Deutsch, a Bronx Dentist and a leader of the JNF, and his family are scheduled to set sail today for Palestine where they plan on settling at Netanya. (As reported by JTA)

    1936: The Palestine Post reported that the insurrection of Monarchists and Fascists in Spain was gaining momentum and was seriously threatening the democratic regime. Arabs killed Abraham Donagi, a watchman at Even Yehuda, and severely wounded Abraham Bauer in Jerusalem. Bombs exploded in Jaffa and the Iraqi Petroleum Co. pipeline was severely damaged. All this was part of the on-going Arab Riots aimed at destroying the Jewish community in Palestine.

    1936: A British soldier was killed in an Arab ambush near Tulkarm. Arab attacks were reported from Ein Harod and Kfar Yehezkel. Arabs celebrated the 100th day of their insurrection with demonstrations, calls for prayer and donations. But the Arab Nashashibi Party proposed that the Arab Higher Committee should resign as a protest against the non-fulfillment of their promises and leave the people to decide the fate of their prolonged general strike by themselves

    1939: Eichmann’s Central Office for Emigration, (of Jews) in Prague, officially opened

    1941 France's Vichy government begins expropriation of Jewish businesses.

    1942:  On the day before Tisha B’Av German authorities and Ukrainian and Latvian guards in SS uniforms surround the walls of the Warsaw Ghetto. Six thousand Warsaw Jews were told to gather for deportation. Over the next seven weeks as many as 300,000 Jews would be sent by train to the three gas chambers of Treblinka. The railway master at Treblinka was notified of a shuttle line being set up between Warsaw and its railroad station for "Settlers.” THIS WAS THE LARGEST SLAUGHTER OF ANY SINGLE COMMUNITY DURING THE HOLOCAUST. From July 22 through September 12, 1942: 4,000 Warsaw Jews per day would be gassed in Treblinka. Only those with special cards stamped with ‘Operation Reihnard', an eagle and the swastika were saved from deportation. Resisters or those taking flight would be shot on the spot by Ukrainians, Latvians, Lithuanians and German SS officers. Orphanages, children homes, hospitals, were all emptied. Each train was comprised of sixty cars. Each car was packed with human cargo.

    1943: Because the U.S. State Department continues to delay any action on the Riegner Plan to save 70,000 Jews, American Rabbi Stephen Wise pleads with President Franklin Roosevelt to support the plan. Roosevelt allows the plan to be killed because of "strenuous British objections."

    1944: German troops withdraw from Parczew Forest, Poland, the site of numerous Nazi searches for Jewish fugitives and partisans.

    1944: Survivors of a July 13 mass execution of Jewish slave laborers at Bialystok, Poland, reach Red Army lines after crawling for nine nights.

    1944: The Red Army occupied Chelm. The 68,000 Jews left in Vilna hope the Soviets will arrive before the Nazis can finish them off.

    1944: During the soo-called “Blood for Goods” negotiations Edmund Veesenmayer a member of the SS sent a cable to the German Foreign Office stating that Joel Brand and Andor Grosz had been sent to Turkey on the orders of Himmler

    1946: The Irgun bombed the King David Hotel in Jerusalem. The King David was the headquarters of the British civil and military administration. Ninety people, including Jews, lost their lives. The Irgun, led by Menachem Begin, claimed that they had called ahead to warn of the bombing. The British denied receiving any such call. The Jewish Agency, the de facto government of the Jews in Palestine and other Jewish leaders, denounced the attack. There was a "moment of mourning" on July 23 as the Jewish community paused to honor the dead. The attack marked a split between the recently agreed to alliance between the Haganah and the Irgun. What is amazing about the response of the Jewish community was that in the weeks prior to the bombing the British had imprisoned all a couple of the leaders of the Jewish Agency and seized its records in an attempt to squelch the Zionist movement. However terrible the British occupation was, the terrorism of the Irgun was not to be the Jewish answer.

    1947: Birthdate of Albert Brooks. Born Albert Einstein, this successful actor, comedian, writer and director grew up in California as part of the show business community. He went to school with Rob Reiner and Larry Bishop, Joey Bishop’s son. He changed his name to Brooks after leaving college in the late 1960’s to become a stand-up comedian.

    1948: The Israelis opened the refineries at Haifa.  They had been closed since the British shut them down on April 26 in the waning days of the Mandate.

    1950: Captain Moshe Idelovitch, Assistant Superintendent of Police in Israel said that “Arab infiltration of Israeli territory could be stopped within twenty-four hours if Jordan cooperated.” Captain Idelovitch is commander of the Petah Tigva area, where most of the border marauders and murderers penetrate

    1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that 69-year-old King Abdullah of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan was assassinated inside al-Aksa Mosque in the Jordanian-held Old City of Jerusalem. Emir Naif, his second son, was declared regent. King Abdullah was known for his efforts to reach an Arab-Israeli peace settlement. In his memoirs he wrote: "I have been astonished at what I saw of the Jewish settlements: They have colonized sand dunes, drawn water from them, and transformed them into paradise..."

    1951: As ceremonies were being planned for the burial of King Abdullah of Jordan in Amman, the Arab Legion turned the Jordanian-occupied Old City of Jerusalem into an armed camp in pursuit of the suspected Palestinian assassins.

    1951: Israel observed the 47th anniversary of Theodore Herzl's death with a solemn ceremony held on Mount Herzl in Jerusalem.

    1967:  Poet Carl Sandburg passes away.  Sandburg was not Jewish.  In 1999 a group of previously unknown Sandburg poems was published.  The collection included a poem entitled “To Jacob M. Loeb” that contains the same raw power of such poems as “Chicago” – the one that begins:

    “Hog Butcher for the World

    Tool Maker, Stacker of Wheat...”

    “To Jacob M. Loeb” has that same kind of elemental power, but takes on the form of a letter challenging Loeb.  Before reading it, a little background is in order courtesy of the Chicago Jewish Historical Society.  Loeb was a real person.  He was born in Chicago to German-Jewish parents who had enjoyed economic success.  Loeb himself went into the insurance business where he too was quite successful.  The Loeb’s were active in the community giving both of their time and their money.  Loeb’s mother worked a B’nai Brith type organization that provided educational and recreational opportunities for the children of Chicago’s immigrant (largely eastern European) population.  Along with the famous Julius Rosenwald, Loeb helped to found the Jewish Institute and followed Rosenwald in the presidency.  Loeb was a major fund raiser in the fight to aid the Jews of Europe during and after World War I.  Loeb was also active in the civic affairs of the city of Chicago.  In 1914 he was appointed to School Board and later became President of that body.  And that is the source of the conflict described in the poem.  During Loeb’s time on the board, the school teachers went on strike for the right to unionize.  Loeb led the successful fight to give the board the right to fire any teacher who joined the union.  Sandburg could not understand how a Jew, whose people had a history of being part of the downtrodden, could turn on the working class once they had money and power.  He saw Loeb’s behavior as a betrayal of his Jewish origins.  The poem is not anti-Semitic.  There were plenty of Jews among the ranks of the teachers and the poem sites by name several Jewish labor leaders.  The conflict between the teachers and the school district highlighted an anomaly of Jewish history that was seen most often in the garment industry.  The owners were Jewish (usually Germans who arrived earlier) and the workers were also Jewish (eastern Europeans.)  The strike at Hart, Shaftner and Marx had pitted Jewish owners against Jewish garment workers.  The poem highlights this dichotomy.  Sandburg wanted to believe that Jews, of all people, would, once they had power and influence, support the less fortunate and not, in his view “sell out.”  He was expressing the same kind of outrage that other generations of Jews have expressed over southern Jews owning slaves.  How could the descendants of Pharaoh’s chattel take other human beings as chattel.  Since the purpose of these little daily exercises is to provide some context as well as raw information about Jewish history, you will find the poem quoted in its entirety below.  Those who know me, know that I am a fan of Sandburg’s so this poem took on special meaning for me.   


    “To Jacob M. Loeb:

    You are one of the Jews sore at Georgia for the way

    they hanged Leo Frank and called him a damned Jew

    there in Atlanta.

    And you’re talking a lot about liberty and the rights

    of school children.

    You came from Kovno in Russia and you ought to

    know something about liberty;

    And how school boards, police boards, military

    boards and czars have gone on year after year

    To choke the Jews from having societies,

    organizations, labor unions,

    Shoving bayonets into the faces of the Jews and

    driving them to the ghettoes.

    You know what I mean. You know these European

    cities where they call the Jews a despised race;

    And anybody who spits in a Jew’s face is not

    touched by the police.

    D’ye get me? I’m reminding you what you already


    You’re the man who is leading the school board

    fight on the Teachers’ Federation.

    And you forget, your memory slips, your heart

    doesn’t picture

    How you and your fathers were spit upon in the


    And how the soldiers and police misused your


    Just because they were Jews, and in Kovno

    Anybody could get away with what they did to a

    Jew woman or a Jew girl;

    And now you, a Jew stand up here in Chicago and

    act proud

    Because you have in effect spit in the faces of

    Chicago women, accused them, belittled them.

    First you tried to cut their wages, back here in May,

    a seven-and-a-half per cent cut,

    And now you’re going to make it a law that teachers

    can’t have a labor union;

    And they got to take what you and Rothmann and

    Myer Stein hand ‘em.

    I don’t think you’ll get away with it.

    Sam Gompers, an English Jew, will speak tonight at

    the Auditorium,

    And Jacob LeBosky and Sam Alschuler and other

    Jews in this town

    Are against the game of shackling the teachers and

    repeating Kovno and Kiev and Odessa here in Chicago.

    In fact, five hundred Jews are already in revolt at

    your Kovno trick

    Of slamming the door on the free speech at the

    Hebrew Institute.

    These five hundred are the real blood of the Jew


    That give it a clean flame of heroism.

    You belong with the trash of history, the oppressors

    and the killjoys.

    1976: The visiting governor of the Bank of Spain, Luis Coronel del Palma, expressed hope of "a considerable improvement of relations between Spain and Israel."

    1976: According to American experts the recent events in Lebanon and the Syrian intervention there threatened the total dismemberment of the PLO and the demise of Yasser Arafat who had lost control of all his forces.

    1976: Mossad hit teams were reported to have been waging a concerted assassination program against all Palestinian terrorists who murdered 11 Israeli athletes at the 1972 Munich Olympiad. For those who consider the Israeli behavior "cold blooded" remember what happened.  The Munich Olympics went on almost as if the terrorists had not struck.  The response of the world community was to invite Yassar Arafat, complete with is pistols, to address the UN General Assembly.  And for good measure the UN passed the Zionism is Racism Resolution. 

    1976: The Jerusalem Post reported that the Ministry of Agriculture had decided to enforce the law against squatting to counter the widespread increase in the illegal Arab settlement on state lands. The popular TV show Kolbotek was suspended following the discovery of irregularities in connection with one of its programs. The Mossad was reported to have informed Prime Minister Golda Meir and Defense Minister Moshe Dayan of Arab plans to attack Israel two days before the outbreak of the 1973 Yom Kippur War, but this information was disregarded.

    1980(9th of Av, 5740): Tish'a B'Av

    1980: The Knesset voted by ninety-nine votes to fifty-one to annex east Jerusalem declaring that ‘Jerusalem, complete and undivided, is the capital of Israel.’

    1981:Immanuel Jakobovits, Chief Rabbi of the United Hebrew Congregations of the Commonwealth “was created a life peer in 1988, as Baron Jakobovits, of Regent's Park in Greater London, becoming the first rabbi to receive this honor.”

    1993: Israeli Supreme court Justice, Aharon Barak, was present at Yad Vashem to watch seventy-six-year-old Ceslovas Rakevicius plant a tree.  Rakevicius had saved the eight year old Barak, his brother and his parents and more than twenty other Jewish families by smuggling them out of the Kovno Ghetto in 1944. 

    1997(17th of Tammuz, 5757): Tzom Tammuz

    1999(9th of Av, 5759): Tish'a B'Av

    1999(9th of Av, 5759): Ninety-nine year old David N. Myers of Cleveland, OH a dedicated leader and benefactor of the Jewish and secular communities passed away today. As a long-time supporter of American Friends of the Hebrew University, he established the David Meyers Skin Laboratory and David and Inez Meyers Scholarship Endowment at The Hebrew University.

    2001: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including ''Regarding Film'' by Stanely Kauffmann and “Walking the Bible” by Bruce Feiler.

    2002: Israel assassinates Salah Shahade, the Commander-in-Chief of Hamas’s military arm, the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades.

    2005: In the evening, with the start of Shabbat, Rabbi Aaron Sherman officiates at his first service as the new spiritual leader of the Cedar Rapids, Iowa, Jewish Community.

    2006: Israel ousted Hezbollah guerrillas from a stronghold just inside Lebanon after several days of fierce fighting, the army said, as it bombarded targets across the south of the country.

    2006:  At least 100 Katyusha Rockets fired by Hezbollah forces in Lebanon land in northern Israel.  At least nineteen Israeli civilians are reported injured. 

    2007: The Sunday New York Times book section featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and or of special interest to Jewish readers including The House that George Built With a Little Help From Irving, Cole, and a Crew of About Fifty by Wilfrid Sheed describing a musical era dominated by George Gershwin “and a few of his friends” and POP! Why Bubbles Are Great for the Economy by Daniel Gross whose earlier writings included “Can the Jews Save Christmas: Chanukah is Late this Year. Will this help retailers?”

    2008: The Karmiel Dance Festival opens. This year, this most Israeli of festivals celebrates the country's 60th birthday via a retrospective of Israeli dance from 1948 to the present day, yet the central event - Let Us Grow in Peace - is a poignant reminder that for most of those 60 years, our land has known conflict.

    2008. Senator Barack Obama begins his visit to Israel where he is expected to meet the country's top leaders: President Shimon Peres, Prime Minister Ehud Olmert, Defense Minister Ehud Barak, Foreign Minister Tzipi Livni and Likud Party leader Benjamin Netanyahu. The publicity of this trip is a far cry from the comparatively anonymous trip the Senator made to Israel in 2006 when he visited the town of Fassouta,

    2008:For the second time in three weeks, an Arab bulldozer driver from east Jerusalem rammed his construction vehicle into a city bus and several cars on a central thoroughfare in the capital  wounding 15 people before being shot dead by a Druse border police officer and a civilian passerby. The early afternoon attack on King David Street was seen as a failed copy of July 2's lethal bulldozer rampage on Jaffa Road in which Husam Taysir Dwayat killed three people and wounded dozens before he was killed.

    2009(1st of Av, 5769): Rosh Chodesh Av

    2009(1st of Av, 5769:Lynn Pressman Raymond, a leading toy manufacturing executive , passed away today at the age of 97. (As reported by William Grimes

    2009:U.S. congressman Henry Waxman discusses his new book, “The Waxman Report: How Congress Really Works,” at the Sixth & I Historic Synagogue,

    2009:The Randi & Bruce Pergament Jewish Film Festival features a screening of “Holyland Hardball,” which describes what happens “when a Boston baker with no sports management experience wanted to form the Israel Baseball League”

    2009: Gen. Norton Schwartz, the chief of staff of the Air Force and the first Jewish commander of the U.S. Air Force completed a four-day visit to Israel.

    2010:In Metro-Detroit, MI, The Jean and Theodore Weiss Partners in Torah Program is scheduled to sponsor a program entitled "Life After Death," which will cover such topics as:The journey of the soul, a study of scriptural passages referencing the World to Come, the eternal nature of the soul, a look at testimonials of near death experiences, the relevance of the soul.

    2010:The Israel Navy went on high alert today amid forecasts that a flotilla of two vessels from Lebanon was preparing to depart for the Gaza Strip in an effort to break the blockade by the end of the week.

    2011(20th of Tammuz, 5771): Yahrzeit of “Rabbi Na'eh best known for his halachic works Ketzot ha-Shulchan and Shiurei Torah ("measurements of the Torah"), in which he converted archaic halachic measurements into modern terms.” He passed away on the 20thof Tammuz (July 21) 1954.

    2011: The 92nd Street Y is scheduled to sponsor its Shabba bakery which will give children a chance roll and braid their own challah which they can take home and bake.

    2011:Jailed Jewish-American aid contractor Alan Gross told Cuba's Supreme Court today he had no intentions of hurting the Cuban government or its people. Gross, who was found guilty of undermining the state last February and sentenced to 15 years in prison, said he was thankful for the opportunity to appeal the verdict and denied the charges against him. . 

    2011:At least 200 medical students from all departments staged a protest outside of Ichilov Hospital in Tel Aviv today, demanding improvements in Israel's healthcare system and pledging support for the months long battle being waged by doctors and residents across the country.
    2012: In Sandy Springs, GA, Rabbi Rachel M. Bregman is scheduled to officiate at the graveside service for Laura Lynn Becker, a very accomplished Atlanta defense attorney for the past 30 years. A native of Cedar Rapids, Iowa, Ms. Becker was the daughter of Harold Becker and Arlene Gabert Becker of blessed memory.

    2012: The Center for Jewish History and American Jewish Historical Society are scheduled to present screenings of “Radio Days,” “Broadway Danny Rose” and “Annie Hall.”

    2012: The 12th Annual Summer Institute for Synagogue Musicians, Mifgash Musicale is scheduled to begin today on the HUC-JIR campus in Cincinnati, OH.

    2012: In Columbus, Ohio, Tifereth Israel is scheduled to sponsor a HAZAK lox and bagel brunch that will included a tour of Motts Military Museum

    2012: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The New Religious Intolerance:Overcoming the Politics of Fear in an Anxious Age by Martha C. Nussbaum

    2012: Complaining that the Olympic movement is still ignoring their pain, Israelis marked the 40th anniversary of the Munich massacre t0day with a modest service in the atrium of a London apartment block.

    2012(3rd of Av, 5772): Ninety-year old “Dr. Warren Winkelstein Jr., a physician and researcher whose groundbreaking studies connected unprotected sex between men to AIDS, smoking to cervical cancer and air pollution to chronic lung disease” passed away today. (As reported by Denise Grady)

    2012(3rd of Av, 5772): Eighty-nine year old urban legend and art collector Herbert Vogel passed away today. (As reported by Douglas Martin)

    2012: The world’s intelligence community is on the alert for terror attacks at the London Olympics, and Israel knows only too well that it can be targeted at such events, Defense Ministry Ehud Barak said this morning (As reported by Gabe Fisher)

    2012: Gunmen opened fire on today at a bus of Israeli soldiers that was traveling near the Israel-Egypt border. The bus was hit when it was on Route 10 near Har Sagi, southwest of Mitzpe Ramon. No casualties were reported but damage was done to the bus.

    2013: The annual Madridanza festival at the Suzanne Dellal Center in Tel Aviv is scheduled to come to a close.

    2013: Amos Phinhasi is scheduled to perform “Mediterraneo” at the Between the Seas Festival.

    2013: The second of two billboards sponsored by the pro-Israel group StandWithUs is scheduled to go up today at Helena, the capital of Montana. “The StandWithUs billboards read, “The U.S.-Israel Relationship Creates Hundreds of Thousands of Jobs in America” and “Israel Celebrates Diversity.”

    2013(15thof Av): Tu B’Av – Jewish Valentine’s Day

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    July 23 In History

    501: A violent earth quake hit Eretz Yisrael. The town of Akko was totally destroyed.

    636: Following the Battle of Yarmuk Arabs took control of most of Eretz Yisrael from the Byzantine Empire.

    1253: The Jews were expelled from Vienne, France by order of Pope Innocent III

    1298(13th of Av): Massacre of the Jews of Wurzburg, Germany.

    1312: King Frederick II order today that in Palermo Jews must live outside the city wall in a ghetto; and although they were soon afterward allowed to come into the city, they were still compelled to live in one quarter.

    1626: Birthdate (on the secular calendar) of Sabbatai Zevi, the most famous of the Jewish false messiahs. He died in 1676 after converting to Islam and becoming a low-level official in the Turkish government.

    1649: Birthdate of Giovanni Francesco Albani, the future Clement XI. In 1704, Clement issued a bull that dealt with Jewish converts to Catholicism.  “The bull dealt with the education of potential converts, encouraged forced preaching to Jews, and emphasized the importance of providing financial assistance to Jews who converted. It asserted that new converts were to be fully accepted into the Catholic community.”

    1713: Rabbi Tzvi Hirsch ben Yaakov Ashkenazi placed Nehemiah Chiya Chayun under the ban, because the investigating committee appointed by the Sephardic directorate had not yet made its report. In consequence of this measure, both Ashkenazi and Moses Chagiz were subjected to street attacks, more particularly at the hands of the Portuguese, who threatened to kill them. In the midst of the constantly increasing bitterness and animosity, the report of the committee, which had been prepared by Solomon Ayllon, Chacham of the Portuguese congregation, alone, was publicly announced. It was to the effect that the writings of Chayun contained nothing which could be construed as offensive to Judaism. It was publicly announced in the synagogue that Chayun was to be exonerated from every suspicion of heresy.

    1768(9th of Av): Rabbi Isaac Spitz, author of Birkat Yizhak passed away.

    1787: The Jews of Austria were required to take family names.

    1846: “The Montefiore Baronetcy, of East Cliff Lodge in the Isle of Thanet and County of Kent, was created in the Baronetage of the United Kingdom today for the banker and philosopher Moses Montefiore in recognition of his services to humanitarian causes on behalf of the Jewish people. He was childless and the title became extinct on his death in 1885.”

    1846: Rabbi Isaac Meyer Wise arrives in New York from Europe.

    1847: Prussian Jews were granted equality.

    1857: The resignation of Baron Rothschild was announced today and new writ was published in London calling for an election to choose his successor. In London, the electors responded by holding a public meeting in which they pledged to return Rothschild to Parliament as their representative.  They also passed a resolution calling the government to do everything in its power to immediately settle the Jewish question

    1858: Passage of the Oaths and Jewish Relief Acts in Great Britain. The act allowed each House to decide the wording for the oath of office.  It allowed Jewish office holders not to have recited the words, “I make this declaration upon the true Faith of a Christian. For the full text of the oath see:

     1860: A review of Life in the Desert; or Recollections of Travel in Asia and Africa by Colonel L. Du Couret, entitled “Asiatic Exploration.; The Journey of Du Couret through the Arabian Desert” reports that “in the heart of Arabia, our traveler found a considerable number of Jews, whose social condition seems to have been even worse than their, political state, which, in itself, is bad enough. More Jews are found at Doan, a populous place, some leagues further on the route to the eastward. "Many of these Jews," says Du Couret,, "are brokers, and some of them make a living by the manufacture of buskins and palm leaf mats. They also lend out money at usurious interest to merchants trading to Sana, the Indian Ocean and the Persian Gulf; but they carefully avoid any display of wealth, to save themselves from the extortion of the Mussulmans, who exact tribute from them. Such, under the rod of the Islam, are the modern descendants of the prophet Isaiah and of King Solomon." There is something unpleasantly suggestive in the following passage from our author's narrative: "Doan, which is, in all probability, the Dan spoken of by Ezekiel, is, at the present day, one of the largest and most important towns in Hadramaut, ranking next after Schibam and Terim.”

    1862: Jacob and Amalia Nathansohn Freud gave birth to Pauline Regine (Pauli), a sister of Sigmund Freud who was deported to Treblinka in 1942.

     1862: An article entitled "Escape of Mr. W.H. Hurlbert from Richmond" published today described the year-long Southern sojourn of Charleston born author William Hurlbert, a Union sympathizer who claimed that he visited the Richmond at the invitation of Judah P. Benjamin, “the eminent Jew” with whom he found himself in total disagreement.   Hurlbert then visited Charleston where he was seized by a mob that refused Secretary Benjamin’s order to set him free.  Hurlbert was then imprisoned in Richmond over the objections of Secretary Benjamin where he languished for almost a year before escaping.  [Editor’s note - For those trying to figure how much credence to give Hurlbert’s account consider the following.  He was in Richmond  during the Peninsula Campaign and later reported that the  Confederate  forces  numbered between 80,000 and 90,000 (wildly exaggerated) most of whom were facing  Union General Fitz Jon Porter (accurate) which means that had General McClellan pushed forward  he would have  Richmond virtually unoccupied (accurate)]

    1872: W.P. Wood and a Jew from Baltimore named Blumenberg are scheduled to arrive in Raleigh, North Carolina tonight.  The two men have reportedly been sent to North Carolina by the Liberal Republican Committee in an attempt to carry out a Tammany style ballot box stuffing.  Wood has been given $9,000 for his part in the scheme.  Blumenberg, who has served two years in the State Prison for Perjury was given $7,000.

    1872: E.A. Rosenbluth wrote a letter to the New York Times in which he declared that he “and all my Jewish acquaintances” “will vote for” General Grant.

    1874: It was reported today that as soon as $160,000 can be raised for a new Hebrew Theological College will be built in Cincinnati.  The late Emanuel Deutsch was the leading candidate to head the school but since his demise, Dr. Wise has renewed his efforts to obtain the services of the best available scholar to lead the effort.  The school is to be so amply endowed that students will not have to pay tuition or fees.  Henry Mack has been elected to serve as President of the Board of Governors. 

    1874: Melissa Rogers Pinner and Moritz Pinner gave birth to Rogers Adolphe Pinner, a senior partner of the Mutual Electric Company

    1874(9th of Av, 5634):Tish'a B'Av

    1876: A reported published today described the scene witnessed by a group of “Cook pilgrims” when they visited the “The Wailing Place of the Jews on the west side of the Temple enclosure” in Jerusalem. The Jews come to the Wall where they can touch the stones (which the writer erroneously believed were from the times of King Solomon) and read from Lamentations and Psalms “in a wailing voice.” The Jews “occasionalyly cry aloud in a chorus of lamentation, weeping. Blowing their longs notes with blue cotton handkerchiefs” while “kissing the stones” worn smooth “owing to centuries of osculation.”

    1879: Mr. Austin Corbin told a TIMES reporter today that he had received numerous letters from "nice people" approving the course he had taken in relation to the Jews, and urging him to persevere. He refused to permit copies to be taken for publication, on the plea that the matter had had enough notoriety, and he wished to let it die out.

    1879: Birthdate of German archaeologist Ernest Herzfeld who contended that structure currently identified as Queen Esther’s tomb “may actually belong to Shushan Dokht, the Jewish queen of King Yazdagerd I (ca. 399-420 CE), who is credited with securing permission for Jews to live in Hamadan.

    1879: It was reported today that “A Berlin dispatch to the Pall Mall Gazette says: ‘Germany has declined to entertain any proposals from the Roumania for the modification of the provisions of the treaty of Berlin relative to the emancipation of the Jews.’”

    1882: “The Jews and Wagner” published today expressed bewilderment at the German composer’s expression of disdain for Jews.  According to the author, it was an un-named Jew who gave him his first piano.  And Giacomo Meyerbeer, the German-Jewish composer, was the “first men who helped him.” Wagner claims that the Jews of Vienna have conspired to harm his career, but his three most noted critics –Hanslick, Scheel and Speidl- are Viennese Catholics.

    1884(1st of Av, 5644): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1884: Robert Pinkerton, whose detectives had arrested Mrs. Fredericka Mandelbaum yesterday, described what he said was  her 25 year career as the “most successful…receiver of stolen goods – silks, diamonds” and other “swag” from burglars” that had brought her to the attention of law enforcement officers throughout the United States. (Mandelbaum was Jewish; Pinkerton was not)

    1889(24th of Tammuz, 5649): Miss Openheimer, an 18 year old Jewess who was the daughter of well-known Pittsburgh clothing merchant, died today at Harmony, PA when a horse-drawn wagon in which she was riding collided with a train.  Miss Oppenheimer was vacationing in Butler Country.  Her brothers and father who were in Atlantic City have not heard about the tragedy.

    1890: Plans for the upcoming festival intended to raise funds for the Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews sponsored by the B’nai Brith were published today.

    1890:  In memory of Mrs. Stern, Isaac Stern is paying all of the expenses related to today’s excursion sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children for enjoyment of impoverished Jewish youngsters and their mothers.

    1891: Birthdate of movie mogul Harry Cohn, The son of Russian Jewish tailor, Cohn quit school and found work in vaudeville. He began working in the infant motion picture industry in 1913. He founded Columbia Pictures where, as a producer he won an Academy Award in 1934 for It Happened One Night. Cohn was noted for his vulgarism and bizarre quotes. One of his most famous was, "Give me two years and I will make her an overnight success." Cohn was one of several Jews who dominated the film industry in its early years. The interesting thing is that they did not make Jewish movies or movies about Jews. They gained success by giving the audiences slices of Americana. The created, or at least nurtured a vision of America that Middle America wanted to see. He passed away in 1958.

    1891: In Philadelphia, PA, the Jewish Alliance of American presented its plan of action for dealing with the immigration of Russian Jews.

    1892: “Reacting to claims that Jews don't really murder Christians to get their blood, L'Osservatore Romano, the Vatican's official newspaper, carries an article stating: ‘Unfortunately, although they tried to deny that the Talmud's followers commit such an atrocious act, one cannot reasonably deny its existence.’"
    1893(10th of Av, 5653): Tish’a B’Av observed the 9th of Av fell on Shabbat

    1893(10th of Av, 5653): Issac Burnheimer, a retired millionaire who was over the age of 80 and suffering from ill health passed away today at the Grand Union Hotel in Saratoga Springs.

    1894: Young men “went among the audience selling copies…of The Arbeiter Freund, an anarchist paper printed in Hebrew and published in London” before tonight’s meeting of anarchists at Clarendon Hall.

    1894: “What Shall Royalties Do?” published today speculates on how Europe’s impecunious nobility will support themselves and includes the possibility that someday, we may see “a Hapsburg taken into partnership with a Rothschild.”

    1894: Lizzie Berus, a 17 year old Russian Jewish immigrant from Paterson, NJ is to go on trial in New York today on charges of having “procured diamonds by bogus check from several jewelry firms in Upper Broadway.

    1894: Police are currently looking for George Patterson, the nephew of a prominent Presbyterian minister, who is the husband of Lizzie Berus and thought to be the mastermind behind a series of jewel robberies.

    1895: As Wolf Silverman sits in jail facings charges of fraud related to an insurance policy purchased for his wife, the district attorney has also brought charges against the woman known as “Jane Doe” who impersonated his wife when he bought the policy and the insurance agent known as “Richard Roe” who sold the policy. It is believed that Silverman is involved in a wider fraud ring that involves several insurance companies and their employees.

    1897: Mr. and Mrs. Jacob Black, Russian Jews from Kiev who are 104 and 100 respectively were awakened early this morning by a barking dog which is what saved them from dying as their apartment at 184 Clinton Street went up in smoke.

    1899: The United Hebrew Charities acknowledged that it had collected $148.50 (with contributions ranging from 50 cents to $25) to help settle a poor family that had become chronic invalids from overwork in rural location where they can work and take care of their children.

     1899: The United Hebrew Charities acknowledged that it had collected $148.50 (with contributions ranging from 50 cents to $25) to help settle a poor family that had become chronic invalids from overwork in rural location where they can work and take care of their children.

    1902:Mrs. John M. Gitterman was the first to drink from the bronze fountain that was presented today to the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals in memory of her father, the late Simon Sterne.

    1903 (28th of Tammuz, 5663): Sixty-five year old British born author Benjamin Farjeon passed away today.

    1906(1st of Av, 5666): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1912: Birthdate of Meyer Howard “Mike” Abrams, the son of  Jewish immigrants, who became a leading American literary critic.

    1913: Arabs attacked the Jewish settlement of Rehovot.

    1918: Birthdate of Abraham ('Appie') Bueno de Mesquita, the Amsterdam born comedian who survived the Holocaust.

    1920: The Zionist Conference here, probably the most important gathering of Jews ever held, concluded today with the election of United States Supreme Court Justice Louis D. Brandeis as honorary President of the Zionist organization; Professor Chaim Weizmann, President, and Nahum Sokolow, Chairman of the Executive Committee.

    1923: The New York Timesreviews volume 4 of The Life of Benjamin Disraeli; Earl of Beaconsfield by George Earle Buckle which covers the years 1855 to 1868.

    1926:  Fox Film buys the patents of the Movietone sound system for recording sound onto film.  Sol M. Wurtzel was the producer responsible for Fox moving its operations to California and for making this purches.  Following the Stock Market Crash of 1929, Fox would be purchased and become part of production giant 20th Century Fox. 

    1928: Birthdate of famed pianist, teacher and conductor, Leon Fleisher.  Fleisher is doubly famous.  When at the height of his successful career as a pianist, he lost the ability to use his right hand.  Fleisher then discovered a body of music written for the left-hand and gained greater fame for this accomplishment.

    1931(9th of Av, 5691):Tish'a B'Av

    1933: More than twenty leaders of the extreme wing of the Zionist Revisionist party were arrested today in various parts of the country, including Jerusalem, Tel Aviv and two Jewish villages, Kfarsaba and Kalmania, when the police simultaneously raided houses in connection with the murder of Dr. Chaim Arlosoroff, member of the Jewish Agency Executive of Palestine. Dr Arslosoroff was killed while walking on beach at Tel Aviv with his on June 16.  This was no random killing since Arslosoroff’s killer held a flashlight into his face, asked “Are you Dr. Arslosoroff” and only fired the three fatal shots after the doctor had answered in the affirmative.

    1936: The Palestine Post reported that a British soldier was killed in an Arab ambush near Tulkarm. Arab attacks were reported from Ein Harod and Kfar Yehezkel. Arabs celebrated the 100th day of their insurrection with demonstrations, calls for prayer and donations. But the Arab Nashashibi Party proposed that the Arab Higher Committee should resign as a protest against the non-fulfillment of their promises and leave the people to decide the fate of their prolonged general strike by themselves.