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A collection of Jewish history and current Jewish events, in date format, updated daily in this Jewish history blog.

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    August 9

    48 B.C.E.: Julius Caesar defeated Pompey at the battle of Parsalus. This victory helped to cement Caesar’s position and put an end to Pompey. Considering Pompey’s behavior towards the Jews, including his desecration of the Temple, Caesar’s victory was the preferred outcome.

    378: Roman Emperor Valens who began his reign in 364, was killed by the Visigoths as he led his large to defeat at the Battle of Adrianople.   During his reign Valens followed the course of his predecessors and issued an edict strengthening the Patriarchate.  He issued an edict that exempted “officers of communities subject to the ‘illustrious Patriarch (Nasi)’ from service on municipal councils.  In 368 he issued an edict forbidding the billeting of troops in Synagogues.  Such minor sounding positive notes, makes him better than his imperial peers when it came to treatment of the Jewish people.

    681: Founding of the first Bulgarian Empire. Archaeologists have found traces of Jewish communities in the area that pre-dated the formation of Bulgaria.  The first major movement of Jews into Bulgaria took place early in the 8th century when Jews fled persecution in the Byzantine Empire.

    1471: The Papacy of Sixtus IV began.In Italy the reign of Sixtus IV marks a high point of tolerance. The pope used Jewish physicians, and perhaps employed Jews for the collection, copying, and translation of Hebrew works. He refused to canonize Simon of Trent, allegedly a victim of Jewish ritual murder. It is clear, however, that the pope's tolerance was offset, outside his own domains, by local hostility. A generous bull of 1479 concerning the Jews of Avignon was questioned and subsequently withdrawn. In November 1478 the pope issued a bull investing Ferdinand and Isabella with extraordinary powers to appoint inquisitors in all parts of Castile.” (Jewish Virtual Library)  This was the first step in what would lead to the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492.

    1506: Prince Yaroslavitch established the community of Pinsk. At the same time, he reconfirmed the rights given to the Jews by King Alexander Jagello, King of Lithuania.

    1612: Thirty-five year old Count Philip Ludwig II who invited Jews to settle in Hanau, “permitted them to build a synagogue and gave them legal status” in spite of opposition from the Christian clergy passed away today.

    1732(18th of Av, 5492): Rabbi Yaakov Culi the Talmudist and Biblical commentator who was the grandson of Moses ibn Habib, passed away in Constantinople.

    1773: Adoption of the "General-Juden-Reglement" which provided the rules used to govern the newly acquired Jewish subjects that Frederick the Great acquired from the partition of Poland.

    1807(5th of Av): Rabbi Ze’ev Lesh, author of Kedushat Yisrael, passed away

    1819: With the mobs crying “Hep, hep!” an anti-Semitic riot broke out in Frankfort.

    1821: Birthdate of Austrian poet Heinrich Landesmann.

    1826(6th of Av, 5586): Meir Ben Moses Kurnik, “the German rabbi and calendar maker from Glogau” passed away today at Hamburg.

    1827: Birthdate of William Morris Stewart, the Senator from Nevada who defended the Jews of Romania from an attack by Senator Sprague.  Sprague said the Jews were to blame for their suffering because of the economic success. “Mr. Stewart said he hoped Mr. Sprague did not mean to imply that when a man gets rich he ought to be killed.” Senator Sprague gave a faint smile but made no reply.

    1828: Birthdate of Joseph Eduard Konrad Bischoff who gained fame as Conrad von Bolanden the author of Judas Makkabaeus, a novella which appeared in Der Gefangene von Kuestrinin 1885

    1832: The seconds for James Jones Stark, who refused to apologize for calling Phillip Minis a “damned Jew” and the seconds for Minis met in Savannah to discuss the terms for the duel between the two men.

    1850(1st of Elul, 5610): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1850(1st of Elul, 5610): Miss Rachel Myers Cohen of Philadelphia passed away at the age of 70.

    1855:As further proof of the existence of a Jewish community from the earliest days of the Lone Star State, The San Antonio Texan reported today on the excitement that has gripped this city during its recent election. "In fact the excitement reached every class of our citizens, old and young, rich and poor, male and female, Protestant, Catholic and Jew..."

    1855: Birthdate of author Dorothea Gerard, the native of New Monkland, Scotland near Glasgow whose works include Orthodox, One Year and The Austrian Officer.

    1858: It was reported today that the in Great Britain, the House of Lords, has taken action on two of the pressing issues of the day related to religion. Based apparently on its view of Biblical law, the Lords has expressed its opposition to allowing a widower to marry the sister of his deceased spouse. The Lords has agreed to allow Jews to sit in the House of Commons if they are elected to that chamber.  The Lords has opposed this measure for decades, but as in so many other matters including the repeal of the Corn Laws and the Divorce Bill, the “upper house” has given way to the popular will.  This latest capitulation in the matter of the Jews is seen as further evidence of the erosion of the power of the Lords. [This issue of the Jews sitting in Parliament was, in some respects, part of a much larger battle that was fought throughout most of the 19th century, between the landed gentry and the rising trading, industrial and professional classes.]

    1860: It wasreported today that Baron Alphonse De Rothschild has been appointed Consul-General of Prussia. He is the first Jew who has exercised such functions for that Kingdom.

    1862: Birthdate of David Phillipson, the native of Wabash, Indiana who became one of the leading Reform Rabbis of the late 19th and 20th centuries.

    1864: Birthdate of Roman Dmowski the Polish political leader who, during the inter-war years led a political party that was both anti-Semitic and anti- ethnic Germans.  Among other things, he believed the “wealth of the Jews and the Germans” should confiscated and given to Polish Catholics.

    1868: In Chicago, a hospital on La Salle Avenue sponsored by the United Hebrew Relief Association opened its doors to patients for the first time.

    1871: “France and Algeria” published today described the pitiful conditions of the Jews living in Algeria prior to its colonization by the French.  Among the Moslem “races…hatred of the Jew is a tradition and almost a religious duty.”  During the Moslem “rule in Algeria, the Jews suffered every kind of torment.  They could not walk in the streets after 6 o’clock at night without obtaining a special authorization from the police.  If the night was dark, instead of carrying a lantern, like the Turks and Moors, they had a lighted candle, which the wind blew out continually.  They were obliged to take off their shoes in passing before a Mosque and to kneel before the Kasba.   Jews could only address a” Moslem “with deference and submission.”   The Jews “moved off the pavement to allow” the Moslems “to pass and any infraction of these customs was punished with basonado and fines.”  The Jews “could not ride on horseback and could not ride into town on a donkey.  Any insult toward a “Moslem” was punished by sudden death, inflicted arbitrarily, and often according to the offended Moor’s caprices…” [The idea that all the lands of Islam were hospitable to Jews until the creation of the state of Israel, is obviously not an accurate one.]

    1874: It was reported today that the London School Board had appointed “Mr. Levy, a Jew…as head master of a school in Whitechapel, in a district where the majority of the inhabitants are Jews.”

    1879: It was reported today that much of Sarajevo, the multi-ethnic capital of the Turkish province of Bosnia has been consumed by fire.  Amongst those who have suffered great loss are those living in the Jewish district the home of many of those who dominate the commercial activities of the region.

    1880:Samuel Untermyer married Minnie Carl, daughter of Mairelius Carl of New York City today. “They had three children, Alvin, who served in the 305th Field Artillery in France during the Great War; Irwin, a justice of the Appellate Division of the New York State Supreme Court, and Irene, a philanthropist who married Louis Putnam Myers and, after his death, became the wife of Stanley Richter.”

    1883: “Moritz Scharf, the boy who was the principal witness for the prosecution in the recent trial of a number of Jews at Nyireghyhaza, charged with murdering a girl in order to procure her blood for ritual purposes and who swore he saw the murder committed, has confessed…that his testimony was false.”

    1885: In Detroit, Louis Grossman, the tenth person to serve as Rabbi at Temple Beth El organized the Emerson Circle, “a society for the promotion of general culture.”

    1885: “Strolling Bands” published today described the various wandering musicians found on the Lower East Side and Coney Island.  Membership in the strolling string bands is confined to Polish and Italian Jews.

    1886: “The New Books” column described Court Royal: A Story of Cross Currents, the latest novel by S. Baring Gould.  The novel which is “conspicuous” for its “exceeding bad taste, features Emanuel Lazarus, a Plymouth pawnbroker who is a Jew “of the most repulsive type” and misses no opportunity to ridicule the customs of the Jewish religion.

    1886(8thof Av, 5646): Rabbi Mendes led the Tish’a B’Av services tonight at the 19thstreet Synagogue. The well attended services began with a reading of the 137thPsalm followed by the chanting of Lamentations.

    1886: “Solomon At Long Branch” described various reactions to the large number of Jews who spend their summer at this popular New Jersey resort – ranging from the ugliest ant-Semitism to the most enlightened views of the 19thcentury.

    1888: During today’s meeting of the House of Representative’s Committee on Immigration which was holding hearings in New York, Henry Zeltner described the manner in which many Polish Jews reach the United States.  There are several operatives on Canal Street who “sell steamship tickets to Poles in this country on the installment plan.”  “By paying $3 down, they can have a ticket to America sent to a relative in Poland.  “The relative then comes” to the United States and “works out the price of the ticket.”

    1890: “City and Suburban News” published today listed upcoming events in the New York Metropolitan area including a lecture by Dr. Cyrus Adler at the Jewish Theological Seminary.

    1890: As of today, the leaders of London’s Jewish community have not been able to “discover the exact truth about the…anti-Jewish crusade in Russia.”

    1890: In Pittsburg, Mrs. William Schmidt, Mrs. Sarah Vabelinsky and their two children, all of whom are Polish Jews experienced convulsions and fainting spells which might have been caused by food poisoning.

    1890: Mendel Feldstein told his landlord this morning at breakfast that he had seen two men hide a bag of jewels last night and that they had threatened him when they realized he was aware that he had seen them.

    1890: A list of those charities receiving bequests of a thousand dollars from the late Alexander Bach was published today included: Mount Sinai Hospital, Montefiore Home for Incurables, Hebrew Benevolent and orphan Asylum Society, United Hebrew Charities, Temple Gates of Hope, Hebrew Free School Association, Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews and Temple Israel of Harlem.  The Deborah Nursery was on the list but only for $500.

    1891: It was reported today that “Steve” Ryan of Atlanta, GA “has vowed vengeance upon the whole Jewish race” after he failed to pay the debts he owed to Schloss Brothers & Co according to the attorneys Horowitz and Hirschfield.

    1892: “Extradition proceedings in the case of Harris Blank and Charles Roseneigh,” who have been accused of murdering a Jewish peddler, Jacob Marks came to a close today in Toronto, Canada.

    1893: Following claims by Reverend Herman P. Faust of the Hebrew Christian Mission that the United Hebrew Charities “often refuses to give aid where it is plainly needed” as exemplified by the case of the late Joseph Korman whose family was left destitute by the Jewish agency, “a reporter for the New York Times found” the family “living in rooms that are neat.”  The United Hebrew Charities said that it had offered the family $5 in aid, “which was refused.”  It had not given more because the family had three children who were old enough to work and the agency offered, as was its practice, to find each of them jobs.

    1896: “East Side Roof Garden” published today described  the recently opened facility atop the Hebrew Institute  as “one of the greates blessing that could been devised to give the overcrowded population on the east side a chance to breathe a little fresher air than they can get in the stifling streets and tenements.” Ice water is provided free of charge to the eight hundred people allowed on the roof which is also the scene of evening concerts three times a week.

    1896(30th of Av, 5656): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1896(30th of Av, 5656): Aviation pioneer Otto Lilenthaldied when his glider crashed during a test flight.  Lienthal is referred to some as the Jewish “Wright Brothers” since he is credited by some with making one of the first flights with a heavier than air craft.

    1896: Birthdate of Swiss developmental psychologist Jean Piaget who was treated by Sabina Spiielrein, the Jewish pioneer psychoanalyst who served as his analyst for 8 months in 1921.

    1896: Birthdate of Russian psychologist, Lev Vygotsky.

    1896: Due to the “sever heat” the milk depots funded by Nathan Straus will be kept open all day.

    1896: “Free Milk For Sick Children” published today described the easing of restrictions by Nathan Straus to make free milk available to the children to New York as well as instructions for the best ways for children to drink it.

    1896: Because of the “severe heat” all of the depots dispensing free milk sponsored by Nathan Straus will remain open all day today.

    1899: Israel Zangwill will go to Southampton, Long Island, “as the guest of James Herne, who is “going to state “Children of the Ghetto.”

    1902: Edward VII is crowned King of the United Kingdom(Great Britain, Scotlandand Ireland).  When he was Prince of Wales, Edward broke with conventional social notions by including numerous Jews in his “set.”  On ascending the throne, Edward earned a lasting position of endearment among the Jewish people.  He pressed the Russians to improve the treatment of their Jewish subjects.  When he went to Russia, he insisted on raising the issue with Czar Nicholas II even though his advisors pleaded with him not to.  Edward’s intervention did not improve the situation but he gets high mark for having made the effort.

    1902(6th of Av, 5662): Sixty-six year old Moritz Szeps the editor-in-chief of the Vienna Morgenpost, passed away today.

    1911: It was reported toda that Boston Rabbi Wolf Margolies has agreed to become the Rabbi for United Hebrew Communion also known as Adas Israel.  The congregation has 10,000 members and will reportedly the new rabbi an annual salary of five thousand dollars.

    1912: Birthdate of Giora Yoseftal, the native of Nuremburg who made Aliyah in 1938 and became a leader of Mapai.

    1915: It was reported today that the committee chaired by Congressman Meyer which will be raising money to help Jews in war-torn Europe is devising a plan whereby “storekeepers” will “display cards in their windows “both asking for contributions and showing that he merchants themselves have already given.”

    1918(1st of Elul, 5678): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1918: On the Western Front, three days of fighting during which future Medal of Honor winner William Shemmin was wounded after having “left the cover of his platoon's trench and crossed open space, repeatedly exposing himself to heavy machine gun and rifle fire to rescue the wounded” and then taken command of the platoon “after the officers and senior non-commissioned officers had become casualties.”

    1919: Today, Isaac Babel married Yevgenia Gronfein, the parents of Nathalie Babel Brown who became “the editor of her father’s life and work.”

    1923: The JTA reported that it would not be publishing the Daily News Bulletin tomorrow in observance of the national day of mourning for the death of President Harding

    1924:Samuel Gompers, President of the American Federation of Labor refused to attend the notification ceremony for John W. Davis at Clarksburg, West Virginia. Davis was the compromise candidate for the Democratic Party’s nomination for President, having been chosen on the 103rd ballot.

    1924: A statement from Samuel Gompers that he was "willing to forget and forgive acts of omission and commission resulting from differences of opinion during the war" is contained in a letter made public by Mr. Gompers today incidental to the meeting of the Executive Council of the American Federation of Labor at the Hotel Ambassador.

    1925: A memorial tablet erected to one of its patients by his fellow patients was unveiled today in the MontefioreHospital for Chronic Diseases, at
    Gun Hill Road
    Bainbridge Avenue
    , the Bronx. Although tablets on hospital walls usually represent benefactions to the institution, this one is a tribute from the 600 patients, who were cheered in his lifetime by Max Messinger.
     Confined to his wheel chair for twelve years, Max Messinger was the Good Samaritan of the hospital. His busy brain and fingers, the only parts of his body over which he had control, worked to create amusement for the other patients to whom he brought music, vaudeville, moving pictures, books, magazines and a social club, as well as a monthly paper, which he edited. By establishing contacts with performers and film companies, he was able to present a full performance each week to the hundreds who assembled on crutches and in wheel chairs for relaxation. He received literature which he distributed to the others, and traveled about the wards, especially among the children. With a portable Victrola perched on his wheel chair he played the records that friends had sent. For ten years he was the editor of the monthly paper, The Montefiore Echo, in which he encouraged the others to write. On the walls, with memorials to such noted benefactors as Sir Moses Montefiore, Jacob H. Schiff, Professor Morris Loeb, has been placed a bronze plaque made possible by the small contributions of the patients, a simple expression of gratitude to Max Meninger.

    1926: The Third International Conference of the Ort associations opened in Berlin at a building that formerly housed the Prussian House of Lords. (ORT is an organization that was founded in 1880 to provide assistance and educational opportunities for Russian Jews.  The scope has expanded and it currently offers programs for Jews in over a one hundred countries.)

    1926: The extent of Jewish participation in the struggle for the independence of Poland, in the early days of the movement, unrecognized by the Great Powers and Polish public opinion at large, was impressed upon the public mind today when Josef Pilsudski, first Marshal of Poland and leader of the Legionnaires, kissed publicly a Jewish invalid who fought in the Legion. A highly dramatic scene was enacted when the twelfth anniversary of the crossing by Pilsudski's Legion of the frontier of Congress Poland was celebrated at the Legionnaire Congress, opened today in Kielce, the first Polish city to be occupied by the Polish Legion under Pilsudski's command in 1914. Many Jewish Legionnaires were present at the celebration. Pilsudski publicly kissed a Jewish Legionnaire who lost both his legs on the battlefield. (JTA)

    1927: Birthdate of Marvin Minsky. Marvin Minsky has made many contributions to AI (Artificial Intelligence), cognitive psychology, mathematics, computational linguistics, robotics, and optics. In recent years he has worked chiefly on imparting to machines the human capacity for commonsense reasoning. Minsky is on the faculty of MIT and winner of the ACM Turing Award

    1927The Maccabee soccer team of Palestine left New York today aboard the SS Sinaia.

    1927:M. Henri Torres, counsel for Sholom Schwartzbard, has addressed a cablegram to Louis D. Brandeis, U. S. Supreme Court Justice, asking him to intervene in favor of Sacco and Vanzetti.

    1928: Birthdate of Maximillian Grunfeld the native of Czechoslovakia who gained fame as a American master tailor Martin Greenfield owner of Martin Greenfield Clothiers.

    1929: “Friend Sues To Free Sculptor As Sane” published today described the efforts De Hirsch Margules to gain the freedom of Alfred Dreyfus. The painter and sculptor has petitioned Chief Justice Alfred Frankenthaler on behalf of Alfred Dreyfuss, the sculptor and writer to overturn the order issued by Justice Lydon that has committed his friend to a sanitarium for the insane.  Margules contends that Drefyuss’ mother brought the suit after having been unduly influenced by her other son who is seeking to control the family’s financial affairs.

    1930: Famed cartoon character “Betty Boop” made her debut in the animated film Dizzy Dishes.  Boop and the film were the creation of an Austrian born Jew named Max Fleischer. Fleischer was producing animated cartoons years before Disney’s Steamboat Willie appeared on the screen.

    1933: In Vilna, Chamber of Commerce unanimously votes to proclaim a boycott against German goods in protest against the Nazi treatment of the Jews.

    1933:Edgar Ansell Mowrer, president of the Foreign Correspondents Association in Berlin, resigned from his post in order to secure the release of Paul Goldman, 68-year-old Jewish correspondent of the Vienna Neue Freie Presse, who was charged with "high treason." 

    1935: “China Seas,” an adventure moved produced by Irving Thalberg was released in the United States today by MGM.

    1938: Warner Bros. released “Four Daughters” a musical drama based on a novel by Fannie Hurst directed by Michael Curtiz, produced by Hal B. Wallis with a screenplay co-authored by Jules Epstein, music by Max Steiner

    1938:Today Senator Norris of Nebraska made a recommendation that President Roosevelt appoint Felix Frankfurter, Professor of Law at Harvard University and one of the original New Deal advisers, to the United States Supreme Court to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Justice Benjamin Cardozo.

    1938: In article entitled “Children Go to Palestine,” the New York Timesreports on the migration of 167 Jewish children from Austria and Germany to Palestine.  The youngsters are part of the Third Aliyah and are being settled at Ain Harod and Kfar Jecheskiel.

    1938: The situation in Palestine threatened to grow worse when Moslem ecclesiastical authorities issued a fatwa calling for Iraqi participation in the fighting in Palestine which was labeled a Jihad.  Thousands of young Iraqis responded by rushing to sign up at recruiting stations set up in Baghdad.

    1938: Premiere of “Four Daughters,” a musical directed by Michael Curtiz, produced by Hal Wallis, co-starring John Garfield, with a script by Julius Epstein, music by Max Steiner and co-starring John Garfield who was nominated for an Oscar as Best Actor in a Supporting Role.

    1940(5th of Av, 5700): Rabbi Chaim Ozer Grodzinski, author of Ahi’ezer passed away

    1940: Birthdate of Carl Robert Zelnick, the New York native whose assignments for ABC news included a two year stint as their correspondent in Israel during the 1980’s.

    1941: According to reports at the time the Nazis killed 510 Jews Brest-Litovsk and 296 Jews killed in Bialystok

    1942: Slovakian and Polish Jews were violently removed from the Rejowiec ghetto as the Nazis shut it down.

    1942: Teresa Benedicta of the Cross died in Auschwitz.  Born Edith Stein, Sister Teresa and her sister converted long before World War II.  However, the Catholic Church allowed the Nazis to seize her and thousands of other Jews who had converted to Catholicism and ship them off to the death chambers.  According to Canon Law, Sister Teresa was a Catholic.  But apparently she was not a real Catholic since the Church let her go up in smoke facing the fate of a Jewess named Stein.

    1942: In the first mass deportation to the gas chambers 10,000 Jews were sent from the Borislave ghetto to the Belsen death camp.

    1942: Two hundred Jews escape into the forests of Mir. During that week, another 6,000 would die in Naliboki, Lubcz and Karelicze.

    1942: In Winnipeg, Canada Rabbi Yasha Steinberg and his wife Ruth gave birth to director and comedian David Steinberg.

    1942: Birthdate of Richard Michael Suzman, the native of Johannesburg who was an anti-apartheid activist before becoming a leading social psychologist in the United States.

    1943: Birthdate of French art historian Michel Melot author of The Impressionist Print.

    1944: German jurist Karl Sack was arrested today for his part in the attempt to assassinate Hitler on June 20th.

    1945: Birthdate of Avraham Poraz, the native of Bucharest who made Aliyah in 1950 and served in the Knesset and as Minister of the Interior.

    1948: The first envoy from the USSR arrived in Israel today,

    1948: In Rissani, Morocco, Rabbi Meir and Simcha Abuhatzeira, gave birth Rabbi Elazar Abuhatzeira, known as the “Baba Elazar” the grandson of the Baba Sali, Rabbi Yisrael Abuhatzeira, and the brother of Rabbi David Chai Abuhatzeira of Nahariya who moved to Beersheba in 1966.

    1949: Birthdate of mystery writer Jonathan Kellerman. Kellerman is the author of the series featuring Dr. Delaware. He is also the husband of mystery writer Faye Kellerman.

    1957: In New York, Jerry and Sally Solomon gave birth Deborah Solomon the New Rochelle raised “art critic, journalist and biographer.”

    1952: In Westport, CT, “The Stronger,” an opera by Hugo Weisgall premiered at the White Barn Theatre a venue created by actress Lucille Lortel, the daughter of Anny and Harris Walder and wife of industrialist and philanthropist Louis Schweitzer.

    1960:The Religious Torah Front, an alliance of the Ultra-orthodox parties Agudat Yisrael and Poalei Agudat Yisrael that had been formed in 1955, split today with Poalei Agudat taking two of the Front’s six seats in the Knesset.

    1960: Larry Sherry came in to relieve starter Johnny Podres and protect the team’s victory over the Milwaukee Braves.

    1961: Birthdate of John Phillip Key, the 38th Prime Minister of New Zealand and leader of the New Zealand National Party.

    1961: “Come September” a comedy with a script by Stanley Shapiro and music by Hans J. Salter was released today in the United States by Universal Pictures.

    1965:  Singapore seceded from Malaysia and gained independence.  The Jewish community in Singapore traces its origins back to the early 18th century. The famous Sassoon family established business operations in the middle of the century. David Marshall, a prominent leader of the Jewish community, was known as the “father of Singapore Independence” for his efforts to gain liberation from Great Britain.  Today, Singapore has a small but vibrant Jewish community that supports two venerated houses of worship Maghain Aboth and Chesed El Synagogues.

    1967: Hafez Tahoub, a former Jordanian district judge, and Mussa el-Bitar, an insurance agent, were arrested today by Israeli authorities for instigating a general strike in east Jerusalem that was aimed at crippling the economy in the section of the city that had been occupied by the Jordanians from 1948 until June of 1967.

    1969: Birthdate of New York lawyer and politician Andrew Cohen.

    1969:  Sharon Tate, wife of director Roman Polanski and four others were murdered in Los Angeles.  It would turn out that they were victims of Charles Manson and his gang of killers.

    1973:  At a lecture to the Staff College, Defense Minister Moshe Dayan told the officer “the overall balance of forces is in our favor and this is what decides the question and rules out the immediate renewal of the war.”  These reassuring words would come back to haunt the Israelis when Egypt and Syria would attack two months later in the Yom Kippur War, which almost had disastrous consequences for the survival of the Jewish state. 

    1974: In the wake of the Watergate Scandal, Richard Nixon resigned as President of the United States. Nixon turned out to be “a mixed bag” for the Jewish people.  He began his career on the political right as a fellow-traveler the McCarthy Movement which made him an anathema to many Jews who tended to be moderates and liberals.  As President, he appointed the first Jew, Henry Kissinger to the position of Secretary of State.  During the Yom Kippur War, he pulled out all of the stops to aid Israel.  Yet the Watergate Tapes have him uttering some of the vilest anti-Semitic sentiments that one can imagine coming from the lips of U.S. President. 

    1978: Morton Abramowitz began serving as U.S. Ambassador to Thailand.

    1981(9th of Av, 5741):Tish'a B'Av

    1981: At the All Star Baseball Game in Cleveland, Bob Verdi of the Chicago Tribune sat next to Jerome Holtzman, the popular Jewish baseball writer who wrote for the Sun-Times.  Holtzman indicated to Verdi that he was ready to move from the Sun Times to the Tribune.  Verdi contacted George Langford, the Trib’s sports editor, setting in motion Holtzman’s switch from Chicago’s #2 paper, to the WindyCity’s # 1 paper.

    1982:Grenade-throwing Palestinians burst into the Jo Goldenberg deli in Paris and sprayed machine-gun fire which killed six, including two Americans, and injuring 21 patrons.

    1983(30th of Av, 5743): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1985: Release date for “Pee-wee’s Big Adventure” starring Paul Reubens as Pee-wee Herman

    1993: In Belgium, coronation of King Albert II during which Queen Paola wore a yellow coat that was designed by Olivier Strelli, who was born Nissim Israel at Kinshasa in 1946 and developed “a chain of male and female clothing and accessory boutiques in Belgium, Switzerland, France and China.”

    1994:Edward P. Djererjian left his post as U.S. Ambassador to Israel.

    1998: The New York Times features a review of Benjamin Disraeli Letters Volume 6: 1852-1856
    Edited by M. G. Wiebe, Mary S. Millar and Ann P. Robson.  Disraeli is Britain’s most famous Jew who was not Jewish.

    2001(20th of Av, 5761):  A suicide bomber struck a busy intersection in Jerusalem, blowing up a Sbarro Pizza Parlor, killing 15, 7 of whom were children  and wounding 130. Hamas and the Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility for the attack. The dead included Zvika Golombek, 26, from Karmiel; Shoshana Yehudit (Judy) Greenbaum, 31 (5 months pregnant), from Passaic, New Jersey, U.S.;Tehila Maoz, 18, from Jerusalem; Frieda Mendelsohn, 62, from Jerusalem; Michal Raziel, 16, from Jerusalem; Malka Chana (Malki) Roth, 15, from Jerusalem; Mordechai Schijveschuurder, 43, from Neria; Tzira Schijveschuurder, 41, from Neria; Ra'aya Schijveschuurder, 14, from Neria; Avraham Yitzhak Schijveschuurder, 4, from Neria; Hemda Schijveschuurder, 2, from Neria;] Lily Shimashvili, 33, from Jerusalem; Tamara Shimashvili, 8, from Jerusalem; Yocheved Shoshan, 10, from Jerusalem; and Giora Balash, 60, from Brazil

    2001(20th of Av, 5761): Seventeen year old Aliza Malka was killed by terrorists “in a drive-by shooting.”

    2005: Eric Edelman began serving as Under Secretary of Defense for Policy.

    2005:  The Jerusalem Post reported on The Dry Bones Project which is the brainchild of Yaakov Kirschen, creator of the popular Dry Bones Cartoons and is intended to use humor to fight anti-Semitism.  For more info on the project, go to

    2005:  Haaretz reported on the fourteenth meeting of World Jewish Congress of Jewish Studies held this week at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem.  One of the sessions featured a theoretical debate on the question of "Teaching Mysticism in Academia."  Discussion of this topic in an academic form highlights renewed interest among the mainstream Jewish community in the topic of mysticism within the framework of Judaism.

    2005(4th of Av, 5765): Seventy-year old Judith Rossner, author of Looking for Mr. Goodbar passed away.

    2006(15th of Av, 5766):  Eighty-three year old Melissa Hayden, one of the biggest starts in  American ballet passed away.(As reported by Anna Kisselgoff)

    2006(15th of Av, 5766):  Fifteen members of the IDF have been killed and another twenty-five wounded in the fight against Hezbollah.

    2007: The Jerusalem Post reported that the Saudi Arabian government continues to bar Jews and Christians from bringing items such as Bibles, crucifixes and Stars of David into the country and is threatening to confiscate them on sight.

    2007:A 23-year-old Jewish woman was attacked in Noisy-le-Grand, near Paris, by two youths who beat her and shouted anti-Semitic slogans, said the French National Bureau of Vigilance Against Anti-Semitism. The attackers shouted "You dirty Jew" at the woman before stealing the mobile phone she was using and beating her violently about the head and body. Vigilance against anti-Semitism.

    2008(8thof Av, 5768): Shabbat Chazon; Begin reading the Book of Devarim (Deuteronomy)

    2008: Five of Israel's representatives will be competing in the first day of the Olympic Games today.

    2008(8thof Av, 5768): Seventy-four year old Jack Landau “a founder of the Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press” passed away today.

    2008(8thof Av, 5768): In the evening, Fast of Tisha B’Av begins; David Levin chants Chapter Five from the Book of Lamentations  - a sweet voice for a sad occasion.

    2008: The Washington Post reportsthat nearly three months after a federal immigration raid uprooted almost 400 employees at a meatpacking plant in northeastern Iowa, dozens of Somali immigrants are slowly but steadily filling the depleted ranks left by the arrested workers.

    2009: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Art of Harvey Kurtzman: The Mad Genius of Comics“Denis Kitchen and Paul Buhle’s insightful, entertaining and profusely illustrated biographical monograph, which chronicles almost everything Kurtzman accomplished…”

    2009(19th of Av, 5769): Seventy year old Lester Glassner whose penchant for “kitsch” turned him into a major collector of pop culture artifacts, passed away. (As reported by Bruce Weber)

    2009: Gaza militants fired mortars at a crossing into Israel just as Palestinian patients were being transferred for treatment, a Palestinian official said.

    2009:Fervently Orthodox Jews mobbed Jerusalem Mayor Nir Barkat and threw stones at his car.

    2010: This is scheduled to be the final night of this year’s San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.

    2010:Oscilloscope Laboratories said today that it would appeal the rating by the Classification and Rating Administration for "A Film Unfinished," which explores a Nazi propaganda film taken in the Warsaw Ghetto in 1942.

    2010(29thof Av, 5770):  Eighty-eight year old New York real estate tycoon Paul Milstein passed away (As reported by Douglas Martin)

    2010:A New Zealand judge has allowed the kosher slaughter of animals to resume until the lawsuit filed by the Jewish community against the government comes to trial.

    2010:The synagogue of Rabbi Avraham Yitzchak HaCohen Kook, luminary sage and father of modern religious Zionism, was reopened today in southern Tel Aviv 30 years after it closed its doors. The synagogue, Shaarei Torah, is located in the Neveh Shalom neighborhood just north of Yafo (Jaffa). Following the informal re-dedication today amid singing and dancing, the synagogue is now open for daily prayers.

    2011(9th of Ave, 5771): Fast of Tisha B’Av

    2011:The British Jewish community has expressed its shock over the recent rioting which has shaken the UK over the last few days. The Board of Deputies of British Jews called for unity and said today that the community’s thoughts were with the victims.

    2011:Transportation Minister Yisrael Katz, who is a member of the Trajtenberg Committee created to examine the demands of the social-movement protesters, visited the Rothschild Boulevard tent protest on this evening where activists explained to him their discontent with the government, and particularly the minister's, inefficiency

    2011(9th of Av, 5771): Eighty-seven year old David Lewis, the British entrepreneur who founded the Isrotel chain of hotels, which is the country’s large hotel chain, passed away today.

    2011: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest including The Long Night: William L. Shirer and ‘The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich' by Steve Wick

    2012: Jerusalem’s Hazel Hill String Band is scheduled to perform tonight at Petah Tiqva

    2012: Dr. Laibl Wolf is scheduled to deliver a lecture on "The 2012 Secret of Successful Relationships" - Intimacy, Commitment & Exploitation!” at the Chabad Center of Rechavia

    2012:An American Jewish woman, Debra Ryder, is demanding NIS 50,000 in compensation from El Al Israel Airlines Ltd. (TASE: ELAL) for allegedly switching her seat on a flight from the US, because haredi (ultra-orthodox) men refused to sit next to her. She claims that the flight steward moved her to a seat in the back of the plane, which did not meet her medical needs.

    2012:A Brooklyn hardware store clerk pleaded guilty today to charges he abducted and dismembered an 8-year-old boy who lost his way home. The guilty plea, to charges of second-degree murder and kidnapping, guarantees Levi Aron a sentence of 40 years to life in a case that traumatized the victim’s tight-knit Orthodox Jewish community.

    2012:Al-Quds also reported that this morning, that Mossad had transferred a list of names to Egyptian Intelligence that contained nine names of terrorists connected to the attack in Rafah.

    2012: David Kilimnick, Razorback by birth – Israeli by choice, is scheduled to perform The Aliyah Monologues: Tour of Funny through the Holy Land at the Off The Wall Comedy Club in Jerusalem.

    2012: Janet Maslin reviewed two books that might be of special interest to Jewish readers--Double Cross: The True Story of the D-Day Spiesby Ben Macintyre and Agent Garbo:The Brilliant, Eccentric Secret Agent Who Tricked Hitler and Saved D-Day by Stephen Talty

    2012(21st of Av, 5772): Forty-seven year old “comic essayist” David Rakoff passed away today. (As reported by Margalit Fox)

    2012(21st of Av, 5772): Seventy-seven year old Holocaust survivor turned New York political powerhouse Raymond B. Harding, passed away today. (As reported by Robert McFadden)

    2013: “Blumenthal” and “Awake Zion” are scheduled to be shown at the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.

    2013: “Fill the Void,” a film that tells the story an Orthodox Chassidic family from Tel Aviv is scheduled to open at Century 16 in Anchorage, Alaska, making it the second theatre in the state to show the film.

    2013 “Former Military Intelligence chief Amos Yadlin warned today that the West's one dimensional perception of Iran's nuclear program, focusing solely on the uranium enrichment path to a nuclear weapon, could enable the Islamic Republic to build a plutonium bomb without detection.” (As reported by the Jerusalem Post)

    2013:An Israeli Air Force drone reportedly struck a jihadist rocket launcher in the Sinai Peninsula near the Israeli-Egyptian border, killing four suspected terrorists who were planning to launch missiles at Israel, Egyptian security sources told Reuters today.

    2014: "Automonuments", a solo exhibition by New York based Israeli artist Niv Rozenberg is scheduled to come to an end today.

    2014(13thof Av, 5774); Sixty year old Joseph Raskin, an Orthodox Rabbi from Brooklyn was gunned down this morning as he walked to Shabbat services at Bais Menachem, a Northeast Miami-Dade Synagogue.

    2014(13thof Av, 5774): Eighty-four New York real estate developer Arthur G. Cohen passed away today.

    2014: In Coralville, Iowa, Agudas Achim is scheduled to show “The Big Dig,” a “comedy lampooning…the madness of everyday life in Israel.”

    2014: “Amid efforts to revive stalled talks in Cairo, Israeli forces and Palestinian militants in the Gaza Strip traded blows again today, with a volley of rockets fired toward Israel, and the Israeli military striking dozens of targets across the coastal enclave.” (As reported by Laura King and Batsheba Sobelman)

    2015: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish writers and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Days of Aweby Lauren Fox and We’re Still Here Ya Bastards:How the People of New Orleans Rebuilt Their City by Roberta Brandes Gratz

    2015: The Jewish Museum of Maryland is scheduled to host a screening of Charlie Chaplin’s “The Great Dictator.”

    2015: In Amherst, MA, the Yiddish Book Center is scheduled to host a challah baking demonstration and talk on cuisine by Tina Wasserman, author of Entrée to Judaism: A Culinary Exploration of the Jewish Diaspora and Entrée to Judaism for Families: Jewish Cooking and Kitchen Conversations with Children

    2015: The Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust is scheduled to host a talk by Betty Cohen the Amsterdam native who “spent two years in hiding” until she and her family “were discovered and sent to concentration camps.”
    2015:April Slabosheski , the Holocaust Educator at the Oregon Jewish Museum and Center for Holocaust Education is scheduled to teach “Holocaust Memorials: Context, Interpretation, Memory,” a class “where participants will learn about concepts that underlie widely known Holocaust memorials throughout the world.”



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    August 10

    612 BCE: Sinsharishkun, King of the Assyrian Empire was killed and his capital city of Nineveh was destroyed.  This is the same Assyria that destroyed the Northern Kingdom and laid siege to Jerusalem.  This is also the same Nineveh to which God had sent Jonah.

    70: According to sources, this is the date on the secular calendar when the Second Temple was destroyed.

    117: Start of the reign of Hadrian as Roman Emperor.   At first Hadrian seemed to be a friend of the Jews.  He executed the anti-Jewish governor of Judea and promised to rebuild Jerusalem as a Jewish city.  For some unknown reason, he turned against the Jews banning circumcision throughout the Empire and announcing the decision to build a major temple to Jupiter in Jerusalem.  The Jews responded with what has become known as Bar Kochba's Rebellion.  The fighting was intense on both sides and resulted in the complete desolation of the land by the Romans.  Hadrian banned Jews from Jerusalem and renamed the city Aelia Capitolina.  He even had a copy of the Torah burned on the Temple Mount.  Antonius Pius, Hadrian's successor repealed many of Hadrian's anti-Jewish decrees including the bans on Torah study and circumcision.  But it was too late to save the Jewish community of the Promised Land.

    1267: Birthdate of King James II of Aragon. James would prove to show greater toleration towards his Jewish subjects than his grandfather James I had.  . He permitted Jewish refugees from France to settle in Barcelona. In recognition of Jewish financial support for his equipping his fleet, the King released many Jewish communities from paying their taxes for a period of several years.  James also protected the Jews from popular anti-Semitic uprisings. In Barcelona in 1285, Berenguer Oller, announced that he planned to kill the local nobles and the Jews following which he would plunder their homes.  The King intervened to prevent the violence.  Whether he was more concerned about the well-being of the nobility or the Jews is unknown.

    1391: The anti-Semitic rioting came to an end with Barcelona with an untold number of Jews converting at the point of the proverbial sword.

     1391: Massacre of the Jews in Gerona, Spain.

    1397: Birthdate of Albert II, who as Holy Roman Emperor Agreed to accept 900 gulden from the city of Augsburg in return for allowing them to expel their Jews.

    1492: A large group of Jews from Spain, thousands strong, arrived in the Port of Naples. Jews from Sardinia soon joined them. 

    1675: The Portuguese-Jewish synagogue opens in Amsterdam.

    1762: Birthdate of Joshua Montefiore, an English lawyer, soldier, and journalist who would eventually move to the United States where he “edited Men and Measures, a weekly political journal” before finally settling in St. Albans, Vt.

    1778: Gotthold Lessing, while having trouble sleeping, comes up with the inspiration for his play, “Nathan the Wise.”

    1794: Birthdate of Leopold Zunz  also known as Yom Tov Lipmann Tzuntz, "the German Reform rabbi and writer who was the founder of what has been termed the "Science of Judaism" (Wissenschaft des Judentums), the critical investigation of Jewish literature, hymnology and ritual.

    1807: In Fürth, Marcus and Jeannette Königswarter gave birth to Jonas Königswarter, the husband of Josephine Königswarter who was a leading member of the financial community in Vienna whom Emperor Francis Joseph “decorated with the Order of the Iron Crown of the third class, elevated to the knighthood, and raised to the baronetage.

    1810: Birthdate of Count Camillo di Cavour, the Italian statesman who was part of the triumvirate that created the modern Italian state.  Cavour worked with Baron James de Rothschild who secretly provided the funds with which the Piedmont nobleman was able to fight the Austrian.  Cavour enjoyed good working relations with members of the Jewish community, including “Isaac Arton, his confidential secretary and ‘faithful lieutenant’.”

    1815: In an attempt to attract non-Hispanic Europeans to Cuba and Puerto Rico, the Spanish government issued the Royal Decree of Graces which allowed non-Spaniards to own land on the islands.  While Jews did settle in the islands, the decree really did not work to their advantage since only Catholics were allowed to own land. 

    1818: In Bavaria, Suesel Schloss and his wife gave birth to Moses Schloss who would move to New York and become a successful dry goods merchant.

    1819: Anti-Semitic riots continue for a second day in Frankfort.

    1819: Birthdate of Julius Landsberger, the native of Upper Silesia who was the rabbi at Darmstadt for thirty year and who with his wife Pauline gave birth to Richard Landsberger, a pioneer in the field “biological desntistry.”

    1821: Missouri becomes the 24th state to join the Union.  Jewish immigrants, many from Germany, had settled in the area since its territorial days.  The first known Jew settled in St. Louis in 1807.  The first Jewish lawyer settled in St. Louis in 1817.

     1824: Under Czar Alexander I, all foreign Jews were prohibited from settling in Russia. Alexander I, after an initial period of liberalism, reverted to the anti-Jewish proclamations of his predecessors. It began with forbidding Jews to have Christian servants. After that came the prohibition of settlement. The culmination of his policies came just before when all Jews were banished from the larger villages in the Mohilev and Vitbesk districts.

    1843: Sixty-nine year old anti-Semite Jakob Friedrich Fries passed away. “ In 1816 he wrote Über die Gefährdung des Wohlstandes und des Charakters der Deutschen durch die Juden ("On the Danger Posed by the Jews to German Well-Being and Character"), advocating among other things a distinct sign on the dress of Jews to distinguish them from the general population, and encouraging their emigration from German lands. He blamed the Jews for the ascendant role of money in society and called for Judaism to be "extirpated root and branch" from German society.”

    1845: Birthdate of German physician Mortiz Litten, the son-in-law of pathologist Ludwig Traube who was the son of a Jewish wine merchant

    1851: Eighty-nine year old German theologian Heinrich Eberhard Gottlob Paulus, the anti-Semite who authored "The Jewish National Separation: Its Origin, Consequences, and the Means of its Correction" passed away today.

    1854: The Jewish Theological Seminary of Breslau opened today.

    1858(30th of Av, 5618): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1859: It was reported today that “there has recently arrived in this City an eminent Jewish traveler, a Mr. Benjamin, the object of whose life hitherto has been to explore the interior of the Asiatic and African continents for the purpose of ascertaining the condition, occupations, hopes,  of his Hebrew brethren.”

    1861: Fifty-nine year old Frederick Julius Stahl, the German lawyer and political leader who converted to Christianity when he was baptized as a Lutheran at the age of 17 passed away today.

    1861: The New York Times reported that “The past week Mr. J.J. Benjamin, a Moldavian traveler and Jew, has been in this city from California. This gentleman's ruling passion appears to be to find out the "Ten Lost Tribes," to accomplish which purpose, he states that he has already traveled over a great portion of the civilized and the uncivilized world. He thinks he has discovered a clue to those missing tribes in Northern Africa and in Asia. Whether or not any such clue exists in this Great Basin, the world will, perhaps, be informed of in due time.”

    [Editor’s Note: Mr. Benjamin and J.J. Benjamin are the same person.  J.J. Benjamin was a Rumanian born Jewish businessman who became historian.  Reportedly he modeled himself as modern day version of Benjamin of Tudela, the famous twelfth century Jewish traveler. He signed many of his writing as Benjamin II.]

    1861: Joshua Pickering enlisted in the Cameron Dragoons a “largely Jewish regiment” that was “the first completed regiment of cavalry ever enlisted in the United States during” the Civil War.

    1862: In a letter written to President Lincoln today, August Belmont persisted in his advocacy of a negotiated peace with the Confederates.

    1868(22nd of Av, 5628): Approximately three months after her last performance, Adah Isaacs Menken passed away while living in Paris. The cause of death was most likely peritonitis, tuberculosis, or the combined ravages of both. She was buried in the Jewish section of the Montparnasse cemetery in Paris.

    1868: Birthdate of Paul M Warburg, the scion of a German banking family, who came to  New York and became a partner in Kuhn, Loeb & Company and an advocate of a “central bank” that took form as the Federal Reserve Board.

    1873: A group of Jewish teachers met at #142 East 40th Street in New York today and formed a committee to develop an organizational plan for a Jewish Teacher’s Association.  The plan will be submitted at a future meeting the time of which has not been established.

    1873:  It was reported today that Anshey Chesed has decided to hire Dr. Isaac M. Wise of Cincinnati to serve as it rabbi.  The congregation has just completed the building of sanctuary on the corner of Lexington and 63rd at cost of $250,000.

    1874:  Herbert Hoover, future President of the United States, was born in West Branch, Iowa. Hoover is best remembered by Jews as the President who nominated Benjamin Cardozo to the Supreme Court in 1932.  In his memoirs, Hoover makes only a brief reference to the appointment.  There is no mention about the fact that he was Jewish.  Hoover was concerned that there might be opposition because appointing Cardozo would mean that there would be two New Yorkers sitting on the High Court.  His Congressional supporters advised him that this would not be a problem.  So, thanks to a Quaker from Iowa, the Supreme Court found itself with two Jewish Justices (Frankfurter being the other) at a time when anti-Semitism was on the rise in the United States and Europe.

    1874: Queen Victoria allowed Solomon Benedict de Worms to use his Austrian title of Baron in Great Britain.

    1874: Sherrif Honscheidt of McClean County, Illinois, wrote a letter today addressed to George Walling, the Superintendent of the Police in New York City containing information about the murder Benjamin Nathan.  According to the Sherriff, a German Jew named Levy came to his house and confessed that he had killed Nathan.  He gave the address of the crime; described the murder weapon; and claimed that the motive was robbery.  Levy says he had an accomplice whose name he will only reveal once he is back in New York.  He claims that he has confessed because “he has had no rest nor peace of mind since he committed the crime.”  The Sheriff is not sure if Levy is telling the truth if he is just some “humbug” looking for a free trip to New York. (Nathan was a prominent Jewish member of the business community.  His shocking murder provided a great deal of scandal, but never produced a perpetrator)

    1875(9th of Av, 5635): Tish'a B'Av

    1875: it was reported today that “the anniversary of the destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem will be celebrated throughout the world to-day by the conservative Jews, as a day of mourning.”

    1877(1stof Elul, 5637): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1878: In Stettin master tailor Max Döblin and his wife Sophie gave birth to prolific author Bruno Alfred Döblin who would convert to Catholicism while living the life of a refugee in Los Angeles during WW II.

    1879: According to reports published today, there were eight societies in Great Britain devoted to converting Jews to Christianity and a dozen more in continental Europe devoted to the same purpose.  Together, these organizations have a half million dollars to spend and employ 250 in this work.  The London Society for the Propagation of Christianity Among the Jews is the oldest and most prominent of these groups headquartered in London.  The society has 34 offices encompassing those cities in Europe, along the Mediterranean and in Abyssinia that have large Jewish populations. [These societies had little success.  Based on anecdotal evidence, most conversions took place in Western Europe and Britain for purposes of social and economic progress.]

    1879:  It was reported today that the Jews play an activity role in the philanthropic activities in London since the synagogues of that city have given $3,460 to the hospital fund which is supported by donations from all denominations, “except perhaps the Catholics.”

    1879: As various hotels and resorts began excluding Jews one merchant published an ad today designed to further their inclusion. “Although the Jews have been excluded from Manhattan Beach, they are not prohibited on account of their religious principles from buying Humphrey’s Parisian Diamonds.  They are for sale only at Humphrey’s Jewelry Store…Price list sent free.”

    1881: Over 2,500 people attended the corner-stone laying ceremony for the Home for the Aged and Infirmed in Yonkers.  Joseph E. Newberger gave the opening remarks on behalf of the B’Nai Brith and was followed by Norton Otis, the May of Yonkers.

    1883: “The Outrages in Hungary” published today described the violent anti-Semitic reaction to the acquittal of Jews who have been standing trial at Nyireghyhaza on charges of ritual murder i.e. killing a young Christian girl.  Joseph Scharf, the father of Moritz Scharf, has been attacked several times because his son’s testimony during the trial.  There have been several outbreaks of arson aimed at the Jewish population of the town in which the dead girl lived.

    1883: August Rholing, notorious slanderer of Jews and the Talmud brought charges of defamation against Rabbi Joseph Samuel Bloch of Vienna

    1883: The escape by Theodore Hoffman, who was convicted of murdering Zife Marks, a Jewish peddler, was thwarted today.

    1884: It was reported today that Jews in England are seeking to have their government intervene on behalf of their co-religionists in Romania who have been harmed by “the new hawking law.”

    1884: It was reported today that Novoje Vremya, “the chief Jew-baiting organ in Russia” has received a warning from the authorities to cease its attacks on Jews.

    1884 During today’s Earthquake in New York City, Jews living on Ludlow Street threw their furniture out of their windows and fearfully ran out of their houses carrying trunks, valises and mattresses.

    1886(9thof Av, 5646): Tish’a B’Av

    1886: “The Fast of AB” published today described “the fast of Ab or ‘black fast,’ as it is it is sometimes called among the Jews”  which “is one of the most solemn occasions in the Hebrew worship and scrupulously observed by orthodox Jews” because “it commemorates the destruction of the two temples of Judea.”

    1887: Abe Furst and Dr. Charles H. Rosenthal both of Cincinnati, Ohio, each donated $10 to the Union of American Hebrew Congregations.

    1887: The Sanitarium for Hebrew Children are providing another free excursion today for the poor children of the Lower East Side.

    1888: The Immigration Committee chaired by Congressman Ford met today at the Westminster Hotel. While Ford and Congressman Guenther tried to paint a picture of an invasion of immigrant paupers, they were stymied by testimony of at least one Jewish witness.  When Ford asked, “Do all the immigrants have the means of subsistence when they reach here?” the response was “If they have not, they are cared for by relatives and friends here.  Certainly they do not become a charge upon the public.  The records of the state Board of Charities will not show that a single Jew has been cared for by public charity.” (This sounds painfully familiar to those who have been listening to the current debate about immigration in the United States)

    1890; “Dr. Cyrus Adler” delivered the sixth in a series of lectures sponsored by the Jewish Theological Seminary at Cooper Union entitled “The Bible and Modern Discoveries with Special Reference to the Geography of Egypt and Palestine” which was attended by a large number of people including several ladies.

    1890: “Waiting for A,B,C” published today relied on information that first appeared in the Edinburgh to traces the history of written alphabets including a listing of ancient inscriptions, one of which is “the Hebrew text…known as the Siloam inscription” which  “is very clearly of the age of Hezekiah” approximately 700 BCE.

    1890: Birthdate of Solomon Rosenthal, the native of Vilnius who became a chess master.

    1890 It has been determined that the Polish Jews who fell ill yesterday were not victims of food poisoning.  They had all drank coffee deliberately poisoned by Mrs. Levy, the wife of a second-hand clothing proprietor.  No reason has been given for her action. As to the victims, Jacob Schmidt and Jacob Levenson will recover but two of the mothers and their daughters are still in danger. The mass poisoning was made possible by the fact these Jews cook and eat a communal meal at the Sabbath.

    1891: “A Rabbi At Chautauqua” published today described the incredulity of some Christians that Rabbi Gustav Gottheil is scheduled to speak before this organization.

    1891: “Caring For Jewish Immigrants” published today described plans that leaders of the Jewish Alliance of America  have to help their co-religionists arriving in this country including helping them to settle in several states, find work for those “who are skilled mechanics or laborers” and “to purchase cheap arable lands for those” who want to farm.

    1892: The SS Kehrwider sailed from Hamburg today bound for New York carrying a significant number of passengers who were poor Jews fleeing Poland and Russia.

    1893: James O’Mara and William Davison sole the pack of a Jewish peddler went he entered Patrick Devitt’s saloon in Brooklyn.  Two policemen arrived and arrested the thieves.

    1893(28th of Av, 5653): Rabbi Naftali Zvi Yehuda Berlin passed away today in Warsaw. Born in Mir, Russia, in 1816, he “was also known as Reb Hirsch Leib Berlin, and commonly known by the acronym Netziv.” Berlin “was…dean of the Volozhin Yeshiva and author of several works of rabbinic literature in Lithuania.”

    1895: “A score of charitable” people from Brooklyn who are spending the summer at Tannnersville, NY, hosted a fund raiser for the benefit of the Hebrew Santitarium.

    1895: Lucian Sanial spoke first tonight at the mass meeting in Union Square sponsored by several Jewish organizations held “express sympathy with the locked-out hat and cap makers.”

    1895: During the mass meeting at Wlhalla Hall on Orchard Street, it was announced that the strike by the tailors, most of whom are Jewish has come to an end.

    1896(1st of Elul, 5656): Rosh Chodesh Elul 

    1896: “Education in Germany” published today provided a statistical analysis by religion of the Germans “attending the universities and other higher educational institutions.  For every 10,000 Protestants, 50 of them are students; for every 10,000 Roman Catholics, 32 are students: for every 10,000 Jews, 333 are students. “These figures testify to the extreme value set on a university education by Jews in Germany and explain how it is that young Hebrews are pressing into all the learned professions in far greater proportion than their ratio to the entire population of the country would warrant.” (While the Jews may have been elated about this, many Germans thought the progress of the Jews had to be part of some evil plot which, however irrationally, fueled the flames of anti-Semitism)

    1897(12thof Av, 5657): Moses Schloss, a native of Bavaria who has been a successful merchant in New York for the past 50 years passed away today which was his 79thbirthday.

    1898: In Wellington, Nevada, the sheriff is about to close down the Occidental Colony Company which was organized and operated by Jewish immigrants from Russia.

    1900: Birthdate of Philip Levine, the Russian born American pioneer in the research “of serums and antibodies who discovered the Rh factor in human blood.” (As reported by Peter B. Flint)

    1902: Birthdate of Canadian Oscar winning actress Norma Shearer who converted to Judaism in 1927 when she married movie mogul Irving Thalberg.

    1902: in Podgorze, Kraków's Jewish quarter, Rosa Philippine (née Blum) and Ignatz Siodmak, a devout Hasidic scholar gave birth to Kurt Siodmak who gained fame as “novelist and screenwriter” Curt Siodmak.

    1903: The New York Times features a review of a compendium of the writings of Rabbi Kaufmann Kohler entitled Studies in Jewish Literature.

    1905:  The Russians and the Japanese begin peace talks at Portsmouth under the watchful eye of President Theodore Roosevelt.  The talks would bring an end to the Russo-Japanese War.  The Russians were humiliated by the defeat.  The Czar did make some half-hearted attempts at democratic reform which was encouraging to the Jews in the emerging Russian middle class.  At the same time, the Slavophiles, extreme Russian nationalists also sought power; trying to convince Nicholas II that Russia would only find greatness when it had rid itself of all Western and foreign (i.e. Jewish) influences.  In the end, nothing changed for the better and the Communists would come to power thirteen years later. Russian anti-Semitism gave the Japanese an edge in fighting the war.  The Russian government had refused to take responsibility for pogrom. It had blocked American attempts to investigate the treatment of the Russian Jews. When war broke between the Russians and the Japanese, several American Jewish financiers were instrumental in insuring that Japanese war underwritten which meant that the Japanese would have money to fight the war. 

    1907: At Cowes, Lord Rothschild is one of the notable guests aboard the famed yacht Margaritta one of only two vessels of interest at this fabled nautical event.

    1910: The Philadelphia Inquirer reported that two valuable silver cups had been stolen from the Sons of Israel Synagogue in Camden, NJ.

    1911: Samuel Gompers, President of the American Federation of Labor, headed a delegation of men interested in labor publications who appeared before the Congressional commission on second-class mail matter to protest against the raise in the rates.

    1912: Pitcher Barney Pely “known as ‘the Yiddish Curver’” appeared in his last major league as a member of the Washington Senators of the American League.

    1913: The Second Balkan War comes to an end with the signing of the Treaty of Bucharest. As a result of the war, the final boundaries for the modern Greek state were finally established.  This led to an end of the “protected status” many Balkan Jews had enjoyed under Ottoman rule as they became citizens of Greece.

    1913: The treaty ending the Second Balkan War signed today gave the town of Monastir, which had been home to a Jewish community since Roman times became part of Serbia and was renamed Bitola although the local Jews continued to refer to it by its Ottoman name.

    1914: Samuel Prince, a former Assemblyman from the east side and a labor agitator passes away and includes a bequest of fifty dollars to Samuel Gompers for use in supporting strikers in Colorado.

    1916: Chief Rabbi of Salonica received a telegram from the Minister of Interior stating the government has taken steps to ensure tranquility for the Jews on Corfu, after a blood libel accusation arose. 

    1917: Dr. Reuben Blank sent a telegram today from Petrograd to Lucien Wolf in London that “in the press and proclamations” the “extreme Russian reactionaries, the extreme revolutionaries and the Black Hundreds” “go so far as to throw upon the Jews the entire responsibility for the war and for the obstacles in the way of a peace with Germany”

    1917: The Central Committee of Council of Workmen and Soldiers” having learned “of the revival of anti-Semitic activity in the northwestern and southwestern provinces” dispatched “fifteen delegates to the affect districts to counteract the agitation.”

    1919(14th of Av, 5679):The Ukrainian National Army massacres 25 Jews in Podolia Ukraine

    1920: The Turkish government renounced its sovereignty over Eretz Yisrael and recognized the British mandate.

    1920:  Birthdate of Basketball coach William Red Holzman When he retired, Red Holzman was the second winingnest coach in NBA historywith 696 victories in regular season play, mostly with the New York Knickerbockers. His Knick teams won NBA championships in l970 and l973. Red was elected to the Basketball Hall of Fame as a coach in 1986. Incidentally, the only man ahead of Holzman on the all-time win list was another Jew, Red Auerbach of the Boston Celtics.

    1920(26th of Av, 5680): Eighty-four year old pioneer physician Adam Politzer and a founder of otology passed away today.

    1923: In Carslbad, Dr. Glickson, a delegate to the Thirteenth Zionist Congress denounced the policy of the British administration in Palestine toward the Jews of the country and toward the Zionist movement. He declared that "the Government hinders the upbuilding of the Jewish national home."

    1923: The American delegation to the Thirteenth Zionist Congress cabled the newly installed U.S. President, Calvin Coolidge, “a message of greeting” including wishes for  a “successful administration.  The Zionists…recalled that the President has on various occasions expressed his admiration of the effort to re-establish Palestine as the Jewish homeland.

    1923: JTA does not publish its daily news bulletin today because it is the National Day of Mourning in memory of President Warren G. Harding.

    1925: More 30,000 members of the ILGWU held a rally today at Yankee Stadium.  The Union was dominated by Jewish members and leaders including Morris Sigman the president from 1923 to 1928 who battled communists and bosses to improve the lot the working men and women of Ameirca.

    1926(30th of Av, 5686): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1928: Birthdate of Eddie Fisher.  Fisher’s early fame came as “crooner” and teen-age heartthrob in the 1950’s.  He gained a certain level of infamy when he dumped Debbie to marry Elizabeth Taylor.  Taylor later dumped him after a pubic romp with Richard Burton.  Of such was the news in simpler times.

    1929: Two days before his 17th birthday, historian Max Dimont who had sailed to the United States in steerage aboard the SS Berengaria was discharged from the hospital on Ellis Island and begin the trip to his new home in Cleveland, Ohio with the rest of his family.

    1930: The fourth world congress of the Zionist Revisionists opened in Prague today under the presidency of Vladimir Jabotinsky. The Revisionists constitute the Opposition in the World Zionist Organization.

    1933: In Amsterdam, 225 German-Jewish children, chiefly from the Rhine region, arrived to stay with Dutch Jewish families.

    1933: Der Ernes, the Yiddish language newspaper published in the Soviet Unon, reported that a farmer named Leiser Kabakoff, had been expelled from his collective in the Crimea for his efforts to get other farmers to refrain from working on the Sabbath.

    1937: At the historic plenary session of the 20th Zionist Congress, held in Zurich under the chairmanship of Dr. Stephen Wise, a last desperate attempt was made by Menahem Ussishkin to prevent the adoption of a resolution that was tantamount to the Jewish acceptance of the Peel Report’s principle of Palestine’s partition. The acceptance of this proposal, said Ussishkin, means the end of our historic hope... it will mean that a great misfortune must befell us. Ussishkin criticized Moshe Shertok.

    1937: The Weizmann policy on the partition of Palestine took textual form today in the draft of a resolution submitted to the political resolutions committee of the World Zionist Congress here. This body, elected today, started what promises to be an all-night secret debate on this resolution, particularly on the last two and most crucial points.

    1938: A group of Arabs carried out a daring day time robbery of the Barclays Bank at Nablus.  The proceeds of the action are thought to be a source of funding for the on-going wave of Arab terror and violence which claimed more Jewish victims today when a car filled with Jewish workers approaching an orange grove near Hadera struck a land mine and a Jewish cart driver was wounded by sniper fire as he drove along the road from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem.

    1938: Three Hebrew language dailies, including Davar, published editorials condemning violence that was traced back to the Revisionists wing of the Zionist movement.

    1938: Nuremberg Synagogue is burnt down.

    1940: The government of Rumania passed anti-Jewish racial laws.

    .1942: This was the first of thirteen days when over 40,000 Jews were shipped from Lvov to the death camp at Belzec.  By the end of the month, another 36,000 Jews from Lvov and its surrounding area would be shipped to Belzec where they would meet a similar fate.

    1943(9th of Av, 5703): Tish'a B'Av

    1943(9th of Av, 5703): Twenty-seven more Jews were found in the ‘Aryan' portion of the ghetto in Warsaw and were shot.

    1946: Kitty “Carlisle married playwright and theatrical producer Moss Hart today.

    1948: In another example of how a Jew helped to create American pop culture, Allen Funt's "Candid Camera" TV debuted on ABC.  Long before “reality t.v.” hit it big, Funt showed the world how to laugh with ordinary people doing ordinary things while the whole world (which was much smaller then) watched.

    1948: A concert was held in Tel Aviv attended by Ben Gurion, Golda Meir and Moshe Sharett.

    1950: “Sunset Boulevard” a film noir set in Hollywood directed by Billy Wilder who also co-authored the script, with music by Franz Waxman and co-starring Erich von Stroheim was released in the United States by Paramount Pictures.

    1957: “The Rising of the Moon,” an Irish anthology film featuring Harold Golblatt in “A Minute’s Wait” was released in Ireland today by Warner Bros.

    1959:  Birthdate of actress Rosanna Arquette.

    1962: President Kennedy's Secretary of State Dean Rusk criticized Daniel Schorr's actions in a diplomatic cable today for a checkbook journalism story in which, “Schorr involved himself in a matter which was far beyond his private or journalistic responsibilities and proceeded amateurishly in a matter filled with greatest danger for all concerned.” (This was neither the first time nor the last time that Schorr would draw the ire of a government official including those in Washington and Moscow. 

    1965(12th of Av, 5725): Eighty-eight year old “specialist in criminal law and a founder of the doctrine of international criminal law” Emil Stanisław Rappaport passed away today.

    1970: “Diary of a Mad Housewife,” the film version of the novel by Sue Kaufman, starring Richard Benjamin was released in the United States today by Universal Pictures.

    1972(30th of Av, 5732): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1976: In Toronto, the Paralympic Games in which volleyball player Hagai Zamier earned a Gold Medal, came to a closes.

    1981(10th of Av, 5741): Seventy-five year old Yeruham Cohen, an Arabic-speaker of Yemeni origin who was “an early Israeli undercover soldier” passed away today. He was a top aide to the commander of Israel's underground forces during the country's war for independence in 1948 and also belonged to a unit whose members disguised themselves as Arabs to infiltrate enemy lines.  Mr. Cohen is most famous for his acquaintance with Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt, whom he met in 1948 during the Israeli war for independence while Israeli forces encircled Egyptian troops the southern Negev. According to historical accounts, Mr. Cohen saw the future President while watching the Egyptians retreat, shouted and ran toward him, and they shook hands warmly.

    1980(28th of Av, 5740): Seventy-four year old Karl Wolf, a native of Austria who was the husband of Margit Wolf passed away today in Haifa.

    1981: Pitcher Bob Tufts made his major league debut with the San Francisco Giants.

    1983(1stof Elul, 5743): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1989: Birthdate of Ben Sahar, Israeli born football (soccer) star.

    1990: “Flaterliners” a sci-fi thriller directed by Joel Schumacher, the son of Swedish Jewess, was released throughout the United States today by Columbia Pictures.

    1990: Eighty-two year old Martha Dodd Stern, the daughter of William Dodd, FDR’s first ambassador to Hitler’s Germany, who became an anti-Nazi, passed away today.  (As reported by Glenn Fowler)

    1993: Ruth Bader Ginsburg was sworn as an Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme court making her the second woman, and the first Jewish woman, to serve on the Supreme Court.

    1997: The New York Times book section featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Secret Channels: The Inside Story of Arab-Israeli Peace Negotiationsby Mohamed Heikal and Faith or Fear: How Jews Can Survive in a Christian America by Elliott Abrams

    1997(7th of Av, 5757): Sixty-three year old Professor George Zames “known for his fundamental contributions to the theory of robust control” and who was one of the Jews saved by Japanese Consul Senpo Sugihara passed away today.

    2000:At the U.S. Olympic swimming trials in Indianapolis, Indiana, Dara Torres swam the 100-meter butterfly in a time of 57.86

    2001: “American Pie 2” a sequel to “American Pie” with a story by David H. Steinberg and Adam Herz who also wrote the screenplay and co-starring Eugene Levy was released in the United States today by Universal Studios.

    2002: Thirty-one year old Yafit Herenstein was shot in her home by members of the Al-Aqsa Brigades

    2003: The Sunday New York Times book section includes reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including  When the Chickens Went on Strike: A Rosh Hashanah Tale,Erica Silverman’s adaption of a story by Sholom Aleichem illustrated by Matthew Trueman,  Lay Back the Darkness, a collection of poems by Edward Hirscha Midwestern man with a Jewishheritage and  Ronit Matalon's novel Bliss translated by Jessica Cohen that “focuses on Israel's two pains: the kind it suffers and the kind it inflicts”

    2003(12thof Av, 5763): Sixteen year old Haviv Dadon was “killed by shrapnel from an anti-aircraft shell fired from Lebanon.”

    2005: “In his first speech before the Knesset following his resignation, Netanyahu spoke of the necessity for Knesset members to oppose the proposed disengagement” from Gaza.

    2006(16th of Av, 5766): IDF Staff Sergeant Kobi Idan, 26, from Eilat was killed and at least 16 other soldiers were wounded, nine of them seriously, in the clashes with Hezbollah.

    2006: Twenty-four year old Angelo Frammartino, from Monte Rotondo, Italy was stabbed to death by an Arab terrorist in Jerusalem.

    2006: During the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict, Israeli authors, David Grossman, Amos Oz and A.B. Yehoshua spoke at a press conference calling upon the government to agree to a ceasefire as a basis for talks toward a negotiated solution, describing further military action as "dangerous and counterproductive" and expressing particular concern for the Lebanese government. [Editor’s note - Two days later, Grossman’s 20-year-old son Uri, a staff sergeant in an armored unit, was killed by an anti-tank missile during an IDF operation in southern Lebanon shortly before the ceasefire.]

    2007: The Indianapolis Colts placed tight end Mike Seidman on the injured reserve list

    2007: Colonel Giora "Hawkeye" Epstein “was the primary subject of the "Desert Aces" episode of The History Channel series Dogfights that aired for the first time tonight.”

    2007 (26th of Av): On the secular calendar commemoration of  Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson’s, the third Rebbe of the Chabad dynasty, popularly known as the "Tzemach Tzedek," departure from Petersburg after having successfully prevented the government's disruption of traditional Jewish life.2008(9th of Av, 5768): Tish'a B'Av

    2008:The New York Times book section featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or about topics of Jewish interest includingThe Challenge:Hamdan v. Rumsfeld and the Fight Over Presidential Power by Jonathan Mahler, My Sister, My Love by Joyce Carol Oates,American Priestess: The Extraordinary Story of Anna Spafford and the American Colony in Jerusalemby Jane Fletcher Geniesse and Kingmakers:The Invention of the Modern Middle East by Karl E. Meyer and Shareen Blair Brysac.

    2008: TheJerusalem Post reported that the Jewish Agency has released a statement that some 200 Jews living near the town Gori, on the South Ossetia border, were advised to evacuate to the Georgian capital after the outbreak of hostilities with Russia two days ago.

    2008(9th of Av, 5768): Howard G. Minsky, a former Hollywood talent agent and the producer of the movie “Love Story,” passed away today at the age of 94. Mr. Minsky began his career during the silent-film era and sold reels of film door to door before breaking into the Hollywood scene. He worked as an executive for 20th Century Fox and Paramount Pictures and as a talent agent for the William Morris Agency. In the 1960s he left the agency to produce the romantic drama “Love Story,” written by one of his clients, Erich Segal. Released in 1970, it became a blockbuster, winning five Golden Globes, including best picture, and an Academy Award for music.

    2009:The exhibit, Bagels & Barbeque: The Jewish Experience in Tennessee which documents the history of Jewish immigration to Tennessee opened at Chattanooga State, the College on the River.

    2009: Opening of the Tzfat [Safed] Klezmer Festival

    2009 (20th of Av): On the Jewish calendar, Yahrzeit of Rabbi Levi Yitzchak Schneerson, father of the seventh and last Chabad-Lubavitch Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson. A brave and educated soul, he after being imprisoned by the Soviets for thwarting the Communists attempts to wipe out Jewish civilization.

    2009: Israeli aircraft bombed tunnels early today along the Gaza Strip border with Egypt, Hamas officials and witnesses said.

    2010(30th of Av, 5770): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    2010(30th of Av, 5770): Ninety year old author Nancy Freedman passed away.

    2010(30th of Av, 5770): Eighty-two year old David L. Wolper, who changed America’s view of race and slavery with “Roots”, passed away today. (As reported by Richard Severo)

    2010: Paul Hunt began serving as Canada’s Ambassador to Israel.

    2010: The first public screening of “A Film Unfinished” is scheduled to take place at the Museum of Jewish Heritage in New York City.

    2010: While testifying before the Turkel Committee today, Defense Minister Ehud Barak “placed the blame” for the botched flotilla raid “on the IDF, which he said was responsible for warning the government if ‘the mission cannot be carried out.’ In the case of the flotilla the IDF did not warn, Barak said.

    2011: The International Master Course for Violinists which has been taking place amid the scenic mountains of the western Galilee at Kibbutz Eilon is scheduled to come to an end today.

    2011: The DC Premiere “Maya” is scheduled to take place at this evening’s WJFF (Washington Jewish Film Festival) Friend-raiser Screener and Party

    2011: Philip Levine was named today as the new poet laureate of the United States. Levine has an MFA through the University of Iowa Writer's Workshop. His works include a "continuous examination of his Jewish immigrant inheritance.

    2011The Romanian Academy said today that it will change its definition of an anti-Semitic slur in a dictionary to make it clear the word is pejorative.

    2011:The International Master Course for Violinists which is taking place at Kibbutz Eilon is scheduled to come to an end.

    2012: Rookie right tackle Mitchell Schwartz is scheduled to start in the Detroit Lions’ first exhibition pro-football game.

    2012: The Russian Olympic basketball team coached by Israeli-American David Blatt is scheduled to play Spain today in the semifinals.

    2012: Victor Lieberman is scheduled to lead Shabbat eve services at B’nai Israel in Grand Forks, ND

    2012: Ben Sarasin will help lead Shabbat eve services at Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, as part of his “Bar Mitzvah Weekend.”

    2012: Shai Wosner is scheduled to perform at Lincoln Center

    2012:New Zealand Jewish sailor Jo Aleh and her partner Polly Powrie won the gold medal in the women’s 470 regatta. Aleh, 26, whose parents are dual Israeli-New Zealand citizens, skippered the pair into the lead from the start of the gold medal race today at the London Olympic Games

    2012: Israeli rhythmic gymnast Neta Rivkin leapt to the finals after her ribbon routine in the individual qualifiers today at the London Games.

    2012: Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Defense Minister Ehud Barak have “almost finally” decided on an Israeli strike at Iran’s nuclear facilities this fall, and a final decision will be taken “soon,” Israel’s main TV news broadcast reported this evening.

    2013: “Dancing in Jaffa” and “Gideon’s Army” are scheduled to be shown at the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.

    2013: Kol HaOt is scheduled to sponsor “The Sounds of Elul” featuring Yehuda Katz.

    2013: An al-Qaeda-linked group active in the Sinai Peninsula said today that its fighters were the target of a reported Israeli drone strike into Egyptian territory, a rare operation that could indicate increased Egyptian-Israeli security cooperation against militants in the lawless border zone. (As reported by Maamoun Youssef)

    2013: “Israeli tennis star Shahar Pe'er won her first tournament in four years today, defeating unseeded Zheng Saisai 6:2, 2:6, 6:3 in the final of the Suzhou Ladies Open in Suzhou China.”

    2014:  The New York Times featured books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Lena Finkle’s Magic Barrel written and illustrated by Anya Ulinich, Becoming Freud:

    The Making of a Psychoanalyst by Adam Phillips, Lucky Us by Amy Bloom and Strange Glory: A Life of Dietrich Bonhoeffer by Charles Marsh.

    2014: Congregation HarTzeon – Agudath Achim is scheduled to host a trip to NYC see the off-Broadway musical “Atomic” about the Manhattan Project.

    2014: The Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center is scheduled to host a “conversation with Holocaust survivor Steen Metz.”

    2014: “Rocket fire from the Gaza Strip continued today, with over nine rockets being shot at Israel throughout the day.” (As reported by Ilana Curiel)

    2014:” Air raid sirens sounded in Ashdod at 10 pm, two hours before the start of an Egyptian-brokered temporary truce.”(As reported by Matan Tzuri)

    2014: The Miami Herald reported today that “the Jewish community of Miami is offering $50,000 reward for information that leads to the arrest of the two suspects in the death of Rabbi Joseph Raksin” who was murdered while walking to services on Shabbat.

    2014: Rabbi Joseph Raskin who was murdered in Florida yesterday as he walked to Shabbat services is scheduled to be buried today.

    2014: For King and Country? a major new exhibition exploring the Jewish experience of the First World War is scheduled to come to a close today at the Jewish Museum in London.

    2015: YIVO and the Congress for Jewish Culture are scheduled to present “Night of the Murdered Poets” during which Ala Zuskin Perelman, daughter of Soviet Yiddish actor, Benjamin Zuskin will discuss her recent biography, The Travels of Benjamin Zuskin about her father’s tragic life and work as an actor and artistic director of the Moscow State Jewish Theater.

    2015: The 2015 AIPAC Iowa Annual Event is scheduled to take place this evening in Des Moines.


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    August 11

    1492: Alexander VI is elected Pope.  Alexander was one of the Borgia popes.  He had reputation for “moral depravity” and was more politician than prelate.  He defied Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain by allowing large numbers of Marranos who were fleeing the Inquisition to take refuge in Rome.  He did reduce the size of the badge worn by the Jews under his rule but raised their taxes by five per cent.  He also lengthened the course that the Jews of Rome were forced to run each year so that he could view it from the comfort of his castle.  The Jews were forced to run naked much to the amusement of the Christian population of Rome – the home of Catholicism.  Everything is relative and for all of his shortcomings, Alexander VI’s treatment of the Jews was a lot better than that of the other Catholic strongman of the day, The Grand Inquisitor – Torquemada.

    1634: Seventeen arrests were made by the Inquisition after a man turned another man in for being "unwilling to make a sale on Saturday," and for not wanting to eat bacon.

    1667(21st of Av, 5427): Jonah Abravanel, a Dutch Jewish poet and author, passed away today at Amsterdam.   “He was the son of the physician Joseph Abravanel, and a nephew of Manasseh ben Israel.”

    1770: Moses Mendelssohn and his wife the former Fromet (Frumet) Guggenheim gave birth to Joseph Mendelssohn, their oldest son, founder of the bank Mendelssohn & Co. and along with his sister Recha were the only two of the couple’s six children to remain Jewish.

    1772: Following the partition of Poland which gave the Russians a large, unwanted population, Catherine II whom the Boyars call “Great,” issued an order that read, “Jewish communities residing in the towns, cities and territories now incorporated in the Russian Empire shall be left in the enjoyment of all those liberties with regard to their religion and property which they at present possess.” 

    1786: Captain Francis Light establishes the British colony of Penang in Malaysia. The Penang Jewish Cemetery, established in 1805, is believed to be the oldest single Jewish cemetery in Malaysia.  According to legend, the first Jews may have actually come to Malaysia as far back as the 11thcentury.

    1804: Francis II assumed the title of first Emperor of Austria. When it came to his Jewish subjects, Francis and his chief minister, Metternich followed in the footsteps Maria Theresa and not the more liberal Joseph II.  During his reign ghettos were set up in Austria.  Jews were not allowed to settle in the province of Tyrol.  Stringent restrictions were placed on where Jews could live in Bohemia and Moravia. In Vienna, a special tax was placed on all Jews who entered the capital.   While the Emperor “ennobled a few Jews” he “humiliated” the remainder of the population. Jewish marriages were restricted to the eldest son or those who had enough money to pay large bribes to the appropriate officials.

    1810: In Oberdöbling near Vienna, banker Joseph von Henikstein and his wife, the former Elisabeth von Sonnenstein gave birth to Alfred von Henikstein who was baptized as a child making him  the highest ranking officer of Jewish parentage in the Austrian army and chief of staff before the battle of Königgrätz in the Austro-Prussian War

    1827: Birthdate of Jesse Seligman, the German born American banker and philanthropist whose career began in Alabama and ended in San Francisco, CA.

    1828: Birthdate of Edward Salomon a native of Saxony who served as Lieutenant Governor of Wisconsin from 1860 to 1862 at which time he became the state’s 8thGovernor when Louis P Harvey drowned in the Tennessee River.

    1830(22nd of Av, 5590): Dr. Philip Moses Russell, a native of England who began serving as a medical officer for various units in the Revolutionary War starting in 1775 passed away today.  In addition to his medical work for which he was commended by George Washington, Russell and six other Jews “volunteered as guides to lead the American forces through the woods and swamps in a surprise attempt to recapture British-held Savannah, GA.”

    1833: Birthdate of Robert G. Ingersoll, Civil war soldier, orator and defender of agnosticism.  He was the author of “Some Mistakes Moses Made” which begins “For many years I have regarded the Pentateuch simply as a record of a barbarous people, in which are found a great number of the ceremonies of savagery, many absurd and unjust laws, and thousands of ideas inconsistent with known and demonstrated facts. To me it seemed almost a crime to teach that this record was written by inspired men; that slavery, polygamy, wars of conquest and extermination were right, and that there was a time when men could win the approbation of infinite Intelligence, Justice, and Mercy, by violating maidens and by butchering babes.” Ingersoll was not an anti-Semite.  He had a “low opinion” of other religions as well.

    1840: Lord Palmerston the British Foreign Secretary wrote a letter to the ambassador in Constantinople that said, “There exists…among the Jews…a strong notion that the time is approaching when their nation is to return to Palestine…. I instruct you… to strongly recommend that the Turkish Government … encourage the Jews of Europe to return to Palestine.”  Palmerston was not philo-Semite or a proto-Zionist.  Rather he was an English statesmen looking to bring what he considered Western civilization to the Orient.

    1844: Birthdate of Wilhelm Stern the son of a rabbi in Posen who became a German physician.

    1844: Just days before his death, Rabbi Aron Chorin sent an address to the conference of Hungarian rabbis meeting at Páks.

    1848: Establishment of The United States District Court for the Northern District of Georgia to which Amy Totenberg would be appointed in 2011 making her the first Jewish woman to serve in such a capacity.

    1853: It was reported today that an unnamed Jew owns a house at Table Rock adjacent to the Great Horse Shoe Falls where visitors can buy brandy and cigars and seek protection from the spray of the cataract.

    1856:  Isle Dernière (Last Island), a barrier island southwest of New Orleans which has served as a resort was destroyed today by the Last Island Hurricane whose victims included more than one unnamed Jewish resident.

    1857:During a debate on India, Benjamin Disraeli reiterated his conviction that the mutiny in India was more than just a military matter and that the government was not taking the correct measures in the matter. He also repudiated the government's faith in European alliances declaring that could not be depended upon.

    1858(1st of Elul, 5618): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1860: The Jewish Messenger cautions “the public against an impostor, who calls himself Nelton and Abramowitsch, according to circumstances,” who writes his name with Hebrew letters “which may mean saint or sinner, as far as the knowledge of the common crowd goes. He dresses in priestly attire, so the Messenger says, with a white cravat and black cassock. While asking the Editor for charity, he appropriated an article of silver-ware from the mantelpiece”.

    1862: In a letter written today addressed to the Adjutant General of the United States Army, General William Tecumseh Sherman warned that "the country will swarm with dishonest Jews" if continued trade in cotton is encouraged. (In a letter written in 1858, Sherman had described Jews as "…without pity, soul, heart, or bowels of compassion…"  During the Civil War Sherman had numerous Jews serving in the various armies under his command with no whiff of anti-Semitism attached to his decisions.  This included the 82ndIllinois Regiment that included a large contingent of Chicago Jews and was commanded by Edward S. Salomon.  The regiment fought under his command during Sherman’s brilliant Atlanta Campaign and rose to the rank of General as Sherman’s forces bravely marched north from Savannah to help trap the remaining Confederate forces.

    1862: Sarah Bernhardt made her acting debut at the Comédie Française in the title role of Racine's Iphigénie.

    1864(9th of Av,5624): Tish’a B’Av (Did the Jewish soldiers fighting in the Union’s multi-prong offensive against the Rebels fast as they made their way across Northern Virginia and Georgia.

    1865(19th of Av, 5625): Fifty year old Abraham Mordka Alter, the son of Yitzchak Alter and Feigele Lipschitz passed away today in Warszawa, Poland.

    1866: Ernest Abraham Hart “was appointed editor of the British Medical Journal” today.

    1867:  Birthdate of Joseph Weber, one half of the vaudeville comedy act of Weber and Fields. Playing Jews was not a key to show biz success when this team started out.  Some of their early success came playing Dutch (German characters) and Irishmen, something their audiences really enjoyed.

    1879: It was reported today that there are parts of Coney Island, New York’s popular resort, where “Jews are not tolerated.”

    1879:A review of Somebody’s Ned a work of romantic fiction combined with a murder mystery by Mrs. A.M. Freeman was published today.  In this case the star crossed lovers are a French Catholic named Danton Roland and French Jewess named Rachel Rosenthal as well David Dudley and Jessica-Rachel.  The plot thickens when Solomon Rosenthal is found dead.

    1879: In White Plains, New York, Justice C.W. Cochrane heard a case in which the Osmond C Lyon had filed a complaint against a Jewish merchant – Adolph D. Pollack – for selling cigars and neckties on Sunday in violation of the “blue laws.” The defendant responded that he had not violated the law because he had not “exposed” his goods “for sale” and had only sold them quietly when requested. He also said that as a Jew, he observed the Sabbath on Saturday and the enforcement of the law in this manner was a violation of the New York Constitution which prohibits interference with his religious views.

    1879: “A Cool Day At Coney Island” published today shows that prejudice against Jews is now becoming prevalent at the popular resort. “For Coney Island is miniature New York and has its German quarter, its American quarter and its quarter where Jews are not tolerated.”

    1881: It was reported today that the new Home for the Aged and Infirmed being built in Yonkers will cost more than $60,000.

    1881: During a period of on-going Pogroms,” a dozen of the wealthiest Jews in Tsarist Russi filed into the palatial St. Petersburg home of Baron Horace de Gunzberg”  to discuss their concern that a mass exodus of Jews from Russia would convince the authorities to continue their program of violence as a way of dealing with “the Jewish problem.”

    1882: Mr. Lazarus Silverman, a Chicago banker, appeared at the office of the Clerk of Circuit Court with 12 Russians Jews who had arrived in the Windy City with their families.  After following all of the legal requirements, the men took the oath and became citizens of the United States.  Since their knowledge of English was limited, they signed the documents in Hebrew.

    1883: Police fired on a mob that had resumed its attacks on the home of Joseph Scharf one of the defendants who had been acquitted of charges of having killed a Christian girl as part of a Jewish ritual murder.

    1883: “The Demands on Charity” published today described a change in the assistance that will be rendered to the needy by New York’s charitable organizations. In the future, they will provide assistance to the needy who are trying to establish themselves in gainful occupations and trades. The United Hebrew Charities will help Jewish immigrants establish themselves in almost any occupation with the exception of street peddler, a calling that is now considered to be a public nuisance.

    1884: “Persecuted By His Family” published today described the plight of Walter Gerson a young Jew born in 1858 at Bradford England who moved to London, Ontario and then to Chicago  where he converted to Christianity and married a non-Jewish woman, a fact which his family first accepted but now seems to be determined to undue.

    1884(20th of Av, 5644): Israel Blatchky, a young Jew who has been working in Des Moines, Iowa for the past three years passed away today. Alois Eisler and Emilie Eisler gave birth to Otto Eisler.

    1888: Oliver Hazard Peary married Josephine Diebitsch who would join Angelo Heilprin , the Hungarian born Jewish explorer on the expedition to Greenland in 1891

    1888: “Something More About European Pauper Labor” published today included a summary of the testimony of the Director of the Jewish Emigration Protective Society before the Immigration Committee holding hearings at the Westminster Hotel in which he explained the reason for the impoverishment for Jewish workers coming to American and the tendency of them to settle among their co-religionists who provide them with support.

    1889: “The Russian Emancipation” published today described the freeing of the serfs, which took place a quarter of a century ago, as a total failure.  The peasants are in perpetual debt due to their inability to re-pay the government for their land and the failed agricultural system.  This forces them to borrow money from the Jews who seize the land when they are unable to repay the loan.  (Yet another reason for treating the Jews badly – they are the moneylenders despoiling the noble serfs)

    1890: “Geographical Palestine” published today provides a detailed review of Palestine by Major C.R. Conder who served in the Corps of Royal Engineers and served two tours with the Palestine Exploration Fund providing him with invaluable first-hand knowledge of the future Jewish homeland.

    1890: “Against Jews In Russia” published today provided a summary of the repressive edicts that the Czar has imposed on four million of his subjects which has led to their impoverishment and are intended to force them to leave the country and/or give up being Jewish.

    1890: Sixty-four year old philanthropist and social reformer Charles Loring Brace passed away today In his book The Unknown God Or Inspiration Among Pre-Christian Races Brace points out that there is little “evidence of Egyptian found in the Hebrew faith.”  According to him “the thinkers and teachers of the Jews were visited by those higher and purer inspirations which have made them the greatest benefactors of mankind in ancient history…The Jews of modern days ought to be forever honored for such progenitors; a race which could such men deserves the lasting respect of mankind.”

    1890: Birthdate of Samuel Bischoff, the native of Hartford, CT and graduate of Boston University who produced movies from 1922 to 1964>

    1891: “The seventh free excursion” sponsored by “the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children” takes place today with the boat leaving from the foot of East Third Street at nine o’clock this morning.

    1892:  Birthdate of publishing giant Alfred Knopf.

    1892: The Third Marquess of Salisbury, Lord Robert Cecil, who as Prime Minister has reassured the House of Lords that regardless of the Czar’s policies “there were no grounds for dreading a wholesale invasion of Great Britain by pauper Jews from Russia” left office today and became the leader of “the loyal opposition.”

    1893: In Brooklyn, Justice Walsh sentence William Davison to ten days in jail for his part in robbing a Jewish peddler named Burns.

    1895: Five Jews were arrested by the police from the Elizabeth Street Station for violating the Sunday Closing Laws.  One of those arrested, Morris Cohn “pleaded that he was a strict observer of the Hebrew Sabbath” and he was released by the Magistrate.

    1895: “Sympathy For Hat And Cap Makers” published today described a mass meeting held at Union Square by several Jewish organizations in support of the workers who have been locked out by the manufacturers.

    1895: Based on instructions provided by Meyer Schoenfeld and Herman Robinson the striking tailors, most of whom were Jewish and who were returning to work were not worried that they were being locked out today by the contractors since it was Sunday and the bosses observed the Sunday closing laws. 

    1895: During July, it was reported today, the United Hebrew Charities “responded to the applications for relief from 3,304” people on behalf of 11,013 individuals.

    1896: Populist leader Mary Elizabeth Lease was quoted today as saying "Redemption money and interest-bearing bonds are the curse of civilization. We are paying tribute to the Rothchilds of England, who are but the agent of the Jews."

    1898: “Nevada Colonists Despoiled” published today described how a group of Russian Jews who had been building a new life in Lyon County, Nevada, were swindled by two of their co-religionists Daniel Schwartz who mortgaged the groups crop to get $1,500 from a bank in Carson City and then ran off with money.  The penniless Jews are now faced with the prospect of losing their newly built homes.

    1898:  L’Anti-Juif,“a weekly organ of the Anti-Semitic League” was published today for the first time in Paris.

    1899: “Joseph Haworth’s New Role” published today described Jacob Litt’s decision to cast Joseph Haworth in the role of Raphael, the leading character in Israel Zangwill’s “The Ghetto.”

    1899: The officers presiding over the court marital of Captain Dreyfus announced that the next four sittings of the court would be held behind closed doors.

    1899: The great Jewish actor Jacob Adler fell and seriously injured himself today while riding his bicycle at Long Branch, NJ.

    1900: Mass meeting of the English Zionist Federation was held in East End.

    1903: Herzl meets Jews from all circles in St. Petersburg and a banquet is arranged by the Russian Zionists.

    1905: Birthdate of Erwin Chargaff, the Austrian born American biochemist who discovered two rules that led to the discovery of double helical structure of DNA.  He passed away in June of 2002.

    1905: The British Aliens Act, which reflected anti-Jewish bias, became a law. The anti-Jewish bias was aimed at the Jews fleeing Rumania and Russia who were seeking a safe haven in England.  This was manifestation of lingering anti-Jewish sentiment in an English society that was increasingly accepting of its Jewish population.

    1907: Birthdate of Max Abrams, the native of Glasgow who played drums for several bands in the 1930’s and 1940’s who wrote “50 jazz tutor books.”

    1909: The Chief Rabbi of Adrianople was forced to resign by Jews of Demotica for failing to take action and not protesting against the change in market day at Demotica, from Thursday to Saturday.

    1910: In Philadelphia, PA, Max Leopold Margolis and his wife, the former Evelyn Kate Aronson gave birth to Catherine A. Margolis.

    1911: Birthdate of Giorgio Cavagliere, an American Jewish architect who fled Mussolini’s Italy and became a leader of the urban preservation movement.

    1911: Jews suffer the impoverishing effect of fires in Russian communities including Tulishkoff, Mlava and Konskavola.

    1911: As the Turks recover from the effects of the fires at Constantinople, the Chief Rabbi forms a Relief Committee and Grand Vizier Hakki Bey sent a telegram to the 10thZionist Congress meeting at Basle, Switzerland thanking the Jewish organization for the contributins to relieve the suffering of fire victims.

    1911: In Copenhagen, Denmark, attacks are made on Shechitah at the Animal Protection Congress.

    1912: In Westfield, MA, founding of Ahavas Achim synagogue.

    1914: Jews are expelled from Mitchenick, Poland

    1917: Turkish representative at The Hague, Netherlands denies that negotiations took place between Turkey and former United States ambassador, Henry Morgenthau regarding the sale of Palestine to the Jews

    1917: Birthdate of Algerian born, French-Israeli writer Andre Chouraqui, known for his French-language translation of the Bible and his work for the government in Israel. A poet, Chouraqui was best known for translating religious texts, including La Bible hebraique et le Nouveau Testament (The Hebrew Bible and New Testament), published in 26 volumes between 1974 and 1977. Chouraqui studied law in Paris. During World War II, he joined the French Resistance and hid out in the Haute-Loire region of central France. After moving to Israel in 1958, he became an adviser to Israel's first Prime Minister, David Ben-Gurion, from 1959 to 1963. He also served as deputy mayor of Jerusalem. He passed away at the age of 89 at his home in Jerusalem in 2007.

    1919: The Weimar Republic's first Reichspräsident ("Reich President"), Friedrich Ebert of the SPD, signed the new German constitution into law. The Weimar Republic marked Germany’s first experience with a truly democratic government.  It failed for lack of popular support and would give way to Hitler’s Third Reich.  One of the excuses offered for German support the Holocaust was that Jews were associated with the founding of the Weimar Republic and the Weimar Republic was viewed as a humiliation saddled on the Germans by the Allies at the end of World War I.  The logic is tortured, but it is neither the first time that people would rationalize and justify their anti-Semitism.

    1920: Samuel Gompers is one of several labor leaders who attend a dinner honoring T.J. Healy before he departs for Europe where he will represent the American Federation of Labor at an international labor conference.

    1923: At a session of the World Zionist Congress meeting in in Carslbad, Czechoslovakia, that continued until this morning, Dr. Chaim Weizmann and Nabum Sokolow, heads of the World Zionist Organization, defended their administration from the attacks to which it has been subjected during the last few days.

    1926(1st of Elul, 5686): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1927: Birthdate of Gustav Bermel a member of the Ehrenfield anti-Nazi resistance Group who was murdered at the age of 17.

    1927: In Brooklyn, of Sara (née Kaminsky) and David Rosenberg gave birth to Stuart Rosenberg, director of Cool Hand Luke.

    1928: “Four Walls” a silent film co-starring Carmel Myers, the San Francisco born daughter of “daughter of an Australian rabbi and Austrian Jewish mother” was released in the United States today by MGM.

    1929: The Jewish Agency was created at the 16th Zionist Congress in Zurich. It was intended to include non-Zionists such as Louis Marshall, Leon Blum and Felix Warburg to take a leading role among those working to create a Jewish state. 1929: Florence Wolfson Howlett turned 14 and made her first entry in the diary she received as a birthday present.  The diary would provide the basis for The Red Leather Diary by Lily Koppel

    1930: At the second session of the fourth world congress of the Zionist Revisionist, Dr. Robert Lichtheim delivered a speech in which he said that the organization “would conduct its own political activities, particularly in pleading the Zionist cause before governments and statesmen, independently of the Zionist executive and the Jewish agency.

    1930: In New York City, an announcement was made at the headquarters of the Allied Jewish Campaign that more than $1,214,000 was spent in the development of the economic  and cultural program of the Jewish Agency in Palestine during the half year” that ended on May 1.

    1932: Birthdate of American architect Peter Eisenman

    1932: Birthdate of Israel Harold “Izzy” Asper, Canadian tax attorney and media magnate. A native of Minnedosa, Manitoba, Asper “was the founder of CanWest Global Communications Corp and father to Leonard, Gail and David Asper, each of whom served as officers of CanWest.

    1933: The Supreme Representative Committee of German Jews established a farm near Rathenow, in Prussia, to train unemployed Jews as agricultural workers.

    1933: Nineteen year old actress Heddy Lamar, the daughter of Viennese Jewish parents married Austrian arms dealer and fascist Friedrich Mandl.

    1933: In response to what is described as an “epidemic of suicides among German Jews of the Rhineland,” the Jewish community of Cologne has issued an appeal signed by the lay leaders and the Rabbinate, urging Jews not to despair.

    1933: The Hamburg Federation of Grain Merchants, which had a large Jewish membership, was dissolved. Its funds and property were turned over to the "Aryanized" All-German Federation of Commerce.

    1933: In Warsaw, an edict was issued forbidding Jewish bakers, who observe the Sabbath, to bake bread on Sundays. The edict affected over 50,000 Jewish bakers.

    1933: In Cracow, Thirty-one of the forty-two arrested persons, charged with organizing riots against Jews in a nearby town received sentences of imprisonment of from four months to three years.

    1935(12th of Av, 5695): Sixty-five year old portrait artist Leo Mielziner passed away today.

    1936: Condemning British proposals to partition Palestine as "outrageous," Senator Royal S. Copeland (Dem., NY) introduced in the Senate today a resolution asking the Senate's "forthright indication of unwillingness to accept modification in the mandate without Senate consent." Senator Copeland declared that the territory allotted the Jews in the proposed partition was insufficient to maintain even a small number of Jews and that establishment of a small Jewish state might result in a war between the Jews and the Arabs.  The Jews are having a "terrible time" in Germany, Poland and Rumania.... At the same time he noted a "distinct animosity" on the part of American consuls abroad in granting visas to Jews, which, he said, showed discrimination. (As reported by JTA)

    1936: Rabbi M.L. Perlsweig, head of the World Zionist Organization's political information department, addressed the World Jewish Congress which was meeting in Geneva. During his speech tonight, he accused the British authorities in Palestine of "political ineptitude so gross as to be almost unbelievable."

    1937: By a vote of 304 to 158, the 20th Zionist Congress, held in Zurich, endorsed Chaim Weizmann¹s proposal and empowered the Zionist Executive to negotiate with the British government the terms of the Royal (Peel) Report, according to which the partition of Palestine would be implemented and the Jewish state was to be established. Dr. Weizmann¹s proposal was denounced by Dr. Stephen Wise, on behalf of American Jewry and many other delegates, including Menachem Ussishkin. A revised version of the partition plan was also supported by David Ben-Gurion.

    1937: In Zurich roving bands of Nazis assaulted and molested a number of Zionist delegates.

    1939: Laurence Steinhardt begins serving as U.S. Ambassador to the U.S.S.R.

    1939(26th of Av, 5699): Having received a summons from the Gestapo and fearing that he would be tortured like others who had received such a summons, 68 year old mathematicians Paul Epstein “took a lethal dose of Veronal.

    1941: Birthdate of Brooklyn political figure, Elizabeth Holtzman.  A graduate of Harvard Law School, Holtzman began serving in Congress in 1973 just in time to be part of the Watergate investigation.  After leaving the House, she held various political positions but missed out on her biggest prize, a seat in the U.S. Senate. 

    1941: Vichy adopted an ordinance excluding Jews from working as doctors.

    1941: Het Parool, “an Amsterdam-based daily newspaper” was published for the first time “as a resistance paper during the Nazi occupation” by a staff that included Jaap Nunes Vaz who would be sent to Sobibor in 1942.

    1942(28th of Av, 5702): The Nazis murdered 13,000 Jews at Rostov-On-Don, a deadly total that would be added to a few days later when another two to five thousand Jews were murdered.

    1944: Joop Westerweel, Dutch poet and educator was executed by the Nazis, for helping Jews escape. In late February 1944 Joop Westerweel traveled to the foot of the Pyrenees to say farewell to the group about to cross into Spain, which included Joseph Heinrich and thirteen other young people Joop and his underground group had helped to escape from Holland. His memorable speech was later vividly recalled by many who were present. He wished them well and that they should build Palestine into a place where there would be no war, only food and work for everyone. As the young pioneers left for Spain, Joop turned back to Holland. On March 11, he was arrested by border police while helping two young Jewish girls cross illegally from Holland to France. Five months later he was executed in prison in Vught Concentration Camp. The sacrifice of Joop Westerweel and those like him must never be forgotten.  The challenge for the living is to be worthy of the proof of such virtue.

    1945: A ‘small pogrom’ took place in Krakow, Poland, three months after the end of World War II in Europe.

    1945: Collier’s magazine published “Terror in Palestine” by Frank Gervasi which provides a contemporary look at events following the death of Lord Moyne.

    1948(8th of Av, 5708): Elaine Hammerstein, the daughter of opera producer Arthur Hammerstein, who gained fame as an American silent film and stage actress, passed away.

    1949: Birthdate of David Rubenstein, the son of a Baltimore postal worker who co-founded the Carlyle Group and whose philanthropies included serving as Chairman of both Kennedy Center and the Duke University board of Trustees.

    1951(9th of Av): Yiddish playwright and journalist David Pinsky passed away.

    1951(9th of Av, 5711): Rebekah Bettelheim Kohut passed away

    1952: The ailing Talal¹s son, Hussein II, was proclaimed the King of Jordan, but a Regency Council was appointed to rule the country, since he was a minor. In 1952 three Middle Eastern monarchs ­ Hussein II of Jordan, Ahmed Fuad of Egypt and Faisal of Iraq ­ were minors. King Hussein had seen his grandfather assassinated by an Arab fanatic who thought he was too friendly with the Jews.  Hussein’s goal was to stay alive and remain king.  He wisely did not take part in the Sinai Campaign of 1956.  He foolishly attacked Israel in 1967 and lost the West Bank and east Jerusalem.  In the end, he signed a peace treaty with Israel but without gaining any territory west of the Jordan River.  Fuad would be ousted by a revolt masterminded by Colonel Nasser, the Pan-Arabist who had a secular version of Osama’s vision.  Faisal would die in a revolt in 1958 that would eventually bring Hussein (the dictator not the king) to power in Iraq.

    1955: Leonard Bernstein led premiere of Symphonic Suite from "On the Waterfront", BSO, Tanglewood

    1955: “The Divided Heart” featuring Theodore Bikel and John Schlesinger was released in the United States today by Ealing Studios.

    1961: Birthdate of columnist David Brooks

    1964(3rd of Elul, 5724): Sixty-four year old Leopold Mannes, the creator of Kodachrome, passed away today.

    1970(9th of Av, 5730): Tish’a B’Av

    1972(1st of Elul, 5732): Rose Schneiderman passed away.  Born in Poland in 1884, Miss Schneiderman was brought to the United States by her father who worked as a tailor on the lower East Side.  She gained first-hand experience on life in the garment industry when she went to work as a cap maker. She earned eight dollars a week.  But she had to buy her own sewing machine with a cash $25 cash down payment and an additional $45 paid in installments.  In addition to this, she had to pay for power and thread.  Miss Schneiderman helped to organize the Women’s Trade Union League, an organization that she served as President for several terms.  In 1909 she took part in a strike of waistmakers that began the unionization of the garment industry. In New York, she served as Secretary of the State Labor Department from 1937 to 1944.  During the Great Depression, she served as an official of the National Recovery Administration and was considered to be a member of F.D.R.’s “brain trust.”

    1977: West Bank mayors and notables submitted separate views to US Secretary of State Cyrus Vance. The mayors acknowledged that the PLO was the ³sole² representative of the Palestine Arabs and claimed that no settlement was possible without PLO participation. But other West Bank notables had different ideas. They advocated an immediate mutual recognition of the national rights of Palestinians and Israelis in the area. They claimed that their two homelands must be mutually exclusive and advocated the establishment of a ³peace-promoting force² acceptable to both nations. These West Bank notables advocated the holding of a plebiscite during the interim period so that Palestinians could decide freely whether to join Jordan or establish an independent, democratic state. Unfortunately, these talks led to the same place as those that had come before and after – nowhere.

    1977: Jordan and Egypt informed the US that they were prepared to sign formal peace treaties with Israel, but at the conclusion of the Arab-Israeli peace negotiations.

    1982: This file picture dated August 11, 1982 shows people standing in front of the Chez Jo Goldenberg restaurant in Paris, two days after it was devastated in an attack by Palestinian gunmen (AFP/ JOEL ROBINE)

    1983: Today,Joseph Hochstein wrote an Op-Ed titled "Not goodbye, but l'hitraot," in which he said, "I love newspapering, and I have a special love for this paper, since I helped start it in 1965 with my father. ... What happens each week at The Jewish Week is achieved with greater difficulty than the work done in the newsrooms of great metropolitan dailies, and it is more profoundly needed. Knowing that I played a central role in making this happen helps offset the regret of leaving, as does the joy of realizing a long-held dream of living in Israel." He wrote this just before making Aliyah.

    1983: “Phar Lap” a biopic about a racehorse co-starring Ron Leibman was released in Australia today by 20th Century Fox.

    1984(13th of Av, 5744): Ninety-one year old American published Alfred Abraham Knopf, Sr. founder of Alfred A Knopf, Inc passed away today. (As reported by Herbert Mitgang)

    1987:  Alan Greenspan becomes Chairman of the United States Federal Reserve. Another Jewish economist hits the top spot.

    1988: Meir Kahane renounced his US citizenship to stay in the Israeli Parliament.  Kahane and his virulent anti-Arab views have been rejected by the Israeli mainstream.  Kahane himself was gunned down by Arab terrorists.

    1991:In The Felix Warburg Mansion; A Window to the Past in the Present,” published today Christopher Gray describes the past, present and future of the building that was home to one of New York’s most influential and famous Jewish families.

    1991(1st of Elul, 5751): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1995: “A Walk in the Clouds” produced by David and Jerry Zucker, co-starring Debra Messing and filmed by cinematographer Emmanuel Lubezki was released in the United States today 20th Century Fox.

    1997: Baltimore born Washington lawyer Alfred H. Moses completed his service as U.S. Ambassador to Romania. Five years later the President of Romania awarded him the Marc Cruce Medal.

    1997(8thof Av, 5757): Erev Tish’a B’Av

    1997(8thof Av, 5757): Forty-nine year old Eli Adourian of Kfar Adumim died of the wounds he sustained when a Hamas suicide bomber struck at the Mahane Yehuda Market on July 30th where the death toll would reach sixteen with an additional 178 injured.

    1999:Sheila Finestone began serving as Senator for Montarville, Quebec.

    1999: Max Kampelman was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom.

    1999: Janet Jagan, the Chicago born Jewess completed her service as President of Guyana when Bharrat Jagdeo was sworn as President

    1999: Michael Dougall Bell began serving as Canada’s Ambassador to Israel.

    2002: The Sunday New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including 'F E G: Ridiculous Poems for Intelligent Children by Robin Hirsch Fireweed: A Political Autobiographyby Gerda Lerner, the Austrian born Jewish American political activist.

    2004: Seventy-three year old German historian Wolfgang Mommsen who fought attempts to whitewash the Holocaust made by some other German historians passed away today.

    2005:  While the front pages of the paper carried news of Sharon’s attempts to bring peace to the Middle East with the withdrawal from Gaza, the back pages of Haaretzcarried a reminder of Sharon’s warrior past.  According to a story in Haaretz,The bloodstained bandage that wrapped Prime Minister Ariel Sharon's head after he was injured in fighting during the 1973 Yom Kippur War has been offered for sale on e-Bay with the bidding starting at $10,000.”  Sharon sustained the head wound when he was leading Israeli forces across the Suez Canal. 

    2006: First day of the New York International Fringe Festival which will include a performance of “The Cheerleader and the Rabbi” featuring Sandy Wolshin.  “A former cheerleader for the Oakland Raiders shelater immersed herself in a mikveh as part of an orthodox conversion.”

    2006:  The Jerusalem Post reported that Maj. Nimrod Hallel, 42, from Rosh Ha'ayin, was killed in the town of Leboneh in the western sector of southern Lebanon when an anti-tank missile was fired at his vehicle.

    2006:  A reported 120 rockets rained down on northern Israel striking Haifa, Safed and Kiryat Shimona.

    2006: Conflicting reports abound concerning the terms of a proposed cease fire intended to stop the fighting in Lebanon.  Some of the major points of contention include the robustness of the mandate of the international force and the willingness of the Lebanese army to confront and disarm Hezbollah fighters.

    2007: On the “Jewish Jock Front,” The San Diego Union-Tribunereported that San Diego ChargerIgor Olshanskymay not get to play in an upcoming exhibition game with the Seattle SeaHawks whileJohn Grabow of the Pittsburgh Pirates won a game on just 13 pitches, which was all he needed to complete a one inning relief stint against the San Francisco Giants.

    2008: YuliTamir announced plans to remove Ze'ev Jabotinsky's work from the national education curriculum

    2008Prime Minister Ehud Olmert and Finance Minister Ronnie Bar-On decidedto implement all of the recommendations of the State Commission of Inquiry into the government's handling of Holocaust survivors.

    2008: Palestinian terrorists in Gaza violated a truce agreement with Israel, firing a Kassam rocket at the western Negev town of Sderot..

    2008: Iowa native, James Hoyt passed away at the age of 83. As one of the first four American soldiers to discover the Buchenwald labor camp in 1945, James Hoyt rarely slept well. “He’s finally getting the rest he’s never had all these years,” his daughter, Theresa Stewart, 51, of Oxford said. When he closed his eyes, he’d see images of the Nazi concentration camp, which he thought was a mannequin factory when he first saw it before its liberation April 11, 1945, Stewart said. His daughters remembered him as a reserved man who put others first and loved reading, rebuilding cars and solving crossword puzzles. “He had time to listen to anyone and would hear everybody’s story,” Stewart said. For years, Hoyt did not share his own story. He later learned from doctors at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Iowa City that he was suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder. Hoyt of Oxford, Iowa graduated from high school in 1943 and became a private first class after he was drafted in early 1944 to serve in World War II. He was a member of the 6th Armored Division’s 9th Infantry Battalion and fought in the Battle of the Bulge. On April 11, 1945, Hoyt was the radio operator and driver for a four-man reconnaissance team when two Buchenwald escapees flagged them down. The team went to the camp, which was hidden in a forested area. “When the people saw our vehicle with the American markings on it, they really went wild. They tore a part of the fence down. They threw us up in the air,” Hoyt told The Gazette 10 years ago. “It was a very sorry sight all the way. They were skin and bones, the living ones. Of course, there were all kinds of dead ones there.” In all, about 238,500 prisoners were held at the camp. As the years passed, Hoyt became more willing to talk about his experience, helping him to heal, his daughter, Pat Hatcher, said. “We didn’t know what he was fighting,” Hatcher said of the emotional memories. “It helps us understand him better.” After the war in 1949, Hoyt married Doris Hipp. He worked with his brothers in construction before joining the United States Postal Service in Oxford, where he served more than 30 years.

    2009(21st of Av, 5769): Robert William LeVine passed away to at the age of 71(As reported by Emma Stickgold)

    2009: Three books about Bernie Madoff – Too Good to Be True: The Rise and Fall of Bernie Madoff, Madoff with the Money, Betrayal: The Life and Lies of Bernie Madoff– all hit the bookstores today.

    2009: The National Jewish Retreat opens at Greenwich, Connecticut.  Featured presenters and performers for this event that ends on August 16 include Rabbi Manis Friedman, Rabbi Immanuel Schochet, Rabbi Yossi Jacobson, Professor Jonathan Sarna, Mrs. Rivka Slonim and recording star Arvram Fried.

    2009: Barnes & Noble announces that Rashi by Elie Weisel and Blindman’s Bluff by Faye Kellerman are available at their stores and on-line.

    2009: Releases of “Saints & Tzadiks” a CD on which Irish chanteuse Susan McKeown and Lexatics bandleader Lorin Skalmerg sing Yiddish, Irish and blends of Yiddish and Irish songs that highlight “the traditions and similarities as well as the different ways each tradition tells a musical tale.”

    2010(1st of Elul, 5770): Rosh Chodesh Elul:

    2010: Anat Hoffman leader of the Women of the Wall Prayer group is scheduled to blow the shofar on behalf of the group as she has done for the past 21 years.

    2010: US envoy George Mitchell met with Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu to discuss advancing direct talks with the Palestinians. “We see eye to eye on the need open up direct talks with the Palestinians," Mitchell said about Netanyahu in comments made before the meeting.

    2010: IDF Chief of General Staff Lt.-Gen. Gabi Ashkenazi told the Turkel Committee today that the IDF made a crucial mistake when it did not resort to accurate fire against those blocking entry to the Mavi Marmara Turkish aid ship as IDF Shayetet 13 commandos rappelled onto the ship from helicopters

    2011: Another session of “Hebrew Literacy: Aleph, Bet, and Beyond” is scheduled to take place at Sixth & I Historic Synagogue.

    2011: The Eleventh Memorial for Yiddish Poets is scheduled to take place tonight at the amphitheatre in Tekoa.  The event memorializes “the victims of the ‘Night of the Murdered Poets’ who were thirteen prominent Jewish figures in the USSR who were secretly executed at Stalin's order on the night between August 12th and August 13th 1952. These were the most outstanding and renowned Jewish writers, intellectuals, poets, musicians and actors of their time.”

    2011: At the Off the Wall Comedy Club, Jerusalem funny man David Kilimnick whose funny bone was born in Little Rock, Arkansas, is scheduled to performTu BAv Comedy Special 'Jewish Singles' from The ‘Find Me A Wife’ Show.

    2011: Israel's interior minister gave final authorization to build 1,600 apartments in disputed east Jerusalem and will approve 2,700 more in days, officials said today.

    2011: Eighty-two year old Juergen Corleis passed away.

    2011: Interior Minister Eli Yishai (Shas) said today during a meeting with that the “time is ripe for an upheaval in the coalition” in order to solve the ongoing social crisis that has rocked the country over the past month. Yishai has repeatedly stated that his party will leave the government coalition if no solution is to be found. As opposed to Yishai, Foreign Minister Avigdor Lieberman (Yisrael Beiteinu) threw his support behind the government’s policies, calling Israel an “island of stability” in comparison to the ongoing riots occurring across Britain.

    2011(11thof Av, 5771): Noach Flug,a Holocaust survivor who dedicated his life to fighting for the rights of other survivors is remembered as "a towering figure" passed away today in Jerusalem at the age of 86.

    2012: Ben Sarsin in scheduled to be called to the Torah as a Bar Mitzvah at Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, Iowa.

    2012: “Avenue Q,” the musical creation of Jeff Marx is scheduled to have its final performance at the Barter Theatre.

    2012: The International Arts and Crafts Fair also known as Hutzot Hayozer is scheduled to open one after the end of Shabbat in Jerusalem.

    2012: A fire broke out near the town of Kiryat Tivon, near Haifa, this morning, a few days after firefighters battled repeated blazes in the area believed to have been set by arsonists. Eight firefighting crews supported by two aircraft brought the fire under control. No injuries were reported.

    2012: Israeli rhythmic gymnast Neta Rivkin performed well in all four routines at the London Games today, to secure a best-ever Israeli finish in the event. Rivkin, 21, finished seventh overall, making her the most successful rhythmic gymnast in Israeli Olympic history. Evgenia Kanaeva of Russia won the gold.

    2013: “The Last White Knight” Paul Saltzman’s documentary about his personal encounter with Mississippi Racism is scheduled to be shown at the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.

    2013: The San Diego Jewish Film Festival, PJ Library, Shalom Baby, and Jewish Family Service are scheduled to sponsor “Learn About the Jewish New Year with Elmo” an event designed to prepare youngsters for the upcoming holidays.

    2013: “Passages through the Fire: Jews and the Civil War,” an exhibit co-presented by the American Historical Society and Yeshiva University is scheduled to come to an end today.

    2013: Harriet Rochlin, the leading expert on Western Jewish History recommends that those who can attend this evening’s opening of “American Jerusalem: Jews and the Making of San Francisco” a film that tells the epic story of pioneer Jews in San Francisco, a number of whom played a significant role in the transformation of a tiny village to California’s first metropolis.

    2013: In Cedar Rapids, friends and family are scheduled to celebrating the graduation from Nursing School and Pinning of Rebbitzin Sabrina Thalblum.

    2013: “Passages through the Fire: Jews and the Civil War,”a new exhibition presented by the American Jewish Historical Society and Yeshiva University Museum is scheduled to come to an end today.

    2013: Just three days before Israeli-Palestinian peace talks are set to resume in Jerusalem. “Housing and Construction Minister Uri Ariel (Jewish Home) announced today that 793 new apartments would be built in Jerusalem, and 394 in large settlement blocs in the West Bank.” (As reported by Lazar Berman)

    2013: Finance Minister Yair Lapid lashed out today at the decision to build more than one thousand new homes in the West Bank and East Jerusalem, calling it "a double mistake." Lapid's comments came on the heels of similar condemnation by Meretz leader, Zahava Gal-On, who accused the government of trying to stymie the nascent peace negotiations between Israel and the Palestinians. (As reported by 2014:”Marvin Hamlisch, What He Did for Love” and “The Jewish Cardinal” are scheduled to be shown at the Berkshire Jewish Film Festival.

    2014: Israel will send its team of negotiators back to Cairo today if Hamas honors the 72-hour cease-fire that went into effect at midnight, diplomatic officials said yesterday evening. (As reported by Herb Keinon)

    2014: “Former Israeli ambassador to the US Michael Oren denied today that he was fired as a CNN analyst, saying that he asked to suspend his contract, which obligates him to interview exclusively to that network, so he could accept more requests from other media as well.” (As reported by Raphael Ahren)

    2014(15th of Av, 5774): “Three Israelis were killed when a train collided with their minibus at a level crossing in the canton of Nidwalden in Switzerland this morning.” (As reported by Stuart Winer)

    2014(15th of Av, 5774): Celebration of Tu B’Av, a day devoted to love with no particular ritual but with a long tradition dating back, according to some, to the days when Shiloh was the site of religious observance for the 12 tribes

    2015: The Oregon Jewish Museum and Center for Holocaust Education is scheduled to present “The Car in Contemporary Israeli Cinema”featuring “excerpts from Metallic Blues, Broken Wings and Lost Islands (all of which are Israeli movies from the 2000s) followed by informal discussion with Dr. Moshe Rachmuth, who teaches Modern Hebrew and Israeli cinema at Portland State University. 

    2015: Julie Azous is scheduled to provide Maj-Johngg training for players at all levels at the 92nd Street Y.


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    August 12

    30 BCE: Cleopatra committed suicide.  According to Josephus, the Egyptian tried to convince her lover and co-ruler, Marc Antony, to give her control over lands to the east including Syria and Palestine.  Herod was so afraid of her that he reportedly built the fortress at Masada as place of refuge should she attack. While Antony did not give into all of her demands, he did give her control over Jericho and several towns surrounding the ancient city.

    1099: During the First Crusade, the Crusaders defeated the Saracens at the Battle of Ascalon.  This led to the creation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem under Godfrey of Bouillon.  The Crusader victory led to a period of persecution of the small Jewish population living in Palestine.  The Crusaders attempted to ban the Jews from living in Jerusalem.  Apparently it did not occur to them that such a ban would have meant that Jesus could not live in the Christian kingdom.

    1121: At the Battle of Didgori the Georgian army under King David the Builder won a decisive victory over the famous Seljuk commander Ilghazi. Georgian-speaking Jewry is one of the oldest surviving Diaspora Jewish communities. The origin of Georgian Jews, also known as Gurjimor Ebraeli, is debated, but some claim they are descendants of the ten tribes exiled by Shalmaneser. Others say the first Jews made their way to southern Georgia after Nebuchadnezzar conquered Jerusalem in 586 B.C.E. after first fleeing to Babylonia. The first Jews in Western Georgia arrived in the 6th century when the region was ruled by the Byzantine Empire. Approximately 3,000 of these Jews then fled to Eastern Georgia, controlled by the Persians, to escape severe persecution by the Byzantines. The existence of the Jews in these regions during this period is supported by archaeological evidence showing that Jews lived in Mtzheta, the ancient capital of the East Georgian state of Kartli. The Ebraeli spoke Georgian and Jewish traders developed a dialect called Qivruli, or Judeo-Georgian, which included a number of Hebrew words. In the second half of the 7th century, the Muslim Empire conquered extensive Georgian territory, which became an Arab caliph province. Arab emirs ruled the majority of the region until 1122. Under the Arabs, in the late 9th century, Abu-Imran Musa al-Za'farani (later known as Abu-Imran al-Tiflisi) founded a Jewish sect called the Tiflis Sect which lasted for more than 300 years. The sect deviated from halakhah in its marriage and kashrutcustoms.

    1281: The fleet of Qubilai Khan, the Chinese emperor who celebrated the festivals of the Muslims, Christians and Jews, indicating that there  really were a significant number of Jews living in China during his reign, is destroyed by a typhoon while approaching Japan.

    1317: John XXII, the second of the Avignon Popes, issued “Ex  Parte Vestra” a Bull that dealt with converts who relapse i.e. Jewish converts who wanted to return to the “faith of their Fathers and Mothers.”

    1381(14th of Av, 5141): In the Balearic Islands, Sayd ben David was burned at the stake after being charged with “incontinence with a nun”

    1452: Birthdate of Abraham Zacuto “a Sephardi Jewish astronomer, astrologer, mathematician and historian who served as Royal Astronomer in the 15th century to King John II of Portugal. The crater Zagut on the Moon is named after him.” The creator of new type of astrolabe that could be used at sea, he was one of the few Jews who was able to flee Portugal despite the edicts of King Manuel I.  He either passed away in Jerusalem in 1515 or Damascus in 1520.

    1484: The Papacy of Sixtus IV came to an end.

     1530: A charter was granted to the Jews of Germany despite the protests of Martin Luther. Josel of Rosheim, the famous "shtadlan" (interceder) was instrumental in its passing.

    1816: Birthdate of Ion Ghica, the five-time Prime Minister of Romania “a valuable ally for Yiddish theater in Bucharest who on several occasions expressed his favorable view of the quality of acting, and even more of the technical aspects of the Yiddish theater. In 1881, he obtained for the National Theater the costumes that had been used for a Yiddish pageant on the coronation of King Solomon, which had been timed in tribute to the actual coronation of Carol I of Romania.

    1817: Birthdate of German Orientalist Max Grünbaum

    1819:  Anti-Semitic riots broke out in Darmstadt and Bayreuth, Germany

    1828: In Schubin, Prussia, Rabbi Benjamin Mielziner and his wife gave birth Moses Mielziner who would become a leading rabbi in the Reform Movement.

    1829(13th of Av, 5589): Mordecai ben Abraham Benet, who was born in 1753 and became the chief rabbi of Moravia passed away.

    1833: Founding of Chicago. Jews were present in Chicago from its earliest days. The first Jews in the city were German and Ashkenazim.  By 1847, there were enough Jews in Chicago to establish Kehilath Anshe Maariv — Congregation of the Men of the West — on an upper floor of a commercial building. The congregation was popularly referred to as KAM and found its home in Hyde Park among the South Side German Jewish community. German Jews generally were accepted into mainstream society. In Chicago, they were already being elected to political office in the 1850s. Among the enterprises established by Chicago's German Jews were Florsheim Shoe Co., Hart Schaffner & Marx clothiers, the Brunswick billiard-table empire, Spiegel mail-order Company and Mandel Brothers department store, long a fixture on State Street. The Jews of Chicago: From Shtetl to Suburb by Irving Cutler provides a readable, popular history of the Jews of the Windy City.

    1843: Birthdate of American playwright Bartely Campbell, the son of Irish immigrants who wrote “Siberia” a play about the persecution of the Jews in Russia.

    1844: Birthdate of Edward Lauterbach, successful defense attorney, leader of the Republican Party and trustee of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum.

    1847(30thof Av, 5607): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1848(13thof Av, 5608): Avraham Ullmann, who had been born in 1791 and was the son Shalom Charif Ullman, the chief rabbi of Lackenbach, passed away.

    1851: Luis Schlesinger, a Hungarian born Jew who had fled to the United States after the failed revolutions of 1848 was captured by the Spanish at Pinar del Rio when he led an unsuccessful raid on Cuba under the auspices of Cuban General Narciso Lopez. (As reported by Ben G.Frank)

    1853: A German Jew, who has used a variety of aliases including J. Meyer, was arrested at the Irving House.  While being taken to court he tried to get rid of a package containing pledge  tickets for a large quantity of valuable goods recently pawned at the shops of Bernstein, Levy, Silver, Smith and Murdock. The items left at the pawn shop were all stolen.

    1854: The Moral and Religious column described a new sect that has started in England called The Disciples. They believe that Christ will appear in 1864; that the Russians will triumph over the Turks and the Jews over the Russians-- the latter event to happen in ten years' time when the Jews will become a nation in the Holy Land. Christ is to be their King, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob and the rest of the righteous Jews of old, with a few elect among Christians, will rise from the dead and live forever in Palestine; but the heathen and the wicked Jews and Christians will sleep eternally.

    1859: Birthdate of Albert Lucas, he native of London who was the husband of Rebecca Nieto and “Secretary of the Union Orthodox Jewish Congregation of America, and Secretary of the Joint Distribution Committee.”

    1862: In Springfield, Illinois, “Samuel Rosenwald and his wife Augusta Hammerslough Rosenwald, a Jewish immigrant couple from Germany” gave birth to Julius Rosenwald who turned Sears, Roebuck and Company into a retailing behemoth while using much of his fortune to support education for African-Americans when this was one of the least important social concerns in the United States.

    1862: Construction was completed on the first synagogue built on Long Island which came to be known as the Boerum Schule because it was located in Boerum Hill.

    1862: In the part of Germany that included the cities of Moisling and Lubeck, The Oath More Judaico or Jewish Oath was modified.  It would remain in force until 1879, when the Germans adopted laws regulating civil procedure which abolished the oath.

    1865: Birthdate of a British psychoanalyst, physician, Zionist and writer David Eder whose opposition to the partition of Palestine in the 1920’s was summed up in his statement that  "There can be only one national home in Palestine, and that a Jewish one, and no equality in the partnership between Jews and Arabs.”
    1870: A few days into the inquest being held to determine the facts surrounding the death of Benjamin Nathan, the Brooklyn Daily Eagle protested the disparity in treatment being shown to his son’s Washington and Frederick, and the Irish Catholic servants of the Nathan family who had suddenly become the prime suspects.

    1877(3rd of Elul, 5637): Rabbi Jaques Judah Lyons passed away today in New York. Judah and Mary Lyons; gave birth to him at Surinam, Dutch Guiana in 1814. “He was educated in Surinam, and was minister of the Spanish & Portuguese congregation there, Neveh Shalom, for five years. He left Surinam in 1837 and went to Richmond, Va., where for two years he was minister of the Congregation Beth Schalom. In 1839 he was elected minister of the Spanish and Portuguese congregation Shearith Israel, New York city, in succession to Isaac Seixas, and served the congregation thirty-eight years, successfully combating every movement to change the form of worship in his congregation. Lyons was among those who founded The Jews' (now Mount Sinai) Hospital; he was actively concerned in founding the Jewish Board of Delegates and Hebrew Free Schools and was superintendent of the Polonies Talmud Torah School…For many years he was president of the Hebra Hased ve-Emet and of the Sampson Simpson Theological Fund. Lyons was an ardent student and collected a library that is now in possession of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America.” In 1857, he joined with Dr. Abraham de Sola of Montreal, in preparing and publishing a Hebrew calendar covering fifty years, together with an essay on the Jewish calendar system

    1878: Jewish representatives from the United States, Holland, Germany, England, Belgium, Romania, Palestine, Turkey, Italy Spain, France Austria and Russia met in Paris today to celebrate the anniversary of the Alliance Israelite Universelle of France. During the meeting, the attendees provided reports on the conditions of Jews in various countries and possible ways to improve their conditions.  It was suggested that a medal “commemorating the emancipation of the Jews in the East” should be presented to each member of the Berlin Congress on behalf “of the Jews of the world.”

    1878: It was reported today that details have been released regarding the will of the late Michael Reese. His generosity included $650,000 for the State University of California and $25,000 to the Hebrew Orphan Asylum.

    1879: It was reported today that Romania might agree “to accept the principle of equal rights for the Jews” if some consideration would be given to how it is applied.  Germany might be willing to agree to such an arrangement.

    1879: “A Theory of Noses” published today provides an example of the outlandish 19thcentury that physical characteristics determined people’s behavior, intellect and social standing.  The fact “that the Jewish nation has for ages maintained a high level of civilization and that nevertheless the Jewish nose is not straight but curved” presents a problem for this theory.

    1881:  In Ashfield, MA, Henry and Matilda Beatrice DeMille gave birth to movie mogul Cecil B. DeMille.  His father was Episcopalian and his mother was Jewish. Regardless of how you view his religious background, he will forever be connected with Moses and the Jewish people through “The Ten Commandments.”

    1881: It was reported today that anti-Semitism is so prevalent Pomerania and West Russia that recent government actions to protect the Jews living there will be totally ineffective.

    1882: Today’s Congressional Record contained “a speech by the Honorable S.S. Cox on the persecution of the Jews in Russia.”  It was “an elaborate paper illustrated with poetical extracts, two pages of tables and a neatly engraved map.”

    1882: “Russian Jews” published today described the plan of Chicago banker Lazarus Silverman to settle several Jewish immigrant families totaling 150 men, women in children on 300 acres that owns on 300 acres of land on Carp Lake in Michigan. The group includes one tailor, one wagon-maker, one blacksmith, one cooper, one paper-hanger, two tinsmiths, three coppersmiths and most important of all, 3 farmers.

    1883(9thof Av, 5643): Tish’a B’Av

    1883: “Bread Making” published today which describes the baking of bread in the British Isles begins by declaring that “since the time of the early Jews there has been very little change in the process.”

    1883:”Ancient Manuscripts” published today described how Moses Shapira acquired an ancient copy of the Book of Deuteronomy in Palestine and sent it on to London where it can be preserved and studied. It is claimed this codex is 2,700 years old and provides evidence that the ancient Israelites were writing “consecutive narrative” at a time that corresponds to the Greeks Homer and Hesiod.

    1884: It was reported today that a note had been found on the body of Israel Blatchky, a young Jew who had been living in Des Moines for three years.  According to the note he was despondent over a failed love affair and bought poison six months ago.

    1884: In Telšiai, Lithuania, Isaac Noyk and Esther Chana Ravid gave birth to Michael Noyk who became a solicitor and Irish republican political leader.

    1884: Leading Chicago businessman Morris L. Cohn was arraigned today and held for trial in lieu of $10,000 bond on numerous charges of forgery that included his issuance of $15,000 in bogus notes.

    1885: Americans living Haifa write today that their “colony” in that city “is well known as an industrious, intelligent and law abiding community and the members of it are justly entitled to the full protection of their government…The time has come when it is absolutely necessary for the United States government to take a firm stand against the aggressive and illegal policy of the Turkish authorities.”  (As reported by Ruth Kark and Seth Frantzman)

    1887: Congregation Keneseth Israel of Philadelphia, PA made a payment of $152 to the Union of American Hebrew Congregations.1887: Seymour Bottigheimer the son of Ellis Bottigheimer of Richmond, VA turned celebrated his sixteenth birthday today while waiting to find out if he had been admitted to Hebrew Union College.

    1888: It was reported today that the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children will be providing another free excursion for sick children under the age of six later this month.

    1890: The Lord Mayor of London announced that “inquiries into the persecution of the Jews of Russia give reason to believe that the Government’s edicts will not be enforced.” (He was wrong)

    1890: Birthdate of Al Goodman. Born in Nikopol Russia, he was the orchestra leader for the NBC Comedy Hour, a show that dominated Sunday nights during the early 1950’s.

    1891: In Russayn, Meyer Cohen and Rebecca Benyash gave birth to Canadian lawyer and professor Joseph Cohen

    1892: In Canada, Judge Dugas ordered the extradition of two Jews - Harris Blank and Charles Rosenweigh - who are accused of murdering a Jewish peddler named Jacob Marks in Towanda, PA.

    1892: Davis Rubenstein, a Russian Jew who lives at 183 Clinton Street lodged a complaint against Berman’s butcher shop at 9 Suffolk Street for the sale of “impure food.”

    1894(10thof Av, 5654): The 9th of Av fell on Shabbat so Tish’a B’Av is observed today

    1895: Felix Fader who was found selling calico from a pushcart on Mulberry Street, Nathan Rablowitz who was caught selling dry goods at his store on Grand Street, Abraham Wolf who was arrested for selling three hats on Bowery and Max Rothman who was arrested for selling underwear from a wheelbarrow on Catherine Street went to court and pleaded that they observed the Jewish Sabbath which meant they should not have been arrested for violating the Sunday Closing Laws.  The court “overruled their plea that they worked on the Christian Sunday they must do so quietly.” This downturn was consistent with the downturn for all immigrant groups.

    1897: At Temple Emanuel, Rabbi Gustav Gottheil will officiate at the funeral of the late Moses Schloss the life-long Republican businessman who had served as the Congregation’s Vice President as well as President of the Hebrew Theological Institute.  He was predeceased by his wife of 56 years, Amalia Water, the daughter of I.D. Walter.  He is survived by his bother Philip and his son Israel,

    1897: A summary of immigration statistics published today showed that 22,750 Russian Jews had arrived in the United States as of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1897.  This compared with 45,137 Russian Jews who had arrived in the United States for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1896.

    1898: An armistice took effect ending the Spanish-American War. “In the Spanish-American War, Jews once again demonstrated that they are willing and ready to fight and serve in defense of our country. When the battleship Main was sunk on February 15, 1898, there were 15 Jewish sailors who went down with the ship. The executive officer of the Maine, and later a vice admiral in the United States Navy, was Adolph Marix, a Jew. Marix was the chairman of a board of inquiry to investigate the mysterious sinking of the Maine. It is interesting to note that his father was an interpreter in the Lincoln Administration and that Abraham Lincoln appointed Adolph Marix to the United States Naval Academy. When the United States declared war against Spain on April 21, 1898, the first volunteer was Colonel Joseph M. Heller, who left a thriving medical practice to become an acting assistant surgeon in the Army. About 5,000 Jews served in this war. When the Jewish High Holy Days were approaching in 1898, there were 4,000 requests for furloughs to attend services. There were indeed 30 Jewish Army officers and 20 more in the Navy in the Spanish-American War. Jewish casualties ran high for the percentage of Jews in the service. Twenty-nine were killed, 47 wounded, and 28 died from disease - for a total of 104. Corporal Ben Prager received the Silver Star Medal for his bravery in the Philippines in 19 skirmishes and engagements. The official citation describes his accomplishments: "When the engagement was fully opened up, Corporal Benjamin Prager and seven other soldiers from Companies A and L, 19th United States Infantry, moved out and charged the enemy ... and after twice charging in the face of heavy fire, succeeded in dislodging the enemy and putting the entire force to rout. With true soldierly spirit, the success was followed up and the enemy was driven out of the city across the river and mountains." Colonel Teddy Roosevelt commanded the Rough Riders, which included a large number of Jews. The first Rough Rider killed was a 16-year-old Jewish boy, Jacob Wilbusky. Colonel Roosevelt promoted five men in his command for their bravery in the field without knowledge of their religion. One of them was a Jew. Sergeant Maurice Joost of the First California Volunteers, a regiment that had more than 100 Jewish soldiers, was the first man to fall in the attack on Manila. There were 280,000 American soldiers in this war, which was four-tenths of I percent of the population. Jewish soldiers were one-half of I percent of the American Jewish population; therefore, Jews served in greater proportion than did the remainder of the nation's citizens.”

    1898: Birthdate of actor Oscar Homolka

    1899: In Rennes, France, the President of the Court returned Dreyfus’ salute for the first time marking a shift in the tone of the Court Martial which indicates the Jewish Captain will be acquitted.

    1899: “Third Zionist Congress” published today identified the “two chief questions” that will be discussed at the upcoming meeting in Basel, Switzerland which relate to the settlement in Palestine and the “financing of trust company” which will further that endeavor.

    1899: Five thousand “enthusiastic” Jews gather in London this evening to express their sympathy with Captain Dreyfus.

    1899:Herzl travels to Darmstadt and is received by the Grossherzog of Hessen, brother-in-law of the Czar. Herzl asks him to recommend the "Chartered Company" to the Czar.

    1899: “Dreyfusites Ask Full Publicity” published today described the demand of Dreyfus’ supporters that that the secret dossier which was used to convict him should be made public so that everybody can see the obvious forgeries and understand that he was framed by the military.

    1899: Jacob Adler performed the role of King Lear at the People’s Theatre, a Jewish playhouse located in the Bowery.

    1900: A Garden Party was held in Regent's Park during Herzl’s visit to Great Britain.

    1900(17th of Av, 5660): The Father of Modern Chess, Wilhelm Steinitz, passed away.  Born in the Jewish Ghetto in Prague, in 1836, Steinitz began his professional career as a journalist.  He won his first major chess tournament in Vienna in 1861.  This marked the beginning of his domination of the game that would continue almost up to the time of his death.

    1902(9th of Av, 5662): Tisha’ B’Av

    1910: Jews in Serres, Salonica protested against the use of the 200-year-old Jewish cemetery site for the construction of a new hospital. The plan was later abandoned. 

    1911(18th of Av, 5671): Eighty-seven year old Dutch painter Jozef Israëls whose works included “David Singing Before Saul” and “Jewish Wedding” painted in 1903  passed away today

    1912:Yankee Guy Zinn sets a record by stealing home twice in the same game.

    1912: In Worcester, MA, Benjamin Rabinovitch and his wife gave birth to author and screenwriter Samuel Michael Fuller the decorated member of the Army’s famous First Division which he immortalized in “The Big Red One,” the popular name for his WW II unit

    1912: Birthdate of Max I Dimont, the native of Helsinki who moved to Cleveland as a teenager and wrote Jews, God and History while spending 35 years working for Edison Brothers.

    1912: Birthdate of Whitney Harris, one of the prosecutors who brought high-ranking Nazi war criminals to justice at the Nuremberg trials and who, a half-century later, was a significant voice in the creation of the International Criminal Court.

    1913(9th of Av, 5673): Tish’A B’Av

    1914: As Europe stumbles its way into what will become World War I with all of its negative consequences for Jews Britain (and therefore the British Empire) declares war on Austria-Hungary.

    1914:  “Jewish historian Gustav Mayer…found his father bewailing the collapse of business as his drapery shop in Berlin’s Zehlendorf.  (As reported by Max Hastings)

    1915: Sixty year old Eli Pochansky, “an Orthodox Jewish father” who believes that smoking  cigarettes on the Sabbath is a sin deserving of severe punishment” appeared in Tombs Court today “on a charge of assaulting members of his family who conform to his views.”

    1918: Birthdate of Sanford Daniel Garelik, the Bronx native whom became the first Jew to serve as Chief Inspector in the New York Police Department (As reported by Matt Flegenheimer)

    1918: Birthdate of Sidney “Sid” Bernstein the “impresario whose long career included bringing the Beatles to Carnegie Hall in 1964 and Shea Stadium in 1965.” (As reported by Allan Kozinin)

    1918: General John Monash was knighted as a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath on the battlefield by King George V following the successful Battle of Amiens. (Monash was Jewish; King George wasn’t)

    1918(4th of Elul, 5678): Anna Held Polish-born, American actress and singer, passed away.  Held is variously described as the mistress and/or common-in-law wife of Flo Ziegfeld.  Reportedly, she collaborated with Ziegfeld on the creation of his famed Follies review. She was 46 when she died of cancer. 

    1922: Birthdate of Holocaust survivor and Polish journalist, Leopold Unger.

    1924: Moshav Magdi'el (now part of Hod Hasharon) was founded. A Moshav is a form of collective settlement.  Unlike the Kibbutz, the Moshav allowed for more private ownership.  Hod Hashron has grown into a modern city in the Central District of Israel.

    1927: Birthdate of cellist Mstislav Rostropovich winner of theJewish National Fund 1987 Man of the Year and the Humanitarian Award from the United Jewish Appeal Federation

    1930:  Birthdate of millionaire businessman George Soros.  Soros has had a minimal involvement with Jews and Jewish causes.  In a 1993 speech he essentially blamed Jews for anti-Semitism.  He said that the rise in European anti-Semitism was just the result of Israel’s policies.  He refers to the country as Palestine.  The head of the Anti-Defamation League described his views as obscene.

    1931: In Highland Park, Illinois, Marion (née Weil) and Maurice Clarence Goldman gave birth to author

    William Goldman, whose works included Marathon Man and Princess Bride.

    1931:Louis Lipsky, former president of the Zionist Organization of America, returned today aboard the White Star liner Homeric from Europe where he had attended the World Zionist Congress, held recently at Basle, Switzerland.

    1935: Birthdate of Joan Hamburg, “New York Radio’s First Lady” and the first cousin of Arthur Liman.

    1936: In Vienna, Ernest and Mimi Hausner gave birth to Evelyn Hausner, the Austrian born refugee who gained fame as Evelyn Lauder, the wife of Leonard Lauder,1937: The British Colonial Secretary, Mr. W.G.A. Ormsby-Gore, declared in Geneva, during the deliberations of the League of Nations Permanent Mandates Commission, that he was told by Dr. Chaim Weizmann that the political resolution adopted by the 20th Zionist Congress opened the door to negotiations for giving effect to the Peel Commission¹s proposals for the partition of Palestine and that talks on this subject would start at the conclusion of the September sessions of the League of Nations Council. Reports from Damascus indicated that Syria had become the center of activity for the training of armed men, the future leaders of the Palestine Arab uprising. The recent attack on Kfar Menahem was a trial measure perpetrated by such roving terrorist bands. The Arab Higher Committee denied that foreign money donations were used to carry out such military and sabotage training, carried out in preparations for future disturbances. 

    1937:A proposal to settle 200,000 Jews in Palestine within the next three years, involving an investment of about $175,000,000, was laid before the World Zionist Congress today. The proposal was made by Elieser Kaplal, treasurer of the Zionist executive committee, who said American Jewry was expected to contribute $2,000,000 to the Zionist movement and Palestine fund in the current fiscal year.

    1939: In Greenwich, CT, Walter E. Sachs, an investment banker with Benjamin & Sachs married actress Mary Williamson.

    1939: “The Spy in Black” produced by Alexander Korda with a screenplay by Emeric Pressburger was released in the United Kingdom today by Columbia Pictures.

    1940(8th of Av, 5700): Erev Tish'a B'Av1940 In New York City, Ruth (née Goldberg) Kostner and her husband, Wall Street executive Theodore Kostner, gave birth to Gail Kostner who gained fame as screenwriter and author Gail Parent.

    1941: In Vire, France, Abraham Drucker and his wife gave birth to television executive Jean Drucker, the brother television host Michel Rucker and Professor of Medicine Jacques Drucker and the father of journalist Marie Drucker.

    1941(19th of Av, 5701): Nazis began the systematic murder of the Jews of Dvinsk, Latvia.

    1941: The House of Representative votes to extend the first peace time conscription bill.  Proponents of the bill prevailed by one vote.  This one-vote victory was one of Sam Rayburn’s proudest legislative accomplishments.  If the bill had not passed, the United States would have been in the process of disbanding its newly created military force just at the moment when the Japanese were attacking Pearl Harbor.  One can only imagine of how much longer World War II would have lasted and how many more than six million Jews would have perished in a prolonged Holocaust.

    1942: Despite a campaigned under the leadership of Hashomer Hatzair activist Zvi Dunski to stay away, “all the remaining Jews in Bedzin, Sosnowiec and Dabrowa Gornicza, the three neighboring towns located in the Zaglebie district in southwest Poland reported to the soccer field in Sosnowiec, where instead of having their papers revalidated they were subjected to “a large selection resulting in the deportation of 8,000 to Auschwitz.”

    1942(29th of Av, 5702): Fifty-six year old pioneering psychoanalyst Sabin Spielrein was murdered by the Nazis at Rostov-on-Don.

    1944: Members of the 16th SS-Panzergrenadier Division “Reichsfuehrer SS,” killed more than 500 civilians in the Tuscan Village of Sant’Anna di Stazzema (As reported by David Risi

    1944: Birthdate of American actor Bruce Solomon who appropriately played Rabbi David Small in the television series “Lanigan’s Rabbi.”

    1944(23rd of Av, 5704): Berl Katznelson “one the intellectual founders of Labor Zionism, instrumental to the establishment of the modern State of Israel, and the editor of Davar, the first daily newspaper of the workers' movement,” passed away today. “He was born in Bobruysk, Russia in 1887, and dreamed of settling in the Jewish homeland from an early age. In Russia, he was a librarian in a Hebrew-Yiddish library and taught Hebrew literature and Jewish history. He made aliyah to Ottoman Palestine in 1909, where he worked in agriculture and took an active role in organizing workers' federations based on the idea of "common work, life and aspirations." With Meir Rothberg, Katznelson founded the consumer co-operative known as Hamashbir Latzarhan. He helped to establish the Kupat Holim Clalit sick fund, a major fixture in Israel's network of socialized medicine. He was the editor of the newspaper, Davar, as well as the founder and first editor-in-chief of the Am Oved publishing house.” Katznelson was buried in the cemetery on the shores of the Sea of Galilee.

    1945: From Halkis, Greece it was reported, "The one man capable of teaching Hebrew and Judaism, Rabbi Davidson Matsa and his wife and 6 children have recently left for Janina, where he hopes to function as rabbi. He originally came from Janina. Individual Jews are trying to fill his place by carrying on religious activities in the Synagogue." 

    1946: President Harry Truman sends a telegram rejecting the ”Morris-Grady” plan because it would turn the Jewish zone in Palestine into “a ghetto” and “a betrayal” of promises made to the Jews and Jewish aspirations for a homeland.

    1948: The first diplomatic envoy of the United States arrived in Israel

    1948: The Czech government ordered a halt to arms shipment to Israel.  The new Communist Czech government’s policy was conforming to the increasing anti-Israel policy of their Soviet masters.  

    1948(7th of Av, 5708): Three Jewish soldiers, Moshe Eliash, Alfred Rabinowitz and Pinah Solevetchik, were killed when Arab Legion shells fell on Mount Zion.

    1948: “Arab Legion forces blew up the Latrun water pumping station” forcing Jewish Jerusalem to rely on private cisterns for its water supply.

    1949: In Glasgow, Scotland Erwin Knopfler a Jewish refugee Hungary and Louisa Mary gave birth to rock musician Mark Freuder Knopfler

    1949(17th of Av, 5709): Eighty-one year old Al Shean the German born Jewish comedian who was the “Shean” in the vaudeville team of Gallagher and Shean passed away.  (Editor’s note – is comedy genetic; Shean was the brother of Minnie Marx meaning he was the uncle of the Marx brothers)

    1950: Riots broke out at Kikar HaShabbat (Sabbath Square) in Jerusalem when members of the Haredi community clashed with youth from Hashomer Hatzair who were upset by the problems they were having delivering milk from their farms.

    1951(10th of Av, 5711):  Since the 9th of Av fell on Shabbat, observance of Tish'a B'Av

    1951: Joseph B. Levin was designated Assistant Director of Office of Opinion Writing at the Securities and Exchange Commission.

    1952: The government withdrew from the Knesset the bill granting the World Zionist Organization a special status, as “the representative of the Jewish people.” The government felt that there were many Jews and Jewish organizations in the world which were not a part of the Zionist movement and who had no intention of joining it, and yet they were interested and working for Israel. The government did not wish to do anything to lessen their goodwill or to interfere with their direct connection with the State. It was, however, prepared to support a corrected version of the WZO status. A new, blue Israeli passport was shown to the press for the first time.

    1952(21st of Av, 5712): In what was part of a wave of post-war anti-Semitism, 24 of the foremost Yiddish writers of Russia were executed by the Soviet Government. Among the victims were Peretz Markish, David Bergelson, Itzik Fefer, Leib Kwitko, David Hofstein,Benjamin Zuskin, Solomon Lozovsky and Boris Shimeliovi

    1956: William Shatner married Gloria Rand

    1961: Dr. Arthur G. King wrote to Dr. Jacob R. Marcus discussing “the origin of the Jewish cemetery located in the Cincinnati, Ohio suburb of Clifton.

    1962: Birthdate of David Horovitz, the London born Israeli journalist who made Aliyah in 1983 and founded the newly created The Times of Israel.

    1965: In Tel Aviv, “the $150,000 Anna Lazaroff Synagogue of the Lubavitcher Vocational Schools in Kfar Chabad, created with contributions from a number of American Jewish families, was dedicated today.” (JTA)

    1971:  Birthdate of actor Michael Ian Black

    1972(2nd of Elul, 5732): Sixty-two year old Richard “Dick” Fishel who played halfback for Syracuse in the 1930’s and then turned pro as a linebacker with the Brooklyn Dodgers football team passed away today.

    1976: “The Israeli Ministry of Commerce and Industry” announced today that “an agreement had been worked out between the Government and Ted Ashley, the Chairman of the Board of Warner Bros., to produce a film about the” rescue “of more than 100 Israeli hostages” who had been “held last month in a hijacked Air France plane at Entebbe Airport in Uganda.

    1976: Daniel P. Moynihan said today “that the United Nations was lax in combating terrorism and pointed to the Istanbul bombing…as proof of the need for the ‘world’s democracies’ to form an ‘international force to do the job.”

    1976: First Lady Betty Ford “shook hands with the 160 members” of “the national board of Hadassah” who attended a reception in the Blue Room where they enjoyed “tea, pastries and string ensemble music.”

    1976: In Istanbul, the state prosecutor said tonight that “two Palestinian terrorist will face the death penalty in a Turkish court on charges stemming from their attack at Istanbul airport” where they killed four and wounded more than thirty people” in a vain attempt to hijack an Israeli airliner”

    1979(19th of Av, 5739): Ernst Boris Chain German-born biochemist and recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1945 passed away.

    1990: Iraq President Saddam Hussein says he is ready to resolve the Gulf crisis if Israel withdraws from occupied territories.  Of course, invading Kuwait had nothing to do with Israel, but Israel is always a good smoke screen when Arab dictators are up to devious deeds.

    1991(2nd of Elul, 5751):Yeruham Cohen, an early Israeli undercover soldier, died on today, at the age of  75 years. “Mr. Cohen, an Arabic-speaker of Yemeni origin, died of an unspecified illness. He was a top aide to the commander of Israel's underground forces during the country's war for independence in 1948 and also belonged to a unit whose members disguised themselves as Arabs to infiltrate enemy lines.  Mr. Cohen is most famous for his acquaintance with Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt, whom he met in 1948 during the Israeli war for independence while Israeli forces encircled Egyptian troops the southern Negev. According to historical accounts, Mr. Cohen saw the future President while watching the Egyptians retreat, shouted and ran toward him, and they shook hands warmly.

    1992: NBC begins broadcasting season four of “Seinfeld.”

    1997(9th of Av, 5757): Tish’a B’Av

    1999(30th of Av, 5759): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    2001: The New York Timesbook section featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Houdini’s Box: The Art of Escapeby Adam Phillips, a children’s book entitled Sigmund Freud Pioneer of the Mindby Catherine Reef and two books about Nixon’s Jewish born Secretary of State: The Trial of Henry Kissingerby Christopher Hitchens andNo Peace No Honor: Nixon, Kissinger, and Betrayal in Vietnamby Larry Berman.

    2001: Palestinian Islamic Jihad took credit for today’s bombing at the Wall Street Café in Kiryat Motzkin that injured 21 people. (According to other sources one person was killed and fifteen were inured.

    2003(14th of Av, 5763): Eighteen year old Erez Hershkovitz and twenty-two year old Amatzia Nisanevitch were murdered by a Hamas terrorist bomber.

    2003(14th of Av, 5763): Forty-three year old Yehezkel (Hezi) Yekutieli was murder today by terrorist suicide bomber at Rosh HaAyin.

    2004(25th of Av, 5764): Thirty year old Capt. Michael Y. Tarlavsky was killed today when his unit was attacked in Najaf, Iraq. (As reported by Maia Efrem)

    2005:  A report in the Jerusalem Post concerning absenteeism among workers may come as a surprise to some Americans.  For the first seven months of 2005, the rate of absenteeism was higher among men than women.  There was no explanation for this reverse in the statistical model from past years.  The report also revealed that absenteeism rates rise when economic conditions improve.  During economic slowdowns workers are loathe to be away from work for fear of being replaced. 

    2005:  It was announced at Texas Tech University that an article about co-option for which Michael Levin was the lead author was accepted for inclusion to the American Marketing Association's Winter Educators Conference which is the top conference for strategists.

    2005: Reuben Greenberg resigned as Chief of Police in Charleston, SC.

    2006(18th of Av, 5766):Staff Sgt. Uri Grossman, 20, the son of renowned novelist and peace activist David Grossman was killed in Lebanon, just days after his father made a public call for the government to halt its military operation and enter negotiations.

    2007: The Sunday New York Times book section features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including How American Grew From Sea to Shining by Jewish Pulitzer Prize winning author Richard Kluger and The Man In The White Sharkskin Suit by Lucette Lagnado in which she “chronicles her Jewish family’s flight from the rise of Nasser.”

    2007: The Chicago Sun Timesbook section featured a Q&A with Gail Carson Levine author of Fairy Haven and the Quest for the Wand and a review of What Goes Up by Eric J. Weiner.

    2007: In a story entitled, “A Museum to Get Lost In, And How Israel Is Fixing It” the New York Times describes “an $80 million expansion and renovation that will transform the way a visitor navigates and experiences” the Israel Museum, “

    2007(28th of Av, 5767): Dr, Ralph Asher Alpher, author of the Big Bang Theory, passed away.

    2007: The City of Toronto “granted a closure of Bloor Street between Bathurst and Markham Streets to accommodate a celebration in honor of Ed Mirvish” the late Canadian “businessman, philanthropist and theatrical impresario.”

    2008: In Little Rock, AR at the Chabad House, second session of From Ruins to Glory, a course of study based on a virtual tour of the Temple

    2008:Rabbi David Loksen and Rabbi Shmulie Hecht, of the Brooklyn, New York-based Chabad Lubavitch Jewish Community Enrichment Program who are volunteers with Chabad Hawaii, leave Guam. 

    2008:Two Israeli physicians were dispatched to Georgia to treat Yedioth Aharonot journalist Zadok Yehezkeli, who was seriously wounded in Gori when shrapnel from an artillery shell, reportedly fired by the Russians, hit him.

    2008: General Norton A. Schwartz became the 19th Chief of Staff of the U.S. Air Force and the first Jew to hold that position.

    2008: Janet Jagan was selected as editor of the PPP newspaper, Thundertoday.

    2009:Tzfat [Safed] Klezmer Festival comes to a close.

    2009:Two Israelis were lightly wounded in a shooting attack in the northern West Bank tonight, according to the IDF.

    2009:The youth movement Habonim Dror, a driving force behind the popular campaign for Gilad Schalit's return, organized a global prayer for the captured IDF soldier's safe return the focus of which was a communal service held at the Western Wall tonight at time that coincided with the soldier's 23rd birthday according to the Hebrew calendar

    2010:YAD Detroit Book Club Cluster is scheduled to discuss The Piano Teacher by Janice Y. K. Lee at the Barnes & Noble Book Store in West Bloomfield, Michigan.

    2011:A special performance by Makela, DC’s co-ed Jewish a cappella group, is scheduled to take place at the Sixth &I Historic Synagogue.

    2011:Tel Aviv municipal inspectors distributed an eviction notice today to a tent dweller who erected a structure that served as a kitchen and storage room at the Nordau Boulevard tent city in north Tel Aviv. 2011: A hearing to discuss political redistricting in the Baltimore area began this evening at 6:30 p.m.  The hearing was originally scheduled to begin at 7 p.m. but was changed to the earlier time to accommodate Jewish citizens who need to be at home or in their synagogues to mark the start of Shabbat.  Like all other citizens, Jews can e-mail in their testimony.

    2011: The New York Daily News published the first interview that Levi Aron, the man charged with killing 8 year old Leib Kletzky, has given to the media.

    2012: The New York Timesfeatures reviews of books written by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Patagonian Hare: A Memoir by Claude Lanzmann and the recently released paperback editions of The Night Circusby Erin Morgenstern and Heddy’s Folly:The Life and Breakthrough Inventions of Hedy Lamarr, the Most Beautiful Woman in the World by Richard Rhodes.

    2012: The Jewish Community Center of Northern Virginia is scheduled to sponsor a contra-indicated (by the weather) fundraiser – Community Eat-for-Heat featuring a pancake feast and water play.

    2012: The Illinois Holocaust Museum & Education Center is scheduled to present a special screening of “Granito:  How to Nail a Dictator”

    2012(24th of Av, 5772): Eighty-five year old comic book artist Joe Kubert passed away today. (As reported Margalit Fox)

    2012: The Summer Learning Institute at Hebrew Union College is scheduled to come to an end.   

    2012: “Word Games (Mischakei Milim)” is scheduled to be shown at the Abingdon Theatre in NYC

    2012: An off-duty female soldier was forced to disembark from a bus before she had completed her journey in order to avoid a verbal assault by ultra-Orthodox passengers who complained about her attire and point of boarding onto the vehicle, Israel Radio reported today

    2012: Luiza Nahari, a Yemenite Jew whose husband, Moshe, was murdered in their hometown of Raydah in December 2008, immigrated to Israel this morning with four of her children. Nahari was reunited with her five other children, who had moved to Israel following her husband’s murder.

    2012: “More than 1,000 people gathered at Rostov-on-Don, which 70 years ago witnessed the worst Holocaust atrocity in Russia.  Wearing arm bands marked with a Star of David, the crowd today marched to the mass grave of approximately 27,000 people executed by German soldiers near the city in 1942..(As reported by Haaretz)

    2013: “The A Word” which tells the story of the Rotenberg clan who live in the Arava desert is scheduled to shown at the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.

    2013: Lisa Levine of the Wharton Business School is scheduled to present “Negotiate with Israelis – Like a Pro!” at Talpiyot Jerusalem.

    2013: MK Ayelet Shaked (Bayit Yehudi) today called for implementing the death penalty for terrorists. She said the measure was necessary to ensure that terrorist murderers are "never released." (As reported by David Lev and Ari Soffer)

    2013:  The recently deployed Iron Dome anti-missile system intercepted a least one of the rockets that was fired towards Eilat tonight. (As reported by Elad Benari)

    2013: The Israel Prisons Service published “the list of the first 26 convicted terrorists who will be released as part of Israel’s confidence-building measures to help the restart of peace talks with the Palestinian Authority. (As reported by Haviv Rettig Gur and Aaron Kalman)

    2014: In New Orleans Bruce Spizer is scheduled to deliver a lecture at the Uptown JCC on the cause of Beatlemania were the attendees will be able to enjoy a catered kosher lunch.

    2014: Tova Birnbaum, Director of the North America Region of the World Zionist Organization, is scheduled to speak on Is Zionism Still Relevant for the Next Generation? with Hadassah’s Lauren Katz.

    2014: Prime Minister Netanyahu “summoned senior ministers late tonight to discuss” developments at the Cairo ceasefire talks in what is described as a “preparation talk.” (As reported by Attila Somfalvi)

    2014(16thof Av, 5774): Ninety-three year old photographer Lida Moser passed away tod

    2014(16thof Av, 5774): A month before her 90th birthday, actress Lauren Bacall, the first cousin of Israeli President Shimon Peres, passed away today.

    2014: “Members of the United States Senate are demanding an independent investigation into the role of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency during Israel's most recent war in Gaza with Hamas.” (As reported by Michael Wilner)

    2014: New York Governor Mario “Cuomo, Assembly Speaker Sheldon Silver and Senate co-leaders Dean Skelos and Jeff Klein are scheduled to travel to Israel” today for a two-day visit as a “demonstration of solidarity” with that country in the conflict in Gaza. (As reported by David Klepper)

    2015: The Oregon Jewish Museum and Center for Holocaust Education is scheduled to show “The Love Bug” as part of its “August at Noon – Car Movies” program.

    2015: The Thaler Holocaust Programming Committee under the leadership of Dr. Robert Silber is scheduled to meet in Cedar Rapids, Iowa.

    2015(28thof Av): Yahrzeit for Larry Rosenstein, of blessed memory, husband of Judy Levin Rosenstein, of blessed memory.  Gone too soon but always remembered!
    2015: Holocaust survivor Peter Kubicek who “calls himself the luckiest man alive” is scheduled to speak at the National Czech & Slovak Museum and Library in Cedar Rapids, Iowa.





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    August 13

    236: The body of Hippolytus, the author of Contra Judaeous, which blamed the harsh conditions of the Jews on their rejection of Jesus was buried in a cemetery on the Via Tiburtina

    339: The Roman Emperor “issued a decree forbidding intermarriage between Jews and Christians with transgressors to be punished by death.” (As reported by Austin Cline)

    339: The Roman Emperor “issued a decree imposing the death penalty on Jews who circumcise non-Jewish slaves.” (As reported by Austin Cline)

    339: The Roman Emperor issued a decree imposing the death penalty on any Jews who hired women weavers that had been “in imperial service.” (As reported by Austin Cline)

    1099: Following a ceremonial that had been instituted by Emperor Otto III, the Jews of Rome “were obliged to attend the entry into” Rome of Paschal II whose papacy began today “singing laudatory hymns.

    1311: Birthdate of King Alfonso XI of Castile. During his reign, in 1348, Alfonso issued decrees prohibiting Jews from charging interest when lending money and prohibiting them from collecting unpaid debts.  (The same rules applied to Moslems, but not Christians.) At the same time, Jews were still allowed to own land during his reign.

    1315: Louis X of France marries Clemence d'Anjou.In 1315, Louis X also overturned the decree of his predecessor that allowed the Jews to return to France, and accorded them a charter "in answer to the demands of the people."

    1391: In Spain, anti-Semitic mobs attacked the Jews of Lerida, reportedly killing 75. Other Jews were forcibly baptized and were forced to see their synagogue turned into a church. 

    1453: Seventeen Jews were burned at the stake in Silesia (now Poland and/or Czech Republic).

    1516: The Treaty of Noyon between France and Spain is signed. Francis recognized Charles's claim to Naples, and Charles recognized Francis's claim to Milan. Twice, Charles would issue edicts expelling the Jews from Naples.  The second one, issued in 1533, would take effect despite Jewish attempts to dissuade him. 

    1551: Jews of Great Poland were granted limited self-government.

    1599: In Basel, “Protestant Christian Hebraist” Johannes Buxtorf and his wife gave birth to their son “Johannes Buxtorf the Younger” who completed and edited several of his father’s works on Hebrew or related to Judaism as well as creating works of his own including a Latin translation of the writings of Maimonides. 

    1620(4th of Av): Rabbi Menachem Azariah da Fano (Rama), author of Alfasi Zuta, passed away

    1624: In France Cardinal Richelieu was named first chief minister of finance by King Louis XIII.  The Cardinal gave new meaning and depth to the term “power behind the throne.”  Many historians contend that any decree issued by King Louis XIII was really the work of Richelieu. This would include a decree issued in 1632 after the French had taken the fortress city of Metz that allowed the Jews to remain in the city.  The decree was necessitated by the fact that the King had issued a decree in 1615 banning all Jews from living in France.  This decree is an oddity in its in own right since when it was issued Jews were supposedly not living in the Gallic realm to start with.

    1713: Birthdate of David Franco Mendes, the native of Amsterdam, a successful businessman who used his leisure time to write poetry, study Talmud and play a prominent role in the Spanish-Portuguese community.

    1804: Birthdate of Israel Franklin Moses the native of Charleston, South Carolina who became known as Franklin J. Moses, Sr. – prominent planter, politician and jurist.

    1816: Birthdate of German jurist and office holder Rudolf von Geneist who courageously helped to found the Association for the Defense against Anti-Semitism “a non-Jewish organization” also known as The Union for Combating Anti-Semitism,

    1823: Birthdate of British born historian Goldwin Smith, “a pathological anti-Semite” who spent his last years in Canada.

    1831: Birthdate of composer and pianist Salomon Jadassohn whose musical accomplishments are overshadowed by the fact that unlike other German Jews he did not convert even though his being Jewish kept him from many “church jobs such as directors or organists” which went to Christians instead.

    1837(12 of Av, 5597): Aryeh Löb ben Joseph Katzenellenbogen: who followed in the footsteps of his grandfather and father by serving as a rabbi at Brest-Litovsk a city that would become infamous in the 20th century as the site of the humiliating peace treaty that the Germans forced on the Russians during WW I passed away today.

    1846: Birthdate of Sir Otto Jaffe, the Hamburg native who became a successful British businessman and Lord May of Belfast.

    1847(30th of Av, 5634): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1851: Birthdate of Felix Adler. Born in Germany, Adler’s family moved to the United States when he was five.  His father, Rabbi Samuel Adler, was head of Temple Emanu-el, the leading Reform Congregation in New York City.  In 1873, Adler became professor of Hebrew and Oriental Literature at CornellUniversity.  In that same year he delivered a major address at his father’s congregation entitled “the Judaism of the Future.”  He proposed ridding Judaism of its superstitious traditions in order to better focus on the ethics that he felt were central to any human community.  The congregation was receptive to his emphasis on ethics but was loathe to cast aside 3000 years of religious tradition.  Adler soon found himself beyond the pale.  In 1876, he founded the New York Ethical Cultural Society.  He remained a champion of the Ethical Cultural Movement until his death in 1933.

    1860:In response to a public call, signed by a number of influential citizens, a meeting was held at the Tract-Society House today afternoon, to consider the subject of the Christian massacre in Syria, and to adopt measures for rendering assistance to the sufferers. About twenty persons were present, among them some of our most prominent clergymen.  During the meeting it was noted that meetings for the same purpose were being held in England and France by Jews as well as Christians.

    1861: Birthdate of Dr. Marcus Jastrow, Jr., the Warsaw native who moved to Philadelphia with his father, the famed Talmudist Marcus Jastrow and became a noted Orientalist.

    1866(2ndof Elul, 5626): Forty year old Lithuanian born Hebrew scholar Wolf Adelsohn whose students included grammarian Ḥayyim Ẓebi Lerner passed away today in Odessa.

    1867: Birthdate of Arthur Eichengrün, the German-Jewish chemist who holds 47 patents but is best known for his claim to really have been the inventor of Aspirin.

    1867: Birthdate of Dr. Lee K. Frankel, the Philadelphia native who gained fame for his work with various Jewish philanthropies.

    1867: Birthdate of Dr. Charles Foster Kent, the American Biblical scholar who dozens of works on ancient Israel including Outlines Of Hebrew History, A History of the Hebrew People (2 volumes) and A History of the Jewish People during the Babylonian, Persian and Greek Periods.

    1871:The Grand Lodge of the Ancient Jewish Order of Kesher Shel Barzel held their annual banquet this evening at the corner of Seventh Avenue and 14th Street in New York City. The lodge has 4,000 members. The dinner was attended by 110 members including thirty delegates from various parts of the United States.

    1871: In Chicago, Rabbi Elkan Herzman was physically forced to leave his synagogue on Fifth Avenue. Some of the congregants had complained because Herzman had violated Jewish law by eating ice cream on a day when he should have been fasting.  When Herzman arrived at the synagogue he found another rabbi in his usual place.  Following the altercation, Herzman complained to the police who said that there was nothing they could do about.  Herzman has threatened further political action.  (I have not been able to find any further reference to this Rabbi or a synagogue on Fifth Avenue, so if you have, please let me know.)

    1872: Birthdate of German born chemist, Richard Willstätter.  Willstatter won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1915 for his study of the structure of chlorophyll and other plant pigments.  He resigned his position on the faculty at a university in Munichover the issue of anti-Semitism. After Hitler’s rise to power, he fled to Switzerlandwhere he died in 1942. 

    1872: Birthdate of Jacob de Haas, an English journalist who was one of Herzl’s earliest supporters. After Herzl’s death, de Haas became a lead of the Zionist movement in Israel.

    1874(30thof Av, 5634): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1874: It was reported today that George Walling, the Superintendent of the New York Police Department had written to Henry Honscheidt, the Sheriff of McLean County, Illinois, telling him that in his opinion the man who had confessed to the Sheriff that he had killed Benjamin Nathan was “either  insane or an imposter.”

    1875: Birthdate of Arthur Yitzhak Biram, Israeli philosopher, philologist, and educator, who died on the first day of the Six Days War.

    1877: Midhat Pasha, the head of the “Young Turkey” Party is in Vienna where he hopes to negotiate a treaty with Austria and England that will protect the Ottoman Empire and avoid a Holy War. Pasha is the son of a Bulgarian Jew who converted to Islam to enhance his commercial opportunities in the lands of the Sultan.

    1876: The Anglo-Jewish Association’s description of a Jewish community living in India was published today. According to the reported the community is known as the Beni-Israel (Children of Israel) and has been in existence for a thousand years.  They dress like Hindus and speak the Hindu language.   While they know little Hebrew, they follow the Levitical Code and strictly observe the Sabbath. They are separate from other Jewish communities in the subcontinent.

    1881: It was reported today that the government is taking “strong measures” to suppress the anti-Semitic riots in Pomerania including the arrest of 21 rioters at Koslin.

    1881: “Comical German Names” published today includes a commentary on the names used by German Jews who were “not more than a century ago, forlorn of family names.”  “He was either known by a ‘front name,’ supplemented by that of his father as in ‘Aaron ben David’ or ‘Solomon ben Israel’ or by some nickname owing its origin to the nature of his occupation or perhaps to a conspicuous physical peculiarity.” Apparently this method of nomenclature made it difficult for the taxman to make his collections so a law was passed requiring Jews to choose a surname, use for the entire lifetime and “transmit it by legal act of registration to his children.”

    1882: “Mr. Jenkins’s New Book” published today provides a review of A Paladin of Finance by Edward Jenkins in which the Member of Parliament creates a work of fiction based on the financial crash in France in which “he insists., the Jews rule the finances of the world and there wield all the power.”

    1883: The New York Times published a letter to the editor from Raphael Lewin in which the author disputes the account of the Damascus Libel of 1840 published in the Times on August 6 describing it as being slanted and anti-Jewish.

     1884: The Board of Governors of the Hebrew Union College re-elected Bernhard Bettmann as President.  Rabbi Henry Berkowitz of Mobile, Alabama and Rabbi Max Landsberg of Rochester, NY, were chosen to serve as new members on the board.

    1884: It was reported today that Russian Jew on his way to his brother’s wedding in Paris was detained for 4 days by authorities because he did not understand French and could not answer their questions.  While in custody, a rope was kept around his neck; he was handcuffed and knocked about by those holding him.  When the mayor heard of the incident he called for an investigation

    1884: It was reported today that Mrs. Morris Cohn, the daughter of Michael Englemann (the Salt King of Manistee, Michigan) has gone left her husband and returned after his arrest on charges of numerous counts of forgery.  Cohn, a prominent Jewish businessman had spent the $50.000 wedding gift from Englemann and turned to criminal activity to support their lifestyle.

    1886: It was reported today that numerous homes of Jews living in Kiev have been destroyed during anti-Jewish riots in the Russian province.

    1887: It was reported today that Israel Lipski’s solicitor has new facts that will prove that he did kill Miriam Angel, the woman he was convicted of killing.  Lipski’s lawyer has met privately with Judge Stephen convinced him of his client’s innocence.

    1887: Israel Lipski’s solicitor, who has prepared a pamphlet reviewing the case against Israel Lipski containing “sundry points that could not brought into trial” met privately with Judge Stephen, who tried the case and is said “to have been convinced that there was grave doubt of Lipski’s guilt.”

    1887: Henry Mathews, the Home Secretary who has refused to interfere in the case of Israel Lipski who has been sentenced to hang for murdering Miriam Angel “took the prompt step of announcing to the press late” tonight “that “Lipski would certainly be hanged” as scheduled.

    1889: It was reported today that Theodore Cohn, the young man who stole $610 from A.H. & King is in the Tombs awaiting trial on a charge of grand larceny.

    1890: The expenses of today’s excursion sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children will be paid in full by an anonymous female donor who has been paying for one such excursion for each of the last seven years.

    1890: In London, “the meeting at the Mansion House to protest against” Russian persecution has been postponed following reassurance by the Lord Mayor offers reassurances that there is no reason to believe that the Czar’s government will enforce the edicts of 1882.

    1890: Godfrey Taubenaus has been selected to serve as Rabbi of Mount Sinai Temple on East 72nd Street.

    1891: The Russian government prohibited the collection of funds or the publication of appeals for financial assistance to Jewish immigrants today

    1892: “A Chicken Too Much for the Police” published today described the uproar at police stations throughout New York caused by Davis Rubenstein bringing a decayed chicken  to each police station in his attempt to have action taken against Berman’s Butcher Shop which is “selling impure food.” The foul fowl was turned over the Sanitary Bureau to use in its investigation.

    1893(1st of Elul, 5653): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1893: “Parties in Austria” published today described the political divisions in the polyglot central European kingdom that include “anti-Semites, who conscientiously hold that hell is not hot enough for the Jews, whose torments ought, in strict justice, to begin in this life and be continued in the next.”

    1893: Birthdate of Monnet Bain Davis who served as U.S. Ambassador to Israel from 1951 through 1953.

    1895: According to Charles Bernstein, the settlement committee of the striking tailors, most of whom were Jewish, will meet for the last time tonight.

    1896: Herzl meets with the Turkish ambassador, Mahmud Nedim Bey, in Vienna.

    1896:  Since American commanders did not know that an armistice had been signed yesterday they proceeded to capture the Philippine city of Manila, the climactic moment in the Battle of Manila.  Sergeant Maurice Justh of the First California Volunteers, a regiment with 100 Jewish members, was the first soldier “to fall in the attack on Manilla.”

    1898: “Hebrew Charities Building” published today described “the new Hebrew Charities Building, just now rising above the ground level on the corner of Second Avenue and Twenty-first Street” next to the Post Graduate Hospital.

    1898: An entry in a Swiss hotel log showed that Freud stayed at the hostelry possibly with “a woman who was not his wife” and may have been his sister-in-law Minna Bernays.

    1899: As tensions rise in France during the re-trial of Captain Dreyfus, Paul Deroulede, the poet who is also a member of the Chamber of Deputies and 23 of his allies were arrested today.  (The Dreyfus affair was symptomatic of deep divisions in French society that pitted Republican secularists against Royalist Roman Catholics.)

    1899: Three duels are scheduled to be fought by journalists cover the court martial of Captain Dreyfus and Rennes, France.

    1899: In Paris, demonstrations took place this evening outside of the offices of the Anti-Semite League where the President of the League and Max Regis, “the former Jew-baiting Mayor of Algiers” are hiding.

    1899: “London Sympathy With Dreyfus” published today described a rally where a resolution was adopted calling for “a meeting of rejoicing” “in the event of the acquittal of Dreyfus.”

    1899: “‘King Lear’ In Hebrew” published today described the emotional response to Jacob Adler’s portrayal of King Lear at the People’s Theatre in Brooklyn.  The Shakespearian drama has been updated to fit the taste of its predominately immigrant Jewish population so it is set in modern day Vilna and the women “dress in the latest New York Fashions.”

    1899: It was reported today that the recent rapprochement between France and Germany has led to renewed mistrust and mistreatment of Germans in Russia as well the decision of the government to order German and Polish Jews who have been living in St. Petersburg for years to leave the capital by the end of the month.

    1900:The Fourth Zionist Congress convened in London with five hundred delegates in attendance. Max Nordeau gave the opening in address which included an account of the appalling conditions faced by the Jews of Romania and a tribute to the Kaiser for his treatment of the Jews of Pomerania and East Prussia.

    1900: In London, an open air meeting for the evangelizing of Jews was held near Queen’s Hall where the Zionists were holding their congress.

    1903: In Salt Lake City, Utah President Joseph F. Smith of the LDS (Mormon) Church gave the dedicatory address at the cornerstone laying for Congregation Montefiore.

    1907: The first American taxicabs appear on the streets of New York City.  At least two Jews played a major role in the introduction of this type of conveyance in the United States. In 1915, John Hertz, a Hungarian born Jew started the Yellow Cab Company in Chicago, Il. In 1922, a Russian born Jew named Morris Markin formed the Checker Cab Company and in 1929 he bought the Yellow Cab Company from Hertz

    1910: Birthdate of Shlomo-Yisrael Rosenberg; the native of Warsaw who moved to the United States where he became a lawyer and a rabbi before making in Aliyah where as Shlomo-Yisrael Ben-Meir he became an MK who held several ministerial portfolios.

    1911: At Basel, Switzerland, the 10th Zionist Congress, adopted a resolution to establish a Zionist immigration office in Berlin

    1912: Franz Kafka met Felice Bauer in Berlin.  The relationship between these two had a profound effect on Kafka’s literary output as well as his personal life.  One critic recently wrote that Kafka’s correspondence with Bauer “is the most useful key to Kafka’s thoughts and actions during the decisive years of his emergence as a writer.”

    1912:  Birthdate of Italian born biologist Salvador Luria. In 1969 he and Max Delbruck shared the Nobel Prize in medicine for the “Luria-Delbruck experiment” which “demonstrates that in bacteria, beneficial mutations arise in the absence of selection, rather than being a response to selection. This reinforces the Darwinian notion of evolution by natural selection acting on random mutations.”

    1915: Sixty-year old Eli Pochansky, an Orthodox Jew who attacked his son Samuel for smoking on Shabbat and then struck his wife and daughter who tried to defend them is a free man because when the magistrate hearing the assault complaint learned of Pochansky’s strict view on smoking he “decided not to entertain the charge.

    1916: Birthdate of Connie Polan who became Connie Wald when she married Jerry Wald.

    1917: The Turkish military leader Djemal Pasha announces the Turkish government has become convinced that the Jewish colonies inside Palestine must be destroyed, so they won't present a danger to the integrity of Turkey.

    1918: Birthdate of Judith Iris Martin, the Newark native who created the long-lived children’s theater group, the Paper Bag Players which would become a New York City institution (As reported by Douglas Martin)

    1922: Birthdate of Ruby Burman, the native of Columbus, Ohio, who as Ruby Cohn became “a theater scholar who espied the genius of Samuel Beckett early on in Paris and became a leading authority on his work as well as his friend…” (As reported by Bruce Weber)

    1922:Samuel Untermeyer, President of the Palestine Foundation Fund made public a letter from Dr. Arthur Ruppin describing the future establishment of Jewish suburbs at Jerusalem and other sites in Palestine which show the likelihood of the development of major municipalities throughout the area.

    1925: In the “Free City of Danzig” Eliezer and Dina Sterenberg gave birth to Meir Shamgar who served as President of the Israeli Supreme Court from 1983 until 1995.

    1926: “The Third Squadron” a silent German movie starring Fritz Spira and Eugen Burg, both of whom died in concentration camps in WW II, was released in Germany today.

    1926: Birthdate of Arthur Ortenburg, the native of Newark who teamed with his wife Liz Claiborne and Leonard Boxer to create fashion line Liz Claiborne, Inc (As reported by Douglas Martin)

    1928: Birthdate of Yehuda "Nimrod" Lapidot “an Israeli historian and former professor of biochemistry. Lapidot was a member of the Irgun and an officer in the Israel Defense Forces. In 1980 he was appointed head of Lishkat Hakesher by former Irgun commander and then Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin. Lapidot received a Ph.D. in biochemistry from Hebrew University in 1960 and later became a professor.”

    1928(27thof Av, 5688): Eighty-two year old American Jewish author Isaac Markens, the son of Orientalist Elias Markens and the collector of Lincoln memorabilia whose works included  Lincoln and the Jews  passed away today in Newark, NJ.

    1928: At the casino in Deauville, Charles A. Levine punched the editor of The Boulevardier after the latter admitted that he was the one who had been taking “dirty cracks” at Levine.  The two were separated and Miss Mabel Boll, who was reportedly Levine’s mistress, took him away.  Levine, a non-observant Jew, claimed to be the first passenger to fly the Atlantic in 1927.

    1929: New York State Supreme Court Justice Frankenthaler is scheduled to hear arguments regarding a petition to have the question of the sanity of Alfred Dreyfus be determined by a jury.

    1929: Jewish financier Felix Warburg and Lord Melchett, the famous British nobleman whose picture appeared on the cover of Time Magazine on October 29, 1928, each donate five hundred thousand dollars to start a financial concern aimed at helping development in Palestine.

    1933:The Jewish Telegraphic Agency published an article that estimated that there were about 660,000 non-Aryans living in Germany of which 500,000 are "official" Jews and 160,000 of Jewish descent.

    1933: “So This Is Harris!” – “a short comedy directed by Mark Sandrich” was released in the United States by RKO.

    1934: La signora di tutti (Everybody's Woman) the only Italian film directed by Max Ophüls was released in Italy today.

    1934: The comic strip “Li’l Abner,” created by Al Capp, made its debut. Born Alfred Gerald Caplan in New Haven, in 1909, Capp was a successful syndicated cartoonist by the age of 19.  He created Li’l Abner and all of his Hillbilly friends during the depths of the Great Depression.  One of the most famous characters in the strip were the Schmoos.  These characters could jump into your pot or skillet and “cook up” to taste like any food you wished for.  To Jewish kids, the Schmoos sounded an awful like the manna in the Bible.1936:Felix M. Warburg, New York banker and philanthropist, today was named chairman of the American division of the executive committee of the Council for German Jewry.

    1937:A proposal to settle 200,000 Jews in Palestine within the next three years, involving an investment of about $175,000,000, was laid before the World Zionist Congress today. The proposal was made by Elieser Kaplal, treasurer of the Zionist executive committee, who said American Jewry was expected to contribute $2,000,000 to the Zionist movement and Palestine fund in the current fiscal year.

    1938(16th of Av, 5698): As they bicycled from Ramatayim to Petah Tikva Benjamin Babayoff and his wife were shot and killed by gunmen firing from an orange grove and their seven year old daughter who was riding on the handlebars was severely wounded.

    1939: Newlyweds Katherine and Walter E. Sachs were sailing across the ocean to Europe today.

    1939:  In Brooklyn Julius and Anee Cohen Steinberg gave birth to Saul Phillip Steinberg the Wharton graduate who founded “Leasco” which provided him with the financial bases to acquire 150 year old Reliance Insurance Company.

    1940(9th of Av, 5700): Tish'a B'Av

    1940: During World War II, the Battle of Britain begins as the Luftwaffe attacks British airfields.  Field Marshall Goering told Hitler that the Luftwaffe could bomb the British into submission making an invasion unnecessary. On the other hand, by destroying the RAF, the Germans would be able to invade the British Isles with complete control of the skies insuring a Nazi victory.  If the British had lost the Battle of Britain, the Final Solution would have been that much closer to being truly “final.”  For more about the role of Jews in actually fighting the Battle of Britain see   Failure to win the Battle of Britain soured Hitler on the capabilities of the Luftwaffe and caused him to turn his face eastward towards the Soviet Union.  The invasion of the Soviet Union would result in the millions of Jews coming under the sway of the Final Solution.

    1942(30thof Av, 5702): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1942: The Jewish communities at Mir, Belorussia, and Gorodok, Ukraine, are liquidated.

    1942: Switzerland forces Jews (mostly French) already safe in Switzerland back across the border. The Swiss government will turn back 10,000 Jews to their deaths during the remainder of the war on the grounds that only political refugees can be admitted into Switzerland, not "racial refugees." The Swiss government does, however, welcome the gold that the Germans extract from the mouths and fingers of the dead Jews.  

    1942: For the next fourteen days, 53,750 Jews from Warsaw will be deported to the Treblinka death camp.

    1942: United States State Department officials and the British Foreign Office decide that the Riegner Cable outlining details of the Holocaust be kept secret.

    1943: “A group of 367 Jews with Spanish citizenship arrived at Bergen Belsen, and in violation of his instructions Spanish diplomat Sebastian de Romero Radigales kept them alive until the Spanish government “changed its position and permitted their transfer to Spanish Morocco.”

    1943: Y. Ben Ami wrote a letter to Peter H. Bergson proposing “the creation of a ‘Free Palestine League’ to influence United States policy on the Middle East and to wage a publicity campaign to create public support for an independent Palestine.” (Ben Ami would have a son, Jeremy who became the executive director of “J Street.”)

    1944: Following today’s arrest of an SOE agent and a French officer by the Gestapo, Krystyna Skarbek with the SS officer in charge, and using a combination of threats and bribery obtained the release of her comrades.

    1945: Thirty-five Jews sacrifice their lives to blow up Nazi rubber plant in Silesia

    1946: British authorities open detention camps on the island of Cyprus to hold Jewish refugees who have been prevented from entering Palestine due to British restrictions on immigration.

    1946: In Brooklyn Anna Blumenthal and Dr. Julius Yellen gave birth to Janet Louise Yellen the American economist who has a career as an academic and public service including chairing the Council of Economic Advisers and holding senior positions with the Federal Reserve.

    1948: Harry Dexter White, the son of Jewish immigrants from Lithuania, who had been accused of being a communist and a traitor denied being a member of the party when testified before the House Un-American Activities Committee today.

    1948(8th of Av, 5708): Silent screen star Elaine Hammerstein, daughter of Arthur Hammerstein and granddaughter of Oscar Hammerstein, died in an automobile accident.

    1951: “A Nahal group from the Ezra movement” Sha’alvim, “a religious Kibbutz in central Israel…affiliated with Agudat Israel.

    1952: In New York Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt welcomed the 50,000th visitor to the
    Bond Drive
    ’s Israeli Industrial Exhibition. The Hebrew lettering on a gleaming, Kaiser-Frazer car, assembled in Israel, made a great impression.

    1953(2nd of Elul, 5713): Seventy-three year old history Eugen Täubler who began his career teaching  ath the Higher Institute for Jewish in Berlin and finished it teaching at HUC in Cincinnati, Ohio, passed away today.

    1955: Two years after the death of Joseph Stalin, old-line Bolshevik Semyon Dimanstein was rehabilitated by the Communists running the Soviet Union.  Born in 1886, Dimanstein reportedly became a Rabbi after studying at a Chabad Yeshiva before becoming a Russian revolutionary.  He was widely identified with Jewish issues inside the Soviet Union including the Jewish Autonomous Oblast in the Far East and Yidn in FSSR (Jews in the Soviet Union). He was a victim of Stalin’s murderous purges in 1938. Rehabilitation is sort of like the Communist version of Resurrection.

    1957: In Philadelphia, PA, “veteran WCAU Philadelphia news anchor Gene Crane and his first wife Joan”

     Gave birth to David Crane, who helped to create one television’s most popular sitcoms – “Friends” which will live on forever in re-runs.

    1959(9th of Av, 5719):Tish'a B'Av

    1961(1st of Elul, 5721): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1961: Ernst and Karola Bloch were on a lecture tour in the Federal Republic of German when the Berlin Wall “went up” today forcing them to forsake their home Leipzig (East Germany) and settle in Tubingen (West Germany)

    1961(1st of Elul, 5721): Seventy-nine year old Sir Ellice Victor Sassoon,  who became a Baron on the death of his father Edward Elias Sassoon and who made much of his fortune in the orient passed away today. 

    1965: It was reported today that the auditorium of newly built Anna Lazaroff Synagogue in Kfar Chabad

    “was donated by Mr. and Mrs. Eugene Ferkauf, of New York, honoring Mr. and Mrs. Isidore and Rose Silverman.” (JTA)

    1973(15th of Av, 5733):Maurice Bisgyer, retired executive vice president of B'nai B'rith, the Jewish service organization, died today at the age of 75.

    1973:The body of Sir Moses Montefiore, father of modern Jewish settlement in Eretz Israel, will be returned to Jerusalem a century after his death, the Israeli Government said today. The body will be moved from Ramsgate to Israel in 1975.

    1976: It was announced today that “the working title” of the film to be made about the raid on Entebbe “is ‘Operation Jonathan,’ in honor of Lieutenant Colonel Jonathan Netanyahu, a 30 year old American born Israeli officer who killed during the rescue operation.”

    1976: Having returned to NYC from a campaign trip to Rochester, Daniel P. Moniyhan who is running for a seat in the U.S. Senate was reported today to have “said that the Entebbe raid followed by” the terrorist attack at Istanbul “were indications of the failure of the international community to cooperate to cope with terror.”

    1976: The Palestinian terrorists “who killed four persons in an attempt to hijack an Israeli plane at Istanbul were reported today to have “said they had been instructed to kill as many Israelis as we can” and that they were “active warriors of the PLO” which “they had joined six months ago.”

    1976: Abraham Hirschfeld, a candidate for the U.S. Senate from New York was reported today to have named “a coordinator for his effort to win support in Hispanic areas of the state.”

    1977: President Carter’s administration rejected the Israeli request for the co-production rights of the F-16 fighter-bomber and announced that Israel would not be able to purchase the 250 planes as requested. This number had been reduced to 50 or 75 on grounds that the Israel Air Force no longer needed to maintain its air superiority over the Arabs.

    1978(1st of Av, 5738): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1982: “White Dog” a cinematic treatment of Romain Gary’s novel of the same name “directed by Samuel Fuller” who co-authored the script was released in the United States by Paramount Pictures today.

    1982: “Fast Times at Ridgemont High” directed by Amy Heckerling was released in the United States by Amy Heckerling.

    1991:The publisher Robert Maxwell said today that he had reached a private agreement with the publisher and other shareholders of Israel's Ma'ariv-Modin Group to acquire the majority of shares in the company, which owns the Israeli daily Ma'ariv. Ma'ariv is published in Hebrew in Tel Aviv. Financial details were not given. A statement said Mr. Maxwell would be the chairman and publisher and hold more than 70 percent of the shares. Dov Judkowski, who with Mr. Maxwell controls more than 75 percent of the shares, will be editor in chief and deputy chairman. "I shall put at the disposal of Ma'ariv-Modin all the funds necessary for the swift development of the paper, for the benefit of both the group and its staff," said Mr. Maxwell, who recently acquired The Daily News in New York.

    1995: Aharon Barak succeeded Meir Shamgar as President of the Supreme Court of Israel.

    1999(1st of Elul, 5759): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    2000: The New York Times book section featured a review of Half-Jew: A Daughter's Search for Her Family's Buried Pastby Susan Jacoby and Rodinsky’s Room a mystery about David Rodinsky coauthored by Iain Sinclair and Rachel Lichtenstein, granddaughter of Polish Jewish refugee Gedaliah Lichtenstein.

    2001: In the fight against West Nile Virus, pesticides are applied at Baron Hirsch Cemetery In New York

    2003: “The 3rd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals unanimously rules to refuse to reconsider a three-judge panel ruling that a Ten Commandments plaque from 1920 can remain on the Chester County courthouse in Pennsylvania. The appeals court was overruling a decision that the plaque with the commandments “violated the separate of church and state.” (As reported by Austin Cline)

    2005:The 20th annual Conference on Alternatives in Jewish Education (CAJE) opens at the University of Massachusetts-Amherst

    2006: A Woman in Jerusalem by A. B. Yehoshua (translated from the Hebrew by Hillel Halkin) was reviewed in the Book Section of the New York Times. A human resources manager is described as “the nameless main character” of this latest acclaimed novel.  Finally a novel features a Jewish human resources manager – how can one not be excited at the prospect of reading this? 

    2006: The Book Section of the Washington Post featured a review of  Peter Hartcher’s Bubble Man: Alan Greenspan and the Missing 7 Trillion Dollars which the reviewer describes as a “flawed jeremiad” that attempts to blame Greenspan for the collapse of the dot com bubble and the losses that may or may not have taken place.

    2006(19th of Av, 5766): Mahadi Hiyat, 83, was killed when a rocket crashed directly into his house near the town of Shlomi. Hiyat was the sole Egyptian resident of the northern Jewish community of Ya'arah.

    2007: A copy of Faye Kellerman’s latest novel, The Burnt House is contributed to the Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, thus insuring that its library will have a complete collection of her detective mysteries. With The Burnt House, Kellerman returns to her literary roots with Rina and Peter Decker, the Jewish couple that solves murders.  Besides the fact they are slick yarns, where else can you be on the trail of multiple murderers while one of the characters talks about “hashgacha pratite” and another reassures his spouse that they could enjoy a visit to Santa Fe since “they have a Chabad there.”

    2007: Some 75 people from the Jewish community of Rochester, New York, attended a dedication ceremony today to honor a rediscovered burial plot, long unknown to the community, where over 100 Jews from the 19th century were buried.

    2008: Forty Reform Jews land in Israel for a first-of-its-kind trip to meet the Israeli Reform movement. The 10-day trip is titled "Reform Family Experience: Move Beyond the Tour Bus," and may be a sign of the times in seeking to connect Reform Jews more powerfully than in the past to an Israel that is more complex and diverse than that seen by most tourists

    2008: Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez met with Jewish leaders today, pledging to work together against anti-Semitism and open up channels of communication despite differences on Middle East politics.

    2009: Funeral for Robert William Levine, the businessman and philanthropist who worked to aid Russian immigrants is scheduled to take place at Temple Emanuel in Newton, MA followed by burial at Memorial Park in Sharon, MA.

    2009: In Jerusalem, the Yiddishpiel Theatre helps prepare people for the High Holidays by presenting a “unique musical event which combines stories about the great cantors and Jewish and cantorial soul songs.

    2009: In Jerusalem, Beit Avi Chai,A cultural center that explores concepts of Jewish and Israeli identity and creativity presents a workshop led by Dr. Meir Buzaglo, Department of Philosophy, at Hebrew University entitled Rambam in the 21st Century that asks the questions, “How does the Rambam’s thinking relate to the basic questions of the modern age?”\

    2009:The Israel Defense Forces said today that they were investigating reports of a kidnapped soldier. A previously unknown Palestinian group calling itself the "Al-Quds Army" claimed that it had kidnapped an Israeli soldier

    2009: Rai Ephraim Simon, co-director of Friends of Lubavitch and a father of nine donated one of his kidneys to Samar Chasid living in Williamsburg who is the father of ten.

    2009 Patriot’s rookie Julian Edelman scored his first professional points on today in a pre-season game with the Philadelphia Eagles returning a punt 75 yards for a touchdown

    2010(3rd of Elul, 5770):  On the Hebrew calendar today marks the 75th anniversary of the passing of Rabbi Avraham Yitzchak HaCohen Kook. He passed away on the 3rd of Elul, 5695. During the British Mandate, “Rabbi Kook was the first Chief Ashkenazi Rabbi of the Jewish population in the Land of Israel in modern times, and had great love and respect for the secular Zionist movement…”

    2010: Temple Judah is scheduled to celebrate the 88th birthday of Marianne Bern at the Oneg following Friday night services.

    2010: The man who killed Meir Kahane in 1990 claims he did not carry out the shooting alone, as previously thought, but was part of a three-man terrorist cell with links to al-Qaida. Its original target was future prime minister Ariel Sharon, according to a newly-leaked US government document

    2010:The reopening of Shaarei Torah,the synagogue of Rabbi Avraham Yitzchak HaCohen Kook, luminary sage and father of modern religious Zionism, coincided with the 75th anniversary of Rabbi Kook's death.

    2011: The Gaga Summer Intensive that included Ohad Naharin's Repertoire is scheduled to come to a close today. Ohad Naharin “is an Israeli contemporary dancer, choreographer, artistic director, and musician.”

    2011(13th of Av, 5771): Shabbat Nachamu

    2011: The Summer Israeli Folk Dance Mostly Couples Marathon is scheduled to take place at Buttenwieser Hall in New York City.

    2011: Social protests took place throughout Israel today, with demonstrators turning out en masse in Haifa, Be’er Sheva and Afula. Sheva is not the periphery.” Roughly 15,000 people demonstrated at Independence Square in Afula

    2011:Gunmen abducted an American Jew after breaking into his house in the eastern Pakistani city of Lahore today in an unusually brazen raid that illustrated the threat to foreigners in this militancy-wracked, US-allied country. The US Embassy identified the victim as Warren Weinstein. A man by that name serves as the Pakistan country director for J.E. Austin Associates, a development contractor that works with the aid arm of the American government, according to a profile on the LinkedIn networking website.

    2012: Five short films created by Israeli directors - Occupy Rothschild, Wall to Wall, Busted, Word Games, A Wonderful Day – are scheduled to be shown in NYC

    2012:The Industry, Trade and Labor Ministry announced today that the price of a price-controlled loaf of bread will rise by 6.53 percent tomorrow.

    2012: Hezbollah has rockets that can hit any Israeli city, a leading official of the organization said this afternoon.

    2012:Israel may need to destroy parts of Lebanon and Gaza if Hezbollah and Hamas rain missiles upon the country in response to an Israeli attack on Iran, former Mossad head Danny Yatom said today

    2013: “Israel: A Home Movie” is scheduled to be shown at the Morris Cafritz Center for the Arts as part of the Year-Round Washington Jewish Film Festival.

    2012(25thof Av, 5772): Eighty three year old real estate mogul and philanthropist Zev Wolfson passed away today.

    2013: “The High Court of Justice today rejected a petition by the families of terror victims to block the release of 26 Palestinian prisoners who were convicted of terrorism, ruling that it is not for the court to involve itself in what is a diplomatic rather than a legal process.” (As reported by Stuart Winer)

    2013: The Israel Defense Forces gained 125 new recruits today as over 300 immigrants from North America landed in Israel, part of a charter flight organized by the Nefesh B’Nefesh organization. (As reported by Joshua Davidovich)

    2013: Amir Levy is scheduled to appear in “Bellimi and the Sultan” at the Robert Moss Theatre

    2014: The Illinois Holocaust Museum & Education Center is scheduled to unveil two plaques honoring rescuers from Italy and Poland at the Ferro Fountain of the Righteous

    2014: Dr. Mark W. Weisstuch is scheduled to deliver the second in his series of lectures on “The Merchant of Venice: A study of despair and humanity” at the Skirball Center for Jewish Life and Learning.

    2014: “Jewish people must be allowed to pray on the Temple Mount during the High Holidays and Sukkot, lawmakers in the Knesset Interior Committee said today.” (As reported by Lahav Harkov)

    2014: “Rockets were fired from Gaza tonight two-hours before the midnight deadline to Sunday's 72-hour cease-fire, as the IDF enhanced its troop presence along the border preparing to once again wage war against Hamas in Gaza.” (As reported by Herb Keinon, Hhaled Abu Toameh and Michael Wilner)

    2014: “Accompanied by Senate Majority co-leaders Dean Skelon and Jeff Klein together with Assembly Speaker Sheldon Silver, Andrew M. Cuomo, the Governor of New York, called on President Reuven Rivlin today to affirm the State of New York’s support for the State of Israel in light of the continued threat of attacks by Hamas and other terrorist organizations.” (As reported by Greer Fay Cashman)

    2015: “Asif Kapadia’s Amy Winehouse film is” scheduled to be shown in London under the auspices of the UK Jewish Film which “aims to develop a culture where Jewish and Israeli film is recognized and enjoyed by the widest possible audience, and to bring Jewish related film to the heart of British culture.”

    2015: Jews On Bikes is scheduled to cosponsor “What It Takes: Havdalah” where attendees will “gain the skills to make Havdalah on their own” at the Historic 6th& I Synagogue.





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    August 14

    1385: In what might be called the “Battle of the Johns” The Portuguese forces commanded by King João I (King John I) defeat the Castilian army of King Juan I(King John I) at the Battle of Aljubarrota, leaving King Juan as ruler of Portugal. The victory of King João I guaranteed the existence of an independent Portugal which would provide a haven for Jews fleeing Christian persecution in Spain at the end of the 14th and start of the 15thcenturies.

    1433: John I (King João I) of Portugal passed away.  As the following entry shows, King John I provided a haven for at least one Jew seeking to escape persecution in Spain.

    In 1391, an anti-Jewish riot inspired and provoked by the church occured in Seville and spread rapidly throughout Spain. Jews were being beaten and killed by religious fanatics and many others who were just taking advantage of the rioting to rob the Jews. The streets were flowing with Jewish blood; synagogues, homes and businesses are being destroyed; Jewish property is being stolen. The rioters were yelling; "Convert or Die!" The church promised peace and safety to the Jews who convert. Don Samuel Abarbanel, an observant Jew and his family were forced to convert. At that time the Abarbanels was one of the most distinguished families in Spain.  Its patriarch is Don Samuel Abarbanel, Treasurer of the State, Courtier, and friend to three kings of Spain. But even somebody as powerful as Don Samuel was not immune from the violence. He took the Christian name of Juan Sanchez de Seville and continued to serve King Henry III as his treasurer. He and his family attended church and mass on Sunday, but at great risk they were secret Jews, trying to eat kosher, observe the Sabbath and holidays and pray to Hashem. It was not an easy thing for them to do but they did so for about six years when it became increasingly more difficult. By 1397 Juan Sanchez de Seville and his family were able to escape to Portugal where they threw off their Christian customs and names and resumed their practice of Judaism.

    Don Samuel Abarbanel's reputation as a brilliant financier and statesman preceded him. King John I had his agents approach Don Samuel to ask him to be an advisor to the king. Don Samuel readily agreed, and a long personal friendship and relationship began. The relationship was not only between the king and Don Samuel, it was between their two families, their children, and their grandchildren. Samuel's son Judah followed in his father's footsteps. Don Judah was highly respected by King John I who frequently sought his advice. King John I was called "King John the Great." The title was well justified. During John I's reign Portugal prospered. Portugal was entering the age of exploration and acquiring new territories and becoming rich. Don Judah Abarbanel's advice to the king was invaluable in pursuing this course of action. One of King John's sons was Prince Henry the Navigator who ran a school of navigation and encouraged its Navy to explore, discover and settle new territories and to bring greater wealth and prestige to Portugal.

    1447: Following a fire in Posen (Poland) where the original charter granting the Jews "privileges" was written, (by Casimir the Great), Casimir IV renewed all of their rights, making his charter one of the most liberal in Europe. This charter lasted less than a decade before it was revoked.

    1591(24thof Av, 1591): Abigdor Eisenstadt, aka Abigdor Sofer ben Moses, “the author of translation of festival prayers and a prayer-book from Polish into German” passed away today.

    1688: Birthdate of Frederick William I of Prussia whom Veitel-Heine Ephraim served as court jeweler and mint master.

    1716:  Italian Rabbi Isaiah Bassani wrote a poem in honor of Zebulon Conegliano passing his examination in medicine today in Padua.

    1725: “The Jewish Law of 14 August 1725” “forbade the settlement by Jews in places where they had not previously been settled” including Reichenberg.

    1735: Birthdate of Jacob Meyer mystic and magician who gained fame as Jacob Philadelphia the name he took when he converted to Christianity.

    1779: In Prague, Selig Trebitsch, ḥazzan at the Old New Synagogue and his wife gave birth to Rabbi Menahem Nahum Trebitsch whose writings included “Shelom Yerushalayim"

    1787(30th of Av, 5547): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1787(30th of Av, 5547):Isaac de Pinto “a Dutch Jew of Portuguese origin, a scholar and one of the main investors in the Dutch East India Company” passed away. He had been born in 1717 in Amsterdam. In1748, Pinto helped stadholder William IV of Orange, sending or lending him money to defeat the French at Bergen op Zoom. In return he asked for uplifting measures against Jewish merchants forbidding them to sell clothes, gherkins or fish on the street. He proposed to send the poorest Jews to Surinam. Pinto was a man of broad learning, but did not begin to write until nearly fifty, when he acquired a reputation by defending his co-religionists against Voltaire. In 1762 he published his Essai sur le Luxe at Amsterdam. In the same year appeared his Apologie pour la Nation Juive, ou Réflexions Critiques. The author sent a manuscript copy of this work to Voltaire, who thanked him. Antoine Guenée reproduced the Apologie at the head of his Lettres de Quelques Juifs Portugais, Allemands et Polonais, à M. de Voltaire. In 1763 De Pinto became bankrupt as a result of speculation; he had to sell his house on Nieuwe Herengracht with five famous fixed wall-paintings by Jan Weenix. De Pinto moved to another fine mansion in The Hague; he and his family were invited to the palace when Mozart and his sister played. In 1768, Pinto sent a letter to Diderot on Du Jeu de Cartes. His Traité de la Circulation et du Crédit appeared in Amsterdam in 1771, and was twice reprinted, besides being translated into English and German. His Précis des Arguments Contre les Matérialistes was published at The Hague in 1774. Pinto's works were published in French (Amsterdam, 1777) and also in German (Leipzig, 1777).

    1793: Birthdate of Baruch Auerbach, the “educator and philanthropist” who founded the Jewish Orphan Asylum in Berlin.

    1815: Birthdate Rabbi Maier Zipser “one of the leaders of the Conservative (Neolog) movement of the Hungarian Jewry.”

    1822: In New York, Thomas Strong gave birth to Dr. James Strong a student of the Hebrew language whose pamphlet on the subject was published before the Civil War.  Strong was a member of the Palestine Exploration Committee and traveled there in 1884. (Strong was part of a group of 19th century Christians whose interest in Palestine laid the groundwork for the archaeological activities that became “Israel’s National Pastime.”)

    1829: Birthdate of Jules Moch a graduate of Saint-Cyr who fought served in the Crimean War and was captured at the Battle of Sedan during the Franco-Prussian War.

    1840: Birthdate of New York native Manuel Augustus Kursheedt

    1840: The U.S. government sent instruction to Mr. Glidon, the American Consul expressing President Van Buren’s concern over the treatment of the Jews of Damascus and his wish that United States work in concert with the governments of Europe to relieve their suffering.

    1855(30th of Av, 5615): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1859: Congregation Gemiluth Chassed was founded today in Port Gibson, Mississippi.

    1862: Jacob Ezekiel Hyneman, a native of Richmond, VA who had moved to Philadelphia with his father in 1850 enlisted in the U.S. Army during the Civil War.  Unlike some other native Virginians, Hyneman was able to choose fighting for the Union as opposed to defending slavery.

    1863: Birthdate of London “communal worker” Felix Arthur Davis.

    1863: "Affairs at Vicksburg” published today describes conditions a month after the fall of the Confederate Citadel including the following, "When the news reached the North that Vicksburg had fallen, a few thousand Hebrew patriots immediately made an exodus in this direction, with a view of opening a few hundred clothing stores at once. Greatly to their disgust Gen. Grant refused to allow any trade whatever, and much to their pecuniary grief they found that they had brought their shoddy to the wrong market. Something, however, must be done, and so fifty or sixty opened shops for the repair of watches, an equal number opened establishments for taking pictures, another quantity went to work gathering up the immense amount of old rags left everywhere by the rebels, while the balance stood disconsolately for a time around corners cursing Grant in every dialect originating at Babel, and then returned up the river. Those who went into the rag business had a good thing, for rags are high and the quantity left by Confederates in this place was enormous."

    1865: Today's Foreign Items column reports that The Chief of Police in Warsaw has forbidden the Jews to wear their ancient dress and coiffure, (two curls sticking out from a velvet cap.

    1865: Officer Thomas Ward who was murdered by a gang of felons in the line of duty, died at the Jew's Hospital. (Jew’s Hospital would later be known as Mt. Sinai.  The hospital took on the role of treating New Yorker’s regardless of religion during the Civil War when it treated large numbers of Union soldiers wounded during McClellan’s ill-fated Peninsula Campaign.)

    1872: A letter published today signed simply “A Jew” took issue with the New York Tribune’s characterization of President Grant’s views on, and relationships with,  the Jewish people.  The writer denied the Tribune’s claim that Grant had apologized for General Oder No. 11 by saying “that his chief of staff had issued and that he (Grant) had countermanded it.  When questioned on the subject in 1868, Grant said that “he issued that order under misapprehension, and regretted his action.  He took the responsibility and did not claim credit for countermanding it.”  The Tribune, whose publisher Horace Greely, was running against Grant for the Presidency, was making the same claims against Grant that had failed to dissuade Jews from voting for the Civil War hero in 1868.  The writer concludes by stating that The Tribune does not understand Jews.  Jews think for themselves.  Some will vote Democrat.  Some will vote Republican.  But none of them will be swayed by the Tribune’s re-hash of the claims left over from the 1868 Presidential Campaign.

    1873: According to Chief of Police John Malloy, the man who was murdered in Albany is a Brooklynite named John D. Weston.  He was allegedly murdered by Emil Lowenstein, a German-Jewish barber who had been enlisted by Mrs. Weston with enticements of sharing in the decedent’s property and enjoying her company.

    1874(1st of Elul, 5634): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1874: It was reported today that the police superintendent of New York had received a telegram from the Sheriff of McLean Country, Illinois, stating that the ”German Jew named Levy” had confessed to murdering New York businessman Benjamin Nathan.  The sheriff doubts that truth of the confession and thinks the man is “a humbug” looking for a free trip back to New York.

    1878: It was reported today that the government is doing nothing to alleviate the suffering from the effects of the famine in southern Morocco.  The Jews of the region are receiving some assistance from co-religionists

    1879:  Harris Levy, a 28 year old Polish Jew was shot in the arm on Forsyth Street in New York.  Levy was as a night watchman for Louis Solomans, a manufacturing tailor whose businesses occupied three rooms on the building’s 6th floor.

    1881: “Bleichroder and Thiers” published today described one Frenchman’s reaction to Barthelemy St. Hilaire recommending that the President of the Republic name Gerson von Bleichröder the German Jewish banker with close ties to Chancellor Bismarck be named a Knight of the Legion of Honor.

    1881: In Kiev, Abraham and Dvora Wellcher gave birth to Laibel Welcher gained fame as aviation pioneer Arthur L. Wlesh who was a flight instructor and friend of the Wright Brothers.

    1881: It was reported today that donations to help defray the cost of the next excursion sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children can be sent to the offices of the Jewish Messenger on Walker Street.

    1881: A concert sponsored by several prominent Jews is scheduled to be held today to raise funds for a cemetery at the popular resort town of Long Branch, NJ. The cemetery, “The Strangers’ Cemetery, will be open to all – rich or poor, Jew or Gentile

    1882: It was reported today that there are forty Jews living in Hoboken NJ.

    1882: It was reported today that yesterday’s account in the Congressional Record of speech given by S.S. Cox in defense of the Jews of Russia could not have happened since Congress had already adjourned. This was an example of the time-honored technique of entering things into the Congressional Record that were not actually said on the floor of the House and/or Senate.

    1882: It was reported that a barrel of gunpowder had accidentally exploded at a shop in Grodeno, Russia killing an untold number of Jewish children attending a nearby school

    1882:“Old Time Business Ways” reviewed The Growth of English Industry and Commerce by William Cunningham which included a description of how the reality of Jewish money lending in Medieval England.  While it appeared that the Jews had a monopoly on money lending, “the King had indirectly a monopoly on money-lending” because the Jews “were mere chattels of the King” which meant that “all that they had was his.”

    1883: “With Hermann Guthe’s publication of his monograph on the scroll fragment completed” today “the Shapira’s manuscript” which was a scroll of Deuteronomy “officially achieved scholarly recognition.”

    1884: It was reported today that Rabbi Henry Zindorf of Detroit’s Temple Beth El has been chosen as Professor of History and Hebrew Literature at Hebrew Union College.

    1886: On the Lower East Side, Louis and Mary Strauss Frankenthaler gave birth to George Frankenthaler who served as the State Supreme Court Justice and New York County Surrogate.

    1887: The members of the jury that convicted Israel Lipski of murder are scheduled to meet with the condemned man’s solicitor today.

    1887: It was reported today that Israel Lipski’s solicitor has new facts that will prove that he did kill Miriam Angel, the woman he was convicted of killing.  Lipski’s lawyer has met privately with Judge Stephen and convinced him of his client’s innocence.

    1887: It was reported today that that Israel Lipski’s solicitor has “sent a telegram to the Queen” asking her to stay the execution because “he is in possession of facts which will enable him to establish” Lipski’s innocence.

    1887: “Old World News By Cable” published today included a description of the excitement gripping London over the upcoming hanging of Israel Lipski, a Polish Jew who was found guilty of murdering Miriam Angel.

    1888: An excursion for sick children under the age of six sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children will take place this morning at nine.

    1889: The seventh free excursion of the summer sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children is scheduled to leave from the Fifth Street pier of the East River.  Only children without contagious diseases and six years of age or younger will be allowed on the boat.

    1889: One hundred twenty Jewish families arrived in Buenos Aires giving birth to the modern Argentinean Jewish community. In 1889, 824 Russian Jews arrived in Argentina on the S.S. Weser from Podolia in western Russia. Many of them became gauchos (Argentine cowboys). The gauchos bought land and established a colony, which they named Moiseville. Due to lack of funding, the gauchos appealed to Baron Maurice de Hirsch for funds and the Baron subsequently founded the Jewish Colonization Association. During its heyday, the Association owned more than 600,000 hectares of land, populated by more than 200,000 Jews. While many of these cooperative ranches are now owned by non-Jews, Jews continue to run some of the properties.

    1890: It was reported today that donations to help defray the costs of the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children can be sent to  Nathan Lewis, President; Dr. H. Gomez, Vice President; Hezekiah Kohn, Treasurer: and Joseph Davis, honorary Secretary.

    1891(10thof Av, 5651): Sixty-four year old Emile Frank, the widow of Joseph Frank and passed away at Huguenot, NY. The funeral will be delayed because the body has to be taken back to New York City and tomorrow is Shabbat.

    1891:Mr. Rosenbluth, of the Sanitary Aid Society who works with the Trustees of the Baron Hirsch Fund gave one of the Russian Jewish refugees living at Highstown, NJ $5,000 and sent him out to purchase farm lands in an attempt to replicate the success that Jewish refugees have enjoyed farming in Connecticut.

    1892: Rabbis Aaron Wise and David Cahn officiated at the wedding of Lottie Naomi Swartwood and Leopold Kahn known as “Admiral Dot.” Kahn and Swartwood were both dwarfs.  He had begun performing with P.T.Barnum until he formed the American Lilliputian Company in 1877 where both of them were stars.

    1892: Louis-Norbert Carrière the government commissioner who successfully pled at Rennes for Dreyfus's second conviction was appointed government commissioner to the Dreyfus court martial in Rennes today,

    1892: “Decline of the Hat Industry in the Oranges” published today offered numerous reasons for the decline of millinery business in New Jersey including the fact that Polish Jews in Newark and Orange are finishing hats for eight and three quarters of a cent per dozen.  “American workmen have always been paid 25 cents per dozen.”  (In reality, the problem was the tariff)

    1893: When representatives of the Board of Health, the Street Cleaning Department, the Fire Department and the Police swept through Hester Street and Mulberry Bend in an attempt to clear out the pushcarts and street vendors, they were forced to deal with “an old Jew” selling pears who had padlocked his cart in place and a Jew selling calico wrappers who claimed he could not move his cart because the wheel was broken.

    1893: Birthdate of Samuel Simon Leibowitz, American attorney and jurist who would gain fame as the lawyer who defended the Scottsboro Boys.

    1893: Jack O”Mara, the bartender at Patrick Devitt’s saloon in Brooklyn, is scheduled to go before the judge on charges that he handcuffed a Jewish paddled named Bruns and then stole his pack.

    1896: Heinrich von Gossler was appointed Prussian Minister of War. During his tenure in office he would defend Jewish manufacturers of rifles of when they were attacked by anti-Semites in the Reichstag. 

    1897: In Chicago, Samuel Marlow, a German Jew and his son were arrested today when “officers raided a little frame house on 26thPlace” where they found a still that could produce 52 gallons of moonshine a day.

    1898: As the staff at the Hebrew Orphan Asylum works to deal with an epidemic of dysentery “a well-known physician said that there forty to fifty cases in apartments in the same neighborhood which he attributed to polluted water.

    1898: “The Arrival of the Immigrant” published today described the arrival of Italians at Ellis Island and the Barge Office who have replaced the wave of Jews “from the Ghettoes, the Judenstrasses and the village streets of Russia, Russian Poland and all of Jewish Western Europe” that filled these offices through-out the 1880’s.

    1899: A reporter went to 3,815 Park Avenue which Abraham Reinold, a patient at Georgetown University in Washington, DC gave as his address.  The address given by this mysterious Jews was a vacant lot and no one in the neighborhood knew who he was.

    1899: Birthdate of Evelyn Kozak the native New Yorker whose parents had left “Russia to escape anti-Semitic attacks” who would be described as the world’s oldest living Jew when passed away at the age of 113.

    1899: In Paris, the police have surrounded the office of the Anti-Semite League where M.M. Guerin , the president of the league and Max Regis, the “noted –Jew baiter” and former Mayor of Algiers have barricaded themselves in attempt to avoid arrest “for political crimes that are punishable with penal servitude.”  A mob of their supporters shouting “Vive l’armee” and Mort aux Juifs’ has gathered outside the building.

    1899: “Dreyfus Fight Thickens” published today described the split in French society that centers “around the shadowy and emaciated red-haired Jew, whose uniform of an artillery Captain so ill fits and befits his figure physiognomy.” 

    1903: Birthdate of Hezl Rosenblum, the native of Kaunas who was “a signatory of the Israeli declaration of independence, he worked as editor of Yedioth Ahronothfor more than 35 years.”

    1904: Rabbi Meir Berlin and his wife gave birth to Judith Lieberman the wife of Rabbi Saul Lieberman.

    1904: Lillie Solomon, the daughter of Anna and I.E. Solomon, who was born in Solomonville, Arizona Territory in 1879, married Jewish merchant Max Lantin of Globe.

    1905(13th of Av, 5665): English painter Simeon Solomon passed away. For examples of his art and a whole lot more see

    1905: Louis M Mayer and his first wife, Margaret Shenberg  gave birth to their eldest daughter Edith “Edie” Mayer who married producer William Goetz.

    1910:Birthdate of French-Jewish photographer Willy Ronis

    1910: Birthdate of Natan Alterman the Warsaw native who gained fame as an Israeli poet, playwright, journalist, and translator.

    1910: Birthdate of Herta Herzog, the author of “The Jews as 'Others': On Communicative Aspects of Anti-Semitism” and the wife of Paul Felix Lazarsfeld.

    1910(9th of Av, 5670): Tish’a B’Av

    1910(9th of Av, 5670): Moses Frankfurt who had been born in 1828 and was married to Babette Frankfurt passed away today in Norfolk, VA.

    1911: In Richmond, Indiana, a meeting of the Society of Friends adopts a resolution protesting the treatment of the Jews of Russia.

    1915: Harry H. Schlacht, who is working to form “the American Legion, composed of foreign born Americans who have received military organization” said tonight “these people are loyal Americans” who “are anxious and willing to join the Foreign Legion and are ready to respond to the call for drill just as soon as army officers are appointed to train them.”

    1917: In the Bronx, Harry and Molly Glickmann give birth to Martin “Martry” Glickman. A graduate of Syracuse University, where he played football, Glickman was best known for his skills in track & field. In 1936, Glickman was one of two Jews on the U.S. 400 yard relay team at the 1936 Olympics.  The two were replaced just before the event.  According to Glickman, this was in response to pressure Avery Brundage, an anti-Semite and supporter of the Nazi regime. Glickman went on to a very successful career as a sports broadcaster. Glickman’s parents came from Jassy where the Germans and their Romanian allies slaughtered over twenty thousand Jews during the summer of 1941. 

    1920: Birthdate of actor Nehemiah Persoff.  Born in Jerusalem, Persoff came to the United States in 1929.  He was trained as an electrician, but developed an interest in acting which led to a very successfully career in theatre and film.

    1926: Birthdate of Martin Broszat “a prominent West German historian and a specialist on Nazi crimes against the Jews.” (As reported by Eric Pace)


    1928: The original production of “The Front Page,” directed by George S. Kaufman, opened at the Times Square Theatre

    1929: The Jewish Agency for Palestine was founded.  The Jewish Agency “became the main organization through which Palestinian Jewry maintained its contacts with world Jewry and with the Mandatory authorities and foreign governments.  It was, in fact, the de facto government of the Jews in the Jewish homeland.

    1931: In Chicago, Irene Rose (née Mauser) and Cedric Michael Raphael gave birth to Oscar winning screenwriter Frederick Michael Raphael.

    1933: While speaking in Prague, Dr. Stephen S. Wise, honorary president of the American Jewish Congress, approves of the boycott against German goods and services.

    1933: The Government prohibits the circulation in Germany of all Jewish newspapers printed in foreign countries, irrespective of language, and commands Jewish libraries to remove such periodicals from their quarters.

    1934: After buying “the defunct synagogue building formerly run by Rabbi Meyer Isserman,” Rabbi Yaakov Ben Zion HaCohen Mendelsohn opened the Bergen Street Shul today – a “ceremony attended by hundreds of locals along with rabbis from Passaic, West New York, the Bronx, Brooklyn, and Philadelphia.”

    1936: Arnold Spencer Leese was put on trial in London on charges of seditious libel against British Jews. In 1935, Leese who was a licensed veterinarian had proposed using gas chambers to murder Jews.  This led to an indictment “on six counts relating to two articles published in the July issue of The Fascist (the IFL newspaper) entitled "Jewish Ritual Murder," which later appeared as a pamphlet.” He would be convicted and served 6 months in prison.  The experience did not chasten him since he would help members of the Wafften SS escape Justice which would lead to another prison term in 1947.  Leese was so extreme that he attacked fellow fascist Oswald Mosley for being soft on the Jews.

    1937: In his closing statement to the 20th Zionist Congress, held in Zurich, David Ben-Gurion said that the subject of a passionate debate regarding the proposed Jewish state was not the integrity of Palestine, which no Zionist can forgo, but the methods for securing the quicker achievement of the common aim. He welcomed the decision of the two-thirds majority of the Executive to negotiate the precise contents of the scheme, while this did not imply any assent to the principle of Partition.

    1937: Nazis continued to harass the Zionist delegates in Zurich.

    1937: While the League of Nations debated the recommendations of the Peel Report, Arab attacks against Jews in Palestine continued. Shots were fired at Motza and other Jewish settlements in a significant number of increased terrorist attacks all over the country.

    1938:Hadassah, the Women's Zionist Organization of America, announced today that the Jewish children who were among the Austrian exiles expelled from Burgenland by Nazis and set drift on the Danube four months ago will be cared for by the Youth Aliyah (immigration) of movement and sent to Palestine before Sept. 30.

    1938: Arab terrorists conducted a series of early morning attacks including one by 200 armed Arabs at “the tiny Jewish colony of Shimroon” and another at Kfar Yabetz where Arabs “burned an orange pakcing house and uprooted four hundred trees on the grounds of the Kibbutz.”

    1939:A resolution expressing "deep regret" that the executive of the Jewish Agency for Palestine did not resign immediately upon publication of the terms of the recent British White Paper was adopted today by the World Mizrachi. Mizrachi announced plans to fight the White Paper and calls on World Zionists to refuse to cooperate with the British in Palestine.

    1939:Birthdate of Eric Weissberg the American banjo player, best known for the theme from the movie Deliverance.

    1940: While fleeing from Paris which had been conquered by the Germans, Italian banker and philanthropist Angelo Donati stopped in Marseille where he was the best men at the wedding of his cousin Piero Sacredoti  and Marseille Ilse Klein, daughter of Siegmund and Helene Klein.

    1941: All residents of the Jewish community of Lesko, Poland, are transported to Zaslaw, Poland, and executed.

    1941: Today, a training report described Isidore Newman, who was being trained as a Wireless Officer with SOE as being “self-assured and thinks with precision.”

    1941: In Hungary, The Union of the Jewish Communities obtained “the liberation of the rabbis, leaders of communities, and teachers employed in Jewish schools, who had been arrested after the outbreak of war with the U.S.S.R., from the Targu-Jiu concentration camp. (Jewish Virtual Library)

    1942(1st of Elul, 5702): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1942(1st of Elul, 5702): The Germans killed 1,850 Jews from the Lenin ghetto including the parents, sisters and younger brother of Fay Shulman.

    1942: Esther "Etty" Hillesum returned to Amsterdam from Westerbork

    1942: The Archbishop of Lvov provided hiding places for Jewish children and Sifrei Torah.

    1942: The entire Jewish community from Gorlice, Poland, is deported to the Belzec extermination camp.

    1942: On the evening of 14 August 1942, the first day of the Hebrew month of Ellul, a Friday, the SS surrounded the ghetto in the village of Zagrodski, near Pinsk in Belarus (Belorussia), home to five hundred Jewish families. “The commotion and noise on that night”, recalled Rivka Yosselevska, “was not customary, and we felt something in the air.”

    1942: A woman named Rivka Yosselevska is one of just four Jews to survive a bloody burial-pit massacre outside Zagrodski, Poland, near Pinsk.

    1943: Premiere of wartime musical comedy “This Is the Army” directed by Michael Curtiz, produced by Hal Wallis and Jack Warner, featuring 19 songs by Irving Berlin, co-starring George Tobias.

    1945: From Larissa, Greece it was reported: "One synagogue is completely destroyed, not even the foundation exists, so thorough has been the German destruction. The other synagogue has been almost-completely destroyed, also- It cannot be used in its present condition

    1945: Japan surrendered unconditionally to end WW II.  It took two atomic bombs and the invasion of Manchuria by the Soviet Army to finally convince the Japanese that all was lost.  The official surrender ceremony would not take place until September, 1945 on the decks of U.S.S. Missouri which would be anchored in Tokyo Bay.  While there is general agreement as to what the official start dates were for World War II, we have seen that the end dates both the war in Europe and in the Pacific get a little fuzzy. 

    1947:  India granted independence within British Commonwealth.  According to some historians, the end of British rule in India had an impact on British policy in Palestine.  The reason the British had wanted to control Palestine, according to them, was to protect the Suez Canal which was part of the route connecting Britain and India.  Once India was independent, the imperative for holding on to Palestine was no longer there and the British were no longer quite so keen to spend blood and bullets on rocks and sands of Palestine.  There other imperial holdings including Transjordan, et al were enough to meet English commercial and political needs.

    1947: “The Buchenwald Trial or United States of America vs. Josias Prince of Waldeck et al in which 31 people answered charges of war crimes “related to the Buchenwald concentration camp and its satellite camps” came to an

    1947: “Life With Father” a movie version of the novel by the same name directed by Michael Curtiz and music by Max Steiner was released in the United States today Warner Bros.

    1948(9th of Av, 5708): Since it is Shabbat, the fast will begin in the evening and be observed on Sunday.  There is an irony in this since it is the first time this day of mourning will be observed in an independent Jewish state.

    1948(9thof Av, 5708): Tish’a B’av

    1948: A day after testifying before HUAC where he denied being a communist, Harry Dexter White suffered another heart attack as he was arriving at his farm in Fitzwilliam, NH.

    1948: Habib Vidal, "the owner of a printing shop and the custoidan of the synagogue at Helwan" was one of the Jews arrested in Egypt.  Vidal was sentenced to 15 months at the Huckstep Prison despite the fact that he had not been formally charged or tried in a court of law.  (In Ishmael's House by Martin Gilbert)

    1948: The Pan York, a ship filled with Jewish DPs as well as American volunteers for the Israeli army, arrived in Haifa.

    1948: Birthdate of Kathi Kamen Goldmark who “had made a lot of friends in the literary world by shepherding authors on book tours when one day inspiration struck: what the very best authors yearn to be, she realized, are rock stars.” (As reported by Douglas Martin)

    1951: “A Place in the Sun” starring Shelly Winters and featuring Paul Frees with music by Franz Waxman was released in the United States today by Paramount Pictures.

    1951:The Jerusalem Postreported that Jerusalem was assured of a regular supply of ice for domestic purposes from outside of the city and that the government granted a subsidy, due to the cost of the transport of ice from the coast. The Jerusalem Program for Zionism, replacing the Basel Program drawn up at the First Zionist Congress in 1897, was drawn up for the 23rd Zionist Congress to be held in Jerusalem on August 14.

    1952(23rd of Av, 5712): David Zvi Pinkas passed away.  At the time of his death at the age of 57, Pinkas was Minister of Communication in the Israeli government.

    1952:Shlomo-Yisrael Ben-Meir became on MK “as a replacement for the late David Pinkas.”

    1952: Israel and the representatives of the World Jewry announced that they reserved the right to demand restitution payment for the undeclared and heirless property in Austria.

    1952: At this time, life in Israel was very difficult.  The Jewish settlers were pioneers in the truest sense of that term. For example, The Medical Advisory Council told the government that a large section of the Israeli population, mainly those who depended solely on the government’s rationing scheme, did not receive sufficient nutrition.

    1963(24th of Av, 5723): A month after his 57th birthday, playwright Clifford Odets succumbed to colon cancer.

    1969(30th of Av, 5729): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1969(30th of Av, 5729): Eighty-eight year old author and publisher Leonard Woolf, the husband of Virginia Woolf passed away today.

    1972(4th of Elul, 5732):  Actor, composer and musician Oscar Levant passed away.

    1973(16th of Av, 5733): Seventy-eight year old Lady Eva Violet Mond Isaacs, née Melchett, Marchioness of Reading passed away today.

    1976: It was reported today that “In Morris Township, NJ, the Rabbinical College of America announced that its new President would be Albert Richman” an electrical engineering executive who was a graduate of Cooper Union and “a founding member of the Technion.”

    1976: It was reported today that during a White House reception, when Betty Ford, whose husband is running for re-election “was introduced to Bernice Tannenbaum, the board nominee for Hadassah president” she “laughed and said ‘If you’re elected and we’re elected, I’ll see you here again.’”

    1977: The new Likud cabinet had announced a policy of equalization of services for the inhabitants of the West Bank and Gaza. Officials claimed that this did not mean annexation or a change in the legal status of these areas, an opinion which was disputed by Arabs, foreign observers and the press.

    1977: The American Jewish leadership asked US President Jimmy Carter to clarify his position on his possible recognition of the PLO.

    1977: According to Time MagazineIsrael provided Lebanese Christians with $30 million to $35million in direct aid.

    1979(21st of Av, 5739): Sixty-seven year old Yehoshua Rabinovitz, who had served a Minster of Housing and Minister of Finance, passed away today.

    1980: Jimmy Carter, the man who brokered the Camp David Peace Accords, was nominated by the Democrats for a second term.

    1980: Bruce Sundlun who become Rhode Island’s second Jewish Governor was a delegate to the Democratic National Convention which came to an end today.

    1981(14th of Av, 5741): Sixty-five year old Morton B. Levin, a native of Philadelphia who worked for the federal government for over 3 decades and who was a member of Adas Israel passed away today.

    1981: Warner Bros. released “Arthur’s Theme (Best That You Can Do) the Oscar winning song “written by Burt Bacharach, and Carole Bayer Sager,

    1982: Birthdate of Benjamin Cohen who became known for his enterprises as a teenager and for a dispute with Apple computers over the domain In 2006, he became technology correspondent for Channel 4 News in the UK

    1983: Elvira and Mark Kunis gave birth Mila Kunis who plays “Jackie” on the television hit, That 70’s Show.

    1986(9th of Av, 5746): Tish'a B'Av

    1987: Premiere of “No Way Out” co-produced by Laura Ziskin

    1987(19th of Av, 5747): In Little Rock, Arkansas, Sheldon Luber, son of Elaine and Harvey Luber passed away.  He left us too soon, but he will always be remembered.

    1989(13th of Av, 5749): Ninety-two year old Rosa Levin Toubin, the daughter of Joe Levin and wife of Sam H. Toubin passed away.  A native of Brenham, TX, this graduate of Rice University demonstrated her skill as a Jewish Texan historian with the publication of  History B’nai Abraham Synagouge.

    1989(13th of Av, 5749): Sir Dove-Myer Robinson passed away. Born in 1901, he “was Mayor of Auckland City from 1959 to 1965 and from 1968 to 1980, the longest tenure of any holder of the office. He was a colorful character and became affectionately known across New Zealand as "Robbie". He was one of several Jewish mayors of Auckland, although he rejected Judaism as a teenager and became a lifelong atheist. He has been described as a "slight, bespectacled man whose tiny stature was offset by a booming voice and massive ego.”

    1990: Leonard Bernstein conducted Copland's Symphony No. 3, BMCO

    1991:Comedian Jackie Mason marries his manager Jyll Rosenfeld.

    1993: According to Argentinian prosecutor Alberto Nisman the authorization for the Argentinian prosecutor Alberto Nisman, the authorization for the bombing of the AMIA (Argentine Israelite Mutual Association) was given at today’s meeting of Iran’s National Security Council (As reported by Adiv Sterman)

    1994: The fifth congress of the European Association for Jewish Studies opened today in Copenhagen.

    1994: Ilich Ramírez Sánchez, the terrorist known as "Carlos the Jackal", is captured. Carlos involvement with Arab Terrorists, specifically the Marxist Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) began in 1970. By July 1970 Ramirez was at a training camp in Jordan and after a meeting with Abu-Sharif the PFLP's recruiting officer he became known as Carlos the Jackal. The PFLP gained strength and started to form alliances with other terrorist groups such as the Baader-Meinhof gang and the Italian Red Brigade. Carlos' reputation within the organization grew after "Black September" where he fought against the Jordanian army trying to purge their country of terrorists. In 1972, the PFLP ordered Carlos to kill a respected member of the Jewish community in London, Edward Sieff the president of Marks & Spencer. In December 1973 Carlos went to Sieffs house and shot him, luckily not fatally. Carlos had preceded this by a hand grenade attack on the London headquarters of an Israeli bank and a car bomb in Paris in 1972, which injured 63 people. His international reputation was born. In 1976 he was involved in a skyjacking of an Air France jet to Uganda that lead to the famous raid on Entebbe by Israeli Special Forces

    1994(7th of Elul, 5754):  Hamas took credit for the murder of 18 year old Ron Saval today in an ambush near the Kissufim Junction.

    1994(7th of Elul, 5754):  Eighty-nine year old Elias Canetti, a novelist, playwright and cultural historian who won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1981, passed away today (As reported by William Grimes)

    1996(29th of Av, 5756): Eighty-eight  year old Albert Neuberger, the German born physician who was a Professor of Chemical Pathology and a Fellow of the Royal Society, passed away.

    1998: “Slums of Beverly Hills” a comedy about “a teenage girl struggling to grow up in the late 1970s in a lower-middle-class nomadic Jewish family that moves every few months” directed and written by Tamara Jenkins, co-starring Alan Arkin and Carl Reiner and featuring David Krumholtz and Carl Reiner was released today in the United States by Fox Searchlight Pictures.

    1999(2nd of Elul, 5759):  Phillip Klutznick, U.S. Secretary of Commerce under President Carter, passed away

    2002: “In an….interview with American Journalist Amy Goodman Shulamit Aloni described how she believes the charge of antisemitism is used to suppress criticism of Israel.”

    2002(6th of Elul, 5762): Seventy-eight year old artist Larry Rivers (Yitzroch Loiza Grossberg) passed away today.

    2003(16th of Av, 5763): Moshe Carmel “an Israeli soldier and politician who served as Minister of Transportation for eight years” passed away today.

    2005(9th of Av, 5765): Tish'a B'Av: 

    2005: Members of the Ukrainian Conservative party demanded that Jews be prevented from teaching the Tanya in Jewish schools and synagogues. While Ukrainian officials denied any anti-Semitic intentions, others saw a link between this policy and those being...

    2005:  The Jerusalem Post reported that “members of the Ukrainian Conservative Party and several far right-wing editors demanded that Jews be prevented from teaching the Tanya in Jewish schools and synagogues.”  While Ukrainian officials at the embassy in Tel Aviv offered assurances that their government was opposed to any anti-Semitic behaviors, others saw a similarity between these demands and those being made in other republics of the former Soviet Union.

    2005:  The Cedar Rapids Gazette reported that the Library of American will publish an eight volume collection Phillip Roth’s novels and stories beginning later this summer.  Roth joins Saul Bellow and Eudora Welty as the only American to have their complete works preserved by the Library of America during their lifetimes. 

    2005: The Sunday New York Times book section included a review of The Last Expedition: Stanley’s Mad Journey Through the Congoby Daniel Liebowitz and Charles Pearsonwhich describesthe quest to find Emin Pasha who was a Silesian born Jew named Isaak Eduard Schnitzer

    2006: A U.N. sponsored cease fire takes place along the border between Israel and Lebanon marking an end to five weeks of fighting.

    2006:Kohenet’s first Hebrew Priestess Training Institute began today, at the Elat Chayyim Retreat Center in Accord, NY

    2006: A Polish humanitarian organization is working to provide humanitarian assistance to hard-hit residents of northern Israel.

    2006: Cease fire goes into effect intended to end the “war” between Israel and Hezbollah in Lebanon.

    2007: Haaretz reported that fifty-nine years after they were killed in the War of Independence near the Arab village of Tel Arish, the Israel Defense Forces has identified the bodies of five fighters. The men were soldiers in Battalion 52 of the Givati Brigade, and have been identified as First Lieutenant Yehiel Rosenfeld, Private David Kohavi, Private Itzhak Hamami, Private Yehoshua Lustig and a fifth soldier. The remains of the soldiers, who up until now were considered missing, were identified in unmarked graves in the Nahalat Itzhak cemetery. The five soldiers fell during a battle over "Pillbox Hill" near the Arab village of Tel Arish, near Holon. The battle was fought to gain free access between Jerusalem and Jaffa. The remains of Corporal Amos Danieli and Private Itzhak Kandler, also of Batallion 52, are still missing. The remains of a total of 109 fallen soldiers are currently missing, and the fates of ten soldiers are unknown.

    2007: Rosh Chodesh Elul, 5767

    2008: In Becket, MA, Gallim Dance appears at the Jacob’s Pillow Dance Festival.

    2008(13th of Av, 5768):Marvin Pomerantz, 78, a friend and adviser of Republican governors and presidents for four decades who twice served as president of the Iowa Board of Regents, passed away today in Iowa City.

    2009: In New York, opening performance of “Peace Warrior” by Israeli Professor Doron Ben-Atar of Fordham University. a historian of the early American republic and a playwright.

    2009: In New York, Rooftop Films presents a screening of “Bloomfield or a Childhood Memory" by Eran Barak.

    2009: Willy Ronis celebrates his 99th birthday. “The sole survivor of a generation of famous French photographers that included Henri Cartier-Bresson and Robert Doisneau, Ronis has become a media darling. Yet, this son of a Ukrainian-Jewish portrait photographer father and a Lithuanian-Jewish pianist mother, both of whom fled pogroms to settle in Paris, still remains a belatedly recognized outsider. 2009(24th of Av, 5769): Erev Shabbat, Leonard Arik Karp, 59, was accosted and murdered by a gang of youths while walking with his wife and daughter along the Tel Aviv beachfront tonight.

    2010: The 35th Hutzot Hayotzer International Craft Fair is scheduled to come to an end.

    2010(4th of Elul, 5770): Eighty-eight year old Moshe “Misha” Lewin, Polish born Holocaust surviror and noted Russian history professor passed away today.

    2010: The Daily Mail rates Issac Rosenberg as one of the ten greatest British poets.

    2011: The headstone unveiling for Rose Becker is scheduled to take place today at Eben Israel Cemetery

    2011: The 31st IAJGS International Conference on Jewish Genealogy is scheduled to open today in Washington hosted by the Jewish Genealogy Society of Greater Washington.

    2011:  The JCC Maccabi Games are scheduled to open in Philadelphia, PA and Springfield, Mass.

    2011: The New York Timesfeatured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including My Faraway One: Selected Letters of Georgia O’Keeffe and Alfred Stieglitz: Volume I, 1915-1933 edited by Sarah Greenough and recently released paperback editions of Dreyfus: Politics, Emotion, and the Scandal of the Century, by Ruth Harris, Where I Live: New and Selected Poems 1990-2010 by Maxine Kumin and The Cookbook Collectorby Allegra Goodman.

    2011:Twenty high-school teachers brought to Israel by the UK-based Holocaust Education Trust will complete a 10-day education training seminar at the International School for Holocaust Studies at Yad Vashem. (As reported by Jerusalem Post)

    2011:Israeli NBA star Omri Casspi is returning to Maccabi Tel Aviv, David Federman, one of the club's owners said in an interview with Army Radio today (As reported by Jerusalem Post)

    2011: Egypt, in coordination with Israel, has deployed its military in the northern Sinai Peninsula in order to gain control over the anarchy that has taken hold of the region, a senior Israeli defense official said today.

    2011(14th of Av, 5771): Seventy-seven year old transplant expert Dr. Fritz Bach passed away. (As reported by Douglas Martin)

    2012: The Eyal Vilner Big Band, led by Tel Aviv native Eyal Vilner, is scheduled to perform at the Garage Restaurant in NYC.

    2012:Sacramento city leaders are scheduled to vote on a resolution making Ashkelon its 10th sister city (As reported by Ari Ben Goldberg)

    2012: The price of a price-controlled loaf of will bread is scheduled to rise by 6.53% today. As reported by Jerusalem Post)

    2012: Funeral services for Zev Wolfson are scheduled to be at Sh’or Yoshuv Institute followed by interment at Wellwood Cemetery in Farmingdale, NY.

    2012:European rabbis said today that they were lobbying Apple Inc. to pull a mobile app version of “The Protocols of the Elders of Zion,” a notorious anti-Semitic forgery

    2012: Some 350 new immigrants from North America — including five sets of twins and two sets of triplets — were welcomed personally by Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu at Ben Gurion Airport this morning. “I’m proud of you,” the prime minister told the group. “We’re all proud of you. Friends of Israel, Jewish and non-Jewish alike, are all proud of you.”

    2013: Noam Kat, the Minister for Public Diplomacy at the Embassy of Israel is scheduled to provide a briefing on The Middle East Process.

    2013: Israeli jazz guitarist Assaf Kehati and his trio are scheduled to perform at the Bar Next Door in New York City.

    2013: The IDF launched an airstrike on Gaza early this morning in response to rockets fired into southern Israel from the territory, the army said in a statement.

    2013: Twenty six convicted Palestinian terrorists were freed by Israel, and welcomed home to the West Bank and Gaza, as part of the US-brokered deal that enabled the resumption of peace talks. (As reported by Asher Zeiger and Michal Shmulovich)

    2014: The 92nd Street Y is scheduled to host “Jewish Italy: Food Culture and Travel” during which attendees can “discover Italy’s cucina ebraica (“Hebrew kitchen”) and desserts like sour cherry cheesecake from Rome’s famed Forno del Ghetto.”

    2014: “The owners of 21 grocery store branches and kiosks” are scheduled to attend court session in Tel Aviv this morning “where they are expected to be ordered to close on Saturday.” (As reported by Niv Elis)

    2014:”The State Department confirmed today that weapons shipments to Israel would be undergoing additional review due to the war in Gaza, but denied reports that the Pentagon had engaged in weapons transfers to Israel behind the back of the White House and State Department.” (As reported by Rebecca Shimoni Stoil)

    2014: “Today, the South African Jewish Board of Deputies (SAJBD) initiated both criminal and civil charges against Tony Ehrenreich, provincial secretary of the Western Cape branch of the Congress of South African Trade Unions, for hate speech and incitement to violence against the Jewish community’s leadership” when he wrote “The time has come to say very clearly that if a woman or child is killed in Gaza, then the Jewish board of deputies, who are complicit, will feel the wrath of the People of SA with the age old biblical teaching of an eye for an eye,” he wrote. “The time has come for the conflict to be waged everywhere the Zionist supporters fund and condone the war killing machine of Israel.”

    2014(18th of Av, 5774): Eighty-year old Leonard J. Fein the Jewish man of letters who founded and edited Moment Magazine and who was the brother of Rashi Fein passed away today.

    2015: Shira Garielov, the Israeli musician who “was kicked off American Idol” and is working on “her second LP for the Israeli market” is scheduled to perform at Arlene’s Grocery.”

    2015: An exhibition featuring the work of Haifa born artist Guy Yanai is scheduled to come to an end today.








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    August 15

    423: Honorious Flavius, the Western Roman Emperor who confiscated gold and silver which had been collected by the synagogues to be sent to Jerusalem and “defined Judaism as an unworthy superstition  passed away today.

    1096: The armies of the First Crusade set out from Europe to deliver Jerusalem from the occupying forces of Islamic Turks. Championed by Peter the Hermit in 1093, Pope Urban II had sanctioned the crusade at the Council of Clermont in 1095.

    1286: As what the original and 21st tenants of the city might find as an act of usurpation, during the era of the Crusaders, Henry II was name King of Jerusalem succeeding his brother John I whose death he was rumored to have hastened with the use of poison.

    1309: Knights of St. John, complete their conquest of Rhodes. Apparently the Knights treatment of the Jewish population was comparatively benign since many Sicilian conversos would move to the island because “they remembered the Knights’’ liberal policy towards the Jews or Rhodes.”

    1461: Trapezunt surrenders to the forces of Sultan Mehmet II marking the real end of the Byzantine Empire. The experience of the Jews of Anatolia had been uneven in the days of the Byzantine (Christian) Empire.  The Jews of Constantinople remained in place after the Islamic forces came to power under Mehmet II.

    1534: Ignatius of Loyola and six classmates took initial vows that would lead to the creation of the Society of Jesus in September of 1540. In its early days, the Jesuits accepted Jewish converts and their descendants who were known as New Christians were admitted to the order.  After the death of Loyola, the Jesuits adopted the Spanish attitudes and refused to accept New Christians or their descendants as members.

    1769: Birthdate of Napoleon Bonaparte.  Napoleon had profound effect on the Jews of Europe.  But if one asks “Was Napoleon good for the Jews” the best answer might be, “It depends.” 

    1776(30th of Av, 5536): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1784: In Gorizia, Rabbi Abraham Vita and his wife gave birth to Isaac Samuel Reggio an Austro-Italian scholar and rabbi.

    1796: In what may have been the first attempt for a governmental entity to protect Kashrut in the United States, the Common Coincil suppressed the butcher license of Nicholas Smart, a non-Jew, for affixing Jewish seals to non-kosher meats.  Pg 246

    1806: Rabbi Joseph David Sinzheim delivered a sermon in the synagogue of Paris in honor of the emperor's birthday that strengthened Napoleon's favorable opinion of the Jews, who received the imperial promise that their rights as French citizens would not be withdrawn.

    1815 (9th of Av): Rabbi Joseph Isaac Horowitz, known as “The Chozeh” of Seer of Lublin author of Divrei Emet, passed away.

    1819: Birthdate of Joseph Jacob Goldmark, the Hungarian physician who came to the United States after the failed revolution of 1848 where he discovered red phosphorous and became the father-in-law of Louis Brandeis and Felix Adler.

    1830: Birthdate of Henry Aaron Isaacs who became sheriff of London and was knighted in 1887 and was elected Lord Mayor of London two years later.

    1838(24th of Av, 5598): German businessman Moses Moser whose business associates included Moses Friedländer and Moritz Robert and who was a close personal friend of Heinrich Heine passed away today in Berlin.

    1842: Charles Henry Churchill, the British Consul in Damascus whose area of responsibility included Palestine, delivered his formal proposal to Sir Moses Montefiore concerning the role of Jews in the Middle East.  A Zionist before Zionism existed, Churchill proposed “that the Jews of England conjointly with their brethren on the Continent of Europe should make an application to the British Government through the Earl of Aberdeen to accredit and send out a fit and proper person to reside in Syria for the sole and express purpose of superintending and watching over the interests of the Jews residing in that country.” Charles Churchill was the grandfather of Sir Winston Churchill.

    1849: Joseph Seligman and Babette Seligman gave birth to Helene Seligman who became Helene Spiegelberg when she married Emanuel Spiegelberg.

    1854: M.H. Bresslau began serving as editor of The Jewish Chronicle (New Series) and Working Man's Friend" an Anglo-Jewish newspaper which he renamed “The Jewish Chronicle and Hebrew Observer."

    1854: In Hesse, Levi Hoechster and Betty Hoechster gave birth to Max Hester.

    1855(1st of Elul, 5615): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1857: Birthdate of Albert Ballin, the German-born businessman who served a general manager of the Hamburg America (Shipping) Line.

    1861: Ralph Disraeli, the brother of Benjamin Disraeli, and Katherine Trevor were married today in Middlesex, England.

    1865: It was reported today that "A letter in the Journal de Posen alleges that the official journals, not daring to support the accusations launched by the Moscow Gazette against the Polish nobility, imputing to them the recent fires in Lithuania, and, on the other hand, feeling it necessary to throw the blame upon somebody, represent the Jews as the authors of these disasters. According to the official journals, the Jews, having first insured their houses for a sum superior to their real value, themselves set fire to the buildings to pocket the difference. If this criminal calculation has been made in certain cases, the supposition of its existence cannot give an explanation of all the disasters of this nature that have lately taken place; for, although insurance against fire is much practiced in Lithuania and Ruthenia, it is to be seen only in the more important towns, while a great number of fires have broken out even in the smallest towns.

    1868: S.A. Bierfield was lynched by the K.K.K. in Franklin Tenn. According to some, this was the first such incident involving a Jew. “A masked mob of Ku Klux Klansmen broke into the dry goods store of S. A. Bierfield, a Russian Jew, in Franklin, Tennessee, and fatally shot both Bierfield and his Black clerk, Lawrence Bowman. The reason given by the lynchers was a false charge of Bierfield's implication in a murder a few days earlier. But as the New York Times reported about a week later, the real reason for the lynching was that Bierfield was "an intelligent advocate of the present reconstruction policy of Congress and a friend to the freedmen of his neighborhood, among whom--he being a merchant--he commanded quite a trade, and perhaps found it expedient to keep one from among their number in his employ." A Nashville newspaper account stated that Bierfield was "an active and prominent Republican, having considerable influence with the colored people. . . . Our informant says that was his only crime"

    1871: Jacob Levi a German Jew swindled Alois Grieshaber out of $545 today using a form of the “pigeon drop.”  Grieshaber eventually discovered the swindle and went to the police.  Levi, who had become wealthy as a swindler, was tried, convicted and sent to Sing Sing Prison in 1872.

    1873: John J. Malloy, Chief of the Brooklyn Police, notified police in several “Western cities” to be on the lookout for Emil Lowenstein, a German Jewish barber who sometimes uses the alias of Livingston.  Lowenstein is wanted in connection with his part in the murder of John Weston.  The governor of New York has offered a $500 reward for his capture.  Police believe that Mrs. Weston was a confederate in the plan and that she planned to run off with Lowenstein once they had murdered Mr. Weston and taken his money.

    1873: “England’s New Master of the Rolls,” an article published today reports on the announcement that Sir George Jessel will soon be serving as the new Master of the Rolls. The Master of the Rolls dates back to the 13th century and “is the second most senior judge in England and Wales, after the Lord Chief Justice”. When he assumes the office later this month, Jessel will be the first Jew to serve in this capacity. The Jewish Chronicle noted the irony of Jessel’s appointment.  At one time the Master of the Rolls was officially known as “the Guardian of the Converted Jews” but thanks to a changed in the Judicature Act such is no longer the case. Jessel was the son of a coral merchant named Zadok Aaron who graduated from the University College London because his religion kept him from attending either Oxford or Cambridge.

    1877: The funeral of Rabbi J.J. Lyon took place at the 19th Street Synagogue today. Albert Cardozo, father of future Supreme Court Justice Benjamin Cardozo was one of the pallbearers.

    1878(1st of Elul, 5547): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1879: In Belarus, Zvi Mileikowsky and Liba Gitl Milikovsky gave birth to Rabbi Nathan Mileikowsky the father of historian Benzion Netanyahu and the grandfather of Yonatan Netanyahu of blessed memory (the Hero of Entebbe) and Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu.

    1879: According to reports published today police still do not feel like they have the true story surrounding the shooting of Harris Levy, a 28 Polish Jew who worked as a night watchman for a workshop owned by Louis Soloman, a manufacturing tailor.  Levy claims he was shot by an unknown assailant.  The police think the wound was self-inflicted.  However, they cannot find any evidence that it was suicide and Soloman believes the story about the burglar since his workshop was robbed 5 or 6 weeks ago.

    1879: Justice C.W. Chocrane found Adolph D. Pollack, a Jew from White Plains, NY, guilty of having sold merchandize on Sunday, in violation of the law.  Chochrane suspended the sentence because it was Pollack’s first offense, but warned the defendant not to open his store again on Sunday.

    1879: It was reported today that Lord Salisbury, British Foreign Minister, feels that it is time for Romania to fulfill to honor its commitments to improve the situation of its Jews since the autonomy the country enjoys was conditional on these promises.

    1880: It was reported today that Silesia has a population of 3,800,000 of which 47,000 are Jewish.

    1881: It was reported today that M.J. Butler, the proprietor of the Manson House donated the use of the hotel’s dining room for the concert that had been held to raise funds for a cemetery in Long Branch, NJ, that will be open to all regardless of faith or financial status.

    1881: “Jews in Germany” published today described the pervasive anti-Semitism in that country that stands in stark contrast to the theme of the “Nathan the Wise” which is a popular German theatrical production.

    1882(30th of Av, 5642): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1882: “Mr. Cox’s Wild Eloquence” published today provided a summary of speech by Representative Samuel S. Cox that he delivered during the last session of Congress in which he “eloquently” reviewed “the atrocities perpetrated on the Jews of Russia” and concluded “with an appeal for help and sympathy from America” to help the Jews overcome their plight.

    1883: An unnamed British Jew representing a London business firm was expelled from Russia today even though he was carrying a British Passport.

    1883: Among those receiving funds from the Board of Estimate and Apportionment was the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society which got $1,896.85.

    1884: “Doom of the Ghetto at Rome” published today described the crumbling condition of the former Jewish quarter.  Paul IV was the first Pope to move the Jews across the river into “somber Tower of Marcellus.  He was the same Pope who used to force the Jews to listen to annual sermons on Holy Cross Day in hopes that they would convert.

    1885: In Kalamazoo, Michigan, “Hungarian-born Jewish storekeeper, Jacob Charles Ferber, and his Milwaukee, Wisconsin-born wife, Julia (Neumann) Ferber” gave birth to Pulitzer prize winning author Edna Ferber who works included Show Boat, Giant and Cimarron– big books that treated big topics.

    1886: Based on information that first appeared in the Hebrew Standard it was reported today that a young Jewish lady “refused to play at a game of kissing forfeits, giving as her reason the quotation ‘Let the men that sacrifice kiss the calves’ (Hosea, XII, 2)”

    1887: It was reported today that Israel Lipski has been granted a reprieve from the hangman’s rope.

    1887(25th of Av, 5647): Sixty-seven year old Danish author Meïr Aron Goldschmidt whose works included A Jew, “the first novel to provide an” an insider’s “description of the Copenhagen Jewish milieu” passed away today.

    1888: Congressman Ford’s Immigration Committee heard testimony today in New York from Daniel Harris a journeyman cigar maker who testified on the impact of foreigners on his business.  In the past two decades foreigners have gone from being 10 per cent of the cigar makers to being 90 percent.  Wages have gone from fifty dollars a week to twelve dollars a week.  He blames part of this one the arrival of thousands of Russian and Polish Jews many of whom have their tickets to the United States by charitable organizations.

    1888: Birthdate of Girsh Yankelovich Brilliant who as Grigori Yakovlovich Sokolnikov became a leading Bolshevik who would be murdered by Stalin during the purges of the 1930’s

    1888: In Vienna Leopold Leopoldi (whose name was Kohn before he changed it) and his wife gave birth to Herman Leopoldi the Austrian composer and performer who survived Buchenwald.

    1890: Jacob Levy was delivered to the City of London lunatic asylum, Stone, in Kent, as an insane person. Born in 1856, at Aldgate to Joseph and Caroline Levy, he was a butcher who was a suspect in the Jack the Ripper Cases.

    1890: The Jewish Messenger reported that Mr. Lippman Levy has left New York and returned to Cincinnati, Ohio.

    1890(29thof Av, 5650): Montagu Meyer Gluckstein, the German born husband of Betsey Gluckstein passed away today in London

    1890: It was reported today that Mount Sinai Temple has elected Godfrey Taubenhaus as rabbi

    1891: Congregants at the House of Miriam in Long Branch, NJ, donated approximately $165 in response to today’s appeal made by Rabbi William H. Karuskopf.

    1891: In London, the lead article in the Daily News deals with “the question of the Jews of Russia.”

    1891: “Russian Refugees” published today described the difficulties faced by the Jewish immigrants from Russia who had been sent to Hightstown, NJ by the Baron Hirsch Fund.  Wallach & Sons of New York opened a shirt factory there and agreed to hire them as workers.  However, none of them have any experience and do not like the work.  They have complained to Jesse Seligman about conditions, but Seligman has expressed the feeling that those who are complaining are a few malcontents who do not want to work.

    1892: “Orthodox or Reform?” published today described main issue that will be dealt with when a “conclave of Rabbis gathers in New York in October.  The Reform have clashed with the Orthodox by adopting a resolution making performance of “the Abrahamic rite” (circumcision) optional for those wanting to convert to Judaism.  The change championed by the Reform movement grew out of the fact that the daughter of Rabbi Wise, their leader, had married her physician, Dr. Maloney, who was Catholic.  Maloney said he would convert but he would not submit to circumcision.  According to the Orthodox, it was at that point that Rabbi Wise decided that the “Abrahamic rite” was optional.

    1892: Meyer Reinherz of the of the United Hebrew Charities appeared in the Essex Market Police Court as the complainant in the case again Edward Pollock, an Austro-Hungarian reporter who had written several articles about Ellis Island and the Jewish boarding houses

    1892: “A Wedding of Midgets” published today described the courtship and marriage of Leopold Kahn and Lottie Naomi Swartwood.  The 48 inch tall Jewish comedian met the 49 inch tall love of his life in Philadelphia where he was performing with the American Lilliputian Company. They overcame the obstacle of religion when she agreed to convert before they married and took the name Naomi which she incorporated into her secular name.

    1892: “Will Not Object to Crosses” published today described the decision of Russian Jews who are the members of the Erie Street Congregation in Cleveland, Ohio to rent a hall from the Young Men’s Christian Association for use during Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur.  It was agreed that “inasmuch as the crosses were more than twenty feet above the hall…and there were no crosses in the decoration in the room itself” there was no reason not to rent the room which will provide the needed space for the upcoming High Holiday services.

    1893: The police promise to keep Hester and Mulberry Streets clear of all peddlers and vendors, many of whom are Jewish, after having conducting a successful operation to remove all such obstacles.

    1895: While stopping at the Union Square Hotel Senor Segundo Alvarez, the Mayor of Havana blamed the troubles in Cuba on American adventures including Carlos Roloff, “a Polish Jew” who has gotten funding from “the cigar-makers of Key West” whom some “say has landed in Cuba with a thousand men, guns and ammunition and dynamite.

    1896: In Prague, Martha and Otto Radnitz, the manager of a sugar refinery, gave birth to “Dr. Gerty Theresa Radnitz Cori was the first American woman to receive the Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology, in 1947, which was shared with her husband, Dr. Carl F. Cori, and Dr. B.A. Houssay of Argentina.” (As reported by Jewish Virtual Library)

    1897: It was reported today that Joseph Barondess has started a new labor organization in opposition to the Hebrew Trades and the Socialist Trade and Labor Alliance.

    1897: “The Jewish State Idea” published today described the history of Jewish settlement in Palestine and the challenges facing the Zionists as they meet at Basle.

    1897: “The Adaptiveness of the Jew” published today summarizes an article by Professor A.S. Isaacs that first appeared in the August issue of the North American Review in which he said that “critic of Judaism…must familiarize himself with the history of the Jew in every land” in which he has lived.  And then “he must account for that marvelous vitality…which has made the Jew at home whether” on the banks of the Vistula, the Thames or the Euphrates or “amid the orange groves of Sicily or the plains of Arabia.

    1898: “Bad Water Kills Orphans” published today described the efforts to care for those at the Hebrew Orphan Asylum who have become ill during the latest outbreak of dysentery in the neighborhood which has been attributed to polluted city water.

    1899: In Washington, DC, the Treasurer of the Dewey Home Fund received a letter and a contribution of ten dollars from Mrs. Lizzie A. Cohen, Treasurer of the Woman’s Democratic Club of Salt Lake City which did not surprise him since the Jews have “contributed liberally” to this cause from the beginning.

    1898: The fifteenth and final codicil for the will of Clara, Baroness von Hirsch, formerly Bischoffsheim, the widow of Baron Moritz von Hirsch which declares that her estate should be administered in Vienna under the terms of Austrian law is filed and attested to.

    1899: As passions flare in France during the second court martial of Captain Dreyfus Bonapartists and Oreleanists held rallies and dinners during which they challenged the very existence of the French Republic. (These divisions are meaningless today.  In a nutshell, these were two right wing groups seeking to bring down the republican government and replace it with a monarch.  Of course, each group wanted their own candidate to fill the job.  The important thing to remember is that while Jews focus on the anti-Semitic aspect of the Dreyfus Affair, it really was part of a larger conflict between republicans and reactionaries.  The last act of this dreadful conflict would be played out at Vichy and Drancy four decades later)

    1899:The Third Zionist Congress begins meeting in Basel.

    1899: The American delegation at today’s Third Zionist Congress includes Professor Richard Gottheil of Columbia University and his wife, Miss Eva Leon, Rabbi Stephen Wise, Rabbi Marcus Jastrow of Philadelphia, Henrietta Szold of Baltimore and William Schurr of Chicago.

    1899:”Would-Be Suicide Shaming” published today described the condition of Abraham Reinold who has been a patient at Georgetown Hospital ever since he tried to shoot himself while visiting Washington, DC. 

    1902: Birthdate of Iris Margaret Origo, an Anglo-Irish writer who helped to save Jewish children through the kindertransport including the painter Frank Helmut Auerbach.

    1907(5th of Elul, 5667): Seventy-six year old violinist and composer Joseph Joachim passed away.

    1911: B’Nai Brith contributes $3,382 to Jews who have suffered during the fires that raged through Constantinople.

    1911: The 10th Zionist Congress elects Professor Otto Warburg, Dr. Hantke, Dr. Shmaryahu Levin, Hahum Sokolow and Victor Jacobsohn as successors to David Wolffsohn

    1914:  The Panama Canal opened to traffic.  The territory that made up the nation of Panama had been amputated from Columbia in a revolution supported, if not created, by the United States so that a canal could be built.  Panama has a very old Jewish community.  When the Canal opened there were about six hundred Jews, mostly Sephardic, living in Panama.  Panama is the only country, with the exception of Israel, to have elected two Jews as President.

    1915(5th of Elul, 5675): Albert Bettelhein, journalist and author, convicted by a Georgia jury of murder, was lynched by an anti-Semitic mob.

    1915(5thof Elul, 5675): In Frankfurt am Main 62 year old Karl Ferdinand Moritz Flesch passed away.

    1915(5thof Elul, 5675): Ninety year old Sarah Blumenthal, who was living with her Mr. and Mrs. Solomon Shillon, her son-in-law and daughter and her granddaughter Fanny “was killed last night when she accidently “feel from a window of her room on the 5th floor of an apartment house at 34 West 116thStreet.”

    1915: Robert Moses married “Mary Louise Sims, of Dodgeville, Wisconsin, the granddaughter of the Reverend George Sims, a Methodist circuit rider.

    1915: In Asbury Park, NJ, a crowd of more than 200 people heard several prominent rabbis say that “the very fate of the Jewish race in Continental Europe and Palestine depends in large measure on America’s response to the Old World’s entreaties” for financial aid.

    1915: “An Inside View of Russia in War Time” published today provided a review of Russia and the Great War by Gregor Alexinsky including the worsening conditions under which the Jews are living.

    1915: “Russia’s Expulsion of Jews” published today described “the horrors wrought by a decree that forced 200,000” Jews to “leave the War Zone” with almost no warning.

    1915: The original Broadway production of “The Blue Paradise” with music by Signmund Romberg and Edmund Eysler opened at the Casino Theatre.

    1915: “Miss Theresa Dreyfus of New York, who has recently returned from Jerusalem” where she “said thousands of male Jews had allied to the Moslem war colors while their women and children remained at home in poverty and misery.”

    1917: It was reported today that labor leader Samuel Gompers was unexpectedly “denounced at a workingmen’s council.”

    1918: Birthdate of Sanford Daniel Garelik, the first Jewish chief inspector of the New York Police Department.  Garelik graduated from the Police Academy in 1940 along with Gertrude Schimmel who became the first female and the first Jewish female deputy chief of police.1919: Birthdate of Stanley Frazen, “a longtime film and television editor who was a member of the Army Air Forces' First Motion Picture Unit during World War II.”

    1921: Birthdate of August Marian Kowalczyk, the Polish actor and director who “was the last survivor of a breakout from Auschwitz on June 10, 1942.”

    1922: Birthdate of sculptor and printmaker Leonard Baskin.

    1924: In Brooklyn, Dr Henry and Celia Kresky gave birth to Edward Mordecai Kresky  “an investment banker who was an architect of the debit refinancing plan that saved New York City from bankruptcy in the 1970’s” (As reported by Paul Vitello.

    1925: Charlie Chaplin in "The Gold Rush" opens with a gala performance at .

    1926: Birthdate of Sami Michael, the left wing native of Baghdad who in 1949 came to Israel where he became an author and the President of The Association for Civil Rights in Israel (ACRI).

    1926: The Chevra Kadisha, at its last meeting here, decided to contribute a sum of 5,000 pesos to the Palestine campaign. At the same time, it decided to contribute a sum of 500 pesos to the Jewish Colonization work in Russia. (As reported by JTA)

    1928: In Rochester, NY Abraham and Hannah Glazer gave birth to their fifth child Malcolm Irving Glazer the CEO of First Allied Corporation who owned two football teams – Manchester United (soccer) and Tampa Bay Buccaneers (NFL)

    1929(9th of Av, 5689): Tish'a B'Av

    1929: Several hundred members of Joseph Klausner's Committee for the Western Wall, among them members of Vladimir Jabotinsky's Revisionist Zionism movement Betar youth organisation, under the leadership of Jeremiah Halpern, assembled at the Western Wall. They raised the Jewish national flag and sang the Hatikvah. The authorities had been notified of the march in advance and provided a heavy police escort in a bid to prevent any incidents.

    1933: In Prague, the Conference of the Women's International Zionist Organization (Wizo), attended by 103 delegates from 19 countries, came to a close after hearing that its membership is now 50,000; adopts budget of £47,000, and approves resolutions encouraging immigration into Palestine of German-Jewish youth, especially those of the middle classes, urging more certificates for girl immigrants, and equal rights for women.

    1933: In New York City Romanian born Adele (née Israel), and Hungarian-born baker, Samuel Milgram gave birth to social psychologist Stanley Milgram.

    1933: In Bucharest.—M. Pandrei, Under-Secretary of the Ministry of Education, in an interview with the press, denies that the Government intends to establish a “numerus clauses” in the universities of Romania, and announces that owing to a lack of laboratory facilities, a general limitation of students is contemplated.

    1934: Premiere of “Bulldog Drummond Strikes Back,” a comedic murder mystery with a script co-authored by Henry Lehman and music by Alfred Newman.

    1935: “Alice Adams” produced by Pandro S. Berman with music by Max Steiner was released in the United States today by RKO.

    1935:  Humorist Will Rogers and aviator Wiley Post were killed when their airplane crashed near Point Barrow, Alaska.  Rogers was one of the most popular celebrities of his time.  His radio shows, movies and columns were devoured by millions of Americans.  This son of the American Plains got his first big break when Flo Ziegfield featured him in the famous Zigfield Follies.  According to legend, he took away Will’s horse, left him with a rope and the wit that became his trademarks.

    1937: Sha’ar HaNeveg (which was renamed Kfar Szold) a new agricultural village east of Gedera was established. It was the 17th village to be settled in 1937.  Kfar Szold was only two hundred yards from the Syrian border.  In January, 1948, even before the state of Israel had been created, the Syrian army attacked the settlement in a determined effort to destroy it and kill the inhabitants.  Nine hundred Syrian soldiers attacked a settlement manned by fewer than hundred defenders.  After a spirited defense, the British army, for once, intervened on behalf of the Jews and the Syrians withdrew.

    1937: Lord Melchett, Prof. L. Namier, H. Sacher, M. Ussishkin, Dr. S. Wise, Berl Katznelson, Dov Hos, Rabbi Berlin, Dr. Glickson, and Franz Bernstein joined the Advisory Commission, formed to assist the new Zionist Executive to negotiate the country’s partition under the Royal (Peel) Commission¹s scheme.

    1937(8th of Elul, 5697):Solomon Wander, one of the first Jewish immigrants to form the Jewish community in Albany. New York passed away at the age of 71.

    1937: The New York Times describes the growing tension in Palestine on the streets of Jerusalem and Haifa and the British response which includes the recommendation by a Royal Commission for "a surgical operation" on Palestine which will result in the creation of a Jewish State, an Arab State and a new British mandate over Jerusalem with a corridor to the sea.

    1938: “The Gladiator” a comedy produced by David L. Loew with a script by Arthur Sheekman and music by Victor Young was released in the United States by Columbia Pictures.

    1938: Birthdate of Lewis E. “Lew” Lehrman the founder of Rite Aid Drugstore and the Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History who ran for Governor of New York in 1982 on the Republican ticket.

    1938:  In San Francisco, CA, Anne A. and Irving G. Breyer gave birth to Supreme Court Justice Stephen Breyer.

    1938: As Arab violence spirals to new levels of intensity, “six Jews were killed and two, both women, were seriously injured near Haifa this afternoon when a bus going to Mount Carmel was ambushed by Arabs while passing through a forest. It is believed several of those killed were Jewish special policemen.” A bomb was detonated on the road running between Herzliah and Raananh wounding some of the 25 workers in a truck bound for a local orange grove.  Several other acts of violence and sabotage took place including a bomb-throwing episode on the streets of Tel Aviv.

    1938: Paul Ferdinand Strassmann, the Jewish born German gynecologist who became a Protestant, passed away.

    1939: “The Wizard of Oz” the classical musical produced by Mervyn LeRoy with music by Harold Arlen and lyrics by Yip Harburg “both of whom won the Academy Award for Best Orginal Song for ‘Over the Rainbow’”had its Hollywood Premiere at Grauman’s Chinese Theater.

    1939(30th of Av, 5699): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1941:  Heinrich Lohse, Reich commissioner for Eastern Territories of the Ostland (Eastern Europe) region, decrees that Jews must wear two yellow badges, one on the chest and one on the back; that Jews cannot own automobiles or radios; and that their presence in public places will be severely proscribed.

    1941 A Jewish ghetto is established at Riga, Latvia.

    1941: Last of the remaining 25,000 Jews in Kovno were removed to Viampole. Each is allotted three square feet of living space.

    1941: Six hundred Jews are taken from Stawiski and shot in nearby woods.

    1941: A massacre begins at Rokiskis that leaves 3,200 men, women and children, shot by the next evening.

    1942: On Shabbat, “the Germans entered the ghetto in the village of Zagrodski, ordering the Jews to leave their houses for a roll call” and then left to stand outside all day without any food or water.

    1942: This evening, “a truck arrived at the ghetto in the village of Zagrodski. “The Jews were ordered on to it, and drove out of the ghetto. Those for whom there had been no room on the truck were ordered to run after it. For the rest of the tale of the ensuring slaughter read

    1942: The Germans open Jawiszowice, a slave-labor camp located near Auschwitz.

    1942: One thousand Belgian Jews, including 172 children, are deported to their deaths in the East.

    1943: Nearly 1000 French Jews of Polish birth are deported to a slave-labor camp on Alderney, one of the British Channel Islands seized in 1940 by Germany, and are put to work building fortifications. Hundreds of the Jews die due to ill treatment and exhaustion

    1944: “Operation Dragoon,” the Allied invasion of southern France in which former B-17 pilot Bruce Sundlin served as a bombardment spotter for the OSS, began today.

    1944: “Children standing behind the ghetto fence in Lodz, Poland.”

    1945:  V.J. Day – Victory over Japan Day is proclaimed by the Allies after having received official word of that the Japanese had indeed surrendered.

     1947: With the end of the British rule of the Indian subcontinent, two new nations declared the independence.  One was Islamic Pakistan; the other was India which while heavily Hindu retained a large Islamic population.  India’s relations with Israel have been a mixed bag.  In the early days, under Nehru, the Indian government was anti-Israel, taking the lead, for example in denying it admittance to the Bandung Conference.  In more recent times, relations between the two states and their citizens have improved.

    1947: Following today’s division of the Indian sub-continent into two states, Indian airlines responded to the Prime Minister Nehru’s request that they fly Hindus living in Pakistan to India.  Among those participating was Abie Nathan who was a co-pilot for one of the Indian airlines. 

    1948(10th of Av, 5708): Tish’a B’Av observed since the 9th of Av fell on Shabbat

    1948(10th of Av, 5708): As Israel fights for her independence Tish'a B'Av is observed today because the 9th of Av fell on Shabbat.

    1948: Mitchell Flint, a WW II naval combat pilot who had planned to celebrate his graduation UC-Berkley by attending the Olympics in London but chose to fly for the IAF “out of concern for the plight of Holocaust survivors” flew his first two missions today – the first involving “a search for a last aircraft” and the second being an “attempted interception” of an enemy aircraft.

    1948: In Iraq, a leading Jewish businessman, Shafiq Adas was hanged on trumped up charges of treason.  His body was mutilated by a crowd of on-lookers.

    1948: Two Israeli and two Arab soldiers were killed during a second unsuccessful Arab attack on the Mandelbaum House a key defensive point in Jerusalem.

    1949(20th of Av, 5709): Fanny Binswanger Hoffman passed away. (As reported by Selma Weintraub, a past national president of the Women’s League for Conservative Judaism)

    1950: In Indianapolis, Indiana, Anne and Wolf Rosenblum gave birth to Gail Sue Rosenblum who gained fame as Gaylen Ross “American actress, writer, producer and director” who produced the awarded “Killing Kasztner”(For more see Gaylen Ross’s award winning documentary “Killing Kasztner: The Jew Who Dealt With Nazis”

    1951: Prime Minister David Ben Gurion's plan to take control of the Zionist movement outside of Israel from political parties and transfer it to non-partisan regional organizations was attacked here today by delegates to the twenty-third World Zionist Congress.

    1951(13th of Av, 5711): Pianist and composer Artur Schnabel passed away.

    1951: The last inmates of Bergen-Belsen left the camp on their way to the United States. Bergen- Belsen was originally set up in 1943. Many of its inmates were Jewish prisoners who had dual citizenship with Latin American countries or entry permits to Palestine. A few hundred were used by the Germans for prisoner exchanges. Though not a death camp per se, over 51,000 people died there including Anne Frank.

    1951: In Philadelphia, premiere of “His Kind of Woman” directed by Richard Fleischer

    1953: Seventy-seven year old Reinhold Quaatz the German right wing politician “who endorsed anti-Semitic policies” despite the fact that his mother was Jewish and avoided the Holocaust passed away today.

    1959(11thof Av, 5719): Shabbat Nachamu

    1959: As the Los Angeles Dodgers made a surprising run for the National League pennant ‘Larry Sherry walloped three hits, including his first home run, and pitched eight and two-thirds innings of scoreless relief ball today in leading the second place Los Angeles Dodgers to a 4-3 decision over the Cardinals.”

    1960: It was reported today that “some quiet talk in the corridors of the U.N. here and in the Foreign Ministry in Buenos Aires may lead soon to restoration of full diplomatic relations between Israel and Argentina which had soured after “the two countries had clashed bitterly over the abduction of Adolf Eichmann.”

    1961: Elections were held today for the fifth Knesset Ben-Gurion’s Mapai came in first with 34.7% of the vote which earned 42 seats.  Herut, led by Menachem Begin and Liberal  led by Peretz Bernstein tied for second with each getting a little more than 13% of the vote which translated into 17 seats for each party.

    1961: “The Lawbreakers” with music by Johnny Mandel who wrote the theme for MASH (Suicide is Painless) and featuring Jay Adler as “Abe Hirsch” was released in Germany today.

    1968:  In Brooklyn, “Sandra (née Simons), who has worked as a professional singer, banker, travel and real estate agent, and Brian Messing, a sales executive for a costume jewelry packaging manufacturer” gave birth to actress Debra Messing who plays Grace, “the Jewish interior designer” on the television show Will and Grace.

    1969(1stof Elul, 5729): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1969(1stof Elul, 5729): Sixty-six year old movie producer William B. “Bill” Goetz, the husband of Edith Mayer,  who was one of the founders of what is now 20th Century Fox and who had a stormy relationship with is father-in-law Louis B. Mayer passed away today

    1969: The Woodstock Music and Art Fair, which became the iconoclastic hippie happening simply known as Woodstock, began today in Bethel, NY, at the farm of Jewish dairyman Max B. Yagur.

    1971(24thof Av, 5731): Eighty-year old Paul Lukas, the Budapest born Jew Pál Lukács, who won the Oscar for Best Actor for his role in the anti-fascist drama Watch on the Rhine passed away today in Morocco.

    1971: A new paperback version of Tillie Olsen's classic short story collection Tell Me a Riddle was issued

    1973: Black September, the Palestinian terror group, kills 3 and wounds 55 in Athens

    1976: It was reported today that “in preparation for the raid on Entebbe Airport, Israeli intelligence officers allegedly hypnotized several previously-released hostages” one of whom “was able to give helpful physical details of the airport” where the terrorists were holding their captives.

    1976: The National Convention of Hadassah is scheduled to open today in Washington, DC.

    1977: The Arabs in the administered territories and neighboring countries continued to dismiss the Israeli government’s decision to equalize the standard services on the West Bank and in Gaza as one more step toward annexation. Israeli opposition, the Alignment and the Democratic Movement for a Change, dismissed the plan, claiming that Israel could not afford to give residents of the administered territories services equal to those enjoyed by Israelis. The new prime minister, Menachem Begin called upon the Labor Opposition to support his government if and when Israel would be pressed to accept the PLO as a negotiating peace-talks partner.

    1980: “The Girl in the Book” by Primo Levi was published for the first time in La Stampa.

    1983(6th of Elul, 5743): Eighty-eight year old Benjamin V. Cohen a member of FDR’s “Brain Trust” who stayed on to work with Harry S. Truman passed away.  (As reported by Marjorie Hunter)

    1984: A car bomb was discovered on Ben Yehuda Street in Jerusalem and defused about 10 minutes before it was to have exploded. In the car were about 12 kilograms of explosives and another three kilograms of iron nails.

    1984: “Buckaroo Banzai” a sci-fi film co-starring Ellen Barkin and Jeff Goldblum was released in the United States by 20th Century Fox.

    1986: “The Fly” a remake of an early version the sci-fi thriller directed by David Cronenberg with music by Howard Shore and starring Jeff Goldblum was released in the United States today 20th Century Fox.

    1986: “Manhunter” a “crime thriller” directed by Michael Mann who also wrote the script was released in the United States today by De Laurentiis Entertainment Group.

    1986: “Armed and Dangerous” a comedy produced Brian Grazer who co-authored the script along with Harold Ramis and co-starring Eugene Levy was released in the United States by Columbia Pictures.

    1992: Giorgio Perlasca, an Italian businessman who saved more than 3,000 Jews from deportation to Nazi concentration camps in World War II, passed away today at his home in Padua, Italy. He was 82 years old. Mr. Perlasca died of a heart attack, The Associated Press reported. Trapped in Budapest late in the war by the fall of the fascist Italian Government, Mr. Perlasca, a livestock trader, joined in a plan conceived by international relief workers and diplomats from neutral countries to save as many Jews as possible from the Nazis. When the Spanish diplomatic representative fled Budapest in November 1944, Mr. Perlasca, who had been a volunteer in Franco's army in the Spanish Civil War, persuaded Hungary to accept him as the Spanish representative, and in two months he issued travel documents to thousands of Jews to save them from deportation. In 1987 Mr. Perlasca, whose achievements had gone largely unnoticed, was made an honorary citizen of Israel and was honored by the Yad Vashem Holocaust Memorial Museum there. In 1990 he received the Medal of Remembrance of the United States Holocaust Memorial Council. A tall, quiet man, Mr. Perlasca told The Jerusalem Post in 1987 that he had been motivated by neither religion nor politics. "I couldn't ignore it," he said. "I did what I had to do. I was lucky. I had friends among the Jews who were being killed by the Nazis. That gave me courage."

    1993: TraveldoctorOnline commemorated “the 55th anniversary of the death of the Berlin gynecologist Prof. Paul Ferdinand Strassmann. In the first half of the 20th century, Strassmann was one of the leading specialists of plastic surgery of the female genital tract. Famous gynecologists and surgeons, e.g. the Mayo brothers, visited the Strassmann clinic in the Schumannstrasse with the aim of learn new surgical techniques. The present paper aims to outline particularly the life of Paul F. Strassmann but also his importance in the creation of modern gynecological surgery.”
    1996(30th of Av, 5756): Rosh Chodesh Elul
    1997: “Event Horizon” a sci-fi film co-starring Jason Isaacs with music by Michael Kamen was released in the United States today by Paramount Pictures.
    1998: The curtain came down tonight on a three month revival of Neil Simon’s “Sweet Charity” at London’s Victoria Palace Theatre.
    1999: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Edward Albee: A Singular Journey: A Biographyby Mel Gussow and Inside Picture Booksby Ellen Handler Spitz.

    2002(7th of Elul, 5762): Haim Yosef Zadok a native of Galicia who made Aliyah in 1935 and served as Jurist and political leader, passed away.

    2003: Stan Lee voiced the character “Frank Elson” in the broadcast of an episode of “Spider Man” titled “mind games.”

    2003: “In Doctor Writes ‘Epic Saga’ of Jews in Medicine,” Max Gross reviewed Jews and Medicine: An Epic Saga by Frank Heynick

    2004: The Sunday New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish authors including Dark Voyage by Alan Furst andThe Numbers Game: Baseball's Lifelong Fascination With Statistics by Alan Schwarz

    2004: In “Past, Prologue and Paris” published today Alice Steinbach visits the world of the Camondo family and reminds us tenuous the fate of even the most powerful Jews can be.

    2005: Deadline for Israeli citizens living in Gaza to accept government compensation packages as part of the voluntary evacuation plan.

    2005: The evacuation of Gaza “under Major General Dan Harel of the Southern Command” began at 8 a.m. when “a convoy of security forces entered Neve Deakalim.”

    2005:  Haaretzreported that the Israeli Defense Forces unit that is responsible for finding the remains of missing soldiers discovered the burial site of eight soldiers who died during the War of Independence.  The missing eight died in fighting on May 13, 1948 near Kibbutz Nahshon. Their remains have been re-interred in cemeteries on Mount Herzl and Rosh Pina.

    2006: The Sony BMG Masterworks label released Jay "Bluejay" Greenberg’s first CD. It includes his Symphony no. 5

    2006(21st of Av, 5766): Myriam Fefer, a Jewish businesswoman, was brutally murdered in her home in Lima Peru.

    2007(1st of Elul, 5767: Rosh Chodesh Elul; First Day of the month of Elul.  Psalm 27 will be recited from this date through Shemini Atzeres.  Shofar is blown daily at Shacharit except on Shabbat through the penultimate day of the month of Elul.

    2007: Yad Vashem posthumously honored a Romanian reserve officer who blocked the deportation of Romanian Jews to Nazi death camps during World War II. Theodor Criveanu joined the Righteous Among the Nations group of non-Jews who rescued Jews from the Nazis. His son, Willie Criveanu, accepted the award on his behalf. Yad Vashem said it could not estimate how many Jews he saved. Criveanu married the daughter of one of the Jews he saved. He died in Romania in 1988.

    2008: At the Israel Museum an exhibition entitled “Swords into Plowshares: The Isaiah Scroll and Its Message of Peace” comes to an end.

    2008:Bais Chana Jewish Women's Weekend Retreat opens in St. Paul, Minnesota

    2008:A Kassam rocket was launched into Israel from the Gaza Strip in the afternoon.

    2008:In a letter published today in Corriere della Sera, former Italian President Francesco Cossiga described a "secret 'non-belligerence pact' between the Italian state and Palestinian resistance organizations, including terrorist groups" such as the PFLP. The deal, he said, had been devised by Prime Minister Aldo Moro, who in 1978 was kidnapped and assassinated by the Italian terror group the Red Brigades. The former president says his country had allowed Palestinian terror groups to roam free in exchange for not attacking Italian targets.

    2008: Jody Wagner announces her candidacy for Lt. Gov. on the Republican ticket in the state of Virginia.

    2008(14th of Av, 5768): Ninety-one year record producer Jerry Wexler who coined the term “rhythm and blues” passed away today. (As reported by Patricia Sullivan)

    2009: The 92nd Street Y sponsors Israeli Folk Dance: Summer Marathon 2009.

    2009: In Jerusalem, Amit Erez hits the stage at Hama'abada, playing an acoustic show which blends folk and indie style music, influenced by musicians such as Nick Drake and Elliot Smith on the one hand, and Shalom Hanoch on the other. Erez performs songs from his new album, including "Last Night When I Tried to Sleep" and "I Felt the Ocean on my Fingertips."

    2009: As part of the activities designed to welcome Rabbi Todd Thalblum and his family to Cedar Rapids, Temple Judah celebrates a special outdoor Havdalah service at Woodpecker Lodge.

    2009: A revival “How Now Dow Jones” with a book by Max Shulman, music by Elmer Bernstein and lyrics by Carolyn Leigh opens at the New York International Fringe Festival.

    2009:According to a report broadcast today on Voice of Israel government radio wealthy foreign Arabs have bought up hundreds of dunams of land in the Galilee, land, which was owned privately and which was zoned for agricultural use, was sold due to economic hardship.

    2010: Defense Minister Ehud Barak gave his approval today for the purchase of the fifth-generation F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) by the Israeli Air Force from the US.

    2010: The Washington Post featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Denial: A Memoir of Terror By Jessica Stern

    2010: The Los Angeles Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Red Hook Road by Ayelet Waldmanand Quantum: Eisenstein, Bohr and the Great Debate About the Nature of Reality by Manjit Kumar.  [Editor’s note – The only person I know who is smart enough to understand this is Dr. Joe Rosen, so if you have questions write to him not to me.]

    2011: The 31st International Conference on Jewish Genealogy (sponsored by the Jewish Genealogy Society of Greater Washington) and the Washingtoniana Division of the Martin Luther King, Jr. Library are scheduled to offer a free talk on "What’s Your Story? An Introduction to Genealogy and Family History"

    2011:Hutzot Hayotzer, the popular international arts and crafts fair that has become a Jerusalemite ritual, is scheduled to open today.

    2011(15th of Av, 5771): Tu B’Av- Jewish Saidie Hawkins Day

    2011:A marble statue of Hercules dating back to the second century C.E. has been found in an archeological dig in northern Israel, Israel's Antiquities Authority announced today. The statue, approximately a meter and half tall, was probably part of the decoration of a bathhouse pool

    2011:The Israel Medical Association said in a discussion at the High Court today that it would be willing to hold mediated talks on points of contention with the Ministry of Finance, so long as certain conditions are upheld..

    2011: A column entitled “No Loss For Words” published in today’s Sports Illustrated provides a portrait of Marv Levy, the coach who took the Bills to four Super Bowl, and a review of his soon to be published first novel, Between the Lines.

    2011: The documentary “Gloria: In Her Own Words” about the life and times of Gloria Steinem premiered on HBO. (As reported by Jewish Women’s Archives)

    2012: The brit of “Baby Boy Sann” the son of Debbie and Ron Sann is scheduled to take place at Adas Israel in Washington, DC

    2012: In Boston, MA, Congregation Beth Elohim is scheduled to sponsor an evening of “Jewish Meditation.”

    2012: Cantor Regina Heit is scheduled to lead the Learn and Lunch at Temple Emanuel in Denver, CO.

    2012: Members of Israel’s national soccer team apologized today for laughing during a lecture the day before on the murder of Hungarian Jewry by the Nazis. Some players tittered during a talk in Budapest, one day before the team’s friendly match against Hungary, the Sport Channel reported today

    2012:Egg, milk and chicken prices are expected to rise by up to 17 percent by the end of this year, the Agriculture Ministry forecast today.

    2012(27th of Av, 5772): Sixty-eight year old “David M. Lederman, who led the team of scientists that developed the first fully implantable artificial heart — which, although it had limited success, prompted further advances in the treatment of late-stage heart disease” passed away today (As reported by Dennis Hevesi)


    2013: Israeli jazz guitarist Assaf Kehati and his trio are scheduled to perform at the Bar Next Door in New York City.

    2013: Oakland A’s first baseman Nate Freiman had four hits today including a homer and a double.

    2013: “Soul Doctor,” a musical based on the life of Rabbi Shlomo Carlebach opened tonight at the Circle in the Square in New York City.

    2013: “An archeological team headed by Dr. Alexander Fantalkin of Tel Aviv university has announced the discovery of one of the largest construction projects in the entire Mediterranean basin: a system of fortifications from the 8th century BCE, as well as coins, weights and parts of buildings from the Hellenistic period, have all been found in the archeological dig Tel Ashdod Yam – where the harbor of the philistine city of Ashdod used to be. The site is about 3 miles south of today’s thriving Israeli city of Ashdod.’ (As reported by Yori Yanover)

    2013: Documents linked to Oskar Schindler, the German industrialist known for his efforts to save Jews from World War Two concentration camps, were sold at auction for more than $122,000, a New Hampshire auction house said today.

    2013: Hebrew University is ranked first in Israel and 59th globally, according to the 2013 Academic Ranking of World Universities released today. (As reported by Lahav Harkov)

    2014: Mark Ethan Toporek is scheduled to lead a talk on “Gender Benders” following a screening of “Liberace” at the 92nd Street Y.

    2014: In London, The Tricyel Theatre and the UK Jewish Film Festival issued a joint statement saying that the Tricycle’s initial decision to refuse to host the festival “because of the event’s Israeli’s government funding “provoked considerable public upset” and that the theater has “invited back the UK Jewish Film Festival on the same terms as in previous years with no restrictions on funding from the Embassy of Israel in London.” (As reported by JTA)

    2014:“After nearly two years of campaigning, millions of dollars spent and one tropical storm that delayed voting in this easternmost corner of Hawaii for nearly a week, Senator Brian Schatz won the Democratic nomination for his seat today defeating his challenger, Representative Colleen Hanabusa, by fewer than 1,800 votes — less than 1 percent of the total cast -- bringing one of the longest and most acrimonious primary contests in the state’s history to an apparent end.” (As reported Ian Lovett)

    2014: “Israeli-American athlete Donald Sanford, the husband of Israeli basketball player Danielle Deke., made some Israeli history today when he won a bronze medal in the 400 meter dash in the European Athletics Championships in Zurich, Switzerland – the first running medal for Israel in the history of the championships.” (Times Of Israel)

    2014: Even as the cease fire seems to be holding for another day, Israel's Davis Cup tie against Argentina originally scheduled for Tel Aviv next month has been moved to Florida, the International Tennis Federation (ITF) said today.

    2014: In Zurich, American-Israeli sprinter Donald Sanford won the bronze medal in the 400 metres sprint at the European Athletic Championships which “he dedicated to the IDF.”

    2014: Nate Freimans “61-game errorless streak, the seventh-longest first baseman errorless streak in Oakland history” came to an end today.

    2015(30thof Av, 5774): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    2015: Tenth anniversary of the Israeli evacuation from Gaza. 

    2015: The friends, family and fans of Gaylen Ross “American actress, writer, producer and director” who produced the awarded “Killing Kasztner” are scheduled to join in celebrating a “milestone birthday."
    (For more see Gaylen Ross’s award winning documentary “Killing Kasztner: The Jew Who Dealt With Nazis”

    2015: One hundred thirtieth anniversary of the birth of Edna Ferber.

    2015: The 2015 MoCCA Arts Festival Awards of Excellence Exhibit featuring the works of Israeli illustrator Keren Katz is scheduled to come to an end today.

    2015: The Havdalah Bike Ride, a six mile event is scheduled to depart from the park across from the Historic 6th& I Synagogue this evening followed by a community Havdalah service.

    2015: At the Concordia Library in Oregon, Jeannie Opdyke Smith is scheduled to speak about her mother, the late Irene Opdyke who was a brave and inspiring figure who received international recognition for her life-saving actions during the Holocaust when working for a high ranking German official.


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    August 16

    1027:  The King of Georgia, Giorgi I, passed away. Jews were among the subjects of this monarch who ruled over a country situated in the Caucuses, on the eastern edge of the Black Sea.  Leonti Mroveli, an eleventh century chronicler of Georgian history, offers various dates for the arrival of the Jews including the period after the destruction of the First Temple or after the destruction of the Second Temple.  Other sources claim that the first Jews arrived during the time of Alexander the Great or during the Sixth Century of the Common Era when they were fleeing persecution of the Byzantines.  No matter which source you choose to believe, The Jews were there when King George died and remain there to this day.

    1284: A year before he began his reign as King of France, Philip IV, who expelled the Jews from his realm to avoid paying his debts began his reign as King of Navarre and Count of Champagne.

    1486: Twenty men and five women were burned after being sentenced at an auto-de-fe in Toledo on the charge of Judaizing. Among them were Dr. Alonso Cota and many other notables of the town. They were marched through town being humiliated wearing the dreadful san benito, with their hands tied to their neck behind their backs.

    1648(28thof Av, 5408): Rabbi Joshua Höschel ben Joseph passed away in Cracow.  Born at Vilnius in 1578, he studied both the Kabbalah and the Talmud.  He wrote Maginne Shelomoh and She'elot u-Teshubot Pene Yehoshua'

    1532: John Frederick I began his reign as Elector of Saxony during which, four years later in August of 1536, in response to the teaching of Martin Luther “issued a mandate that prohibited Jews from inhabiting, engaging in business in, or passing through his realm.”

    1599(25thof Av, 5359): Isaiah Menahem Ben Isaac passed away today while serving in the rabbinate in Cracow.

    1664: Sixty-five year old Christian Hebrew language student and author Johannes Buxtorf the Younger who “employed Abraham Braunschweig to purchase Hebrew books for him and for many years corresponded with the scholarly Jacob Roman of Constantinople regarding the acquisition of Hebrew manuscripts and rare printed works” passed away today.

    1648(28thof Av, 5408): Rabbi Joshua Höschel ben Joseph, a student of Rabbi Samuel ben Phoebus of Cracow and  Rabbi Joshua Falk whose students included Rav Shabbatai HaKohen, passed away today.

    1675: Ukrainian leader Bogdan Chemlnicki (with the blood of over 300,000 Jews on his hands) died.

    1724: In London, Bavarian immigrants Yehezkel (Ezekiel) and Judah Hirsh gave birth to their son Aaron Hart. The family changed their name from Hirsh to its English version, Hart.  Hart would go on to become a successful businessman and “is considered the father of Canadian Jewry.”

    1776(1stof Elul, 5536): Rosh Chodesh Elul; for the first time the shofar is sounded in the newly independent United States of America

    1799: “The Prague Jew Pzřibram bought a house in the village of Hanichen (Hanychov) from Joseph Porsche but was ordered by Count of Clam-Gallasto sell it within a year to a gentile.”

    1807: During the “Gunboat Wars” which helped lead to the “complete emancipation of the Danish Jews, the British began the bombardment of Copenhagen.

    1834: In Amsterdam, Joseph Barend Stokvis, Jr., a Jewish physician and obstetrician and his wife gave birth to Barend Joseph Stokvis a physician and professor of physiology and pharmacology at the University of Amsterdam who was the husband Julia Elisabeth Wertheim and a leader of the Dutch Jewish community.

    1840: During the Damascus Affair, in a move supporting the Jewish prisoners, the British led European powers issued a stern warning to the Egyptian Khedive that he should move his forces away from the Turkish frontier.

    1842: Birthdate of Jakob Rosanes, the native of Brody who gained fame as a mathematician and chess master.

    1845: In Bonnevoie, Luxembourg, Miriam Rose (Lévy) and Isaïe Lippman, the manager of the family glove-making business gave birth to Gabriel Lippman, French physicist who won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1908.

    1845: In what might have been the first mention of potato blight in the British Isles, today Gardeners' Chronicle and Horticultural Gazette reported "a blight of unusual character" in the Isle of Wight the home of the Isle of Wight Jewish Society

    1849: Birthdate of Sibylle Riqueti de Mirabeau, the French anti-Semite and “anti-Dreyfusard” who wrote under the pseudonym of GYP.  While testifying in a court case she “gave her profession as ‘anti-Semite’ rather than ‘writer.’”

    1851: In Buffalo, VA, Robert and Anna Harvey gave birth to William Hope "Coin" Harvey the populist leader who wrote the anti-Semitic Tale of Two Nations, “the story of a wealthy London banker, Baron Rothe, who engineers a plot to keep the United States from ever using a silver as currency.”

    1852: In reporting on the clash between Sir Robert Peel and Benjamin Disraeli over the issue of Free Trade "Items of Foreign News" column published today quotes the following disparaging remarks that appeared in The Morning Chronicle. "When Mr. Disraeli attempts to trade on the policy of Sir Robert Peel, it will be difficult to refrain from challenging him in the words of the Hebrew prophet, 'Hast thou killed and also taken possession.'"  [Editor's Note: the quote is from 1 Kings 21:19]

    1859: In London, birthdate of “communal worker” Ernest Louis Franklin

    1860: David Wemyss Jobson was found guilty of libeling the character of Sir James Furgurson in the London Central Criminal Court today.  Among the many prominent witnesses to appear was Benjamin Disraeli. When asked by the Defendant “Are you a Jew now or not?”  Mr. Disraeli repIied, “I am what I always was -- a Christian.” This is an interesting answer since Disraeli was actually born a Jew.  Was he being disengenous or was he taking poet license in writing his own biography.

    1862: The Chicago Tribune published a tribute to the Jews of Chicago.

    1868(28th of Av, 5628): Fifty-five year old Ruben Joseph Wunderbar the author who succeeded Max Lilienthal as principal the Jewish school at Riga passed away today in his hometown of Mitau.

    1873: Lipman “Lip” Pike, one of the first Jewish major league baseball players, “raced a fast trotting horse named Clarence in a 100-yard sprint at Baltimore's Newington Park, and won by four yards with a time of 10 seconds flat, earning $250 ($4,570 today).”

    1873: It was reported today that the Governor of New York has offered a $500 reward for the apprehension of Emil Lowenstein who allegedly murder John Weston in Albany, NY.  Mrs. Weston has already been arrested for her role in the killing.  Lowenstein, a German Jewish barber’s assistant, is thought to be headed for an unnamed “Western city.”

    1875: It was reported today that of the 57,200 children attending primary schools in Algeria, 5,646 “are native Jews.’

    1875: In Prague,Moritz Moses Piesen and Rosalia Piesen gave birth to Hugo Peisen the husband of Annie Piesen.

    1875: It was reported today that 40 year old Joseph Samuels and 15 year old Sallie Mossheim were arrested in New Jersey. This tangled tale of two Jews includes a married man (Samuels) and the daughter of a successful businessman, who fell in love and ran off together.  The case is complicated by the fact that Sallie’s father reported that $500 was missing from his safe and this same amount was found in his daughter’s possession.

    1880: Sir Saul Samuel completed his second term as a Member of the Legislative Council of New South Wales

    1880: “Hebrew Poetry” published today provided a detailed review of The Historical Poetry of the Ancient Hebrews, a two volume work by Michael Heilprin.

    1880: Based on information that originally appeared the Journal de St. Petersburg it was reported today that Jews account for 0.22 of the illegitimate births in the European portion of the Russian Empire

    1881: It was reported today that Count Kutisoff, who is investigating the causes of the anti-Jewish riots met with a deputation of Jews from Kharkoff.  The Jews told him that the causes were not just economic.  The count said that the government was determined to stop the violence.  He said that they needed “to regulate the abnormal conditions” in the Western provinces where “the Jews outnumber the Christians and monopolize trade.”  (The Western provinces included the Pale of Settlement and it is inconceivable that the Russian leader did not know that there were so many Jews there because that is where the government had confined them)

    1882(1stof Elul, 5642): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1882: It was reported today that the speech by Congressman Cox on the persecution of Russian Jews that appears in the Congressional Record was in fact never given since Congress had already adjourned. Cox had apparently taken advantage of the time honored practice of entering remarks in the Record that has gone into the 20th century.

    1885: Beth Hamedresh Hagadol, an Orthodox congregation formed by Polish Jews 30 years ago, dedicated its new sanctuary on Norfolk Street this afternoon. Rabbi Abraham Ash, the spiritual leader of the congregation, was the driving force behind the project.

    1885: The Associate Members’ Literary Society of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association held a Grant-Montefiore Memorial Meeting this evening in New York City. G.A. Ettinger delivered a speech in which compared both of these saying that although one was a man of war and the other a man of peace, “they were alike in one respect, that both labored for the emancipation of the human race.”

    1886: Based on information that first appeared in the Warsaw Courier two Polish peasants have been sentenced to six months in prison after having been found of disinterring  two Jewish corpses, cutting off their hands and then grinding them into “little morsels for…medicinal purposes.”

    1886: “Last of the Roman Ghetto” published today reported that within the next couple of weeks the Jew’s quarter of Rome, “a picturesque piece of antiquity” will disappear.  The reporter of the Pall Mall Gazette (a British publication) described the ghetto as a place where “the Jews had made themselves…a sort of second fatherland” where they could observe “their habits and traditions…in a little town” they had all to themselves.

    1887: Joseph Froehlich of Davenport, Iowa donated $4.00 to the Union of American Hebrew Congregations.

    1887: The will of Jonas Heller which was filed for probate today gave $10,000 for the Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews on the condition that the Directors erect a prominently placed tablet saying “In Memory  of Jonas Heller, Trustee, from______ to ______ Bequeathed Ten Thousand Dollars.”

    1888: It was reported today that Levi Davis, a prominent Jewish citizen living in New Brunswick, NJ, has filed a suit seeking $10,000 in damages from Charles Scheede “for ruining his daughter Jennie.” Schweede, who is a partner in the clothing firm of Schweede Brothers denied the charge.

    1888: It was reported today that Siegfried Porter, a native of Bohemia who is now an American citizen, testified before Congressman Ford’s Immigration Committee that he was now able to earn seven or eight dollars a week as a cigar maker because of the influx of Russian and Polish Jews.  According to the embittered witness the Jews were willing to work for four or five dollars a week and that they lived in such poor conditions that they were able to save three dollars of that.

    1888: Birthdate of T.E. Lawrence, known to history as “Lawrence of Arabia.”  In the popular mind, Lawrence is remembered as a driving force behind Arab nationalism.  However, Lawrence was not anti-Zionist.  In “The Changing East” he wrote of the way in which the Zionist settlers would help improve the economic and social condition of the Arab population.  “In 1919 he drafted a letter for Emir Feisal for a meeting with Felix Frankfurter, a leader of American Zionists. In his letter Feisal wished ‘the Jews a hearty welcome home’ and asserted ‘our two movements complete one another.’ ‘There is room in Syria for both of us’ he concluded.”

    1889: Birthdate of Maurice Copisarow, he Russian born Chemist who came to England in 1908 where he received his education and co-authored a paper with fellow chemist Chaim Weizmann.

    1890(30thof Av, 5650) Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1890: Rabbi Gustave Gottheil is scheduled to deliver a sermon today entitled “Who Needs Converting?”

    1890(30thof Av, 5650): On Shabbat, New York attorney Montague L. Marks passed away today.

    1891: The funeral for Emilie J. Frank, the widow of Joseph Frank, is scheduled to be held at the home of her daughter Mrs. William Rosenberg at 40 West 95thStreet.

    1891: As local merchants expressed their indignation over the high-pressure tactics of sales person working for the “Jewish Times” the publishers said that the agent had sent in the ads but that they “were not aware of his making false representations” to obtain them.

    1891: “Russian Jew Question” published today described the impact the articles that George Kenan has written on this subject have had including Prime Minister Gladstone urging Continental  to conduct “a full and fair” investigation of the issue.

    1892: “Charges Against Edward Pollock” published today described events surrounding Meyer Reinherz’s an agent of the United Hebrew Charities, decision to file a complaint against Edward Pollock for allegedly attacking him while writing stories for Austro-Hungarian newspapers.”

    1893: A circular was disturbed today setting forth the rights of the thousands of unemployed Jewish workers and the wrongs done to them and calling for a mass meeting tomorrow at the Walhalla Hall on Orchard Street.

    1895: In Massachusetts, the Worcester Hebrew Benevolent Society which had been founded in 1891 received its charge today.

    1895:  Birthdate of novelist Albert Cohen.  A native of Greece, Cohen worked for various international organizations located in Switzerland. He became a Swiss citizen after World War I and based some of his fiction on experiences with the League of Nations.  The Greek native, who was a Swiss citizen, wrote in French.

    1896: “Heat and the Babes” published today described various steps being taken to beat the August heat including the decision of the Hebrew Institute to open a free roof garden on the top of its building.

    1897: Birthdate of Sir Hersch Lauterpacht the Austro-Hungarian born British Jurist who served as a member of the United Nations Internal Law Commission and a Judge of the International Court of Justice.

    1898: Children are being removed from the Hebrew Orphan Asylum at 138thStreet and Amsterdam Avenue because of an epidemic of dysentery.

    1898: “For Jewish Worshippers” published today described a letter J.E. Bloom, Assistant Adjutant General, Third Brigade, Second Division, Third Army Corps wrote to the President and Executive Committee of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association in New York suggesting that they raise funds to be used to “provide a large tent for holding religious services for Jewish soldiers” attending the re-union at the Chickamauga Battlefield this Fall.

    1898: “Great Charity Enterprise” published today described plans for a fundraiser to be sponsored by the Young Men’s Hebrew Charity Association in Chicago.  Half of the funds will go to Michael Reese Hospital and the other half will go to the United Hebrew Charities.

    1899: It was reported today that “the leading Jews of Europe are” planning on holding a meeting “in Switzerland in order to form an international association for their defense against the crusade of the anti-Semites and to protect the Jews in France after the Dreyfus court-martial is ended.”

    1899: The New York Federation of Zionists met at Cooper Union tonight. “They adopted resolutions against anti-Semitism and for the rejuvenation of Zion.”

    1899: “Jews Aid The Dewey Home Fund” published today described the “considerable interest” that the Jews have shown in raising money to buy a home for the Hero of Manila Bay.  “At least one-fourth of the names making up the list of contributors so far are Jews.”

    1899: In South Africa, President Kruger “has issued a brochure supporting his proposal regarding the removal of religious disabilities” which would the discrimination against the Jews by the Protestant dominated government.

    1899: Julius P. Witmark, J.W. Bratton, Sager Midgley, J. Leslie Gossing, J.J. Raffael, Miss Alic Magil, Smith O’Brien, Miss Grace L. Weir and Fred Rycroff proved the entertainment tonight at the Arverne Hotel Casino where a fund-raiser was held for the benefit of the Hebrew Infant Asylum.

    1899(10th of Elul, 5659): Abraham Cohen Labatt, native of Charleston, SC who founded several Reform Congregations from South Carolina to Louisiana to California to Texas passed away in Galveston.

    1900: The Fourth Zionist Congress comes to an end in London.

    1902:  Several thousand persons greeted Samuel Gompers, President of the American Federation of Labor, at Mountain Lake Park, Maryland where he delivered an address before the Chautauqua Assembly on "Labor and Capital -- the Workman's Side of the Story."

    1903: Herzl stopped in Vilna where a tremendous ovation is awaiting him. Old Reb Shleimele lifted his hands over Herzl and pronounces the Priestly Benediction. After one day of rest in Altaussee, Herzl left for Basle and the Sixth Congress.

    1909 (29th Av): Rabbi Samuel “Shmuel” Salant Chief Ashkenazic Rabbi of Jerusalem, who was a leading Talmudist and a friend of Moses Montefiore passed away and was buried on the Mount of Olives.

    1913: Birthdate of Menachem Begin, Prime Minister of Israel and winner of the Nobel Peace Prize.  The life of Menachem Begin is too colorful and controversial to be covered in this brief guide.  His life became one of many contradictions.  Consider that this political heir to Jabotinsky, the man who waged violent war against the British in the last years of the Mandate was the man who signed the peace accord with Sadat.

    1915: It was reported today that Louis D. Brandeis and Nathan Straus will address the upcoming national meeting of Jews to be held at Cooper Union.

    1915: Among those who were reported today to have addressed the mass meeting aimed at raising money for Jews in the war zone were Dr. M.S. Margolies, President of the Union of Orthodox Rabbis of New York, Dr. Moses Hyamson the rabbi of Congregation Orach Cahim in New York and Rabbi Aaron Tietelbaum of Jerusalem.

    1915: A lynch mob from Marietta, GA arrived at the prison in Milledgeville.  After cutting the telephone wire emptying the gas from the prison’s automobiles and handcuffing the warden, they seized Leo Frank and drove away from the prison.

    1917: In the East New York section of Brooklyn Benjamin and Bertha Taubman gave birth to “Dorothy Taubman, who developed a method to help pianists strengthen their techniques and avoid repetitive strain injuries.” (As reported by Vivien Schweitzer)

    1918(8th of Elul, 5678): Sixty-eight year old Dr. Adolf Rosenzweig, the rabbi at the New Synagogue (Neue Synagoge) in Oranienburger Straße, Berlin passed away today and was buried under a gravestone on which was written "The law of truth was in his mouth, and unrighteousness was not found in his lips" (Malachi 2:6).

    1919: “The Protocols of the Elders of Zion” is distributed in Germany and the United States.

    1922: Birthdate of Herbert Vogel, the New York born postal clerk, who, along with his wife, became “fabled art collectors. (As reported by Douglas Marin)

    1922: “Theatrical release of ‘Up and at ‘Em’” a silent film which “marks the first Hollywood screenplay” by Lewis Mileston.”

    1923: Birthdate of Shimon Peres, Zionist leader who would hold numerous positions including President of the Jewish state.  There are as many views of Peres as there are candles on his birthday cake.

    1925: The Palestine Foundation Fund reported that it had spent $8,646,750 in the economic rebuilding of Palestine during its four years of existence, just concluded. More than 60 per cent of this sum has come from American Jews, according to the statement, the balance being collected from fifty-two other countries. $2,570,785 was expended on farming enterprises and $1,624,695 for Hebrew education. Samuel Untermeyer is President of the American branch of the fund.

    1926: Sephardic and Oriental Jews at a Zionist conference in Vienna had their delegates gather for the purpose of furthering Zionist interests among their peoples. 

     1929: Although warned by the Zionist Executive that the Arabs were preparing to attack the Jews of Jerusalem in massive riots, High Commissioner Sir John Chancellor refused to cut his vacation short, declaring that relations between the sides were improving. After Friday prayers on the day after the ninth of Av, two thousand Arabs attacked Jews praying at the Western Wall. One Jewish youth was stabbed in the back. The British Government refused to condemn the attack leading the Arabs again to believe that the British supported their riots.

    1930(22ndof Av, 5690): Gustave Frohman who along with his brothers Charles and Daniel worked together as theatrical producers and advanced men passed away.

    1933: Following a baseball game in Toronto, six hours of violence broke out between Harbord Playground, which was predominantly Jewish, and St. Peter's, a baseball team sponsored by a church at Bathurst and Bloor that became known as the Christie Pitts Riot.

    1933: In New York, more than seventy thousand workers joined a strike called by the ILGWU under the leadership of David Dubinsky

    1933: Three hundred Polish Jews including a group of 140 chalutzim leave for Palestine.

    1933: Local authorities in East Prussia inform Jews that they must call for their mail because Nazi postmen will be humiliated in delivering mail to Jews.

    1934: Birthdate of Dr. Daniel Norman Stern “a psychiatrist who increased the understanding of early human development by scrutinizing the most minute interactions between mothers and babies” (As reported by Douglas Martin)

    1936: The 1936 Olympics came to an end in Berlin.  Calls for boycotting the Hitler Olympics fell on deaf ears.

    1936: A lengthy review of Jewish Studies in Memory of George A. Kohut, 1874-1933, edited by Salo W. Baron and Alexander Marx was published today

    1936(28th of Av, 5696): An eight year old Jewish boy “was killed and nineteen Jews were injured by the explosion of a bomb thrown by an Arab from a train window into one of the principal streets of Tel Aviv today as the train was passing the city en route to Jaffa.” In the last three days ten Jews – 7 adults and 3 children – have been killed in Safed, Haifa and on the highway between Tel Aviv and Jerusalem.  Authorities fear that this latest in a series of attacks that began four months ago will finally provoke the Jewish population into acts of violence aimed at their attackers. 

    1936: In “Habimah in Emek,” published today Arthur Settel describes a recent performance of “Jew Suss” in Ain Taun a village in the Valley Of Jezrel on the northern plain of Palestine.

    1937: “Hammer Icons” published today tells the story of Armand and Victor Hammer, “two of the most startling characters in the U.S. art world.

    1937: The 20th World Zionist Congress comes to an end with a resounding vote of support for Dr. Chaim Weizmann who was re-elected as President with only 8 delegates voting against him

    1937: Talks are proceeding between Americans of Jewish and of Arab origin with a view to-exploring the possibilities of bringing peace between their peoples in Palestine by applying the American federal principle, it was revealed by Adil Arslan, one of the Arab High Committee's two delegates here.

    1938: Andrej Hlinka, a Catholic Priest, a leader of the Slovak National Party and “a symbol of Slovak fascism” passed away.  He opposed the democratic principles of Czechoslovakia and was an admirer of Hitler and Mussolini.  Although he died before the war, he was considered to be the spiritual “godfather” of Slovak nationalism that sent 70,000 Jews to the concentration camps, most of whom perished.

    1939: More than 600 Zionists from all parts of the world attend the twenty-first World Zionist Congress, which opens in Geneva today. The congress will last thirteen days.

    1939: Birthdate of American banjo player Eric Weissberg best known for “Dueling Banjos” which provided the musical background for “Deliverance.”

    1939(1st of Elul, 5699): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1940: The Vichy (France) government prohibited aliens from practicing as physicians, dentists or pharmacists.  This destroyed the livelihood for numerous Jews who had fled to France before the war and/or were not living in Vichy at the time of the French surrender to the Nazis.  The Jews living in Vichy France would learn that anti-Semitism was part and parcel of the Petain government.

    1940: Today the building at 770 Eastern Parkway in the Crown Heights section of Brooklyn, New York was purchased by Agudas Chassidei Chabad (the Chabad-Lubavitch community) to house the living quarters, study and office, Yeshivah, and synagogue of the sixth Lubavitcher Rebbe, Rabbi Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn who had arrived in New York (following his rescue from Nazi-occupied Warsaw) five months earlier [It would later serve as the headquarters of his son-in-law and successor, the Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem M. Schneerson, and become the vortex of Chabad-Lubavitch's global network of institutions of Jewish education and outreach.]

    1942: In the Warsaw Ghetto at today’s selection only two members of Władysław Szpilman’s family “were passed as fit to work” while “the rest of the family was taken to the Umschlagplatz.

    1942: Tonight, all the members of Władysław Szpilman’s family were shipped from Warsaw to Treblinka where they were murdered.

     1943:  Nazi troops enter the Jewish ghetto at Bialystok, Poland and over the next four days destroy the more than 30,000 Jews inside. Hundreds of Resistance fighters, led by Mordechai Tenenbaum-Tamaroff and Daniel Moszkowicz--who battle back with small arms, axes, and bayonets--are annihilated. Those who survive are transported to death camps, where 25,000 are killed

    1943: Inmates revolt at the slave-labor camp at Krychów, Poland.

    1943: During World War II, the keel for the SS Oscar Strauss was laid today.

    1943: Maurice H. Rindskopf was among the officers serving on ehe USS Drum, an American submarine as she left Brisbane on her seventh war patrol

    1943: The Spanish government stated that they would allow more repatriated Jews to come to Spain, "only if those in Spain already left." The obvious lack of sentiment on the part of Spain was apparent to the Joint Distribution Committee, which went ahead and placed a "priority" on emigration of "these so-called Sephardics." The Jews who did make it to Spain were not in any way treated like citizens.

     1944: A train arrived at Birkenau from Athens with 1,651 Jews from Rhodes and 94 from Kos. Upon arrival and then separation, Sidney Fahn would see his wife and young child for the last time. Only 151 of these Jews would survive.

    1945: Birthdate of director Bob Balaban

    1945: Today, “President Truman called…for the free and open settlement of Palestine by Jews to the point consistent with the maintenance of civil peace.”  For the first time he revealed that that U.S. government has informed the British who are attending the Big Three’s Berlin Conference. (The Big Three were the U.S., U.K. and U.S.S.R.)

    1945: Former Iowa Senator Guy Gillette who is President of the American League for a Free Palestine expressed his “disappointment at the inconclusive nature of the American position” about Jewish settlement “as outlined by” President Truman today.  According to Gillette, millions of displaced persons have been returned to their homes.  Yet, the Jews, who suffered the most, have been denied a clear solution to their plight.  The League of Nations had already had already designated that Palestine should be a free and independent nation.  According to Gillette, Palestine “is the historic national territory of the Hebrew people and their right to enter it should no longer be challenged.

    1945: “Dr. Abba Hillel Silver of Cleveland, Ohio and Rabbi Stephen S. Wise of New York were elected member of the executive board of the Jewish Agency for Palestine by the general council of the World Zion Conference today in London, UK.”

    1948: Birthdate of Patrick Balkany, the native of Neuilly-sur-Seine, who is a member of the National Assembly of France

    1948(11th of Av, 5708):  Fifty-five year old Harry Dexter White passed away today after having answered accusations before HUAC that he was a communist and a traitor.

    1948: Three months after the establishment of the State of Israel, an agreement was signed between the Bank Leumi and the temporary Government. The official charter appointing the Bank as the Government's financial agent was signed by Hoofien and the Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion. On that very day, the official bank notes of the new state, bearing the name of the Anglo-Palestine Bank and the signatures of Hoofien and Barth, were distributed. The Israeli pound becomes legal tender.

    1949: Herzl's remains are transferred to Jerusalem and reburied on Mount Herzl.

    1949: Netiv HaLamed-Heh ( נְתִיב הַל"ה‎‎,  Path of the 35) a kibbutz in central Israel located in the Valley of Elah, was established today by demobilized members of the Daled Company of the Palmach's Harel Brigade. It was initially named Peled (an acronym for Plugot Daled, lit. Daled Company) It was later renamed after the 35 Haganah soldiers killed in a convoy to resupply the Gush Etzion kibbutzim during the 1947–1948 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine (Lamed-Heh is 35 in Hebrew numerals).

    1950: “No Way Out” a film noir directed by Joseph L. Mankeiwicz with music by Alfred Newman was released in the United States today by 20th Century Fox.

    1951: “The Guy Who Came Back” featuring Zero Mostel was released in the United States today by 20th Century Fox.

    1956(9thof Elul, 5716): A squad of Fedayeen attacked Egged Bus 391 traveling from Tel-Aviv to Eilat murdering three soldiers and a female civilian passenger and wounding an additional three civilian passengers. (Editor’s Note – Fedayeen was the 1950’s name for the terrorists.  The names have changed over the decades but the deadly attacks remain the same.)

    1959(12th of Av, 5719): Harpsichordist and composer Wanda Landowska, who was credited with the 20th-century revival of harpsichord music passed away.

    1960: Cyprus gains its independence from the United Kingdom (Great Britain).  Jews have lived on the island of Cyprus since the days of the ancient Greeks.  In modern times, Cyprus provided a haven for Jews trying to escape from Hitler’s Europe.  After the war, the British set up internment camps on the island where they detained Jews trying to run the blockade and reach pre-Israel Palestine.  Israel established diplomatic relations with Cyprus and the Israeli embassy served as focal point for the small Cypriot Jewish community. 

    1961: Frank Robinson hit a homer off of Larry Sherry as the Jewish pitcher and the Dodgers came out on the short end of game with the Reds losing 6 to 0.

    1972: 1972: “Two British girls, unaware that the gramophone given them by 2 Arab acquaintances in Rome was booby trapped” carried it on board an El Al Flight bound for Lod” where it exploded in the luggage compartment causing “slight damage.” (Jewish Virtual Library)

    1973(18th of Av, 5733): Selman Waksman, Ukrainian-born American biochemist and recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine passed away.

    1976: In Washington, the national convention of Hadassah continued for a second day.

    1978: Pitcher Ross Baumgarten makes his major league debut with the White Sox.

    1978: In Moscow, the government continued its “anti-Zionist trials” today with Alexander Podrabinek as the prisoner in the dock.

    1984: Hadassah leader Bernice S. Tannenbaum brought “a five-member delegation” to the White House where they “met with President Ronald Reagan for 40 minutes over tea, coffee and cookies, to lobby against the resolution linking Zionism and racism.” Reagan agreed “to publicly repudiate” “the United Nations resolution defining Zionism as a ‘form of racism and racial discrimination’” and “that the U.S. delegation would walk out of” the U.N. Conference at Nairobi “if the Zionism-equals-racism resolution was included in the final conference declaration.”

    1985: Birthdate of Bensiyon Songavkar, the Indian born Jewish professional cricketer.

    1988(3rd of Elul, 5748): Auckland City Councillor Harold Goodman, the husband of Dame Barbara Goodman, passed away.

     1988: Ed Koch, the Jewish Mayor of New York City says he plans to wipe out street-corner windshield washers

    1988: The New York Times included reviews of Confessions of a Good Arab by Yoram Kaniuk, translated by Dalya Bilu and The Road to Ein Harod by Amos Kenan, translated by Anselm Hollo. 1993: The two men who kidnapped Harvey Weinstein, a formalwear manufacturer and chairman of Lord West Formal Wear are arrested in New York when the go to pick up the ransom.  Weinstein survives and lives to the ripe old age of 82.

    1993(29th of Av, 5753): Eighty-eight year old grand prix driver Rene Dreyfus passed away today.

    1994: The first ever Papal Nuncio to Israel presented his credentials in Jerusalem

    1995(20th Av, 5755): Sixty-six year old newspaper executive Stanley Asimov, the brother of Isaac Asimov passed away today.

    1996(1st of Elul, 5756): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1996: “The Fan” a film that takes a dark look at celebrity produced by Wendy Fineman, with music by Hans Zimmer and co-starring Ellen Barkin was released in the United States today by TriStar Pictures.

    1998: The New York Timesfeatured a review of The Father of Spin: Edward L. Bernays and the Birth of Public Relations by Larry Tye.  Bernays is the Austrian born Jew who was the nephew of Sigmund Freud.

    2000:A documentary film entitled “The Ballad of Rambling Jack Elliot” about the life of Brooklyn native Elliott Adnopoz the son of a middle class Jewish doctor who transformed himself into a musical iconoclast opens at the Film Forum.  The film was written and directed by his daughter Aiyana Elliot.

    2002(8th of Elul, 5762): Martin Deutsch the American physicist who studied positronium passed away. Positronium is a temporary state in the decay of the positron which is the antiparticle of the electron (and that is more than I really know about this.)

    2003: Idid Amin, the former President of Uganda who had been trained as a paratrooper by the Israelis and who provided a safe haven for the Palestinian hijackers in 1976 passed away today.

    2005: The evacuation of Gaza continued for a second day.

    2005:  The Jerusalem Post reported that Britain had played a major role in Israel’s development of a nuclear capability in the late 1950’s

    2006: As part of the cease-fire agreement, Israeli troops turn control of territory in Lebanon over to UNIFL.  At the same time, in one of those many ironies of history, the army of Lebanon returns to the southern part of the country for the first time since the 1970’s thanks to the attacks of the IDF on Hezbollah strongholds. 

    2007: Israel and the United States signed a Memorandum of Understanding on the new American defense package for Israel.

    2008: At Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, Bar Mitzvah of Daniel Finn.

    2008:Today, Itai Magidi will be the first Israeli to take part in the athletics competitions, running the 3000m Steeplechase qualifiers and all seven of Israel's sailors are scheduled to race at the Beijing Olympics.

    2008, Martha Nussbaum—University of Chicago professor and Boston Review contributing editor—became a bat mitzvah.

    2009: The Washington Post features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Rashiby Elie Wiesel.

    2009:The Massachusetts secretary of state’s office has rejected a proposed settlement by an investment firm to repay nearly $6 million to state investors who lost money in Bernard L. Madoff’s fraudulent investment scheme.

    2009: “Can Game Theory Predict When Iran Will Get the Bomb” published today describes Bruce Bueno de Mesquita’s answer to this question.

    2009: Led by his widow, Betty Levin, a true Ashish Chayil, the family and friends of Dr. Jacob Levin, of blessed memory, gather to dedicate a classroom named in his honor at North Suburban Beth El Synagogue.  Dr. Levin taught in this room for several years and his time as a Religious School teacher was but one example of his contributions to the Jewish community. He will always be missed.  He will always be remembered.

    2010:KlezKanada is scheduled to open in Lantier, Quebec.

    2010:An IDF soldier was lightly wounded today in clashes with Palestinian terrorists in the Gaza Strip.

    2010:A bomb squad checked out two unattended suitcases outside the consulate the Los Angeles Police Department said. Police cordoned off part of Wilshire Boulevard, where the consulate and other Jewish organizations are located, for several hours.

    2011: Today is the release date for The Gift of Rest: Rediscovering the Beauty of the Sabbathby Senator Joe Lieberman

    2011: The 2ndAvenue Deli reopened at its new location on 1st Avenue and 75th Street in the Upper East Side much to the joy of those who enjoy the best kosher meat knishes and tongue sandwiches imaginable.

    2011: Wendy Turman, JHSGW Curator/Archivist is scheduled to deliver “an illustrated lecture tracing the history of the Jewish community in the Washington area from the arrival of the first Jewish Washingtonian in 1795 to today, when the region's Jewish community has grown to more than 215,000 people.

    2011:Representatives from the National Union of Israeli Students and leaders of the tent city protest movement met this morning with former chief rabbi of Israel and current Head Rabbi of Tel Aviv Yisrael Lau, where they held a discussion on the ongoing social justice protests.

    2011:Israel's parliament interrupted its summer recess today to debate popular protests against high living costs but there seemed to be little sense of urgency among the smattering of lawmakers, some of whom tapped away on mobile phones and iPads

    2012: The Knesset is scheduled to convene in a special session during its summer recess to approve Avi Dichter as Home Front Defense Minister (As reported by the Jerusalem Post.)

     2012(28th of Av): Yarhtzeit of Larry Rosenstein – gone to soon but never forgotten

    2012: Bulgarian police released a computer-generated image and a fake driver's license photo of a man believed to be an accomplice in the bombing of an Israeli tour bus in Burgas that killed six.  (As reported by JTA)

    2012: “Shimon Peres, Israel’s president and elder statesman, spoke out against the prospect of a lone Israeli military strike on Iran’s nuclear facilities, a message that contradicts the hawkish, go-it-alone line emanating from the offices of Israel’s prime minister and defense minister.” (As reported by Isabel Kirshner)

    2012: Police resumed searching for the remains of Grad rockets in the desert outside Eilat this morning, hours after two loud blasts rocked the resort town.

    2013: In Montgomery, AL, the Capri Community Film Society is scheduled to show “Fill the Void,” a cinematic treatment of the life of a Chasidic family from Tel Aviv.

    2013: Amir Levy is scheduled to perform at the New York International Fringe Festival.

    2013: In Herndon, VA, Congregation Beth Emeth is scheduled to host a special Shabbat Community BBQ where everybody can meet the new Rabbi – Michelle Goldsmith.

    2013: In “Israel Keeps a Wary Eye on Turmoil in Egypt” published today, Isabel Kershner describes the Jewish state’s reaction to the violence going on within its neighbor with which it signed a peace treaty that has held for more than three decades.

    2014: In Mandeville, LA, the Northshore Jewish Congregation (NJC) is scheduled to host “Havdalah on the River” to help welcome Rabbi Deborah Zecher who will be leading the congregation’s High Holiday Services.

    2014: The Historic 6th& I Synagogue is scheduled to host #NoFilter featuring Grace Helbig, Hannah Hart and Mamrie Hart

    2014: “A Hamas official today threatened Israel with a prolonged war of attrition if the group’s terms for a permanent ceasefire agreement, currently being negotiated in indirect talks in Cairo, are not met.” (As reported by Times of Israel)

    2014: Following a declaration by Fatah’s military wing to “increase its terror attacks against Israeli citizens” tonight Arab terrorists threw a Molotov cocktail at an Israeli car near Bethlhem inflicting first and second degree burns on the 40 year old driver who was also hit by stones.(As reported byUzi Baruch and Ari Yashar)

    2014: “Over ten thousand people assembled in Tel Aviv’s Rabin Square tonight for the largest pro-peace rally the country has seen since the start of the war in Gaza in early July.”

    2014: By today, the 101st anniversary of the birth of Menachem Begin, the Israel State Archives will have published “a collection of documents on the life the former Prime Minister best known as the leader of the Irgun and the signatory for the 1973 peace accords with Egypt.

    2015: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Patricia Drucker’sSophie and the Sibyl in which “a novelist imagines an incident that inspired George Eliot’s Daniel Derondawhich portrayed the concepts of what would become Zionism in a positive light and Alice Hoffman’s The Marriage of Opposites, “a novel inspired by the painter Camille Pissarro’s parents.”

    2015: UK Jewish Film which “aims to develop a culture where Jewish and Israeli film is recognised and enjoyed by the widest possible audience, and to bring Jewish related film to the heart of British culture” is scheduled to host a screening of “She’s Funny That Way.”

    2015: In Kiryas Joel, the school year is scheduled to begin for the children whose parents have signed an affidavit stating “We the parents are confirming in writing that our cellphones/smartphones are in accordance to the rules of the community and yeshiva, according to the guidance of our holy grand rabbi and the judge. We also confirm that we do not possess in our home another cellphone/smartphone except for the ones mentioned above.” (A reported by Brian Shaefer)

    2015: The Illinois Holocaust & Education Center is scheduled to present “Soviet Composers Discovering A Jewish Sound” featuring violinist David Lisker, pianist Ani Gogovo and cellist Richard Hirschl.

    2015: The Jewish Museum of Maryland is scheduled to show “An American Tail,” the classic animation that “follows the story of Fievel a young Russian mouse, who while emigrating to the United States, gets separated from his family and must relocate them while trying to survive in a new country.”

    2015(1st of Elul, 5775): Rosh Chodesh Elul



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    August 17

    986: During the days of the First Bulgarian Empire, the army of Emperor Samuil of Bulgaria and his brother defeat the Byzantines led by Basil II.  The Bulgarian Empire had provided a haven for Jews escaping from the Byzantine Army so the Bulgarian victory was good news for the Jews. 

    1236: Pope Gregory IX issued a list of charges against Emperor Frederick II that included a reference to “the matter of Jewish communities of which certain churches were deprived.” (This would appear to be a clash over who “owned the Jews” which would determine who could tax them)

    1592: The pope prohibited Jews from admitting Christians into their synagogues.

    1655: In a patent dated today, Antonio Fernandez Carvajal, a Portuguese-Jewish merchant, and his two sons were granted citizenship as English subjects.  This made them the first naturalized English Jews.

    1655: Portuguese born merchant Antonio Fernandez Carvajal and his sons were officially granted denizhenship as English subjects. (As reported by Joseph Jacobs)   Official granting of citizenship of Jews is one that would be debated in England for the next two centuries

    1665: The small colony of Surinam recently occupied by the English gave full rights to the Jews (mostly Spanish and Portuguese refugees) to practice Judaism and run their own affairs. This remarkably liberal charter was transferred over to the Dutch when they conquered the colony. They used it as a means of encouraging the Jews to remain.

    1629: Birthdate of King John III of Poland.  King John ruled from 1674 until his death in 1696. He ruled in a period when Poland was disintegrating under rebellions from the Ukraine and attacks from Sweden. Like previous Polish monarchs, King John was reasonably well disposed towards his Jewish subjects since he saw them as a valuable economic asset.  But as Poland drifted into chaos his views were increasingly unpopular among the nobles and the Catholic clergy. Denizenship confirmed a limited amount of English rights on foreign born residence.

    1692: Jews were forbidden by law to work as peddlers in Berlin.

    1740: Beginning of the Papacy of Benedict XIV who authored “Singulari noblis consoldtioni on the topic Christians and Jews Marrying”, Probe te meminesse which set “down the rules for baptizing Jewish children,” Elapso proxime anno which dealt with Jewish heresy despite the fact that “a heretic had to be a Christian to commit the sin” and Beatus Adreas which gave credence to a three hundred year old blood libel involving Andreas Von Rinn.

    1762: The Council of 4 Countries (semi-autonomous congress of Polish Jewry) met for the last time. It functioned for almost 200 years before the Polish government ordered its dissolution.

    1786: Frederick II (The Great) died.  Frederick had enough problems with Jews living in Prussia but at least he could exploit them for financial gain. He did keep them at “arm’s length” as can been seen when he overturned the vote that would have admitted Moses Mendelssohn to the Berlin of Academy of Science. After the partition of Poland, he inherited a Jewish population that was too impoverished to offer him gain.  While he found it impractical to expel them from their Polish homes, he would not allow them to move into Prussia, effectively quarantining these “beggar Jews.”  In 1780, he wrote of the Jews that they were “‘usurious vermin who multiply so infamously.’”

    Frederick followed in the footsteps by retaining Veitel-Heine Ephraim as court jeweler and mint master. Born in 1703, he was charged by sum of debasing the country’s currency.  Any truth to that charge was covered up when Frederick ordered an end to any investigations into the matter.  He married Elke Fraenkel which made him the brother-in-law of David Frankel, who was elected rabbi of Berlin in 1743.  

    1787: The Jews of Budapest, Hungary, received permission from the government to conduct religious services in private homes provided no rabbi officiated.

    1790:  President George Washington visits Newport, Rhode Island, where he is given “the address of the ‘Hebrew Congregation of Newport’” that expressed their appreciation for the rights and liberties that the Jews enjoyed in the United States.  It was in response to this document, that Washington wrote his famous reply guaranteeing the Jews religious liberty and promising them that they would be able to sit under their own vine and fig tree and none would make them afraid.

    1790: Moses Seixas, the warden of Congregation Kahal Kadosh Yeshuat Israel, better known as the Hebrew Congregation of Newport, Rhode Island, penned an epistle to George Washington, welcoming the newly elected first president of the United States on his visit to that city. Newport had suffered greatly during the Revolutionary War. Invaded and occupied by the British and blockaded by the American navy, hundreds of residents fled, and many of those who remained were Tories. After the British defeat, the Tories fled in turn. Newport’s nineteenth-century economy never recovered from these interruptions and dislocations. Washington’s visit to Newport was largely ceremonial—part of a goodwill tour Washington was making on behalf of the new national government created by the adoption of the Constitution in 1787. Newport had historically been a good home to its Jewish residents, who numbered approximately 300 at the time of Washington’s visit. The Newport Christian community’s acceptance of Jewish worship was exemplary, although individual Jews such as Aaron Lopez and Isaac Elizer were unable to obtain full political equality as citizens of Rhode Island. The Jews of Newport looked to the new national government, and particularly to the enlightened president of the United States, to remove the last of the barriers to religious liberty and civil equality confronting American Jewry. Moses Seixas’s letter on behalf of the congregation – he described them as “the children of the Stock of Abraham” – expressed the Jewish community’s esteem for President Washington and joined “with our fellow citizens in welcoming [him] to New Port.” The congregation expressed its pleasure that the God of Israel, who had protected King David, had also protected General Washington, and that the same spirit which resided in the bosom of Daniel and allowed him to govern over the “Babylonish Empire” now rested upon Washington. While the rest of world Jewry lived under the rule of monarchs, potentates and despots, as American citizens the members of the congregation were part of a great experiment: a government “erected by the Majesty of the People,” to which they could look to ensure their “invaluable rights as free citizens.” Seixas expressed his vision of an American government in words that have become a part of the national lexicon. He beheld in the United States “a Government which to bigotry gives no sanction, to persecution no assistance—but generously affording to All liberty of conscience, and immunities of citizenship: - deeming every one, of whatever nation, tongue or language equal parts of the great Governmental Machine: – This so ample and extensive federal union whose basis is Philanthropy, mutual confidence, and public virtue, we cannot but acknowledge to be the work of the Great God, who ruleth the Armies of Heaven, and among the Inhabitants of the Earth, doing whatsoever seemeth [to Him] good.” Seixas closed his letter to the president by asking God to send the “Angel who conducted our forefathers through the wilderness into the promised land [to] conduct [Washington] through all the difficulties and dangers of this mortal life.” He told Washington of his hope that “when like Joshua full of days, and full of honour, you are gathered to your Fathers, may you be admitted into the Heavenly Paradise to partake of the water of life, and the tree of immortality.”

    Not surprisingly, it is Washington’s response, rather than Seixas’s epistle, which is best remembered and most frequently reprinted. Washington began by thanking the congregation for its good wishes and rejoicing that the days of hardship caused by the war were replaced by days of prosperity. Washington’s concluding paragraph perfectly expresses the ideal relationship among the government, its individual citizens and religious groups:

    “May the Children of the Stock of Abraham, who dwell in this land, continue to merit and enjoy the good will of the other Inhabitants; while everyone shall sit under his own vine and fig tree, and there shall be none to make him afraid. May the father of all mercies scatter light and not darkness in our paths, and make us all in our several vocations useful here, and in his own due time and way everlastingly happy.”

    Washington’s letter, a foundation stone of American religious liberty and the principle of separation between church and state, is signed, simply, “G. Washington.” Each year, Newport’s Congregation Kahal Kadosh Yeshuat Israel, now known as the Touro Synagogue, re-reads Washington’s letter in a public ceremony.

    1791:Birthdate of Richard Lalor Sheil the Irish politician, writer and orator who spoke out in favor of allowing Jews to sit in Parliament.

    1807: Robert Fulton's first American steamboat, the Clermont left New York City for Albany, New York on the Hudson River, inaugurating the first commercial steamboat service in the world. The copper for the boilers in the Clermont, and many of Fulton’s other ships was supplied a Sephardic Jew named Harmon Hendricks.

    1863: During the Civil War, Isaac Hyneman, was permanently assigned to the United States Signal Corps.  During the next three years he would see combat in such memorable battles as Chancellorsville, Gettysburg and the Wilderness Campaign before being at Appomattox Court House where the war ended.

    1871:  A dispatch datelined Berlin reported that cases of cholera in Suwalki, Poland which has a population of 60,000 half of whom are Jews are decreasing. 

    1872: “The Tribune and the Hebrew Voters” published today reported that the New York Tribune, the newspaper owned by Presidential candidate Horace Greeley, is making “frantic”, “clumsy” attempts to overcome the impact of anti-Semitic story told by James Mitchell Ashley, the former governor of Montana at public meeting with Mr. Greely sitting at his elbow.

    1875: Baron George de Worms and Louisa de Samuel gave birth to their third child and only daughter Henrietta Emmy Louisa Amelia de Worms.

    1878:  A Modern Hebrew Poet: the Life and Writings of Moses Chaim Luzzato by A.S. Isaacs was reviewed today in a column styled “A Jewish Singer.” Luzatto was an Italian Rabbi known as the RaMCHal.

    1879: In Warsaw, Aaron David Gelbfisz, a peddler, and his wife, Hannah Reban (née Jarecka) gave birth to Szmuel Gelbfisz (Samuel Goldfish) who gained family as movie mogul Samuel Goldwyn.

    1879: It was reported today that all places of business in White Plains, NY, were closed last Sunday as result of the conviction of a Jew named Adolphe D. Pollock for having previously kept his business open on Sunday.  Barber shops were the only business exempted from the closing ordinance.

    1879: An editorial that originally appeared in the Jewish Messenger which was reprinted today said there was something wrong with the laws in White Plains if the government could not find a way to punish Jews who violate “their own and the general Sabbath by transacting business.”  The Messenger has “no sympathy for the hypocrite and money grabber who breaks his own Sabbath, yet claims the privilege of selling goods on Sunday because…he is a Jew.”  On the other hand, there should be some kind of allowance made for the Jew who closes his business on Saturday that would allow him to conduct business on Sunday as long as he “is not conspicuous.

    1880: “The Turk and the Greek” published today examined the current conditions in the Balkans including French Prime Minister Michael Waddington’s decision to champion the cause of the Rumanian Jews at the Congress of Berlin despite the counsel from “a few intelligent Jewish politicians” for France to abstain from involvement in “matters in no way affecting French interests.”

    1881: It was reported today that the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society is planning to host another excursion for the poor children of the Lower East Side.

    1882: It was reported today that Samuel Obreight has been declared sane by the state Supreme Court.  Obreight’s family had had him declared insane and institutionalized because he had married a Christian girl. The judge ruled that the family’s “wounded sectarian pride” should not be the basis for such a charge. The judge said that the marriage was one of the outcomes of the religious liberty enjoyed in this country since the Revolution.

    1883: Nathan Gottgetren, alias Nicholas Gilbert, a 35 year old Jew was brought back to New York by two detectives from Putnam County. A married man and confidential bookkeeper, he has been arrested on charges of forgery.

    1883: This afternoon, the members of Shaarai Berocho (Gates of Blessing) dedicated their new facility located on East 45th Street in New York.  The congregation was founded in 1858 under the leadership of Rabbi Elias Epstein.

    1883: It was reported today that the Jewish World of London has announced “that Count Tolstoi, the Russian Minister of the Interior, has ordered the enforcement of the decree forbidding Jewish manufacturers from employing Christian workmen.”

    1883: It was reported today that “a British Jew, representing Raphael Tuck & Sons,” a London business firm has been expelled from Russia despite having a “proper British passport.”

    1884: It was reported today that a mobbed attacked seven Jews were killed and an untold number injured by a mob at Dombrovitz, Russia.

    1885: It was reported today that G.A. Heap, the U.S. Consul General in Constantinople has sent a second, more strongly worded protest to the Turkish government  protesting the expulsion of Americans from Jerusalem because they were Jews.  Heap pointed out that the expulsions are in violation of a treaty between the two nations and that he is referring the matter to Washington.

    1885: The Book of Psalms translated from the Hebrew and edited by John G. Lansing is among the tomes appearing on today’s “New Books” list

    1885: It was reported today that Rabbi Ash will continue serving as the Rabbi of Beth Hamedrash Hagadol after its move into new facility on Norfolk Street. Ash had urged the congregation to buy the building from the Methodists at a cost of $45,000 and to spend the $10,000 necessary to prepare the inside for use by the Jews.

    1885: In a speech given to a Jewish literary society whose members were 16, 17 and 18 year old Jewish boys, it was reported that G.A. Ettinger that the recently deceased Sir Moses Montefiore had sought “to free his people from the shackles of prejudice and the evils of persecution” while the recently deceased General U.S. Grant (and former President of the U.S.) had “labored to free 4,000,000 human beings from the shackles of slavery.” As if to dispel any charges past, present or future that Grant was an anti-Semite, a bevy of speakers including Julius Levy, Eugene N. Levy and William Grossman, echoed Ettinger’s sentiments about the recently deceased Giant of Judaism and the General who had saved the Union.

    1886: “The Jews of Italy” using information that has appeared in the Lunario Israelitico of Leghorn and the London Times provides a snapshot of Jewish society in the middle of the 19th century.  There are approximately 45,000 Jews living in the country which means they comprise about 1 per cent of Europe’s Jewish population.  Rome has the largest Jewish population – 5,600.  Mantua now has the leading rabbinical school while Padua is home “to the greatest Hebrew scholar in Italy, Rabbi Ende Lolli…)

    1887: It was reported today that Jonas Heller, who passed away in March, bequeathed gifts of $2,500 to Mount Sinai, the Hebrew Orphan Asylum, the United Hebrew Charities, the Montefiore Home for Chronic Invalids and the Hebrew Technical Institute. (The list of recipients provides a snapshot of major Jewish institutions in post-Civil War New York City)

    1887: “Julius Weisbaden, a miser and monomaniac, was found dying in his room” today “and was taken to Bellevue Hospital”

    1887: Temple Emanuel contributed $264 to the Union of American Hebrew Congregations.

    1888: In a case of Jew versus Jew, Samuel Gompers has testified before Congressman Ford’s Immigration Committee.  Gompers, an English born Jew who professed his loyalty to his adopted country said that the “importation” of Polish and Russian Jews had depressed the wages of cigar-makers.  Gompers said that he had no problem with Jews being brought to the United States for humanitarian reasons but he did have a problem with the current process which was designed to depress wages.  Gompers then went on to decry the conditions in the cigar industry where all workers, regardless of their origins, were exploited by the owners. (The latter information was surely not well received by Congressman Ford)

    1890: It was reported today that “Michael Gernsheim & Co, the bankers, have made a new move in their fight against an assessment on the stockholders under the reorganization scheme of the Houston and Texas Central Railway Company.”

    1890: “King of the British Gypsies” published today included information on the origins of the gypsies who, according to some, were “the mixed multitude” that went out of Egypt during the Exodus. According to Ernst Hengstenberg since there is no mention of them during the wanderings in the wilderness or after the entrance into Canaan they must have left the Israelites shortly after the crossing at the Sea of Reeds.

    1890: Dr. Bernard Drachman is scheduled to deliver a lecture on “Judaism and Ethics” at Cooper Union which is the seventh in a series of public lectures sponsored by the Jewish Theological Seminary.

    1890: “Precious Stones” published today compared the “frequent and enthusiastic” references to precious stones in Hebrew literature” with the “paucity of allusion to them in…Greek literature” which the author attributed to the Jewish view of these stones as objects to be used in the creation of art while the Greeks saw them, like all other objects, as potential gods.

    1890: “Czar and Kaiser To Meet” published today described the upcoming meeting between the two monarchs during which the condition of Russia’s Jews will be discussed.  Baron Max von Oppenheim who has the backing of the “Jewish financial houses in Germany and Austria” has expressed his concerns as have the Rothchilds who have obtained “the assurance…that the existing condition of the Russian Jews would not be made worse.”

    1891: “He Swindled Undertakers” published today described the anger that a number of New York undertakers feel toward a young Jewish man who has been soliciting ads from them for the Jewish Times.  First he tells them about complaints in the community about their services and then tells them that advertising in the paper will defuse the anger since most Jews have a very high opinion of the Jewish Times.

    1891: The American Hebrew mourns the recent deaths of poet James Russell Lowell and New York Timesman, George Jones.

    1891: “Angry Jews In Boston” published today described the disgust the Jews felt when they came to take possession of the Old Church of the Messiah, which they planned to convert into a synagogue.  The Jews were so repelled by the damage that the Episcopalians had done to the building that they were willing to forfeit their $500 deposit.

    1891(13th of Av, 5651): Eighty-two year old Louis Goodheim, who had been living at the Hebrew Home since 1884 took his own life.  Goodheim, who had once been a successful merchant in London, left a note thanking the staff for its kindness.  He had told his brother that he was in such agony that if he had had a gun he would have shot himself

    1891: “The Russian Refugees” published today described the problems encountered by Jewish colonists who have been settled in New Jersey under the auspices of the Baron Hirsch Fund.

    1893: As the unemployment rate reached 12% and continued to rise during the depression brought on by the Panic of 1893, approximately 5,000 unemployed Jews gathered for a peaceful mass meeting at Walhalla Hall turned violent as the worker vented their frustrations when jobs that were advertised turned out to be nonexistent.

    1893: “One of the Czar’s Victims” published today described the arrival of Vladimir Korlenko, who had spent six years in Siberian exile and who has two sympathetic novels on “the Jewish question in Russia, in New York where he is staying at the Astor House.

    1895: In two days of meetings, Herzl meets Rabbi Moritz Güdemann and Berlin philanthropist Heinrich Meyer-Cohn in München. Güdemann was an Austrian born Rabbi who was sympathetic to the Zionist cause but was concerned about the tendency to downplay the religious component of re-settling the land.  Herzl looked to Gudemann to introduce him to the Rothschilds.

    1895: Based on information that first appeared in The London Daily News it was reported today that there are 571, 300 people living in Warsaw of whom 190,300 are Jews.

    1896: Birthdate of Lotte Jacobi the Prussian-born photographer whose subjects included Albert Einstein, Marc Chagall and Alfred Stieglitz. She left Germany and settled in New York in September, 1935 “as persecution against Jews increased.”

    1896: Birthdate of Johannes Kleiman, the Dutch business associate of Otto Frank who was arrested by the Gestapo for his role in hiding the famous Frank family.

    1896: In Clinton Township, NJ. Mrs. Paul Wissen found a body in the barnyard who “had a Hebraic cast to his features” but whom could not be positively identified.

    1897: At Rishon Lezion, Reveivel Miransky one of the Bilium who founded Rishon Lezion and his wife gave birth to Joshua Myron. During World War I, Mr. Myron was a Sergeant in “the camel-mounted Zionist brigade that fought with Vladimir Jabotinsky against Turkey in Palestine.”  This unit was part of the Jewish Brigade that was part of the British Army.  When Mr. Myron passed away in 2000, at the age of 102, he was one of the last surviving members of this force that helped lay the groundwork for the creation of the state of Israel and the I.D.F.

    1898:The first conference of Russian Zionists is held secretly in Warsaw. Warsaw, like much of Poland was part of the Russian Empire. During the conference, Achad Ha-Am discussed his differences with Theodor Herzl. Achad Ha-Am was the pen name of Asher Hirsch Ginsberg one of the most famous Jewish intellectuals of the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century.  Unlike Herzl who believed in a political, semi-assimilationist solution to the creation of Jewish state, Achad Ha-Am saw the Jewish home as being “a national spiritual center.” Ginsberg was area of the practical challenges that the Jewish people faced.  For example at the time of Kishinev Pogroms, he called for Jews to take arms in their own defense.  While Herzl’s dream of a Jewish state has been realized, the Jewish people are still wrestling with the creation of a Jewish homeland that encompasses Jewish values from tradition to the world of the Haskalah.

    1898: As of today 715 of the 865 children staying at the Hebrew Orphan Asylum have been taken from the building at 138th Street and Amsterdam Avenue and moved to the facility at Rockaway as officials deal with the epidemic of dysentery.

    1899: Pennsylvania Congressman Marriott Brozzius announced the appointment of Frank Eshelman as a cadet at the U.S. Military Academy following the resignation of Rigmund Albert, a young Jew, from West Point.

    1899: The Court Martial of Captain Alfred Dreyfus resumed today with his attorney making General Roget “squirm in his seat” as he cross-examined him about the Esterhazy’s letters.

    1899: “Shot Down By Anti-Semite” published today described the shooting of a locksmith named Bonnet in Paris by an unknown assailant who called out “He looks like one of those dirty Jews” before firing his weapon.

    1899: “Is A Warm Champion of Dreyfus” published today described Anton Weiss of Pine Bluff, AR admiration for and personal friendship with Captain Dreyfus.  Weis had met Dreyfus one was working for the Transatlantic Steamship Line at Harve France where Dreyfus was serving with an artillery unit. There were only a few Jews in the city and no house of worship.  Dreyfus “who was greatly respected” because “of his extensive knowledge” of Jewish ritual served as “the rabbi’ and led the services.”

    1900: During the siege of Peking which ended today and was part of the Boxer Rebellion U.S.M.C. Private William Zion “distinguished himself in the presence of the enemy” with such bravery that he earned the Congressional Medal of Honor.

    1903: Birthdate of Abram Chasins “an American composer, pianist, piano teacher, lecturer, musicologist, music broadcaster, radio executive and author.”

    1908: Birthdate of Felix Eliezer Bergmann the native of Frankfurt who earned his degrees from the University of Berlin 1933 before he made Aliyah where became Chairman of Pharmacology at the Hebrew University.

    1911: Birthdate of Mikhail Moiseyevich Botvinnik Jewish Russian International Grandmaster and long-time World Champion of chess.  He passed away in 1995.

    1911: In Russia, arrests continue in Kiev in connection with charges of blood libel.

    1903: In Russia, “Isaac Abramovich Piatigorsky, a frustrated violinist” and his wife Basya Maria Amshislavska gave birth to cellist Gregor Piatigorsky a product of the Imperial Conservatory in Moscow who came to the United States in 1929.

    1915: In Philadelphia, Jewish academic Max Leopold Margolis and his wife Evelyn Kate Aronson gave birth to Max Leopold Margolis

    1915(7th of Elul, 5675): Leo Frank was lynched after having been wrongfully convicted of raping 12 year old in Georgia. “Frank, the manager of a pencil factory in Atlanta, Georgia, was accused of raping and murdering an employee, thirteen-year-old Mary Phagan. Frank was convicted, despite evidence incriminating a janitor at the factory, Jim Conley. The prosecution claimed that Conley only helped Frank dispose of the body, in return for $200. After the trial, further evidence came to light calling Frank's guilt into question. The governor commuted his death sentence to life imprisonment, but Frank was then lynched. Frank's trial was sensationalized in the media, which promoted fantastic stories about orgies and rape at the factory. Populist politician and publisher Tom Watson skillfully manipulated the story in order to inflame public opinion, and succeeded in using it to build support for the creation of a new Ku Klux Klan, the original organization having been dormant since Reconstruction due to federal action; a second Klan was founded in 1915 by a group calling itself the Knights of Mary Phagan. Frank's lynching turned the spotlight on anti-Semitism in the United States and led to the founding of the Anti-Defamation League.”

    1915: “Louis Marshall who argued the Frank case before the United States Supreme Court, said tonight that Tom Watson, editor of The Jeffersonian and at one time candidate for President on the Populist ticket was responsible for the lynching of Leo M. Frank.”

    1915: Nathan Straus who was raised in Georgia said tonight that “the lynching” of Leo Frank “has brought disgrace to Georgia and the whole country” and that the only way for the state to redeem itself was to bring the killers to justice.

    1915: “On the first page of the Jeffersonian, a weekly paper edited by Thomas E. Watson which was issued tonight appears the following” ‘A Vigilance Committee redeems Georgia and carries out the sentence of the law on the Jew who raped and murdered the little Gentile girl, Mary Phagan.’”

    1917: A tremendous fire swept through the Jewish quarter of Salonica leaving 50,000 Jews homeless. Thirty-two synagogues and fifty Jewish schools were destroyed. The Jews suffered 90% damage to everything they owned.

    1917: Vilmos Vázsonyi completed his term of Minister of Justice of Hungary.

    1918: In Moscow, followers of Lenin “proclaim Jews as a danger to the masses.”

    1918: In Petrograd, “in a demonstration against the Jews,” “anti-Semites among the revolutionaries” tore “up the banner of the ‘Bund.’”

    1918: Bolshevik revolutionary leader Moisei Uritsky was assassinated by fellow Jew Leonid Kanegeiser.  Uritsky, like many Bolsheviks traveled a tortuous path from his early idealism.  At the time of his death, he was head the Petrograd Cheka.  The Cheka were the secret police and over time became much for efficient and showed greater cruelty that did those who had served the Czar.

    1920: Birthdate of photographer Lida Moser.

    1921: In Tübingen, Germany, Jewish scholars Victor Ehrenberg and Eva Dorothea Sommer gave birth to Sir Geoffrey Rudolph Elton the British historian “who specialized in the Tudor Period.”

    1923: In the Bronx Samuel and Sonya Grossberg gave birth to Yitzroch Loiza Grossberg who gained fame as pop-artist Larry Rivers.

    1924: In Zholkiew (which was in Poland at that time) Shlomo and Hayyah Gittel Schachter gave birth to Meshullam Zalman Schachter whom some consider to be “the spiritual father of the Jewish Renewal movement.” (As reported by Paul Vitello)

    1927: Birthdate of Bernard Cornfield, the Turkish born son of a Romanian-Jewish actor “who became one of the most flamboyant and controversial figures ever to stride through the American mutual fund industry.”  (As reported by Diana B. Henriques)

    1929(11th of Av, 5689): Shabbat Nachamu

    1929(11th of Av, 5689): Following yesterday’s attack on Jews at the Wailing Wall, Arabs attack Jews in Jerusalem on Shabbat. A young Sephardic Jew named Abraham Mizrachi was mortally wounded when he was stabbed at the Maccabi grounds near Mea Shearim, in the Bukharan Quarter’

    1933: In Tel Aviv,The British High Commissioner and other officials participate in the laying of the cornerstone for the Levant Fair which is to be held here in 1934.

    1933: “The Private Life of Henry VII” directed and co-produced by Alexander Korda and featuring Binnie Barnes as “Catherine Howard” was released today in the United Kingdom.

    1933:In Saarbrucken, a decision by a court in Berlin stating that a Jew doing business in Germany cannot hold the State responsible for negligence in failing to maintain order and to afford him protection is printed in the Freiheit

    1936(29th of Av, 5696): Two Jewish nurses were killed today by Arab snipers in Jaffa.

    1937: As Japanese troops moved through Shanghai, the Shanghai Volunteer Corps including its Jewish Company under the command of Major Noel S. Jacobs was activated for a three month tour of duty.

    1937: In Geneva, Mr. Ormsby-Gore, the British Colonial Secretary, told the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations that Great Britain definitely considered that she should no longer maintain the Mandate of Palestine, if it has to be applied by violence. He insisted that the whole basis of the Palestine Mandate should be changed. Of course these pious sentiments did not keep the British from holding on to Palestine for another ten years, denying the establishment of a Jewish state and enforcing pro-Arab immigration policies that were a death sentence to the Jews of Europe.

    1937: Forty-one congressmen requested that Cordell Hull, the US Secretary of State, advise the British that they were not carrying out the intentions and promises of the Balfour Declaration and of the Palestine Mandate.

    1937: While the diplomats debated in Geneva, the Arab terror continued. A long list of sporadic shooting incidents, the wounding of a police agent in Ein Kerem, a bomb explosion in Tiberias and many robberies, all within one week, was announced by the Palestine Police.

    1937: At the closing session of the historic, 20th Zionist Congress held in Zurich, Dr. Chaim Weizmann was re-elected the President of the World Zionist Organization.

    1937: The New York Times reports that “A remarkable document, purporting to give a confidential report by Dr. Chaim Weizmann, Zionist president, of a conversation he had in London with William G. A. Ormsby-Gore, British Colonial Secretary, on a plan for the partition of Palestine, has been published by The Jewish Chronicle here.”

    1938(20th of Av, 5698): Eight-nine year old Adolph Lewisohn, the German-born American banker and philanthropist who was known as a “copper king” because of his mining success, passed away.

    1938(20th of Av, 5698): Arab violence continued to spread and grow more virulent. Early this morning, the body of Meyer Gutwird a 21 year old rabbinical student “who used to devote virtually of his time to religious studies and was often seen early in the morning at the Wailing Wall reading a holy” was found in Jerusalem.  Gutwird had been stoned to death and then beaten with an iron rod.  A bomb was thrown at a taxicab in Jaffa and Judah Mosseri, a Yemenite Jew, was wounded in both legs when shots were on the border between Jaffa and Tel Aviv.  Arab terrorist did not limit their activities to attacking Jews.  They attacked eight Arab telephone linemen whom they robbed before they released them.

    1939: The 85,000 Jews living in Slovakia were terrified of being robbed and pillaged by the non-Jews, who were encouraged by the Germans.

    1939: The New York City premiere of “The Wizard of Oz” produced by Mervyn LeRoy with Oscar winning music by Harold Arlen and Yip Harburg was held at Lowe’s Capitol Theatre

    1940: “The Prefecture of Haute-Garonne issued Leon Blum a new identification card, which indicated that his hair and mustache were grey, his nose “straight,” and his complexion “clear.”

    1941(24th of Av, 5701): Three men in Khmelnik, Ukraine, were gathered together and shot dead. The deaths were justified by Einsatzkommando as retaliation for Jewish resistance. Considering how the SS death squads worked, it is surprising that they felt the need to offer an excuse for killing more Jews.

    1942(24th of Av, 5701): The Nazis gassed 341 French-Jewish children from the ages of two to ten, as well as 323 girls up to the age of 16, at Auschwitz. Two of the victims are Suzanne Perl, seven, and her sister Micheline, three.

    1942: Over the next 48 hours the Nazis murdered 2500 Jews from Drogobych, Ukraine, at the Belzec death camp.

    1943: “A survivor from Sabinov in Slovakia, who has remained anonymous, wrote a report in which he described his selection in Sobibór, together with approximately one hundred men and fifty women, upon arrival.”

    1943: The latest deportation continued at Bialystok; The Nazis selection 1,200 children for transport to Theresienstadt. Four weeks later, those children still alive were sent to Birkenau where all of them met the fate of death. Fifty-three adults volunteered to join them.\
    1943: Some 1200 children are taken from the Jewish ghetto at Bialystok, Poland, to Theresienstadt, Czechoslovakia, and later to Auschwitz, where they will be killed.

    1944: Nicholas Winton, the Englishman who rescued almost 700 Jewish children from Nazi occupied Czechoslovakia was promoted to the rank of pilot officer in the RAF.

    1944: Premiere of “Cry of the Werewolf” directed by Henry Levin.

    1944: Birthdate of Larry Ellison, the co-founder and CEO of Oracle.

    1944: The last deportation from Drancy, France, leaves for Buchenwald bearing 51 Jews. Once again we have a reminder of how critical the Final Solution was to the Germans and their allies.  This deportation took place as the Allies were liberating Paris.  While the Germans were preparing to pull out and leave the French capital to the liberators, they had to ship one more load of Jews to their death. 

    1945: Animal Farm by George Orwell is first published by Fredric Warburg both of whose parents were Jewish.

    1945: It was reported today that the meeting between representatives of the World Zionist Conference and British Colonial Secretary George Hall was “the first known official contact between the Zionists and the new Labor Government.”  In the past the Laborites have pledged their support for the creation of a Jewish homeland so “the Zionists are eagerly awaiting the British Governments action on the request for 100,000 more immigration certificates…”

    1946: Birthdate of Drake Maxwell Levin, the Chicago native “who played lead guitar for the teen-idol rock band Paul Revere & the Raiders during their biggest hit-making years in the mid-1960s.” (As reported by Bruce Weber)

    1948: Mitchell Flint “took up D-108 for an hour of formation flying, part of an exhibition for Prime Minister Ben-Gurion's visit to Netanya.”

    1948: “During today's visit by Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion to Netanya, Modi Alon scrambled Syd Cohen and four of his B flight pilots, if only for show in front of the prime minister.”

    1948: Mordechai Weingarten, a Jewish civilian leader in Old Jerusalem “appeared before a commission investigating events” that had led up to the surrender of the Old City to the Jordanians.

    1949: In New York, Ambassador Eliabu Elath and the chief Israeli delegate to the U.N., Aubrey Eban, “addressed a meeting of officials of the Consulate and of various Israeli missions in the United States” as part of the celebration marking the transfer of the remains of Theodore Herzl to Jerusalem. (As reported by JTA)

    1949: In New York Norman Bertram Coleman, Sr., and his wife, Beverly (Behrman) gave birth to Norman Bertram "Norm" Coleman, Jr the future Mayor of St. Paul and U.S. Senator from Minnesota.

    1949: Premiere of “Jolson Sings Again” the sequel of “The Jolson Story,” biopics about Al Jolson directed by Henry Levin

    1950: Premier of “The Petty Girl” a musical comedy directed by Henry Levin.

    1951: U.S. Premiere of “The Lost Continent” a science fiction thriller co-starring Sid Melton, the son of Yiddish comedian Isidor Meltzer.

    1951: The conflict in the World Zionist Congress on the aims of Zionism now that Israel has been established as a state remained sharp as the delegates adjourned this afternoon for the Sabbath recess.

    1952: John Blanford of UNRWA and the government of Jordan signed an agreement that provided eleven million dollars for the resettling of Arab refugees in Jordan. The Arab governments, including Jordan, did all that they could to keep the Palestinian refugees penned up in camps and keep them out of their respective countries.  

    1952: Two Jews were sentenced to death for economic crimes in Poland. It was thought that the Polish Communist regime was exploiting anti-Semitism to distract attention for its own, ever-growing economic difficulties.

    1956(10th of Elul, 5716): Sixty-five year old Russian born Yiddish poet Moishe Broderzon passed away today.

    1957(20th of Av, 5717): Sixty-six year old English painter and “Whitechapel Boy” David Bomberg passed away.

    1960:  Birthdate of actor Sean Penn.  Penn’s father was Jewish.  His mother was not.  Penn’s father was director Leo Penn who was a victim to the infamous Blacklist.

    1962: In a rare loss of control, reliever Larry Sherry hit Red’s lead-off batter Gordie Coleman in the seventh inning.  The Dodgers go on to defeat Cincinnati.

    1963: Three days after his death, a friend disclosed the fact that Clifford Odets’ “The Flowering Peach” “had been the Pulitzer Prize jury’s 1955 drama choice” but that it had been overruled by Pulitzer Adviosry Board.

    1966(1st of Elul, 5726): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1966(1st of Elul, 5726): 1967:Yonatan Netanyahu married Tuti today.

    1967: Tuti and Yonatan “Yoni” Netanyahu were married today after which they moved to the U.S. so he could enroll at Harvard.

    1969(3rd of Elul, 5729):  German born physicist Otto Stern passed away.  A native of Germany, Stern worked with Einstein before World War I.  He came to the United States in 1933 where he taught and lived until his death.  He won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1943.

    1974: Leonard Bernstein conducted the premiere of Dybbuk Variations with NYP in Auckland, New Zealand.

    1976: Hadassah continues its national convention for a third day in Washington, DC.

    1979: Premiere of “The Seduction of Joe Tynan” a cinematic commentary on the state of American politics directed by Jerry Schatzberg, produced by Bregman co-starring Melvyn Douglas.

    1979: “The Concorde ... Airport '79” with a screenplay by Eric Roth, music by Lalo Schifrin and featuring performances by Avery Schreiber and Harry Shearer was released in the United States today by Universal Pictures.

    1980(5th of Elul, 5740): In Jaffa, one person was killed and eight were injured during a terrorist car bombing.

    1981(17th of Av, 5741): Ninety one year old Jewish historian, author and academic Selma Stern Taebuler passed away.

    1982(28th of Av, 5742): Fifty-seven anti-apartheid activist Ruth First, the daughter of Latvian Jews who had moved to South Africa in 1906 and the wife of Joe Slovo passed away today.

    1983(8th of Elul, 5743): Lyricist Ira Gershwin, brother of the famous George Gershwin, passed away at the age of 86. (As reported by John S. Wilson)

    1986(12th of Av, 5746)Moses Hadas an American teacher, who was one of the leading classical scholars of the twentieth century, and a translator of numerous works, passed away today. 

    1987:  Rudolf Hess, the last of Hitler’s inner circle died in a Berlin hospital at the age of 93. He apparently attempted to commit suicide by hanging himself with an electrical cord.  Hess had parachuted into England in 1941 for reasons that to this day are unclear.  Convicted as a war criminal at Nuremberg, he spent the rest of his life at Spandau Prison.

    1988:According to an article in the Cedar Rapids Gazette entitled, “A Tale of Two Piggies.” Concrete pigs had replaced pink flamingos as yard ornaments for Temple Judah congregants Terri and Brian Cohen. The 1,100-pound concrete porker showed up in the couple’s front yard at 1290 35th St. NE after a mysterious phone call invited Terri to leave her home. Brian recalled a friend asking what kind of lawn ornament he wanted and when he responded, “no pink flamingos and no Virgin Mary grottoes,” he neglected to mention swine.

    1992: Woody Allen admitted to being romantically involved with Soon-Yi Previn, the adopted daughter of Allen’s longtime companion, actress Mia Farrow.

    1994: Elias Canetti, a novelist, playwright and cultural historian who had won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1981 was buried today in Zurich next to James Joyce. 

    1995(21st of Av, 5755): Ninety-three year old screenwriter Howard Koch, who won an Oscar for his work on “Casablanca”, passed away. (As reported by Mel Gussow)

    1997: Guy Hever disappeared after finishing his stint on guard duty while serving with an artillery unit based in the Golan Heights.

    1997: In the Gaza Strip a two day celebration was held to celebrate the 25thanniversary of the Gush Katif settlement bloc

    1997: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including the recently released paperback edition of Lise Meitner: A Life in

    Physics by Ruth Lewin

    1998: US President Bill Clinton admits in taped testimony that he had an "improper physical relationship" with White House intern Monica Lewinsky.

    2002: “Israeli security forces arrested the Hamas terrorists known as the ‘Silwan Cell’ who were responsible for the attack on the Café Moment coffee shop in Jerusalem that killed 11 Israeli civilians and wounded another 54.”

    2002: The end of the two-day dedication ceremony of the Anne Frank Human Rights Memorial in Boise, Idaho.

    2003: Ariel Sharon completed his term in office as Communications Minister of Israel.

    2003: The Sunday New York Times includes reviews of Einstein’s Clocks, Poincare’s Maps: Empires of Time by Peter Galison,Kate Remembered, a biography of Kathryn Hepburn by the Jewish author A. Scott Bergand What Was She Thinking?:Notes on a Scandal, a novel by Jewish author Zoe Holler.

    2004(30th of Av, 5764): Rosh Chodesh Ave

    2005: In a tribute to the vitality of the Jewish people Hutzot Hayotzer Jerusalem’s largest summer festival celebrating art and various crafts returns to its original location at the Sultan’s Pool when it opened today.  2005: In Gaza, while others had already left, “16 families were evacuated today by the IDF and police.”

    2005: In an example of the demise of another Jewish founded department store chain Coles announced that it would decide the fate of Myer, an Australian retail group founded Sidney Myer a Jewish immigrant from Russia.

    2006: IDF Chief of Staff Dan Halutz refused to resign over charges that he had sold off his portfolio because, unlike most Israelis, he knew that his country was faced with the prospect of going to war after two Israelis soldiers had been captured by Hezbollah.

    2006: I Was a Child of Holocaust Survivors by Bernice Eisenstein went on sale today.

    2006:Israel's Attorney General Menachem Mazuz decided to indict Haim Ramon for indecent assault. Ramon responded by saying: "I am certain of my innocence. The court will prove it."

    2007: “Superbad” starring Jonah Hill opens in movie theatres throughout the United States. Jonah Hill, who plays the socially inept teen, says he's really a nice Jewish boy. "I am not a super lecherous guy. I usually enjoy having a girlfriend as opposed to dating a variety of women. I'm a nice Jewish boy."

    2008: In St. Paul, Minnesota,Bais Chana Jewish Women's Weekend Retreat comes to a close.

    2008: Services are held at Tifereth Israel Synagogue in Des Moines for Marvin Pomerantz, 78, a friend and adviser of Republican governors and presidents for four decades who twice served as president of the Iowa Board of Regents

    2008: The Washington Post book section reported that The D.C. Jewish Community Center is seeking submissions for its third annual writing contest -- short essays or stories that illuminate how humor has been helpful in difficult times. The winning entries will be part of "Laughing for God's Sake: Humor in Jewish Literature," the opening event in the upcoming Hyman S. & Freda Bernstein Jewish Literary Festivalto be held in September.

    2008:The cabinet voted this morning to release some 200 security prisoners as a goodwill gesture to Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas.

    2008: Anna Gostamelsky shattered Israel’s national swimming record the 100-meter freestyle this evening at the Beijing Olympics.   But after six years, Ms. Gostamelsky, one of thousands of immigrants from the former Soviety Union, has not been able to convince the rabbinate that she is Jewish according to halacha.

    2008: Opening of the12th Annual Jewish Arts Fest of Dallasfeaturing the deeply Texan and Jewish story of The Immigrant in a musical concert production by Fort Worth's Stage West.

    2009: Time magazine features reviews of three books about Bernie Madoff “who hawked his investment fund to a largely Jewish clientele” including Too Good to be True by Erin Arvedlund, Madoff with Money by Jerry Oppenheimer and Betrayal; The Life and Lies of Bernie Madoff by Andrew Kirtzman.

    2009: In Washington, D.C. Community organizer Michael Rosen discusses and signs What Else But Home: Seven Boys and an American Journey Between the Projects and the Penthouseat Politics and Prose Bookstore

    2009(27th of Av, 5769):Two more Israelis died on today due to complications from the swine flu, becoming the eighth and ninth people in Israel to succumb to the pandemic.

    2009(27th of Av, 5769): Eighty-four year old Israel Adler founder of the National Sound Archives of the National Library of Israel, founder and former director of the Jewish Music Research Centre of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and one of the co-founders of IASA died today after a prolonged illness.

    2009: “New Doubts Raised Over Famous War Photo” published today described challenges to the authenticity of one of the iconic combat photographs Robert Capa’s “Falling Soldier.”

    2010: The National Jewish Retreat is scheduled to begin at Reston, VA.

    2010: Clashes between the IDF and Palestinian terrorists along the Gaza border intensified today, when two IDF soldiers were slightly injured by mortar fire near the security fence in southern Gaza.

    2010(7th of Elul, 5770):Harold Shpeen, 87, of Marlton, a longtime dentist and former president of the Jewish Federation of South Jersey, passed away today. 

    2010: LAJFF in cooperation with the Anti-Defamation League and Second Generation host an exclusive pre-release screening of “A Film Unfinished” in Encino.

    2010: Ryan “Kalish hit his first career grand slam in game against the Angeles in Fenway Park.”

    2011: Les Bergen, a JHSGW Board Member, is scheduled to facilitate “a virtual tour of Arlington National Cemetery, where more than 5,200 Jews are buried. 

    2011: “Smiley - How about some emotional pornography?” written by Eyal Weiser and directed by Allon Cohen is scheduled to open in New York City.

    2011: “The California Supreme Court declined to review the Court of Appeal's decision to affirm Phil Spector’s conviction” for the murder of Lana Clarkson.

    2011:  Fighting bad lighting and a spotty internet connection, activists at the Rothschild tent city held a live chat tonight with leaders of the “May 15” anti-government protests that brought hundreds of thousands into the streets across Spain since they began over three months ago.

    2011: It was reported today that “The Hebrew University in Jerusalem has been ranked the 57th best university in the world, in a list of the top 500 universities worldwide.

    2011: Peter Shumlin became the first sitting governor in the United States to preside over a same-sex wedding ceremony

    2012: Among the many choices Washington Metropolitan Areas Jews have for welcoming the Sabbath are the Pre-service wine and cheese social at Beth El Hebrew Congregation in Alexandria and the Shabbat BBQ at Congregation Beth Emeth in Herndon, VA

    2012: A final vote is scheduled to take place today when the United Church of Canada's General Council can choose to accept or reject an overall motion that includes recommendations to approve a boycott of products made in Israeli settlements. (As reported by JTA)

    2012: The leader of the Lebanese Shiite terrorist Hezbollah said his group will transform the lives of hundreds of thousands of Israelis to “hell” if Israel attacks Lebanon. Sheikh Hassan Nasrallah said today that the group has a list of Israeli targets that it can hit with few rockets.

    2012:South Africa’s chief rabbi has called on the country’s deputy minister of international relations to resign, saying he is unfit to hold public office.

    2012(29thof Av,5772): Seventy-seven year old “Samuel H. Lindenbaum, who was widely considered New York City’s top zoning lawyer and who was credited with doing as much as any of the powerful developers among his clients to shape the modern skyline of Manhattan” passed away today.  (As reported by David W. Dunlap)

    2013: In Monticello, NY, second and final day of the Bagel Festival attendees can participate in the Best Bagels Contest and the Bagel Triathalon  that includes seeing how far you can roll a bagel, how far you can shot put a bagel and how high you can stack bagels without have them fall.

    2013: “Arthur Fields: the man on O'Connell bridge” published today described the “career” Irish photographer Arthur Fields, the Dublin native Abraham Feldman who was the son of Jews from Ukraine.

    2013(11thof Elul, 5773): Eight-nine year old historian David Landes author of Revolution in Time: Clocks and the Making of the Modern World passed away today. (As reported by Douglas Martin)

    2013: The Tamarod ("Rebellion") movement in Egypt has joined a campaign calling to stop US aid to Egypt, and to cancel the 1979 Camp David peace treaty with Israel, Daily News Egypt reported today.

    2013:The IDF fired a Tamuz surface-to-surface missile at a Syrian army post today, after several Syrian mortar shells exploded in the Golan Heights. (As reported by Yaakov Lappin)

    2014: The New York Times featured books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers includingKill My Mother: A Graphic Novel written and illustrated by Jules Feifer, Timeless: Love, Morgenthau and Meby Lucinda Franks and “Andrew Lewis Conn’s new novel, O, Africa!, which explores the fictional exploits of two Jewish brothers whose commercial partnership propels them to the forefront of the silent film industry in the years between the World Wars.”

    2014: This evening, the PBS premiere of “Before The Revolution - The Untold Story of the Israeli Paradise in Iran.”

    2014: The Baton Rouge (LA) Jewish Film Festival is scheduled to host a screening of “Fiddler on the Roof” complete with a sing-along.

    2014: “Israel will not agree under any circumstances to a ceasefire deal that doesn’t meet the country’s security demands, Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said today, as an Israeli delegation landed in Cairo to discuss an Egyptian proposal aimed at ending hostilities in the Gaza Strip and across the Israeli border.” (As reported by Adiv Sterman)

    2014: Israeli security forces are preparing to examine “three openings in the ground…inside communities in the Gaza border area” near homes, kindergartens and playing fields” which are thought to be “tunnel entrances dug by Hamas under the border from Gaza into Israel.” (As reported by Stuart Winer)

    2014: After yesterday’s violent protests at a Tesco supermarket by pro-Hamas demonstrators and the decisions of the grocery chain which was founded by Jewish businessman Jack Cohen to knuckle under to the Boycott Divestment and Sanctions movement, today another UK grocery chain removed kosher items from their shelves out of fear of violence from pro-Palestinian demonstrators.

    2015: The “Seeking Justice: The Leo Frank Case Revisited” exhibit is scheduled to open to the public today at the Southern Museum in Kennesaw, GA.

    2015: As part of program sponsored by the Southern Museum, the William Breman Jewish Heritage Museum and the Museum of History and Holocaust Education at Kennesaw State University Congregation Neir Tamid is scheduled to lead a centennial remembrance of Leo Frank’s lynching including the recitation of Kaddish led by Rabbi Tom Liebschutz.





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    August 18

    1201: Founding of Riga, capital of modern day Latvia. The first Jews appeared in Riga three centuries later and despite Czars, Nazis and Commissars continue to live in the city to this day.

    1227: Genghis Khan dies.  According to Arthur Koestler’s The Thirteenth Tribe, Genghis Khan wiped out the Khazar Empire.

    1307: Jaime II (James) of Majorca expelled the Jews from the provinces of Rousillon and Montpellier. Many escaped to Barcelona where they were welcomed.

     1393: King John I, in an effort to prevent "backsliding" by converted Jews, prohibited them from living in the same quarter or even eating together.

    1533: The Queen of Poland granted the Jews of Pinsk all the rights already granted to the Jews of Lithuania.

    1670: A church called the Leopoldskirche was dedicated today in Vienna.  The church had been a synagogue but it was no longer used as such because the Jews had all been expelled from the Upper and Lower Austria.

    1765(1st of Elul, 5525): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1765: Samuel Levy Maduro, son of Moses Levy Maduro married Leah Cohen Peixotto in Curacao

    1775: The Spanish established a presidio (fort) and the town came to be called Tucson, Arizona. The first openly Jewish settlers did not arrive in Tucson until the 18th century.  They included Nathan Appel, a noted merchant who served as a delegate to the first Arizona Territorial Legislature in 1863 and Chief of the Tucson Police, William Zeckendorf, the Tucson merchant who was the grandfather of the famous real estate magnate and the brewer Alex Levin, founder of Levin’s Park, the three-acre entertainment center that was the site of every important social and communal event in Tucson during Arizona’s territorial days.  Country Singer Linda Ronstadt is one of Levin’s descendants.

    1822(1st of Elul, 5582): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1822(1st of Elul, 5582): Joshua Zeitlin passed away. Born in 1742, he “was a Russian rabbinical scholar and philanthropist. He was a pupil of the Talmudist Rabbi Aryeh Leib ben Asher Gunzberg who was the author of Sha'agat Aryeh; and, being an expert in political economy, he stood in close relations with Prince Potemkin, the favorite of Catherine II. During the Turko-Russian war Zeitlin furnished the Russian army with various supplies, and managed that business so cleverly that he was afterward appointed imperial court councilor. On retiring from business in civil rank of Court Counsellor, Zeitlin resided on his estate Ustzia, where he was consulted by the rabbis with regard to rabbinical questions. He rendered pecuniary assistance to many Talmudists and scholars, and supported a magnificent beit midrash, in which many Jewish scholars were provided with all the necessaries of life, so that they could pursue their vocations without worries of any kind. Among the scholars who benefited by his generosity: Rabbi Nahum, author of Tosafot Bikkurim; Mendel Lepin, author of Cheshbon ha-Nefesh; and the physician Baruch Schick. Zeitlin was the author of annotations to the Sefer Mitzwot Katan, printed with the text (Kopys, 1820), and supplemented by some of his responsa.”

    1823: Birthdate of Phoebe Yates Levy Pember. During the Civil War, Pember served as the chief matron of Richmond’s Chimborazo Hospital. After the War, she wrote her memoirs, which were published as A Southern Woman's Story: Life in Confederate Richmond, in 1879. This book, which details her daily life through anecdotes of the war years, remains one of the best sources for understanding the experiences and ideas of upper-class Southern Jewish women before and during the Civil War. Following the War, Pember maintained her elite social status, and traveled extensively through the U.S. and Europe. She died on March 4, 1913, and is buried in Savannah

    1826: Birthdate of William Isaac Wolf (Ritter von Gutman) who founded the largest coal company in the Austro-Hungarian empires and served as the President of the Jewish Community of Vienna from 1891 through 1892.

    1830: Birthdate of Franz Joseph I, the penultimate Emperor of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. During his long reign, for whatever reason or reason(s), Franz Joseph improved the conditions of his Jewish subjects to the point that “three years after he celebrated his Jubilee the Jewish Chronicles’ Vienna correspondent wrote “the Jews owe a great deal to their Emperor Franz Joseph” and that they do not blame him for any “retrogressive measures” taken against them.  At the same Franz Joseph’s enemies derisively referred to him as the “Judenkaiser.” 

    1830: Birthdate of Henry Strauss, the native of Alsac who moved to Jackson, Mississippi before the Civil War.

    1834:  Birthdate of department store owner, Marshall Field.  Marshall Field was not Jewish but his partner Levi Ziegler Leiter was.  In 1865 Field and Leiter bought a dry goods store which they named Field and Leiter. They built and re-built the signature State Street Store.  When Leiter retired, the company was renamed Marshall Field and Company.

    1835: Birthdate of Amalia Nathansohn Freud, the mother of Sigmund Freud.

    1838: Birthdate of Emil Ganz a Civil War veteran who went West and became a successful businessman and three-time mayor of Phoenix, Arizona.

    1843: Birthdate of Moritz Brasch, the native of Prussia who gained fame as a philosopher and essayist.

    1846: The Jewish Oath, originally established by Charlemagne, was abolished in Austria. Until then, a Jew who took oath in a Christian court against a Christian was forced to stand on the skin of a dead animal or be surrounded by thorns and call down the curses of Korach or Naaman if he were not telling the truth. In Romania it was only repealed in the 20th century.

    1846: ‘The Religious Opinions Relief Act removed some of minor disabilities which affected British Jews and dissenters from the Established Church; the only state office which still remained closed to Jews was Parliament.”

    1855: It was reported today that Solomon Rothschild who died in Paris in July was buried "with a certain degree of financial pomp.  The hearse was followed by a large number of artistic and literary celebrities by the old men supported at the hospital endowed by the deceased and by 1,200 children educated at his school.  Then, in the procession, was the Grand Rabbi and the Israelite Consistory.  The body was buried in the tomb of the Rothschild family, which is in the Jews' corner of Pere La chaise."

    1856: Birthdate of Asher Zvi Hirsch Ginsberg who gained fame using the Hebrew pan name Ahad Ha'am (אחד העם,). A pre-eminent essayist he was the founder of Cultural Zionism with a vision of a Jewish "spiritual center" in Palestine. Ha'am strived for "a Jewish state and not merely a state of Jews." In what would appear to have been a detour from his intellectual pursuits Ahad Ha’am managed the Anglo-Asiatic tea company established by Kaloniumus Wolf Wissotzky, the founder of the Wissotzky Tea Company which prior to the Bolshevik Revolution was the largest tea company in the world.

    1860: “Sunday at Newport” published today states that the Jews might teach the current inhabitants “a lesson of reverence; for, although long since departed from Newport, where their social and commercial position was once superior, by ample testamentary provision, their Synagogue and Cemetery are preserved in admirable order -- reproachful to Christian neglect and indifference…It was startling, when the remains of the benevolent Judah Turo were brought here for interment, to hear the Rabbi, who pronounced the funeral discourse -- alluding to his change of abode and the vicissitudes of his life -- say, as a matter of course, "Like his great ancestor, Jacob, he was a pilgrim and sojourner.”

    1863: Birthdate of Victor-Guillaume Basch, the native of Budapest who was the son of journalist Raphael Basch and who became a professor at the Sorbonne and a French political leader.

    1869: Henry Fileman, the second son of John Fileman married Theresa Clara Leopold, the eldest daughter of Louis Leopold at the Masonic Hall, Bedford Row, Holborn, WC,

    1870: The Baltimore American reported that members of the Lloyd Street Synagogue had filed suit against various officers of synagogue in Circuit Court over what they considered violations of the charter as it pertains to matter of ritual and the hiring of a Chazan, among other matters.

    1871: It was reported today that a large quantity of diamonds, rubies and other precious stones which had been concealed in the luggage of three French Jews has been seized by Custom House authorities on suspicion that they had been smuggled in to the country aboard the SS Italy.

    1878: “The Happy Californians” published today described the surprise expressed by Christians in California that Michael Reese, the recently deceased German-Jewish millionaire had bequeathed “large sums to different institutions irrespective of their denomination.”

    1878: During the Yellow Fever epidemic that has gripped New Orleans Rabbi J.K. Gutheim, Edward J. Krsheidt and other officers of the Hebrew Benevolent Assoication made the following appeal, “ Sickness, distressand suffering amont the poor are increasing daily.  Our funds are nearly exhaustaed.  In this sad calamity we deem it our melancholy dutry to appeal to the sympathies of our brethern throughout the United States for speedy aid.”

    1879: The Notes of Foreign News column reported the Romanian Minister of Foreign Affairs has issued a circular to its missions abroad concerning the condition of the Jews living in the country.  On the one hand the government claimes that “In the future every foreigner” Jewish or non-Jewish, will be eligible to become naturalized citizens regardless of religion.  At the same time, the government claimes that “the Jews in Roumania at the present moment have never been Romanian citizens.  The government questions how it can make them citizens “in one day” since it will that Moldavia will be over-run by 300,000 Jews who are “uneducated fanatics, having a different language,  a different language, a different  different customs, different sentiments and whom the” Romanians have always considered foreginers.  Granting the Jews currently living in Romanaia would “stirke a terrible blow to the economic interest of the county…and would drive the population to revolt…”  [The treatment of the Jews living in Romania was a cause that had been taken up by the Great Powers.  The Romanians wanted recognition as an independent state while working tenanciously to avoid improving the lot of its Jewish citizens.

    1879: It was reported today that The Pall Mall Gazette (an English publication) “says that a Mr. Austin Corbin has ‘gone so far as to exclude Jews from the Manhattan Beach Railway…’” The columnist concludes that this “will be news to Corbin and the Jews.”  (Apparently, the English author did not know that report of Corbin’s ban was quite true.]

    1880: A barge filled with children on an excursion sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children narrowly avoided colliding with a yawl-boat as it came through the Narrows today. 

    1880: Mr. Mendel denied recent reports that the Sharon Hotel at Sharon Springs does not accept Jewish guests is false.  He has been staying there for the last three summer seasons as have been several other guests whom the proprietors know are Jewish.  (This comes on the heels of the Saratoga Springs incident)

    1881: The SS Bellevue will leave for an excursion to Hart’s Island today at 11 am sponsored by the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society

    1881: “A Pawnbroker Swindled” published today described the victimization of Ellis Silbertsein, a Jewish pawnbroker who owns a shop on North 9th Street in Philadelphia, PA.

    1882(3rdof Elul, 5642): Forty-two year Leon Jacob Wetheim the Dutch bank employee turned author who was the brother of A.C. Wertheim and the son of Dina Minden and Carl Wertheim, passed away today.

    1883: In Canajoharie (Montgomery County) NY, Judge Thomas W. Bingham officiated at the wedding of New Yorker Joseph P. Joachimsen and Caroline Cohen, “the daughter of the late Marx E. Cohen of Charleston, SC.”

    1883: It was reported that “Lord Edmund Fitzmaurice, Under Foreign Secretary stated in the House of Commons…that the government…has asked the Russian government to” explain why a British Jewish businessman who had “a proper British passport” was expelled.

    1886: Birthdate of Sholom Schwartzbard a Bessarabian-born Jewish anarchist known primarily for the assassination of the Ukrainian politician Symon Petliura.  Schwartzbard held Petliura responsible for the death of his parents who had been murdered in a pogrom in 1919.

    1887(28th of Av, 5647): Julius Weisbaden a miser who has no friends or family in the United States died today Bellevue Hospital

    1887: It was reported today that Adolph Stern a commercial traveler who passed away yesterday will be buried by the Hebrew Mutual Benefit Society at the Salem Fields Cemetery.  Stern, who was a member of the society, died alone since his wife and grown daughter still lived in Germany.

    1888(11th of Elul, 5648): Prominent New York merchant Marks Laski died suddenly today at his home on West 36th Street.

    1888: “Jews in Prussia” published today relied on reports from the London Times to report that in 1880 there were 363,790 Jews living in Prussia which made them 1.33 percent of the population.  Five years later the number of Jews had grown to 366,543 but they were now only 1.29 per cent of the population.