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A collection of Jewish history and current Jewish events, in date format, updated daily in this Jewish history blog.

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    March 2

    117(12th of Adar, 3877): As the rebellion by Disapora Jews against the Roman Empire of Trajan came to an unsuccessful close, two Jewish brothers who had been leaders in the revolt, Pappus and Julianus were executed at Laodicea in Syria.  Trajan did not get to savor his victory since he died in 117.  Unfortunately for the Jews he was followed by Hadrian who was even crueler than his predecessor.   986: Louis V becomes King of the Franks. Louis was the last of the Carolingian, a dynasty under whom the Jews had done rather well, all things considered.  Charlemagne was the most famous of the Carolingian rulers and he supported his Jewish subjects despite opposition from church leaders. Louis le Débonnaire who reigned from 814 to 833 was another of the Carolingians who gave special protection to his Jewish subjects. During the reign of Carolingians the Jews were active in commerce, medicine and agriculture, especially in the field of viticulture a fact of which we are reminded when we study about Rashi.  The change in dynasties would not have an immediate effect on the Jews living in France.  Life for them would not really change until the first crusade in 1096.

    1127: Charles, the Good, Count of Flanders was murdered while praying in the church of St. Donat at Bruges. This came two years after Charles had expelled the Jews from Ghent because he blamed them for the famine that consumed his realm in 1125.

    1349: In Erfurt, the capital of the German state of Thuringia, 1,000 Jews were killed in a single day of violence in a pogrom brought on by hysteria surrounding The Black Death which struck Europe in 1340.  During this outbreak of what was probably bubonic plagues millions died in Europe removing approximately one third of the continent’s population. “Modern research has revealed that the plague was probably carried by boat from an Asian source, but at the time the affected communities had no idea why and how such a terrible affliction had come upon them so suddenly. In seeking an explanation, they needed a scapegoat and lighted upon the Jews living in their midst. In many villages, towns and cities, Jews were accused of causing the sickness by poisoning drinking water in wells and fountains.”  [Editor’s note: for those tracking sweeping patterns of history, note that blaming Jews is not different or rational today than it was in what was supposedly the unenlightened Dark Ages.

    1382: The Mailotin Riots began in Paris. These riots were similar to the tax riots held two years previously. Both times the Jews were considered accomplices in over-oppressive taxes. Sixteen Jews fell victim to this outbreak violence.

    1640(20th of Adar): Rabbi Joel Sirkes, author of Bayit Hadash passed away today.

    1743: In Wolfenbütteler, “court factor Samson Gumpel” and his wife gave birth to “court banker” Philipp Samson.

    1753(26th of Adar I, 5513): Issachar Berush Eskeles the native of Poland who was the son of Gabriel Eskeles and son-in-law of Samson Wertheimer, who was named rabbi of Kremsir in 1710, when he was only eighteen years old and eventually served as "Landesrabbiner" of Moravia passed away today in Vienna.

    1796:Rabbi Mordecai of Niesvizh, issued a proclamation, which was approved by other rabbis in Poland, addressed to all Jews of Poland, imploring every male and female, adult and minor, whether living in cities or villages, to subscribe a fixed sum every week for the support of their countrymen, who had settled in the Holy Land with the amount to be paid quarterly, in addition to special donations at weddings, circumcisions, and other religious rejoicings all of which resulted in a substantial increase in the halukkah (the fund to support Jews living in the Holy Land.

    1798(14th of Adar, 5558): Purim

    1835: Francis, who as Francis II was the last Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and who as Francis I was the first Emperor of the Austrian Empire whose dealings with his Jewish subjects was a mixed bag passed away.

    1836: Texans signed the Texas Declaration of Independence at Washington-on-the-Brazos, effectively creating the Republic of Texas. Adolphus Sterne was one of the many Jews who supported the cause of Texas Independence both on and off of the battlefield.  Sterne was “an East Texas merchant who became a principal source of financial backing for the Texas Revolution. Born in the Rhineland in 1801, he arrived in Texas in time to fight in the ill-fated 1826-27 Fredonia Rebellion at Nacogdoches. He was sentenced to be shot but was released on the promise never to bear arms against the government again. He kept to the vow in the 1836 struggle for independence but supplied funds, coordinated with his old friend Sam Houston, who he had known in Tennessee before coming to Texas.”

    1847(14th of Adar, 5607): Purim

    1847(14th of Adar, 5607): Forty-seven year old Immanuel Wohlwill taught at the Israelite Free School in Hamburg and then became the Director of the Jacobson School in Seesen.

    1848:Ibrahim Pasha who issued a decree “forbidding the Jews to pave the passage in front of the Wall. It also cautioned them against “raising their voices and displaying their books there.” They were however allowed “to pay visits to it as of old” began his reign over Egypt without the approval of the Porte.

    1854: Temple Israel which was established as the Orthodox Congregation B'nai Israel in 1853 by 36 heads of families, was granted a charter by the state legislature today.

    1855: Alexander II becomes Czar of Russia. Alexander gets high marks from many historians for two reasons.  First, he is the Czar who freed the serfs.  Second he was a lot better than his two successors, Alexander III and Nicholas II.  Alexander earned the goodwill of the Jewish people because “he called a half to the cantonist system that separated Jewish youths from their families, a staple of the previous Czars anti-Semitic program.”  From then on, “only Jews of draft age would serve, and under the same rules as well as other Russians.”  Under his reign, universities liberalized their admission policies for Jews and Jews were allowed to enter the legal profession.  Jewish businessman and craftsmen were allowed to work outside of the Pale and enter into the commercial life of many major urban areas.  The Czar was no liberal.  His changes in policies were caused, in part, by a desire to attract investment from Jewish European financiers.  The Czar’s reforms were proving to be too little too late.  When the Czar saw Jewish names among opponents, his anti-Semitism rose to the surface as can be seen by the closing of Yeshivot and his opposition to legal equality for Jews when the issue came up at the 1878 Congress of Berlin.

    1859: Birthdate of Solomon Naumovich Rabinovich whom we know as Sholom Aleichem, the most famous Jewish author of his times. As with many Russians of his periods, Sholom Aleichim has two birthdates on the secular calendar – one on the Julian calendar and one on the Gregorian calendar.

    1861: In Warsaw, espite the fact that is was Shabbat, three Rabbis including Morris Jastrow joined the funeral procession for five Polish nationalists who had been shot by the military.

    1861: Morris Jastrow preached his first sermon in Polish at the Shabbat service during which the five victims of the Polish military were memoralized.

    1864(O.S.) Birthdate of Sergei Zubatov. “the head of the Czarist Secret Police in Moscow” who “convinced” the imprisoned Manya Shochat to form “tame” workers “organizations that would work for reform rather than the overthrow of the government” which would supposedly “help achieve rights for Jews” – a supposition which the policeman knew was false and which the Jewish leader came to see as a “pipe dream.”

    1868: An article published entitled “The Alleged Illegal Action of the American Consul at Jerusalem” described a dispute that took place recently in Jerusalem involving a Prussian Rabbi, named Markus, a Prussian Jewess named Steinberg, her sister who had converted to Christianity and Victor Beaubouchier, the American Counsel in Jerusalem

    1870: In New York, Judge Brady began hearing a suit brought by Benjamin Abrahams, the executor for the estate of his late brother Dr. Simeon Abrahams.  The total value of the bequest exceeds the value of the estate and the executor is seeking to obtain a decree that will establish “which if any legacies have preference” or, if there be no such preference, what pro rata share each of the legacies should receive. The late Dr. Abrahams was a prominent member of the Jewish community and he left several large bequests to Jewish charities including the Hebrew Benevolent Society, Mt. Sinai Hospital as well as numerous bequests to secular charities most of which provide aid to orphans, juveniles and those in need of medical aide.

    1871: The Purim Association hosted its second reception of this social season at Delmonico’s under the management of Emanuel B. Hart, Samuel A. Lewis and Gustave D. Cardozo.

    1874: Today marked the second and final day of the Purim reception at the Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews in Manhattan.

    1877: The Hayes-Tilden election is finally settled by the specially created electoral commission that resolved the disputed election returns of four states in favor Hayes making him the 19thPresident of the United States. Hayes appointed the first Jew to effectively serve as a U.S. Ambassador - Benjamin Peixotto – and assured a government employee that she would not lose her job if she did not work on Saturday.

    1879: At the Clinton Street Synagogue in New York City, Rabbi H.P. Mendes of the Nineteenth Street Synagogue delivered a lecture on “A Dark Chapter of Spanish-Jewish History” one the opening of the tenth season of lectures sponsored by the Young Men’s Hebrew Union.

    1882: The twentieth annual Hebrew charity dress ball sponsored by the Purim Association will begin at the in the Academy of Music at nine o’clock with the grand march starting at ten.

    1876: Birthdate of Pope Pius XII, the Holocaust Pope.

    1877: Rutherford B. Hayes declared winner of the 1876 Presidential Election.  Samuel Tilden won the popular vote, but Hayes won a majority of the disputed in the Electoral College giving him and the Republicans the White House by one vote.  As President, Hayes worked to protect the well-being of Jewish communities in Europe.  In 1879, his Secretary of State, William Evarts said that “this government has ever felt a deep interest in the welfare of the Hebrew race in foreign countries.”  Hayes backed up these noble sentiments in negotiations with the government of Romaniawhere he worked to try and improve the condition of Jews living under that anti-Semitic regime.

    1880: It was reported today that Mrs. W. T. Brothington of Newark, NJ has finally received the $10,000 from the estate of a deceased English family. 

    1884: Birthdate of Albert Samuel, the native of Vesoul who was the father of Raymond Samuel better known as French Resistance leader Raymond Aubrac.

    1884: Seventy-four year old anti-Semitic author Theodor Griesinger passed away.

    1886: This afternoon Rabbi Gustav Gottheil of Temple Emanu-El officiated at the wedding of Julia Wormser, “the only daughter of Isidor Wormser” and Jefferson Seligman, the “youngest son of James Seligman, the head of the well-known bank house.”

    1888: The Convention of Constantinople is signed, guaranteeing free maritime passage through the Suez Canal during war and peace.  The one major exception to this would be the state of Israel.  For years, the government of Egypt denied ships flying the flag of Israel from using the canal.  The Egyptians also denied access to ships that had visited Israeli ports from using the canal. 

    1891: At today’s meeting of the Louisville (KY) Ministerial Association a debate was held over the question of admitting priests, rabbis and Unitarian Ministers.

    1891: At a meeting of the New York Siberian Exile Petition Association was held at the Church of Ascension in New York City, “Isaac Aronavitch Hourvitch, a Russian Jew who had suffered exile in Russia related his terrible experiences as a political prisoner.”  Following discussion of this and other matter, “copies of the petition which is to be forwarded to the Czar in April protesting against the present treatment of the Jews were circulated” and signed by many attendees.

    1892: A theatrical review published today described Carl Weiser’s portrayal of Shylock, “the vengeful Jew” as being “picturesque, if not strikingly dignified.”  “The Merchant of Venice” reportedly first performed in America in the 16thcentury making it possibly the first Shakespearean drama performed in what would become the United States.

    1892: It was reported today that the sixty Russian Jewish immigrants who are in quarantine on North Brother Island due to the outbreak of typhus are housed in their own heated pavilion where they have their own cooks who prepare their food according to Orthodox Jewish law.

    1892: Fifty-year old Otto Glagau the anti-Semitic author whose hate of Jews may be traced to losses he suffered while speculating in stocks passed away today.

    1892: Forty two Russian Jewish immigrants who may be infected with typhus and are under the care of the United Hebrew Charities will be taken to North Brother Island today if the storm sweeping the area abates.

    1893(14th of Adar, 5653): Purim

    1893: A fire broke out in a building in Fall River, MA, that was used as meeting place by the Hebrew Literary Club. (Who would have thought that Fall River would have been home to such an organization in the 19th century?)

    1893: Birthdate of Eliyahu Golomb the native of Russia who made Aliyah in 1909 and organized the Haganah during the Mandate.

    1894: Birthdate of Hélène Falk, the native of Crest who was the mother of of Raymond Samuel better known as French Resistance leader Raymond Aubrac.

    1895: The National Council of Women, an organization that was unique for its time because it included Jewish, Catholic and Protestant members, held the final session of its triennial meeting in Washington, DC.

    1896: “Mathias Bells for Bicycles” published today described the debate in Parliament where lawmakers are trying to force cyclists to use “the continuous bell of the kind brought into vogue by Sir Henry Irving’s “Polish Jew.”

    1898: In Albany, the Senate Cities Committee will report out a bill sponsored by Senator Cantor “exempting the real estate of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association from taxation, assessment and water rates.”

    1899: The annual Purim reception at the Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews will be held today starting at 11 a.m. and lasting until 5 p.m.

    1900:  Birthdate of German-born American composer Kurt Weill.

    1901(11th of Adar, 5661): Sixty-six year old Joseph Blumenthal passed away in New York City.  Born in Munich in 1834, he came to the United States in 1839, settled in California with his family before moving to New York.  He was part of the Committee of Seventy that helped to overthrow the infamous Tweed Ring and spend the last 15 years of his life working to create and build the Jewish Theological Seminary.

    1902: Birthdate of baseball catcher Moe Berg.  In a day when most baseball players were barely literate Berg stood out as a Princeton graduate who was multi-lingual. His major league career lasted from 1923 to 1939. He was a journey-man catcher, described as “good field, no hit.” The stories about his eccentricities are too numerous for this brief entry.  Suffice it to say, he makes the television character “Monk” look normal.  His real claim to fame was his espionage work.  During barnstorming trips to Japan in the 1930’s, the Japanese speaking Berg would leave the group to do his own “explorations.”  Among other things, he took a series of pictures in Tokyo which later were used to help plan the famous Doolittle Raid during World War II. 

    1903:  Herzl receives Leopold Greenberg's report. Greenberg was the owner of a successful advertising agency, publisher of the Jewish Yearbook and an ardent Zionist.

    1904(15th of Adar, 5664): Sixty-six year old Moritz Framers, the German rabbi who edited two Jewish magazines and whose writings included On the Introduction to Maimonides and Jerome’s Commentary on the Twelve Minor Prophets, passed away today in Magdeburg.

    1905: Birthdate of composer Marc Blitzstein

    1909(9thof Adar, 5669): Baron Horace Günzburg, the son Joseph Günzburg, wealthy merchant and army contractor, and  the father of David Günzburg who was a major philanthropist and leader of the Jewish community passed away.

    1909: Birthdate of composer Hanoch Jacoby

    1911: Sophie Tucker recorded “Some of these Days” on a four inch cylinder.  “Some of these Days” was written by African American composer Shelton Brooks in 1910.  “Some of these Days” was Tucker’s signature song and the title of her autobiography.

    1913: The New York Times reported that Dr. Joseph H. Hertz, Rabbi of the Congregation Orach Chayim of New York was recently appointed replace the late Dr. Hermann Adler, who was serving as Chief Rabbi of the British Empire when he passed away in July of 1911.

    1914:  Birthdate of Martin Ritt director of The Long Hot Summer.

    1915: The Red Cross Fund of which Jacob H. Schiff is the treasurer received an additional $1,670.07 in contributions bringing the total collected so far to $464,796.11.

    1915: An “official communication” concerning the condition of the Jews was sent from Constantinople stating that “All the recent pubications to the contrary are unfounded.  The natural inconveniences they may have experienced during the mobilization have been shared by the rest of the population.”

    1917: Birthdate of American fiction writer David Loeb Goodis

    1920: The U.S. Supreme Court hear arguments in Missouri v. Holland in which Louis Marshall, submitted an amicus curae brief on behalf of the Association for the Protection of the Adirondacks

    1921: Birthdate of Birdie Solomon, the native of Harrisburg, PA who gained fame as “operatic soprano” Brenda Lewis.

    1922: On the Lower East Side, Barnet and Tessie Greenglass gave birth to “Atomic Spy” David Greenglass, the brother of Ethel Rosenberg and the brother-in-law of Julius Rosenberg.

    1926:  Birthdate of American economist Murray Rothbard.

    1931: Birthdate of Lionel I. Pincus “an American finance executive, venture capitalist, and entrepreneur” who “ran the private equity firm Warburg Pincus from 1966 to 2002.”

    1932: The New York Times reported on speech by Senator Dill of Washington praising the appointment of Benjamin Cardozo to the U.S. Supreme Court.

    1935: Birthdate of Canadian native, actor Al Waxman.

    1935 (27th of Adar I, 5695):Eighty-three year old Samuel Sachs, an American investment banker passed away. He was born in Maryland in 1851 to Jewish immigrants from Bavaria, Germany. Sachs along with his longtime friend Philip Lehman of Lehman Brothers pioneered the issuing of stock as a way for new companies to raise funds. He married Louisa Goldman, the youngest daughter of close friends and fellow Bavarian immigrants, who had already seen their older child wed as well. Sachs then joined his father-in-law Marcus Goldman's firm which prompted the name change to Goldman Sachs in 1904. Together they underwrote securities offerings for such large firms as Sears, Roebuck and Company. During this time Goldman Sachs also diversified to become involved in other major securities markets, like the over-the-counter, bond, and convertibles markets which are still a big part of the company's revenue today. Sachs retired in 1928 and died in 1935.

    1938: The Palestine Post (the progenitor of today’s Jerusalem Post) published the farewell message of the retiring High Commissioner, Sir Arthur Wauchope, addressed to the people of Palestine. In a separate letter to the Post, Sir Arthur wrote that “though rather busy during most of my leave in England, I always found time to read The Palestine Post... I hope to read your paper in future years.”

    1938: The Palestine Post reported that Sir John Woodhead, Sir Allison Russel and Mr. A.P. Waterfield were appointed by the British Government to serve as members of the Technical Commission which will proceed to Palestine to investigate conditions for the country’s eventual partition. 

    1938: The Palestine Post reported that An Emek settler, Abraham Goldschlager, 38, was murdered by Arab terrorists near Mishmar Ha¹emek. Tirat Zvi came under heavy Arab fire.

    1939: Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli is elected Pope and takes the name Pius XII. As Secretary of State for the Vatican he had negotiated a concordat with Hitler.  As Pope, he would remain silent about the Nazis and the Holocaust even when a Roman Catholic nun who converted to Judaism years ago was taken to the death camp because, under Hitler’s Race Laws, she was really a Jew.  Based on this alone, one wonders what this Pope thought about the meaning of baptism.

    1940: “The police imposed curfew regulations at Tel Aviv tonight after breaking up widespread demonstrations protesting against British restrictions on the sale of Arab lands to Jews.

    1942: Birthdate of Brooklyn born American musician Lewis Allan “Lou” Reed

    1942: As Purim began, Jews from Minsk refused to cooperate in latest deportation. Germans and Ukrainians retaliated by searching houses, dragging children to sand pits and throwing them in alive, throwing candies in after them as they died. By the end of Purim 5,000 Jews were murdered in Minsk. Jews all over Europe were tortured, murdered or deported that day included those from Krosniewice, Baranowicze, Lvov and Zdunska Wola

    1942: At Janowska, eight laborers were ordered to stand in a barrel of water by Gestapo chief Dibauer, because "they didn't look too clean." They all froze to death by the next day as the ice hardened around their feet.

    1943: Over 2,500 Jews in Salonica are crammed into 593 rooms in the Baron de Hirsh Ghetto. The ghetto was surrounded with high wooden fences, topped with barbed wire. Signs in German, Greek and Ladino warned Jews not to leave, under penalty of death.

    1943: The daily transports to Treblinka continued. Included are New York Born Yetta Flater and London born Helene Rosenberg. Three hundred of the deportees that day were over 70 years old.

    1943: In explaining the Nazi commitment to the Final Solution, Goebbels writes in his diary, “We are so entangled in the Jewish question that henceforth it is impossible to retreat.”

    1944: Denise Bloch and a fellow SOE agent “were dropped back into central France” on what would, tragically prove to be her last mission since she would be captured in June and executed at Ravensbruck.

    1945: Haaretz published the following description of kidnapping Yaakov Tavin during the “Hunting Season.” “Passersby in Dizengoff and Yirmiyahu streets were greatly struck…by the kidnapping of a young man in the street. The kidnapping occurred at 11 a.m, and was witnessed by a large number of people. A large taxi halted at the corner of Dizengoff and Yirmiyahu streets, and several men emerged, one of them dressed in police uniform. They approached the young man, who was standing on the pavement holding a package. Shouting 'Thief!', they attacked him and began to hit him. The crowd thought that he was in fact a thief, and several of them joined the attackers and helped them to push the young man into the taxi. He struggled with them and shouted in Yiddish and in Hebrew: 'Jews, help me! Why do you let them hit a Jew?' He was thrown into the car, which swiftly drove away.

    1945: In Afula, Yemima and Adam Rubin gave birth to Michal Breslavy who gained fame Michal Bat-Adam who among other things was “the first Israeli woman to direct a feature film.”

    1947: In Tel Aviv a radio announcement by the Irgun was heard in which the Jewish organization took responsibility for yesterday’s attack on a British officers’ club in Jerusalem yesterday.  The Irgun said the attack was in retaliation for British attacks in Haifa on Friday, February 28.

    1947: In response to the latest wave of violence, the British imposed martial law throughout Palestine.  At 4 A.M. British troops occupied Petah Tikav Ramat Gan, Tel Aviv as well as other coastal communities while the government in Jerusalem imposed additional restrictions on Mea Sharim.

    1947(10th of Adar, 5707): Four year old Ketti Shalom died tonight after having been shot by British forces as she stood on the balcony of her home in Jerusalem, which is under martial law.  Her mother was wounded but survived the shooting.

    1949(1st of Adar, 5709): Rosh Chodesh Adar

    1949(1st of Adar, 5709): Fifty-four year old Henry J. Berkowitz, the Rabbi at Temple Israel “the largest Jewish Congregation in the Pacific Northwest passed away today.  Born in Philadelphia, a veteran of WW I, and a graduate of HUC, he wrote several books including Book Camp which “described his experiences as a Navy chaplain.” (As reported by JTA)

    1950(13th of Adar, 5710): Ta'anit Esther

    1950:Israel Railways began regular passenger service today from Tel Aviv North Railway Station, via the Eastern Railway and Rosh HaAyin, to Jerusalem.

    1950: A bill was introduced in the Iraqi parliament allowing the Jews of Iraq to immigrate to Israel.  Introduction of the bill required a large cash payment by the Israeli representatives.  The “Jews could leave provided they left behind all gold, jewelry and valuables and provided that they also gave up their Iraqi citizenship.”

    1950: In Iraq, Parliament passed the Revocation of Citizenship which had been introduced earlier on that same day by Saleh Jabr, the Minister of the Interior. 

    1950: A horse named Tel Aviv is entered in the second race at Hialeah Park in Miami.

    1952: Birthdate of comedian and early star of SNL Laraine Newman.

    1952: It was reported today that 74 year old Dr. Alexander Marx, director of libraries and Jacob H. Schiff Professor of History at the Jewish Theological Seminary of America will be taking his first trip to Israel this month.

    1953:  Birthdate of Wisconsin Senator Russ Feingold.

    1953: The Jerusalem Post reported from Washington that the Eisenhower administration decided to pay more attention to Arab countries and less to Israel. The first concrete step in this direction was granting Egypt an $11m. credit so it could purchase American arms.

    1953: The Jerusalem Post reported that twenty Jewish families from Poland arrived in Austria on their way to Israel. They reported that the Polish Jews were in a state of panic and more families were expected to follow.

    1956: Seventy-four year old Israel Zolli, the former chief rabbi of Rome who converted to Catholicism in 1945 passed away today.

    1956: Morocco gains its independence from France; date celebrated as Independence Day in Morocco. Jews are known to have settled in what is no Moroccoduring Roman times.  In 1948, the ancient Jewish community had over a quarter of a million members.  Following violent attacks, large numbers of Jews began leaving for Israel.  At the time of independence, Jews served in the parliament and held at least one ministerial post.  The new government banned immigration to Israel.  The ban was lifted in 1963 and Jews began moving en masse to Israel.  The ancient community has now dwindled to a couple of thousand members.

    1958: In “Israel’s Anniversary Year” Mary Qualley King described plans being made by Israelis to celebrate the country’s tenth anniversary.

    1964: Pre-Broadway tryouts for “Anyone Can Whistle” “with a book by Arthur Laurents and music and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim” opened in Philadelphia.

    1965: U.S. premiere “The Sound of Music” the movie version of the Rodgers and Hammerstein Broadway musical with a score by Irwin Kostal and a screenplay by Ernest Lehman.

    1970: “The white minority Rhodesian Front government, led by Ian Smith, severed ties with the British crown; Smith declared Rhodesia an independent republic.” The majority black population resisted the Smith government. A civil war broke between the Smith government and the black population which was represented by ZANU (Zimbabwe African National Union) and ZAPU (Zimbabwe African People’s Union).  Because of the civil war, most of the Jewish population (approximately 7,000 in number as of 1961) left the country.  Eventually the minority white government was defeated and the Republic of Zimbabwe was formed.

    1978:The Jerusalem Post reported that Egypt was counting on US President Jimmy Carter to put forward an American peace package to put pressure on Israel and to break the apparent deadlock over the Israeli-Egyptian “declaration of principles.” In Israel government sources declared that the positions of the two sides remained far apart on major issues, especially on the problem of the future of the “administered areas.”

    1978:The Jerusalem Post reported that Venezuela had announced that there were no obstacles in selling oil to Israel and welcomed cooperation on other aspects of energy.

    1979: U.S. premriere of “Norma Rae” directed by Martin Ritt, with music by David Shire, a screenplay by Irving Ravetch and his wife Harriet Frank Jr. co-starring Ron Liebman.

    1980(14th of Adar, 5740): Purim

    1980: Yigal Allon’s funeral took place today at Kibbutz Ginosar on the shore of Lake Kinneret which had been his home for almost fifty years.

    1981:Rockets from Lebanese territory struck several homes in the Galilee town of Qiryat Shemona today, wounding three people.

    1981: Discovery of 5020 Asimov, an asteroid named after science fiction author Isaac Asimov.

    1982: Rabbi Haim Meir Drukman lost his post as Deputy Minister of Religious Affairs.

    1982(7th of Adar, 5742): Seventy-one year old Yoel Zussman the fourth President of the Supreme Court of Israel, passed away today.

    1982: The Dearborn Station, “a Romanesque Revival structure designed by Cyrus W. Eidlitz” was designated as an official Chicago Landmark.

    1983: Shulamit Ran's Verticals“was premiered by pianist Alan Feinberg at New York's Merkin Concert Hall. The New York Times described the work by the Tel Aviv native as “rhapsodic and intriguing.”

    1984: U.S. premiere of “This Is Spinal Tap” “an American 1984 rock music mockumentary written and scored by Rob Reiner who also co-starred along with Harry Shearer.

    1984: U.S. premiere of “Harry and Son” directed by Paul Newman and starring Ellen Barkin.

    1986(21st of Adar I, 5746): Marcel Liebman, Belgian historian and Holocaust survivor, passed away at the age of 56. 

    1987:Law-enforcement officials said today that federal prosecutors are on the verge of seeking the indictment of Aviem Sella, a prominent Israeli Air Force officer who the Justice Department alleges played a key role in directing the espionage activities of Jonathan Jay Pollard,

    1988:Dr. Inamullah Khan, secretary general of the Pakistan-based World Moslem Congress has been named as the winner of the $369,000 Templeton Prize for Progress in Religion even though there are reports that the prize winner has been associated with anti-Semitic and anti-Israel causes.

    1991(16th of Adar, 5751):  French musician Serge Gainsbourg passed away at the age of 62. Born Lucien Ginzburg, Gainsbourg survived the Nazi occupation of France to become a leading poet, songwriter, singer and director.

    1992(27th of Adar I, 5752): The Lubavitcher Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson, suffered a disabling stroke while praying at the gravesite of the previous Rebbe, Rabbi Yosef Yitzchak of Lubavitch.

    1993(9th of Adar, 5753): Yehoshua Weissbrod was stoned and then shot dead by Palestinian terrorists in the town of Rafa.

    1997: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Rubber Bullets:Power and Conscience in Modern Israel
    by Yaron Ezrahi, the children’s book, When Chickens Grow Teeth: A Story From the French of Guy de Maupassant retold and illustrated by Wendy Anderson Halperin and  Too Much Is Never Enough by Russian born architect Morris Lapidus, the man who “created Miami Beach in the 1950’s

    1998: After almost three months of negotiations, Ronald Perelman and Al Dunlap reach an agreement involving the sale of Sunbeam and Coleman.

    1999(14thof Adar, 5759): Purim is celebrated for the last time in the 20thcentury

    2001: “Inherit the Wind,” the controversial play co-authored Jerome Lawrence “that used Darwin vs. Genesis as a way to speak out against McCarthyism” opened at the Sheffel Theatre of the Topeka Civic Theatre & Academy

    2001:Eleanor Antin: Real Time Streaming” opened at the Cornerhouse in Manchester, UK.

    2001: The Times of London reviewed The Jewish State: The struggle for Israel's Soul by Yoram Hazony

    2002(18th of Adar, 5762): Eleven Israelis were killed in a Palestinian suicide bombing in Jerusalem

    2003: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of interest to Jewish readers including 'The Pieces From Berlin': Swindling Holocaust Victims by John

    Sutherland and Irving Howe:A Life of Passionate Dissent by Gerald Sorin.

    2005: Start of the 12th Daf Yomi Cycle.  Daf Yomi is translated as "Daily Page."  Daf refers to the double-sided page of the Talmud.  Daf is also the word for Plank.  Tjere are those who say that the double meaning of the term Daf comes from a story about Rabbi Akiva who was saved by from drowning when he grabbed hold of a plank of a daf.  By holding on a daf - a page of the Talmud, the Jew stays a float in the worldly sea.  The program called Daf Yomi is "a systematic approach to the daily study of the Talmud formulated by Reb Meir Shapira of Lublinin 1923.   The program enables Jews throughout the world to study the same daf or double-sided page of the Talmud simultaneously.  Using this method, one can study the Talmud in a little over seven years.  This system has become popular and there is plethora of sites that provide both text and audio explanations.  There are also weekly summaries.  The success of Daf Yomi has led to the creation of other cyclical study programs.  These programs can be found on the web.  Also, many congregations - Orthodox, Conservative and Reform - now have spontaneously formed lay study groups that cover this material.  It is one more example of the burgeoning interest in Adult Jewish Education.

    2005: Final performance of television series “Boston Public” co-starring Fyvush Frinkel, the veteran of the Yiddish theatre who portrayed “history teach Harvey Lipshultz.”

    2006:  The Jerusalem Post reported on deteriorating condition for Jewish communities in parts of the former Soviet Union.  In Uzbekistan authorities are probing the murder of one of Tashkent's rabbis.  And despite pleas from the Jewish community and international organizations, the Tajikistangovernment has started to destroy the country's only synagogue.

    2006(2nd of Adar, 5766): Marty Stein, who helped start Stein drugstores and Stein Optical, has died of cancer. He was 68. Mr. Stein was diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia in 1994. He passed away in Milwaukee. A former pharmacist, Mr. Stein co-founded the first Stein drugstore in Menomonee Falls in 1961. He later expanded the chain into 19 stores, which he sold to the Walgreen Co. in 1979.  He then started Stein Health Services Inc., which ran three companies in home health care, eye care and related fields. The Eye Care One division ran Wisconsin stores as Stein Optical and Chicagostores as EyeQ. Those were sold in the late 1990s.Mr. Stein also was involved in efforts to help Israeland Jewish immigrants, including serving as national chairman of a worldwide effort to airlift thousands of Ethiopian Jews to Israel. By 1988, he had met President Ronald Reagan, the pope and Israeli leaders. Despite his international focus, Mr. Stein remained committed to helping those in his local communities.” There are two Americasin America," he once said. "There's the one where I live and there's the other one in places such as the inner city. I want to help other people who live in the other Americato know the AmericaI know. "Mr. Stein was active in groups such as the Hunger Task Force of Milwaukee. Former Wisconsin Gov. Tommy Thompson called the news of Mr. Stein's death "devastating."

    2006:This evening poet Rachel Tzvia Back gave a lecture entitled "Placing the Voice: The Personal and Political, Israel 2006" at Williams College.

    2007: Ethiopian born singer Aiiala Ingdsht releases her first album in Tel Aviv.

    2007(12th of Adar, 5767): Former American Jewish Congress leader William Maslow died in his Manhattan home at the age of 99. Born in Kievin 1907, Maslow moved to the United States with his family in 1911. He served as general counsel to the American Jewish Congress from 1945 to 1960, and as executive director from 1960 to 1972, guiding the organization’s fight against discrimination to the court system. Under Maslow’s direction, the American Jewish Congress fought housing restrictions on Jews in many communities, as well as discriminatory hiring and admissions policies at U.S. companies and universities. He filed the group’s amicus brief in Brown v. Board of Education and helping organize the 1963 March on Washington that featured the “I Have a Dream Speech.” He also founded the Commission on Law and Social Action, modeled after the ACLU and NAACP. A nephew of Paula Ben-Gurion, wife of Israel’s first Prime Minister, Maslow was a dedicated Zionist and helped lead Israel’s fight against the Arab economic boycott in the 1970s.

    2007: 153 years to the day after the congregation now known as Temple Israel received its charter from the State of Tennessee, a historical marker was erected by the Shelby County Historical Commission, the Jewish American Society for Historic Preservation, and Temple Israel, on the corner where the synagogue had once stood describing the building as the "First Permanent Jewish House of Worship in Tennessee".

    2008: The Washington Post featured a review of Richard M. Cohen's Strong at the Broken Places.

    2008: The Sunday New York Times features a review of Dreams and Shadows:The Future of the Middle East by Robin Wright andThe Bush Tragedyby Jacob Wiesberg.

    2008: In New York City, the 92nd Street Y  presents what might be called“Jewish night the press” in a program styled “In the News With Jeff Greenfield—On the Election with Jonathan Alter, Joe Klein and Rich Lowry.” 

    2008: During Operation Hot Winter the “IDF decided to change its strategy today and sent a whole regiment (about 2000 men) into the Northern Strip to occupy Jabalya and Sajiyah but met stiff resistance from the Palestinians.

    2009: Jonathan David Leibowitz assumed the Chairmanship of the Federal Trade Commission.

    2009: Sports Illustrated reports that Andy Roddic will “not be showing up at the Dubai Open” this week.  “He’s ticked that Israel’s Shahar Peer was denied entry to the United Arab Emirates to ply in the women’s tournament.”

    2009: At the 92ndStreet Y, playwright, author and actress Anna Deavere delivers the Annual State of Anti-Semitism lecture entitled “Hatred Knows No Boundaries, a unique address on the issues of hatred, racial conflict and genocide

    2009: In Washington, D.C. Jewish author Adam Gopnikdiscusses and signs his new book, Angels and Ages: A Short Book About Darwin, Lincoln, and Modern Life,

    2009:Israel's UN envoy filed a letter of complaint about the continued rocket attacks from Gaza to the Secretary-General and the president of the Security Council, whose rotating chair is currently held by Libya.

    2009: In an article entitled “The Good, the Bad, the Bible,” Lisa Miller examines The Good Book by David Plotz, “a naïf wandering in a strange land full of eccentric people and incomprehensible rules.” 

    2010: Today is the day the New Israeli Foundation for Cinema & TV has set as the deadline for submitting scripts based on the stories of Sholom Aleichem that could be used for television productions. 

    2010: A direct-to-DVD sequel to the animated film Curious George titled “Curious George 2: Follow That Monkey!” based on the character created by Hans Augusto Rey and Margret Rey was released today.

    2010:At noon today a demonstration that will include members of the Union of Israel Journalists who are demanding the safeguarding of public broadcasting in Israel is scheduled to take place at Beit Sokolov in Tel Aviv.

    2010: The Tulane University Jewish Studies Program under the direction of Dr. Brian Horowitz is scheduled to present to present a program entitled “Obama and Israel,” featuring Mitchell Bard of the American Israeli Cooperative Enterprise

    2010:Late today reports started to emerge that, contrary to initial reports, the Masorti synagogue in Concepcion was destroyed in the earthquake that had rocked Chile this past weekend.

    2010: Amos Oz said today that the Khoury family of East Jerusalem had funded the translation of A Tale of Love and Darkness, his best-selling autobiography to promote coexistence

    2011: The Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington is scheduled to present a program entitled “Jewish Confederates” at Adas Israel Congregation.”

    2011:Pope Benedict XVI reiterated that the Jewish people are not responsible for Jesus' death in a new book released today.

    2011:There were signs today of a new effort to restart the Israeli-Palestinian peace process after months of stagnation, but chances of a resumption of talks looked slim and Israel appeared to be stepping back from the stated goal of reaching a framework agreement resolving the core issues of the conflict by September.

    2011(26th of Adar I, 5771):Eighty-seven year old Walter Zacharius, a publisher and iconoclast who released an unauthorized version of the erotic classic "Candy" and had the savvy and sales talk to help romance novels make the transition from drugstores to superstores to the Internet passed away today (As reported by Hillel Italie)

    2012: Final day to make reservations for the 2012 Humanitarian Awards Dinner sponsored by the Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center.

    2012:Joseph Cedar’s “Footnote,” a tragicomic tale of rival father-and-son Jewish scholars in the Talmud department of Hebrew University in Jerusalem is scheduled to open in New York today.

    2012: Emanuel Berman, author of “City within a City” is scheduled to participate in a lecture and book signing sponsored by   the YIVO Institute of Research.

    2012:In his first public comments on a North American visit that will include talks with U.S. President Barack Obama, Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said today Israel reserved the right to defend itself against Iran.

    2012:Foreign Minister Avigdor Lieberman said today that Israel is ready to help treat Syrians wounded in the uprising against President Bashar Assad.

    2013(20thof Adar, 5773): In Cedar Rapids, the traditional minyan at Temple Judah gathers for Shabbat Parah which, the weekly portion includes the story of the Golden Calf, might be called “The Tale of Two Bovines.

    2013: The Minneapolis Jewish Film Festival is scheduled the Minnesota Premiere of “Life In Stills.”

    2013: The Israel String Quartet – Yigal Tuneh and Avital Steiner (violins), Robert Moses (viola), and Tzvi Moskovsky (cello) – is sechduedl to perform to pieces by Beethoven at the Eden-Tamir Music Center

    2013: “After failing to assemble a coalition within the legally allotted month, Prime Minister Netanyahu went back to President Shimon Peres tonight to ask for an extension.

    2013:Three Syrian mortars landed near moshav Ramat Magshimim in the southern Golan Heights this afternoon, causing no injuries or damage (As reported by Yoel Goldman and Gavriel Fiske)

    2014(30th of Adar I, 5774): Rosh Chodesh Adar II

    2014(30th of Adar I, 5774): Eighty-eight year old Justin Kaplan who won the Pulitzer Prize in 1967 forMr. Clemens and Mark Twain passed away today. (As reported by Margalit Fox)

    2014: The Center for Jewish History and YIVO Institute for Jewish Research are scheduled to present a symposium, “Tevye’s Daughters: How Jewish Women Confronted Modernity.”

    2014: Yuval Adler’s “Bethlehem” a move that “explores the relationship between a Shin Bet agent and a Palestinian teenager is among the films competing tonight for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. (As reported by Debra Kamin)

    2014: Niv Adiri who was “part of the team” nominated for the Academy Award for Best Sound for “Gravity” is the only Israeli nominated for one of tonight’s Oscars.

    2014: Opening session of the AIPAC Policy Conference is scheduled to take place today in Washington

    2014: “The Sturgeon Queens,” a documentary featuring Russ & Daughters is scheduled to be shown at the Washington, DC Jewish Film Festival.

    2014: Eight people have been arrested as suspects in a stabbing that took place in Bnei Brak, near Tel Aviv, this evening. The background for the attack is suspected to be nationalistic.

    2014: A Jewish man was beaten on the Paris Metro by assailants who reportedly told him “Jew, we are going to lay into you, you have no country.”

    2014: Jerusalem is the site of the so-called million man march where haredim protest having to serve in the IDF.

    2014: Michael Kapustin, the rabbi at Ner Tamid, the reform congregation in Simferpolo, the capital of Ukraine’s republic “said there is an atmosphere of fear in the city, with few cars and fewer pedestrians on the streets” and that his congregants should “stay indoors (As reported by Amanda Borschel-Dan)

    2014: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or Jewish readers including Operation Paperclip: The Secret Intelligence Program That Brought Nazi Scientists to America by Annie Jacobsen and Not I: Memoir of a German Childhood by Joachim Fest.

    2015: Dr. Hana Barouk is scheduled to deliver a lecture on”Chassidic Feminism? Rabbi Menachem Schneersohn's Approach to the Role of Women in Chabad Chassidism” at the Jewish Museum of Florida.

    2015: Rabbi Robert Loewy is scheduled to officiate at the graveside services at Hebrew Rest Cemetery in New Orleans for Elma Bloch Rosenfeld, the mother of Becky Ripps.

    2015:  Evan Rapport is scheduled to deliver a lecture “Greeted with Smiles: Bukharin Jewish Music and Musicians in New York” at the Center for Jewish History.






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    March 3

    321: Roman Emperor Constantine named Sunday which had been a Roman pagan day for honoring the sun as a day of rest.  This was an attempt by Constantine to close the gap between pagans and Christianity and to isolate the Jews.  Constantine’s day of rest should not be confused with the Jewish Sabbath which was a universal day of rest.

    505: Rav Ahai ben Ray Huna, a member of the Saboraim, passed away

    561: The Papacy of Pelagius I came to an end.  He owed his election to Justinian I, the emperor whose religious program included placing restrictions on Jews and interfering with their practices by trying to force them to substitute the Greek Septuagint for the TaNaCh.

    1186: Saladin takes control of the city of Mosul which at that time had a Jewish population of approximately 7,000 souls which had been led by Zakkai ha-Nais “who claimed to be a descendant of King David.” (As reported by the Jewish Encyclopedia)

    1240: Seizure of all copies of the Talmud in France

    1337: Levi ben Gershon, better known by his Latinised name as Gersonides or the abbreviation of first letters as RaLBaG Levi observed a solar eclipse today.

    1431: Eugene IV began his papacy today. This was a less than positive move for Jews since the new pope would “decree and order that from now on, and for all time, Christians shall not eat or drink with the Jews, nor admit them to feasts, nor cohabit with them, nor bathe with them. […]  They cannot live among Christians, but in a certain street, separated and segregated from Christians, and outside which they cannot under any pretext have houses.”

    1554: Fifty year old John Frederick I, Elector of Saxony, whose issuance of “a mandate that prohibited Jews from inhabiting, engaging in business in or passing through his realm” sparked an episode in which Luther showed that he had become an anti-Semite passed away today.

    1619(17thof Adar, 5379): Shlomo Ephraim ben Aaron Luntschitz passed away.  Born at Lenczyk in 1550 he was“a rabbi, poet and Torah commentator, best known for his Torah commentary Keli Yakar.” (For more see Seeing with Both Eyes: Ephraim Luntshitz and the Polish-Jewish Renaissance by Leonard S. Levin)

    1658: Dr. Jacob Lumbrozo, the first Jew to settle in Maryland was given amnesty by Oliver Cromwell. Lumbrozo had been indicted on charges of blasphemy which was a capital offense.

    1732(6thof Adar I, 5492): Isaiah Azulai, father of Isaac Zerahiah Azulai and the grandfather Hayyim Joseph David Azulai passed away in Jerusalem.

    1799: The French army under the command of Napoleon Bonaparte reached the outskirts of Jaffa. The army had left for Palestine on the first of February in an attempt to forestall a Turco-British invasion through the Palestinian land-bridge. A division under the command of General Kleber deployed along the shores of the river Yarkon, 10 kms north of the town and was responsible for shielding the besieging forces from hostile interference. This military action had nothing to do with the Jewish people. It was another example of the land of the Jews being a battleground because it was the land bridge between Africa, Asia and indirectly, Europe.

    1801: David Emanuel took office as the Governor of Georgia. Emanuel was the first Jewish person to serve as a governor in the United States. Emanuel was appointed to serve the last eight months of the term of his predecessor who had assumed a seat in the U.S. Senate. Born in Pennsylvania in 1743, he passed away in 1808.

    1805(2ndof Adar II, 5565): Eighty-year old author Naphtali Hartwig Wessley passed away in Hamburg following which he was buried “in the cemetery of the Portuguese Israelites, whose rituals he had professed all his life.”

    1808: In the Kingdom of Westphalia, ruled by Jerome Bonaparte, Israel Jacobson “was appointed president of the Jewish consistory which was established today.

    1811: Birthdate of Bernhard Wolff, the German journalist and editor who founded Wolffs Telegraphisches Bureau which was the German version of Rueters (British) and Havas (French).

    1814: Birthdate of Charles Kensington Salaman, the native of London who gained fame as pianist and composer.

    1822: Birthdate of Baltimore native Phineas J. Horwitz , the 1845 graduate of the University of Maryland who would become Surgeon General and Chief of the Navy Bureau of Medicine.

    1833: Birthdate of Mendel Hirsch, the German born Bible commentator and poet who was the son of Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch.

    1844: Birthdate of “Dreyfeusard” Clement Moras.

    1845: Florida becomes the 27th state to join the Union.” In 1763, the first recorded Jews in Florida came to Pensacola, in the northwest corner of the territory. More Jews moved to north Florida in the next few decades, but the Jewish population remained small during this time, numbering no more than a dozen individuals. When Florida became a state, there were less than 100 Jews in a population of 66,500. The first U.S. Senator from Florida was a Jew, David Levy Yulee.” For more about the history of the Jews of Florida see

    1846: The French Supreme Court declared the “Jewish Oath” unconstitutional in response to a case involving Rabbi Lazard Isidor of Pflazburg who was defended by Isaac Adolphe Crémieux, the Jewish lawyer and political leader.

    1849: The United States Department of the Interior is established. Joel D. Wolfsohn who served as Assistant Secretary of the Department from in the final months of the Truman Administration appears to be the highest ranking Jew to have served at the Department of the Interior. He served from July 10, 1952 through February 20, 1953.

    1849: Israel’s Herald published for the first time in the United States

    1851: David Levy Yulee completed his first terms as a United States Senator from Florida. He was the first Jew to sit in the Upper Chamber of the U.S. Congress. Yulee was also the last Jew in his family line since he married a gentile and raised the children in the faith of their mother. Yulee would not only turn his back on his religion, he would turn his back on his country and join the Confederacy during the Civil War.

    1852: Birthdate of Sir Ernest Joseph Cassel British merchant banker and capitalist. Born in Cologne, Germany, the son of Jacob Cassel, who owned a small bank, Cassel arrived penniless in Liverpool, England in 1869 and found employment with a firm of grain merchants. With an enormous capacity for hard work and a natural business sense, Cassel was soon in Paris working for a bank. The Franco-Prussian War forced him to move to a position in a London bank, as he was born in Prussia. He prospered and was soon putting together his own financial deals. His areas of interest were in mining, infrastructure and heavy industry. Turkey was an early area of business ventures, but he soon had large interests in Sweden, the United States, South America, South Africa, and Egypt. One of the wealthiest men of his day, Cassel was a good friend of King Edward VII as well as of Prime Minister Herbert Asquith and the young Winston Churchill. In 1878, he married Annette Mary M. Maxwell at Westminster He became a Roman Catholic at the behest of his wife, Annette, but was always thought of as a Jew. The establishment was shocked to find out on his death that he had converted many years before. A few months after his death in 1921, Cassel's estate was probated at £6,000,000

    1854: Birthdate of Moisei Yakelovich Ostrogorski, the native of Grodno who lived in France during the Dreyfus scandal and whose visits to the U.S. and the U.K. led to the publishing of his most famous work Democracy and the Organization of Political which did not keep him from returning to his native Russia where he dies “in 1919 during the chaos that followed the Bolshevik Revolution.”

    1855: Philip Phillips, the son of a prominent Charleston, SC Jewish family completed a term representing Alabama’s First Congressional District in the U.S. House of Representatives.

    1861: Marcus Jastrow repeated the sermon he had delivered yesterday on Shabbat so that those who had heard and impressed by the sentiments expressed could write it down.

    1861: Alexander II of Russia signs the Emancipation Manifesto, freeing serfs.

    1862: During the American Civil War, David Yulee, barely avoided capture by Union troops who were attacking Fernandina FL. Yulee was the first Jew to be elected to the United States. When Florida left the Union and joined the Confederacy, Yulee resigned from the U.S. Senate and took a seat in the southern Congress.

    1863: During the American Civil War, Alfred Mordecai, Jr. was promoted to the rank of Captain in the Union Army.

    1869: In Widz, Russia Isaac Ginsburg and his wife gave birth to David Ginsburg the “Rabbi of Congregations Beth Israel and Beth Hakneses Hachodesh, Rochester, N. Y.”

    1870: Arguments resumed this morning in the matter revolving around the will of the late Simeon Abraham, the New York physician and Jewish civic leader whose bequests exceeded the value of his estate. The executor is seeking a court order in how to resolve the shortfall while several of the beneficiaries are seeking to protect their interests.

    1871: While serving with the United States Navy, Dr. Phineas J. Horowitz was appointed medical inspector.

    1871: In New York, the remodeled sanctuary of Shaarey Tzedek was dedicated today. The building, which is located on Henry Street, was bought by the Jewish congregation from Quakers in 1840. The remodeling was necessitated by the growth of the congregation.

    1874(14th of Adar, 5634): Purim

    1874: As a group of temperance crusaders marched through Columbus, Ohio looking for support it was rebuffed by various merchants and other locals including a group of German Jews who taughtened them with offers of free beer. [Could the beer drinking Jews have been Purim revelers?]

    1875: William Sprague completed his 12 year career as a United States Senator from Rhode Island.  During a debate in the United States Senate on the massacre of Jews of Romania, Sprague said “the facts would show that the Jews of Romania had possessed themselves of nearly all the land and of all of the trade of the that principality while a vast population of Christians there were deprived of their means of support..”  He said that this “would be found to be the cause of the recent outbreak” and that that this experience should provide “food for profound reflection…in regard to conditions…in our own country.

    1877: It was reported today that a Reuter’s dispatch from Constantinople the Greeks are upset with the outcome of the election held in that city to choose delegates for the Ottoman Parliament because the of the five non-Muslims chosen the Greeks got the same number as the Jews – one – with the other three going to Armenians

    1877: It was reported that a dispatch from the Daily News that one Jew was among the 10 delegates elected to serve in the Ottoman Parliament. Of the remaining delegates, 5 were Turks and 4 were Christians – a result that the Daily News said “caused no excitement.” [Editor’s Note – no matter which version you prefer, for the Jews the important item was that they were an accepted part of the electoral process as the Porte lurched toward a more open form of government.]

    1878: Following the Russo-Turkish War, Bulgaria regained its independence from Ottoman Empire. The rights of the Jews of Bulgaria, along with other religious minorities, were guaranteed by the Treaty of Berlin. The treaty guarantee did not protect from outbreaks of anti-Semitic violence, blamed in part on the erroneous notion that the Jews had supported the Ottomans. Bulgaria was never very hospitable to its Jewish population. On the other hand, Bulgaria managed to avoid shipping most of its Jewish population to concentration camps.

    1878: In New York City, Meyer S. Isaacs presided over a meeting of prominent Jewish leaders including rabbis, synagogue presidents and representatives of Jewish benevolent societies. Those attending the meeting which was held at the 34th Street Synagogue discussed ways of raising funds to aid the suffering Jews of Turkey and the East during the current hostilities. A proposal to by the Ball Committee to hold a masked ball at the end of March as a fundraiser was rejected and a more direct approach for appealing for funds was adopted.

    1878: Rabbi D.C. Lewin delivered a well-received lecture on “The Life and Character of Moses Mendelssohn” at the Young Men’s Hebrew Union in New York City this evening.

    1878: Birthdate of German-born expressionist theatrical producer and director Leopold Jessner who left Germany in 1933 which saved but not his career

    1878: “Macklin in the Merchant of Venice” published today described the decision of great 18th century thespian Charles Macklin to play the role of Shylock in the manner of a serious character. Despite the doubts of others, Macklin was so successful that he reprised it hundreds of times. No other actor even came close to his portrayal of this Jewish figure until Edmund Kean took up the role in the 19th century. Of Macklin’s portrayal, Alexander Pope, the great English poet wrote, “This is the Jew, That Shakespeare Drew.”

    1878: In Philadelphia, PA, “Hebrew School No. 2 opened today in a synagogue building” at “fifth and Catherine Streets. The school would later move to Wheatley Hall before finding its final home at Touro Hall. (As reported by Cyrus Adler and David Sulzberger)

    1878: Charles Wessolowsky wrote to Rabbi Edward B.M. Browne today describing “the B’nai B’rith organization in Uniontown, Alabama and the value of B’nai B’rith to the survival of American Judaism”  while praising “a Mrs. Ungar of Uniontown not only for her resistance to attempted conversions, but also for the raising of her family in Jewish lore.”

    1879: Jewish financier and businessman Joseph Seligman was among the major stockholders of the St. Louis and San Francisco who arrived in St. Louis this morning prior to tomorrow’s meeting during which a new Board of Directors will be elected

    1880: It was reported today that the first edition of the “Oriental and Biblical Journal” edited by Stephen D. Peet has been issued in Chicago, Illinois. [Peet served as a pastor to several Congregational and Presbyterian Churches in the Middle West. He had a passion for archeology which he used in his Biblical studies. He was one of a series of English and American clergyman who tied the study of Archeology with Biblical Scholarship; a connection that late would become a national pastime of the Zionists.]

    1881: Edward Einstein completed his term as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from New York’s 7th Congressional District

    1882(12thof Adar I, 5642): Sxity-seven Ludwig Kalishch, the German born author whose participation in the Revolutions of 1848 and 1849 forced him to move to France passed away today in Paris.

    1886: It was reported today that banker Isidore Wormser had given his daughter, the former Miss Julia Wromser “$100,000 in Lake Shore 7 per cent sinking bond funds” as a wedding gift, while James Seligman had given Jefferson Seligman, his son and her new husband “a check for $50,000” which was supplemented by a check for $20,000 from the firm of J & W Seligman.

    1887: Birthdate of Chasidic Rabbi Yehuda Meir Shapiro “a descendant of Rabbi PInchas Shapiro of Korets, on the students of the Baal Shem Tov” and French tosafist Rabbi Joseph ben Isaac Bekhor Shor, who was “known as the Lubliner Rav”

    1889: The Temple Emanu-El Sisterhood was incorporated today by several leading Jewesses including Mrs. Theodora G. Levy, Mrs. Cordeilia Schnitzer and Mrs. Theresa Sidenberg.

    1890: The Trustees of Columbia College met today and “acknowledged and accepted “ several gifts including “a valuable collection of Hebrew manuscripts from” Oscar S. Straus, the former American minister to Turkey.

    1890(11th of Adar, 5650): Seventy year old Rabbi Julius Landsberger who helped found “the Liberal Synagogue at Darmstadt” passed away today in Berlin.

    1891: It was reported today that the New York Siberian Exile Petition Association will be forwarding a petition to the Czar in April “protesting against the present treatment of the Jews.”

    1891: “Priests and Rabbis Barred” published today described an attempted Dr. T.T. Eaton, “a liberal Baptist preacher” to have the Louisville Ministerial Association admit Catholic and Jewish clergy as members.  His motion failed in 14 to 12 vote.

    1891: Prominent St. Louis Jewish leader Nathan Frank completed his service as U.S Congressman.

    1891: Charles Baker completed his service in the House of Representatives during which he had protested the treatment of the Jews by the government of Russia.

    1892: President James H. Hoffman presided over tonight’s meeting of The Hebrew Technical Institute which was held at Temple Emanu-El in New York City.

    1892(4th of Adar, 5652): Joseph Ratner, a Russian Jewish immigrant who has been married for two months shot himself this afternoon.  He was believed to have been despondent over health problems.

    1893: Birthdate of Salvator Cicurel “an Egyptian Olympic fencer, who competed in the individual and team épée and team foil events at the 1928 Summer Olympics.”

    1893: Forty-two year old Sigmund Hyman was taken from Mount Sinai Hospital and sent to North Brother Island because he was suffering from typhus fever.

    1893: The New York Auxiliary to the Jewish Section of the Woman’s Branch of the Parliament of Religions is scheduled to resume its meeting today at the home of Mrs. Scholle where they will continue making plans for the papers they will be presenting at the upcoming World’s Fair. The members include Mrs. Oscar Straus, Mrs. Jacob Schiff, Mrs. Simon Borg, Mrs. Isidor Wormser, Mrs. Jesse Selgiman and Mrs. Alexander Kohut, the wife of Rabbi Alexander Kohut.

    1894: Policemen Fay and Schultz came to Shearith Israel to investigate reports that “there was a crazy man in the synagogue.”

    1895: “A Wedding Reception, 1471” published today described the wedding of the Duke Ferrara who hosted so many guests that he was ‘obliged to hire” “the mattresses and bolsters…from the Jews who kept a bank in Ferrara.

    1895: “The Fate of a Financier” published today provided one version of the life and death of Joseph Suess Oppenheimer which is at odds with the facts as they are known today.

    1895: Birthdate of Rabbi Moshe Feinstein. Born in Uzda, Belorussia "Reb Moshe" was the leading authority on Orthodox Jewish religious law (Halacha) during the last century. He served as a Rabbi of Luban, near Minsk starting in 1921 before coming to the United States in 1937. In 1938, he was named Rosh Yeshiva (Dean) of Mesivta Tiferes Yerushalayim, a New York yeshiva a position he held until 1986, the year he passed away. As his reputation grew, his rulings on religious law came to be accepted worldwide. A multi-volume collection of his letters, Igros Moshe, is considered authoritative among Orthodox Jews with regard to moral and ethical issues. He served President of the Union of Orthodox Rabbis of the United States and Canada, 1968-1986, Chairman, American Branch, Mo'ezet Gedolei ha-Torah of Agudat Yisrael, the Council of Torah Sages, and was acknowledged as the Gadol Ha-Dor, or preeminent individual of his generation of Jewish scholars.

    1895: “Early Bible Printing in This Country” published today described the role of the city of Philadelphia has played “in this branch of bookmaking” including the fact that the first Hebrew Bible published in the United States was printed by Philadelphian William Fry in 1814. This was done five years after a Hebrew language copy of the Book of Psalms had been printed at Harvard.

    1895: “B’nai B’rith Pioneers” published today traces the fifty year history of “the pioneer of all the existing Hebrew secret societies.”

    1895: Isidor Straus completed his service as U.S. Congressman from New York’s 15thCongressional District.

    1896: Professor Felix Adler will deliver a lecture entitled “Moral Aspects of the Question” at the opening session of a conference on Improved Housing being held at the United Charities Building.

    1896: It was reported today the resolution Congress had adopted “which virtually denounced the attitude of the Russians toward the Jews” had caused “embarrassment” for the U.S. Minister to St Petersburg because he had to “present such expression from his own government to the nation to which he is sent.”

    1897: Four lodges of B’nai B’rith hosted a party in honor of the birthdays of George Washington and Abraham Lincoln at the Tuxedo on Madison and 59thStreet.

    1898: “The Jews For Arbitrators” published today described  Rabbi Pereira Mendes wish that the United States would consider submitting its claims against Spain following the blowing up of the battleship USS Maine to a court of international arbitration instead of resorting to war.

    1902(24THof Adar, 5662): Isaac Conquy Abecassis, a native of the Azores born in 1840 passed away today at Var, France

    1903: Congress passed legislation aimed at curbing immigration to the United States. The bill required immigrants to pay a two dollar head tax (a considerable sum in those days for poor immigrants). It also gave immigration officers the right to exclude those whom they deem anarchists or as people who believe in or advocate the overthrow of the United States government. The legislation was obviously aimed at immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe, including the large Jewish populations in the Russian and Austro-Hungarian empires.

    1903: Despite “all the pressure that has been brought to bear to induce him to reconsider,” the leaders of Temple Beth-El reluctantly accepted the resignation of Dr. Kaufmann Kohler from his position as Rabbi of New York’s leading Reform congregation.

    1904: In South Carolina, Rabbi J.J. Simenhoff officiated at the wedding of Jake l. Karesh and Minnie A. Ellison.

    1905: In the wake of the defeat by Japan and the Russian Revolution, Czar Nicholas II agreed to create an elected assembly, the Duma.

    1907: Charles Grosvenor completed his 14 year career as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Ohio’s 11th district.  He was an opponent of immigration bills that specifically barred Russian Jews from coming to the United States.

    1910: Dorothy Levitt “was booked to give a talk at the Criterion Restaurant today about her experiences learning to fly.

    1911(3rd of Adar, 5671): Rabbi Jacob de Botton leader of the Jewish community in Salonica passed away at the age 68.

    1912(14thof Adar, 5672): Purim

    1912(14thof Adar, 5672): Eighty-six year old philanthropist William Wolf passed away today in San Francisco.

    1912: The New York Times publishes a review of Die Juden und das Wirtschaftsleben (The Jews in Economic Life) recently published in Germany by Prof. Werner Sombart, Professor of Political Economy at the Commercial High School of Berlin that includes the insights of Dr. Solomon Shechter.

    1913: Victor L. Berger completed his term representing the 5thCongressional District of Wisconsin

    1913: Simon Guggenheim completed his term as U.S. Senator from Colorado.

    1913: Birthdate of Harold Hochstein who gained fame as Harold J. Stone, the American actor who traveled from Broadway, to Hollywood to Television.

    1915: As the 63rd session of the United States Congress came to an end, Jacob Cantor completed his term as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives. He had been elected on November 4, 1913 to fill the vacancy of Francis Harrison (who was not Jewish). He lost to Issac Siegel who was Jewish and returned to his New York law practice. Siegel in turn would be replaced by that most famous of all New Yorkers, Fiorello H. LaGuardia, the son of a Jewish mother who was raised as a Yiddish speaking Italian Catholic.

    1915: “Needs of Jews in Russia” published today described the request for aid from the Jewish Colonization Association of Petrograd to aid the “tens of thousands:” of “new refugees from Poland” that have arrived in the Russian capital.

    1915: As the 63rd session of the United States Congress came to an end, Henry Mayer Goldfogle completed his term as a member of the U.S. House of Representative which had begun with the 57th session of Congress.

    1917: Djemal Pasha offers to give the Jews free access to the Western Wall in Jerusalem to pray if they provide the sum of 80,000-100,000 Francs

    1918: Germany and the new Communist government of Russia signed The Brest-Litovsk Treaty. This treat dismembered the Russian Empire and took Russia out of the war. This freed the German Army to shift all of its forces to the Western Front where the Kaiser’s forces tried for a knock-out blow that failed. The treaty helped bring on the Russian Civil War between the Whites and the Reds during which Jews were slaughtered by both sides. Also, the treaty resulted in western forces (U.S., English, etc.) sending troops to Russia. Once again, Jews were caught in the middle and suffered economic ruin and death.

    1918: In New York City, Joseph and Lena Kornberg who had married in 1904 and emigrated to New York from Austrian Galicia gave birth to Arthur Kornberg US biochemist who synthesized artificial DNA. He received the Nobel Prize in 1959. He died in 2007 at the age of 89.

    1918: Birthdate of famed photographer Arnold Newman.

    1919: Emir Faisel writes a letter to Felix Frankfurter expressing his support for the Zionist cause. ”We Arabs...look with deepest sympathy on the Zionist Movement....We will wish the Jews a most hearty welcome… The Arabs, especially the educated among us, look with the deepest sympathy on the Zionist movement. Our deputation here in Paris is fully acquainted with the proposals submitted yesterday by the Zionist Organization to the Peace Conference, and we regard them as moderate and proper." The boundaries of Palestine shall follow the general lines set out below: Starting on the North at a point on the Mediterranean Sea in the vicinity South of Sidon and following the watersheds of the foothills of the Lebanon as far as Jisr el Karaon, thence to El Bire following the dividing line between the two basins of the Wadi El Korn and the Wadi Et Teim thence in a southerly direction following the dividing line between the Eastern and Western slopes of the Hermon, to the vicinity West of Beit Jenn, thence Eastward following the northern watersheds of the Nahr Mughaniye close to and west of the Hedjaz Railway. In the East a line close to and West of the Hedjaz Railway terminating in the Gulf of Akaba [will serve as the boundary]; in the South a frontier to be agreed upon with the Egyptian Government; in the West the Mediterranean Sea. The details of the delimitations, or any necessary adjustments of detail, shall be settled by a Special Commission on which there shall be Jewish representation. Emir Faisel fought against the Turks alongside T.E. Lawrence. Faisal was expecting to be able to control a Caliphate based in Damascus. As we can see here he had even worked out a plan with Chaim Weizmann that would have allowed for the creation of a Jewish home in Palestine. Unfortunately, the French, who controlled Syria after the war, drove Faisal from Damascus, ending his power and the dream of peace in the Middle East.

    1919(1st of Adar II, 5679): Abraham (Albert) Antebi, head of the Alliance Israelite Universelle in Constantinople passed away. He was born at Damascus in 1899.

    1919: Meyer London, one of only two members of the Socialist Party to be elected to the U.S. House of Representatives completed his term representing the 12th District of New York. He had defeated Henry M. Goldfogle, a Jew, for the seat and Goldfogle returned the favor.

    1920: Arabs attacked Kfar Giladi forcing the settlers to abandon their land and take refuge in “the Shia village of Taibe” before finding ultimate sanctuary at Ayelet Hashahar, a kibbutz settled in 1915 during the Second Aliyah.

    1921: In Galveston, TX, “Russian Jewish immigrants Louis and Rose Paskowitz” gave birth to Dorian "Doc" Paskowitz the graduate of Stanford University School of Medicine who gave up his medical career to become “a professional surfer.

    1921: Birthdate of Allen Ginsberg beat generation poet. In 1969 he received the Arts & Letters Award.

    1922: An Arab delegation “held a meeting…at the Hyde Park Hotel in London to denounce Britain’s ‘Zionist policy.’” The Secretary of the delegation was reported to have declared “the necessity of killing Jews if the Arabs did not get their way.”

    1922: The schedules in the estate of Jacob H. Schiff, banker and philanthropist, who died Sept. 25, 1920, prepared for submission to the State Tax Commission in the inheritance tax proceeding to begin shortly, fix the value of the property to be taxed in New York State at $35,257,008. The net estate on which the executors estimate a tax will be fixed is $34,426,282.

    1923: Meyer London completed his second, non-successive term as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives representing New York’s 12th District. He was followed in office by another Jewish politician, Samuel Dickstein.

    1923: TIME magazine was published for the first time by Henry Luce. Jews connected with America’s leading weekly news magazine have included managing editors Henry Grunwald (1968–1977) and Walter Isaacson (1996–2000) and contributors Lev Grossman, Joe Klein and Joel Stein.

    1926: The Lenox Quartette performed “String Quartette” by Leopold Mannes at the New York Public Library.

    1929: In the Old City of Jerusalem, Rabbi Salman Eliyahu, a Jerusalem Kabbalist from an Iraqi Jewish family and his wife Mazal gave birth to Rabbi Mordechai Tzemach Eliyahu

    1930: U.S. premiere of “Madame Satan,” a “musical romantic comedy” co-starry Lillian Roth (b. Lillian Rutstein)

    1932: Judge Cutherbert W. Pound addressed Benjamin Cardozo on his last day as Chief Judge of the New York Court of Appeals saying of the man who was about to become a U.S. Supreme Court Justice, “We shall miss not only the great Chief Judge whose wisdom and understanding have added glory to the judicial office but all the true man who has blessed us with the light of his friendship, the sunshine of his smile.”

    1933: About a month after Adolf Hitler became chancellor of Germany and about a week after the burring of the Reichstag 100 prisoners were taken to a school in the small town of Norha near the city of Weimar. They were interrogated and sent into three large rooms where they guarded by policemen and students from the school. This was the start of Germany's first Concentration camp.

    1937: In an address at the annual luncheon of the Women’s Division of the American Jewish Congress, Fiorello La Guardia suggested that Hitler’s effigy be placed in a chamber of horrors at the World’s Fair.

    1938: Oil is discovered in Saudi Arabia. The connection with Jewish history should be self-evident.

    1938(30th of Adar I, 5698): Rosh Chodesh Adar II

    1938(30th of Adar I, 5698): Sholem (Samuel) Schwarzbard a Bessarabian-born Jewish poet and anarchist, known primarily for the assassination of the Ukrainian nationalist leader Symon Petliura who wrote poetry in Yiddish under the pen name of Baal-Khaloymes (English: The Dreamer) passed away today in Cape Town, South Africa.

    1938: The Palestine Post reported from London that the Colonial Secretary, Mr. Ormsby Gore, assured the House of Commons that Palestinian police, assisted by British troops, were doing everything possible to contain the deeply seated and widespread Arab terror.

    1938: The Palestine Post reported that Yacoub Marata, an Arab police corporal, and Alfred Koblenz, a Jewish constable, were shot and badly wounded by Arab terrorists at a Haifa market.

    1938: The Palestine Post reported that the Haifa Port inaugurated a new, extensive cargo jetty.

    1939: Cardinal Pace III, a long time semi-supporter of the German government, became Pope Pius XII. He was later greatly criticized for his passive acceptance of the Final Solution.

    1939: “The first contingent of about 500 Jews who had been expelled from Danzig left early this morning for an unknown destination. In a departure marked by “distressing farewell scenes” the contingent of men, women and children were taken to a German railway station by a convoy of buses and trucks. There are unconfirmed rumors that these homeless Jews will pass through Hungary to Constanta, Romania where a ship is waiting to take them to Tel Aviv. The Jews face the double whammy of the Nazis and the Arab inspired limits on Jewish immigration to Eretz Israel since no valid visas are available for this wretched contingent.

    1940: When hundreds of Jewish women took to the streets of Tel Aviv today chanting “anti-land law slogans,” the British military commander issued an order imposing a total curfew that was scheduled to last for three days until.

    1941: Ice cream parlor owner Ernst Cahn was executed by a Nazi firing squad today in the Netherlands.

    1941(4th of Adar, 5701): Adolph Schwartz died from a heart attack today at the age of 74.

    1943(26th of Adar I, 5703): Judikje Simons, later Judikje Themans- Simons, died today at Sobibor, together with her husband, Bernard, their five-year-old daughter Sonja, and their three-year-old son Leon. Simons was one of six Jewish members of the Dutch Ladies’ Gymnastic Team that won the Olympic title at Amsterdam in 1928, Simons, who ran an orphanage with her husband in the city of Utrecht that housed 83 children, had apparently been warned that the Nazis were heading her way, and was offered a hiding place by Dutch friends. However, Simons had no intention of forsaking her orphans, sealing her fate, and that of almost all of the children.

    1944: “The Iraqi Government today announced through the Arab News Agency that its protest to Washington with regard to the Palestine resolution “has had satisfactory results.” (As reported by JTA)

    1944: Birthdate of Yoram Jerrold Kessel, the South African born Israeli journalist and correspondent who gain fame with American audiences as the CNN correspondent reporting on the Middle East from Jerusalem.

    1944: “The Jewish Agency for Palestine today announced that David Ben-Gurion, chairman of its executive, has withdrawn his resignation and resumed work in the Agency’s headquarters.” (As reported by JTA)

    1944: Emir Abdullah Ibn Husseein, ruler of Transjordan…cabled a bitter protest to President Roosevelt against the pending Senate resolution reaffirming United States approval of Palestine as Jewish national homeland.”

    1944: Jermie Adler, a Jewish father of three who was hiding in village outside of Liege, Belgium became so ill that he checked himself into a hospital today. “While he was in the hospital, the Gestapo arrested his wife, two daughters, and a nephew.” Only his oldest daughter survived the war.

    1945: The Jewish Infantry Brigade was activated as part of the British Army. Jewish military groups fought with distinction during World War II. These soldiers were drawn from the Yishuv - the Jewish community in what was then called Palestine. At the end of the war, some of these soldiers participated in daring rescue activities that brought survivors of the Holocaust from central Europe, through Italy and eventually to ships bound for Palestine. Military training gained by the Jewish troops proved useful when the Israelis converted from the small military unit tactics of the pre-Independence period to the larger operations necessary to defeat the invading armies they faced in 1948 and 1949.

    1945: Eri Jabotinsky, son of the late Zionist Revisionist leader, Vladimir Jabotinsky, was released after two days in custody for interrogation concerning his “activities.”

    1945: Over two thousand Jews from Ebensee, a sub-camp of Mauthausen were sent from Gross Rosen. Of them 49 died in the trains on the way and 182 more died upon arrival.

    1946: The Union of American Hebrew Congregations, parent body of Reform Judaism in the United States, was urged today by Dr. Maurice N. Eisendrath, executive director, "to disassociate itself from dogmatic anti-Zionism."

    1946: In an article about the appropriate ways to rehabilitate disabled WW II GI’s Dr. Howard Rusk reported that the number of “working-age males, who are either unemployable or marginally employable because of handicaps exceed, numerically, the Jewish population.” Such a comparison would indicate that the average American knows how many Jews live in the United States.

    1947: Having left Poland for Paris in 1946 and Paris for the United States in February 1947, future novelis Louis Begley and his family arrived in New York City.

    1947: The four hundred ton “motor ship Susanna” left Italy carrying 800 Jewish refugees who hope to avoid the British blockade and find a home in Palestine.

    1947: The Irgun gave proof to its announcement that open warfare exists between its forces and the British by attacking British military installations in Haifa with a barrage of 500 hand grenades.

    1947: The Haganah accused the British of “deliberately destroying the Jewish economy” by imposing martial law on “thousands of people who have nothing whatsoever to do with terror or crime.”

    1947: Lieutenant General G.H.A. MacMillan announced that the word “terrorist” would no longer be used to describe those Jews attacking the British in Palestine. The term had acquired a sense of “glamour” which should not be ascribed to people he said were no better than the gangsters from Al Capone’s Chicago.

    1947: Lazar Kagnovich began serving as First Secretary of the Communist Party of Ukraine.

    1950(14th of Adar, 5710): Purim

    1950: In the San Fernando Valley, California, Elaine Edelman, and Jay Ziskin gave birth to Laura Ziskin, the producer of “Spider Man” and “Pretty Woman.”

    1950: In Jordan the cabinet has reportedly resigned because it was opposed to the non-aggression pact which has been secretly negotiated with Israel. King Abdullah is said to be the major supporter of the agreement.

    1953: The Jerusalem Post reported that seven infiltrators from Jordan were killed in two separate incidents on Israeli territory. The Soviet ambassador to Egypt, Semyon Kozirev, invited the former mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin el-Husseini, to visit Moscow. The increased food rations for Pesach included an extra 100 grams of meat, a welcome addition to the monthly rate of 200 grams, and 290 grams of olive oil to every consumer. (As you can see from this entry, even without the attacks from Arab terrorists and the threat of attack from the surrounding Arab nations, the early settlers of Israel had a rough time of it.)

    1956: Morocco gained its independence from France. "One of the first actions of the government was to order the Jewish agency to halt its emigration activities."

    1957(30th of Adar I, 5717): Controversial Holocaust survivor Rudolf (Israel) Kastner, the man who negotiated with Eichmann to save Hungarian Jews was shot by by Zeev Eckstein, 24, a Holocaust survivor, and died of his injuries nine days later.

    1959: Birthdate of Ira Glass, host of public radio’s “This American Life.”

    1960: U.S. premiere of “Home From the Hill” with a screenplay by Irving Ravetch, the son of a rabbi and his wife Harriet Frank, Jr.

    1961: Hassan II becomes King of Morocco. When he came to the throne, Hassan II had a reputation as a playboy. Nobody would have predicted the positive role he would play in relations with Israel. The following story written when the King died in 1999 describes the impact of the Moroccan Monarch. “Tens of thousands of Israelis are mourning the death of Morocco's King Hassan II, a man they considered "their" king, leaving them homesick for the land their families left. Young Israelis of Moroccan origin placed the Moroccan flag on top of their cars, while others displayed huge posters in their homes of the king, who died last Friday of a heart attack at the age of 70. The Moroccan Jewish community in Israel declared a seven-day period of mourning for the king. A delegation led by Israeli President Ezer Weizman, Prime Minister Ehud Barak and former Prime Minister Shimon Peres joined 30 other world leaders, including President Clinton and Palestinian Authority leader Yasser Arafat, in remembering a man who played a vital role in bridging the gap between the Jewish state and the Arab world. In a condolence message, Weizman called Hassan a "true partner in the peace process.” Attending the funeral, Barak called Hassan a "great leader" and a "farsighted man, a friend to the governments of Israel in their voyage toward peace with the Arab people." In Israel, Moroccan Jews have traditionally supported parties, such as Likud or Shas that espouse hard-line policies toward the Arab countries. That is partly to compensate for the fact that they felt "Ashkenazi Jews regarded them as Jewish Arabs," according to Haim Shiran, director of Inbal, an ethnic center in Tel Aviv. He said anti-Arab political views were a kind of self-defense mechanism, a way to distinguish themselves from the Arabs. But when it came to the king's death, the reaction of Israel's estimated 300,000 Moroccan Jews appeared similar to Morocco's Arab residents, many of whom consider the king to be a direct descendent of the Muslim prophet Mohammad. "I know that it may sound ridiculous," said Shiran, "but when on Friday, I saw the Moroccan announcer on television announcing the death of the king, I broke out in tears." Hassan took power in 1961 after the death of his father, Mohammed V. When Hassan ascended to the throne, he was an unknown quantity with a reputation as a playboy. But ruling with a deft mixture of pro-Western democracy and traditional autocracy, he earned the respect of his people. He also survived several coup attempts. Mohammed V was widely credited with having saved Morocco's Jews from deportation during World War II, and Hassan continued the philo-Semitic policies of his father. Although there was an outbreak of anti-Jewish incidents following the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948, the Jewish community was generally safe under the protection of both Mohammed and Hassan. When tens of thousands of Jews left Morocco in a massive aliyah that began after Morocco gained its independence in 1956 -- and accelerated after Hassan II gained power -- it was due as much to Zionism and a desire for economic opportunity as it was to a fear of anti-Semitism. Along with the recently deceased King Hussein of Jordan, Hassan was considered a moderate in the Middle East. During his 38-year reign, he discreetly, and later openly, promoted ties with Israel at a time when most of the Arab world rejected such contact. In the 1967 and 1973 Middle East wars, he contributed only a nominal number of troops to support Arab forces. His mediation efforts, including secret meetings with Israeli intelligence officials and political leaders, helped pave the way for the 1978 Camp David accord between Israel and Egypt. Hassan also played a role in preparing for the 1991 Madrid peace conference and welcomed Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin in September 1993, making Morocco the first Arab nation outside of Egypt to officially host an Israeli leader. In 1994, Hassan hosted the first Middle East regional economic conference, which included Israel, in Casablanca. After the euphoria of the 1993 Oslo accords between Israel and the Palestinians, Israel was allowed to establish a consular office in Rabat, and an estimated 40,000 Israeli tourists visited Morocco in 1995 and 1996. Even in death Hassan provided an opportunity for Israeli and Arab officials to meet -- in this case, an unprecedented exchange among Barak, Israeli Foreign Minister David Levy and Algerian President Abdelaziz Bouteflika. Speaking in French, Bouteflika asked Levy whether Israel was serious about peace, to which the Moroccan-born minister responded, "Yes." Levy added that it was in Israel's interest to do so and was ready to work hard to achieve it. Turning to Barak, Bouteflika said his country was willing to help in any way it could.

    1968: Iraqi Prime Minister, Tahir Yahya, instituted a law that impoverished the Jews. "Jews couldn't sell their cars or furniture. All licenses given to Jewish pharmacists were canceled" and their pharmacies were ordered to close. "All commercial officers in Baghdad had to dismiss their Jewish employees. Muslim owned businesses were warned not to engage in commerce with Jews.

    1969: In a Los Angeles, California court, Sirhan Sirhan admits that he killed presidential candidate Robert F. Kennedy. According to his diaries, he killed Kennedy because he was a supporter of Israel.

    1971: After opening on Broadway at the Martin Beck Theatre, today “Man of La Mancha” a musical adaptation of Dale Wasserman’s “non-musical 1959 teleplay I, Don Quixote” with music by Mitch Leigh moved to the Eden Theatre.

    1973: Senator Guy Gillette passed away. While serving in the Senate during World War II, Gillette spoke out in favor of caring for the Jewish refugees in Europe and in favor of Jewish aspirations in Palestine. After he lost his bid for re-election he served as “president of the American League for a Free Palestine, serving until the Committee's work ended with the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948.” [Why a senator from Iowa, a state with a miniscule Jewish population, would adopt such views is a mystery awaiting further study.]

    1978: The Jerusalem Post reported from Washington that US President Jimmy Carter warned that “the abandonment” of UN Resolution 242 by any of the parties in the Middle East “would put us back many months or years.” Observers, however, noted that on the eve of the expected Carter-Begin summit meetings, the American position on many issues was seen to be much more supportive of Egypt than of Israel. In Jerusalem, the 91-year-old Notre Dame Hospice, uninhabited for years, had quietly begun a new life as a modern hostel for pilgrims.

    1978(24thof Adar I, 5738): Seventy-two year old “American industrial psychologist, executive, civil rights leader, and philanthropist” Alfred J. Marrow passed away.

    1980: In “Tens of Thousands of People Attend Funeral of Yigal Allon” Yitzhak Shargil described the final ceremony honoring the fallen Israeli leader.

    1981: Israeli planes raided Palestinian positions northeast of Tyre today, according to the Lebanese radio. The raid came a day after rockets from Lebanese territory struck several homes in the Galilee town of Qiryat Shemona today, wounding three people.

    1981(27thof Adar I, 5741): Eighty-three year old Hugh Harris the educator and journalist who was the brother of Leslie Julius Harris and the son Rabb John Solomon Harris passed away today.

    1983(18th of Adar, 5743): Hungarian born author Arthur Koestler passed away. Two of his more famous works were Darkness at Noon and Thirteenth Tribe, which highlighted his view of the role the Khazars played in the life of European Jewry.

    1985(10thof Adar I, 5745): Seventy-one year old Sándor Scheiber who served as director of the Rabbinical Seminary in Budapest from 1950 until his death passed away today.

    1985: After “767 performances and 37 previews” the curtain came down on the original Broadway production of “My One and Only” a George and Ira Gershwin musical.

    1987(2nd of Adar, 5747): Multi-talented performer Danny Kaye passed away. Born David Kominsky in 1913, the red-headed comedian and vocalist enjoyed success in a variety of entertainment formats. His hit movies included The Secret Life of Walter Mitty and Hans Christian Andersen. He also starred in his own television variety show. He used his fame for the betterment of mankind serving as a champion for UNICEF when that organization was dedicated to welfare of the world's children without consideration to politics. (As reported by Eric Pace)

    1987: Israeli Air Force Colonel Aviem Sella was indicted today for his alleged role in the Pollard spy operation.

    1988(14thof Adar, 5748): Purim

    1988(14thof Adar, 5748): Sixty-nine year old Polish-born Mexican violinist Henryk Szeryng who donated his Stradivarius “King David” violin to Jerusalem in 1972 in honor of 25 years of Israeli independence passed away today.

    1988: Today the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith and the American Jewish Committee protested the designation of Dr. Inamullah Khan, secretary general of the Pakistan-based World Moslem Congress, as the winner of the $369,000 Templeton Prize for Progress in Religion because he has been associated with anti-Semitic and anti-Israel causes. The league said Dr. Khan and the congress were linked to anti-Semitic groups, including those that deny the Holocaust occurred, and that Dr. Khan had rejected Israel's right to exist. Dr. V. A. Hamdani, the congress's representative at the United Nations, where the Islamic group has observer status, called the league's complaint a ''rehash'' of old charges. He said his organization had not supported denials of the Holocaust. ''To my knowledge,'' he added, ''we have never denied Israel's right to exist.''

    1991(17th of Adar, 5751): Arthur Murray passed away at the age of 95. Born Arthur Teichman, Murray became "America's dance instructor" through a string of dance studios and a hit television show featuring his wife and partner, Catherine. (As reported by Eric Pace)

    1991: As the war with Iraq came to an end Air France is scheduled to resume service to Tel Aviv today.

    1991: “THEATER; Music? Lyrics? He Can Get Them for You” published today described the career of Harold Rome

    1993(10th of Adar, 5753): Albert Sabin passed away at the age of 86. Born in 1903, Sabin developed an oral polio vaccine which supplanted the earlier Salk Vaccine. Sabin was 86 at the time of his death.

    1995: Rabbi Lynn Gottlieb's She Who Dwells Within, which she describes as "a practical guide to nonsexist Judaism," was published. In 2004, Gottlieb left the pulpit to become director of a California organization dedicated to interfaith work.

    1996 (12th of Adar, 5756): Dr. Meyer Schapiro, university professor emeritus at Columbia University, multi-disciplinary critic and historian, galvanic teacher, lifelong radical and for more than 50 years a pre-eminent figure in the intellectual life of New York, died at the Greenwich Village house that had been his home for more than 60 years. He was 91.

    2002: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Summer in Baden-Baden by Leonid Tsypkin; translated by Roger Keys and Angela Keys and Soros: The Life and Times of a Messianic Billionaire by Michael T. Kaufman

    2002(19thof Adar, 5762:Capt. Ariel Hovav (25), Lt.(res.) David Damelin (29), 1st Sgt.(res.) Rafael Levy (42), Sgt.-Maj.(res.) Avraham Ezra (38), Sgt.-Maj.(res.) Eran Gad (24), Sgt.-Maj.(res.) Yochai Porat (26), Sgt.-Maj.(res.) Kfir Weiss (24), Sergei Birmov (33), Vadim Balagula (32) and  Didi Yithak (66) were murdered by Fatah terrorists at an IDF roadblock.

    2003: Natan Sharansky began serving as Jerusalem Affairs Minister.

    2005(22nd of Adar I, 5765): Max M. Fisher, the Detroit oil and real estate magnate known for his philanthropy and for the advice he gave Republican presidents on the Middle East and Jewish issues, passed away at his home in Franklin, a Detroit suburb at the age of 96.

    2006(3rd of Adar, 5766): William Herskovic who was a Holocaust survivor and humanitarian passed away at the age of 91. His escape from Auschwitz in 1942 and early eyewitness testimony inspired Belgium's opposition to Nazi Germany during World War II, and alerted the Resistance to the atrocities that were taking place in the concentration camps. Because of Herskovic's escape and testimony, hundreds of lives were saved. Herskovic is also the founder of Bel Air Camera, a veritable landmark in Los Angeles, which he established in 1957, and has received numerable awards for his philanthropy.

    2007: Shabbat Zachor

    2007: In the evening, Jews fulfill the mitzvah of hearing the Megillah as Purim begins

    2008: This evening, Israel pulled its troops out of the Gaza Strip marking the end of operation Hot Winter.

    2008: Agudas Achim, the Shulman Hillel and Chabad Lubavitch of Iowa City sponsor “An Evening in Tribute to Michael Balch” (devoted member of the Iowa City Jewish Community and Professor Emirtus of Economics at Iowa University) featuring an address by Rabbi Dov Greenberg from Stanford University entitled “Death and Afterlife in Judaism.”

    2008(26thof Adar I, 5768): Eighty-six year old artist William Brice the son of Fannie Brice and Nick Arnstein passed away today in California.

    2009: David Polonsky discusses “Waltz With Bashir” at the Society of Illustrators. David Polonsky is the art director and chief illustrator for Waltz With Bashir, written, produced and directed by Ari Folman.

    2009: The YIVO Institute for Jewish Research presents a lecture by Dr. David Berger, author of The Rebbe, the Messiah, and the Scandal of Orthodox Indifference, entitled “The Lubavitcher Rebbe as Messiah: Turning Point in Judaism?” in which he will examine whether the Lubavitch messianic movement represents a fundamental transformation of Judaism or is merely a passing development of little moment.

    2009: The Believers, Zoë Heller’s latest novel appears in American bookstores.

    2009: Hillary Clinton makes her first visit to Israel as Secretary of State meeting with a variety of Israeli leaders.

    2009: A press release issued today confirmed that Julius Genachowski was President Obama’s choice to serve as Chairman of the Federal Communication Commission.

    2010: The Jewish Women's Archive’s tour of Santa Fe is scheduled to begin today.

    2010: Israeli musicians Asaf Avidan &cellist Hadas Kleinman of Asaf Avidan and the Mojos leading rock/folk band are scheduled to perform at the City Winery in New York City.

    2010: In Columbus, Ohio, Congregation Tifereth Israel is scheduled to host “Interfaith Study of Genesis” in conjunction with First Congregational Church and Noor Islamic Center.

    2010: After years of drought-like conditions that saw the water level of the Dead Sea plummet by 15 meters, this winter the water level rose by 8 centimeters, the Water Authority said today.

     2010: Canadian businessman and Brandeis graduate Leonard Asper stepped down as Canwest CEO today.

    2010: A documentary entitled “Harlan – In the Shadow of ‘Jew Suss’” opened today in Manhattan

    2011: The Wiener Library, “the world’s oldest Holocaust memorial institution,” is scheduled to sponsor an exclusive gala fund raising event that will feature a recital by Andras Schiff and a talk by Misha Aster about the Berlin Philharmonic under the Third Reich.

    2011: Amit Peled and Dina Vainshtein are scheduled to perform at Symphony Space in New York City.

    2011: Today Prime Minister Netanyahu met with White House senior advisor Dennis Ross, who is in the country with a team of Middle East experts – including Fred Hoff and Mara Rudman from US envoy George Mitchell's team – for talks.

    2011: The 7th Annual Charlotte, NC Jewish Film Festival opened today.

    2011(28th of Adar I, 5771): Holocaust survivor Gina Borchardt Nencel passed away today in Israel at the age of 100.

    2011: In “Yankees remember late baseball author Harvey Dorfman” Marc Carig described the impact that the Jewish sports psychologist had on the National Pastime.

    2012: A conference entitled "One State Conference: Israel/Palestine and the One-State Solution” hosted by Harvard University's Kennedy School of Government is scheduled to open in Cambridge Mass.

    2012: “Mahler on the Couch” is scheduled to be shown at the Denver Jewish Film Festival sponsored by the Mizel Arts and Culture Center

    2012: “Making Trouble: Three Generations of Funny Jewish Women” at Florida Atlantic University’s Jewish Kultur Festival in Boca Raton, Fl

    2012: “Camera Obsucra” is schedule to be shown at Temple Beth Israel’s Fresno Jewish Film Festival in Fresno, CA

    2012: “Ahead of Time” is scheduled to be shown at Congregation Beth Israel Judea in San Francisco, CA.

    2012: “Yoo-Hoo, Mrs. Goldberg” is scheduled to be shown at Congregation Kerem Shalom in Concord, MA.

    2013: “My Name is Asher Lev,” Aaron Posner’s dramatic adaptation of Chaim Potok’s novel of the same name is scheduled to have its final performance tonight at the Westside Theatre.

    2013: The Maccabeats are scheduled to perform at West Side Institutional Synagogue

    2013: An evening concert is scheduled tonight as part of the Preliminary Program for Jewish Music in New Orleans hosted by Tulane University.

    2013: The AIPAC Policy Conference is scheduled to open in Washington, DC

    2013: Rebekka Helford and Bruce Bierman are scheduled to lead the Klezmer Jam Session and Dance at The Talking Stick in Venice, CA.

    2013:A young couple expecting their first child was on their way to a hospital when the car they were riding in was hit, killing them both, but their baby boy was born prematurely and survived, authorities said.

    2013: Michael Oren, Israel’s ambassador to Washington, opened the American Israel Public Affairs Committee’s annual policy conference with an appeal for pro-Israel outreach to African Americans, Latinos and Muslims, and others.

    2013: In “The Holocaust Just Got More Shocking.” Eric Lichtblau lets us know that the worst event in Jewish history was even worse than we had thought it was.

    2013: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Russ & Daughters: Reflections and Recipes from the House That Hearing Builtby Mark Russ Federman the grandson of the founder who made each trip to his store a most memorable occasion for two Jews from Iowa.

    2013: In New York City, the City Winery is scheduled to host a Kosher Wine Tasting

    2013(21stof Adar, 5773): Ninety-one year old Abe Baum the leader of ill-fated Task Force Baum in WW II passed away today.

    2014(1stof Adar II, 5774): Rosh Chodesh Adar II

    2014(1stof Adar II, 5774): Eighty-three year old physician and author Sherwin B Nuland passed away today. (As reported by Denise Gellene)

    2014: The HEA All-Judaic & Israeli Art and Jewelry Festival is scheduled to take place in Denver, CO.

    2014: David Broza is scheduled to appear in concert at the AIPAC Policy Conference.

    2014: “Master of a Good Name” and “Nothing Old About This Testament” are scheduled to be shown at the 24th Jewish Film Festival.

    2014: Shelter Studious is scheduled to host a reading of “Suddenly a Knock at the Door” by Robin Goldin based on stories by Etgar Keret

    2014: In London, JW3 is scheduled to co-sponsor a showing of “Flash Faith.”

    2014: Senator John McCain, US Secretary Jack Lew and Senator Chuck Shumer addressed the AIPAC Policy Confernece with each of them using the “Jewish issues” to promote their American domestic political agenda – a point that apparently was lost to the attendees who mistake pandering for policy.

    2014: “Israeli aircraft fired at Gaza terrorists (mortally wounding one) as they were preparing to launch rockets at southern Israel.

    2014: “France’s Jews demand the election of new chief rabbi (the post had been filled by two interim chief rabbis since April 2013), in a letter that cites the need of a leader “to express the voice of Judaism during the difficult period we are experiencing.”

    2014: Some 20 Israelis who were making their way to India today found themselves for a short time in Tehran

    2015: For two hours this morning, students at Oxford (UK) are scheduled to have a chance to make hamantaschen while raising money for The Gatehouse and Camp Simcha.

    2015: In a display of cultural diversity the Jewish Community Center of Northern Virginia is scheduled to offer programs on “Jews in Sports” and “The Evolution of the Passover Seder.”

    2015: Marc Caplan, 2014-15 Cahnman Senior Scholar at CJH, is scheduled to present his groundbreaking research on Jewish modernity in conjunction with a screening of Arnold Schoenberg’s Moses und Aron at the Center for Jewish History.


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    March 4

    457BCE(1st of Nisan, 3303): According to chapter 7, verse 9 of the Book of Ezra, Ezra and his followers left Babylonia for Jerusalem

    1193: Saladin, the great Moslem leader, passed away.  Among Saladin’s many accomplishments was the re-taking of Jerusalem from the Crusaders and his subsequent defeat of Richard the Lionhearted.  Saladin had begun his leadership career in Egypt where Maimonides served as physician to his court.  There is some question as to whether Maimonides provided medical services to Saladin or to his brother-in-law and his entourage. 

    1152: Frederick Barbarossa was elected Roman-German king.  Born in 1123, Barbarossa or Frederick I was Holy Roman Emperor for forty years.  He was slated to lead the Third Crusade along with Phillip of France and Richard the Lion-Hearted.  Unfortunately, Barbarossa drowned before he could help lead the Crusade.  From the Jewish point of view, unfortunately is the correct word to use in describing his death.  Unlike other Crusaders, Barbarossa sought to protect the Jews. He warned local priests and monks not to preach against the Jews.  He told the Diet (Parliament) that anybody who killed a Jew would forfeit his own life.  Thanks to Frederick's efforts, German bishops threatened those who attacked Jews with excommunication.  As a Jewish commentator of that time wrote, "Frederick defended us with all his might and enabled us to live among our enemies, so that no one harmed the Jews."

    1215: King John of England makes an oath to the Pope as a crusader to gain the support of Innocent III.  While they may have been odds over many issues, the two leaders both held firm to the concept of allowing the Jews to exist, but in a state of humiliation.  In 1210, John imprisoned the Jews of Bristol and demanded 66,000 in ransom as the price of their freedom.  To move the process along, John reportedly had the teeth of the prisoners extracted one at a time until they agreed to the payment. Such was his treatment of the Jews, that Barons included special language about the treatment of the Jews in the Magna Carta. The Fourth Lateran Council over which Innocent actively presided adopted several cannons attacking Jews including the denying them the right to hold office and the requirement to wear distinctive dress. 

    1277: “Emperor Rudolph of Hapsburg granted a charter of rights to the Jews of Prussia.” P 140

    1349:  Birthdate of Prince Henry the Navigator.  The Portuguese prince earned his sobriquet and place in history for supporting ever more ambitious efforts to explore the uncharted waters of the Atlantic Ocean and beyond.  His efforts were financed and encouraged by the family of Don Judah Abarbanel a wealthy refugee from Spanish persecution who served as financer and confident to two generations of Portuguese monarchs.

    1386: Władysław II Jagiełło (Jogaila) is crowned King of Poland. The situation of the Jews in Poland had already begun to deteriorate prior to his kingship.  In the middle of the century, the Jews were blamed for the Black Plague and attacked by the countrymen.  Under Wladislaus II and his successors the first extensive persecutions of the Jews in Poland commenced, persecutions which the monarch did not act to stop.

    1493: According to some records, today Columbus arrived in Lisbon from which he sent the letter that described the results of his first voyage. The letter was addressed to Luis de Santangel, the converso who, as finance minister, had convinced the Spanish monarchs to finance the voyage.

    1524: In Cairo, Mohamed Bey freed the Jews who had been imprisoned by the viceroy Ahmed Schaitan on the day on which he planned to kill them.  Ahmed had rebelled against the Sultan and when a Jewish leader, Abraham de Castro, exposed the plot, Ahmed responded by demanding a ransom from the Jews of Cairo and then imprisoning them once they had brought him the money.  This day of deliverance is celebrated as the Purim of Cairo.

    1648(8th of Adar): Rabbi Issachar Baer, author Arba’ah Hadashim passed away

    1699: Jews of Lubeck, Germany, were expelled.

    1743: Birthdate of Tuscan poet Solomon Fiorentino who wrote “Elegie” after the death of his wife Laura Gallico and was the father of Hebrew teacher Angiolo Fiortentino.

    1791: Vermont is the 14th state to join the Union.  It is the first state to join the original 13 states.  Today Vermont boasts a vibrant, if small, Jewish community.  This includes houses of worship in at least half a dozen cities, a Chabad in Burlington and Hillel chapters at two of the state’s universities. 

     1791: A Christian in Alsace was punished by the Church for lighting a fire for a Jew on Shabbat.

    1791: Israel Jacobs of Pennsylvania took his seat as the first Jewish member of the United States House of Representatives.

    1797: John Adams is sworn in as second President of the United States, succeeding George Washington.  This orderly transfer of power, including the acceptance of the outcome of elections, is a uniquely American gift to the world of political science.  At the national level, the U.S. failed to abide by this and the result was four violent years of Civil War.  There are those who would say that the Jewish people have been able to thrive in America because of the stability of the society and because of its respect for the rule of law as epitomized by this seemingly simple event.  Adams, like so many of his New England contemporaries was greatly influenced by his reading of what he called “the Old Testament.”  The images of George III as Pharaoh and the colonists as the modern day Israelites fighting tyranny provide a couple cover for what others might have called treason.  Adams was an early Zionist, writing to the Jewish leader Mordechai Manuel Noah, “I really wish the Jews again in Judea an independent nation.”  For more about the views of our Second President on the Jewish people see

    1798: Catholic women were forced to do penance for kindling fire for Jews on Shabbat.
    Either this is the same episode reported at two different times or being a "Shabbos Goy" was a big no-no among the Catholic hierarchy.

    1799:Under cover of night, between the 3rd and the 4th of March, work commenced- the erecting of five batteries, four against the southern wall and one in support of the northern sector.13 The artillery park at Napoleon¹s command consisted only of field pieces, mostly of 12, 8, 6 and 3 "pouces" (=inches of 2.7 cm), of howitzers of 6 pouces and of 6-pouce mortars,14 since the heavy artillery had all been loaded for transfer to Acre bay onto the ships of the flotilla commanded by captain Standelet, and onto the freighters that had been collected for that purpose in the Egyptian harbors. Those ships were only just then commencing their journey north, without the means of contact with the land forces, and Napoleon was compelled to make do with the lighter ordnance at his command. However, he did not seem to have been unduly worried. Most probably, the outward appearance of these antiquated walls revived his confidence in the description of M. de Volney, who, in 1784, had called the ramparts of Jaffa "mere garden walls."

    1820: Alexander I of Russia prohibited the employment of Christian servants by Jews.

    1822(11th of Adar): Isaac Franks the American patriot from Philadelphia who served in the Continental Army passed away.

    1837: Chicago receives its official charter by the state of Illinois. Jews first came to Chicago from Prussia, Austria, Bohemia and sections of modern-day Poland, fleeing oppression to settle in the Chicago area as early as 1832. Kehilat Anshe Mayriv (Congregation of the People of the West), Chicago's first Jewish congregation, was founded in 1847; in 1851 KAM built the city's first synagogue at Clark and Jackson streets, a site now occupied by the Kluczynski Federal Building. It was followed by B'nai Shalom, in 1852, and Chicago Sinai, the city's first Reform congregation, in 1861. The expansion of the Jewish community was slow but steady. In 1871, the Great Fire destroyed many residences near the downtown business district, forcing thousands of people to relocate. The more prosperous German Jews, who made up the majority, moved south along Michigan, Wabash and Indiana avenues, eventually settling in Washington Park, Kenwood, Hyde Park and South Shore; the Eastern European Jews moved west of the central business district in the vicinity of Maxwell Street. Between 1880 and 1900, a new wave of 55,000 Russian and Polish Jews crowded into the Maxwell Street market neighborhood. Yiddish was the language of choice. Dozens of Hebrew schools and Yiddish theaters were organized, and 40 Orthodox shuls were built within walking distance of Halsted and Maxwell streets. As successive waves of Jewish immigrants became settled and successful, the Jewish community began expanding. In addition to continued growth on the South Side, neighborhoods such as Lawndale and Douglas Park on the West Side and Albany Park, Humboldt Park, Lake View, Uptown and Edgewater on the North Side became vibrant Jewish communities. Many Chicago Jews today trace their roots in this city to one or more of these areas. 

    1838: The first Sunday School for Jewish students, under the direction of the Female Hebrew Benevolent Society, opened today in Philadelphia, PA.

    1849: Austrian Jews were granted equal civil and political rights under the new constitution. The imperial government would renege on its promise and full rights would not be finally granted until 1867.

    1853: Philip Phillips began serving as a U.S. Congressman representing Alabama’s 1stDistrict.

    1855: After having been out of office for four years, David Yulee, the first Jew elected to the United States, began his second term in office today.

    1857: In Charleston, SC, Rabbi Solomon Jacobs officiated at the wedding of Mr. Magnus of Rome, GA and Rebecca Alexander the youngest daughter of the late Abraham Alexander.

    1861: Abraham Lincoln was inaugurated as the 16th President of the United States.  Lincoln sensitivity to Jewish can be seen in the way he handled the law that allowed Jews to serve as Chaplains and the aftermath of General Grant’s infamous order banning Jews from the area under his command.  But Lincoln’s greatest contribution to the welfare of the Jewish people was his successful effort to save “the last best hope of man” which has provided Jews with unprecedented opportunity.

    1862: “From the African Coast” published today described the travels of the USS Saratoga through the waters of the South Atlantic including a stop at the island of St. Helena where the ship took on provisions. According to the author, the Jews on the island exploited the plight of the American naval vessel, selling spoiled and overpriced supplies and even exchanging money at rate that exploited the Americans. “The Jews of St. Helena took money out of us and tucked sour flour and bad rice into us, sold us Spanish dollars at 4s. 2d., and took them at 3s. 9d., was a caution, never to come again if we can help it. Even the common necessaries of life were in price luxuries -- for instance, beef, 60c. per pound; mutton, do.; butter, 55c. per pound; eggs, 5c. each, &c., &c.” [It is difficult to know who these Jews were.  During the 1820’s, Nathanial Isaacs uncle served on St. Helena as the counsel for France and Holland.Saul Solomon who converted to Christianity was born in St. Helena in 1817 but left to find fame and fortune in South Africa. “The few other St. Helena Jews who settled” on St. Helena “during Napoleon's banishment, the Gideon, the Moss, and the Isaacs families, were all related to” Solomon, and, like him “most of them drifted from Judaism.”
    1863: A rumor from Jackson, Miss., says that a Jew has been arrested on the charge of offering to spike the guns at Port Hudson for $60,000.

    1863: William Sprague completed his term as governor of Rhode Island and took his seat in the United States Senate representing his home state.  While in the Senate Sprague would explain away the suffering of the Jews of Romania as being the result of their taking away the lands and livelihood of the Christian, a pattern that he implied could be repeated in the United States.  Sprague’s words take on additional weight because he was not just an ordinary political hack. He was a successful businessman who supported Abraham Lincoln and was the son-in-law of Salmon Chase, the powerful Republican politician who served as Secretary of the Treasury and Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. 

    1865: Birthdate of Lieutenant General Sir George Mark Watson Macdonogh, that rarity among British officers, “a Zionist sympathizer” who was a close enough friend of Chaim Weizmann, that Jewish leader discussed the possibility of having Herbert Samuel removed as British High Commissioner following the issuance of the report issued by the Haycroft Commission of Inquirty.

    1866: An article published today entitled  “The Purim Ball: The Wonders or a Persian Temple-A Glimpse of the Glories of Babylon Fun, Frolic and Phantasmagoria” described the celebration of the Purim Ball in New York City which was “duly celebrated…with all the pomp, display an out-rivaling effectiveness which was promised for it by its promoters.

    1869: William Seward who had served as Secretary of State under Presidents Lincoln and Johnson completed his service in this office following which he took a tour around the world which included a stop in Jerusalem and Palestine which he had first visited in 1859. Seward described in the Jews as “the builders and the founders of “ Jeruslaem.

    1870: President U.S. Grant appointed Civil War hero Edward Selig Salomon governor of Washington Territory (the future state of Washington, not D.C.) 

    1871: Robert C. De Large, the son of black woman and Jewish man, began serving in the U.S. Representatives as a member from South Carolina’s 2nd district.  A Republican, he had served in the state legislature and as state land commissioner before being elected to Congress.

    1874(15th of Adar, 5634): Shushan Purim

    1874: “The Jews In Italy” published today contains a synopsys of an article by Dr. Berliner published in the Judische Presse. According to Dr. Berliner there are approximately 4,500 Jews living in Rome “most of who are destitute.”  There are 5 synagouges in Rome two of which follow the Sephardic (Spanish) rite and three of which follow the Italian rite. One of the synagogues dates backs to the time of Titus, the Roman who destroyed the Second Temple.  1875: It was reported today that over 2,000 tickets have already been sold to the upcoming Hebrew Charity Ball sponsored by the Purim Association.

    1875: William Sharon began serving as U.S. Senator from Nevada.  When he passed away ten years later, his recipients of his bequests included several California charities including those established by the Jewish community

    1875(27th of Adar I, 5635): Rabbi Joseph Saul Nathanson of Lemberg, author of Ner Ma’aravi, a novaellae on the Jerusalem Talmud passed away

    1877: “The Russian Army of the South” published today provides a detailed description of Kishinev, the city that is the headquarters of the major Russian unit under the Grand Duke that has been mobilized in the war against the Turks.  Kishinev has a population of 100,000, more than half of whom are Jews. [This is the same Kishinev that will be the site of future horrible Pogroms.]

    1877:  Emile Berliner invented the microphone.  He would also invent the flat disc that replaced Edison’s cylinder and became the prototype for the record which would become the standard for the recording industry for the better part of a hundred years.

    1879: It was reported today that the Purim Association will be sponsoring a fancy dress charity ball to be held later this week at the Academy of Music in New York City.

    1879(9th of Adar, 5639): Leon Hyneman passed away. Born in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, in 1808, he “was the author of "The Fundamental Principles of Science" and of several works on masonic subjects, the chief among them being "The Origin of Freemasonry" and "Freemasonry in England from 1567 to 1813." Hyneman was one of the members of the Jewish Publication Society of America. Among his eight children were Leona Hyneman who “under the stage name of "Leona Moss," became a talented actress. Another daughter was Alice Hyneman, authoress; born in Philadelphia Jan. 31, 1840; contributor to "The North American Review"; "The Forum"; "The Popular Science Monthly"; and the author of "Woman in Industry," a treatise on the work of woman in America, and of "Niagara," a descriptive record of the great cataract and its vicinity.

    1879: Edwin Jonas took his seat as a United States Senator from Louisiana making him the third Jew to serve in “the upper chamber.”

    1879: Edwin Einstein, a native of Cincinnati, began to serve as a member of the U.S. House Representatives from New York’s 7thCongressional District.

    1881: William Sharon, who would bestow a bequest of $5,000 on the Hebrew Orphan Asylum of San Francisco, completed his term as service as a U.S. Senator from Nevada.

    1881: James G. Fair who would bestow a bequest of $25,000 on the Hebrew Orphan Asylum of San Francisco, began his term as service as a U.S. Senator from Nevada.

    1884: Arthur Sebag-Montefiore and Harriett Beddington gave birth to Charles to English stock-broker Charles Edward Sebag-Montefiore, the husband of Muriel Alice Ruth de Pass.

    1885: Grover Cleveland who relied on Isidor Strauss the co-owner of R.H. Macy and member of Congress as a trusted advisor and whom he appointed as Ambassador to Turkey was inaugurated as 22ndPresident of the United States.

    1885: Charles Henry Grosvenor is elected to the House of Representatives from Ohio for the first time.  His career will last until 1907, but he will represent 3 different congressional districts.  During his career he will take part in several debates on immigration bills during which he said “he said he would not vote for a measure framed specially to restrict the entrance of the Russian Jews, for such a would be charged up to him as a vote against a  man on account of his religion.”

    1885: Edwin Jonas, who failed to win re-election, competed his term as a United States Senator following which he was appointed Collector of the Port of New Orleans.

    1887: James G. Fair who would bestow a bequest of $25,000 on the Hebrew Orphan Asylum of San Francisco, completed his term as service as a U.S. Senator from Nevada.

    1887: William Stewart, who will defend the Jews of Romania against persecution, begins serving as the U.S. Senator from Nevada.

    1887: Isidor Rayner began serving as a Congressman from Maryland in the 50th U.S. House of Representatives.

    1889:St. Louis newspaperman Nathan Frank began serving as a member of the House of Representatives in the 51stCongress. 

    !889: Benjamin Harrison who appointed Solomon Hirsch of Portland, Oregon as Minister to Turkey was inaugurated as 23rdPresident of the United States.

    1890: Seventy-seven year old Franz Delitzsch, the “Lutheran theologian and Hebraist” who “wrote many commentaries on the books of the Bible and Jewish antiquities” and who “defended the Jewish community against anti-Judaic attacks” passed away today.

    1890: Isidor Gunsburg was among the spectators of the chess match played between Delmar and Lipschutz at the Manhattan Chess Club.

    1890: The 29th annual ball sponsored by the Purim Association took place this evening at the Metropolitan Opera House. Money raised this year will go to the aid of the United Hebrew Charities.

    1890: Thieves attempted to rob Solomon Barnett, a Jewish tailor, while he was working at this shop on Lexington Avenue, near 83rdStreet in New York City.1891(24th of Adar I, 5651: Two students at the Hebrew Union College, Isador H. Frauenthal and Ernst Sallinger, passed away today in Cincinnati, Ohio.1891: James B. Eustis completed his last term as a United States Senator following which he would become U.S. Ambassador to France, a position from which he would study the Dreyfus Affair but die before he could deliver his report to the government in Washington.1892: It was reported today that Abraham Herrman, Simon Borg and Solomon B. Solomon have been unanimously elected to serve three year terms as Directors of the Hebrew Technical Institute.

    1893: Grover Cleveland who would lend his support to those who objecting to the treatment of the Jews of Russia and opposed legislation that would have kept Jews from immigrating to the United States was inaugurated as 24th President of the United States.

    1893: It was reported today that the proceeds from the upcoming ball sponsored by the Purim Association will be donated to the United Hebrew Charities.

    1893: “Scenes in the Azores” published today provides a picture of life on these Atlantic Islands including the fact that “native Azorean Jews” have gradually come to dominate the banking business, the importation of coal and the ownership of the mail boats to Lisbon.  The Jews now own homes in Tangiers and Lisbon.

    1893: “Manifesto of Jewish Rabbis” published today described a document issued by 210 German Rabbis designed to counteract the increasing power of the country’s anti-Jewish movement.

    1894: The Superintendent of the Bureau of Immigration, a section of the Treasury Department, “has received an official denial from the Russian Government that” it is aiding Russian Jews in their efforts to come to the United States.

    1894(26th of Adar I, 5654):Rabbi Joseph Perles passed away. Born in Baja, Hungary in 1835, he received his early instruction in the Talmud from his father, Baruch Asher Perles, he was educated successively at the gymnasium of his native city, was one of the first rabbis trained at the new type of rabbinical seminary at Breslau, and the university of that city (Oriental philology and philosophy; Ph.D. 1859, presenting as his dissertation Meletemata Peschitthoniana). Perles was awarded his rabbinical diploma in 1862. He had already received a call, in the autumn of the previous year, as preacher to the community of Posen; and in that city he founded a religious school. In 1863 he married Rosalie, the eldest daughter of Simon Baruch Schefftel. In the same year he declined a call to Budapest; but in 1871 he accepted the rabbinate of Münich, being the first rabbi of modern training to fill that office. As the registration law which had restricted the expansion of the communities had not been abrogated until 1861, Perles found an undeveloped community; but under his management it soon began to flourish, and in 1887 he dedicated the new synagogue. He declined not only a call to succeed Abraham Geiger as rabbi in Berlin, but also a chair at the newly founded seminary in Budapest. Perles' most important essays were on folklore and custom. He also wrote an essay on Nachmanides, and a biography and critical appreciation of Rashba.

    1894: As the United States grapples with the problem of unemployment brought by economic depression, the United Hebrew Charities is one of the organizations making daily requests to aid the needy.

    1894: Among the donations made to the fund to help New York’s unemployed are R.H. Macy & Co ($100), Simon Borg ($100) and Emanuel Lehman ($100).

    1895: “The Pope May Interfere” published today described the Pope’s plans to issue an “encyclical letter denouncing the anti-Semitic agitation in Europe.  The Pope is reacting to the reports brought to him several weeks ago by Cardinal Schoenborn “concerning Jew-baiting in Austria.”

    1895: A cased was “called today against the Adelphi Club” “among whose members are the wealthiest and most influential Jews of Albany, NY” which resulted in the Judge decreeing that private clubs were under the jurisdiction of the Excise Board and must be licensed accordingly.

    1895: The 3 year old “waif” found wandering the streets and known only as “John Doe, No.19” moved to the Hebrew Sheltering Society’s Home where the Philip Goodhart, the President of the home gave him the name of Judah Touro.

    1895: “Mrs. Ida Lieberman, the convicted fire-bug was taken to Auburn Prison” today to begin serving “her sentence of six years and eight months.

    1895: The six year old daughter and eight year old son of prisoner Ida Lieberman, for whom no provision had been made, were provided with a home today at the Hebrew Orphan Asylum.

    1896: Among the facilities being visited by those attending the conference on “Improved Housing” is the Hebrew Institute on East Broadway, where they will be greeted Inspector Isaac Spectorsky

    1897: Joseph Simon begins his term as U.S. Senator from Oregon.  Born in Germany, Simon settled in Portland, Oregon where he became a member of the bar and played an active role in Republican Party politics. 

    1897: “Two Heroes Remembered” published today summarized a speech given by Hugo Hirsh in honor of the 1st and 16thpresidents of the United States in which he said that the “Hebrew race was typified by the institutions of the county in that the Hebrew was the most cosmopolitan among peoples and the United States the most cosmopolitan of nations.”  Furthermore, “the principles of educational, religious and political freedom fostered by these two leaders had been of incalculable benefit to the Hebrew race.”

    1897: William McKinley whom the Jews would be accused of assassinating was inaugurated as 25th President of the United States.

    1899: A group of “prominent” Jews met in Cincinnati to plan for the reception and entertainment of the rabbis who will be attending the upcoming annual Central Conference of American Rabbis.

    1899: It was reported today that among the three new novels in Houghton, Mifflin & Co.’s spring list is A Tent of Grace, a story of a Jew and a gentile in Germany by Adelina C. Lust.

    1900: In Philadelphia, PA Joseph and Eva Biberman gave birth to screenwriter and director Herbert J. Biberman who was one of the Hollywood Ten.

    1901: Birthdate of master bridge player, Charles Goren.  The Philadelphia born lawyer probably did more to popularize the game bridge than did any other single American.

    1901: Henry Mayer Goldfogle began serving as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from New York’s 9thCongressional District.

    1903: Senator Joseph Simon, Oregon Republican, finishes his term in the U.S. Senate. Simon returned to Portland, Oregon where he resumed his law practice and would serve as mayor from 1909 to 1911.

    1904: In Richmond, VA, Beth Ahabah, a Reform congregation that could trace its roots back to 1789, laid the cornerstone for a new house of worship popularly referred to as the Franklin Street Synagogue because of its address 1111 West Franklin Street.

    1905 Isidor Rayner began serving as U.S. Senator from Maryland

    1905: William M. Stewart completed his services as U.S. Senator from Nevada.  During one debate on anti-Semitism in Romania, Stewart defended the Jews of charges from Senator Sprague that the Jews were the author of their own suffering because they had been so successful.

    1906: Only days after Martial Law had come to an end a police officer name Kulchitsky was killed in Bialystok.  This killing was one of the many acts of violence that would lead to the pogrom that took place in June of that year.

    1907: John Simon Guggenheim, the son of Meyer and Barbara Guggenheim began serving as U.S. Senator from Colorado.

    1909: Birthdate of Millionaire Real Estate Mogul Harry B. Helmsley.

    1909: Ed “Cotton” Smith who as a member of the House of Representatives had opposed legislation that would have exempted Jewish immigrants from Russia from a literacy test began serving in the United States Senate.

    1910(23rd of Adar I, 5670): Romanian born Yiddish dramatist Moses Horowitz passed away in the Montefiore Home at the age of 76.  The Bucharest native came to the United States in 1882 and was hailed at his passing as being “the Pioneer Yiddish playwright in New York.”  Five years before his death he lost all of his money while trying to produce a unique Yiddish opera at the Windsor Theatre.

    1911: Victor Berger of Wisconsin became the first member of the Socialist Party to be elected to the U.S. House of Representatives.

    1911: Jefferson Monroe Levy, the nephew of Uriah P. Levy began serving as the U.S. Congressman from New York’s 13thDistrict.

    1912:  Birthdate of the actor John Garfield in New York. Born Julius Garfinkle, Garfield rose to stardom in the 1930's and 1940's playing a variety of wisecracking, “lover boy” type roles.  One of his most famous roles was in the film hit, “The Postman Rings Twice.”  Garfield was caught up in the Anti-Communist Witch Hunts of the 1950's.

    1913: Dr. Joseph Hertz sailed from New York on the SS Mauritania bound for the British Isles where he will become Chief Rabbi of England which will make him not only the leader of British Jewry but one of the most influential Jewish clerics in the world.

    1914: The General Orders issued on this date provided the official citation awarding Louis C. Hoseher the Congressional Medal of Honor. “The President of the United States of America, in the name of Congress, takes pleasure in presenting the Medal of Honor to Second Lieutenant Louis C. Mosher, United States Army, for most distinguished gallantry on 11 June 1913, while serving with the Philippine Scouts, in action at Gagsak Mountain, Jolo, Philippine Islands. Second Lieutenant Mosher voluntarily entered a cleared space within about 20 yards of the Moro trenches under a furious fire from them and carried a wounded soldier of his company to safety at the risk of his own life.”

    1914: “Arthur Ruppin wrote in his diary, ‘Today I succeeded in buying from Sir John Gray Hill his largeand magnificently situated property on Mount Scopus, thus acquiring the first piece of ground for the Jewish University in Jerusalem.’”

    1915: The United States naval collier Vulcan is scheduled to set sail from the League Island Navy Yard at Philadelphia today carrying supplies paid for by the Jewish Relief Society for “distribution to the starving residents” of Palestine.

    1915: Dr. Robert Tuttle Morris, ex-President of the American Association of Obstetricians and Gynecologists delivered a talk tonight at the Cornell Club on “Warfare as Natural History” in which he “advanced the theory that the Jewish people would be the next to dominate” the world because, among other thing, “they are gathering in the citing, thriving under urban life” and “increasing more rapidly than any others.”

    1915: Jefferson Monroe Levy completed his second and final term as a U.S. Congressman.

    1915: Meyer London, the Jewish Socialist, began serving his first term in the U.S House representing New York’s 12th Congressional District.

    1915: Among those whose contributions to the Fund of the American Jewish Relief Committee were received today included L.M. Jacobs of Tucson, AZ and the Dallas, TX, YMHA,

    1915: “Assurance that the Jewish people of Palestine ‘enjoy perfect safety’ was given in an official communication” that arrived in Washington, DC today from Constantinople.

    1919: After four years out of office, Henry Mayer Goldfogle began serving as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from New York’s 12th Congressional District.

    1920: Birthdate of Leo Greenland, the Bronx born adman whose accounts included Tanqueray Gin, Johnnie Walker (Red & Black) Scotch and Olvatine. Do you think he ever confused his liquids? (As reported by Margalit Fox)

    1920: In Harlem, Robert and Mary Habib Yohai, Jewish immigrants from Turkey, gave birth to Morrie Robert Yohai, the man who Cheez Doodles one of America’s most popular junk snack foods. (As reported by Dennis Hevesi)

    1921: Having been out of office for two years, Meyer London again begins representing New York’s 12th Congressional District.

    1922: Birthdate of British cardiologist David Mendel.

    1922: Release date of German silent horror film “Nosferatu: A Symphony of Horror” co-starring Wolfgang Heinz, the stage name of David Hrisch.

    1923(16thof Adar, 5683): Shushan Purim, since the 15th of Adar fell on Shabbat

    1923(16thof Adar, 5683): Edward Lauterbach, prominent New York attorney and leader of the Republican Party who devoted four decades of his life to the Hebrew Orphan Asylum passed away today.

    1923: Birthdate of Kurt Schubert, the founder of Austria's first Jewish museum after World War II and the founder of the Jewish Institute at the University of Vienna.

    1923: Emmanuel “Manny” Celler began serving as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from New York’s 10th Congressional District.

    1923: Royal Samuel Copeland begins serving as a U.S. Senator from New York. In June of 1933, when several Senators rose on the floor to condemn the treatment of the Jews of Germany, Copeland “paid tribute to the Jews as whole mentioning Nathan Straus as an example of Jews whose work set an example for the world.” He went on to say that the condemnation of Germany’s treatment of the Jews by Senator Pat Robinson of Arkansas, the Senate majority leader, “will bring hoe and cheer into the hearts of many persons…”

    1924: In Manhattan, Isidor and Gussie Stein gave birth to their only son “Robert Stein who helped expand the scope of women’s magazines as editor in chief of McCall’s and Redbook in the early stages of the modern women’s movement, publishing articles about race and politics and introducing readers to the nascent writings of feminist leaders like Betty Friedan and Gloria Steinem.” (As reported by Paul Vitello)

    1924:Iris Margaret Origo, an Anglo-Irish writer who helped to save Jewish children through the kindertransport including the painter Frank Helmut Auerbach “married Antonio Origo, the illegitimate son of Marchese Clemente Origo.”

    1925(8th of Adar, 5685): Polish born composer Moritz Moszkowskipassed away at the age of 70 while living in Paris.

    1927(30th of Adar I, 5687): Rosh Chodesh Adar II

    1927(30th of Adar I, 5687): Solomon Cicurel, 46, was fatally stabbed - eight times - shortly after midnight today.The only witness to the crime was Cicurel’s wife Elvire Toriel. She had little to say except that she had been chloroformed by her husband’s assailants. The murdered victim was the eldest of three brothers. Solomon, Salvator and Joseph were the sons of Moreno Cicurel, a Sephardic Jew who came to Egypt during the previous century from Smyrna (Izmir), then a thriving cosmopolitan trading port in Turkey. A self-made man, Moreno, started his career as an employee with a coreligionist who owned a textile shop in the Mousky district, Cairo’s main commercial hub. Moreno Cicurel was the founder of one of the largest department stores in the Middle East.

    1928:  In Mannheim, Germany, cantor and composer Hugo Chaim Adler and Selma Adler gave birth to composer Samuel Adler who came to the United States in 1939 where he earned a B.M. from Boston University, and an M.A. from Harvard University. He has also received several honorary doctorates in recognition for his artistic accomplishments. During his tenure in the U.S. Army, he founded and conducted the Seventh Army Symphony Orchestra, and because of the orchestra's great psychological and musical impact on the European cultural scene, he was awarded the Army's Medal of Honor.

    1933: Franklin Delano Roosevelt was inaugurated as 32nd President of the United States.  Regardless of what one may think of Roosevelt's record during the Holocaust, there is no denying the positive things he did for Jews during the days of the New Deal.  He had numerous Jewish advisors and appointed them to a variety of positions of power including Supreme Court Justice to Secretary of the Treasury.  A hitherto untapped cohort of well-educated first or second generation American Jews gained access to positions through the newly emerging federal agencies that were part of Roosevelt's program to reform American government, business and labor practices.

    1933: Cordell Hull began serving as U.S. Secretary of State a post he would hold until 1944. Hull would win the Nobel Peace Prize but he earned low marks from the Jewish community for his moves to thwart attempts to aid Jewish refugees and his failure to curb the genteel anti-Semitism found in his department.

    1933: Seventy more people are imprisoned at Nohra on the second day of the operation of Germany's first Concentration Camp.  This brings the total of prisoners to 170.

    1935: The Jerusalem Shopkeepers Association plans to shutter its shops today in an attmpet to “force the Municipal Council to adopt a rent regulation ordinance” similar to the ones in force in Tel Aviv and Haifa.

    1937: The 9th Annual Academy Awards, hosted by Jewish actor and Hollywood fixture, George Jessel, are held at the Biltmore Hotel in Los Angeles.

    1937(21stof Adar, 5697): Four year old Miriam Ruhama Pacifici the daughter of Rabbi Riccardo Reuven Pacifici passed away at Genoa.

    1938(1st of Adar II, 5698): Rosh Chodesh Adar II

    1938: The Palestine Post reported that Sir Harold MacMichael had arrived in Palestine and described the ceremony in which he was sworn as the fifth High Commissioner.

    1938: The Palestine Post reported that The Lydda-Jerusalem train was sabotaged when the railway line was damaged by an explosion. Another bomb was found on the railway tracks near Khan Yunis. Curfew was imposed on Arab villages situated close to the railway tracks.

    1938: The Palestine Post reported that there were 5,734,917 Palestine pounds in circulation and 15,641 registered vehicles in the country in 1937. There were also 95 credit cooperatives with 79,750 members.

    1938: Birthdate of Allan Nathaniel Kornblum, the Brooklyn native who would help steer the F.B.I. into the post-J. Edgar Hoover era by drafting guidelines for its surveillance operations in the 1970s, and whose testimony would help convict the murderer of a black man in a celebrated civil rights case revived nearly 40 years after the event.

    1941: A group of tailors who worked in shop supplying uniforms to the German Army were photographed in Nazi occupied Bendzin, Poland.

    1941: "I. Segaloff" wrote “My best regards to my friend Tatsuo Osako," on the back of a photo. Segaloff was probably a Jewish refugee who had been helped by Osako who was a young employee of the Japan Tourist Bureau at the start of World War II. Osako probably worked with “Chiune Sugihara, a Japanese diplomat stationed in Lithuania who granted transit visas to several thousand Jews in the early days of the war. In doing so, he defied strict stipulations from Tokyo that such recipients have proper funds and a clear final destination after Japan. He was one of a handful of diplomats such as Sweden's Raoul Wallenberg and Hiram Bingham IV of the U.S. who used their bureaucratic machinery, often without their government's knowledge, to issue the paperwork that would get Jews to safety. Dubbed the "Japanese Schindler," Sugihara was honored in 1985 by Yad Vashem as one of the Righteous Among the Nations, a high honor reserved for non-Jews who saved Jews at their own personal risk from the Holocaust, Hitler's destruction of 6 million Jews. A short movie about him, "Visas and Virtue," won an Academy Award in 1997. Museums at his home town and in Lithuania are dedicated to his memory.”

    1942: Algiers radio announced that all firms, property and legal titles owned in part or full by Jews have been put under "Aryan" administration. This came after the dismissal of 3,000 Jews from the French civil service just a couple months prior.

    1942: Birthdate of Peabody award winner and “feminist” Lynn Sherr.

    1942: Eichmann met with all his territorial representatives to discuss the organizational problems of the deportations to come. Actual plans commenced months earlier.

    1943:Most of the Jews living in Cuomotini, Greece were arrested and transported in 20 open train cars to the notorious Dupnitsa transit camp, and then dispatched from Lom by boat via the Danube. The Jews from Cuomotini and Kavala on the Karageorge were shot by the Bulgarians and the Germans; while three other boats, of which one held Cuomotini Jews, arrived in Vienna and from there the Thracian Jews were sent to Treblinka; where they were gassed upon arrival. The Bulgarians confiscated all of the Jewish properties and possessions.

    1943:The Jews of Drama, a town in Macedonia, were arrested by the Bulgarian police and army, held in tobacco warehouses in the Agia Barbara quarter for three days, and then sent to the Gorna Djumaya camp in Bulgaria, where they were kept in extremely harsh conditions. From there, young men in their teens and early twenties were sent to forced labor in Bulgaria and 113 families (589 people) were dispatched by train to Lom and from there put on a boat to Vienna, where they were reloaded on trains to Treblinka and gassed upon their arrival.

    1943: Jews continued to be sent from Paris to Chelmno, Sobibor, and Majdanek.

    1943: At the 15th Annual Oscar award ceremony, “Mrs. Miniver” directed by William Wyler wins for Best Picture of 1942.  Wyler, a refugee from Hitler’s Europe wins for Best Director.

    1944(9th of Adar, 5704): In Warsaw, four Jewish women were shot in the ghetto along with 80 non Jews. All their bodies, dead and wounded alike, were thrown into a building that was then lit on fire.

    1944(9th of Adar, 5704):  In Ossining, New York, Louis Buchalter, the leader of 1930s crime syndicate Murder, Inc. was executed at Sing Sing.

    1946: Birthdate of English impresario Harvey Goldsmith

    1947: As much of Palestine’s Jewish community endured the third day of martial law, Joseph Saphir, the mayor of Petach Tikva reported that 4,000 men were out of work due to the clampdown and the number was growing.  In Tel Aviv, the banks were closed due to a lack of coin and currency while the population worried about getting the necessities of life including fresh milk.

    1948: U.S. premiere of “The Naked City,” a gritty, black and white film directed by Jules Dassin, produced by Mark Hellinger with a screenplay by Albert Maltz and Malvin Wald.

    1949: The Security Council of the United Nations recommended Israel for membership in the international body.

    1950: In an article about the proposed Israel-Jordan non-aggression pact entitled “Israel and Jordan Working for Peace,” Gene Currivan declares that “Israel decided long ago that while external advice is always welcome, she must rely principally – as the Jews have over the centuries – on her own resourcefulness where the future is concerned.”

     1950: The Revocation of Citizenship Bill, which made it possible for Iraq's Jews to flee the country, went into effect.   "By the end of May of 1950, at least ten thousand Iraqi Jews" many of whom were impoverished before leaving, "had crossed the border into Iran” as they made their way to Israel.

    1953:The Jerusalem Post reported that the new, official US Middle Eastern policy was to “equalize the support for Israel and other countries in the area.” According to the explanation given to the Post by US Embassy officials in Tel Aviv, this new policy did not mean that the support hitherto given to Israel was to be lessened, but that the assistance offered to the Arab states was to be increased. [This new policy was a product of the newly elected Republican Administration of Dwight Eisenhower and his Secretary of State John Foster Dulles.  Eisenhower and Dulles would show their true feelings about Israel when they took the side of the Egyptians over the Israelis during the Suez Crisis of 1956.]

    1953:The Jerusalem Post reported that following the recent Israeli offer, the Barclay and Ottoman banks in Cyprus started accepting claims from Arab Palestine refugees for the release of their frozen accounts held in Israeli banks.

    1953:The Jerusalem Post reported that a new draft for the Punishment of Crimes against the State was tabled in the Knesset. It provided for a death sentence for the high treason in time of war.

    1954: As attempts were being to remove his security clearance, J. Robert Openheimer, the “father of the Atomic Bomb,” sent a letter to Major General Kenneth D. Nicholas describing his relationship with Jean Tatlock.

    1955:Following the rape and murder of his sister Shoshana and the murder of her boyfriend Oded Wegmeister by Bedouin Tribesmen, Meir Har-Zion  “and three ex-members of the 890 Battalion drove to the Armistice Line with Jordan where they captured six Bedouins.

    1957:  Israel, in compliance with the United Nations resolution, withdrew from the Gaza Strip and other territories.  These territories had been seized in the Sinai Campaign of 1956, sometimes referred to as “the One Hundred Hour War” because of its short duration.  The fighting in 1956 was an Israeli response to years of attacks by terrorists as well as the arming of the Egyptians by the Soviets with an arsenal of modern weapons.  The history of the war is too complicated to summarize here.  Suffice it to say that the Israelis withdrew with guarantees from the United Nations and the United States that the Sinai Peninsula would be a demilitarized zone and that Israel would enjoy unfettered access from Eilat, its southern port through the Straits of Tiran.  In 1967, Egypt would completely break the agreements of 1957 and the U.N. would fail to honor its commitments which brought about the Six Days War.

    1957: The Importance of Overweight by childhood obesity researcher Hilda Bruch was published.

    1969(14TH of Adar, 5729): The first Purim during the Nixon Presidency

    1969(14th of Adar, 5729): Pioneering movie mogul, Nicholas M. Schenck passed away.

    1971: The second of two part television production Clifford Odets’ Paradise Lost co-starring Eli Wallach was broadcast on American Public Television.

    1973: Marcel Marceau appears at Hancher Auditorium in Iowa City, IA.

    1974(10th of Adar, 5734): Adolph Gottlieb, prominent Abstract Expressionist painter passed away at the age of 71.

    1974: "Five months after Israel's defeat of the Syrian forces on the Golan Heights, four young Syrian Jewish women were found raped, robbed and murdered in a cave on the Syrian side of the Syrian-Lebanese borders...The bodies were returned to their parents in sacks."

    1975: Charlie Chaplin was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II of England.

    1984:The life of journalist and author Sidney Zion “was transformed” tonight “when his 18-year-old daughter, Libby, a Bennington College freshman with a history of depression and cocaine use, was admitted to New York Hospital with fever, chills and agitation. Her condition was not diagnosed, but two interns gave her a painkiller and sedative, a plan approved by phone by a senior clinician who had treated members of the family, and Ms. Zion was tied down to prevent injury. She died eight hours after admission.”  This tragedy resulted in Zion leading a crusade that resulted in national reforms in the training, workload and supervision of young doctors.

    1986: Today, “The New York Times reported on Kurt Waldheim’s wartime service in the Balkans and his prewar Nazi associations.”

    1987: Jonathan Pollard was sentenced today by a Washington, D.C. court to life imprisonment for spying for Israel.

    1988:Sir John Templeton, sponsor of the $369,000 Templeton Prize for Progress in Religion, has expressed surprise at charges that this year's prize winner was associated with anti-Semitic and anti-Israel causes. ''We'd heard absolutely nothing of that nature and I don't think any of the judges had either,'' Sir John said by telephone today from the Bahamas. ''We are completely surprised and will be trying to study the facts.'' The Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith and the American Jewish Committee protested the designation of Dr. Inamullah Khan, secretary general of the Pakistan-based World Moslem Congress, as the winner because Dr. Khan and the congress have linked to anti-Semitic groups, including those that deny the Holocaust occurred, and that Dr. Khan had rejected Israel's right to exist. Dr. Khan is the first Moslem to be chosen for the Templeton Prize.

    1988: In Ramat HaSharon, Alon and Arela Mekel gave birth to professional Gal Mekel. Who played for Wichita State University before turning pro.

    1993(11th of Adar, 5753): Ta'anit Esther observed since the 13th of Adar falls on Shabbat

    1993(11th of Adar, 5753):Izaak Maurits (Piet) Kolthoff “a highly influential chemist, widely considered the Father of Analytical Chemistry” passed away.

    1994: The INS Hanit a corvette built by Northrop Gruman was launched today.

    1995: President Clinton appoint Martin S. Indyk as U.S. Ambassador to Israel.

    1996(13th of Adar, 5756):A suicide bomber killed at least 10 people and and wounded at least 35 others. The Arab bomber, with explosives strapped to his body, blew himself up in the street near the indoor mall known as Dizengoff Center. 

    1996(13th of Adar, 5756): This morning, owner Abe Lebewohl the 2nd Avenue Deli was in his delivery truck, going to make his habitual deposit at a nearby bank when he was shot and killed, a victim of a robbery that remains unsolved to this day. His baby brother, Jack Lebewohl, who, unlike Abe, realized their parents’ American dream by becoming a “professional,” a real estate lawyer, gave up his practice and took over the deli. He made a go of it for almost 10 years, despite the fact that delis in New York have been disappearing for almost 40 years.

    1998: “The Fourteenth Knesset re-elected Ezer Weizman for a second term. For the first time, an acting president was faced by an opponent, (MK Shaul Amor of the Likud), in the re-election. 119 members participated in the election: 63 votes were in favor of Weizman, 49 were in favor of Amor, and 7 were empty ballots.

    2001: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Islam's Black Slaves: The Other Black Diaspora by Ronald Segal

    2001(9thof Adar, 5761):Naftali Dean, 85, of Tel Mond; Yevgenya Malchin, 70, of Netanya and Shlomit Ziv, 58, of Netanya were murdered today by a Palestinian suicide bomber “in the center of the business district of Netanya.

    2005: A German court ruled that the heirs of a once prominent Jewish-owned department store chain were entitled to compensation for what has in recent years become one of Berlin's most valuable pieces of real estate. Deciding one of the biggest and most bitterly disputed claims for restitution of property seized by the Nazis, the German Administrative Court awarded $17 million to Barbara Principe and her nephew, Martin Wortham. They are the main surviving heirs of the family of German Jews that, until the war, owned and operated the Wertheim department store chain, which even today is to Berlin what Macy's or Bloomingdale's is to New York.  The Wertheim Company, founded in the 19th century, owned seven large stores in Berlin before the war, all of them appropriated by the Nazis in 1937 as part of the process by which Jews were squeezed out of German economic life and their holdings turned over to "Aryans." The Wertheim brothers arrived in the United States penniless in the 1940's. Gunther Wertheim, Mrs. Principe's father, ran a chicken farm in southern New Jersey.

    2005:  The New York Times reviewed The Great Morality by John Kelly.  This book provided “an intimate history of the Black Death.  Included in this acclaimed volume are references to the treatment of the Jews including reports of “survivors pointing accusatory fingers at Jews and Muslims and outsiders” and the “pogroms instituted against the Jews, who were scapegoated for spreading the plague; the abdication of responsibility on the part of many officials and community leaders; and the exploitation of the needy and grief-stricken by con men and opportunists.”

    2005: An exhibition styled “The Power of Conversation of Jewish Women and Their Salons” opens at the Jewish Museum.

    2006: Dalia Itizk a native of Jerusalem born into a family of Iraqi Jews, began serving Speaker of the Knesset, making her the first women to hold this post.

    2007: The Sunday New York Times book section featured a review of The Art of Aging:A Doctor’s Prescription for Well-Beingby Jewish author Sherwin B. Nuland and a review of  Becoming Judy Chicago: A Biography of the Artistby Gail Levin. “Judy Chicago, born Judith Sylvia Cohen in Chicago in 1939, is descended from a long line of rabbis, going back to the Vilna Gaon in eighteenth century Lithuania.” 

    2007(14th of Adar, 5767): Purim.

    2008: As part of “Hadassah on Tour,” Dr. Michael Wilschanski, the Director of the Pediatric Gastroenterology Unit of the Division of Pediatrics at Hadassah Medical Center, Hebrew University in Jerusalem, speaks in Duluth, MN

    2008: In New York, the 92nd Street Y presents “Breaking News from Israel: Reports from the Front Lines” featuring NBC journalist Martin Fletcher and moderated by New York Times editor and author Joseph Berger.

    2008:James L. Kugel and Rabbi Harold Kushner are among the 20 writers honored tonight at the 57th annual Jewish Book Awards, to be held at the Center for Jewish History in Manhattan. In January, the Jewish Book Council, which administers the awards, named Mr. Kugel's How to Read the Bible: A Guide to Scripture, Then and Nowthe Jewish Book of the Year for 2007, and chose Rabbi Kushner, the author of the 1981 best seller When Bad Things Happen to Good People, the recipient of its Lifetime Achievement Award. The Jewish Book Council, founded in 1943, is the only organization in America devoted exclusively to promoting books reflecting the Jewish experience. The annual awards honor achievement in biography and memoir, children's and young adult literature, fiction, poetry, and history.

    2008: According to Palestinian sources, the Arabs suffered 110 casualties during Operation Hot Winter.  The Israelis launched Operation Hot Winter following a series of rocket attacks launched from Gaza that targeted Israeli towns, including Sderot. 

    2009: In Cedar Rapids, Iowa, Hadassah Book Club meets at the home of community leader Amy Barnum discuss a novel by Anita Dimant entitledGood Harbor

    2009: In New York, the Jewish Community Relations Council and the Chinese Community Relations Council sponsor a presentation by Avrum Ehrlich, Professor at the University of Shandong, China, entitled China-Israel Relations: Geopolitical and Social Dimensions.

    2009:  Secretary of State Hillary Clinton visits Ramallah before flying out of Israel as she completes her first official peace mission to the Middle East.

    2009: Mohammad Ali Jafari, the commander in chief of the Iran’s Revolutionary Gurad announced that Iran now has missiles that can reach Israeli nuclear sites.  Iran’s Shahab-3 missles have a range of up to 1,250 miles, putting Israel within striking distance.

    2009: According to the Proivdence Journal,the last two paid staff member of the Touro Synagogue in Newport, R.I., were let go and public tours were canceled because of financial difficulties.

    2009(8th of Adar, 5769:Joseph Bloch, who was a professor of piano literature at the Juilliard School in New York passed away today at the age of 91. at his home in Larchmont, N.Y. For the better part of the past five decades, every Juilliard pianist passed through Mr. Bloch’s classroom. There was a brief interruption to this process in the 1980s when Mr. Bloch tried to retire but proved indispensable and was persuaded to return. His pupils included many of the best-known performers of the second half of the 20th century, among them Van Cliburn, Emanuel Ax, Garrick Ohlsson, Misha Dichter, Jeffrey Siegel, Jeffrey Swann and Yoheved Kaplinsky, the current chairwoman of Julliard’s piano department. A pianist trained as a musicologist, Mr. Bloch did not teach his students prowess at the keyboard; that was done by the conservatory’s studio teachers, eminent pianists like Rosina Lhévinne and Adele Marcus. What he taught was not so much the how-to of pianism but the who, the why and the what-if. Mr. Bloch also leaves behind a world of pianists, each of them,. Emmanuel Ax said, “a cultured musician, someone who retains curiosity throughout one’s life of music.” “Maybe all of us would have found another road that would have led us to the same end,” Mr. Ax added. “But we were lucky enough not to have had to look beyond him.”

    2010: YIVO is scheduled to present a program entitled Goebbels in Arabia during which Jeffrey Herf, eminent historian and a professor at the University of Maryland, discusses his new book, Nazi Propaganda for the Arab World (Yale University Press), a detailed account of how Hitler's Germany planted the seeds of its own brand of virulent anti-Semitism in the Middle East.

    2010: The Twentieth Annual KOACH Kallah is scheduled to begin today at the Pearlston Conference and Retreat Center in Reisterstown, MD.  KOACH is the is the college program Conservative Movement.

    2010: In Washington, D.C., Norman Shore is scheduled to lead a “learn over lunch” that examines the reign of Solomon as described in Book of I Kings.

    2010: Rabbi Joshua Maroof, the spiritual leader of the Magen David Sephardic Congregation in Rockville, Maryland is scheduled to conduct another class designed to discover the fascinating world of Sephardic Jewish thought in which attendees delve into the legacy of great philosophers such as Maimonides and Joseph Caro (author of the Shulchan Aruch) and discuss monotheism, free will and other ever-contemporary themes.

    2010:The High Court today refused to throw out a lawsuit by Peace Now against construction in Kiryat Netafim, even though the government says it has evidence that shows that construction was approved before the lawsuit was undertaken, contradicting the contention of the suit that the building was illegal. The court, however, rejected a demand by Peace Now that the town and the Samaria Regional Council be held in contempt of court for allowing construction to continue, even though the court had ordered building frozen until the lawsuit was heard.

    2010: Michigan Congressman Sandy Levin took over as chairman of the committee today when Charles B. Rangel of New York stepped aside in due to a number of ethics violations. (Levin is Jewish; Rangel is not.)

    2011: Agudas Achim in Iowa City is scheduled to celebrate Shabbat Across America.

    2011: In Rockville, MD, Tikvat Israel is scheduled to explore the world the Jews of Ethiopia in a program styled: “From Tesfa to Tikva: A Lens on Ethiopian Israelis.”

    2011: Congregation Adat Reyim is scheduled to celebrate a Shabbat Service Honoring Military Families.

    2011:Several hundred people gathered in central Tel Aviv today to protest government plans to deport hundreds of children of foreign workers and illegal residents of Israel.

    2011: Twenty year old Jessica Feibler, a U.C. student has brought a federal civil rights lawsuit against the University of California, Berkeley, saying the university did not protect her from being attacked because she is Jewish. The case, filed in U.S. District Court in Oakland, Calif., today against the university, the regents of the University of California and their ranking officials, is the first of its kind.

    2011(29thof Adar I, 5771):Vivienne Harris, 89, who worked with her husband to found the Jewish Telegraph, now a regional publishing powerhouse in northern England with editions in Manchester, Leeds, Liverpool and Glasgow, passed away. Harris received an Order of the British Empire -- MBE -- for her professional and charitable works, and was still active as the company's financial director until days before her death. Her son, Paul, the Telegraph's editor, said that "I always said that she had three children -- myself, my brother and the Jewish Telegraph. The paper was very much her baby, and she nurtured it like a child for 60 years. Even in her 90th year, she was devoted to the company." Israel's ambassador to the United Kingdon, Ron Prosor, said that Harris "embodied what we should all be proud of: Jewish values, Zionistic determination and motivation of someone who established the Jewish Telegraph with her late husband with just the 10 fingers that she had, against all the odds. A remarkable woman who I had the privilege of meeting and talking to. It's a great loss (As reported by the Eulogizer)

    2012: The AIPAC Policy Conference is scheduled to begin in Washington, DC

    2012: Jeremy Skidmore (director) and the Designers of “New Jerusalem: The Interrogation of Baruch De Spinoza” are scheduled to take part in a “Talk Back” which is part of “a month-long national conversation about Spinoza’s impact and legacy.”

    2012: Rabbi Jeffery Saks is scheduled to lead the first in a three part mini-series, “Aganon’s Eretz Yisrael” that examines the work of Nobel Prize Winner, S.Y. Agnon.

    2012: Virginia’s Eric Cantor, the House Majority Leader and the only Jewish Republican serving in the U.S. House of Representatives endorsed Mitt Romney for president and said that he is not interested in the vice-presidency.

    2012(10thof Adar): Ninety seven year old Shmuel Tankus, who commanded Israel’s navy from 1954 until 1960 passed away today.

    2012: President Barak Obama addressed the AIPAC Policy Conference.

    2013: Josh Sussman is scheduled to host a Montreal Aliyah Fair this evening.

    2013: Dr. Brian Horowitz is scheduled to be the first speaker at today’s session of the a day-long conference at Tulane University - “Jewish Music in New Orleans”

    2013(22ndof Adar, 5773):Sixty-eight year oldRabbi Menachem Froman died tonight at his home in Tekoa in Gush Etzion, where 200 of his students and followers sang and prayed instead of learning with him a weekly lesson in the mystical Zohar.

    2013: Pawel Frenkel, who fought alongside Mordecai Anielewicz is to be remembered today at an event marking anniversary of the Jewish rebellion

    2014: Sandy, Larry and Michael Levin, from suburban Chicago, are among those scheduled to attend the final day of the AIPAC Policy Conference in Washington, DC.

    2014:Emily Casden, Coordinating Curator for “Art Spiegelman’s Co-Mix: A Retrospective” is scheduled to participate in a Q & A following a screening of “The Art of Spiegelman.”

    2014: “Dancing in Jaffa” and “An Evening of Yiddish Song” are scheduled to be shown at the 24th Washington Jewish Film Festival.

    2014: The Historic 6th& I Synagogue is scheduled to host “Judaism on Trial: The Barcelona Disputation of 1263”

    2014: The Library of Congress is scheduled to host a screening of Regina, Diana Goo’s documentary about Regina Jonas the first female Rabbi ordained in Germany who was murdered at Auschwitz in 1944.

    2014:Arab terrorists hurled a firebomb today at the community of Beit El, in the Binyamin region, north of Jerusalem. No one was hurt and no damage was caused. A similar attack took place on yesterday, too.

    2014(2ndof Adar II, 5774): Fifty-nine Rabbi Daniel Moscowitz, the Chicago native who “has led Chabad in Illinois since 1977” died suddenly today.

    2014: GW’s Rabin Chair Forum and Middle East Forum and the Middle East Program of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars are scheduled to host a program about the making of “JERUSALEM” a “film that tells the…story of Jerusalem through the viewpoints of…Christianity, Islam and Judaism.

    2014: YIVO is scheduled to host “Jacob Glatstein: A Yiddish Genius in Anglicizing America.”

    2015(13thof Adar, 5775): Fast of Esther

    2015: In the evening, Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids has a “Pizza” Purim complete with costumes and the traditional Megillah Reading






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    March 5

    363: Roman Emperor Julian moves from Antioch with an army of 90,000 to attack the Sassanid Empire, in a campaign which will bring to his own death. Julian followed Constantine to the throne and turned back his predecessor’s pro-Christian promulgations.  Effectively, his decrees gave validity to other religions previously practiced in the Empire.  On his was to fight the Sassanids, Julian gave orders that the Temple in Jerusalem should be rebuilt.  His untimely death prevented this from happening.  The Sassanids were the Persians of their day.

    1133: Birth of King Henry II of England during whose reign Jews would prosper as reported by visitors including Abraham ibn Ezra and Isaac of Chernigov as well as the money that flowed to his coffers through the estate of Aaron of Lincoln and “the Saladin tithe.”

    1179:  The Third Lateran Council opens at Rome.  At the end of the meeting the council would adopt the following as matters of canon law: "Jews should be slaves to Christians and at the same time treated kindly due of humanitarian considerations."”The testimony of Christians against Jews is to be preferred in all causes where they use their own witnesses against Christians."

    1245: As the Mongols continued their sweep across Christian Europe, Innocent IV issued “Dei patris immense,” a Papal bull urging them to be baptized.  These are the same Mongols who had destroyed the kingdom of the Khazars in 1239.  Apparently the Mongols were no more impressed with Christianity than the Khazars had been since the latter, in a legendary contest, had chosen Judaism over Islam and Christianity.

    1291(3rd of Nisan): Sa’ad al-Da’ulah, Jewish grand vizier under the Mongol ruler of Persia Argun Kahn was assassinated today.

    1328(15th of Adar, 5088): After the death of Charles the Fair, Pedro Olligoyen, a Franciscan friar, used the Jews as a scapegoat against French rule. Starting today, Shabbat, all the Jewish houses were pillaged and then destroyed. Approximately 6000 Jews were murdered with 20 survivors. Among the dead were parents and four younger brothers of Menachem ben Zerach, “then barely twenty years old who became a scholar of commanding influence.”  He was saved by “a compassionate knight” who was a friend of the young Jew’s father.

    1563: Havazzelet ha-Shaon, a commentary on the Book of Daniel by Rabbi Moses Alshekh was published for the first time today.

    1616: The Roman Catholic Church decreed that the Copernican theory was “false and erroneous” and that teaching or believing in the earth orbiting the sun was prohibited.  For one view of Copernicus and the Jews see

    1696: Birthdate of Giovanni Battista Tiepolo.  His fresco, “The Sacrifice of Isaac” is an example of how European artists used the Hebrew Bible as an inspiration and resource. It also is an example of how deeply entrenched Judaism is in the fabric of Western Civilization  

    1783: King Stanislaus Augustus Poniatowski granted rights to Jews of Kovno. 

    1792(11th of Adar, 5552): Moses Alexander (Moshe ben Abraham) passed away today in London.

    1814(13th of Adar, 5574): Seventy-four year old Solomon Pappenheim, the son of Rabbi Seligmann Pappenheim of Zulz, who was the associate rabbi at Breslau and the author of a three volume work on Hebrew synonyms passed away today.

    1820: Dutch city of Leeuwarden forbade Jews to go to synagogues on Sundays.

    1851: In Beisegola, Russia, David Atlas and his wife gave birth Elazar Atlas, the bookkeeper turned literary critic.

    1856: In New York, Esther (Nathan) Lazarus and Moses Lazarus gave birth to Agnes Marx.

    1861: Dr. Fischer delivered a paper at tonight’s meeting of the New York Historical Society entitled “The History of the Inquisition in America” that included a description of the life and death by fire of the dramatist Antonio José da Silva.  Da Silva wrote most of his plays while imprisoned in a dudgeon and faced the auto de fe rather than betray the faith of his fathers.1861: William H. Seward began serving as Secretary of State under President Abraham Lincoln. Seward had visited Jerusalem and other parts of Palestine in 1859 and it is thought that his talk about that visit may have been the factor that prompted Lincoln’s comment that when his term was over he wanted to visit the “Holy Land” during his travels aboard with Mrs. Lincoln.

    1863(14th of Adar, 5623) Purim

    1863: In New York, more than three thousand Jews and their friends gathered tonight at the Academy of Music to for the second annual grand ball of the Purim Association. The first grand ball took place last year and it was great success. Many of the guest came in costumes including “one lady who was dressed … in garments made entirely of Frank Leslie's paper, and was decidedly a feature of the night, as were "Joan of Arc,""Old Aunt Dinah,""Mehitabel Ann,""Old Mother Goose,""Pocahontas,""Anne Boleyn" and the "Dame aux Camelias.” One lady was dressed in the height of fashion, in garments made entirely of Frank Leslie's paper, and was decidedly a feature of the night, as were "Joan of Arc,""Old Aunt Dinah,""Mehitabel Ann,""Old Mother Goose,""Pocahontas,""Anne Boleyn" and the "Dame aux Camelias.” Myer S. Isaacs and his committee are to be congratulated for putting on such a successful event which was orderly and entertaining.

    1869: Birthdate of Michael von Faulhaber who was Archbishop of Munich from 1917 until 1952 who opposed the Nazis on certain issues but demonstrated the anti-Semitism compatible with European Christianity as manifested by his work with Amici Israel among other things.

    1869: The first edition of the Jewish Times appeared in New York City.  Mortiz Ellinger was the publisher.

    1870: In Cambridge City, Indiana, Michael H. and Rachel Levy Franklin gave birth to Leo Morris Franklin who served as Rabbi of Detroit’s Temple Beth El for over four decades.

    1871: Birthdate of German revolutionary Rosa Luxemburg

    1874: “A Gang of Swindlers” published today J. Moritz Ehrenberg, a college educated middle class Hungarian born Jew as the leader of a group of con man who have preyed on members of the American financial community in many cities. Michael Mandel, an Austrian born Jew and Henry Hertz, a Russian born Jew are two of his comrades in these larcenous schemes for which they have been imprisoned in New York and Missouri.

    1876: It was reported today that a Purim reception will be held at Delmonico’s 4 days after the actual celebration of the holiday on the Jewish calendar.

    1876: Karl Goldmark’s “Rustic Wedding Symphony premiered in Vienna today.

    1878(30th of Adar I, 5638): Rosh Chodesh Adar II

    1879: In New York, Judge Gildersleve is scheduled to rule on an application compelling the 3 Salomon brothers to pay six dollars a week in support of Mrs. Fanny Solomon, their 70 year old mother.  She had petitioned the court for a payment of support.  The sons had contested the matter claiming that their mother was financially capable of taking of herself.

    1880:  The would-be assassin of General Melilkoff, a leading figure in Russia, who was to be hanged today, said while be interrogated that he had converted from Judaism because it was impossible for a Jew to live in St. Petersburg.

    1880:  Publication of “Was Shylock A Jew”

    1882(14th of Adar, 5642): Purim

    1884: Gustav Jacob Born and his first wife Gretchen Kauffmann gave birth to their daughter Kathe.

    1884: In the wake of an order expelling all Jews holding foreign passports from Odessa and other Russian cities, The Imperial Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Department of Internal Relations, St. Petersburg said that it could not provide Jewish citizens of America with Russian permits of residence.

    1885: Frederick Theodore Frelinghuysen completed his terms U.S. Secretary of State under President Chester A. Arthur during which he dealt with problems related to the persecution of Jews in Russia and Russian discrimination against American Jews trying to do business in the Czar’s empire.

    1887: In Great Britain Jewish novelist Benjamin Leopold Farjeon and Margaret Jefferson gave birth to Herbert Farjeon, a major force in “the British theatre from 1910 until 1945.”

    1890: “Dancing For Charity” published today described the charity ball given by the Purim Association has raised between ten and twelve thousand dollars for the United Hebrew Charities.

    1890: In Baltimore, MD, Benjamin and Rose Nathan Perlman gave birth to Philip B. Perlman who was appointed as U.S. Solicitor General by President Truman in 1947, making him the first Jew to hold that post.

    1890: As Mr. and Mrs. Lazar Anezes and their four children are detained by the Commissioners of Emigration as paupers and the United Hebrew Charities work for their admission by offering “to go surety for them” Judge O’Brien granted a writ of habeas corpus.

    1890: “Lipschutz Won Another Game” published today descried the third game of the  match between Jewish chess champions Eugene Delmar and Samuel Lipshcutz at the Manhattan Chess Club which Lipschutz  when Delmar “resigned” after the 49th move.

    1891 In one of the earliest manifestation of popular non-Jewish support for the creation of a Jewish state in Palestine, the Blackstone Memorial was sent to President Benjamin Harrison.  The petition was the creation of Reverend William Eugene Blackstone and called for U.S. government support in the endeavor. It was signed by 431 prominent Americans including John D. Rockefeller, J.P. Morgan and future President William McKinley and was supported by a myriad of newspapers including the New York Times,Chicago Tribune and the Washington Post.  Harrison’s lack of response may have been another sign of the ineptitude that would lead voters to deny him a second term a year later. 

    1892: Kansas Congressman Funston was brought to tears during his visit to Ellis Island today when he saw the conditions under which the immigrants were living.  A member of the House Committee on Immigration, Funston was so moved by what he saw that he took money from his own billfold and gave it to some of those whom he encountered.

    1892(6th of Adar, 5652): James Solomon Moore who had suffered a stroke two years ago passed away this evening in New York City.  Born at Konigsberg, Germany in 1821, he moved to England at the age of 17 where he pursued his studies while living with his uncle, P.B. Moore.  He came to the United States during the 1840’s and in 1849 joined the California Gold Rush. After a successful business career, he became interested in economic theory and his advocacy of removing tarries earned him the title of “The Father of Free Trade.” He married Amelia Moore in 1854 and was a member of B’nai Jeshrun at Madison and 65th Street.

    1892:In New York Rabbi Henry Pereira Mendes was shot in the abdomen at his home by a beggar named Jose Mizrachee. Born in England, he had been the rabbi at Congregation Shearith Israel of New York and an active member of the Jewish community, who, among other things, established the Jewish Theological Seminary and The American Hebrew. Misrachee followed the rabbi home from the synagogue and forced his way into the house and shot him during a botched robbery attempt.  The rabbi’s wife and baby were in the house at the town.  Emergency surgery spared Mendes and permanent harm.  Mizrachee is described as an “Arabian Jew” who came to the United States in 1890.  He was well known to the victim and other members of his congregation for his aggressive begging habits and his failure to be content with any “alms” that were given to him.

    1893: R.H. Macey & Co. was advertising the sale of “Passover Goods for the Holiday” including “Matzoths, Matzoth Flour and Potato Flour” for nine cents a pound on the fifth floor of its new building.

    1893: It was reported today that tickets for the upcoming Purim Ball will cost ten dollars and they may be purchased from M.H. Moses as well as several other Jewish businessmen.  Those wanting a box for the event must contact S.B. Solomon or Simon Schafter.

    1893: At today’s meeting of The Central Labor Federation, “the Hebrew printers said they had conferred with Typographical Union, No.6”

    1894: “Russian Hebrew Immigrants published today described some of the controversy surrounding the admission Jews to the United States.  According to the Bureau of Immigration many of the Russian Jews are actually coming from South America where they have been living in agricultural communities financed by the Baron Hirsh Funds.  The colonies in Argentina have failed and the Jews have come to the United States where they have been allowed to settle as long as they meet the legal requirements regarding health and financial responsibility.  Despite criticism, the Bureau cannot turn people away because of their religion.

    1894: In the New York, Assemblyman Danforth E Ainsworth, a Republican from Oswego County made use of the term “Jew pawnbrokers” while addressing the legislature.

    1895: “Fortunate Hebrew Foundling” published today described the work of Henry S. Allen who has secured a place for a homeless waif at the orphanage run by the Hebrew Guardian Sheltering society.

    1896: In New Haven, Pennsylvania, Aaron and Jennie Marcus gave birth to Jacob Rader Marcus, the Reform Rabbi who founded the American Jewish Archives at the Hebrew Union College of Cincinnati, Ohio. He passed away in 1995 at the age of 99.

    1898: “Notes of Forthcoming and Recent Publications” published today described an article by Israel Zangwill written by Israel Zangwill “for the Sunday School Times on the second Moses – Moses Maimonides – without a knowledge of whom the old Hebrew prover ‘From Moses to Moses there was non like Moses,’ is meaningless.”

    1898: “Bargain Books” published today listed The Jew at Home by Joseph Pennell as costing $.10

    1898: “Colonel Picquart, who was disciplined for giving testimony favorable to the case of Emile Zola,” the defender of Dreyfus, “at the recent trial of the author, fought a duel with swords today in the riding school of the Military School with Colonel Henry who testified against Zola.”

    1898: “New Jewish Synagogue” published today described plans for the construction of a new synagogue being built by Congregation Hand-in-Hand, the first such building to take place in the Borough of the Bronx. The congregation, which received a gift of $1,000 from Baroness Hirsch for its building fund, has been meeting at the North Side Republican Club Hall

    1899: “Rabbis Will Meet in Cincinnati” published today described the decision of reform movement to hold its Annual Central in March instead of July because March  marks the birthday of Dr. I. M. Wise and the rabbis wish to honor the man who mentored so many of them.

    1900: Birthdate of Lilli Schlüchterer who gained famed as the German Jewish doctor Lilli Jahn “who gained international fame posthumously following the publication of her letters to her five children which she wrote during her imprisonment in the labor camp Breitenau before being deported to the concentration camp Auschwitz where she was murdered.

    1901(14th of Adar, 5661): Purim

    1902: Mizrachi (literally: "Eastern", but actually derived from the Hebrew acronym for "Spiritual Centre") was established by Rabbi Isaac Jacob Reines as a religious Zionist organization based on the Basel Program and commitment to the Torah. Their slogan is "Eretz Israel for the people of Israel according to the Torah of Israel." Mizrachi is a worldwide religious Zionist movement. Its main ideal is that Torah should be the spiritual center of Zionism. In Israel, it initiated the Ministry of Religion and helped pass laws for "Kashrut" and Sabbath observance in public life and in the Israel Army. During WWII, it participated in the American Zionist Emergency Council.

    1902: Leopold Greenberg, one of Herzl's most devoted followers and representative in London suggests that Herzl should appear before the Royal Commission in London.

    1902:26th of Adar I, 5662: Fifty-four year old New York businessman Leonard Lewisohn passed awa at the London home of his son-in-law Charles S. Henry. A native of Hamburg, Mr. Lewisohn came to the United States when he was 16 years old. He was President of the United Metals Selling Company and a philanthropist who had mad generous contributions to numerous Jewish charities.

    1902: Reports of the death of Leonard Lewisohn “caused some weakness in the stock market where Amalgamated Copper declined 1 and 3/8 points.

    1902: In response to the death of Leonard Lewishon who was trying “make a bull market in coffee” the coffee market opened 10 to 20 points lower than the day before but regained its losses by the close of business

    1902: Louis Seligisberg, who represented the business interests of Leonard Lewisohn announced that his death would not affect the coffee business of the firm

    1903: A committee was appointed to secure a site for a new building at Hebrew Union College.

    1909: Alianza Hispano-Israelita formed in Spain to bring about the return of Spanish Jews.

    1909: Oscar Solomon Straus completed his terms as the third U.S. Secretary of Commerce and Labor. Straus had been appointed by Theodore Roosevelt and left when William Howard Taft took office.  A year later Straus would return to a post he had held before, U.S. Minister to the Ottoman Empire.

    1915: Birthdate of French mathematician, Laurent Schwartz.  His considerable mathematical work, including the theory of distributions, won him the Fields Medal in 1950.  During World War II the Schwartz hid his Jewish identity by using numerous aliases including that of Laurent Sélimartin.  He passed away in 2002.

    1915: It was reported today that Dr. Robert Tuttle Morris the former President of the American Association of Obstetricians and Gynecologists believes that “Zangwill’s melting pot theory…is absurd biologically” because “the Jews are not going to cross with the Aryans” which means “they are not melting away” and they have “a sort of racial feeling that they must come again to rule the earth” which “keeps them together.” 

    1915: As of today, the Fund of the American Jewish Relief Committee has collected $532,937.14.

    1919:  In a letter published in the New York Times Emir Feisal wished “the Jews a hearty welcome home” and asserted “our two movements complete one another.” “There is room in Syria for both of us” he concluded.

    1919: Birthdate of Albert J. Rosenthal, who as dean of Columbia Law School in the late 1970s and early 1980s helped increase the number of women on the school's faculty.” (As reported by Margalit Fox)

     1923:  Birthdate of businessman Laurence Tisch, CEO of CBS from 1986 through 1995.  Tisch passed away in 2003.

    1927(1st of Adar ii, 5687): Rosh Chodesh Adar II and Shabbat Shekalim

    1928: Herbert Samuel’s successor as High Commissioner, Field Marshal Viscount Plumer, a distinguished WW I commander, opened Jerusalem’s first Arts and Crafts Exhibition which was held in the Citadel at the Jaffa Gate in Jerusalem.

    1929:John D. Rockefeller Jr. spent the day viewing ancient and historic sites in Jerusalem, including the Mosque of Omar and the Holy Sepulcher.

    1929: In the Bronx, Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Halpern gave birth to Howard Marvin Halpern, “psychotherapist who wrote popular self-help books about severing or realigning burdensome relationships.” (As reported by Bruce Weber)

    1930: In New York, Dr. Bernard Goodman and the former Alice Matz, the heir to a fortune created by “Ex-Lax” gave birth to Roy M. Goodman who was powerhouse among liberal Republicans when there really were such people.” (As reported by Richard Perez-Pena)

    1930: Birthdate of David Lawrence Goldberg, the native of Crown Heights who gained fame as political consultant David Garth. (As reported by Sam Roberts)

    1932: Three members of the team of athletes assembled by the Maccabee Association of the United States to participate in the Jewish Olympic Games in Palestine sailed on the SS Aquitania.  The three athletes included co-captains David White and Lesslie Flaskman representing the Maccabee Association of Boston and Harold Ginsburg representing the 92nd Stree Y.M.H.A. The other ten members of the team are to sail next week on the Majestic or the Conte Grande.

    1933: Last democratic election during Hitler's lifetime. Nationalists gain 52 seats, but not enough to establish a dictatorship by consent of Parliament. The Third Reich is born.

    1933:When Jeanette Wolff, an outspoken critic of the Nazis, returned home from an election campaign today and was arrested by SA men.

    1934: Birthdate of Daniel Kahneman, Israeli economist, and Nobel Prize laureate.Daniel Kahneman was born in Tel Aviv, in the then British Mandate of Palestine, now in Israel), is a key pioneer and theorist of behavioral finance, which integrates economics and cognitive science to explain seemingly irrational risk management behavior in human beings. He is famous for collaboration with Amos Tversky and others in establishing a cognitive basis for common human errors using heuristics and in developing prospect theory. Kahneman spent his childhood years in Paris, France and moved to Palestine in 1946. He received his B.Sc. in mathematics and psychology from the Hebrew University in Jerusalem in 1954, after which he served in the Israeli Defense Forces principally in its psychology department. In 1958 he came to the United States and earned his Ph.D. in Psychology from the University of California, Berkeley in 1961. Currently a faculty member at Princeton University and a fellow at Hebrew University, he is the winner of the 2002 Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel for his work in prospect theory, despite being a research psychologist and not an economist. In fact, Kahneman claims to have never taken a single economics course — he claims that what he knows of the subject he and Tversky learned from collaborators Richard Thaler and Jack Knetsch. In explaining why he entered the field of psychology, Kahneman once wrote: “It must have been late 1941 or early 1942. Jews were required to wear the Star of David and to obey a 6 p.m. curfew. I had gone to play with a Christian friend and had stayed too late. I turned my brown sweater inside out to walk the few blocks home. As I was walking down an empty street, I saw a German soldier approaching. He was wearing the black uniform that I had been told to fear more than others - the one worn by specially recruited SS soldiers. As I came closer to him, trying to walk fast, I noticed that he was looking at me intently. Then he beckoned me over, picked me up, and hugged me. I was terrified that he would notice the star inside my sweater. He was speaking to me with great emotion, in German. When he put me down, he opened his wallet, showed me a picture of a boy, and gave me some money. I went home more certain than ever that my mother was right: people were endlessly complicated and interesting.”

    1935: A brothel run by Polly Adler was raided resulting in the only conviction for which the famed madam served jail time (24 days of a 30 day sentence). 

    1936(11th of Adar, 5696): Observance of the Fast of Esther since the 13th of Adar fell on Shabbat

    1936(11th of Adar, 5696):Rabbi Yosef Rosen, known as the Rogatchover Gaon (Prodigy/Genius), passed away in Vienna today. Born in 1858, and raised in the Belarusian city of Rogatchov, he served for decades as a rabbi in the Latvian city of Dvinsk (Daugavpils). He was an unparalleled genius, whose in- depth understanding of all Talmudic literature left the greatest of scholars awestruck. He habitually demonstrated that many of the famous debates between the Talmudic sages have a singular thread and theme. Rabbi Rosen authored tens of thousands of responsa on the Talmud and Jewish law. Many of them have been compiled in the set of volumes Tzafnat Paneach.

    1936: The Spitfire went through its first test-flights.  The famed fighter plane would play a key role in the defeat of the Luftwaffe during the Battle of Britain.  Thanks to the Spitfire and the spirited pilots of the Royal Air Force (RAF), Hitler’s seemingly invincible legions were stopped for the first time; the British Isles remained free and would become the launching point for the Allied invasion of Europe which would save a remnant of European Jewry. Robert Roland Stanford Tuck, known as “Lucky Tuck” was one of the Jewish pilots in the RAF who flew the Spitfire.  In his case he flew it at the Battle of Dunkirk where he earned a DSO. The Spitfire was the favorite plane of Ezer Weizmann the father of Israel’s Air Force and later President of the Jewish state.  He had his own Spitfire which was featured in flyovers by IDF planes during various Israeli celebratory activities.

    1937: U.S. Secretary of State Cordell Hull offered a public apology for New York Mayor LaGuardia’s suggestion that the “1939 New York World’s Fair would include a ‘chamber of horrors’ displaying that ‘brown-shirted fanatics who is menacing the peace of the world.’” (Hull’s comments came during the hey-day of Isolationism in the United States.  His apology came in the same year that the United States ignored a Japanese attack on an American gunboat in China.)

    1937: Despite an apology issued by the State Department, Mayor La Guardia said he stood by his declaration that Hitler is a “brown-shirted fanatic who is menacing the peace of Europe.”

    1937: British author Mary Frances Butts who had been the wife of Jewish poet and published John Rodker whose career she had worked to further and with whom she had one child passed away today.

    1937: The wave of Arab terror spread into southern Palestine when an Arab entered a Jewish orange grove near the colony of Less Tzionah and shot Vladislav Louga, a non-Jewish worker from Poland, in the stomach.  Louga was rushed to a hospital in Tel Aviv where he is in critical condition.

    1939: The New York Times reported that Palestine Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Eugen Szenkar has just completed four subscription concerts in a tour that included stops in Tel Aviv and Jerusalem where the symphony played before audiences totaling 30,000 music lovers.

    1939(14th of Adar, 5699): Purim

    1939(14th of Adar, 5699): Moses Gaster, the Romanian born Jewish scholar who served as Hakam of the Spanish and Portuguese Congregation in London passed away today at the age of 82. In addition to all of his other accomplishments he was the father of the renowned scholar, Thedore Herzl Gaster.

    1940: The Jewish Labor Committee, representing about 500,000 members of Jewish labor unions in the United States, sent a cable to the Labor Party in England requesting the Laborites oppose the recent British restriction of Jewish land purchases in Palestine.

    1940: A delegation consisting of Henrietta Szold, Mrs. Isaac Herzog, wife of the Chief Rabbi of Palestine and “others representing the Council of Jewish Women of Palestine” met with the British High Commissioner and gave him a memorandum protesting the recent change in the land laws that was intended to be forwarded to his superiors in London.

    1942: At the “Selection” of Jews at Baranowicze, Poland those sent to the left were beaten and placed in trucks where they sent away to their death in a pit just outside of town. Those on the right looked on. Of the 12,000 Jews living in the town at the start of the war, 3,500 were killed that Purim.

    1943: In the Ukraine, over 1,000 Jews were murdered outside the Khmeilnik ghetto.

    1943: Office of Strategic Services interviews Dr. Eduard Bloch, a Jewish Austrian physician who had been doctor and confidant to Adolf Hitler and his family while the future Fuehrer was growing up, and who ministered to Hitler's mother Klara during her losing battle with breast cancer.

    1944(10th of Adar, 5704): Max JacobFrench writer and painter, died at the Drancy, the French concentration camp at the age of 68.  Born in Brittany in 1876, Jacob converted to Roman Catholicism in 1914. He spent most of the war hiding from the Nazis and their French fascist allies. He died while awaiting transport from France to a concentration camp in Germany Apparently his conversion was not enough to get the Roman Catholic Church to intervene on his behalf. His friends, who included the renowned Pablo Picasso, saw to it that he had a fine burial after the war, but were unable to do anything so save him from the fate common to most of the Jews of Europe, great and small alike.

    1944(10th of Adar, 5704):Ernst Julius Cohen, “a Dutch chemist known for his work on the allotropy of metals,” was murdered today in a gas chamber in Auschwitz. Born in 1869, “Cohen studied chemistry under Svante Arrhenius in Stockholm, Henri Moissan at Paris, and Jacobus van't Hoff at Amsterdam. In 1893 he became Van't Hoff's assistant and in 1902 he became professor of Physical Chemistry at the University of Utrecht, a position which he held until his retirement in 1939. Throughout his life, Cohen studied the allotropy of tin. Cohen’s areas of research included polymorphism of elements and compounds, photographic chemistry, electrochemistry, pizeochemistry, and the history of science. He published more than 400 papers and numerous books. He was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society in 1926.

    1945: While excavating the site near Crematorium II at Auschwitz, Soviet soldiers found a German canteen which contained the diaries of Salmen Gradowski.One of the entries read,“At almost each block, beside the men standing in line, bodies of three, four persons are lying. These are the victims of the night that have not lived to see the day. Even yesterday they were standing members of the roll-call and today they lie, lifeless, motionless. Life is not important at the roll-call. Numbers are important. Numbers tally…” Gradowski’s diary was published in a book entitled Amidst a Nightmare of Crime: Manuscripts of the Sonderkommandowhich describes life in the death camp through the eyewitness accounts of four Sonderommandos. For more about this work, Gardowski and the others who supplied the material see

    1946: Birthdate of Martin Levi van Creveld “an Israeli military historian and theorist. Van Creveld was born in the Netherlands in the city of Rotterdam, and has lived in Israel since shortly after his birth. He holds degrees from the London School of Economics and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, where he has been on the faculty since 1971. He is the author of seventeen books on military history and strategy, of which Command in War (1985), Supplying War: Logistics from Wallenstein to Patton (1977, 2nd edition 2004), The Transformation of War (1991), The Sword and the Olive (1998) and The Rise and Decline of the State (1999) are among the best known. Van Creveld has lectured or taught at many strategic institutes in the Western world, including the U.S. Naval War College.”

    1947: Birthdate of Dr. John Kitzhaber the Oregon physician who served as governor from 1995 to 2003.

    1947: As the Jews of Palestine endure their fourth day of living under martial law, banks in Tel Aviv are scheduled to reopen thanks to a shipment of coins and currency in an amount equal to thirty-two million American dollars having arrived from Jeruslaem.  In an attempt to exercise greater control, the British suspended the press passes of correspondents which had enabled the journalists to enter and leave zones of military occupation.

    1948: Actor Eli Wallach married actress Anne Jackson.

    1948: Publication of a review of Mark Hellinger’s final film, “The Naked City.”

    1949: Operation Uvda, the final Israeli campaign of the War of Independence which is intended to secure portions of the Negev began oday.

    1949:Negev Brigade forces set out from Beersheba to the Ramon Crater, through Bir 'Asluj. Golani forces simultaneously set out from Mamshit to Ein Husub on the first day of Operation Uvda, one of the final campaigns of the War for Independence.

    1950: Jordanian political leader Samir Rifai Pasha has rejected King Abdullah’s request that he form a new government.  Pasha’s refusal is tied to opposition to the non-aggression pact with Israel which was first made public on February 28, 1950.  Despite Abdullah’s support, the pact seems doomed since Jordan’s political leaders do not.

    1950: Iraq’s announcement that effectively, the Jewish population must leave the country within the next twelve months represents a reversal of its policy of not allowing Jews to move to Israel while completely dislocating “Israel’s immigration program for 1950.” The Jewish agency had budgeted for the absorption of 150,000 immigrants, including 50,000 from Arab countries and 50,000 from eastern Europe.  Since there are approximately 150,000 Jews living in Iraq, the Israelis will have to find some way to raise additional funds allowing for the in-gathering of twice as many as Jews as had been originally planned.

    1950: Daniel Frisch, the President of the Zionist Organization of America, underwent surgery today at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center today after having named Benjamin G. Bowdy, on the ZOA’s vice president, as acting president.

    1952(8th of Adar, 5712): Sixty-six year old Rachael “Rae” Landy the Cleveland born nurse who helped create the health system in pre-World War I Palestine and rose to the rank of Lt. Colonel in the U.S. Army passed away today.

    1953: Birthdate of Michael J. Sandel, the Minneapolis born Harvard Professor “best known for his course ‘Justice.’”

    1953: Stalin died disrupting plans for mass deportations of Russian Jews.  The Soviet dictator was an anti-Semite.  Unlike Hitler, he could curb his anti-Semitism when it suited his purposes.  For example, he allowed the government of Czechoslovakia to sell modern arms to Israel at the moment of its birth.  He later switched his views and followed an anti-Zionist as well as anti-Semitic policy.

    1953: Lazar Kaganovich began serving as the First Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers in the Soviet Union.

    1953: The Jerusalem Post reported that the Lower House of the Bonn Parliament passed the first reading of the West German agreement to pay reparations to Israel and World Jewry for the Nazi persecution.

    1953: The Jerusalem Post reported that in the Knesset, Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion defined the role of the army in national life. The Knesset extended for a year the provisional military law currently in force, providing for prison terms for any form of propaganda intended to undermine the authority of the state.

    1953: The Jerusalem Post reported that the Abill to legalize the requisition of land or property for the development, security or settlement, from the establishment of the State in May 1948, to the end of April 1, 1952, was presented for the second and third reading.

    1954(30th of Adar I, 5714): Rosh Chodesh Adar II

    1954(30th of Adar I, 5714): Forty-year old Donald Bloomingdale the son of Rosalie and Irving Bloomingdale and the onetime husband of Bethsabée de Rothschild passed away today.

    1955: Birthdate of Julien Dray, the native Oran which was then part of French Algeria, who became a leader of the French Socialist party.

    1956:Erich Itor Kahn composer, pianist and Holocaust survivor passed away at the age of 50.

    1957: Jewish comedian Phil Silvers in the role of “Sergeant Ernie Bilko” satirizes rock star Elvis Presley.

    1967(23rd of Adar I, 5727): Sixty-one year old Mischa Auer the native of Russia who transitioned from the Yiddish theatre to movies, which included a 1936 Oscar nomination passed away today.

    1970: U.S. premiere of blockbuster “Airport” directed by George Seaton who grew up in a Jewish neighborhood and called himself a “Shabbos Goy” produced by Ross Hunter with music by Alfred Newman.

    1973: Marcel Marceau appears at Hancher Auditorium in Iowa City, IA.

    1974: In the aftermath of the Yom Kippur Israeli forces withdrew from the west bank of the Suez Canal as step towards ending hostilities brought on by the Arab sneak attack.  Ariel Sharon was responsible for the audacious attack across the Suez Canal which gave the strategic advantage to the Jewish forces.

    1974(11th of Adar, 5734): Solomon I "Sol" Hurok US impresario, passed away at the age of 85. Hurok was responsible for bringing a troupe of Yemenite Jews who had moved to Israel to perform in the United States.  Thanks to these efforts Yemenite culture was introduced to Americans (Jews and non-Jews alike).  Not only did this help to preserve an ancient part of the Jewish heritage, it helped create a positive image of Israel as a homeland for persecuted Jewry no matter where they lived.

    1978: A revival of David Merrick’s “Hello Dolly” that would run for 147 performances began at the Lunt-Fontaine Theatre.

     1978:The Jerusalem Post reported that the US State Department was upset and angered that between the time that Prime Minister Menachem Begin presented his peace plan to US President Jimmy Carter in early December, and when the same plan was submitted at the end of the month to Egyptian President Anwar Sadat, significant changes were made in the text. The draft added Israel’s right to maintain security and “public order” in Judea, Samaria and Gaza, and stipulated that only those Palestinians who accepted Israeli citizenship could buy land in Israel, while any Israeli could purchase land in the administered areas. The Americans demanded complete reciprocity.

    1982: Gail Winston and journalist Frank Rich gave birth to novelist Nathaniel Rich, the brother of screenwriter Simon Rich.

    1982: U.S. premiere of “I’m Dancing as Fast as I Can” featuring David Margulies as “Walter Kress” and Ellen Greene as “Karen Mulligan”

    1982: U.S. premiere of “Diner” with a script by Barry Levinson who also directed what would the first of four films set in post-war Baltimore, produced by Jerry Weintraub co-starring Steve Guttenberg and Ellen Barkin and featuring Paul Reiser.

    1987: Today, in Tel Aviv, Defense Minister Yithak Rabin, read a statement in English apologizing to the American government and the American people for the Pollard sypinng operation, an operation that Foreign minister Shimon Peres had characterized as a mistake.

    1987: Yossi Sarad, a member of the Knesett, called for the dismissal of Rafael Etian from his job as chairman of the state-owned Israel Chemicals since he was the Defense Ministry official who organized the Pollard spying operation.

    1993: In the United Kingdom premiere of “Toys” a comedy directed by Barry Levinson and filmed by cinematographer Adam Greenberg.

    1995: The New York Times features a review of The Diary of a Young Girl: The Definitive Edition

     by Anne Frank; edited by Otto H. Frank and Mirjam Pressler; translated by Susan Massotty

    1996(14th of Adar, 5756): Purim

    1997(26th of Adar I, 5757): Eighty-eighty year old Zalman Abramov the Israeli politician who had been born in Minsk, made Aliyah in 1920 and served as an MK from 1959 to 1977 passed away today.

    1997: U.S. premier of “The Watermelon Woman” with music by Paul Shapiro whose specialties include Klezmer music.

    1999: U.S. premiere of  “Analyze This” directed by Harold Ramis, produced by Paula Weinstein and Jane Rosenthal with music by Howard Shore and co-starring Billy Crystal and Lisa Kudrow.

    1999: The Times of London featured a review of Brother Against Brother: Violence and

     Extremism in Israeli Politics from Altalena to the Rabin Assassination by Ehud Sprinzak.

    2000: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or special interest to Jewish readers including The Unruly Life of Woody Allen: A Biography by Marion Meade, Law of Return: Short Stories by Maxine Rodburg and Essential Judaism: A Complete Guide to Beliefs, Customs, and Rituals by George Robinson.

    2002(21stof Adar, 5762):Police officer FSM Salim Barakat (33), Yosef Habi (52), and Eli Dahan (53) were murdered today in Tel Aviv when a Fatah terrorist opened fire on diners at two restaurants.

    2002: “The Vagina Monologues” with Idina Menzel opened at the West Side Theatre.

    2003: Victor Brailovsky began serving as Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs.

    2003 (1 Adar II, 5763): Seventeen people were killed and 53 wounded in a suicide bombing of an Egged bus No. 37 in the Carmel section of Haifa, en route to Haifa University. The blast, which took place on the city's main Moriah Boulevard near the Carmel Center, turned the bus into a charred wreck and scattered bodies along the road. The bus driver, a Christian Arab from Shfaram, was moderately injured. Police said the bomb was laden with metal shrapnel in order to maximize the number of injuries and strapped to the bomber's body. This was the first suicide bombing in two months, following the bombing in the Neve Sha'anan neighborhood in Tel-Aviv on January 5, in which 23 people were killed. The Hamas spokesman praised the attack. The suicide bomber has been identified as a member of Hamas. A letter found on his body praised the 9/11 attacks on the Twin Towers.  The victims included the following all but two of whom died on the day of the attack:

    ·         Kmer Abu Khamed, 12, from Daliyat al Karmel

    ·         Yuval Mendelevitch, 13, from Haifa

    ·         Smadar Firstatter, 17, from Haifa

    ·         Avigail Lietel, 14, from Haifa

    ·         Asaf Tzur, 16, from Haifa

    ·         Daniel Harush, 16 , from Safed

    ·         Tom Hershko, 16, from Haifa, and his father-

    ·         Motti Hershko, 41, from Haifa

    ·         Tal Kehrmann, 17, from Haifa

    ·         Elizabeth (Liz) Katzman, 17, from Haifa

    ·         Meital Katav, 20, from Haifa

    ·         Moran Shushan, 20, from Haifa

    ·         Anatoly Biryakov, 20, from Haifa

    ·         Be'eri Ovad, 21 , from Rosh Pina

    ·         Eliyahu Laham, 22, from Haifa

    ·         Miriam Atar, 27, from Haifa

    ·         Mark Takash, 54, from Haifa

    2003: Victor Brailovsky begins servicing as Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs.

    2005: "Dear Esther," an Arizona Jewish Theatre Company production had its last performance in Phoenix, Arizona.  The play is based on the life of Esther Rabb and her experiences as recorded in “Escape from Sobibor” about the 1943 uprising.

    2006:  A restoration of a 1942 freight car, the type used to carry Jews to death camps went on display at the Holocaust Museum in Houston, Texas. The freight car is intended to symbolize the penultimate step in the industrialized mass murder of the Jews of Europe.

    2006:  The Jerusalem Post reported that American Jewish leaders welcomed the decision by British architect Richard Rogers to resign his membership in a professional organization that has called for the boycott of Israel's construction industry. However New York politicians had questions for Lord Richard Rogers, in light of the state contract

    2006: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Absolute Convictions, a biography of Dr. Shalom Press by his son Eyal Press, The Case for Goliath:How America Acts as the World's Government in the Twenty-First Century by Michael Mandelbaum and Intuition by Allegra Goodman.

    2007: Opening of an exhibition styled “Studio Man Ray: Photographs by Ira Nowinski” at the

     Judah L Magnes Museum.

    2008: Sheldon Adelson ranked #12 on the list of The World’s Billionaires published today.

    2008(28th of Adar I, 5768): Joseph Weizenbaum “a German-American author and professor emeritus of computer science at MIT” passed away.

    2008: As part of “Hadassah on Tour,” Dr. Michael Wilschanski, the Director of the Pediatric Gastroenterology Unit of the Division of Pediatrics at Hadassah Medical Center, Hebrew University in Jerusalem, speaks in Minnesota’s Twin Cities.

    2008: A Yarhtzeit on the civil calendar - Five Year Anniversary of the bombing of Egged Bus 53  carried out by a Hamas suicide bomber who killed 17 innocent civilians.

    2008: Following the completion of Operation Hot Winter, today “Prime Minister Ehud Olmert's office announced that Israel would maintain its pressure on Hamas..”

    2008: In “A City That Was and Is No Longer” published today, Aharon Appelfeld examines the history of Czernowitz.

    2009:Sherman Oaks-based mortgage banker Bruce Friedman, whose Friedman Charitable Foundation committed $10 million to the Children’s Museum of Los Angeles and $1 million to Brandon’s Village, a special-needs park in Calabasas, was indicted on securities fraud charges today by the Securities and Exchange Commission

    2009:Professor Anat Helman of Hebrew University delivers a talk and visual presentation exporing the deeper meanings of Israeli styles of the 1950s at Rutgers University entitled "Fashion and Identity in Israel in the 1950s."

    2009:An Arab terrorist attacked police officers and civilians in Jerusalem with his bulldozer today. He was a resident of the city.

    2010: The Washington DCJCC is scheduled to host Interfaith Couples Shabbat Dinner with Rabbi Tamara Miller explaining the rituals while attendees enjoy a traditional Shabbat Dinner.

    2010: A major security exercise is scheduled to take place today at the Sha'ar Ha'ir building in Ramat Gan, next to the Diamond Center.

    2010:Clashes broke out between Israeli police officers and Muslim rock throwers at the end of Friday prayers on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem following a sermon on a recent Israeli decision to include two West Bank shrines on a list of national heritage sites.

    2010: Vandals have defaced a former Nazi concentration camp with anti-Jewish and anti-Turkish graffiti, Austrian authorities said today. 

    2011:Ravid Kahalani, a veteran of Israel’s renowned Idan Raichel Project who uses his music to showcase his Yemenite-Jewish heritage is scheduled to appear in Berkeley, CA at opening night of the Jewish Music Festival.

    2011: Israeli sculptor Ohad Meromi is scheduled to host a series of events as the culmination of his evolving New Commission project in New York City.

    2011: Leonard I. Weinglass, filed brief on behalf Mumia Abu-Jamal that was part of “a post-conviction motion to vacate the conviction of his client,” (Weinglass was Jewish; Abul-Jamal was not)

    2011(29 Adar I): Shabbat Shekalim

    2011:A computer glitch which had been preventing the flow of natural gas at the Mari-B natural gas field operated by the Yam Tethys conglomerate off of Ashdod was fixed after several hours today

    2012: “A Child of the Ghetto” is scheduled to be shown at Prague in the Czech Republic.

    2012: The second of the annual AIPAC Policy Conference capped off by an gala evening event is scheduled to take place in Washington, DC

    2012:Yeshiva University Museum with Fantagraphics Books is scheduled to present: “Diane Noomin’s Graphic Details: Glitz-2-Go Book Launch.”

    2012: Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu met with President Barak Obama at the White House.

    2012: President Shimon Peres today praised US President Barack Obama's speech to the AIPAC annual policy conference, saying he had offered the maximum support for Israel that an American president could possibly offer.

    2013: The field of candidates in today’s Mayoral election in Los Angeles includes Wendy Gurel a synagogue attending Christian married to a Jew whose 10-year-old son studies Hebrew and is being raised in the Jewish tradition, City Councilman Eric Garcetti whose mother is Jewish and City Councilwoman Jan Perry, an African-American who converted to Judaism while in college. (As reported by Bill Boyarsky)

    2013: Iranian born Israel singer Rita Yahan-Faourz, known simply as Rita, sang in Persian, Hebrew and English at performance in the UN General Assembly Hall tonight.

    2013: The London Sinfonietta, conducted by Brad Lubman, at the Royal Festival Hall in London gave the world premiere of Radio Rewrite for ensemble with 11 players, inspired by the music of Radiohead.

    2013: The Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington is scheduled to sponsor a lecture by Zalmen Mlotek entitled “100 Years of Yiddish Theater Music.”

    2013: Defense Minister Ehud Barak is scheduled to meet with newly confirmed U.S. Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel today.  This will be Hagel’s first meeting with a foreign defense chief since his confirmation by the U.S. Senate.

    2013: The AIPAC conference is scheduled to come to an end in Washington, DC

    2013(23rd of Adar, 5773): Eighty-seven year old actor and director Arthur Storch passed away today.
    (As reported by Paul Vitello)

    2013:The daughters of a Yiddish writer persecuted under communism reclaimed copies of his works today, following a prolonged legal fight to establish their ownership.

    2013: The first Hebrew language edition of Playboy magazine was launched in Tel Aviv.

    2013: Thousands attended the funeral of Menachem Froman in the Judean Desert settlement of Tekoa today, remembering the mystic rabbi and activist as a unique figure in Israel’s religious and political landscape.

    2014: The Library of Congress is scheduled to host “Dancing in Jaffa,” Diane Nabatoff’s documentary about ballroom dance Pierre Dulaine.

    2014: “The Women Pioneers” and “Shtisel” are scheduled to be shown at the 24thWashington Jewish Film Festival.

    2014: The Jewish Study Center is scheduled to present “Two 20th-Century Theologians:  Herberg and Soloveitchik”

    2014: “If/Then” a musical featuring Idina Menzel is scheduled to open at the Richard Rodgers Theatre.

    2014: Today, IDF Special Forces intercepted a ship in the Red Sea carrying an Iranian arms shipment headed for the Gaza Strip

    2014: The US House of Representatives overwhelmingly passed the United States-Israel Strategic Alliance and Security Act, which is aimed at further enhancing the two countries’ already strong defense relationship

    2015(14thof Adar, 5774): Purim

    2015: The funeral for Chabad Rabbi Daniel Moscowitz, the husband of Esther Rochel Moscowitz and the father of nine children is scheduled to take placed today in Chicago.

    2015: This evening the Oxford University Jewish Society is scheduled to host a “Purim Spiel.”


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    March 6
    19 BCE (12th of Adar II, 3741): The Temple “built” by King Herod was dedicated.  Technically, Herod had refurbished the Second Temple and not built a ‘third ‘Sanctuary

    1239: With the Edict of Valencia, Spanish King James I validated privileges of the Jews of Aragon. The Jewish courts (Bet din) were authorized to try all cases except capital offenses.

    1447: The papacy of Nicholas V began today. According to Shlomo Simonsohn he “changed course several times in his policy the Jews just as his predecessors had done.” (For more on Nicholas V and the Jewish people see The Apostolic See and the Jews)

    1475: Birthdate of famed Italian artist Michelangelo Buonarroti.  Say Michelangelo to most people and they respond, Sistine Chapel ceiling.  Say his name to Jews and the response is “Moses.”  Moses” is a marble sculpture which depicts the greater Jewish leader. Originally intended for the tomb of Pope Julius II in St. Peter's Basilica it was placed in the minor church of San Pietro in Vincoli on the Esquiline in Rome after the pope's death. The statue depicts Moses with horns on his head. This is believed to be because of the mistranslation of Exodus 34:29-35 by St Jerome. Moses is actually described as having "rays of light" coming from his head, which Jerome in the Vulgate had translated as "horns." This horned Moses provided further proof that the Jews were, as the Gospel says, “the Devil’s spawn.”

    1754: British statesman Henry Pelham who while serving as Prime Minister introduced the Jew Bill of 1753 “which allowed Jews to become naturalized citizens by application to Parliament” passed away today.

    1758: Abraham de Mesquito was one of those witnessing the changes of the will made by Abraham Menedes Seixas also known as Miguel Pancheco Da Silva.

    1766(25th of Adar): “The Sefardim congregation of London passed a resolution that a Sefardi marrying an Ashkenazi has forfeited his claim on congressional charities.

    1781: James Wright, the British Colonial Governor ordered the Jews of the Georgia to leave; accusing them of disloyalty to his majesty by supporting the revolution. The order was never carried out. For the most part, Wright had it right.  Most Jews did support the American Revolution.

    1789(8th of Adar): Rabbi Aryeh Leib ben Jacob Joshua Falk, author of Penei Aryeh,passed away

    1791: Birthdate of David Paul Drach the native of Strasbourg who converted to Catholicism after moving to Paris and eventually became the librarian of the College of Propaganda in Rome

    1792: Moses Alexander (Moshe ben Abraham) was buried today at the Alderney Road Jewish Cemetery.

    1815: With the defeat of Napoleon, new restrictions were imposed on the Jews all over Europe.

    1816: The Jews were expelled from the Free City of Lubeck, Germany at the instance of the local guilds. This was part of the reactionary backlash that followed the defeat of Napoleon a year earlier. Many of these Jews finally found refuge in the German of city of Moisling.  After “a period of adjustment” where the citizens of Moisling determined how many Jews would live in their city and under what conditions, the government provided a house for a rabbi and constructed a building that the Jews were allowed to use as a synagogue if they paid “a moderate annual rent.”

    1819: Birthdate of Fanny Neuda author of Studen de Anacht (Hours of Devotion) a prayer book for women.

    1821: Start of the Greek War for independence. According to the Jewish Virtual Library, Jewish populations in the Peloponnese had become in disfavour with the Greeks by apparently supporting the Ottomans, and during the Greek War of Independence thousands of Jews were massacred alongside the Ottoman Turks by the Greek rebels, with the Jewish communities of Mistras, Tripolis, Kalamata and Patras completely destroyed. At the same time, Jews throughout other parts of Europe, including the Rothschilds supported the revolt, which captured the popular imagination with its imagery of Greece the cradle of Democracy versus the Ottoman Sultan.

    1821: In Paris Elie Furtado and Rose Fould gave birth to Cécile Charlotte Julie Fould-Furtado who was the wife of Charles Heine who unlike his cousin Heinrich did not convert to Christianity.

    1825(16th of Adar, 5585): Hungarian Talmudist Shalom Charif Ullman passed away at Lackenbach where he, his son and grandson all served as Rabbis.

    1834: In Canada, York was incorporated as the city of Toronto.It was not until the 1840s that small numbers of Jewish immigrants from Western and Central Europe began to arrive in Ontario and settle in the cities of Hamilton, Kingston, and Toronto. In 1849, Abraham Nordheimer moved from Kingstonto Toronto and purchased a plot of land for a cemetery on behalf of the Toronto Hebrew Congregation. The congregation was originally an Orthodox synagogue, made up of members from Germany, including Bavaria, Bohemia, and Alsace, Great Britain, the United States, Russia, Galicia, and Lithuania. It became known as the Daytshishe Shul because of its modernized services. In 1856, Lewis Samuel of York, England, immigrated to Torontoand helped organize the Sons of Israel Congregation. In 1858, the two congregations combined to form the TorontoHebrewCongregation-HolyBlossomTemple. Holy Blossom was Orthodox, but in the 1920s joined the Union of American Hebrew Congregations and became Reform. It was the only Reform temple in Toronto until the 1950s, when it was joined by TempleSinai and TempleEmanu-El.Today Holy Blossom is the largest Reform Congregation in Canada. In the 1880s, the arrival of large numbers of Eastern European Jews escaping the pogroms of czarist Russia, led to the creation of three new synagogues. Goel Tzedec and Beth Hamidrash Hagadol Chevra T'Hillim were founded in 1883, and were made up of mostly Russian members. They merged in the early 1950s to form Beth Tzedec, a Conservative congregation. The third synagogue, Shomrei Shabbos, was started in 1889 by Orthodox Galician Jews. Also in 1889, Beth Jacob, known as the Poylishe Shul and Rumanian Synagogue or Adath Israelcame into existence. By the 1940s, Torontohad about 60 synagogues. These were mainly small Landsmannschaften, which were immigrant synagogues that represented the different hometowns of settlers from Russian Poland, the Ukraine, Lithuania, and Belorussia. In the 1950s and 60s, the smaller shtiblekh merged into larger synagogues. Therefore, the number of synagogues decreased, but in their place were larger and more stable congregations. The Jewish population of Toronto started out small in the 18th and 19th centuries and grew slowly but steadily into the early 20th century. In 1871, 157 Jews lived in Toronto, in 1891, the number rose to 1,425, and, by 1901, the Jewish population had increased to 3,090. The size of the community always depended on waves of immigration from Europe, based on pogroms and persecution in various countries. In 1911, the Jewish population of Toronto had expanded to 18,237 and, by 1921, had almost doubled to 34,619. In 1931, 45,000 Jewish immigrants, made up of mostly Poles, settled in Canada after the United Statestightened its immigration quota in 1924. Because of restrictions imposed by the Canadian government during the Depression, Immigration preceding and during World War II declined significantly. This was a huge blow to Eastern European Jews trying to escape persecution, and only small groups of Austrian and German Jews fleeing Hitler were able to immigrate to Toronto during this period. In 1941, the number of Jews in Torontohad only risen slightly to 49,046, despite the thousands who desperately sought refuge in Canada. After World War II, the Canadian government established anti-discrimination laws and eased immigration regulations. The Canadian Jewish Congress and needle traders helped refugees come to Toronto from displaced persons camps. In addition, an important development in the Torontocommunity was the growth of the Jewish day school system in the post-World War II era. Previously, the Montrealand WinnipegJewish communities had larger networks of congregational and day schools. The 1950s and 60s saw a tremendous growth of population and community life. In 1951, the Jewish population of greater Torontoreached 66,773. It was augmented further after the 1956 Hungarian uprising brought a new influx of Jewish refugees to the city. In the 1960s, the first Sephardic Jews came to Torontofrom Morocco, and established the first Sephardic synagogues and organizations in the city. Toronto's economic developments of the 1960s, combined with the rise of Quebec's separatist movement in the 1970s, led to a mass migration from Montrealto Toronto in the late 70s and early 80s. In 1971, the Jewish population stood at 105,000, by 1981, it reached 128,650 and, by 1991, increased to 162,605. When the Parti Quebecois won the provincial election in 1976, 20,000 to 30,000 Jews fled to Toronto, fearing an independent Quebecwould divide and weaken the national Jewish community. Toronto assumed Montreal's position as the center of Jewish activity. However, the economic recession of the 1990s had a deleterious impact on the Jewish community's finances and its ability to subsidize Jewish day schools. Despite this setback, Torontomaintains the largest Jewish population of any Canadian city. In recent years, Toronto has received Jewish immigrants from South Africa, the former Soviet Union, the United States, and Israel. Today, the Jewish community stands at approximately 150,000 out of Toronto's 3.5 million inhabitants. Most Jews living in Toronto have only been there for one or two generations. With such close ties to their homelands, Torontonian Jews are typically more traditional than those in the rest of Canada and the United States. Of the 50 percent or so of the Jewish population that associate themselves with the community, 20 percent are Orthodox, 40 percent Conservative, 35 percent Reform, and the remainder nondenominational. Torontomaintains around 50 synagogues, a growing network of Jewish day schools, and a number of Jewish organizations.

    1836: The Alamo in San Antonio, Texas, fell to Mexican forces after a 13-day siege. Antony Wolfe, a young Englishman, was reportedly the only Jew who fought and died at the Alamo.

    1851(2nd of Adar II, 5611): Benjamin Wolf Löw passed away today.  Born at Loslau in 1775, this Polish-Hungarian rabbi was the son of Eleazar Low, the father of Eleazar Low and the grandfather of Abraham and Benjamin Singer.

    1844: In Amsterdam, Ahasuerus Salomon van Nierop and Lady Rachel Salvador gave birth to Frederick Salomon van Nierop the Dutch lawyer who became a director of the Amsterdam Bank in 1871 and also served on the City Council.

    1856: The University of Maryland, College Park is chartered as the Maryland Agricultural College. According to recent figures approximately 5,000 of the school’s 25,000 undergraduate students are Jewish while 1,500 of the 10,000 grad students are Jewish.  These figures do not include the other U of Md. Campuses.  The school offers 35 Jewish studies courses with a major and minor in Jewish Students. In 1949, Evelyn Levow Greenberg, the wife of the Hillel Rabbi at the University of Maryland published The Little Tractor who Traveled to Israel one of the first children’s books to celebrate the Kibbutz movement and the creation of the state of Israel.

    1858: Isadore Untermyer and Therese Laudauer, two Jews from Bavaria, gave birth to Samuel Untermeyer in Lynchburg, VA.  Untermeyer would move to New York as a child and become a prominent lawyer, civic leader, successful businessman and pillar of the Jewish Community

    1863: Mr. Max Maretzek resumption of his old position at the Academy of Music this evening was greeted with the full approval of “all classes of the music-loving community in New York.

    1870:  Birthdate of Austrian-born composer Oscar Straus whose most famous work is an operetta called “Der tapfere Soldat” or “The Chocolate Soldier.”

    1871(13thof Adar, 5631): Fast of Esther

    1872(26th of Adar I, 5632): Fifty-one year old Theodor Goldstücker, the German born Sanskri school who was appointed professor of Sanskrit at University College London in 1852 passed away today in his adopted homeland.

    1876: Birthdate of Chaim Aaron ben David the native of Berlin who gained fame as artist Hermann Struck an ardent Zionist who “helped establish the Tel Aviv Museum of Art.

    1876: “Ben Israel or Under the Curse” opened at the Grand Opera House in New York City this evening.  Described as “a Jewish drama” in five acts, the drama had previously been performed in Troy, New York.

    1876: It was reported today that the Purim Association will host a full dress reception at Delmonico’s that will mark the end of five days of festivities celebrated the Jewish people who hold private masquerade parties as is their “usual custom.”

    1877(21st of Adar, 5637): Seventy-one year old Johann Jacoby, the physician turned political activist passed away today in his native Konigsberg.

    1877(21st of Adar, 5637): Franklin J. Moses, Sr. an attorney, planter, politician and judge in South Carolina who both opposed secession, then supported the Confederacy and then was accused of being a scalawag during Reconstruction, passed away. His maternal grandfather was Jonas Phillips a founder of Mikveh Israel in Philadelphia, PA and the paternal grandfather Commodore Uriah P. Levy, the highest ranking Jewish officer to serve in the U.S. Navy during the Civil War.  Yes, you got it right.  These two Jewish grandees were on opposite sides during the Civil War, a fight that pitted brother against brother, father against son and in this case, grandson against grandson. For a contemporary view of Moses, written by a Northern newspaper see

    1877: It was reported today that humorist Raphael J. de Cordova is scheduled to deliver a lecture at an upcoming fundraiser to be held at Steinway Hall sponsored by the Hebrew Lodge for those who suffered during the recent fire in Brooklyn.

    1878: “Beaconsfield on the Jews” published today described Benjamin Disraeli’s view of the Jews as described in Coningsby, a novel he wrote before he entered political life including the fanciful sentiment that “the Jews hold in their hands the destinies of Europe.”

    1879 (11th of Adar, 5639): Fast of Esther observed because the 13th of Adar is Shabbat

    1879: The Purim Association is sponsoring this evening’s fancy dress charity ball which is taking placed at the Academy of Music.

    1883(27th of Adar): Jacob Barit (Yankele Kovner) passed away1886 Nine thousand members of the Knights of Labor struck Jay Gould’s Southwestern Railroad System. The Knights were one of the earliest attempts at forming a national labor union in the United States.  The Cloak and Suit Maker’s Union which was made up largely of “westernized Jews from Austria, Galicia and Germany” was part of the Knights which made it one of the successful joining of Jewish laborers with this umbrella labor organization. Cultural and linguistic differences as well as plain old fashioned anti-Semitism trumped the supposed solidarity of labor.

    1890(14thof Adar, 5650) Purim

    1890: It was reported today that the United Hebrew Charities have offered to post a bond on behalf of Lazar Anezes, his wife and four children who have been detained by the Commissioners of Emigrations because they are “paupers.”

    1890: It was reported today that the next event sponsored by the Young Men’s Hebrew Association waill be held at the Vienna Hall on Lexington Avenue at 58thStreet.

    1890: Solomon Barnett, a Jewish tailor who had thwarted an attempt to rob him “is lying at his home in a badly demoralized condition” as a result of the injuries he received at the hand of the thieves.

    1891: I.S. Isaacs of the United Hebrew Charities was among those who a attended a conference in the office of the President of the Sanitary Aid Soceity where plans were made to promote a municipal lodging house law in New York City.

    1891: It was rumored today that United States Collector of Internal Revenue Ernst Nathan had retired.

    1891: “They Ask For Palestine” published today described the efforts of William E. Blackstone, Chairman of the Conference of Christians and Jews to present “a memorial to President Harrison concerning the Russian Government’s treatment of the Jews.”

    1892: In New Jersey, two Jewish grocers operated their business today for which they would be arrested because they were open on Sunday.

    1892: The Superintendent of the orphan asylum operated by the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society said that only of the youngsters was suffering from measles and that the twelve other youngsters who had been diagnosed with the disease have been sent to the Willard Parker Hospital.

    1892: Henry Pereira Mendes, the rabbi at Shearith Israel is recovering from the gunshot wound he suffered at the hands of Jose Mizrachee who some describe as a “professional beggar”

    1892: “To Establish ‘Special Alcoves’” published today described the efforts of the directors of the Aguilar Free Circulating Library to establish special alcoves at the various branches of the library” including the one in the Hebrew Institute at East Broadway and Jefferson Street “for the reception of works on particular lines of reading.”

    1893: Charles W. Foster completed his service as U.S. Secretary of the Treasury who during his term in dealt with issues surrounding the massive influx of Russian Jews as can be seen by his response to the letters of 1891 from Simon Wolf and Lewis Abraham of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations in which he expressed his appreciation for their “expressions of confidence” that the department would act humanely “while executing the immigration laws efficiently.”

    1893: “The Answers to Correspondence Column” published today included the information that “a ellow badge, round or square, was the mark of degradation a Jew was obliged to wear in certain parts of medieval Europe.”

    1895: In Germany, by a vote of 167 to 51, the Reichstag rejected the bill to restrict Jewish emigration.

    1896(21stof Adar, 5565):Yitzchak Elchanan Spektor a leading Russian rabbi and Talmudist passed away. Born in 1817, Rav Spektor engaged in a wide variety of activities including visiting St. Petersburg to ameliorate the suffering that followed the Pogroms of 1881, the establishment of yeshivas and involvement with the Hovevei Zion movement.  His impact was so great that the Yeshiva University named it theologic seminary after him - Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary (RIETS), or Yeshivat Rabbeinu Yitzchak Elchanan, 

    1896: Rabbi M.H. Harris delivered the first in a series of lectures on the Inquisition tonight at Temple Israel in New York City.

    1897: In City Court today, Justice McCarthy signed an order for the release of Oscar Altman from the Ludlow Street Jail where he has been held on a charge of “breach of promise of marriage.”

    1897: It was reported today that Mrs. Esther Herrmann whose late husband was a partner in H. Herrmann, Sternbach & Co has given $10,000 to the Young Men’s Hebrew Association. According Percival Menken, the President of the association, the money will make it possible to improve the facility at 861 Lexington Avenue which Jacob Schiff had donated to YMHA last January.

    1897: Seymour Mork and Philip Harrison won the prizes at the debate hosted this evening by the Young Men’s Literary Society of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association which was held at Temple Ahawath Chesed.

    1897: Cantor David Kahn led “the regular Sabbath” at Temple Rodloph Shalom at Lexington and 63rd.

    1897: Rabbi Kaufman Kohler delivered the “charge” to Dr. Rudolph Grossman at services marking his installation as the new rabbi at Temple Roloph Sholom.

    1897: A two day conference begins in Vienna with members of the Zionist circles of Vienna, Berlin, Breslau and Galicia. Herzl's proposal of a general Zionist Congress is adopted with the reservation that the cooperation of the Russian Zionists will be obtained. München is chosen as the city for the congress.

    1898: Congregants from Beth Elohim with a membership of 150 and Congregants from Temple Israel with a membership of 140 met in Brooklyn and voted unanimously to consolidate the two congregations and build a new building to serve as their synagogue.

    1898: More than a thousand people attended the annual Purim reception at the Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews hosted by the President Simon Borg and the Board of Trustees.

    1898: It was reported today that the “heads of the army” refused to allow Commandant Esterhazy who played a key role in framing Dreyfus with Colonel Picquart because they were afraid of “the effect on popular sentiment if Esterhazy were defeated.”

    1899: According to the Court Circular, today "The Emperor of Austria has given the title of Baron De Forest to M. Arnold [De] Forest and to his brother M. Raymond De Forest, both the adopted sons of Baroness de Hirsch de Gereuth, widow of the late Baron de Hirsch."

    1899:Bayer registers aspirin as a trademark. According to Diarmuid Jeffreys, the author of Aspirin: The Story of a Wonder Drug, a Jew named Arthur Eichengrün, was “the Bayer chemist who first found an aspirin formulation which was tolerable in the human stomach and did not have the unpleasant side effects of nausea and gastric pain. Eichengrün also invented the name aspirin and was the first person to use the new formulation to test its safety and efficacy. However, Eichengrün was excluded from the official version of Bayer's history in 1934 because of his Jewish origin. Instead, it was claimed by Bayer that aspirin was ‘discovered" by an Aryan scientist, Felix Hoffman, to alleviate the sufferings of his rheumatic father.”  Fritz ter Meer who “became chairman of Bayer's supervisory board” in 1956 had been “convicted at the Nuremberg trials for his part in carrying out experiments on human subjects at Auschwitz and was imprisoned for five years.”

    1900: Birthdate of Avraham Shlonsky, a Russian born Israeli poet.

    1903:On this date it is announced that the King has been pleased to give and grant unto the Right Honorable Sir Ernest Joseph Cassel, E.C.M.G., K.C.V.O., his Majesty's Royal license and authority that he may accept and wear the Grand Cordon of the Imperial Ottoman Order of the Osmanieh, conferred upon him by his Highness the Khedive of Egypt, authorized by his Imperial Majesty the Sultan of Turkey, in recognition of valuable services rendered by him to his Highness.

    1901: Birthdate of Russian born film director Mark Donskoy

    1902: Herzl informs the Sultan that on March 15th three million francs will be deposited to his account in banks in Paris, Berlin and London.

    1910: Fifteen hundred members of The Hebrew Actor’s Union honor the memory of Morris Horowitz with “an elaborate funeral” that remembered his contributions to the Yiddish Theatre yet belied the impoverished state to which he had fallen in his declining years.

    1915: As of today, “the Palestine Relief Ship Fund, which is being raised by the American Jewish Relief Committee and will used purchase supplies to be shipped on the naval collier Vulcan has reached a total of $34,413.86.

    1915: The list of contribution to the Palestine Relief Ship Fund published today includes the Lawrence, MA Jewish Relief Committee,, the Zadek Lodge, International Order of B’nai Brith of Selma, Alabama and the Minneapolis American Jewish Relief Committee.

    1917: Birthdate of cartoonist Will Eisner. Besides his other accomplishments, Eisner was a mentor for Jules Pfeiffer.

    1918(22nd of Adar, 5678): Ludwig Dreyfus whose estate was valued at $1, 305, 318, passed away today.

    1921: In Vienna, Max Bretholtz, a Polish born tailor and Yiddish actor and Dora Fischmann Bretholtz, a seamstress gave birth to Leo Bretholz a Holocaust survivor who played a key role in the class action lawsuit against the French railway system - the Société Nationale des Chemins de fer Français, or S.N.C.F.

    1921: Birthdate of Austrian born conductor Julius Rudel who fled to the United States at the age of 17after the Anschluss.

    1921: As the lockout aimed of members of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers enters its 14th week, Joseph Schlossberg told a meeting at New York’s Town Hall, that employers were trying to the old sweatshop environment.  Schlossberg was a Russian born Jewish was one of the founders the Amalgamated and served as its Secretary General.

    1924(30thof Adar I, 5684): Rosh Chodesh Adar II

    1924(30thof Adar I, 5684): Seventy-one year old Thomas Jefferson Levy, the three-term Congressman from New York who followed in the footsteps of his uncle Uriah P. Levy by spending a great deal of his time and fortune on the preservation and restoration on Monticello, the home of President Thomas Jefferson

     1924: The Jewish Transcript of the Pacific Northwest now known as JTNews was published for the first time today. (JTA and Times of Israel)

    1926: In Washington Heights (NYC) stockbroker and market analyst Herbert Greenspan and Rose Goldsmith gave birth to Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan.

    1927: Fritz Lang's silent film epic “Metropolis” is released.  Lang’s murky ethnic heritage is typical of many Germans of his era.  Lang’s parents were practicing Roman Catholics.  But Lang’s mother was born Jewish and she did not convert until Fritz was ten.  Sort of makes hash of those easy answers about “who is a Jew” although by Nazi standards Fritz and his brother would have been fodder for the Holocaust.

    1928(14thof Adar, 5688): Purim

    1928(14thof Adar, 5688): Mrs. Lewis M. Nelson who was a member of the Directors of the Beth El Sisterhood and Hadassah, passed away today in Camden, NJ.

    1930: In Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, Marion "Marie" Shulman Maazel, the founder of the Pittsburgh Youth Symphony Orcestra and mult-talented actor and musician Lincoln Maazel gave birth to conductor and composer Lorin Maazel(As reported by Allan Kozinn)

    1930: In the Bronx, David and Dora Rubin gave birth to “Ira Rubin, a champion bridge player and an innovative theorist who was nicknamed the Beast because of the emotional intensity of his play…”  (As reported by Paul Vitello)

    1937: And on the other side of the financial ledger, birthdate of Ivan Boesky the stockbroker convicted of insider trading.

    1937: “Despite the official statement of regret made by the State Department yesterday for Mayor La Guardia’s attack on Adolf Hitler, the Mayor said he would stand by what he had said.”

    1937: In the Old City section of Jerusalem, an Arab shot and wounded M. Schneerson as he walked to daven at the Western Wall. 

    1938: The Palestine Post reported that an armed Arab gang was routed by troops in the Umm el-Fahm area. One British soldier was killed and three wounded in this operation, while numerous Arabs were killed, wounded or arrested. There was also unrest in the Acrenorthern district.

    1938: The Palestine Post reported that the new High Commissioner, Sir Harold MacMichael, had outlined his immediate policy in a radio broadcast. He asked the rival parties in the area to reconcile their claims “upon an amended basis.”

    1938: The Palestine Post reported that the first Palestinian “Who’s Who” was published by Masada in Tel Aviv.

    1939(15th of Adar, 5699): The last observance of Shushan Purim before the Holocaust explodes across Europe.

    1940: The Nazis barred Jewish physicians from treating Aryans and vice-versa.

    1940: Vladimir Jabotinsky, president of the New Zionist Organization of the World lectures on "The Fate of, Jewry" at Manhattan Center.

    1940: “Three leaders of the Jewish Labor party were sentenced to three months in prison today on charges of organizing recent demonstrations against the British government that took place in Tel Aviv.

    1940: Laborite M.P. Philip J. Noel introduced a motion to censure the British government in response to the newly enacted laws restricting the purchase of land in Palestine by Jews.   In defending the government’s action, Malcolm MacDonald, the Colonial Secretary, said, in effect, that the restrictions were put in place to placate the Arabs and avoid more Arab-led violence.  Baker contended that the enactment of the new laws was in violation of the rules of the League of Nations.  Furthermore he said that “if the Jews were not a weak and hunted race today, the British government would have repudiated the moral contract which we made with them while the last great was going on.”  Sir Archibald Sinclair, the Liberal leader and Leopold S. Amery, the former Colonial Secretary spoke out against the government’s action, with Mr. Amery reminding the House that Winston Churchill also opposed the new rules.  All of the talk was useless since the Chamberlain government had the votes to thwart any vote of censure.

    1942: Adolph Eichmann talked of deportation of 50,000 Jews from the Old Reich. He emphasized the importance of secrecy.

    1943: In Swieciany, Ukraine, 20 youths armed with two revolvers escaped the ghetto and hid in the forest.

      1943: The Bulgarian army started to liquidate Jewish property. All confiscated gold and silver was deposited it in sealed packages in the Bulgarian National Bank. Many Bulgarian officials became rich by stealing from the Jews.

    1944: An internal memo from the United States Government War Refugee Board states that the United States was negotiating the purchase of a ship for $400,000. The S.S. Necat would be donated to the Turkish Red Crescent after evacuating 5,000 Jewish refugee children from Romaniato Palestine.  

    1947: Birthdate of John Stossel, the Chicago born journalist who was born to two Jewish refugees from Nazi Germany who raised him as a Protestant.

    1947: In the Bronx, “Estelle Reiner (née Lebost), an actress, and Carl Reiner, a renowned comedian, actor, writer, producer, and director” gave birth to actor and director Rob Reiner best known for his role of “Meathead.” Archie Bunker’s son-in-law in the comedy hit “All in the Family.”

    1947: In his second visit to Tel Aviv in two days, Dr. Chaim Weizmann, the former President of the Zionist organization and world-class chemist, told a group of civic leaders that he is setting aside his research to do whatever he can to help the people on the coastal plain who are living under strict martial law.  

    1947: In a demonstration of how successful their campaign has been, British authorities announced today that “25 known terrorists have been captured in Palestine in recent days.”  Authorities said that many of them are members of Irgun or the Stern Gang.

    1949: On the second day of Operation Uvda “the Negev Brigade travelled to Sde Avraham and began to clear land for an airfield there” and that night the “7th Brigade reinforcements from the Gahal platoon arrived by air in the newly cleared airfield” carrying “supplies and fuel vital to continue the operation.”

    1950(17th of Adar, 5710):Fifty-your year old Lew Lehr, the comedian, writer and editor who authored Lew Lehr's Cookbook for Men and Stop Me If You've Heard This One passed away today

    1951: Ethel and Julius Rosenberg go on trial charged with espionage for providing secret information concerning the Atomic Bomb to the Soviet Union.  In this case the defendants, the prosecutor and the Judge will all be Jews.  But right wing America fixated on the ethnicity of the defendants and used it to equate beings Jewish with being anti-American.

    1953: U.S. premiere of “Battle Circus” a Korean War movie directed by Richard Brooks (b. Ruben Sax) and produced by Pandro S. Berman.

    1953: The Jerusalem Post reported that Stalin¹s condition was very grave.

    1953: The Jerusalem Post reported that The World Jewish Conference, scheduled to open in Zurich was postponed.

    1953: The Jerusalem Post reported that Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill had promised that the British sales of jet aircraft to Arab States would take care to preserve the balance of power in the area.

    1957: United Kingdom colonies Gold Coast and British Togoland become the independent Republic of Ghana.  Israel and Ghana formed several joint ventures including a shipping company.  The leaders of Ghana and other emerging African countries saw Israelas a non-threatening source of Western technology and training.  The African leaders were afraid that accepting similar assistance from the major Western powers would lead to re-colonization, something they did fear from the tiny nation of Israel.  The Israelis provided aid to Ghana and other newly independent countries as a way of breaking out of the diplomatic and economic isolation that the Arabs and their allies were trying to use to destabilize and destroy the Jewish state.

    1957: Israel withdrew its troops from the Sinai Peninsula.  The withdrawal followed the October, 1956 war with Egypt.  The Americans and the Soviets joined forces to make the Israelis leave.  They saved President Nasser of Egypt.  The Soviets quickly re-armed Nassar.  The American action had the effect of giving Nasser a free hand to follow his Pan-Arab dream which included the destruction of the state of Israel. 

    1958: U.S. Premiere of “Star Struck” directed by Sidney Lumet and co-starring Susan Strasberg.

    1959:  Birthdate of actor Tom Arnold.

    1964: Allan Sherman sang “The Dropouts March” on tonight’s edition of “That Was The Week That Was.

    1964: Jewish movie star Liz Taylor divorced Jewish “crooner” Eddie Fisher so that she could marry Richard Burton. Fisher and Taylor were Jewish – he by birth, she by choice.

    1966(14th of Adar, 5726): Purim

    1967: Birthdate of “lawyer, journalist and author” Glenn Greenwald.

    1969: Twenty-nine people, most of whom were students were injured when a terrorist detonated a bomb in the cafeteria at Hebrew University in Jerusalem.

    1969: One person was injured when a terrorist exploded a grenade at a bank in Al Bireh

    1969: Yonatan Netanyahu wrote to his parents, "In another week I'll be 23. On me, on us, the young men of Israel, rests the duty of keeping our country safe. This is a heavy responsibility, which matures us early... I do not regret what I have done and what I'm about to do. I'm convinced that what I am doing is right. I believe in myself, in my country and in my future"

    1971: Publication of “Diplomacy in the Living Room.”

    1972: Birthdate of Israeli Olympic swimmer Yoav Bruck

    1973: Marcel Marceau appears at Coe College in Cedar Rapids, IA.

    1976(4th of Adar II, 5736): "Slapsie" Maxie Rosenbloom light-heavyweight box champion from 1932 to 1934 passed away at the age of 71.  Rosenbloom boxed during a period when Jews dominated the ring.  In 1933, during Maxie's reign as light-heavyweight champion, Jewish boxers were the champions in four out of the eight weight classes.

    1978:The Jerusalem Post reported that Premier Menachem Begin, on the eve of his departure to the US, was adamant that Resolution 242 did not specify the withdrawal of the “territories occupied in the recent conflict” and that the war of 1967 was a war of national self-defense, while the West Bank was never under Jordanian sovereignty. Begin did not rule out any West Bank territorial compromise, but argued that 242 was unspecific, and Israel reserved its position until there was a practical prospect of negotiating the issue.

    1981: The Mannes Orchestra performed under the baton of Yakov Kreizberg as part of his graduation ceremony from the Mannes College The New School for Music.

    1981: U.S. premiere of “On the Right Track” featuring Herb Edelman and Norman Fell.

    1982(11th of Adar, 5742): Russian born Ayn Rand, author and social commentator, Martin Niemöller passed away.

    1984: Ninety-two year old “German anti-Nazi theologian and Lutheran pastor passed away today. He is best known for his statement

    “First they came for the Socialists, and I did not speak out-- Because I was not a Socialist.

    Then they came for the Trade Unionists, and I did not speak out-- Because I was not a Trade Unionist.

    Then they came for the Jews, and I did not speak out-- Because I was not a Jew.

    Then they came for me--and there was no one left to speak for me

    1986: Birthdate of American actor Eli Marienthal.

    1986: The New York Times reported that those who gathered at the Marriott Marquis Hotel in New York City to celebrate the wisdom of Maimonides whose work they have been studying for the past year  “were centuries removed from the life” of the sage “who was born 851 years ago in Cordoba, Spain.

    1987: U.S. premiere of “Tin Men,” the second of Barry Levinson’s four “Baltimore films co-starring Richard Drefyus and Barbara Hershey, whose father was Jewish.


    1991: Harry Heinz Schwarz began serving as the Ambassador of South Africa to the United States.

    1991: “CBS Newsman Bob Smon Tells of Ordeal as Captured Jew” published today

    1992: U.S. premiere of “Once Upon A Crime” a comedy directed by Eugene Levy with a script co-authored by Nancy Meyers and co-starring Richard Lewis as “Julian Peters.”

    1994: Twenty-six year old Rabbi David Keehn, who is legally blind, is one of 144 rabbis who is honored with formal ordination at the quadrennial Chag HaSemikhah (rabbinic convocation) of Yeshiva University's affiliated Rabbis Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary (RIETS) in the Nathan Lamport Auditorium, Joseph and Faye Tanenbaum Hall, New York City.

    1997: Janet Rosenberg Jagan, the daughter of middle class Jewish parents from Chicago moved from being the first lady of Guyana to the role of Prime Minister.

    1998: The Times of London featured a review of The Founding Myths of Israel: Nationalism, Socialism and the Making of the Jewish State by Zeev Sternhell; translated by David Maisel.

    2000:First showing of ''The Life of the Jews in Palestine'' at the Museum of Modern Art. The classic documentary was produced in 1913 by the Odessa-based Mizrakh Company and presumed to be lost for some 80 years -- has resurfaced in New York. This excellent new print with English inter-titles of Noah Sokolovsky's 78-minute silent film is quite likely the rarest of the rarities featured in the museum's 10-program tribute to France's national film archives, the Centre Nationale de la Cinematographie.

    2002(22nd of Adar, 5762): Seventy-four year old “Walter Goodman, a former reporter and critic at The New York Times and the author of a widely read history of the House Committee on Un-American Activities” passed away today. (As reported by Douglas Martin)

    2002(22nd of Adar, 5762): Eighty-five year old Scottish economist and psychologist Ralph Glasser passed away today.

    2005:After 138 years, Rich's (as Rich's-Macy's) disappeared and became part of Macy’s-Central. Rich’s began as a dry goods store run by Morris Rich in 1876.

    2005: The Washington Post book section features a review of Michael Medved’s autobiography, The Faith of a Critic.

    2005: The Chicago Tribune reported that despite an anti-Semitic backlash, the renaissance of Jewish culture and religion continued its growth in Russia.  This “quiet cultural revolution” has been fueled, in part, by Jews who moved to Israel during starting in the 1970’s and have returned at the start of the 21st century. 

    2005:  The New York Times reported that Robert K. Kraft, owner of the New England Patriots made his thirtieth visit to Israel since 1963.  On this most recent visit he took the Lombardi Trophy which was proof of his teams’ Super Bowl Victory and showed it Prime Minister Sharon.  While Sharon is not known as a football fan, he posed for the obligatory photo with a major Jewish philanthropist.

    2005: The New York Times reviewed Ester and Ruzya by Masha Gessen.  The title characters are Gessen’s grandmothers.  The biography tells how these two women maintained their Jewish identities while living through Stalin, Hitler and the Cold War.

    2005: The cover story of The New York Times Magazine was “A Memory Loop” by Joseph Lelyveld featuring an account of life with his father Rabbi Arthur Lelyveld.

    2006(6th of Adar, 5766): Ninety-seven year old Ruth F. Weiss, also known as Wèi Lùshī, an Austrian born Chinese “educator, journalist and lecturer” passed away today.

    2007: The Colorado Jewish Artist’s Guild of the Mizel Museum hosts a workshop styled “Catapulting Your Visions to Achievements: Do You Want to Be A Working Artist or An Artist Who Works?”

    2007: Former White House aide I. Lewis Libby, Jr. was found guilty on four of five counts of perjury and obstruction of justice trial. The one person convicted in the whole Plame Affair was a practicing Reform Jew. 

    2008: As part of its Israel at 60 celebration, the 92nd Street Y presents “Lee Saar The Company & Netta Yerushalmy: Out of Israel” as two innovate Israeli dance companies join forces to present a compelling evening of duets.

    2008(29th of Adar, 5768): Ninety year old screenwriter who was nominated for Best Story Oscar for “Naked City” passed away today.

    2008(29th of Adar, 5768): Eight people were killed and nine others were wounded this evening when a terrorist infiltrated a Jerusalem yeshiva and opened fire. Three of the wounded in the attack at the Mercaz Harav yeshiva in the Kiryat Moshe neighborhood were serious condition and taken to Hadassah Medical Center in Ein Karem. The other six were lightly hurt and taken to Sha'arei Tzedek Medical Center. One of the wounded is 15 years old. Magen David Adom emergency medical service declared the incident a "multiple casualty event."

    2009: Agudas Achim hosts Shabbat Across Iowa City with an early Friday evening service followed by a Shabbat Dinner.

    2009:Composer Samuel Adler lights up the marquee at Temple Emanuel’s Synaplex Shabbat service on Friday night.

    2009: At the Kirk Douglas Theatre in Culver City, Kirk Douglas appears in “Before I Forget” a scripted one-Douglas show all about the 92-year-old Hollywood icon. . In this rare theatrical appearance, Douglas shares stories about his life and acting career — the stroke he suffered in 1996 that left him unable to speak, his numerous starring roles and  his return to Judaism.

    2009:  The lawyers for Bernard Madoff, the goniff who ran the biggest Ponzi Scheme in history, have taken steps that could lead to him pleading guilty as early as next Tuesday.

    2009:The Foreign Ministry said today it had closed its embassy after the government of Mauritania, an overwhelmingly Muslim West African nation asked the Israeli ambassador and his staff to leave.

    2009: In Davis Cup competition, Thomas Johansson put Sweden ahead of Israel with a five-set win over Harel Levy Israel’s Duda Sela even the series with a five-set victory against Andreas Vinciquerra.

    2010 (5770): Shabbat Parah

    2010: The 40th Annual Scholars’ Conference on the Holocaust and the Churches” opened in Philadelphia, PA.

    2010:Theater J in association with Jonathan Reinis Productions is scheduled to present the World Premiere of Andy Warhol - Good for the Jews?

    2010: In London, UK, Jewish Book Week came to an end.

    2010:U.S. President Barack Obama's Middle East envoy, George Mitchell met with Defense Minister Ehud Barak in Tel Aviv today as he began a round of meetings aimed at relaunching peace negotiations.

    2011:Veretski Pass is scheduled to perform their new composition “Klezmer Shul” as well as their standard repertoire and some special surprises at the Freight and Salvage Coffee House in Berkeley, CA as part of the Jewish Music Festival.

    2011: Mlle. God” by playwright Nick Kazan is scheduled to have is final performance at the Atwater Village Theatre in Los Angeles. “The subtext of Kazan’s production is an attempt to mitigate the controversial role the playwright’s father — Oscar- and Tony-winning director Elia Kazan — played during the era of the Hollywood blacklist.”  Regardless of how you may view the elder Kazan’s role during the Red Hunting days of the 1950’s, this Greek immigrant had the courage to serve as director of “Gentlemen’s Agreement,” the 1947 film that dealt with the issue of anti-Semitism in the United States.  Jewish directors and movie moguls had shied away from making the film because they were afraid of an anti-Semitic backlash. [Yes, this is post Holocaust America]

    2011:“Down Home,” a multi-media project that “celebrates Jewish contributions to North Carolina social, civic and commercial life” that has been appearing at the North Carolina Museum of History in Raleigh is scheduled to come to a close today. The project also aimed “to capture a nearly vanished way of life for Jews in the state’s mill and market towns, according to Leonard Rogoff, an organizer of the project and historian at the Jewish Heritage Foundation of North Carolina, which is producing “Down Home.” According to Eli Evans, a speechwriter for Lyndon Johnson whose parents lived in Durham where his mother served Hadassah for 40 years, “The story of the Jews is the untold story of the South.” The Jewish experience in North Carolina was unique in the South, Evans said, because North Carolina was unique in the South. “We didn’t have a strong Klan in our state. We had a commitment to public education, a more moderate political atmosphere, and enlightened political leaders,” he said. “I’m not saying no antisemitism existed. But there was a philo-Semitism that manifested itself in many ways.” While the exhibit’s was partly intended to educate North Carolinians about their own history, it was also intended to provide Jews from outside of the South a look at Jewish culture and customs as practiced below the Mason-Dixon Line.

    2011: The Los Angeles Times featured reviews by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Eisenhower 1956: The President's Year of Crisis — Suez and the Brink of War by David A. Nichols

    2011: Most of the Israel’s welfare services will be suspended indefinitely starting today morning after negotiations between representatives of social workers and the Finance Ministry broke down two days ago.

    2011:A sanitation worker of the Jerusalem Municipality was moderately injured today by an explosion apparently set off when he picked up a garbage bag in Jerusalem.

    2011(30th of Adar I, 5771): Rosh Chodesh Adar II

    2011(30th of Adar I, 5771) Ninety-two year old Dr. Sholom Omi Waife a noted writer and medical researcher who was the grandson of Sholom  Aleichem passed away today.

    2012: The annual AIPAC Policy Conference is scheduled to come to an end.

    2012: The Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center is scheduled to host its annual Humanitiarian Awards Dinner.

    2012: The Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington is scheduled to sponsor a noontime screening of “Jewish Women in American Sport: Settlement Houses to the Olympics,”

    2012: Jewish Women's Morning at the Capitol (JWMC) is scheduled to take place in St. Paul, MN.

    2012: Professor Deborah E. Lipstadt is scheduled to deliver the annual Charles Grossman Lecture In Jewish Intellectual History entitled “History Written, History Re-Written: On American, The Holocaust and Playing the Blame Game” at The Skirball Center for Adult Jewish Learning at Temple Emanu-El

    2012:The organization Peace Now filed a complaint with police this morning after a death threat was made against director Yariv Oppenheimer the night before. (As reported by Ben Hartman)

    2012: Following the death of Robert Sherman, the founder of Music World, “his son Robert J. Sherman succeeded him as CEO and President.”

    2012(12thof Adar, 5772): Ninety-four year old “Albert Abramson, who became a principal force in the creation of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington by using the same pragmatic approach that had made him a successful developer of apartments, offices and malls” passed away today. (As reported by Douglas Martin)

    2012:Israel Military Industries will be barred from submitting bids for Indian defense contracts for the next ten years, along with five other firms, The Times of India reported today.

    2013: The Humanitarian Awards Dinner co-sponsored by the Illinois Holocaust Museum & Education Center is scheduled to take place this evening in Chicago, Illinois.

    2013: To mark its acquisition of the defense archive of the Board of Deputies of British Jews, The Wiener Library is scheduled to host a public panel discussion on the subject of Anglo-Jewish responses to domestic fascism in the 1930s.

    2013: “The Last White Knight: Is Reconciliation Possible?” is scheduled to have its Minnesota Premier tonight at the Minneapolis Jewish Film Festival.

    2013: The Hebrew language edition of Playboy will be available on newsstands today in Israel.

    2013: “Agriculture Ministry workers armed with pesticides went into action at first light today morning, distributing both aerial and ground sprays in the area where millions of locusts descended upon southern Israel from Egypt's Sinai Peninsula the day before.” (As reported by Sharon Udasin)

    2013:New York police today said they arrested a suspected hit-and-run driver following a weekend accident that killed a young Orthodox Jewish couple whose baby was later delivered by C-section but then died.

    2013: A global Shi’ite terrorism network made up of Iranian Quds Force operatives and Hezbollah continues to target Israelis overseas, the National Security Council’s counterterrorism bureau warned today, ahead of the Passover vacation season.

    2013:The Los Angeles mayoral runoff opened today with Democrats Eric Garcetti and Wendy Greue, each of whom have Jewish connections, fighting over who best can craft an image of fiscal restraint in a cash-strapped city whose voters refuse to raise taxes to maintain public services.

    2014: Shaul Magid, professor of Religious Studies and Jewish Studies at Indiana University Bloomington is scheduled to deliver a lecture “After Multiculturalism: Postethnicity and Judaism in America” at the University of Colorado Boulder.

    2014: Leslie Maitland is scheduled to discuss “Crossing the Borders of Time: A True Story of War, Exile and Love Reclaimed.”

    2014: “Dove’s Cry and “Sukkah City” are scheduled to be shown at the Washington Jewish Film Festival.


    2014: Dr. Rose Cohen is scheduled speak on “Facets of Holocaust Research: Victims and Survivors, Possessions and Plunder Search strategies and Integrating Resources” at the Center for Jewish History.

    2014: A source at the Foreign Ministry confirmed today that the trip of Pope Francis scheduled for this May has been cancelled because Foreign Ministry workers “are currently on strike and are unable to make the necessary arrangements for the visit.”

    2014: In Columbus, Ohio, Abbie and Feivel Straus have a new daughter; Joseph Straus has a new sister and Dr. Bob & Laurie Silber have a new granddaughter.

    2014: Today’s decision “in Crimea’s parliament to hold a referendum on March 16 asking whether the semi-autonomous region should become part of Russia took some members of the peninsula’s 17,000-strong Jewish community by surprise.”

    2015: The Oxford University Jewish Society is scheduled to host the “penultimate Friday night dinner.”

    2015: Agudas Achim is scheduled to host “Shabbat Across Iowa City.”

    2015: Lewis Black is scheduled to perform at the Club Regent Event Center in Winnipeg, Canada.


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    March 7

    322 BCE:  Aristotle passed away. “Aristotle was almost universally held in esteem by the Jews; at one time for his intelligence and mental power, at another as a penitent sinner. The following is Maimonides' verdict concerning him: "The words of Plato, Aristotle's teacher, are obscure and figurative: they are superfluous to the man of intelligence, inasmuch as Aristotle supplanted all his predecessors. The thorough understanding of Aristotle is the highest achievement to which man can attain, with the sole exception of the understanding of the Prophets." Shem-ob ben Isaac of Tortosa (1261) styles Aristotle "the master of all philosophers." Elijah b. Eliezer of Candia, who edited the "Logic" about the end of the fourteenth century, calls Aristotle "the divine," because, having been endowed by nature with a sacredly superior intellect, he could understand of himself what others could receive only from the instruction of their teachers.”

    161: Roman emperor Antoninus Pius passed away.  He was the handpicked successor of Hadrian.  Antonious undid the anti-Jewish decrees of his predecessor and when he died the Jewish people lost one of the few friends they ever had sitting on the throne in Rome.

    161: Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus are named co-Emperors of the Roman Empire following the death of Antonious Pius.  Marcus Aurilius had little understanding or appreciation of the Jewish people.  He described them as “stinking and tumultuous” when he traveled through Judea. He reportedly said that he preferred the company of Germanic barbarians to that of Jews.

    321: Constantine I, the first Christian Roman Emperor decreed that the dies Solis Invicti (sun-day) is the day of rest in the Empire.  Thus would begin the conflict between the Christian Sunday and the Jewish Saturday.  Of course the commandment says to hallow the 7th day and Sunday is the first day of the week.

    1190(20th of Adar, 4950): During the Lenten Fair, Crusaders filled “with passion for crusade” and jealousy over the supposed wealth of the Jews, slaughtered them at Stamford, England.

    1236(21st of Adar, 4996): The Jews of Narbonne began celebrating the Purim of Narbonne after Don Aymeric, the governor, intervened to protect the Jews from marauding Christian  who had already carried off the library of Reb Meir ben Isaac as they made their riotous way through the Jewish quarter.

    1274: Catholic theologian, St. Thomas Aquinas passed away.  While no friend of the Jews, Aquinas’ view of Jews was a little better than the average one held by ecclesiastical and temporal leaders of his time.  He opposed conversions at the point of the sword.  He opposed the murder of Jews.  He felt they should be allowed to live so they could serve as eternal witnesses to “the truth of Christianity.”  The views of this influential Catholic theologian are best summed up in a letter to a widow who had inherited a duchy that included what is now Belgium and the Netherlands.  “It is true, as the laws declare, that in consequence of their sin (rejecting Jesus) Jews were destined to perpetual servitude, so that sovereigns of state may treat Jewish goods as their own property, save for the sole proviso that they do not deprive them of that is necessary to sustain life.”  In other words, Jews could live, but they could only live a miserable life.  Aquinas also made it respectable for Catholic nobles to borrow from Jews and then not repay their debts.

    1361(30th of Adar): Rabbi Simeon ben Zemah Duran, author of Sefer ha-Rashbaz passed away

    1612(3rd of Adar II, 5372): Mordecai ben Avraham Yoffe, the son of Abraham ben Joseph passed away at Prague.  Born in 1530, he was the Rosh Yeshiva in Prague and author of “Levush Malkhut, a ten-volume codification of Jewish law that particularly stressed the customs of the Jews of Eastern Europe.

    1693: Birthdate of Carlo della Torre di Rezzonico, who as Pope Clement XIII would rule that there was no substance to the claim that Jews used blood in the preparation of their unleavened bread. Among other things he intervened with the Polish church and nobles and ordered the protection of Jacob Zelig, the Jewish spokesperson that the Polish Jews had sent to Rome to plead their case.

    1748: Birthdate of William V, Prince of Orange-Nassau who “donated a considerable sum for a new menorah” when he stayed with Benjamin Cohen in Amersfort and whose wife gave the same community a curtain for the congregation’s holy ark.

    1788: The Jews of the Netherlands celebrated the birthday of William V as holiday as a sign of the support for the Prince of Orange.

    1789: Birthdate of Michel Martin Drolling the French painter who counted among his student the Alsatian Jew, Benjamin Ulmann whose works include “Sylla and Manus” which hangs in the Luxembourg Palace.


    1799: (30th of Adar I, 5559): Rosh Chodesh Adar II

    1799: As Napoleon Bonaparte fought his way across Palestine, his army defeated “a 12,000-strong mixed force of Al Jazzar and the Mamluks” and captured the port city of Jaffa. In one of the first examples of what would become a recurring theme, westerners used modern technology to defeat a Muslim army.  In this case, Napoleon use of bombardments from his heavy artillery was the key to victory.  Following the victory, the French commander “set out to try and gain political advantages from his military achievements. Letters and proclamations were directed at the Sultan, the various communities of Palestine and Syria and their leaders, Akhmad Jasar, the pasha of Acre and commander-in-chief (seraskir) of the Ottoman forces at that time.  All these aimed at paving the way for the complete occupation of the Holy Land by negotiation or by making alliances and contacts to ease further military conquest. Among these was the contact with the Jewish communities in Palestine and Syria, the first de facto attention to the Jews as a potential factor in international policy in modern times.”

    1799: The Royal Institution an organization devoted to scientific education and research is founded in London.  The Royal Institution today is led by director Baroness Susan Greenfield, renowned scientist and the daughter of Jewish parents.

    1802(3rd of Adar II): Rabbi Noah Chaim Zevi Berlin, author of Azei Arazim, passed away.

    1807: On the day before “the Great Sanhedrin presented its responses and formally ended its proceedings, Rabbi Sinzheim delivered a short summary of its conclusions and proclaimed them as nothing less than a ‘social pact’ between ‘the People of God and the People of France.’”

    1809: Birthdate of Meïr Leibush ben Yehiel Michel Weiser the Russian rabbi known by the acronym Malbim the opponent of Reform whose literary works included a commentary on “Esther” published in 1845.

    1818: Birthdate of German born historian, author and Rabbi David Cassel, the brother of Selig Cassel.

    1818: In Kassel, Germany Mayer Japhet and Deborah Weinberg gave birth to Israel Meyer Japhet who “was choir director at the Realschule (Adass Jeschurun) in Frankfurt am Main under Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch.”

    1822(14th of Adar, 5582): Purim

    1822: Turkish soldiers killed 60 Jews in Bucharest.

    1824: Il crociato in Egitto (The Crusade in Egypt), an opera in two acts by Jewish composer Giacomo Meyerbeer, premiered at La Fenice theatre in Venice, Italy.

    1825:  Birthdate of Alfred Edersheim, English biblical scholar. Edersheim converted to Christianity before the age of 20. He was the author of The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiahwhich is considered by many Christians to be a classic study on this topic.

    1833(16thof Adar I, 5593): Sixty-one year old Rahel Antonie Friederike (née Levin) the German author and hostess to the leading intellectuals of her time who had an asteroid named in her honor and who was the subject of Hannah Arendt’s 1958 biography Rahel Varnhagen: The Life of a Jewess passed away today.

    1839: In Kassel, Meyer Bär (Moritz) Mond and Henrietta Levinsohn gave birth Dr. Ludwig Mond a German-born British chemist and industrialist.

    1841(14thof Adar, 5601): Purim

    1851: A poll tax levied on Russo-Polish Jews entering Austrian Galicia was discontinued.

    1856: A letter from the Hahambashi discusses "reforms" to institute in the Jewish community. The Judeo-Spanish language is discussed, "As the language taught by the Jews of the Levant is not, properly speaking, a language, and cannot be useful to the youth, we order the creation of free schools for the poor where Turkish, Greek, French, and Italian will be taught."

    1857: Birthdate of Julius Wagner-Jauregg, the Austrian born physician and Nobel Prize Winner.  Apparently he saw no conflict between the fact that he had been a student of Salomon Stircker, the Jewish pathologist and his support of the Nazis.

    1860: Birthdate of Austrian physicist Adler Gottlier who earned a doctorate from the University of Vienna in 1882 and developed an expertise in the fields of “electricity and magnetism.”

    1860(13th of Adar, 5620): Ta’anit Esther

    1860(13th of Adar, 5620): Fifty-eight year old Italian poet and book collector Joseph Almanzi passed away today in Trieste.

    1863: “The Purim Ball. A Jewish Festival – A Great Success” published today reported that “No one of the ancient Hebraic celebrities holds a more absolute sway in the affections of the Jews of this day than Esther, the beautiful and pious spouse of Ahasuerus. In commemoration of the signal service rendered by that estimable lady to her nation, on the occasion of the timely elevation of Haman, the envious enemy of her uncle Mordecai, whose daily place of rest was in the neighborhood of the King's gate, the Jewish people yearly observe the Feast of Purim. In this City, the first grand ball of the Purim Association was given last year, with marked success, and the second was given on Thursday night, at the Academy of Music. The building was very elegantly and tastefully decorated and most brilliantly illuminated, the floor was laid for dancing, and the usual magnificence of the Academy incredibly enhanced.” [Please note, this article which showed a certain comprehension and approval for this minor Jewish holiday appeared in a United States newspaper at a time when Jews comprised approximately 1% of the Jewish population.]

    1866(20th of Adar, 5626): Birthdate of Rabbi Moshe Mordechai Epstein who was Rosh Yeshiva of Yeshiva Knesseth Yisrael in Slabodka, Lithuania and is recognized as having been one of the leading Talmudists of the twentieth century.

    1869: Birthdate of Ernst Julius Cohen “a Dutch chemist known for his work on the allotropy of metals” who was gassed by the Nazis at Auschwitz.

    1871(14th of Adar, 5631): Purim

    1871: Receptions celebrating Purim were held at numerous New York Jewish institutions including the Asylum for the Aged and Infirm, the Orphans Home and the Industrial Home on west 17thStreet.

    1871: Henry Cardoza and Mary Levi were married this morning by Justice Buckley in Brooklyn’s Second District Police Court.  Cardoza opted for a civil ceremony because he could not afford a rabbi.

    1872(27th of Adar I, 5632): Jekuthiel Süsskind (Süssel) Rapoport, a leader of the Russian Jewish community passed away today.  Born in 1802, he was the son of Rabbi Chaim ha-Koen and the great-grandson of Rabbi Chaim ha-Koen Rapoport. He and his brother Jacob, rabbi of Ostrog, published their father's work "Mayim Ḥayyim"

    1875(30th of Adar I, 5635): Rosh Chodesh Adar II

    1876: Attendance at tonight’s fancy dress ball sponsored by the Purim Association is expected to be greater than at such past events.  The Association has increased its membership which should me more revelers will be dining and dancing at Delmonico’s.

    1876: “Ben Israel or Under the Curse,” a 4 hour long drama about the travails of a Jewish patriarch named Ben Israel, his granddaughter Rachel and her suitors was described in a review published today as being “destitute of originality, coherence and interest.”

    1878: Joseph Seligman was elected as one of the vice presidents of the newly formed American Pig Lead Association at a meeting of the leading lead miners and dealers held at St. Louis, MO.

    1878: Reverend George H. Hepworth, a Unitarian Minister will deliver a lecture entitled “Our American Homes” to the Young Men’s Hebrew Association who are meeting at Lyric Hall in New York City.

    1879: In New York’s Court of General Session, Judge Henry A. Gildersleeve heard evidence before rendering a decision on the application of the Commissioners of Charities and Correction to force Leopold, Felix and Alfred Salomon to pay six dollars a week in support of their 70 year old widowed mother, Fanny Salomon.  The brother’s contested the request saying that she had rejected their offers to live with them and that she had been able to pay for a trip to France which would indicate she was not destitute.

    1879: Birthdate movie director and muralist Hugo Ballin.

    1880: Nineteen year old Hedwig Goldschmidt married Herman Hirsch Cramer, the son of Jacob Cramer and Caroline Furth today.

    1880: A service was held to this afternoon at Temple Emanu-El to honor the memory of the late Isaac Adophe Creimieux, the Frenchman who had served as President of the Universal Israelite Alliance. When word reached New York that the 84 year old philanthropist and statesman had passed away, the Board of Delegates on Civil and Religious Rights of the Union of American Hebrew congregations recommended a city-wide service.  This afternoon’s service was a collaborative effort of 11 congregations under the leadership of Louis May.

    1880: Former U.S. Secretary of State Elihu B. Washburne was the featured speaker at today’s memorial service in Chicago held at Temple Sinai to honor the memory of the late Adolphe Cremieux.

    1883: Herzl withdraws from the Akademische Burschenschaft Albia. ("Ich sagte den edlen jungen Leuten Lebewohl und fing nun an, mich ernstlich an die Arbeit zu setzen." - "I said farewell to my noble young colleagues and sat down seriously to my work.")

    1884: Birthdate of Shlomo Kaplansky, the native of Bialystok who was a leader of the World Union of Poalei Zion and an advocate of a bi-national state for the Jewish homeland.

    1887: North Carolina State University is founded by the North Carolina General Assembly. According to recent figures there are approximately 250 Jewish students among an undergrad population of 20,000.  The campus is home to a Hillel Chapter. The North Carolina Museum of Art in Raleigh contains a Judaic Art Collection that includes an array of historic and contemporary pulpit, life cycle and holiday objects.

    1889: At a meeting of the Board of Trade, Jacob Schloss “agreed to support a scheme to drive an exploratory mining shaft to demonstrate the continuing viability of the mining district.

    1890: Abraham Sudyham, a criminal defense attorney was sentenced to five years in New York State prison after having been convicted of grand larceny when he tried to sell the house belonging to his aunt.

    1891: Birthdate of Marcel Barger.  Born Meyer Streliskie the famed European cabaret performer died at Auschwitzin 1942.

    1891: Professor Charles A.L. Totten “the well-known military instructor” at Yale University made a statement today in which he described his approval of the memorial presented to President Harrison by William E. Blackstone advocating a project for “restoring Palestine to the Jews.”

    1891: “Collector Nathan To Retire” published today described Ernst Nathan’s repudiation of unfounded reports that he was retiring from his position or that he would seek the office of Mayor of Brooklyn.

    1892: It was reported today that the 600 children living at the orphan asylum operated by the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society will be returning to school next week.  They have been confined to the orphanage since January 1stdue to an outbreak of measles – a medical challenged that has been successfully dealt with.  (In an era of vaccinations, we do not appreciate the deadly challenges of childhood illnesses)

    1892: The Hebrew Orphan Asylum Bazar, sponsored by the Ladies’ Aid Society is scheduled to take place in Baltimore, MD.  Mrs. Benjamin Harrison, the wife of the President is scheduled to be one of the guests.  Mrs. Harrison had told Mrs. Edward Pels and Mrs. J.B. Eiseman that she will be sending a donation of flowers from the White House for the event.

    1893: It was reported today that Russian Jews who had formed at a colony in Chesterfield, Connecticut are returning to New York after a suffering through a winter of hardships.

    1894: Assemblyman Ainsworth apologized to the Jews for using the term “Jew pawnbrokers” during the debate on a bill to incorporate the “Provident Loan Society.”  The bill passed by a vote of 86 to 6 with the Jewish members all voting no.

    1894(29th of Adar): Fifty-nine Abraham Baer the German born cantor who was author Ba’al Tifillah, passed away today in Sweden.

    1895: The Beth Israel Hospital on East Broadway received a substantial benefit this evening from the proceeds of the Purim charity ball an concert sponsored by the Young Ladies and Gentlemen’s League, the purpose of which is to support the hospital.

    1895: The last “open meeting” of the Monte Relief, “one of the best known Hebrew charitable organizations in” New York City, “will take the form of a “Cake Walk and Colored Jubilee.”

    1896: The New York Times reports on the preparations for the upcoming celebration of the 45th anniversary of Dr. Sabato Morais beginning his service as the Rabbi for Congregation Mikvah Israel in Philadelphia, PA.

    1897: Professor Felix Adler delivered a lecture “Religion of To-day” at Carnegie Music Hall this morning.

    1897: Rabbi Gustav Gottheil spoke on “The Present Bible Controversy” today at Temple Emanu-El.

    1897: It was reported today that August Belmont was one of the principal financial backers of plan to unite the manufacturers of bourbon whiskey into a national syndicate.

    1897: It was reported that Seymour Mork and Phillip Harrison won the prizes at a debate sponsored by the Young Men’s Hebrew Association.

    1898(13th of Adar, 5658): Ta’anit Esther

    1898: In the evening, the Purim “festival proper began” this evening, when the first star was visible, for in celebrating their holidays the Jews till adhere to the old Oriental custom of counting the day from evening to evening.”

    1898: “Tatza Jews Killed by Arabs” published today describe the pillaging of the Moroccan city by Ghiatz Arabs who abducted the women after murdering the men.

    1898: Senator Cantor introduced a bill today that would exempt the real estate of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association from taxation, assessment and water rates.

    1898: “Congregations to Unite” published today traces the decision of members Temple Beth-Elhoim to consolidate with Temple Israel.  Both of the congregations are located in Brooklyn with Beth-Elhoim having 150 members and Temple Israel having 140 members.  The enlarged congregation will have to build a new sanctuary as neither of the currently occupied edifices are big enough to accommodate the increase in attendance.

    1898: It was reported today that the oldest resident of the Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews is a 99 year old man “whose only physical ailment is deafness.”

    1900: Birthdate of Gerald Burton Windrod, the Kansas native whose virulent anti-Semitic views earned him the title of "the JayHawk Nazi

    1902(28th of Adar I, 5662): Isidore Cahen, French scholar and journalist born at Paris in 1826 passed aay today.

    1903: In Athens, Ohio, newspaper editor and publisher Charles Harvey Bryson, who owned the Athens Morning Journal and his wife gave birth to Bernarda Bryson who married Ben Shan and gained fame in her own rights as Bernarda Bryson Shan (As reported by Margalit Fox)

    1904: In Paris, Baron Louis de Koenigswarter and his wife gave birth to Lt.-Col. Baron Jules de Koenigswarter who married Kathleen Annie Pannonica Rothschild in 1935 and fought with the Free French during WW II.

    1909(14th of Adar, 5669): Purim

    1912: Hadassah was founded by Henrietta Szold.  “At a meeting at TempleEmanu-Elin New York City, Henrietta Szold, a noted scholar, teacher, journalist, editor, social worker and pioneer Zionist, convinced the Daughters of Zion study circle to expand its purpose and embrace “practical Zionism,” proactive work to help meet the health needs of Palestine’s people. Because the meeting was held around the time of Purim, the women called themselves “The Hadassah chapter of the Daughters of Zion,” adopting the Hebrew name of Queen Esther. Hadassah also means “myrtle,” a hardy Levantine plant with agricultural and biblical significance. Henrietta Szold became the first president.

    1912(18th of Adar, 5672): In St. Louis, Marcus Bernheimer, the native of Liberty, Mississippi and the son of Samuel and Henrietta Bernheimer passed away today.

    1912(18th of Adar, 5672): Seventy-two year old St. Louis merchant Eugene Sterne passed away today.

    1914: Mrs. Simon Baruch had a surprise party for twenty-one Italian children from the Bronx at her home as part of her program to teach patriotism and American values to the children of immigrants newly arrived in the United States.

    1915: “Miss Jane Addams spoke of ‘War and Social Service’ at the Free Synagogue at Carnegie Hall” this “morning following the service conducted by Rabbi Stephen Wise.

    1917: Birthdate of Ruth Dayan, ex-wife of Moshe Dayan. 

    1917:  During World War I, on the Dialah River in Mesopotamia, Private Jack White, a signaler, during an attempt to cross the river, saw the two pontoons ahead of him come under very heavy fire with disastrous results. When his own pontoon had reached mid-stream, with every man except himself either dead or wounded, and not being able, by himself, to control the boat the private tied a telephone wire to the pontoon, jumped overboard and towed it to the shore, thereby saving an officer's life and bringing to land the wounded and also the rifles and equipment of all the men in the boat.

    1921: Red Army under Trotsky attacked sailors of Kronstadt in a move to put down “a counter-revolutionary” plot.  Soviet leaders were always putting down “counter-revolutionary plots” both real and imagined.  Stalin would later brand Trotsky as a counter-revolutionary and drive him from the party and the Soviet Union.

    1922: Birthdate of Hans Eduard Ephraimson-Abt, the Berlin born Jew who became an internationally known advocate for families of air-crash victims after the death of his daughter on Korean Air Lines Flight 007, shot down by Soviet fighter planes in 1983 (As reported by Margalit Fox)

    1925: Dr. Chaim Weizmann is scheduled to sail for England today aboard the SS Olympic so that he can accompany Lord Blafour to Palestine where they will take part in the dedication of the new Hebrew University on Mt. Scopus.

    1928(15th of Adar, 5688): Shushan Purim

    1929: Today in Iraq, "Jewish journalist, Anwar Shaul, published an open letter in weekly magazine al-Hasid, addressed to the British High Commissioner and commander-in-chief, Brigadier-General Sir Gilbert Clayton, demanding full independence for Iraq from Britain

    1930: Birthdate of Alfred Gottschalk, the native of Germany who “as head of Reform Judaism’s major institution of higher learning ordained the first women as rabbis in the United States and Israel.”

    1930: Chief Justice MacDonnell and Justices Baker and Kermak heard the appeal of Simcha Hinkis, a 22-year-old Jewish policeman accused of participating in the murder of an Arab family at Jaffa in the August riots. Hinkis had been “found guilty of premeditated murder and sentenced to death.”  “Mordecai Eliash, counsel for the defense, declared the conviction was based on insufficient evidence.”  The court is expected to render its judgment next week.  [It is ironic that a Jewish policeman is the one who was convicted of murder following the murderous Arab rampage of 1929.]

    1930: The blue liveried state luxury saloon carriage of Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, the first president of Czechoslovakia, which entered service today would gain an extra measure of fame when it became part of the 2009 Winton Train – “a private passenger train which travelled from the Czech Republic to England in September 2009, in tribute to the wartime efforts of Sir Nicholas Winton, described as the 'British Schindler' for his part in the saving refugee children from Czechoslovakia.”

    1936:  Hitler violated Treaty of Versailles by sending troops to the Rhineland. This was one of the early steps leading to World Word II and the Final Solution. Hitler was running a bluff.  He really lacked sufficient military force to have made the remilitarization stick.  If Franceand Great Britainhad acted decisively, Hitler would have been forced to back down and he might even have been forced from power.

    1938: The Palestine Post reported that members of the Russian Zionist Center in Tel Aviv were worried by a new wave of purges and arrests in the Soviet Union. They reported that in Moscow, Odessaand many other Russian towns charges of counter-revolutionary activities were trumped up against Jews and the youth was particularly affected. Although there were hardly any Jews in Japan, the Tokyogovernment launched Japan¹s first anti-Semitic campaign announcing a “worldwide Jewish plot.” The Japanese press presented a long list of the country’s Jewish enemies who included, among others, various international peace leagues, socialists and even Rotary International. The charges against Rotary were later withdrawn.

    1938: Birthdate of David Baltimore, American biologist, recipient of the 1975 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

    1939(16thof Adar, 5699): Seventy-four year old Ludwig Anton Salomon Fulda the poet and playwright who was the first President of PEN of Germany and whose career effectively came to an end when the Nazis came to power committed suicide in Berlin today when he was denied entry into the United States. (Editor’s Note – Germany wanted to put an end to him because he was a Jew and the United States had no room for him for the same reason.  Also there seems to be some confusion about the date of his death)

    1940: As Jews continued to protest against the newly enacted British laws limiting purchase of land in Palestine by Jews, the Chief Rabbis and leaders of the Vaad Leumi led a protest demonstration through the streets of Jerusalem while other Jews took part in a work stoppage in Haifa.  In reaction to the protest in Jerusalem, the British imposed an over-night curfew on the Jewish quarter of the City of David.

    1940: Birthdate of Arlene Hannah Butter, the New York born daughter of Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe who gained fame as artist Hannah Wilke.

    1942: Birthdate of Michael Eisner President of The Walt Disney Company.

    1942: Lucy Parsons the labor organizer and anarchist who addressed the striking members of the Chicago Tailors Union most of whose members were Jewish and who clashed with Emma Goldman passed away.

    1943(30th of Adar I, 5703): Rosh Chodesh Adar II

    1943: “The third American enlisted men’s club in the Middle East” is scheduled to be open in Tel Aviv today.  The club has “sleeping quarters for 150 men and lounge, game reading and music rooms.  It is 300 yards from the beach.” In addition, hospitality committees of the Jewish Agency arrange sightseeing trips in the Holy Land and the Tel Aviv Hospital committee is operating three clubs for solidiers and nurses of the Allied armies serving in Palestine.

    1944: The poet David Vogel was deported from Drancy the French concentration camp and sent to Birkenau along with another 1,500 Jews.

    1944(12thof Adar): At Birkenau, 3,860 Jews who had been living in "family quarters", were sent to the gas chambers. Five days earlier, in their special "family quarters", they were shown off to Red Cross representatives (who were not allowed to see the rest of the camp.) The Jews were told to write postcards to their Czech relatives, but postdate them March 25, 26, and 27. The Jews would never live to see those days. Of this group, only 37 were spared, including eleven sets of twins. They would be sent to Dr. Mengele for medical experiments.

    1944(12th of Adar): Today, the Nazis discovered “the hideout of Emanuel Ringelblum the historian of the Warsaw ghetto and one of the leaders of the Jewish underground” which would lead to the execution of him and his family a few days later.

    1945:Brigadier General Ernest Frank Benjamin began serving with the British Eighth Army in the Faenza Area, Italy; a posting that would last until the end of World War II in Europe. Born in 1900, Benjamin “was a British officer from Canada of Jewish birth who commanded the Jewish Infantry Brigade during the Second World War. Benjamin was commissioned into the Royal Engineers and served with that service during 1941-42 before being transferred as a General Staff Officer 1 to the Middle East Command in 1943. He served as Assistant Quartermaster-General there until 1944 when he was appointed Deputy Director of Military Training Middle East Command and in the autumn of the same year as the Commanding Officer, Jewish Brigade Group. yHis last post with the Brigade group was in north-west Europe as part of the VIII Corps of the British Army of the Rhine. He passed away in 1969.

    1945: The US 9th Armored Division seized the bridge at Remagen Germany, enabling them to cross the Rhine and enter the German heartland.  This is an amazing story of luck and unbelievable courage on the part of American soldiers which shortened the war and help end the nightmare for European Jewry. 

    1946: Birthdate of Ronald Reider, the New Jersey native who settled in Cedar Rapids, after earning his M.D. at the University of Iowa. 

    1947: Major Beneral R.N. Gale, the British commander of “Operation Elephant” expressed satisfaction with the results of having imposed martial law over a large area of Palestine and that it will be able to “cut out this canker of underground violence.”

    1947: As the British continued their efforts to pacify Palestine, 5,000 troops and policemen surrounded Rehoveth, Nathanya and Hadera and began searching the communities for “terrorists” and weapons.  The raid netted thirty-two detainees and a small cache of arms.  Dr. Chaim Weizmann is a resident of Rehovoth. “After the searches ended” armed masked men attacked the police station at Rishon le Zion.  As the British looked for the attackers, they let be known that they were looking for members of the Irgun and the Stern gang and not members of Haganah.

    1949: During Operation Uvda, “Golani forces conquered the village Ein Harouf.

    1949: During Operation Uvda, “the Alexandroni Brigade moved from Beersheba through Mamshit towards Sodom and then made an amphibious landing near Ein Gedi through the Dead Sea.”

    1949: The IDF established a based Ayn Husb at the junction of the Beersheba-Sodom and Sodom-Eilat tracks

    1950(18th of Adar, 5710): Daniel Frisch, the President of the Zionist Organization of America, passed away today at the age of 52 following a surgical procedure that had been performed yesterday.  Born in Palestine, Frisch was the son of Rabbi Eliezer and Haia Landau Frisch.  His family moved to Roumania when Frisch was one year old.  Frisch came to the United States in 1921 and settled in Indianapolis where he operated a successful salvage yard.  Frisch who had been active in the Zionist movement since childhood, founded the Indianapolis Zionist District, served as President of the Ohio Valley Zionist Region and was elected to the ZOA Administrative Council in 1934.  He retired from business five years ago and moved to New York so he could devote himself to the Zionist cause.  Frisch reportedly made at least 14 trips to Israel and worked tirelessly to raise funding for a projects for the infant Jewish state.

    1950: In what has to be one of the all-time great whoppers of history, the Soviet Union issues a statement denying that Klaus Fuchs served as a Soviet spy days after he had been found guilty by a British court.  Fuchs testified that Harry Gold was his courier for getting information to the Soviets.  Harry Gold led to David Greenglass that led to the Rosenbergs.

    1950: “The Communist newspaper Kol Ha’am charged today that Israel has instituted an anti-Communist campaign and inquirty to similar to those that it said had been launched by President Truman in all countries under American protection.”  The paper charged that America was pulling the strings of anti-Communism in Israel just as it was in England. [This charge came at the same time when many right-wing Americans were warning of the Jewish Communist conspiracy.]

    1951: Lillian Hellman's "Autumn Garden" premiered in New York City.

    1951: In one of those incidents that undermine stability in the Middle East and thus prove worrisome to Israel, the Prime Minister of Iran was shot and killed by an Islamic fundamentalist.

    1952: Dr. Alexander Marx, director of libraries and the Jacob H. Schiff Professor at JTS is will leave for Israel today.  This is his first trip to the new Jewish state during which he plans to establish closer working relationships between JTS and libraries in Israel.

    1953(20th of Adar, 5713):Maksymilian Apolinary Hartglas passed away in Tel Aviv.  Born in 1883, he was a lawyer, Zionist and a politician in pre-war Poland who courageously escaped from Warsaw and finally settled in Jerusalem.

    1955: NBC presented “Peter Pan,” a musical version of the 1904 play of the same time with music by Mark Charlap and Jule Styne, and lyrics by Carolyn Leigh, Betty Comden and Adolph Green as part of its Producers Showcase anthology series.

    1960: “Volpone” co-starring Lou Jacobi as “Corvino” was broadcast today at the Play of the Week.

    1965: On Bloody Sunday in Selma, Alabama, group of 600 civil rights marchers are violently prevented from marching to the state capital in Montgomery.  Two weeks later a group of marchers would successfully begin the march from Selma to Montgomery.  Included among them would be Rabbi Abraham Joshua Heschel who said he was “voting with his feet.”

    1965: Release date for “The Train” a film based on Le front de l'art by Rose Valland, which tells the story of a successful attempt to keep a train filled with looted French art from reaching Germany.  In reality, the boxcar doors were opened by Free French forces under the command of Lt. Alexandre Rosenberg who had no trouble identifying the masterpieces since man of have them had been hanging in the Paris home of his father Paul Rosenberg

    1967: “You’re A Good Man Charlie Brown” premiered off-Broadway today with Bob Balaban as Linus.

    1967: Alice B. Tolkas passed away. Born Jewish in 1877, the San Francisco she gained fame as confidante, lover, cook, secretary, muse, editor, critic, and general organizer for another famous Jewess, Gertrude Stein.  Before her death, Tolkas converted to Roman Catholicism. 

    1969: The Central committee of the Labor Party voted to nominate Golda Meir as Prime Minister.

    1970: In Westminster, London, George Weisz, an inventor from Hungary and Edith Ruth (née Teich), a teacher-turned-psychotherapist from Vienna, Austria Rachel Hannah Craig (née Weisz) who gained fame as British actress Rachel Weisz.

    1971: Birthdate of British-born Academy Award winning actress Rachel Weisz.  Her father was a Hungarian Jewish inventor who fled to England to escape the Nazis.  Her mother is described as Catholic with Jewish ancestry. Weisz has appeared in films with Keanu Reeves and Hugh Grant.

    1971:  Egypt refused to renew the Suez ceasefire during an outbreak violence that presaged the Yom Kippur War of 1973.

    1973: U.S. premiere of “The Long Goodbye” starring Elliot Gould and featuring Mark Rydell and Warren Berlinger.

    1975(24th of Adar, 5735): Canadian born comedian Ben Blue passed away at the age of 73.  Blue never achieved the fame of some his contemporaries like George Burns or Milton Berle.  But he was good enough to have his own life variety show in the early days of television.

    1977:  Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin met President Carter.  Most people remember Rabin as the Prime Minister of Peace from the 1990's.  But Rabin was first Prime Minister back in the 1970's.  It was at this time that he and the Labor Party were rocked by a scandal dating from Rabin's days as Israel's Ambassador to the United States.  The scandal drove him from power.   It resulted in the rise to power of Likud and the election of Menachem Begin as Prime Minister.  In other words, Rabin's financial indiscretions ended Labor's control of the Israeli government which dated back to the founding of the state in 1948 and changed the political landscape of Israel.

     1978: The Jerusalem Post reported that the representatives of the Ministry of Finance and the Histadrut met to discuss the current wave of strikes which for more than seven weeks paralyzed the merchant marine, disrupted El Al flights and TV, radio and other communications.

    1978: The Jerusalem Post reported that In Iran the shah warned that he might impose an oil embargo on Israel to make it more flexible in negotiations with Egypt.

    1985(14thof Purim, 5745): Purim

    1986: Divers from the USS Preserver locate the crew cabin of Challenger on the ocean floor. The crew included Judith Resnik, the first Jewish American astronaut and the first Jewish woman to go into space.

    1986(26th of Adar I, 5746): Former Senator from New York, Jacob K Javits passed away in Palm Beach FL at the age of 81.  Javits was a political anomaly for his time.  At a time when most Jews were Democrats, he was a Republican.  True, he was part of the liberal wing of the Republican Party, but he was a Republican nonetheless.  Javits was a champion of Civil Rights and stood against the right wing tide that swept his party in the 1960's.  A lot of Jews were critical of Javits for supporting President Eisenhower in 1956.  Ike and his Republican Administration sided with Egypt during the Suez Crisis and threatened Israelwith crippling economic sanctions unless she bowed to the will of the Americans.

    1987: In his “Jerusalem Journal,’ Francis X. Clines described the newly Ophel Garden which is “a magnificent ascending honeycomb of history at the southern foot of the Temple Mount that allows passing mortals to meander across 3,000 years of history, from the First Temple time of Solomon in the 10th century B.C. to the Ottoman extravagances of the Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, 2,500 years later.”

    1993(14thof Adar, 5753): Purim observed for the first time under President Bill Clinton.

    1996: The Third Way was formed today “towards the end of the thirteenth Knesset's term when two MKs, Avigdor Kahalani and Emanuel Zisman, broke away from the Labour Party.”

    1996: MK Efraim Gur left Likud.

    1997(28th of Adar I, 5757):  Rabbi Emanuel H. Bronner passed away.  Born in 1908, Emanuel H. Bronnerwas the eccentric maker of Dr. Bronner's castile soap, a concentrated liquid notable for the vast amount of lather produced from a few drops and the vast amount of tiny text on its packaging. Although his parents were killed in the Holocaust, Rabbi Bronner believed in the goodness and unity of humanity. He was born in Heilbronn, Germany to the Heilbronner family of soap makers. He emigrated to the United States in 1929, dropping "Heil" from his name to protest the rise of Hitler. He pleaded with his parents to emigrate with him for fear of the Nazis, but they refused. His last contact with his parents was in the form of a postcard saying, "You were right. —Your loving father." He started his business making products by hand in his home. The product labels were crowded with statements of Bronner's philosophy, which he called "All-One-God-Faith" and the "Moral ABCs". Many of Bronner's references came from Jewish and Christian sources, such as the Shema and the Beatitudes; others from poets such as Rudyard Kipling. Sometimes they contained unusual product statements, for example suggesting a contraceptive use for the soap. They became famous for their idiosyncratic style, including hyphens to join long strings of words and the liberal use of exclamation marks. In 1947, while promoting his "Moral ABC's" at the University of Chicago, Bronner was arrested and committed to a mental hospital from which he escaped. Eventually his operation grew into a small factory in Escondido, California. At his death in 1997, it produced over a million bottles of soap and other products a year but was still not mechanized. The firm did no advertising but has been the subject of many published articles. It supported many charitable causes. After Bronner's death, his family continued the business. They have said the labels he wrote will not change except when required by government regulations.

    1999(19th of Adar, 5759):  Sidney Gottlieb passed away.Born in 1918, Sidney Gottlieb was an American chemist probably best-known for his involvement with the Central Intelligence Agency mind control program (MKULTRA). Sidney was born in the Bronx under the name Joseph Schneider. He received a Ph.D. in chemistry from the California Institute of Technology. Despite the fact that he was a stutterer since childhood, Sidney got a master's degree in speech therapy. He also had a club foot, but this did not stop him from practicing folk dancing, a lifelong passion. In 1951, Sidney Gottlieb joined the Central Intelligence Agency. As a poison expert, he headed the chemical division of the Technical Services Staff (TSS). Sidney became known as the "Black Sorcerer" and the "Dirty Trickster". He supervised preparations of lethal poisons and experiments in mind control.

    1999(19th of Adar, 5759): Movie director Stanley Kubrick passed away at the age of 70.  Some of his more memorable films included “Spartacus,” “2001-A Space Odyssey” and “Dr. Strangelove.”

    1999: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or special interest to Jewish readers including The Times of My Life: And My Life With The Times by Max Frankel, A Return to Modesty: Discovering the Lost Virtue by Wendy Shalit, Hirschfeld On Line by Al Hirschfeld and P.S.: The Autobiography of Paul Simon by Paul Simon

    2000:Second showing of ‘The Life of the Jews in Palestine'' at the Museum of Modern Art.

    2001: Gesher pulled out of the coalition as a result of Ehud Barak’s participation in the Camp David Summit.

    2001: Shlomo Ben Ami completed his service as Israel’s Foreign Minister.

    2001: Binyamin Be-Eliezer replaced Ehud Barak as Defense Minister.

    2001:Dalia Rabin-Pelossof replaced Efraim Sneah as Deputy Minister of Defense.

    2001: Shimon Peres begins serving as Israel’s Foreign Minister.

    2001:  Reuven Rivlin replaced Binyamin Ben-Eliezer as Communications Minister.

    2001: Asher Ohana replaced Yossi Beilin as Minister of Religion

    2001: Avigdor Lieberman replaced Avraham Shochat as the National Infrastructure Minister

    2001: Natan Sharansky began serving as Minister of Housing and Construction.

    2001: Uzi Landau replaced Shlomo Ben-Ami as Minister of Public Security.

    2001: Gideon Ezra began serving as Deputy Minister of Public Security

    2001: President Bush met with 25 leaders from the Jewish community in the White House Roosevelt Room.

    2002: Fifteen people were injured in the hotel lobby bombing at Ariel for which the PFLP terrorists took credit.

    2004: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of interest to Jewish readers including The Prisoner of Vandam Street by Kinky Friedman and the recently released paperback edition of Trains of Thought: From Paris to Omaha Beach: Memories of a Wartime Youth, by Victor Brombert in which the renowned literary scholar recalls his bourgeois Jewish childhood in Europe and his stateless youth: his parents escaped from France to the United States in 1941, and after joining the Army he returned to Europe to fight in the Normandy campaign and the Battle of the Bulge.

    2004(14th of Adar, 5764): Purim

    2005:After considering Hiram Bingham's deeds during the war years in Marseille for a number years, Israel's memorial Yad Vashem ("Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority") issued the Bingham family a letter of appreciation

    2006: The Jerusalem Post reported that Saudi Arabia has continued to participate in the boycott against Israeli goods in violation of promises the Saudis had made to the United States and the international economic community.

    2006: The Cedar Rapids Gazette announced that it would no longer carry the column by Mitch Albom because he was not reliable.  Apparently the Gazette could tolerate his fictional columns, just not the fact that he could not be trusted to get his work to the paper once a week as promised.

    2007: The Ministry for the Development of the Negev and Galilee decided to move the national archive of Israel from Jerusalem to Arad,

    2007: At the Skirball Cultural Center, a screening of Black Book a film about “a beautiful chanteuse (Carice van Houten) joins the Dutch resistance in 1944 to track down the Nazis who killed her family and becomes embroiled in a web of seduction, betrayal, and revenge.

    2007: The Israel Air Force began incorporating the new "Shoval" drone, which according to the Israel Defense Forces has an improved ability to identify the launch of projectile rockets such as Katyushas and Qassams.The army said the drones will also be able to provide better assistance to troops on the ground. Shoval is the IAF nickname for the "Mahatz" drone manufactured by the Israel Aircraft Industries.

    2007: An exhibition entitled “Superheroes and Schlemiels: Jewish Memory in Comic Strip Art” opens at the Jewish Historical Museum in Amsterdam. “Superman, Maus, The Rabbi’s Cat and many other heroes and anti-heroes from the art of comics feature in this exhibition of comics and graphic novels by Jewish artists. Leading comic artists present their vision of a Jewish past in original drawings, printed matter and film material. The artists include Will Eisner, Joe Kubert, Ben Katchor and Rutu Modan. The exhibition, with comics from 1910 to the present day, is a co-production by the JHM and the Musée d’art et d’histoire du Judaïsme in Paris.”

    2007(17thof Adar, 5767): Eighty-year old journalist and novelist Charles Einstein, the author of The Bloody Spur passed away today in Michigan City, Indiana.

    2008(30 Adar I, 5768: Rosh Chodesh Adar II

    2008 (30 Adar I, 5768): The eight victims of the attack on Mercaz Harav yeshiva in Jerusalem were buried this afternoon, each with Torah scrolls stained with their blood, in accordance with the Halakhic decision ruled by former Chief Rabbi Mordechai Eliyahu. The victims included American student Avraham David Moses, aged 16, Doron Maharata, 26 the oldest of those killed whose family immigrated to Israel as part of Operation Moses when he was eight years old,Yochai Lipschitz, 18, of Jerusalem; Yonatan Yitzchak Eldar, 16, of Shiloh; Yonadav Chaim Hirschfeld, 19, of Kochav Hashahar; Neriah Cohen, 15, of Jerusalem; Roey Roth, 18, of Elkana; and Segev Pniel Avihayil, 15, of Neveh Daniel

    2008: Roland E. Arnall completed his term as U.S. Ambassador to the Netherlands.

    2008: “The Other Boleyn Girl” starring Natalie Portman premiered in the United Kingdom

    2008: Today a state historical marker was erected by the Georgia Historical Society, the Jewish American Society for Historic Preservation, and Temple Kol Emeth, near the building at 1200 Roswell Road, Marietta where Leo Frank was lynched.  The memorial reads:

    Near this location on August 17, 1915, Leo M. Frank, the Jewish superintendent of the National Pencil Company in Atlanta, was lynched for the murder of thirteen-year-old Mary Phagan, a factory employee. A highly controversial trial fueled by societal tensions and anti-Semitism resulted in a guilty verdict in 1913. After Governor John M. Slaton commuted his sentence from death to life in prison, Frank was kidnapped from the state prison in Milledgeville and taken to Phagan's hometown of Marietta where he was hanged before a local crowd. Without addressing guilt or innocence, and in recognition of the state's failure to either protect Frank or bring his killers to justice, he was granted a posthumous pardon in 1986.

    2009: In “The Perfect Hamantaschen” published today Deborah Gardner attempts to settle the dispute between those who prefer prune and those who munch on “mun.”
    2009:Journalist David Plotz, the editor of Slate, discusses and signs Good Book: The Bizarre, Hilarious, Disturbing, Marvelous, and Inspiring Things I Learned When I Read Every Single Word of the Bible at Politics and Prose Bookstore, 202-364-1919.
    2009:Israeli illustrator and artist David Polonsky discusses and signs his new graphic novel, Waltz with Bashir: A Lebanon War Story (created with Ari Folman, whose animated film of the same name inspired the book), at Busboys and Poets (D.C.)

    2009: Shabbat Zachor 5769

    2009: With demonstrators clashing with the police outside a near-empty stadium, Sweden won a doubles match to take a 2-1 lead against Israel in the Davis Cup series in Malmo, Sweden

    2009:In case involving Dead Sea Scrolls scholars, The Chicago Tribune reported thatNew York City authorities this week charged the son of University of Chicago professor Norman Golb with identity theft, criminal impersonation and harassment in connection with a campaign to smear opponents of his father's scholarly theories

    2010: The Jewish Women's Archive’s tour of Santa Fe is scheduled to come to an end today.

    2010: “The Splendor of the House of Camondo: From Constatinople to Paris, 1806-1845” which opened at the Museum of Jewish Art and History in Paris on November 6, 2009 is scheduled to close today.

    2010: The 121st annual convention of the Central Conference of American Rabbis opened in San Francisco.

    2010:The Twentieth Annual KOACH Kallah is scheduled to come to an end.KOACH is the college program of The United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism.

    2010: After a year-and-a-half of careful restoration work by the Egyptian authorities, the Maimonides Synagogue in Cairo is scheduled to be rededicated today.

    2010: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readings including The Ask by Michael Lipstye

    2010(21 Adar, 5770): Ninety-seven year old  Arnold Forster, an American Jewish leader, lawyer and writer who was a longtime executive of the Anti-Defamation League of B’nai B’rith, passed away today in the Bronx at the Hebrew Home for the Aged in Riverdale. 

    2011: Israeli choreographer Michal Samama is scheduled to perform ‘Still Life with Seven Stones’ in New York City.

    2011:Israeli violinist Misha Keylin, Seymour Lipkin and the Jupiter musicians are scheduled to perform at the Good Shepherd Church in New York City.

    2011: On the day before Mardi Gras, Jews in the Crescent City have the opportunity to participate in Breakfast with Maimonides during which Rabbi Zelig Rivkin is scheduled to lead a study of the writings of the Rambam

    2011: (1 Adar II 5771): Rosh Chodesh Adar II

    2011: (1 Adar II 5771) Yahrzeit for the passengers killed on Egged Bus #53 8 years ago in Tel Aviv:

    ·         Kmer Abu Khamed, 12, from Daliyat al Karmel

    ·         Yuval Mendelevitch, 13, from Haifa

    ·         Smadar Firstatter, 17, from Haifa

    ·         Avigail Lietel, 14, from Haifa

    ·         Asaf Tzur, 16, from Haifa

    ·         Daniel Harush, 16 , from Safed

    ·         Tom Hershko, 16, from Haifa, and his father-

    ·         Motti Hershko, 41, from Haifa

    ·         Tal Kehrmann, 17, from Haifa

    ·         Elizabeth (Liz) Katzman, 17, from Haifa

    ·         Meital Katav, 20, from Haifa

    ·         Moran Shushan, 20, from Haifa

    ·         Anatoly Biryakov, 20, from Haifa

    ·         Be'eri Ovad, 21 , from Rosh Pina

    ·         Eliyahu Laham, 22, from Haifa

    ·         Miriam Atar, 27, from Haifa

    ·         Mark Takash, 54, from Haifa

    2011:Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu's government has ordered the state to demolish all illegal West Bank outposts built on private Palestinian land by the end of 2011, Cabinet Secretary Zvi Hauser announced today.

    2011: Publication of “Jewish Texts Lost in War Are Surfacing in New York”

    2012:Nicholas Winton: The Power of Good” is scheduled to be shown at the Pittsburgh Jewish Film Festival in Pittsburgh, PA.

    2012: The junior faculty at the University of Haifa is scheduled to go on strike as part of “an ongoing dispute with the Committee of University Presidents over work conditions”

    2012: Friends and family of Dr. Ron Reider join together to celebrate his natal day.  Besides being a crack physician, Reider is an avid wrestling fan, a pillar of the Jewish community and a loyal supporter of the Traditional Minyan. In addition to which, he is one of only two people in Cedar Rapids who wraps his tefillin around his right arm.

    2012(13th of Adar, 5772): Fast of Esther

    2012: As part of their Fast of Esther observance, the 9thgraders at Temple Judah have agreed to take part in “Say No To Lashon Hara Day.”  Purim is a holiday that reminds of the evil consequences of the Evil Tongue..  Traditionally, on the day before Purim, we give up food and drink to show our solidarity with Esther. They are going to avoid Lashon Hara, both in its literal and figurative meaning, on the day before Purim to show that modern world would be better off without it just as the Jews of Shushan would have benefited from its absence.

    2012:Education Minister Gideon Saar announced today that Rabbi Chaim Druckman will receive the Israel Price for his contributions to society and education.

    2012: Thirteen Israelis made this year’s list of billionaires which totaled 1,226 people.Idan Ofer, director of Ofer Group, leads the list of Israeli billionaires in the 161st spot, with an estimated fortune of $6.2 billion. Beny Steinmetz of Steinmetz Business Group ranked eight spots bellow Ofer, with a net worth of $5.9 billion. Another Ofer brother, Eyal, came in 173rd on the list, with $5.8 billion.  Iscar founder Stef Wertheimer and his family ranked 255th with some $4.2 billion, while Bank Hapoalim's Shari Arison was placed in the 288th spot with $3.9 billion. Other Israelis included on the list were film producer Arnon Milchan (290th, $3.8 billion); Kazakh-Israeli tycoon Alexander Machkevich (418th, $2.8 billion); Check Point founder Gil Shwed (683, $1.9 billion); Delek Group owner Yitzhak Tshuva (683, $1.9 billion);Lev Leviev (764, $1.7 billion); Marius Nacht (1015, $1.2 billion); Teddy Sagi (1015, $1.2 billion) and Moris Kahn (1153, $1 billion). (As reported by Y Net)

    2013:Center for Jewish History and American Jewish Historical Society are scheduled to present a discussion of the soon-to-be published book FDR and the Jews.

    2013: In Cedar Rapids, the family and friends of Dr. Ronald Reider, a pillar of the Jewish community and an ardent supporter of the Shabbat Minyan, celebrate his natal day.  Dr. Reider is one of two men in Cedar Rapids who uses “left-handed’ tefillin.

    2013(25thof Adar, 5773): Ninety-eight year old Jacques Torczyner, the Belgian born former president of the ZOA passed away today.

    2013:”British Fascism, Anti-Fascism and Jewish Defence,” a one day conference co-sponsored by the Board of Deputies of British Jewish is scheduled to take place at the Wiener Library. 

    2014: JW3 is scheduled to host a “100% Shabbat friendly” Friday Night Supper Club in London.

    2014: The Library of Congress is scheduled to screen “Sukkah City,” Jason Hutt’s documentary that “explores the artistic process of architects and documents how an ancient building was reinvented for the 21st century.”

    2014: In Coralville, Iowa, Agudas Achim is scheduled to host Shabbat Across America.

    2014: Following a congregation spaghetti dinner, the 9th grade class is scheduled to lead Friday night services at Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, Iowa.

    2014: The third bi-annual LimmudFest New Orleans is scheduled to open this evening with registration at Temple Sinai on St. Charles Avenue.

    2014: Nine Ukrainian Jews injured by gunfire during fighting in Kiev were flown to Israel today afternoon to receive crucial medical treatment. (As reported by Yoel Goldman)

    2014: “Israeli jets scrambled to its Northern border with Syria today after Syrian aircraft were spotted in the area.  The Syrians, who were apparently attacking rebel positions, pulled back from the border when they spotted the IAF. (As reported by Times of Israel)

    2015: As Jews in Cedar Rapids come together for the Traditional Shabbat minyan they are bathed in a veritable Upper Mid-West Heat Wave as temperatures go above freezing for the second day in a row.

    2015: The Jewish Community Center of Northern Virginia is scheduled to host a Paint Your Own Passover Pottery party this evening.

    2015: Tom Morton-Smith’s “Oppenheimer” which takes him “from a left-wing academic in Berkeley, California, to a military scientist in Los Alamos, New Mexico, where he headed the top-secret Manhattan Project” is scheduled to be performed for the last time at the Swan Theatre in Stratford-upon-Avon

     2015: At the New Orleans Hyatt Hotel, the Jewish Children’s Regional Service (JCRS), the first and oldest Jewish children’s agency in the United States, will host a 160th anniversary, featuring some of New Orleans finest musical talent, and honoring families who have made programs on behalf of Jewish children a centerpiece of their philanthropy. (Editor’s Note – speaking from personal experience, this is an organization worthy of financial support)





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    March 8

    1126: Alfonso VII is proclaimed king of Castile and Leon, after the death of his mother Urraca. Under the reign of Alfonso Christian Spain “became a refuge for the persecuted Andalusian Jews.  The capital city of Toledo became a new center for Jewish learning.  The major reason for this positive turn of fortune for the Jews was the king’s positive relationship with Yehuda Ibn-Ezra.  After taking the fortress of Calatrava, the king appointed Ibn-Ezra as its commander as a reward for his bravery.  Ibn-Ezra used his influence to create a refuge for the Jews who were fleeing Almohades, a religiously fervent Berber Moslem dynasty that had crossed into Spain after successful conquests in parts of North Africa. Those who equate the Golden Age of Spain with Moslem rule would do well to remember that life for the Jews was much more varied than that.

    1255: King Przemysl Ottocar II of Austria renewed the charter granting favorable rights to his Jewish subjects.

    1607: A complaint was filed today by the Inquisition “against Jorge de Almeida, a Portuguese domiciled in the City of Mexico, husband of Dona Lenor de Andrada” who had been convicted of observing Mosaic law” which makes her a Jewess.

    1688: On this night a large group of secret Jews planned to escape from the island of Majorca by booking passage on an English ship. They were looking for religious freedom. A storm delayed their departure, and their plan was betrayed. All those planning to leave were put in prison. In the spring of 1691 these prisoners were sentenced at an auto-de-fe, where 37 were burned at the stake.

    1702: King William II of England passed away today. Antonio Lopez Suasso, later Baron Avernes de Gras had provided financing for William who had been Prince of Orange to take the English throne. In 1700 William knighted Solomon de Medina who had served as an army contractor making him the first Jew to be so honored.

    1731: In Mladá Boleslav, David Brandeis a Jewish shopkeeper who had been accused of poising a local Christian printer with plum jam was released today after the accusation was proven to be untrue.

    1766: In the Netherlands, on the day when Prince William V reached his majority, Jews held services of Thanksgiving as sign of their on-going support for the monarch who was not universally popular.

    1768:In the Netherlands, synagogues held services of thanks-giving on the day that “King William V entered the legislature on the day of his majority.” “Under the government of William V the country was troubled by internal dissensions; the Jews, however, remained loyal to him” and William did not forget the loyalty of his Jewish subjects.

    1773(13thof Adar, 5533): Ta’anit Esther

    1773: In the evening, Rabbi Raphael Hayyim Isaac Caregal attended Purim services at the synagogue in Newport, RI, with Ezra Stiles, the future President of Yale who described him as being "dressed in a red garment with the usual Phylacteries and habiliments, the white silk Surplice; he wore a high fur cap, had a long beard. He has the appearance of an ingenious and sensible man"

    1799(1st of Adar II, 5559): Rosh Chodesh Adar II

    1807: In France, the Great Sanhedrin presented its conclusions at its final session.

    1817:  In New York, the Stockbrokers Guild formerly incorporates itself and becomes the New York Stock Exchange.  Among the founders were several prominent Jewish financiers including Benjamin Seixas, Isaac Gomez, Alexander Zuntz and Ephraim Hart.  Ephraim Hart’s son’ Bernhard, became Secretary of the NYSE.  Bernhard was also the grandfather of writer Bret Harte.

    1817:Joseph Jonas the first Jew to settle in Cincinnati, Ohio arrived in the Queen City today.  He was an English-born peddler who had come from Philadelphia, PA. “He became a successful watchmaker and silversmith and lived on Broadway between Fifth Street and Harrison. Jonas, like most early Jews, settled in downtown Cincinnati. Jonas wrote letters describing the opportunities that existed in the Ohio River valley. This convinced other Jews to join him including two younger brothers. In 1821, when Benjamin Lieb was dying, he begged to be buried as a Jew. He was the first Jew to die in Cincinnati. In response to his request, Joseph Jonas and Morris Moses, two of Cincinnati's six Jews, purchased the lot for Cincinnati's first Jewish cemetery from Nicholas Longworth for $75.00, and then buried Lieb there. This cemetery known as the Old Jewish Community or the Chestnut Street Cemetery is the oldest Jewish cemetery west of the Alleghenies. By 1824 there were enough Jewish residents to fulfill the requirement of ten adult males so that regular religious services could be held, and the first Jewish congregation beyond the Allegheny Mountains was established. This congregation became the Rockdale Temple. Most of the early Jews were British.”

    1825: Birthdate of Salomon Kohn, the son of Prague merchant who traded in his business career in 1873 for the world of literature.

    1830: Birthdate of German Jewish jurist Hermann Makower who was also a leader of the Berlin Jewish community.

    1831: Birthdate of French photographer Félix Bonfils who created one of the first modern photographic records of the Middle East including Palestine including the Wall of the Second Temple.

    1857:Today one of the first real organized actions of women's solidarity took place in New York City when hundreds of women staged a strike against the garment and textile factories in New York City, protesting low wages, long working hours and inhumane working conditions.  This strike, which undoubtedly included Jewish workers took place 54 years before the Triangle Shirt Factory Fire.

    1857: Reverend Charles Harris, "a Christian Jew" is scheduled to preach twice today at the John Street First M.E. Church in New York City. [The Jews for Jesus concept obviously was not a 20th century phenomenon.]

    1860(14thof Adar): As war clouds loom in the United States, celebration of Purim

    1860: Sir Saul Samuel completed his term as 6th Treasurer of New South Wales

    1871(15thof Adar, 5631): Shushan Purim

    1871: The New York Timesreviewed The Recovery of Jerusalem: A Narrative of Exploration in the City and the Holy Landby two legendary British officers, Captains Wilson and Warren, who, among other accomplishments, conducting the first modern mapping of the ancient Jewish capital.

    1871: “The Purim Festival” published today described the history of the holiday as well as local observances including the celebrations at the Asylum for the Aged and Infirm, the Orphans’ Home and the Industrial Home on West 17th Street.

    1872: Four years after Abraham Oppenheim had been enobled, German-Jewish banker Gerson von Bleichröder and his family were made Prussian nobles; making them the second Jewish family to have been so honored.

    1874: “The Prince of Printers” published today traces the history of printing in Italy including the rise of the printers of Soncino who were the first to print texts using Hebrew letters. Although they would set up presses at other locations, they always used the name of their home town which they adopted as their family name.

    1875(1stof Adar II, 5635): Rosh Chodesh Adar II

    1875: It was reported that next week’s Hebrew Charity Ball will include music supplied by two bands and a supper catered by Delmonico’s served at the Academy of Music.

    1877: The Hebrew Lodge, Number 5 of the International order of B’nai Brit is sponsoring a fundraiser at the Steinway Hall tonight to aid those who suffered loss in the recent fire in Brooklyn.  Entertainment will included vocalists and violinists.

    1879: Birthdate of Otto Hahn.In 1944, he won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for discovering the fission of heavy nuclei, which made the atomic bomb possible.

    1879: It was reported today that the Young Men’s Hebrew Association of Harlem are sponsoring a Purim Calico Ball which will be held on the day that coincides with Shushan Purim.

    1879: The Young Men’s Hebrew Association of Manhattan will host its fourth annual Purim celebration at the Lexington Avenue Opera House.

    1881: The town of Seligman, MO, which was named for Joseph Seligman, was incorporated today.

    1887: “In the history of the religious life of the Israelites of” the United States “there was never expressed in the midst of the Jewish people such deep-felt grief and sorrow over the death of a public man as over the death of Henry Ward Beecher” the 73 year old social reformer and abolitionist clergyman who passed away today and was eulogized by Rabbi David Phillipson of Cincinnati.

    1890: “The charity ball of the Hebrew Benevolent Society of Long Island City took place tonight at Ahler’s Astoria Assembly Rooms.

    1891: “Palestine for the Jews” published today described the plan “advocated by prominent men of the leading cities” including such philo-Semites as Yale Professor Charles Toten “to obtain in a peaceable way” the “old homes in Palestine for Jews through… an international conference.”

    1891: “Electric Light In The Holy Land” published today relied on information that first appeared in the Pall Mall Gazette to described the introduction of electric light at a new flour mill located near the Damascus Gate in Jerusalem.

    1891(28th of Adar I, 5651: Seventy year old Benjamin Feuerstein, a clothing cutter, passed away while riding the elevated on his way to a meeting of a Jewish charitable society.

    1891: Birthdate of American film and television actor Sam Jaffee.  His film career included the role of Gunga Din in the movie of the same name and “Doc”, the criminal mastermind in the film noire classic “The Asphalt Jungle.”  His film career came to a halt as a result of the infamous blacklist.  He returned to acting as the wise old Dr.Zorba in the television medical melodrama “Ben Casey.”

    1892: As public health workers in New York cope with the latest outbreak of typhus, 20 year old Sarah Koslofsky who was living in a tenement occupied by 18 Jewish families was taken to the hospital after she was found to suffering with the fever.  Thirteen year old Baruch Stelson who was also found to be suffering from the disease was taken the facility at North Brother Island.

    1894: “Benny” Weiss” saw  Wardman Jeremiah Levy and Charles Krumm shake hands but do not exchange any money.

    1894: “Brooklyn Bridge Trustees” published today described Senator Cantor’s objection “to removing men from office upon charges of dishonesty unless the charges were shown to be true.”

    1894: “Mr. Ainsworth Makes an Apology to the Hebrews” published today described New York Assemblyman Ainsworth’s public recantation of his use of the term “Jew pawnbrokers’ claiming that he spoke hastily during the debate on reforming pawn-brokering “and did not think of my Hebrew brethren on the floor of the house.”

    1895: “Unparalleled” published today, relying on information first appearing in the Cincinnati Tribune described the United as “perfect in a religious way” because it is the only country on earth where “a Hebrew Mayor” could “call for the troops to keep the Catholics and Protestants from getting into a riot.”

    1896: “Rabbi Morais’s Anniversary” published today described plans for the upcoming celebration of Dr. Sabato Morais’s 45thanniversary as the Rabbi of Philadelphia’s Congregation Mikve Israel.

    1897(4th of Adar II, 5657):Frederick C. Salomon passed away.  A native of Prussia where he trained as a surveyor, Salomon moved to Wisconsin where he worked as a surveyor, registrar of deed and chief engineer on a local railroad.  At the outbreak of the Civil War, he joined the Union Army where he served with such distinction that he rose to the rank of Major General (Brevet) by the time he mustered out in 1865.  After the war he served as the Surveyor General of Utah Territory and settled in Salt Lake City where he passed away.

    1897: Maurico Jacobs, a native of Peru who has been living in Cuba for the last 12 years has applied to the United Hebrew Charities for assistance for himself and his family.

    1898(14th of Adar, 5658): Purim

    1898(14th of Adar, 5658): Sixty-eight year old Moses Bruckheimer, a pawnbroker living in Brooklyn passed away today. He was active in the Jewish community serving as trustee of Temple Beth Elohim and the Hebrew Orphan Asylum.

    1899: At the annual diplomatic dinner given by the Emperor of Germany Today, the Kaiser looked “robust,” having “fully recovered from the effects of his Palestine” trip where he sought to strengthen the German role in the Ottoman Empire.

    1899: In Albany, State Senator Elsberg introduced a bill “authorizing the consolidation of the Education Alliance and the Hebrew Free School Association of New York City.

    1899: At the Bloomingdale Church in Manhattan Dr. Madison C. Peters will deliver a lecture on “Justice to the Jew,” “which is intended to refute popular fallacies and prove that the movements of civilization have hung upon the Jew.”  “Dr. Peters claims that he will show that the Jew is in the front rank as patriot, lawyer, statesman, scientist, philosopher, artist, dramatist, poet, physician, musician, mathematician, astronomer, actor, discoverer, philologist, physiologist – in every department of human activity.”

    1900: Ray Emanuel, the daughter of David and Amelia Emanuel married Joseph Jewell at the Central Synagogue.

    1906: In New York City, Rebecca (née Green) and Dr. Isidore L. Marrow gave birth to Alfred J. Marrow “American industrial psychologist, executive, civil rights leader, and philanthropist.”

    1906: Po’alei Zion was organized underground in Poltava, Russia

    1908: The Federation of Rumanian Jews in America was founded1908(5th of Adar II, 5668): Adolph Meyer, a native of Natchez, Mississippi, who served as a member of the House of Representatives from Louisiana, passed away today.

    1908: Miss Dora Brachman married Louis Ginsberg in Marietta, Ohio where they will make their home.

    1910: Birthdate of Louis “Lulu” Bender, “an all-American basketball player at Columbia whose stellar play during the Depression helped popularize the game and make Madison Square Garden a magnet for college basketball…” (As reported by Vincent M. Mallozzi)

    1911: International Women's Day is launched in Copenhagen, Denmark, by Clara Zetkin, leader of the Women's Office for the Social Democratic Party. Born Clara Eissner, she married a Russian Jewish socialist leader named Ossip Zetkin.

    1912(19th of Adar, 5672): Seventy-six year old Colonel Isaac Hirsch, he former Mayor of Chillicothe, MO, passed away today.

    1912:  The Greek town of Zante was devastated by an earthquake. The Jewish quarter was destroyed, and more than 100 Jewish families are homeless

    1912: Marco Besso of Trieste and Errea Cavalieri of Ferrara were both elected as Senators in Italy.

    1914: Birthdate of Yakov Borisovich Zel'dovich who played a key role in the development of nuclear weapons for the Soviet Union

    1914: Birthdate of Soviet physicist Yakov Borisovich Zel'dovich.

    1914: Mrs. Simon Baruch hosted a party at her home today for twenty-one Italian children from the Bronx as part of an attempt to combat anarchist propaganda and to the immigrant a children a sense of American history and patriotism.  Mrs. Baruch is the wife of Dr. Simon Baruch.  They are the parents of Bernard Baruch.

    1915: In Washington, DC, “Count von Bernstorff, the German Ambassador, issued a statement today declaring that tolerance toward all religious beliefs had been displayed by the Turkish Government and that the disturbances of which he Jews in Palestine were victims were caused by the overzealousness of local Turkish authorities.

    1918: The first issue of Di varhayt (The Truth), the first Yiddish communist paper in the world, was published today. Di varhayt was published in Petrograd, Russia by the People's Commissariat for Jewish Affairs. It was closed down after a brief existence, as the People's Commissariat was shifted to the new capital Moscow and the lack of Yiddish journalists in Petrograd. The paper was later re-started as Der Emes.

    1918: Ukrainian mobs massacred the Jews of Seredino Buda

    1918: Jews of Gloucher were massacred by Ukrainians.  At this point in Russian history, the empire was in chaos.  The Czar had been deposed.  Kerensky and his Social Democrats were trying to rule the country.  The Bolsheviks under Lenin and Trotsky were plotting to replace the Provisional Government.  In the meantime, the Ukrainians continued their tradition of anti-Semitism and killing Jews whenever they had the chance.

    1918: The Government of Greece decides to exempt Jewish Ottoman subjects living in Greece from regulations prohibiting commercial transactions with subjects of enemy states.

    1919: Representative Julius Kahn, Republican congressman from California expressed his opposition to Zionism. He said “that the Zionist Congress which was recently held in Philadelphia had asserted that it represented 150,000 out of approximately 3,000,000 American Jews. These figures would seem to indicate that the so-called Zionist number only a small minority” of American Jewry. “The reason I am opposed to a Jewish state is that experience has shown that the Jew becomes a good patriotic citizen of any country giving him full citizenship and civil and religious liberty….I am afraid that many avowed Zionists are also internationalists.  I am not.  I believe that we in America should stand for this country and its institutions against all the world.  In fact, I believe that as nationalist we make of our religion a secondary matter.  Our country comes first.  Our Judaism is simply our religious faith.”   

    1920: During a series of Arab protest demonstrations “led to several Arab attacks on Jewish passers-by and shop owners.  The British authorities were alarmed at the violent tone of the Arab protests, in which calls to kill the Jews were heard alongside the popular slogan ‘Palestine is our land and the Jews are our dogs.’”

    1921: In Paris, Marguerite and Paul Rosenberg, “a key figure in the Parisian art world in the first half of the century” gave birth to “Alexandre P. Rosenberg, founding president of the Art Dealers Association of America and for many years a prominent art dealer in New York.” (As reported by John Russell)

    1927: Birthdate of Dick Hyman, composer and conductor.

    1929: Financier Paul Warburg warned that the wild speculation gripping the stock market could lead to disaster. [Bernard Baruch was another Jewish financier who expressed the same concern.]

    1935: U.S. premiere of “Roberta” produced by Pandro S. Bermon with music by Jerome Kern and conducted by Max Steiner.

    1936(14thof Adar, 5696): Purim

    1937: Helmut Hirsch, a Jewish architectural student originally from Stuttgart was sentenced to death today for his role in the attempted murder of Julius Streicher.

    1937: The New York Times reported on acts of human kindness and brotherhood during the ongoing wave of terrorism in Palestine.  “During recent disturbances a Jewish chauffeur took the son of an Arab who was killed to a hospital and an Arab driver rescued on the Jews hurt by stone-throwing.”

    1938: The Jewish Theological Seminary of America observed the twenty-fifth anniversary of Dr. Joseph H. Hertz as Chief Rabbi of the United Hebrew Congregations of the British Empire in a broadcast from Radio Station WHN. Dr. Hertz was the first graduate of the seminary.

    1941: In a prelude to her famous diary, Esther "Etty" Hillesum wrote a letter addressed to Julius Spier in an exercise book. These would provide a picture of life in Amsterdam under Nazi occupation.

    1943(1stof Adar, 5703): Rosh Chodesh Adar II

    1943: Greek Jews of Salonika were transported to Nazi extermination camps.

    1943: The Sokolovo Czech battalion battled the Germans for three days. Of the 1,000 Czech soldiers, 600 are Jews.

    1944: In the Warsaw Ghetto 37 Jews are given away in their hiding places.  Emanuel Ringelblum, noted historian and author of a detailed chronicle of the plight of the Warsaw Jews is one of the group that is captured.  Ringelblum was tortured for three days during which he revealed nothing about his fellow Jews in hiding. A few days later Ringelblum aged 43, his wife, and 13 year old son Uri were executed. (Some sites show this as having happened on March 7.  The fog of war and change of time zones can play havoc with precision dating sometimes)

    1944: In France, "in the morning there is a knock on the door at the apartment of Hélène Berr's family." Her parents Raymond and Antoinette will die later that year in Auschwitz.  Helene will survive until 1945 when she will die at Bergen Belsen where she was beaten to death five days before the camp was liberated by the British.

    1945(23rd of Adar, 5705): Katherine Garfield the only daughter of actor John Garfield and Roberta Seiman who had been born in 1938 passed away today after contracting a case of strep throat while on a USO tour with her father.

    1947: The Committee organizing the second International Music Festival to be held in Prague has invited Leonard Bernstein to conduct the Czech Philharmonic Orchestra when it performs in May of this year.

    1947: The refugee-filled SS Ben Hecht also called the Abril is intercepted by British ships off the coast of Palestine.

    1947: Dr. Ludwig Fischer was executed for his role in the liquidation of the Warsaw Ghetto

    1947: Jewish terrorists defy British Martial law by launching a series of attacks in Tel Aviv tonight that injure 17 people, including 15 Jews, one British constable and one Arab constable.

    1948: Birthdate of Yaakov Zvi, the London native we know as Jonathan Henry Sacks, the Chief Rabbi of the United Hebrew Congregations of the Commonwealth and one of the most influential Jewish leaders of his time.

    1948:The U.S.Supreme Court ruled that religious instruction in public schools was unconstitutional.

    1949: During Operation Uvda, as the defending Jordanian forces withdrew, the Golani forces took Ein Ghamr.

    1949: During the day the IDF moved towards Umm Rashrash through the Valley of the Fingers which in the evening the Alexandroni Brigade set sail from Sodom on the Dead Sea with the intent of seizing Ein Gedi.

    1949: Following elections, David Ben-Gurion formed the first government of Israel.  In what would prove to be the curse of the Israeli political system, it was a coalition government led by Mapai but including two other smaller parties.  Ben-Gurion served both as Prime Minister and Defense Minister. Future Prime Minister Golda Meir served as the Minister of Labor and Social Security.

    1949: "In a Knesset session in Tel Aviv...Eliahu Eliashar, a parliamentary representative of the Sephardi Jews, spoke on behalf of the Jews from Muslim lands."

    1950: An overflow crowd of one thousand mourners filled New York’s Park West Memorial Chapel and spilled out into the street at the funeral services for Daniel Frisch, the president of the Zionist Organization of America.  Rabbi Bernard Bergman officiated at the service and he was assisted by Cantor Robert Segal.  Numerous tributes were paid to Frisch for his support of Jewish causes and Zionism by several famous dignitaries include Eliahu Elath, Israel’s Ambassador to the United States, Louis Lips, chairman of the American Zionist council and Dr. Nahum Goldmann, chairman of the American section of the Jewish Agency for Palestine.  Following the service, Mr. Frisch’s body will be taken to Indianapolis for burial.

    1950: Judge Morris Rothenberg, National Chairman of the United Palestine Appeal, issued a report today that funds raised by American Jews “had made possible” the establishment” of 3,000 small businesses for the rehabilitation and resettlement of invalid immigrants in Israel at a cost of five million dollars.”

    1951: The International Table Tennis Federation banned Egypt for refusing to play Israel.  You have to give some points to the ping pong players.  They were one of the few international organizations that has not knuckled under to the Arabs and their supporters.

    1951: In London, the original West End production of “Kiss Me, Kate” a musical with the book by Samuel and Bella Spewack opened today.

    1951: Release date for “Royal Wedding” the Alan Jay Lerner musical comedy directed by Stanley Donen.

    1951: Release date for “Lemon Drop Kid,” a comedy directed by Sidney Lanfield, featuring Sid Melton as “Little Louie” and Ben Welden as “Singing Solly.”

    1952: Birthdate of former U.S. Senator George Allen.  According to Jewish law, Allen is Jewish since his mother was Jewish. This information surfaced during Allen’s campaign for re-election in 2006. He did not find out that his mother was Jewish until sometime after he became an adult.  His mother had lived in Tunisiaduring World War II and seen her father hauled off by the authorities.  She did not want her children to know about their Jewish heritage because she saw being Jewish as threat to their physical well-being.  If it could happen in Tunisia, she reasoned, it could happen again, even in the United States,

    1955(14th of Adar, 5715): Purim
    1957:  Egypt reopened the Suez Canal to minor shipping after the withdrawal of Israeli troops from the Sinai Peninsula. This was the last chapter in the Suez Crisis of 1956.  Unfortunately the United Nations did not honor its guarantees to Israeland the result was the Six Days War of 1967

    1957(5th of Adar II, 5717):A shepherd from kibbutz Beit Guvrin was killed by terrorists in a field near the kibbutz.

    1959: George Lincoln Rockwell founded the American Nazi Party

    1961:  Birthdate of actress Camryn Manheim.  She has appeared in such movies as “Bonfire of the Vanities” and television programs as “The Practice.”  In 1999 she published her autobiography entitled Wake Up, I'm Fat!

    1965:The Knesset passed the “Broadcasting Authority Law” which is the basis for the Israeli Broadcasting Authority’s operations. The Israeli Broadcasting Authority (IBA) was formed as an independent corporation responsible for all broadcasts in Israel and to the Diaspora. Until 1965, Kol Israel operated under the Office of the Prime Minister.

    1969:During “The War of Attrition” a massive artillery barrage marked the start of the Egyptian campaign to destroy the Bar Lev Line.  The plan was under the direct supervision of General Abdul Munim Riad, the chief of Staff of the Egyptian Armed Forces.

    1970: Attorney Robert Shapiro, part of the O.J. Simpson “dream team” and a co-founder of LegalZoom married Linell Thomas today.

    1971: William Davidon, a Jewish physics professor at Haverford College led “a group of anti-war activists” who “broke into a small FBI satellite office in the town of Media,” Pennsylvania.

    1971: Dorothy Fields was inducted into the Songwriters' Hall of Fame. She was the only woman in the first class of inductees. Two of her songs that are still played today are"I Can't Give You Anything But Love, Baby" and "On the Sunny Side of the Street."The song "The Way You Look Tonight" an Academy Award for "Best Song" in 1936

    1977: First International Women’s Day as proclaimed by the United Nations.

    1993(15th of Adar, 5753): Uri Magidish was stabbed to death by two Palestinians while working in a hothouse at Gan Or.

    1998: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or special interest to Jewish readers including The Picasso Papers by Rosalind Krauss, Mahler by Jonathan Carr and Conversations With Joseph Brodsky: A Poet's Journey Through the Twentieth Century
    by Solomon Volkov.

    2006: French born, American-Jewish businessman Roland Arnall begins serving as United States Ambassador to the Netherlands.

    2006: Zubin Mehta, conductor of the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra, is honored as a Dan David Laureate the annual awards ceremony at the Opera Garnier in Paris.  The Dan David Prize annually awards 3 prizes of US$ 1 million each for achievements having an outstanding scientific, technological, cultural or social impact on our world.

    2006(8th of Adar, 5766): Sixty-nine year old George Sassoon, the muti-talented son of poet Siegfried Sassoon passed away today.

    2007: Haaretzreports the 2006 war in Lebanon triggered a baby boom. According to health maintenance organization statistics show that the number of women now in their fifth, sixth or seventh month of pregnancy was 35 percent higher than the figure a year ago.

    2008: A scaled down London revival Jerry Herman’s and Harvey Fierstein’s “La Cage aux Folles” came to a close at the Menier Chocolate Factory

    2008: Rosh Chodesh Adar II, 5768, First Day of Adar II

    2008: Shabbat Shekalim, 5768

    2008: (1 Adar II 5763) Yahrzeit for the passengers killed on Egged Bus #53 five years ago in Tel Aviv:

    ·         Kmer Abu Khamed, 12, from Daliyat al Karmel

    ·         Yuval Mendelevitch, 13, from Haifa

    ·         Smadar Firstatter, 17, from Haifa

    ·         Avigail Lietel, 14, from Haifa

    ·         Asaf Tzur, 16, from Haifa

    ·         Daniel Harush, 16 , from Safed

    ·         Tom Hershko, 16, from Haifa, and his father-

    ·         Motti Hershko, 41, from Haifa

    ·         Tal Kehrmann, 17, from Haifa

    ·         Elizabeth (Liz) Katzman, 17, from Haifa

    ·         Meital Katav, 20, from Haifa

    ·         Moran Shushan, 20, from Haifa

    ·         Anatoly Biryakov, 20, from Haifa

    ·         Be'eri Ovad, 21 , from Rosh Pina

    ·         Eliyahu Laham, 22, from Haifa

    ·         Miriam Atar, 27, from Haifa

    ·         Mark Takash, 54, from Haifa

    2009: In Chicago final performances of two plays by Lillian Hellman – “The Little Foxes” and “Scoundrel Time.”

    2009: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Pictures at an Exhibition by Sara Houghteling, The Kindly Ones by Jonathan Littell, The Believers by Zoe Heller and the recently published paperback edition of The Forger by Cioma Schönhaus.

    2009: In its on-line edition The Washington Postfeatured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Believers by Zoe Heller and Hunting Eichmann:How a Band of Survivors And a Young Spy Agency Chased Down The World's Most Notorious Nazi by Neal Bascomb.

    2009:Military Intelligence chief Amos Yadlin said today at the weekly cabinet meeting that "Iran has crossed the technological threshold" in its quest for nuclear arms.

    2009: In “They Lived in our midst: Area was haven for Nazi-era figures,” published today, Ron Grossman reports on Nazis who moved to Chicago after World War II.,0,758025,print.story

    2009:Israel advanced to the Davis Cup quarterfinals for the first time since 1987 after rallying to beat seven-time champion Sweden 3-2 today in a close series overshadowed by political protests. Harel Levy beat Andreas Vinciguerra 6-4, 4-6, 6-4, 3-6, 8-6 to decide the World Group first-round series in a near-empty arena in Malmo.Only about 300 special invitees were allowed to watch the match because city officials said they couldn't guarantee security at the venue. Critics, including the Israeli team, said Malmo was caving in to threats of violence from anti-Israel groups.

    2009: In “Even Among Venerable Texts, a Torah Like No Other,” published today Sophia Hollander describes the discovery of an 800 year-old Torah and the unique career of Yitzchok Reisman who is both a rabbi and a sofer.

    The weathered brown parchment with its frayed edges and inked Hebrew letters seemed beautiful but unremarkable. Itzhak Winer, a 34-year-old Torah scribe turned Judaica seller, considered the item a nice find, but just one of the 30 or more Torahs he buys and sells in a year. From his Jerusalem dealer, he learned that the Torah had been owned by a family in Morocco and was in excellent condition. “He knew that it’s old, but he didn’t really know — and neither did I — how special it was,” said Mr. Winer, who works out of his home in Willowbrook, Staten Island.  Curious about the item’s origins, Mr. Winer took it to a Lower East Side rabbi named Yitzchok Reisman, an expert in identifying antique Torahs, the scrolls containing the first five books of the Hebrew Scriptures. Rabbi Reisman, born in 1938 in Flatbush, Brooklyn, found himself drawn as a teenager to the scribes who congregated on the Lower East Side. They shared their craft with him, passing down stories and lore of ancient scrolls. Rabbi Reisman also became attracted to the buying and selling of Torahs. “There were 400 congregations that were declining, closing up and selling off the Torahs and the assets,” he said. As Torahs from the Lower East Side migrated to the suburbs and across the continent, the sellers, he saw, “helped transfer the Torah scrolls on to the rest of America.” Today, Rabbi Reisman restores Torahs using handmade ink and carved turkey feathers at his workshop on Grand Street. Heaps of wooden rollers and antique furniture obscure treasures like the gleaming copper case of a 300-year-old Yemenite Torah and an elaborately woven Torah cover from Iraq. Rabbi Reisman quickly realized that Mr. Winer’s Torah was unique. The materials and calligraphic style identified it as Spanish, which meant that it was written before 1492, when the Jews were expelled from Spain. In addition, the strong swirls on the top of certain letters matched the style favored in Kabbalah, the Jewish mystical movement.  “There are very, very few manuscripts and pieces of manuscripts that are older than the 1400s,” Rabbi Reisman said on a recent day in his ramshackle office as Mr. Winer looked on. And the kabbalistic flourishes, the rabbi added, make it “the only Spanish Torah known done in that way.”
    These special markings are “like thorns that appear in certain letters that only show up in a small window of time,” Rabbi Reisman said. “No!” Mr. Winer interrupted. “A few hundred years.” “That’s a small window,” Rabbi Reisman retorted. As they bickered gently over nearly every detail, the two men also said that their research suggested that the Torah was created between 1272 and 1302, and that it could be connected to a famous Spanish scribe, Shem-Tob ben Abraham ibn Gaon. But they did seem to agree on who should get the Torah. “We’re hoping to get somebody or some community or some organization that wants to preserve the Spanish kabalistic tradition,” Mr. Winer said, “and it’s important to them to give it the

    2010:CJH, LBI and YIVO are scheduled to present “Czernowitz in Jewish Memory” during which a panel of historians and writers, including Marianne Hirsch and Leo Spitzer, the authors of a new volume entitled Ghosts of Home: The Afterlife of Czernowitz in Jewish Memory, will discuss and debate the reconciliation of the two different memories of Czernowtiz within the broader history of Jewish emancipation, assimilation and resistance in Eastern Europe.

    2010(22ndof Adar, 5770: David Kimche, reputed Israeli spymaster and diplomat passed away.  A native of London who made Aliyah in 1936 he fought in the War of Independence before attending the Sorbonne and Hebrew University.

    2010: Ronald Florence is scheduled to discuss Emissary Of The Doomed: Bargaining For Lives In The Holocaust his new book on the fate of Hungary’s Jews during World War II at noon today in the James Madison Building of the Library of Congress.

    2010:Vice President Joseph R. Biden Jr. began a five-day visit to the Middle East today, part of a concerted American effort to restart Israeli-Palestinian peace talks and keep Israel focused on relying on sanctions against Iran’s nuclear program rather than on unilateral military action.

    2010: George J. Mitchell, the administration’s Middle East envoy, announced today in Jerusalem that Israel and the Palestinians had agreed to start indirect negotiations and that he would be back next week to continue structuring those talks.

    2010:The Women’s International Zionist Organization (WIZO) hosted a ceremony at the Tel Aviv Opera Housed during which it presented mock awards for what the nonprofit organization has termed the “most sexist advertisements” of the year.

    2011:At the Crowden Music Center, in Berkley, CA, violinist Noah Bendix-Balgley is scheduled to perform the “rarely heard works from the St. Petersburg Society for Jewish Folk Music, a turn-of-the-century movement that brought Jewish folk music into European classical form” during the Jewish Music Festival.

    2011:The Center for Jewish History is scheduled to host a panel discussion entitled “The Rebbe, Charismatic Leadership and the American Spiritual Landscape.”

    2011: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Moonwalking With Einstein:The Art and Science of Remembering Everything by Joshua Foer

    2011:A recent blast of cold air from Scandinavia coupled with warm Mediterranean Sea influence created torrential rain and thunderstorms today in Israel.  

    2011:A film festival on women and religion is launching today at the Jerusalem Cinematheque.

    The two-day event, the sixth of its kind, is organized by the Mavoi Satum organization, which works for the rights of women who have been refused divorces by their husbands.

    2011:The Hurva Synagogue, which was officially rededicated a year ago, celebrated a milestone today. For the first time since its destruction by the Jordanian Arab Legion in May 1948, the Ashkenazi synagogue in the Old City of Jerusalem’s Jewish Quarter hosted a wedding ceremony as an operational house of worship. Avraham Pashnov and Rachel-Orli Journo were married in the Hurva’s courtyard. During the ceremony, Pashnov said he and his wife are “only a tiny chain link that brings together the past and the future.”

    2011: In an interviewed published today by the Wall Street Journal, Defense Minister Ehud Barak said that Israel was considering asking the United States for an additional $20 billion in aid due to the increased volatility in the Middle East.

    2012(14thof Adar, 5772): Purim

    2012: Under the leadership of Rabbi Pinchas Ciment, Chabad Lubavitch of Arkansas is scheduled to sponsor the Royal Purim Feast With The Stars in Little Rock, AR.

    2012: “Grace Paley: Collected Shorts” is scheduled to be shown at the Farthest North Jewish Film Festival in Fairbanks, Alaska.

    2012: Professors Jerome Copulsky and Alison Peterman are scheduled to lead “Scripture and Spinoza,” a backstage discussion following tonight’s performance of “New Jerusalem: The Interrogation of Baruch De Spinoza.

    2012:A Palestinian stabbed an IDF soldier in the village of Yata in the southern Hebron Hills today.

    2012: Maj.-Gen. Nitzan Alon was appointed head of the Central Command in place of Maj.-Gen. Avi Mizrahi. Alon, who in the past served as commander of the Judea and Samaria Division will officially take up his post on the first day of next week at a ceremony at Central Command headquarters in Jerusalem.

    2012: As Israel struggles with how to keep Iran from going nuclear “Six world powers called on Iran today to let international inspectors visit a military site where the UN nuclear watchdog says development work relevant to nuclear weapons may have taken place

    2013:  Soloists and Ensembles of the Jerusalem Conservatory of Music and Dance are scheduled to perform at the Eden-Tamir Music Center.

    2013:Eva Erben who as a young girl “ was forced by the Nazis to leave her home in Prague and join one of the transports to the Theresienstadt Ghetto” is scheduled to speak at the Wiener Library on “Escape Story: Surviving the Holocaust as a Young Girl.”
    2013: The Maccabeats are scheduled to perform at Beth Jacob Congregation in Beverly Hills, CA.

    2014: Nir Areli’s, “Inframan” in which he created a series of portraits using an infrared technique is scheduled to have its final showing at the Daniel Cooney Gallery.

    2014: In London the Girls in Trouble duo (poet and multi-instrumentalist Alicia Jo Rabins, accompanied by bassist Aaron Hartman) are scheduled to perform songs from their two albums; Girls in Trouble and Half You Half Me.

    2014: “Natan” and “When Jews Were Funny” are scheduled to be shown at the Washington Jewish Film Festival.

    2014: “The Jewish Cardinal” is scheduled to be shown at the Northern Virginia Jewish Film Festival.

    2014: “The Klos-C, which was captured with what the IDF says is a cargo of Iranian arms in its hold” and “its Israeli Navy escort entered the port of Eilat this afternoon after a voyage of three-and-a-half days following Israel’s interception of the ship off the coast of Sudan earlier this week.” (As reported by Ilan Ben Zion)

    2014: “A Little String Music” featuring performances of Israeli and klezmer music by Ruth Navarre is scheduled to take place this evening at “LIMMUD” New Orleans.\

    2014(6th of Adar II, 5774): Ninety-three year old Holocaust survivor Leo Bretholz passed away today.(As reported by Paul Vitello)

    2015: The New York Times features reviews of books by and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including To Explain the World: The Discovery of Modern Science by Steven Weinberg.

    2015: The Jewish Museum of Florida is scheduled to mark the 30th anniversary of the screening of Shoah by showing Part 3 of the famed documentary.

    2015: The Jewish Community Center of Northern Virginia is scheduled to host “Have We Overcome?” which will include a screening of a film depicting the famous 1960 Woolworth’s sit-in.

    2015: In Iowa City, Rabbi Avremel and Chaya Blesofsky are scheduled to host the Upsherin of their son Berel.



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    March 9

    590: Bahram Chobin is crowned as King Barham VI of Persia. The newly crowned king enjoyed support among Persian Jews since opposing forces under a general named Mahbad “killed the Jewish followers of the pretender to the throne, Bahram Chobin.”

    1230: Bulgarian tsar Ivan Asen II defeats Theodore of Epirus in the Battle of Klokotnitsa. According to information in the Virtual Jewish Library Jacob b. Elijah wrote a letter in which he reported that two Jews were thrown from a mountaintop for refusing to obey the order of the Czar to put out the eyes of the defeated Greek ruler.

     1244: The Pope ordered the burning of the Talmud.  Those who hate the Jews understand how critical studying and learning are to our survival.  Hence they have always burned our books and outlawed study.

    1276: Augsburg becomes an Imperial Free City in the Holy Roman Empire. The Jewish presence in Augsburg began during the days of the Romans. Existing records show that a Jewish cemetery and synagogue existed by 1276. The Augsburg Municipal Charter of 1276, determining the political and economic status of the Jewish residents, was adopted by several cities in South Germany. “Regulation of the legal status of Augsburg Jewry was complicated by the rivalry between the religious and municipal powers. Both contended with the emperor for jurisdiction over the Jews and enjoyment of the concomitant revenues.”  For more about this ancient Jewish community see
    1316: “Louis the Bavarian granted the city of Worms the privilege of levying on the Jewish community a yearly tax of 100 pounds heller in addition to the 300 pounds it had thitherto paid.”

    1490: In Florence, Berahiel ben Hezekiah Trabot completed “a small machzor” today.

    1496:  The Jews of Carinthia, Austria were expelled (and not readmitted until 1848).

    1513: Start of the papacy of Leo X who employed Immanuel ben Jacob “as a physician and translator.

    1666: Birthdate of George Granville, 1st Baron Lansdowne, the English poet, playwright and political leader.  In 1701 Lord Lansdowne produced “a spurious version” the “Merchant of Venice” entitled “The Jew of Venice.”  In Lansdowne’s version the part of “Shylock was degraded to a kind of low comedy.”  The play would not be performed again for 40 years when Macklin would revive it and begin the hundreds of his sensitive portrayals of Shakespeare’s most famous Jewish character.

    1739: Birthdate of Boston, MA merchant Moses Michael Hays, the son of Judah and Rebecca Hays.  He was one of the founding members of the famous Touro Synagogue.

    1773(14th of Adar, 5533): Purim

    1773: On Purim at the Newport synagogue, the future President of Yale University at Ezra Stiles described Rabbi Raphael Chiam Isaac Carregal as being "dressed in a red garment with the usual Phylacteries and habiliments, the white silk Surplice; he wore a high fur cap, had a long beard. He has the appearance of an ingenious and sensible man"

    1789: In Coswig, David Salomon Unger, the first Jew to settle in Erfurt with full “civil rights” and his wife gave birth to mathematician Ephraim Salomon Unger.

    1799: Napoleon comes to power as a result of a coup d’etat.

    1808: Seligman Löb (Siegmund Leopold) Beyfus married Babette Rothschild

    1820: The revolutionary military leader and de facto Spanish leader, Riego of Spain issued a decree ending the Inquisition. This decree was apparently not accepted by everybody since people continue to suffer under the Inquisition until 1826. The Spanish Inquisition was actually only brought to an end on July 15, 1834

    1828: At Posen, Rabbi Levi Aron Pinner and Wilhelmine Goldbarth Pinner gave birth to Moritz Pinner who moving to the United States became active in the anti-Slavery movement and the creation of the Republican Party.

    1846: Birthdate of Emil Gabriel Warbug a leading German Jewish physicist was part of the famous Warbug Family

    1849: “The Merry Wives of Windsor” an opera with a libretto by Hermann Salomon Mosenthal was performed for the first time in Berlin

    1851(5th of Adar II, 5611): Eighty one year old Ruben Samuel Gumperz an advocate of Jewish emancipation passed away today in Berlin.

    1852: The New York Times reported that “France has addressed three demands to the government of Switzerland” one of which concerned the treatment of the Jews of Basle Champagne.

    1855: “Response to the Call for a Rabbinical Conference” published today.

    1860(15th of Adar, 5620: Shushan Purim

    1860(15th of Adar, 5620): David Romm, who became head of the family printing business in Wilna after the death of his father Joseph Reuben Romm, passed away today “while on his way to St. Petersburg.”

    1868(15th of Adar, 5628): Shushan Purim.

    1868: The annual Purim Ball was held tonight at Pike’s Opera House in New York City. The ball marked the end of city’s “season of Carnival.”

    1872: A reporter for The New York Times visited Temple Emanu El in this morning where he “at once noticed the extraordinary resemblance” that this Jewish house of worship had “to the Christian cathedral form.”

    1876(13th of Adar, 5636): Fast of Esther.

    1879(14th of Adar, 5639): Purim

    1879: It was reported today that there of the 849,870 people living in Australia’s Victoria Colony, 4,237 are Jews.

    1879: Thomas Grady is scheduled to speak at meeting of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association tonight where he will defend his proposal to abolish the Free College.

    1880: Birthdate of Bernard “Barney” Samuel a leader of the Republican Party in Pennsylvania who served as May of Philadelphia from 1941 to 1952.  He passed away two years later.

    1881: Birthdate of English labor leader and politician Ernest Bevin. Bevin was Foreign Minister in the Labor Government after World War II. He helped to enforce the White Paper and hewed to a pro-Arab line.  In responding to request for consideration for Jews after the Holocaust, Bevin
    commented that Jews were always trying to push to the head of the line. Bevin died in 1951 at the age of 70.

    1884(12th of Adar, 5644): Moses Wilhelm Shapira “shot himself in the Hotel Bloemendaal in Rotterdam. Born in the Russian Empire in 1830 he followed his father to Palestine in 1856. He converted to Christianity and began a career selling artifacts.  Unfortunately, many of these were reported to be fakes. According to some reports he took his own life as the result of his involvement in the forging of supposedly biblical texts.

    1890: Several “Sabbath Schools of Jewish congregations” in New York City hosted special Purim celebrations. One congregation hosted a Purim Operetta performed by the female faculty for the benefit of the young children.

    1890: Almost 2,000 people attended the Purim celebration hosted by the Temple Beth El Sabbath School which was held at the Lexington Avenue Opera House.

    1890: It was reported today that the money raised by the Hebrew Benevolent Society’s charity ball at Long Island City will go “to the erection of a house of worship, a school for children, the purchase of a burial plot” and for a fund to provide relief for widows and orphans.

    1890: Rabbi Kohut recounted the Purim story to 350 children, their parents and friends at Temple Ahawath Chesed at 55thand Lexington Avenue.

    1890: It was announced today that Dr. Charles Elliot who has been teaching Hebrew at Lafayette College for the past four years will not be teaching after this year.

    1891: Today during the strike by Polish cloakmakers “ a group of Polish Jews” broke into the tenement occupied by two cloak contractors – Hermann Greenbaum and Sam Billet – where they were reportedly having non-union workers make cloaks and broke up the work stations.

    1891: Benjamin Fernstein, a seventy year old clothing cutter who died yesterday while riding the Second Avenue El was the victim of a heart attack according to his family.

    1892: Following the death of two more Jewish immigrants and two more Irish immigrants, it was reported that there have been 14 deaths since the outbreak of typhus with 70 known or suspected cases quarantined on North Brother Island.

    1892: Mason Hirsh, a senior member of the umbrella manufacturing firm of Hirsh Brothers located in Philadelphia was knocked down by a car in front of 435 Broadway in New York City today.

    1892: A. J. Rosenthal, a Jewish banker from Fayette County served as Chairman of the Credentials Committee when the Republican State Convention opened today in Austin, Texas.

    1892: The New York State Senate passed the “so-called Freedom of Worship bill” this afternoon


    1892: Birthdate of Mátyás Rosenfeld, the Hungarian communist leader who repudiated Judaism and changed his name to Mátyás Rákosi as he climbed the ladder of “party success.”

    1893: A charity ball sponsored by the Purim Association will take place tonight at Madison Square Garden with the United Hebrew Charities serving as the beneficiaries of the event where the admission ticket costs $10 per attendee regardless of their sex.

    1893: “Gift to the Aguilar Library published today described an anonymous gift given to this non-sectarian institution founded by several prominent Jews that is “open to any resident of New York over twelve years of age.  (In a day of “tablets” and “i-pads” it is hard to envision what the availability of this trove of free books meant to generations of immigrants and their families)

    1893: Today, Lord Lyon Playfair explained to the House of Lords that “Messrs. Burnett and Schloss” had been sent to the United States “as part of a general inquiry in the subject of pauper alients to the United Kingdom” especially as it pertained to Russian and Polish Jews.

    1895: Fifty-nine year old Austrian author Leopold von Sacher-Masoch “who faithfully described the manners of Polish Jews but feared that his affection for them might give the impression that he was” Jewish passed away today. He was the author Jews and Russians and the editor of At the Pinnacle, “a progressive magazine” that championed “tolerance and integration for the Jews of Saxony.”

    1895: Birthdate of Albert Günther Göring, the older brother of Hermann Göring, who worked to save Jews while his brothers was killing them.

    1895: Purim will be celebrated this evening with an invitation only fance-dress reception at Delmonico’ sponsored by the Purim Association.

    1896: Judge Julian Mack married Jessie Fox.

    1897: Maurico Jacobs and his family are scheduled to set sail from New York to Panama today aboard the SS Allianca thanks to funds provided by the United Hebrew Charities.  Jacobs is a native of Peru who owned a sugar plantation in Cuba with his brother.  He claims that they were forced to leave the island after his brother was killed and the plantation was seized.

    1898: Mrs. Oscar Hammerstein has obtained a lease Olympia which was arranged by Andrew Freeman.

    1898: It was reported today that the name of Esterhazy, one of the French officers responsible for the false imprisonment of Captain Dreyfus, was added to the name of villains who were booed during the reading of the Megillah during Purim Services.

    1899: “Peters Praises The Jews” published today provides a summary of Reverend Madison C. Peters lecture on “Justice to the Jew” – a unique highly positive view of the Jewish people.

    1900: Herzl had another meeting with Austrian Prime Minister Ernest von Koerber. The subscribers the Colonial Bank were permitted to complete their payments and receive their shares.

    1900(8th of Adar II): Sixty-three year old Hebrew poet and Yiddish author Isaac Rabinowitz (Ish Kovno) passed away

    1902: Composer Gustav Mahler married Alma Schindler in Vienna.

    1902: Birthdate of Elisabeth Pelletier de Chambure, the member of a wealthy Catholic aristocratic family who became Élisabeth de Rothschild when she married famed vintner Baron Philippe de Rothschild.

    1904: Birthdate of Gerald Ernest Heal Abraham, the native of the Isle of Wright who forsook a career in the Royal Navy to become one of Britain’s leading musicologists.

    1908: It was reported today that in Camden, NJ, “because of the excellent work she has done in behalf of the Jewish Ladies’ Aid Society, Mrs. Jacob Silver has been presented with a gold medal.”

    1908: In Camden, NJ, “tonight Jacob Wietzman” is scheduled to “give a reception and dinner to his fellow members of the Seventh Ward Republican Club.

    1912(20th of Adar, 5672): Shabbat Parah

    1912(20th of Adar, 5672): Fifty-seven year old Hiram Ullman, the Pennsylvania businessman who served on the Williamsport Common Council passed away today.

    1913: The Independent Anshe Bessarabia Talmud Torah was founded in Philadelphia, Pa.

    1913: In Bangor, Maine, founding of Beth Israel Synagogue.

    1916: Birthdate of Hyman H. “Bookie” Bookbinder a Washington lobbyist for Jewish causes who spent many years working for a variety of liberal causes including civil rights and the rights of labor.

    1918:Ukrainian mobs massacre Jews of Seredino Buda

    1918: In Bloomington, Illinois, vaudevillians Claire and George Rockwell gave birth to George Lincoln Rockwell, the founder of the American Nazi Party.

    1920: The tombstone for Emanuel Jacobs of Covent Garden is scheduled to be consecrated at Jersey today.

    1921: Winston and Clementine Churchill arrive in Cairo in preparation for a conference to examine the workings of the mandates for Palestine and Iraq.

    1922: Winston Churchill delivered a speech in Parliament support the Balfour Declaration against its opponents.  He reiterated support for the establishment of the Jewish Homeland in Palestine while cautioning against letting Jews who were Bolsheviks settle in Palestine.

    1922: The Shearith Israel League of the Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue in New York City is scheduled to present a performance of “The Mikado” today in the grand ballroom of the Hotel Plaza.

    1923:  Birthdate of Walter Kohn winner of the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1998.

    1928: In Vienna, Franzi Grossman and her husband, a chief bank accountant gave birth to Lore Groszmann, who gained fame as Lore Segal, the author of Shakespeare’s Kitchen, one of the finalists for the Pulitzer Prize in 2008.

    1928: New York State Supreme Court Justice Alfred Frankenthal was injured this morning when the taxicab in which he was riding skidded out of control and hit an elevated pillar. Israel Mora was the cab driver.

    1928: In Manhattan, Maxwell Walzer, a furrier and the former Ruth Rosenthal, gave birth to Peggy Sandelle Walzer gave birth to Peggy Charren who gained fame as an advocate for improved children television programming. (As reported by Bruce Weber)

    1929(27th of Adar I, 5689): Shabbat Shekalim

    1929(27th of Adar I, 5689): Thirty-four “English composer, arranger, music teacher and pupil of Gustav Holst, Jane Joseph passed away today.

    1929: The Zionist Organization of America announced plans for the celebration of the 20th anniversary of the founding of Tel Aviv.  The planned activities include a Jewish ‘world Congress for Propagation of Interest in Palestine Products and a Palestine and Newar East Exhibition and Fair.

    1931: Dr. Victor Rosewater, the former editor and publisher of The Omaha Bee and a leader of the Jewish community and Republican Party in Nebraska spoke at the school of politics of the Women’s National Republican Club.  He told the gathering that “the influence of the press in forming political opinion is no longer as directed as it once was…”

    1932: The new turbines at the hydroelectric project created by Pinhas Rutenberg began to turn today.

    1933: The first of thousands of “critics” of The Third Reich were sent to Dachau

    1935: “New German Plea” published today described Dr. Julius Lippert’s call for American businessman to put an end to the Jewish Boycott of German goods.

    1936: The cover of Time magazine features the beaten, bandaged visage of Leon Blum who had been beaten Royalist (right wing) youths.

    1936: “Abominable Triumph” published today as the cover story for Time described the causes of the life threatening beating given to Leon Blum by those who oppose him because he is a socialist, anti-fascist and Jewish. (The road from Drancy to Auschwitz began on the streets and chambers of Paris in the 1930’s)

    1936 :( 15th of Adar, 5696): Shushan Purim

    1936: Birthdate of Juda Bar-Norwegian, Dutch born Israeli actor.

    1936: The Przytyk, Pogrom, the worst of a series of pogroms that took place in Poland during the interwar decades, claimed the lives of three people.

    1938: The Chancellor of Austria, Schuschnigg, announces a plebiscite on the question of Austrian independence. His policy was to try and keep Austria semi-independent and to limit the more overt anti-Semitic activities. Hitler furiously demanded his resignation, which arrived two days later. His resignation opened the way to the Anschluss (annexation) of Austria by Germany on March 13


    1938: The Palestine Post reported that Arab terrorists sniped at various quarters of Jewish Jerusalem. The Sanhedria Quarter came under a direct Arab fire from Lifta.

    1941: Esther "Etty" Hillesum began writing in her diary which would provide a description of life Amsterdam under the Nazis.

    1941: After 8 months in office Petain and his Vichy Government adopted an ordinance requiring Jews to get “authorization to sell or rent property.”

    1942: The Jews of the small Polish community of Mielec were driven out of their homes and rounded up in the marketplace; the old and feeble were shot on the equivalent of a death march. The survivors waited in a hangar in the aircraft factory without food or water and were herded into cattle cars a few days later.

    1943: U.S. Army Colonel F.B. Yancy, Chief of the Special Services spoke at the opening club designed for the use of U.S. military personnel. The club is housed in former Tel Aviv luxury hotel.

    1943: The Nazis continued the transport of Greek Jews from Salonika to Auschwitz. Salonika was an ancient Jewish community.  It became a haven for Sephardic Jews when they fled Spain at the end of the fifteenth century.  It was renowned center for kabalistic studies.  In 1943, Elie Veissi, a journalist, formed an all Jewish resistance group at Salonika.  Veissi supplied valuable information to the British about Nazi activities in Greece.  But he and his group failed in their main mission - saving the Jews of Salonika.  A few thousand escaped to Athens, but most of the rest perished in the camps. Some of you know about the Jews of Salonika because of their unique music. Some of it was captured in a recording called Kol Salonika.  You may have heard their haunting melody for verses five and six of the 118th Psalm – Min hameitzar karati Ya, anani vemerchav, Out of my distress I called upon the Lord and He set me free.  .  The other famous song is entitled Kol Ha-Olam Kulo - "The entire world is a narrow bridge; the main thing is not to fear." (I realize this has been a little lengthy, but one of the lessons of Jewish History is that Holocaust Memorial Day should be plural, not singular, event.)

    1943: In a rare case of open police resistance to the arrest and murder of Jews of Europe during WWII, 12 Dutch military policemen including 23 year old Henk Drogt refused orders to round up the remaining local Jews in Grootegast, Holland. The policemen were pressured and threatened by their commanders with incarceration at a concentration camp themselves, but steadfastly refused to carry out the orders. The group was subsequently arrested and taken to the Vught concentration camp in the Southern Netherlands.  Drogt would evade capture until his arrest in August of 1943.  He was executed in April of 1944.  In 2010, he received the State of Israel's highest honor for non-Jews on Monday at Jerusalem's Yad Vashem Holocaust Memorial.

    1943: An audience of 40,000 gathered in New York’s Madison Square Garden to watch “We Will Never Die”  “a dramatic pageant” designed “to raise public awareness of the ongoing mass murder of Europe's Jews. It was organized and written by screenwriter and author Ben Hecht and produced by Billy Rose and Ernst Lubitsch. The musical score was composed by Kurt Weill and staged by Moss Hart. The pageant starred Edward G. Robinson and Paul Muni and subsequently traveled to other cities nationwide.”

    1944(14thof Adar, 5704): Purim

    1947: The first unauthorized immigrant ship known to have been sent to Palestine by the Hebrew Committee of National Liberation was taken into government custody today. The ship which was known variously as the SS Ben Hecht and/or the SS Abril was filled with 599 Jewish refugees including 385 men, 194 women and 20 children.  All of the refugees were placed on two ferries by the British and sent immediately to displaced persons camps in Cyprus.  .

    1947: “Troops fired over the heads of a number of Jews in the marital-law area of Jerusalem” because officials said they were “’too slow in returning to their homes when the daily curfew was re-imposed at 5 P.M.’”

    1947: British policed reported that 25 “suspected terrorists” have been arrested in Tel Aviv in the last 24 hours.

    1948: Birthdate of American artist Eric Fischl.

    1949: During Operation Uvda, one unit from Alexandroni Brigade captured Ein Gedi while another unit captured Masada.

    1949: During Operation Uvda,“Golani forces captured Gharandal and proceeded to Ein Ghadyan (now Yotvata).”

    1949: During the War for Independence, two IDF units set off to take Eilat on the Gulf of Aqaba1950: A special meeting of the board of directors at the Astor Hotel is held to announce the formation of the Amun-Israeli House Corporation that “will finance $20,000,000 worth of housing construction” in Israel.  The lack of adequate housing is one of the Jewish state’s most pressing problems and this effort which enjoys support from a diverse group that includes Nelson Rockefeller and the leaders of the I.L.G.W.U. represents a major effort to provide both immediate and long term relief.

    1950:  It was officially announced tonight that Turkey “has accorded full diplomatic recognition” to the state of Israel.

    1950: The Swedish government issued a report today accusing the Israeli police of demonstrating grave negligence in investigating the assassination of Count Folke Bernadotte which had taken place in September of 1948.

    1950: AT&T announced today that it has created a new direct circuit between New York and Tel Aviv which will improve phone service between the major cities.  Calls can only be made between 7 in the morning and 1 in the afternoon at a cost of $12 for the first three minutes.

    1951: Birthdate of Michael Kinsley, journalist and founder of Slate.

    1951: Almost thirty thousand Iraqi Jews had signed up for immigration for Israel as of today.  Today was the deadline the Iraqi government had set for this registration.  Registration meant giving up their Iraqi citizenship which meant that as of this date these people were "stateless."

    1952: Birthdate of Amir Petertz, the native of Morocco whose family made Aliyah in 1956. A Labor Party MK, he has served as Minister of Defense and Deputy Prime Minister.

    1953: The Jerusalem Post reported that in Moscow following the death of Stalin,Georgi Malenkov, 51, was appointed the head of the Soviet Union while Molotov, Beria, Bulganin and Kaganovitch had been named as his deputies. Israel was one of the few countries which were not invited to Stalin’s funeral.

    1953: The Jerusalem Post reported that Israel had been divided into six administrative districts: three urban: Jerusalem, Tel Aviv and Haifa, and three rural: the Northern, Central and South.

    1953: The Jerusalem Post reported that fifteen marauders were killed and 11 captured during the past week.

    1954: CBS television broadcasts the See It Now episode, "A Report on Senator Joseph McCarthy," that featured Ed Murrow at his finest. Fred Friendly, a Jewish television producer born in New York, joined forces with Murrow to produce all of the See It Now episodes. CBS was owned by William Paley who was also Jewish.  Their ethnic origins had nothing to do with this choice of programming.  In fact, Paley, like so many other Jews in the print and electronic media, bent over backwards to avoid any connection between being Jewish and the product they offered.

    1956: In Finland, premiere of “The Rose Tatoo” directed by Daniel Mann, produced by Hal B. Wallis with a script co-authored by Hal Kanter.

    1959: Barbie, the popular girls' doll, debuted, Over 800 million have been sold marking another Jewish business success brought to us, in this case, by Ruth Mosko Handler.

    1962: Egyptian President Nasser declared that Gaza belonged to Palestinians. Of course Gaza was occupied by Egypt from 1948 until 1967.  No attempt was made to turn the government over to the Palestinians at the time of this declaration.  In fact, the Palestinians were trapped in Gaza without meaningful economic assistance from their Arab brethren.

    1963: The 1963 NCAA Division I Basketball Tournament which would provide a showcase for the talents of Duke’s Art Heyman opened today.

    1963: Allan Sherman’s “My Son The Celebrity” reached #1 on Billboard’s Top 150 Best Sell LP’s Chart.

    1968: Today, while serving with the U.S. Army in Viet Nam Jack S. Jacobs performed so heroically that earned the Medal of Honor for Valor. “Although seriously wounded and bleeding profusely, he assumed command and ordered a withdrawal. He then repeatedly returned through heavy fire, to rescue other wounded including the company commander and treated their wounds. On three occasions he repelled Viet Cong squads who were also searching for wounded American soldiers in the same area, killing three and wounding several others.”

    1968: Birthdate of Adam Carl Adamowicz, “concept artist whose paintings of exotic landscapes, monsters and elaborately costumed heroes and villains formed the visual foundation for two of the most popular single-player role-playing video games of all time” – Fallout3 and The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim. (As reported by Daniel E. Slotnik)

    1969: The chief of staff of the Egyptian Armed Forces was killed today during the War of Attrition. Today marked the second day of Egypt’s attempt to destroy the Bar Lev using massive artillery bombardments.  While General Abdul Munim Riad was at the front to personally viewing the product of his handiwork, he was mortally wounded by Israeli artillery that had been fired in response to the Egyptian assault.

    1970: A meeting of over 100 investors interested in financing tourist development projects in Israel will take place in Jerusalem today.

    1972(23rd of Adar, 5732): Fifty year old Israeli diplomat and former intelligence officer Yaakov Herzog, the son of Yitzhak HaLevi Herzog and the brother of Chaim Herzog who was trained as a rabbi and a lawyer passed away today.

    1977: About a dozen armed Hanafi Muslims invaded three buildings in Washington D.C., killing one person and taking more than 130 hostages. The three buildings were the District Building (city hall), the Islamic Center and, surprise, surprise the national headquarters of B’nai B’rith. And you thought terrorism like this only started with Osama and company.

    1978:The Jerusalem Post reported that the US refused to consider any new sale of arms to Israel, despite Defense Minister Ezer Weizmann’s pressing requests, until the conclusion of the current Carter-Begin summit meetings and negotiations.

    1978:The Jerusalem Post reported that Israel has started the commercial exploitation of oil from the Alma II and III wells, situated near a-Tur in the Gulf of Suez.

    1982(14th of Adar, 5742): Purim

    1982: Pola Nirenska, a Polish-born dancer and choreographer who first came to the United States with Mary Wigman's company from Germany in 1932, presented ''An Evening of Choreography'' to night in George Washington University's Marvin Theater.

    1989: “The Heidi Chronicles” by Wendy Wasserstein opened on Broadway today.

    1992(4th of Adar II, 5752): Former Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin died in Tel Aviv at age 78. Regardless of your view of his politics, Begin was one of the central characters in the Zionist movement. Begin was the heir to Jabotinsky and the founder of what today is the Likud Party.  In other words, he was the leader of the Jewish opposition to the Labor Zionists personified by Ben Gurion.  Begin was the founder and leader of the Irgun.  He was the first right wing Prime Minister of Israel.  Most important of all, he negotiated the peace treaty with Sadat that ended the state of war that had existed with Egypt since 1948.

    1994(26th of Adar, 5754):  Lawrence E. Spivak, creator of Meet the Press passed away at the age of 93.  On radio and then on television, Meet the Press was billed as the live press conference of the air.  With Spivak sometimes serving as the moderator and sometimes as a member of the four person panel, American and foreign government officials took part in a thirty minute unrehearsed question and answer session.  While the programs were marked by an air of civility, the members of the print and electronic media asked real questions and the guests were expected to provide real answers.

    1996(18th of Adar, 5756): Comedian George Burns passed away at the age 100.

    1997:The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Blood and Water:Sabotaging Hitler's Bombby Dan Kurzman, Southernmost And Other Storiesby Michael Brodsky and The Stories of David Bergelson:Yiddish Short Fiction From Russiaby David Bergelson.

    1999(21stof Adar, 5759): Hermann Merkin, the native of Leipzig who fled Nazi German and in 1940 arrived in the United States where, in turn, he served in the Army, founded the investment firm of Merkin and Company and became a philanthropist whose good works including the founding of the Fifth Avenue Synagogue.

    2001(14th of Adar, 5761): Purim

    2002(25th of Adar, 5762): Shabbat HaChodesh

    2002(25th of Adar, 5762):Limor Ben-Shoham, 27, of Jerusalem; Nir Rahamim Borochov, 22, of Givat Ze'ev; Danit Dagan, 25, of Tel Aviv; Livnat Dvash, 28, of Jerusalem; Tali Eliyahu, 26, of Jerusalem;Uri Felix, 25, of Givat Ze'ev; Dan Imani, 23, of Jerusalem; Natanel Kochavi, 31, of Kiryat Ata; Baruch Lerner-Naor, 28, of Eli;Orit Ozarov, 28, of Jerusalem and Avraham Haim Rahamim, 29, of Jerusalem were murdered by an Arab terrorist and 54 more people were murdered  at the Café Moment in Jerusalem “about 100 meters from the home of the Prime Minister.

    2003: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of interest to Jewish readers including Regions of the Great Heresay: Bruno Schulz: A Biographical Portrait by Jerzy Ficowski, Down and Out in the Magic by Cory Doctorow and the recently released paperback edition of Me Times Three, by Alex Witchel.

    2006:There was a palpable air of excitement at the Kraft Family Stadium, as two-time Super Bowl MVP Tom Brady of the New England Patriots made a special visit to see what American Football in Israel was all about. Fans of all ages surrounded Brady as he signed autographs and threw passes to some of the AFI athletes

    2007: As the college basketball world is seized with “March Madness,” The Jewish Weekfeatures an article styled “Carolina on his Mind” in which “Lennie Rosenbluth looks back a half century later on the historic victory that put the UNC Tar Heels on the basketball map.” Rosenbluth led UNC to a perfect 32-0 season including Carolina’s first NCAA championship.  Along the way, Rosenbluth averaged 27.9 points and 8.6 rebounds per game during the regular season and defeated a team led by the legendary Wilt “the Stilt” Chamberlain. This is further evidence of the pervasive impact that Jews have had on many facets of American culture.

    2007: Robert Alan “Bob” Levinson “was taken hostage” today “when visiting Iran’s Kish Island

    2008: Novelist and former Roman Catholic priest James Carroll discusses his 2001 book Constantine's Sword: The Church and the Jews: A History at the National Cathedral in

     Washington, D.C.

    2008: The Sunday New York Times featured reviews of Beaufort, a novel by Israeli author Ron Lehsem, translated by Evan Fallenberg, The Life of the Skiesby Jonathan Rosen and a collection of  four short works of fiction by French novelist and Holocaust victim by by Irène Némirovsky including David Golder, The Ball, Snow In Autumn and The Courilof Affair.

    2008: In an article entitled, “A Family Tree of Literary Fakers,” Motoko Rich traces famous literary frauds including Clifford Irving’s “biography of Howard Hughes,” Binjamin Wilkomirski’s 1996 phony memoir, Fragmentsdescribing how he survived as a Latvian Jewish orphan in a Nazi concentration camp and Misha Defonseca’s book, Misha: A Mémoire of the Holocaust Yearsabout a childhood spent running from the Nazis and searching for her deported parents; a childhood that did not happen.

    2008: The Washington Post book section featured a review of Founding Faith: Providence, Politics, and the Birth of Religious Freedom in America by Steven Waldman.  Founding Faith takes up two central questions about religion in early America. First, what did such Founding Fathers as Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, George Washington, Thomas Jefferson and James Madison usually believe? And second, how did it come about that the First Amendment to the Constitution guarantees that "Congress shall make no laws respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof"? The answers to these questions carry implications for Jewish Americans since the role of religion and religious freedom has allowed the American Jewish community to think of itself as a unique element that will transcend past Jewish experiences in other societies and countries.

    2008(2 Adar II, 5768):Twenty-year-old Sergeant Liran Banay, who was critically wounded last Thursday when a bomb was detonated near an IDF vehicle patrolling the Gaza security fence, died of his wounds on Sunday morning. The Givati Brigade soldier, who lost both legs as a result of Thursday’s explosion, died in Soroka Hospital in Ashkelon.

    2009: WebYeshiva started the WebYeshiva Blog today.

    2009 (13 Adar 5769): Fast of Esther

    2009: In the evening, Megillah Reading

    2009: Economist Nouriel Roubini, the Turkish born son of Iranian Jews who spent part of his youth living in Israel and who was the “man who predicted the current financial crisis said the US recession could drag on for years without drastic action…Roubini sees ‘no hope for the recession ending in 2009 and will more than likely last into 2010.’”

    2009:Police arrested two Arab youths carrying a commando blade in the Pisgat Ze'ev neighborhood of Jerusalem today foiling a stabbing attack. During a preliminary investigation, the pair said they had planned on carrying out a terror attack.

    2009: In an article entitled “Bad Guy Inspires Goodies,’ published in the Cedar Rapids Gazette, columnist Cecilia Hanley provides a brief account about Purim, the history of Hamantaschen and a recipe for a pastry that she likened to the Kolache, a pastry popular with the Czech population that settled Cedar Rapids and is still a unique local delicacy.

    2009: In “The Perfect Hamantaschen” published today Deborah Gardner attempts to settle the dispute between those who prefer prune and those who munch on “mun.”

    2010: The winners of the National Jewish Book Award are scheduled to be honored today in New York City

    2010: David Nemeth is scheduled to be the instructor at this evening’s session of How to Give A D’var Torah at Adas Israel in Washington, D.C.

    2011: Alan Joseph Shatter, Irish political leader, began serving as Minister for Justice and Equality

    2011(3rd of Adar II, 5771): Seventy-two year old “Owen Laster, one of the most powerful literary agents of his generation, who ran William Morris’s worldwide literary operations and had a long list of best-selling writers that included James A. Michener and Gore Vidal”, passed away today (As reported by William Grimes)

    2011: Calvin Goldscheider (Professor Emeritus of Judaic Studies, Brown University), Max Ticktin (Professor of Judaic Studies, George Washington University), Susan K. Finston (CEO and Managing Director, Amrita Therapeutics Ltd.), Steve Rabinowitz (future emeritus president and CEO of Rabinowitz-something Communications), and a special mystery guest speaker are scheduled to appear at Washington DC's 20th Annual Latke-Hamantash Symposium at Adas Israel.

    2011: The Lillian & Albert Small Jewish Museum is scheduled to host “From Shtetl to City: Travel in the Old Jewish Heartland” featuring author Ruth Ellen Gruber.

    2011:As Jerusalem prepared for the possibility of a snowstorm, Jerusalem mayor Nir Barkat asked the public “to be responsible” “during an inspection of the city’s emergency snow plans at the Givat Shaul maintenance center.

    2011: Today the Knesset approved the initial reading of a bill which proposes an end to allowing companies to discriminate against customers based on where they live, a law which could potentially benefit West bank cities and residents.

    2011: UK Chief Rabbi Jonathan Sacks was honored by Ben-Gurion University in Beersheba today for his exceptional work as “a widely published theologian and philosopher, whose aspirations for truth and mutual respect of all peoples guide his actions.”

    2011: According to an article entitled “50 Famous Travel Spots Every Literary Geek Should See” published today by the website “Online Courses must see spots include the following four spots of special interest to followers of Jewish history.

    1. The Secret Annex: Amsterdam has converted The Secret Annex into the Anne Frank Museum, preserving the memory of lives lost and destroyed when Nazis discovered their hiding place.

    2.     Auschwitz-Birkenau: Holocaust literature frequently relates horrific tales of the Auschwitz concentration camp, most notably Night and Maus, and today it stands as a somber reminder of humanity’s capacity for senseless cruelty. Buchenwald also appears in many memoirs as well.

    3.     Algonquin Hotel: This lush Midtown Manhattan locale used to host the Algonquin Round Table, consisting of New York’s finest wits. Their meetings resulted in a plethora of fictitious and non-fictitious works alike, most famously the bulk of Dorothy Parker’s oeuvre. Parker was born Dorothy Rothschild, the daughter of German-Jew who was not related to the famous banking house.

    4.     Dublin, Ireland: Visit the Irish capital on June 16th for Bloomsday, a festival honoring James Joyce’s modernist magnum opus Ulysses. Readings and walks bring the brick of a novel to life, allowing celebrants to follow in the footsteps of iconic protagonist Leopold Bloom. Although fictious, Bloom may be Ireland’s most famous Jews.


    2011(3rd of Adar II): Anniversary of the dedication of the Second Temple which took placed on the 3rd of Adar, 3412 (349 BCE)

    2011(3rdof Adar II, 5771): Seventy-two year old Owen Laster, a literary agent for William Morris passed away.


    2012: In Washington, DC, at Tifereth Israel, Artist in Residence Alison Westermann is scheduled to kick off a weekend of “Translating Text Into Song” with a Carlebach Kabbalat Shabbat Service.

    2012: “Footnote” – the Oscar nominated tale of a rivalry between two Talmudic scholars who are father and son – is scheduled to pen Angelika Film Center and Lincoln Plaza Cinema.

    2012: Two senior terrorists were killed in Gaza today after IDF aircraft targeted a vehicle in the Strip, the army confirmed. One of the fatalities is Zuhir al-Qaisi, the secretary-general of the Popular Resistance Committees terror group, Palestinian sources said. The second terrorist killed in the strike is Ahmad al-Khanini, a senior PRC member freed in the Shalit prisoner swap, the Palestinians said. The senior terrorist killed in an IDF strike today was planning a major terror attack on Israeli targets near the Egypt border, army officials said. Zuhir al-Qaisi, also known as Abu Ibraim, was planning a mega-attack in recent days that could have resulted in numerous casualties, the army said. The planned multipronged terror strike was to originate from Egypt's Sinai Peninsula, military officials said.

     (As reported by Yoav Zitun)

    2012: More than 30 rockets were fired from Gaza into southern Israel tonight, leaving at least eight people injured, one of them seriously.

    2013: “No Place On Earth” is scheduled to have its Minnesota Premiere this evening at the Minneapolis Jewish Film Festival.

    2013: AMIT is scheduled to host “A Night of Israeli Cinema” at Tribeca Cinemas.

    2013: The Eden-Tamir Music is scheduled to host a concert “Loving Brahms” today in Jerusalem.

    2014: In Coralville, Iowa, Agudas Achim is scheduled to host its annual Purim Carnival under the leadership of Rabbi Jeff Portman.

    2014: “The Sturgeon Queens,” a documentary about Russ & Daughters is scheduled to be shown in Boulder, CO.

    2014: The Center for Jewish History is scheduled to host “The Whole Megillah: A Family Purim Program featuring a Puppet Show and Art Project”

    2014: The Washington DC JCC is scheduled to host the 4th Annual Community Day of Education on Israeli Arab Issues.

    2014: The JCC of Northern Virginia is scheduled to host a Pre-Purim Pajama Party.

    2014: The 24th annual Washington Jewish Film Festival is scheduled to come to an end.

    2014: David Brooks is scheduled to lecture on “Genius, God and Morality” at the 92ndStreet Y.

    2014: The third bi-annual LimmudFest New Orleans is scheduled to come to an end. (For more see  or the Crescent City Jewish News)

    2014: The New York Times published reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Genesis: Truman, American Jews and the Origins of the Arab/Israeli Conflict by John Judis and The Double Life of Paul De Man by Evelyn Barish

    2014: In “Eulogy for a Source” published today, Helen Epstein remembers Jiri Fiedler, who along with his wife was murdered at the end of January.

    2014: In Eilat, this morning, Israeli troops unloaded some 150 containers, suspected of holding illicit Iranian arms, from a ship seized several days earlier in the Red Sea

    2014:Thousands of ultra-Orthodox Jews filled the streets in lower Manhattan today to protest Israel’s proposal to draft strictly religious citizens into its army.

    2015: The Jewish Community Center of Northern Virginia is scheduled to host a field trip to The National Museum of American Jewish History which is featuring a an exhibited “that examines the role that Jews have played in the American Military from 1654 to present.”

    2015: The 92nd Street Y is scheduled to host an evening with the Meitar Ensemble which was “founded in 2004 in Tel Aviv by artistic director Amit Dolberg.

    2015: The Center for Jewish History is scheduled to host a screening of “Above and Beyond,” “the first major feature length-documentary about the foreign airman” who served in the War of Independence in 1948 produced by Nancy Spielberg.


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    March 10

    0037: Roman Emperor Tiberius passed away at age 78.  He followed Augustus to the throne and reigned from 14 through 37.  His record in dealing with the Jews was a mixed one.  On the one hand he over-ruled anti-Jewish edicts of Pontius Pilate, governor of Judea.  At the same, he temporarily expelled all of the Jews from Rome when a Jew was falsely accused of defrauding a Roman matron.

    0298:The Roman Emperor Maximian concluded his campaign in North Africa against the Berbers, and made a triumphal entry into Carthage.The city of Carthage appears repeatedly throughout Roman history.  According to some historians, when Carthage fell to the Romans after the Punic Wars, “many Carthaginians and Phoenicians converted to Judaism, because Jerusalem was the only remaining centre of West Semitic civilization.” They attribute the original Jewish settlements in Spain to the fact that Spain had been a Carthaginian colony and that these settlers were part of a group of these converts.  The Berbers would also figure in Jewish history. In the 7th century, they would convert to Islam.  In the 8th century, the Berbers were a major part of the Muslim force that drove the Christians out of Spain and created a comparatively hospitable for the Jewish people.

    0418: Jews were excluded from holding public office in the Roman Empire

    1126: Following the death of his mother Alfonso VII, the monarch who started a school in Toledo which begins to spread Hebrew and Arabic learning as well as ancient Greek knowledge through Western Europe was crowned King of Leon and Castille.

    1452:  Birthdate of Ferdinand II the Catholic, King of Aragon/Sicily who expelled the Jews from his realm.

    1616: Vincent Fettmilch was hanged.  Fettmilch lived at Frankfort on the Main (Germany).  During a period of economic downturn (1612-1616), the ruling class blamed the problems on the Jews.  They allowed anti-Semitic demagogues to attack the Jews.  Fettmilch was the ring leader of the action that resulted in the destruction of the Jewish property in the ghetto.  Jews fled for their lives.  Without the Jews to blame, the powers that be feared the mobs would turn on them.  So they hanged Fettmilch as a way of re-establishing law and order.

    1791(4th of Adar II): Rabbi Aryeh Leib Sarah, a disciple of Rabbi Dov Baer passed away.

    1822(17thof Adar, 5582): The mother of Moses Sofer, Reizel the daughter of Elchanan passed away.

    1823: In Prague, Abraham and Judith Eidlitz gave birth to New York architect whose commissions included the former Temple Emanu-El sanctuary built in New York between 1866-68 and which was destroyed in 1927

    1831: The French Foreign Legion was established by King Louis-Philippe to support his war in Algeria. A large number of Jews who fled Eastern Europe during the 1930’s found “a home” in the French Foreign Legion.  For more about the Legion and the Jewish people see Jews and the French Foreign Legion by Zosa Szajkowski

    1845: Birthdate of Czar Alexander III. Alexander III was the second to the last of the Romanov Czars.  In a line of rulers who made life hell on earth for the Jewish people, Alexander stands out as one of the worst, if not the worst of the lot. His policies were intended to give meaning to the one third, one third, one third rule. One third of the Jews would leave Russia, one third would convert. One third would perish.

    1845: The Jewish Reform movement in Germany was publicly announced

    1847: Birthdate of “French deputy jurist Camille Sée, the native of Colmar, Alsace, who was the newphew of French physician Germain Sée

    1856: The News of the World reported that in Constantinople a Turkish woman who could not locate her child for several hours started to scream after local Greeks told her Jews had dragged her child by force into the house to drain its blood for use on Passover. A crowd gathered and started to smash the windows of the home, and was only held back by the French soldiers. The child later was found by the mother.

    1857(14thof Adar, 5617): Purim

    1859: In Budapest, Jeanette and Jacob Herzl gave birth to Pauline Herzl, the sister of Theodor Herzl

    1860: Mortiz Pinner, the German-Jewish immigrant abolitionist who was a publishing a newspaper in Kansas City served as a delegate at the Republican State Convention in Missouri.  Pinner would be chosen as a delegate to the Republican National Convention in Chicago where Abraham Lincoln was nominated as President of the United States.

    1861: Birthdate of Meier Dizengoff.  A native of Bessarabia, he would make Aliyah in 1905, help found Tel Aviv in 1909 and then became its first mayor.

    1864: During the American Civil War, beginning of the Red River Campaign which would claim the life of Colonel Newbold of the Fourteenth Iowa.

    1866 (23 Adar 5626): Yitzchak Meir Alter passed away. Born in 1798, he is the first Rebbe of the Ger Chasidic dynasty. Some of his followers referred to him as Reb Itche Meir as the Chidushei HaRim.  

    1867: Birthdate of Lillian Wald. Born into a successful merchant family in Cincinnati, Ohio, and raised in Rochester, New York, Lillian Wald is remembered today as the founder of public health nursing and an influential pioneer in the settlement house movement of the early twentieth century.

    1868: An article entitled “The Purim Ball” published today reported that last night’s Purim Ball was so lavish that it was a fitting way to end New York’s gala winter social season. “The truly brilliant affair” reinforced the reputation of the Purim Society for providing a ball that “was unique in character” and “meriting the praise” that it has continued to receive. The ball not only is the epitome of refinement, it raises money for the disadvantaged – Jew and non-Jew alike.

    1868(16thof Adar, 5628):Naphtali Hirsch Katzenellenbogen, theson of Simḥah Katzenellenbogen, “who was the editor of the baraita of thirty-two middot” and who delivered a funeral oration in memory of Saul Katzenellenbogen, passed away today.

    1870(7th of Adar, II 5630): Czech born composer Isaak-Ignaz Moscheles composer passed away at the age of 75.

    1871: Seventy-eight year old German author August Lewald, the cousin of novelist Fanny Lewald, the Jewess who converted to Christianity, passed away today.

    1872(30thof Adar I, 5632): Rosh Chodesh Adar II

    1873: Birthdate of Jakob Wassermann author of My Life As a German and a Jew.  Wasserman was a novelist who dealt with challenges of being both a German and a Jew.  His writings urged Jews to assimilate and "and thus destroy themselves as a group.  By the end of his life, he recognized that Jewish survival was inevitable and desirable."

    1875: It was reported today that E.B. Hart, Joseph Seligman and Joseph Koch are among the prominent Jews heading the committee of the Purim Association that will be responsible for the upcoming Hebrew Charity Ball.

    1875:Die Königin von Saba (The Queen of Sheba), an opera in four acts by Karl Goldmark was first performed todayat the Hofoper (now the State Opera) in Vienna,

    1876(14thof Adar, 5638) Purim

    1876: The Anshe Bikur Cholim Society held a reception this evening at Irving Hall.  It was very well attended because it was the Purim celebration of its kind in New York held today.

    1877: In what was then Galicia, Esther Verner and dairy farmer Jacob Taffel gave birth to Frank Taffel who founded the Fulton Auto Exchange in Atlanta, GA in 1924.

    1878: Birthdate of Lamed Lev Shapiro the Ukrainian born Yiddish author known as Lamed Shapiro.

    1879(15thof Adar, 5639): Shushan Purim

    1884(13thof Adar, 5644): Fast of Esther

    1887(14thof Adar, 5647): Purim

    1887: “Three Hebrew clergymen” – Dr. L. Wintner, William Sparger, Leon Harrison – wrote a condolence letter to the widow of Henry Ward Beecher expressing their sorrow over his passing.

    1887: In Galicia, Esther Verner and dairy farmer Jacob Taffel gave birth to Shrage Fyvel Taffe who as Frank Taffel became a pillar of the Georgia (USA) Jewish community.

    1888(27th of Adar): Ferdinand Eberstadt, the first Jewish Mayor of Worms, passed away

    1888(27th of Adar): Scholar and philanthropist Issachar Dov Ber Bampi passed away

    1890: The Young Men’s Hebrew Association will host its fifth “informal entertainment of the season this evening at Vienna Hall.

    1890: The body of an unidentified Jews was found in a cellar at a house on Eldridge Street in New York City.

    1890: The Downtown Religious and Sewing Schools and the Young Men’s Society will hold their Purim celebration tonight at Pythagoras Hall.

    1891: Birthdate of Sam Jaffe who starred in movies and television.  He gained early fame playing an Indian water boy in the film “Gunga Din.”  Television viewers of the 1950's and 1960's saw him as wise old Dr. Zorba in the popular medical series called “Ben Casey.”

    1892: Friedman Silverstein, a Jewish immigrant from Russia who has been living in the United States for 2 years was diagnosed as having typhus fever today.

    1892: Ruben Lodge No. 3 of the Independent Order of the Free Sons of Israel will host a masquerade ball this evening at the Lexington Opera House.

    1893: Lillian Wald opened the Lower East Side settlement house that would become the Henry Street Settlement on her 26th birthday. The Nurses' Settlement opened on Jefferson Street. Two years later, in 1895, she moved her enterprise to Henry Street. In both locations, the settlement was dedicated to public health nursing, a term Wald coined to describe an organic relationship between health care and broader community needs. In the first year, the settlement cared for 4,500 patients. Recognizing the interconnectedness of illness and poverty, Wald expanded the activities of the settlement over time. The renamed Henry Street Settlement House offered boys' and girls' clubs; classes in arts, crafts, homemaking and English; and vocational training. Health care remained important, with over 26,000 patients cared for by 100 Henry Street nurses in 1915.

    1893: In Philadelphia, Rabbi Dr. Henry Berkowitz delivers a speech to his congregation, Rodelph Shalom in which he suggests that a society be formed in the United States for "the dissemination of knowledge of the Jewish religion by fostering the study of its history and literature, giving popular courses of instruction, issuing publications, establishing reading-circles, holding general assemblies, and by such other means as may from time to time be found necessary and proper." In response to his suggestion, the Jewish literary societies of Philadelphia appointed a "committee on organization," which formulated plans. An agreement was entered into with the Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle for the use of the general methods of the popular education process known as the "Chautauqua System." A Jewish society, national in its scope, was then organized, with Dr. Berkowitz as chancellor. In the winter of 1893 the society began the publication of a series of "course books" or syllabi for general readers and members of reading-circles or study classes. These guide-books give syllabi of courses in Biblical and post-Biblical history and literature, in the Hebrew language (correspondence method), and on Jewish characters in fiction.

    1893: “To Study Our Immigration” published today described the debate in the House of Lords led by Lord Lyon Playfair over the impact of Russian and Polish (Jewish) immigration in the United Kingdom and the treatment of these immigrants in the United States

    1895(14th of Adar, 5655): Purim

    1895: It was reported today that it will cost $80,000 to build a new facility for Beth Israel Hospital which now using a building on East Broadway owned by the Hebrew Free School

    1895: In an article entitled “Emanu-El’s Fifty Years,” the New York Times describes plans for the celebration of Temple Emanu-El’s fiftieth anniversary which will be held on April 12, 13 and 14th.  The article also provides a brief history of the Reform Movement and the milestones in the history of New York’s leading Reform congregation.

    1896:Dr. Reuben Bierer, chief rabbi of Sofia, announces that he considers Herzl to be the Messiah. The newspaper "Ha-am" in Kolomea places itself at Herzl's disposal.

    1896: Theodore Herzl described his first meeting with Reverend William Hechler in today’s diary entry.  Herzl described Hechler as an enthusiastic Zionist who wants introduce him to the various German leaders who are friends of the Anglican minister.

    1896: In Pittsburgh, PA, Anselm and Sophie Irene Loeb, the noted child welfare worker, were married today.

    1897: The will of the late Simon Goldenberg, who left an estate valued at $200,000 in real property and $1,000,000 in personal property was filed for probate today.

    1897: The Charity Ball for the benefit of the Montefiore Home which is being sponsored by the Young Ladies’ and Gentlemen’s League will take place this evening at Carnegie Hall, under the leadership of Leon Hirsch, who is the group’s President. 

    1898: Funeral services for Moses Bruckheimer will be held today at Beth Elohim in Brooklyn

    1898: At today’s meeting of the House of Commons Committee “inquiring into the evils of money lending”
    Sir George Lewis “condemned the business in the strongest terms saying it frequently cost the victims
    2000 percent” and speaking as a Jew he could say that the Jewish community “loathed and despised those
    who engage in such activity.

    1898: Fifteen thousand people are expected to attend tonight’s annual Fête and Bal Champêtre at
    Carnegie Hall sponsored by the Young Ladies’ and Gentlemen’s League of the Montefiore Home for

    1902(1st of Adar II, 5662): Rosh Chodesh Adar II

    1902(1stof Adar II, 5662): Seventy-two year old author and social reformer Jenny Hirsch died today in Berlin.

    1905(3rdof Adar, 5665): Fifty-nine year old Elijah David Rabinowitz-Teomim (ADeReT), a Lithuanian born Rabbi who made Aliyah at the turn of the century passed away today and was buried on the Mount of Olives.

    1905: Ernst Gräfenberg earned his doctorate after studying medicine in Göttingen and Munich. Another intellectual casualty of the Nazis, this doctor who had served in the German Army in World War and who developed the IUD, would flee to the United States in the 1930’s.

    1906: Sixty-seven year old Eugene Richter, a German political leader who defended the Jews during the growing waves of German anti-Semitism that marked the last decades of the 19th century passed away.

    1910: Karl Lueger, the sixty-five year old anti-Semitic mayor of Vienna passed away.

    1911: Jerome Kern’s “La Belle Paree” starring Al Jolson, opened at the Winter Garden Theatre.

    1913: Birthdate of Canadian composer John Jacob Weinzweig. The son of Jewish immigrants from Poland, he received his first formal study of music in mandolin at the Workmen's Circle Peretz School.

    1915: The American Jewish Relief Committee for Suffers from the War” made its first detailed report public today sowing that it has collected approximately $550,000 of which $472,000 has been sent to various countries in Europe.

    1915: The Frankfurter Zeitung published a letter that had first appeared in the Hambruger Israelitische Familienblatt written by a Jewish soldier, who with his brother had joined the German Army even though they had been denied German citizenship. According to the letter, one brother had been killed in battle and the surviving brother wanted his family to know that it was not a piece of paper that made them Germans. It was their “sentiments that made them Germans.”  Feeling this way, they could not let others fight while they remained spectators.  “The hero’s death is better than shame.”

    1918: Birthdate of Isaac Rosenfeld, the Chicago born author who wrote Passage from Home in 1946.

    1918:  Warner Brothers released its first major film “My Four Years in Germany." The corporate name honors the four founding Warner brothers, Jewish brothers who emigrated from Poland to London, Ontario, Canada, Harry Warner (1881–1958), Albert Warner (1883–1967), Sam Warner (1887–1927) and Jack L. Warner (1892–1978).

    1920: In the wake of Arab attacks on Jewish citizens, Major-General Louis Bols, the Officer Administering the Government of Palestine, issued an order prohibiting further demonstrations in Jerusalem.

    1925(14thof Adar, 5685): Purim

    1929(28thof Adar I, 5689): Seventy-seven year old German Jurist Victor Gabriel Ehrenberg passed away.

    1929: In New York, Lewis Steiger, the proprietor of men’s clothing business and his wife Rebecca gave birth to Samuel Steiger “a New Yorker who transformed himself into a Western rancher, served five terms in the House as a Republican from Arizona…” (As reported by William Yardley)

    1929: The New York Times reports on the upcoming opening of “the Warner Brothers' ambitious Vitaphone production which will open at the Winter Garden, featuring Dolores Costello and George O'Brien” which is a cinematic treatment of the Biblical story.

    1929: Birthdate of “Stephen Myron Schwebel is an American jurist and expert on international law.”

    1932: It was reported today that when Benjamin Cardozo is sworn in next week as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, there will finally be enough Justices to constitute a quorum so that the Court can hear the government’s appeal of a consent decree by the lower court in an anti-trust case involving the nation’s meatpackers.  The death of Justice Holmes and the recusal of Justices Hughes, Stone and Sutherland had meant that there were not enough Justices to hear the case.

    1933: Michael Siegel, a Jewish lawyer who complained about the police “is forced to walk through Munich barefoot while carrying a sign reading ‘I will never complain to the police again.’”

    1933: Victor Klemperer writes in his diary “Hitler elected as Chancellor. What I had called terror was only a mild prelude. . . . It is amazing how everything collapses . . . prohibitions and acts of violence. And with it, on streets and radio, unrestrained propaganda. On Saturday I heard a piece of Hitler's speech in Konsigsberg. I understood only a few words. But the tone! The unctuous roaring bark, the bark, really, of a clergyman. . . . How long will I be able to retain my professorship?”

    1933: In Germany, premiere of Liebelei directed by Max Ophüls,  based on a play of the same name by Arthur Schnitzler,

    1937: “Chicken Heart” written by Arch Oboler was broadcast for the first time on the radio suspense show,

    1937: The Palestine Post reported from London that Viscount Cranborne, MP, the Foreign Under-Secretary told Commander Oliver Locker-Lampson, MP, that the population of Transjordan was about 300,000