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A collection of Jewish history and current Jewish events, in date format, updated daily in this Jewish history blog.

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    February 20



    390: Emperors Valentinian II., Theodosius, and Arcadius issued a decree that thwarted the attempt of the association of "navicularii" (ship-and cargo-owners) of Constantinople to force the Jews and the Samaritans to join them and to share in the burdens of the society. They “decided that the communities of the Jews and the Samaritans could not legally be forced to join the navicularii, and that at most their wealthy members only could be taxed ("Codex Theodosianus," xiii. 5, 18). This decree was most important to the Jews, for many of them were ship-owners, and more than one-half of the shipping in Alexandria was controlled by Jews.” (As reported by the Jewish Encyclopedia)



    1194: King Tancred of Sicily died effectively ending the Norman Kingdom of Sicily and bring it under the German Hohenstaufens. This would prove beneficial to the Jews because 15 years later, Emperor Frederick II would intervene on behalf of his Sicilian Jewish subjects to temporarily put an end to their persecutions by the Crusaders.



    1422:  Pope Martin V (1417-31) issued a Bull reminding Christians that Christianity was derived from Judaism and warned the Friars not to incite against the Jews. The Bull was withdrawn the following year amidst allegations that the Jews of Rome attained the Bull by fraud.



    1431: Pope Martin V, the author of Sicut Judaeis ("and thus to the Jews," passed away today.



    1495: “The Jew Mekl, son of Jontoffa, gave a mortgage of 60 schock of Meissen thalers on his Jewish house at number 263, on the corner of what are today Solní Road and Sedláčková Road in Pilsen, to his stepmother Lea, giving her the right to live there before gentiles and Jews.


    1547:  Edward VI of England crowned King of England at Westminster Abbey. Edward was the male heir sought by his father Henry VIII. Edward’s reign was short since he died at the age of 15.  Reportedly small numbers of Conversos made their way to the kingdom during his reign as they had during Henry VIII’s time and worshipped secretly in London and Bristol.



    1662(1stof Adar, 5422): Shabbatai ben Meir HaKoehn, the Lithuanian-born Moravian rabbi whose works included Siftei Kohn or the Shakh, a commentary on the Shulchan Aruch Yoreh De'ah passed away today.



    1667(26thof Shevat, 5427): Rabbi David ben Samuel Halevi passed away. Born in Cracow in 1586, he was known as TA"Z an acronym for his response Turei Zahav – Rows (or Rock) of Gold. During the Chmelnitsky Uprisings which resulted in the massacre of thousands of Jews he found refuge in the castle of Prince Radziwill in a narrow room at the top, near the clock – the symbol of the Polish eagle that could be seen for miles. A folktale says that when Chmelnitsky and his hooligans approached the town Olyka, the rabbi and a large number of Olyka Jews took refuge in the Prince's castle and prayed to God. They fought alongside the Prince's men against the cruel enemy. Two ancient huge cannons that were not even usable suddenly shot out by themselves and killed off many of the enemy. In any event, the fear of God befell the hooligans and the quickly retreated and ran away. In memory of this miracle, Rabbi David composed special penitential prayers for the 20th of Nisan, the day the miracle occurred. The descendants of Rabbi Ha-Levi were the Russian rabbinical family Paltrowitch. This family produced 33 rabbis over several generations. One of these rabbis, Simcha Paltrowitch (1843-1926) served the Pine street “shul” in Buffalo from 1890 to 1914.  His brother’s descendant is the producer-director Bruce Paltrow (Hill Street Blues, St. Elsewhere), the father of the actress Gwyneth Paltrow.



    1751: Benedict XIV issued Elapso proxime Anno, a papal bull dealing with the issue of what the



    Church called “Jewish heretics.”



    1790:  Austrian Emperor Joseph II passed away at the age of 49.  Joseph II actually reigned over the Holy Roman Empire which was "neither holy nor Roman."  For his time he was a benign despot who sought to reform his empire.  Jews viewed him with mixed feelings.  On the one hand he abolished many of the archaic restrictions on Jewish social and commercial life.  He abolished laws pertaining to wearing the yellow badge and prohibiting Jews from practicing law and medicine.  At the same time, he called for an end to writing public documents and contracts in Yiddish or Hebrew and the abolition of certain aspects of self-governance in the Jewish community.  On the one hand even a reformer like Moses Mendelssohn was concerned about the impact of Joseph's plans on Jewish identity.  On the other hand, a century and a quarter later, Adolph Hitler expressed his disdain for this Austrian monarch.  I guess you will have to be the judge after you have had a chance to the history of Jews in Europe during the 18th and 19th centuries.



    1790: At Strasbourg, The Society of the Friends of the Constitution admitted its first Jewish member.



    1792: “Jews who lived in the vicinity of Strasbourg were granted permission to enter the city to take an oath of allegiance.



    1793(8thof Adar, 5553): Prudence Hays, the wife of Baruch Hays and the mother of John Jacob Hays passed away today in New York City.



    1798(4thof Adar): Following Napoleon’s conquest of Italy, the ghetto at Rome was abolished.  When the Pope regained power the ghetto was re-established.  It would finally be abolished after the re-unification of Italy in 1870.



    1804: At Hobart, Australia a penal colony was established which included 8 Jews among its prisoners.



    1808: In Canada, the assembly resolved by a vote of 35 to 5 that "Ezekiel Hart, Esquire, professing the Jewish religion cannot take a seat, nor sit, nor vote, in this House.”



    1812(7thof Adar I, 5572): Seventy-two year old Rabbi Moses Ben Abraham Frankel, the father of David Frankel passed away at Dessau.



    1816(21stof Shevat, 5576): Polly Israel (Perla bat Kalonymous) the mother of Henrietta Israel passed away today.



    1817: Abraham Quixano Henriques married Rebecca Aguillar at Bevis Marks Synagogue in London today.



    1821: Asher ben Israel married Breina bat Uri Feivel at the Western Synagogue today.



    1827: Sir Moses Montefiore and Lady Judith Montefiore began their first trip to Palestine (As reported by Jennifer Breger)



    1829: In Florence, Italy, British Major-General Lord George Russell and Elizabeth Rawdon gave birth to Odo William Leopold Russell, the British diplomat who worked with Sir Moses Montefiore in an unsuccessful attempt to get the Pope to return Edgardo Mortara to his Jewish parents.



    1832: A version of Robert le diable (Robert the Devil) an opera in five acts composed by Giacomo Meyerbeer was presented in London today at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane under the title “The Fiend-Finder.



    1838: Ashe Davis married Frances Wolfe today at the Great Synagogue.



    1839: In Charleston, SC, Rabbi Poznanski officiated at the wedding of Lew Hertz and Esther Peixotto, the eldest daughter of the late Solomon C. Peixotto.



    1845(13thof Adar I, 5606): Seventy-two year old Polish born author and poet Shalom Ben Jacob Cohen who was educated in Berlin and whose works in “Light of David,” an epic poem about the Israelite king and He Who Calls The Generations, “a history of the Jews from Maccabean times to the present.”



    1852(30th of Shevat, 5612): Rosh Chodesh Adar



    1855: “The inauguration of the Touro Literary Institute took place this evening, at the rooms of the Institute at Number 448 Broome-street in New York City.”  Most of those attending the meeting were described as “intelligent” and of “Hebraic descent.”  Benjamin H. Myers, the president of the Association presided over the meeting.  Jonas B. Phillips and Rabbi R.J.M. Raphall addressed the meeting. In their speeches, the speakers traced the history of Jewish literature and literary societies from ancient Jerusalem, through Spain and London to modern times.



    1857: It was reported  today that the boot manufactures of Hopkinton, MA, have discovered, much to their consternation, that some of their workmen have been selling some of their footwear to "certain Jew peddlers and others" at a fraction of their cost.  The plan was to purchase the goods in one town and sell them in another, thus avoiding detection. [Please note, only the Jews are identified by their religion.  This was often in the case in newspapers and journals of the day including the New York Times.]



    1858: Lord Derby formed a government in which Benjamin Disraeli would play an “outsized” role because he was a member of the House of Commons while Derby and most of his other cabinet members sat in the House of Lords.



    1862: Philadelphian Jacob Jacobs began serving with Company K of the Eleventh Regiment



    1863: Ha-Levanon, the first Hebrew language periodical in Palestine, was published today



    1863: In Paris, impressionist painter Camille Pissarro and his wife Julie (née Vellay) gave birth to landscape painter, printmaker, wood engraver and designer and printer of fine books Lucien Pissarro who was fortunate to have settled in London and thus avoided the Holocaust which engulfed his native France.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucien_Pissarro#/media/File:Manson-Lucien-Pissaro-Reading.jpg



    1864: Ellen Terry, the British actress who gained fame for her portrayal of Portia in The Merchant of Venice marred George F. Watts, the artist who painted her portrait.



    1865: Having reached the rank of Corporal, Jacob Jacobs completed his three year enlistment with the Union Army as a member of Company K of the Eleventh Regiment.



    1871: Baron Jozsef Eotvos, Hungarian statesman and who supported the emancipation of the Jews passed away today while serving as Minister of Religion and Education of Hungary.



    1871(29thof Shevat, 5631): Selig Newman, the native Posen who became a rabbi in Plymouth, taught Hebrew at Oxford and founded the Society for the Cultivation of the Hebrew Language and Literature passed away today in New York where he had been living and teaching for approximately the last twenty years.



    1872: According to reports published today, a dispute has arisen in New York over the ritual purity of wine being supplied to the Jewish community.  According to Rabbi Aronson, the wine being supplied to the local synagogues has not been prepared in accordance with Jewish law.  But the wine dealers say that their wine bears the seal and signature of Rabbi A.J. Ash of the Grand Beth Hamedrash of New York City proving that the wine is Kosher.  Rabbi Isaacs has also certified the wine as ritually fit.



    1873: In Buffalo, NY, William D. Ellis and Bertha Strass gave birth David A. Ellis the Phi Beta Graduate of Harvard and Editor of the Harvard Law Review and husband of Amy Friedman who was a director of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association, the Boston Branch of Alliance Israelite Universelle and several other Jewish and secular educational and charitable organizations in Boston.



    1874: Birthdate of Samuel Earl “Ike” Samuels the native of Quincy, Illinois who played third base before the turn of the century.



    1874: Benjamin Disraeli began serving his second and final term as Prime Minister of Great Britain. Disraeli was a leader of the Conservative Party.  But as can be seen by the reform legislation passed by his government these Conservatives have more in common with the liberal Democrats of the 21st century than they do with those on the American right who call themselves Conseratives.  “Disraeli's government introduced various reforms, including the Artisan's and Labourers' Dwellings Improvement Act 1875, the Public Health Act 1875, the Sale of Food and Drugs Act (1875), and the Education Act (1876). His government also introduced a new Factory Act meant to protect workers, the Conspiracy and Protection of Property Act 1875 to allow peaceful picketing, and the Employers and Workmen Act (1875) to enable workers to sue employers in the civil courts if they broke legal contracts. As a result of these social reforms the Liberal-Labour MP Alexander Macdonald told his constituents in 1879, ‘The Conservative party have done more for the working classes in five years than the Liberals have in fifty.’”  When it came to foreign policy, Disraeli’s government supported the concept of Empire.  He engineered the first British acquisition of financial interest in the Suez Canal.  He understood the great issue of the time as being the management of the decline of the Ottoman Empire and showed his mastery of the diplomacy at the Congress of Berlin.



    1875: Birthdate of Hyman Phillips, the native of Russia who moved to Massachusetts who served as officer for the Home for Jewish Children in Dorchester and as a board member of the Federation of Jewish Charities.



    1876: Birthdate of Richard Beuthner who would die in Berlin at the age of 66.



    1876: It was reported today that The Alliance Israélite Universelle, which is headquartered in Paris, is providing a variety of services to Jews throughout the world.  Among other things, the Alliance is providing care for a large number of Russian Jewish orphan, supporting an Agricultural School in Jaffa and operating a normal school for Jewish women from Asia Minor in Paris.  The Alliance is supporting numerous other schools throughout North Africa and western Asia, including ones at Aleppo, Baghdad and Constantinople.



    1878: Leo XIII is elected Pope. “In reaction to the painful loss of the papacy’s temporal power…Leo XIII lashed out against modernity.”  “The Vatican increasingly viewed the Jews who were beneficiaries of the demise of the church’s temporal rule as part of the array of dangerous forced against it.  In 1880, apparently with the approval of Leo XIII, “Civilta Cattolica kicked off a decades-long campaign against the Jews accusing them of all the old sins and then many new ones such as being responsible for both capitalism and communism and of being disloyal to the countries in which they lived.’ (As reported in Antisemitismby Richard S. Levy)



    1879: “The Jews Oath” was “abrogated” today in Dresden, Germany.



    1880: In Prescott, AZ, the Pauline Markham troupe that included Josephine Sarah Marcus, the eccentric Jewess who became the lover and wife of Wyatt Earp completed their performances of HMS Penifore.



    1880: “Oil in the World,” an article published today that describes the conditions of oil fields throughout Asia, Europe and the United States, the some of the fields in Eastern Galicia are controlled by Polish Jews. The Jews of Boryslaw are more interested in gaining the wax found in their fields because it is part of the highly profitable candle business.  Therefore, they have resisted spending the money necessary to develop the oil production in the area.



    1880: Birthdate of Maurice Zackheim, the native of Raczki, Poland, who came to the United States in 1904, became a pharmacist in Detroit where he served as an officer of the Talmud Torah.



    1882: Birthdate of Polish -born “American sculptor, draughtsman and collector” Elie Nadelma
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Classical_Head_by_Nadelman.jpg



    1882: This morning, Philadelphia’s Mayor King received a telegram from J.M. Brown of Galveston Texas offering to provide one hundred acres of land in Motely County, Texas to any of the 50 Jewish families who are on their way to Philadelphia from Russia who are willing to settle in the Lone Star State. Motely County is one of those under populated expanses in the northwest part of the state.



    1882: The Grand Lodge of the order Kesher Shel Barzel, District No. 1 continued with its annual convention at the Pythagoras Hall.



    1886: “Undesirable Immigrants” published today described the condition of 300 Romanian Jews who were expelled from their native land and are now being held at Castle Garden.  While few of them had any money, most of them had tickets that would take them to American cities where they say that have friends who will assist them.



    1886:  Birthdate of Béla Kun head of Hungarian Soviet Republic formed in 1919 in the aftermath of World War I.  Neither the Soviet nor Kun survived for very long.



    1888: Henry de Worms, the Lord Pirbright, began serving as Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies in the government of Marquess of Salisburgy.



    1888: Rabbi Joseph Silverman finished his service with Congregation B'nai Israel in Galveston, Texas, where he had been serving since July, 1885.  The Ohio born rabbi was on his way to a pulpit in New York City. 



    1890(30thof Shevat, 5650): Rosh Chodesh Adar



    1890; It was reported today that Mrs. Phillip J. Joachimsen is President of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society of New York and C.W. Meyer is serving as Secretary.



    1892: The Cunard Line Etruria was being held in quarantine because of the need to take extra precautions because there are Jews from Russia among the steerage passengers.



    1893: Birthdate of playwright and librettist Russel Crouse whose interaction with Jews included collaborating with Rodgers and Hammerstein on the “Sound of Music” and making “a casual remark” which resulted in Arthur Laurents having to go before the infamous House Un-American Activities Committee “to account for his political views.”



    1893: “Some New Publications” published today includes a review of Studies by a Recluse in Cloister, Town and Country in which Augustus Jesopp describes the history the Abbey at Bury St. Eduunds including a period in the Middle Ages during which Abbott Sampson drove out the Jews who had legitimately acquired much of the property following a period of gross mismanagement.



    1893: The Hebrew Sheltering Guardian and Orphan Asylum will give a concert at the Lenox Lyceum this evening under the sponsorship of the Ladies’ Auxiliary Society.



    1894: It was reported today that Jesse Seligman, Nathan Straus and Perry Belmont were among those who attended the meeting of the Distribution Committee established by the Citizens’ Relief Committee.  The committee had been set up to deal with the suffering caused by the Depression that began in 1893.  Belmont was the son of August Belmont, Jr. the Jewish born financier.  Perry’s mother was not Jewish.



    1895: Ferdinand Forzinetti, the commandant of the Cherche-Midi military prison, and one of the first to be convinced of Dreyfus's innocence was granted his retirement today while his most famous prisoner sailed to Guyana. Later, Alfred Dreyfus paid homage to his jailer who had dissuaded him from taking his own life and "who knew how to combine the strict duty of a soldier with the highest feelings of humanity."



    1896: It was reported today that the last year’s charity ball sponsored by the Young Ladies and Gentlemen’s League of the Montefiore Home raised $10,088.12.



    1896: It was reported today that among those who included on the lists as patrons for the upcoming charity ball sponsored by the Young Ladies and Gentlemen’s League of the Montefiore Home are Governor 



    1897: In Leipzig, Marie Edith Fischer, a Lutheran and Rudolf Eisler a Jewish professor of philosophy gave birth to Gerhart Eisler.
    http://spartacus-educational.com/Gerhart_Eisler.htm



    1897: Rolla Hewitt, a woman of questionable sanity who felt it her duty to convert Jews to Christianity was assumed to be dead after having wandered off twenty-four hours ago.



    1897: According to some sources, birthdate of boxer Danny Frush, the husband of Binnie Cohen Frush.



    1897: “Insane on Religion” published today described the disappearance of Mrs. Rolla Hewitt who “a demented woman” who “wandered away from her home”  “several days” after “a converted Jew preached” at her Church having declared that “she had a mission to perform and her objective” was to convert every Jew at the Baron Hirsch settlement in Woodbine, NJ.



    1898: As the Dreyfus Case continued to embroil France a mob of three thousand Parisians “marched toward the Pantheon yelling ‘Down with Zola!’ and “Death to the Jews.’”



    1898: Ludovic Trarieux, Emile Duclaux, Edouard Grimaux and Francis de Pressensé are among those who founded “The Ligue des Droits de l'Homme et du citoyen” [League for Human and Civic Rights] which was founded to defend Alfred Dreyfus who had been wrongly convicted of treason Ludovic Trarieux served as its first President,



    1898: A mass meeting was held in New Jersey synagogue tonight to protest the statements by William J. Corssley, the Prosecutor in Mercer County, who while trying a case against a peddler, said “The god of the Jew is gold.  They are not fit to be citizens, as they only come here to hoard wealth, that they may go back to Jerusalem and spend it.



    1898: In Port Huron, MN, founding of the Mount Sinai Society which “maintains a cemetery and dispenses charity” and whose members included Jacob Jacobi, Jacob Cohn, Leon Cohen, Benjamin Cohn, Adolph Kanter and Louis Levine.



    1899: “Christ and His Religion” published today provides Rabbi Gustav Gottheil’s views on Jesus whom he does not believe would be comfortable with the practices and the preachings of today’s Christian churches.



    1900: “The 37thConvention of District No. 4 of the Independent Order of B’Nai B’rith came to an end today in San Francisco.



    1900: In Mulhouse, France, Constance Kenendel Lang and Baruch Kahn gave birth to Raphael Kahn



    1901: Birthdate of famed architect Louis I. Kahn



                 1902: The state of New York approved a charter for the Jewish Theological Seminary of America


    1905: Miss Annie Russell appeared to-night in the leading role of "Jinny, the Carrier," a four-act comedy by Israel Zangwill, which was presented for the first time before a packed house at the Park Theatre in Boston, MA.



    1906: According to a summary of the forecast prepared by Broughton Brandenburg, the President of the National Institute of Immigration “there will be a heavy fall off in the” immigration of Gallician, Russian and Polish Jews because, among other things, he believes “that the bloody events in Russia have served to promote a new solidarity among the Jews and they will remain where they are, for a time at least, hoping for better things at home or the inauguration of a movement to found a new Hebrew nation in Palestine or som other land.”



    1907(6th of Adar, 5667): French Chemist Henri Moissan passed away. Moissan isolated fluorine and won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1906
    http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/moissan.html



    1912(2ndof Adar I, 5672): Eighty-three year old Jewish communal worker William Cobe passed away in Boston, MA.



    1915: “Louis Marshall of New York, counsel for Leo M. Frank, now under sentence of death by State court in Georgia for the murder of a factory girl in Atlanta in 1913 today filed a brief in the Supreme court of the United States Support their appeal from the judgment of the Federal District Court for the Northern District of Georgia denying to Frank a writ of habeas corpus.”



    1916(16thof Adar I, 5676): Eighty-five year old Rabbi Simon Bernstein passed away in Winthrop, Massachusetts.



    1916: “A profile of Theda Bara (born Theodosia Burr Goodman) that appeared in the New York Times, reported that 500,000 fans followed Bara everywhere she went. She was said to have received over a thousand marriage proposals from adoring fans. Others named children after her. One critic called her "a clever actress with...a marvelously mobile and expressive face."’



    1916: The first session of the 24th annual meeting of the Jewish Historical Society was held at Dropsie College today where several papers were presented including “Some Pedagogical Aspects of American Jewish History” by Mabel Lyon and “The Question of the Kosher Meat Supply in New York City in 1813.”



    1916: Today, Rabbi Joseph Karuskop, the founder and President of the National Farm School said "He who does not voluntarily do more than he is obliged to do will in time do less than he ought, and in the end will find himself unable to do what he must."



    1916: “Hope For Jews In Russia” published today includes the prediction of Victor Bash, a professor at the University of Paris now teaching at Columbia that since “anti-Semitism was born in Germany and came from Germany to Russia” “a bill of complete Jewish emancipation, social as well as legal, is possible in Russia, more possible than in Germany, and more possible today than ever before.”



    1917: The musical “Oh Boy” with the score composed by Jerome Kern, premiered in New York City.



    1917: Eugenio Pacelli, the future Pope Pius XII, is appointed Apostolic Nuncio to Germany. This will make him the eyes and ears and representative of the Vatican during the rise of Hitler.



    1917: It was reported today now that the Germans are in control of Warsaw, “There is also a very strong propaganda in full swing again the Jews and measure of an outrageously unlawful kind have been put in for again them.” No passes are granted to the Jews and “no Jew is allowed to build a house and this in spite of the fact that there 350,000 Jews” among the one million inhabitants of Warsaw.



    1918: In New York, Clara and Maxwell Cohn gave birth to Lenore Cohn. A niece of movie mogul Harry Cohn, she gained fame as Lee Annenberg, the wife of Walter Annenberg



    1919: Victor Berger was convicted of having violated the Espionage Act of 1917 and sentenced to 20 years in federal prison. “The trial was presided over by Judge Kenesaw Landis, who later became the first commissioner of Major League Baseball. His conviction was appealed, and ultimately overturned by the Supreme Court which found that Judge Landis had improperly presided over the case after the filing of an affidavit of prejudice.” Berge was Jewish and was the first member of the Socialist Party elected to the U.S. House of Representatives.  In the eyes of many, these were his real crimes.



    1920(1st of Adar, 5680): Rosh Chodesh Adar



    1920(1st of Adar, 5680): Pauline Einstein, the mother of the physicist Albert Einstein, passed away. Born in Cannstatt, Württemberg, in 1858, she “had an older sister, Fanny, and two older brothers, Jacob and Caesar. Her parents were Julius Doerzbacher, who had accepted the family name Koch in 1842, and Jette Bernheimer.”



    1920: Birthdate of Tidor Rudas, the Budapest born impresario who spent 6 months in a concentration camp because his father was Jewish. (As reported by Douglas Martin)
    http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/17/arts/music/tibor-rudas-classical-music-impresario-dies-at-94.html?hpw&rref=obituaries&action=click&pgtype=Homepage&version=HpHedThumbWell&module=well-region&region=bottom-well&WT.nav=bottom-well&_r=1



    1921: Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, Congressman Isaac M. Siegel and Leon Sanders are scheduled to speak this afternoon at “the twelfth annual meeting of the Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society of America” in New York City.



    1924: Birthdate of Mordechai Ofer, the Krakow native who made Aliyah a year later and served in the Knesset from 1965 until his untimely death in 1971 at the age of 47.



    1924: Birthdate of Columbus, Ohio, native Eugene Borowitz, the Ohio State University graduate who became one of the leading Rabbis and philosophers in the Reform movement and the founder of “Sh’ma, a Journal of Jewish Responsibility.”
    https://www.nytimes.com/2016/01/31/us/rabbi-eugene-b-borowitz-reform-leader-dies-at-91.html?hpw&rref=obituaries&action=click&pgtype=Homepage&module=well-region&region=bottom-well&WT.nav=bottom-well&_r=0
    https://forward.com/shma-now/



    1924: Birthdate of Gerson Goldhaber, the German born “American particle physicist and astrophysicist who was one of the discoverers of the J/ψ meson which confirmed the existence of the charm quark.”



    1926: Chief Justice Walter I. McCoy in Equity Court ruled today that Mrs. Beta Isenberg, 80 years old, widow of Paul Isenberg, a citizen of Bremen and also of the Hawaiian Islands, is an American citizen because of the Hawaiian citizenship and is entitled to the return of $2,500,000 worth of property despite the protest of Howard Sutherland, Alien Property Custodian



    1926: Plans for an upcoming goodwill dinner sponsored by the Greater New York Federation of Churches which will be attended by Jews and Christians were announced today including the fact that the meal be “strictly kosher.”



    1926: In Marshalltown, Iowa, Louis Bucksbaum and the former Ida Gervich gave birth to Matthew Bucksbaum the co-founder of “a family shopping mall empire that helped transform the landscape of suburbia and the habits of American consumers.” (As reported by Bruce Weber)



    1927: Birthdate of Roy Cohn the lawyer, who gained fame or infamy as the council for the (Joseph) McCarthy Committee.  McCarthy and Cohen took advantage of American fears of Communism to conduct a witch hunt that ruined reputations and lives without saving us from any Communist spies.  Publicly homophobic, Cohn's death from AIDs was the subject of an HBO movie.



    1929: “The Night Belongs to Us” starring Otto Wallburg as “Vater Bang” was released in Germany today


    1931: U.S. premiere of “The Night Belongs to US” a German film co-starring Otto Wahlberg who would be murdered at Auschwitz in 1944.



    1932(13thof Adar I, 5692): Parashat Tetzveh



    1932: While delivering a sermon today at Congregation Emanu-El dedicated to honoring George Washington, Rabbi Samuel Schulman “referred to a statement made in a treaty between the United States and Tripoli in 1796 and signed by Washington that stated ‘the Government of the United States in not in any sense founded on the Christian religion.’”



    1932: “Freaks,” a horror film co-produced by Harry Rapf and Irving Thalberg was released in the United States today.



    1932: Plans were announced today for the upcoming bicentennial exercises to be held at Albany which including a speech by “Chief Judge Benjamin N. Cardozo of the Court of Appeals whom President Hoot has nominated for the United States Supreme Court.
     
    1932: “Tribute to the memory of George Washington and especially to the first President’s work in establishing freedom in this country was paid” today “in synagogues throughout” New York City where “special Washington bicentennial services were held in addition to the regular” Shabbat services.



    1932: In “Judge Cardozo’s Philosophy of the Law” published today, R. L. Duffus provides a snapshot of the Supreme Court nominee’s view of the world of jurisprudence.



    1932: In the Bronx, Mae and Nathan Ader gave birth to Doctor Robert Ader, the Tulane University graduate and experimental psychologist who was among the first scientists to show how mental processes influence the body’s immune system; a finding that changed modern medicine. (As reported by Paul Vitello)



    1933: Industrialists met at Goering's Reichstag President's Palace to show support of Hitler. Hitler promised to rid the world of Marxists and restore the Wehrmact (the Germany Army).  Hitler and his anti-Semitic policies enjoyed support from Germany’s business community from the outset.



    1936: “Things to Come” a sci-fi film produced by Alexander Korda was released today in the United Kingdom.



    1936: Dr. Arnold Netter, “a noted physician” was elected President of the Alliance Israelite Universelle succeeding Professor Sylvain Levy who had passed away on October 31, 1935.



    1936: The Rabbis Association of Poland sent a radiogram to the more important Jewish religious communities of the world request that they join the Jews in offering prayers for the preservation of Jewish ritual slaughter which is being outlawed by the government.



    1936: Bronislaw Huberman, the Polish violinist and founder of the Palestine Symphony Orchestra, announced today that “the first concert of the newly organized Palestine Symphony Orchestra will be broadcast to the United States from Tel Aviv late in October over the facilities of the National Broadcasting Company.”  He also said that “negotiations have been started for regular visits of the orchestra to Egypt and Greece” as well as a world tour that would include a visit to the United States.



    1937(9thof Adar, 5697): Parashat Tetzaveh and Shabbat Zachor



    1937: Tiberias, one of the towns of Palestine known for its friendly relations between Arabs and Jews, was the scene of disorder today. Thirty Jews, thirty Arabs and two British policemen were slightly injured and two Jews were seriously hurt before order was restored.



    1937: Ten days after receiving his passport, 24 year old Edward Isaac Lending sailed for Europe aboard the Ile de France on his was to fight as a member of the Lincoln Brigade in the Spanish Civil War.



    1937: “Polish Jews Face Dismal Future published today provides a snapshot of the anti-Semitism faced by Jews in inter-war Poland. (It is also worth the read to see how much misinformation the Literary Digest, the magazine that predicted FDR would lost to Alf Landon could provide about the origins of the Jews of Europe)
    http://www.oldmagazinearticles.com/Jews_in_Poland_Before_WW2_pdf



    1938: Louis Lipsky, chairman of the administrative committee of the United Palestine Appeal presided over a meeting of Jewish leaders held under the auspices of the Zionist Organization of America at the Hotel Pennsylvania.  The Jewish leaders, including Dr. Bernard Joseph, legal adviser of the Jewish Agency for Palestine, expressed a desire for a peaceful solution to the problems separating Jews and Arabs in Palestine.



    1938: Hitler addressed the Reichstag and served notice that the future of Austria and the Sudeten Germans were in the direct interest of Nazi Germany. The annexation of Austria and the Sudetenland would be two of the landmarks on the road to World War II and the Final Solution.



    1938: Franz Josef Rarkowski is consecrated as espiscopus castrensis, bishop of the military chaplains in the German Army, by Papal Nuncio Cesare Orsenigo.



    1938: The Palestine Post reported that one British officer was shot dead and two others wounded when their car was shot at in the vicinity of Haifa. British troops and police cordoned off the whole area and one Arab was shot dead when he tried to break through. A number of Arab suspects were arrested. There were many other cases of sniping at traffic and sabotage throughout the country.



    1939: Twenty thousand Nazi supporters gather in New York City’s Madison Square Garden.  While there were only a limited number of such displays, the power of the isolationists led by Lindbergh and the America First movement provided a socially acceptable cover for anti-Semites and fascists.  FDR’s decisions about European Jewry were made against this hostile background.
    https://www.timesofisrael.com/when-a-jewish-laborer-took-on-20000-us-nazis-in-madison-square-garden/?utm_source=The+Times+of+Israel+Daily+Edition&utm_campaign=8ca7427a19-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2017_10_15&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_adb46cec92-8ca7427a19-53921877



    1939: In an apparent attempt to strengthen the Axis Alliance, Mussolini shifts policy by banning Jews from his Fascist Party.  According to some, as many as 10,000 Jews had been members of the party.  Years later, Mussolini’s mistress would claim that Il Duce had claimed that he always had been an anti-Semite.



    1941: The Nazis ordered Polish Jews barred from using public transportation



    1941: Birthdate of New York City novelist Alan Furst whose one work of non-fiction was a biography of the creator of Mrs. Fields Cookies company
    1941: The first transport of Jews from Plotsk, Poland to be sent to a concentration departed. "We remember so that nobody will forget.  We remember lest anybody try and forget."



    1942: In France, Jacques Bielinky described the responses of his non-Jewish fellow citizens to anti-Jewish policies, expressing contempt for their lack of making any attempt to prevent the dismissal of their Jewish colleague.  “They did not make the move; cowardice has become a civic virtue.”



    1942:  Under the Vichy government, Leon Blum went on trial today.



    1943(15thof Adar I, 5703): Parsashat Tetzaveh



    1943(15thof Adar I, 5703): While serving with the Royal Canadian Air Force, Flying Officer William Kadison Komaiko, one of the two sons of Solomon Baruch (S.B.) Komaiko, was died today when he was shot down over Europe.



    1943: Birthdate of English movie director Mike Leigh.



    1943: “The Hard Way” a musical drama version of a story by Irwin Shaw, directed by Vincent Sherman, produced by Jerry Wald and with a screenplay by Daniel Fuchs and Peter Viertel was released today in the United States.



    1943: Birthdate of Moshe Cotel, the Baltimore native who would become an acclaimed pianist and composer whose works were often infused with themes emanating from his deep Jewish roots. Cotel’s “Jewish reconnection” would lead him to the rabbinate. He would be ordained five years before his death in 2008 while he was serving as spiritual leader of Temple Beth El of Manhattan Beach in Brooklyn.



    1944: Birthdate of Lewis “Lew” Michael Soloff, the native of Brooklyn who gained fame as an American jazz musician.
    http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/10/arts/music/lew-soloff-trumpeter-for-blood-sweat-and-tears-dies-at-71.html?hpw&rref=obituaries&action=click&pgtype=Homepage&module=well-region&region=bottom-well&WT.nav=bottom-well



    1945: At Dovrat, “a kibbutz near Afula,” two refugees from Nazi Germany gave birth to decorated war hero Amram Mitzna, the MK who served as Mayor of Haifa and Yerhuam.



    1945: Birthdate of Queen’s native Andrew Bergman who gained fame as a “screenwriter, movie director and novelist”
    http://www.hollywood.com/celebrities/andrew-bergman-57284947/



    1947: Birthdate of actor Peter Lawrence Strauss, the native of Croton-on-Hudson who won an Emmy for The Jericho Mile and was best known for the popular mini-series “Rich Man, Poor Man.”



    1947: A female member of The Irgun Zvai Leumi telephoned newspapers correspondents stating the Irgun was responsible for cutting an oil pipeline in two places and attacking a Royal Air Force installation near Hadera.



    1947: The British government announced that it would withdraw from India.  This decision signaled a change in the U.K.’s foreign policy.  Its willingness to give up the Palestine Mandate would be triggered in part by the realization that protecting the Suez Canal as the lifeline to an imperial possession was no longer a critical need.



    1950: King Features Syndicate “launched” the daily version of the comic strip “Big Ben Bolt” co-created by Elliot Caplin.



    1951: Rostam Bastuni, the first Israeli Arab to represent a Zionist party in the Knesset left Mapam and “set up the Left Faction with Adolf Berman and Moshe Sneh.



    1951: Birthdate of Dr. Robert “Bob” Silber, a fine physician, a devoted husband and father, an ardent Hawkeye fan, a pillar of the Cedar Rapids Jewish Community and a real mensch, who is smart enough to have more questions than answers.



    1951: In Los Angles, Bernice Pearl Wolfe and her husband gave birth to Randy Craig Wolfe who gained famed as Randy California, one of the original members of “Spirit.”
    http://www.independent.co.uk/news/people/obituary-randy-california-1283572.html
    http://randycaliforniaandspirit.com/biography/



    1952: The film The African Queen opened at the Capitol Theatre in New York City.  The African Queen marked the film debut of Theodore Bikel.



    1953: The Jerusalem Post reported that Washington Senator William Langer, a Republican, introduced a resolution asking Congress to investigate the plight of Arab refugees, a roadblock to the "stability and security" of the Middle East. (The Republican Party was not always friendly territory for supporters of the State of Israel.)



    1953: The Jerusalem Post reported that The Jewish Agency opened a hostel in Tel Aviv for skilled Western immigrants. 



    1953: Birthdate of Philadelphia-born meteorologist Dave Schwartz, an early and long-time “host” on the Weather Channel.
    https://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/01/business/media/dave-schwartz-63-dies-was-weather-channel-meteorologist.html?hpw&rref=obituaries&action=click&pgtype=Homepage&module=well-region&region=bottom-well&WT.nav=bottom-well&_r=1



    1958: A UK production of “Where's Charley?” a musical with music and lyrics by Frank Loesser “opened in the West End at the Palace Theatre where it ran for 404 performances.



    1958(30thof Shevat, 5718): Rosh Chodesh Adar



    1958(30thof Shevat, 5718): Sixty-nine year old Al Lichtman, who produced “The Young Lions” and whose career was such that he earned a “Star” on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.
    http://projects.latimes.com/hollywood/star-walk/al-lichtman/



    1958: “Doctor Crippen Lives” featuring Inge Meyself “who was banned from performing 1935 until 1945 because her father, Julius Meysel, was Jewish” was released in Germany today.



    1959(12thof Adar I, 5719): Israeli poet Zalman Shneur, the native of Belarus who wpm the Bialik Pririze in 1951 and the Israel Prize in 1955 passed away today in New York City.http://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=883&dat=19590306&id=VfBOAAAAIBAJ&sjid=W0wDAAAAIBAJ&pg=3543,5060391



    1960: Eighty year old “Monuments Man (a member of the Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives Section of the Allie Armies) Sir Charles Leonard Woolley the non-Jewish British archaeologist remembered for having excavated Ur of the Chaldees, and for discovering the ancient Sumerian civilization passed away today.  Yes, these are the actual places which produced Abraham, Lot and Sarah.
    https://www.britannica.com/biography/Leonard-Woolley\



    1960: In Bloomington, on Shabbat, the dedication of the new Moses Montefiore Temple continued.



    1962:  Birthdate of Galveston, TX native Adam Schreiber who played Center for the University of Texas before spending 15 years in the National Football League.



    1963: Opening performance of Rolf Hochhuth’s “The Deputy” which provides a controversial view of Pious XII’s behavior during the Holocaust.



    1965(18thof Adar I, 5725): Director and producer Michał Waszyński passed away.
    http://www.jewishjournal.com/jewrnalism/item/he_managed_to_fool_the_world_micha_waszyski/



    1971: “Follies” a musical with music and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim began its pre-Broadway tryout at the Colonial Theatre in Boston.



    1972(5th of Adar, 5732): Walter Winchell passed away at the age of 74.  According to some, Winchell was the creator of the modern newspaper gossip column.  Starting out with the New York Graphic and then the Daily Mirror in the nineteen twenties, Winchell's column was eventually syndicated in papers across the country.  At one time he had 30 million readers.  The column coupled with his radio show gave Winchell an amazing amount of power - sort of cross between Rush Limbaugh and Entertainment Tonight.  The right mention in a Winchell column could make you; the wrong mention or the lack of a mention could break you. How Jewish were Kun, Cohn and Winchell? Who really is a Jew in Jewish History? 



    1972(5thof Adar, 5732): Seventy-three year old Harold W. Carmely, the native of Poland who came to the United States where he became a Zionist leader, Superintendent of the Daughters of the Israel Home and the husband of  Esther T. Carmely passed away today.



    1973(18th of Adar I, 5733): Joseph Szigeti Hungarian born US violinist, passed away at the age of 80.



    1973: Seventy-eight year old of Dimitar Peshev, the Bulgarian leader who helped to prevent the deportation of Bulgaria's 48,000 Jews “for which he was named one of the "Righteous Among the Nations" passed away today.


    1975(9thof Adar, 5735): Sixty-one year old Robert Strauss the actor who created the memorable character of “Animal” in “Stalag 17” as well as playing “second banana” to Sgt. Bilko in the Phil Silvers Show.
    http://cscottrollins.blogspot.com/2013/11/robert-strauss-popular-1950s-character.html#!/2013/11/robert-strauss-popular-1950s-character.html



    1976(19th of Adar I, 5736): French born human rights activist, Renee Cassin, passed away.  Jurist, combat veteran of  World War I, member of the Resistance in WW II and leader of the French Jewish community, Cassin received the Nobel Prize Winner for Peace,
    http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1968/cassin-facts.html
    http://www.renecassin.org/



    1978: The Jerusalem Post reported that in a chaotic gun battle at Larnaca, Cyprus, 38 Egyptian commandoes freed the 11 Egyptian hostages held aboard a Cypriot Airways DC-8 airliner and apprehended the two Arab terrorists who held them.



    1978(13thof Adar I, 5738): Eighty-five year old “Indian civil servant and banker” Sir Abraham Jeremy Raisman passed away today.
    https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0017_0_16374.html



    1981(16thof Adar I, 5741): Seventy-six year old “Baron Nicolas de Gunzburg, a former senior fashion editor at Vogue magazine whose panache and sense of quality earned him the reputation of one of the fashion industry's great men of style” passed away today.  (As reported by Sheila Rule)
    http://www.nytimes.com/1981/02/21/obituaries/nicolas-de-gunzburg-76-aformer-editor-of-vogue.html



    1987: “Square Dance” a movie version of the film by the same name starring Winona Ryder (Winona Laura Horowtiz) was released in the United States today.



    1989: Paula Abdul’s “Forever Your Girl” was released to the public today.



    1992: The clashes between Israelis and Iranian backed guerrillas in Lebanon culminated with an Israeli armored push today into the villages of Kafra and Yater, about a mile north of what Israel calls its security zone in southern Lebanon.



    1992:  German premiere of the Israeli film “Cup Final.”



    1995(20thof Adar I, 5755): Eighty-four year old Shlomo Zalman Auerbach, the Rosh Yeshiva of the Kol Torah Yeshiva in Jerusalem passed away today. Over a quarter of a million people attended his funeral.



    1996(30th of Shevat, 5756):  Dr. Solomon Asch, leading Gestalt Psychologist and pioneer social psychologist passed away.



    1998: St. Peter’s Church, Chapel and Cemetery Complex which was built in 1853 using the designs of architect Leopold Eidlitz “was add to the National Register of Historic Places.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Peter%27s_Church,_Chapel_and_Cemetery_Complex#/media/File:Buildingside.JPG



    1999(4th of Adar, 5759): Film critic Gene Siskel passed away.  As the article below indicates, he was not just a successful critic he was also, a committed Jew, a real `mensch'



    People the world over have eulogized him as a master movie critic, a dedicated family man and a modest person whose fame didn't detract from his friendliness.A lesser-known but equally important side to Siskel reflected his Jewish upbringing and his continued dedication to Judaism and his community. Siskel, who died of cancer at age 53, was an active supporter of Israel and Jewish educational initiatives. He spent his early childhood in a historically Jewish neighborhood on Chicago's North Side. After his parents died when Siskel was very young, he and his siblings were raised by their mother's sister and her family in a north Chicago suburb. His aunt and uncle were founding members of Conservative Synagogue Beth El, where he celebrated his bar mitzvah and later became a member with his wife, Marlene. Their daughter celebrated her bat mitzvah at Beth El in January, the last time he was out in public. More than 1,200 people attended his funeral there on Monday, among them his film-critic partner and longtime friend Roger Ebert. Just days before he was diagnosed with a brain tumor, Siskel emceed at Chicago's community celebration of Israel's 50th anniversary. At the time he was suffering from migraine headaches due to his illness. “Gene was a revolutionary at his craft, known the world over, yet he never forgot where he came from," said Steven Nasatirof the Chicago area Jewish federation." In an era when public figures often have little to do with their community, Gene was a mensch, whose Judaism was paramount in his life and who was a very willing and active member of his community." Siskel's dedication to Israel was strongly influenced by a family trip there two years ago when his oldest daughter, Kate, was in eighth grade. Siskel's children attended Moadon Kol Chadash, a small, family-run Hebrew school whose first graduating class was taken to Israel. Believing that such a trip should be offered to a greater number of local Hebrew-school students, Siskel took the project under his wing. As a result a group of eighth-graders went to Israel last February, and a second, much larger group, went earlier this month. Siskel compiled a video chronicling Jewish stereotypes and anti-Semitism in Hollywood, which he used as an educational tool. Friends say Siskel expressed Judaism with modesty and little fanfare. "He was very low-key and never took himself too seriously," said his longtime friend Howard Caroll, a retired Illinois state senator, "but he was fervent about his Jewish beliefs." Beth El Rabbi Vernon Kurtz said in his eulogy Monday that just weeks ago, prior to their second daughter's bat mitzvah, Siskel and his wife told her that the two most important values in life were family and Judaism. "Judaism," Siskel said, "has taught me right from wrong,"



    2000: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Nazi Terror: The Gestapo, Jews, and Ordinary Germans by Eric A. Johnson and The Arcades Project by Walter Benjamin; edited by Rolf Tiedemann; translated by Howard Eiland and Kevin McLaughlin.



    2000(14thof Adar I, 5760): Purim Katan



    2000(14thof Adar I, 5760): Eighty-six year old Elliot Caplin the comic strip writer who “co-created The Heart of Juliet Jones, Big Ben Bolt and Dr. Bobs” and who was the younger brother of Al Capp, the creator of Li’s Abner, passed away today.



    2000: Bruce Lee Fleisher won the GTE Classic.



    2002: The Israeli Defense Ministry awarded Elbit Systems, the Haifa based electronics manufacturer founded in 1967, a ground-breaking tender to purchase new trainers for the air force



    2003(18th of Adar I, 5763): Daniel Aaron, a refugee from Nazi Germany and an orphan who went on to become a founder of Comcast, the largest cable company in the country, died today in Philadelphia, where he lived. He was 77. The cause was Parkinson's disease, according to the company. In 1990, speaking at a dinner for his retirement as vice chairman of Comcast in Philadelphia, Mr. Aaron described himself as something like the conscience of the operation. He pictured the young company as a car, with Mr. Roberts, the chairman, behind the wheel, Julian A. Brodsky, the principal fund-raiser, stepping on the gas, and Mr. Aaron himself with a foot on the brake. In 1963, Mr. Aaron persuaded Ralph J. Roberts, a Philadelphia entrepreneur who had recently sold a men's wear business, to buy a small cable television system in Tupelo, Miss. As part of the deal, Mr. Aaron agreed to help run it, and over the next 30 years they built or acquired dozens of other cable systems around the country. Last fall, the company they started, Comcast, acquired AT&T Broadband to become the largest cable television service provider in the country



    2005: At the DCJCC, the final performance of Joyce Carol Oates’ The Tattooed Girl.



    2005: The Jew of Iowa Jima published today.
    http://www.jewsingreen.com/2005/02/the-jews-of-iwo-jima/



    2006: Right-wing British historian David Irving was convicted in Austria on Monday of denying the Holocaust - a crime in this country once run by the Nazis - and was sentenced to three years in prison.  Irving, 67, who had pleaded guilty and insisted during his one-day trial that he had a change of heart and now acknowledged the Nazis' World War II slaughter of 6 million Jews, had faced up to 10 years behind bars for the offense. "The court did not consider the defendant to have genuinely changed his mind," presiding judge Peter Liebetreu told the court after pronouncing the sentence. "The regret he showed was considered to be mere lip service to the law."



    2005:  The New York Times included reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Nice Big American Baby by Judy Budnitzan, the recently released paperback edition of Apprentice to the Flower Poet Z. by Debra Weinstein and
     essay by the recently deceased Susan Sontag entitled “Report on the Journey.”



    2006(22ndof Shevat, 5766): Sixty-three year old Brandeis gradate Eli J. Segal the attorney and political activist who tasted defeat with George McGovern and victory with Bill Clinton while married to his college sweetheart Phyllis passed away today.
    http://www.nytimes.com/2006/02/22/us/eli-j-segal-63-clinton-aide-who-led-major-initiatives-dies.html



    2007: Former Prime Minister of Israel Ehud Barak speaks at Coe College in Cedar Rapids, Iowa.



    2007(2ndof Adar I, 5767):  Eighty-five year old symphony conduct Siegfried Landau passed away today.(As reported by Dennis Hevesi)
    http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C02E7D9123EF932A15751C0A9619C8B63



    2007: Jon Scheyer of the Duke Blue Devils “grabbed a career-high 12 rebounds against Pittsburgh.”



    2007: “The Farnsworth Invention” a play by Aaron Sorkin that examines how David Sarnoff’s relationship to the “invention of television signal transmission” opened today at the La Jolla Playhouse.



    2008: Jon Scheyer “scored 27 points at Miami, matching the most points by a player off the bench in Duke history.”



    2008: Chelsea Football Club announced that Avraham Grant had received anti-Semitic death threats from unknown sources



    2008: At the Jerusalem Cinematheque a showing of “Le Viel Homme et L’Enfant” ( הזקן והילד). Set in WW II France, the story revolves around the relationship between a young Jewish boy sent to hide with a rural family and the older man who is a WW I hero, a supporter of Petain and a vocal anti-Semite.



    2008: The Washington Post reported on the results of a cancer study conducted by Itai Kloog, of the University of Haifa.  According to the study, “women who live in neighborhoods with large amounts of nighttime illumination are more likely to get breast cancer than those who live in areas where nocturnal darkness prevails, according to an unusual study that overlaid satellite images of Earth onto cancer registries



    2008: Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert and Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas met in Jerusalem in an attempt to further latest round of peace talks which appear to be faltering.  These talks are an outgrowth of the negotiations held in Annapolis, MD in November of 2007.



     2009: The 24th Annual Jerusalem International Book Fair comes to an end.



    2009: A barrage of 10 mortar shells was fired at Gaza Belt communities, in what military sources said might have been the first stage of an attempted two-part combined terrorist attack. The attack, which was preceded by a Grad missile attack on the Negev town of Netivot, was repulsed by IDF forces operating near the Kissufim Crossing, who returned fire.



    2009: Posin's Made Its Name on Its Authentic Kosher, Crunchy Pickles and Sweet Treats published today described a landmark institution of the Washington, DC Jewish Community where I spent innumerable hours in my childhood waiting for the best tasting egg bagels and meat knishes in the world.
    http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/02/19/AR2009021903131.html



    2010: Singer, actress and playwright Rebecca Joy Fletcher is scheduled to perform her acclaimed one-woman show “Cities of Light” at Congregation Beth Emeth in Herndon, VA.



    2010: “A Matter of Size” is scheduled to be shown on the opening night of The 12th Annual Northern New Jersey Israel Film Festival.



    2010:  Birthday celebration of Dr. Bob Silber, a pillar of the Jewish community and a mensch in the truest sense of the word.



    2011(16thof Adar I, 5771): Jay Landesman, a writer and editor whose journal Neurotica analyzed the anxieties of postwar America and whose Broadway musical, “The Nervous Set,” has been called the first (and only) Beat musical passed away today in London at the age of 91.
    http://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/27/arts/27landesman.html



    2011: The 21stAnnual San Diego Jewish Film Festival is scheduled to come to an end.



    2011: Amos Oz: The Nature of Dreams, a documentary based on the memoirs of Amos Oz, that “delves into the persona of one of Israel's greatest and most controversial authors and political commentators” is scheduled to be shown at the Atlanta Jewish Film Festival.



    2011: English author Ian McEwan is scheduled to be awarded the Jerusalem Prize, Israel's highest literary honor for foreign writers at the opening of the Jerusalem International Book Fair.



    2011: The family and myriad friends of Dr. Bob Silber celebrate the 60thnatal day of this die-hard Hawkeye fan, ardent Zionist and all-around good-guy.



    2011: The New York Times featured a profile of author Walter Isaacson who has been the chairman and chief executive of CNN and the editor of Timemagazine and the recently released paperback edition of Rebecca Newberger Goldstein’s 36 Arguments for the Existence of God: A Work of Fiction, a “philosophical novel about love, Jewish cultural identity and academic infighting.”



    2011:The Environment Ministry reported that the recent appearance of an extensive bout of haze has brought the concentration of dust in central Israel to a level four to 10 times more than the average rate as of today



    2012:US National Security Adviser Tom Donilon's three day trip to Israel brought on by rising tensions over the creation of an Iranian nuclear capability is scheduled to come to an end today.



    2012: MesorahDC is scheduled to sponsor Café Nite at the Historic 6th& amp; I Synagogue in Washington, DC.



    2012: As the United States celebrates Presidents’ Day,  the Jewish community may reflect on the unique interaction between it and various Chief Executives including: Washington’s letter to the Jews of Newport, Rhode Island; Franklin Pierce’s appointment of the first Jew to serve as the U.S. Minister to a foreign country; Abraham Lincoln’s role in making it possible for Rabbis to serve as Chaplains in the U.S. Army and revoking Order #11; U.S. Grant’s attempt to appoint the first Jew to the Cabinet and his attendance at the dedication of Adas Israel; Teddy Roosevelt’s appointment of the first Jew serve in the Cabinet; William H. Taft’s at the first seder ever to be graced by a U.S. President; Woodrow Wilson’s appointment of the first Jew to serve on the Supreme Court; President Herbert Hoover’s appointment of the second Jew to serve on the Supreme Court; President Harry Truman’s role in the creation of the state of Israel; Lyndon Johnson’s role in saving Jews from the Holocaust, passing legislation that outlawed discrimination based on religion and support Israel during the 1967 War. (And this is a short list)



    2012: If Cairo unilaterally decides to alter the peace treaty with Jerusalem, Israel will ask why sign agreements with other neighbors if these accords are not kept, Intelligence Agencies Minister Dan Meridor said today..



    2012: US President Barack Obama will meet with Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu on March 5, the White House said today. Netanyahu will be in Washington to address the annual policy conference of the pro-Israel lobby AIPAC, which will be held on March 4-6.



    2012: Ammunition Hill will not close after an emergency meeting this evening with representatives from the Prime Minister’s Office, the Defense Ministry, and the Finance Ministry,



    2012: “Iran Raid Seen as a Huge Task for Israeli Jets” published today describes the great challenge that the IAF would face if it had to destroy Iran’s nuclear capability.
    http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/20/world/middleeast/iran-raid-seen-as-complex-task-for-israeli-military.html?hp



    2013: My German Children,” which premiered at Jerusalem’s Jewish Film Festival in December, is scheduled to air for the first time on Israeli TV today as part of a Yes Doco series on children. (As reported by Renee Ghert-Zand)



    2013: Happy Birthday Dr. Bob



    2013: YIVO Institute for Jewish Research is scheduled to present a ”discussion on the groundbreaking anthology Choosing Yiddish: New Frontiers of Language and Culture, “featuring editors Lara Rabinovitch, Shiri Goren, Hannah S. Pressman, editors, along with Gennady Estraikh (NYU), Eddy Portnoy (Rutgers), Jennifer Young (NYU/YIVO), and many others.”



    2013: Nigerian security forces this evening arrested three people belonging to an Iranian-linked terror cell that was reportedly planning to launch an attack against Israeli and American targets, Army Radio reported.



    2013: Jonathan-Simon Sellem “officially declared his candidacy to become member of the Assembly of French Citizens Abroad, in the 8th district (including Israel, Italy, Turkey, Greece, Cyprus, Malta, San Marino and the Vatican.



    2013: It was reported today that “Supreme Court Deputy-President Rivlin joined the Hebrew University Faculty of Law.”
    http://www.huji.ac.il/cgi-bin/dovrut/dovrut_search_eng.pl?mesge136136371405872560



    2014: Friends and family of Dr. Bob Silber, pillar of the Jewish committee, President of the Thaler Holocaust Memorial Committee and diehard Hawkeye celebrate his natal day.



    2014: Hemi Rudner, “one of the finest musicians in the Israeli rock scent” who is the leader of “Eifo Hayeled” at CAFÉ WHA?



    2014” The Center for Jewish History is scheduled to present “The Power of the Geniza.



    2014: “Bethlehem.” winner of 6 Ophir Awards, is scheduled to be shown at the DPJCC's 14th Annual Jewish Film Festival



    2014: “Bulgaria announced today that it has confirmed the existence of a third suspect in the 2012 bombing that killed five Israeli tourists and their tour bus driver in the city of Burgas.” (As reported by Spencer Ho)



    2014: German police arrested three Auschwitz guards; names take from a list of thirty that had been turned over to authorities by the Simon Wiesenthal Center. (As reported by JTA)



    2014: “The Israeli government and Jerusalem Municipality finalized plans for an initiative to invest NIS 22 million ($6.25 million) in movies and television series that film in the capital, Jerusalem City Hall announced today.” (As reported by Spencer Ho)



    2014: “Finance Minister Yair Lapid praised a Knesset committee’s approval of a bill pushing for the enlistment of ultra-Orthodox men to the military, saying it was a resurgence of Zionism that fixed a major flaw in Israeli society.”(As reported by Israel Hayom and Times of Israel)



    2015(1stof Adar, 5775): Rosh Chodesh Adar



    2015: Jewish filmmaker Aviva Kempner, is scheduled to screen a clip of her work in progress focusing on the Rosenwald schools funded by Julius Rosenwald, Sears-Roebuck magnate as part of the Visionaries of Black Education program in Washington, DC.



    2015: “Love, Marilyn” is scheduled to be shown in the last of the Women On Top film series at the 92nd Street Y.



    2016(11thof Adar I, 5776): Shabbat Tetzaveh



    2016: The University of Iowa Hillel is scheduled to host its annual fundraising concert this evening.



    2016: An exhibition “WOMEN: New Portraits Annie Leibovitz” is scheduled to continue its ten city tour with an opening in Tokyo.



    2016: The Jewish Community Center of Northern Virginia is scheduled to present “the winter program of its Jews and Jazz Series” that will include a lecture by Tamar Barzel, author of New York Noise: Radical Jewish Music and the Downtown Scene. 



    2017(24thof Shevat, 5777): Eighty-six year old award winning professor of physics and electrical engineering Mildred Dresselhuas passed away today.
    https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/mildred-dresselhaus-physicist-dubbed-queen-of-carbon-dies-at-86/2017/02/22/3355d3a2-f8a7-11e6-be05-1a3817ac21a5_story.html?utm_term=.a0ad22262b6c
    http://news.mit.edu/2017/institute-professor-emerita-mildred-dresselhaus-dies-86-0221



    2017: At least ten Jewish community centers” including those in Whitefish Bay, Wisconsin; St. Paul; Houston; Buffalo, New York; Albuquerque, and Birmingham, Alabama “were targeted with bomb threats today – the fourth time in five weeks that JCCs across the United States have been targeted.” (JTA)



    2017: “A bas-relief showing a menorah was displayed at a news conference” to where an announcement was made about “a joint exhibition by the Vatican Museums and Rome’s Jewish Museum”



    2017: Two days after an Israeli done strike killed five ISIS terrorists who had been preparing to fire a rocket into Israel, “two rockets were fired into Israel from the Egyptian controlled Sinai Peninsula” this morning “outside of the city of Rafiah.”



    2017: Ben Greenberg, the Director of Adult Engagement at Central Synagogue is scheduled to lecture on “Mourners Kaddish: The Untold Story” at Limmud, NY



    2017: JW3, the Jewish Community Centre in London is scheduled to host a screening of “Aida’s Secrets.”



    2017: Friends and family of Dr. Bob Silber, the chair of The Thaler Holocaust Memorial which “was established in 1995 by Dr. David and Joan Thaler to provide support for education about the Holocaust to residents and students at the local colleges in Linn County” are scheduled to celebrate his birthday today- just days after he took part in an amateur musical that raised thousands of dollars to fight the scourge of colon cancer.



    2017: In the United States, observance of President’s Day, a federal holiday that celebrates the lives of President Washington who set the tone of acceptance of Jews in American as equal citizens and President Lincoln who furthered the cause of Jews in American as could be seen by his rescission of General Order No.11 in 1862 and his signing legislation that made it possible for Jews to serve as Chaplains in the Union Army.



    2018: In New York, “The Mineola Historical Museum and the Wood County Historical Commission are scheduled to celebrate Black History Month” today by hosting “a showing of an Aviva Kempner film "RosenWald" the remarkable story of a Jewish partnership with African American communities.”


    2018: In Coralville, IA, Agudas Achim is scheduled to hosing a screening of “Bajel: The Hidden Jews of Ethiopia” by Irene Orleansky,


    2018: The Center for Jewish History is scheduled to host a lecture by Jan Gross on “Europe, the Holocaust, and the rise of the right.”


    2018: In St. Louis, MO, the United Hebrew Congregation is scheduled to host “An Evening of Song and Spirit” with Abbie Strauss and Joe Buchanan.


    2018: “Rabbi Mordechai Zeller, the Chaplain in Cambridge and former Rabbi in Maaleh Gilboa Yehisva is scheduled to lead a discussion on “Sacred Purim Theatre: Reclaiming the myth of Ishtar and Esther” at Oxford.


    2018: Quintessential Hawkeye Hebrew Dr. Bob Silber is scheduled to celebrate his birthday as a Memphis transplant.


    2018:  Friends and family of are scheduled to celebrate the natal day of Lance Anderson, an avid student and all-around good guy.


     


     


     


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     February 21



    362: Athanasius returns to Alexandria so he can lead the fight against various Christian heretics such as the Arians.  His negative views about the Jews were really part of his fight against Christian heretics. His “anti-Jewish rhetoric served to stigmatize Christians who resisted” the efforts of Athanasius “to reform the Alexandrian (local) practices of Lent and Easter along more international (catholic) lines.” For more on this view of his works and writings one should read “Jewish Flesh and Christian Spirit in Athanasius of Alexandria” by David Burke, Journal of Early Christian Studies - Volume 9, Number 4, Winter 2001, pp. 453-481



    1513: The papacy of Julius II came to an end.  His greatest claim to fame was that he gave Michelangelo the paint brush for the Sistine Chapel.  Samuel Sarfatti, a Jewish physician, took care of the Pope’s health needs.  His papacy was a period of benign neglect for the Jews.  Julius was more interested in temporal pleasure than doctrine so he pretty much left the Jews alone; not a bad deal considering what other Popes did to the Jews.



    1519: Upon the death of Maximillian, the Jewish community at Regensburg numbering approximately 800 souls, (one of the oldest in Germany,) was expelled. The synagogue was destroyed and a chapel, built in its place. About 5,000 gravestones were taken from the Jewish cemetery and used for building the Christian house of worship.



    1520: Birthdate of Moses Isserles, the Ashkenazic rabbi from Cracow best known for writing HaMapah (The Table Cloth) a “gloss” on The Shulchan Aruch (Set Table) of Joseph Karo.  Karo relied primarily on Sephardic sources. Isserles used Ashkenazic sources to create a table cloth that would cover the set table thus making Caro’s work viable for the large number of Jews living in Northern and Eastern Europe.



    1619(7th of Adar): Rabbi Ephraim Solomon ben Aaron of Luntshits, author of Keli Yakar passed away



    1665: Emperor Maximilian II granted permission to Christophe Plantin, whose work included the Plantin Polyglot Bible the first four volumes of which were the “Old Testament” which contained two columns with the Hebrew original and the Latin translation, to print Hebrew books in Antwerp



    1677(19thAdar I, 5437): Philosopher Baruch de Spinoza passed away. His philosophy and his life are too complex for this simple summary page. I did not understand why he was banned from the Jewish community when I first read about him as a Religious School student.  His philosophy baffled me when I first read it at Tulane.  Since I do not fake it, I suggest you begin your quest at


      http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/Spinoza.html. and go from there. Good luck.



    1683: Birthdate of Johann Christoph Wolf, the “German Christian Hebraist” who created the 4 volume Biblotecha Hebrae published between 1715 and 1733 which among other things provided many Christians with their knowledge of the Talmud for more than 150 years.



    1730: The papacy of Benedict XII came to an end. In 1727, he had issued Emanavit Numerthat laid down the conditions under which Jews could be forcibly baptized. Two years later, he issued Alias Emanarunt that “forbade the selling of goods by Jews.”  (For more see The Inquisition: A History by Michael C. Thomsett)



    1743: George Frederic Handel's oratorio, "Samson" premiered in London.  The musical was based on the figure depicted in the Book of Judges and is another example of how Jewish culture enriched the culture of the Western World.



    1810: David Davis married Elizabeth Benjamin at the Great Synagogue today.



    1821: Birthdate of Elisabeth "Eliza, or Élisa" Rachel Félix better known only as Mademoiselle Rachel. She gained fame as an actress and as the mistress of the rich and famous including Napoleon III.



    1838(26thof Shevat, 5598): Fifty-nine year old French linguist Atntoine Isaac Silvestre de Sacy, the son of Abraham Silvestre, a Jewish notary, and the father of journalist  Ustazade Silvestre de Sacy passed away today in Paris.



    1843: A committee of representatives, including eight from the Great Synagogue, met for the second time in two days under the chairmanship of Isaac Cohen in the Vestry room in Duke's Place



    1848: Karl Marx published the Communist Manifesto.  Marx was not Jewish but his father was.  This fact has not stopped a myriad of anti-Semites including Adolph Hitler from equating Judaism with Communism.



    1849: Due to the civil rights granted under the Frankfurt Constitution which into effect today in Hamburg, forty-two year old lawyer Gabriel Riesser, the grandson of Rabbi Jakob Pinchas Katzenellenbogen and Rabbi Raphael Cohen was able to become a citizen of Hamburg where he was elected to the city’s parliament in 1859.



    1851: In Aldgate, London, Isaac and Leah Isaacs gave birth to Barnet Isaacs who gained fame as diamond and gold mining entrepreneur Barney Barnato who claimed that his birthdate was July 5, the same as contemporary Cecil Rhodes.



    1852: 1st of Adar, 5612): Rosh Chodesh Adar



    1852: Pope Pius IX wrote to the Grand Duke of Tuscany, “insisting that he revoke the right of the Jews to live outside of the Ghetto.”



    1852:Austen Henry Layard, the archeologist who excavated Nimrud and Niniveh as described in Discoveries at Nineveh completed his service as Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs.



    1856: A blood libel case occurred in Constantinople, with Jews being targeted with violence from Greeks, Armenians, and Turks. This occurred only three days after the Ottoman "reforms" which were to bring equality.



    1860: In Esztergom, Hungary, Rosalie Wiess and Phillip Schwartz, a captain in the Hungarian Army gave birth to Julius Schwartz, the husband of Annette Hirschman, who served as a Lt. of Artillery in the Hungarian Army until 1880, and came to the United States where he served as Richmond County (NY_ Park Commission, worked as manager for the Equitable Life Insurance Society for Staten Island and President of the Staten Island Hebrew Benevolent Society and Free Loan Fund.



    1860: An Imperial decree issued today granted the Jews of Lower Austria, Moravia, Silesia, Hungary, Voywodina, and the Banat, Croatia, Slavonia, Dalmatia, and the Littoral Districts, the right of possessing real property. They cannot, however, exercise the rights of patronage, jurisdiction, or scholastic representation, attached to such possession.



    1860: Uriah P. Levy was appointed Commodore and given command of the U.S. Navy’s Eastern Mediterranean fleet. A Jewish officer in the Navy at this time was rather unusual.  Levy dealt with his share of anti-Semitism during his career including a court-martial at the end of which he was fully exonerated. Levy waged a successful fight to end flogging as a form of punishment in the Navy.  He was an ardent admirer of Thomas Jefferson.  After Jefferson’s death, Levy bought Monticello and restored it to its former luster.  The restoration included reclaiming Jefferson’s library which numbered about 2500 volumes.  When Levy passed away in 1862, he left the estate to the people of the United States.  Levy was proud of his Jewish heritage.  He served as the first president of Washington Hebrew Congregation which is still one of the dominant Reform congregations in Washington, D.C. Forty-three years after President Monroe had made Levy a lieutenant, President Buchanan gave him command of the Mediterranean Squadron. With command came the Navy's highest rank: Commodore. The American fleet and frigates from Russia and Sardinia boomed out a thirteen-gun salute in the harbor at La Spezia as the pennant bearing a single star ran up the main mast of his flagship, USS Macedonian.



    1861(111thof Adar I, 5621): Hayyim Nissim Abulafia, a descendant of Hayyim Abulafia who “had come to Tiberias in the middle of the 18th century” who had served as chief rabbi of Jerusalem since the fall of 1854 following the death of Isaac Kobo, passed away today.



    1863: The Illustrated London News published an article new Bayswater Synagogue for which the foundation stone had been laid in July of 1862 and which would be dedicated in July of 1863.



    1863: Seventy-one year old Enrico Marconi, the non-Jewish Italian architect who designed the Great Synagogue in Lomza, Poland which “was built on the initiative of Rabbi Eliezer-Simcha Rabinowicz “and destroyed by the Nazis passed away today.



    1864: In London Esther (nee Davis) and businessman William Miller gave birth to Leonard Miller, the solicitor turned author who legally changed his name to Leonard Merrick and whose works included Violet Moses“about a Jewish Financier and his troubled wife” which was a “satire of middle class London Jewry.”



     1865: Cécile Anspach and Baron Gustave de Rothschild gave birth to Aline Caroline de Rothschild who became Lady Sassoon when he married Edward Sassoon in 1887. She passed away in 1909 having given birth to two children – Philip Albert Gustave David and Sybil Rachel Bettie Cecile.



    1866: At Rotterdam Johanna Hijmans became Johanna Kann when she married 26 year old Maurice Kann.



    1867: Ion Ghica who “was a valuable ally for Yiddish theater in Bucharest” and “on several occasions expressed his favorable view of the quality of acting, and even more of the technical aspects of the Yiddish theater” completed his second tour as Prime Minister of Romania today.



    1867: Birthdate of banker and patron of the arts Otto Hermann Kahn. While his name is unknown today, in his time Otto Kahn was a major financial and cultural figure in the United States and Europe.   Kahn began his banking career in Germany.  But he reached greatness after moving to the United States in 1893 where he became a partner in the banking firm of Kuhn, Loeb and Company.  Described as Wall Street Wizard, he helped “reorganize the U.S. railroad system, finance the Allied effort in World War I and encourage banking reform after the 1929 stock market crash.”   He organized and bankrolled the Metropolitan Opera Company.  He also supported a whole slew of artists many of whom were unknown and struggling at the time. Among the many recipients of his support were Hart Crane, George Gershwin, Arturo Toscanni, Eugene O’ Neil, Paul Robeson, Isadora Duncan and Ezra Pound.  The eclectic Kahn was also a favorite of the inventor Thomas A. Edison who kept a picture of the banker-philanthropist on the wall of his New Jersey Home.  Kahn accomplished this and a lot more despite anti-Semitism and anti-German feelings in the United States.  He passed away in 1934. Here is something to think about.  If a man with a resume like Kahn can be so quickly forgotten, how many of today’s “important people” will be remembered fifty years from now?



    1874:  Benjamin Disraeli replaced William Gladstone as Prime Minister.  Disraeli was born Jewish, but his father had him baptized.  The conversion came over a dispute that the elder Disraeli had with the local synagogue.  Since he was not Jewish, Disraeli was not limited by English law in pursuing his political career.  At the same time, he was the target of anti-Semitic barbs and he was quite proud of his Jewish heritage.



    1875: According to “Poland Today” described conditions in the present day Russian province which has shrunk from 282,000 square miles to 48,863 square miles under the rule of the Czars.  While the majority of the population is Roman Catholic, “the money in Poland is chiefly in the hands of the Jews.”



    1877: The 200thanniversary of the death of the great Dutch Jewish philosopher on the secular calendar was marked by the publishing of “Baruch Spinoza.”



    1879: "The Reformer and Jewish Times; A Journal of Progress in Religion, Literature, Science, and Art" published its final edition today.  It first appeared in 1869 as “The Jewish Times: A Journal of Reform and Progress.”



    1880: According to “The Elder Disraeli’s Tomb” published today, the tomb of Benjamin Disraeli, the grandfather of the Prime Minister which is located at the Spanish and Portuguese Cemetery in the Mile-end-road has been repaired.  The need to recut and repaint the tombstone should come as no surprise since the elder Disraeli was buried in 1816. No repairs have been made on the tombstone of the Prime Minister’s grandmother who was buried in the same cemetery.



    1880: It was reported today the Jewish leaders in New York City have an issued an appeal to their co-religionists throughout the United States to make generous contributions to the Alliance Israelite Universelle, the Paris based charity that provides financial support and educational opportunities for Jews living under the Czar and the Ottoman Sultan.  It is suggested that leaders take advantage of the upcoming Purim festivities and address their congregations on the Sabbath of Remembrances on the need for providing financial support.



    1881: Birthdate of Marc Boegner, the President of the Council of the Protestant Federation who risked his life by writing to Marshal Petain “protesting again the deportation of Jews and the inhuman manner in which orders for these deportations were being carried out.



    1881: Birthdate of Rabbi Jonah Bondi Wise “an American Rabbi and leader of the Reform Judaism movement, who served for over thirty years as rabbi of the Central Synagogue in Manhattan and was a founder of the United Jewish Appeal, serving as its chairman from its creation in 1939 until 1958.”



    1882: It was reported today that the reports of British Consular officials have “to a certain extent” exaggerated “the seriousness of the anti-Jewish riots in Russia” especially when it comes to “the reports of loss of life” and attacks on Jewish women.  Only about “100 Jews were shamefully” mistreated in Warsaw of whom only 10 or 12 have died because of their injuries. However, the reports of property destruction were not exaggerated.



    1883(14th of Adar I, 5643): Purim Katan



    1886: In Massachusetts, founding of the Lynn Hebrew Benevolent Society which meets the first Sunday of each month and is supported by an auxiliary society – the Ladies’ Hebrew Circle.



    1889: Birthdate of Otto Wasserzug, the son of Berlin banker who gained fame as actor Otto Wallburg who would win an Iron Cross while serving on the Eastern Front in WW I which did save him from being murdered at Auschwitz in 1944.



    1889: Birthdate of Moritz Neumann, one of the many Jewish men from Leinsteinach who served in the German Army during WW I.



    1892: As New York City continued to deal with an outbreak of Typhus, the SS Etruriawhich had been “detained at Quarantine” because she had a large “number of Russian Jews among her steerage passengers” was allowed to dock today.  The Health Officer order the seventy Russian Jews to remained on board until “their baggage” had been “thoroughly fumigated.”



    1890(1stof Adar, 5650): Rosh Chodesh Adar



    1892: “Non-Success of Russian Jews” published today which relied on information first published in the Pall Mall Gazette reported that Voskhod has examined the conditions “of Jews who left Russia during the persecutions of the last 18 months.”  According to this monthly Jewish publication, those who went to Palestine want to return to Russia because the agricultural settlements “have been failures.”  And things are so bad for those who went to United States, “that were a society formed…to pay” their expenses “two thirds would gladly avail themselves of its funds and return.” (This report may reflect the philosophic stance of Voshkod as much as it does the conditions of the people it described.



    1891: In Pittsburgh, PA on Shabbat, the rabbi at Poale Zedeck Congregation on Grant Street was prevented from preaching his announced sermon by Rueben Miller, the Vice President of the synagogue who was to be the topic of the talk.



    1892: “A Great Hebrew Hospital” published today provided a lengthy history of Mount Sinai Hospital which began as the Jewish Hospital.  In addition to all of its other accomplishments, it “was the first hospital in the city to admit women to membership on its house staff.”



    1893: Mr. Weinstock wrote from Sacramento, CA to Pierre Botkine of Century Magazine asking  about the status of Jews in Russia “who enter the Greek Catholic Church.”  Specifically, he wanted to know if conversion brings “full civil and political rights.”



    1895: Birthdate of Szmul Zygielbojm (Zygelbojm or Zigelboim) “a Jewish-Polish socialist politician, leader of the Bund, and a member of the National Council of the Polish government in exile” who in 1943  “committed suicide to protest the indifference of the Allied governments in the face of the Holocaust.”



    1895: Alfred Dreyfus was “removed from his prison and transferred to an icy cell in a naval cruiser” which would carry him imprisonment on Devil’s Island.



    1896: Students' party at "Kadimah". The students give Herzl a great ovation.



    1897: Birthdate of Meir Ya’ari, the native of Galicia who made Aliyah in 1920 where he help to found Kibbutz Artzi before serving in as a member of Israel’s first Knesset.



    1897: In correspondence bearing today's date, “leading members of the Jewish community in Tripoli sent a letter to the President of the Alliance that gave a grim picture of Jewish life in rural Tripolitania."  The Jews reported that they were living as “dhimmi.” An Arab mob had destroyed the synagogue in the village of Zliten and in another village the authorities refused to find those who had murdered one Jew and injured his companion.



    1897: The Board of Trustees of the Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum is scheduled to meet today where they will take up Emanuel Lehman’s offer to provide $100,000 “for the endowment of an industrial and provident fund for the benefit of graduates of the asylum.”



    1898: As the trial of Emile Zola, the publisher of the Aurore enters its final days it was reported today that “public feeling against the Jews is so overwhelming that” his conviction is a foregone conclusion.



    1898: It was reported today that Jews in Trenton, NJ are are still upset with the anti-Semitic remarks of William J. Cossley, the Prosecutor in Mercer County. 



    1899: It was reported today that “Max Regis, the former Mayor of Algiers” and “notorious Jew-baiter…has been sentenced…to three years’ imprisonment” and ordered “to pay a fine of 1,000 francs” for press offenses and glorify murder and pillage at meetings in Algiers and Paris.”  (These meetings were part of the anti-Dreyfus violence that swept France.)



    1899: In Brooklyn,” Morris and Anna Krystal Gottschalk, Jewish immigrants from Poland” gave birth to their sixth child, historian Louis Reichenthal Gottschalk.
    http://www.nytimes.com/1975/06/25/archives/louis-gottschalk-historian-76-french-revolution-expert-dies.html?_r=0



    1900: Birthdate of Henry Cohen, the British physician and lecture who was honored as the 1st Baron Cohen of Birkenhead for his contributions in the field of medicine.



    1902(14thof Adar I, 5662): Purim Katan



    1902(14thof Adar I, 5661): Louis Brenner, the daughter of Brooklyn real estate developer Levi Blumenau and the wife of “Brooklyn magistrate and Kings County Commissioner of Jurors” with whom she had six children – Arthur, Mortimer, Rose, Rica, Selma, and Caroline – passed away today.



    1905: During the Russian Revolution of 1905 the Chief of Police for the district that included Bialystok was killed.  Attacks like this would become an excuse for the attacks against the Jews known as the Bialystok Pogrom that would take place in June of the following year.



    1910: Samuel D. Warren, a former law partner of Louis D. Brandeis passed away today in Boston, MA



    1912: Birthdate of Dr. Solomon Schonfeld, the British rabbi who saved thousands during the Holocausthttp://www.hamhigh.co.uk/news/british_hero_of_holocaust_government_honours_highgate_rabbi_dr_solomon_schonfeld_for_saving_3_500_lives_in_holocaust_1_2013751
    http://www.jta.org/1984/02/10/archive/solomon-schonfeld-dead-at-72
    http://www.ajr.org.uk/index.cfm/section.journal/issue.Dec07/article=971



    1913(14thof Adar I, 5673): Purim Katan



    1914: Dr. John Tatlock and Marjorie Tatlock gave birth to Dr. Jean Frances Tatlock whom some contend was the mistress of J. Robert Oppenheimer. Tatlock was a Communist and this relationship would be used against him when his security clearance was lifted after World War II.



    1915: Dr. Cyrus Adler, President of Dropsie College, presided over the opening session of the 23rd annual meeting of the American Jewish Historical Society which is being held at the Hotel McAlpin in New York City.



    1915: “At a meeting of the Jewish Community, or Kehillah, held today at the Educational Alliance a report was approved calling upon the American Jewish Committee to take the leadership in plans for meeting ‘the greatest crisis that has overtaken the Jews in centuries’” – a crisis that “has been brought about by the war” and the problems of which “must be solved by the 3,000,000 American Jews.”



    1915: “Life and Times of the Famous Jewish Historian” published today provides a review of Josephusby Norman Bentwich published by the Jewish Publication Society.



    1915: Solicitor General Hugh M. Dorsey and Attorney General Warren Grice left Atlanta for Washington today where they will file a brief with the Supreme Court in the case of Leo Frank, “asserting the right of every state of the union to make and enforce its own criminal laws, from interference or supervision by the Federal courts.



    1915: William Vincent Byars of St. Louis read a paper on the part played by the Gratz brothers in the development of trade in the Ohio and Mississippi Valleys at the morning session of the annual meeting of the American Jewish Historical Society.



    1915: Leon Huchner presented a paper on the life of Daniel Gomez a merchant in colonial New York at the afternoon session of the annual meeting of the American Jewish Historical Society.



    1915: Another 600 or 700 refugees, most of whom are Jewish, arrived in Egypt today “reporting that the situation in Syria is going from bad to worse.”



    1916: C.H. Rubenstein wrote to Simon Wolf, the “Chairman of the Board of Delegates on Civil Rights of the Union American Hebrew Congregations describing the action he took with Rabbi Rosenau in opposing “a bill now before the General Assembly making the reading of the King James version of the Bible compulsory in the public schools of Maryland.



    1916: During World War I, 1,400 German guns fired the opening salvo in the Battle of Verdun. The bloodletting would last for ten months at a cost over half a million French casualties and four hundred thousand German casualties.  For the French, this pointless bloodletting would lead to a pacifism when facing the threat of Hitler.  Life in the trenches would lead to the creation of the Maginot Line which also helped to pave the way for France’s early collapse in World War II.  In other words, a fairly straight line can be drawn from a battle in 1916 and the rise of Vichy and French collaboration with the Nazis that led to the death of so many Jews. Additionally, the “hero” of Verdun was Marshall Petain, the same Marshall Petain who collaborated with the Nazis during WWII, shipping Jews to Drancy, the first stop on the way to Auschwitz.



    1917: According to the Overseas News Agency, the $250,000 that the U.S. Ambassador has given to the Vienna Jewish Association which was collected by the American Jewish community “is destined for the relief of Galician Jews and Jewish refugees from the occupied territory of Galicia.”



    1918(9thof Adar, 5678): Fifty-two year old author and linguist Hedwig Lachmann passed away. (As reported by Hanna Delf von Wolzogen)



    1918:  During the fight to free Palestine from Turkish control, Australian units under the overall command of General Allenby drove the Turks from Jericho and reached the northern end of the Dead Sea. As a result of these victories, the British would become the mandatory power after the war and the Balfour Declaration would be worth the paper it was written on, for a little while at least.



    1919:  As the right wing reasserts its authority in Germany, a German aristocrat named Count Anton Arco-Valley shot Jewish born Bavarian political leader Kurt Eisner in the back and killed him as he on his way to the Munich Parliament.



    1919: In Hungary, “the prime minister ordered the arrest of over one hundred prominent Communists including Bela Kun.”



    1921: The Daughters of Zion Hebrew Day Nursery are scheduled to hold a ball tonight which is a fund raiser of the school at 211 Varet Street that provides care about fifty children of working mothers.



    1921 Dr. Maurice I Harris of Temple Israel delivered one in a series of four lectures on Modern Jewish History at the Teachers’ Institute of the Free Synagogue on West 68th Street this evening.



    1922: Birthdate of DJ Murray “the K,” referred to as the Fifth Beatle.



    1922: Birthdate of Zivi Zeitlin, the native of Dubrovna who was raised in Palestine and became “an internationally renowned violinist known for interpreting the work of contemporary composers.” Zeitlin was 11 years old when he won a scholarship to Julliard making him the youngest person to win such an honor from the famed music school.  In 1967, he became a professor at the Eastman School of Music.(As reported by Margalit Fox)



    1922: “The Loves of Pharaoh” a “million dollar epic” silent film directed by Ernst Lubitsch premiered in New York today.



    1925: In York, PA, Lewis and Nettie Wolfson Leibowitz gave birth to Herschel Weldon Leibowitz, “a Penn State University psychologist who was among the first scientists to explore how the mind can misinterpret what the eye sees at night, a phenomenon that contributes to traffic accidents.” (As reported by Benedict Carey)



    1926: In London, “Israel Zangwill, speaking at a meeting of the Jewish Drama League” tonight “said that George Bernard Shaw had make the Jews his debtors because all his translators and agents were Jews.”



    1926: “A contribution of $3,000 was announced” today “from national headquarters of the United Jewish Campaign which is endeavoring to raise $15,000,000 from American Jewry for their suffering corelitionist in foreign lands.”



    1926: “Speakers at the third annual meeting of the National Council of the Palestine Foundation Fund at the Hotel Astor” today “declared that wealthy Jews have not done their share in the last year toward the support of the fund for the welfare of Jews in Palestine.”



    1929: Sir Julien Cahn XI, a cricket team Sir Julien Cahn founded and captained for made its “first-class debut” in Jamaica.



    1929: Sixty-nine year old Sir John Grenfell Maxwell, the British General who when putting together the forces for the Gallipoli landings selected Lt. Col. John Henry Patterson “to raise and command a Jewish military unit to fight against the Turks in the Middle East” passed away today.



    1932(14th of Adar I, 5692): Purim Katan



    1932(14th of Adar I 5692): Boris Schatz, founder of the Bezalel Art School passed away.



    1932: The new home for Sephardi Temple Tifereth Israel located on Santa Barbara Avenue was dedicated today in Los Angeles.



    1932: “According to announcement sent out by the Jewish National Fund of America” today, “an evergreen memorial of 500,000 pin and eucalyptus trees will be planted in Palestine as a living tribute of the Jews of America” to George Washington.



    1932: It was reported today that “Judge Benjamin N. Cardozo of the Court of Appeals…who has been named a member of the United States Supreme Court” attended services at the Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue, the only Jewish congregation active in New York during the Colonial and Revolutionary Period that celebrated the bicentennial of the birth of George Washington.



    1932: The New York Times featured a review of The Tragedies of Progress by Italian Jewess Gina Lombroso who is described as a severe critic "of the trend in our technical civilization"



    1933: In Tyron, NC, Mary Kate Waymon and John Divine Waymon gave birth to Eunice Kathleen Waymon who gained fame as singer-songwriter Kathleen Waymon whose repertoire included “Eretz Zavat Halav and who recorded “Strange Fruit,” a song written by Abel Meeropol which was inspired after he saw “a photograph of two young men being lynched.”



    1933: Birthdate of New York native Robert “Bob” Rafelson, “the son of hat ribbon manufacturer” and nephew of screenwriter Samuel Raphaeslon, “the author of ‘The Jazz’” whose most famous work may have “Five Easy Pieces which directed, produced and also co-authored the script.



    1934: The Los Angeles Times reported that “Samuel Untermyer, head of the New York-based Anti-Nazi League came” to the southern California metropolis “to speak about the dangers of Nazi Germany.]



    1935: “When the Jewish-owned steamer Tel Aviv” docked today in Palestine for the first time, the first passenger to land was” Georg Martini the correspondent for The Völkischer Beobachter the official newspaper of the Nazi Party.



    1936: In Warsaw, the Polish Senate debated a proposal for “a mass emigration of Jews from Poland” during which Senator Jausz Radzweill said that he felt “bound to say that Germany’s example may encourage anti-Semitic troubles everywhere.”



    1936: “The National Democratic Party of Upper Silesia was ordered disbanded today on charges of conducting anti-Semitic agitation.”



    1937: Today’s listing “Forthcoming Books” included The Dreyfus Case and Major Noah: American Jewish Pioneer.



    1937: In Poland, citizens were informed by loud speakers, posters and leaflets of the “creation of the new government party Colonel Adam Koc, commander of the Pilsudski Legionnaires who said “we can never approve of violence and brutal anti-Semitic outrages which degrade our national dignity and honor… but we understand the instinct of legitimate defense of our people in their” move “toward economic independence.”



    1938: Semyon Dimanstein who had at one time been head of Yevsektsiya, the Jewish section of the Soviet Communist party, was arrested by Stalin.  Within short order he would be condemned to death and executed.



     1938: The Palestine Post reported that British troops, assisted by police, inflicted heavy casualties on a gang of armed Arabs halfway between Rosh Pina and Safed and that there were about 500 suspected Arab terrorists interned at El Mizra camp.



    1938: The Palestine Post reported that R.E. Alderson, R.A.F. Squadron Leader murdered by Arab terrorists near Atlit was buried with honors at Ramle.



    1938: The Palestine Post reported that The Jewish Agency, The Marine Trust Ltd. and other Jewish organizations asked the government to speed up the development of the Tel Aviv port in order to stop congestion and allow normal passenger traffic. The basin had to be deepened, the quay space doubled and another lighter basin added to the existing facilities.



    1939: In a further move to impoverish the Jews, the German government order them “to surrender all objects made from gold, silver, precious stones and pearls.” (Like Haman, Hitler knew that anti-Semitism was a profitable “business.”



    1939: The Italian government continued its “campaign against the United States as a whole and Mr. Roosevelt in particular” by calling the President “an alarmist who is …yielding to pressure from Jews bent on crush the totalitarian States to avenge the persecution of their brethren in Germany and Italy…”



    1939(2ndof Adar, 5699): Eighty-seven year old Jewish philanthropist Jacques Teitel who “for forty years filled an office” similar to that of a district attorney in the United States and who after being forced to leave Russia “went to Germany where he became president of the Union of Russian Jews in Germany” passed away today in Nice, France.
    https://timesmachine.nytimes.com/timesmachine/1939/02/22/96020335.pdf



    1940: Oberfuerher Richard Gluecks informed Himmler that he had found a "suitable site" for a new "quarantine Camp" at Auschwitz.



    1940: Czech architect Otto Eisler arrived in Norway after fleeing his homeland which had been taken over by the Nazis who had imprisoned and tortured him.



    1941: “The Strawberry Blonde” featuring George Tobias with a script by Julius J. Epstein and Philip G. Epstein was released in the United States today.



    1943: The Battle of Guadalcanal ended.  Former champion boxer, Barney Ross won a Silver Star the second highest medal given for battlefield gallantry for his heroics during this grinding eight month long battle.  Ross had enlisted at the age of 32 and fought in the first of the island hopping battles that would lead to victory over Japan in 1945.



    1943: In Paterson, NJ. stationary store owner Morris Roses and his wife, the former Ceil Schwartz, both of whom escaped the Holocaust, gave birth to Dr. Allen Roses “a maverick researcher whose team of scientists identified two genes that put healthy people over 65 at higher risk for Alzheimer’s disease.”
    https://www.nytimes.com/2016/10/06/science/allen-roses-who-upset-common-wisdom-on-cause-of-alzheimers-dies-at-73.html?hpw&rref=obituaries&action=click&pgtype=Homepage&module=well-region&region=bottom-well&WT.nav=bottom-well



    1943: Dutch Roman Catholic bishops protested against persecution of Jews. This came as part of the response to Nazi recent roundups of Jews in Amsterdam. The "Righteous Gentiles" did make their attempts to help, but there were just too few of them.



    1943:In Borough Park, Brooklyn, Abraham Geffen and Batya Volovskaya, the owner of “a clothing store called Chic Corsets by Geffen gave birth to David Lawrence Gefen, who founded “Asylum Records in 1970, Geffen Records in 1980, DGC Records in 1990, and DreamWorks SKG in 1994.”



    1943: Sir Harold MacMichael, High Commissioner of the British Mandate of Palestine, broadcast a speech tonight on the eve of Red Army Day in which he “warmly praised the achievements of the Red Army.”



    1944(27thof Shevat, 5704): Dov Lopatyn was killed by a landmine today.  While serving as the head of the Judenrat in Lachwa  he “refused the demand of the Einsatzgruppen that the Lakhva Ghetto inhabitants line up for deportation and led one of the first ghetto uprisings after which an untold number of the Jews escaped to the Pripet Marshes.  It was there the Lopatyn joined the partisans with whom he fought until his death.



    1944: Birthdate of Dr. Sander L. Gilmnan, the New York native and Tulane University alum whose accomplishments include the founding of the Jewish Studies program at the University of Illinois, Chicago.
    http://ila.emory.edu/home/people/faculty/gilman.html



    1946: British soldiers and policeman are searching for those who attacked the police headquarters tonight in Haifa and Tel Aviv.  The attackers in Tel Aviv were armed with machine guns and grenades and set-off at least 6 separate explosions.  The attacks followed searches of Jewish settlements by the police that resulted in the seizure of rifles and “a clandestine radio.”



    1946: Congressman Augustus Bennett, a New York Republican, with the support of Congressman Thomas J. Lane, a Massachusetts Democrat, introduced a resolution today in the House of Representative calling for a “Congressional investigation of the Palestine situation…The measure calls for a joint House-Senate committee to be sent to the Holy Land to investigate conditions there and report its findings to Congress.”



    1946: Birthdate of Monice Lenore Belson, the sister of Jerry Beslon, who gained fame as screenwriter Monica Johnson.



    1947: “Nora Prentis” a film noir directed by Vincent Sherman, with music by Franz Waxman and a screenplay by N. Richard Nash was released today in the United States.



    1947: Edwin H. Land demonstrated the first instant developing camera in New York City. It took only sixty seconds to develop a black and white photograph.  Most of us know that such famous scientists as Einstein, Salk and Sabine were Jewish.  But how many knew that this famous college dropout was Jewish as well?  He is also given credit for creating improved lenses and sunglasses as well as providing research on new theories related to color perception.



    1948(11thof Adar I, 5708): Parashat Tetzaveh



    1948(11thof Adar I, 5708): Seventy-six German born journalist and university professor Gustav Mayer who moved to the Netherlands when the Nazis came to power before making his way to England in 1936 where he began working on a “history of the English Worker’s Movement” passed away today.



    1948: Twenty-eight year old Alf James won the South African Welterweight Title.



    1948: The Arab League voted to deny American oil companies pipeline rights in the Middle East until Washington altered its Palestine policy reinforcing efforts by Secretary of State George Marshall and others at the State Department to get President Truman to reconsider his support for the creation of a Jewish state.



    1951(15thof Adar I, 5711): Sixty-nine year old Sara Samuel who served as “Headmistress of the girl’s department of the JFS” from 1938 “until her retirement in 1945” and was the Secretary of the Stamford Hill Ladies’ Guild at the New Synagogue for 15 years passed away today.



    1955: David Ben-Gurion succeeded Pinhas Lavon as Defense Minister.



    1955(29thof Shevat, 5715): Seventy-six year old Dr. Alwin M. (Max) Pappenheimer the Columbia trained pathologist who was on the faculty at Columbia and who was the father of Dr. Anne P. Forbes, Dr. John R. Pappenheimer and Dr. Alwin M. Pappenheimer, Jr. of NYU who followed in his father’s footsteps, passed away today.
    https://timesmachine.nytimes.com/timesmachine/1955/02/22/96627378.pdf



    1956(9thof Adar I, 5716): Sixty-nine year old mobster and confederate of Al Capone Jake Guzik passed away on the South Side of Chicago.



     1958: Birthdate of exercise expert Jake Steinfeld (Body by Jake).



     1958: Egypt and Syria having formed the United Arab Republic (UAL) elected the Egyptian dictator Gamiel Nasser as its new President.  Nasser was a Pan Arabist - yes they show up year in and year out - who was determined to destroy the state of Israel as his means of uniting the Arab World.  He failed on both counts.



    1956(9th of Adar, 5716): Edwin Franko Goldman the founder of Goldman Band of New York City and the American Bandmasters Association passed away at the Montefiore Hospital in New York



    1958: In Cambridge, MA, Elaine Salovey, a registered nurse, and Ronald Salovey, a physical chemist gave birth to their oldest child Peter Salovey, a descendant of the Soloveichik rabbinic family who became the 23 President of Yale University.



    1960: In Bloomington, the weekend long ceremonies marking the dedication of the Moses Montefiore Temple came to a close.



    1962: “Walk on the Wild Side” a movie version of a novel by the same name with “opening and closing sequences directed by Saul Bass” starring Laurence Harvey and with music by Elmer Bernstein was released in the United States today.



    1962: In Brooklyn, Norma and Al Lerner gave birth to Randy Lerner the billionaire businessman who took over ownership of the Cleveland Browns when his father passed away.



    1962: Birthdate of Eliezer Sandberg, the Haifa native who has served as a member of the Knesset and held at least two cabinet posts.



    1966: Jan Peerce appeared in “Don Giovanni” today in what would be his “last complete stage performance at the Metropolitan Opera.”



    1968: Birthdate of Daniel Jacob “Dan” Calichman the native of Huntington Station, NY who “played college soccer at Williams” before going on to a career as professional player and coach.



    1968: “Bye Bye Braverman” an American comedy directed and produced by Sidney Lumet, starring George Segal and Joseph Wiseman, with music by Peter Matz and filmed cinematographer Boris Kaufman was released in the United States today.



    1969(3rdof Adar, 5729): Two were killed and twenty more wounded in a terrorist bombing attack at Jerusalem supermarket.



    1969(3rd of Adar, 5729): Itzik Manger (איציק מאַנגער) passed away. Born in what is now the Ukraine in 1901, Manger lived in various European cities as he wrote plays and poems in Yiddish. Towards the end of his life, he made Aliyah and lived in Tel Aviv. Itzik's Midrash and Songs of the Megillahwere two of his more famous works, both of which drew upon Biblical themes.
    http://www.yivoencyclopedia.org/article.aspx/Manger_Itsik



    1970: A Swissair plane bound from Zurich to Tel Aviv explodes and crashes shortly after takeoff; all 47 people aboard are killed.



    1970: An Austrian airliner carrying mail for Israel from Frankfurt, West Germany, to Vienna is damaged by an explosion in flight; no one is hurt.



    1971(26thof Shevat, 5731): Eighty-five year old Madison, SD native Calre Stephen Jacobs who won the Bronze Medal for Pole Vaulting in the 1908 Summer Olympics passed away today.



    1971: In “Seeing the Sinai” Douglas Greener described his tour of the Wilderness 4 years after the Six Day War.
    http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive/pdf?res=FA0813F73B5F127A93C3AB1789D85F458785F9



    1972: Today, “Mel Brooks appeared as the 2000 Year Old Man to help celebrated the 2000thepisode of the original quiz show Jeopardy!”



    1973: Israeli fighter planes shot down a Libyan Airlines jet over the Sinai Desert, killing more than 100 people.



    1974: Refusniks “Vitaly Rubin, Vladimir Galatzky and David Azbel completed a hunger strike” today.



    1974: Israeli forces left the territory on the western side of the Suez Canal.  While the Yom Kippur War (October, 1973) began as a disaster for the Israelis, the military outcome was a triumph.  Troops under Sharon crossed the Suez Canal and put a stranglehold on the Egyptian Army.  The disengagement of 1974 led to the historic visit of Sadat and the peace treaty that followed.



    1977: Birthdate of Birthdate of Jonathan Safran Foer an American author whose works include Everything Is Illuminated and Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close and Eating Animals.



    1978: The Jerusalem Post reported that there were at least 2,000 guests at the colorful opening of the 29th Zionist Congress in Jerusalem.



    1978: The Jerusalem Post reported that Finance Minister Simha Ehrlich had set up a special police task force to study how to implement the Shimron Committee's recommendations on fighting the organized crime in Israel.



    1978: The Jerusalem Post reported that Egypt withdrew its diplomatic mission from Cyprus after its 15 commandos were killed and some 50 injured in fighting Cypriot soldiers and PLO terrorists in an attempt to free a plane at the Larnaca airport, in which two Arab terrorists were holding Arab and Egyptian hostages.



    1982: A revival of “Little Me,” a musical written by Neil Simon, with music by Cy Coleman and lyrics by Carolyn Leigh the cast of which included Bebe Neuwirth closed at the Eugene O’Neill Theatre.



    1982(28th of Shevat, 5742): Gershom Scholem passed away.  Born on December 5, 1897, Scholem, was a Jewish philosopher and historian who was raised in Germany. He is widely regarded as the modern founder of the scholarly study of Kabbalah, becoming the first Professor of Jewish Mysticism at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Scholem is best known for his collection of lectures, Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism (1941) and for his biography Sabbatai Zevi, the Mystical Messiah (1973). His collected speeches and essays, published as On Kabbalah and its Symbolism (1965), helped to spread knowledge of Jewish mysticism among non-Jews. He was awarded the Israel Prize in 1958 and was elected president of the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities in 1968.

    1983(8thof Adar, 5743): Eighty-nine year old Columbia University graduate  Louis Bernstein who was a teacher and principal in New York City for more than 50 years passed away today.

    1983(8th of Adar, 5743): Murray Seasongood, who served as Mayor of Cincinnati, Ohio from 1926 through 1930 passed away today at the age of 104.

    1986: Leonard “Cohen appeared as villain Francois Zolan in the "French Twist" episode of the American television series Miami Vice originally broadcast today.”



    1987: The Syrian army marched into Beirut.  This was part of Syria’s plan to rule “Greater Syria” a territory that would include Lebanon, Israel and Jordan.  At the behest of the United States, Israel blocked Syria’s plans to seize part of Jordan in the 1970’s.  As the bombing in Beirut this week reminds us, the Syrians still dominate the Lebanese political scene.



    1988: In “Russia and the Jews: Photos of a Turbulent Past,” published today Chaim Potok used his critique of an exhibition at the Jewish Museum to provide a semi-sentimental journey through the world of Russian Jewry in the closing decades of the 19th century and the opening decades of the twentieth century.



    1991: Neil Simon's "Lost in Yonkers" premiered at Richard Rodgers Theater in New York City for the first of 780 performances.



    1991: British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher delivers the key note address at the retirement dinner honoring Sir Immanuel Jakobovits, Chief Rabbi of the British Commonwealth,



    1992: Israeli forces withdrew from two villages in southern Lebanon today, ending a 24-hour thrust against Shiite Muslim guerrillas who had fired salvos of rockets into northern Israel. Hours after the withdrawal, the villages were again filled with gunmen from the pro-Iranian Party of God, and fresh barrages of rockets were fired at Israeli border villages.



    1992(17th of Adar I, 5752): In Granot Haglil, five-year old Avia Elizad was killed by a Katyusha fired by Arabs in Lebanon as she ran to meet her father who was returning from work.  Her last words were “Daddy, Daddy!”



    1992: A Palestinian fatally stabbed Russian émigré today in Kfar Sava, northeast of Tel Aviv. The assailant, from neighboring Kalkilya on the West Bank, stabbed the woman in the neck with a kitchen knife and wounded three other émigrés before being shot and subdued. Leaflets distributed in Gaza and signed by the Islamic Holy War movement took responsibility for the stabbing.



    1992: Opening of “Lou Bernstein: Five Decades of Photographs” an exhibition of his works that covers 20 years of wandering New York from the 1940s to the 1960s.



    1993: After a campaign sullied by charges of mischief and wrongdoing, Israeli rabbinical elders and political leaders chose Chief Rabbis today for the Ashkenazic and Sephardic branches of Judaism. Rabbi Yisrael Meir Lau, 56, Chief Rabbi of Tel Aviv, won the closely watched race to represent Ashkenazic JewsNS Rabbi Eliahu Bakshi-Doron, 52, of Haifa, won the Sephardic contest



    1993(30thof Shevat, 5753): Sixty-eight year old cartoon pioneer Harvey Kurtzman passed away today. (As reported by Richard D. Lyons)
    http://www.nytimes.com/1993/02/22/nyregion/harvey-kurtzman-68-cartoonist-who-helped-start-mad-magazine.html
    http://www.harveykurtzman.com/



    1994(10thof Adar, 5754): Ninety-three year old Mary Woodard Lasker, the widow of Albert Davis Lasker with whom she established the Lasker Foundation passed away today. (As reported by Eric Pace)
    http://www.nytimes.com/1994/02/23/obituaries/mary-w-lasker-philanthropist-for-medical-research-dies-at-93.html



    1995(21stof Adar I, 5755): Eighty-six year old pathologist Alwin M. (Max) Pappenheimer passed away today.
    http://www.nytimes.com/1995/03/24/obituaries/alwin-m-pappenheimer-jr-86-shed-light-on-bacterial-toxins.html



    1995:Leonard Hoffmann, Baron Hoffmann began serving “as a Lord of Appeal in Ordinary” today.



    1996(1st of Adar, 5756): Science fiction writer Horace Leonard Gold passed away at the age of 81.
    http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1760058/Horace-L-Gold



    19961st of Adar, 5756): Composer and former President of ASCAP Morton Gould passed away at the age of 82. (As reported by Bernard Holland)
    http://www.nytimes.com/1996/02/22/nyregion/morton-gould-composer-and-conductor-dies-at-82.html



    1997: Bob Rafelson turned sixty-four today, on the same day which Blood & Wine, the thriller he had directed was released in the United States.



    1999: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Kissinger Transcripts:The Top Secret Talks With Beijing and Moscow,Edited by William Burr and Ex-FriendsFalling Out With Allen Ginsberg, Lionel and Diana Trilling, Lillian Hellman, Hannah Arendt, and Norman Mailerby Norman Podhoretz



    1999(5th of Adar, 5759): Gertrude Elion, winner of The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1988,passed away.For more about this fascinating woman in her own words see
     http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1988/elion-autobio.html.



    1999: At the Museum of Jewish Heritage, Family Heritage Week, with special activities, including creating family trees and special tours, goes on through Sunday. Exhibitions include ''Jewish Life a Century Ago,'' with memorabilia from Jewish rituals and celebrations in Europe in the early 1900's; ''War Against the Jews,'' detailing events from 1933 to 1945, and ''Jewish Renewal,'' focusing on life after the Holocaust comes to an end.



    2000: Ninety-two year old General Kenneth D. Nichols who played a key role in the development of the Atomic Bomb during WW II and who was one of the driving forces behind removing J. Robert Oppenheimer’s security clearance passed away.
    http://www.nytimes.com/2000/02/25/us/k-d-nichols-92-leader-in-early-atomic-age.html



     2002: The State Department declared that Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Pearl was dead, a month after he'd been abducted by Islamic extremists in Pakistan.



    2002(9thof Adar I, 5762): A Palestinian terrorist shot 22 year old Minhal Dragma during the killing spree known as the Second Intifada. (Don’t you just love how the terrorists come up with this jazzy names for murder?)



    2002: A videotape was released titled “The Slaughter of the Spy-Journalist, the Jew Daniel Pearl.” The video shows Pearl's mutilated body, and lasts 3 minutes and 36 seconds.



    2004: Bassam al-Asker, one of the murdering terrorists who hijacked the Achille Lauro was erroneously reported to have died today.  (As of 2007, he was supposedly living in Lebanon having spent 14 years training terrorists in Iraq.)



    2004(29thof Shevat, 5764): Eighty-four year old Milton “Milt” Rubenfeld who flew for the RAF and the USAAF in WW II before ‘becoming one of the five founding pilots of the IAF during Israel’s War of Independence” whose service was vital to the success of the Zionist cause passed away today in Florida.
    http://www.sas.upenn.edu/~sklausne/NWin04.pdf



    2006: The Jewish author E. L. Doctorow was named the winner of the PEN/Faulkner Award for fiction. The winning work was The March (Random House), his best-selling novel about Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman's devastating march through the Confederate South, The Associated Press reported. Mr. Doctorow, who also won the 1990 Pen/Faulkner Award for "Billy Bathgate," will receive a prize of $15,000 from the Washington-based organization, which is "committed to building audiences for exceptional literature and bringing writers together with their readers."



    2006: Wafa Sultan, an American author and critic of Muslim society and Islam who trained as a psychiatrist in Syria took part in Al Jazeera's weekly 45-minute discussion program The Opposite Direction. She criticized Muslims for treating non-Muslims differently, and for not recognizing the accomplishments of Jewish and other members of non-Muslim society while using their wealth and technology. The video was the most discussed video of all time with over 260,000 comments on the video-sharing website YouTube. Sultan describes her thesis as witnessing "a battle between modernity and barbarism which Islam will lose". It has brought her telephone threats, but also praise from reformers. Her comments, especially a pointed criticism that "no Jew has blown himself up in a German restaurant", brought her invitation to Jerusalem by the American Jewish Congress.



    2006(23rd of Shevat, 5766):  Abraham Lopez Cardozo passed away at the age of 91.  The New York cantor was known for his efforts to preserve the music of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews (As reported by Ari L. Goldman)
    http://www.nytimes.com/2006/02/23/arts/music/23cardozo.html



    2007: Haaretz reported that only 19,264 people immigrated to Israel in 2006, down nine percent from 2005. It is the lowest number of immigrants recorded since 1988. Nearly 3 million people have immigrated to Israel since the country's founding in 1948, roughly one third of which immigrated during the 1990s. Some 300 people emigrated from India in 2006 - a fivefold increase from 2005. According to the Central Bureau of Statistics, since 2002 - the year in which the major wave of immigration from the former Soviet Union came to an end - there has been a consistent downward trend in immigration. In 2006, immigration was down to 1980s levels, during which time 9,000-24,000 people immigrated annually.  In 2006, only 2.7 people immigrated for every 1,000 veteran residents. In 1990-91, at the height of immigration from the former Soviet Union, that figure stood at an average of 35 per 1,000, and from 1990-2001, it averaged 17 per 1,000. Starting in 2003, that figure fell to below 3.8 per 1,000 - also the rate during 1980-89, the period of lowest immigration in Israel's history.



    2007: Today,in an interview with Maureen Dowd of the New York Times,” on his 64th birthday, movie mogul David “Geffen described Hillary Clinton and Bill Clinton in unflattering terms saying, ‘Everybody in politics lies, but they do it with such ease, it's troubling’ and that Hillary Clinton was "incredibly polarizing" while Bill Clinton was "reckless” thus casting doubt on those who say he has become a different person since leaving office



    2008: In New York, Susannah Heschel presents a lecture entitled “Biblical Scholarship and the Rise of Racism.”



    2009: Shabbat Shekalim – Sabbath of the Shekel (5769)



    2009: Two and a half weeks after United Nations peacekeepers in southern Lebanon discovered five rockets ready to be launched toward Israel, a Katyusha rocket slammed into the western Galilee near the town of Ma'alot this morning, lightly wounding three people.



    2009: The 92ndStreet Y presents “It Started With a Dream: David Zippel—Lyrics He Wrote, Lyrics He Wishes He Wrote”during which the Jewish Tony Award-winner and multiple Oscar, Emmy and Grammy award nominee  presents highlights from his own scores and shares his inspirations and personal favorites from the iconic Songbook canon.  



    2009: The Cedar Rapids Gazette reports that Rabbi Ellen Weinberg Dreyfus, who leads a small congregation in suburban Chicago, will become the second woman to head the rabbinical assembly of Judaism’s liberal Reform movement.



    2010: Family, students and friends, including American historians Jonathan Sarna and Kimmy Caplan will gather at 7 p.m. at Jerusalem’s Yedidiya Synagogue for a memorial symposium marking the 40th anniversary of the death of Rabbi Geffen, who for 60 years was considered the dean of the Southern Orthodox rabbinate in the US.



    2010: The Jewish Agency for Israel is scheduled to open its three-day long meeting today in Jerusalem.  The meeting had originally been scheduled to be held in St. Petersburg (Russia, not Florida.)



    2010: The Israeli Ballet is scheduled to perform Don Quixote, at the Walt Whitman Theatre in Brooklyn, NY.



    2010: A man hurled a suitcase containing a makeshift bomb at Cairo's main downtown synagogue in the early hours this morning, causing no injuries or damage, police said.



    2010: The Washington Post featured a review of Pulitzer: A Life in Politics, Print, and Power by James McGrath Morris, a biography about the Hungarian born Jewish immigrant who changed the face of American journalism.



    2011: The movies scheduled to be shown today at the Atlanta Jewish Film touch a wide range of Jewish emotions and themes since they include Diary of Anne Frank and American Tail, an animated film about “the immigrant adventure of Russian-Jewish mice that flee persecution in pursuit of the American dream.”



    2011: Israeli pianist Idith Meshulam is scheduled to perform the second annual Music Of Now Marathon in New York City.



    2011: Suez Canal officials said today that two Iranian naval vessels were expected to start their passage through the strategic waterway early tomorrow.If the ships make the passage, it would mark the first time in three decades that Iranian military ships have travelled the canal that links the Red Sea to the Mediterranean.



    2012: Sue Eckstein is scheduled to discuss her latest novel “Interpreters” in London as part of Jewish Book Week.



    2012: Pam Fox is scheduled to discuss “A Place to Call My Jewish Home: Memories of the Liberal Jewish Synagogue 1911-2011” in London as part of Jewish Book Week.



    2012: Joshua Cohen, Ruth Franklin and Adam Kirsch are scheduled to participate in “In the Beginning Were Words: The Greatest Jewish Books” at the 92nd St Y in Manhattan



    2012: IDF and Israel Police forces conducting anti-smuggling operations foiled a potential terrorist attack when they discovered a powerful explosive device being brought into the country.The authorities believe the intended target was IDF forces that patrol the southern border. (As reported by the Jerusalem Post Staff) 



    2012: As tensions in Israel continue to rise due to threat of a nuclear Iran, the deputy head of the Islamic Republic's armed forces was quoted by a semi-official news agency as saying today that Iran would take preemptive action against its enemies if it felt its national interests were endangered "Our strategy now is that if we feel our enemies want to endanger Iran's national interests, and want to decide to do that, we will act without waiting for their actions," Mohammad Hejazi told Fars news agency.



    2013: In London, The Wiener Library for the Study of the Holocaust and Genocide is scheduled to mark LGBT history month with a “screening two of the earliest sympathetic depictions of same-sex attraction in the history of cinema” which “were created in the German Weimar Republic.”



    2013: The Center for Jewish History and Leo Baeck Institute is scheduled to present a concert, “The Best of the Classics.”



    2013: In New York, Temple Shaaray Tefila is scheduled to host a Klezmer Jam.



    2013(11thof Adar, 2013): Fast of Esther



    2013: Three men were found guilty today of planning a “spectacular bombing campaign” in the UK, including an attack on a synagogue.


    2013: Today President Shimon Peres exhorted the European Union and its member states to place Hezbollah on their terror lists, and warned Lebanon against initiating violence against Israel.


    2014: Congregation Har Tzeon-Agudath Achim in Silver Spring, MD is scheduled to host “Rockin’ Moroccan Shabbat Dinner” this evening.


    2014: “Hundreds of copies of The Diary of Anne Frank and related books were vandalized in libraries in Tokyo, news reports said today. Library officials notified police after some pages of at least 265 copies of the diary and books about Anne Frank were found to have been ripped out at 31 libraries since January.”


    2014: When attempts to disperse Palestinians who were throwing stones at soldiers beyond the border fence, IDF soldiers opened live fire at "the lower extremities of the main instigators" in an attempt to disperse them.


    2014: In Iowa City, Avremel and Chaya Blesofsky invite the community to attend the brit of their son.


    2015: Yevgenia Pikovsky, Elyakum Salzman – violin; Dmitri Ratush, Vladislav Krasnov – viola; Felix Nemirovsky, Yaacov Kashin – cello; Uri Arbel - double bass and Marianna Sorkin – piano are scheduled to perform a program of Russian music at the Eden-Tamir Music Center.


    2015: Lewis Black is scheduled to perform at the State Theatre in Cleveland, Ohio.


    2015(2ndof Adar, 5775): Fifty-eight year old filmmaker Bruce Sinofsky passed away today.

    2015: In Oslo, “hundreds of non-Jews including many Muslims” are scheduled “to encircle the synagogue as a gesture of outrage at the shooting at the Danish synagogue by a Muslim fanatic” who murdered 37 year old Dan Uzin who was providing security during a bat mitzvah celebration. (JTA)



    2016(12thof Adar I, 5776): Eighty-three year old attorney and conservationist Henry Diamond passed away today.
    https://www.nytimes.com/2016/10/06/science/allen-roses-who-upset-common-wisdom-on-cause-of-alzheimers-dies-at-73.html?hpw&rref=obituaries&action=click&pgtype=Homepage&module=well-region&region=bottom-well&WT.nav=bottom-well



    2016(12thof Adar I, 5776): Ninety-four year old Rabbi Yohanan Sofer passed away early this morning in Jerusalem.
    http://www.timesofisrael.com/venerated-leader-of-the-erlau-hasidic-sect-dies-at-93/



    2016: “Court Vacancy” published today described the confirmation process for Supreme Court Justice Benjamin Cardozo.
    http://www.thegazette.com/subject/opinion/letters-to-the-editor/letter-follow-hoovers-lead-to-fill-court-vacancy-20160221



    2016: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Yid by Paul Goldberg and West of Eden: An American Place by Jean Stein.



     2016: As part of the Breman Museum’s “Bearing Witness” series, Mariella Crea is scheduled to the story of her family who “rescued French Jews being transported to the concentration camps by train” and smuggling them “to safety in Switzerland.”



    2016: The Jewish Genealogical Society of New York and the American Sephardi Federation are scheduled to sponsor Gene Milgrom’s discussion of her work “documenting an unbroken maternal lineage back to 1480 in Pre-Inquisition Spain and Portugal.”



    2017: “Families waited in silent clusters in a century-old Jewish cemetery” in University City, MO where “they came with a single question: Was the grave ofa loved one among the nearly 200 that had been vandalized here over the weekend?” (As reported by Monica Davey and Alan Blinder)



    2017: “President Trump called anti-Semitic violence “horrible” and vowed today to take steps to counter extremism in comments that followed criticism that the White House had not clearly denounced vandalism and threats targeting Jewish institutions. (As reported by Fred Barbash, Ben Guarino and Brian Murphy)



    2017: As part of its celebration of Black History Month, in Atlanta, the Breman Museum is scheduled to host its “second annual Historic Jewish Atlanta Tour” devoted to the Civil Rights movement.


    2017: ‘Der Golem” is scheduled to be shown at JW3, the Jewish Community Centre in London.


    2017: Rabbi David Wolpe is scheduled to “present an in-depth profile” of the story of “King David” as part of the “The Bible: The Greatest Stories Ever Told” at the Streicker Center.



    2017: Rachel Joselson and Rene Lecuona are scheduled to present “Songs from the Holocaust” at the Voxman Music Building in Iowa City.

    2018: The Steicker Center is scheduled to host “Einstein’s Brain: A (Gray) Matter of Dispute where a panel including Dr. Amir Amedia, a brain scientist at Hebrew University “will explore questions such as How should we treat Einstein’s legacy in the 21st century? And How do we explain his genius and understand his enormous contributions?”


    2018: In honor of Black History Month, The Literary Guild of St. Simons Island, Inc, The Coastal Georgia Historical Society,Temple Beth Tefilloh and the College of Coastal Georgia are scheduled to host  a screening of “Rosenwald, a documentary of how two men, Julius Rosenwald and Booker T. Washington, in the early decades of the twentieth century, together helped finance and build 5,357 elementary schools for African American children throughout the segregated South.”


    2018: At the University of Virginia, the Brody Center is scheduled to host “Bagels on the Lawn” followed in the evening by the “4th Year Seminar: Judaism and Post College Life.”

     


     


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    February 22


    1290 BCE:  The coronation of Ramses II, who, according to some, is the Pharaoh of the Exodus. Since the Bible does not mention the Pharaoh by name, Ramses is not the only candidate.  In addition to which, there is some debate among Egyptologist as to when Ramses actually came to power.  According to some, his reign began in 1297 BCE. 


    1040: On the secular calendar birthdate of Rashi ישר, an acronym for Rabbi Solomon ben Isaac or Shlomo Yitzchaki.  Rashi was one of the greatest commentators on the TaNaCh and the Talmud. Rashi was born at Troyes, Champagne, northern France, in 1040 and died there in 1104 or 1105. He was reputedly descended from the Davidic line with lineage to the royal house of King David. He studied at Worms under Yaakov ben Yakar, and at Mainz under Isaac ben Judah. He returned to Troyes at age 25, probably serving as Rabbi and “religious judge.”  According to the Dictionary of Jewish Biography, as a judge and a rabbi, “he was unpaid…and he earned his living from the vineyards that he is reported to have owned.” [Editor’s note: Like Maimonides, Rashi followed the admonitions that he who makes a spade of the Torah shall perish and calling upon people to work for a living as well as studying Torah.]  About 1070 he founded a Yeshiva which attracted many disciples. According to tradition Rashi earned his living as a vintner and/or as a wine merchant. Although there are many legends about his travels, Rashi likely never went farther than from the Seine to the Rhine - the utmost limit of his travels was the Yeshivot of Lorraine. Rashi had no sons, only three daughters, Yocheved, Miriam and Rachel, all of whom married scholars. Yocheved married Meir ben Samuel, Miriam married Judah ben Nathan (see above), and Rachel married (and divorced) Eliezer ben Shemiah. Yocheved and Meir's four sons were the tosafists Shmuel (Rashbam), Yaakov (Rabbeinu Tam), Yitzchak (Ribbam), and the grammarian Shlomo; one of their daughters, Channah, wrote a responsum explaining the ritual and blessing for the Shabbat lights. Besides minor works, such as an edition of the Siddur (Prayer-Book), Rashi wrote two great commentaries on which his fame rests. These were the commentaries on the whole of the TaNaCh (Hebrew Bible) and on about thirty tractates of the Talmud. Rashi's works are so well respected that he is often cited simply as "the Commentator." His commentaries are of interest to secular scholars because he tended to translate unfamilar words into the spoken French of his day. As such, his commentaries offer an interesting insight into the vocabulary and pronunciation of Old French. The authors of the Dictionary of Jewish Biography and The New Encyclopedia of Judaism agree that “although Troyes (Rashi’s city of residence) was untouched by the First Crusade of 1096…the last years of his life were saddened by the devastation that the Crusaders brought to bear on “defenseless Jewish communities of the Rhineland” in general and “the disasters which had befallen his own colleagues.


     Commentary on the TaNaCh


    Rashi's commentary on the TaNaCh is very thorough, and is used to understand both the plain meaning of the TaNaCh and the interpretation of the medieval rabbis. His commentary is often used in basic, intermediate, and advanced studies of the TaNaCh. There are a small number of commentaries that bear his name that were not authored by him, but by his students. Rashi's commentary on the Torah has become an indispensable part of the framework of Orthodox Judaism - tens of thousands, men and women alike, daily study "Chumash with Rashi" (Chumash = Pentateuch + corresponding portions from the Prophets) in reviewing the Parsha to be read on the next Shabbat. Rashi's explanation of Chumash, clarifies the "simple" meaning of the text so that a bright child of five could understand it. At the same time, it is the crucial foundation of some of the most profound legal analysis and mystical discourses that came after it. Since its publication, this commentary has been included as a standard in almost all Chumashim produced within the Orthodox community. Supercommentaries on this work include Gur Aryeh by Rabbi Judah Loew (Maharal), Sefer ha-Mizrachi by Rabbi Elijah Mizrachi (Re'em) and Yeri'ot Shlomo by Rabbi Solomon Luria (Maharshal). Almost all later commentaries will discuss Rashi either bringing His view as a support or debating it


    Commentary of the Talmud


    Rashi also wrote the first comprehensive commentary of the Talmud. His commentary attempts to provide a full explanation of the words, and of the logical structure of each Talmudic passage. Unlike other commentators, Rashi does not paraphrase or exclude any part of the text, but carefully elucidates the whole of the text. He also exerted a decisive influence on establishing the correct text of the Talmud. He compared different manuscripts and determined which readings should be preferred. His work became such a standard that it is included in all printed versions of the Talmud.


    Rashi's Talmud commentary is always situated towards the middle of the opened book display; i.e. on the side of the page closest to the binding. The semi-cursive font in which the commentaries are printed is often referred to as "Rashi script." This does not mean that Rashi himself used such a script, only that the printers standardly employ it for commentaries. Daniel Bomberg, a Christian printer from Venice, introduced "Rashi script" in his publication of Rashi's commentary on the Tanakh in 1517. Rashi's commentary, which covers almost all of the Babylonian Talmud, has been printed in every version of the Talmud since the first Italian printings. Rashi did not compose commentaries for every tractate of the Babylonian Talmud. Some of the printed commentaries which are attributed to him were composed by others, primarily his students. In some commentaries, the text indicates that Rashi died before completing the tractate, and that it was completed by a student. This is true of the tractate Makkot, the concluding portions of which were composed by his son-in-law Rabbi Judah ben Nathan and of Bava Batra finished (in a more detailed style) by his grandson, Rabbi Samuel ben Meir (also known as the Rashbam), one of the prominent contributors to the Tosafot.



    “Rashi’s responsa (replies to inquiries on matters of Jewish law) …are characterized by liberality and humility…He ruled that it is permissible to interrupt the grace after meals to fee ones animals, basing the decision other scriptural injunction for a man to feed his animals before himself.  On one occasion he told his questioner, ‘I was asked this question before but I realize that my answer then was wrong and I welcome the opportunity to correct my mistake.’”  There are places in his commentaries where admits that he does not understand the meaning.  “Of this I do not know.” 


    Rashi in his own words:


    “Any plan formulated in a hurry is foolish.”


    “Be sure to ask your teacher his reasons and his sources.”


    “Teachers learn from their student’s discussions.”


    “A student of laws who does not understand their meaning or cannot explain their contradictions is just a basket full of books.”


    “Do not rebuke your fellow man so as to shame him in public.”


    “To obey out of love is better than to obey out of fear.”


    “”All the 613 commandments are included in the Decalogue.”


    1217(6th of Adar, 4977): Judah ben Samuel of Regensburg passed away. Born in 1140 in Speyer, he was also called He-Hasid or 'the Pious' in Hebrew and was the initiator of the Chassidei Ashkenaz, a movement of Jewish mysticism in Germany. “This movement is considered different from kabbalistic mysticism because it emphasizes specific prayer and moral conduct. Judah settled in Regensburg in 1195. He wrote Sefer Hasidim (Book of the Pious) and Sefer Hakavod(Book of Glory). The latter has been lost and is only known by quotations that other authors have made from it. His most prominent students were Elazar Rokeach and Moses ben Jacob of Coucy.


    1288: Papacy of Nicholas IV began. Like many medieval popes, Nicholas IV displayed a mixed attitude toward the Jews. On the one hand, he issued various instructions (1288) to the inquisitors to proceed against *Conversos and he renewed earlier legislation concerning the Jews in Portugal, compelling them to wear a *badge. On the other hand, he specifically protected the Jews of Rome from being molested by Christians (January 1291). He wrote to Emperor Rudolph requesting the release of *Meir b. Baruch of Rothenburg from prison. There is a belief that he enlisted the services of the Jewish physician and scholar Isaac b. Mordecai Maestro Gaio, who also attended Boniface VIII and who was the first of the Italian Jewish papal physicians. (As described in the Jewish Virtual Library)


    1349: In Zurich, Switzerland, the town council tried to protect the Jews of the town, they were forced to give in to the mob, resulting in the murder of many of the Jewish inhabitants. The Jews were then forced to leave.


    1455: Birthdate of Johann Von Reuchlin the German linguist who came to the defense of the Jews when Dominican Friars led by Johann Pfefferkorn sought imperial support to destroy a vast array of Jewish books.


    1475: The first known Hebrew book, a copy of the TaNaCh, was printed in Italy.


    1495: King Charles VIII of France enters Naples to claim the city's throne.  Following the expulsion from Spain, Jews had found refuge in Naples thanks to King Ferdinand of Naples.  When Ferdinand died his son Alfonso replaced him on the throne.  Charles deposed Alfonso.  During his short lived reign over the Italian city, the situation of the Jews worsened.  Fortunately, a mixed bag of political and religious leaders drove Charles back to France.  Unfortunately, the Jews of Naples would be expelled from their Italian haven in 1510.


    1501: On this day and the following day, two tremendous auto-de-fe's took place in Toledo. A woman prophet and over 100 of her followers were burned. The woman envisioned those Jews who had previously died as martyrs were taken to heaven, and the Jewish Messiah was speedily going to return the Jews to the Promised Land.


    1520: Birthdate of Moses Isserles, the Ashkenazic rabbi from Cracow best known for writing HaMapah (The Table Cloth) a “gloss” on The Shulchan Aruch (Set Table) of Joseph Karo.  Karo relied primarily on Sephardic sources. Isserles used Ashkenazic sources to create a table cloth that would cover the set table thus making Caro’s work viable for the large number of Jews living in Northern and Eastern Europe.


    1590:  Archduke Maximilian granted the Jews of Mergentheim, Markelsheim, Igersheim and Unterbalbach the right to continue to bury their dead above the village of Unterbalbach for an annual payment of 16 Gulden to the Monastery of Mergentheim


    1618(27th of Shevat): Rabbi Tanhum Ha-Kohen of Cracow passed away today.


    1656: The Jews in New Amsterdam are granted, "A little hook of land situate [sic] outside of this city for a burial place." This cemetery land was located by the Bowery, near Oliver Street in what is now lower Manhattan. It would be another month before Jews were granted the right to own real estate.  Public Jewish worship would not be an accepted matter of fact until the turn of the century.  The establishment of a burial society and cemetery is a matter of major importance for any Jewish community.   It was sign of permanence and belonging.  Following the defeat of the Dutch by the English in 1664, New Amsterdam would become New York. 


    1732:  Birthdate of George Washington. Several Jew’s served with Washington during the Revolutionary War.  When Washington was elected President he sent amicable letters to different Jewish communities assuring them that Jews were welcome in the United States.  The tone set by Washington helped to make the American experience different for the Jews than anything they had known in their history. As he said in his famous letter written to the Jews of Newport, “May the children of the stock of Abraham who dwell in this land continue to merit and enjoy the good will of the other inhabitants--while everyone shall sit in safety under his own vine and fig tree and there shall be none to make him afraid.”



    1755: Benedict XIV issued Beatus Andreas a Papal Bull that confirmed the blood libel as factual. ”The Bull reviewed the cases of ritual murder by Jews, which it explicitly upholds as a fact, and establishes the beatification but not the canonization of Andreas of Rinn and Simon of Trent”


    1775: The Jews were expelled from outskirts of Warsaw, Poland.


    1781: During the American Revolution Isaac Franks, who had been serving as “forage-master” at West Point, was commissioned as an ensign in the 7th Massachusetts Regiment.  He served in that capacity until 1782 when he resigned due to health problems. 


    1788:  Birthdate of German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer who has nothing to positive to say about human existence.  For him, life is harsh and cruel.  If this is so obvious, Schopenhauer asks why there are any optimists in the world. Schopenhauer argues that ‘the aggressively optimistic philosophers of the Western World have fallen victim to a vulgar buoyancy which is rooted in the Jewish Tradition!”  In his most famous work The World as Will and Ideathe philosopher says Jewish traditional optimism reflects "a self-congratulatory human egoism, which is blind to all except our (own) all too frail human goals and aspirations."


    1793: Birthdate of Isaak Markus Jost, the native of Bernburg who overcame poverty and the loss of his father while still a child to become one of the early creators of modern Jewish historical writing.


    1812: Birthdate of Moses (Moyses) Baruch Auerbach who gained fame as poet and author Berthold Auerbach whose early efforts included a biography about Spinoza and a text entitled Judaism and Recent Literature.


    1816: In St. Thomas, French native Jacob Baiz and Leah Baiz gave birth to Hannah Nanette Henriquez Moron, the wife of Jacob Henriquez Moron today.


    1819: The United States of America and Spain signed the Florida Purchase Treaty which gave the United States complete control over what is now the Sunshine State.  Within 2 years, records show that 30 to 40 Jews lived in northern Florida including Moses Levy a Moroccan born lumber dealer who built a Jewish colony in an area that is now home to the University of Florida.  Abraham Myers, a West Pointer who served during the Seminole Wars was one of the first Jews to live in south Florida.


    1820: Birthdate of Elizabeth D. A. Cohen, who would become the first practicing female physician in Louisiana. Born in New York City and educated at the Philadelphia College of Medicine, Cohen practiced medicine in New Orleans, LA.  She passed away on May 28, 1921 and was buried in the Gates of Prayer Cemetery on Canal Street.


    1821: In Hamburg, Germany Dr. David Assing and Rosa Maria Assing gave birth to authoress Ludmilla Assing.


    1828: The final letter of correspondence between Lazarus Jacob Riesser and his son Gabriel was written today.


    1828: In Vilnius, Abraham Bar Lebensohn and his wife gave birth to the Hebrew poet Micah Joseph Lebensohn. His brother-in-law Joshua Steinberg who was an author in his own right and functionary in the Russian government translated some of his Hebrew works into German.


    1837: Nathan Lewis married Harriette Moses at the Great Synagogue today.


    1839: In Hamburg, Kalmar Calman and Betty Friedburg gave birth Adolf Calman who served as a rabbi at several New York congregations including Beth Israel Bikur Cholim and Etz Chaim of Yorkville.


    1840:  Birthdate of August Bebel, a German social democrat and founder of the Social Democrat Party of Germany.  The non-Jewish Bebel was committed to the concept of the brotherhood of man and one of his famous statements was, "Anti-Semitism is the socialism of fools."


    1847: In Germany, M.A. and Sophia Stern gave birth to Louis Stern.  After the family moved to Albany, Louis was sent to Petersburg, W. Va. “to learn the rudiments of merchandizing in the small store of any uncle after which he moved to New York where he and his brothers – Isaac, Bernard and Benjamin - opened the dry goods store that became known as Stern Brothers, that classier than Wanamakers and B. Altman’s but never quite reached the level of Lord and Taylor or Bonwit Teller.


    1848: Beginning of the “The Third French Revolution” which replaced Citizen King Louis Philippe with the Second Republic.


    1850: Birthdate of Isaac L Rice.  The German born Rice taught at Columbia University and is the namesake for its Rice Stadium.  As a businessman he played a key role in the development of submarines.  He was a famous chess player and the inventor of the Rice Gambit.


    1852: Martin Beir, the secretary and treasurer of the Milton Clark Company, an insurance agency in Rochester, NY married 17 year old Clara Hirsch, the daughter of Wolf and Eva Hirsch. (Clara passed away at the age of 39 and Beir never remarried.  In 1898, he was chosen to head B’nai B’rith for the state of New York.


    1852: Solomon Isaacs married Esther Hart today at the Great Synagouge.


    1853: Founding of Eliot Seminary in St. Louis which would become Washington University. According to recently published figures Wash U has 2,000 Jewish undergraduates who are 33% of the student population. This helps to rank it as number 11 on a list of the 30 private schools Jews choose.


    1854(24 Shevat, 5614): Austria Rabbi Abraham Neuda, the native of Moravia who was the son of Rabbi Aaron Neuda of Loštice, and the nephew of Rabbi Jacob Neuda of Lomnitz (Lomnice), Moravia and the husband of author Fanny Schmiedl passed away today


    1855: The New York Times reported that a concert designed to raise funds for the Hebrew Benevolent Society is scheduled to be held at the Dodsworth Academy.


    1855:  Pennsylvania State University is founded.  Today Penn State has approximately 4,000 Jewish undergraduate and graduate students out of a total student population of over 40,000.  The university offers approximately 45 Jewish Studies courses.  Penn State offers both a major and a minor in Jewish studies.


    1856: The Republican Party holds its first national meeting in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.  Early Jewish Republican supporters included Sabato Morais, Rabbi of Philadelphia’s Mikveh Israel Congregation; Moritz Pinner, a German born editor of an abolitionist paper who would fight in the Union Army during the Civil War; Louis Naphtali Dembitz, a Louisville lawyer whose nephew would become the first Jewish Supreme Court Justice.  Jews were drawn to the Republican Party because of its anti-Slavery stance.  Ironically, another group drawn to the Republican Party were members of the short-lived American Party, also called “The Know-Nothing” Party.  The Know-Nothings were natavist who were opposed to the swelling tide of immigration, a belief that included more than just a whiff of anti-Semitism.


    1857: Birthdate German born physicist Heinrich Hertz. He was the first one to broadcast and receive radio waves.  The unit of measure “hertz” is named for him.  Hertz was born into a Jewish family that converted to Christianity.  The German Jewish community was devastated two times: first by conversions in the 19thcentury and then by the Final Solution in the 20th century.  One wonders how many of those who perished in the latter were from families who had participated in the former.


    1859: Ephraim Alex, the Overseer of the Great Synagogue secured the adoption of the following resolutions designed to help “the strange and foreign poor”:


    (1) That it is highly expedient that the relief of the strange poor be managed by a Board of Guardians constituted of delegates from the three City Uniting Congregations.


     (2) That the following gentlemen be appointed the delegates of this Board with power to meet the delegates appointed by the other two congregations and make such arrangements with them for one year as shall seem most desirable to effect the desired object, viz., Messrs. E. Alex, Samuel Moses, Lewis Jacobs, S. A. Jonas, Joseph Lazarus, Jacob Waley, M.A., and Lionel L. Cohen.


    (3) That £220 be placed at the disposal of such Board of Guardians for one year to be paid in monthly instalments.


    (4) That the Secretary of the Synagogue do attend the meetings of the Board of Guardians when requested and finish all information, books or documents bearing on the relief of the strange poor.


    1860: The New York Times reported that “The community of Kingston, which is composed chiefly of Jews, have been making contributions for the relief of their suffering brethren of Morocco. They have managed to collect large sums in spite of the prevailing poverty.”


    1861: Bell and Daly announced the upcoming publication of The Spirit of Hebrew Poetry, by Isaac Taylor


    1861: According to reports sent from Paris today, the arrest of Jules Mires has threatened the stability of the Credit Mobilier.  It is expected that when word of his arrest reaches Constantinople, ruinous panic will set in since investors there hold a glut of paper tied to his financial activities.


    1865: The Richmond Examiner described the condition of Charleston, SC when it fell to Union forces under the command of General Sherman. According to the Examiner, all that the Yankees found was “the abandoned hull of Charleston” inhabited by “a few Jews” and “some telegraph operators.”


    1868: In Amsterdam, Marianne Smit and diamond cutter Mozes Polake gave birth to Henri Polak the founder of the Dutch Social Democratic Workers’ Party and longtime President of the General Diamond Workers’ Union of the Netherlands who died of pneumonia before the Nazis could ship him to a concentration camp in 1943.


    1868: Birthdate of Charles Pearce Coady, a Democrat who served as a Congressman from Maryland’s Third District and was one of the opening speakers at the 13th annual convention of the Order of Brith Shalom in Baltimore.


    1869: In Kaiserslautern, thirsy five year Abraham Weil, the German born son of Salomon Weil and Helena Lea Meyer married Berta Seligmann, a native of France


    1871: Dr. Henry W. Schneeberger received his formal rabbinical ordination from Dr. Hildesheimer. In the document of ordination Dr. Hildesheimer testified to Henry’s high moral character and to his devotion to Judaism. He also wrote, “He is worthy to be crowned with the crown of Morenu Horav [Our Teacher, the Rabbi].” “Thus equipped with the rabbinic title and with the university degree, he lost no time and hurried home to try out for a rabbinical post. Only three weeks after his ordination in Berlin, he preached at the synagogue where he had delivered his very first sermon, at the Rodeph Shalom Synagogue on Clinton Street in New York City.” Rabbi Dr. Henry W) Schneeberger was the First American Born, University- Educated, Orthodox Ordained Rabbi in America (As reported by Dr. Yitzchok Levine).


    1872: “Galicia’s Demands” published today described conditions in this portion of Austria that became part of the empire as a result of the partition of Poland.  According to the article, the Poles are in the majority.  However, the Germans and the Jews, who are in the minority “are far ahead of the Poles” “in money and intelligence.” Due to the electoral system, the Poles are the dominate force and the Germans and the Jews are underrepresented in the Diet.


    1873: “Joseph Litten, the president of the Jewish community in Konigsberg” and his wife gave birth to professor and jurist Friedrich Julius Litten who became a Lutheran “in order to further his career” but who was also the father of Hans Litten, the lawyer who defended opponents  of the Nazis and died at Dachau.


    1876: In New York City, a Polish Jew was arraigned on charges of cruelty to animals.  According to the arresting officer, Siwaski roasted a rat after he had caught in a wire cage trap. 


    1876:  Johns Hopkins University was founded in Baltimore, Maryland.  Today, the elite school has approximately 750 Jewish students out of a student population of 6,500.  The university offers 45 courses in Jewish Studies and a major in Jewish Studies.


    1878: It was reported today that Rabbi Maruice Treichenberg, who had served as the spiritual leader for the Greene-Street Synagogue, has passed away in Denver, Colorado.


    1880: In New York, a meeting is scheduled to be held this afternoon at the Sons of Israel Synagogue to evaluate charges by Jewish butchers that they are being forced to violate Halachah by the wholesalers who employ them.  According to the butchers, the wholesalers are having them keep meat for a period longer than that allowed by law and they are not allowed to warn their customers about this.  The wholesalers deny the allegations.


    1880: Professor Felix Adler delivered a lecture today on the subject of “Catholicism and Liberty” in which he took issue with the view of Cardinal Manning. Speaking on behalf of the Church, Manning has taken issue with the concept of the equality of man and the theory that government’s authority is derived from the will of the people.


    1881(23rd of Adar I, 5641): In Jersey, eighty-eight year old Mary Asher, the widow of Benjamin Asher and the mother of Asher Asher passed away today.


    1882: The SS Illinois a ship carrying Jewish refugees from Russia is expected to arrive in Philadelphia, PA today.  The 50 Jewish families are escaping the violent attacks now going on the Czar’s domain.  A committee of prominent Christians including the Mayor and leading Jews has developed plans to care for the refugees including lodging, food and job placement.


    1882: Philadelphia’s May King received an offer today from Calvin Jones of Charlotte, NC, offering 40 acres to each of the 50 Jewish refugee families. The land is located in Alexander and Wilkes counties and is described as well watered and suited for growing wheat, corn and tobacco.


    1882: In London, Sir Alexander T. Galt, the Resident Minister in Great Britain of the Dominion of Canada, recommended that Russian Jews immigrate to Manitoba while he was attending a meeting of the Lord Mayor’s Jewish Fund Committee.


    1884:  Birthdate of boxing Hall of Famer Abraham “Abe” Attell.  Known as “The Little Hebrew,” Attell was Featherweight Champion from 1901 until 1912.  He gained additional notoriety and ignominy as one of the figures alleged to have fixed the 1919 World Series.  Supposedly Attell was the one who actually passed the ten thousand dollars to several White Sox players to guarantee that they would throw the Fall Classic.


    1885: In Munkacs which at the time part of the kingdom of Hungary Mendel Gottesman and Sarah Fishgrund gave birth to American businessman and philanthropist, the husband of Jeanne Regina Gottesman and father of patron of the arts Celeste Ruth Gottesman.


    1887: The Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society opened a new facility “for infants and boys over six years old” at 11th Avenue between 150th and 151stStreet in New York.


    1887: Birthdate of Ksawery Tartakower, the native of Rostov-on-Don who gained famed as Polish and French chess grandmaster Savielly Tartakower.


    1887: Henry M. Stanley who had been designated as the leader of the expedition charged with rescuing the apostate Jew Emin Pasha arrived at Zanzibar.


    1890: Tonight’s celebration of Washington’s Birthday sponsored by the Young Men’s Hebrew Association which will take place at the Hebrew Free School Building will include a speech by Rabbi Rudolph Grossman.


    1890:  Birthdate of Ukrainian born British pianist Benno Moiseiwitsch.


    1890: Menachem Ussishkin one of the originators of BILU, founded the Odessa Committee. The Committee was dedicated to the practical exponent of the Hovevei Zion movement, in establishing agricultural settlements in Eretz-Israel. Ussishkin later served as President of the Jewish National Fund. He was one of the few early Zionist leaders who actually settled in Eretz-Israel.


    1891(14th of Adar I, 5651): Purim Katan


    1891: Birthdate of "Chico" Marx one of the Marx Brothers.  A couple of his more famous films included “Animal Crackers” and “A Night at the Opera.”


    1892: As New York City dealt with an outbreak of Tyhus that had been traced to recent arriving immigrants thirty-two year old Solomon Zabalzki and forty-two yeard old Rachel Hesselberg were among those who taken to North Brother Island where those thought to be infected were kept under quarantine.


    1892: Sixty year old Esther Goodman, Robert Goodman and Sarah Goodman were rescued by firemen when a fire broke out this morning at their apartment in Brooklyn, NY,


    1892: It was reported today that “the Berlin, Hamburg, Frankfort and Konigsberg Jewish Relief Committees” will be meeting “to consider the refusal of America to receive Russian Jewish immigrants brought by North German Lloyd steamers.”


    1892: Birthdate of David Dubinsky one of a veritable army of American Jews who became leaders in the American labor movement.  Born in Russia, Dubinsky began working the United States in 1911 as a cloak cutter.  Two decades later he had risen to the presidency of the International Ladies Garment Union.  The ILGU was a force for social and labor progress that helped end sweatshops and improve the lot of American workers.  Dubinksy was honored with an American Medal for Freedom.  He died in 1982 at the age of 90.


    1893: Birthdate of “Polish born circus performer and vaudeville strongman” Siegmund Breitbart who was billed as “The Superman of the Ages” when he toured the United States in 1923.

    1894: The 14thannual reception sponsored by the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society was held at the asylum’s facility on 151st Street.


    1895: Captain Dreyfus began the journey that would take him to prison in French Guyana


    1897: Amos J. Cummings will deliver a lecture today on “Horace Greeley” as part of the free lecture course offered at the Hebrew Institute.


    1897: The Young Ladies and Gentlemen’s League will host a reception today in honor of George Washington’s Birthday at the Montefiore Home.


    1897: The Jewish Alliance will host a reception today at Temple Emanu-El on 5thAvenue in honor George Washington’ Birthday.


    1897: “Lehman Gift Accepted” published today provided details of the decision of the Board of Trustees of the Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum Society to accept the gift of $100,000 from Emanuel Lehmnan that will serve as an endowment for a fund that will benefit those who had been under the care of the society and were now out on their own.


    1898: Seventy-seven year old Heungseon Daewongun, the Regent of Korea whom German Jewish businessman Ernst Jakob Oppert attempted to blackmail in an attempt to remove “Korean trading barriers” passed away today.


    1898: The managers of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society will host their annual reception in honor of George Washington’s Birthday between 3 and 5 this afternoon.


    1898: The Young Ladies’ and Gentlemen’s League of the Montefiore Home will host their fourth annual reception this afternoon in honor of George Washington’s Birthday.


     1901: On Manhattan’s Lower East Side, Leah (née Goldstein) and Mordecai Marcus gave birth to David Daniel “Mickey” Marcus the West Point graduate and attorney who was the first “Aluf” of the IDF and built the “secret” road to Jerusalem that meant that the ancient city of David would be part of the modern state of Israel.

    1901: Over the next three days, Herzl writes letters to Zionists in France, Italy, England and America for parliamentary intervention against immigration restrictions in Palestine. He considers transferring the center of his action to London but drops the plan because he does not want to separate from his parents.


    1902: Herzl travels to Munich and meets the banker Reitlinger. Herzl proposes the Turkish suggestion of Jewish immigration to Asia Minor and Mesopotamia and the exploitation of mines. Reitlinger considers the matter too costly, risky and unsafe.


    1902: Birthdate of Jacob Sack, the Pittsburgh native who played lineman for the Pitt Panthers before going to play professional ball for the nascent NFL.


    1903: Boutros Ghali writes the conditions for the Jewish settlement in Sinai.


    1907: Birthdate of actor, director and producer Sheldon Leonard.


    1907: In Omaha, Nebraska, Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Maisal gave birth to Zena Maisel who married Sidney E. Pollack and as Zena Maisel Pollack served as the administrative director of the Jewish Guild for the Blind.


    1909(1st of Adar I, 5669): Rosh Chodesh Adar I


    1909(1st of Adar 1, 5669): Sixty-seven year old chess champion Eugene Delmar passed away today.


    1910: Birthdate of Sophie Melvin, the native of the Ukraine who gained fame as social activist Sophie Gerson (As reported by Deborah Gerson and Tim Wheeler)

    1912(4th of Adar, 5672): Seventy-four old Bertha Eppstein, the wife of Max Eppstein and the mother of Seraphine Eppstein Pisko, the secretary of National Jewish Hospital for Consumptives, passed away today in Denver, CO.


    1913(8th of Adar I, 5673): Parashat Tetzaveh


    1913: Dr. Gerson B. Levi is scheduled to officiate at Saturday morning services at B’nai Sholom-Temple Israel in Chicago.


    1913: Rabbi Joseph Stoltz is scheduled to deliver a sermon on “Washington and the Jews” this mornings at Isaiah Temple.


    1913: Rabbi Abraham Hirshberg is scheduled to deliver a talk at this afternoon’s children service at the Chicago Hebrew Institute.


    1913: Judge Huge Pam is scheduled to deliver a lecture this evening on “Municipal Government to the Welfare of the Nation and People” at the Chicago Hebrew Institute.


    1913: It was reported today that “Samuel Littman, a sergeant of Company B, 47th Regiment of the New York National Guard has resigned” because he claimed that he was not promoted to lieutenant because he was Jewish – a charge that Governor Sulzer has asked to be thoroughly investigated.


    1914: Birthdate of Dr. Renato Dulbecco, the Italian born virologist who shared a Nobel Prize in 1975 for his role in drawing a link between genetic mutations and cancer. During World War II, Dulbecco served as a medical officer in the Italian Army. When the train taking him to the Russian front “stopped in Warsaw, he saw railway laborers wearing yellow stars. When he asked about them, he was told that the workers were Jews who would be killed when their work was done. He was horrified.” According to him seeing this was a life changing moment which may account for the fact that he deserted from the Italian Army and spent the rest of the war providing medical assistance to the resistance fighters in and around Torino.(As reported by Denise Gellene)

    1915: The second day of the 23rd annual meeting of the American Jewish Historical Society will include another series of literary presentations and a business meeting that will include the election of officers.


    1915: Birthdate of New York native, “the song and dance man” whose credits including “Easter Parade” and “On the Town.”

     1915: Georgia Solicitor General Hugh M. Dorse and State Attorney General Warren Grice are scheduled to file their brief in the U.S. Supreme that will deny a writ of Habeas Corpus in the case of Leo Frank who is scheduled to be hung after a trial held in the midst of an orgy of anti-Semitism.


    1915: Eighteen year old Charles Pores won a weather-shortened version of the Brooklyn-to-Sea Gate Marathon.


    1915: Following the failure of the Ottoman attack on Allied forces in Egypt, the Arabs have expressed their bitterness and “their determination not to fight in the future” on the side of the Turks.


    1915: It was reported today that Djemal Pasha, the Ottoman Minister of Marine “clearly see the utter futility of further military operations against Egypt” and has gone north to Damascus” where he plans on resigning. (Reading this, one would not suspect that it will take the British another two years to finally get to Jerusalem and more than three years to finally complete their conquest of Palestine and Syria)


    1916: Elinor “Ellie” Fatman the daughter of Morris and Settie Fatman who had been teaching at the Henry Street Settlement House since 1913 proposed to Henry Morgenthau, Jr. in Central Park.(As reported by Edna S. Friedberg)


    1916: In Amsterdam, Levie Van Praag and Sabiena Cohen, both of whom were killed in Sobibor, gave birth Jacques Van Praag who was murdered at Birkenau

    1916: In Washington, D.C., at today’s meeting of the Executive Committee of the American Federation of Labor, Samuel Gompers is scheduled to raise “the question of Jewish rights in the belligerent countries.


    1916: Dr. Nathan Syrkin and Rabbi Stephen S. Wise addressed a convention chaired by Judge Sanders of the Jewish organizations of Manhattan held at Arlington Hall where plans were discussed for the upcoming Jewish conference to be held in Philadelphia in March.


    1916:  After two years and four month serving in Constantinople, American Ambassador Henry Morgenthau arrived in New York aboard the steamship Frederick VIII to start a 60 day vacation.


    1917(30th of Shevat, 5677): Rosh Chodesh Adar


    1917: As of today, Frederic C. Penfield, the United States Ambassador to Austria-Hungary “has turned over $25,000 to the Vienna Jewish Association to be used for the relief of Jews in the occupied districts of Rumania and Serbia.


    1918: A report today from Zurich stated that Jewish deputies succeed in persuading the Austrian Government to abolish the prohibition against Yiddish correspondence.


    1918: Colonel John Henry Patterson led the Jewish Legion, the unit he commanded on parade down Whitechapel Road.


    1919(22nd of Adar I, 5679): Seventy-eight year old French neurologist Hippolyte Bernheim passed away today in Paris.


    1920: The New Orleans Times-Picayune published an interview with Elizabeth D.A. Cohen, the first practicing female physician in Louisiana, her 100th birthday.


    1921(14th of Adar I, 5681): Purim Katan observed for the first time under President Warren G. Harding.


    1921: The Tikvath Israel Society hosted “junior activities” at the center on Sumner Avenue at the corner of Van Buren Street.


    1922: In the South Bronx, Solomon and Lillian Baumol, Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe gave birth to economist William J. Baumol. (As reported by Patricia Cohen)

    1922: Birthdate of Sammy Hershkovitz, the Romanian born Jew who made Aliyah at the age of 2 and gained fame as Sammy Ofer, the Israeli international shipping magnate, philanthropist and art collector who headed a family ranked as the richest in Israel. (As reported by Isabel Kershner)

    1922 (24th of Shevat, 5682): Aaron David (A.D.) Gordon passed away. Gordon, a Hebrew writer and philosopher of the “religion of Labor,” was considered the ideological pillar of the kibbutz movement. Born in 1856 in Russia he only came to Eretz Israel at the age of 48. Neither his age nor health impeded his drive to work in agriculture .He helped found Kibbutz Degania in 1909. Gordon's philosophy included a call to a return to “Nature.” He believed that the self-improvement of each individual rather than external changes such as espoused by Marxism was the way to change Jewish destiny.

    1923: “Earth Spirit” a silent film produced by Richard Oswald and written by Carl Mayer was released in Germany today.


    1923: In Chicago, Max and Bertha Goldsmith gave birth real estate developer Bram Goldsmith who “served as the chief executive of National City Bank from 1975 to 1995.”

    1925: In Pittsburgh, PA, Harry and Ida Barch Stern, Jewish immigrants from Poland and Ukraine, gave birth to American poet Gerald Stern whose works have been published The Pineys, Leaving Another Kingdom, and Odd Mercy and who while married to Patricia Miller gave birth to a daughter Rachel, “a nutrition therapist” and David, “an architect.”

    1925(28th of Shevat): Poet and author Mrs. Radcliffe N. Salomon (Nina David) passed away


    1926: Birthdate of Alan David Yorkin, the native of Washington, PA who gained fame as director, producer and write Bud York who teamed up with Norm Lear to form Tandem Productions which gave us many cutting edge sit-coms including All in the Family, Maude and Sanford and Son.

    1926: In Great Britain, a “well-known play producer” was reported to have “said he judged his play not by first-night receptions, but by the attitude of Saturday night audiences, which he estimated were nearly 75 per cent Jewish” and that “the Jewish population of London were keen dramatic critics” who “had been of tremendous service to the modern British drama.”


    1926: Ross Sterling, the owner and publisher of the Houston Post Dispatch, who is not Jewish was reported today to have been donor of an unsolicited give of $5,000 gift to the United Jewish Campaign which is trying to raise fifteen million dollars to alleviate the suffering of Jews living “in foreign lands.”


    1926: As of today the new officers of the National Council of the Palestine Foundation Fund were Samuel Untermyer, President; Morris Rothenberg, Chairman of the directors and Rabbi Aaron M. Ashinsky of Pittsburgh, Vice Chairman of the board.


    1926: “The United Jewish Campaign received word” today at its headquarter in the Pershing Square building that a $50,000 quota for the $15,000,000 overseas chest had been accepted a committee of Jews from North Dakota. (That’s right – Jews in North Dakota!)


    1926: Pledges totaling $300,000 for the relief of Jews in Poland were made” today “at a conference in the HIAS Building called by the Federation of Polish Jews in America” whose President, Benjamin Winter “blamed the policy of the Polish Government for the present distress among the Polish Jews.”


    1927: Birthdate of Franz Reheinberger who would be executed at the age of 17 for his part in anti-Nazi activities.


    1929: In New York City, “Rachel Gutman and real estate attorney Judah Wattenberg” gave birth to Rebecca Ann Wattenberg, the sister of Ben J. Wattenberg “aunt of journalist Daniel Wattenberg” who gained famed as actress Rebecca Schull, the wife of Gene Schull.


    1930: U.S. premiere of “Slightly Scarlet,” a comedy direct by Edwin H. Knopf with a script co-authored by Joseph L. Mankiewicz.


    1931(5th of Adar): Poet and novelist Menahem Mendel Dolitzky passed away today.


    1932: The United States marked the bicentennial of the birth of George Washington who Rabbi de Sola Pool of the Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue had “praised” as “a great liberator” and whom Rabbi Samuel Schulman while addressing his congregation had “referred to a statement made in a treaty between the United States and Tripoli in 1796 and signed by Washington that ‘the Government of the United States is not in any sense founded on the Christian Religion.”


    1932: “With Chief Judge Benjamin N. Cardozo of the Court of Appeals assured of confirmation as an associate jus of the United States” the Governor of New York “indicated tonight that he would promptly fill the vacancy on the State bench.”


    1932: As America celebrates the 200th anniversary of the birth of George Washington members of the Jewish National Fund of American are scheduled to meet tonight at the Hotel Pennsylvania in New York “to hear speakers pay tribute to Washington and to hear speakers discuss” plans for creating “an evergreen memorial of 500,000 pine and eucalyptus trees” which “will be planted in Palestine as a living tribute” by “the Jews of America to the first President.”


    1932: In New York, Chief Judge Benjamin N. Cardozo is scheduled to speak on “Washington, the Constitution Builder” during the Bicentennial celebration at Chancellor’s Hall.


    1933: Birthdate of Gideon Patt, a Sabra who served in the Nahal Brigade, earned a BA from NYU before pursuing a career in politics that included service in the Knesset and several cabinet posts.


    1933: Adolf Hitler made his private para-military units, the SS and the SS, part of Germany’s police force.


    1934: U.S premiere of “It Happened One Night” an all-time classic comedy written by Robert Riskin for which he won the Oscar and co-produced Harry Cohn


    1934: During his eulogy today at the funeral of Rabbi Hyman Gerson Enelow in Chicago, David Philipson said, “If there was one trait that characterized Hymen G. Enelow above all other, it was his love of learning for its own sake.

    1934: “The Jewish newspaper IF” published a photograph by Herbert Sonnenfeld of “a model portraying two different periods in Eretz Israel: a typical home in Tel Aviv in 1934, and ten years earlier.”

    1934: Bishop Hermann Wilhelm Berning of Osnabrück ordered all churches in his diocese to display the Nazi’s swastika flag on patriotic occasions alongside standard church flags.


    1935: “The Whole Town’s Talk” a crime comedy  written by Jo Swerling and Robert Riskin and starring Edward G. Robinson was released in the United States today.


    1935: “After Office Hours” directed by Robert Z. Leonard who co-produced the film with Bernard H. Hyman which was written by Herman J. Mankiewicz was released today in the United States.


    1936(29th of Shevat, 5695): Parashat Mishpatim and Shabbat Shekalim


    1936: “The third annual observance of Brotherhood Day” sponsored by the Conference of Jews and Christians began today.


    1936: It was reported today that in Poland Senators “suggested that the government should communicate with international Zionist organizations and arrange an immigration quota for Poland” which would be a way of ridding the country of one million of its three and one half million Jews.


    1936: This morning Arturo Toscanini accepted an invitation to conduct the opening concert of the newly organized Palestine Symphony Orchestra on next October 24 at Tel-Aviv.


    1937(11th of Adar, 5697): Sixty-seven year old Astronomer J. Ernest G. Yalden who spent 25 years directing a “trade school funded by the Trustees of the Baron de Hirsch Fund passed away

    1938: “After warning that he would be ‘tactless’ in his remarks, Stanley M. Isaacs, Borough President of Manhattan, told 1,750 teachers attending the 11thanniversary of the Jewish Teachers Association at the Hotel Commodore” today “that he could see no reason for the existence of their organization”


    1939: As part of the annual observance of Brotherhood Week, “ceremonies honoring the memory of Roger Williams the founder of Rhode Island” and one of “the first to preach the gospel of tolerance in the New World” were held in front of his bust in the Hall of Fame on the campus of NYU by members of Zeta Beta Tau, which included an address by B. Leo Schwartz, a benediction by Rabbi Augustus Loeb and wreath laying by James R. Katzman.


    1941: In Paris, Theodore Dannecker, the SS officer in charge of bringing the Final Solution to France reported approvingly that “The French inspectors formed and instructed in collaboration with our section for Jewish affairs today constitute an elite body as well as training cadres for Frenchmen to be drafted in the future to the anti-Jewish police.”  The “French inspectors” worked for the agency that “transferred” the over 20,000 Jewish businesses into the hands of Frenchmen sympathetic to the Third Reich.  “The anti-Jewish police” referred to the Frenchmen who would round up French Jews and ship them off to the death camps. 


    1941: The Nazi SS began rounding up Jews of Amsterdam.


    1941: Today’s New Yorker magazine called stockbroker and New York Stock Exchange Member James B. “Jimmie” Seligman “one of the wittiest men on the Floor.”


    1942(5th of Adar, 5702): In Brazil, author Stefan Zwieg and his second wife Lotte (néeCharlotte Elisabeth Altmann) committed suicide together in Petrópolis using the barbiturate Verol. Filled with a sense of despair at the future of Europe and its culture, he wrote, "I think it better to conclude in good time and in erect bearing a life in which intellectual labor meant the purest joy and personal freedom the highest good on earth."

    1942:Wanda Landowska performed Bach's Goldberg Variations at New York City's Town Hall. It was the first 20th-century performance of this work on the harpsichord. The Polish born Jewess who sought refuge from the Nazis first in France and then the United States is credited with reviving harpsichord music in the 20th century,


    1942: U.S. premiere of “The Adventures of Martin Eden,” the cinema version of the novel Martin Edenproduced by Samuel Bronston and B.P. Schulberg.


    1942: Lord Moyne completed his service as Secretary State for the Colonies. Moyne was a close personal friend of Churchill, who as Deputy Resident Minister of State in Cairo took part in the interrogation of Joel Brand when a response was being crafted to Eichmann’s “Blood for Truck” proposal.  Moyne would be murdered by Lehi in 1944.


    1943(17th of Adar 1, 5703): At Auschwitz, the Nazis murdered Communist Party member and anti-Fascist fighter Dagobert Biermann, the father of singer-song writer Karl Wolf Bierman.


    1943: For the next six days, 10,000 more Jews were deported to Chelmno. All were gassed to death.


    1943: “An agreement was signed between the special Nazi envoy sent to facilitate the deportations, Theodor Dannecker and the Bulgarian Commissar for Jewish Affairs, Alexander Belev for the deportation of 20,000 Jews (12,000 from Macedonia and Thrace and 8,000 – from the old territory of Bulgaria).”


    1943: Bulgaria agreed to allow the Germans to deport 11,000 Jews. Horrible overcrowding conditions existed in the 20 trains that would transport them. Each day the trains stopped to dump the bodies of those who died during the journey.


    1943: Italians countermanded German orders to deport French Jews. Three days later Ribbentrop complained to Mussolini that "Italian military circles. . . lacked a proper understanding of the Jewish question."


    1943: “Sophie Scholl, her brother Hans and their friend Christoph Probst were found guilty of treason and condemned to death by head judge of the court Roland Freisler. They were beheaded by executioner Johann Reichhart in the Munich-Stadelheim prison only a few hours later at 17:00. The execution was supervised by Dr. Walter Roemer who was the enforcement chief of the Munich district court. Prison officials emphasized the courage with which she walked to her execution.” This trio was part of a small number of genuine anti-Nazi Germans who had worked to bring down the regime.


    1943: “Allied military forces marched through the crowded streets of Jerusalem, Tel Aviv and Haifa today as part of the celebrations of Red Army Day.” [The Red Army referred to is the Soviet Army which was doing the brunt of the fighting against the Germans.]


    1943: Birthdate of Elliot Rabinowitz who gained fame as music manager and businessman Elliot Roberts who partnered with David Geffen to “create Asylum Records.”


    1944: Dr. Leonardo De Benedetti, Physician and Surgeon and Dr. Primo Levi, Chemist “left the concentration camp at Fossoli di Carpi with a convoy of 650 Jews of both sexes and all ages. They did not know that the trip would end four days later in Auschwitz.


    1945(9th of Adar, 5705): Osip Maksimovich Brik “a Russian avant garde writer and literary critic, who was one of the most important members of the Russian formalist school, though he also identified himself as one of the Futurists,” passed away.


    1945: In Boston, businessman Samuel Tannenbaum and the former Gertrude Leaman gave birth to Rena Meryl Tannenbaum who gained game as publisher Rena Wolner.

    1946: The Palmach attacked the Police Tegart fort at Shefa 'Amr with a 200-pound bomb; in the firefight that followed, the Palmach suffered casualties


    1946: The British said today that three members of armed Jewish bands had been killed during the series of night attacks on Palestine mobile police camps in which dynamite charges damaged several buildings, vehicles and other facilities last night.


    1947: Birthdate of Israeli man of letters Yehonatan Geffen, the native of Nhalal who is the nephew of Moshe Dayan and the father of Aviv, Shira and Natasha Geffen.


    1948 As the conflict over the coming partition of Palestine grew, three car bombs arranged by Arab irregulars exploded on Ben Yehudah Street killing 52 Jewish civilians and leaving 123 injured. This was part of the war waged by the Arabs between the partition vote in November, 1947 and the end of the Mandate in 1948.  In the meantime the international community did nothing then or later to enforce its decision to make Jerusalem a city to be governed by an international body.


    1948: The Golani Brigade, one of Israeli’s most elite infantry brigades was formed. 


    1951: Birthdate of Ellen Greene, the Brooklyn born daughter of a guidance counselor and dentist who has enjoyed a multi-dimensional career performing in nightclubs, on Broadway, in films and television programs including Law and Order, The X Files and Miami Vice.


    1952: “The Belle of New York” produced by Arthur Freed was released in the United States today.


    1958: Egypt and Syria announced that they were joining together in a new nation, The United Arab Republic.  The UAR was supposed to be the first step in the creation of giant Pan Arab Nation.  The Israelis were concerned because the two enemies now were going to have a one military command which made coordinated military actions against the Jewish state a potentially destructive reality.  The UAR would collapse three years later as the Syrians grew disgusted with the Egyptian attempts to dominate the relationship.  This would not be the first or last time that charismatic leader would try to form a Super Arab and/or Super Moslem state. 


    1958: In East Meadow, New York, Leon Greenberg, “an executive for New York’s Century Theatres movie chain” and his wife Shirley gave birth to playwright Richard Greenberg who won the Tony Award in 2003 for “Take Me Out.”


    1960: David Susskind produced “A Very Special Baby” this week’s “Play of the Week” co-starring Marion Winters as “Anna” and Larry Blyden as “Joey.”


    1961: “Come Blow Your Horn” Neil Simon’s first play opened “on Broadway at the Brooks Atkinson Theatre.


    1964: Final performance of “The Passion of Josef D.” written by Paddy Chayefsky at the Ethel Barrymore Theatre.


    1964(9th of Adar I, 5724): Ninety year old Samuel Earl “Ike” Samuels who played briefly for the St. Louis Browns before pursuing a career in dentistry and insurance sales passed away today in New York City.


    1965(20th of Adar I, 5725): Felix Frankfurter, Supreme Court Justice passed away.  Born in 1882, Frankfurter was involved in various liberal and unpopular causes including the defense of Sacco and Venzeti.  He was a professor at Harvard Law School.  Many of his students went to work in FDR’s new deal and they were known as “Frankfurters” (for their teacher not the hot dog).  When FDR appointed him to the bench, Frankfurter was the third Jew to serve on the High Court.

    1966: “Promise Her Anything” directed by Arthur Hiller with a title song by Burt Bacharach and Hal David which had been released in the previous November in the United Kingdom was released today in the United States.


    1971(27th of Shevat, 5731): Fifty-six year old New York native David “Dynamite Dave” Smulker the all-star Temple University fullback who as a member of the NFL’s Philadelphia Eagles played in the first televised professional game in 1939 passed away today.


    1971: Birthdate of Arnon Grunberg, the Dutch born author of Blue Mondays which won the Dutch prize “for the best debut novel” and whose mother survived Auschwitz

     1972: Paul Grüninger, the Swiss police official who save thousands of Jews following the Anschluss died in poverty today.

    1973: In New York, premiere of “Charlotte’s Web” an animated feature film version of a children’s novel by the same time with music by Richard M. and Robert B. Sherman and sons by Irwin Kostal.


    1973: “Walking Tall,” a biopic with music by Walter Scharft and directed by Phil Karlson whose father was Jewish was released in the United States today.


    1974: Today “Jewish activists Mark Abramovich and Yakov Schwartzman (Kishinev), Leonid Bendersky (Tiraspol) and Sender Levinson (Bendery) were arrested in Kishinev after staging a hunger strike near the Central Post Office.”


    1975(11th of Adar I, 5735): Fifty-six year old Samuel Bihari, one of the four brothers who founded Modern Records and helped to create a “sanitized” form of rock and roll for the mass market of the 1950’s passed away today.


    1981(18th of Adar I, 5741): Eighty-one year old Curtis Bernhardt who worked as movie director in Germany under the name of Kurt Bernhardt before fleeing Nazi Germany and pursuing his career in France, England and finally the United States, passed away today.


    1981(18th of Adar I, 5741): Seventy-five year old Austrian born American historian Saul K. Padover whose works include biographies on Karl Marx, Joseph II of Austria, Louis XVI, Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and Thomas Jefferson passed away today.

    1982: New York City Mayor Ed Koch announced his plans to run for governor of New York.  The campaign would be a failure. 


    1982(29th of Shevat): Legendary DJ Murray "the K" Kaufman, called the 5thBeatle by some, passed away at the age of 60.


    1984(19th of Adar I, 5744): Eighty-seven year old mathematician and WW II codebreaker Maxwell Herman Alexander “Max” Newman passed away today in Cambridge.

    1985(1st of Adar, 5745): Rosh Chodesh


    1985 (1st of Adar, 5745): Violinist Efrem A Zimbalist passed away at the age of 95..  Born in Russia, Zimbalist was one of long line of violin virtuosos that included Jascha Heifitz, Yehudi Menuhin and Isaac Stern. Many of you may recognize this name with the word "Junior" after it.  Zimbalist’s son was a minor matinee idol in television and movies who was not Jewish.(As reported by Tim Page)

    1986(13th of Adar I, 5746): Soviet Poet Boris Slutsky passed away.

    1987(23rd of Shevat): David Susskind passed away at the age of 66. Susskind is best remembered for his pioneering role in late night television.  Susskind hosted a show called Open End, where guests from a variety of walks of life actually discussed issues of the day without a script and with civility. (As reported by Robert D. McFadden)

    1989: At a benefit for the Dance Library of Israel, an international dance library and archive in Tel Aviv, Marge Champion presented an award to Agnes de Mille. The presentation took place at a dinner that preceded a benefit performance of “Jerome Robbin’s Broadway.”


    1989:Different Trains,” a three-movement piece for string quartet and tape written by Steve Reich in 1988 won a Grammy Award for Best Contemporary Classical Composition.


    1991: "Underground," a new work by the Israeli playwright Joshua Sobol, directed by Adrian Hall, has its world premiere at the Yale Repertory Theater today, co-directed by Adrian Hall.


    1991: “He Said, She Said,” a comedy directed by Marisa Silver was released in the United States today,


    1992(18th of Adar I 5752): Avot Yeshurun, an Israeli poet who wove Arabic and Yiddish idiom into a unique and influential form of Hebrew verse, passed away today at the age of 88. No cause of death was given by his family, which announced his death. Born in Ukraine as Yehiel Perlmutter, Mr. Yeshurun made aliyah in 1925, worked as a laborer and began publishing poetry. His family perished in the Holocaust. After Israel was established in 1948, Mr. Yeshurun was one of its first literary figures to acknowledge the plight of the uprooted Palestinians. He saw the Palestinians and the Jews of Europe as having endured a common tragedy, and sought to fuse their experience in the language of his poetry. Although long ignored by the establishment, Mr. Yeshurun was highly regarded by younger poets. His stature was formally recognized a month ago when he was awarded the Israel Prize.


    1992:  Barry Diller resigns as CEO of FOX Television Network.


    1992: American diplomat Josiah W. Bennett who as a member of the Foreign Service headed the United States Information Service in Tel Aviv passed away.  (Bennett was not Jewish)


    1993: New York Judge Judith Kaye is nominated by then-governor Mario Cuomo to become the first female Chief Judge of the New York State Court of Appeals.


    1998: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including the recently released paperback editions of Love Invents Us by Amy Bloom and Ira Gershwin: The Art of the Lyricist by Philip Furia.


    1998(26th of Shevat, 5758): Distinguished Democratic politician and government official, Abraham Ribicoff passed away.  Ribicoff was Governor of Connecticut, Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare under John Kennedy and U.S. Senator from 1963 until 1981.

    1999(6th of Adar, 5759): Nobel Prize winner Gertrude Elion passed away.

    2002(20th of Adar I, 5762): A Fatah terrorist murdered 45 year old Valery Ahmir “in a drive-by shooting.”


    2003(20th of Adar I, 5763): Ninety-year old Oscar winning screenwriter Daniel Taradash passed away today.

    2003: An International Conference hosted by the Dubnow Institute on “Transforming Religious and Ethnic Emblematics of Judaism and Jewishness” began today.


    2004(30th of Shevat, 5764): Rosh Chodesh Adar


    2004(30th of Shevat, 5764): Israel Ilan Avisidris, 41, of Jerusalem; Lior Azulai, 18, of Jerusalem; Yaffa Ben-Shimol, 57, of Jerusalem; Rahamim Doga, 38, of Mevasseret Zion; Yehuda Haim, 48, of Givat Ze'ev;


    Netanel Havshush, 20, of Jerusalem; Yuval Ozana, 32, of Jerusalem and Benaya Yehonatan Zuckerman, 18, of Jerusalem were murdered today and 60 other people were injured when an Arab terrorist blew up Egged bus #14 in Jerusalem during the Second Intifada.


    2004: A suicide bomber attacked a bus in the center of Jerusalem, killing 8 people and wounding 70. The Palestinian terrorist group Al Aksa Martyrs Brigades claimed responsibility.


    2005(13th of Adar I, 5765): Ninety-six year old Trude Rittman, the German-Jewish American arranger of Broadway hits including Carousel and Sound of Music passed away today. (As reported by Wolfgang Saxon)

    2005(13thAdar I, 5765): Ninety-four year old French film actress Simone Simon who was “the daughter of Henri Louis Firmin Champmoynat, a French Jewish engineer and airplane pilot in World War II, who died in a concentration camp” passed away today.


    2006: The Liberal Party appointed Irwin Cotler Critic for Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness in the opposition shadow cabinet for the 39th Canadian Parliament. “Cotler's wife, Ariela, is a native of Jerusalem and worked as a legislative assistant to the Likud members of the Israeli Knesset from 1967 to 1979.”


    2006: French President Jacques Chirac and his prime minister attended a synagogue memorial ceremony for a Jewish man who was kidnapped, tortured and killed.


    2006(24th of Shevat, 5766): Hilde Palm (née Löwenstein) the daughter of German Jewish lawyer Eugene Lowenstein, who wrote under the pseudonym Hilde Domin creating such works as the poetry anthology “The Tree Blossoms Nevertheless” passed away today.


    2006(24th of Shevat, 5766):Bernie Weisberg, former national director of Young Judea and the Labor Zionist Alliance, passed away at the age of 82 (As reported by Anthony Weiss)



    2008: The Jerusalem Post reported that Prime Minister Ehud Olmert has established an unprecedented high-level government task force charged with fundamentally altering the Israel-Diaspora relationship.


    2008: Israeli officials rejected Arab complaints that they are not committed to a two-state solution for Israel and Palestine.  Furthermore, these officials stated that Prime Minister Ehud Olmert had responded positively to the Arab League initiative as a basis for negotiations. 


    2009: In a move intended to improve its relationship with the new wave of Jewish immigrants from the former Soviet Union, the Hebrew Free Burial Association hosted a Russian-Jewish Community event. Established in 1888, HFBA is one of the oldest and largest free burial associations serving the New York Jewish Community.


    2008: Sarah Chayes, the daughter of Abram Chayes and award winning reported for National Public Radio “was a guest on PBS's Bill Moyers Journal” today.


    2009:Music of the Sephardic Diaspora is the focus of a concert in the new Alice Tully Hall at Lincoln Center when celebrated viola da gambist Jordi Savall and early music ensemble Hespèrion XXI present Diáspora Sefardí: From Medieval Spain to the Eastern Mediterranean.
    2009:Agudas Achim conducts the first ever Early Passover Pallet Salein eastern Iowa making it possible for those living in the Iowa City-Cedar Rapids Corridor to buy unique “Kosher for Passover “items including Chocolate Seder Plates, at “discount prices.”


    2009: The New York Times features a review of A Hidden Life:A Memoir of August 1969by Johanna Reiss who had won a Newberry Award a quarter of a century ago for The Upstairs Room, her story of survival as a ten year old hiding from the Nazis in occupied Holland.


    2009: The now-daily rocket attacks by Gaza terrorists against southern Israel resumed today with the launch of a Kassam rocket at the Sha'ar HaNegev region and a mortar attack fired at IDF troops near the Kissufim Crossing


    2009: Duke Blue Devil guard Jon Scheyer scored a then-career-high 30 points against Wake Forest


    2009(28th of Shevat, 5769): Howard Zieff, the commercial director and ad photographer who stuffed an actor with spicy meatballs in a memorable Alka-Seltzer spot and used an American Indian in print ads to convince people “You don’t have to be Jewish to love Levy’s real Jewish Rye,” then went on to direct movie comedies, passed away today at the age of 81. (As reported by Dennis Hevesi)

    2010: The Knesset "approved a law instructing the Israeli Government to protect the rights of Jewish refugees from Arab counties in all forthcoming peace negotiations; the first Israeli law to recognize Jews as coming to Israel not only to fulfill Zionist aspirations, but as refugees


    2010:The Jewish Studies Program at Tulane University under the leadership of Dr. Brian Horowitz and the Center for Cultural Judaism are scheduled to present a program entitled “The Jewish Question as the Arab Question: The Lost Voice of Simon Rawidowicz” at Tulane’s Uptown Campus in New Orleans, LA.


    2010:National police headquarters issued an order today to cease the delivery of mail throughout Israel following the discovery of what is believed to be a package bomb at a post office in Migdal Haemek


    2010:Army Radio reported today that The Palestinian Authority handed a Kassam rocket made in a West Bank village to Israeli authorities last week. According to the report, PA security forces found the rocket ready to be launched towards central Israel.


    2010:Israel's ice dancing team at the Winter Olympics finished in 10th place. Roman and Alexandra Zaretsky performed to music from "Schindler's List" in the free dance tonight at the Pacific Coliseum in Vancouver, Canada. The brother-and-sister duo earned a score of 90.64 in the free dance, and a score of 180.26 over-all. The music was chosen in part as a tribute to 27 family members that died in Minsk, Belarus during the Holocaust, the Jewish Chronicle reported.


    2010:Israeli archaeologists said today that they've discovered an unusually shaped 1,400-year-old wine press that was exceptionally large and advanced for its time. The octagonal press measures 21 feet by 54 feet (6.5 by 16.5 meters) and was discovered in southern Israel, about 40 kilometers south of both Jerusalem and Tel Aviv.


    2010(8th of Adar, 5770):Rabbi Menachem Porush, a long-serving Knesset member and father of current Deputy Education Minister Meir Porush, died in Jerusalem today at the age of 94. Porush, a seventh generation descendent of Lithuanian immigrants, sat in the Knesset for 35 years until 1994 and remained politically active until his death. The son of a deputy mayor of Jerusalem, Porush entered politics through journalism, working as a writer and editor for religious newspapers for two decades until his election to the Knesset in 1959. "He was a great Jew. He was like one of the stone of the Wailing Wall in the Holy City, Jerusalem," President Shimon Peres said. "Menachem my friend, you were full of vision and hope for the future of the Jewish nation. You loved the nation and worked to unify it. You stood as a bridge between its parts.


    2010(8th of Adar, 5770):Steffi Sidney-Splaver, who began a career as an actress and then gave up acting to become a Hollywood writer, publicist and producer, passed away today at the age of 74.


    2011:Member of Knesset Danny Danon. The Deputy Knesset Speaker, Chairman of the Immigration, Absorption and Diaspora Affairs Committee and of World Likud is scheduled to give an address at The OU Israel Center in Jerusalem.


    2011: The Round Up,a “drama that tackles the controversial subject of French collusion in the atrocities of the Holocaust” is scheduled to be shown at the Atlanta Jewish Film Festival.


    2011: At the Jerusalem International Book Fair, Galaade Editions and ITHl are scheduled to present: “Sisters, not enemies: Telling the story of Jews and Arabs in Israel in another voice.”


    2011: Israel Philharmonic Orchestra is scheduled to perform at Carnegie Hall.


    2011:Israel conducted a successful test of the Arrow 2 ballistic missile defense system off the coast of California early this morning, when it destroyed a target simulating an Iranian ballistic missile


    2011: Rham Emanuel was elected Mayor of Chicago today, making him the first Jew to hold this position.


    2011:Montreal's city council has condemned the boycott campaign against a local shoe store that sells footwear made in Israel. A council motion deploring the campaign, proposed and supported by Mayor Gerard Tremblay, passed today by a vote of 38 to 16.  (As reported by JTA)


    2011(18thof Adar, 5771):George Einstein, a cousin, contemporary and occasional companion of Albert Einstein who was a successful inventor and businessman in his own right passed away at the age of 91.

    2011: Sue Fishkoff described the role of the Jewish community in the conflict between Wisconsin’s Governor Walker and public sector employees.

    2011:Nearly 100 orthodox North American rabbis signed a letter demanding of Interior Minister Eli Yishai to “rectify the injustice being done to our converts, ourselves and the Jewish people” and “insure that those individuals whom we convert will automatically be eligible for aliyah as they have been in the past.”


    2011:In an effort to curb the trend of Orthodox converts from abroad not being recognized by Israel for citizenship, the Jewish Agency today appealed the Interior Ministry for a more dominant role in identifying established Diaspora communities as such.


    2012: “Ahead of Time: The Extraordinary Journey of Ruth Gruber” is scheduled to be shown at Temple Beth Sholom Idelson Library in Sarasota, FL.


    2012: In London, Chochana Boukhobza is scheduled to discuss “The Third Day” a novel about two cellists who travel to Jerusalem for a concert, as part of Jewish Book Week.


    2012: In London, Rod Arad is scheduled to talk about his passion for marrying unconventional forms with unexpected functions and the sources of his unbridled creativity during Jewish Book Week.


    2012: Publication of “The Jewish Community of Harbin, China”

    2012:Iran may develop inter-continental missiles that can reach the east coast of the United States in two to three years, Finance Minister Yuval Steinitz said in a CNBC interview today


    2012: Israel Beiteinu will propose an alternative to the Tal Law by which "everyone will serve the state," Foreign Minister Avigdor Liberman said today.


    2012(29thof Shevat, 5772): Eighty-six year old Mark Shulman the husband of Margaret Shulman


    2013: The Israeli Opera’s Meitar Opera Studio is scheduled to present The Operas of Donizetti at the Eden Tamir Music Center


    2013: In Springfield, VA, Congregation Adat Reyim is scheduled to host a wine and cheese reception along with a Shabbat Folk Service “celebrating the anniversary of Debbie Friedman’s birth.”


    2013: Palestinian protests in Jerusalem and the West Bank turned violent today, with demonstrators throwing stones at Israeli security forces at several locations.


    2013: After nine seasons and 197 original episodes CBS broadcast the last episode of CSI:NY, a cerebral crime fighting program created by Carol Mendelsohn and  for which Jerry Bruckheimer served as executive producer.


    2014: In Iowa City, Hillel under the leadership of Director Jerry Sorkin, is scheduled to host its annual fundraising concert featuring University of Iowa School of Music faculty members, Kenneth Tse (saxophone), Alan Huckleberry (piano), and Scott Conklin (violin), along with a quartet of School of Music graduate students.


    2014: The DPJCC's 14th Annual Jewish Film Festival is scheduled to close with the showing of “Orchestra of Exiles”


    2014: Friends and family of Cyndie Birchansky, whose accomplishments include three really neat children, look forward to celebrating her natal day.


    2014: The Red Door is scheduled to host “Waiting Room” an evening curated by Leah Wolff and Guy Ben-Ari.


    2014: The Jewish Agency will extend immediate emergency assistance to the Jewish community of Ukraine and will help secure Jewish institutions in the country, the Chairman of the Executive of The Jewish Agency for Israel Natan Sharansky announced today.


    2015: The New York Times features books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Lies, First Person by Gail Hareven, Khirbet Khizehby S. Yizhar, Lucky Alan and Other Stories by Jonathan Lethem, Mark Twain’s America by Harry L. Katz and Huck Finn’s America by Andrew Levy.


    2015: In New Orleans, Rabbi Edward Paul Cohn is scheduled to officiate at the graveside services Martha Blackman who was the widow of Murray Blackman, of blessed memory, the longtime Rabbi at Temple Sinai.


    2015: “Laureen Nussbaum, Anne Frank scholar and Holocaust survivor, is scheduled to speak on Holocaust history and the legacy of Anne Frank's work during this afternoon’s lecture at the Oregon Jewish Museum and Center for Holocaust Education.


    2015: “Mexican-Jewish cinematographer Emmanuel Lubezki accepted the Academy Award for “Birdman,” repeating his victory last year for “Gravity.”


    2015: An exhibition “Through Soviet Jewish Eyes: Photography, War and the Holocaust” is scheduled to open at the Illinois Holocaust Museum & Education Center.

    2015: “Ida,” a “Polish moved that traces the evolution of a young novitiate in Catholic convent, who, about to take her vows, learns that she is the daughter of Jewish parents killed in the Holocaust” won the Oscar for best foreign-language film. (As reported by JTA and Times of Israel)


    2015: “The evening’s “In Memoriam” segment of the Oscars devoted to film industry notables who have passed away over the past year, included, among others, Israeli filmmaker Menachem Golan, director Mike Nichols, and legendary film actress Lauren Bacall.”


    2015:Israel’s losing streak at the Oscars continued, as the short film “Aya,” cowritten and codirected by Mihal Brezis and Oded Binnun and starring Sarah Adler, failed to win for Best Short Film.


    2015: As the world is scheduled to watch the Academy Award ceremonies tonight there are those who remember that Hollywood columnist Sidney Skolsky “claimed to have been the first to call the Academy Award Statuette ‘Oscar.’”


    2015: Lewis Black is scheduled to appear at the Vonnegut Fundraiser in Indianapolis, Indiana


    2015: The Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington is scheduled to host a “1-hour workshop that will include a series of activities designed to get” people “thinking, taking and sharing ideas to help in planning for a new regional museum projected to open in 2020.


    2015: In Cedar Rapids, Iowa, Barnes & Noble is scheduled to host a book reading and signing featuring Boris Fishman, author of A Replacement Life.


    2015: “Fragile” an exhibition by Tel Aviv native Tal Eshed is scheduled to open at the Klemens & Tanja Grunert Gallery.


     2016: The American Sephardi Federation is scheduled to host “a new class exploring the Baqashot (‘Songs of Seeking’ in Edwin Seroussi’s wonderful translation), a musical tradition whose roots are in Andalusian Spain.”


    2016: 284thanniversary of the birth of George Washington whose welcoming tone expressed to the Jews of the United States helped to make the American Jewish experience unique from its inception down to the 21st century. 


    2017: “Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu of Israel was warmly welcomed at Sydney today by his Australian counterpart, Malcolm Turnbull, with the Israeli leader promoting the two countries’ growing ties as Israel faces rising international criticism over its settlement policy in the West Bank.” (As reported by Jacqueline Williams and Gerry Mullany)


    2017: Meir Weinstein, “founder and leader of the Jewish Defence League of Canada” filed a hate crime complaint “with Toronto police against a downtown mosque whose imam allegedly called for killing Jews.” (As reported by Ron Csillag)


    2017: The Jewish Museum celebrated its annual Purim Ball today at the cavernous Park Avenue Armory, which was decorated with a ceiling-to-floor installation of multicolored streamers and shapes, eliciting oohs and ahhs from the more than 700 festive guests who included former Mayor Michael Bloomberg as they mingled with dancing giant anthropomorphic Purim Puppets on stilts. (As reported by Masha Leon)


    2017: The Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington is scheduled to host a focus group opened to the public to receive an exclusive sneak peek and provide feedback on stories and historic artifacts for the new Jewish museum being built in the Washington Metropolitan Area.


    2017: As “the climate conversation heats up,” The Temple Emanu-El Streicker Center is scheduled to present “An Evening With Al Gore.”


    2017: The JDC Archives and The Center For Jewish History are scheduled to host “Town Fools, Beggars and Other Outcasts: Bringing the Margins to the Center in East European Jewish History” during Nata Meir will examine “Jewish social outcasts in prewar Eastern European history and offer insights into the changing mentalities of Jewish society.”


    2018: The Steicker Center is scheduled to host “Love and Death in Italian Ghettos in the Time of the Plague” during which a panel of experts “using original documents from Italian archives…will explore the everyday lives of Roman, Mantuan, Venetian and Florentine Jews during exceptionally trying times, addressing how Europe’s Jewish communities coped with plagues and pestilence.


    2018: JW3 is scheduled to host the final screening of “Scaffolding” in London.


    2018: JW3 is scheduled to host the first screening of “Shalom Bollywood: The Untold Story of Indian Cinema.”


    2018: The New Orleans JCC is scheduled to host a screening of “The 90 Minutes War” as part of the Cathy and Morris Bart Jewish Cultural Arts Series.


    2018: MusicTalks and Yeshiva University’s Center for Israel Studies are scheduled to present a celebration of “the music and life of Arik Einstein, “the voice of Israel” and a pioneer of Israeli rock music, through a live performance by Elad Kabilio and an ensemble of musicians from MusicTalks.”


    2018: Two hundred eighty-sixth anniversary of the birth of George Washington who signed a treaty between the United States and Tripoli in 1796 that said “the Government of the United States is not in any sense founded on the Christian religion” which meant that “Washington did not intend to disparage the Christian religion” but “he did mean to say that no claim in the future would justified that Christianity was …the foundation of the Government of the United States.”


     


     


     


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    February 23


    42(16th of Adar, 3892): King Agrippa I began the construction of a gate for the of Jerusalem (pg 128)


    68(4th of Adar, 3828): During the Great Revolt, Vespasian occupied the city of Gadara as the legions made their slow, inexorable march to Jerusalem.


    1422:  During the conflict between the Hussites and the Dominicans, Pope Martin V issued a Bull favorable to the Jews reminding Christians that their religion had been inherited from the Jews.  “The pope forbade the monks to preach against intercourse between Jews and Christians.”


    1443: Birthdate of Matthias Corvinus who as King Matthias I “created the office of Jewish prefect in Hungary.


    1447 Pope Eugenius IV passed away. In speaking about the Jews, Eugenius declared “We decree and order that from now on, and for all time, Christians shall not eat or drink with the Jews, nor admit them to feasts, nor cohabit with them, nor bathe with them. […]  They cannot live among Christians, but in a certain street, separated and segregated from Christians, and outside which they cannot under any pretext have houses.”


    1455:  Traditional date for the publication of the Gutenberg Bible, the first Western book printed from movable type.  This revolution in publishing was one of the most liberating events in Western history.  Some say that it really marked the beginning of the Modern Intellectual Era of Western Civilization.  Soon books would be printed Hebrew giving the People of the Book greater access to books thus further democratizing the concept of learning which is a cornerstone of Jewish civilization.  The chapter and verse system finally took hold in copies of the Torah (books not the Scroll itself) as a result of the printing revolution.


    1484: Over this day and the next, 30 men and women were burned alive, as well as the bones of 40 others at the Inquisitional Tribunal of Ciudad Real.


    1592: Emperor Rudolph II invited Rabbi Judah ben Bezalel Lowe, known as the Maharal of Prague to his castle.  The two men met for an hour and a half during with they “developed a mutual respect for each other. Rabbi Judah Lowe made use of his excellent connections with the Emperor, often intervening on behalf of his community when it was threatened by anti-Semitic attacks or oppression. (As reported by Chabad Knowledge Base)


    1658: Jacob (John) Lumbrozo, the first doctor in Maryland was tried for having, "Denied Jesus of Nazareth…." Lumbrozo was convicted, sentenced to death, and was to have all his property confiscated by the government. He was later freed from these penalties. Lumbrozo was born in Portugal. He then moved to Holland and finally settled in Maryland in 1656.


    1665: Emperor Maximilian II granted permission to Chrisophe Plantin to print Hebrew books in Antwerp


    1685: Birthdate of composer George Frideric Handel.  In 1718, he wrote the oratorio “Esther” which was based on Racine’s 1689 tragic drama of the same name. Two of his other oratorios were “Deborah” based on the life of the Biblical Judge and “Athalia,” an operatic treatment of the life of the murderous Jewish Queen.


    1744: In the ghetto of Frankfurt am Main, “Amschel Moses Rothschild and his wife Schönche Rothschild (née Lechnich) gave birth to Meyer Amschel Rothschild.


    1723: Birthdate of Richard Price, the non-conformist minster who held the lectureship at Old Jewry, the Presbyterian meeting house built on the site of London’s original Jewish neighborhood.


    1777: Birthdate of Leopold Bettelheim, the Hungarian physician who “was the recipient of a gold medal of honor from the emperor Franz I. for distinguished services to the royal family and to the nobility.”


    1807: The British Parliament voted overwhelmingly in favor of abolition of the slave trade. This victory was due in large measure to the decades’ long efforts of William Wilberforce. This is the same William Wilberforce who helped found Christ Church Ministries Jerusalem (CMJ) in England in 1809. Wilberforce and other leading evangelicals such as Lord Shaftesbury believed that the Jewish people had to be restored to their ancient land in order to pave the way for the return of Jesus. From the 1840s on the Society built in Jerusalem a School of Industry for training Jewish believers in basic trades; an Enquirers House, a Hebrew College, and a modern hospital for Jewish people as well as Christ Church.


    1812: Birthdate of Fischel Arnheim the Baireuth lawyer and politician who “was elected by the cities of Hof and Münchberg to the Bavarian legislature.”


    1813: In Leipzig, Susanna Rosina and Johann Gottfried Delitzsch, “a peddler, craftsman and day laborer” gave birth to Lutheran theologian Franz Delitzsch who “wrote many commentaries on books of the Bible, Jewish antiquities, Biblical psychology, a history of Jewish poetry, and Christian apologetics.”


    1815(13th of Adar): Patriot and founder of Aaronsburg, PA, Aaron Levy passed away


    1823: In Piotrkow, Poland, Phineas Mendel Heilprin and his wife gave birth to Michael Heilprin the American author, philanthropist and champion of social justice.


    1825: In Baltimore, MD, Joseph Osterman married Rosanna Dyer whose older brother Major Leon Dyer would escort Santa Anna to Washington in 1836 and who as Rosanna Dyer Osterman would become “one of Texas’ earliest and most generous benefactors.”


    1831: Lewis Cohen married Sophia Andrade at the Hambro Synagogue.


    1831: Elias Simmons married Matilda Jones at the Great Synagogue.


    1832(22ndof Adar I. 5592):Wolf Heidenheim, who was born at Heidenheim in 1757 and whose works included several editions of the Pentateuch, a Pesach Haggadah, and several siddurim passed away today at Rödelheim


    1832: In Cracow, Isaac Halberstram, a wealthy merchant and his wife gave birth to Solomon Joachim Chayim Halberstam known as ShaZHaH.


    1832: Birthdate of Hirsch Rabinowitz, the native of Kovno who founded a technical school for Jewish boys at Dvinsk and who became a leader of the Society for the Promotion of Culture Among the Jews of Russia after he moved to St. Petersburg.


    1832: Yitzchak Alter and Feigele Lipschitz gave birth to their seventh child Ester Alter.


    1834: Birthdate of Abraham Greenwalt, who won the Medal of Honor for his “bravery at the Battle of Frankilin (TN)’ during the Civil War


    1835: La Juive (The Jewess) a grand opera in five acts composed by Fromental Halévy premiered today at the Opéra, Paris


    1836: The Siege of the Alamo began at San Antonio, Texas.  Dr. Mark Levy, a Jewish physician was reportedly one of those manning the walls of the Texas mission facing the forces of Santa Anna.


    1839: In New York City “Michael and Sophia (nee Hart) Asher gave birth to Morris Asher, the resident of Philadelphia and member of Company of B of the 71st Regiment of Infantry, Pennsylvania Volunteers who fought with the Army of the Potomac in every battle until Gettysburg where his wounds were so severe that he was mustered out of service in 1864.


    1846: In Poland, the National Government issued a proclamation “calling for the Jewish population to join the uprising and ensuring their full equality.”


    1848: David Jacobs married Matilda Rebecca Jacobs today in the United Kingdom.


    1848: John Quincy Adams, Sixth President of the United States passed away.  In what seems like a strange turn of events, President Adams expressed his support for a Jewish homeland in the land of Israel.  In a letter to Mordecai Manuel Noah, one of the most prominent Jews in pre-Civil War America, Adams wrote that he believed in the “rebuilding of Judea as an independent nation.”


    1848: During the third French Revolution François Guizot, the reactionary Prime Minister opposed by Adolphe Cremieux was forced to resign and flee the country.


    1848: In Cincinnati, Ohio, Jacob Levinson and Fannie D. Hirsch gave birth to their daughter Hannah who married Julius Newman and who as Hannah Newman was a “member of the Board for Jewish Friendless” and was a member of the committee that originated the first free kindergarten in Chicago.”


    1852: Birthdate of Nathan Frank, the native of Peoria, Illinois and leader of the Republican party who founded the St. Louis Star and served in the 51stCongress.


    1853: In Philadelphia, a dinner was held at the Samson Street Hall to raise funds for Jewish charities.


    1855: It was today reported that the concert designed to raise funds for the Hebrew Benevolent Societies scheduled for February 27 has been moved from Dodworth's Rooms to Niblo's Saloon because of the unusually high demand for tickets.


    1858: David Defries married Esther Moses today at the Great Synagogue.


    1860(30th of Shevat, 5620): Rosh Chodesh Adar


    1861: Birthdate of Emrich Ullmann the Austrian surgeon who was a pioneer in renal transplantation research.


    1864: The United States Senate voted to confirm President Lincolns’ appointment of Rabbi Jacob Frankel to serve “as a Chaplain of United States Hospitals during the Civil War.”


    1865: Birthdate of pioneer baseball executive, Barney Dreyfuss, the owner of the Pittsburg Pirates and the “father” of the World Series.


    1867: Birthdate of Isaac David Broydé, the native of Grodno, in what was then part of the Russian Empire who after being educated at the Sorbonne worked in France and the UK before coming to New York in 1900 where he “joined the editorial staff of the Jewish Encyclopedia.”


    1868(30th of Shevat, 5628): Rosh Chodesh Adar


    1870: Professor George Bartchelor delivered a talk on education reform to the New York Liberal Club.  Batchelor contended that when it came to language, Hebrew, along with Greek and Latin, were the foundation of liberal education.  But the public schools were teaching German, French and Spanish. [Considering who belong to the Liberal Club, one wonders what would have happened if a Hebrew teacher from the Lower East Side had shown up at its meeting.]


    1871: The official position of the Jewish community in Ghent was regulated by two decrees one of which was issued today.


    1872: Mortiz Ellinger ended his term as publisher of the Jewish Times today.


    1873: “The State of the Jews in Persia” published today described the conditions of those living under the rule of the “sovereign in Tehran” who “treats the Moslems” with “greater forbearance than the Jews” because the latter “are not always ready to pay when the tax gatherer calls on them which leads to the Jew being beaten until he discharges his arrears – a fate they could escape “if they offered to embrace Mohammedanism.”


    1874: It was reported today that there are only ten bakers in New York who manufacture the Passover Bread” (Matzos) and that they fill orders not only for those living in New York but for those “from Brooklyn Philadelphia and many cities outside of “New York State and that matzos are sold for “eleven cents a pound.”


    1874: It was reported that “some time ago” the Atlantic Monthly published an article “Our Israelitish Brethren” “which treats in a very pleasant way the religious observances of this wonderful people.


    1878: “Celebrated Jews In Power” published today claims that the rise of Jewry in Europe has turned the fiction of “Coningsby” and the predictions of Sidonia into reality.  One of the proof points is the leading role that Benjamin Disraeli, the author of Coningsby, plays in British politics.


    1879(30th of Shevat, 5639): Rosh Chodesh Adar


    1879: Birthdate of Colonel Ernest Albert Rose who married Julia Eda Lewis at the Synagogue Princes Road in Liverpool in 1907.


    1879: It was reported today that unnamed Jew had scored a coup during the sale of old military stores at Edinburgh Castle. He bought 600 rusty old helmets for 6 pence a pound.  After he cleaned them up, he discovered that they were made of “fine steel…adorned with Arabic inscriptions” showing that they were very old pieces of equipment. After selling a few of the helmets, an Armenian purchased the lot of them for 18 shillings per helmet. Realizing their error, the government bought the helmets from him for 2 of 3 English pounds per helmet.


    1880: It was reported that in Germany, associations have been formed for the purpose of excluding Jews from serving in Parliament. In Breslau, one such group has announced that it will not support a Jew under any circumstances. [The rise of anti-Semitism paralleled the moves to emancipate German Jewry.]


    1881: “At Oegeklooster, near Hartwerd, in the Province of Friesland, Netherlands, Titus Brandsma who died in 1920 and Tjitsje Postma who died in 1933 gave birth to Anno Sjoerd Brandsma, who gained famed as Titus Brandsma, a Carmelite priest arrested by German occupiers in Holland for speaking out against Nazism as a "lie" and "pagan."  Brandsma had been speaking out against the Nazis since the mid 1930’s.  After his arrest, he was shipped to Dachau in where he was the subject of medical experiments.  He died of a lethal injection in July, 1942. Brandsma was declared “Blessed” by Pope John Paul, II in 1985.  Since then, the promotion of his cause for sainthood has been in progress.


    1882: The SS Illinois arrived at Philadelphia, PA at 3:20 pm carrying 325 men, women and children who were refugees from the anti-Semitic violence that had been taking place in the Russian Empire including Poland, Kiev and Odessa.  The refugees were greeted by members of the committee that has been preparing for their arrival. After being examined by Dr. T. J. Elleinger and his medical staff, the refugees were taken to the old Pennsylvania Railroad station which has been remodeled to meet their needs.  The refugees had harrowing tales of deprivation and violence to tell their American benefactors who included Jews and Christians.


    1882: It was reported today that the Toronto Globe has received a cable from London describing a meeting of the Executive Committee of the Mansion House Fund for the Relief of Russo-Jewish Refugees presided over by Cardinal Manning.  With the support of Sir A.T. Galt a sub-committee was established to select sites for the establishment of agriculture settlements in Palestine the Canadian Northwest that could provide a viable new home for the persecuted Jews. The subcommittee has a budget of ten thousand pounds. [This outpouring of support for the Jews who were the victims of a series of Pogroms following the assassination of Alexander II is laudable.  Sensing that England could and New York City could inundated by a wave of refugees, plans were made to try and settle the Jews in the under-populated areas of Canada, the United States and Argentina]


    1886: Lena Lillienthal married Meyer Goldberg. By August of the following year, the two would embroiled in nasty divorce case in which she sought to end the marriage.


    1890: The President and Managers of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society of New York will hold a reception today between 11 a.m. and 6 p.m. in honor of George Washington’s birthday.  (Washington was born on February 22 which in 1890 fell on Shabbat which accounts for the delay)


    1890: English dramatist Leopold Davis Lewis passed away.  Born in 1828 and trained as a solicitor he began his dramatic career by translating Erckmann-Chatrian's “Le Juif Polonais,” (the Polish Jew) which he then produced as “The Bells.”


    1890: It was reported today that among those charities received property tax exemptions were the Ladies’ Deborah Nursery and Child’s Protectory ($12,000) and the Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews ($30,000).


    1890: “Gladstone At Oxford” published today included comments by the English Prime Minister about the status of the Jews.  When asked if he thought “that there is any likelihood of an anti-Semitic agitation in England” Gladstone replied “I have not the least fear of an agitation in England against the Jews.  You might as well expect one against the law of gravity.”


    1890: “Sir A Sassoon” published today relying on information that first appeared in The Spectatorbriefly described “this rise of this Jewish family in England” which “were till quite recently strictly Indian Jews” who were “almost natives in their manner of life.” (Sir A. Sassoon probably referred to Sir Albert Abdulah David Sassoon, the First Baronet)


    1890: It was reported today that in the summer of 1875 a group of visitors from Massachusetts came to Lincoln’s Inn, London looking for Judah P. Benjamin, the Confederate leader turned British Barrister..  They were surprised that Benjamin, who was Jewish “was engaged to appear against an influential firm of Jewish money lenders.”


    1891: “A Row in the Synagogue” published today described the outbreak of fight at the Grant Street synagogue in Pittsburg, PA.  Ruben Miller bloodied the nose of Harris Bartniski during a meeting at which congregants were discussing a sermon by Rabbi Feinich in which he denounced Miller for renting his building “to a company of atheists.”


    1893: New York State Jacob A. Cantor met with party leaders at the “Tammany Wigwam” to discuss pending legislation in Albany.


    1894: In Tétouan, MoroccoRabbi Shlomo Aburbeh and Yocheved Khalfon gave birth to Amram Aburbeh the Chief Rabbi of the Sephardic congregation in Petah Tikva, Israel


    1894: It was reported that among those who attended the 14th annual reception of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society included Mr. and Mrs. Selig Steinhardt, Mr. and Mrs. Jesse Seligman, Mr. and Mrs. Lyman Bloomingdale and the Honorable and Mrs. Joseph Blumenthal.


    1895: It was reported today that English actor John Hare, who has played the lead in “The Old Jew” will be coming to New York City to perform in December.  Among the productions in which he is expected to appear is “The Old Jew.”


    1896: It was reported today that the sale of tickets and boxes for the upcoming Purim Ball are “exceeding all expectations.”


    1896: “Nordau Replied To” published today contained a detailed reviews of Regeneration: A Reply to Max Nordau with an Introduction by Nicholas Murray Butler.


    1896: The Tootsie Roll is introduced by Leo Hirshfield. The soft chewy candy took its name from the nickname of Hirshfield’s daughter.  Hirshfield was from Austria.  However, the question as to whether he was or was not Jewish is still up for grabs.  Like the mystery of the Red Heifer, this one may not be answered until the coming of the Moshiach.


    1896:Mihail Grigore Sturza, the voivode, (count or military governor) signed a document recognizing the Jewish community of Galatz, Romania.


    1897: In Hampstead, London, American opera singer Francesca Halle and Joseph Gluckstein whose family founded J. Lyons and Co. gave birth to lawyer and Conservative politician Colonel Sir Louis Halle Gluckstein.


    1898: In France Émile Zola was convicted following his trial for libel.  He received the maximum sentence – one year in jail and a fine of 3000 Frances. He had written “J'accuse” which was a letter accusing the French government of anti-Semitism and wrongfully placing Alfred Dreyfus in jail.


    1898: As the Dreyfus Affair reached one of its climaxes, Paul Deroulede attempted to get the troops at Neuilly to take part in a coup d’état.


    1899: In France, during President Félix Faure’s state funeral Paul Déroulède, Jules Guérin and the Ligue des Patriotes attempt a coup which resulted in their arrest.


    1899: The Nineteenth Century Club heard Israel Zangwill and Hamlin Garland discuss "The Novel" in Delmonico's large ballroom tonight, and both authors agreed so well upon the functions of art in fiction that the men and women present had to forego the usual argumentative entertainment which they plan for these meetings by bringing together speakers of supposedly differing views


    1899: In Chicago, Anita "Annie" Taurog (née Goldsmith) and Arthur Jack Taurog gave birth director and screen writer Norman Rae Taurog who won the Academy Award for directing “Skippy” which premiered in 1931.


    1902(16th of Adar I, 5662): Max Budinger, the native of Cassel German and the son of Moses Mordecai Budinger, who occupied the chair of history at the University of Vienna” starting in 1872 and who “was elected a member of the Vienna Academy of Sciences” in 1887 passed away today.


    1902: The ninth meeting of the Union of Judaeo-German Congregations opened today in Berlin.


    1903: Leopold Greenberg an English newspaper editor, Zionist and friend of Theodore Herzl leaves Egypt.


    1904: While sailing from the Mediterranean to China, the USS Chauncey commanded by Lt. Stanford E. Moses which was part of the “First Torpedo Flotilla” was caught in a storm today.


    1904: Birthdate of William L Shirer.  Shirer was one of "Murrow's Boys" a group of correspondents hired by Edward R. Murrow who covered the events prior to and including World War II.  Shirer's post was Berlin where he broadcast stories about the rise of the Nazis.  He actually provided live coverage of the French surrendering to Hitler in 1940.  His greatest claim to fame was as author of The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, a classic on Hitler and his followers, based, in part, on Shirer's first hand observations


    1904: Birthdate of Leopold Trepper, a Jewish James Bond.  Born in Poland, during  World War II he organized and ran one of the most famous espionage rings in history - The Red Orchestra.  Operating in France in 1940, the ring penetrated German intelligence and was able to provide the Soviets with detailed information about the impending invasion of Russia by Germany.  Unfortunately, Stalin refused to believe the warnings. Members of the Red Orchestra were captured in 1942.  Trepper escaped and hid until the liberation of Paris in 1944.  When he returned to Moscow, he was arrested along with thousands of others who had bravely fought the Nazis and spent ten years in prison.  Eventually he moved to Israel where he died in 1982.


    1904(7th of Adar I, 5664): Sixty-seven year old German-Jewish poet, playwright and social reformer Friederike Kempner passed away today.


    1906: “The East Side Dry Goods Merchants’ Association…decided today to close all of its stores from Friday at 6 P.M. until Saturday at 6 P.M. in order to the employees a day off” since Saturday is chosen for a holiday because most patrons of these stores are Jews.”


    1907: In Potsdam, Count Has von Blumenthal and his gave birth to Hans-Jürgen Graf von Blumenthal, a German officer who was part of the anti-Hitler resistance and was hung for his part in the plot to kill Hitler in July of 1944.


    1910: Birthdate of Albert Philipson, the native of Ossining, NY and graduate of Columbia Law School work for the Farm Credit Administration and was active in Democratic politics.


    1910: The Hahambashi proposes to convene, in summer, a conference of delegates of all Jewish communities in the Ottoman Empire to consider reform of the rabbinate and to plan a new reorganization of the community. Included in this would be the elimination of life appointments in favor of elections.


    1912: A New York Ladino language newspaper called La Aguila hit the presses, but failed due to lack of support and finished running on March 22 of the same year.


    1912: Jews in Kustendil, Bulgaria were attacked by a mob and nine people were injured.


    1912: A bill introduced in the Portuguese Congress provides for cession of land to Jewish emigrants who move to Angola, Portuguese West Africa.


    1913: In Rozwadow, Poland, Abraham Chaim Springer, the son Mamci Springer and Sara Birnbaum was circumcised by Simon Katz.


    1913: Dedication of the Sabbath School Building in Erie, PA.


    1913: Dr. Stephen S. Wise, the rabbi at New York’s Free Synagogue, is scheduled to deliver a sermon on “What Ails the Jew” at Sinai Temple in Chicago.


    1913: Nellie Woolf and Reuben Davis are scheduled to be the soloists at the Chicago Hebrew Institute’s Sunday Afternoon Concert directed by Alexander Zukovsky.


    1913: An Auxiliary of the Marks Nathan Orphan Home is scheduled to host a fund-raising ball at the First Regiment Armory in Chicago.


    1913: Solomon Schechter, President of the Jewish Theological Seminary, founded the United Synagogue of America, the association of Conservative synagogues in the United States and Canada. In 1957, it organized the World Council of Synagogues with membership in 22 countries


    1915: The Supreme Court of the United States is scheduled to hold a hearing today in which the state of Georgia will oppose attempts to get a writ of habeas corpus granted in the case of Leo Frank.


    1916(19thof Adar I, 5676): Twenty-one year old Max Neuman, a citizen of Kleinsteinach, was killed today while serving in the German Army.


    1916: Delegates from Jewish organizations in Manhattan met today “to consider plans for the proposed Jewish Congress and to elect delegates to the preliminary conference” to be held next month in Philadelphia.


    1917: The Wort, a Yiddish newspaper published in Warsaw said the Overseas News Agency announced “that the Jewish administration in that city granted loans without interest, made gifts in money or distributed free food, milk and medicines” in 1916 to 148,000 people from 25,000 families.


    1917(O.S.): The February Revolution began in Russia.  This is the revolution that brought down the Czars and brought the Social Democrats to power.  Unfortunately, they failed and the next revolution brought the Communists to power with disastrous effects for the world in general and the Jews in particular.


    1917(1st of Adar, 5677): Rosh Chodesh Adar


    1918: “Felix M. Warburg, Chairman of the Joint Distribution Committee for the various Jewish war relief funds announced” tonight that plans had been finalized “for the transmission and distribution of American relief money to the Jews in that part of Palestine now under occupation through cooperation with the Zionist Special Committee for the Relief of Jews in Palestine, at Cairo” which has been recognized by the British military authorities.


    1919: Benito Mussolini forms the Fascist Party in Italy. According to author Alexander Stille "What distinguished the story of Italian Jews from that of Jews elsewhere in Europe was the long coexistence between Jews and Fascists in Mussolini's Italy. Italian Fascism was in power for 16 years before it turned anti-Semitic in 1938. Until then, Jews were as likely to be members of the Fascist Party as were other conservative-minded Italians. This singular fact altered the entire moral and existential equation for Italy's Jews. In other countries, Fascism was the undisguised enemy. But the experience of Italian Jews was far more complex: a strange mixture of benevolence and betrayal, persecution and rescue."


    1919(23rd of Adar I, 5679): Just weeks before his 84th birthday New York lawyer, jurist and author Abraham Jesse Dittenhoefer passed away. Ironically, this native of Charleston, SC, the cradle of Southern Secession, was the last surviving elector from the election of 1864 during which he cast his vote for Abraham Lincoln.


    1921(15th of Adar I, 5681): Dermatologist Phineas Simon Abraham the native of Kingston, Jamaica, who was elected Medical Secretary of Britain’s National Leprosy Fund and President of the West London Chirurgical Society passed away today.


    1921: Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook and Rabbi Ya'akov Meir were elected as the first two chief Rabbis of pre-state Israel.  Kook was the Chief Ashkenazi Rabbi and Rabbi Ya'akov Meir was the Chief Sephardic Rabbi.


    1921: As head of the Colonial Office, Winston Churchill reviews Pinchas Rutenberg’s request for a concession to harness the waters of the Jordan and Yarkon fivers for electrical power; a concession that would employ 800 Jews and Arabs.


    1922(25th of Shevat, 5682): Fifty-five year old Leon Khan passed away today after which he was in the Jewish Cemetery in Morgan City, LA.


    1922: “A Vanished World” a silent adventure film directed by Alexander Korda and co-starring his wife Maria Corda was released today in Austria.


    1925: U.S. premiere of “Le Miracle des Loups” (The Miracle of the Wolves) “a French historical drama directed by Raymond Bernard


    1925(29th of Shevat, 5685): Eighty-six year old Yitzhak Yeruham Diskin the son of Rabbi Juda Leib Diskin and Hinda Rachel Diskin passed away today.


    1926: Irving Lehman and Mrs. Rebecca Kohut are scheduled to address this evening’s good-will dinner (which will be Kosher) for Jews and Christians being sponsored by the Greater New Yorker Federation of Churches


    1926: David A. Brown, chairman of the United Jewish Campaign trying to raise fifteen million dollars to aid the suffering Jews of Europe, is continuing his tour of “the west”  after addressing a conference of Jews in Fargo, ND that was held to set a fund-raising target to help with the national campaign.


    1929(13th of Adar I, 5689): Thirty-nine year old Mercédès Jellinek, the granddaughter of Adolf Jellinek, the former chief rabbi of Vienna whose name is the Mercedes in the Mercedes-Benz automobile succumbed to bone cancer today.


    1929: A recording was made today of "Wedding Bells (Are Breaking Up That Old Gang Of Mine)” a popular barbershop song composed by Sammy Fain with lyrics by Irving Kahal and Willie Raskin which number 8 on the pop charts.


    1930: “Chasing Rainbows” a romantic comedy with a script co-authored by Al Boasberg with music by Milton Ager and Jack Yellen and co-starring Jack Benny was released today in the United States.


    1932: “The nomination of Judge Benjamin N. Cardozo to an associate just of the Supreme Court was unanimously reported favorably by the Senate Judiciary Committee which is chaired by Republican Senator Norris of Nebraska.


    1932: Premiere of “Mamsell Nitouche” a 1932 French-German operetta film directed by Carl Lamac and filmed by cinematographer Otto Heller.


    1932: In the Netherlands, the Jewish Historical Museum was officially opened. It was located in a single room on the top floor of the Amsterdam Historical Museum, which was housed in the Weigh House.


    1933: “Louis Marshall Memorial Hall, the second building erected at the New York State College of Forestry, was dedicated” today in honor of the Jewish jurist who “was also a conservationist, and the force behind re-establishing the New York State College of Forestry at Syracuse University, which evolved into today's State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry.”


    1936(30th of Shevat, 5696): Rosh Chodesh Adar


    1936: A conference to choose national officers and assign quotas for the 1936 campaign of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee is scheduled to be held today in Cincinnati, Ohio, under the leadership of Felix Warburg.


    1936: Birthdate of Harrison Jay Goldin the Bronx born lawyer and former New York politician who served as an attorney in the United States Department of Justice Office of Civil Rights during the Kennedy Administration and ran in the 1989 Democratic Primary election for Mayor of New York.


    1936: Sir Arthur Grenfell Wauchope the High Commissioner of the British Mandate of Palestine was booed by a crowd as he left a museum in Tel Aviv where he had just given a dedicatory address.  The demonstration was prompted by reports that the mandatory government is about to implement new regulations designed to limit Jewish immigration and land purchases by Jews. The High Commissioner ordered the crowd to disperse but did not order any arrests.


    1937: It was reported today that author Marvin Lowenthal described the Jews Poland to be “in the same condition as those in Germany with one million absolutely dependent upon charity” and another 2,400,000 needing outside to subsist” in a country that has not passed “public legislation on the Jewish question” but has “numerous other ways to destroy the Jews.”


    1938: “Assailing Hitlerism as ‘fundamentally anti-German and anti-Christian’ and picturing the Nazi regime as ‘the Antichrist’ and the enemy of Western civilization, Dr. Ernst Wilhelm Meyer” a sixteen year veteran of the German diplomatic service announced his resignation “as the first secretary of the German Embassy in Washington” where he has served for the last six years.


    1938: Today is the planned date on which passengers will begin debarking at the newly refurbished port of Tel Aviv.  The event is viewed as “a milestone in the rebuilding of the Jewish National Home.”


    1939: Birthdate of Lester Glassner, an artist who graduated from Pratt Institute who created a “museum-size collection that included dolls and wind-up toys, plastic fruit sculptures and costume jewelry, sunglasses and makeup kits, greeting cards and matchbooks, salt and pepper shakers and Christmas ornaments, not to mention movie stills, posters, cardboard cutouts, books, magazines, records, and 8- and 16-millimeter films.”


    1939: “The chief architect and designer of the Palestine Pavilion” at the New York World’s Fair, Arieh El-Hanani arrived today “on the Queen Mary to supervise “the setting up of the Palestine exhibits, which will arrive next week on the liner Excalibur.


    1939: “Under a decree that Field Marshall Goering announced today, all German or Stateless Jews must surrender with a fortnight all jewels,” “knives, forks, tableware” “and other objects of gold, silver or platinum as well as all diamonds, pearls and other precious stones”


    1939: At a time when “the present wave of anti-Semitism is aimed at the destruction of as a whole as well as the Jewish religion,” “ministers of a dozen Protestant denominations and non-denominational groups” met at Temple Israel to study Jewish religious forms and discuss common Jewish and Christian problems in a meeting “arranged by the Central Synagogue, Temple Israel and the Greater New York Federation of Churches.


    1940(14th of Adar I, 5700): Purim Katan


    1940: Al “Bummy’ Davis lost a unanimous decision at the lightweight level.


    1941 Romanian born painter Marcel and Medi Janco and their two daughters who had survived the Iron Guard’s Bucharest Pogrom, arrived in Tel Aviv


    1941: David Zacharin, Russian born cellist and director of the Tel Aviv Academy, gave his first New York recital tonight at the Town Hall. His program was devoted Jewish music.  Of the seventeen works played 14 were his own while the remaining three were Bloch’s “Schelomo” (Hebrew for Rhapsody, Gnessin’s “Song of the Wandering Knight” and Bruch’s “Kol Nidre.”  Zacharin “achieved real eloquence” when he played “If I Forget Thee Jerusalem,” a piece of his own creation.  Whatever the evening lacked in artistic perfection was overcome by the fact that it gave “insight into the longings and religious aspirations of an ancient people.”


    1941: A large scale pogrom in Amsterdam continued for a second day.


    1942: Edward M.M. Warburg, son of the late Felix Warburg and Chairman of the Joint Distribution Committee, joined the army last week as a private, despite the fact that he is married and has a 6-months-old son, it was learned here today. A member of Company B, 518th Military Police Battalion, Private Warburg is in training at Governors Island, home station of the unit. Army headquarters, in disclosing Mr. Warburg's enlistment, emphasized that the battalion was a field unit subject to call to active service. Warburg himself declined to comment on his enlistment.


    1942: Author Stefan Zweig and his wife Elizabeth who had died yesterday “were found dead of a barbiturate overdoes in their house in the city of Petropolis, Brazil.”


    1942: Struma, a ship chartered to carry Jewish refugees from Axis-allied Romania to British-controlled Palestine during World War II, with its engine inoperable, was towed from Istanbul through the Bosporus out to the Black Sea by Turkish authorities with its refugee passengers aboard, where it was left adrift.


    1943: A division of the Red Army attacked the Germans at Alexseyevka, in the Ukraine. Many of the attacking soldiers were Jews.


    1943: Lydia Litvyak “was awarded the Order of the Red Star, made a junior lieutenant and selected to take part in the elite air tactic called okhotniki, or "free hunter", where pairs of experienced pilots searched for targets on their own initiative.”


    1944: At Zwadka, Poland, a Polish man and his daughter were killed by Germans, along with the two Jewish women whom they had helped.


    1945(10th of Adar, 5705): As the Soviet Army approached Schwarzheide, in the Dresden (Germany) area 300 Jews who had been moved from Berkenau to the Schwarzheide factories were shot. The German camps of Belsen, Dachau, Buchenwald, Mauthausen, Sachsenhausen and Ravnebruck became the destination of thousands of evacuated Jews from all the other camps


    1945: Father Stefan Wincenty Frelichowski who had been arrested by the Gestapo in 1939 died today at Dachau.


    1945: Joe Rosenthal takes the most famous picture of World War II, "Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima." 


    1946: In a report issued by the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration, medical authorities said that there were no reports of Plague in Europe with the exception of the Mediterranean ports including Jaffa with two cases, and Haifa and Tel Aviv with one case each.


    1947: General Eisenhower opened a drive to raise $170 million in aid for European Jews


    1948: In Tel Aviv, Ruth and Gad Paz gave birth to their son Amnon Paz who perished aboard the Israeli Submarine Dakar on January 25, 1968.


    1949(24th of Shevat, 5709): Fifty-nine year old print-maker Todros Geller who a leading Chicago artist passed away today leaving behind a treasure trove of work part of which can be seen at the Spertus Institute.

    1950: Birthdate of Rebecca Newberger, the native of White Plains, NY, gained fame as author Rebebbac Goldstein.


    1952: “Love is Better than Ever” a romantic comedy directed by Stanley Donen and starring Larry Parks and Elizabeth Taylor was released in the United States today.


    1952: Three years after being released in the United Kingdom, “The Small Room” which Emeric Pressburger co-directed, co-produced and co-wrote was released in the United States today.


    1952: In Philadelphia, Frieda (née Schreiber) and Alexander Herskovitz gave birth to Marshall Schreiber Herskowitz, the director, producer and writer who won several Emmys for “Thirtysomething” the television series he created.



    1954: The first mass inoculation using the Salk Polio Vaccine began.  In one of the irony of history the first polio vaccine was created by a Jewish Doctor, Jonas Salk.  But the second polio vaccine was also created by a Jewish Doctor, Albert Sabin. 



    1955: In France, the second government led by Pierre Mendès France ended today.



    1955: Marianne Winters began playing the role of “Gelda” in a production of “The Dark Is Light Enough” which opened today.



    1957: “The Diary of Anne Frank” which had opened at the Cort Theatre in 1955 was performed for the last time prior to moving to the Ambassador Theatre where it would open three days later



    1960(25thof Shevat, 5720): Seventy-eight year old gold medal winning Olympic fencer Alexandre Lippmann passed away.



    1962: Churchill’s friend Montague Brown wrote a letter expressing his concerns about the retired Prime Minister’s plan to visit Israel on an upcoming cruise to the eastern Mediterranean.  He was fearful of the effect such a visit would have on Britain’s Arab friends in the Middle East. Ultimately, Churchill’s yacht would pass the coast of Israel at night and would not make landfall.



    1965: Sixty-four year old Herberts Cukurs, a member of the Arajs Kommando which slaughter thousands of Jews in Latvia died today in Uruguay.



    1965: In Houston Lorraine Charlotte (née Langfan), a stockbroker and Alexander Dell, an orthodontist, gave birth to Michael Dell, founder of Dell Computers.



    1965: American classic’s scholar Charles A. Robinson, the husband of Celia Sachs and son-in-law of art historian Paul J. Sachs who played a key role in saving European art from the Nazis, passed away today.



    1968(24th of Shevat, 5728): Fannie Hurst passed away at the age of 78.  Born in 1889 in Ohio, she graduated from Washington University (St. Louis) and then furthered her studies at Columbia in NYC. (This educational activity was unusual in and of itself for a woman of her times.  Hurst was a successful author, friend of Eleanor Roosevelt and supporter of the New Deal and aid to refugees from Nazi Europe.  By the time she passed away she had written seventeen novels, nine volumes of short stories, three plays, many articles, speaking engagements, a television talk show and collaborated on a number of films. One of the most amusing stories about her, which shows that she was way ahead of her times, involved her marriage. “In 1915, she had secretly married pianist Jacques Danielson and they each had their own residence. When their marriage was revealed in 1920, a New York Times editorial took them to task for having separate residences when there was a housing shortage. Hurst retaliated by stating that a married woman had the right to retain her own name, her own special life and her own personal liberty. They remained happily married until his death in 1952.” When Justice Arthur Goldberg declared in 1962, "that it is time that we evaluated Women on merit and fitness for a job," she snapped back, "Time sir! You are a half century too late.
    https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/hurst.html



    1970: One American was killed and two more injured when terrorists opened fire on a bus at Halhoul.



    1971: The First World Conference on Soviet Jewry which had opened in Brussels on February 23 came to a close today.



    1973(21st of Adar I, 5733): Tehilla Lichtenstein passed away.  She served as leader of the Society for Jewish Science from 1938 until her death.



    1974(1st of Adar, 5734): Songwriter Harry Ruby passed away.
    http://www.songwritershalloffame.org/exhibits/C308



    1977: Leonard Steinberg, Baron Steinberg of Belfast in the County of Antrim was shot by the Provisional Irish Republican Army after he refused to give in to a demand to pay “protection money.”



    1979: Release date in Italy for “Christ Stopped at Eboli” (Cristo si è fermato a Eboli) a film adaptation of the book of the same name by Carlo Levi.



    1981: Birthdate of actor, comedian and singer Joshua Ilan “Josh” Gad whose father “was a Jewish immigrants from Afghanistan.”



    1982: Today, “Tanya Gulyaeva-Gurevich, the daughter of Minsk refusenik, Lieutenant-Colonel Lev Ovsischer, who emigrated to Israel in 1979, was allowed by the Soviet authorities to pay a month’s visit to her sick mother in Minsk.”



    1983: Moshe Arens replaced Menachem Begin as Defense Minister.



    1986: In “The Museums of Israel,” published today, Nitza Rosovsky, the curator of exhibits at the Harvard Semitic Museum and the author of Jerusalem Walks describes “Israel, as a crossroads of ancient civilizations in which the countryside itself is like a museum filled with the remains of those who were here before, from Canaanites to Philistines, from Romans to Crusaders. Even the present-day inhabitants -Jews from some 80 lands, Arabs from all over the Middle East, Christians of different denominations - create a living museum.”  In describing the rich variety of museums to be found in Israel, she captures both the history and the efforts to capture the history of the land and cultures that are now part of the Jewish homeland.



    1987: The Russian Writers Union accepts Boris Pasternak as a as member posthumously



    1987: Aulcie Perry Jr., a former basketball player who became an Israeli citizen and was hailed as a sports champion there, was convicted in Brooklyn Federal Court tonight of smuggling heroin with a street value of $1.8 million into the United States



    1987: “Former Soviet Prisoner of Conscience Iosif Begun” who “was pardoned last week after serving three years for ‘anti-Soviet activities’ as a result of his teaching Hebrew” arrived in Moscow this morning after his released from Chistopol Prison.



    1988: Elections for the President of Israel were held today in the Knesset with Chaim Herzog, who was unopposed winning re-election.



    1989: At the Brooklyn Academy of Music, Soviet émigré pianist Vladimir Feltsman is scheduled to play the music of Schubert and Mussorgsky at a benefit performance designed to raise funds for the Maimonides Research and Development Foundation.



    1990(28th of Shevat, 5750): David Samuilovich Kaufman who wrote under the name of David Samoylov passed away. Born in 1920, he was a “notable poet of War generation of Russian poets, and considered one of the most important Russian poets of the post-World War II era.” 



    1992: In Philadelphia, Israeli tennis player Amos Mansdorf lost in the finals to American Pete Sampras.



    1995: The Washington Post reported today that “Steven T. Katz, who is to become director of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum here next month, was reprimanded in the early 1990's for misrepresenting his scholarly achievements and violating leave policies while on the faculty at Cornell University.”



    1997: Sixty five million viewers watch the completely uncensored version of “Schindler’s List” on NBC television.



    1997(16th of Adar I, 5757):  Oscar Lewenstein, British producer and director, passed away at the age of 80.



    1997: Palestinian Ali Abu Kamal opens fire on tourists on the observation deck of the Empire State Building, killing one and wounding another six before committing suicide.



    1997: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Nazi Germany and the Jews, Volume 1: The Years of Persecution, 1933-1939 by Saul Friedlander and Conflicting Accounts: The Creation and Crash of the Saatchi & Saatchi Advertising Empire by Kevin Goldman



    1998: Osama bin Laden publishes a fatwa declaring jihad against all Jews and Crusaders. Considering what the Crusaders did to the Jews during the Middle Ages, this is a strange declaration indeed.



    1999: In another example of personalization and splintering of Israeli politics, Yitzhak Mordechai quit Likud and formed the Israel in the Centre Party. Other members included David Magen and Dan Meridor from Likud, Hagai Meirom and Nissim Zvili of Labour, and Eliezer Sandberg of Tzomet.



    1999: Michael Nudelman and Yuri Stern left Yisrael BaAliyahto form Aliyah, which later entered into an alliance with another Russian-immigrant party, Yisrael Beiteinu.



    2000(17th of Adar I, 5760): Ofrz Haza, popular Yeminite Israeli singer, passed away. Born in 1957, she made her international debut at the Eurovision Song Contest 1983, which she very narrowly failed to win for Israel with the song "Hi". Ofra Haza had a world-wide hit in 1988 with "Im Nina'lu" from the album Fifty Gates of Wisdom. Her international hits also included "Temple of Love (Touched by the Hand of Ofra Haza)" with the Leeds-based post-punk band, The Sisters of Mercy in 1992 and "My Love is for Real" with Paula Abdul in 1995. She also sang in the animated film The Prince of Egypt in 1998. Her Israeli hits include "Shir ha-Frekha" ("The Bimbo Song", theme from the movie Shlager, in which she also acted) and "le-Orekh ha-Yam" ("Along the Shore"). Haza, who came from the poor Hatikvah neighborhood of Tel-Aviv, at one time almost a slum, was a success story and the subject of pride on behalf of many Israelis of Yemenite origin. She died of AIDS.



    2001(30thof Shevat, 5761): Rosh Chodesh Adar



    2003(21st of Adar I, 5763): Meyer R. Schkolnick, who became the famed sociologist Robert K. Merton, passed away at the age of 93. According to one source he is the man who coined such as phrases as “unintended consequences,” “role model” and “self-fulfilling prophecy.”



    2003(21stof Adar I, 5763): Seventy-three year old Jerusalem native Shlomo Argov the confidant of David Ben Gurion and Israeli Ambassador to several countries including the United Kingdom who with his wife Hava had three children – Gideon, Yehudit and Edna – passed away today.



    2003: Bruce Fleisher won the Verizon Classic.



    2003: An International Conference hosted by the Dubnow Institute on “Transforming Religious and Ethnic Emblematics of Judaism and Jewishness” continued for a second day.



    2005(14thof Adar I, 5765): Purim Katan



    2005: The French Law on Colonialism passed to by the Union for a Popular Movement was opposed by Jewish French historian Pierre Vidal-Naquet



    2005: Israeli Defense Minister Shaul Mofaz announced that Dan Halutz would be the next IDF Chief of Staff.



    2005: Effi Eitam and Yitzhak Levi announced that they had officially split from the NRP to form a new party, the Renewed Religious National Zionist Party



    2005: “Serenada Schizophrana,” “a series of compositions written by American film composer Danny Elfman in 2004 premiered at Carnegie Hall in New York City by the American Composers Orchestra today.



    2005: Chief Nazi hunter Eli Rosenbaum was the guest speaker for "Prosecuting Nazi War Criminals". Over 150 students, staff and community members crammed into the UMKC School of Law Courtroom for the lecture. Eli Rosenbaum has directed the Office of Special Investigations (OSI) for over 10 years.



    2006: As reported in The Washington Post, Frederick Busch, 64, a writer whose novels and short stories were esteemed by critics but who never quite found a large following with the general public, died of a heart attack at a New York City hospital. Since 1971, Mr. Busch had written 27 books and came to be known, perhaps in sympathy with his middling sales, as the quintessential "writer's writer." Novelist Scott Spencer called him "a first-rate American storyteller," and Washington Post book critic Jonathan Yardley praised him as "a serious and gifted novelist" whose stories and novels "tend to be quiet, reflective and subtle."



    2006: The Roundabout Theatre Company revival of “The Pajama Game,” a musical created by Richard Adler and Jerry Ross opened today.



    2006: “'Maternal ambivalence' is Ayelet Waldman's baby” published today.
    http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/life/books/news/2006-02-23-waldman_x.htm



    2007: Ben Stiller received the Hasty Pudding Man of the Year award from Harvard's Hasty Pudding Theatricals. According to the organization, the award is given to performers who give a lasting and impressive contribution to the world of entertainment



    2007: In Amsterdam, the Jewish Historical Museum opens Retrospectives of the works of photographers Robert Capra and Eva Besnyö.  



    2007: In Jerusalemthe 23rd International Book Fair which is being held at the Binyanei Haooma Convention Center comes to an end.



    2007(5th of Adar, 5767): Heinz Berggruen, collector and gallery owner passed away at the age of 93. (As reported by Alan Riding)
    http://www.nytimes.com/2007/02/27/arts/design/27berggruen.html



     2008: In Washington, D.C. Susan Jacoby author of Half Jew: A Daughter's Search for Her Family's Buried Past discusses and signs her newest work, The Age of American Unreason.



    2008:Joseph Cedar, director of the Oscar-nominated Israeli film Beaufort, and an Orthodox Jew, will attend a symposium sponsored by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences for the five finalists vying for the best foreign-language film Oscar today. Since the symposium is being held on Shabbat attending presented a unique challenge for Cedar.  Cedar’s rabbi told him he could attend as long as he walked to the event and did not use a microphone. Observing Shabbat would require a two mile long walk to the Samuel Goldwyn Theatre which Cedar, New York born whose parents made Aliyah when he was five, figured he could cover in about two hours.



    2008: Simon Garfield described the story of Anne Frank’s lost love.
    http://www.theguardian.com/books/2008/feb/24/news.features



    2009: Manhattanville College sponsors a lecture and Q and A session with Ambassador Danny Carmon, Deputy Permanent Representative of Israel to the United Nations entitled "Israel and Europe: An Insider's Perspective."



    2009: After undergoing surgery to remove a tumor on her pancreas, Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg returned to the court in time for three days of oral arguments.



    2009: Sport Illustrated“remembers the life” the late Joe Goldstein, the “old-school sports public relation man” who recently passed away at the age of 81.  He was known for his upbeat manner as well as his persistency which cause an NBC executive to describe him as “the Jewish equivalent of the Chinese water drip.”  His clients included “Joe Frazier, Bob Hope, the New York City Marathon, Evel Knivel and the Palisades Parkway.”



    2009: In Washington, D.C.,Sara Houghteling reads from and signs her new novel, Pictures at an Exhibition, at the Sixth & I Historic Synagogue (formerly the home of Adas Israel, the only Conservative Synagogue still located in the District of Columbia.)



    2009:The Israel Antiquities Authority announced today that a routine archeological excavation that was conducted before the scheduled start of a private construction project in an Arab neighborhood on the outskirts of Jerusalem has uncovered a series of seal impressions from the reign of the biblical King Hezekiah 2,700 years ago.



    2009:IDF soldiers foiled a large-scale attack at the Kissufim border crossing against troops or a southern Israeli community.



    2009: Gaza terrorists fired two Kassam rockets at southern Israeli civilian areas on Monday. One hit an open area in the Sha'ar Hanegev region, while the other landed in a field near Sderot. No one was wounded and no damage was reported.



    2010: The three-day long meeting of the Jewish Agency for Israel being held in Jerusalem is scheduled to end.



    2010: The Jewish Studies Program at Tulane University under the leadership of Dr. Brian Horowitz and the Center for Cultural Judaism are scheduled to present a program about Satmar Chasidism featuring Dr. David N. Myers, Professor and Director, UCLA Center for Jewish Studies.



    2010: Israel said today that Deputy Prime Minister Moshe Ya'alon will lead a high-level delegation next week to China, the most prominent holdout against tough sanctions on Iran. Bank of Israel Governor Stanley Fischer will also travel with the delegation, expected to discuss issues shared by both nations.



    2010: Delaware's first Jewish governor hung a mezuzah at the governor's mansion in Dover today. Among those joining Jack Markel in today’s ceremony in the capital were Rabbi Peter Grumbacher of the governor’s synagogue, Congregation Beth Emeth in Wilmington; Rabbi Steven Saks of the Rabbinical Association of Delaware; and Glenn Engelmann, president of the Jewish Federation of Delaware, according to the Sussex Countian. Markel received the mezuzah as an inauguration gift, according to the report.



    2011: “Vidal Sassoon: The Movie” and “The Klezmatics: On Holy Ground” are two of the documentaries scheduled to be shown tonight at the Atlanta Jewish Film Festival.



    2011: The 25thJerusalem International Book Fair is scheduled to present a program entitled ''The Changing Jewish Kitchen - Is Jewish food still Jewish food and what is it?''



    2011: David McKenzie is scheduled to present a program entitled “Isachar Zacharie: Lincoln’s Chiropodist—and Peace Envoy” at Adas Israel in Washington, DC.



    2011: Eleven Palestinians were injured today when Israeli Defense Forces fired at a group of militants on the border with Gaza, Palestinian news agencies reported. The IDF responded by saying that an explosive device was detonated toward soldiers who were performing routine activity in the area, on the northern part of the border. The IDF noted that in the past two months, "over 12 devices were laid along the security fence and exploded at IDF forces."



    2011(19thof Adar I, 5771): Eighty-seven year old Joseph H. Flom, a pioneering corporate lawyer who helped build Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher and Flom into one of the nation’s leading law firms, passed away today.
    http://dealbook.nytimes.com/2011/02/23/joseph-h-flom-pioneering-deal-lawyer-dead-at-87/



    2011(19thof Adar I, 5771):Jack Gottlieb, a composer who brought synagogue melodies to concert halls and who worked closely with the legendary composer and conductor Leonard Bernstein passed away today at the age of 80.
    http://www.legacy.com/obituaries/lohud/obituary.aspx?n=jack-gottlieb&pid=149164072



    2012(30thof Shevat, 5772): Rosh Chodesh Adar



    2012: Dina Zvi-Riklis’s 2006 film “Three Mothers” that explores Israel’s history through the lives of three Egyptian-born sisters Triplets Rose, Flora and Yasmin who were born into “high society” over 60 years ago in Alexandria, Egypt and now live in Israel, is scheduled to be shown at The Yeshiva University Ring Family Israel Film Festival. 



    2012: “Jewish Soldiers in Blue and Gray” is scheduled to shown at the Columbus Jewish Film Festival in Columbus, GA



    2012: In London, “Mordechai Richler: The Last of the Wild Jews” a film about the Canadian-Jewish author is scheduled to be shown as part of Jewish Book Week.



    2012: In London, Simon Goldhill is scheduled to discuss “Freud's Couch, Scott's Buttocks, Bronte's Grave” as part of Jewish Book Week.



    2012: Iran submitted a letter of protest to the United Nations Security Council today, charging Israel of attacking its nuclear scientists and coloring recent accusations of Tehran's links to attempted attacks against Israeli officials worldwide as being part of a "war game" against the Islamic Republic.



    2012: Interior Minister Eli Yishai said today that "The government will have to extend Tal Law until alternative legislation regulating yeshiva students' military service is drafted, with the collaboration of the Defense, Justice and Finance ministries



    2013: The Northernmost Jewish Film Festival is scheduled to open in Fairbanks, Alaska.



    2013: In Iowa City, Hillel is scheduled to host its annual fundraising event in which Benjamin Coelho will join with colleagues from the University Of Iowa School Of Music to perform a program entitled “Songs without Words.”


    2013: Purim in Ein Karem “More than Carnival: with the Ensemble Millennium is scheduled to begin at 11 a.m. today.


    2013: The Maccabeats are scheduled to perform at Temple Moses in Miami Beach, FL.


    2013(13th of Adar, 5773): Shabbat Zachor Erev Purim


    2013: In the evening, reading of the Megillah Esther


    2013: Today’s announcement by the Pentagon it was grounding all F-35 fighter jets due to a crack found in one of the engine blades” could have an unforeseen impact on Israel’s military capabilities since the IAF has ordered 20 of the planes in a bid to maintain a qualitative edge over its vast array of actual and potential adversaries


    2014: Adam Liptak, Supreme Court correspondent for the New York Times is scheduled to Hadassah Attorneys Council dinner in Washington, DC


    2014: “Handle With Care,” a hilarious and heartwarming romantic comedy about an inept package deliverer who loses an Israeli grandmother’s corpse in a Virginia parking lot on a snowy Christmas Eve is scheduled to have its final performance at Westside Theatre Downstairs


    2014: “Threshold to the Sacred: The Ark Door of Cairo’s Ben Ezra Synagogue” is scheduled to close today at Yeshiva University Museum.


    2014: Ruth Grumber is scheduled to appear via Skype at the event officially opening “Ahead of Time: The Extraordinary Journey of Ruth Gruber.”


    2014: The annual Seforim Sale – the largest sale of Jewish books in North America – is scheduled to come to a close.


    2014: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Forgiving The Angel: Four Stories for Franz Kafka by Jay Cantor


    2014(23rd of Adar I, 5774): Alice Herz-Sommer, believed to be the oldest-known survivor of the Holocaust, died this morning in London at age 110, a family member said. Herz-Sommer’s devotion to the piano and to her son sustained her through two years in a Nazi prison camp, and a film about her has been nominated for best short documentary at next week’s Academy Awards.


    2014: Following the death today Alice Herz-Sommer, Yisrael “Kristal became recognized as the wolrd’s oldest known Holocaust survivor.


    2014(23rd of Adar I, 5774): Eighty-seven year old  Rabbi Joseph Ehrenkranz who was the Executive Director of the Center for Christian-Jewish Understanding at Sacred Heart University in Fairfield, Connecticut and was the Synagogue Council of America's representative to the United Nations passed away today.

    2014(23rd of Adar I, 5774): Samuel Sheinbein, an American-Israeli convicted murderer serving his sentence in Israel was shot and killed today at Rimonim Prison today after he shot three people today, all of whom were apparently prison guards.

    2015: Cecile Kuntz is scheduled to “explore how Jews asserted their presence in cities by looking at buildings constructed by Yiddish-speaking communities in Poland and America” in a lecture styled “Towards a Yiddish Architecture


    2015: The Winter Semester is scheduled start at the Skirball Center offering such courses as the “Golden Age of Yiddish Cinema” with Dr. Eric Goldman and “Man, Miracle and Menace – The Truth About Elijah” with Dr. Diane M. Sharon which comes just in time with Pesach only weeks away to enliven the part of the Seder when we open the proverbial door.


    2015: In London, “Jewish Book Week, a unique nine day literary festival” is scheduled to open today.


    2016: The Center for Jewish History and the Leo Baeck Institute hosted the opening “Burning Words: The Battle of the Books” that examines the 16th century debate among Christians as to whether or not Jews should be allowed to publish books on Jewish theology.


    2016: The Jewish Book Council is scheduled to host an evening with Shulem Deen, Christopher Noxon and Sigal Samuel -- 3 authors who will “share their unorthodox perspectives on what it means to keep the faith with respect to their writing, personal lives, and the Jewish people at large.


    2016: Under the terms of a settlement announced today by the University of Oklahoma,the ownership of impressionist Camille Pissarro's 1886 "Shepherdess Bringing in Sheep" will be transferred to Léone Meyer, a French Holocaust survivor whose father owned the painting when it was stolen and the painting “will split its time being displayed at the university's Fred Jones Jr. Museum of Art in Norman and a museum in France.” (As reported by Daniel C. Houston)


    2017(27th of Shevat, 5777): Sixty-six year old Alan Colmes, “the liberal foil” that FOX used to make it “fair and balanced” and husband of Professor Jocelyn Elise Crowley passed away today. (As reported by Sam Roberts)

    2017: “The Jewish Community Center in New Orleans was evacuated” for two hours today “after a receiving a bomb threat this morning – the latest in a series of such threats made against centers across the United States.


    2017: The Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center is scheduled to co-host “a deli supper reception and docent-led tour of the Museum’s newest special exhibition, Operation Finale: The Capture & Trial of Adolf Eichmann, followed by a screening of Faceless, a story about a teenager on trial for terrorism, pitted against a female Muslim who is brought on to prosecute.


    2017: In San Francisco, Lynn Downey is scheduled to “speak about her book, Levi Strauss: The Man Who Gave Blue Jeans to the World “at the Jewish Community Library


    2017: In London, JW3 is scheduled to present past judges of the JQ Wingate Literary Prize discus “What Makes a Book Jewish?”


    2017: “An Israeli Air Force fighter jet shot down” an Hamas drone today “before it managed to infiltrate Israel.” (As reported by Yoav Zitun)


    2017: In Davie, FL, Nova Southeastern University is scheduled to host Holocaust survivor Alfred Munzer and Syrian immigrant Mouaz Moustafa, the Executive Director of the Syrian Emergency Task Force as they share their experiences dealing with “persecution and displacement.” (Editor’s note: One wonders how Moustafa will deal with the fate of the Syrian Jewish community and/or Syria’s decades long attempt to destroy the state of Israel – home to the largest population of Holocaust survivors.)


    2017: At Coe College, Professor Steve Feller is scheduled to lead the final session of “The Conflicted World Of Chaim Potok” in which he uses the author’s novel to explore the “conflicts within Judaism.”


    2018: In Coralville, Iowa, Agudas Achim is scheduled to host a Hebrew School Dinner followed by a Kabbalat Shabbat Song Fest.


    2018: Following the Friday night Shabbat meal, the Oxford University Jewish Society is scheduled to hold Committee Elections for Trinity.


    2018: The Jackson Hole Jewish Community Center is scheduled to host services with an Oneg to follow.


     


     


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     February 24



    303: The first official Roman edict for the persecution of Christians was issued by Roman Emperor Galerius Valerius Maximianus.  This was part a contest between Pagans and Christians for control of the Roman Empire.  The Jews were not involved.  But they would be the ultimate losers when Christianity became the state religion of the Roman Empire and the Church unleashed the power of the state on all religious groups that opposed it, including the Jews.



    1147: In Wurzburg, Germany, a rumor began that a Christian corpse was found in the river which could perform miracles. The Jews were accused to killing the person. In the ensuring riots, twenty two Jews were murdered including the rabbi, Isaac ben Elyukem. After the riot the survivors fled to a local Castle



    1221: Alice de Montmorency, wife of Simon de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester passed away.  In 1217, Alice ordered the arrest of all of the Jews living in Toulouse.  They could either convert or be killed.  Children under the age of six were taken from their parents, baptized and raised Christians.  Her actions violated the promise her husband had made to the Jews of Toulouse guaranteeing them their freedom and right to practice their religion.   



    1463:At Mirandola, near Modena, Gianfrancesco I Pico, Lord of Mirandola and Count of Concordia, by his wife Giulia, daughter of Feltrino Boiardo, Count of Scandiano gave birth to Italian Renaissance philosopher Giovanni Pico della Mirandola who studied Kabbalah with Johanan Aleman and was one of the first Italian nobles to collect Hebrew manuscripts and who “was convinced that the literature of Kabbalah was the true transcript of what Moses heard at Sinai , that Christianity and Judaism were one with Kabbalah as the point of connection and that the differences between Judaism and Christianity were superficial”



    1479: After four years of conflict and intrigue, Queen Isabella of Castile secured her throne.  Isabella’s machinations to gain control of the kingdom show her as every bit as other female monarchs as Elizabeth of England or Catherine the Great of Russia.  Later in the year, she would marry Ferdinand of Aragon, a move that would lead to the creation of the modern Spanish state.  Contrary to popular misconception, she was the abler of the two monarchs.  In fact, it was only because Ferdinand was a man in a male-dominated society that saved his reputation.  Isabella’s accession to the throne was the first in a series of events that would end with the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492.



    1500: In Ghent, Philip the Handsome and Joanna Castile gave birth to Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor who provided Josel of Rosheim with “a charter or letter of protection from for the whole of German Jewry but who alos  “issued a proclamation again the Jews who had not been baptized” which may have applied to the Jews he ruled as King of Spain.



    1510:  Pope Julius II excommunicated the Republic of Venice. Many remember Julius II as the Pope who commissioned Michelangelo to paint the Sistine Chapel.  Julius II, like at least one of his predecessors, had a Jewish physician; in this case Samuel Sarfatti.  From the Jewish point of view, Julius clashes such as the one that brought on the above mentioned excommunication and aesthetic projects meant that he did not have time to waste on persecuting his Jews.  Out of sight out of mind or benign neglect placed Julius on the list of one of the “better Popes.” 



     1582:  Pope Gregory XIII announced the Gregorian calendar.  This replaced the Julian Calendar which explains why there is some confusion about various dates in history.  Of course the Jews use their own calendar, but as a people who “live in time” it is useful to know when other parts of the Western world began changing the way they keep track of the years.



    1590: An entire family of Marranos named de Carabaja “was forced to confess and abjure at a public auto-da-fé, celebrated” today. “Luis de Carabajal the younger, with his mother and four sisters, was condemned to perpetual imprisonment, and his brother, Baltasar, who had fled upon the first warning of danger, was, along with his deceased father, Francisco Rodriguez de Matos, burnt in effigy.” (According to some accounts this happened in 1599)



    1688(23rd of Adar): Portuguese poet and grammarian Moses Gideon Abudiente passed away.



    1739: The army of Iranian ruler Nadir Shah defeats the forces of the Mughal emperor of India, Muhammad Shah at the Battle of Karnal.  Nadir Shah’s rise to power marked an improvement in the lives of the Persian Jewish community.  The last half of the 17th century had been a period of persecution for the Jews when many of them actually outwardly converted to Islam. Under Nadir, the Jews were once again free to practice their religion in public.



    1765: David Tevele Schiff was named as the Rabbi to lead the Great Synagogue in London succeeding Hart Lyon in that position.  Hart had actually been the rabbi for the Great Synagogue and the Hambro Synagogue. The two congregations were supposed to continue this practice.  But they could not agree on a successor.  Once the Great Synagogue had made its decision, the Hambro Synagogue chose Israel Meshullam Solomon to serve as their rabbi.



    1831: Birthdate of Leo von Caprivi, who as Chancellor of Germany earned the enmity of the anti-Semites, who were a growing force, when he attacked their leaders in a speech before the Reichstag in 1893.



    1835: Birthdate of Sir Julius Vogel, the eighth Premier of New Zealand and the first Jew to hold this position.



    1836: Louis Goodman married Julia Salamon today at the Western Synagogue.



    1841: David ben Jacob married Rachel bat Aaron HaLevi today at the Western Synagogue.



    1842: Birthdate of German Egyptologist Émile Brugsch who in 1881 “discovered the tomb at Deir el Bahir” which included the mummy of Ramses II, the Pharaoh of the Exodus.  



    1847: Moss Ansell married Mary Cantor today at the Great Synagogue.



    1847: Asher Solomon married Anna Russel today at the Great Synagogue.



    1848: Louis-Philippe, “King of the French,” abdicates the throne. Louis’s reign began with a revolution in 1830 and ended with a revolution in 1848.  This monarch from the house of Orleans was a rather dull character when compared to the glory of the Bourbons and Bonaparte but it was his very dullness that got him to the throne.  As is so often the case, Louis’ record in dealing with the Jews is a mixed bag.  As Elliot Rosenberg points, by the time Louis came to the throne French Jews were well on their way to full emancipation.  Under Louis, “rabbis joined other clerics paid from the state exchequer.”  While English Jews were still denied entry to Oxford and Cambridge, the doors “opened widely” at French universities.  “Jewish communities joined in praising” him as the monarch who “’had enlarged our liberties.’” In 1835, Louis defended the rights of French Jews in a diplomatic conflict with the Swiss.  James de Rothschild, head of the French branch of the House of Rothschild was “a royal intimate” who according to his brother Salomon “goes to the palace whenever he wishes.  James was not only a pillar of the French government, he was also the man who handled the “personal investment accounts” of the French monarch.  All this good will was tainted by the Damascus Affair in which the French sided with those who supported the claim of the Blood Libel against Jews living in Syria.  The French were trying to establish their sphere of influence in the Middle East and North Africa and if the price was that of a few Jews, so be it.  Regardless, by the time of the abdication, Jewish emancipation in France was so ingrained that nothing would stem that tide.  Of course, the Dreyfus Affair, fifty years later would demonstrate the illusory nature of that emancipation.  Louis’s successor, Napoleon III would prove to be “bad for the French people” and therefore “bad for the Jews.”



    1848: As the revolutionary forces took power, the Republicans named Adolphe Cremieux, a prominent lawyer, statesman and leader of the French Jewish community, to serve as the minister of justice. During his time in office, he “secured the decrees abolishing the death penalty for political offenses, and making the office of judge immovable.”  “He was instrumental in declaring an end to slavery in all French Colonies, for which some have called him the French Abraham Lincoln.”



    1860(1st of Adar, 5620): Rosh Chodesh Adar



    1862: Sergeant Elias Reubenthal began a three year enlistment with Company I of the 113thregiment of the 12th Cavalry.



    1863: In Vienna, Austria, Rabbi Ignatz and Nettie (Rosenbaum) Grossman gave birth to Louis Grossman who graduated from Hebrew Union College and served as the rabbi at Detroit’s Temple Bethel and Congregation B’nai Yeshurun in Cincinnati, Ohio.



    1864: During the Civil War, Joseph B. Greenhut, who had been fighting as a member of the Union Army since April of 1861, resigned his commission and returned to civilian life. Greenhut had fought at a series of famous battles including Fort Donelson, Gettysburg and Lookout Mountain.



    1868(1st of Adar, 5628): Rosh Chodesh Adar



    1868: Alphonse, Baron de Rothschild and his wife Leonora, the daughter of Baron Lionel de Rothschild of London gave birth to their only son Edouard who fought a duel during the Dreyfus case.



    1874: Birthdate of Moshe Smilansky, the native of Telepino and brother of Meir and Anna Smilansky who first came to Palestine in 1890 as part of the First Aliyah, became an author who wrote in Hebrew and was a proponent of a bi-national state in the 1930’s.



    1877: An agreement was reached today between the Ottoman rulers and the Serbian envoys led by Prince Milan. The Serbians agreed to all of the conditions set by the Turks except two, one of which was the requirement that the Jews of Serbia be granted the same rights as all other Serbs.



    1878: “Is Disraeli A Jew” was published today.



    1878: The Young Men’s Hebrew Association met tonight in New York to discuss the proposal made by Thomas Grady to abolish the Free College.



    1879(1stof Adar, 5639) Rosh Chodesh Adar



    1881: Seventeen year old Marion Calish, the Hebrew teacher at Professor Felix Adler’s kindergarten who has been missing since the 19th, was found just before midnight tonight by a traveling salesman who took her to the local police precinct.



    1882: A man who claimed to be named Rothschild and is thought to be Jewish attempted to use a bogus check to pay for purchases at A & C Myer in New York City.



    1882: Two of the Jewish refugees from Russia who arrived in Philadelphia, PA on the SS Illinois are the only ones who have been identified as being sick – that is two out over three hundred men, women and children.



    1882: A cable sent to the Toronto Globe from London stated that at a meeting of the Committee on the Fund for the Relief of Russo-Jewish Refugees, Sir A.T. Galt suggested that two or three of the Jewish refugees should be allowed to go to Canada’s Northwest Territories to make arrangements for the arrival of their co-religionists. 



    1885: Birthdate of Joseph Sprinzak, first Speaker of Israeli Knesset. “Born in Moscow, Sprinzak's father was active in the Hovevei Zion. When Jews were expelled from Moscow in 1891, the family moved to Kishinev and then Warsaw. The home was a center for young Hebrew writers and Zionists. In the early 1900s, he was one of the organizers of HaTehiyah, a Zionist group led by Yitzhak Gruenbaum. During this period he worked in a Hebrew publishing house as well as on Hebrew and Yiddish newspapers in Warsaw. In 1905 he returned to Kishinev where he was active in Zionist affairs. In 1908 he spent several months in Constantinople where he was in contact with Zionist leaders, and then went to Beirut to study medicine. His studies were cut very short when, after just a few months, he was asked to become secretary of HaPoel HaZair. During World War I he was in Eretz Yisrael and after the war, was instrumental in founding Hitahdut, a world movement which joined HaPoel HaZair and Zeirei Zion. A delegate to the 11th and 12th Zionist Congresses, Sprinzak became the first representative of the yishuv's labor movement to be elected to the Zionist Executive. When independence was declared in 1948, he was elected to the Provisional State Council as well as the first three Knessets, serving as speaker for 10 years.   Joseph Sprinzak was known as a Zionist leader who strongly identified with the rank-and-file, both in Israel and abroad. His conception of Zionism was based on socialism and the process of national rebirth. During his tenure as secretary of HaPoel HaZair, he was involved in the absorption of Jews from Yemen. During World War I, he helped organize the yishuv's Jewish workers. In the 1920s, as a member of the Zionist executive, he was head of the Labor and then the Aliyah Departments. He also helped found the Histadrut labor federation and was a member of the Tel Aviv municipality. In the 1930s, as a member of the Histadrut executive, Sprinzak was instrumental in the formation of Ben-Gurion's Mapai political party. In the 1940s he became a leading member of the Zionist General Council and eventually was general secretary of the Histadrut. As Knesset speaker during the body's first 10 years, Sprinzak had a major influence on the country's emerging democracy. He died in 1959.”



    1889: Birthdate of Aleksei Denisovich Dikiy, the native of the Ukraine and brother of actress Maria Sukhodolska – Dikova who was a Soviet actor and director during the Stalin era.



    1889: Birthdate of Jacques (Jacob) Presser “a Dutch historian, writer and poet best known for his book Ashes in the Wind: The destruction of the Dutch Jewswhich descried “the persecution of the Jews in the Netherlands during World War II.”.



    1890: It was reported today that Sarah Bernhardt will be returning to the United States in October to perform at the Broadway Theatre in New York City. 



    1890: It was reported today that at the request of Elsie Leslie, 500 hundred children from the Industrial Schools of the Associated Hebrew Charities will attend one of her final matinee performances of “The Prince and the Pauper at the Broadway Theatre. (Elsie Leslie was a noted child actress of her time.  Born in 1881, she passed away in 1966.  I cannot find any reason why she singled out a school for Jewish students for this treat.)



    1890: It was reported today that the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society is caring for nearly 600 children, 200 of whom were girls and 400 were boys.



    1891: “Elevated Funeral Trains” published today described the decision of the Directors of the Union Elevated Railroad in Brooklyn to extend service to Cypress Cemetery and the “numerous Jewish cemeteries in the neighborhood and to establish funeral trains consisting of a car for the coffin and two or three cars for the funeral party.  Most of the directors are Jewish and Edward Lauterbach who is counsel for the company is attempting to establish contracts with various synagogues to convey the funeral parties from the ferries or bridge to the cemetery.



    1893: The American University, a private Methodist university in Washigton, D.C. is chartered by an act of the Congress of the United States of America. A.U. has over one thousand Jewish undergraduate students out of a total of almost 6,000.  Out of an estimated 4,700 grad students, 1,000 are Jewish.  The school offers a minor in Jewish Studies, a university program in Israel and the services of an authorized Hillel House.



    1893(8th of Adar): Benjamin Henry Ascher, Hebrew scholar and author passed away



    1893: “At the second session of the 52nd Congress…a bill was presented to the House ordering that a gold medal be struck off in recognition of the services rendered by Haym Solomon during the Revoluionary War, in consider of which the Salomon heirs waived their claims upon the United States for indemnity.” The full House never took action on the resolution.



    1894: It was reported that Kuhn, Loeb & Co is among the contributors to the Citizens’ Relief Committee which has raised $94, 065.50 for those suffering from the effects of the economic depression.



    1894: It was reported today that Jacob H. Schiff, Solomon Loeb and Abraham Wolff are among the prominent citizens who have joined a movement led by Cornelius Vanderbilt “to establish a pawn broking establishment” in New York modeled on “public pawn broking establishing that have been of great help to the poor in several large European cities.



    1895: “A Most Noble Charity” published today described the work of the Montefiore Home for Incurables which “was originally intended as home where incurable patients should be received and made comfortable during their lives” has not taken on the additional role of providing treatment for chronic invalids” many of whom “were hopelessly stricken by disease” but have left the facility “in the full possession of health.



    1896: “Religion In Large Cities” published today described the conditions of religious institutions in New York City including the fact that there “51 Hebrew organizations” in the city.



    1896: According to Emily Crawford of the Associated Press, Prince Henry of Orleans is hoping to capitalize on the anti-Dreyfus spirit as a way of bringing about the downfall of the Republic which he no doubt hopes will be replaced with a Monarchy.



    1898: Birthdate of Romanian born American political scientist and Fabian Socialist Herman Finer the University of Chicago professor and author who is the brother of Samuel Finer.



    1898: “Prison and Fine For Zola” published today described the scene in the courtroom when Emile Zola was convicted. The verdict was handed down at seven in the evening but the jury had agreed on its decision days ago in response, in part to threats from the mob that surrounded the court during the trial. In response to the sentence which stemmed from his defense of Captain Dreyfus the defamed Jewish officer Zola compared himself to Christ saying that he too was “a victim of mob violence office cowardice and a grand miscarriage of justice.”  (Considering that the Catholic Churc were one of the groups arrayed against him, this was a bold, fitting, comparison.)



    1899(14thof Adar, 5659): Last Purim celebration of the 19th century.



    1902: In Berlin, the ninth meeting of the Union of Judæo-German Congregations came to end.



    1904:  Herzl writes, "Yesterday I had a most curious visitor: Ali Nuri Bey ... His proposal ... comes to this: Sail into the Bosporus with two cruisers, bombard Yildiz, let the Sultan flee or capture him, put in another Sultan (Murad or Reshad), but first form a provisional government - which is to give us the Charter for Palestine...."



    1906:Russian Communist leader Leon Trotsky and his second wife Natalia Sedova gave birth to Lev Lvoich Sedov.
    http://spartacus-educational.com/Lev_Sedov.htm



    1906: Birthdate of Yosef Serline, the native of Bialystok who served as personal secretary Nahum Sokolow before making Aliyah in 1930 following he which he served as an MK in the first seven Knessets.



    1906: Birthdate of Yosef Serlin, the native of Bialystok who made Aliyah in 1933 and worked as lawyer in Tel Aviv while pursuing a political career that included serving as member of the First Knesset.



    1906: “Their Stores to Close Saturdays” published today described the decision of the East Side Dry Goods Merchants’ Association to give their employees the day off on Saturday because they did little or no business because the vast majority of customers were Jews.



    1907(10th of Adar, 5667): Composer Otto Goldschmidt passed away at the age of 87.



    1908: Muller v. Oregon in which Louis Brandeis “as additional counsel for the state of Oregon” filed the first of its kind of brief now known as the “Brandeis Brief” which relied “more on a compilation of scientific information and social science than on legal citations” was decided today by the Supreme Court in favor of the state of Oregon



    1908(22nd of Adar): Rabbi Jehiel Michal Epstein of Novogrdok, Russia author of Arukh ha-Shulhan passed away



    1909: Birthdate of Max Black.  Born in Azerbaijan, raised and educated in England, Black became a U.S. citizen in 1948.  It is hard to classify him because his interests were so varied. “Black was famed for his contributions to the philosophy of language, the philosophy of mathematics and science, the philosophy of art, conceptual analysis, and his studies of the work of several major philosophers. Black was a prolific author and lists of his publications contain over 200 items. He passed away in 1988.



    1910: Birthdate of Fred Sington, the native of Birmingham, Alabama, who as an all-America tackle at the University of Alabama, led the Crimson Tide to the national championship in 1930 before going on to a major league baseball career with the Washington Senators and Brooklyn Dodgers.



    1912: “The Sunshine Girl” a musical comedy “with a book by Paul A. Rubens” opened at the Gaiety Theatre in London.



    1912: “At a meeting at Temple Emanu-El in New York City today, Henrietta Szold together with other Zionist women, proposed to the Daughters of Zion study circle that they expand their purpose and embrace proactive work to help meet the health needs of Palestine's people” which resulted in the birth of Hadassah, the largest women's organization in America.
    http://jwa.org/thisweek/feb/24/1912/hadassah



    1913: Dr. Stephen Wise of New York is scheduled to deliver an address on “Moral and Religious Aspects of the Woman’s Movement” at a joint meeting of the Chicago Association of Jewish Women and the Chicago Woman’s Aide this afternoon at Sinai Temple



    1914: Birthdate of Esta Saltzman the native of Boston, MA who gained fame as Yiddish actress Esta Saltzman Lubin



    1915: It was reported today that Jews were among the hundreds of thousands who were suffering and has lost everything because they lived along the borders of between Russia and Germany where much of the fighting was taking place on the Eastern Front and were now fleeing to avoid the advancing and retreating armies.



    1916: Representatives from the National Jewish Workmen’s Committee on Jewish Rights are scheduled to attend “a public hearing before the Committee on Foreign Relations of the House of Representatives called for the purposed of considering a resolution…urging that all legal disabilities of the Jews be removed in the countries now at war.”



    1916: In Congress, “the Committee on Foreign Relations” is scheduled to hold a public hearing on a joint resolution offered by Representative London and Senator Lane supporting the cause of peace and “the removal of discriminations against Jews wherever they exist.”



    1916: The Zionist Council of New York held a mass meeting at Cooper Union tonight.  Louis Lipsky, who presided over the meeting, attacked the critics of the Zionist movement, including fellow Jews who had called it a “partisan issue.”  He said that “Zionism is the essential ingredient of any policy the Jewish people may adopt at this time time for the protection of Jewish interests.”  Wolf Gluskin, who has only arrived in the United States from Palestine where he had helped to establish one of first Zionist settlements, told the assembly about the suffering being experienced by 35,000 Palestinian Jews as a result of the World War.  The wine industry, which the Jewish settlers had worked so hard to develop, was on the verge of destruction.  The New York Zionists also heard from Dr. Ben Zion Mossinsohn, a teacher living in Jaffa and Dr. Schmaraya Levin of the International Zionist Committee. 



    1917: H. Pereira Mendes celebrates his 40th anniversary as rabbi of Congregation Shearith Israel of New York City.



    1917: Dr. Samuel Schulman is scheduled to leader Saturday morning services at Temple Beth-El in Manhattan.



    1917: Dr. Enelow is scheduled to deliver a sermon on “How Can We Gain the Benefits of Religion” at Temple Emanu-El.



    1917: At Temple Israel of Harlem, Dr. M.H. Harris is scheduled to deliver a Sabbath sermon on “The Temple and Israel.”



    1917: The Judeo-Spanish newspaper El Emigrante was established in New Jersey.



    1917: The Russian Revolution begins in earnest when troops of the Czar fire on the citizens of St. Petersburg.  This is the first, non-Bolshevik Russian Revolution. Jews played an active role in the various upheavals that would bring an end to the reign of the Czars.  The Jews did not realize that anti-Semitism was such an integral part of the Russian psyche that it would survive and flourish under the next wave of autocrats – the Communists who replaced the Czars.



    1917: The German plan to bring Mexico into World War on the German side is exposed.  The incident is referred to as the “Zimmerman telegram.”  Zimmerman was the German foreign minister.  This bit of arrogance and ignorance was one of the causes of the United States entering the war in April of 1917.  The Jewish author Barbara Tuchman wrote a very readable and informative book on this subject.



    1918:  Einstein wrote “to an academic correspondent who had rebuked him for his dislike of war, ‘Your ostentatious Teutonic muscle-flexing runs rather against my grain.  I prefer to string along with my compatriot Jesus Christ, whose doctrines you and your kind consider to be obsolete.  Suffering is indeed more acceptable to me than resort to violence.’”



    1918: It was reported today that the Joint Distribution Committee has appropriated an additional $100,000 to help pay for “the medical unit being formed by Hadassah” which is to be sent to Palestine.



    1918: It was reported today that Joint Distribution Committee has allocated $500,000 “for the general relief” of Jews living “in the occupied parts of Russia, including Poland, Lithuania and Lublin” and $800,000 to help “the wives and children of American Jews stranded in Harbin to join their husbands” in the United States.



    1920: The Nazi party held it first major meeting in Munich, Germany.



    1921: In New York City, two Jewish immigrants from Russia – Samuel Vigoda and the former Lena Moses gave birth to actor Abraham “Abe” Charles Vigoda known to many as “Tessio” the mobster who betrayed Michael Corleone in the “The Godfather” and Detective Fish in the comedy cop show “Barney Miller.”https://www.nytimes.com/2016/01/27/arts/television/abe-vigoda-actor-of-godfather-fame-dies-at-94.html?hpw&rref=obituaries&action=click&pgtype=Homepage&module=well-region&region=bottom-well&WT.nav=bottom-well&_r=0



    1921: In Cincinnati, Ohio, the Board of Governors announced that Dr. Kaufman Kohler, President of the Hebrew Union College, will retire at the end of the current academic year.  Dr. Kohler has been serving as President since February, 1903.



    1921: As head of the Colonial Office, Winston Churchill makes his first commitment to practical Zionist enterprise by approving Pinchas Rutenberg’s plan to harness the waters of the Jordan and Yarkon rivers for electrical power enabling the Jews to begin to make further plans for substantial urban and rural development.1922:  Birthdate of actor Steven Hill.  Born Solomon Krakovsky in Seattle Washington, he is best known for his role as Adam Schiff on the television series “Law and Order.



    1922: Birthdate of Seattle, Washington, native Solomon Krkovsky, who gained fame as actor Steven Hill who was the “original team leader” on “Mission: Impossible” and the long-serving New York District Attorney Adam Schiff on “Law and Order.”
    http://www.biography.com/people/steven-hill-9542271



    1922(26thof Shevat, 5682): Sir Ellis Kadoorie passed away today and was buried in keeping with Jewish ritual was buried on the same day at the Jewish Cemetery in Hong Kong. Born in 1865, he was part of prominent Jewish family from Baghdad that moved to Bombay and eventually made their fortune in a variety of enterprises many of which were located in China and Hong Kong.



    1923: In New York Hungarian born composer George Steiner and his wife gave birth Frederick
    “Fred” Steiner whose most famous musical accomplishments may be creating the theme song for the ironic cartoon comedy show featuring Rocky and Bullwinkle and CBS’s popular series “Perry Mason.”

    http://www.latimes.com/local/obituaries/la-me-fred-steiner-20110625-story.html



    1925(30th of Shevat): Rabbi Isaac Jeroham Diskin passed away



    1926: In Washington, DC, President Calvin Coolidge received a delegation from “Agudath Israel, the world organization of Orthodox Jewry, who extended the felicitations of the organization.”



    1928: Birthdate of Ezat Delijani, a 1979 refugee from Iran’s Islamic Revolution who became a prominent Los Angeles businessman (As reported by Dennis McLellan)



    1929(14thof Adar I, 5689): Purim Katan



    1929(14thof Adar I) 5689): Twenty-nine year old Sophie Josephine Franks, the daughter of Louis and Emma Sachs and the wife of Siegfried Frank passed away today in Winschoten.



    1932: Senator George Norris, the Republican from Nebraska who chairs the Senate Judiciary Committee was reported today to have said that he did not know of any plans for speeches being given in the Senate expressing opposition to the confirmation of Benjamin Cardozo as a Supreme Court Justice.



    1932: Benjamin N. Cardozo was confirmed by a unanimous voice vote in the Senate to be an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court. Compare the ease with which Cardozo’s name sailed through the approval process with the contentious combat that surrounded the confirmation of Justice Brandeis.  



    1932: The Maccabee Association of the United States hosts a benefits concert at Carnegie Hall to raise funds for an athletic stadium in Tel Aviv.



    1933: “Perfect Understanding” a comedy directed by Cyril Gardner was released in the United Kingdom today.



    1934: Litzi Friedman, the daughter of Viennese Jews Israel and Gisella Kohlman, married Kim Philby the British communist spy.
    http://spartacus-educational.com/Litzi_Friedmann.htm



    1936(1stof Adar, 5696): Rosh Chodesh Adar



    1936: “Henrietta Szold…replied today to Palestine Jewry’s greetings on her seventy-fifth birthday, stating that without their assistance she could have achieved nothing.”



    1936: In Jaffa, Arabs picketing construction sites where schools were being built “stoned Jewish laborers and policemen, dangerously wounding one British constable and seriously damaging” at least one building.



    1937(13thof Adar, 5697): Ta’anit Esther and Erev Purim



    1937: Thy Neighbour by Lord Melchett which provided “a survey of the history of the persecution of Jews, a description of the rise and progress of Zionism and he position of Jews in the world today” was included on the “Books Published Today” listing.



    1937: It was reported today that funeral services have been held in Prague for Dr. Maxmillian Reiner “a founder of the Czech-Jewish movement and active member of Sokol, the Czech national gymnastic organization.



    1937: The anti-Semitic student demonstrations that took place today in Hungary included driving Jews from classrooms, interrupting professors’ lectures, smash windows in Budapest’s main synagogue, and the rector of the University of Budapest forcing threes Jewish students to “absent themselves from graduation ceremonies in order to prevent disturbances.



    1938: Three speakers – Reverend Edward Lodge Curran, head of the International Catholic Truth Society; Rev. Dr. Mark Depp of Christ Methodist Church in Pittsburgh; Rabbi Philip D. Bookstaber of Ohev Sholom Temple in Harrisburg --- representing Catholics, Protestants and Jews “today addressed Dickinson College’s Forum on Interreligious Cooperation which is designed to opposed attempts by dictatorships to get a foothold in America.”



    1939: An informal meeting that lasted less than half an hour “between Jewish delegates to the Palestine conference and representatives of Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Iraq was held today in St. James’s Palace on the same day that Dr. Stephen S. Wise and Louis Lipsky met with United States Ambassador Joseph P. Kennedy.



    1939: Europe’s Conscience in Decline by Charles E. Shulman which provided “a survey of the vicissitudes of the Jews in Europe” was included on the “Books Published Today” listing



    1940: “Stop Me If You've Heard This One,” a comedy radio series hosted by Milton Berle and featuring Harry Hershfield (the Jewish Will Rogers) as a panelist was broadcast for the last time today.



    1940:  Winston Churchill shared a telegram with the War Cabinet in which Chaim Weizmann described the “deplorable” effect that adoption of the Land Transfer Regulations would have.  The War Cabinet was unmoved by the plea.



    1940: In Elizabethtown, NJ, Gregor Piatigorsky and Jacqueline de Rothschild gave birth molecular biologist Joram Pitaigorsky, the author of Jellyfish Have Eyes.
    https://www.amazon.com/Jellyfish-Have-Eyes-Joram-Piatigorsky/dp/0989562263



    1941: Following a two-long pogrom in Amsterdam, “an open air meeting was held on the Noordermarkt to organize a strike to protest against the pogrom as well as the forced labor in Germany.



    1942: The Struma was torpedoed and sunk by the Soviet submarine SC 213.  Approximately 769 illegal Jewish immigrants aboard the Strumaperished on their way to Palestine.  The Struma was one of a series of ships filled with Jews that attempted to run the British blockade.  The blockade was part of the British commitment to the Arabs to keep Jews out of Palestine in violation of the Balfour Declaration and the terms of the Mandate.  The British slavishly enforced the blockade during and after World War II.  The Struma traversed the Black Sea and attempted to stop at Istanbul.  But the British told the Turks that the Jews would not be allowed to land in Palestine so they turned the ship back in the Black Sea.  It was there that the ship was sunk, reportedly torpedoed by a Nazi submarine.  Exodus by Leon Uris is based on another blockade running episode that took place in 1947.



    1942:  In Stamford, CT, liquor store owner Henry Lieberman and Marcia (nee Manger) Lieberman gave birth to Joseph Isadore “Joe” Lieberman the U.S. Senator from Connecticut and the first Jew to run for Vice President of the United States on the ticket of a major political party. 



    1943: Hitler sent Nazi members a message on the anniversary of the establishment of the Nazi Party, "The struggle will end . . . with the liquidation of Jewry in Europe."



    1944: At Birkenau, 200 of the 800 prisoners in the Sonderkommando were sent to Majdanek where they were shot.



    1944: Birthdate of Bucharest native Dan Manor (Menes) who perished when the Dakar was lost in 1968/



    1944: Max Jacob a French artist, who was born Jewish but converted to Catholicism, was arrested by the Gestapo and put into Orléans prison. He was then transferred to a holding camp in Drancy for transport to a concentration camp in Germany.



    1946: In Tel Aviv, a throng of more than 50,000 Jews attended the funeral of four men killed during an attack on several RAF airfields. For more than six hours, this “all-Jewish” city was truly in control of the Jewish people as there were no signs of any British police or soldiers.  Jewish newspapers published black-bordered obituaries for each of the deceased.  During the funeral, the Haganah distributed leaflets, giving further proof that the airfield attacks were not the work of the Irgun, but were the work of a broader-based Jewish resistance movement.  The attack and the public outpouring of grief seemed to indicate a change in mood among the Jewish population who were now apparently willing to support more aggressive tactics designed to secure their national home in light of what they have come to view of as the British betrayal of the Zionist cause and their support for the Arabs.



    1946: Birthdate of Michael Radford the New Delhi born son of an Austrian Jewish mother who became a successful director and screenwriter who directed the 2004 film version of the Merchant of Venice starring Al Pacino as Shylock.



    1947: Birthdate of Lawrence Bailey Bogdanow an architect whose love for natural materials and fine craftsmanship brought a sense of warmth and ease to the interiors of dozens of Manhattan’s most popular restaurants, including Union Square Café, Savoy and the Cub Room (As reported by William Grimes)



    1947: Birthdate of Juval Aviv, the native of kibbutz Kfar Menachem who is known as an Israeli-American security consultant and writer.



    1949: "Under the auspices of the United Nations Mediator Dr. Ralph Bunche, an armistice was signed between Egypt and Israel."  This marked, more or less, the end of Israel's War for Independence.  "It was the first such agreement between Israel and any of its warring neighbors.  The aim of the armistice was not merely to end the fighting but, as its terms stated to 'facilitate the transition...to permanent peace'.  The phrase was taken from the United Nations Security Council resolution of November 16."  Unfortunately, the Egyptians and the other Arab nations only viewed this as a cease fire.  Over the next several decades they would violate the spirit and the agreement as they sought to destroy the state of Israel.  For the Israelis the armistice was a great victory won against seemingly impossible odds.  When asked to explain the reason for this victory which sealed the creation of the Jewish state, Yigal Yadin replied, "If we are to condense all the various factors, and they are many, which brought about victory, I would not hesitate to credit the extraordinary qualities of Israel's youth, during the War of Independence, with that victory."  In other words, it was the spirit of the people that provided the will to hold out in the early dark days and then to take advantage of later breakthroughs to turn toward victory.  As we study Jewish History, it will be interesting to see the similarity between the causes of Jewish victories in ancient and modern times.



    1949: President Weizmann entrusted David Ben-Gurion with the task of forming Israel’s first government.



    1950: Ada Maimon, a member of the Knesset, is spearheading the drive to tighten Israel’s marriage laws.  She is seeking to raise the minimum age of consent from 15 to 18 and tighten up on rules concerning the exceptions.  Current law, which is left over from the British mandate allows girls to marry at the age of 15 but allows for marriage at a younger age with parental consent. Miss Maimon would limit exceptions to girls at the age of 17.  Miss Maimon, who is a member of the Knessett, is most concerned about ending what she considers the abuse of this “loophole” that has girls as young as 12 getting married.  Primary opposition is coming from Jews of Oriental orign who are offended by Miss Maimon’s characterization of Oriental mothers as “breeding delinquents.”  The fifty-seven year old Miss Maimon is the sister of Rabbi Judah L. Maimon Israel’s Minister for Religious Affairs and is in charge of the agricultural training farm at Ayanot that was founded in 1930.



    1952:  Birthdate of Simon Weinstock, British businessman and racehorse owner.



    1953: Birthdate of March Feinstein the native of Mitchell, South Dakota who has served as the Representative from the 14th District in the South Dakota House of Repesentatives.



    1954: Birthdate of Dutch author Leon de Winter whose works include the novels Kaplanand Hoffman’s Hunger.



    1956: “Churchill received the Israeli Ambassador, Eliahu Elath, who presented him with a portfolio of woodcuts depicting ancient Jerusalem as an eightieth birthday gift from the Prime Minister and Government of Israel.



    1956:  Birthdate of television journalist, Paula Zahn.



    1958: In London, Katherine Margaret McAdam and Lucian Freud gave birth Jane McAdam the “winner of the 2014 European Trebbia Award” who is the great-grand daughter of Sigmund Freud.



    1959: Twenty-one year old “Roughhouse Rudy” LaRusso scored 29 points as Dartmouth defeated Holy Cross.



    1967(13th of Adar I, 5727): German born, American composer Franz Waxman passed away.  Waxman was nominated for 12 Oscars.  In back to back victories he won for “Sunset Boulevard” and “A Place in the Sun.”  These two films give us a sense of the breadth of Waxman’s skills since the first film was classic cinema noir and the second was a Western.



    1972(9thof Adar, 5732): Ninety-year old Sidney Hollander, a 1902 graduate of the University of Maryland, President of the Maryland Pharmaceutical Company and the national president of the Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds from 1939 to 1956 passed away today in Baltimore.



    1973: First screening today of “A Brand New Life” starring Martin Balsam with music by Billy Goldenberg.



    1976: Jules Feiffer's "Knock Knock" premiered in New York City.



    1976: Birthdate of Kiryat Ata native Yuval Noah Harari, a professor of History at Hebrew University and the history of two major works: Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind and Homo Deus: A Brief History of Tomorrow
    https://www.theguardian.com/books/2016/aug/24/homo-deus-by-yuval-noah-harari-review



    1977(6thof Adar, 5737): Fifty-five year old Milton “Milt” Kaimen who was a successful French horn player and occupied a French horn chair at the Metropolitan Opera” before pursuing his career as a comedic actor and standup comedian passed away today.
    http://cscottrollins.blogspot.com/2013/03/milt-kamen-stand-up-guy.html



    1978(17thof Adar I, 5738): Lionel Jacobson, the son of Lithuanian immigrant Moses Jacobson and the brother of Sydney Jacobson with whom he created a major European textile business when he combing Jackson the Tailor with the Burton Tailoring Group and who was President of the Newcastle Jewish Representative Council passed away today.



    1981(20thof Adar I, 5741): Eighty-two year old Moshe Nathanson, the Jerusalem born son of Rabbi Nahum Nathanson, who moved to Canada in 1922 before settling in New York where “ he became the cantor for the Society for the Advancement of Judaism (Mordecai Kaplan's Synagogue in New York) passed away today,
    http://www.nytimes.com/1981/02/25/obituaries/moshe-nathanson.html



    1981: Jean Harris as convicted of murdering Dr. Herman Tarnower, the Jewish author of the bestselling The Complete Scarsdale Medical Diet. From “eat, eat my children eat” to a mania for weight watching; such is the Jewish experience in the last hundred years. 



    1981: Two bronze doors, weighing about 200 pounds, were stolen from a mausoleum at the Baron Hirsch Cemetery on Staten Island cemetery today. The police estimated the value of the doors at $600.



    1983(11thof Adar, 5743): Ta’anit Esther



    1987(24th of Shevat, 5747): Marian Gerber Greenberg, who worked closely with Henrietta Szold, the founder of the Hadassah, the Woman's Zionist Organization of America, and its Youth Aliyah to help rescue thousands of Jewish children from Nazi Germany, died of congestive heart failure at the Cooley-Dickenson Hospital, Northampton, Mass. She was 89 years old and lived in Amherst, Mass. Mrs. Greenberg was the first national chairman of Youth Aliyah, serving in the post from 1936 to 1941. A national board member of Hadassah since 1927, she was a national vice president and a Hadassah delegate to five world Zionist Congresses between 1931 and 1952. She was also national chairman of the Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Building Fund. She edited the Hadassah newsletter (now a magazine) and, from 1943 to 1946 was editor of the monthly bulletin of the Citizens' Housing and Planning Council of New York. A former resident of Manhattan, she retired to Amherst in 1976, where she taught courses in the Bible and modern Jewish thought, sponsored by the Judaic Studies department of the University of Massachusetts. She was born in Philadelphia and graduated from Cornell University in 1919. She was the widow of David Greenberg, a writer on wildlife and conservation, who died in 1968.



    1988(6thof Adar, 5748): Sixty-one year old Seymour Siegel, the Rabbi who has been a major force in Conservative Judaism for the last four decades passed away today. (As reported by Ari L.Goldman)
    http://www.nytimes.com/1988/02/25/obituaries/rabbi-seymour-siegel-61-leader-in-conservative-judaism-is-dead.html



    1989(19thof Adar I): Sergeant Binyamin Meisner, an Israeli paratrooper, was killed today when he was struck in the head by a concrete block thrown from a building in Nablus, in the West Bank, the army said. Meisner, a 24-year-old reserve sergeant, is the sixth Israeli soldier to die in the current Arab wave of violence.



    1989: Premiere of “My Left Foot” starring Daniel Day-Lewis with music by Elmer Bernstein.



    1991: The New York Times reviews To Know A Woman by Amos Oz.



    1991: Allied forces began their ground offensive in Gulf War – a war which was unique for the Israelis because they had trust the United States to protect them from the Iraqi Scud attacks that were cheered by Palestinians.



    1994(12th of Adar, 5754): Dinah Shore passed away. Born Francis Rose Shore in 1916, the Tennessee native gained fame as a singer and star of her own television variety show. (As reported by Stephen Holden)
    http://www.nytimes.com/1994/02/25/obituaries/dinah-shore-homey-singer-and-star-of-tv-dies-at-76.html?pagewanted=print&src=pm



    1995: “New Director of Museum Was Censured by Cornell” published today described the reaction of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum’s to allegation that Steven Katz, the director-designate has falsified his record of academic achievement.
    http://www.nytimes.com/1995/02/24/arts/new-director-of-museum-was-censured-by-cornell.html



    1996:  Andrew Beckerman-Rodau a Jewish professor at Suffolk University Law School flew from Detroit to Kiev. His visit to Kiev was at the invitation of the Ukrainian Supreme Court in cooperation with USAID, an agency of the United States government. USAID's mission is to assist this newly independent country in developing a democratic government.



    1996: For the first time, HBO televised “The Late Shift” featuring Bab Balaban and Sandra Bernhard for the first time.



    1997: Time published “Echoes of the Holocaust” that describes attempt for victims regain some of the wealth stolen from them be bankers during the Nazi domination of Europe.
    http://www.time.com/time/subscriber/article/0,33009,985946,00.html



    1998(27th of Shevat, 5758): Comedian Henny Youngman passed away at the age of 92.  Youngman was famous for his tagline “Take my wife please.”  Youngman did not have a Bar Mitzvah as a child.  When he was in his seventies, he finally had one much to his joy and delight. (As reported by Mervyn Rothstein)
    http://www.nytimes.com/1998/02/25/arts/henny-youngman-king-of-the-one-liners-is-dead-at-91-after-6-decades-of-laughter.html



    1999(7th of Adar, 5759): David Daube, a world renowned Biblical law scholar who charmed generations of students while teaching at the University of California, Berkeley's law school passed away at the age of 90.
    http://www.jweekly.com/article/full/10358/noted-bible-scholar-david-daube-dies/



    2001(18thof Adar I, 5760): Eight-four year old Bronx born Bernard Opper, the All SEC Guard for the pre-WWII University of Kentucky Wildcats who went on to play for nine years in the pros passed away today.
    http://www.bigbluehistory.net/bb/Statistics/Players/Opper_Bernard.html



    2001(1st of Adar, 5761): Rosh Chodesh Adar



    2002: Bruce Fleisher won the RJR (Golf) Championship



    2002(11th of Adar, 5762):  Leo Orenstein, Russian born American composer and pianist passed away at the age of 89.



    2002: “An exhibition of the work of colonial silversmith Mike Myers, one of the most accomplished craftsman working in pre-industrial America” is scheduled to open today at the Skirball Cultural Center.



    2002: In Salt Lake City, the Winter Olympics where Sarah Hughes won a Gold Medal for Ladies’ Figure Skating came to a close today.



    2002: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including A Life in Pieces: The Making and Unmaking of Binjamin Wilkomirski by Blake Eskin and Kindred Souls: The Friendship of Eleanor Roosevelt and David Gurewitsch by Edna P. Gurewitsch. (Gurewitsch, the son of Jewish immigrants from Russia was “Eleanor Roosevelt's friend, confidant, personal physician, housemate, and traveling companion during her post-White House years.”)



    2003(22nd of Adar I, 5736): Ninety-two year old 10-time Oscar nominated composer Walter Scharf passed away today.
    http://articles.latimes.com/2003/feb/28/local/me-scharf28



    2003: An International Conference hosted by the Dubnow Institute on “Transforming Religious and Ethnic Emblematics of Judaism and Jewishness” ended today.



    2004(1stof Adar, 5764): Rosh Chodesh Adar



    2004(1stof Adar, 5764): Eighty-three year old Albert “Albie” Axelrod the leading American fencer during the middle of the 20th century who won the Bronze at the 1960 Summer Olympics passed away today.
    http://www.nytimes.com/2004/03/05/sports/albert-axelrod-83-a-champion-in-fencing.html



    2005: Roger Ebert’s review of “Paper Clips” was published today.
    https://www.rogerebert.com/reviews/paper-clips-2005



    2006: London Mayor Ken Livingstone was suspended from office for four weeks after being found guilty of bringing his office into disrepute by comparing a Jewish reporter to a Nazi concentration camp guard.



    2006: “After the Wedding” directed by Susanne Bier was released today in Denmark.



    2006: "Growing Up Jewish In Nogales: Memories Of a Bygone Era," by Renee Claire and "Tucson Was a Wonderful Place to Grow Up In the '40s and '50s," by Lori Olshansky Sobel err published today in the Arizona Jewish Post.



    2007: Israel Non-Stop  “seven days of cutting edge Israeli music, theatre, film, art, food and more” began in New York with the appearance of Israeli music phenomenon Mosh Ben-Ari. According to the playbill, “Mosh Ben-Ari combines ecstatic middle eastern rhythms, spirituality, and scents of reggae and African beats. Mosh Ben-Ari's joyous concerts around the world turn into high spirited celebrations for peace. His recently released album, Go Giving, has been praised by music critics and fans alike.”



    2007: “West Bank Story” won the Academy Award for Short Film-Live Action. The 21 minute musical has a “West Side Story” motif. “In this case the confrontation is between competing West Bank Falafel stands, the Israeli Kosher King and the Palestinian Hummus Hut.



    2008: Rabbi Avrohom Yitzchok Ulman was one of the main speakers at a major protest rally against the growing influence of nationalistic (Zionist) thought and philosophies in the Haredi world” Born in Hungary, Ulman is an expert on Jewish law pertaining to fiancé and property and he is a member of the Dushinksy Hasidic Movement founded by Rabbi Yosef Tzvi Dushinsky



    2008:  “Burnt Diary Yields Horror of Warsaw Ghetto” published today described the recovery of the writings of person known only as “Debora” who chronicled life in one of the most infamous places of Jewish captivity.
    http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/feb/25/secondworldwar.usa



    2008: In Australia at Parliament House, Rabbis Reisenberg, Rubinfeld and Gutnik are scheduled to officiate at the marriage of Federal Labor MP Michael Darby and Amanda Mendes Da Costa “in the first Jewish wedding to be held in the big house” with the bedecken taking place in the Marble Hall followed by the trip to the chuppah which was erected at the Queens Terrace. (As reported by Jehane Sharah)



    2008: The Sunday New York Times book section featured a review of a biography about Jewish author and playwright David Mamet entitled David Mamet: A Life In The Theatre by Ira Nadel.



    2008: An exhibition styled “CHIM: The Photography of David Seymour (1911 – 1956)” came to an end at the DeYoung Museum in San Francisco.



    2008: The Washington Post book section featured a review of Alfred Kazin: A Biography by Richard M. Cook and Staring At The Sun Overcoming the Terror of Death by Irvin D. Yalom, the award winning Jewish born psychiatrist and author.



    2008: Israelis (and many others) wonder if Beaufort directed by Joseph Cedar will win the Oscar for best Foreign Language Film.  This is the seventh time an Israeli film has been nominated in this category. Beaufort is set “in the days leading up to Israel's withdrawal from Lebanon in 2000. The soldiers stationed at the mountaintop outpost of Beaufort live under a barrage of constant attacks. Frustrated by the knowledge that they are risking--and often losing--their lives in defense of a fortress that will soon be abandoned, the men struggle to do their duty while grieving for their dead comrades and preparing for the evacuation.”The movie is based on the novelIm Yesh Gan Eden (If There is a Paradise) by Ron Leshem, who co-wrote the screenplay with Cedar.



    2009: Dalia Itzik completed her term as Speaker of the Knesset



    2009: Paul Finkelman, a professor of law and public policy who had reviewed Eli Faber’s Jews, Slaves, and the Slave Trade: Setting the Record Straightand is the author of Slavery and the Founders: Race and Liberty in the Age of Jefferson, presents a lecture on abolitionist John Brown as part of the "Great Lives Lecture Series" at the University of Mary Washington, Fredericksburg, VA.



    2009: More than 300 rabbis gather at the 120th annual Central Conference American Rabbis convention opens in Jerusalem, Israel.



    2009(1stof Adar, 5769): Rosh Chodesh Adar



    2009(1stof Adar, 5769): Eighty-seven year old choreographer Pearl Lang, the founder of the Pearl Lang Dance Theatre passed away today. (As reported by Jack Anderson)
    http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/27/arts/dance/27lang.html



    2009:More than three months after the 17th Knesset was dispersed, the 18th Knesset was sworn in this afternoon, in a ceremony that began with a moving speech by President Shimon Peres, during which he paid tribute to the IDF for the recent Gaza operation, hailed US President Barack Obama's election and called for a peace deal with the Palestinians during the next Knesset's term.



    2009: The Jerusalem Post reported that an archive of over 10,000 works of modern Yiddish literature has gone on-line. The collection of full texts, comprising the National Yiddish Book Center's Steven Spielberg Digital Library, can be read, downloaded and printed free at
    www.archive.org/details/nationalyiddishbookcenter.



    The project of putting 3 million pages on-line was undertaken by the Yiddish Book Center and the Internet Archive of San Francisco. "It's an historic moment for Yiddish culture," said Aaron Lansky, founder and president of the nonprofit Yiddish Book Center. "The magnificent record of a civilization the Nazis sought to destroy has been brought fully into the 21st century." The collection includes original novels, stories, poetry, drama and nonfiction titles published in Yiddish over the past 150 years. Most out-of-print Yiddish works are already in the public domain. Brewster Kahle, founder of the Internet Archive, said, "This is the first time a full literature of a people has been available on-line. We hope others follow the Yiddish Book Center's pioneering example."



    2010:The Israel Ballet, Israel's foremost classical ballet company which was founded in 1967 by Berta Yampolsky and Hillel Markman is scheduled to perform "Don Quixote" in Elmira, NY.



    2010:Ted Leonsis, the AOL entrepreneur and the owner of the Washington Capitals as well as a partner in the Washington Wizards franchise, is scheduled to discuss his new book, "The Business of Happiness: 6 Secrets to Extraordinary Success in Life and Work," at the Sixth & Historic Synagogue in Washington, D.C.



    2010:A bill that allows civil marriage in Israel to couples who could not be married by the rabbinate failed by a large margin in its initial reading.



    2010:Today, the Israel Flower Growers Association reported a 30-percent drop in exports for Valentine’s Day compared to last year.



    2010: Forty year old Dawn Brancheau who was “pulled into a tank and killed by a six-ton orca” at Seaworld – a death which Stephen A. Schwarzman blamed on her because he claimed “that the veteran animal trainer” had broken “multiple safety rules,” a claim which the company later disclaimed.



    2011: Gainsbourg,the boldly imaginative and wildly entertaining biopic of Jewish French singer-songwriter Serge Gainsbourg, one of the most iconic and diversely talented music artists of the 20th Century” and Chariots of Fire are scheduled to be shown at the Atlanta Jewish Film Festival



    2011: Ruth David, Professor Peter Davies (Edinburgh) and Dr Andrea Hammel (Aberystwyth) are scheduled to present a program entitled “Holocaust Texts and Translation” at The Wiener Library in London, UK.



    2011: The San Francisco Jewish Film Festival is scheduled to continue its year round programming in Berkeley with an encore presentation of 2010 Festival sleeper hit Father’s Footsteps– a gripping coming of age drama about a Tunisian-Israeli family threatened by violence and crime.



    2011: YIVO Institute for Jewish Research is scheduled to present: "Integrale Yidishkeyt": Modern Yiddish Culture's Turn Inward in Response to the Holocaust.



    2011: YIVO Institute for Jewish Research is scheduled to present a discussion of Joseph Roth's Job



    2011: IAF aircraft struck against a number of terrorists in the southern Gaza Strip today in a joint IDF and Shin Bet (Israel Security Agency) operation following a rocket being fired into Beersheba.



    2011: With Israeli Apartheid Week a week away, Israel seems to have found an unexpected champion in Michael Lucas, a popular gay columnist and porno producer with dual US-Israeli citizenship who told The Jerusalem Post by phone from New York today that “I defeated a group of anti- Semites” who sought to equate Israel with the former South African apartheid regime at an event slated to be held at the city’s Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender (LGBT) Center.



    2011(20thof Adar I, 5771): Jerrold (Yoram) Kessel passed away today.
    http://www.jpost.com/JewishWorld/JewishNews/Article.aspx?id=209791



    2011: Judy Gross, the wife of Alan Gross “pleaded with the Cuban government to release her husband on humanitarian grounds. Gross' daughter, 26, has breast cancer, and his mother has been diagnosed with lung cancer.” (As reported by JTA)



    2012(1stof Adar, 5772): Rosh Chodesh Adar



    2012(1stof Adar, 5772): Ninety-two year old mathematician Benedict Freeman who co-authored the novel Mrs. Mike with his wife Nancy passed away today.
    http://www.latimes.com/local/obituaries/la-me-benedict-freedman-20120305-story.html



    2012: In London, Claudia Roden is scheduled to talk about discoveries she made while researching her new book “The Food of Spain” as part of Jewish Book Week.



    2012: As many as 100 college students who are part of the Kol HaOlam competition are scheduled to attend the Ruach Minyan at Adas Israel in Washington, DC.



    2012: In New York City, Temple Emanu-El is scheduled to host a Friday night service that will include a commemoration of the 100th Anniversary of the founding of Hadassah attended by Marcie Natan, National President of Hadassah.



    2012: Tensions continued to escalate in the South early this morning with the Israel Air Force making two separate forays into the Gaza Strip to bomb terror targets in response to the firing of Kassam rockets into Israeli communities.



    2012: Security forces used force to disperse hundreds of Muslim worshipers at the Temple Mount today who rioted and threw stones following a tense week in the Old City. 2013: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Searchers: The Making of an American Legend by Glenn Frankel, City of Angels Or, the Overcoat of Dr. Freud by Christa Wolf and the recently released paperback edition of God’s Jury; The Inquisition and the Making of the Modern World by Cullen Murphy



    2013: Center for Jewish History, YIVO Institute and the International Center of Photography are scheduled to sponsor a screen of Eleanor Antin’s “Man Without a World.”



    2013: Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, Iowa is scheduled to celebrate Purim complete with a megillah reading and separate costume contests for children and adults.



    2013: Dedication of the Jacobs Family Education Center is scheduled to take place at Agudas Achim in Iowa City, Iowa.



    2013: The Maccaebeats are scheduled to perform at The Moriah School Purim Chagiga in Englewood, NJ



    2013(14th of Adar, 5773): Purim



    2013: Purim’s carnival atmosphere spread out across Israel today, with revelers of all types and ages soaking up the holiday cheer, many bedecked in bright, loud and extravagant costumes.   2014: German Chancellor Angela Merkel is scheduled to begin a two day visit to Israel.



    2014: At the Center for Jewish History, Henry L. Feingold is scheduled to speak on “American Jewish Political Culture and the Liberal Persuasion.”



    2014: “Dancing Alfonso” is scheduled to be shown at the UK Jewish Film Festival



    2014: Israel Apartheid Week, a week-long orgy of anti-Semitism hidden under the guise of anti-Israel lectures and workshops is scheduled to begin today.



    2014(24thof Adar I, 5774): Sixty-nine year old comedy screenwriter Harold Remis passed away.
    http://www.nytimes.com/2014/02/25/movies/harold-ramis-who-helped-redefine-what-makes-us-laugh-on-screen-dies-at-69.html?_r=0

    2014: Ian Heath Gershengorn, Principal Deputy Solicitor General, U.S. Department of Justice, is scheduled to address the Hadassah Attorneys Council in Washington, DC.


    2014: In New Orleans, the Jewish Studies Department of Tulane University is scheduled to present a lecture by Tome Beller entitled “J.D. Salinger’s Late Barmitzva.”


    2014: According to a report today on the news site timenews.in.ua, the Giymat Rosa Synagogue in Zaporizhia located 250 miles southeast of Kiev was firebombed overnight.


    2014: Israel is facing the driest winter since 1927, Ma'ariv reported today, leaving experts concerned. The Kinneret (Sea of Galilee)'s water level has dropped by four centimeters since the rainy season began, compared to a 1.97 meter rise over the same five-month period in 2013. (As reported by Tova Dvorin)


    2015: The Tulane University Jewish Studies Department chaired by Professor Brian Horowitz is scheduled to host a lecture by Antony Polonsky entitled “Writing the History of the Jews of Poland and Russia.”


    2015: Robin Renwick, former British Ambassador to South Africa is scheduled to discuss Helen Suzman’s extraordinary life and achievements with her daughter, art historian Frances Suzman Jowell and niece, actress and director Janet Suzman at the Jewish Museum in London during Jewish Book Week.


    2015: The Center for Jewish History is scheduled to present “Roads Taken:  The Great Jewish Migrations to the New World and the Peddlers Who Forged the Way.”


    2015(5thof Adar, 5775): One hundred and nine year old Wall Street investor Irving Kahn passed away today.

    2016: Itzik Barak the executive chef from Jerusalem’s Waldorf Astoria is scheduled to prepare 150 plated dishes of the Seven Species for the panel of judges at the annual Tastes of Waldorf Astoria competition.


    2016: “The Breman Museum is scheduled to sponsor "Fitting In: A Short History of Jewish Film in America" at The Temple in Atlanta, GA.


    2016: “Baba Joon” “Israel’s submission for the Best Foreign Language Film Academy Award” is scheduled to be shown on the opening night of the 26th Annual Washington Jewish Film Festival.



    2017: In London, JW3 is scheduled to host a pre-Shabbat celebration combining singing and challah baking.



    2017: “Major roads and key thoroughfares were blocked to traffic in Tel Aviv today for the city’s marathon, with an estimated record number of 40,000 runners from across the country and abroad taking part in the annual event” which was won by Ethiopian runner Balata Mekonnen.



    2017: The Oxford University Jewish Society is scheduled to host both Orthodox and Egalitarian Kabbalat Services, followed by Shabbat dinner and voting for next term’s president and vice president.



    2017: At Agudas Achim, Professor Robert Cargill is scheduled to deliver a lecture in which he “unfolds biblical verses talking about the kind of life one ought to live and about the origin of the z’’l tradition.”



    2018(9thof Adar, 5778): Shabbat Zachor; for more see http://downhomedavartorah.blogspot.com/



    2018: Agudas Achim is scheduled to host the Hillel Adult B’nai Mitzvah Service.



    2018: Twenty-one year old Miss Internet Tamar Morali is scheduled to take part in “the final stage of the Miss Germany Contest today in Germany’s Europa Park.”



    2018: “Israeli company Roy Assaf Dance is scheduled to perform at the Norman Rothstein Theatre.



     


     


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    February 25



    161 BCE: Jewish soldiers led by Judah Maccabee defeated Nicanor, the Syrian general who had boasted that he would destroy the Temple and mount Judah’s head on the gates of Jerusalem.



    138: The Emperor Hadrian adopts Antoninus Pius, effectively making him his successor. For Jews Hadrian stands out as one of the cruelest of the Roman emperors.  He is the one who defeated Bar Kochba.  It is said that Hadrain was more evil than Titus because he did not just make war against the Jewish people.  He made war against Judaism by banning its practice.  In one of those many ironic twists of fates, Antionious Pious, his hand-picked successor reversed the decrees of Hadrain. He allowed the Torah to be studied and is laws obeyed.  He reinstituted the ban on imperial statues in synagogues and he allowed the Jews to practice the rite of circumcision.



    628: The reign Persian Shah Khosrau II who “conquered Jerusalem after a brief siege in 614 during the Byzantine – Sasanian War” came to an end today.



    1308: Coronation of King Edward II.  One of this uniquely incompetent monarch’s claim to fame is that he was the first King of England to reign over a realm without any Jews since the Norman Conquest in 1066.  Edward’s father, Edward I, had expelled the Jews in 1290.



    1304: Birthdate of Ibn Battuta, the Moslem Moroccan explorer who visit large segments of Asia and Africa where he chronicled meetings with various groups including Jews in India and China.



    1333: Ibn Batuta, the Arab traveler, visited Jewish communities in India



    1336: Alfonso X of Castile was persuaded by the apostate Alfonso of Valladolid to ban the prayer Aleinu. Alfonso alleged that the prayer was anti-Christian. As a result, many Jewish communities excised a sentence from the prayer which has only been printed in recent years in only some prayer books.  The offending line which was taken out comes just before the time when everybody bows and recites “Va-ananchnu Kor’im – But we bend our knees…” The line that was taken out reads “For they bow to vanity and emptiness and pray to a god which helps not.”  If you read the entire prayer and insert this line, the following line makes a lot more sense.  According to several commentators the offending line had nothing to do with the Christians but had been placed there to refer to all heretics and that its origins were found in Isaiah (30:7 and 45:20). Further evidence refuting the claim that it was anti-Christian can be found in the fact that it was composed in the third century by Rav Abba Arucha head of the Academy of Sura (Persia) which was not a Christian country.  Ashkenazi prayer books dropped the line but Sephardic prayer books i.e. those in the land of Islam, retained the line.  Today it can be found in some Ashkenazi prayer books including those in the Artscroll Series.



     1451: Nicholas V issued a papal bull banning all social intercourse between Christians and Jews probably caused by a fear of Christians being attracted to Judaism. A Christian who converted to Judaism and the Jews who helped him were usually subject to the death penalty in most Catholic and Eastern Orthodox countries.  It is amazing that with the Church's attitude towards Judaism, and with the contempt that Jews in which Jews were held, that there should be such a fear of "Jewish missionizing".



    1570:  Pope Pious V excommunicated Queen Elizabeth I.  This was one of the steps on the road to loosening the stranglehold that doctrinal Christianity had on Western Europe.  As the Church’s grip on Europe weakened it opened up the way to a religious toleration that was highly beneficial to the Jewish people.



    1593: Pope Clement VIII issued “Caeca et Obdurata Hebraeorum perfidia” (the blind and obdurate perfidy of the Hebrews) a papal bull which expelled the Jews from the Papal States, effectively revoking the bull Christiana pietas issued in 1586 by his predecessor Pope Sixtus V.The bull was a culmination of Clement VII's tightening of the anti-Jewish measures of his predecessors which began with his elevation to the papacy in 1592. The bull gave Jews three months to leave the Papal States (with the exception of Rome, Ancona, and the Comtat Venaissin of Avignon). The main effect of the bull was to evict Jews who had returned to areas of the Papal States (mainly Umbria) after 1586 (following their expulsion in 1569) and to expel Jewish communities from cities like Bologna (which had been incorporated under papal dominion since 1569). For the Jews remaining within Rome, Ancona, or the Comtat Venaissin, the bull re-established mandatory weekly sermons. The bull also resulted in the relocation of Jewish cemeteries to Ferrara and Mantua. The bull alleged that Jews in the Papal States had engaged in usury and exploited the hospitality of Clement VIII's predecessors "who, in order to lead them from their darkness to knowledge of the true faith, deemed it opportune to use the clemency of Christian piety towards them" (alluding to Christiana pietas).



    1713: The reign of Frederick I, who in 1709 appointed Aaron ben Benjamin Wolf “to the office of chief rabbi of Berlin with jurisdicition over all the Jews living in the mark” came to an end today.



    1795: First New York City performance of “Sheva, The Benevolent” by English playwright Richard Cumberland which features, Sheva, “the Jewish moneylender as the benevolent hero.”



    1799: Napoleon defeat the army led by Al Jazzar as he made his way from Khan Younis to Gaza.



    1799: Napoleon captured Gaza. (Yes, the same place in the news today). This was his first encounter with "Palestinian" Jews.” It is said that he offered “the reestablishment of ancient Jerusalem” as a Jewish homeland in return for Jewish loyalty.



    1806: Birthdate of Rabbi Salomon Ulmann the French rabbi who among other things organized the Central Conference of the Chief Rabbis of France



    1806: Baptism of German theologian Johann August Wilhelm Neander who had been born David Mendel, the son of a Jewish peddler Emmanuel Mendel.



    1824: Moritz Bertram married Sophia Boss at the Hambro Synagogue.



    1825(7thof Adar I, 5585): Thirty-one year old Hannah Aarons (Hannah bat Aharon be Jacob ZL) passed away today.



    1840: Birthdate of German philosopher, the Kantian, Otto Liebmann
    http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0012_0_12511.html



    1841: Birthdate of Pierre-Auguste Renoir, the French artist who painted “Alice and Elisabeth Cahen d’Anvers” (most commonly referred to as Pink and Blue).The painting portrayed the 2 daughters of the banker Louis Raphael Cahen d'Anvers, the blonde, Elisabeth, born in December 1874, and the younger, Alice, in February 1876, when they were respectively six and five years old. The artist produced many portraits for the families of the Parisian Jewish community at the time. Renoir was commissioned to paint many portraits for this family, which he had met through the collector Charles Ephrussi, proprietor of the "Gazette des Beaux-Arts."http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pink_and_Blue_(Renoir)
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Renoir_Mlles_Cahen_d_Anvers.jpg



    1844: Birthdate of Leó Frankel, the Hungarian born revolution who active in the First International and a member of the Paris Commune that was formed in the wake of the Franco-Prussian War.



    1846: Henry Hyman Defries married Dinah Samson in Liverpool today.



    1847: State University of Iowa was approved.  What is now called the University of Iowa has certainly provided employment and educational opportunities for a fair number of Jews from the land of the Hawks as well a number of other places. The 28,000 student body includes approximately 600 Jewish undergrads and 200 Jewish grad students.  The school offers ten Jewish studies courses and the campus offers students a choice of Hillel or Chabad.  They also have access to Agudas Achim and its Rabbi, Jeff Portman, a mensch in the truest sense of the word. Several distinguished Jewish scholars have taught at the university including the late Dr. Jonathan A. Goldstein who provided the introduction and commentary for The Anchor Bible's Book of Maccabees and Dr. David Schoenbaum who has authored numerous works about German history as well as The United States and the State of Israel, a diplomatic history of relations between the United States and Israel from 1948 to 1993.



    1848: Birthdate of Eugène-Melchior, vicomte de Vogüé the French diplomat and archaeologist who provided “much of the earliest documentation about the Temple Mount. Because his work was done with the “full consent of the Muslim Counsel” he “work included the most complete and detailed mongraphs on how the mosques looked and their relationships to ancient Temple of Jerusalem.”  De Vogue “was also known for his architectural studies of Jerusalem and its surroundings.” (For more on this Digging Through the Bible by Richard A. Freund



    1855: The Jewish residents of Lancaster PA organized Congregation Shaarai Shomayim which then took possession of the old Jewish cemetery.



    1856: Professor O.M. Mitchell is scheduled deliver a lecture tonight entitled "Critical Examination of the Astronomical Allusions and Illustrations Employed by the Writers of the Sacred Books of the Hebrews" at the Brooklyn Athenaeum. 



    1858: Sir Anthony de Rothschild, Louis Nathan, Ephraim Alex and Marcus Samuel, the father of the first Lord Bearsted were among those who attended a conference designed to deal with the problems of “the strange and foreign poor” held in the chambers of the Great Synagogue in London.



    1859: The first formal meeting was held at 31 New Bridge Street of the Board of Guardians which consisted of delegates from the London’s three leading congregations.



    1860: Birthdate of Professor H.L. Sabsovich, the native Berdiansk, Russia who came to the United States in 1888 to serve as an agricultural chemist at Colorado State Agricultural College before becoming the “General Agent of the Baron De Hirsch Fund and the first mayor of the Jewish Agricultural Colony at Woodbine, NJ.



    1861: Judah P. Benjamin began serving as Attorney General in the cabinet of Jefferson Davis.



    1862(25thof Adar I, 5622): German educator Emanuel Hecht passed away.
    http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/7469-hecht-emanuel



    1862: Birthdate of Stanisław Głąbiński Polish attorney and political leader who shared a cell in Lubyanka Prison with Rabbi Moses Schorr with whom he formed a close friendship before the Jew and Gentile met the same fate – murder by the NKVD in 1941.



    1862: A fire broke at 6 o'clock this morning in the Hebrew Orphan Asylum, on Lamartine-place.  Damages which are valued at three hundred dollars, should be fully covered by insurance.



    1862: During the American Civil War commissioning of the USS Monitor, the U.S. Navy ironclad with the revolving turret that revolutionized naval war and whose crew included William Durst, the Austrian born “coal heaver” who was the last surviving member of the ship’s crew.



    1865(29th of Shevat, 5625): Shabbat Shekalim



    1867: Ralph Disraeli and his wife gave birth to British political leader Coningsby Disraeli, the nephew of Benjamin Disraeli.



    1868: In Portsmouth, Isaac Phillips, the rabbi of the Portsmouth Hebrew Congregation and his wife gave birth to Jacob Phillips, the author of A Peep Into the Talmud andJewish Rites and Ceremonies who served as the rabbi of congregations at Tredegar, Swansea, Sunderland and Port Elizabeth, Cape Colony and was “Justice of the Peace for the Division of Port Elizabeth’



    1870(24thof Adar I, 5630): Seventy-two year old Danish poet Henrik Hertz passed away today.



    1870: As a reminder that the battle over the separation of church and state which has been a cornerstone of Jewish success in the United States is on-going, a meeting was held at the Reformed Presbyterian Church in New York in which the attendees called for a national convention that would promote “constitutional recognition of Almighty God and the Christian religion in the United States.”



    1871(4thof Adar, 5631): Parashat Terumah



    1871(4thof Adar, 5631): Seventy-two year old Maurice Schlesinger (born Moritz Adolf Slesinger)
    “a German music editor” who followed in the footsteps of his father Adolf Martin Schlesinger and founding a music publishing house passed away today in Baden-Baden.



    1871: Rabbi Stephen Wise of Cincinnati delivered a lecture on the Apostle Paul, the third and final in a series of addresses on the Origin of Christianity. The well attended event took place at Steinway Hall in New York City.



    1874: Jonas Hart married Amelia Cohen in Dublin today.



    1875: Today eleven year old pianist Fannie Bloomfield Zeisler made her debut “at a concert of the Wolfsohn’s Beethoven Society.”



    1876(30thof Shevat, 5636): Rosh Chodesh Adar



    1877: It was reported that the Purim Association will host a masked ball at Delmonico’s on March 1st in celebration of this minor Jewish festival.



    1877: A reception celebrating Purim was held today at the Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews.  The event was hosted by the lady managers of the well-maintained facility located at 87th Street and Avenue A in New York City.



    1877: Professor Felix Adler delivered a detailed laudatory address to a mostly Jewish audience at Standard Hall on the life and teachings of Baruch Spinoza.  The 200th anniversary of the death of the famous Jewish Dutch philosopher provided the impetus for the “panegyric.”



    1879” Birthdate of German silent film actor and director Julius Falkenstein who passed away the same year the Nazis came to power.



    1880(13th of Adar, 5640) Ta'anit Esther



    1881: It was reported today that the will of Louis Strauss of San Francisco includes bequests to the Pacific Hebrew Orphan Asylum and Home Society of San Francisco ($10,000), and the Jewish Orphan Asylum of New York ($5,000) as well as three other non-Jewish institutions.



    1881: It was reported today that Marion Calisch, young Jewess kindergarten teacher who disappeared mysteriously, has been re-united with her parents and taken home.  The police are still investigating the matter since they do not find Ms Calisch’s explanation of events creditable.



    1882: A mass meeting is scheduled to be held at the Academy of Music in Philadelphia during which the attendees will express their outrage at the treatment of Russian Jews by the Czarist government.  The multi-denominational array of speakers will be expressing their sympathy with the plight of the refugees, some of whom have just arrived in the City of Brotherly Love.



    1882: It was reported today that John W. Foster will be deliver a lecture on “The Czar and His People” before the Young Men’s Hebrew Association in Chickering Hall.  The New York event will be a benefit for Jewish refugees who have fled persecution in Russia.



    1882: A Purim celebration for the Temple Beth-El Sunday School students was held at the Terrace Garden this afternoon in New York City.



    1882: The Young Men’s Association of Temple Beth-El sponsored a grand ball in Terrace Garden.  This Purim celebration was organized by Nathan Ullman, Louis Lowenfels and Samuel Eiseman.



    1884: Birthdate of Else Feldman, the native of Leopoldstadt (Austria) who overcame poverty to become a leading socialist author and writer which did not keep the Nazis from murdering her Sobibor.



    1885: Birthdate of Princess Alice of Battenberg, the mother-in-law of Queen Elizabeth II, who personally saved Rachel Cohen and two of her children from the Nazi death camps.



    1887: Relief expedition to rescue the apostate Jew turned Ottoman official Emin Pasha, under the command of Henry M. Stanley, left Zanzibar for its next stop, Banana at the mouth of the Congo River.



    1888: Birthdate of John Foster Dulles, Eisenhower’s Secretary of State from 1953 through 1959.  No, Dulles was not Jewish. But this patrician Cold Warrior did play a major role in American Israeli relations and his effect was less than positive.  He sided with the Soviets in their support of Nasser during the Suez crisis of 1956.  He led the forces that put pressure on Israel to withdraw from the Sinai and Gaza leaving the terrorist bases in tact while propping up the Egyptian dictator.  Dulles and Eisenhower’s misguided action led to the development of the independent French nuclear capability and to the Six Day War in 1967.



    1890: Birthdate of Kilburn, London, native Julia Myra Hess the accomplished concert pianist remembered by many as the artist who “gave almost 2,000 lunchtime concert” during the six years of WW II – a performance time brought about by the wartime blackout and the need for moral building activities.
    https://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/paintings/history/myra-hess-concerts/myra-remembered



    1891: Charles W. Foster began serving as U.S. Secretary of the Treasury, a position which gave him considerable control over the increasing influx of Jews from Russia and Poland; a fact that would be duly noted later in appeals made to him by leaders of the American Jewish Committee.



    1892: “No Mercy For the Jews” published today provided a detailed account of the report prepared by Colonel John B. Weber who had represented the 33rdDistrict of New York in the 49th and 50th Congresses and Dr. Walter Kempster on the “conditions and treatment of the Jewish subjects of the Czar.  The report which was prepared for the House Committee on Immigration, “sets forth calmly, dispassionately and with a careful regard to accuracy...a state of things unheard of in modern times.” 



    1893: In Newark, NJ, “Max Bornestien, a Polish Jews…has retained counsel in a suit for damages alleging that the defendants, three constables “brought pork sausage into his house and ate them therein” defiling his property in such a manner “that he can no longer make use of it.”



    1894: In Philadelphia, PA, a non-sectarian memorial service in memory of the late George W. Childs was held at Keneseth Israel.



    1894: It was reported today that a member of the Women’s Literary Club of Baltimore has contributed a paper on the “The Booth” the famous family of 19thcentury thespians.  According to the paper, they were originally a Jewish family from Spain named “Cabana.”  When one of the ancestors settled in England he translated the family name into English and that back the family name – Booth



    1895: “Once Famous, Now Forgotten” published today described the life of Bernard Bauer, the Hungarian Jew who converted to Catholicism, where, as Father Maria Berhnard he became a popular preacher in France and the confessor of Empress.  This meant that he was following in the footsteps of Hermann Cohen, the Jewish pianist who converted and gained fame as Father Hermann.



    1897(23rdof Adar I, 5657): Sixty-two year old author and historian Michael Bernays passed away today.
    http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/3120-bernays-michael



    1898: A social event is scheduled to be held today to raise funds for Jewish hospital to be built in Brooklyn.  Currently there are no Jewish hospitals in Brooklyn and Robert Strahl, Sigmund Wechsler and Charles Levy are among those leading the drive to remedy this deficiency.



    1898(3rdof Adar, 5658): Before reaching his second birthday, Albert Weil, the son of Abraham and Berta Weil pass away today in Oppau.



    1899: It was reported today that the Junior Association of the Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews had participated in the annual Purim reception that had been held at the home on 106th Street.



    1899: Paul Julius von Reuter founder of the news agency Reuters passed away.  Reuter was born in 1816 and his name was Israel Beer Josaphat.  He left his uncle's bank in the German town of Gottingeng and established what would become the world's greatest wire service in 1848. No Kaddish was said since he had converted and became a Lutheran in 1845 after having moved to London.



    1901: Birthdate of Zeppo Marx, one of the famous Marx Brothers



    1902: In South Carolina Rabbi B.A. Elzas officiated at the marriage of James Dundas and Rebecca Bowman



    1903: Dr. Kaufmann Kohler, the senior Rabbi at New York’s Temple Beth-El has been asked to serve as President of the Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati, the first and until recently, when a conservative seminary was established in New York, the only college in America designed for the education of Rabbis.



    1903: “Zionist committees set out today to investigate the feasibility of a British proposal to have Jews colonize El-Arish” which is located on the Mediterranean coast of the Sinai Peninsula.  



    1903: Herzl receives a telegram from the commission in El Arish: "Vicinity has made a favorable impression."



    1906: In New York, today’s annual meeting of the Independent Order of Free Sons Israel included a business meeting followed by a dinner at the Harlem Casino where School Commissioner M.S. Stern and Coroner Julius Harburger were the principal speakers.



    1906: In “Why France Sought Separation of Church and State” published today Yvest Guyot traced attempts by the Catholic Church to gain unique total power from the Napoleonic era, including the importation “of anti-Semitism from Austria” which was intend to purge Army of non-Catholics starting with the Jews, followed by Protestants and Freemasons.”



    1907: Birthdate of actor Shimen Rushkin.  Born in Poland, he gained famed in America in televisions and a variety of films including Fiddler on the Roofand the original version of The Producers.  He passed away in 1967.



    1908: Continued massacres in Setatt drive Jews to Casablanca for safety. During this period the Jewish population of all Morocco is somewhere between 100,000 and 150,000.



    1912(7thof Adar I, 5672): Eighty-one year old Rabbi Nachum Paltiel Bromson passed away today in Baltimore, MD.



    1913: “Reciprocity Day” Echoes of the Bicentennial Meeting of the Union of America is scheduled to be the topic at today’s  regular meeting of the K.A.M. Auxiliary  in Chicago.



    1913: Birthdate of Herman L. “Reds” Bassman, the native of Philadelphia who ran track, wrestled and played football for Ursinus before playing professionally for the Philadelphia Eagles.
    http://www.profootballarchives.com/bass02000.html



    https://web.archive.org/web/20150430215549/http://articles.philly.com/2010-08-05/sports/24971315_1_ursinus-virginia-75th-anniversary



    1913(18thof Adar I, 5673): Forty-nine year old Boston merchant Maurice Newman passed away today.



    1914: BirthdateMuriel Kallis Steinberg Newman, whose donation of artworks by the likes of Jackson Pollock, Willem de Kooning, Robert Motherwell and Alexander Calder greatly bolstered the Metropolitan Museum of Art’s standing as an exhibitor of modern art. Muriel Kallis was on the only child of Maurice and Ada Nudelman Kallis. Her father was an engineer. As a child she studied at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago; she later took art courses at the University of Chicago. Mrs. Newman did not turn her back on her hometown; according to The Chicago Tribune, she donated more than 170 works to the School of the Art Institute. As an aspiring artist in her early years, Mrs. Newman became a denizen of New York’s artistic haunts, befriending noted Abstract Expressionists like de Kooning, Pollock, Motherwell, Mark Rothko and Franz Kline. By the late 1940s, while married to a successful businessman, Jay Z. Steinberg, she began acquiring works by those rising stars, paying, for example, $2,700 for a de Kooning canvas and $3,000 for a Pollock. Mr. Steinberg died in 1954, and a year later Mrs. Newman married Albert Hardy Newman, another successful businessman. The walls of their Chicago apartment were resplendent with her growing collection. In 1980, to the consternation of art institutions in her native Chicago, Mrs. Newman bequeathed her collection to the Metropolitan in New York.



    Asked why, she said at the time: “I’m so involved with New York, and besides, the artists I knew loved the Met, particularly Franz Kline, who used to go there and study Ingres by the hour. I find the idea that their work should hang there now rather touching.” Eventually Mrs. Newman decided not to complete the gift before her death. In 2004 Gary Tinterow, the Met’s curator of 19th-century, modern and contemporary art, received a surprise call from Mrs. Newman, asking that he start planning the transfer. “I’m about to turn 93,” she told The New York Times last year, “and I think now is a great time to do it.” Mr. Tinterow said that Mrs. Newman’s donation “created, with one fell swoop, an extraordinary representation of postwar American Abstract Expressionism.”



    The collection of more than 70 works includes the 5-foot-by-9-foot “Number 28,” one of the great canvases of Pollock’s classic period; de Kooning’s “Attic”; Motherwell’s “Elegy to the Spanish Republic No. 35”; a Calder mobile, “Four Directions”; “Mecca,” a painting by Hans Hofmann; and an abstract version of Kline’s portrait of the dancer Vaslav Nijinsky. It also includes 30 examples of primitive art from Oceania, the Americas and Africa, among them a phallic house post from the Dogon people of Mali. Estimated to be worth $12 million to $15 million when first bequeathed in 1980, the collection is now valued in the hundreds of millions. “Mrs. Newman’s collection remains paramount in its quality, having been acquired by her soon after most of the works were made,” Mr. Tinterow said. “She had this extraordinary insight into the importance of this radical new style of art, and she acted upon it, seeking out the best examples of the best artists.” Mrs. Newman’s second husband died in 1988. Her son from her first marriage, Glenn Steinberg, died in 2004. Besides her grandson Peter, of Manhattan, she is survived by four other grandchildren and 10 great-grandchildren. Speaking of her kinship with the great Abstract Expressionists, she told The Times in 1980, “I knew them well and loved their work.” She added: “At first I began to hang my own things next to them, but I soon realized I wasn’t making much of a statement. I really am not at heart a collector. I’m a failed artist — there’s no other way to describe it.” She died in Chicago, her hometown at the age of 94.



    1915: “The Supreme Court of the United States today heard” Louis Marshall “head counsel for Leo Frank…on his appeal from the denial by the Federal District Court of Georgia of his petition for a writ of habeas corpus.”



    1916: “Tales of Hoffman” a silent film directed by Richard Oswald was released in Germany today.



    1916: Simon Wolf wrote to Rabb C.H. Rubenstein of Baltimore, MD, expressing his appreciation for the role he has played in opposing measures to allow the reading of the Bible in Maryland public schools and and asking to be kept informed of the next steps he plans on taking.



    1916: Based on reports published today, that 35,000 Jews living in Palestine including those at settlement started by Wolf Gluskin, are “in dire straits” because, among other things, “the wine industry which” had been developed “before Turkey entered” the World War “had been destroyed.”



    1917: A list of the accomplishments of Rabbi Henry Pereira Menes published today included helping to found The American Hebrew, initiating the movement to found the Montefiore Home for Chronic Invalids and the School for Crippled Jewish Children and helping to found the Jewish Theological Seminary.



    1917: Among the contributions acknowledged today by the American Jewish Relief Committee included $200 from the Jewish Women of East Chicago, $100 from the United Hebrew Organization of South Bend, Indiana and $500 from the Committee in Council Bluffs, Iowa.



    1917: Dr. Samuel Schulman is scheduled to deliver an address on “The Jew’s Service to the World” at Temple Beth-El.



    1917: At Temple Emanu-El, Dr. Silverman is scheduled to speak on “What the Hew Jews Should Know about Jews and Judaism: the Patriotism of the Jews.”



    1917: At Carnegie Hall, Dr. Wise is scheduled to deliver a sermon to the Free Synagogue entitled “Marriage Ideals, True and False.”



    1918: Today “a dispatch appeared in the daily newspapers to the effect that the Italian Government had notified its Ambassadors that it approved of the stand on Palestine taken by the Allies” making this “the first authorized announcement by the Italian Government to the Zionist organization.”



    1919: The funeral for the Abraham Jesse Dittenhoefer, the native South Carolinian who was the last living elector to have voted for Lincoln in 1864, will be held at his home this morning at ten o’clock.



    1919: Birthdate of Brooklyn born cellist Fred Katz.



    1920: In Germany, the Nazi party endorsed its own platform consisting of twenty-five points. Seven of these points concerned the Jews.



    1920: Twenty-one year old Parisian native Benny Valgar “won the Featherweight Boxing Championship of the World today.



    1921: Greek authorities expropriate the old Jewish cemetery in Smyrna.



    1923: Birthdate of Viennese native Jacob Taubes who taught Jewish studies at Harvard, Columbia, Princeton and the Free University of Berlin who was the husband of author Susan Tabes with whom he had two children -  Ethan and Tania.
    https://jewishreviewofbooks.com/articles/2672/i-am-impossible-an-exchange-between-jacob-taubes-and-arthur-a-cohen/



    1923: The price of bread rose to 2,000 marks in Berlin.  This hyper-inflation wiped people’s life savings and destroyed the basic faith of the middle class in many of the existing political and social institutions.  It laid the groundwork for the rise of political extremism that would make the Communists and the Nazis the dominant political forces in the 1930’s.



    1923: In “Palestine Relief Work Extended,” published todayDoctor Isaac M. Rubinow, the director of the Hadassah Medical Organization describes the positive changes that the work of the Hadassah doctors and nurses has had on the citizens of Palestine including Jews, Arabs, Moslems and Christians.  When Dr. Rubinow went to Israel in 1919 the unit consisted of 43 nurses and doctors.  Today four hundred medical personnel sponsored by Hadassah support five major hospitals and several field hospitals.  As a sign as of its commitment to “heal the wounds of prejudice” all Hadassah hospitals and clinics are open to Moslems and Christians as well as Jews.  To ensure equality of treatment, the staff members do not maintain a private practice and there are no private rooms in the medical facilities.  Everybody is treated in a democratic fashion on modern hospital wards.  The Hadassah Medical Organization has established a modern infant welfare plan under the management of pediatricians at Rothschild Hospital in Jerusalem and a department of school hygiene “which has saved thousands of children from blindness and other ailments by regular examination for and treatment of trachoma and various forms of skin diseases.”



    1925: In Camden, NJ, Congregation Beth-El and the Council of Jewish Women hosted its Fourth Annual Ball.



    1926: New York Mayor James J. Walker received the advance delegates of Europe’s champion soccer team whose creation “was the direct result of the formation of the Hakoah organization in Austria fourteen years ago and that Hakoah had been created because of a realization of the need for building up the physical health of the Jews in Europe.”



    1926: The Student’s Union gave as the reason for its strike which began today as being “the authorities’ refusal to meet its repeated demand for limiting the number of Jewish students admitted to the university.



    1926: Three hundred guests attended “the Hundred-Dollar-Dinner of the Washington Heights United Palestine Appeal held tonight at the Hotel Astor” in New York City.



    1926: “The country home of Milton F. Untermeyer, a member of the brokerage firm of Henry Henck and Company situated on the top of a mountain about five miles from Butler, NJ, was struck by lightning tonight and destroyed by fire.”



    1926: Henry Hurwitz, the editor of The Menorah Journal was the principal speaker at “the third of a series of ‘plain-talk’ dinners tonight at the Aldine Club.



    1926: Among those reported today to have recently met with President Coolidge are Jacob Rosenheim, the President of Agudath Israel, Dr. Leo Jung, the rabbi of the Jewish Centre in New York and New York state legislator Samuel H. Hofstadter.



    1927: “Maccabi Tel Aviv defeated Hapoel-Allenby in the first Soccer Derby in Tel Aviv” today. (As reported by Al Wechsler)



    1928: In New York City, Dr and Mrs. Henry Stern gave birth to Richard Gustave Stern, the best American author of whom you have never heard…” (As reported by Bruce Weber)



    1928: Birthdate of Larry Gelbart, television producer responsible for the hit show “MASH.”



    1928: Birthdate of Shlomo Kalo, a native of Bulgaria who survived the Holocaust and made Aliyah in 1949.  He gained fame as a microbiologist as well as a poet and an author of works of fictions and non-fiction.



    1932: Adolf Hitler who had been born in Austria and whose Germanic connection was ethnic rather than political until he joined the Kaiser’s army in 1914 officially became a German citizen.



    1932: Premiere of “Behind the Mask” produced by Harry Cohn.



    1932: In Brooklyn, Harold Spitzer and the former Gertrude Schwartz gave birth to Lincoln High graduate and Army veteran Elton Leopold Spitzer who created the “broadcasting phenomenon at WLIR.”
    https://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/25/business/media/elton-spitzer-84-who-helped-turnwlir-into-a-radiodestinationdies.html?hpw&rref=obituaries&action=click&pgtype=Homepage&module=well-region&region=bottom-well&WT.nav=bottom-well&_r=0



    1933: The Literary Digest, the magazine that would go out of business after picking Alf Landon to win the election in 1936, published “Israel’s Alarm at Hitler’s Rise.”
    http://www.oldmagazinearticles.com/Jewish_reaction_to_the_rise_of_ADOLF_HITLER_pdf



    1934: Birthdate of Meir Har-Zion a sabra who “was an Israeli military commando” and “a key member of Unit 101.”



    1934: In London, two second-generation Jewish immigrants from Poland gave birth to 6’7” British actor Bernard Bresslaw.
    http://www.independent.co.uk/news/people/obituary-bernard-bresslaw-1491593.html
    http://www.televisionheaven.co.uk/bernard_bresslaw.htm



    1935:  Birthdate of Sally Lowenthal, better known to most Americans as talk show hostess Sally Jesse Raphael.



    1936: In Brooklyn, Max and Marion (Smith) Reinsdorf gave birth tax attorney turned sports mogul (Chicago Bulls and Chicago White Sox) Jerry M. Reinsdorf.



    1936: Messages from David Lloyd George, the former British Prime Minister, English philanthropist Simon Marks and Leopold Amery, the former British Secretary of State for the Colonies, “congratulating the Palestine Foundation Fund on its fifteenth anniversary were made public” in New York today.



    1936: In Magdeburg, Germany, “three Jewish employees of the Barasch Department Store were sentenced to four years, one year and give months imprisonment, respectively, on charges of immorality” that had been brought salesgirls or members of their families.



    1936: Rose Pesotta joined the Goodyear Rubber workers' sit-in as an organizer of the strike which temporarily closed the largest tire factory in the world.
    http://jwa.org/thisweek/feb/25/1936/rose-pesotta



    1937(14thof Adar, 5697): Purim



    1937: Children in Herrlingen, Germany dressed in Bedouin costumes as part of the Purim celebration.
    http://www.yadvashem.org/yv/en/exhibitions/this_month/march/02.asp



    1937: In London, Winston Churchill met Emery Reves for the first time. Reeves was a Hungarian born Jew whose birth name was Imre Rvesz who had become a leading literary agent for European democratic leaders, a role he would soon assume for Churchill.



     1938: The Palestine Post reported that The Times of London criticized, in its leading article, the delay shown by the Colonial Office in appointing a new technical commission which would advise how to implement the proposed by the Royal (Peel) Commission and the League of Nations partition of Palestine. 



    1939(6thof Adar, 5699): Parashat Terumah



    1939: Rabbi Samuel H. Goldenson is scheduled to deliver a sermon on “Is There Anything Sacred to the Modern Mind” today at Temple Emanuel.



    1939: Rabbi Jonah B. Wise is scheduled to deliver a sermon on “The Gift of Faith” at the Central Synagogue on Lexington Avenue.



    1939: Rabbi Louis I. Newman is scheduled to deliver a sermon on “We Are All Semites Spiritually” this morning at Temple Rodeph Sholom.



    1939: Rabbi William F Rosenblum is scheduled to deliver a sermon on American Jews Have a Right to Be Proud” this morning at Temple Israel.



    1939: Rabbi Nathan Stern is scheduled to deliver a sermon on “Facing Life’s Sanctuaries” at West End Synagogue today.



    1939: Rabbi Alexander Segel is scheduled to deliver a sermon on “The Treasures in the Sanctuary” at Fort Washington Synagogue today.



    1939: Rabbi Harold Mashioff is scheduled to deliver a sermon “If This Be Freedom of Speech” at the Temple of the Covenant.



    1939: Heinrich Himmler reportedly issued a secret decree designed to get of Germany’s Jews by encouraging emigration. This report would seem to lack credibility given the impediments that the German government placed in the way of Jews leaving Nazi control.



    1939: U.S. premiere of “Wife, Husband and Friend’ a comedy directed by Gregory Ratoff, co-starring Binnie Barnes with music by Alfred Newman.



    1939: In Britain, the Picture Post published the first of two photo-journalist presentations that supported the call for Winston Churchill’s return to an active role in the Government.  Stefan Lorant was the editor and designer for the Picture Post was the moving force behind the article.  Lorant was a Hungarian born Jew who had worked in Germany before being imprisoned at Dachau in 1933.



    1941(28thof Shevat, 5701): Fifty seven year old New York Eton educated real estate manager and insurance agent Theodore Badman, the son of Herman and Rosa Frandenfelder Badman, the husband of Hortense Goldsmith and mother of Carl and Adolph Badman who had been a member of the Washington Lodge of B’nai B’rith and Free Sons of Israel passed away today.
    https://timesmachine.nytimes.com/timesmachine/1941/02/27/85453413.pdf



    1941: The 1941 February Strike (aka The Strike of February 1941) which was organized in the Netherlands as protest following pogroms that had taken place in Amsterdam’s Jewish neighborhoods began today



    1941: One thousand, six hundred Jews were deported from Gora Kalwaria to the Warsaw Ghetto.



    1942: For the second time this month, Reverend Chait of the Army Chaplaincy visited Isidore Newman who was in the hospital after having broken his leg while going through parachute training for SOE agents



    1945: Birthdate of Amram Mitzna “an Israeli politician and former general. He is the acting mayor of Yeruham, the former mayor of Haifa (1993–2003) and lead the Labour Party from 2002 to 2003.”



    1946: Three RAF installations were attacked in Palestine tonight resulting in damage valued at $2,000,000,000.  Fourteen planes were destroyed outright and another 8 planes were damaged so badly that they were beyond repair.



    1947: Birthdate of Gary Rosenblatt who has served as editor for the Baltimore Jewish Times, The Jewish News of Detroit, The Atlanta Jewish Times and The Jewish Week of New York



    1947: British Foreign Minister Bevin continues his anti-Semitic rhetoric attacking Zionism and defending theArabs who have been in Palestine “for 2,000 years.”



    1947: Birthdate of Buffalo native Anne Beatts, the comedy writer who converted to Judaism while a McGill University and “was the first female editor of National Lampoon magazine.



    1947: The SS President Warfield set sail from Baltimore, MD on a voyage which would sail her into the history books as The Exodus.



    1948: The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia takes control of government in Czechoslovakia and the period of the Third Republic ends.  The Communist seizure of power was a major step in the hardening of positions during the early days of the Cold War.  It galvanized pro-western forces in Europe to participate in what would become NATO.  It also helped internationalists (many of whom were Jewish) in the United States to overcome isolationist opposition America taking the lead in opposing Soviet imperialism.  For the Jews of Palestine who were already facing Arab attacks prior to the pending departure of the British, this turn of events was beneficial.  With the approval of their Soviet masters, the new Czech government would allow the shipment of surplus ME-109 aircraft that was stored in Czechoslovakia to Israel at the moment of the creation of the Jewish state.  In one of the great ironies of history, the first combat aircraft flown by Israeli pilots were former German fighter planes shipped from Communist Czechoslovakia.



    1949(26thof Shevat, 5709): Noted portrait painter Alfred Joseph Praga, a native of Liverpool born in 1861 and the husband of journalist Teresa Prager, “who revitalized the art of miniature painting in Britain” and “was one of the founders in 1895 of the Society of Miniaturists” passed away today.
    https://www.google.com/search?q=Alfred+Praga&biw=974&bih=590&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjGtrO_wI_LAhXJsIMKHZDWALIQsAQIJQ#imgrc=32_z3AbTQJRr9M%3A



    1950: "Your Show of Shows" with Sid Caesar and Imogene Coca premiered on NBC. Writers included Mel Brooks, Neil Simon and Woody Allen. This was an early hour long variety - primarily comedy - show that dominated the airwaves in its weekend time slot.  And it was live when live meant live.  Yes, three of those mentioned above were Jewish.  But by now you have come to expect a connection between Jewish and Humor.



    1951: Pan American Games, during which Byron “Krieger won gold medals in team foil and team sabre and the team silver in épée” opened today in Buenos Aires.”



     1953: The Jerusalem Post reported that after Jordan asked Britain to intervene against what he called Israeli "aggression" and invoked the Jordanian-British pact of mutual assistance, the British government officially disclosed that it considered the possibility of stationing its armed forces on Jordanian territory.



    1953:The Jerusalem Post reported that Hevrat Ovdim (the Histadrut's General Cooperative Society), together with the Histadrut's pension funds and other organizations, mobilized funds for the construction of the first huge hotel and rest house in Eilat. Eilat is Israel's southern port.  Early on, the Israelis sought to make it a tourist haven as well as a port that would be a gateway to Africa and Asia.  The blockade of Eilat by the Egyptians in 1967 was the official act of war that provided the justification under international law for what would become the Six Days War.



    1954: Nasser became Egyptian premier. The “man behind the throne” who had masterminded the downfall of the Egyptian monarchy now took center stage and took his country down a road to repeated war with Israel as well as doom and disgrace.



    1955(3rdof Adar I, 5715): Sixty year old  Cornell and Brooklyn Law School alum Solomon Abelow who served as state commander of the Jewish War Veterans passed away today after which he was buried at Mt. Hebron Cemetery in Queens.



    1955(3rdof Adar I, 5715): Arab terrorists, one of whom “was found to be in possession of documents linking him to Egyptian military intelligence” murdered an Israeli civilian in Rehovot.



    1956: Nikita Khrushchev delivered a “secret speech” at the Twentieth Communist Party in which he denounced Stalin and his “cult of personality” – a denunciation that would lead to the posthumous rehabilitation of the victims of past purges many of whom were Jewish.



    1957(24th of Adar I, 5717): Mark Aldanov, aka Mark A Landau, Russian born author and chemist passed away at the age of 70.



    1957(24th of Adar I, 5717): B. P. Schulberg passed away. Born Percival Schulberg in Bridgeport, Connecticut, in 1892, he took the name Benjamin from the boy in front of him when registering for school to avoid mockery for his British name. He worked in the fledgling film industry in New York City until 1919 when he moved to Hollywood, California where he operated "Preferred Pictures" and was responsible for making Clara Bow a star. He joined Louis B. Mayer to form "Mayer-Schulberg Studio" but after Mayer became part of MGM, Schulberg would join with Adolph Zukor and became the head of Paramount Pictures. In an era when the film industry was filled with conservative studio executives, B.P. Schulberg was a "New Deal" liberal, described by Moving Pictures magazine as "a political liberal in the reactionary world of Mayer and Hearst." His wife Adeline Jaffe-Schulberg founded a talent agency taken over by her brother, producer/talent agent Sam Jaffe. She spent little time with Hollywood society women, instead working for charities that aided the poor and promoting socialism. She subsequently had a literary agency in New York. They were the parents of renowned novelist and screenwriter, Budd Schulberg, producer Stuart Schulberg, and writer Sonya Schulberg O'Sullivan.In a power struggle at Paramount, Schulberg left the studio in 1937 and remained out of the business until 1940 when he began producing for Columbia Pictures. He produced six films for Columbia in three years until he retired in 1943.



    1960: Lillian Hellman's "Toys in the Attic" premiered in New York City.



    1963: “The Barbra Streisand Album,” “the debut album by Barbra Streisand was released today on Columbia Recoreds.



    1963(1st of Adar, 5723): Melville J. Heskovits passed away. The American born anthropologist established African and African American studies in American academia. Herskovits's controversial classic The Myth of the Negro Past is about African cultural influences on American blacks. He also helped forge the concept of cultural relativism, particularly in his book Man and His Works.



    1965:  On New York’s Upper East Side, Jane and Gerald Finerman gave birth to Karen Lisa Finerman, the sister of Wendy, Leslie, Stacey and Mark Finerman and the wife of private equity manager Lawrence Golub, who was the “co-founder and President of Metropolitan Capital Advisors, INC as well as a panelist on “Fast Money.”



    1967: Birthdate of Jonathan Saul Freedland “a British journalist, who writes a weekly column for The Guardian and a monthly piece for the Jewish Chronicle. Freedland has previously written for The Daily Mirror and as of September 2005, he writes each Thursday for the London Evening Standard. He is the son of Michael Freedland, the biographer and journalist.



    1965(23rdof Adar I, 5725): Eighty-year old Russian born pianist Leo Sirota who settled in Japan in 1929 where he lived for 15 years before moving to the United States where he taught and performed passed away today.



    1967: “Enter Laughing” a comedy directed and co-produced by Carl Reiner “based on his autobiographical novel and the stage play of the same name” with a screenplay by Carl Reiner and Joseph Stein and co-starring Shelley Winter, Elaine May, Jack Gilford, Janet Margolin, David Opatoshu and Don Rickles was released in the United States today.



    1969: One person was injured during a bombing at the British consulate in East Jerusalem.



    1969: “Does a Tiger Wear a Necktie?” produced by Philip Rose opened at the Belasco Theatre.



    1970(19th of Adar I, 5730): Latvian born American painter and print maker Mark Rothko born Marcus Rothkowitz passed away whose unusual work. includes the 1961 painting “Blue, Orange, Red.”



    1971: Part One of a two part production of Clifford Odette’s “Paradise Lost,” co-starring Eli Wallach was broadcast for the first time on American Public Television.



    1972: Birthdate of Argentine attorney and activist Myriam Bregam who was elected as a national deputy in 2015 as a member of the Workers’ Left Front.



    1973: Steven Sondheim's musical "Little Night Music" premiered at the Shubert Theater in New York NY for the first of its 601 performances.



    1974(3rdof Adar, 5734): Seventy-nine year old Lothar Mendes “the German born screenwriter and film director who moved to the Hollywood in 1926 and is best known as the director of Jew Süss, the British film adaptation of the novel by Lion Feuchtwanger which is not to be confused with the viciously anti-Semitic film made by the Nazis.



    1975(14thof Purim, 5735): Purim



    1976: BBC2 broadcast the last episode of “The Glittering Prizes” a drama series written by Frederic Raphael.



    1977(7thof Adar, 5737): Eighty year old producer Joseph Hyman, who collaborated with Moss Hart to create several successful Broadway plays passed away today.
    https://www.nytimes.com/1977/02/27/archives/joseph-hyman-80-producer-is-dead-worked-with-bernard-and-moss-hart.html



    1980: The first episode of the British sitcom “Yes Minister” created by Jonathan Lynn was broadcast today.



    1982: Today “Labor Party chairman Shimon Peres today rejected Premier Menachem Begin’s latest offer to form a national unity government.”



    1983: Birthdate of “French-Israeli journalist” Jonathan-Simon Sellem.



    1986:  Birthdate of actor Justin Berfeld who plays Reese on “Malcolm in the Middle.”



    1988(7thof Adar, 5748): Eighty year old William G. Braude who has served as a rabbi for 40 years at Congregation Sons of Israel and David, Temple Beth-El in Providence, R.I., passed away today. A native of Lithuania, he came to the United States in 1920 where he earned degrees from the University of Cincinnati and Hebrew Union College. He also taught at Yale, Brown, Hebrew University and Leo Baeck College in London.
    http://www.fold3.com/page/3884072_william_g_braude/



    1988: Eighty-four year old Kurt Mahler, the German Mathematician who met Kurt Hirsch while in a British internment camp for “enemy aliens” (a strange appellation for somebody who had fled the Nazis) and eventually settled in Australia where he passed away today.



    1988: Secretary of State George Schultz arrived in Israel today on the first of four day mission to the Middle East designed to explore reaction to recent American peace proposal. Shultz called on Israel to make ''decisions of historic proportions'' to help change the status quo in the Middle East when greeted by Foreign Minister Shimon Peres who responded by saying that this is ''a most demanding period of our life, facing probably the most complicated issue of the day.''



    1990: In “Cafritz v. Cafritz” published today, Marjorie Williams described the attempt of two sons of the late Gwendolyn Cafritz to have her will overturned.
    https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/lifestyle/magazine/1990/02/25/cafritz-v-cafritz/9f486a14-9672-4802-802e-0e470a9f1507/?utm_term=.edf7eee05775



    1991: The barrage of Iraqi scud attacks that began on January 18th came to an end today.  During that period 39 missiles were fired into Israel.



    1994(14thof Adar, 5754): Purim



    1994 (14th of Adar, 5754): Eighty- year old Sam Eisenstadt was assaulted with an axe while walking in the center of Kfar Saba. Sam died of his wounds shortly afterwards.



    1994: In one of the most shameful acts committed by a Jew, American-born Baruch Goldstein opened fire inside the Tomb of the Patriarchs in the West Bank, killing 29 Muslims before he was beaten to death by worshippers. 



    1996(5thof Adar I, 5756): One person died in the bombing of the Ashkelon bus station for which Hamas claimed responsibility.



    1996(5thof Adar I, 5756): Seventeen civilians and nine soldiers were murdered and forty-eight people were injured when a Palestinian terrorist set off a bomb “on a No.18 bus traveling down Jaffa Road near the Jerusalem Central Bus Station.”



    1999: The Reuters News Agency commemorated the 100th anniversary of the death of its founder, Paul Julius Reuter, by launching a university award in Germany.



    1999: Eighty-eight year old Margaret Meagher, who when was appointed to be Canada’s ambassador to Israel in 1958 became the first Canadian woman to reach that diplomatic rank.



    1999: Disney named Bob Iger president of Walt Disney International, the business unit that oversees Disney's international operations, as well as chairman of the ABC Group. Disney called the change a promotion for Iger. But the company's insistence was initially viewed with skepticism, as some thought Iger was merely being removed from day-to-day authority at ABC since ABC had been struggling.



    2000: The European Indoor Championships during which Aleksandr Averbukh placed first in the Pole vault opened today in Ghent, Belgium.



    2000: Hilary Koprowski, a Polish Jew, was honored with a reception at Philadelphia's Thomas Jefferson University celebrating the 50th anniversary of the first administration of his oral polio vaccine. At the reception, he received commendations from the United States Senate, the Pennsylvania Senate and Governor Tom Ridge.



    2001(2ndof Adar, 5761): Ninety-five year old Lithuanian born and education American philanthropist Jacob “Jack” Hiatt , the son of Joshua and Leah Hiatt who died in the Holocuast, the husband of Francis Hiatt with whom he had two children Myra and Janice and the father-in-law of Patriot’s owner Robert Kraft passed away today.
    https://www.holycross.edu/departments/publicaffairs/hcm/spring01/in_memoriam/mem-spr01-hiatt.html



    2002(13thof Adar I, 5762): Sixty-five year old Avraham Fish and forty-six year old Aharon Gorov were murdered by members of Fatah outside of Tekoa.



    2005(16thof Adar I, 5765):Yael Orbach, 28, of Rehovot, Yitzhak (Itzik) Buzaglo, 40, of Mishmar HaYarden, Aryeh (Arik) Nagar, 37, of Kfar Saba,Ronen Reuvenov, 30, of Tel Aviv and Odelia Hubara, 26, of Jerusalem were murdered today and fifty more people were injured when a Palestinian terrorist detonated a bomb “at the entrance to "Stage", a popular Tel Aviv nightclub, on the corner of Herbert Samuel and Yonah Hanavi streets, opposite the Israeli beachfront.”



    2006(27thof Shevat, 5766): Parashat Mishaptim and Shabbat Shekalim



    2006(27thof Shevat, 5766): Graphic artist Sally Fox passed away today.
    https://jwa.org/thisweek/feb/26/2006/this-week-in-history-death-of-artist-and-photograph-editor-sally-fox
    http://oasis.lib.harvard.edu/oasis/deliver/~sch01175



    2006: Tens of thousands of people marched through Paris in memory of Ilan Halimi, who was kidnapped, tortured and killed two weeks ago in an attack that authorities say was partly motivated by anti-Semitism.



    2006: American cellist Yo-Yo Ma, a group of four journalists and a pair of U.S. cancer researchers have each won $1 million Dan David awards



    2007: In Amsterdam, an exhibition styled “Looted, But from Whom?,” an exhibition about art objects which were either acquired by forced sale or stolen from their Jewish owners by the Nazis during the Second World War, closed.



    2007: Yaakov Edri “was appointed be responsible for Israel’s sixtieth anniversary celebrations.



     2007: Yaakov Edri “was questioned under caution on suspicion of having tried to receive personal benefits in return for promoting a police commander, Ya'akov Zigdon, whilst he was Deputy Minister of Internal Security” and denied the charges.



    2007: The Sunday New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Bambi vs. GodzillaOn the Nature, Purpose, and Practice of the Movie Business by David Mamet, George Gershwin His Life and Work by Howard Pollack and Overture by Yael Goldstein.



    2007: Corresponds to the 7th day of Adar which “traditionally marks the birth and the death of Moses.  This is a minor fast date “observed by members of Jewish burial societies to atone for any acts of disrespect which they may unwittingly have committed toward the dead.”



    2008: In New York City, the 92nd Street Y presents “Life is a Cabaret: A Tribute to Fred Ebb” highlighting the decades long collaboration between Jewish lyricist Fred Ebb and composer John Kander that produced such works as Cabaret, Zorba, Chicago, Woman of the Year, Kiss of the Spider Woman and Curtains



    2008: Newsweekreported on the financial loss suffered by the New England Patriots owner, Jewish businessman Robert Kraft, as a result of the Pats failure to have a perfect 19-0 season.  Anticipating a Super Bowl victory, Kraft had applied for trademarks to use phrases such as “19-0” and Perfect Season” on a litany of gear including greeting cards, jigsaw puzzles, kites and temporary tattoos.  The trademarks are worthless and sale of the merchandize never materialized.



    2008: Timereported on the recent death of 14 term California Congressman Tom Lantos the only Holocaust survivor to serve in the U.S. Congress.  Lantos was sixteen when the Nazis occupied his native Hungary where he escaped the death camps and fought against the Nazis.



    2009: In New York, famed Italian performer Moni Ovadiahis presents a performance “Kavanah” (intention and participation through a chant), a reflection on the Hebraic liturgical tradition and its complex maze of meanings and sources.



    2009: Another stage of “Le Bœuf sur le toit, Op. 58 (English title, The Ox on the Roof: The Nothing-Doing Bar) a surrealist ballet made on a score composed by Darius Milhaud” took place today “as part of the Montreal Highlights Festival.



    2009: A fresh exhibition in New York that has put a spotlight on postcards used during and after the turn of the 20th century meant to depict important aspects of Jewish life comes to a close



    2009: Rosh Chodesh Adar 5769



    2009: Two Kassam rockets were fired across the Gaza border into Israel today. One of the rockets fired from Gaza hit an agricultural area near a kibbutz in the Sha'ar Hanegev region, and rescue services were yet to find the second rocket.



    2009: A British bishop whose denial of the Holocaust led Argentina to order him out of that country returned to England today. Richard Williamson, a bishop with the conservative Society of St. Pius X, was told to leave Argentina or face expulsion amid criticism over a television interview in which he said no Jews were gassed during the Holocaust. The controversial bishop had been excommunicated 20 years ago, but Pope Benedict XVI last month lifted the excommunication decree on Williamson and three other bishops.



    2010: During a hearing of the House Foreign Affairs Committee held today, Illinois Rep. Don Manzullo, a Republican, asked Secretary of State Hillary Clinton to intervene on behalf of a gefilte fish factory in his district. The factory, Schafer Fishery is located in Thomson, Illinois. Manzullo is concerned about several hundred jobs at the fishery in his district and he said Israel had imposed a 120-percent tax on nine containers of Asian carp that had been made into gefilte fish patties. Drawing laughs, Clinton said she was up to a job that “sounds to me like one of those issues that should rise to the highest levels of our government.” “If not, we’re going to have to figure out what to do with nine containers of it,” she said, prompting Rep. Howard Berman, chairman of the House committee, to quip that perhaps the fish would end up at the next state dinner. Fresh and processed foods are subject to tariffs under the trade agreement between the US and Israel. “Carp is not exempt from customs in the framework of the free trade agreement between Israel and the United States,” said Jonathan Peled, a spokesman for the Israeli Embassy in Washington. “Having said that, we are obviously looking into the request by Congressman Manzullo and are trying to see whether something can be done.” Peled said two containers of gefilte had already arrived at the port in Haifa.“I don’t think there’s a lack of gefilte fish either in Israel or in the United States regarding Pessah,” Peled said. Nonetheless, he said, “we’re seriously looking at this request by a member of Congress.”



    2010: As he arrived at Jerusalem District Court for the opening of his trial today Ehud Olmert became the first former prime minister in Israel's history to stand trial for alleged corruption.



    2010(11th of Adar, 5770): Fast of Esther



     2010(11thof Adar, 5770): “David Bankier, Professor of Holocaust History at the Institute of Contemporary Jewry, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, head of  the International Institute for Holocaust Research and holder of the John Najmann Chair at Yad Vashem passed away” today.
    http://www.yadvashem.org/yv/en/about/institute/studies/issues/38-1/michman.pdf



    2010(11thof Adar, 5770): Eighty one Irish jurist Henry Barron who served as a justice on the Irish Supreme Court from 1997 until 2000 passed away today.
    http://www.irishtimes.com/life-and-style/people/respected-judge-who-led-bomb-inquiries-1.633921
    http://www.irishtimes.com/news/former-supreme-court-judge-dies-1.853881



    2010: “Andy Warhol's Ten Portraits of Jews of the Twentieth Century: In Retrospect” is scheduled to open at the Washington DCJCC.



    2010: Novelist, critic and broadcaster Howard Jacobson is scheduled to appear at the Washington DCJCC.



    2010(11th of Adar, 5770): Ninety-two year old Eugene L. Moore, a past commander of the Department of Florida Jewish War Veterans, passed in Boynton Beach, Florida.
    http://www.legacy.com/obituaries/palmbeachpost/obituary.aspx?n=eugene-l-moore&pid=148892651&fhid=5124



    2010(11th of Adar, 5770): Herta Herzog-Massing, “Austrian-American social scientist specializing in communication studies,” passed away



    2011(21stof Adar I, 5771): Ninety-two year old Eugene Moore, a past commander of the Department of Florida Jewish War Veterans passed away in Boynton Beach, FL.



    2011: Ahead of Time, “graceful portrait of the extraordinary life of 99-year-old American journalist and humanitarian Ruth Gruber whose efforts led to the rescue of 1,000 Jewish Holocaust refugees” and The Judge, a documentary featuring the former Chief Justice of Israel's Supreme Court, are scheduled to shown at the Atlanta Jewish Film Festival.



    2011: Today, the IDF instructed teachers to keep children from going outside to play in kindergartens located in towns near Gaza after two Grad rockets landed in Beersheba



    2012: “The Death of Klinghoffer” an American opera, that critics including the two daughters of the late Leon Klinghoffer have described as anti-Semitic and as glorifying terrorism was performed in London for the first time.



    2012: In London, Jonathan Safran Foer, Jeffery Goldberg and Maureen Kendler are scheduled to a new Haggadah edited by Foer and translated by Englander as part of Jewish Book Week.



    2012; “Jewish solders in Blue and Gray” is scheduled to be shown at Young Israel of Woodmere in Woodmere, NY.



    2012: “Making Trouble: Three Generations of Funny Jewish Women” is scheduled to be shown at B'nai Sholom Reform Congregation in Albany, NY.



    2012: HaOlam II, at the end of which the second official National Collegiate Jewish A Cappella will named, is scheduled to take place at Adas Israel in Washington, DC.



    2012: Indian intelligence services have considerable evidence that Iran was behind this month's New Delhi terrorist attack, but are not releasing it in a bid to avoid public confrontation with the Islamic republic, an Israeli security source says.



    2012: Hundreds gathered in front of Ministry of Interior offices in Tel Aviv today to protest the deportation of families whose petitions for residency permits were rejected.



    2013: The Leo Baeck Institute is scheduled to co-host “Arnold Bernstein and Gerd Bucerius,” a lecture and discussion on the relationship between shipping pioneer Arnold Bernstein and Gerd Bucerius, the lawyer and published who defended him against the Nazis.



    2013: Burglars broke into the home of an employee at the Prime Minister's Office today. Initial reports indicate a computer was taken from the house, which is located in Moshav Beit Yitzhak in the Sharon.. (As reported by Yaniv Kubovich)



    2013: Israel carried out a successful test of its upgraded Arrow III missile interceptor today. Defense sources said it was the first flight test of the advanced interceptor. (As reported by Gil Cohen)



    2014: Graham Spanier who was president of Penn St. during the “child sex scandal” “was granted a stay in his defamation lawsuit until his criminal case is resolved.”



    2014: Dr. Daniel Rynhold is scheduled to deliver a lecture “Rav Kook and the Heroism of the Holy” at the Skirball Center.



    2014: German Chancellor Angela Merkel is scheduled to complete her two day trip to Israel.



     2014: Kay Menchel is scheduled to lecture on “The Short Stories of Bernard Malmud” at the JCC of Northern Virginia.



    2014: Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu would neither confirm nor deny reports that the IAF had destroyed a shipment of weapons being sent from Syria to Hezbollah forces in Lebanon.



    2014: “Participants in programs that bring young Diaspora Jews to visit Israel should be allowed to extend their stay without proving they are Jewish enough to make aliyah, a Knesset committee recommended. (As reported by JTA)



    2014: The Center for Jewish History is scheduled to host “YIVO, Freud, and American Jewry: Discourse on Eastern Europe as a Talking Cure” for American Jewish Ambivalence” in which Marcus Krah explores how American Jews in the 1940s-50s used competing narratives of aspects of the East European Jewish past - from the shtetl, to pogroms, to Hasidism and Socialism - to find meaning in their American present.



    2015: On the heels of the terrorist attacks in Paris, The UK Jewish Film festival is scheduled to host a showing of “Cartoonists: Foot Soldiers of Democracy.”



    2015: Rosenwald is a 2015 documentary film directed by Aviva Kempner about the career of American businessman and philanthropist Julius Rosenwald debuted today at the Washington Jewish Film Festival



    2015: The Center for Jewish History is scheduled to host “Argentina and the Nisman Case: Why is it so Hard to Understand What Really Happened?”



    2015: Jewish Disability Advocacy Day
    http://blogs.rj.org/rac/2015/01/13/join-us-in-washington-for-jewish-disability-advocacy-day/



    2016: The Temple Emanu-El Skirball Center is scheduled to host a screening of “Footnote” followed by a discussion with director/screenwriter Joseph Cedar moderated by historian Eric Goldman.



    2016(16thof Adar I, 5776): Seventy-five year old “radical lawyer” William H. Schaap and the brother of sports broadcaster Dick Schaap passed away today.
    https://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/03/nyregion/william-h-schaap-radical-lawyer-author-and-publisher-dies-at-75.html?hpw&rref=obituaries&action=click&pgtype=Homepage&module=well-region&region=bottom-well&WT.nav=bottom-well



    2016(16thof Adar I, 5776): Ninety year old U.C.L.A. grad and developer of medical devices Alfred E. Mann passed away today.
    https://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/27/business/alfred-e-mann-pioneer-in-medical-devices-dies-at-90.html



    2016: “Yona” and “On the Banks of the Tigris: The Hidden Story of Iraqi Music” are scheduled to be shown at the Washington Jewish Film Festival.



    2017(29thof Shevat, 5777): Parashat Mishpatim; Shabbat Shekalim

    2017: The Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center is scheduled to present a “Survivor Talk” featuring Frankfurt native Frank Stern who survived Kristallnacht at the age of ten, following which lived in Switzerland and England before leaving from Southampton aboard an armed merchant bound for the United States in 1940.



    2017:Virginia Sen. Tim Kaine, Vermont Sen. Bernie Sanders, California Rep. Nancy Pelosi and chief Palestinian negotiator Saeb Erekat are some of the speakers scheduled to speak at the annual meeting of J Street opening today at the Washington Convention Center.



    2018: The Exhbition: Semi(te) Sweet: On Jews and Chocolate is scheduled to come to a close today.



    2018: A final closing reception celebrating Yiddish New York’s 2017 Visual Arts Exhibition is scheduled to take place today.



    2018: The Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center is scheduled to host a production of “We Are the White Rose” written and directed by “local teens” that tells the story of the German resistance movement.



    2018: In New Orleans, the JCC is scheduled to the community’s annual Purim Carnival.



    2018: In Iowa, Congregation Agudas Achim is scheduled to host its annual Purim Carnival



    2018: In Memphis, TN, Ti Chai and MEFTY are scheduled to present the Purim Carnival at Temple Israel.



     


     


     


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    February 26


    11 BCE: According to some sources, the day on which Herod dedicates the renovated Holy Temple in Jerusalem. According to Heinrich Graetz, the building project began in 20 BCE, the 18th year of Herod’s reign. A year and half later, (18 BCE) the inner part of the Temple was finished. It took another eight years to build the outer walls, courts and galleries. The dedicatory celebration took place on “the very anniversary of the day when twenty years previously, Herod, with blood stained hands, had made himself master of Jerusalem.”  Herod reportedly built this modernized version of the Second Temple because he loved to build things and because he was trying to show his Roman masters that he was the beloved ruler of his people.  Regardless, in one sense, Herod sealed the doom of the Temple and the Jewish people because he placed it under the protection of Rome.  What Rome protected Rome could destroy.


    364:  Valentinian I is proclaimed Roman Emperor. He was the last Emperor to rule the Empire alone.  A month later, he would appoint his brother Valens Emperor in the East, while he would rule over the Western portion of the Empire. Valentinian belonged to a minority sect called the Arians.  In an attempt to keep peace in the Empire, in 371 he issued a proclamation allowing Christians and Arians to practice their religious belief without incurring any “political disadvantage. This toleration was extended to the Jews.”


    1147: The Crusaders massacred the Jews of Wurtzburg; so much for all of those tales of knights and chivalry.


    1361: Birthdate of Wenceslaus IV who as Emperor failed to continue the Imperial protection of the Jews of Luxembourg led to their expulsion in 1391.


    1418: Emperor Sigsmund “issued commands to all the German princes and magistrates, cities and subjects, to allow” the Jews the full enjoyment of the privileges and immunities given them by the Pope who had denounced attacks on the persons and property of the Jews and the practice of forced conversion.


    1498: Isaac Abravanel completed "Mashmia' Yeshu'ah" (Proclaiming Salvation), one of three works “devoted to the exposition of the Jewish belief concerning the Messiah and the Messianic age.”


    1569: Pius V issued Hebraeorum gens, a papal bull that accused the Jews of a variety of evil deeds including the practice of magic.


    1569:  Pope Pius V ordered the eviction of all Jews from the Papal States (excluding Rome and Verona) who refuse to convert. Most of the approximately 1000 Jewish families decided to emigrate.


    1592: First performance of “The Jew Malta” by Lord Strange’s Men, an English theatrical group.


    1802 Birthdate of French man of letters Victor Hugo the “preeminent biblical poet among the French Romantics.” He eulogized Isaiah and Ezekiel in William Shakespeare (1864) and injected some basic knowledge of the Kabbalah (probably gained from his Jewish admirer, Alexandre Weill) into Les Contemplations (1856).


    1809: Birthdate of Rosanna Dyer Osterman, the native of Germany who married Joseph Osterman who worked in his business in Galveston until passed away at the age of 57 when a steamboat exploded near Vicksburg, MS.

    1814: In Holland, a law was enacted officially ending the French rule that had been overseen by Napoleon’s.  The Jews supported the new government under William I and the Netherlands proved to be a welcoming home for the Jewish population which thrived there throughout the rest of the 19th century.


    1825: Maryland removed the requirement of a Christian oath for public office, and substituted a declaration of belief in reward and punishment and the World to Come. This obviously made life in Maryland easier on its Jewish citizens. On the very last day of the session of the legislature an act "for the relief of the Jews in Maryland," which had already been passed by the Senate, was passed by the House of Delegates by a vote of twenty-six to twenty-five.  Only fifty-one out of eighty members were present for the vote.  The bill provided that "every citizen of this state professing the Jewish religion" who shall be appointed to any office of profit or trust shall, in addition to the required oaths, make and subscribe a declaration of his belief in a future state of rewards and punishments instead of the declaration now required by the government of the state.


    1825: Thirty-one year old Hannah Aarons who passed away yesterday was laid to rest today at the Brady Street Jewish Cemetery in London.


    1827: “Lady Georgiana Mary Walpole, a descendant of Robert Walpole, the first Prime Minister of Great Britain” married Joseph Wolff, the son of Rabbi David Wolff, who was baptized in 1812 and whose missionary travels and archaeological studies took him took him to the Sinai, Jerusalem and Aleppo as well a large part of Central Asia when began searching for the Ten Lost Tribes.


    1829:  In Bttenheim, Germany, “Hirsch Strauss and his second wife Rbecca” gave birth to Loeb Strauss who as Levi Strauss made the riveted blue denim trouser an icon of American fashion called “Levi’s”

    1830: Birthdate of Philip Bondi, the Bohemian born Rabbi who “in 1857 received his doctor's degree from the University of Prague and his rabbinical diploma from Aaron Kornfeld and Daniel Frank” and whose works included “a Bohemian translation of the Pentateuch.”
    1848: In the wake of revolutions that swept Europe, the Second French Republic comes into being.  The Republic last a mere four years when it was swept aside when Louis Napoleon (Bonaparte’s nephew) proclaimed the second empire.  Just prior to the birth of the Republic, the Jew’s Oath had been declared unconstitutional by the French courts.  This opened the way to further participation of the Jews in the general world of French business, society and culture.


    1851: In Charleston, SC, Samuel Samson married Abigail Goldsmith, the second daughter of Morris Goldsmith.


    1851: Philadelphian Washington H. Nones was promoted from Third Assistant Engineer to Second Assistant Engineer today.


    1853: The New York Times published a portion of a paper present by Dr. A.K. Gardner on "the meats of New York" that was delivered before the Academy of Medicine and was published in the New York Journal of Medicine. According to Dr. Garnder unlike the other butchers, the Jewish butchers "do not prostrate the animal with the ax but first suspend it and then cut this throat.  This must be performed in a peculiar manner.  It is necessary to have along knife, which must be from rust, nic, or any imperfection of the cutting edge."  Only one cut is allowed.  If more cuts are required, “the animal is deemed unfit for food for the Hebrews.  After the animal is dead, he is upon the fore-quarters.  From the difficulty of removing the blood vessels, as required by their law, from the hind quarters, this portion is rarely eaten by the Hebrews, but the mark is placed upon them for the benefit of many Christians, who prefer the meat thus examined.  The butcher paid by the Society in which he worships an annual salary and in addition he receives a small sum per animal from the keeper of the slaughter house for his services."


    1854: Henry Cohen, a native of London who came to the United States in 1844 and Matilda Cohen gave birth to “social economist” Mary M. Cohen


    1858: Disraeli began serving as Chancellor of the Exchequer in a government led by Lord Derby and most of whose members sat in the Lords which gave him an unusual amount of power since he led the Tory Party in the House of Commons.


    1860(3rdof Adar, 5620): Seventy-seven year old educator and author Michael Hess the brother of Mendel Hess and the son of Rabbi Isaac Hess Kugelmann who among other accomplishments tutored “young Baron James Rothschild”  passed away at Frankfort-on-Main.


    1861: “The Fundamental Law of February 26, 1861” was promulgated in Austria today after which Raphael Basch, he served as the official spokesman government of Anton Ritter von Schmerling. Born in Bohemia, Basch alternated between being a journalist and political activist who actually became part of successive Austrian governments.  This latter element was unusual for a Jew living in the Austrian Empire at this time.


    1862: In Wilna, Joel Kopelovitz and Zine Danishevsky gave birth to Victor Harries, founder and editor of the B’nai B’rith Messenger, the secretary of Congregation Beth Israel and a court interpreter in Los Angeles, CA.


    1865(30thof Shevat, 5625): Rosh Chodesh Adar


    1870: A “scheme of amalgamation” involving The Great Synagogue, the Habmro Synagogue and the New Synagogue as well as their branches on Portland Street and the Bayswater was incorporated in the Seventeenth Report of the Charity Commissioners of England and Wales so it could be presented by them to Parliament.


    1872: Birthdate of New York City native Moses Henry Cohen, the Tampa, FL, lawyer, Spanish-American War veteran and secretary for 28 years of Schaarai Tzedek who married Julia Wolf, “whose family owned Wolf Brothers.


    1873: It was reported today that the recent Hebrew Charity Ball in Philadelphia raised $7,920 after expenses.  The money has already been distributed to several of the city’s Jewish institutions.


    1876(1stof Adar, 5636): Rosh Chodesh Adar and the Sabbath of Shekel.


    1877(13thof Adar, 5637): Fast of Esther


    1877: “The Home for Aged Hebrews” published today described it as “one of the most delightful” institutions of its kind in New York City.  The building which was originally a country home of the Astor family, offers views of the East River and Long Island Sound. The facility currently is home to 70 older men and women who live in “air well-furnished rooms,” are well clothed and enjoy excellent food on a daily basis which is complimented by wine if so desired.


    1880(14th of Adar, 5640): Purim


    1880: The Young Men’s Hebrew Association is scheduled to host a Purim entertainment and reception this evening at the Harlem Music Hall.


    1880: In New York, the Purim Association sponsored a ball in the Academy. A tableaux featuring Queen Esther surrounded by the Muses, preceded the evening’s dancing.


    1880: Sixty-year old Dr. Simon Rosenberger, a distinguished Philadelphia, PA Jewish physician and Ida Smith, a servant girl working in his house, were the victims of a mysterious malady. Miss Smith passed away after suffering convulsions brought on possibly by coal gas that had seeped into the house from the cellar.  Rosenberger who is unconscious and near death is thought to be a victim of the case or possibly an ingestion of poison.


    1882: “The Hebrew Charity Ball” published today described plans for the upcoming Purim Association’s upcoming fancy dress ball.  This ball, which has been a part of the New York Social Scene for two decades, will be held at the Academy of Music under the leadership of M.H. Moses, the association’s President.


    1882: A review of “Divorce and Divorce Legislation” by Theodore D. Woolsey notes that the volume includes a chapter devoted to the history of divorce among the Jewish people.


    1882(7th of Adar, 5642): German painter Moritz Daniel Oppenheim passed away. He is often regarded as the first Jewish painter of the modern era. His work was shaped by his cultural and religious roots at a time when many of his German Jewish contemporaries chose to convert to Christianity. Oppenheim is considered to be in sympathy with the ideals of the Wissenschaft des Judentums (Science of Judaism) movement, because he remained "fair to the present" without denying his past.

    1888(14thof Adar, 5648): Purim


    1888: Birthdate of Alfons Klauber who was deported from Prague in 1942 to Ujazdow where he was murdered.


    1888: The grant of citizenship for businessman, banker and philanthropist Jacob Noisotz was approved by the upper house of the Romanian legislature today but would fail to gain his goal when the lower house rejected the request in December.


    1889: In Baltimore, founding of the Hebrew Free School Society whose members included Joseph Eisner and Abraham S. Shochet and which sponsored a Talmud Torah that offers daily instruction for three hours from 4 until 7 and that “maintains a school for girls” as well


    1890: In New York City, Jake and Hulda Pilzer gave birth to conductor and composer Maximilian Pilzer.

    1890: In honor of a request made to Charles Frohman by child acting star Elsie Leslie, 500 children from the Industrial Schools of the Associated Hebrew Charities attended today’s matinee performance of the “Prince and the Pauper (Frohman was one of three Jewish brothers from Ohio who were involved with the Broadway theatre before World War I)


    1891: The Purim Association hosted its 30th annual charity ball at the Metropolitan Opera House tonight in New York City.


    1892: The New York Times“has received $20 for Russian Hebrew immigrants from ‘A.Y.E.’”


    1893: “New Things in Lawsuits” published today described a lawsuit brought by Max Bronestein against three New Jersey constables for desecrating his home “by cooking and eating meals which had not been prepared according to the Hebraic usages and principles” including the use of “pork sausage.”


    1894: “Zangwill’s New Jewish Stories” published today provided a review The King of Schnorrers: Grotesques and Fantasies by Israel Zangwill.


    1894: It was reported today that Rabbi Henry Berkowitz offered the opening prayer and then presided over the non-denominational memorial service held in Philadelphia at Keneseth Israel in memory of George W. Childs who was a newspaper and public benefactor in Philadelphia, PA. Dr. Joseph Krauskopf the rabbi at Keneseth Israel delivered an address that highlight Mr. Child’s philanthropic work.


    1896: More than 3,000 people are expected to attend tonight’s charity ball sponsored by the Young Ladies and Gentlemen’s League of the Montefiore Home.  This ball is the successor to Purim balls which were a popular social and fundraising event in New York City for many years.  Among the expected attendees are Mayor Strong and Governor Morton.


    1898: “London Literary Letter” published today described Israel Zangwill’s new novel as being “a Jewish story” similar to the one that was his “first great success.”  Zangwill’s attendance at the “congress called to consider” “the project of colonizing Palestine with Jews” means “that he intends to do more than write stories of the Ghetto.”


    1898: It was reported today that David Christie Murray, the English author, “is emulating Zola in taking up the defense of Dreyfus. 


    1898: Emile Zola appeals his conviction.


    1899(16th of Adar, 5659) Shushan Purim – the 15th of Adar fell on Shabbat


    1899: The children attending the religious school at Congregation B’nai Jershurun on the corner of 65th Street and Madison Avenue celebrated Purim today.


    1898: Picquart is dismissed from the Army.


    1900: Birthdate of college football star and Medal of Freedom winner Harry Herbert.

    1901: Birthdate of Aharon Zisling, the native of Minks who helped to found Youth Aliyah, the Palmach and Ahdut HaAovoda and was Israel’s first Minister of Agriculture.


    1902: In Vienna, Ida Wolf and Siegfried Reginald Wolf gave birth to Irma Wolf.


    1903: Rabbi Kaummann Kohler was elected to the presidency of Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati, Ohio.


    1903: Leopold Greenberg arrives in Brindisi and sends a short telegram whose obscurity of wording strikes dismays Herzl.


    1903: A paper by Victor Rosewater was read at The National Convention on Municipal Ownership and Public Franchises which is meeting at the Reform Club in New York City.  Rosewater was arguing for the ownership of electric lighting plants by municipalities. Rosewater was the editor of the Omaha (Nebraska) Daily Bee, an important Republican political leader and an active member of the Jewish community.


    1905(21st of Adar I, 5665):Abraham Adolphe Sée the attorney who “president of the Jewish consistory of Colmar and was “the brother of Marc Sée and Gustave Sée” passed away today in Paris.


    1906: The New York Times reported that the Motor Yacht Club of Great Britain has received two challenges from E.J. Schroeder of New York, owner of the Dixie, to compete in races for the Hamsworth Cup and the International Cup which was won last year by Napier II, a vessel owned by Lord Montague and Lionel Rothschild.


    1906: “The Jewish congress for the attainment of full civil and political rights of Jews which met” secretly in St. Petersburg “decided to participate in the elections for members of the National Assembly and to for a party to defend the interests of the Jewish masses.”


    1907: Birthdate of Cyrus Sol “Cy” Malis the native of Philadelphia who pitched in one game for the hometown Phillies.


    1909: Birthdate of Claude Cahen a native of Parish who was “a specialist in the studies of the Islamic Middle Ages, Muslim sources about the crusades and the social history of the medieval Islamic Society.”


    1912(8th of Adar, 5672): Sixty-one year old New York banker Ernst Thalmann passed away today.


    1913(19th of Adar I, 5673): “Communal worker” William Sicher passed away today in St. Louis, MO.


    1913: Dr. Nathaniel I. Rubinkam is scheduled to deliver a lecture on “Faust” this evening at the Chicago Hebrew Institute.


    1915: For a second day, the Supreme Court of the United States heard arguments concerning the granting of a writ of habeas corpus in the case of Leo M. Frank who was found guilty of murdering a factory girl in 1913 in a courtroom “pervaded by mob spirit.”


    1915: Arguments before the Supreme Court of the United States on the appeal of Leo M. Frank from the denial of a writ of habeas corpus by a Federal District Came to an end this afternoon” when Louis Marshall concluded his speech for the defense and Attorney General Grice and Solicitor General Dorsey argued for the State of Georgia


    1916: Henry Morgenthau, the U.S. Ambassador to Turkey, who has just returned from Constantinople, is to be honored today by the public at the Great Hall of the College of the City of New York.  Cleveland H. Dodge, acting on behalf of the Mayor, is chairman of the committee sponsoring the event.  Among the speaks will be Mayor Mitchell, Bishop Greer, Oscar S. Straus, Rabbi Wise John H. Finley, President Sidney E. Mezes and Ambassador Morgenthau himself.


    1916: Birthdate of award winning composer Mordecai Seter.  Born in Russia, he moved to Palestine in 1923 where he spent the rest of his life.  Among his earliest work was The Sabbath Cantata, patterned after Renaissance music.  Several of his most important works included Biblical themes.  These included music for the ballet Judith commissioned by Martha Graham Jephthah’s Daughter commissioned for the Bat Sheva Dance Company and a symphony simply entitled Jerusalem


    1917: A. M. Sharp is scheduled to lead the daily service at Temple Emanu-El where Dr. Enelow will speak on “The Jewish Characteristics of Jesus.”


    1917: As the Romanoff dynasty hurtled towards its final days, with all that that meant for the Jewish people, Tsar Nicholas “order the Duma to close down” today


    1918(14th of Adar, 5678): As World War I enters its final year, Jews celebrate Purim


    1918: “A memorial meeting in honor of the late Dr. Henry M. Leipziger” the long time “Supervisor of Lectures in the public schools was held” tonight “at Temple Emanu-El under the auspices of the Judeans, an organization which he had been President for many years.


    1919: Birthdate of Brooklyn native Mason Adams the multi-talented actor who most famous role was as the anonymous voice of Smucker jams and jellies which ended with his tagline - "With a name like Smucker's, it has to be good"

    1920: “The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari,” “a silent horror film…written by Hans Janowitz and Carl Mayer” was released in Germany today.


    1920: Major General Louis Bols, the Officer Administering the Government of Palestine, issued an official proclamation that the British government intended to carry out the terms of the Balfour Declaration


     1920: Birthdate of Tony Randall.  Born Leonard Rosenberg in Tulsa, Oklahoma, Randall is best remembered for his role as Felix Unger in the television version of The Odd Couple.  Randall often played light comedic roles in the movies but in reality he was an accomplished actor and very urbane, cultured individual.  During the 1950’s, Randall lived near the Met.  In the evening he would take around the neighborhood often stopping in to catch the last two or three acts of that evening’s opera.  As Ed Murrow said when visiting Randall’s apartment during “Person to Person,” Randall’s apartment was not only filled with books, but Randall had actually read the books.


    1924: The trial against Hitler began in Munich.  Hitler was on trial for his part in attempted coup that began in a Munich Beer Hall.  The coup failed.  Hitler was found guilty and sent to jail.  While in jail, he wrote Mien Kampf.  He was treated like a celebrity while in jail and came out stronger politically than when he went in.


    1925: Seventy-four year old James Edgar who as U.S. Senator from New Jersey succeeded in getting the Senate to adopt a resolution in 1916 “asking the President to set aside a day as Jewish relief day for Jewish war sufferers” passed away today.


    1925: As a sign of the growing power of the Nazi Party, The Völkischer Beobachter the party’s official newspaper begins publishing again.


    1926: In London, David and Rose Pollack gave birth to Dr. William Pollack, who in 1980 along with his colleagues won the Lasker Award “for excellence in biomedical research.”

    1926: In New York City, Isaac and Bertha Belack, Jewish immigrants from Russia, gave birth to Doris Belack, the veteran actress known for her roles on “Law & Order” and the hit comedy “Tootsie” who was also the wife of Philip Rose, the producer of “A Raisin in the Sun.” (As reported by Paul Vitello)


    1926: Fearing trouble now that students at Bucharest University have gone on strike because the school has not acted to limit the number of Jewish student, the government is having the streets of the city “patrolled by military policy” who have orders to “prohibit” “all authorized gatherings.”


    1926: According to Menorah Journal Editor Henry Hurwitz, while in “the last century many of the finest minds and spirits in Europe and America turned their backs on Judaism, today, the intelligent Jew is seeking not avenues of but the road to return to Judaism.”


    1926: According to reports published today, that according to H.J. Reit Chairman of the Washington Heights section of the United Palestine Appeal, the organization has reached its goal of $125,000 after raising $90,000 at its recent one hundred dollar a plate dinner.


    1926: According to the official figures of the British Colonial Office published in the United States today, “during 1925 a total of 33,801 Jewish immigrants entered Palestine, 2,141 Jews emigrated from Palestine” for a “net increase in the Jewish population for the year of 31,660.”


    1927: Ten year-old Yeudi Menuhin made is his European debut as a soloist with the Lamoureux Orchestra under the baton of Paul Paray in Paris


    1928: In Kfar Malal, Shmuel Scheinerman of Brest-Litovsk and Vera (née Schneirov) Scheinerman of Mogilev gave birth to Ariel Scheinermann who would gain as soldier-statesman Ariel Sharon.


    1930:  Birthdate of pianist Lazar Berman.  Born in Leningrad to Jewish parents, he placed third in the piano competition at Budapest in 1956.


    1930: Birthdate of Bronx native and DeWitt Clinton High graduate Donald R. Siegel who gained fame as actor Don Devlin.


    1930: Moe Berg received his LL.B. today.


    1931(9th of Adar, 5691): Otto Wallach passed away at the age of 93.  The German born chemist was a veteran of the Franco-Prussian War and won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1910.


    1932(19th of Adar I, 5692): Yosef Chaim Zonnenfeld, or Sonnenfeld, passed away.  Born in 1848. He “was the Chief Rabbi and co-founder of the Edah HaChareidis, Haredi Jewish community in Jerusalem, during the years of the British Mandate of Palestine. He was originally given the name "Chaim", however, the name "Yosef" was added to him while he experienced an illness. Sonnenfeld was born in Verbó, Hungary (today: Vrbové, Slovakia). His father, Rabbi Avraham Shlomo Zonnenfeld, died when Chaim was five years old. He was a student of Rabbi Samuel Benjamin Sofer (the Ksav Sofer), the son of Rabbi Moses Sofer (the Chasam Sofer). He was also a student of Rabbi Avraham Schag in Kobersdorf (who was himself a disciple of the Chasam Sofer); Sonnenfeld moved from the latter city to Jerusalem in 1873. He became an important figure in Jerusalem's Old City, serving as the right-hand man of Rabbi Yehoshua Leib Diskin and assisting the latter in communal activities, such as the founding of schools and the Diskin Orphanage, and the fight against secularism. He refused to meet with Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany who visited the Old City because he believed that the Emperor was a descendant of the nation of Amalek. Sonnenfeld sent a delegate, a former Dutch diplomat and writer who had become a baal teshuva, Dr. Jacob Israël de Haan, to Jordan with a peace proposal for King Abdullah.” Contrary to what some might have claimed, “he had a warm relationship with and mutual respect for Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook, although the two were vigorous opponents in many areas. Indeed, in 1913 the two traveled together to Northern Israel to try to return lapsed Jews to Torah Judaism.”


    1933: Birthdate of Anglo-French financier Sir James Michael "Jimmy" Goldsmith.


    1933: A program marking the sixtieth anniversary of the birth of Chaim Nachman Bialik, national Hebrew poet, was held this evening in the auditorium of the College of the City of New York. Bialik’s birthdate was actually January 9, 1873.


    1933(30th of Shevat, 5693): Rosh Chodesh Adar


    1933(30th of Shevat, 5693): Therese Loeb Schiff, the daughter of Solomon Loeb and the wife of Jacob Schiff, who “organized a literary series for wealthy German Jewish women, donated ten thousand dollars to the National Council of Jewish Women to help cope with Jewish prostitution among young immigrant women, and lectured for the Consumers League in support of protective legislation to end child labor and the exploitation of women” passed away today.


    1934: The New York Times featured a review of “’The Dream of My People, a film described as “a screen trip though Palestine with Cantor Joseph Rosenblatt” produced by the Palestine-American Film Company now showing at the Acme Theatre which  is also showing “Lot in Sodom.”


    1935: In violation of the Versailles Treaty, Hitler orders the rebuilding of the Luftwaffe.  This is one of the many times the West missed a chance to stop Hitler’s march that would lead to the Holocaust.


    1935: The Jerusalem Shopkeepers Association announced today that it will be conducting a one day work stoppage next week in a “a protest against rising rents and the refusal of the Municipal Council to pass a rent restriction law.”


    1936: Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt, the Iowa native and longtime leader for the emancipation of women, delivered an address today “before the women’s division of the American Jewish Congress” said that Jews and Christians “together must uphold the standard of individual rights” and “singled out Germany for condemnation” because of “Nazi persecution of Jews, Catholics and Protestants.”


    1937: Mrs. Herbert H. Lehman was among those who addressed the Women’s Committee of the National Women’s Conference of Jews and Christians at the Hotel McAlpin where the theme was “Woman’s Contribution to Better Human Relations.


    1938(25th of Adar I, 5698): Parashat Vayakhel and Shabbat Shekalim


    1938: In Milwaukee, Wisconsin, a meeting of the pro-Nazi German-American Volksbund ends in a riot. (A meeting like this in America’s heartland provides part of the background around which FDR made his decisions about the Jews of Europe This is not an excuse. It is an explanation.)


    1939: Jews held protest demonstrations in Jerusalem, Haifa, Tel Aviv, and several of the large kibbutzim this evening. The demonstrations were sparked by credible reports from London that the British government intends to create an independent Arab State in Palestine which will be structured in such a way to ensure that Jewish people will be permanently relegated to “minority status.” 


    1939: Israel Rokach, the Mayor of Tel Aviv, sent a telegram to Colonial Secretary of Malcolm MacDonald expressing the displeasure of the 150,000 citizens of his city over what is reported to be the British decision to turn Palestine into an Arab State in which Jews will permanently be a minority.   He wrote that “establishment of a Jewish National Home in the historic land of our ancestors was accepted by fifty-two nations as a sacred trust” and the Jewish people would never agree to accept this newly created permanent minority status.


    1939: Professor Max Lerner of Williams College is scheduled to deliver an address today on “Is It Later Than You Think” at Temple B’nai Jeshurun


    1939: Tehilla Lichtenstein is scheduled to deliver a lecture on “The Uses of Adversity” today at the Jewish Science Society


    1939: The sixth annual observance of Brotherhood Week which is sponsored by the National Conference of Jews and Christians and which has been endorsed by President Roosevelt came to an end today.


    1941: On the second day of deportations, 1,349 Jews were shipped from Gora Klilwaria, Poland today to Warsaw where they either perished or stayed alive long enough to be sent to Treblinka. (As reported by Yad Vasehm)


    1941: In the Netherlands, the citizens of Utrecht and Zaandam staged strikes protesting Nazi raids on the Jews.


    1942: Isidore Newman and Edward Zeff, two Jewish wireless operators with the SOE began the trip that would end with them landing in Occupied France by take a train to Bristol and then flying to Gibraltar.


    1942: For twelve hours today, between midday and midnight, the Jewish population of Palestine observed a voluntary stoppage of all commercial and business. During this period all persons remained indoors in a self-imposed curfew, as a sign of mourning for the loss of the more than 700 Jews who died when the Struma, sank in the Black Sea north of the Bosporus. The Jewish passengers were trying to escape from Nazi dominated Europe and settle in Palestine, something opposed by the British and the Arabs.


    1944: Birthdate of Ronald Steven Lauder “an American businessman, civic leader, philanthropist, and art collector. Forbes lists Lauder among the richest people of the world with an estimated net worth of $3.0 billion in 2007.”


    1944: Primo Levy and Dr. Leonardo de Benedetti arrive at Auschwitz after a four day trip from a detention camp at Fossoli in central Italy.


    1944: Shooting begins of the Nazi propaganda film, "The Fuhrer Gives a Village to the Jews" in Theresienstadt.


    1945: Birthdate of Ohio native Stephen Allan “Steve” Hertz who played five games for the National League Houston Colt .45s in 1964 and managed the Tel Aviv Lightning in the Israel Baseball League.


    1946: As they searched for those responsible for last night’s attacks on three RAF airfields that destroyed and/or severely damaged 22 aircraft, British troops “seized 5,000 Jews today and imposed a paralyzing night traffic ban throughout Palestine.” The British have already found the body of a dead Jew near one of the airfield.  The deceased is assumed to have been one of the attackers.


    1946: Birthdate of Ephraim Sidon the Jerusalem born author of satirical and children books now living in Tel Aviv who in 2004 “was a co-recipient along with David Grossman and Haya Shenhav of the Bialik Prize for literature.

    1946: “Inveterate Los Angeles Gambler, publicist and nightclub owner W.R. ‘Billy Wilkerson’” who had “bought a thirty-three acre site between the El Rancho Vegas and the airport” “signed a contract with (Meyer) Lansky’s agent, Harry Rothberg, for a syndicate of investors to buy 60 percent of Wilkerson’s property for one million dollars. (The Mob meaning Lansky and Bugys Siegel, would completely buy-out Wilkerson)


    1946: A resolution is scheduled to be introduced today in the United States Senate that would call for a “Congressional investigation of the Palestine situation…The measure calls for a joint House-Senate committee to be sent to the Holy Land to investigate conditions there and report its findings to Congress.”


    1947: Jacob and Niza Gabbai arrived in New York from Palestine today.  The couple is here to continue their education.  The Gabbais were married in Tel Aviv in 1944 while Mr. Gabbai, who was serving with the Jewish Brigade of the British Army, was home one leave.  After the war, Mr. Gabbai became co-editor of the Maavak(Struggle), “a publication of the Young Palestinian League in Tel Aviv, which seeks to integrate the country’s cultural resources.


    1949: “I Shot Jesse James” a low budget western directed by Samuel Fuller and featuring J. Edward Bromberg as “Harry Kane” was released in the United States today.


    1950: Leonard Bernstein's "Age of Anxiety" premiered in New York City.


    1951: Monnett B. Davis presented his credentials as the U.S. Ambassador to Israel.


    1953: The Jerusalem Post reported that an agreement on the future status of the Haifa Refineries was initialed by the representatives of the government, the Consolidated Refineries Ltd. and the Anglo-Iranian Oil Co. Ltd.


    1953: The Jerusalem Post reported that the fourth anniversary of the liberation of Eilat was celebrated by a military parade attended by President Yitzhak Ben-Zvi, and "a show of local achievements."


    1954: In New Haven, CT, Helen (née Gubin) and George Bolotin gave birth to Michael Bolotin the younger brother of Orrin and Sandra Bolotin who gained fame as singer and actor Michael Bolton and who won the Grammy in 1990 and again in 1992 as the Male, Best Pop Vocal Performance


    1954: Birthdate of Yuli Tamir the veteran of “Aman” who has served as an MK and held various ministerial posts.


    1955: Final performance of “Peter Pan” a musical version the 1904 play “Peter Pan: with music by Mark Charlap and Jule Styne with lyrics by Carolyn Leigh, Betty Comden and Adolph Green.


    1957: The Diary of Anne Frank which had been running on Broadway at the Cort Theatre since October, 1955, re-opened at the Ambassador Theatre after it had left the Cort four days ago.


    1957: In Jerusalem, Geula Cohen, a prominent member of the 1940s underground group Lehi and later MK for Likud and Tehiya and Immanuel Hanegbi, was the Operations Officer for the Lehi gave birth to MK, cabinet member and security expert Yitzhak “Tzachi” Hanegbi


    1958(6th of Adar I, 5718): Eighty-seven year old “magazine cover artist” Modest Stein who was “best known for his painted covers for several Street and Smith magazines, such as The Shadow Magazine” passed away today.

    1959(18th of Adar I, 5719): Selig Suskin, a native of the Crimea who was one of the founder of Be’er Tuvia, a delegate


    1961: Fifty-one year old Mohammed V, the Sultan of Morocco, who according to Meredith Hindley, found Vichy’s laws pertaining to Jews “appalling” and did what he could given his limited power, to ameliorate their affect, passed away today.


    1961(10th of Adar, 5721): Sixty-five year old Uberto De Morpurgo, the son of Julius Baron von Morpurgo and Mary Catherine and husband of Claire Clara Maria de Morpurgo who was Italy’s leading male tennis player during the 1920’s passed away today.


    1964: “He Rides Tall” a western with a musical score by Irving Getz was released today in the United States.


    1969(8th of Adar, 5729): Seventy year old orthopedic surgeon and World War II veteran Philip Palew, the husband of Dr. Stephanie Shick Palow passed away today.

    1969(8th of Adar, 5729): Levi Eshkol passed away.  Eshkol is one of the ironic characters in Jewish History.  He was the Prime Minister sandwiched in between such giants as David Ben-Gurion and Golda Meir.  Yet this comparative political non-entity was the Prime Minister in 1967.  He was the one who made the decisions that saved the state in those fateful days of May and June.  And he was the Prime Minister who reunited Jerusalem and reclaimed the City of David.

    1970: “Beverly Hills developer Louis Lesser filed suit in San Diego Superior Court today claiming half interest in the estimated $100 million Rancho Los Penasquitos Inc. development company.”


    1970: “Georgy”  “a musical with a book by Tom Mankiewicz, lyrics by Carole Bayer” opened today at the Winter Garden Theatre.


    1974: At its founding convention The American Sephardi Federation announced its goals: First to revitalize Sephardi heritage, and second to provide for aid the underprivileged population in Israel.


    1978: “Deathtrap” written by Ira Levin debuted on Broadway at the Music Box Theatre with Marian Winters in the role of “Helga ten Dorp,” a part that she would stop playing in October when she was diagnosed with Cancer that would claim her life.


    1980: Egypt and Israel exchanged ambassadors for the first time.  This was one of the tangible outcomes of the historic Sadat - Begin Peace Accords.  While the peace may have turned out to be a cold one, the peace has held.


    1980: An Off-Broadway production of “Biography” written by S.N. Behrman opened at Stage 73.


    1982: It was reported today that Labor Party chairman Shimon Peres had “told the party’s Central Committee that he had responded negatively to a letter from Begin because he believed that before there could be any talk of a national unity government there had to be a debate on a joint policy.


    1984: Reverend Jesse Jackson acknowledged that he called New York City, "Hymietown".  What can I say? Twenty years later we get Mel Gibson and his dad.


    1984: ABC broadcast the first half of “Lace” a two part min-series featuring June Brown as “Mrs. Trelowney.”


    1986: Seventy-four year old Czech jazz musician Karel Vlach who had “a day job as a traveling salesman for Jewish notions firm until the German occupation made it untenable” and who played with several Jewish musicians including Fritz Weiss before the war when Weiss was ultimately shipped to his death at Auschwitz passed away today.


    1987: Israeli officials contended tonight that the Tower Commission had played down the Israeli role in the Iranian arms deal as secondary to that of the United States. ''At first glance, it doesn't seem to stress especially the role of Israel; we are not being blamed,'' said Avi Pazner, spokesman for Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir. ''But that's at first glance, and we have to study it in depth.'' Unofficially, Government members appeared generally relieved that the report did not disclose any involvement deeper than that already attributed to Israeli officials and middlemen.


    1987(27th of Shevat): Eighty-three year old Fredric R. Mann, an industrialist and patron of the arts who helped finance music centers in Philadelphia and Tel Aviv, died of cancer this morning in Miami. (As reported by Tim Page)

    1988: Secretary George Shultz is scheduled to meet with Israeli leaders today in an attempt to promote the Bush Administration’s latest peace proposals for the Middle East.


    1988: “Alien From L.A.” a sci-fi thriller produced by Yoram Globus was released in the United States today.


    1988: “Frantic” a fast paced mystery directed by Roman Polanski was released in France and the United States today.


    1988: Settlers from the West Bank demonstrated in Jerusalem today outside the office where Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir was meeting with Secretary of State George P. Shultz at the start of a new Middle East peace drive. The demonstrations stood in stark contrast to the expression of other Israelis, notably Foreign Minister Shimon Peres, who are willing to consider trading occupied land for peace. 1988: Naum Meiman a 77-year-old Soviet Jew who battled for 13 years to leave the Soviet Union embraced his daughter when he arrived in Israel today. Mr. Meiman hugged his daughter, Olga Plam, 50, of Boulder, Colo., who left the Soviet Union 14 years ago and had not seen her father since then.  Meiman who is a mathematician said, “Some of us managed to get out. Many are still left behind.'' Soviet authorities said they delayed Mr. Meiman's emigration request because of his ''access to state secrets.'' Mr. Meiman had worked on classified calculations in 1955.


    1989: In an article entitled “Design: Imagine This,” Carol Vogel describes architect Ron Arad's gallery and office including the small back room in which the architect is drafting his design for the new opera house in Tel Aviv.


    1991: The Bank of Israel said today that it would permit foreign companies to issue stocks and bonds on the Tel Aviv stock exchange. But the amount of money a foreign concern could take out of the country would be limited to 20 percent of any new issue. Previously the central bank had turned down applications by foreign firms to issue shares on the stock market. The change of policy "will make the Israeli stock market more international," said Gideon Schurr, speaking for the Bank of Israel."Now we need local investments, not Israeli investments abroad."


    1993: In New York City, a truck bomb parked below the North Tower of the World Trade Center explodes, killing 6 and injuring over a thousand. One of the bombers claimed the attack was in retaliation for American support of Israel.  The bombers were later found to be connected with Osama bin Laden's al-Qaeda.


    1993(5th of Adar, 5753): Sixty-four year old Carol Solomon author of Report from the Asylum: Afterthoughts of a Shock Patient, “an account of the shock-therapy treatment used to treat patients in asylums, drawn directly from personal experience.”


    1994: Eight-six year old Sofka Skipwith, the Russian émigré and Communist who was honored by Yad Vashem for saving Jews during the Shoah passed away today.

    1994: The Peace Now supporters rallied tonight in central Jerusalem, demanding an independent inquiry into the Friday massacre and an evacuation of the 400 Jewish settlers living in overwhelmingly Arab Hebron.


    1994: Palestinians rioted and fought with Israeli soldiers across the occupied territories and in predominantly Arab towns in Israel today to protest the massacre here on Friday of at least 40 Arab worshipers by a Jewish settler.


    1996(6th of Adar, 5756): Mieczysław Weinberg passed away. Born in Warsaw in 1919, he moved to Moscow in 1943.  He lived and composed in the Soviet Union for the rest of his life. His musical virtuosity did not keep him from being arrested during the period Stalin’s “Doctor Plot.” (He left a large body of work that included twenty-two symphonies and seventeen string quartets; according to one reviewer he ranked as, "the third great Soviet composer, along with Prokofiev and Shostakovich".[1


    1999: Jewish American cultural historian Maurice Berger when writing in the Los Angeles Times about “the flap at Inglewood High School over Black History Month and Cinco de Mayo observances” reminder readers that “that history can be a valuable force for social change.”


    2002(14th of Adar, 5762): Purim


    2004: A fourth Broadway revival of “Fiddler on the Roof” today and ran for 36 previews and 781 performances at the Minskoff Theatre in NYC.


    2005(17th of Adar I, 5765): Henry Anatole Grunwald an Austrian-born journalist and diplomat perhaps best known for his position as managing editor of TIME magazine and editor in chief of Time, Inc passed away today. (As reported by Richard Severo)

    2005(17th of Adar I, 5765): Sixty-one year old Jeff Raskin an America human-computer interface expert best-known for starting the Macintosh project for Apple Computer in the late 1970s passed away tody


    2005: In “The Morning After the Tel Aviv Bombing” Joseph M. Hochstein provided a portrait of the indomitable will of the citizens of Tel Aviv in the face of senseless slaughter.

    2006(28thof Shevat, 5766): Sixty-six year old artist and photograph editor Sally C. Fox passed away.

    2006(28th of Shevat, 5766): Sir Hans Singer, a refugee from Nazi Germany and a well-known British development economist, passed away.


    2006: In “Betty Friedan's Enduring 'Mystique'”, published todayRachel Donadio describes the importance of the writings and career of the recently deceased author and feminist.


    2006:  The Jerusalem Post reported that Israel's two chief rabbis, Rabbis Shlomo Amar and Yona Metzger have “questions” for the Archbishop of Canterbury, but will not cancel plans to meet the leader of Britain's state church this May in light of the vote by the General Synod of the Church of England to divest its shares in companies whose products are used by the Israeli government in the territories.


    2007: Members of Histadrut remained on the job giving authorities more time to affect an immediate solution to the problem of salary debts in 40 local authorities.


    2007: Starting today Diane Ravitch “participated in a ‘blog debate’ called ‘Bridging Difference’ with Deborah Meier on the website of Education Week.”


    2007: Knesset members yesterday urged the legal authorities to explore ways of indicting Professor Ariel Toaff over his book Pasque di Sangue, which alleges a factual basis to a 15th-century blood libel.”


    2008: In New York, The Center for Jewish History and the American Jewish Historical Society presents distinguished writer and journalist Janet Malcolm reading from her stunningly perceptive work Two Lives, in which she pursues the charmed life of famed literary couple Gertrude Stein and Alice B. Toklas while living in a Vichy, France village and pursues the larger question of biographical truth.


    2008: The New York Times reports on the results of  a survey of religious affiliation by the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life.http://religions.pewforum.org/.  The report indicates that the behavior of American Jews in terms of religious affiliation may be more a function of their behavior as Americans as opposed to their behavior as Jews.  The report supports the bi-modal nature of religious behavior in America – a quest for spirituality which is not necessarily tied to usual patterns of denominational affiliation – which is also apparent in the Jewish community.


    2008(20th of Adar I, 5768):Lt. Gen. Dan Shomron, a former chief of Israel’s general staff and the paratroop commander who planned and led the storied 1976 raid in which Israeli troops freed 103 hijacked hostages at Entebbe Airport in Uganda, in Israel. He was 70. He was the 13th Chief of Staff for the IDF.


    2008:Rabbi Charles A. Klein, a Conservative rabbi and for the last 30 years the spiritual leader of the Merrick Jewish Center-Congregation Ohr Torah,will be installed today as the 59th president of the New York Board of Rabbis, the world’s oldest and largest interdenominational rabbinical board.


    2009:Comedian and actor Eugene Mirman discusses and signs his new book, The Will to


     Whatevs: A Guide to Modern Life, at Barnes & Noble in Georgetown.


    2009: The Nineteenth Annual KOACH Kallah, sponsored by KOACH, the college program of The United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism opens at the Brandeis-Bardin Campus of the American Jewish University in Simi Valley, CA.


    2009: In Venezuela, assailants threw an explosive at a Jewish community center today, but nobody was hurt which was the second assault against Venezuela's Jewish community this year.


    2009: Today Sergio Widder of the Los Angeles-based Simon Wiesenthal Center criticized Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez for failing to take steps aimed at curbing anti-Semitism.


    2010: U.S. premiere of “The Yellow Handkerchief” produced by Arthur Cohen with music by Eef Barzelay.


    2010: Harry Baron, the first Jewish justice to serve on the Irish Supreme court whose wife Harriet had passed away 13 years ago, was laid to rest today at “Dolphin’s Barn’s Jewish Cemetery.


    2010:Rabbi Barry Baron, co-Director of Jewish Welfare Board is scheduled to lead Purim festivities and services at Fort Belvoir.


    2010:Today's issue of Haaretz Magazine is scheduled to publish the exclusive story of Mosab Hassan Yousef, the son of Sheikh Hassan Yousef, a Hamas founder and one of its leaders in the West Bank, who served for over a decade as the Shin Bet security service's most valuable source in the militant organization's leadership.


    2010(12thof Adar, 5770): Eighty-eight year Daniel Kapilow, the “retired President of Teamster Local 966” and advocate for providing aid to retired boxers who was predeceased by his wife Natalie with whom he had two children – Susan and Gloria – passed away today.


    2010:ABC News President David Westin confirmed in an interview today that the network's ranks of bureau correspondents, which currently number several dozen, would be cut in half and be replaced with "digital" journalists who would be expected to shoot and edit their own stories. As part of the deep cuts announced this week at ABC News, the network plans to close all of its physical bureaus around the country except Washington and halve the number of its domestic correspondents.


    2010(12 Adar, 5770):Prof. David Bankier, one of the world's most renowned Holocaust scholars who also served as the head of the International Institute for Holocaust Research at Yad Vashem, died at the age of 63 today after a four-year battle with cancer. 

    2011:Five Brothers, a film about a brotherhood of Algerian Jews living in France who rally to defend themselves while avenging the memory of their murdered father, is scheduled to be shown at the Atlanta Jewish Film Festival.


    2011: In Iowa City, Benjamin Coelho and other local musicians are scheduled to perform at Hillel’s Champagne & Classical Evening, which is a fundraiser for this vital part of the University Of Iowa and Iowa City Jewish communities.


    2011: In Fairfax, VA, the Olam Tikvah Mens Club is scheduled to host its Judaism is for Lover’s Party.


    2011: Israeli pianist Inon Barnatan is scheduled to perform as part of the People’s Symphony Concerts in NYC.


    2011:Palestinians in Gaza reported today that IDF planes hit targets in Gaza belonging to Islamic Jihad west of Khan Younis but the IDF did not confirm the Palestinian reports.


    2011:Iran and Syria have agreed to cooperate on naval training, Reuters reported Iran’s official news agency saying today.


    2011(22ndAdar I, 5771): Eighty-nine year old “Judith Coplon, a former Justice Department employee who became a sensation in 1949 when she was accused of being a Soviet spy” passed away today.(As reported by Sam Roberts)

    2011(22ndAdar I, 5771):Arnost Lustig, an acclaimed Czech author who drew on his own harrowing experiences as a teenager in World War II to produce novels and short stories laced with tales of young people who survive the Holocaust, passed away today the age of 84. (As reported by Dennis Hevesi)

    2011(22ndAdar I, 5771):Ora Eyal, one of Israel’s most successful children’s book illustrators, whose work included the Israeli classic “A Tale of Five Balloons,” passed away today at the age of 64. “Eyal was born in Jerusalem in 1946 and studied at the Bezalel Academy in the city. She also worked as a translator from Italian. Eyal won the 1994 Ben Isaac Prize for Illustration from the Israel Museum. She was awaiting delivery of the final book she illustrated, “Everyone Went for a Trip,” just before she died.” (As reported by the Eulogizer)


    2011(22ndAdar I, 5771):Howard R. Johnston, 86, a retired lieutenant colonel, passed away today. A native of Bruce Lake, Indiana, he spent 23 years on active duty, and was a combat veteran of World War II, Korea and Vietnam. He was a senior aviator, qualified in fixed and rotary wing aircraft, and a certified flight examiner. (As reported by the Eulogizer)


    2012: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including “The Technologist” by Matthew Pear and the recently released paperback edition of “Endgame: Bobby Fischer’s Remarkable Rise and Fall — From America’s Brightest Prodigy to the Edge of Madness” by Frank Brady.


    2012: Today, the IDF is expected to open the southwest segment of a highway that leads to Eilat for the first time since a terror attack near the border with Egypt left 8 Israelis dead after having made major security improvements including the erection of 23 foot high fence. (As reported by Yoav Zitun)


    2012: “The Life and Times of Hank Greenberg” is scheduled to be shown at Temple Beth-El in Poughkeepsie, NY


    2012: “Yoo-Hoo, Mrs. Goldberg” is scheduled to be shown at the Greater Phoenix Jewish Film Festival in Scottsdale, AZ


    2012: In London, Jeremy Ben-Ami, the founder and president of J Street and the author of “A New Voice for Israel” and Jonathan Freedland who writes a weekly column for The Guardian are scheduled to take part in a panel discussion entitled “A New Voice for Israel” as part of Jewish Book Week.


    2012: The new edition of “IBM and the Holocaust” by Edwin Black will be released today at a special Live Global Streaming Event at Yeshiva University’s Furst Hall in New York. The Event can be seen at http://www.ibmandtheholocaust.com/

    2012(3rd of Adar):  Anniversary of the completion of the Second Temple.  [Editor's Note – This ushers in one of the best periods in Jewish History; we got to be Jewish and nobody tried to kill us!  It is puzzling that we celebrate the tragedy of the destruction of the Temple but do not celebrate the joy of it completion.  It is also puzzling that we celebrate an invented moment in our history (Purim) and do nothing to celebrate a real moment of joy.]


    2012: One-hundred-one year old Canadian violinist Ethel Stark founder of the Montreal Women’s Symphony Orchestra passed away.

    2012(3rd of Adar, 5772): Ninety-four year old Sol Schiff who so dominated his sport that he was known as “Mr. Table Tennis” passed away today. (As reported by Dennis Hevesi)

    2012: Workers at Haifa, Ashdod and Eilat ports called a general strike starting at 6 A.M. this morning, after overnight talks between representatives of the finance and transportation ministries, leaders of the Histadrut labor federation and workers’ committees failed to reach an agreement to prevent the strike. 2012: Israeli aircraft bombed two targets in the southern Gaza Strip overnight, the military said today. 2013: “MAKERS: Women Who Make America,” which is follow up to “Gloria Steinem: In Her Own Words” is scheduled to be shown on PBS this evening


    2013((16th of Adar, 5773): Ninety-five year old Stéphane Hessel, the hero of the Resistance, concentration camp survivor and French diplomat passed away.

    2013: The 92nd Street Y is scheduled to host “Political Earthquake In The Middle East: Are There Any Good Options For The U.S. and Israel” with Walter Russell Mead and Warren Kozak


    2013:A rocket was fired from the Gaza Strip at Ashkelon early this morning, breaking months of quiet between Israel and the Palestinian enclave.


    2013: US President Barack Obama will not present a new peace initiative when he visits Israel and the Palestinian territories next month, and instead is coming “to listen,” Secretary of State John Kerry said today


    2014: The Thaler Holocaust Committee under the leadership of Dr. Bob Silber is scheduled to meet at Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, Iowa.


    2014: Author and newswoman Hoda Kotb is scheduled to talk about her memoir with Jonathan Tisch at the 92nd Street Y.


    2014: Jordan warned today that it might review a 1994 peace treaty with Israel after Israeli MPs began a debate on allowing Jewish prayers at Jerusalem’s sensitive Temple Mount.


    2014: Yad Vashem recognized Sebastián Romero Radigales as Righteous Among the Nations.

    2014: “It was announced today that actress Jessica Lange would be the new face of Marc Jacobs Beauty (He is Jewish – she isn’t)


    2014: Israeli troops along the border with Lebanon were on high alert tonight after Hezbollah threatened action over what it said was an Israeli air raid


    2014: Pulitzer-prize winning author Philip Schultz is scheduled to discuss The Wherewithal: A Novel in Verse about a young man translating his mother mother’s diaries that “concern the Jedwabne massacre.”


    2015: The Oregon Jewish Museum and Center For Holocaust Education is scheduled to host “The Hiding Place: A Queer Storytelling Tribute to the Diary of Anne Frank.”


    2016: In New York, the Jewish Museum is scheduled to host 45 minute tours of the exhibition “Unorthodox” led by the Museum’s docents.


    2016: “Ten terrorist attack victims who won financial claims against Iran can seize a $2.8 million judgment owed to that country’s Defense Ministry, a federal appeals court said today.”


    2016: “Feeling are Facts: The Life of Yvonne Rainer” and “Cremator” are scheduled to be shown at the 26th Washington Jewish Film Festival.


    2017(30th of Shevat, 5777): Rosh Chodesh Adar

    2017: The New York Times published books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Almost Complete Poems by Stanley Moss, When Police Kill by Franklin E. Zimring, A World in Disarray: American Foreign Policy and the Crisis of the Older by Richard Haass and the recently released paperback edition of Not In God’s Name: Confronting Religious Violence by Rabbi Jonathan Sacks.


    2017: “Cloudy Sunday,” a film that tells “of a war-time romance in Thessaloniki between a Jewish girls and a young resistance fighter” is scheduled to be shown for the last time at JW3 in London.


    2017:Soprano Rachel Joselson and pianist Rene Lecuona are scheduled to perform selections by composers who were prisoners of Nazi Germany in Theresienstadt during the Holocaust, including Viktor Ullmann, Adolf Strauss, Ilse Weber and Gideon Klein at the Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center.


    2017: Among those waiting to see if they will win an Oscar tonight are actress Natalie Portman, actor Andrew Garfield and the creator of “Joe’s Violin”



    2017: “The Nazi Olympics: Berlin 1936” – an exhibition that “explores whether a controversial proposed boycott might have strengthened international resistance to Nazi tyranny and how the Nazis used the games as propaganda to further their agenda” is scheduled to come a close at California African American Museum.


    2017: Efraim Halevy, the ninth director of the Mossad is scheduled to be interviewed by David Horovitz tonight at the Hirsch Theatre in Jerusalem.


    2017: The Temple Emanu-El Streicker Center is scheduled to host “An Evening with Wolf Blitzer.”


    2018: The Center for Jewish History and YIVO Institute are scheduled to host the opening of the exhibition of “Jews in Space: Members of the Tribe in Orbit.”


    2018: The Temple Emanu-El Streicker Center is scheduled to host “An Evening with Israeli Master-Mentalist Lior Suchard.”


    2018: “Prayer” is scheduled to be the topic for the interdenominational scripture discussion group co-sponsored by the Oxford University Jewish Society.


    2018: The Jewish Women’s Group is scheduled to celebrate Purim at the Brody Center at the University of Virginia.


     


     


     


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    February 27


    272:  Birthdate of Constantine the Great, Roman Emperor from 306 to 337.  Constantine adopted Christianity as the state religion for the Roman Empire which marked a turning point (negative) for the Jews of Europe.[ There is plenty of agreement that Constantine was born on February 27 but there is not agreement on the year.  It ranges from 272 to 289]


    380: Theodosius I, Gratian, and Valentinian II jointly issued The Edict of Thessalonica which made Christianity the state religion of the Roman Empire.


    1514: King Sigismund I appointed Michael Yosefovich “senior” of all Lithuanian Jews


    1562: Pius IV issued Dudum e felicis recordationis, a papal bull that confirmed the papal bulls of Paul IV including those that put restrictions on where Jews could live and how they could earn a living.


     1670: Leopold I ordered the Jews expelled from Austria.


    1680: Seventy-nine year old Puritan theologian Thomas Goodwin the author of Moses and Aaron: Civil and Ecclesiastical Rites, Used by the Ancient Hebrews passed away today.

    https://archive.org/details/mosesandaaronci00goodgoog



    1717: Birthdate of German bible scholar Johann David Michaelis one of whose “dissertations was a defense of the antiquity and divine authority of the vowel points in Hebrew.”


    1719: In London, Moses Raphael Levy, a native of Germany and Grace Mears, a native of Jamaica gave birth to Rachel Franks Levy, the wife of Isaac Mendes Seixas.


    1755: Birthdate of Shalom Ullman, the Hungarian born rabbi and Talmudist whose son and grandson followed in his footsteps by serving as rabbis at Lackenbach.


    1771: “Mr. Isaac De Peza presented the Synagogue in Barbados with 6 Silver Purim Cups.


    1790: Birthdate of Sara Ballin who was buried at the Hosens Jewish Cemetery in Denmark when she passed away in 1876.


    1799: Birthdate of Frederick Catherwood the English artist architect.  In 1833, he made a detailed survey of the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem.  He probably was the first westerner since the days of the crusades to have access to this shrine which is located on the Temple Mount.  Catherwood was one of a veritable army of English visitors to “the holy land” who helped to excavate and map the area in the 19th century.


    1801: Pursuant to the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801, Washington, D.C. is placed under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Congress. “The first recorded Jewish resident of the city was Isaac Polock. He arrived in 1795. Polock, a grandson of a founder of the Newport, Rhode Island synagogue, was a small time real estate developer. He built a number of fine homes along present day Pennsylvania Ave. An early renter of one of Polock's houses and his neighbor was James Madison, a later President.”  Major Alfred Mordecai was another of D.C.’s first Jewish residents. The North Carolina native entered West Point at the age of 15 and was in the first graduating class when he completed his studies in 1823.  Mordecai came to Washington in 1828 where he served as the commander of the Washington Arsenal. Washington Hebrew Congregation founded in 1852 was the city’s first Jewish Congregation.  Adas Israel, which was originally founded as an Orthodox synagogue in 1869 received a donation from President Grant for its building fund. The congregation later switched to the Conservative movement.  Today the downtown location of Adas Israel is remembered as the Historic 6th& amp; I Synagogue.  For me, the synagogue at 6th& I was the place in the late 1940’s and 1950’s where I went for my first Simchat Torah Services, my first Megillah readings and a whole lot more.  The synagogue at 5th& amp; I was famous because Al Jolson’s father had been its cantor and Jolson sang their as a little boy.  Adas Israel moved to its Connecticut and Porter where it remains today. During the 1950’s Ambassador Eban spoke from its pulpit on more than one occasion much to the congregation’s joy and delight.  For more about the history of the Jewish community in Washington you might want to look at the website of the Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington.


    1805(28th of Adar I, 5565): Naphtali Herz (Hartwig) Wessely passed away. Born in Hamburg in 1725, he “was a 18th-century German Jewish Hebraist and educationist born at Hamburg.”


    1807: In Portland, Maine Zilpah Wadsworth Longfellow and Stephen Longfellow gave birth to Henry Wadsworth Longfellow the poet famed for such famous poetic works as “Paul Revere’s Ride” and “Evangeline” as well as “Judas Maccabaeus”  an 1872 five-act verse tragedy a Hebrew version of which  was published in 1900.

    1811: In Charleston, SC, Mr. Solomon Hyams officiated at the wedding of Montague Jackson to Hannah Hyams.


    1821: Birthdate of Selig Cassel, the brother of Jewish historian and author David Cassel, who converted and became Paulus Stephanus Cassel who was then able to further his academic career as well as taking on the role of being a missionary trying to convert other Jews.


    1827(30th of Shevat, 5587): Rosh Chodesh Adar


    1827(30th of Shevat, 5587): Samuel Marx, the chief rabbi of Trier and an uncle of Karl Marx passed away today.


    1831(14th of Adar, 5591): Purim


    1831(14th of Adar, 5591): “Austrian historian and educator” Adolf Beer passed away today.


    1841: In the Netherlands Eliezer Eduard Hirschel Kann and Hyacintha Kann gave birth to Livia Amalia Kann.


    1844: The Dominican Republic (then known as Santa Domingo) on the island of Hispaniola gained its independence from Haiti.  During the 16th and 17thcentury Sephardic merchants settled on the island, many of them coming from Curaco. “The oldest Jewish grave (on the island) is dated 1826.”  Jews of this period assimilated into the general population and lost their identity.  In the 1930’s the Dominican Republic became a haven for Jews escaping Hitler’s Europe and most of today’s vibrant Jewish community traces its origins to this period.


    1844: Birthdate of Moses Ha-Levi Horowitz, the Romanian born Yiddish actor and playwright who came to the United States in 1882 where he was known as the famous Morris Horowitz.

    1845: A “Reise-Pass” was issued to Bernhard Behrend today which he was required to carry with him at all times as he traveled “from his native Rodenberg to Frankfurt

    1846; “In Darmstadt-Eberstadt, Hesse-Darmstadt, Germany, Emanuel Bamberger and the former Helen Fleisch gave birth to  Simon Bamberger, “the fourth Governor of the state of Utah who was the first non-Mormon, the first Democrat and the first (and so far only) Jew to hold this post.

    1847: Birthdate of English actress Ellen Terry, whose portrayal of Portia in the Merchant of Venice was one of her signature role.  She performed with Sir Henry Irving whose greatest dramatic success came with his performances in “The Bells.”


    1852: Benjamin Disraeli began serving as Chancellor of the Exchequer for  the first of three times which also meant that he was the leader of the Tories in the House of Commons


    1853(19th of Adar I, 5613): Sixty-eight year old Jacob Aaron passed away in London.


    1855: A concert designed to raise funds for the Hebrew Benevolent Society is scheduled to be held today.


    1856: Estra (Therese) Wiesner and Rabbi Jonas Wiesner gave birth to Emilie Wiesner.


    1856: Adolphe Salomon married Esther Russell today in the United Kingdom.


    1859: Birthdate of Bertha Pappenheim “the founder of the Jüdischer Frauenbund (League of Jewish Women).”


    1861(17th of Adar): Rabbi David Tevele ben Moses of Minks author of Bet David passed away today


    1861: In Frankfurt, Selig Meir Goldschmidt and Clementine Fuld, the daughter of Herz Salomon Fuld and Caroline Schuster gave birth to Hedwig Goldschmidt who after her marriage was known as Hedwig Cramer.


    1864(20th of Adar I, 5624): Chaia Basia, the daughter of Rabbi Yehoshua Usher Rabinowicz of Parysow passed away.


    1865(1st of Adar, 5625): Rosh Chodesh Adar


    1865: Birthdate of Jacques Mieses, the native of Leipzig who became a journalist and world-class chess champion.


    1865: Birthdate of Armand Bloch, the native of Strasbourg who was the grandson of Rabbi Moses Bloch known as of 'Hokhom (the Wise) of Uttenheim, who served in a variety of rabbinic and communal roles in France and Algeria. In 1931, the French government named him as Chevialier of the Legion of Honor in recognition of his service to his co-religionists and his country.


    1868: Benjamin Disraeli begins serving as Prime Minister for the first time.


    1870: In New York City, James (Jacob) Seligman, the son of Fanny and David Seligman, and Rosa Seligman gave birth to Fleurette Guggenheim, the future wife of Wife of Benjamin Guggenheim


    1870: The Chicago Tribune reported that the Constitutional Convention will not be amending the Illinois State Convention mandating a day of the week for observing the Sabbath.  The Jews and the Seventh Day Adventists had petitioned the convention include a provision making the 7th day of the week the Sabbath.  Since this would be based on the 4th commandment of the Decalogue, the biblical source would make it more likely that the populace would enjoy a day of rest. Other groups wanted to disregard the literal biblical reading and follow the first day of rest practice.  Rather than offend any group, the committee hearing the matter decided the convention should take no action.


    1871: In Newark, NJ, the Ladies’ Temple Association opened a grand fair at Turn Hall.  The fair is scheduled to be open for the next four nights and is a fund-raiser for the Temple on Washington Street.


    1873: A national convention of those who want to amend the U.S. Constitution so that it will state that the United States is a Christian nation met today in Pittsburgh, PA.  There were 500 people at the opening session and more than a thousand attending the evening session.  Attendees claim that their move is part of a fight against atheism, something that Catholics and Jews of the time might have found difficult to believe.


    1873: In New York, Isaac and Adeline Phillips gave birth to portrait painter J. Campbell Phillips whose last work was a portrait of his cousin Bernard Baruch completed just two months before his death in 1948.

    1874: It was reported today that the annual Purim reception at the Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews in New York will be held on March 1st and 2nd.


    1874: Birthdate of Dr. David Nunes Nabarro, the son of London merchant who became President of the Medical Society for the Study of Venereal Diseases, President of the Association of Clinical Pathologists and President of the London Jewish Hospital Medical Society.

    1877(14th of Adar, 5637): Purim


    1877: The Young Men’s Hebrew Association hosted a Purim Ball this evening at Cooper Hall in Jersey City, New Jersey.


    1877: Birthdate of Chaim Mordechai Rumkowski “the head of the Council of Eldgers in the Lodz Ghetto who was murdered at Auschwitz in 1944.


    1878: The parents of Lucy Shereck, a young Jewess, “wept bitterly” as they watched the baptism of their daughter at the Marcey Avenue Baptist Church.


    1879: Constantine Fahlberg discovered the artificial sweetener saccharine which Ellen Glotz described in The Accidental Epicure.


    1880(15th of Adar, 5640): Shushan Purim


    1880: Over 4,000 people attended the fancy dress ball given by the Purim Association at the Academy of Music. This year’s annual event raised an estimated $18,000 for Mount Sinai Hospital.


    1880: It was reported today that “the war which has for some time raged in Germany between the natives and the Jews, seems to increase rather than to diminish…The crime of the Jews appears to be…their financial prosperity.” “If the Jews in Germany were poor, they would not be attacked.”  But many of them are very rich “and this is their offense.” [Editor’s note – this is fifty years before Hitler came to power]


    1881: It was reported today that the second edition of the “History of Egypt Under the Pharaohs” by Dr. Henry Brugsch-Bey is now available.  The description of the Exodus presented in this edition is one of the many improvements made in this edition. In a special preface to the new volume, Brugsh-Gey claims that he bases his description of the change in direction taken by the Jews on “contemporary records and the evidence of the Egyptian monuments” to establish “the veracity of the scriptural record.”  He also co-authored “The True Story of the Exodus of Israel: Together with a Brief Review of the History of Monumental Egypt” with Francis Henry Underwood.


    1882: In Hudson, Mass., Mary Elizabeth Rice (née Tyler) and Asa Leonard Wheeler, gave birth to Burton K. Wheeler, the U.S. Senator from Montana who in 1936 “said that anti-Semitism has not only gained a foothold in European countries like Germany, Poland, Rumania, Austria and Hungary, but has been imported in the Western Hemisphere by Mexico, Brazil and Ecuador” and that the “capacity for persecution” as embodied in anti-Semitism is not “foreign to American soil.”


    1882: A review of “The Electorate and the Legislature” by Spencer Walpole, one of a series of books on the rights and responsibilities of an English Citizen, published today notes that “The House of commons kept one of the members elected for the city of London out of his seat for 11 years because he was a Jew.” This was based on the “historic intolerance and prejudice” of the Commons and its members which has not been fully overcome.


    1883:Oscar Hammerstein patented the 1st cigar-rolling machine


    1883(20th of Adar I, 5643): Sixty-two year old Julius Stern co-founder of the Stern Conservatory and conductor of the Berlin Symphony Orchestra from 1869 to 1871 passed away today.


    1885: In Dublin “Maurice Solomons, an optician who practice is mentioned in Ulysses and his wife gave birth to Dr. Bethel Solomons who played rugby for Ireland was a “supporter of the 1916 Rising.” 

    1888: In Xenia, Ohio, Bernhard Schlesinger, a Prussian Jew and Kate Feurle, an Austrian Catholic gave birth to historian Arthur Meir Schlesinger, the Harvard professor who was the father of historian and Kennedy aficionado Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr.

    1888: Birthdate of Lotte Lehman German opera star who eventually moved to the United States and became known for the foundation in her name.  Lehman was not Jewish.  But her stepchildren (on their mother’s side) were Jewish.  When Hitler marched into Austria, Lehman got the children out, moved them to Paris and eventually brought all of them to the United States. 


    1889: In Soroki, Bessarabia, Mindel and Yechiel Bronfman gave birth to Samuel Bonfaman founder of Distillers Corporation Limited which was renamed Seagram Co., Ltd whose products included Dewars scotch and a leader of the Canadian Jewish committee.


    1891: Birthdate of David Sarnoff.  Born in Russia, Sarnoff became the head of R.C.A. and N.B.C.


    1891: It was reported today that the Purim Association raised $15,000 at its annual ball which it will donate to the United Hebrew Charities.


    1892(30th of Shevat, 5652): Rosh Chodesh Adar


    1892(30th of Shevat, 5652): Seventy-three year old Chazan Moritz German passed away in Bresalua


    1893: “Coming Exodus of Russian Jews” published today compared the doubling of the Jewish population in the United Kingdom over the last twenty years to the projected redoubling of that number in only another five years because of the mass migration of Jews from the lands of the Czar due to their cruel treatment.


    1895: “Elsie Leslie’s Little Guests” published today described an afternoon at the theatre enjoyed by several hundred Jewish children who saw “The Prince and the Pauper” who were there as guest of the famous child actress.  As a sign of their appreciation they gave her an a bag which was elegantly embroidered with her initials – “E.L.L.”


    1895: A debate opened in the Reichstag today over a motion to restrict the immigration of Jews from Russia and Austria.


    1895: A large number of prominent Jewish citizens attended “the third reception for the season of the Young Ladies’ and Gentlemen’s League of the Montefiore Home took place this evening at Carnegie Hall.


    1895: Rabbi Joseph Silverman of Temple Emanu-El delivered a speech tonight entitled “Charity” in which he said that charity was “the language of the heart…the very poetry religion.”  “The Jewish sages of old had said that the world existed on three pillars – education, religion and charity.  Some might be willing to strike of education, others would be willing to strike of religion and even some would go so far as to strike off both religion and education, but where is the man who would be willing to strike off the pillar of charity?”


    1897: A visit to “the Hebrew theatres” was included in the tour of the Lower East Side slums by a group of Yale University divinity students which was followed by a symposium on the methods of organized charities that included Nathaniel S. Rosenthal of the United Hebrew Charities.


    1898: “Jews Defended In Reichstag” described the debate during which “deprecated the promotion of Jews to the rank of officers and surgeons, on the ground of their ‘un-soldier like spirit.’” Herr Eugene “Richter vigorously repudiate this” He said that during the war with France in 1870,83 Jewish soldiers received the Iron Cross and 36 of the 70 Jewish surgeons received the same decoration.  General Heinrich von Gossler, the Minister of War, defended the Jews against the false accusation that they had sold defective rifles to the government.


    1899: “A Bible Story Up To Date” published today described Abraham Gruber’s updated version of the Purim story which equated the behavior of Haman with anti-Dreyfus forces in France and the European bigots who falsely claim that Jews have their own laws which makes them disloyal of whatever country they are living in.


    1899: In his on-going attempt to create a Jewish homeland, Herzl meets with Grossherzog Friedrich of Baden in Karlsruhe. He offers the Grossherzog the protectorate over the land company and requests another audience with the Kaiser. Herzl receives a recommendation to the Deutsche Bank in Berlin to act as a subscription agency for the Jewish Colonial Bank.


    1902: In London, a group of Zionists formed the Anglo Palestine Company which became the Bank Leumi.


    1903: In Pruzhany, Rabbi Moshe Soloveichik and Pesya Feinstein, the daughter of Rabbi Elihyahu Feinstein gave birth to Rabbi Joseph Ber Soloveitchik.





    1906: As the Russian rulers issued an “imperial ukase” calling for the first meeting a Russian Parliament, some Jewish leaders have decided to form a political party and participate in the elections for members of this National Assembly.


    1907: Jockey Walter Miller, the native of Brooklyn born in 1890 who rode his first race at the age of 14 and passed away in 1959 after having rode 1,094 winners, today road “winners in all vie races at Oakland Race Course.”


    1908: Zionist leader Arthur Ruppin delivered an address to the Jewish Colonization of Vienna.


     1911: Twenty-four year old Matt Wells fought a twenty round bout at the National Sporting Club in London “to win the lightweight championship of Great Britain and take home the Lonsdale Belt.”


    1913: In Brooklyn, “hat-trimming salesman” William Shamforoff and his wife Rose gave birth to Irwin Gilbert Shamorfoff who gained fame as author Irwin Shaw two of whose most  famous works were The Young Lions, a novel about World War II that became a popular movie and Rich Man, Poor Man, a saga about department store tycoon that provided the basis for a television mini-series of the same name.

    1916: “Dr. Stephen S. Wise spoke at the Free Synagogue” this morning on ‘Marriage and After,’ the fourth of his series of addresses on the deeper things of life”


    1916: “The twenty-fifth anniversary of the founding of the Temple Israel Sisterhood of Personal Service was formally observed” this evening.


    1916: Prior to Mark “Sykes’s departure to meet the Russian Foreign Minister in Petrograd today, Sir Herbert Samuel approached Sykes with “a plan in the form of a memorandum” concerning Palestine which later led Sykes to write to Samuel “suggesting that if Belgium should assume the administration of Palestine it might be more acceptable to France as an alternative to the international administration which France wanted and the Zionists did not.


    1916: “E.M. Newman of Chicago delivered he first of his illustrated lectures for the current season at Carnegie Hall” tonight.


    1916: The Morris Loeb Memorial Building and the Joseph B. Bloomingdale Memorial Auditorium were formally dedicated today during “the annual meeting of the Hebrew Technical Institute.


    1916:  During his speech this afternoon at the annual meeting of the Young Women’s Hebrew Association, Dr. Cyrus Adler “said he did not altogether approve of young women soliciting for the relief funds on the street in the manner exhibited” during “tag day.”


    1916: At today’s annual meeting of The Widowed Mothers’ Fund Association, Mrs. William Einstein, the President “made a plea against ‘machine ready’ charity.”


    1916: “The new Hebrew Technical Institute” was dedicated today in New York


    1916: This afternoon, “at the annual meeting of the Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society…President Sanders announced that Jacob H. Schiff had donated $25,000 to the organization as the nucleus of a fund with which to erect a new building” to help the society meet its increased needs.


    1917: The Russian Revolution broke out in Petrograd. After three years of ruinous war the old regime collapsed. By March a provisional government under Kerensky was set up. During the ensuing revolution, the Jews were caught in the middle. Much of the conflict centered around the south and west where over 3 million Jews lived. It is estimated that over 2000 pogroms took place, especially in the Ukraine, leading to the death of 100,000-200,000 Jews within the next 3 years.


    1917: Three days after defeating the Ottomans at Kut, the British forces under Frederick Stanley Maude arrived at Aziziyah on their way to Baghdad with all that this will mean to creation of what we have come to call the modern “Middle East.”


    1917: Assemblyman Nathan D. Pearlman sponsored a bill today in the New York State legislature to allow New York City “to buy and sell food” “as an emergency measure” to relieve shortages,


    1918: “A dinner,” attended by “officers of the British Recruiting Mission and many rabbis” “for the 150 Jewish soldiers in the battalion recruited for service in Palestine was given at the Hotel Imperial tonight by the Zionist Lunch Club.”


    1918: Morris Weinberg, the publisher of the Day announced that in the future, the Day and the Warheit would appear as one publication, Day-Warheit.


    1919: During the Versailles Peace Conference, today the Dr. Weizmann, Nahum Sokolow, Professor Sylvain Levi of the College of France, Andre Spire of the French Zionist organization and Mr. Syzsyahkin representing the Jews of Russia presented their case before the Supreme Council which at a “minimum” called for the “establishment of communities Palestine and guarantee of special rights and sovereignty for these communities” and which at a “maximum” called :for the creation of a Jewish state in order that the Jews may have a national home where they can live in peace.”


    1921: “On a farm in Calgary, Alberta, Samuel and Zelda Cohen gave birth to “Morton Cohen, a scholar of Victorian literature.” (As reported by Richard Sandomir)

    1922: Psychoanalyst Ernest Jones and his wife gave birth to Mervyn Jones the British author whose works included Joseph, a fictional tale based on the life of Stalin.


    1925:  Birthdate of Sam Dash.  The Georgetown Law Professor would gain fame as the Chief Counsel for the House Judiciary Committee during the Watergate Scandal.


    1926(1