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- 06/04/13--14:17: _This Day, June 5, I...
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- 06/06/13--15:52: _This Day, June 7, I...
- 06/07/13--16:19: _This Day, June 8, I...
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- 07/15/13--14:08: _This Day, July 16, ...
- 07/16/13--14:15: _This Day, July 17, ...
- 07/17/13--15:20: _This Day, July 18, ...
- 07/18/13--15:50: _This Day, July 19, ...
- 07/19/13--15:27: _This Day, July 20, ...
- 07/20/13--14:46: _This Day, July 21, ...
- 07/21/13--14:00: _This Day, July 22, ...
- 07/22/13--15:39: _This Day, July 23, ...
- 07/23/13--14:00: _This Day, July 24, ...
- 07/24/13--14:45: _This Day, July 25, ...
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- 06/04/13--14:17: This Day, June 5, In Jewish History by Mitchell A. Levin
- 06/05/13--15:30: This Day, June 6, In Jewish History by Mitchell A. Levin
- 06/06/13--15:52: This Day, June 7, In Jewish by Mitchell A. Levin
- 06/07/13--16:19: This Day, June 8, In Jewish History by Mitchell A. Levin
- 06/08/13--15:17: This Day, June 9, In Jewish History by Mitchell A. Levin
- 07/15/13--14:08: This Day, July 16, In Jewish History by Mitchell A. Levin
- 07/16/13--14:15: This Day, July 17, In Jewish History by Mitchell A. Levin
- 07/17/13--15:20: This Day, July 18, In Jewish History by Mitchell A. Levin
- 07/18/13--15:50: This Day, July 19, In Jewish History by Mitchell A. Levin
- 07/19/13--15:27: This Day, July 20, In Jewish History by Mitchell A. Levin
- 07/20/13--14:46: This Day, July 21, In Jewish History by Mitchell A. Levin
- 07/21/13--14:00: This Day, July 22, In Jewish History by Mitchell A. Levin
- 07/22/13--15:39: This Day, July 23, In Jewish History by Mitchell A. Levin
1233: For the first time, Jews were ordered to wear distinctive clothing was mandated in Spain. The following year Pope Gregory IX developed guidelines for this, sent in the form of a letter to the King of Navarra: "Since we desire that Jews be recognizable and distinguished from Christians, we order you to impose upon each and every Jew of both sexes a sign, viz, one round patch of yellow cloth of linen to be worn on the uppermost garment."
1365: Urban V issued “Sicuti judaeis non debet” a Papal Bull that forbade people from molesting Jews or forcing them to be baptized.
1494: Spain and Portugal signed the Treaty of Tordesillas which divided the New World between the two countries. Considering the Inquisition and the Expulsion from Iberia, this division could have meant that Jews would have been banned from the Western hemisphere. Fortunately for the Jews, Protestant Holland and Anglican England (as well as France) did not recognize the treaty and had other plans for dividing the lands of the New World
1594(18thof Sivan 5354): Roderigo Lopez a Marrano physician was hanged in England. Born in 1525, he supposedly arrived in England as Francis Drake's prisoner of war. He rose in importance to become Queen Elizabeth's physician (1586). Accused by other members of the court of being a Spanish spy who was trying to poison the Queen, he was arrested but the Queen refused to carry out the death sentence. In June 1594 she finally consented and he was hanged. Throughout his trial he was vilified as being a "Jew". According to some accounts, Lopez was a foolish person who got in way over his head playing politics at the Court of Queen Elizabeth. In the days of Good Queen Bess, the rule of thumb was "when in doubt, hang 'em."
1654: Louis XIV was crowned King of France. Louis’ record in dealing with the Jews was, uneven to say the least. In keeping with the mercantilist policies of his minister Colbert, Louis issued a charter of liberty for Jews under royal authority in 1671. Among other things, this opened up the port of Marseilles as a harbor where Jews could trade freely, much to the consternation of the local Christian merchants. When the merchants complained, Louis (in a reply probably written by Colbert) responded: “Commercial envy will always impel the Christian merchants to persecute Jews. But you should be above such motives that issue from personal interests. You should take into consideration the benefits the government derives from the industrial activity of the Jews, which comprises all the parts of the world thanks to their association with their coreligionists.” This benign attitude did not last forever. As Colbert fell from favor and Louis grew more pious as he grew older, he acceded to demands to ban Jews from various parts of his empire. In 1710, “He ordered Jews ‘to leave the kingdom without any belongings,’ and told local officials to take any and all means to expel Jews ‘because that is our wish.’”1692: Port Royal, Jamaica is hit by a catastrophic earthquake; in just three minutes, 1600 people are killed and 3000 are seriously injured. Jew first started arriving in Port Royal in 1663, eight years after the British took the island from the Spanish.Sadly, there is little documentation of Jewish life in Port Royal, but earthquake survivor Edmund Heath's account of the infamous 1692 event, notes the existence of a Jew's street and synagogue which records locate on New Street running parallel to Cannon Street. The Jewish legacy in Port Royal also includes a cemetery at Hunt's Bay. During the 17th century it was not unusual to see Jewish families carrying their loved ones by boat across the harbor to be buried.
1733: George Frideric Handel completed “Athalia,” an oratorio based on a play of the same name by Racine. Both works depict the life of the widow of the King of Judah whose murderous ways make her “a Jewish Lady MacBeth
1753:In Great Britain, an Act of Parliament styled “The Jewish Naturalization Act 1753” received royal assent today. The Act gave foreign-born Jews to become naturalized by making application to Parliament. This meant that foreign born Jews would enjoy the same rights as native born English Jews. While the act enjoyed support in the House of Lords, it was repealed in 1754 due to opposition from the Tories in the House of Commons. [Ed. Note – When the “Jew Bill was introduced in the 19thcentury, the pros and cons would be just the opposite with the Commons supporting the bill and the Lords opposing it.1798(Sivan 23): In Pesaro, Italy Jews were murdered following the retreat of the French Army. The day became a fast day
1821(7thof Sivan, 5581): Second Day of Shavuot
1837: Birthdate of Alois Schicklgruber, the son of an unwed mother who would change his name to Alois Hitler, the father of Adolph Hitler
1848(6thof Sivan, 5608): As Europe is rocked by revolutions, Jews observe Shavuot1851(7thof Sivan, 5611): Second Day of Shavuot
1852: Birthdate of David Kaufman, the native of Moravia who became one of the leading scholars in the fields of history and the philosophy of religion.
1857: The New York Times reported that the Weekly Gleaner: A Voice of Israel, a Jewish newspaper, is now being published in San Francisco. Rabbi Julius Eckman was the paper's publisher.
1865: Ferdinand James Anselm von Rothschild married his cousin Evelina de Rothschild the daughter of Lionel de Rothschild
1870: The attorney representing Sigmund, Joseph and Julius Walberg who are “charged with making false revenue returns as brokers” made a motion for discharge
1870: The news that a congregation in Charlottesville had voted to join the Reform Movement was greeted with applauses at today meeting of the Rabbinical Council being held in Cincinnati, Ohio.
1870: The Rabbinical Council adopted a resolution providing for a “uniform reading” of the Torah over a three year period at Sabbath services. The selections should omit “antiquated laws.”1871: In Cincinnati, Ohio, a meeting of the Rabbinical Council, the governing body of the Reform Movement, the Prayerbook Committee was authorized to publish their new work as soon as it was ready.
1871: An article entitled “Russian Tyranny and Jewish Resistance” published today reported that Jews in Poland have resisted the government orders to do away with their traditional attire, hair styles and beards. Since the Jews are not following the news edicts, the police are stepping in to shorten the long coats favored by some Jews and cutting off their “curls.” Lengthening the short pants of the Jews has been more of a problem. But the greatest challenge is getting rid of the beards. In one rural town, the police grabbed an 80 year old Jew and began cutting his beard. He cried out and when his co-religionists came to his aid, they were pounced on, forced into chairs, and sheared in “a hurried and rough manner” that was deemed less than “pleasant.” While the Warsaw Police have avoided such extreme measures up until now, they will adopt them to ensure that the government’s edicts are carried out.
1872: Birthdate of painter and musicologist Rodolphe d'Erlanger.
1873:An article published today entitled “Hebrew Orphans’ Excursion” reported that the managers of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum and Free schools have made plans provide the youngsters in their care with excursions this summer starting on June 23..
1875: An article entitled “Ancient Libraries” provides a series of interesting sketches of the great libraries of the world including the following comments about the Jews and their ancient literature. The author assumes that the Biblical city Kiryat Sefer took its name from the fact that it was a repository for works written by or inspired by Moses as well as “rhapsodies of prophets, the verses of poets, works of historians and dark sayings of proverbial philosophers. Prominent among these must have the contributions of the great King Solomon who spoke 3,000 proverbs, whose songs were 1,005” who spoke with “scientific method and precision about beasts, fowl creeping things and fishes as well as plants including the Cedars of Lebanon and hyssop growing out of the walls. The author assumes that these Jewish libraries were “swept out of existence” and much of the literature was lost except for fragmentary references which can be found in books which have been preserved for religious purposes.
1876: Alois Schiclgruber is officially recognized as the son of Johann Georg Hiedler and his name is changed to Alois Hitler, a linguistic move that could not have been anything but useful to the future Nazi murderer.
1878(6th of Sivan, 5638): First Day of Shavuot1878: Rabbi Gustav Gotthel is scheduled to lead Shavuot Services at Temple Emanuel in New York City
1878: Rabbi Adolph Huebsch is scheduled to lead Shavuot Services at Ahavaht Chesed on Lexington Avenue & 55th Street
1878: Rabbi Henry S. Jacobs is scheduled to lead Shavuot Services at B’nai Jeshrun on 34thStreet.
1878: Rabbi Frederick De Sola Mendes is scheduled to Shavuot Services at Shaaray Tefillah on 44thStreet.
1878: A man named Dixon was hung today in Vicksburg, MS, having been convicted of brutally murdering a 45 year old Jewish peddler named Bachman while he was traveling on the steamboat Fair Play in December of 1877.
1880: The New York Times published a review of The Poetry of the Talmud by Simon Seckles.1881:Oliver Hazard Perry Belmont graduated from the Naval Academy. His father was August Belmont, the Jewish financer for whom the Belmont Stakes is named. His mother was the daughter of Oliver Hazard Perry and was not Jewish.
1881: At the Republican State Convention, Louis Seasongood, a Jewish leader from Cincinnati is among those being considered as the party’s nominee for Lieutenant Governor. Seasongood had been defeated by General Hickenlooper for the position two years ago.
1881: It was reported today from St. Petersburg, that the “excitement against the Jews here has abated but has not entirely disappeared.” [Editor’s note – what charming euphemisms for anti-Semitic riots; as can be seen from the entries below, there was no abatement. ]
1882: It was reported today that the Mansion House Committee for the Relief of Russian Jews has collected over eighty-two thousand British Pounds of which it has spent all but 25 thousand pounds. The Committee is going to send representatives to Hamburg to oversee the departure of the Russian Jews from the German seaport.
1882: At today’s session of the Republican State Convention being held in Columbus, the party adopted the following resolution. “We condemn the terrible persecutions inflicted upon the Jews of Russia and other sections of Europe, and while he heartily approve the action of the Government in its efforts to ameliorate the condition of these unfortunate people, we earnestly solicit a continuance of its most energetic efforts to that end.”1886: “Indignant Rabbis” published today described the refusal of Mr. Taylor, the principal of Central High School in Philadelphia, PA to excuse the Jewish students for missing the upcoming final exams which have been scheduled on the days of Shavuot. Despite pleas from the city’s rabbis to reach some kind of accommodation, Taylor has remained adamant which means the Jewish children could fail through no fault of their own.
1889: “To Celebrate Two Anniversaries” published today took note of the fact that the year 1892 “will witness the four hundredth anniversaries of the expulsion of the Hebrews from Spain and the discovery of America and described plans already being made by those meeting at the Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue to honor both of these events.
1891: “The committee for the relief of Russian Jews reports” that many of the Jews arriving at Charlottenburg “were wounded while fleeing from the Russian police.” Even more Jews were killed and the exodus is assuming such vast proportion” that the German Government will be forced to intervene “since private charity will soon be powerless to cope with the demands”.
1891: “Friends of the Jews Who Want Them Not” published today described “the indignation of Western Europe” to “Russia’s barbaric expulsion of the Jews” which is beginning to be mixed with a desire “to pass the exiled horde” on to some other nation or nations. “The various organizations and committees which have been formed” in Berlin, Vienna, Paris and London “to look out for the comfort and safety of the Jews after they leave Russia” reportedly spend a large amount of their funds on purchasing “passage tickets to Ameica”
1891: “The Field of Future of Wars” published today described the little known eastern portion of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, a primitive place where “the village inns – low drinking places at best – are generally kept by Jews, who entice by all means in their power, the peasants to come an consume as much ‘wodka’ as possible.”1891: “High Sheriff Benjamin Disraeli” published today reports that “an Irish antiquarian has just discovered that the ‘Benjamin D’Israeli, Esq.,’ who was High Sheriff of the Count of Carlow in 1810, was an uncle of Lord Beaconsfield.” He died in 1814 and is buried in St. Peter’s Church in Dublin. [Editor’s Note – If this report is accurate and if this High Sheriff Disraeli was Jewish it makes one wonder what oath he swore when he took the office.
1892: Founding of the American Jewish Historical Society
1896: In New York, “Dr. Isaac M. Haldeman” delivered a sermon at the First Baptist Church in which he said “that the Jews had been persecuted by all the civilized nations of the world, so that they were driven to lying, cheating and other vices. No tongue could describe the tortures inflicted on them – not by pagans, but by Christians…
1896: Professor Isaac Franklin Russell of NYU Law School delivered a lecture at the Hebrew Institute on “Tom Paine.
1896: “Mayor Strong Asked to Aid Peddlers” published today described the plight of two Jewish peddlers who have been “driven from the streets by police” because they like so many others have deprived of their livelihood i.e. selling collar buttons and suspenders from various street corners
1896: The Hebrew Orphan Asylum Band will perform at a strawberry festival this afternoon sponsored by the Lebanon League which is raising funds for the Lebanon Hospital at Westchester and Cauldwell Avenues.1896: “Beginnings of a Prime Minister” published today described the handicaps that Benjamin Disraeli had to overcome in making his way to the top of the English political ladder. It noted that he did “not have the advantages of wealth or connected enjoyed by so many of his race. His father was a “renegades” who educated his son at “second class private schools” where he was not able to make the friendships and associations that “wealthy Jews nowadays” make at “public schools and universities.”
1897(7th of Sivan, 5657): Second Day of Shavuo
1897:No Orthodox Jew voted in the judicial elections held in Chicago today since marking the ballot would violate the prohibition against writing on a Jewish festival.
1897: Birthdate of Austrian born composer and conductor, George Szell. He was best known for his long, successful career as musical director of the Cleveland Symphony Orchestra. He held the position from 1946 until 1970
1897: “Myer S. Isaacs, President of the Board of Trustees of the Baron de Hirsch Fund, has received a draft for $400,000, from the Baroness de Hirsch, as the first advance on the donation of $1,000,000 recently made by the Baroness to assist the poor of New York City.”1899: During ten days of meetings at the Hague that would end on June 17 Herzl met several of the most representative Russian leaders. Baroness Bertha Von Suttner introduced him to Russian State Counselor Ivan von Bloch who is responsible for the calling of the Conference. The meetings result in Herzl's name being brought favorably to the attention of the Czar. Herzl also met with Nouri Bey, General Secretary of the Turkish Foreign Office who promises to get together a group of officials to arrange an audience with the Sultan.
1901: Birthdate of Sam Katzman, an American film producer and director who began working in the industry at the age of 13 when it was centered on the east coast. He moved west with the industry and enjoyed a successful 40 year career in film. He passed away in 1973.
1904(24thof Sivan, 5664): Moishe Finkel took his own life after shooting his wife and actor David Levinson who was a romantic rival. Born in 1850, Finkel was a leading member of the Yiddish theatre in the United States. His tempestuous personal life would have fine material for tragedy or melodrama. His professional life was intertwined with such greats of the Yiddish theatre as Jacob Adler and Boris Thomashefsky. And he was the father in law of famed Hollywood actor, Paul Muni
1908: Founding of Kinneret
1910: Eighty-six year old Goldwin Smith the British born Canadian academic who was a political opponent of Benjamin Disraeli, passed away. “A pathological anti-Semite, Smith disseminated his hatred in dozens of books, articles and letters. Jews, he charged, were "parasites," "dangerous" to their host country and "enemies of civilization." His bilious anti-Jewish tirades helped set the tone of a still unmoulded Canadian society and had a profound impact on such young Canadians as W.L. Mackenzie King, Henri Bourassa and scores of others. Indeed in 1905 in the most vituperative anti-Jewish speech in the history of the House of Commons, borrowing heavily from Smith, Bourassa urged Canada to keep its gates shut to Jewish immigrants.
1912: Evening schools to be opened in New York City for Turkish Jews to learn English during the summer months.
1914: The Federation of Oriental Jews held its second annual meeting today PS 91 in NYC. The federation is made of representatives of 28 different organizations which have approximately 3,000 members. The federation estimates that there are between 10,000 and 15,000 Oriental Jews living in New York. The term refers to Sephardic Jews most of whom are recent immigrants from areas that have been under Ottoman rule including Greece. Unlike their northern and eastern European co-religionist, they do not speak Yiddish, relying instead on Ladino for much of their colloquial conversation.1914: Twenty-one men received diplomas and five were ordained as Rabbis at today’s graduation exercises held by the Jewish Theological Seminary at the Aeolian Hall. Louis Marshall presided over the event and read a speech prepared by Dr. Solomon Schechter who was unable to be present because of ill health.
1914: Simon F. Rothschild delivered the opening address at today’s ceremony dedicating the newly constructed building in Brownsville that will house the Hebrew Educational Society. Among other speakers were Felix Warburg, Abram Elkus and from the world of New York politics, Controller William A. Pendergast.
1914: Over a thousand people attended today’s opening of a new building to house the Harlem Hebrew School The school was begun five years and is supported by the Yeishva Torah Chaim of Harlem. Almost 500 children attend the school which provides courses in Hebrew, the Bible and Jewish history before and/or after public school hours.1919: Conditions of Jews in the Palestine cities of Safed, Tiberias and Kfra Saba are described as bad. The death rate is appalling. Thousands of Jews are starving.
1921: President Warren Harding is scheduled to meet with Albert D. Lasker and discuss his appointment to serve as Chairman of the Shipping Board.
1926: The body of Meyer London, one of only two Socialists to serve in the House of Representatives “was taken to the Forward building, where it lay in state while 25,000 men, women, and children filed past the casket, paying their respects.
1929: The Lateran Treaty which normalized relations between Italy and the Vatican is ratified. The agreement gave Mussolini, the Italian Prime Minister, a greater measure of respectability. The Mussolini Connection would set the tone for the Vatican’s relationship with Hitler when he came to power. Italy's anti-Jewish laws of 1938 prohibited marriages between Jews and non-Jews, including Catholics. The Vatican viewed this as a violation of the Concordat, which gave the church the sole right to regulate marriage between Catholics. But this was not enough of an issue to disrupt the relationship between Rome and the Vatican.
1936: Leon Blum the first Socialist and the first Jew to serve as Prime Minister of France presented his list of ministerial appointments to the Chamber of Deputies. Blum is attacked in anti-Semitic diatribe by right wing deputy named Xavier Vallet who will later serve as an official with the Vichy Government.
1936:Five Arabs were killed and many were wounded this afternoon in a clash with British troops and policemen after an attack on several Jewish-owned buses outside Jerusalem. A British soldier and a British police corporal were seriously wounded
1936: “A large Jewish-owned timber depot in the heart of Jerusalem was set afire by Arabs tonight and the flames spread to several nearby stores. The damage to the timber depot was put at $40,000.00.
1936: “Nazi pamphlets printed in Arabic were distributed in Acre blaming the British for “favoring” the Jews.
1936: A young American tourist who would come to be known as President John F. Kennedy arrives in Jerusalem during a visit to the Middle East.
2010(25th of Sivan, 5770):Rabbi Mordecai Eliyahu former chief rabbi who encouraged Israelis to oppose removal of settlements and blamed Reform Jewry for the Holocaust passed away at the age of 81.
1878(7th of Sivan, 5638): Second Day of Shavuot
1920:Osip Maksimovich Brik, the son of Jewish jeweler and avant garde author, joined the Cheka, the early version of the Soviet secret police.
1939: In response to an order by Chief Rabbi Herzog, all synagogues pronounced the usual prayers for the King and his family in honor of the monarch’s birthday.
1732: James Oglethorpe was granted a charter to establish the colony of Georgia. The colony was settled in June of 1733. In July of 1733, “forty Sephardic Jews arrived in Savannah” marking the beginning of the Jewish community in Georgia.
poet Heinrich Heine passed away today in Berlin. Heine fell in love with his cousin but she did not return his affection which he found frustrating.
1891: I.S. Isaacs of the United Hebrew Charities was among those who will be attending a special meeting of the Board of Estimate and Apportionment where the United Charities Association will present a proposal to establish a “free lodging house” in New York.
July 16 In History
622: The Prophet Mohammed begins his Hijra from Mecca to Medina. This marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar. The importance of this to Jewish history should require no explanation.
1099: As the Crusaders sacked Jerusalem, they burned an untold number of Jewish scrolls and books. According to Matti Friedman, the Christian soldiers spared the some of the texts with the hope that Jews in other communities would ransom them. Among these books was the Aleppo Codex. [For more on this topic see The Aleppo Codex by Matti Friedman]
1216: Pope Innocent III, a prelate who had an inimical effect on the Jewish people died. He presided over the Fourth Lateran Council which among other things which enacted a series of anti-Semitic canons including those that required the Jews to wear a distinctive badge on their clothing and to pay for unfunded Christian tithes. Other banned Jews from holding public office and denied Jews who had converted to Christianity the right to return to the faith of their fathers. In 1215 the Fourth Lateran Council, called by Pope Innocent III, decreed that, on the basis of Numbers 15:37-41, Jews should wear distinctive dress (a restriction also applied to Saracens and later to heretics, prostitutes and lepers. In addition, a distinctive mark was imposed on their clothing -- centuries before the Nazis' Yellow Star -- the badge of shame, the shape and color of which varied from country to country. The badge of shame made Jews social outcasts, exposing them to both physical and verbal abuse.
1391: Valencia's King Pedro IV ordered that all Jews who had hidden in Christian houses were to be allowed to return to their homes unmolested. Furthermore he decreed that synagogues were not to be turned into churches. This did not prevent him from personably confiscating all the property of those Jews who had either been murdered or fled.
1588: Negotiations between the Spanish and the English broke off and the English fleet at Plymouth prepared to do battle against the Spanish Armada as soon as its location could be ascertained. Victory for the Spanish would be a disaster for the Jews since it would mean an end to the haven in Protestant Holland and the spread of the Inquisition to the British Isles.
1782: First performance of Mozart's opera The Abduction from the Seraglio. Seventeen eighty-two also marked the beginning of the relationship between Mozart and Lorenzo da Ponte, the son of a Jewish convert who had trained as a priest. Together, they co-produced such classics as "The Marriage of Figaro", "Don Giovanni" and "Cosi fan tutte".
1790: The District of Columbia is established as the capital of the United States after the signing of the Residence Act. Isaac Pollock, the grandson of one of the founders of the Newport Jewish community, reportedly arrived in D.C. in 1795 making him the city’s first Jewish resident. [For more information about the Washington Jewish Community see Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington http://www.jhsgw.org/ ]
1825(1stof Av, 5585): Rosh Chodesh Av
1825(1stof Av, 5585): Ephriam Hart, one of the founders of the New York Stock Exchange, passed away today. Born in Furth, Bavaria, he served as a private in the Continental Army during the American Revolution. While living in Philadelphia, he joined Mickvé Israel in 1782 and married Frances Noah, sister of Manuel Noah in the following year. By 1787, he hand moved to New York where his success as a businessman led to him being one of the founders of the Board of Stock Brokers in 1792.
1829: Birthdate Graziadio Isaiah Ascoli, a native of Austria who was the “godfather” of all Italian philologists.
1832: Henry Clay, the Senator from Kentucky, wrote a letter to Solomon Etting a Jewish businessman from Baltimore, MD. Etting had written a letter to Clay complaining about the Senator’s derogatory use of the term “Jew.” In his letter, Clay apologized since his use of the term Jew was intended to describe one person name either Moses Meyers or Meyer Moses and was not used to cast aspiration on the Jewish people. Clay claimed that he judged people as individuals and he was sure that there were individual Jews, Christians and Moslems who were bad people. Furthermore, Clay claimed to have many Jewish friends and acquaintances including the Gratz’s of Lexington, KY who are relatives of the Gratz family of Philadelphia, PA.
1841(28thof Tammuz):Moshe Teitelbaum, the Rebbe of Ujhely in Hungary passed away today. Born in 1759 he also was known as the Yismach Moshe,(Moses Rejoiced) which was also the name of text containing homilies on the Torah which was first published in 1849. Some of his descendants became leaders of the Satmar Chassidim.
1848:Today, the Hebrew Education Society of Philadelphia was formally organized, with Solomon Solis as its first president.
1855(1st of Av, 5615): Rosh Chodesh Av
1858: An article published today entitled "Progress of Liberal Ideas in England" states that The Jew Bill, which has so often met its fate at the portals of the House of Lords, has at last managed to secure a majority of forty-six on a second reading, and all doubt as to its ultimate triumph may now be considered at an end. No measure, since the Reform bill, has met with so many reverses, and has had so little reason arrayed against it.
1863: During the American Civil War, Jacob C. Cohen who was serving with the 27thOhio Infantry wrote to the Jewish Messenger from Memphis, Tennessee.
1874: In Cleveland, Ohio, the Council of American Hebrews heard the report of the Committee on Theological Institute which presented the laws for the organization and governance of an institution of higher learning which will be called the Hebrew Union College which is “to be permanently located in Cincinnati.”
1879(25thof Tammuz, 5639): Italian politician and journalist Giacomo Dina passed away. Born into poverty in 1824 at Turin, he became a teacher before founding Opinione, a journal that he edited for 30 years and used as a springboard to serving in the Parliament as deputy from Imola, Bologna.
1880: It was reported today that the National Rabbinical Association has elected Dr. Max Lilienthal as its President and chosen Chicago as the location for its meeting in 1881.
1880: “Not A Hebrew After All” published today described the confusion over the ethnic origins of an unidentified body found on the Newark, NJ Turnpike near Hackensack. Since the undertaker reported him to be Jewish, the Jews of Hoboken, NJ took up a collection to provide him with a decent burial. After finding out that this was not the case, the Jews asked the undertaker to return the money. He refused and told them that they would have to sue him.
1882: “Trouble in a Synagogue” published today described the impact of the addition of some prayers in English at the St. Constant Street Jewish Synagogue in Montreal. Police were stationed in the synagogue during services after some members who were upset by the change threatened to cause trouble.
1882: As of today, there were 250,000 Jews living in the United States. Sixty thousand of them live in New York and another 14,000 live in Brooklyn. San Francisco, with a population of 16,000 and St. Louis with a population of 6,500 are the only two cities found in a list of 20 cities with the largest Jewish populations. New Orleans, with a population of 5,000 Jews is the only Southern city found in this same list. Cincinnati, the home of Reform Judaism has a Jewish population of 8,000. With a total population of over 80,000, New York State had the largest population while at the other end of the spectrum, the Dakota Territories were home to only 19 Jews.
1882: A young Jewish woman named Rudolpha Leischinsky who had come to New York from Europe several months again was taken to the Castle Garden Hospital today shortly before she had attempted to commit suicide by cutting her throat.
1882: As the Freight Handler’s Strike continues in New York, five hundred dollars will be given to the Jews today who have stopped working and joined the strikers.
1882. The Committee of Persuasion, made up of striking freight handlers sent out representatives to various ethnic groups, including the Jews, to convince them to join the strikers. The representatives are fluent in the language to the particular group to which they are appealing.
1884: Lazarus Lemisch, his wife and five children arrived in New York aboard the SS Amerique. Their passage had been paid for by the Hebrew Relief Society of Paris.
1884: Russian Jewish Markus Holz, Gerson Selkowitz, Adolph Lazarus and Samuel Rasenzweig and their family members who arrived from Hamburg yesterday are being held Ward’s Island from which they will be shipped back to Europe because they do not meet the requirements to show they will not become public charges.
1884: It was reported today that a young un-named Jew has openly embraced Christianity at the Boston Industrial Home. This is believed to the first time in the history of Boston that a Jew has responded directly to conversion attempts by Christian missionaries. [The Boston Industrial Home may refer to a rescue mission]
1885: The will of Edward J. King was admitted to probate today. Among the bequests were $2,000 to Mount Sinai Hospital; $1,000 in cash and $2,000 in bonds to the Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum; $2,000 to the Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews of New York; $2,000 to the United Hebrew Charities; $500 to Congregation B’nai Jeshrun; $500 to be held in trust by the congregation, the income of which is used to pay the expenses to maintain the testators cemetery plot. The bulk of the estate went to King’s wife, sons and son-in-law.
1887: As of today, the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children had raised $1,944 to provide free summer excursions for poor Jewish children and their mothers.
1887: Berthold Riese was being held in the Jefferson Market Police Court on charges of abandoning his wife. Riese, who is Jewish, claimed that he had never married the woman because she had never divorced her first husband, John T. Kennedy. The woman in question is a Catholic who claims they were married by a Lutheran minister as an act of religious compromise.
1887: In New York, Simon Kleber and Judah Waser, two Jewish peddlers, have filed a complaint against Frederick Timme, a police officer stationed at the 14thPrecinct. According to the complaint the two men werea attacked by a bartender when they went into a liquor store to sell their wares. When they were driven into the street, they called out to the policeman for help. He responded by clubbing them and driving them away. This was not the first complaint filed against this police officer. [Note – charges of police brutality by immigrants are something that have survived into the 21stcentury; the only change is in the immigrant group.]
1890: It was reported today that as part of the Russian government’s new “stringent measures against the Jews, the newspaper Novostihas been “suppressed” and the editor has been ordered to leave the country
1891: The large number of Russian Jews who arrived in Montreal yesterday have been found to be “poor people in a sickly condition.”
1892: The School of Applied Ethics under the leadership of Dr. Felix Adler is holding classes today at the Old High School Building on Main Street in Plymouth, MA.
1893: It was reported today that “the story about the Grand Duke Michael personally saving the Jews of the Caucasus from expulsion may be dismissed as apocryphal” since the Grand Duke has little influed with the Czar and this region has been “exempted from the anti-Jewish edicts” enforced in other parts of the empire.
1893: It was reported today that while the number of anti-Semites in the Reichstag has been growing, in a strange twist, a Jew has been elected to the Town Council of Rostock which was one of the last cities in Germany “to abrogate the medieval laws against the Jews.”
1893: Between July 3 and today, “nearly 2,000 mothers and children” have enjoyed “a day’s outing at the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children at Rockaway Park.
1893: At the Essex Market Police Court, Police Justice Ryan “remitted the ten dollar fine he had imposed on 25 year old Morris Goodman’ who had been arrested on charges “obstructing the sidewalk” and assault, after he delivered a talk on his view of Jews whom he feels do not respect the law and the rights of Christians.
1893: The delegates from the Hebrew Typographical Union complained that Joseph Barondess and Samuel Gompers had tried to get some of their members from an office where they were working as printers.
1894: It was reported today that Herman Ahlwardt has composed a pamphlet while serving time in prison that is “so rabidly anti-Semitic as to suggest the insanity of the author.”
1894: The Baltimore Sun reported today that a Judge Dennis has signed a decree giving Jacob and Henry Herman to the right to remove the bodies of their parents from the cemetery of Shearith Israel so that they could be re-interred at the cemetery of the Baltimore Hebrew Congregation.
1894: “Mr. Straus Has A New Plan” published today described the success of the 14 depots selling low-cost sterilized and modified milk and the benefit that sick children have enjoyed from drinking the sterilized beverage. Nathan Straus is so pleased with the results that he has commissioned plans for a year-round depot for which construction will begin this fall.
1897: Herzl publishes his article "Protest rabbiner" - "Protest Rabbis" in the German newspaper, “"Die Welt.” The Protest Rabbis refers to western Rabbis who were opposed to Zionism.
1897(16th of Tamuz, 5657): Emanuel Rich, co-founder of Rich’s Department Store, passed away.
1899: “Slavonic and Semitic Books” published today described the growth of the Jewish Department of the New York Public Library which now contains over 4,000 volumes in modern and ancient languages including Yiddish.”
1899(9th of Av, 5659): Tish'a B'Av
1899: “The Marquise de Mores has addressed an appeal to the Criminal Chamber of the Cour de Cassaction” in which she charges that there were serious errors made in the investigation of the death of her husband Marquis de Mores by the Court in Algiers. Her husband, an officer in the French Army, was a vocal anti-Semite who had befriended those who framed Dreyfus and instigated duels in which he killed at least one Jewish officer. Ironically, the Marquise’s maiden name was Mendora von Hoffman, the daughter of Louis von Hoffman a prominent Jewish banker.
1899: “Contribution to a Poor Family” published today described the efforts of the United Hebrew Charities of the City of New York to raise $400 settle a family of four in the country because the husband and wife have become “chronic invalids through overwork in the city.”
1899: Birthdate of comedian and movie director Larry Semon. Semon appeared with Laurel and Hardy. In the 1920’s he directed the silent screen version of “The Wizard of Oz.”
1903: The British Foreign Office sent a second telegram to Herzl informing him that his idea to establish a Jewish settlement in the Sinai as first step towards establishing a Jewish homeland in Eretz Israel was not practical.
1907: The will of the late Isidor Worsmer was filed with the Surrogate today. Among the bequests left by the successful banker were $5.000 to Temple Emanu-El; $2,500 to both the Mount Sinai Hospital and the United Hebrew Charities Association; $1,000 to the Roman Catholic Orphan Asylum, the Montefiore Home, the Hebrew Technical Institute, the Educational Alliance and the Tuskegee Institute. The rest of the sizable estate was left to family members and employees of I & S Wormser. [Contributions to non-Jewish institutions were par for the course. The surprise here is the contribution to Tuskegee, the newly established institution for African-Americans headed by Booker T. Washington in rural Alabama.]
1911: Eighty-five Jews from Shiraz, Persia appeal for assistance to go live in Palestine.
1912: Harry Horowitz and three other Jewish gangsters gunned down bookmaker Herman Rosenthal two days after he had complained that that “his illegal casinos had been badly damaged by the greed of New York City Police Lt. Charles Becker and his associates
1914: Dr. Schmarja Levin of Berlin who was a member of the first Russian Duma is scheduled to speak in Brooklyn, NY, tonight.
1916(15th of Tammuz, 5676): Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov Russian microbiologist and winner of the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1908 passed away.
1918: The execution of Czar Nicholas II brought an end to a dynasty guilty of many crimes against Jews. Unfortunately, the regime that replaced it was no better for the Jews.
1922: German born American Jewish inventor and businessman Emil Berliner and his son Henry Berliner demonstrated a working helicopter for the United States Army. Berliner had moved from Hanover, Germany and settled in Washington, D.C. where he is buried in Rock Creek Cemetery.
1924: Birthdate of Bess Myerson. Ms Myerson was crowned the first Jewess to be crowned Miss America. When she won the crown in 1945, it demonstrated a certain level of acceptance of Jews in the general American culture. She went on to a successful career that included hosting daytime game shows in the 1950’s.
1926: Birthdate of chemist and Nobel Prize Winner, Irwin Rose. When Rose won his Nobel Prize in 2004, five out of the six winners of Nobel Prizes in the sciences were Jewish.
1927: An out of court settlement was announced today in the defamation suit that Aaron Sapiro had brought against Henry Ford, Sr. after The Dearborn Independent had published claims that Sapiro and a group of Jewish bankers and merchants were seeking to control the nation’s wheat farming. Ford would eventually close his anti-Semitic newspaper and apologize for his role in published The International Jew. Those who thought this demonstrated a change in Ford’s hatred of Jews were disabused of that notion when Ford accepted the Grand Cross of the German Eagle from the Nazis in 1938. (As reported by the Jewish Virtual Library)
1929: Victor Luitpold Berger, the first member of the Socialist Party to be elected to the U.S. House of Representatives suffered a fracture skull today when he was hit by streetcar in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The injury would prove to be fatal.
1930: Civilization and its Discontents by Sigmund Freud is published for the first time in the United States.
1933: In an interview with a deputation of representatives of the Jewish Community of Briinn, Czech President Thomas G. Masaryk declares that the waves of anti-Semitism “will not overflow into the country's borders”.
1934: The body of Chaim Nachman Bialik arrived in Tel Aviv today. Tens of thousands of Jews from all walks of life and from all parts of the political spectrum were on hand to mark this historic moment. It was the largest funeral in the history of the Jewish homeland. While there was no lack of notables in attendance, at the request of the widow, no speeches were delivered.
1934: Morris Rothenberg, President of the ZOA, presided over the memorial service for Chiam Nachman Bialik held at New York’s Carnegie Hall. The near capacity crowd heard a wide spectrum of speakers and then listened to Canter David Putterman of the Park Avenue Synagogue chant the Hazkarah and Jewish actress Miriam Elias recite two of Bialik’s poems including “When I am Dead.”
1936: The Palestine Post reported that British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden declared that the British Mandate in Palestine would not be relinquished. Two British officers and a Jewish driver were wounded near Nablus when Arabs opened fire on a military patrol. Shots were fired on a train near Lydda. The High Commissioner, Sir Arthur Wauchope, visited the new Tel Aviv port. He hoped that over a million cases of citrus would be handled there in the next season. The Manchester Guardian wrote that Jewish immigration to Palestine had never been allowed to keep pace with the "absorptive capacity." The Arab population had increased from 500,000 in 1922 to 850,000 in 1936, because Palestine became more attractive by the Jewish influx
1936: At a meeting in the Hotel New Yorker, Rose Schneiderman was elected vice chairman of the New York State Labor Party.
1937: The Buchenwald concentration camp opens when the first 300 inmates arrive the installation outside of Weimar.
1939: In an article entitled “New Bach Arrangement,” Dr. Peter Gradenwitz describes a performance by the Palestine Symphony Orchestra in Tel Aviv of Bach’s “Art of the Fugue” using a new orchestration by Swiss composer Roger Vuataz. The orchestra performed under the baton of Dr. Hermann Scherchen the famous German musician who left his native land in protest over the policies of the current régime.
1942: The first train with Jews from Holland left for a killing camp.
1942: On order from Pierre Laval, the Prime Minister of the Vichy French government, between 13,000 and 20,000 Jews living in Paris were rounded up by the French police for deportation. This was known as “La Grande Rafle” or the Big Sweep. The group of Jews in this round up is primarily German and Austrian born Jews who were living in the French capital. The first one thousand would be deported three days later on a so-called "Eichmann Train." There were no protests from the Parisians.
1942(2nd of Av, 5702): A large number of Jews were killed in Molxzadz.
1943: In Vilna, Lithuanian police raided a meeting of the United Partisan Organization attended by the head of the Jewish Council. Jewish partisans rescued the head of the resistance.
1943: Theophil Wurm, bishop of the Evangelical Church in Württemberg, Germany, sends a letter to Berlin in which he asks that the persecution of "members of other nations and races" be halted immediately.
1944: The first five thousand Brazilian Expeditionary Force (BEF) soldiers, the 6th Regimental Combat team that had left on July 2nd arrived in Italy. Among the members of the Brazilian Expeditionary Force was Salomao Nauslausky who served so courageously that he was “mentioned in dispatches.”
1945: The United States successfully tested an atomic bomb at the Trinity sit near Alamogordo, New Mexico. The Jewish involvement in the decision to build and the actual construction of the bomb is a well-documented fact. Thanks to these Jews, America beat Germany in the race to build the bomb. Regardless of how some may view the decision to use the bomb against Japan, the fact is that a lot of Allied service men lived through the war because there was no invasion of Japan. The estimated casualties for the invasions and pacification were in the million plus category.
1948: After fierce fighting, the Israelis successfully took Nazareth.
1948: The Irgun planned to make one more attempt to re-take the Old City, “a day before the second cease-fire” was set to begin.
1948: The Arab Liberation Army completed its evacuation of Ein Kerem, a village which would be incorporated into the municipal boundaries of Jerusalem.
1948: During Operation Dekel, the Israeli 7th Armored Brigade took the villages of Amqa, al-Damun and Lubya.
1948: Operation Death to the Invader, an Israeli military operation designed “to link Jewish villages in the Negev with the rest of Israel” began this evening.
1948: David Ben Gurion noted in his diary today the arrival of three B-17’s in Israel “and mentioned that they had already been used for several bombing runs in Egypt. These were the only “heavy bombers” the Israelis had. Known as 69 Squadron they had been obtained by Charles Winters who was known as “the godfather of the Israeli air force.”
1948: While Israel was waging its War of Independence (and survival) world-renowned violinist Pinchas Zukerman was born in Tel Aviv.
1950:Foreign Minister Moshe Sharett declined to commit himself today on Israel's answer to the request of United Nations Secretary General Trygve Lie for aid in the Korean War. He said that the matter would be considered by the Cabinet this week, but implied that Israel's defense needs must be considered
1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that thousands of apartment-seeking Israelis registered for the government's popular housing scheme. There were long queues for domestic ice delivery in Jerusalem. Shoe sales increased considerably after 17 new shoe ration points went into effect.
1951: J.D. Salinger's novel The Catcher in the Rye was published. Jerome David Salinger was born in New York in 1919. His father was Jewish. His was mother was Irish-Catholic. This genealogy according to some critics was the source of some of Salinger's inner-conflict that came out in his writings and in his decision to become the most famous literary hermit of the century.
1955: Birthdate of Zohar Argov “a popular Israeli singer” who provided “a distinctive voice in the Mizrahi music scene.”
1956(8th of Av, 5716): Erev Tish'a B'Av
1956: Birthdate of Pulitzer-prize winning playwright Tony Kushner. One of his most notable works was “Angels in America.”
1957(17th of Tammuz, 5717): Tzom Tammuz
1965: Sixty-two year old German born Brazilian pianist composer passed away today. The non-Jolles left Germany because of the rise of the Nazis. He was a student of Kurt Weil the German-Jewish composer with whom he wrote at least one composition before 1933.
1967: A young Kibbutznik got out of his jeep at Aalleiqa, an abandoned Syrian Army base on the Golan Heights, and became the first settler in the Golan. He would be joined by other secular Jews in the next few days and they would form the kibbutz now known as Merom Golan.
1970(12th of Tammuz, 5730): Haim-Moshe Shapira, an Israeli political leader who was one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence in 1948 passed away. Born in Grodno in 1902, he was a founder of Young Mizrachi who made Aliyah in 1925. He was Israel’s first Minister of Health and Minister of Immigration.
1970: Avner-Hair Shaki entered the Knesset as a replacement for Haim-Moshe Shapira of blessed memory.
1970: Golda Meir replaced the late Haim Moshe Shapira as Minister of Internal Affairs.
1970: Yosef Goldschmidt completed his first term as Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs.
1971: Birthdate of actor Corey Feldman.
1973: During the Watergate Scandal former White House aide Alexander P. Butterfield informs the United States Senate of the existence of heretofore unknown recording system that taped all conversations that took place in the White House’s Oval Office. The system had been installed by President Nixon. The tapes would prove to be Nixon’s undoing and lead to his leaving office. The tapes all revealed a nasty anti-Semitic streak in President Nixon. They also revealed anti-Semitic remarks by the Reverend Billy Graham.
1976: The Jerusalem Post reported that Israel and the US were pleased at the outcome of the UN Council's debate in which a resolution censuring Israel for the raid on Entebbe failed to receive the necessary nine votes. It was in effect an acknowledgement of "Israel's right to act in the way it did."
1976: Birthdate of Russian born, Israeli tennis player, Anna Smashnova.
1994: "The Sisters Rosensweig," a play by Wendy Wasserstein that focuses on three Jewish-American sisters and their lives comes to a close after 556 performances at the Ethel Barrymore Theatre.
1994(8th of Av, 5754): Julian Schwinger winner of the 1965 winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics passed away.
1995(18th of Tammuz, 5755): Since the 17th of Tammuz fell on Shabbat today is Tzom Tammuz
1995(18th of Tammuz, 5755): Lt. Gen. Mordechai "Motta" Gur, former Chief of Staff of the IDF passed away. He is best remembered as the commander of the brigade that liberated the Old City of Jerusalem in June, 1967.(As reported by Joel Greenberg)
1999:Morocco's King Hassan II passed away.The king's father, Mohammed V, is widely credited with having saved Morocco's Jews from deportation during World War II, and Hassan continued the philo-Semitic policies of his father. Although there was an outbreak of anti-Jewish incidents following the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, the Jewish community was generally safe under the protection of both Mohammed and Hassan, who proudly considered the Jews "Moroccans of Jewish origin." “Hassan was considered a moderate in the Middle East. During his 38-year reign, he at first discreetly, then openly, promoted ties with Israel at a time when most of the rest of the Arab world rejected such contact. His efforts helped pave the way for the 1978 Camp David accord between Israel and Egypt. King Hassan also played a role in preparing for the 1991 Madrid peace conference and welcomed Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin in September 1993, making Morocco the first Arab nation outside of Egypt to officially receive an Israeli leader. In 1994, Hassan hosted the first Middle East regional economic conference, which included Israel, in the Moroccan city of Casablanca. After the euphoria of the 1993 Oslo accords between Israel and the Palestinians, Israel was allowed to establish a consular office in Rabat, and an estimated 40,000 Israeli tourists visited Morocco in 1995 and 1996.” “The Moroccan Jewish community in Israel observed a seven-day period of mourning for the late king.”
2000: “Music; Still a Sly Wit, Now Mostly for Himself” published today described the career of Tom Lehrer, the Harvard mathematician who has entertained generations of listeners with his satirical, musical wit.
2000: The New York Times features reviews books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including My Love Affair With America: The Cautionary Tale of a Cheerful Conservative by Norman Podhoretz and The Harold Letters,1928-1943: The Making of an American Intellectual by Clement Greenberg
2001: Opening of the 16th Macaabiah
2002: Simon and Garfunkel released the album "Live In New York City."
2002: The New York Times reports in an obituary: "The American Sephardi Federation joins with all Sephardim of the world in mourning the loss of the eminent Chief Rabbi David Asseo, the spiritual leader of the vital Jewish community of Turkey. We recall his warmth, his grace and words of wisdom on the many occasions he received our delegations from America.
2005: The Cedar Rapids Gazette reported that Professor Chanan Eshel, an archeologist from Tel Aviv’s Bar Ilan University, had announced the discovery of two scroll fragments near the Dead Sea. “The two small pieces of brown animal skin inscribed I Hebrew with verses from the book of Leviticus, are from the “refugee” caves in Nachal Arugot, a canyon near the Dead Sea where Jews hid from the Romans in the second century…The scrolls are being tested by Israel’s Antiquities Authority” to determine their authenticity and era in which they were written. In a repeat of history, the fragments were discovered by a Bedouin who may have been looking for artifacts in the area. If the documents prove to be authentic, they will be the first scrolls discovered in the Judean Desert since the 1960’s.
2006: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Full Swing: Hits, Runs and Errors in a Writer's Life by Ira Berkow and the recently released paperback edition of Salonica, City Of Ghosts: Christians, Muslims and Jews, 1430-1950 by Mark Mazower. “For over half a millennium Salonika, a port city in northern Greece, was a place where Europe met the Middle East. Mazower, a professor of history at Columbia University, sets the history of Salonika and its Orthodox Greeks, Egyptian merchants and Spanish Jews within a "single encompassing historical narrative." He reconstructs this once vibrant city as it thrived under the Ottoman Empire (1430-1912), reverted to Greek control after World War I, and saw its Jewish population deported en masse by the Nazis in 1943
2006: In an article entitled “Marching as to War,” The Washington Post reported on the efforts of Mikey Weinstein, graduate of the U.S. Air Force Academy and the father of an academy graduate, to stop the missionary work of Christian ministers at the Air Force Academy. In particular he is targeting the Officer’s Christian Fellowship who says its goal is a “spiritually transformed military with ambassadors for Christ in in uniform, empowered by the Holy Spirit.”
2006: The following were among a total of 43 Israeli civilians (including four who died of heart attacks during rocket barrages) and 116 IDF soldiers were killed in the Israel-Hizbullah war:Eight railway workers in Haifa: Shmuel Ben-Shimon, 41; Asael Damti, 39; Nissim Elharari, 43; David Feldman, 28; Dennis Lapidus, 24; Rafi Hazan, 30; Reuven Levy, 46; and Shlomo Mansura, 35.
2006: “INS Hanit Suffers Iranian Missile Attack” published today
2007: Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice arrives in Israel and the Palestinian Authority for her first visit to the region since Hamas seized power in the Gaza Strip.
2007(1st of Av, 5767): Rosh Chodesh Av.
2007:On the first anniversary of the Hezbollah-Israel War a “Free the Soldiers Rally” takes place in New York City. It commemorates the “one long year has passed since Israel Defense Forces soldiers Gilad Shalit, Ehud Goldwasser, and Eldad Regev were kidnapped by Hamas and Hezbollah.”
2007:A group representing thousands of children of Holocaust survivors filed a class-action lawsuit against the German government demanding that Germany pay for their psychiatric care. The Israelis, calling themselves second-generation Holocaust survivors, say the scars of the Nazi genocide on their parents have crossed generations.
2008: In Los Angeles, Hadassah’s 94th Annual Convention comes to an end.
2008:The John W. Kluge Center at the Library of Congress sponsors a lecture, "The Moral Conscience of the World: The United Nations and Palestine in 1947," by William Roger Louis, a professor of English history and culture at the University of Texas at Austin.
2010: Taglit-Birthright Israel alumni and young professionals plan to gather at the Historic 6th& I Synagogue for “Shabbat Hoppin’: Summer Style.”
2011: The work of Tel Aviv native Dana Levy is scheduled to be part of the Art Omni Weekend which is scheduled to open today.
2011: The Jerusalem Film Festival is scheduled to come to an end this evening.
July 17 In History
1203: The Knights of the Fourth Crusade capture Constantinople forcing the Byzantine emperor Alexius III Angelus to flee from his capital into exile. Unlike other Crusades, the focus of the Fourth Crusade was the Byzantine Empire and its capital Constantinople rather than Jerusalem. The Fourth Crusade was really a clash between two different groups of Christians and a fight over commercial interests. Unlike the other crusades, the Fourth did not produce any great overt anti-Semitic activities. But it did keep the crusading spirit alive and subsequent crusades did result in more harm to various Jewish communities. The most significant lesson of the Fourth Crusade was that it was a classic example of religion being manipulated for reasons that had nothing to do with God or His teachings; something that haunts the Jews of the world down to modern times.
1245: Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II who refuted the concept of Jewish ritual murders was found guilty of sacrilege at the First Council of Lyons.
1272: Pope Gregory X issued a bull prohibiting accusations of blood-ritual killings
1287: Forty Jews - men, women and children - were killed by a mob in Oberwesel (Germany) after a ritual murder accusation. The rioting spread down the Rhineland.
1392: King Pedro I (1357–67) of Portugal ordered the compliance of the bull of Pope Boniface IX protecting Jews from forced baptism. He also extended it to Spanish Jewish Refugees.
1402: Start of the reign of Chinese Ming Emperor Yongle who bestowed “honors on Jewish physician, Y’en Ch’eng
1414: A new edict was issued by the regent in the name of her infant son Don Ferdinand that offered some slight improvement to the conditions of the Jews of Castile.
1588: Mimar Sinan, the chief architect and leading civil engineer under Suleiman the Magnificent passed away today. It Suleiman who ordered that fortress like walls be built around Jerusalem, walls that can be seen today when one enters “the Old City.”
1549: All Jews and Marranos were expelled from Ghent, Belgium.
1762: Catherine II becomes Tsarina of Russia upon the murder of Peter III of Russia. Known to history as Catherine the Great, Russia’s ruler participated in the partition of Poland along with Prussia and Austria. In acquiring her section of Poland, Catherine acquired a large Jewish population. Although her first reaction to these new Jewish subjects was restrained but comparatively enlightened, in the last years of her reign, Catherine took the first measures which would lead to what became known as the Pale of Settlement.
1763: Birthdate of John Jacob Astor. Born in Germany he parlayed his role in the fur trade into one of America’s early fortunes. There is a great deal of debate surrounding Astor’s ethnic origins. In this case, we will give him the benefit of the doubt.
1786: Birthdate of Henri Castro, a native of Bayonne, France who brought hundreds of families to Texas where they settled in an area of west of San Antonio. The town of Castroville, Texas and Castro County are named after him which attests to his importance.
1793: Second of the three partitions of Poland takes place as Russia, Prussia and Austria divide this once proud kingdom home to one of Europe’s largest Jewish communities. As a result of the partitions, Russia, which had worked to remain Jew free would find itself home to millions of Jews.
1806: The last auto-de-fe ordered by the Inquisition of Peru was held today.
1810:Reform Judaism was born in the town of Seesen in central Germany with a stated mission to modernize Judaism and create a bridge between Jewish life and the surrounding culture.
1815: In France, Napoleon surrenders at Rochefort, Charente-Maritime to British forces. Napoleon’s final defeat would lead him to permanent exile on St. Helena. His final defeat brought a wave of reaction as the remnants of the old régime in France and Europe sought to regain their old power and undo the changes wrought by the French Revolution. This reactionary wave would have a negative effect on the Jewish people and would be one of the driving forces that led to next wave of Jewish immigration to the United States.
1841(28th of Tamuz, 5601): On the secular calendar, Rebbe Moshe Teitelbaum of Ujhel, known as the Yismach Moshe, founder of the Satmar sect, passed away.
1854: An excerpt published today from Little’s Living Age described Doctor Wolff as being the real Wandering Jew, who is not the melancholy figure “of the poet and novelist” “but a “fat, jolly Jew for ‘whom the law having a shadow of good things to come.’”
1859: Samuel Isaac Joseph Schereschewsky, a Lithuanian born Jew was ordained today at St. George’s Church in New York City.
1862: Legislation abolishing discrimination against the service of chaplains in the United States army became a law. In other words, Rabbis could now serve as Chaplains.
1862: At the request of the Lincoln administration, the chaplain act was amended to provide for the appointment of Catholic, Protestant and Jewish chaplains.
1863(1st of Av, 5623): Rosh Chodesh Av
1868: Birthdate of Henri Nathansen, “a Danish writer and stage director, today best known for the play Inside the Walls (Danish: Indenfor Murene” who passed away in 1944.
1873(22ndof Tammuz, 5633): Fifty two year old Babette Stettheimer, a sister of Joseph Seligman passed away today.
1874: Professor C. H. Brigham of Ann Arbor, Michigan, read a paper on the “Falacha Language of Abyssinia” at a convention of linguists meeting in Hartford, Conn. According to Professor Brigham, who based his paper on the work of Dr. Joseph Haling, “the Flachas are descendants of a tribe of Jews which settled in Abyssinia…” who have lost their knowledge of Hebrew as both a written and spoken language. Their literature is based on the translation of the book of Jonah and “four short prayers.
1877: During the Russo-Turkish War, the first Battle of the Shipka where Jewish soldiers displayed “dauntless courage began today.
1878: Schedules showing the liabilities and assets of Barnet L. Solomon, Solomon B. Solomon Judah H. Solomon and Simon Solomon, the owners of B.L Solomon’s Sons, the major upholstery dealers who recently filed for bankruptcy, were filed in the Court of Common Pleas. Their assets totaled $224. 799/31 and their liabilities totaled $1,144,753.88. The firm’s demise was caused by a combination of poor business conditions and a down turn in the real estate market.
1879: A concert and festival sponsored by the Young Men’s Hebrew Union is scheduled to take place at the Terrace Garden
1879(26th of Tammuz, 5639):Maurycy Gottlieb, Jewish painter who came from a family of Polish-speaking Galician Jews passed away. Two of his more famous paintings are “Shylock and Jessica” and “Jews Praying in the Synagogue on Yom Kippur.”
1880: Harper’s Weekly published illustrations depicting scenes from the Seawanhaka tragedy among whose victims was former 12th District Assemblyman Joseph I. Stein.
1881: An English quarterly publication, The Contemporary Review examined the life of the late Ferdinand Lassalle. Base on the way he lived his life the epitaph etched on his tomb “Ferdinand Lassalle, thinker and fighter” was deemed to be quite appropriate. Lassalle was a rare combination of philosophical think, political agitator and oddly enough fashion dandy “noted for his dress for dinners and his addiction for pleasures.”
1882(1st of Av, 5642): Rosh Chodesh Av
1882: As the Freight Handler’s Strike entered its fifth week, the workers took steps to keep “scabs” away from the piers and docks. The Russian Jews have gathered at Standard Hall on East Broadway where they are being three meals a day: bread and coffee in the morning; meat and soup at noon; tea and bread in the evening. The strikers are also providing them with lodging in a tenement to keep these destitute people from being “scabs.” Similar efforts are being made with other immigrant groups.
1882: A report published today attributed “the incapacity” of Russian Jews to perform manual labor when compared to their “muscular Irish and German” counterparts to diet. “A single piece of black bread soaked in water and a banana or tow constitute a full meal…Occasionally their bill of fare embraces beer and cheese and crackers but it is seldom that any of them eat meat or potatoes. The effect of this light diet is plainly visible in the shrunken forms, the listless actions and lack of endurance that so plainly distinguish the Russian Jews…from other working men.”
1884: It was reported today that Lazarus Lemisch, his wife and five children who had just arrived in the United States were being sent back to Europe because, by his own admission, he was destitute with no prospects for financial assistance.
1884: Wolf Finkelstein, a Russian Jewish immigrant arrived in New York on the SS Bohemia and was immediately sent to Ward’s Island.
1884: It was reported today that many of the Russian Jews who fled to Cyprus during the recent anti-Semitic violence have returned to Odessa. They were not able to support themselves on the Mediterranean Island which is a British possession. This means that the returning Jews are now British subject which means the British Consul General in the Russian port city has to provide them with some sort of assistance.
1885: It was reported today that in Great Britain, juror was excluded from hearing the case of De Worms versus Hughes because he was Jewish
1886: “Art To Be Seen At Rouen” published today described the “stain glass pottery and relics of old wars” that can be seen at the Museum of Antiquities including a series of five stain glassed windows that depicts :the history of the rich Jew who bribes a poor woman to bring him a consecrated wafer which he then stabs with a dagger.” (The myth of Host Desecration ranked with the Blood Libel as cause for slaughter of Jews during the Middle Ages)
1887: Birthdate of Beatrice Fox Auerbach, the longtime proprietor of the G. Fox & Company department store in Hartford, Connecticut.[some sources say July 7, 1887]. Auerbach was raised in Hartford, where her father ran the department store originally founded by and named after his father, Gerson Fox. In 1911, Auerbach moved to Salt Lake City to help her new husband run his family's department store there. The couple returned to Connecticut six years later when the G. Fox & Company building burned. Beatrice Auerbach's husband became secretary and treasurer of the rebuilt store, which occupied a twelve-story Art Deco building that dominated Hartford's Main Street. When her husband died in 1927, Auerbach stepped into his business roles. She proved so good at running the business that when her father died in 1938, she became president of G. Fox & Company. Over the next three decades, Auerbach built G. Fox into the largest privately-held department store in the United States. Under Auerbach's leadership, the store was known for excellent service, but it was also remarkable for the benefits extended to employees. Auerbach was among the first employers to introduce paid vacations and sick leave, and also among the first to hire African-Americans in meaningful positions. Auerbach sold G. Fox & Company to the May Company, owner of Macy's, in 1965, although she remained involved in the day-to-day operations of the store. The sale allowed Auerbach to increase the charitable contributions for which she was already well-known in Connecticut. The Service Bureau for Women's Organizations that she had established in 1945 taught leadership skills to members of women's groups. She also collaborated with Connecticut College for Women for over twenty years (1938-1959) in a retailing program that allowed participants to try out theories in the G. Fox store. Among the other beneficiaries of Auerbach's philanthropy were Trinity College, Wesleyan University, the University of Connecticut, and several Hartford-area cultural organizations. Auerbach died on November 29, 1968. G. Fox & Company closed permanently in 1992. The building, still a Hartford landmark, was later converted for use as a community college and retail shops.
1888(9thof Av, 5648): Tish’a B’Av
1888: Birthdate of Israeli novelist, Shmuel Agnon. Author of numerous books, including the Day Before Yesterday, Agnon won the Nobel Prize in 1966.
1889: “Here is Comfort for Cantor” published today offered reassurance to State Senator Jacob Cantor that he should not be bothered by the fact that the Harlem Club is rejecting him because he was Jewish. “In the face of this foolish and un-Christian prejudice” he should remember that the “Blessed Redeemer would be rejected on the same grounds.”
1890: Almost all of the striking cloak cutters, the vast majority of whom were Jewish, returned to work this morning with only one outstanding point of contention – the strikers demanded that all of the replacement workers or “scabs” must be terminated.
1891: Thirty-one Jewish immigrants from Russia were not allowed to land at the Barge Office in New York “on the ground that they were like to become public charges.
1891: As of today the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children has received $2,777.12 to help fund its summer programs.
1892: “Preparations for the Cholera” published today described the outbreak of the disease which now has foothold in Odessa and Moscow. The effort to combat Cholera has been hampered because “throughout Russia a large proportion of the capable physicians have been driven away because they were Jewish.”
1892: “Summer Study of Ethics” published today previewed the lectures to be offered The School of Applied Ethics including a series on the religious ideas of the Hebrews: “The Prophets” by George Moore that beings with the religion of Israel before the prophets; “The Religion of Ancient Persia and its Relations to Judaism by Professor A.V. Williams Jacksons; “The Ritual and Law by Professor Morris Jastrow; :The Psalter” by Professor John P. Peters; “The Wisdom Books” by Professor Crawford H. Toy and “The Talmud” by Dr. Emil G. Hirsch.
1892: Arthur Richard of New York arrived in New London, CT on his way to inspect the Jewish colony at Chesterfield which is being supported by contributions by the Baron Hirsch Fund.
1893: Register Levy, a leader of the Jewish community on New York’s Lower East Side, expressed his surprise when asked about the derogatory, stereotypically anti-Semitic remarks attributed to Police Justice John J. Ryan who complained about that the Hebrews flouted the law, had no fear of policemen and would claim that they were the victims of religious persecution when they were charged with crimes. “I have never known him to bear any malice or prejudice against any co-religionists.”
1893: Police Justice John J. Ryan claimed today that he had been misquoted and that he had “ no desire to denounce Hebrews” and had in fact “always been their friends.” Ryan said that all he had meant to say, and all that he had really said, was that he enforce the law against all “wrongdoers” including Hebrews regardless of their connections or pressure from local citizenry. Ryan’s contention that he had been “misquoted” and that the remarks of others were wrongly attributed to him, was supported by Mark Alter, the attorney for the Hebrew Protective Association. [Ed. Note: When taken together, these comments read like modern day “damage control.” What is fascinating is that as early as the last decade of the 19thcentury, the Jewish population was of a size that New York politicians had to be cognizant of their feelings and views. This must have come as a shock to those who arrived in the last ten years from Romania and Russia where the governments did not even know that Jews had opinions let alone political rights.]
1895(25thof Tammuz, 5655): Forty-three year old Simon M. Ehrlich, the Chief Just of the City Court in New York, passed away today after battling typhoid fever for the last three weeks at his summer home in Throgg’s Neck, Long Island. Born in Boston, at the age of five he moved to New York where he graduated from City College and Columbia Law School. After passing the bar in 1872, he was elected to a variety of judicial positions with the support of Tammany Hall.
1897: Alexander Grossman provided over tonight’s meeting of the Russian-American Citizens’ League where the candidacy of Seth Low for Mayor of New York was endorsed by the attendees.
1898: According to a summary of the tenth annual report of the Jewish Publication Society of America published today the society has grown from 600 members to 4,790 members 808 of whom live in Pennsylvania and 797 of whom live in New York state.
1902: Herzl finishes a journey to London where he had been seeking support for his plans for a Jewish homeland.
1903: Birthdate of Hiram "Harry" Bingham IV, a member of distinguished old New England family who saved the lives of thousands of Jews while serving as Vice-Consul in Marseille, France.
1903: The Jewish quarter of Ofran, Morocco was pillaged.
1906: Birthdate of Yitzhak Ben Aharon who when he died in 2006 was the last living icon of the left-wing of the Israeli Labor Party.
1907(7th of Av, 5667): Fifty-four year old geologist, paleontologist and explore Angelo Heilprin passed away
1910: Smallpox epidemic breaks out in Jerusalem.
1914: In Salonica a campaign against the Jews continued in the newspapers. The dispute was over Greeks and Jews who worked in a Jewish owned tannery. The dispute became a violent political discussion all throughout Macedonia. It originated over Jews wearing the Turkish Fez, which was a symbol of their fondness for the previous Turkish administration.
1915: An inmate at Milledgeville State Penitentiary tried to kill Leo Frank by slashing his throat with a butcher knife.
1917: John Henry Patterson was made commander of the 38th Battalion of the Royal Fusiliers, one of three battalions of the Jewish Legion, recruited from British and foreign Jews. Patterson was promoted to full Colonel. In February of 1918, Patterson proudly led soldiers of the 38th Fusiliers Battalion, one of the components of the Legion, in a parade in the Whitechapel Road, before they were shipped off to Palestine. They met a tumultuous and joyous reception among the Jews of London, as well as generating amazement among other bystanders, as related in this article about the parade of the Jewish Legion in London. [Unlike many British officers, not only was Patterson not anti-Semitic, he was philo-Semitic numbering many Jews among his friends throughout the rest of his life and pushing for the creation of the Jewish Brigade during World War II.]
1917: Birthdate of comic Phyllis Diller.
1917: Birthdate of all-star shortstop and Cleveland Indian manager, Lou Boudreau. Boudreau’s mother was Jewish. But he was adopted by a Roman Catholic family who raised him in their faith.
1917: Birthdate of Morris E. Lasker, who would serve as a federal judge in New York and Massachusetts for four decades
1917: In San Antonio, Texas, David and Riva Rapoport, Jewish immigrants who had fled Russia after participating in an anti-czarist uprising, gave birth to Bernard Rapoport, the Jewish businessman “who built an insurance empire and spent his last decades giving his wealth away to universities, Democratic campaigns and charitable causes in Israel and his adopted hometown of Waco…” (As reported by J.B. Smith)
1918: By order of Lenin, Czar Nicholas II and his family were executed at Yekaterinburg marking the end of the Romanov dynasty and a turning point in the history of Russia, Europe and the World.
1919: During the war with the Russian Bolsheviks, Jewish leaders met with Symon Petlura and pledged their support for him and the creation of an independent country of Ukraine.
1920: Birthdate of Rabbi Louis Jacobs,the first leader of Masorti Judaism (also known as Conservative Judaism) in the United Kingdom,
1935:Joseph "Yosky" Toblinsky, a member of the “Yiddish Black Hand,” a Jewish criminal band active in the first decades of the 20th century was taken into custody on charges of hijacking a truck filled with pharmaceutical drugs.
1936: The Palestine Post reported that there was heavy firing on the Hatikva Quarter in Tel Aviv and the Bayit Vegan Quarter of Jerusalem. A bomb was found hidden in a shipment of Norwegian cheese. It was believed that it was inserted while transported from Haifa to Jerusalem. Jacob Gerzon, victim of a sniper's bullet, succumbed to his wounds. He was the 32nd Jewish victim of the Arab disturbances which began on April 19. Three new battalions of British troops arrived in Haifa from Malta. The government ordered the demolition of the old Jaffa slums and for the construction of two new roads for the benefit of that quarter and of the town as a whole.
1936: The Spanish Civil War began as the armed forces, eventually to be led by Francisco Franco rose up against the recently elected Popular Front Government. Franco’s rebellious army was a fascist force and the received active help from both Mussolini and Hitler. Anti-fascist forces rallied to the support of the French Republicans. For reasons of their own, the French, British and U.S. governments provided no support to balance that being provided by Germany and Italy. While thousands of volunteers from these western countries took up the cause of the Republic, the Soviet Union was the only government to provide aide. And that aide helped to what had begun as a broad left-wing coalition into Communist dominated fighting force. The Left saw Spain as a place to stop the march of fascism. The Fascists saw Spain as an easy victory and testing ground for the weapons that they would later employ in World War II. One of the most famous volunteer groups supporting the Spanish Republicans was the Lincoln Brigade, a fighting force that had a disproportionately large Jewish Population. For a vivid, yet fictional picture of Jewish involvement in the Lincoln Brigade and left-wing causes in the 1930’s, read Davida’s Harp by Chaim Potok. The fascist victory in Spain, including the failure of the Western allies to act, emboldened Hitler and Mussolini while frightening Stalin. All three felt the West would never stand against the Germans and Italians. For Stalin, this meant signing a non-aggression with Hitler. For Hitler, this meant he had a green line to do as he pleased in Europe. For the Jews it meant that the Final Solution was one step closer to reality. Numerous historians consider the Spanish Civil War that broke out in July 1936 a prelude to World War II. Spain, with a population of 28 million, became a bloody battleground of conflicting forces, testing their arsenals in preparation for the battle of the giants that was to emerge shortly. Jews did not sit on the sidelines in this crucial contest. Jewish participation, as a matter of fact, was stunningly extensive. In 1987, at a 50th anniversary commemoration of the Spanish Civil War, Chaim Herzog, then president of Israel, stated: "There were people who realized just what a fascist victory in Spain would mean. Courageous men from many nations volunteered to help the Republicans. Among them were democrats, socialists, communists... Typically there was a relatively high number of Jews among the volunteers - the highest proportion of any other group... I salute them as comrades in arms in the war against the Nazis." Jewish participation in the Spanish Civil War offers a fascinating, relatively unknown, chapter of Jewish resistance to Nazi and fascist tyranny. Up to 25 percent of the fighters in the International Brigades were Jewish, whereas the total global Jewish population at the time did not exceed 4%. It is ironic that Jews even formed their own Jewish Brigade in Spain, which fought heroically in crucial battles 70 years ago for the freedom of the Spanish people that had expelled them from its midst. The Spanish Civil War attracted volunteers from about 55 countries who knew the dangers they were facing in that bloody conflict. Nevertheless, they came in substantial numbers to join the ranks of the Popular Front. Figures of participants differ. Ernest Hemingway claimed that "over 40,000 volunteers from 52 countries flocked to Spain between 1936 and 1939 to take part in the historic struggle between democracy and fascism known as the Spanish Civil War." The lowest estimate speaks of about 32,000, but one estimate is as high as 59,380. The largest contingents came from France (7,000), Poland (5,000), the US (3,000), Britain (between 2,000 and 4,000) and Russia (in the thousands). Despite the conspicuous presence of Jews in International Brigades, Jewish participation in the fighting has generally not been acknowledged. There could be various reasons for that. Firstly, Jews were usually registered under the name of the country they came from. Secondly, in some cases the Jews used aliases, concerned that their being Jewish might expose them to greater than usual dangers in a war against fascist elements. Lastly, Jewish community organizations that would eagerly underwrite research on Jews fighting against fascists and Nazis were hesitant to do so in the instance of the Spanish Civil War, since those joining would be counted as communists and fellow travelers. While it is true that two-thirds of the American Abraham Lincoln Brigade were communists, many Jews were not. One volunteer wrote: "I am as good an anti-fascist as any communist. I have reason to be. I am a Jew and that is the reason I came to Spain. I know what it means to my people if Fascism should win." Hyman Katz from New York did not tell his mother that he was determined to leave for Spain. When wounded, he decided to explain why he enlisted against her wishes. He wrote: "Don't you realize that we Jews will be the first to suffer if fascism comes?" Samuel Levinger from Columbus, Ohio, son of Rabbi Lee J. Levinger, was killed in battle at Brunette. Throughout the war, the father remained a loyal friend of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade. In-depth research, especially in the last 10 years, has proven that the extent of Jewish presence in that crucial war was truly impressive. Though Jews were only 10% of the Polish population, 45% of the Polish volunteers - 2,250 out of 5,000 - were Jewish. Jews, 4% of the US population, formed 38% of its volunteers. In France, 0.5% of the population and 15% of the volunteers were Jews. Britain, with a Jewish population of 0.5%, had 11% to 22% Jewish volunteers. Palestine had a Jewish contingent of 500, 498 Jews and two Arabs. For some reason, Jews from Palestine were distributed among diverse national units. There were Palestinian Jews in the Hungarian "Rakosi" Battalion, in the French "Six Fevrier" Battalion and others. The most conspicuous Jewish presence in the Spanish Civil War emerged from a group called the "Naftali Botwin Company." Naftali Botwin, a 24-year-old Jewish radical, was executed in Poland in 1925 for assassinating a Polish Secret Service agent. The special Jewish company was formed in the Palafox Battalion of the Polish Dombrowsky Brigade in December 1937. The company issued a Yiddish newspaper. The orders were written in Yiddish. It had a distinct Jewish banner, and the last stanza of the company's hymn proudly proclaimed "...how Jewish Botwin soldiers drove out the fascist plague!" The Botwin group was the only one in which Jews fought as a distinct group. Hence it became the major symbol of Jewish presence in Spain. In general, the International Brigades were utilized by the Popular Front as shock troops in the most dangerous places that drew the heaviest casualties. The Botwin Company was no exception - 120 of its men were thrown into an assault at the battle of Estramadura, in the defense of Madrid; only 18 survived. The company's courage earned it the "Medalla de Valor" from the Spanish government. Whatever motives brought volunteers of the International Brigades to Spain, with the Jews the ideological motive was dominant. Many of them may have been socialists or communists, but they clearly perceived that simultaneously they were fighting a sworn enemy of the Jewish people. The Jewish-Zionist angle was no less significant than the socialist-communist. It is no coincidence that the first casualty of the International Brigades was Leon Baum from Paris, and the last casualty was Haskel Honigstern, who was given a state funeral in Barcelona. The Spanish poet Jose Herrera wrote of him: "Haskel Honigstern, Polish worker of the Jewish race, son of an obscure land, killed in the light of my homeland." It is also no coincidence that when Juan Negrin, head of the Republican government, announced in September 1938 the unilateral withdrawal of the International Brigades from Spain for diplomatic reasons, the Botwin Company formed the rear guard of the troops as they withdraw across the border into France. Jewish participation in the Spanish Civil War put to a lie the assertion that Jews are by nature "timid and non-combative... that Jews did not resist the Nazi murderers because... submission is in their national character." When the first shots of World War II were fired, in the prologue of that ghastly war, Jews were not only present in overwhelming numbers, but they incontrovertibly proved their heroism.
1938(18th of Tammuz, 5698): Tzom Tammuz
1938(18th of Tammuz, 5698): Three more Jews were killed today – two of them were watchmen at an orange grove and one was a workman from Tel Aviv. At the same time, “the Jewish owner of watch factory in Acre was seriously wounded” by Arab attackers.
1938: Credible reports are circulating in Palestine that some of the attacks on Arabs are “merely part of Nazi intrigue to gain Arab sympathy and impair British prestige in the Near East.”
1939(1st of Av, 5699): Rosh Chodesh Av
1940(10thof Tammuz, 5700): Hauptscharführer Blank murdered Werner Scholem at Buchenwald. A Jew and a Communist, he was arrested in 1933 by the Nazis who shipped him to Buchenwald when it was opened in 1938. He was held there until he was shot by the Nazi officer. He was the brother of Gerhard Scholem who gained fame as Gershom Scholem first Professor of Jewish Mysticism at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
1940: The Vichy French government issued orders prohibiting employment of aliens (Jews) not born in France. This is one more example of how eager those at Vichy were to serve their new Nazi comrades.
1941(22nd of Tamuz, 5701): Twelve hundred Jews are murdered at Slonim, Belorussia
1941(22nd of Tammuz, 5701): This marks the first day of the a fourteen day slaughterof the Jews at Kishinev in the Soviet Union; During those 14 days over 10,000 Jews would be slaughtered by the Nazis and their local collaborators
1942: The 2,000 Jews from Holland reached Auschwitz. All but 449 were given their numbered tattoos. The 449 were gassed.
1942: A Nazi delegation headed by SS chief Heinrich Himmler tours the death camp at Auschwitz, where Himmler observes a mass gassing of inmates.
1943: Birthdate of Shlomo Ben-Ami, the native of Tangiers who made Aliyah in 1955 and earned a doctorate from Oxford. After serving as head of the School of History at Tel Aviv University, he served as Israel’s Ambassador to Spain before pursuing a career in politics.
1943: Yitzhak Wittenberg, a partisan leader, surrendered to the Gestapo to prevent the razing of the Vilna (Lithuania) Ghetto.
1945: Today “Leo Szilard and 69 co-signers at the Manhattan Project "Metallurgical Laboratory" in Chicago petitioned the President of the United States
1945: The Potsdam Conference opens in Potsdam, Germany. The leaders of the Big Three, Harry Truman, Winston Churchill and Joseph Stalin with the aim of settling outstanding issues related to the end of World War II in Europe including the fate of conquered German and liberated Poland. It was the fist meeting between the U.S. President and the Soviet leader. It was the last meeting with Churchill who would be replaced during the conference the new Laborite Prime Minister Clement Atlee. For public consumption, it appeared that the war time Allies were committed to punishing Germany for its Nazi atrocities. The relations between Truman and Stalin soured from this time forward into what became the Cold War. An argument can be made that Truman’s decision to recognize Israel was a product of this Cold War environment.
1947:Mordechai (Motke) Eldar and his sister arrived at Haifa today but were forced to return to Hamburg by the British. A year later he returned aboad the Kedmah and began a thirty year career with the IDF where he reached the rank of Colonel before retiring.
1947: Supposedly Raoul Wallenberg died in a Soviet prison on this date. An air of mystery still surrounds the death of one of the few people who came to the aid of the Jews during the Holocaust. Since nothing was done to establish the fate of Ambassador Wallenberg after he was last seen going to the headquarters of the Red Army in Budapest, nobody really knows if he was shot in Moscow, died in prison, or lived out a long anguished life in the Gulag.
1948: A two-pronged attack by Israeli forces designed to drive Arab Legion forces from the eastern section of Jerusalem failed. The Old City would remain under Jordanian occupation until 1967. During this time, Jews were barred from the Old City and no Arabs demanded that the Old City be made the capital of a Palestinian state.
1948: On the second day of Operation Death to the Invader, an Israeli military operation designed to connect settlements in the Negev with the rest of Israel, a series of Israeli assaults failed in their attempt to take their objectives.
1948: During Operation Dekel, Israeli forces took the villages of Hittin and Nimrin.
1950:Valerian Trifa, the Romanian Cleric who hid his role in the fascist, anti-Semitic Iron Guard, took advantage of the Displace Persons Immigration Law to move to the United States today. His lies and his role in the Holocaust would eventually be exposed by Israeli author Zev Goland
1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that the Ministry of Finance denied charges that the Custodian of Enemy Property had transferred valuable land in Tel Aviv to high government officials and Mapai and Histadrut leaders, at prices far below the prevailing market valuations. Minister of Finance Eliezer Kaplan, vigorously denied such charges and intended to take legal actions against the editor of Haboker, the General Zionist daily, and the mayor of Tel Aviv, Israel Rokach, for having spread such allegations. The Knesset Finance Committee asked the State Comptroller to investigate the whole affair.
1956(9th of Av, 5716): Tish'a B'Av
1959(11th of Tammuz, 5719): Eugene Meyer publisher and owner of the Washington Postpassed away. Meyer is the father of Katherine Graham. While Graham has earned a reputation for making the Washington Post into one of the nation’s leading papers, the process was actually begun by her father who took over the bankrupt paper and proceeded to vanquish several stout competitors including the now defunct Times Heraldand Evening Star.
1960: Binyamin Mintz, a member of Agudat Israel Workers, was appointed Minister of Postal Services by David Ben-Gurion today, serving until his death the following May.
1969: Israeli trucks drive through the Sinai heading for the east bank of the Gulf of Suez. They are carrying the equipment for the commandos who will be attacking the Green Island, the Egyptian for in the middle of the Gulf of Suez.
1972: Avner Shaki left the cabinet today where he had been serving as Deputy Minister of Education and Culture.
1975: Birthdate of Israeli actor and comedian Eli Finish.
1979: Birthdate of Nathan B. “Nate” Bruckenthal, the Petty Officer 3rdClass who became the first Coast Guardsman to be killed in action since the Viet Nam war when he was killed by suicide bombers during a waterborne assault on the Khawr Al Amaya oil terminal
1981: In response to a major rocket attack on northern Israel by the PLO from southern Lebanon, the AIF launched a massive attack on PLO headquarters in downtown Beirut. Civilian casualties were inevitable given the Palestinian military for hiding among non-combatants. The AIF also attacked PLO positions in southern Lebanon from where the rocket attacks were launched.
1981: Two girls were wounded in Katyusha bombardments on the Galilee.
1994: Pitcher Andrew Lorraine made his major league debut with the California Angels.
2001(26th of Tammuz, 5761):Yehiel De-Nur, a Polish born Israeli author whose writings often employed themes based on his time at Auschwitz, passed away.
2003(17th of Tammuz, 5763): Tzom Tammuz
2005: Haaretz reported that The Federal Bureau of Investigation is probing whether two United States citizens arrested recently planned to carry out an attack on the Israeli consulate in Los Angeles and a synagogue in the area. The two suspects who had recently converted to Islam had been arrested for taking part in at least ten robberies. Evidence of their involvement in a possible attack against Jewish institutions came to light after their arrest.
2006: In accordance with instructions of the Home Front Command, the Carmiel Festival, scheduled to begin on July 18, 2006 will be postponed until October because of the Hezbollah attacks on northern Israel.
2007: An exhibition of manuscripts of scientist Sir Isaac Newton – never before revealed to the public which opened on June 18, 2007, at the Jewish National and University Library at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, comes to an end today. Of special interest in this exhibition are manuscripts and illustrations relating to the Temple as well as a passage copied by Newton from Maimonides' writings; manuscripts containing Newton's comments on Hebrew expressions, and excerpts from the Shema prayer; Newton's calculations of the end of the world, which he estimated to be in 2060; and Newton's rejection of the Trinity.For further details about the exhibition, please visit the following site:
2008: In Kensington, Maryland, Robert Wexler, a six-term U.S. congressman from Florida, discusses and signs Fire-Breathing Liberal: How I Learned to Survive (and Thrive) in the Contact Sport of Congress(written with David Fisher) at Borders Books
2008:The military funerals for Eldad Regev and Ehud Goldwasser the two Israeli soldiers abducted in 2006 by Hezbollah, whose bodies were returned yesterday as part of a prisoner swap take place today in their respective hometowns.
2008:Robert Magnus, who served as the 30th Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps from September 8, 2005 to July 2, 2008 retired today after more than 39 years of service.
2009: At the18th Maccabiah Games round five in the Chess Competition.
2009: The Jerusalem Film Festival features a screening “Bar Mitzvah” in which Boris Thomashefsky plays Israel, a widower whose wife Leah was lost at sea ten years earlier en route to America.
2009(25th of Tammuz, 5769): General Meir Amit passed away at the age of 88. A soldier during the War for Independence, Amit was commander of the famed Golani Brigade, a graduate of Columbia and a major general in the IDF. His greatest claim to fame was his service as head of Mossad during which he managed the activities of Eli Cohen and provided the intelligence estimates that were helpful in during the Six Day War. When word of the death of this popular general reached Israeli President Shimon Peres he said, “Generations of Israelis, entire generations of children, owe Meir Amit a debt of gratitude for his immense contribution - a large part which remains secret - in building the strength and deterrence of Israel...He was a natural leader, whom people trusted, and at the same time he was a visionary for the state.” Amit’s autobiography, A Life in Israel's Intelligence Service: An Autobiography, was published a month after he died.
2010: Israeli artist Shahar Marcus is scheduled to be the Homecoming Artist as part of The Art Omi International Artists Residency.
2010:Senior Fatah member Mohammed Dahlan announced today that the Palestinian Authority will not hold direct negotiations with Israel at this time.
2010: Nir Bergman’s Intimate Grammar won the Haggiag Award for Best Full-Length Feature Film at the 27th Jerusalem Film Festival, which ended tonight.
2011: The first annual NYC Schlep is scheduled to begin today at 9 a.m. in Battery Park.
2011: The New York Times includes a review of Lipman Pike: America’s First Home Run King by Richard Michelson and illustrated by Zachary Pullen, “a short biography of Lip Pike, credited with being the first paid professional as well as the first Jewish ball player (a combination that did not always please fans).”
July 18 In History
64: During the reign of Emperor Nero, the Great Fire begins in Rome. After the fire, Nero avoided the initial inclination to blame the blaze on the Jews. Instead, he targeted the nascent Christian sect which had recently become active in the city. Possibly Nero who saw himself as a god felt personally threatened by Christianity which also worshipped a Divinity who had come to earth in human form.
392: “Emperors Valentinian II, Theodosius I, and Arcadius order that anyone who disturbs the Catholic faith must be exiled.” This edict is actually not aimed at the Jews but at those Christians who deviate from accepted religious principles. Of course, this use of state power to protect Catholicism is one more indication of the “second class” status that the Jews are having to do deal with.
1195: The Moslem Almohads (‘Proclaimers of the Unity of Allah’) score a great victory over the Christian Catilian King Alfonso VIII at the Battle of Alacros. The Almohads were a sect of Moslem fundamentalists who invaded the Iberian Peninsula from North Africa. They were determined to defeat the Christian forces fighting to take Iberia back from the Moslems. As part of their agenda, the Almohads also punished the Moslems living in Spain for having become ‘soft’ and moderate in their views on Islam. They also punished the Jews of Spain who lived among the Moslems for being agents of their corruption. Many Jews would flee Spain as the Almodhades consolidated their power, thus marking the end of the Golden Age. One of those departing because of the Almodhades was Maimonides and his family.
1290: Edward I (England), pressured by his barons, the Church and possibly by his mother, announced the expulsion of all the Jews. The expulsion came on Tisha B’Av, adding to that days list of Jewish sorrows. By November approximately 4000 had fled. The Jews had to pay their own passage, mostly to France. They were allowed to take movables (i.e. clothing). A number of Jews were robbed and cast overboard during the voyage by the ship captains. The Jews did not return to England until 1659. This was the first national expulsion of the Jews.
1716: A decree banishing Jews from Brussels was today; but it was not enforced: a gift to the crown overcame all difficulties. A similar decree issued forty years later had the same result. Several Jews received the right of citizenship in Brussels. Among them was one named Philip Nathan, who, in 1783, requested the government to assign a place for a new cemetery for the Jews; the old one, situated near the Porte de Namur, having disappeared in consequence of the dismantling of the fortress1860: A report of the bankruptcy case of Lord William Godolphin Osborne includes a list of his creditors among whom was a “Jew money lender.”
1784: In New York, the Trustees of Shearith Israel met to discuss the expansion of the Jewish cemetery. After he was re-elected as Chairman, Myer Myers informed his colleagues that, “Mr. Hayman Levy and Mr. Solomon Simson had bargained with Mr. Isaac Roosevelt for the ground adjacent to the Burying place for eighty pounds, one half to be paid on delivery of the deed, and the other half in twelve months or sooner." “The board voted to purchase the land.”
1800: Birthdate of Daniel Levy Maduro Peixotto the eldest son of Moses Levy Maduro Peixotto who was born in Amsterdam, educated in Curaçao and gained fame as an American “physician, scholar, author, and philanthropist.”
1829: Birthdate of Babette Steinhardt the native of Dresden who will become Babette Seligman following her marriage to Joseph Seligman
1838: “In reaction to various political revolts that have given freedom to Jews, Pope Gregory XVI issues an edict critical of how Catholic measures against Jews have fallen by the wayside in recent years.” The Pope wrote: "The unfortunate political events that recently afflicted the Pontifical dominions have produced among other disorders the failure to observe Apostolic Constitutions and the other Edicts regarding the Jews." (As reported by Austin Cline)
1862:It was reported today that the will of Isidor Bemlord, which has now been admitted to probate, leaves $500 to the Jews' Hospital in New York City.
1864: A review of The History of Friedrich the Second, Called Friedrich the Great by Thomas Carlyle reports that “a closely printed chapter of twenty-two pages is devoted to M. Voltaire’s ‘powerful Jew law-suit,’ a wretched and obsolete stock-jobbing squabble.”
1870: The First Vatican Council decrees the dogma of papal infallibility. The First Vatican Council had been summoned by Pope Pious IX who repealed certain laws aimed at limiting occupations open to Roman Jews and opened the doors of the Ghetto and yet was also known as the Pope who refused to return Edgardo Mortara and insisted on him being raised as a Catholic.
1873(23rd of Tammuz, 5633):Sir David Salomons, 1st Baronet, a leading figure in the 19th century struggle for Jewish emancipation in the United Kingdom passed away. . He was the first Jewish Sheriff of the City of London and Lord Mayor of London, and one of the first two Jewish people to serve in the British House of Commons.
1876: At today’s opening session of the American Philological Society in New York, Dr. George R. Entler read a paper on “The Origin of the Hebrew Article” that disputed “the theory that the Hebrew article ‘ha’ has the same origin as the Arabic ‘al.’” According to Entler, “in Hebrew both the article and the conjunction ‘vav’ are derived from the substantive ‘avah’ and connected with the demonstrative pronoun ‘hu.’”
1877(8th of Av, 5637):Erev Tish'a B'Av
1877: Rabbi H. P. Mendes of Manchester, England, officiated at Tisha B’Av services this evening at the synagogue on West 19th Street in New York City. The only light in the sanctuary came from “four candles on the reading desk and the little tapers” with which the worshippers were provided. Rabbi Mendes is the newly appointed assistant for Rabbi J.J. Lyons
1877: Judge Hilton denied reports that he was weakening or wavering in what he termed as his ban on “Seligman Jews” from the Grand Union Hotel in Saratoga Springs, NY.
1877: An article published today described the role of M.A. Shaffenburg a German Jew who had been serving as U.S. Marshal for the Territory of Colorado, in the election of Jerome B. Caffee to the U.S. Senate from Colorado.
1878: It was reported today that Isaac Schwartz who owned a dry goods store on 3rdAvenue in New York filed for bankruptcy today. He showed liabilities of $10,029 with no assets.
1880(10th of Av, 5640): Since the 9th of Av fell on Shabbat, Tish'a B'Av is observed today.
1882: Samuel Obreight, a young Jew who became the subject of a sanity hearing after he married Mary Myers, a Christian, appeared in court today. The judge decided to release him in the custody of his wife until he can make a final ruling.
1882: Rudolpha Leischinsky, a young Jewish woman recently arrived from Europe, is scheduled to be transferred to the Emigrant Insane Asylum on Ward’s Island today. She had originally been taken to Bellevue after a failed suicide attempt.
1882: It was reported that Rebbeca Gold, the wife of a Russian Jew committed suicide last night in Athens, GA. The death remains a mystery but she left a mirror and two knives in a cradle by the side of her young infant.
1882: The striking freight handlers continued their efforts to keep foreign born workers away from the docks. While Italian workers were fed sandwiches, the Russian Jews were getting three meals including a dinner consisting of boil meat prepared by a Jewish cook. Both groups will be getting $.25 a day as an additional incentive not to cross the picket line.
1883: In Hungary, the court that is trying several Jews on charges that they murdered a Christian girl, Esther Salomossy, went to Tisza Ezlar today where Moritz Scharf was forced to look through the key-hole in the door of the synagogue through which he claims to have seen the murder committed. It was obvious that the witness could have only seen one person at a time and that it was impossible to have seen a group of people. [In early reports, Scharf claimed that his testimony came only after he had been abused and threatened.]
1884: Four families of Jewish immigrants who are being held at Castle Garden have sent a request of the Commissioners of Emigration to be allowed to “join their friends’ in New York City who are willing to support them so that they will not become “public charges.”
1885: Rebecca Marcus who owns a grocery store on Broome Street charged Solomon Schulman, a Russian born rabbi with larceny in Essex Market Court. She claimed he came into her store and stole $31. He denied the charge and said he was in the store to collect the $8 she owed him for tuition.
1887: It was reported today that the Hebrew Standardhas declared that “a diet of crabs and lobsters is not only un-Jewish” it is also unhealthy.
1888: At the bride’s home in St Kilda, Australia, the future Sir Isaac Alfred Isaacsmarried 18-year-old Deborah (Daisy), daughter of Isaac Jacobs, a tobacco merchant who had been president of the St Kilda Hebrew Congregation and in 1889-90 was to be president of the Chamber of Manufactures.
1890: As of today, the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children has received $5,132.25 to be used for summer excursions.
1890: “The Secretary of the United Hebrew Charities has learned that the family of Solomon Rasinkoff” which was mistakenly sent back to Europe by the Hamburg Line several weeks ago is now in Russia. The steamship company has offered to bring the family back to New York if the Hebrew Charities can raise the funds to get them from Russia to the port of Hamburg.
1891: The twenty-three Jews who arrived from Rotterdam aboard the Massadam will be returned to that port by the ship that brought them to the United States. Five other Jews who had arrived from Glasgow will suffer a similar fate. (This method is part of the government’s plan to make the trafficking in pauper immigrants a losing business proposition for the shipping lines.)
1891: In a letter to the Washington Star, Simon Wolf explained decision of the Democratic National Convention at Cleveland to adopt a plank for its platform “regarding the Czar’s treatment of the Jews in Russia.”
1892: The governor of Pennsylvania has issued the papers seeking the extradition from Canada of two Jewish peddlers named Harris and Charley who are accused of killing another peddler in Wyoming County
1892: In his quest to create an anti-cholera vaccine, Dr. Waldemar Haffkine, a Russian born Jew, risked his own life by testing his vaccine for the first time on himself.
1892: Arthur Richard of New York inspected the Jewish colony at Chesterfield, CT. The colony which is home to forty families and contains hat factory as well as a creamery plant, is the first such colony funded by Baron Hirsch in New England.
1893: The manager of the Thalia Theatre at 46 Bowery “has declared vengeance” against those who vandalized his theatre on July 15. The vandals acted in response to a boycott against Isidor Lindemann and his Windsor Theatre by the Hebrew Trade Unions that had spread to the Thalia.
1894: Birthdate of Isaac Emmanuilovich Babel. Born in Odessa, Babel would survive the Pogroms of 1905 and go to become a journalist and author in the Soviet. Arrested by Stalin, he died in Siberia in 1940. He would be exonerated after Stalin’s death.
1894: “Sectarian Appropriations” published today provided a breakdown of the excise money collected that had been collected in 1893 and distributed to different charitable organizations including $178, 275 that went to Protestant and Jewish institutions as compared with $609,748.32 to Catholic institutions.
1895: “Col. Waring’s Little Helpers” published today described the formation of a children’s street clean brigade which was formed during a meeting at the Hebrew Institute.
1896: First and only meeting between Herzl and Baron Edmond de Rothschild, whose financial sponsorship the Zionist leader was seeking.
1897: “Women Here and There” published today includes a description of a club named after Louisa Mae Alcott located in Boston that was started by Jewish women to provide educational and cultural programs for young Jewish girls including concerts, workshops and “talks on various subjects…of the most elevating tendencies.
1898: The will of the late Jacob Berk was filed for probate in the Surrogate’s office today.
1898: “For Jewish Publications” published described the work of the JPS which includes the recent publications of Dreamers of the Ghetto by Israel Zangwill and “an index volume of Graetz’s History the Jews as well as the upcoming publication of Jewish Services in the Synagogue and the Home by L.N. Dembitz.
1902: Mark Matveyevich Antokolski, the Litvak who became a world class sculptor was buried in St. Petersburg today. The train carrying his body from Paris where died made a special stop in his native Wilno before reaching its final destination.
1903: Wenzel von Plehv is ready to receive Herzl. Von Plehv was the Czar’s Minister of the Interior, and like many of his class and nationality, an active anti-Semite.
1906: “The court, all chambers united, gave its judgment. After a lengthy review of the case it declared unanimously that the whole accusation against Dreyfus had been disproved, and it quashed the judgment of the Rennes court-martial sans renvoi. The explanation of the whole case is that Esterhazy and Henry were the real culprits; that they had made a trade of supplying the German government with military documents; and that once the Bordereau was discovered they availed themselves of the anti-Jewish agitation to throw suspicion on Dreyfus” (As reported by Global Security.org)
1906: Birthdate of Clifford Odets, the native of Philadelphia who wrote the script for the play "Waiting for Lefty" and the screenplay for "Sweet Smell of Success."
1907: In Harrogate (UK), Rose Samson Hart and Simeon Hart gave birth to Herbert Lionel Adolphus Hart (H.L.A. Hart) who became a Professor of Jurisprudence at Oxford and authored numerous legal tomes including The Concept of Law.
1917: A draft of what would become the Balfour Declaration was submitted to Lord Balfour.
1921: In Brooklyn, Solomon Goldman, a jeweler, and the former Sarah Goldstein, who had immigrated from Russia gave birth to “Jacob E. Goldman, a physicist who as Xerox’s chief scientist founded the company’s vaunted Palo Alto Research Center, which invented the modern personal computer…” (As reported by John Markoff)
1922: Birthdate of American academic and philosopher, Thomas Samuel Kuhn.
1923: Birthdate of William M. Birenbaum, the product of the Waterloo, Iowa school system who became the nationally known university administrator who helped rescue Antioch College from looming insolvency during his tenure as president there in the 1970s and ’80s. (As reported by Maraglit Fox)
1925: Adolf Hitler publishes his personal manifesto Mein Kampf.
1928(1stof Av, 5688): Rosh Chodesh Av
1934: The Jewish National Fund Council for Greater New York is sponsoring this evening’s farewell dinner for Bronx dentist and JNF activist Dr. Solomon Deutsch at the Farm Food Vegetarian Restaurant. Dr. Deutsch and his family are making Aliyah. (As reported by JTA)
1934: In one of several efforts by Zionist leaders to reach a compromise with the Arabs, David Ben-Gurion and Dr. Magnes met with Auni Abdul Hadi, the leader of the movement devoted to Palestinian Arab independence.
1934: A lengthy article in a Nazi newspaper attacked Egyptian Jews. The Germans stated some Jewish boys insulted the Swastika flag on the German Consul's car. The paper stated the boys were arrested.
1937(10thof Av, 5697): Tisha B’Av observed because the 9th of Av fell on Shabbat.
1939: The entire Jewish community of Palestine, regardless of political persuasion, participated in a general strike aimed at protesting Colonial Secretary Malcolm MacDonald’s announcement that Jewish immigration would be banned for the next six month.
1940:Chiune Sugihara “a Japanese diplomat who served as Vice-Consul for the Empire of Japan in Lithuania” began issuing life-saving visas to Polish and Lithuanian Jews in violation of instructions from his superiors.
1940: The Florence Times described plans for the arrival of Dr. Leopold Wallach from Stuttgart, Germany who will become the Rabbi at Temple B’Nai Israel in Sheffield, Alabama
1941: “The first news of the Eastern killings reached England through intercepted German police messages which told of the mass shooting of ‘Jews, Jewish plunderers, Jewish bolshevists’…in numbers ranging from a hundred to several thousand at a time.”
1942: SS Captain Theodor Dannecker inspected Camp Gur, the internment facility in southwestern France and order the inmates to prepare for transportation to Eastern Europe. Unbeknownst to them, this meant Auschwitz.
1942: Nine hundred Jews fled to the woods near Szarkowszczynzna as the Germans entered the town. Six hundred of them did not make it to safety and were killed
1943(15th of Tamuz, 5703): Two hundred slave laborers are murdered at Miedzyrzec, Poland.
1943: One thousand Jews are deported to Auschwitz from Paris
1944: The Jews living on the island of Rhodes were ordered to assemble for what would become a transport of Hungary. The community dated back to 1492, the time of the expulsion of the Jews from Spain.
1947: The British seized the SS Exodus carrying 4000 "illegal" immigrants. Its defiance of the British navy and its ultimate return to Germany formed one of the most dramatic episodes in post-war Jewish history. This was only one of many ships seized, turned around or actually sunk as the Jews defied the British blockade and tried to make their way to Palestine. This episode gained additional fame because it provided the core for the famous novel and film Exodus.
1947: Dr. Joshua Cohen was among those on board the SS Exodus when it was seized by the British. “With limited medical equipment, Cohen” had “set up impromptu clinics on every deck to care for more than 4,500 passengers, including 655 children.” Following the seizure of the ship, After the British had seized the ship, Cohen negotiated with the British doctors to have many of the wounded sent by ambulance to Haifa. Following his experience on the Exodus, Cohen returned to the UK, only to be recruited by the British Army. He eventually returned to Israel and served for four years in the Israeli Medical Corps. Later, he was director general of the Poriya Hospital outside Tiberias, as well as deputy director of Rambam Hospital in Haifa.
1947: Mordechai (Motke) Eldar who had survived Auschwitz, Sachsenhausen, Mauthausen and Gunskirchen and his sisters were among the passengers on the Exodus whom the British would forcibly ship back to Hamburg. Eldar returned to Tel Aviv a year later. He joined the IDF where he served for thirty years reaching the rank of Colonel.
1948: The HMCS Norsyd, a flower class corvette was re-commissioned today as the INS Haganah
1948: On the final day of Operation Dekel, Israeli forces take the villages Sh’ab and Al-Birwa.
1948: Benjamin (Ben) Dunkelman, a Jewish veteran of the Canadian Army, commanded the 7th Brigade and its supporting units throughout Operation Dekel that came to an end toda.
1948: As part of Operating Death to the Invander, Israeli continued their offensive in the Negev attacking Egyptian invaders at Hatta and Karatiyya. After initial Israeli success, the Egyptians counter-attacked with tanks. An Israeli soldier named Ron Feller risked his life in a successful effort to destroy two of the tanks using a hand held anti-tank weapon for which he had only two rounds. He received the Hero of Israel Citation for his bravery.
1948: A fourth and final attack by Israelis on the fortress of Latrun failed. Latrun would remain in the hands of Jordan’s Arab Legion until 1967.
1948: Israeli forces take Ayin Karem ending the threatened Egyptian invasion of Jerusalem.
1948: Over the next thirty-six hours, Dr. Stanley Levin, a volunteer surgeon from South Africa “performed 28 successive surgeries” without stopping for a break.
1948: Modi Alon scored his third aerial victory today when he shot down a Royal Egyptian Air Force Spit fired piloted by Wing Commander Said Afifi al-Janzuri. The Spitfire had been the backbone of the RAF during the Blitz in 1940. Alon had received served in the RAF during the war but had flown the American made P-51.
1948: Birthdate of Graham Spanier who was forced to resign as President of Penn State University for his role in the school’s sex abuse scandal.
1951:The Jerusalem Post reported that while the Knesset voted for equal rights for women, the word ba'al (the word for husband which literally means also a master) was replaced with ish (man, meaning husband as well). The Women's Equal Rights Bill was unanimously opposed at the annual conference of four Israeli kadis (Moslem religious officials), held in Jerusalem. The kadis, however, eased the divorce laws for separated wives. Henceforth Israel's Arab women whose husbands were abroad would become eligible to remarry, if they wished to press divorce proceedings.
1967:Germaine Ribière, a French Catholic member of the Resistance born in 1917 “was recognized as a Righteous Among the Nations by Yad Vashem.
1970: Menahem Eini was taken prisoner when his F-4E Phantom II was shot down during the War of Attrition.
1970(14th of Tammuz, 5730): Shmuel Hetz was killed when his F-4E Phantom II was shot down during the War of Attrition.
1976:The Jerusalem Post reported that during his electoral campaign, Jimmy Carter, the US presidential candidate, announced that he believed strongly that "Israel made enough concessions, and it was time that Arabs made some."
1978: Egyptian & Israeli officials begin 2 days of talks.
1979:A fifteen-day conference co-sponsored by Sarah Lawrence, the Women's Action Alliance and the Smithsonian Institution, began on this date at Sarah Lawrence College. Intended for female leaders, it was attended by a diverse range of participants representing 43 different women's organizations.The institute was organized by Sarah Lawrence professor Gerda Lerner One of the pioneers of women's history, Lerner hoped to introduce a diverse group of varied backgrounds to the possibilities of women's history. Lerner described the 15-day course as equivalent to a semester-long seminar. In addition to ongoing afternoon workshops and evening cultural events, each morning's program featured one lecture by the seminar instructors. Joining Lerner as the principle instructors were Alice Kessler-Harris and Amy Swerdlow, both pioneering feminists and women's historians.
1982(27th of Tammuz, 5742): Eighty-five year old “Roman Jakobson, an internationally known authority on Slavic languages and literatures” passed away today at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston which was not far from his home in Cambridge, Mass.
1983(8th of Av, 5743):Erev Tish'a B'Av
1994(10th of Av, 5754):In Buenos Aires a car bomb exploded outside the building housing the AMIA, the Asociación Mutual Israelita Argentina (Argentine Israelite Mutual Association, or AMIA) building killing 85 people and wounding more than 200 others in what remains the most deadly anti-Semitic incident anywhere since World War II and came two years after 29 people died in a similar attack on the Israeli Embassy in Argentina.
1995: Ehud Barak succeeded David Libai as Interior Minister.
1997(13th of Tammuz, 5757):Sir James Goldsmith, a flamboyant British-French financier who maintained three families, homes in four countries and used his billions to fight the European Union, passed away today at the age of 64 after having battled pancreatic cancer for four years. His father was Jewish. His mother was not.
1999: The New York Times reviews books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including “Spinoza: A Life” by Steven Nadler.
2001: Daniel C. Kurtzer presented his credentials as U.S. Ambassador to Israel.
2004: At the Teatro dell'Opera di Roma, the fifth and final performance of the Biblical opera "Nabucco" by Giuseppe Verdi in which acclaimed Israeli theatre and opera director Jacobo Kaufmann, directs and designs the scenery. He is the first Israeli ever to be hired to direct an opera in Italy.
2004: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including the recently released paperback edition of “In Praise of Nepotism: A History of Family Enterprise From King David to George W. Bush” by Adam Bellow, the son of novelist Saul Bellow, who succeeds in canvassing much of Western history (not to mention Confucian and Hindu traditions) to argue that kinship is ''both natural and necessary.''
2004:With President Néstor Kirchner looking on, Argentine Jewish leaders today marked the 10th anniversary of a deadly anti-Semitic attack here by delivering blistering attacks on his predecessors and European institutions they say have blocked efforts to bring the perpetrators to justice. The bombing killed 85 people and wounded about 300 at a Jewish recreation and education center, commonly known as AMIA, its Spanish initials. Though a group of police officers are on trial for having procured the vehicle in which the bomb was placed, Argentina has been thwarted in efforts to prosecute Iranian government officials it says organized the attack.In a sharp speech, Abraham Kaul, the president of the community group, criticized Britain's refusal to allow the extradition of a former Iranian ambassador to Argentina who was indicted here last year, and also complained about a lack of cooperation in Switzerland in determining how the attack was financed. ''They have betrayed us,'' Mr. Kaul said. But the harshest criticisms were reserved for Carlos Saúl Menem, who was president of Argentina at the time of the bombing and has been accused by a defector from Iranian intelligence of having deliberately undermined the official inquiry into the attack. Mr. Menem is now living in self-imposed exile in neighboring Chile rather than submitting to questioning in relation to corruption charges pending against him here.'' Carlos Menem is the culprit and is a criminal fugitive,'' said Marina Degtiar, who spoke on behalf of relatives of the victims. Because of Mr. Menem's efforts to cover up the case, she said, ''so many facts still lie with impunity beneath the ruins.'' There has long been resentment here over the botched investigation, but the anger has grown in recent months as a result of the train bombings that killed 190 people in Madrid in March. Although the Spanish government initially blamed the attack on Basque separatists, its ability to identify and apprehend fairly quickly the people suspected of being Islamic militant organizers has been repeatedly contrasted here with the Argentine government's ineptitude or unwillingness to act. In recent months, there has also been talk here of seeking ''a Lockerbie solution,'' in which Argentina would relinquish some of its legal claims so that the accused Iranians could stand trial in a third country. But Iran, which threatened to ''adopt appropriate measures'' if Argentina did not revoke the indictments, has offered no indication it is interested in such a deal. With the recent release of government documents, ordered by Mr. Kirchner, Jewish community groups are also pushing for a belated investigation into a Syrian link to the attack. Among the questions they have raised is why Mr. Menem, himself of Syrian descent, allowed various Syrian citizens who were then under surveillance to leave Argentina in the wake of the bombing, including one who is said to be a cousin of Hafez al-Assad, who was then the president of Syria. Mr. Kirchner, who took office 14 months ago, is the first Argentine president to attend the annual AMIA ceremonies. In April, he described the unsolved case as such ''a national disgrace'' that it required him to ''find the historical truth,'' and on Sunday he was hugged, kissed and greeted with cries of ''keep on pushing, Mr. President,'' by relatives of many of the victims. But his wife, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, generated criticism last week when in an interview with a local Jewish publication she suggested that some Jewish leaders aided in the cover-up. Mrs. Kirchner, a prominent senator and member of a legislative commission that also investigated the bombing, was understood to be referring to an ally of Mr. Menem who controlled a financially troubled bank that received questionable government support. Mr. Kirchner is scheduled to meet Monday with members of a delegation representing the American Jewish Committee. In an interview, David A. Harris, executive director of the group, said resolving the AMIA case will ''require extraordinary political will and courage'' and urged Mr. Kirchner ''to translate good intentions into concrete results.'' ''That is going to be a mountain of a challenge,'' Mr. Harris said. ''It's late in the day.''
2005: Rabbi Aaron Sherman officially assumes the pulpit at Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, Iowa.
2006: The following were among a total of 43 Israeli civilians (including four who died of heart attacks during rocket barrages) and 116 IDF soldiers were killed in the Israel-Hizbullah war:Andrei Zelinsky, 36, of Nahariya.
2007: The 93rdannual national Hadassah Convention comes to an end.
2008: In Cedar Rapids, Iowa, weather permitting, Temple Judah is scheduled to celebrate Friday night Shabbat Services in the new Silber Family Outdoor Sanctuary.
2008: In an article entitled “The Floods of 2008,” George C. Ford describes the impact of the worst natural disaster in the history of Cedar Rapids on the Siegel family, who has been prominent members of the business community for over six decades and pillars of the Jewish community.
Sixty-eight years after Siegel’s Jewelry & Loan opened in downtown Cedar Rapids, the business was forced to relocate following last month’s flooding. Ken Siegel and his brother, Jary, who operated the store at 105 Third Ave. SE, signed a lease for a vacant store at 3525 First Ave. SE within days after learning the extent of the damage to their business.“When we were finally allowed back into downtown to check our business on June 16, we found the windows were broken and blackened,” Ken Siegel said. “Looking inside the store, we saw the walls were buckled in, display cases had been flipped upside down and torn apart and there was really complete devastation.” Although Jary Siegel and store employees had moved merchandise like plasma televisions and guitars from the basement to the top of the showcases on the first floor, the floodwaters destroyed virtually everything but jewelry stored in two safes. “All of our retail jewelry and diamonds were stored in the safes,” Ken Siegel said. “Unfortunately, the safes had digital locks that were shorted out by the floodwaters and we were stuck for about a week. We looked all over the country for someone to get the safes open until Jeremy at John’s Lock & Key in Cedar Rapids was able to get them open.” Siegel said more than 3,000 envelopes containing diamonds and other jewelry had to be opened by hand.“We had between 10 and 12 people cleaning the jewelry, matching the diamonds with certificates, creating new paperwork and cataloging each item,” he said. “We also had about 3,000 or 4,000 DVDs in our inventory. We were able to recover about 2,000, but we had to throw away the cases because they were submerged. “We literally lost thousands of items. I would estimate that we lost at least $250,000 worth of merchandise.” Cy Christenson, 92, who has repaired watches at Siegel’s since 1976, lost all of his tools as well as “enough parts and crystals for five shops,” according to Siegel. “We’re still recovering customers’ watches left for repair.” Siegel said getting the business up and running was a priority.“We’re in essence like a bank, so if a bank closes, customers get upset when they can’t get their money,” he said. “We’re also a loan institution as well, so we had hundreds of people calling to find out if they could get their merchandise.” Siegel said customers who pawned merchandise other than jewelry likely will not be able to redeem their items.
“The national pawn contract says that we’re not responsible for catastrophic events like fire and floods,” he said. “We have insurance for everything but flooding.” Siegel said customers who pawned merchandise usually were loaned anywhere from 50 percent to 60 percent of the value when it was pawned.“Most of the customers we have talked with have been very understanding,” he said.Asked if the business will return to the building it bought in 2005 after being a tenant for 65 years, Siegel does not have an answer.“We’re trying to rescue a $500,000 investment,” he said.“We would like to go back downtown. We love the downtown area, but we will have to see what develops over the next few years.”
2009: Fifteenth anniversary of the AMIA bombing attack. The following was sent to us by an anonymous Argentine Jew whose pain has not been dimmed by the passing of time.
The AMIA Bombing was an attack on the Asociación Mutual Israelita Argentina (Argentine Israelite Mutual Association, or AMIA) building in Buenos Aires on July 18, 1994, that killed 85 people. Carried out under Carlos Menem's presidency (1989-1999), it was Argentina's deadliest bombing. Argentina is home to a Jewish community of 200,000, the largest in Latin America. It was one of the Largest Attacks against Jews after the holocaust. I'm an Argentine Jew, not only I've lost people close to my life in this attack but our lives as Jews in Argentina changed forever, we lost everything we had, including our voices. As we continue to hear the silence of the international community and the lack of care of our own community. Now isn’t it sad to read the level of ignorance that the Jewish community worldwide has about this. I have questioned myself every year, why? Why would people care so little about this? They attacked us for not only being Jews but as they see us as a way to attack Israel, so at least for that basic reason, even if you don't care about the Jews in Argentina, don't you care about an attack towards Israel? Even if Israelis didn't die.. We died due to that... As every year not only I ask tons of people if they know about this day, and obviously they are totally ignorant, Do you think you might have a little place in your heart to remind yourselves that we as well represent the Jewish population, that 85 people died and 300 severely injured and put this solemn day of remembrance in your little calendar... I'd say just for respect. Just at least for respect even if you don't care....I'm the daughter of a holocaust survivor... the same way I remember all of my family and all of the victims of the holocaust, I as well make a very special place in my heart to remember the AMIA and the Bombing of the Israeli embassy in Argentina. And we still don't have support, and we still don't have justice, and still the world continues to ignore our cries of help....Shame shame, shame on ignorance... shame that people just don't care.
[Ed. Note; We hope that by publishing this as it was written, we have in some small way atoned for previous failure to note this tragic event in our people’s history. Zachor – Remember and remember we will.]
2009: The Jerusalem Film Festival features a screening of Harlan-In the Shadow of the Jew Suss.
2010: In Bethlehem, PA, table games began today at a casino owned by Sheldon Adelson
2010:“Controlled Chaos and Brawny Braininess Watcha Clan with Charming Hostess” are scheduled to appear on the final day of the 25th Annual Jewish Music Festival in San Francisco.
2010: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Where I Live:New and Selected Poems 1990-2010 by Maxine Kumin, the Philadelphia born Jewish poet.
2010:Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu leaves for Egypt today to discuss with President Hosni Mubarak the possibility of launching direct negotiations between Israel and the Palestinian Authority.
2010:Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu today said he opposes the conversion bill proposed by Yisrael Beiteinu, which would give sole authority over Israel's conversions to the Chief Rabbinate, saying it will "tear apart the Jewish people."
2011: In an article published today entitled “Roseanne’s New Reality” the aging Jewish born comedian reveals that “every Friday night for Shabbat from sundown until 2 a.m., she gets high, drinks red wine, and does a meditation Rav Berg taught her.”
2011: In an article published today entitled “Egypt’s Rising Power” examined the career of Amr Moussa the leading candidate to be the next President of Egypt. What his “supporters love most “about him “is his long and vocal history of anti-Israel diatribes.” Moussa insisted that he would honor the treaty despite his opposition to Sadat’s peace moves.
2011:A 50-year-old Jewish man from the Beit Zayit suburb of Jerusalem was arrested by police today afternoon on suspicion of being responsible for the forest fire in Jerusalem yesterday.
2011:The Malaysian government-backed newspaper said in an editorial that foreign Jewish groups will try to use a current push for reform to interfere in the country. “At a time when the drumbeats in the name of human rights are getting boisterous, it will give the best opportunity for pro-Jewish groups to interfere in any Muslim countries," the Utusan Malaysia daily said in an editorial today. "Muslims and Malaysians should not allow any party, especially the Jews, to discreetly interfere in the country’s administration.""The success and prosperity of Malaysia as a model Islamic nation has created jealousy to a certain country and this is made worse by Malaysia’s firm stand in fighting against violence by the Jews in Palestine," the editorial continues. "The Jews will find ways to destroy our prosperity and well-being. "We probably think that this is a misplaced concern, but we must not forget the fate of certain countries which have been victims of the hidden hands," it concludes. The editorial does not provide evidence of a Jewish plot. Malaysia has no diplomatic ties with Israel and supports the Palestinian cause. Some 20,000 people marched in the Malaysian capital of Kuala Lumpur on July 9 demanding electoral reform.
2012: Center for Jewish History and American Jewish Historical Society are scheduled to present screenings of “Hester Street” and “Sweatshop Cinderella.”
2012: The Illinois Holocaust Museum & Education Center is scheduled to present “A Magical Eve with James Conlon” during which Maestro Conlon will share insights about his "Breaking the Silence" series featuring music from composers whose work had been silenced by the Nazis.
2012(28thof Tammuz, 5772): One-hundred two year old Rabbi Yosef Shalom Eliashiv passed away today. (As reported by Matti Friedman)
2012(28thof Tammuz, 5772).Seven people were killed and 32 injured when a bomb exploded on an Israeli tourist bus at the airport of the Bulgarian city of Burgas today, the 18th anniversary of the Iran-sponsored attack on the AMIA Jewish center in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Six of the victims died on the spot, and the seventh in the hospital following the attack, Bulgarian officials confirmed. Two of the victims were said to be Bulgarian -- the bus driver and tour guide.(As reported by Yaakov Katz, Herb Keinon, Yaakov Lappin)
2013: In Waukee, Iowa is scheduled to sponsor “Keeping The Homeland Safe: Israel and Iowa Together” featuring Sheriffs Paul A. Fitzgerald, Ted Kamatchus and Bill McCarthy.
2013: The Maccabiah Games are scheduled to officially open this evening at Teddy Stadium in Jerusalem.
2013: The late André Tchaikowsky's opera "The Merchant of Venice" is scheduled to be premiered at the Bregenz Festival.
2013: In New Orleans, “The World of Fiddler on the Roof” a three part program sponsored by Reform Congregation Gates of Prayer and Orthodox Congregation Beth Israel is scheduled to begin this evening with “Marc Chagall’s World.” For more see Crescent City Jewish News the place to go for news about the Jewish community of Greater New Orleans
July 19 In History
64: During the reign of Nero, The Great Fire at Rome comes to end. According to the Jewish Encyclopedia, Jews had been living in Rome since the second century before the Common Era since “the pretor Hispanus issued a decree expelling all Jews who were not Italian citizens” in 139 BCE. “Under Nero the Jews of Rome had a comparatively peaceful time, owing to the favorable attitude of the empress Poppæa Sabina” a situation that would change the aftermath of the Great Revolt that would begin in two years.
362: The Roman Emperor Julian, known to Christians as Julian the Apostate, left Constantinople and arrived in Antioch to prepare for the invasion of Persia. While preparing for the invasion he met Jewish leaders to whom he promised he would re-build the Temple. Julian’s short reign would come to an end in the following year and nothing came of his plans for the Third Temple.
711: Muslim forces under Tariq ibn Ziyad defeat the Christian Visigoths led by their king Roderic at the Battle of Guadalete. This decisive Moorish victory was the key to the Moslems establishing their rule over the Iberian Peninsula. Jews living in Christian Spain had suffered under the Visigoths and helped the Moors. The Battle of Gaudalete was one of the events that led to the five century period known as the Golden Age of Spain for the Jewish people.
1195: In Spain the Almohades defeat the Christians under Alfonso I of Toledo. The Jews of Toledo had willingly helped to finance the impoverished Alfonso ini his fight against the Almohades despite recent anti-Jewish violence that had claimed the life if Abraham Ibn-David among others.
1385 (10th of Av): Rabbi Menachem ben Aaron ibn Zerah, author of Zeidah la-Derekh passed away.
1490: Yucef Franco, aged 20, a cobbler who had been arrested by the Inquisition, along with his 80 year old father at the beginning of the month, fell ill. He asked the doctor who was treating him if he would arrange for a Rabbi to visit him.
1510: In Brandenburg, Prussia, Joachim the Elector burned 38 Jews at the stake on a charge of desecrating the host. Another two accepted Christianity and were mercifully beheaded.
1588: The Spanish Armada was spotted off the coast of Cornwall but the English could not do anything about it since their fleet “was trapped in Plymouth Harbor by the incoming tide.” (In an era when people think they have overcome nature in times of war, it is humbling to remember that there was a time when the future of religious freedom was at the mercy of the tides and the winds)
1797:While visiting Amsterdam, Moses Levy Maduro Peixotto, a rabbi and merchant born in Curaçao, married Judith Lopez Salzedo. Eventually Peixotto would settle in the United States where he served as the head of Congregation Shearith Israel
1817: “Romilda e Costanza,” an opera composed by Giacomo Meyerbeer premiered in Padua, Italy
1821: George IV is crowned King of Great Britain and Ireland. King George would actively oppose legislation introduced in the 1830’s designed to grant Jews full rights of civil and political citizenship.
1834: In Williamsport, KY, Abraham Jonas and Louisa Block gave birth to Benjamin Jonas who was served as a U.S. Senator from Louisiana, making him the third Jew to serve in that legislative body. (All three of them came from southern states – 2 from Louisiana and one from Florida.)
1849: In Islington, London, Samuel Meldola and his wife gave birth to their only , Raphael Meldola who served as Professor of Organic Chemistry at the University of London and invented Meldola’s Blue Dye.
1863: Birthdate of Hermann Bahr, the Austrian author and critic who sued the Jewish journalist Karl Kraus because he felt had been unfairly attacked in Die Fackel (The Torch) a newspaper founded and published by Kraus.
1865: Birthdate of Yisroel Aaron Fishel, the native of Meretz (Russia) who came to the United States at the age of 20 where he gained fame and fortune as Harry Fishel, New York businessman and supporter of numerous Jewish causes. In 1931 he founded The Harry Fischel Institute for Talmudic Research. He passed away in 1948.
1870: The Franco-Prussian War begins when Napoleon III declares war on the Germans. The two states were each looking to be the dominant power in Europe. The immediate cause of the conflict was a clash over who would rule Spain. The war, which ended in May, 1871, was a total disaster for the French. In addition to the general humiliation of having her capital occupied by the Prussians, the French were force to give up the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine and to pay a large indemnity to the German state. This loss of territory and the desire to avenge the humiliation of 1870 were part of the causes of World War I. “A number of Jews, including Jules Moch and Leopold See, attained high rank in the French army. See later became Secretary General of the Ministry of the Interior. The war also marked the beginning of Rabbis serving as chaplains in the German army.” After the War, Many Jewish families preferred to emigrate from Alsace and Lorraine rather than be under German rule.
1870: A “Hebrew clothier” from Albany was taken to court today by his maid who claimed he had prevented her from carrying away her clothing despite the fact that he owed her for two years in back wages.
1874: Har Sinai, a Reform Congregation in Baltimore, Maryland, unanimously elected Joseph Meyer of Cleveland to serve as its rabbi.
1877(9th of Av, 5637): Tish'a B'Av;
1877: “The Fast of AAB,” an article published in today’s New York Times reported that “Today is the ninth day of Aab” the fast marking “the anniversary of the temple and of Jerusalem. The reformed Israelites have abandoned the observance, but it is held in veneration and kept by both orthodox Jews, both in Europe and America with fasting and gloomy services…Today is the 1,825thanniversary of the second destruction of the temple.”
1877: At sunset, with the end of Tisha B’Av the black crepe draperies will be removed from the pulpit and furniture at the synagogue on West 19th Street in New York and the usual lighting will be returned to the structure.
1880: It was reported today that the August edition of the Atlantic Monthly will include “The Preceptor of Moses” in which Francis H. Underwood “reconstructs a chapter of Hebrew History.” [Underwood was an American biographer who founded the Atlantic Monthly as part of the fight against slavery. In its comments about the article, the Uitca (NY) Gazette, said that it should been included as a work of fiction since “it does not possess any particular value as a historical study.”
1881: Two thousand people attended an “anti-Jewish” meeting in Berlin today.
1882: As the Freight Handler’s Strike continued, today was a bad day for the Russian Jews. An extra detachment of police had to be called out protect the Jews from the strikers at one of the piers in Jersey City while 35 Jews were fired at the Star Union Pier in New York.
1883: Birthdate Max Fleischer, pioneer animator and film producer. He passed away in 1992.
1884(26thof Tammuz): Mayer Schutz, passed away today at the Brighton Beach Hotel on Coney Island. Born in Bavaria in 1814, he came to the United States in 1840 where he “made his fortune” in the wholesale dry goods business. He retired fifteen years so he could devote himself “to charitable and benevolent work” including membership in the Hebrew Benevolent Society, serving as a director of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum and the Mount Sinai Hospital and holding the Presidency of Rodef Sholom. [All glory is fleeting]
1884: Wolf Finkelstein is being held Ward’s Island until arrangements can be made to send him back to Russia. The Jewish immigrant has a brother in Chicago who is a peddler but there is no means of getting him there and thus avoid being “a public charge.”
1885: It was reported today that among the new rules that theatrical director Heinrich Conried has imposed on the performers of the Casino Company is one that states, “Any principle member seen talking with a rival manager will be regarded…as lukewarm to the present management” and “will subject himself to being talked about in Hebrews.” [Note - No explanation is given for this apparently odious use of the language of the Bible. Conried was no crackpot since he would later serve as director the Metropolitan Opera. He was from a Jewish family in Silesia, so this may have been his way of saying they would be subject to verbal abuse that they would not understand.]
1885: In Portugal, Maria Angelina Ribeiro de Abranches de Abreu Castelo-Branco and José de Sousa Mendes gave birth to José de Sousa Mendes the Portuguese diplomat who defied his government and issued visas to 30,000 people fleeing the Nazis in 1940 including 12,000 Jews.
1887: A free excursion for underprivileged Jewish children sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children and partially underwritten by the staff of the Hebrew Journal will take place today.
1887:After his wife and child arrived from Europe, Louis Keptlovwitch a Jewish immigrant working as a printer in upstate New York was arrested today on charges of bigamy. It seems that Mr. Keptlovwitch had forgotten about his Polish family and had married a Jewish woman from Newburg, NY.
1888: The third free excursion sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children will leave at nine o’clock this morning from a pier at 5th Street and the East River. [There were usually three such boat trips each summer intended to get poor little children and their mothers out of the tenements on the Lower East Side. These Jewish efforts mirrored the work of Julia Hull.]
1891: “Famine In Russia” published today expressed the fear that Czar may cope with the problem in the traditional manner, starting a war with a nation on one of its borders. The French are trying to calm the situation by extending credit but they are being hampered by the hostility of “all the great Jewish financial houses in Western Europe” brought by the shameful persecution of the Jews.
1891: “Aid For A Worthy Charity” published today described the excursions that the Santiarium for Hebrew Children is offering on a weekly bases “to poor Jewish women and children.” Approximately 700 people take part in each outing which includes two “substantial meals” for each of the travelers.
1892: Coroner Lindsay attempted to hold an inquest to determine the cause of death for Berhr Israelson, whom the doctors said died of apoplexy but whom the Jews living in the building said died after being clubbed by a police officer named Clarke.
1895: The Children’s Street Cleaning Brigade is scheduled to have its second meeting tonight at the Hebrew Institute.
1895: The funeral of Simon M. Erhlich, the Chief Justice of the City Court, is scheduled to take place at Temple Emanu-El this morning.
1896(9thof Av, 5656): Tish’a B’av
1896(9thof Av, 5656): Fifty-five year old Charles Liebhaber, who had just gotten out of the hospital, passed away today while attending services at Congregation Tifereth Israel on 126 Allen Street in New York.
1897: Birthdate of Theresa Wolfson, the daughter of Russian immigrants who became a professor of economics and labor relations at Brooklyn College.
1898: "Novelist Emile Zola fled France after being convicted of libel against the French Army in the...Dreyfus affair." Zola had written a famous letter to the newspaper entitled "J'Accuse" (I Accuse). The letter exposed the conspiracy at the highest level of the French military establishment to convict Dreyfus and then to cover up the fact that he another officer was guilty of crime of which Dreyfus had been accused.
1898: A list of bequests by the late Jacob Berk published today including $1,000 each to the Montefiore Home, the Hebrew Orphan Asylum, Mount Sinai Hospital, the Hebrew Technical Institute and the Home of the Independent Order of B’nai B’rith at Yonkers, NY.
1908: Emma Goldman's personal manifesto, "What I Believe," was published by the New York World.
1909(1st of Av, 5669): Rosh Chodesh Av
1918: Persian Jews in Hamadan wire the Zionist headquarters in Petrograd, asking that representation be made to the Russian government on behalf of 20,000 Jews who were robbed and left homeless by the Bolshevik troops before their departure.
1919: Lawyer-statesman, Louis Marshall, addressed an overflow crowd of Jews at Carnegie Hall. They were there to celebrate Marshall’s achievement of having the rights of Polish Jews recognized by the Minorities Treaty.
1921: Birthdate of Nobel Prize Winner Dr. Rosalyn Sussman Yalow. When she won the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1977, she was only the second woman to win the prize in the field of Medicine. "
1928:Sir Harry Charles Luke, a British colonial official, assumed the position acting Chief Secretary to the Government of Palestine today. In 1929, he would make an unsuccessful attempt to mediate an agreement between Jewish and Arab leaders.
1928: Joseph Lefkowitz is scheduled to be executed today at Sing Song for arranging the drowning of Benjamin Goldstein so that he could collect on an $80,000 insurance policy issued by Metropolitan Life.
1931(5thof Av, 5691): Seventy-eight year Joseph E. Newburger who had served as a state Supreme Court Justice and President of the Board of Trustees of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum passed away today at Bluff Point, NY.
1936:The Palestine Post reported that four more Jews were killed by Arabs in various separate murderous assaults throughout the country. This raised the number of Jewish victims of Arab disturbances to 47 since April 19. Guards at Ein Harod and Kfar Saba repulsed Arab attacks. Six Arab terrorists were killed when they bombed a military convoy near Tulkarm. A gaping hole was reported to have been made by Arab terrorists in their first attempt to sabotage the Iraqi Petroleum Co.'s pipeline. Police protection was promised for the traditional visit of religious Jews to Rachel's Tomb on the Bethlehem road, during the month of Av.
1937: Dr. Chaim Weizmann records the details of conversations held with William Ormsby-Gore, the British Colonial Secretary in which the two leaders discussed the recommendations of the recently released report by the Royal Commission.
1940: Dr. Leopold Wallach is scheduled to lead his first Friday Night Service at Temple B’Nai Israel in Sheffield, Alabama. The 30 year old rabbi arrived in the United States 10 months ago from Germany and is “the first full-time Rabbi” employed by the rabbi for many years.
1942: Himmler sent a directive to SS Lieutenant-General Wilhelm Kruger, head of the German police forces in the General Government. The directive ordered "the resettlement of the entire Jewish population of the General Government be carried out and completed by December 31.The General Government was the term for the Nazi administration in occupied Poland. The order was issued "in the name of the New Order, security and cleanliness of the German Reich."
1941:Vinnitsa, Ukraine was captured by German troops which would eventually lead to the massacre of the town’s 28,000 Jews.
1942: Deportations to the Auschwitz death camp begin for Parisian Jews who have been held at Drancy, France, since July 16.
1943: Three thousand, five hundred Jews were taken from the Birkenau camp to the ruins of the Warsaw Ghetto. Their task is to comb the ruins for valuables left by the Jews
1944: Twelve hundred Hungarian Jews from Kistarcsa are trucked to Rákoscsaba, Hungary, and then loaded onto trains bound for Auschwitz.
1944: Relying on information leaked by British intelligence, “BBC Radio broadcast a story that two emissaries of the Hungarian government had appeared in Turkey, proposing that all Jews in Hungary would be allowed to leave if England and America supplied pharmaceuticals and transport to the Germans, with a promise from the Germans that the equipment would not be used on the Western front. The proposal, which the BBC called "humanitarian blackmail," was reported as a crude attempt to set the Allies against each other. The report added that it was not clear whether the plan had the approval of the German and Hungarian authorities.” [This is part of one of the most improbable tales from the Shoah in which Eichmann supposedly was ready to swap a half million Hungarian Jews for equipment that he could only have been used to fight the Soviets]
1944: Angelo Roncalli, the future Pope John XXIII, appeals to Admiral Miklós Horthy on behalf of 5000 Hungarian Jews with Palestinian visas. Roncalli provides baptismal certificates for Jews in hiding.
1947: Birthdate of famed trumpeter and leading conductor, Gerard Schwarz. In addition to his many professional honors and accomplishments, Schwarz is active in the Jewish community.“Schwarz was a founding member of Music of Remembrance, an organization dedicated to remembering Holocaust victim musicians. He is also an active member of Seattle’s Temple De Hirsch Sinai and has lectured on Jewish music there and at various Jewish Federation events, both local and regional.”
1947:The Runnymede Park, Ocean Vigour and Empire Rival, three deportation ships under British control, which were filled with Jewish refugees from the SS Exodus, set sail from Haifa bound for Port-de-Bouc, France. The British sailed the commandeered ship into Haifa port, where its passengers were transferred to three more seaworthy deportation ships, Runnymede Park, Ocean Vigour and Empire Rival. The event was witnessed by members of UNSCOP. These ships left Haifa harbour on July 19 for Port-de-Bouc. Foreign Secretary Bevin insisted that the French get their ship back as well as its
1948: After ten days of fighting, the road from Haifa to Nazareth was firmly in Israeli hands.
1948: The “Second Truce” goes into effect. The state of Israel had survived for two months despite two rounds of fighting with invading Arab Armies. The Jewish state was still not one contiguous unit. Egyptian forces were still in the Negev. The Jerusalem corridor was a slender strip of land and some northern settlements were cut-off from the rest of the country by Arab forces. Despite the truce, there would still be more fighting before the armistice documents would be signed in 1949. Still and all, the Jewish nation, even a precarious state, was a reality.
1948: In Jerusalem, Israeli forces drive off an Arab attack designed to penetrate the new, modern, Jewish section, of the city
1948:The main Cairo store owned by Cicurel family was damaged by a bomb today. The attack was thought to be the work of the Muslim Brothers. The store was part of a chain started by the family of Moreno Cicurel had migrated to Cairo from Izmir in the mid-nineteenth century
1951: Sir Laurence Olivier presided at the opening of the Irving Memorial Garden, built to honor memory of Sir Henry Irving who as an actor was known for his portrayal of Shylock and as a theatre manager for the production of “The Bells”, a version of Erckmann-Chatrian's “Le Juif polonaise” by Leopold Lewis. According to contemporaries, “he invested” his portrayal of Shylock with a “dignity” that was a marked “departure from the traditional interpretation of the role.”
1951:The US, Britain and France were prepared to back Israel's protest to the UN Security Council against the Egyptian blockage of the Suez Canal for shipping destined for Israel. The Egyptian blockade was a violation of international law. It would take the war in 1967 to finally establish Israel’s right to have access to the international waterway.
1951: In New York, John Blandford, the new director of UNWRA, was planning a tour of the Arab countries in order to provide the Palestine Arab refugees with homes and constructive work. This was the beginning of the "Arab Refugee Problem" created, in part, by the unwillingness of Arab states to allow the Palestinians to live in the homelands of their fellow Arabs.
1953:Birthdate of Howard Schultz, founder of Starbucks.
1955: The Yarkon water project was opened. The Yarkon River flows near Tel Aviv.
1969: Israeli commandos begin a night attack on Green Island, a major military installation in the Gulf of Suez. The attack is one of the most difficult undertaken by Israel’s special operations forces. It would be a joint attack included forces from the Army’s Sayeret Matkla unit (a cross between the Green Berets and the Rangers) and the Navy’s Sayetet 13 or Flotilla 13, commonly known as Ha’commando Ha’yami, similar to the U.S. Navy’s SEALS.
1969: For the feats of heroism performed today during Operation Bulmus Ami Ayalon was awarded the Medal of Valor, the IDF’s version of the Congressional Medal of Honor.
1970: Yosef Goldschmidt began his second term as Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs.
1973: Ninth Maccabiah comes to a close.
2006: The second in a series of three concerts takes place at Jerusalem’s Confederation House featuring bakashot (prayers of request in the Sephardic fashion). This concert focuses on the bakashot of Morocco.
2006: The following were among the total of 43 Israeli civilians (including four who died of heart attacks during rocket barrages) and 116 IDF soldiers who were killed in the Israel-Hezbollah war:St.-Sgt. Yonatan Hadassi, 21, of Kibbutz Merhavia; St.-Sgt. Yotam Gilboa, of Kibbutz Maoz Haim, Rabiya Abed Taluzi, three, and his brother Mahmoud, 7, of Nazareth.
2007: In Jerusalem, The Zeek Gallery at the Yellow Submarine presents an exhibition entitled "Chance Music."
2008:Less than a month after meeting the chairman of the US Joint Chiefs of Staff in Israel, IDF Chief of General Staff Lt.-Gen. Gabi Ashkenazi left for the United States for a week of talks - with a focus on Iran - with top US defense and diplomatic officials. The visit is Ashkenazi's first to the US as chief of General Staff and comes following two visits Chairman of the US Joint Chiefs of Staff Adm. Michael Mullen has made to Israel in the past seven months.
2009:A stretch of Vienna’s Danube River will be transformed into a sunny beachfront from April through October. Today’s official launch party pays tribute to Tel Aviv’s Centennial with Israeli music, concerts and an upbeat summer party.
2009: At the 18th Maccabiah Games the Israel cricket team plays a team from South Africa and Great Britain plays India as the round robin matches continue.
2009: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Kissinger:1973, the Crucial Yearby Alistair Horne.
2009: The Governor of Kentucky announced that Jerry Abramson would be running of Lt. Gov. on his ticked in 2011.
2010: An advanced screening of “Lebanon,” a film based on Post-screening discussion with director Samuel Maoz’s own experience during the war with Lebanon in 1982, is scheduled to take place at The Museum of Jewish Heritage in New York.
2010: It was announced today that The IDF and Shin Bet (Israel Security Agency) have arrested a Hamas terror cell that was operating in the West Bank and was behind a shooting attack last month in the southern Hebron Hills which killed policeman Shuki Sofer.
2010(8th of Av, 5770): Eighty-six year old particle physicist Gerson Goldhaber, whose accomplishments earned him the title of California Scientist of the Year and the Panofsky Prize of the American Physical Society. (As reported by Jascha Hoffman)
2011: In New York City, The Dor Chadash Book Salon series is scheduled to present Dorit Rabinyan, the Israeli author of A Strand of a Thousand Pearls,
2011:IDF Chief of Staff Benny Gantz ordered the Israel Navy to intercept the French yacht Dignite-Al Karame after it had refused to stop heading toward the Gaza shore.
2011:The New Zealand Security Intelligence Service (SIS) suspected that Israeli spies may have been among the Israeli casualties in the powerful 6.3 earthquake which hit New Zealand earlier this year, killing 181 people including three Israelis, New Zealand newspaper The Southland Times reported today. Israel's Ambassador to New Zealand, Shemi Tzur dismissed the charge as "science fiction."
2011(17thof Tammuz, 5771) Fast of the 17th of Tammuz
2012: The Illinois Holocaust Museum & Education Center is scheduled to present “Seeking Justice,” a lecture by Eli Rosnebam, “the longest-serving prosecutor and investigator of Nazi criminals and other perpetrators of human rights violations.”
2012: “Hava Nagila” (the movie) is scheduled to be shown on the opening night of the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.
2012: Twenty of those “lightly injured” in yesterday’s terrorist attack in Bulgaria are scheduled to be flown to Israel starting today.
2012: Aairplane carrying 32 Israeli tourists wounded in the attack in Burgas yesterday landed in Ben Gurion Airport this afternoon. Three victims remained in serious condition at a hospital in the Bulgarian capital of Sofia. Military medical staff currently in Bulgaria have yet to determine whether they will be flown to Israel later in the day.
2012: The five Israelis killed in yesterday’s terror attack in Bulgaria arrived in Israel late tonight, as their plane touched down at Ben-Gurion Airport in Tel Aviv shortly after 12:30 a.m. Tourism Minister Stas Misezhnikov oversaw an official ceremony for the victims, whose relatives were present for their arrival. The victims were named this evening as Amir Menashe, 27; Itzik Kolengi, 27; Maor Harush, 26; Elior Priess, 26; and Kochava Shriki, 42.
2012: Israel has raised its military alert on the northern border, and cancelled some weekend furloughs, amid fears that the situation in neighboring Syria is rapidly spiraling out of control. Touring the border area today, Defense Minister Ehud Barak found himself within earshot of mortar shells fired between Syrian Army and rebel forces, which landed just a few hundred yards away, and he and senior Israeli army officers watched clouds of smoke rising from conflict zones that were being shelled
2013: In Trancoso, “a learning center” devoted to the history of the Jewish community in Portugal is scheduled to open today. (As reported by Cnaan Liphshiz)
2013:“The Snowy Day and the Art of Ezra Jack Keats” the first major exhibition in this country to pay tribute to award-winning author and illustrator Ezra Jack Keats whose beloved children’s books include Whistle for Willie, Peter’s Chair, and The Snowy Day is scheduled to open at the National Museum of American Jewish History.
2013: The Maccabeats are scheduled to perform at the Hampton Synagogue in West Hampton.
2013: “Mamele” is scheduled to be shown this evening as part of the “July Yiddish Film Festival at Agudas Achim” immediately after Shabbat Eve services.
2013: A directive from the “European Union that bars its 28 members from all cooperation withIsraeli entities in the West Bank and East Jerusalem and requires that any contracts between EU member countries and Israel henceforth include a clause stating that East Jerusalem and the West Bank are not part of the State of Israel is scheduled to take affect today. (As reported by Gavriel Fiske)
July 20 In History
356 BCE: In Macedonia, King Philip II and Queen Olympia give birth to Alexander the Great. You can draw a straight line from Alexander’s Hellenization of Asia Minor to Chanukah to Tisha B’Av, 70 CE.
70: During the Siege of Jerusalem, Titus, son of emperor Vespasian, storms the Fortress of Antonia north of the Temple Mount. The Roman army is drawn into street fights with the Zealots.
1263: Pablo Christiani, a converted Jew, and Raymond of Penaforte, compelled King James of Aragon to force a debate between him and Moses ben Nachman (Nachmanides). The Jews were afraid that no matter what the outcome they would lose, so they pleaded with Nachmanides to withdraw. The King ordered him to continue. Although the outcome was preset (the Christians "won"), the King was so impressed that he rewarded Nachmanides with a present of 300 maravedis. Pablo was given permission to continue these debates throughout Aragon with the Jews having to pay his expenses. Two years later Nachmanides was convicted for publishing his side of the debate. Although he was not severely punished by the King, he decided to leave Spain for good and settled in Eretz-Israel.
1402: During the Ottoman-Timurid Wars, Timur led the forces of the Timurid Empire to victory over the forces of the Ottoman Empire led by Sultan Bayezid I at the Battle of Ankara. This defeat could not have been a source of joy for the Jews living in the Ottoman Empire. Bayezid had proven to be a friend of the Jewish people. “In 1394 Sultan Bayezid invited the French Jews who were molested by King Charles VI, to settle in the Ottoman Empire. They established communities in Edirne and the Balkans. The French Kings had the habit of inviting the Jews to establish commerce and borrowing money from them. However often, when payment was due, they expelled them; only to re-invite them when they needed further financing.” Bayezid died a year after the defeat.
1624(4th of Av): Rabbi Abraham ben David of Lemberg passed away
1633 (13th of Av): Rabbi Nathan Shaprio, a leading Kabblist from Cracow and author of Megale Amukot passed away.
1660: Miguel de Barrios with 152 coreligionists and fellow-sufferers set sail for the West Indies. Soon after his arrival at Tobago his young wife died, and he returned to Europe. He went to Brussels and there entered the military service of Spain
1706:Shabbethai ben Joseph Bass who had founded printing business in Dyhernfurth, a small town near Breslau which produced its first book, a work by Rabbi Samuel ben Uri of Waydyslav in 1689, was forced to leave Breslau as a result of local hostility to Jews.
1775: At the request of the Continental Congress, Jews fasted and prayed for the success of the colonies against the British, and to be spared from the "agony of war."
1790(9th of Av, 5550):Tish'a B'Av
1808: Napoleon decreed that all Jews of the French Empire must adopt family names.
1823: Pius VII, the Pope who rebuilt the walls of the Rome Ghetto and returned the Jews to its confines after they had been freed by Napoleon passed away today.
1829: Birthdate of Thomas Rowe one of Australia's leading architects of the Victorian era who designed the Great Synagogue in Sydney
1830: Birthdate of Francesca Janauschek the Prague native who gained fame as 19th century character actress Fanny Janauschek.
1834: Birthdate of Jacques Errera, the native of Venice who was a successful banker and the father of botanist Leo-Abram Errera.
1847: Birthdate of painter and graphic artist Max Liebermann. "Liebermann was one of the leading German impressionist painters." He painted in the manner of the Dutch impressionists rather than the French impressionists. This meant "he often painted people at their everyday tasks and explored the effect of changing sunlight on colors and shadows." When the Nazis came to power in 1933, they included his works in their first showing of "degenerate art." He died in 1935 having been stripped of all his honors and ordered not to paint. Eight years later his was wife committed suicide. I must admit a prejudice. I like his works.
1855: According to today’s “New by the Mail” column, “A Protestant lady in St. Louis with seven children has joined the Hebrew congregation there.”
1862: As General George B. McClellan turned into a disaster, August Belmont wrote Thurlow Weed to express his view that the only way to effect re-union was by negotiations if possible. He called for a cessation to the war effort because it was too costly in terms of human life and treasure.
1863: In describing conditions in Memphis, TN, a year after it had surrendered to forces of the Union Army, the New York Times reported that “There remains in the city but a portion of the old citizens, the balance are vagabonding in Dixie, or are carrying a musket in the Southern army, or have left their bones on the hundred battle-fields of the South. Their residences here have been seized by the Government, and to-day the palatial dwellings of many an old aristocrat are occupied by National officials, and the hordes of Jews, who follow in the rear of an army, like wolves behind the hunters.” [Anti-Semitic references like this stand in stark contrast to acceptance of Jews as can be seen by the change in the law allowing Rabbis to serve as chaplains and the reality of the thousands of Jews who fought for the federals, some of whom reached the rank of general.]
1864: Colonel Frederick Knefler commanded the 79th Indiana Infantry at the Battle of Peachtree Creek, part of Sherman’s audacious campaign to capture Atlanta.
1869: “The Innocents Abroad” Mark Twain’s travelogue describing his visit to Europe and the Holy Land (including what is now the state of Israel) is published. For more about the famed American humorist’s attitude towards Jews see http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/US-Israel/twain.html
1871: British Columbia joins the confederation of Canada. In 1858, the first large body of Jews arrived in British Columbia along with others seeking their fortunes in the Fraser River Gold Rush. By 1863, there were enough Jews living in Victoria, B.C. to establish Congregation Emanu-El, now Canada's longest serving synagogue. Ten years after B.C. joined the confederation, the Jewish community would receive its next influx of settlers as refugees from Russian anti-Semitism settled in the Canadian West.
1876: Birthdate of German mathematician Otto Blumenthal. Blumenthal converted at the age of 18. He may have believed that he would find the path to academic success a lot smoother as a Protestant. In the end, it did not save him from the Nazis. Blumenthal died in concentration camp in 1944.
1881: It was reported today that in Neu Stettin, at least 30 anti-Semitic rioters who attacked the editor of the Neu Stettiner Zeitung, were arrested today.
1882: “A Great Fire In Smyrna” published today described the conflagration that left 6,000 people homeless including many of the city’s sizable Jewish population. The Jews are the primary agents “in the barter and sale of merchandise from Asia, Syria, Baghdad and Persia.”
1882: During the Freight Handler’s Strike, the strikers stopped providing food for the Jewish and Italian workers whom they had convinced to honor their strike. Mr. Wolkawoech, the President of the Jewish Freight Handlers’ Union reluctantly provided enough funds to cover the cost of the evening meal. [Yes there were Russia Jews among the striking workers as well as Russian Jews among what would later be called scabs.]
1883: In Hungary, as the trial of a group of Jews charged with killing a Christian girl continued, it was reported that a constable testified that he had tortured one of the prisoners with thumbscrews.
1884: “Lamb and Mint Sauce” published today described John Brady’s contention that the custom of eating tansy (bitter) puddings and cakes at Easter was introduced by the monk as a symbolic remembrance of the bitter herbs used by Jews at this time of year. The monks included bacon in their dishes “to denote contempt for Judaism.” According to Brady, the Jews “have contrived to diminish the bitter flavor” or their tansy “by making a it into pickle for their paschal lamb.” From all of this has come the custom of combing mint with sugar to create the mint sauce or jelly eaten with the leg of lamb. [This was based on information provided by an annual publication, Clavis Calendaraia.]
1885: “Jews in Paris” published today summarized a report by the Judische Presse that described the growth of the Jewish population in Paris. In 1789, there were only 500 Jews living in the French capital. The numbers have grown: 3,000 in 1806; 12,000 in 1842; 40,000 in 1872; more than 50,000 in 1885. Jews are more active in the general population as can be seen by the fact that the number of Jewish generals has grown from one in 1821 to five in 1878.
1887: Mrs. Betty Michaelis “began mandamus proceedings” before Judge Potter today, “in which she asks that the Henrietta Verien be commanded to restore her to membership on the ground that her expulsion was not done according to law.” The legal action stemmed from a fight that she had with Mrs. Henrietta Loser, the President of the Henrietta Verein.
1887: Louis Keptlovwitch, a Jewish immigrant from Poland, who has been arrested on charges of bigamy, was confronted by both of his wives – the one he married in Poland and the one he married in New York – today.
1889: Effective today, Coney Island’s Brighton Beach Hotel announces that it will completely exclude members of the “Hebrew Race” as guests. The hotel was following the policy adopted by Messers Cable and Breen the lessees of the New York establishment.
1890: The manager of the Bank and Steamship Passage at 78 Canal Street and his soliciting agent Louis Silikowitz, were arrested on charges of having swindling their customers, most of whom were Polish and Russian Jews out money with which they had been entrusted to buy tickets for family members still in members.
1890: It was reported today that Sol B. Solomon has raised $300 from the guests at the Long Beach Hotel to pay for the excursions provided by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children.
1890: A portion of the 12th annual report of the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children published today showed expenditures of $3,221 and a balance of $7,126 “which is deposited in the seven leading savings banks” in New York City.
1890: Birthdate of Theda Bara. Born Theodosia Burr Goodman in a wealthy suburb of Cincinnati, Bara’s mother was Swiss and her father was a Jewish tailor. She was known as a "vamp" and one of the first "sex symbols" of the silver screen. She passed away in 1955.
1891: “Mercy for Russian Jews” published today described a relaxation of “the persecution of the Jews” by the government. Decrees expelling Jewish artisans from St. Petersburg have “been indefinitely postponed” and “and orders have been seen to the press” to have newspapers “refrain from publishing articles like to excite animosity against the Jews.”
1892: As of today, the coroner has not made a determination in the cause of death of Behr Israelson. Doctors claim he died of apoplexy but his Jewish neighbors claimed he was clubbed to death by a policeman. The Jews would not let the coroner’s jury hear the case because there it had no Jewish members.
1893: Three men who claim to be tailors and Russian Jews were arrested and charged with assault at the Essex Market Police Court based on evidence gathered Alter Shapiro, the Vice President of the Hebrew Protective Society that showed them to be part of a ring that robs and tortures Jews living on the lower east side.
1893: The Marshall, who had arrived at the apartment of Mrs. Sarah Goldstein at 181 Orchard to execute the order of eviction gave her an extra day to seek relief from the courts since she said her six children who had measles were still too sick to be moved.
1895: “Hebrew Technical Institute Open” published described the school’s unique summer course for which 200 boys ranging in age from 12 to 15 have enrolled so that they can continue their education in the workshops, laboratories and drawing rooms of the facilities on Stuyvesant Street.
1896: It was reported today that an ambulance had arrived too late yesterday to save the life of Charles Liebhaber who had been ill for weeks but still insisted on observing the fast for the 9th of Av.
1896: Herzl meets with the Association des Etudiants Israëlites Russes.
1897: Funeral services were held today for Mrs. Julia Lauterbach, the widow of Moses Lauterbach, at her home on East 58th Street followed yb burial at Cypress Hills Cemetery. She was one of those who incorporated the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society of New York, a group which served as Vice President for 11 years.
1903: Herzl writes to Leopold Greenberg (“an English Zionist and future editor of the Jewish Chronicle”) in London to do whatever possible to revive the Sinai enterprise. This is a reference to offers by the British Foreign Office to allow Jews from Eastern Europe to settle in a part of the Sinai Peninsula known as the Brook of Egypt. Another, better known of these schemes, was the offer to allow Jews to settle in Uganda as a temporary Jewish homeland. These desperate proposals came against a backdrop of Pogroms in Russia and a general worsening of conditions for Jews in Eastern Europe. While Zionists in German, Austria and Britain were willing to consider such alternatives, the Zionists of eastern Europe rejected them out of hand. Those living in the greatest physical saw the spiritual danger in accepting anything less than Eretz Israel as the homeland of the Jewish people. In the man time Herzl wrote desperately, "We must indeed take East Africa, or at least the Charter, but we must not deceive ourselves as to the fact that all the non-English Jews are against East Africa. I shall have to use a great deal of patience for it, whereas El Arish is popular." Herzl also prepares steps to approach Portugal for a Charter for Mozambique, Belgium for a territory in the Congo and Italy for a section of Tripoli.
1904(8th of Av, 5664):Marcus Goldman a German-born American businessman and entrepreneur passed away. He was born in Trappstadt, Germany and immigrated to the United States in 1848. He was the founder of Goldman Sachs, which was one of the world's largest global investment banks and is now a bank
1906: Antoine Louis Targe, a French officer whose investigations helped to establish the innocence of Dreyfus was made an officer in the Legion of Honor.
1906: Dreyfus was made a Knight in the Legion of Honor.
1907(9thof Av, 5667): Fast not observed because it is Shabbat.
1908: In a letter to the New York Times, William Maude provides commentary on the antiquity of an ancient copy of the Book of Joshua obtained by Dr. Moses Gaster in Samaria.
1919: Birthdate of Shlomo Zalman Auerbach an Orthodox Jewish rabbi, posek, and rosh yeshiva of the Kol Torah yeshiva in Jerusalem, Israel. “Auerbach was the first child to be born in the Shaarei Chesed neighborhood of Jerusalem founded by his maternal grandfather, Rabbi Shlomo Zalman Porush, after whom he was named.”
1915(9th of Av, 5675):Tish'a B'Av
1915: Today the Austrians conquered Russian controlled Lublin, Poland. This would appear to be the realization of a deathbed prophecy by the Chozeh of Lublin (Yaakov Yitzchak Horowitz) came true. When he died on July 15, 1815 (9thof Av, 5575) he said that 100 years from the day of his death, the Russians would lose their control over Poland.
1920: Birthdate of Lev Aronin. Born in the Soviet Union, he became International Chess Master in 1950.
1921(14thof Tammuz, 5681): Benjamin Bennett Levy, who won the Congressional Medal of Honor during the Civil War, passed away today.
1924: Birthdate of Ann Gilbert. Born in Szydlowiec, Poland, Ann was a Holocaust survivor. She spent over four years in concentration camps and was liberated in April 1945. She married Fred Gilbert (Felek Gebotszrajber) on Jan. 2, 1946, in Scwabisch Hall, Germany. Ann was a consummate homemaker, an accomplished seamstress, and devoted to her family. She and Fred lived in Cedar Rapids from 1949 to 1986, where she was an active member of Temple Judah and in the community. She was a lifetime member of Hadassah. From 1986 to 2003, Ann and Fred lived in Los Angeles, where she was a much sought after seamstress to film and motion picture stars. Ann and Fred were also very active in the survivor community. They were regular speakers at the Simon Wiesenthal Center-Museum of Tolerance in Los Angeles. She and Fred lectured frequently about their experiences. In 2003, she and Fred returned to Cedar Rapids to be near to Lena. Ann remained a constant source of inspiration until she passed away in 2008 at the age of 84.
1930: Maxim Litvinov is named the Soviet Union's Commissar of Foreign Affairs. Born Meir Henoch Mojszewicz Wallach-Finkelstein in 1876, into a wealthy Jewish banking family in Białystok in Congress Poland, he joined the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party in 1898. The party was an illegal organization, and it was customary to use pseudonyms. He changed his name to Maxim Litvinov, but was also known as Papasha and Maximovich. Over the years, his politics become more radical in response to the increasingly repressive policies of the Russian government. He joined the Bolsheviks where he became a confidante of Lenin. Litvinov carried out a variety of diplomatic missions for the Soviets after the Russian Revolution. As Foreign Minister, Litvinov was a key participant that led to recognition of the Soviet government by the United States in 1933. Litivinov sought to create an anti-fascist alliance with western powers during the 1930’s. When the British and French caved in at Munich, Stalin decided to work on developing relations with Hitler’s government. To that end, he removed Litvinov since it would not due to have a Jew negotiating with the Nazi government. After the Nazis attacked the Soviet Union, Litvinov was sent to Washington to negotiate a Lend-Lease that would provide the arms the Soviets needed to meet the Nazi onslaught.
1933: Cardinal Pacelli issued a concordant known as the Hitler Concordant. Hitler described it as” unrestricted acceptance of National Socialism by the Vatican." Cardinal Pacelli later became Pope Pious XII. In its spirit all teaching priests were to greet their students with "Heil Hitler, praised be Jesus Christ."
1933: In Germany, two-hundred Jewish merchants are arrested in Nuremberg and paraded through the streets.
1933(26thof Tammuz, 5693): Seventy-year old Sir Harry Lawson Webster Levy-Lawson, 1st Viscount Burnham GCMG, CH, TD, JP, DL, a British newspaper proprietor and a Liberal Unionist politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1885 and 1916 when he inherited his peerage passed away today.
1933: In London, 500,000 march against anti-Semitism. This may be seen as part of campanion piece to a rally held in March, 1933 at Madison Square Garden in New York City. The demonstration in London was certainly not representative of British public opinon or policy. Many of the movers and shakers in Great Britain were impressed with the cleansing effect that the Nazis were bringing to Germany, marking them as pro-German, anti-Semitic or both.
1934:The Court of Appeal today quashed the death sentence passed by the District Court on Abraham Stavsky on June 8 for the murder of Dr. Chaim Arlosoroff, prominent labor leader and member of the Jewish Agency Executive of Palestine. The Appeal Court found that the evidence was insufficient. Thousands of supporters of Stavsky, who dodged a date with the hangman, reportedly danced in the streets of Jerusalem as they celebrated a victory for the Revisionist faction of the Zionist movement.
1936(1st of Av, 5696): Rosh Chodesh Av
1936: Birthdate of Harvey David Luber. The Chicago native became a first rate photographer, a leader of the Little Rock Jewish community and a great friend.
1936: The Palestine Post reported that since according to the 1935 Official Palestinian Report on Migration certain professions became overcrowded, the government had restricted the admission to the country of all those belonging to the medical, legal and engineering professions. [Editor’s note: This seemingly innocuous ruling came at a time when educated Jews were trying to leave Germany.] Arab snipers shot at British soldiers patrolling the Nablus road in Jerusalem. Lengths of railway track were found removed near Tulkarm. Arab hawkers asked for police protection in order to be able to sell their wares. They complained that the general strike brought them ruin, starvation and death. Several more prominent members of the Arab "National Guard" were interned at Sarafand
1939(4thof Av, 5699): Dutch sculptor Joseph Mendes da Costa passed away. “Best known for making sculptures and ornaments for buildings” Mendes da Costa was a member of “Ars et Labor” which would become the Dutch version of Art Nouveau.
1939:British policy on Palestine--particularly the latest decision to cut off legal immigration for six months, beginning Oct. 1--came under heavy fire in the House of Commons tonight. The opposition Laborites contended that the decision to suspend immigration was proof of failure of the government's new policy.
1939: Birthdate of Judy Chicago. For over four decades Chicago has been a leading educator, artist and shaper of the feminist movement. One of her most famous works is the multi-media history of women in Western Civilization entitled “The Dinner Party.”
1941: A Jewish ghetto at Minsk, Belorussia, is established.
1942: The first detachment of the U.S. Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps (WAC’s) begins basic training at Fort Des Moines, Iowa. Among this group of volunteers are twelve Jewish women:Ruth Ginns, Beatrice Berg, Carolyne Casper and Jean Korn from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Kathryne Goldfluss, Rose Ross and Joan Strongin from New York, New York; Bee Rosenberg and Ruth Spivak from Chicago, Illinois; Rita Fink and Isabel Bayley of Buffalo, New York; and Elizabeth Morgenstern of Seattle, Washington.
1942: The Jews of Kleck tried to revolt as the Germans circled their town. Only a few hundred escaped. The 1,000 remaining Jews were shot dead.
1942: The Germans murder 1000 Jews at Kleck, Belorussia; 400 flee into forests. Two from the latter group, Moshe Fish and Leva Gilchik (from nearby Kopyl), will form a partisan group;
1942: The Jews from Kowale Panskie, Poland are deported, to the Chelmno death camp.
1942:In Warsaw, Rabbi Alexander Zusha Friedman, a “leader in Agudat Israel, called on the people not to oppose the Germans with force.”God will not permit his people to be destroyed. We must wait and a miracle will certainly occur." Agudat Israel, like many groups in the Judenrat, were afraid that any "violent" opposition would mean the liquidation of the ghetto. http://jewishhistory.org.il/history.php?search=warsaw
1943(17th of Tammuz, 5703):Tzom Tammuz
1943(17th of Tammuz, 5703): Five hundred slave laborers are murdered at Czestochowa, Poland.
1943: Over two thousand Jews are deported from Holland to Sobibór.
1943: Two Jews escape from Sobibór
1943: General Leslie Grove, the director of the Manhattan Project acknowledged J. Robert Oppenheimer’s importance to the program to build the Atomic Bomb when he issued a written order to the Manhattan Engineer District commanding them to approve Oppie’s security clearance regardless of any negative information that might have been gathered.
1944: The most famous plot to kill Hitler failed. This event has been romanticized by various revisionists. The plotters realized that they could not win the war. They thought that with Hitler gone, they could at least negotiate a peace treaty with the West. The plotters were not only incompetent, they were delusional as well. [For more about people who really worked to opposed Hitler see the recently published Red Orchestra.]
1945: Laurence Adolph Steinhardt began serving as the United States Ambassador to Czechoslovakia following his service as U.S. Ambassador to Turkey.
1946: Birthdate of Israel Carmi (Weinstein) the native of Egypt who perished in 1968 at the age of 22 when the Israeli Submarine Dakar sank.
1946: Arthur Greiser, former Gauleiter of the Warthegau region in Poland, is hanged at Poznan, Poland, after being convicted of war crimes.
1949: Birthdate of Jean-Louis Cohen, “a French historian of architecture and urbanism.”
1949: Israel's 19 month War of Independence ended. The government of Syria signed the last of four armistices, which marked the end of open warfare. The cessation of hostilities did not bring peace since the Arab states refused to come to grips with the reality of the existence of Israel.
1950: Harry Gold, the son of Jewish immigrants from Russia pleads guilty to spying for the Soviet Union by passing secrets from atomic scientist Klaus Fuchs. Gold’s Jewish pedigree provided fodder for anti-Semites who sought to make being Jewish and being Communist (or disloyal to America) one and the same thing.
1950: In Israel, doctors employed by the Health Ministry will go on strike today unless their demands for increased pay are met.
1951: Abdullah Ibn Hussein Jordan's King was assassinated in Jerusalem. He was attending Friday prayers at a mosque when he was killed by those who were afraid he was negotiating with Israel. His grandson, Hussein, became the next King of Jordan. The assassination influenced the young king
1954: United States Senator Joseph R. McCarthy accepts the resignation of his aide Roy Cohn. Roy Cohn was the chief counsel of the Senate Committee that McCarthy used to conduct his investigations that smeared people, ruined lives and unearthed no “Communist conspiracy among those he paraded before the television lights. All of those right wing anti-Semites seemed to lose sight of fact that McCarthy’s chief henchman was one of those “New York Jews.”
1959: Birthdate of Samuel Israel III, the New Orleans born incarcerated hedge fund manager who was the subject of Octopus” Sam Israel, the Secret Market and Wall Street’ Wildest Con by Guy Lawson
1960: The head of the Physics Department at the Israel Institute of Technology, Kurt Sitte, is arrested for espionage.
1962: Pope John XXIII sent invitations to all 'separated Christian churches and communities,' asking each to send delegate-observers to the upcoming Vatican II Ecumenical Council in Rome. Vatican II would result in an improvement in the relationship between the Jewish Community and the Roman Catholic Church. Of course, there are those that would that anything would have to be an improvement over Pope John’s predecessor, Pope Pious, the Pope of the Holocaust.
1965: Lyndon B. Johnson nominates Abe Fortas to the Supreme Court. Fortas was a close friend of Johnson’s; one of the few people who could speak frankly with Johnson. Fortas was “nominally” Jewish and he warned Johnson that the American Jewish Community would not see him as the right person to hold what, since the days of Brandeis, had become “the Jewish chair” on the High Court.
1969: Israeli commandos successfully complete their attack on Green Island completely destroying the island fortress. The press hails the attack as an Israeli Navronne, after the fictional island in the movie “The Guns of Navronne.” But the casualties were not fiction. Not only were they real, they were higher than expected. The Israelis learned from the mission and went on to improve the functionality of their units.
1971: Syria and Jordan’s armies exchange fire over the common frontier. This would prove to be prelude to a Syrian attempt to seize Jordan, part of Syrian President Assad’s goal to create a Greater Syria. In one of those strange twists, Israel moved tanks towards the area of conflict which Washington’s way of letting the Syrians know that they should back off and leave Jordan alone.
1973: Palestinian terrorists hijack a Japan Airlines jet en route from Amsterdam to Japan and force it down in Dubai.
1976: Today marked the start of what would become the Good Fence Policy along the border with Lebanon. The hope was that the medical treatment of Lebanese citizens in Israel and the beginning of trade between South Lebanon and Israel would start a new era of relations between the two countries. Like so many other peace initiatives this one died at the hand of terrorism.
1978: Birthdate of Elliott Yamin, born Efraym Elliott Yamin, who is an American singer known for his hit single "Wait for You" and placing third on the fifth season of American Idol.
1980: The United Nations Security Council votes 14-0 that member states should not recognize Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. This is another reason that Israel tends not to trust the UN. In 1947, as part of the partition vote, the UN said Jerusalem would be governed by an international body. When the Jordanians attacked Jerusalem and expelled the Jewish population from the Old City, the UN did nothing. During the 19 year occupation of the city by the Jordanians Jews, of whatever nationality, were kept out of the city. The UN did nothing. But now that the Israelis controlled the whole city and it was open to Christians, Moslems and Jews, the UN acted to support the Arab view of the City of David.
1981: The administration of newly elected Republican President Ronald Reagan suspends sales of F-16 fighter jets to Israel.
1981(29th of Tammuz, 5739): Seventy-nine year old Joseph N. Katzthe founder and board chairman of Empire Kosher Poultry Inc., passed away today http://www.empirekosher.com/history/
1983; The Israeli cabinet votes to withdraw troops from Beirut but to remain in southern Lebanon. The Israelis had gone into Lebanon because the PLO occupied the southern half of the country and was using it as base to attack Israel. The government of Lebanon either could not or would not remove the PLO so Israel was forced to act or accept the fact that Arafat’s terrorists would have permanent base on Israel’s northern border.
1994: Israel’s Shimon Peres visits Jordan, the highest ranking Israeli official to do so
1996(4th of Av, 5756):Raphael Patai passed away. Born Ervin György in 1910, Patai, was a Hungarian-Jewish ethnographer and anthropologist.
1997: The Sunday New York Times book section featured reviews of Egypt’s Road to Jerusalem: A Diplomat's Story of the Struggle for Peace in the Middle East by Boutros Boutros-Ghali, Fritz Lang: The Nature of the Beastby Patrick McGilligan and Inventing Memory:A Novel of Mothers and Daughters by Erica Jong.
2002: As a reminder that Jews were not the only victims of the Nazis, we mark the death of concentration camp survivor and art Jan M. Komski.
2003: At the Lincoln Center Festival, Israel’s Gesher Theatre gives its opening performance of its adaptation of “The Slave. The troupe has been invited to mark the Centennial of Nobel Laureate Isaac Bashevis Singer's birth by performing two plays based on his novels at the prestigious festival.
2003:Jewish Women International's first-ever international conference on domestic violence in the Jewish community held its first meeting in Baltimore. Among its approximately 450 attendees, the three-day conference included Reform, Reconstructionist, Conservative, and Orthodox rabbis; social workers; artists; activists; and abuse survivors.
July 21 In History
285: Diocletian appoints Maximian as Caesar, co-ruler. This was part of an attempt to shore up the imperial authority. In another such step, Diocletian “ordered all the people …to accept his divinity and offer sacrifices to him. Fortunately for the Jewish people, they were excluded from this decree…” According to at least one source, “Diocletian’s regime was comparatively favorable to the Jewish people” which may not be saying all that much when you consider the behavior of most Roman rulers.
1414: In Celle Ligure, Italy,Leonardo della Rovere and Luchina Monleoni gave birth to Francesco della Rovere, the future Pope Sixtus IV who reluctantly authorized the Spanish Inquisition and allowed Jews and Marranos to settle in the Papal Domain in what some as an act of penance caving into Ferdinand and Isabella. He rejected the notion of “blood libels” and withstood the pressure to canonize Simon of Trent.
1439 (9th of Av): Rabbi Johanan ben Mattathias Treves, Chief Rabbi of France passed away ten years after the death of his brother Joseph
1535: The Spaniards sacked Tunis. The Jewish community was destroyed.
1718(27thof Tammuz, 5473):Shabbethai ben Joseph Bass who was born at Kalisz in 1641 and who was the father of Jewish bibliography, and author of the Sifsei Chachamim supercommentary on Rashi's commentary on the Pentateuch passed away.
1733: A “group of 42 Jews who had sailed from London aboard the William and Sarah” arrived in Savannah today, “months after the colony's founding by James Oglethorpe.” “Most of them were Spanish and Portuguese Jews, who had fled to England a decade earlier to escape the Spanish Inquisition. Many of them had been members of the Bevis Marks Synagogue and would be founders of Mickva Israel, Georgia’s oldest Jewish congregation.
1773: Raphael Hayyim Isaac Carregal, a native of Hebron sailed to Suriname today from the British colonies in North America where his visit had made him the first rabbi to spend time in what is now the United States.
1774: The Russo-Turkish War came to an end with the signing of the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca marking the defeat of the Ottomans. The end of hostilities provided Sultan Abdul Hamid I with the opportunity to reassert his authority over parts of empire that were slipping away. He attacked Dhaher al-Omar who had taken control of an area that coincided with modern day northern Israel and had invited Jewish merchants to pursue their commercial ventures under his protection. He also besieged the port of Acre.
1816: Birthdate of Paul Julius Reuter. Born Israel Beer Josaphat, he changed his name to Reuter and converted in 1844. He founded what would become Reuter’s news agency in 1849. He used carrier pigeons to carry financial news to those parts of Germany, France and Belgium not yet served by telegraph. He opened his own telegraph service in England where he lived the rest of his life and died in 1899. He converted for the same reason so many other German and Austrian Jews did – it was the only way to advance in the worlds of commerce and art.
1820:.A small wooden building which had been erected at the northeast corner of Liberty and Whitaker streets Savannah was consecrated by members of Mikveh Israel. This was the first Jewish house of worship to be built in the State of Georgia. Jacob De La Motta delivered the consecration address. A native of Savannah he graduated from the U of Pennsylvania Medical School and served as a surgeon in the U.S. Army during the War of 1812. He practiced in New York City for a while but returned to the city of his birth where he became a leader in the medical and Jewish communities.
1825: Birthdate of Matthew Práxedes Sagasta the Spanish political who served as President of the Council of Ministers and who asserted the fact that “article 1 of the Constitution of Spain is the most decisive revocation of the edict of banishment against the Jews in the year 1492.”
1831: As Belgium gains its independence from the Netherlands of Leopold I of Belgium is inaugurated first king of the Belgians. Upon gaining its independence in 1831, the newly established Belgium parliamentary regime lost little time in recognizing Judaism as an official religious denomination (together with Catholicism, Protestantism, later Greek and Russian Orthodox Christianity and Islam).
1833:Birthdate of August, (Anshel) Bondi. “The Austrian native was the son of Jews who wanted him to have both a religious and a secular education. Caught up as a participant in the failed liberal revolution of 1848, the Bondi family fled to New Orleans and settled in St. Louis, Missouri. Young Bondi encountered, first hand, the horrors of slavery and was deeply disgusted. In 1855 a New York Tribune editorial urged freedom- loving Americans to "hurry out to Kansas to help save the state from the curse of slavery." Bondi responded immediately. He moved to Kansas and along with two other Jews, Theodore Weiner from Poland and Jacob Benjamin from Bohemia established a trading post in Ossa-watomie. Their abolitionist sentiments very soon brought pro-slavery terrorists upon them. Their cabin was burned, their livestock stolen. Their trading post was destroyed in the presence of Federal troops who did nothing. The three courageous Jews joined a rabid local abolitionist, to defend their rights as citizens and to help rid the horror of slavery from Kansas. The Jews joined the Kansas Regulars under the leadership of John Brown. In a famous battle between the Regulars and the pro-slavery forces at Black Jack Creek, with the bullets whistling viciously above their heads, 23 year old Bondi turned to his 57 year old friend Weiner and asked in Yiddish – "Nu, was meinen Sie jetzt?" (Well, what do you think of this now?) He answered, 'Was soll ich meinen? Sof odem moves' (What should I think? Man's life ends in death). Kansas joined the union as a Free State. Bondi married Henrietta Einstein of Louisville, Kentucky in 1860. Their home became a way station for the Underground Railroad smuggling slaves to the North and freedom. The Civil War began in 1861, Bondi enlisted in the Union army encouraged by the words of his mother. He later wrote in his autobiography "as a Jew I am obliged to protect institutions that guarantee freedom for all faiths." August Bondi died in 1907, a respected judge and member of his Kansas community.”
1841: In Holstein, German, Dr. Marcus Cohen and his wife gave birth to Minna Cohen who gained fame at the poetess Minna Cohen Kleeberg whose work included ‘Ein Lied vom Salz” (A lyric about salt), a plea for the removal of the tax on salt in Prussia.’
1851: David Salomons who had been elected to Parliament on June 28 and who had been denied the right to take his seat because, as Jew, he could not take the oath of office, returned to the House of Commons to take part in the debate on the matter. In the debate that followed, Salomons defended his presence on grounds of having been elected by a large majority, but was eventually removed by the Sergeant-at-Arms, and fined £500 for having voted illegally in three divisions of the House.
1857:During a debate tonight in the House of Lords on the question of "Jewish disabilities," Lord Campbell said that a revolution would take place if the Commons acted independently of the Lords in the matter by omitting from their oath the objectionable sentence
1857:This evening, Lord John Russell renewed his motion to bring in a bill for the admission of Jews into Parliament. Following an animated debated the motion carried by a vote of 246 to 154.
1861: During the Civil War, the Confederates defeated the Union at the first Battle of Bull Run. In response to an inquiry written 30 years after the battle Oliver O. Howard, a Major General in the United States Army reported that a Jewish Aid-de Camp who served with him during the battle was “one of the bravest and the best; he is now a distinguished officer of the army, a man of the highest scientific attainment.” He also wrote that he could not release the man’s name without his permission.
1874: Today’s “Foreign Notes” column reported that “Sir Moses Montefiore” who will celebrate his 90th birthday this October 24, “has been presented with the freedom of the Fishmongers’ Company in recognition of his philanthropic efforts on behalf of the oppressed Jewish in various parts of the world. [Editor’s note – The Fishmongers’ Company dates back to the 12thcentury and was guild for those who sold fish in London. By the 19th century the company administered a various “charities and trusts” for the underprivileged classes of the UK. This would account for their bestowing an honor on Sir Moses.]
1873(23rd of Tammuz, 5633): Sir David Salomons, 1st Baronet, a leading figure in the 19th century struggle for Jewish emancipation in the United Kingdom passed away. . He was the first Jewish Sheriff of the City of London and Lord Mayor of London, and one of the first two Jewish people to serve in the British House of Commons.
1877: In a letter to the New York Times, Edgar M. Johnson a prominent lawyer from Cincinnati took issue with claims that he had concealed the fact the fact that he was Jewish when he was offered accommodations at the Grand Union Hotel in Saratoga Springs. He reiterated the fact that Mr. Wilkinson, who was employed by Judge Hilton was well aware of the fact as is everybody else. Whether he is what Hilton calls “a Seligman Jew” is of little consequence since Johnson has no desire to stay at place where Hilton is “the tavern keeper.” Johnson closed by saying that he and his family had enjoyed previous trips to Saratoga Springs where nobody was will “to reject Jew money” but that these would be his last words on any subject related to Hilton.
1878: It was reported today that there has been a serious outbreak of violence between the Jews and Roman Catholics living in Kalisch, a major city in Poland (which was part of the Russian Empire). The origins of the violence can be found in the government’s ban on the Jewish practice of enclosing their houses “with a wire fence to indicate that no one might pass out or in” during the Sabbath. The Jews blamed the Roman Catholics for the government’s decision. When the Roman Catholics blocked every street corner with altars during their procession on Corpus Christi Day, the Jews reportedly attacked one of the altars which was the excuse of a Catholic attack that destroyed the synagogue and forced the Jews to seek refuge in their own homes. So far twelve people were reported to have been killed during the violence. [Jews had been living in Kalisz (the Polish spelling) since the 12thcentury. The synagogue that was destroyed dated back to the 14th century. Jews played an active role in the economy of the community and by the start of WW II they accounted for about 30% of the population. Most the 20,000 Jews did not survive the war and the town, like so much of Poland, has memories of Jews but no Jewish people.)
1879(1st of Av, 5639): Rosh Chodesh Av
1880: The second free excursion sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children will set sail on the East River this morning. If the society can find more funds, these trips will continue on a weekly basis for the rest of the summer.
1880: It was reported today that two Postmasters named Barr and Johnson and their Jewish accomplice named Pearlstine are being held by federal authorities in South Carolina on charges of improper use of stamps and making false returns of canceled stamps to increase their pay. [Why Pearlstein was identified as Jew and the religion of the others was not mentioned is a mystery.]
1881: It was reported today that King Alfonso has invited Russian Jews to settle in Spain, a move that would improve conditions “by bringing a money making class into a country in dire need of it”
1882: During the Freight Handler’s Strike, Italian and Russian Jewish immigrants returned to the docks looking for work after the strikers stopped providing them with food and expense money as they had promised earlier. To complicate matters, the ranks of the strikers also included Russian and Polish Jews who had come to the country earlier in the decade.
1884: A review of T.K. Cheyne’s The Book of Psalms described the authors attempt to present this section of the Bible as literature as well as “holy writ.” For him, the Psalms should be viewed as literature that has survived “under a Jewish phase.”
1886: The first free excursion of the ear for poor Jewish moths and their children sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children will set sail this morning.
1886: The SS State of Georgia arrived at Castle Garden from Glasgow, Scotland, carrying 40 Russian Jewish refugees.
1886:”A week of General Kissing” published today described the Russian custom of kissing people as a greeting during Easter week. Last year when the Czar came out of his room the first person whom he saw was the guard at his door who remained silent when the Russian ruler greeted him “Christ is risen.” The Czar found out that the guard was Jewish which accounted for his lack of response. While the Czar respected his honesty, Jews no longer serve as guards at his palace.
1887: Louis Keptlovwitch, a Jewish immigrant from Poland, was scheduled to face the Grand Jury on charges of bigamy. [This is a real life example of letters that would appear in the Forwards about men who “forgot” about the family’s they left behind when they arrived in the New World.]
1887: “Appeals for Suffering Hebrews” published today described the effects of the catastrophic fire that swept through “the little Jewish town of Botuschania, Romania.” A committee of prominent American Jews led by Benjamin Peixotto, has been formed to collect funds to relieve the suffering. Contributions will forward to Romania by Jesse Seligman who has agreed to serve as the Treasurer of the Relief Fund.
1887: “Two Ladies At Odds” published today described a conflict between Mrs. Henrietta Loeser, President of the Henrietta Verein, a Jewish charitable organization, and Mrs. Betty Michaelis, the society’s Secretary. A shouting match devolved into a physical confrontation when the secretary threw the society’s seal and record books at the president. Loeser than tried to have Micahelis removed from the organization. Mrs. Micahelis has sought a writ of mandamus so that she can gain readmission to the society.
1888: Police had to be called out to quell a riot in Drohobycz today when petroleum miners attacked the town’s Jews and trashed the local synagogue.
1888: A company of 13 police officers was hard pressed to deal with the huge throng that gathered this afternoon at the Norfolk Street Synagogue to hear the inaugural sermon of Rabbi Jacob Joseph. The sanctuary, which was built to hold 1,000, was filled with more than 1,500 people. The rabbi spoke for an hour concluding with a prayer that the Lord would guide and help the Jews in America to spread his light and cause Israel to become a blessing to this great land of freedom and among the people of the United States.
1889: “Hebrews Not Wanted,” published today described the decision of “Messrs. Cable and Breen , the lessees of the Brighton Beach at Coney Island” to follow the practice adopted by Judge Hilton at his Saratoga Hotel and ban all members of the “Hebrew Race” as guests. Hebrews had been coming to the hotel in ever increasing numbers. While they freely spent their money, there were not enough rooms available for Gentile guests. Mr. Breen told the Times “that the public sentiment might be against such measures, but it was not so among Gentile patrons.” The hotel was taking on the appearance of a “Jewish settlement” despite the best efforts of management to make Gentiles feel welcome. Breen described it as a business decision. “It was self-preservation and the interests of our large number of other guests that caused us to take this step.”
1890: “Jews in Russia” published today, relied on information that first appeared in the London Daily News described the new regulations that are being applied to Jews living under the Czar. These include a requirement that when Jewish students complete their university studies, they must return “to their native towns.” The parents of students who fail to do so and evade the authorities will be punished in their place.
1891: The cloakmakers, most of whom were Polish and Russian Jews, were joined by the cutters and pressers in their strike against Oppenheim & Collins.
1891 A tribute written today in honor of Nathan Marcus and Hermann Adler said that they “gave their name”, “to a regime, to an era… The system of Rabbinate which had long come to be known as ‘Adlerism’, the keynote of which was the close consolidation of religious government and the concentration of ecclesiastical control… If, therefore, ‘Adlerism’ had its faults and its drawbacks… it has formed a basis on which can now be safely laid a system more fitted to Anglo-Jewry as it is” (As reported by Rabbi Raymond Apple, senior rabbi of the Great Synagogue, Sydney)
1891: The weekly excursion sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children is scheduled to take place today.
1891: General James R. O’Beirne, who was “in charge of the immigrants at Ellis Island” wrote to the Secretary of the Treasury recommending that the Jewish immigrants being held at the Barge Office be allowed to land’ since “they are desirable immigrants” who have skills “and are willing to work if they get a chance.”
1893: The Marshall and three men working with him returned to the apartment of Sarah Goldstein, a widow living at 181 Orchard Street and executed the order of the court by putting the widow, her six sick children and her furniture on the sidewalk. Neighbors were afraid to help because the children were sick with measles.
1893: Policemen are looking for other victims of gang of Russian Jewish thieves who lure other Russian Jews to their room at 81 Chrystie Street where they torture and rob the unsuspecting immigrants.
1894: “Old Boston Booksellers” published today described the Boston antiquarian book trade of the 1850’s which was dominated by two firms one of which was Burnham Brothers, a firm owned by Theodore, Frederick and Lafayette Burnham, who were either Jewish or “of Jewish origins.”
1895: The Rhine Gazette announced that the electors of Minden are preparing to hold a meeting demanding the resignation of the Baron von Hammerstein, the disgraced former editor of the Kreuz Zeitung. Ironically, the Baron who “was a strong anti-Semite and leader of the Jew baiters” was brought to financial ruin by “his enormous expenditures” with which he lavished his Jewish mistress with “every luxury that wealth could purchase.”
1895: Birthdate of Henry Lynn, Russian born American “film director, screenwriter and producer.”
1896: Three days after his abortive meeting with Rothschild, Herzl made the decision to organize a Zionist Congress.
1898: Bishop John H. Vincent, the founder of the Chautauqua movement is scheduled to deliver a lecture entitled The Chautauqua Idea at today’s session of the Summer Assembly of the Jewish Chautauqua Society being held at Atlantic City, NJ.
1898(2nd of Av, 5658): Seventy year old Benjamin Marks “a wealthy retired merchant” passed away today at the Long Beach Hotel where he was spending the summer. A native of Berlin, he came to the United States at the age of 20 where he went to work for Brooks Brothers. Several years later he began opening a string of retail stores specializing in woolen goods. By the time he retired in 1871, he “was one of the largest, if the largest retail woolen merchants in America.”
1899: Sixty-five year old Robert Ingersoll who earned nickname “The Great Agnostic” for his views on religion passed away. While some Jewish leaders, such as Rabbi Joseph Silverman of Temple Emanu-El gave him credit for showing “to the world of the Church” they challenged his views on Judaism especially about Moses. But as Rabbi Silverman pointed out, Ingersoll “is not responsible for his mistakes…because he cannot read the Bible in its original language.”
1900: The uprising in Beijing known as The Boxer Rebellion began today. Among the Marines who saw action during the month long conflict was William Zion, a Jewish private from Indiana who won the Congressional Medal of Honor for his valor.
1902(16thof Tammuz, 5662): Adolph Landau passed away today
1904(9th of Av, 5664):Tish'a B'Av
1906(28th of Tammuz, 5666): Saul Jacob El-Yashar, Hahambashi of Jerusalem passed away at the age of 92.
1906: Moses Gaster, the Chief Rabbi of the English Sephardic Community and his mother gave birth to Theodor Herzl Gaster, the British born American biblical scholar who published the first English translation of the Dead Sea scrolls. His father named him after his recently deceased friend, Theodor Herzl. (As reported by Andy Wallace)
1907(10thof Av, 5667): Fast observed since the 9th of Av fell on Shabbat
1910: Birthdate of Himan “Hi” Brown the son of a tailor from Odessa who was a major producer during the Golden Age of Radio including “Bulldog Drummond,” “Inner Sanctum” and “Radio Mystery Theatre.”
1911: Birthdate of Felicia Haberfeld, a native of Poland who eventually settled in Los Angles where she worked as a city librarian and, with her husband, founded the 1939 Club, named for the year Germany invaded Poland. She was also instrumental in establishing an endowed chair in Holocaust studies at UCLA.
1911(25th of Tammuz, 5671): Rabbi Yehouda Jarmon of Tunis passed away at the age of 104.
1911: During the Mendel Beilis Affair, a small expeditionary force of gendarmes forced its way into the home of Mendel Beilis and arrested him.
1918: In Russia, the revolutionary government that had overthrown the Czar removed the ban on Hebrew and Yiddish periodicals.
1919: Birthdate of Seymour Pine, “the deputy police inspector who led the raid on the Stonewall Inn, a gay bar in Greenwich Village, on a hot summer night in 1969 — a moment that helped start the gay liberation movement A graduate of Brooklyn College and a veteran of WW II who served in North Africa and Europe, Pine later apologized the raid and his role in it. (As reported by Dennis Hevesi)
1920: Sir Herbert Samuel, the British High Commissioner met with newsmen today and announced that he was abolishing the censorship which had been in effect since the Jerusalem riots that began in April.
1920: Birthdate of Isaac Stern. Born in Russia, this famous violinist came to America at the age of ten months. His family settled in San Francisco and he debuted with the San Francisco Symphony. His career is too rich for this brief entry. Suffice it to say he is one of a long line of Jewish violinists and he has been a supporter of musical endeavors in Israel.
1921: Birthdate of Arthur Marx, who wrote screenplays for film and television and a best-selling book about his father, “Life With Groucho.”
1921(15th of Tamuz, 5681): Benjamin Raphael Haim Moshe, Chief Rabbi of Spain passed away at the age of 74 years
1926: Birthdate of director Norman Jewison. Despite his name and the fact he directed the film version of “Fiddler on the Roof,” Jewison is not Jewish.
1931: CBS’s New York City stations began broadcasting the first regular seven days a week television schedule in the United States. George Gershwin was one of three people to appear on the first broadcast. That’s right – one third of the "cast" of this landmark television show was Jewish. Of course, CBS was owned by Bill Paley adding to the Jewish twist.
1933: The port at Haifa was opened to traffic.
1934:Vladimir Jabotinsky, president of the World Union of the Zionist Revisionists, today issued a statement hailing the acquittal of Abraham Stavsky
1938: While the rest of the world was embracing the Nazis or turning a blind eye to their depredations, “Pope Pius XI delivers an address to ecclesiastical assistants of Catholic Action in which he argues that Catholicism is opposed to racism, nationalism, and similarly exclusivist ideologies.” (The differences between Pius XI and his successor Pius XII were far greater the a single Roman numeral.)
1939:The Jewish Agency for Palestine issued today a statement rejecting Colonial Secretary Malcolm MacDonald's appeal for cooperation with the British Government's new policy for Palestine. The Jewish leadership rejected the White Paper with its limits on immigration and land ownership as being “devoid of moral and legal basis and…calculated to destroy the las and holiest possession of the Jewish people – the national home.
1941: In Minsk, 45 Jew were ordered to dig a pit. They were then thrown in and Russian prisoners were ordered to bury them alive. The Russians refused. The Germans then shot the Russians and the Jews in the pit.
1941: Jews of Upina, Lithuania, were killed by the Nazis.
1942: One thousand Jews deported from Paris, reached Auschwitz. Many of them were Polish Jews living in France. Six hundred and twenty-five were gassed while 375 selected for labor battalions. Only seventeen would survive the war.
1942: The Jews of Nieswiez organized a resistance movement and a planned an escape using kerosene and old guns as their weapons. A desperate battle ensued. Jews set fire to their own homes as a diversionary tactic. Some of those who made it to the woods found other Jews from Kleck and Niewswiez. They set up an underground unit.
1943: Tonight’s performance of “We Will Never Die” at the Hollywood Bowl was broadcast to a nationwide audience thanks to NBC.“We Will Never Die was a dramatic pageant…staged to raise public awareness of the ongoing mass murder of Europe's Jews. It was organized and written by screenwriter and author Ben Hecht and produced by Billy Rose and Ernst Lubitsch.”
1944: Jerzy Bielecki led Cyla Cybulska out of her barracks at Auschwitz and passed a sleepy guard to the woods and freedom. He was a Roman Catholic who had been imprisoned in 1940 as a member of the Polish Resistance. She was a young Jewess, who thanks to his courage was the only member of her family to survive the Holocaust. He was recognized by Yad Vasham as one of the Righteous Gentiles in 1985. (As reported by Dennis Hevesi)
1944: On the date after the attempt to assassinate Hitler failed, Henning von Tresckow, one of the chief conspirators, staged a partisan attack on his headquarters near Bialystok in Poland, and blew himself up with a grenade. He was buried with military honors, but a month later, when the Gestapo discovered his involvement in the plot against Hitler, his body was exhumed and burned in a crematorium of the Sachsenhausen concentration camp.
1944: Birthdate of Paul Wellstone, United States from Minnesota. He died in a plane crash in 2002.
1947: The Exodus, a refugee ship with 4,500 refugees on board, was turned back by the British continued its trip to Germany. The ship had tried to run the British blockade unsuccessfully: The British forcefully boarded the ship killing 3 Jews and wounding over 100. The pictures of the refugees being forcibly unloaded in Germany was a critical blow to world public opinion and helped force the British out of Eretz Israel.
1951: In its story on the assassination of Jordan’s King Abdullah that occurred on July 21 The Jerusalem Post reported that King Abdullah was known for his efforts to reach an Arab-Israeli peace settlement. In his memoirs he wrote: "I have been astonished at what I saw of the Jewish settlements: They have colonized sand dunes, drawn water from them, and transformed them into paradise."
1955: Martin and Ruth Bader Ginsburg gave birth to Jane C. Ginsburg “the Morton L. Janklow Professor of Literary and Artistic Property Law at the Columbia Law School.” This could be a case of the fulfillment of genetic predisposition since her mother is a Supreme Court Justice and her father, of blessed memory, was a law professor and internationally renowned expert on tax law.
1957: Birthdate of comedic actor Jon Lovitz. Lovitz big break came in 1982 when he joined the cast of Saturday Night Live.
1970(17th of Tammuz, 5730): Tzom Tammuz
1970: Libya's Col. Qaddafi nationalizes all Jewish property
1970: After 11 years of construction, the Aswan High Dam on the Nile River in Egypt is completed. In 1954, President Nasser sought aid from the U.S. government to build the Aswan Dam. He saw the building of the dam as being a vital to Egypt’s modernization program. For a variety of ideological and economic reasons, the Eisenhower Administration eventually rejected the request for aid. Nasser turned the Soviets who were only too glad to supply economic aid and masses of modern arms to Egypt. Bolstered by his new Soviet sponsors and angry at Eisenhower and Dulles for what he considered their betrayal of his dreams. Nasser began to promote an agenda of pro-Soviet Pan-Arabism with the destruction of Israel as its emotional focal point. Nasser also nationalized the Suez Canal because he needed the canal revenue to re-pay the Soviets. All of this led to the Suez Crisis of 1956 which resulted in a lightening military victory. Nasser’s vision may have died, but the dam was built. Such is the law of unintended consequences on This Day in Jewish History.
1973: In the Lillehammer affair in Norway, Israeli Mossad agents kill a waiter whom they mistakenly thought was involved in 1972’s Munich Olympics Massacre.
1977: The Tenth Maccabiah comes to an end.
1982(1st of Av, 5742): Rosh Chodesh Av
1985: Outfielder Mark Gilbert made his major league debut with the Chicago White Sox.
1988: Pitcher Roger Samuels made his major league debut with the San Francisco Giants.
1991(10thof Av, 5751): Tish’a B’Av observed since the 9th of Av fell on Shabbat
1991(10thof Av, 5751): Eighty-seven year old Joseph Dorfman who “received the Veblen-Commons Award in 1974 from the Association for Evolutionary Economics” passed away today. (As reported by Glenn Fowler)
2000(18thof Tammuz, 5760):Yosef Qafiḥ or Rabbi Kapach, a leader of the Yemenite Jewish in Yemen and then In Israel passed away today. He was the grandson of Yiḥyah Qafiḥ who had been born in 1853 and served as Chief Rabbi of Sana'a, Yemen until his death in 1932. There is no way that this simple blog can do justice to either of these leaders.
2002: The Sunday New York Times features a review of The Ascent of Eli Israel: Waiting for the Messiah a collection of short stories by Joe Papernick, a 31-year-old Canadian who moved to Brooklyn, after having spent several months in Israel following Yitzhak Rabin's assassination in November 1995, A Place to Live And Other Selected Essays by Italian Jewish author Natalia Ginzburg and Reflections and Shadows by Saul Steinberg with Aldo Buzzi.
2002:The 88th annual national convention of Hadassah opens at Disney’s Coronado Springs Resort in Lake Buena Vista, Florida.
2011(19th of Tammuz, 5771): Ninety-one year old Bruce Sundlun, the second Jewish governor of Rhode Island passed away today. (As reported by Margalit Fox)
2011(19th of Tammuz, 5771): Ninety five year old Hyman “Bookie” Bookbinder a Washington lobbyist known by his trademark bowtie whose friends were a cross section of Washington, DC including Democrat Hubert Humphrey and Republican Betty Ford, passed away today (As reported by T. Rees Shapiro)
2011(19th of Tammuz, 5771): Ninety-five year old Elliot Handler began Mattel Toy Company with his wife Ruth and helped to make Barbie, Chatty Cathy and Hot Wheels house-hold names passed away today. (As reported by Charles Duhigg)
2012: Agudas Achim is scheduled to hold its last Shabbat morning service in downtown Iowa City before moving to its new building in suburban Coralville, Iowa.
2012: “Naomi,” a “tight edgy Israeli film noir” is scheduled to be shown at The San Francisco Jewish Film Festival
2012: “Lee Zurik, WVUE Fox 8 investigative reporter, picked up three first place awards tonight at the 54th annual Excellence in Journalism Awards sponsored by the Press Club of New Orleans” (As reported by CCJN)
2012: The Bulgarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs dismissed a claim by Qaedat al-Jihad that it was responsible for the terrorist attack in Burgas.Foreign Affairs Ministry spokeswoman Vesela Cherneva dismissed the previously unknown Islamist group’s assertion of responsibility for the attack in an email sent today to Elnashra, a Lebanese newspaper. (As reported by Ilan Ben Zion)
2012: Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu conveyed his condolences to the American people via a letter to US President Barack Obama late tonight, a day after a gunman stormed a movie theater in Colorado, killing 12.(As reported by Ilan Ben Zion)
July 22 In History
1099: During the First Crusade Godfrey of Bouillon elected first Defender of the Holy Sepulcher of The Kingdom of Jerusalem. Having driven out the Muslims and Jews (including the slaughter of innocent) the Soldiers of the Cross settle in for what they think is an eternity.
1209: Forces that included the fanatical monk, Arnold of Citeaux, stormed the city of Beziers as part of the war aimed at destroying the Albigensians. The destruction of the Jewish community, including the murder of two hundred Jews, was "collateral damage
1306 (10thof Av): Philip the Fair of France arrested all the Jews, confiscated their property, and expelled them from his lands. Most Jews left to the next Duchy. Gradually they were allowed to drift back.
1320: King James II of France – in reaction to the excesses in southern France, proscribed support for the Jewish survivors, including an exemption on taxes. At the same time he refused to allow forcibly baptized children to be returned to their parents
1456: During the Ottoman attempts to expand its power in Europe John Hunyadi, the Regent of Kingdom of Hungary defeats Mehmet II of Ottoman Empire during the Siege of Belgrade. Mehmet’s reign was friendly to the Jewish people including opening his empire to refugees from Christian Europe. On the other hand, John Hunyadi enjoyed the support of the Italian Monk Jean de Capistrano who had previously convinced King Ludwig of Bavaria to expel his Jewish subjects.
1489: In Soncino, printer Joshua Solomon Soncino produced the first copy Talmud Bavil, Tractate “Niddah.”
1570: During the war with Venice, Ottoman forces lay siege to Nicosea, Cyprus. The Jews had been living on Cyprus since Roman times. Following the conquest by the Ottomans, Cyprus would become a haven for Jews fleeing from the Spanish Inquistion.
1598; The Merchant of Venice is licensed for printing. However, it would be two years before the play featuring Shylock would be printed for the first time.
1604: King James I sent a letter to Archbishop Bancroft that effectively permitted the English translation of the Bible. For most people, Jews included, the poetic tones of the King James Bible are the sounds of the TaNaCh that they readily know.
1648: Ten thousand Jews of Polannoe were killed in the Chmielnicki massacres.
1686: Albany, New York is formally chartered as a municipality by Governor Thomas Dongan. Public records indicate the presence of Jews as early as 1658. Asser Levy owned property, obtained burgher's rights, and lived in Albany in the 1650s. Other early Jewish merchants and traders who resided in Albany included Jacob Lucena, Hayman Levy, Jonas Phillips, Asher Levy, Levi Solomons and Levi Solomons Albany’s most famous Jewish resident was Isaac Mayer Wise who began what would become the Reform Movement while serving as a Rabbi in New York’s capital city.
1676: Clement X, the Pope who prohibited the custom of chasing Jews through the streets during the carnival, passed away.
1823: Birthdate of Louis Raphael Bischoffsheim the Dutch born French banker who founded the Nice Observatory.
1833: the House of Commons passed a bill for the emancipation of the Jews of England. The House of Lords would reject the bill.
1849: Birthdate of the poet Emma Lazarus. She became famous as the author of "The New Colossus" written in 1883, four years before her death. This poem appears at the base of the Statue of Liberty and is a celebration of America as the land of the immigrant. To give one a sense of the times in which she lived the New York Times described her not as a Jew, but as who belonged "to one of the best known and oldest Hebrew families of the city..."
1850: In New Olreans, the cornerstone is laid for a new Synagogue, Shangaray Chassed.
1853: In a sign of how quickly Jews were accepted into pre-Civl War American society an article published today describing events surrounding Columbia College’s upcoming commencement exercises reported that while most of the college’s trustees have been Episcopalians, members of other religious denominations have served in that capacity including one or more Jews.
1864: During the Civil War Union forces under General Sherman defeat the Confederates at the Battle of Atlanta which was actually one of a series of clashes that would lead to the fall of the South’s major transportation and manufacturing center. Among those serving with Sherman was Edward S. Salomon whose distinguished service at the Battle of Gettysburg earned him the rank of Brevet Brigadier General.
1870: The St. Louis Democrat reported that a property dispute between two Jewish congregations in St. Louis that stretches back to the 1840’s has resulted in civil litigation. B’nai El Congregation is suing the trustees of Emanuel Congregation over the transfer of property that the plaintiffs contend the Respondents have never completed
1872: The New York Herald published an editorial “that deplored the widely held opinion ‘that American Jews would remain forever content to study Hebrew and German for the sake of Worshipping God in those languages…Give them religious as well as secular instruction in their vernacular and there will not be much cause to complain of empty pews and neglected synagogues..’” The editorial was written in response to a “report that the English speaking rabbis of Temple Emanu-El and Congregation B’nai Jeshurun had resigned their pulpits and that the congregations were having great difficulty in finding replacements.” The Herald had previously published an editorial praising plans for the creation of a seminary at Cincinnati to train rabbis for the American Jewish community. The Herald believed that if services were conducted in English, Jewish throngs would fill their congregations. What is amazing is the fact that a leading secular paper would involve itself in this issue.
1874(8th of Av, 5634): Erev Tish'a B'Av
1877:“Heine’s Love, Apostasy and Agony” published today described the two most painful events in the German poet’s life. The first was his star-crossed love affair with Amalie Heine. The second was his decision to convert to Christianity so that he could gain favor with his Prussian patrons. The conversion failed to bring the acceptance he sought. These frustrations led him to write “I often get up in the night, and stand before the glass and curse myself.”
1877: “The Hebrew Controversy” published today presented a fulsome account of the controversy created by Judge Hilton’s ban on Jewish guests at his hotel in Saratoga Springs that includes correspondence that reveals much about the attitude and values of those involved in the matter.
1878: Birthdate of Janusz Korczak, Polish born Jewish pediatrician who used the pen name of Henryk Goldszmit as an author of children’s book. He died in August, 1942
1879: Mr. Austin Corbin, President of of the Manhattan Beach Railway Company, says that Jews, as a class, have made themselves offensive to those who patronize his railroad and hotel on Coney Island.” He said “that they are vulgar and unclean…and that he will leave nothing undone to get ride of them in order to save his business from ruin. While no official action has been taken by the Board of Directors to support Corbin’s position, “many stockholders agree with him.
1879: Prominent Jews have condemned Austin Corbin’s derogatory comments, calling him “a narrow-minded bigot whose proper country is Romania.” Abram Dittenhoefer, the former judge and leader of the Jewish community, said Corbin “has not insulted the Jews, but all Americans who are opposed to intolerance.
1880: Michael Gernsheim, a partner in Kuhn, Loeb & Co is scheduled to leave for Europe today aboard the SS Scythia. He plans to be gone for four months.
1881: I.A. Engelhardt was elected President of the Society for Improving the Sanitary Conditions of Poor Israelites in New York at its meeting today. The society seeks to improve “the sanitary conditions” of the city’s poor Jews “by providing them with the necessary information” regarding housing, including the enforcement of sanitary regulations and the means of eradicating the causes and sources of disease from their homes.
1881: Based on information supplied by the Daily News, an English paper, it was reported today that England, Austria, Holland, and possibly some other European powers are planning on sending a joint communique to Russia express their concern over that nation’s “harsh laws against the Jews.”
1882:”The Vicar of Bray,” a comic opera by Anglo-Jewish composer and conductor Edward Solomon opened at the Globe Theatre in London.
1883: It was reported today that Julius Hallgarten, a Jewish Philanthropist has established a trust in the amount of $5,000 to support the Art Schools of the National Academy of Design. Dr. Felix Adler is among those who have been appointed to serve as trustees to manage the gift.
1883: “Not Fond of Israelites” published today described a lawsuit Louis Batist has filed a suit against the Manhattan Railway Company seeking $5,000 in damages after a conductor pushed him back so that he could not board the elevated train after saying “You are a Jew! We don’t permit Jews on this train.”
1884: Rabbis Wise and Huebsch are scheduled to officiate at the funeral retired merchant Mayer Schutz who passed away in his 80th year while vacationing at Coney Island.
1886: It was reported today that 40 Russian Jews who had arrived in the United States yesterday will be sent back to Europe on the next State Line Steamer because they are destitute and “had no definite ideas as to how they were to earn a living.”
1887(1stof Av, 5647): Rosh Chodesh Av
1887: Birthdate of Gustav Hertz. This German-born quantum physicist won the Nobel Prize in 1925.
1888: “Hearing the New Rabbi” published today described the first sermon of Rabbi Jacob Joseph as being delivered in “a language which is a mixture of Hebrew, German and Polish.” The younger members of the audience complained that they “had difficulty in understanding…the language” he used. [It would appear that the sermon was delivered in Yiddish which would have had a strange sound to those used to hearing such talk in German.]
1888: Approximately 1,500 Jews living on the Lower East Side, including a large number of children took an excursion boat to Raritan Beach. The trip was sponsored by a liquor dealer named Ehrlich. According to eyewitness accounts, Ehrlich, who had the drink concession, salted the drinking water, forcing mothers to buy beer and soda to slake the thirst of their children.
1888: Rabbi De Sola Mendes, of New York’s 44th Street Synagogue officiated at ceremonies dedicating The House of Miriam, the new synagogue in Long Branch, NJ. S.T. Meyer of New York contributed the land and several wealthy New York Jews who spend their summers at the New Jersey resort defrayed the cost of Construction. [The congregation exists today as Beth Miriam, a Reform Temple.]
1889: “Pilgrims by the Sea” published today described the thriving ocean resort scene in New York and New Jersey including the presence of Jewish guests at Brighton Beach Hotel. Mr. Breen, one of the new managers of the hotel said that reports that Jewish guests were unwelcomed and had been excluded were false. They had been circulated by a disgruntled former employee. The hotel admitted guests strictly on the basis of their behavior and not ethnicity.
1889: In Boston, MA, Rabbi Raphael Lasker officiated at the funeral of Count L.B. Schwab. Burial took place at the cemetery of the Union Park Street temple. Among the pallbearers were Nathan Waxman and George Adams of the Hebrew Benevolent Society; Alexander Simons and James H. Cohen of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association; and Isaac Young and Usher Hyman of Adath Israel.
1890: Plans for the next free excursion sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children were published today.
1890: “A Jewish Settlement” published today described the growth of Alliance over the last eight years fo acres of wild brush in Salem County, NJ to a flourishing village of 612 Jewish immigrants from Russia. The Hebrew Aid Society helped them by the land which at the time sold for $12 per acre but is now valued at more than $100 per acre thanks to the efforts of the Jews.
1891: It was reported today that Jesse Seligman and A.S. Solomons, Trustees of the Baron de Hirsh Fund have told authorities that the apparently impoverished Jewish Immigrants they are holding are in fact honest hard workers who were “robbed of all of their money’ at the Russian border.
1892: “The Vicar of Bray, “a comic opera by Edward Solomon…opened at the Globe Theatre in London…for a run of only 69 performances.” “An 1892 revival at the Savoy Theatre” last for 143 performances.
1893: A reporter for the New York Timesvisited the home of 32 year old Adolf Bruckman, whose grandfather had been the chief rabbi at a city in Russian Poland and his family at a tenement on Ludlow Street. The destitute family had been forced to leave Russia because of imperial decrees that denied Bruckman of a chance to earn a living.
1894: “Jews at Buckingham Palace” published today described a visit by the Austrian Archduke to England where he was greeted by fifty of his subjects the royal home, forty of here were Jewish. This should have come as no so surprise since it is believe “that in Vienna there are no fewer than 2,500 persons bearing the Jewish name of Kohn.”
1895: Wolf Silverman was accompanied by is counsel Abraham Joseph when he was arraigned on charges of having attempted to swindle the Empire Life Insurance Company.
1896: Herzl visits Karlsbad, where he obtains an audience with Prince Ferdinand of Bulgaria. The prince is a well-connected “royal” who will actually sit on the Bulgarian throne. This appears to be one more attempt on Herzl’s part to use influence and connection to create the Jewish homeland.
1897(22ndof Tammuz, 5657): Seventy-five year old Lewis May, President of Temple Emanu-El passed away this morning at Dobbs Ferry.
1897: In a very emotional manner, Vice President James Seligman announced at special meeting of the Board of Trustees of Temple Emanu-El that their President, Lewis May had passed away following which resolutions of expressing condolence to the family were adopted by the Board.
1899: It was reported today that Oscar S. Straus, the Minister to Turkey, is a member of the United States Section of The International Congress of History.
1902:Herzl and Wolffsohn leave for Constantinople with hopes that the Sultan will support a Jewish Homeland in the Ottoman Empire. The trip did not go well as can be seen when Herzl writes his conclusions when the visit ends on August 5.
1903: Francis Lewis Cardozo, the first African American to hold statewide office in South Carolina passed away today. The son Isaac Cardozo, a Sephardic Jew working in the customhouse in Charleston and Lydia Weston, a free black woman, Cardozo’s life reads more like a novel than anything else. He was raised as Christian and is the “Cardozo” in Washington, DC’s Cardozo Senior High School.
1907(11th of Av): Rabbi Isaac Blaser, leader of the Musar movement and the author of Peri Yizhak, passed away
1913(17th of Tammuz, 5673): Tzom Tammuz
1914: Before the visit of his daughter Anna to Britain which was to be chaperoned by Ernest Jones, Sigmund Freud wrote, “She does not claim to be treated as a woman, being still far away from sexual longings and rather refusing man. There is an outspoken understanding between me and her that she should not consider marriage or the preliminaries before she gets two or three years older". “A tentative romance between Anna” and Jones who became Freud’s official biographer, “did not survive” Freud’s “disapproval.”
1917: In Russia, Kerensky, the Jewish former Minister of War became the premier. After the Czar abdicated, he took over the Russian government and formed a liberal provisional government, which lasted four months. Although well intentioned, he was not a strong leader and couldn't negotiate between the subversive forces between right and left. His government would be ousted by Lenin, ending Russia’s brief flirtation with Western style democracy.
1918: British General Allenby approves a town-planning scheme for Jerusalem complete with an expanded road network, new parks and municipal and residential buildings.
1920: Establishment of Keren Hayesod (Palestine Foundation Fund)
1921: Winston Churchill, Lloyd George and Lord Balfour met with Chaim Wiezmann at Balfour’s House in London in an attempt “to reassure Wiezmann that British policy in support of the Balfour Declaration and the Jewish home in Palestine had not changed.”
1921: Birthdate of Phillip Burgher, a native of Niles, Illinois who served in World War II.
1922: The League of Nations Council confirmed the British Palestine Mandate. The Balfour Declaration is part of the terms of the mandate.
1923: Tisha B’Av, 9th of Av, 5683
1927: The convention of Palestine Jewish Labor Federation which had been meeting in Tel Aviv for the past fortnight comes to an end. The convention adopted several resolutions including ones calling for greater freedom for Jews to immigrate to Palestine and more aggressive government action to deal with the problems of unemployment.
1927: Birthdate of Israeli Mathematician Michael Bahir known for his contributions to the field of game theory.
1934(10th of Av, 5694):Tish'a B'Av observed
1934: Dr. Solomon Deutsch, a Bronx Dentist and a leader of the JNF, and his family are scheduled to set sail today for Palestine where they plan on settling at Netanya. (As reported by JTA)
1936: The Palestine Post reported that the insurrection of Monarchists and Fascists in Spain was gaining momentum and was seriously threatening the democratic regime. Arabs killed Abraham Donagi, a watchman at Even Yehuda, and severely wounded Abraham Bauer in Jerusalem. Bombs exploded in Jaffa and the Iraqi Petroleum Co. pipeline was severely damaged. All this was part of the on-going Arab Riots aimed at destroying the Jewish community in Palestine.
1939: Eichmann’s Central Office for Emigration, (of Jews) in Prague, officially opened
1941 France's Vichy government begins expropriation of Jewish businesses.
1942: On the day before Tisha B’Av German authorities and Ukrainian and Latvian guards in SS uniforms surround the walls of the Warsaw Ghetto. Six thousand Warsaw Jews were told to gather for deportation. Over the next seven weeks as many as 300,000 Jews would be sent by train to the three gas chambers of Treblinka. The railway master at Treblinka was notified of a shuttle line being set up between Warsaw and its railroad station for "Settlers.” THIS WAS THE LARGEST SLAUGHTER OF ANY SINGLE COMMUNITY DURING THE HOLOCAUST. From July 22 through September 12, 1942: 4,000 Warsaw Jews per day would be gassed in Treblinka. Only those with special cards stamped with ‘Operation Reihnard', an eagle and the swastika were saved from deportation. Resisters or those taking flight would be shot on the spot by Ukrainians, Latvians, Lithuanians and German SS officers. Orphanages, children homes, hospitals, were all emptied. Each train was comprised of sixty cars. Each car was packed with human cargo.
1943: Because the U.S. State Department continues to delay any action on the Riegner Plan to save 70,000 Jews, American Rabbi Stephen Wise pleads with President Franklin Roosevelt to support the plan. Roosevelt allows the plan to be killed because of "strenuous British objections."
1944: German troops withdraw from Parczew Forest, Poland, the site of numerous Nazi searches for Jewish fugitives and partisans.
1944: Survivors of a July 13 mass execution of Jewish slave laborers at Bialystok, Poland, reach Red Army lines after crawling for nine nights.
1944: The Red Army occupied Chelm. The 68,000 Jews left in Vilna hope the Soviets will arrive before the Nazis can finish them off.
1944: During the soo-called “Blood for Goods” negotiations Edmund Veesenmayer a member of the SS sent a cable to the German Foreign Office stating that Joel Brand and Andor Grosz had been sent to Turkey on the orders of Himmler
1946: The Irgun bombed the King David Hotel in Jerusalem. The King David was the headquarters of the British civil and military administration. Ninety people, including Jews, lost their lives. The Irgun, led by Menachem Begin, claimed that they had called ahead to warn of the bombing. The British denied receiving any such call. The Jewish Agency, the de facto government of the Jews in Palestine and other Jewish leaders, denounced the attack. There was a "moment of mourning" on July 23 as the Jewish community paused to honor the dead. The attack marked a split between the recently agreed to alliance between the Haganah and the Irgun. What is amazing about the response of the Jewish community was that in the weeks prior to the bombing the British had imprisoned all a couple of the leaders of the Jewish Agency and seized its records in an attempt to squelch the Zionist movement. However terrible the British occupation was, the terrorism of the Irgun was not to be the Jewish answer.
1947: Birthdate of Albert Brooks. Born Albert Einstein, this successful actor, comedian, writer and director grew up in California as part of the show business community. He went to school with Rob Reiner and Larry Bishop, Joey Bishop’s son. He changed his name to Brooks after leaving college in the late 1960’s to become a stand-up comedian.
1948: The Israelis opened the refineries at Haifa. They had been closed since the British shut them down on April 26 in the waning days of the Mandate.
1950: Captain Moshe Idelovitch, Assistant Superintendent of Police in Israel said that “Arab infiltration of Israeli territory could be stopped within twenty-four hours if Jordan cooperated.” Captain Idelovitch is commander of the Petah Tigva area, where most of the border marauders and murderers penetrate
1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that 69-year-old King Abdullah of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan was assassinated inside al-Aksa Mosque in the Jordanian-held Old City of Jerusalem. Emir Naif, his second son, was declared regent. King Abdullah was known for his efforts to reach an Arab-Israeli peace settlement. In his memoirs he wrote: "I have been astonished at what I saw of the Jewish settlements: They have colonized sand dunes, drawn water from them, and transformed them into paradise..."
1976: The Jerusalem Post reported that the Ministry of Agriculture had decided to enforce the law against squatting to counter the widespread increase in the illegal Arab settlement on state lands. The popular TV show Kolbotek was suspended following the discovery of irregularities in connection with one of its programs. The Mossad was reported to have informed Prime Minister Golda Meir and Defense Minister Moshe Dayan of Arab plans to attack Israel two days before the outbreak of the 1973 Yom Kippur War, but this information was disregarded.
1980(9th of Av, 5740): Tish'a B'Av
1980: The Knesset voted by ninety-nine votes to fifty-one to annex east Jerusalem declaring that ‘Jerusalem, complete and undivided, is the capital of Israel.’
1981:Immanuel Jakobovits, Chief Rabbi of the United Hebrew Congregations of the Commonwealth “was created a life peer in 1988, as Baron Jakobovits, of Regent's Park in Greater London, becoming the first rabbi to receive this honor.”
1993: Israeli Supreme court Justice, Aharon Barak, was present at Yad Vashem to watch seventy-six-year-old Ceslovas Rakevicius plant a tree. Rakevicius had saved the eight year old Barak, his brother and his parents and more than twenty other Jewish families by smuggling them out of the Kovno Ghetto in 1944.
1997(17th of Tammuz, 5757): Tzom Tammuz
1999(9th of Av, 5759): Tish'a B'Av
1999(9th of Av, 5759): Ninety-nine year old David N. Myers of Cleveland, OH a dedicated leader and benefactor of the Jewish and secular communities passed away today. As a long-time supporter of American Friends of the Hebrew University, he established the David Meyers Skin Laboratory and David and Inez Meyers Scholarship Endowment at The Hebrew University.
2001: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including ''Regarding Film'' by Stanely Kauffmann and “Walking the Bible” by Bruce Feiler.
2002: Israel assassinates Salah Shahade, the Commander-in-Chief of Hamas’s military arm, the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades.
2005: In the evening, with the start of Shabbat, Rabbi Aaron Sherman officiates at his first service as the new spiritual leader of the Cedar Rapids, Iowa, Jewish Community.
2006: Israel ousted Hezbollah guerrillas from a stronghold just inside Lebanon after several days of fierce fighting, the army said, as it bombarded targets across the south of the country.
2006: At least 100 Katyusha Rockets fired by Hezbollah forces in Lebanon land in northern Israel. At least nineteen Israeli civilians are reported injured.
2007: The Sunday New York Times book section featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and or of special interest to Jewish readers including The House that George Built With a Little Help From Irving, Cole, and a Crew of About Fifty by Wilfrid Sheed describing a musical era dominated by George Gershwin “and a few of his friends” and POP! Why Bubbles Are Great for the Economy by Daniel Gross whose earlier writings included “Can the Jews Save Christmas: Chanukah is Late this Year. Will this help retailers?”
2008: The Karmiel Dance Festival opens. This year, this most Israeli of festivals celebrates the country's 60th birthday via a retrospective of Israeli dance from 1948 to the present day, yet the central event - Let Us Grow in Peace - is a poignant reminder that for most of those 60 years, our land has known conflict.
2008. Senator Barack Obama begins his visit to Israel where he is expected to meet the country's top leaders: President Shimon Peres, Prime Minister Ehud Olmert, Defense Minister Ehud Barak, Foreign Minister Tzipi Livni and Likud Party leader Benjamin Netanyahu. The publicity of this trip is a far cry from the comparatively anonymous trip the Senator made to Israel in 2006 when he visited the town of Fassouta,
2008:For the second time in three weeks, an Arab bulldozer driver from east Jerusalem rammed his construction vehicle into a city bus and several cars on a central thoroughfare in the capital wounding 15 people before being shot dead by a Druse border police officer and a civilian passerby. The early afternoon attack on King David Street was seen as a failed copy of July 2's lethal bulldozer rampage on Jaffa Road in which Husam Taysir Dwayat killed three people and wounded dozens before he was killed.
2009(1st of Av, 5769): Rosh Chodesh Av
2009(1st of Av, 5769:Lynn Pressman Raymond, a leading toy manufacturing executive , passed away today at the age of 97. (As reported by William Grimes
2009:U.S. congressman Henry Waxman discusses his new book, “The Waxman Report: How Congress Really Works,” at the Sixth & I Historic Synagogue,
2009:The Randi & Bruce Pergament Jewish Film Festival features a screening of “Holyland Hardball,” which describes what happens “when a Boston baker with no sports management experience wanted to form the Israel Baseball League”
2010:In Metro-Detroit, MI, The Jean and Theodore Weiss Partners in Torah Program is scheduled to sponsor a program entitled "Life After Death," which will cover such topics as:The journey of the soul, a study of scriptural passages referencing the World to Come, the eternal nature of the soul, a look at testimonials of near death experiences, the relevance of the soul.
2010:The Israel Navy went on high alert today amid forecasts that a flotilla of two vessels from Lebanon was preparing to depart for the Gaza Strip in an effort to break the blockade by the end of the week.
2011(20th of Tammuz, 5771): Yahrzeit of “Rabbi Na'eh best known for his halachic works Ketzot ha-Shulchan and Shiurei Torah ("measurements of the Torah"), in which he converted archaic halachic measurements into modern terms.” He passed away on the 20thof Tammuz (July 21) 1954.
2011: The 92nd Street Y is scheduled to sponsor its Shabba bakery which will give children a chance roll and braid their own challah which they can take home and bake.
2011:Jailed Jewish-American aid contractor Alan Gross told Cuba's Supreme Court today he had no intentions of hurting the Cuban government or its people. Gross, who was found guilty of undermining the state last February and sentenced to 15 years in prison, said he was thankful for the opportunity to appeal the verdict and denied the charges against him. .