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A collection of Jewish history and current Jewish events, in date format, updated daily in this Jewish history blog.

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    JUNE 19

    325: Promulgation of the Nicene Creed. The creed dealt with various splits among the various Christian groups and only dealt in a tangential manner with matters pertaining to Jews. The creed altered the method for selecting the date of Easter.  The change did not ban Easter from ever falling on the first day of Passover.  This change would be centuries away from being adopted. But by adopting even this change, the early Christian leaders showed the need to work very hard at separating their religion from Judaism.

    1269: Louis IX (Saint Louis) of France, needing no urging from the Church, ordered all Jews found in public without a badge (yellow or red) to be fined ten livres of silver. The badge in France was usually a circle of red or yellow material and was known as a rouelle. The original badge was actually Moslem in origin (Caliph Omar II (717-20)) who decreed that both Jews and Christians wear a distinguishing mark. The "badge" took on different shapes colors and even dress (i.e. a hat or color of a dress) depending on the country.

    1269: “King Louis IX of France …decrees that Jews found in public without a special badge will be fined ten livres of silver. Normally worn on the breast, the Jewish badge is either yellow or red and is designed to warn Christians when they are dealing with or simply near a Jew. Local officials around France repeat the requirement to better enforce the public segregation of Jews in this manner. The badges themselves are sold by the crown, so the government benefits financially two ways: first by selling them, and second by the fines when they aren't worn. (As reported by Austin Cline)

    1286: Rabbi Meir of Rothenburg was imprisoned in a castle in Alsace, Lombardy.  At the time of his imprisonment, Reb Meir and his followers were trying to leave Germany following a new wave of persecution brought by Rudolph I.  “Tradition has it that a large ransom of 23,000 marks (approximately 15,144,900 U.S dollars today) was raised for him (by the ROSH), but Rabbi Meir refused it, for fear of encouraging the imprisonment of other rabbis. He died in prison after seven years. 14 years after his death a ransom was paid for his body by Alexander ben Shlomo (Susskind) Wimpen, who was subsequently laid to rest beside the Maharam.”  Reb Meir was also known by the term Maharam.  His erudition and piety earned him the appellation, ‘Light of the Exile.’ Meir was a leading commentator on Rashi’s explanations of the Talmud.  Such was his reputation that Ashkenazi communities in Italy, France and Germany looked to him for guidance when questions of law and/or custom arose.

    1320: John XXII issued “Cum sit absurdum” a Papal Bull that stated that “Converted Jews need not be despoiled.”

    1338: “In recognition of the good-will shown by the citizens of Vienna in time of distress, and in anticipation of its continuance, the Jews declared, in a document written in Hebrew and dated today in Vienna that they would lend to the citizens of Vienna, rich as well as poor, a pound of Vienna heller at a weekly interest of three heller.”

    1565: Fifty year old Viennese cartographer Wolfgang Lazius who “suggested that after Babel the earliest Hebrews had migrated from Mesopotamia to German” and who found evidence of Hebrew in European languages passed away today.

    1623: Birthdate of French mathematician and philosopher Blaise Pascal.  Of the Jewish people Pascal wrote, “It is certain that in certain parts of the world we can see a peculiar people, separated from the other peoples of the world and this is called the Jewish people…. This people is not only of remarkable antiquity but has also lasted for a singularly long time… For where as the people of Greece and Italy, of Sparta, Athens and Rome and others who came so much later have perished so long ago, these still exist, despite the efforts of so many powerful kings who have tried a hundred times to wipe them out, as their historians testify, and as can easily be judged by the natural order of things over such a long spell of years. They have always been preserved, however, and their preservation was foretold… My encounter with this people amazes me…."

    1630: After having “issued the first letter of safe passage to a Jew whose name was Albert Dionis in 1619, he granted general amnesty “to all Jews permanently in residence in Glückstadt” which was then part of Denmark as well as the “right to travel freely throughout the Kingdom of Denmark which at that time included what is now Norway.

    1747: Nāder Shāh Afshār, the founder of the Afsharid dynasty, passed away. During his reign he reversed the anti-Jewish policies and practices that had been put in place by the Safawid’s dynasty which had ruled during the previous century.

    1768: At Uman, the Haidamak Army under the command of Maksym Zalizniak slaughtered thousands of Jews in the Gonta Massacres.  The slaughter came at the end of the siege of Uman in which Ivan Gonta had betrayed the Polish garrison which led to its defeat.  The Polish commandment had tried to “buy the lives” of the Poles by giving up the Jews; a ploy that failed.  Led by Leib Shargorodoski and Moses Menaker, the Jews put up a valiant but futile defense.  The number of dead Jews which totaled more than 2,000 was inflated by the number of refugees who had sought refuge in the town.

    1772: Birthdate of Salomon Oppehneim Jr. the German Jewish banker from Bonn who at the age of 17 founded a “commissions and exchange house” that became Sal. Oppenheim Company.

    1778: R’ Asher Gunzburg and Gitlé Loëw gave birth to Fogel Loew

    1790: The Gazette of the United States, a newspaper published in New York City provides an account of correspondence between the Hebrew Congregation of Savannah, Georgia and the newly elected President of the United States, George Washington.  Washington’s letter to the Georgia Jews ends with the following sentiments. “May the same wonder-working Deity, who long since delivered Hebrews from their Egyptian oppressors, planted them in a promised land, whose providential agency has lately been conspicuous in establishing these United States as an independent nation, still continue to water them with the dews of heaven and make the inhabitants of every denomination participated in the temporal and spiritual blessings of that people whose God is Jehovah.”

    1790(7th of Tammuz, 5550): Saul Lowenstam “a renowned Dutch rabbi and Talmudist” passed away.  Born at Rzeszów in 1717 he was the son of Rabbi Areyh Leib ben Saul, the son-in-law of Rabbi Abraham Kahana and the father of Rabbi Jacob Moses Lowenstam. His writings included Binyan Ariel and a Torah Commentary, HeChatzer HaChadasha.

    1792(29th of Sivan, 5552): Eighteen month old Heba bat Jacob Levi passed away today in the United Kingdom.

    1800: Abraham Michel married Leah Isaacs at the Great Synagogue in the United Kingdom.

    1805: Joseph Hart married Lee Clara at the New Synagogue in the United Kingdom.

    1810: Birthdate of Hamburg native Ferdinand David, “the violin virtuoso and composer” who was born in the same house where Felix Mendelssohn had been born a year earlier.

    1812: A day after Madison signed the congressional resolution declaring war on Great Britain, the public learned that the War of 1812 which resulted in Isaac Minis the son of Philip and Judith Minis serving as a private in a company of artillery that was part of the 1st Regiment of the Georgia Militia had begun.

    1816: A year and a day after Wellington’s victory at Waterloo, Abraham Henry married Emma Lyon at the Hambro Synagogue.

    1822: Aaron Hart married Rosa Harris at the Hambro Synagogue.

    1826: Birthdate of Charles Loring Brace, author of The Unknown God; Or Inspiration Among Pre-Christian Races in which the author is impressed by the fact that there that are “so few evidences of Egyptian influence are found in the Hebrew faith.”  The thinkers and teachers of the Jews were visited by those higher and purer inspirations which have made them the greatest benefactors of mankind in ancient history.

    1832: Birthdate of Frédéric Emile Baron d’Erlanger, the French banker whose family converted to Christianity.  Despite the family’s conversion, the Baron is often erroneously identified as being Jewish. Erlanger created one of the earliest “junk bonds” based on the cotton trade during the Civil War.  This has led to other incorrect reports that Jews were responsible for financing the Confederacy’s war effort.

    1843(21st of Sivan, 5603): Sixty-year old Austrian author and philosopher Ignaz Jeiteles who was working on a history of literature when he passed away today in Vienna.

    1844: “The Rabbinical Conference of Brunswick “convoked by Levi Herzfeld and Ludwig Philippson” whose attendees included Solomon Formstecher, Samuel Hirsch, Mendel Hess, and Samuel Holdheim came to an end today.

    1844: Moses Botibol married Jessie Myers at the Bevis Marks Synagogue.

    1846: In London, Elias Benjamin and Mary Lazarus gave birth to Benjamin Raphael educated at Jews’ Free School in London who earned a doctorate of Jewish Law for Australia in 1874 and served as the rabbi at the Melbourne Hebrew Congregation, Mound Street Temple in Cincinnati and the Fifteenth Street Temple in New York City before becoming the Associate Rabbi of Temple Beth Elohim at Brooklyn, NY in 1902.

    1854: Birthdate of Jonas Kuppenheimer.  A native of Terre Haute, Indiana, Kuppenheimer, his father Bernard and his brothers Louise and Albert moved to Chicago in 1870 where they established a clothing store that became one of the major men’s clothing brands in the United States.  He passed away in 1921.

    1857: The correspondent for the New York Times writes from London that the second reading of the Jew Bill has passed by an immense majority. Furthermore, the opposition seems to be waning and Rothschild is on his way to becoming “a Parliamentary saint” as opposed to an “unparliamentary martyr.”

    1867: Ruthless beat out DeCourcey by a head over the old Jerome Park Racetrack to win the inaugural running of the Belmont Stakes and financed by August Belmont, Sr. for whom the race was named financed the building of the track.  The Belmont Stakes would move to its current home, Belmont Park, in 1905.

    1871: In Nebraska, Edward Rosewater, a Jewish immigrant who supported abolition and served as a telegrapher in the Union Army published the first edition of the Omaha Bee

    1877(8thof Tammuz, 5637): Rebbe Meir Horowitz of Dzhikov, the son of Rebbe Eliezer Horowitz of Dzhikov and the grandson of Rebbe Nattaliz Tzvi passed away today.

    1877: As word of Judge Hilton’s decision to bar Joseph Seligman from the Grand Union Hotel because he was Jewish spread across the United States, hotel proprietors in Philadelphia said that banning patrons because they were Jewish was wrong.  Looking at it from strictly a financial point of view, they all agree that the money of “an Israelite” is as good as that “of a full-fledged American.”  Both Mr. Kingsley of the Continental and Mr. Ward of St. George, leading Philadelphia hotels, have had Seligman as a guest and would gladly do so again. While Judge Hilton’s action might have been permissible in New York, in Pennsylvania it would have been illegal.  Under that state’s law, hotel owners have to obtain a license that allows them “keep a hotel, inn or tavern and under the provisions of that license he cannot turn away any person from his hotel, unless he knows that such persons will cause great loss to his house and then he holds himself liable to a fine of $300 and three months imprisonment” as well as a suit for damages from the people who were denied rooms.

    1877: At the popular resort of Long Branch, NJ, several hotel owners expressed their surprise that Joseph Seligman had been turned away from the Grand Union.  Even though he is Jewish, the hotel owners, some of whom had had him as a guest, said that he was a desirable guest.  However, many of them expressed the opinion that they did not want Jews staying at their hotels and were sympathetic with the stance taken by Judge Hilton.

    1877: According to Edward Lauterbach, the attorney for Joseph Seligman, as of today hundreds of Jews have closed their accounts at the two stores owned by A.T. Stewart & Co which are controlled by Judge Hilton. This is but one example of Jewish support for Seligman whom Lauterbach declared is the leading Jew in the United States and is proudly acknowledged as such by his co-religionists.  Lauterbach said that Seligman might also pursue a case under the Civil Rights Law which would leave Hilton open to fines and imprisonment.

    1877: The arrival of today’s New York Times at Saratoga Spring this afternoon has caused quite a stir with its report of the dispute between Judge Hilton and Joseph Seligman over the latter’s claim that he was not allowed to rent rooms at the Grand Union because he was Jewish.

    1878: Birthdate of Yakov Mikhaylovich Yurovsky, the Bolshevik leader that some credit with overseeing the execution of the Czar after the Russian Revolution.

    1879: The London News published an article describing the terms of the will of the late Baron Lionel de Rothschild.  The estate is valued to at 2,700,000 pounds. Sir Nathaniel de Rothschild and Mr. Alfred de Rothschild, the late Baron’s two sons, have been named as executors. 

    1880: It was reported today that Sarah Bernhardt has signed a contract to give 60 performances at Booth’s Theatre in New York next winter. The contract calls for her to be paid 3,000 francs a night, one-third of the gross receipts, traveling expenses for herself and three companions and 3,000 francs a month for her hotel bill.  According to the great actress, she has had more lucrative offers but she accepted this because the 200,000 francs has been deposited at the Banque de France as a security bond.

    1882: It was reported today that the United States manager for Sarah Bernhardt has signed a contract with Henry Irving the actor/owner of London’s Lyceum Company to perform their full repertoire during an American tour.  Among other things, American audiences will be treated to The Merchant of Venice featuring Ellen Terry in her famed portrayal of Portia and Irving’s unique portrayal of Shylock.  His dignified portrayal of Shakespeare’s most famous Jewish character is a departure from the norm of his time.

    1882: “The Polish Jewish Colony” published today provided a detailed sketch of life among the Jews living on New York’s lower east side.

    1883: The Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society was among the private institutions devoted to the care of children that received a grant of funds from the Board of Estimate and Apportionment in New York City. The society received $1,810 out of a total of $30,255 in grants.

    1884:Dr. Henry W. Schneeberger a Baltimore Rabbi was one of four people who signed a letter today addressed “to Sir Moses Montefiore, thanking him for his aid to the Russian Jews who had found a refuge in Baltimore. The letter continued to advise Montefiore that the Russian Jewish immigrants had established a school in honor of their benefactor. Dr. Schneeberger was one of the teachers in this school - teaching the immigrants in the daytime and also at night. Dr. Schneeberger also became their mentor in advising the Russian Jewish immigrants to become good American citizens and he cautioned against the radicalism of some in their midst.”

    1884: After a rumor circulated through certain parts of the Russian city of Nizhny Novgorod that a Jew had kidnapped a Christian child and taken it to a synagogue, a mob attacked the synagogue. During the riot 9 Jews were killed, six houses were wrecked and an untold number were plundered.

    1886: Birthdate of Michael (Mihály) Fekete the Hungarian mathematician who made Aliyah in 1928 where he “was among the first instructors in the Institute of Mathematics at Hebrew University of Jersualem.

    1886: The Manchester Guardian reported that the Visiting Committee of the Hebrew Congregations of Manchester and Liverpool has affected a "closer union between the Sephardic and Ashkenazic sections of the Jewish community."

    1889: William E. Annin, the associate editor of the Omaha Bee wrote the following description today of Edward Rosewater, the Czech born Jew who was “the editor and publisher of the Omaha Bee.”

    "Mr. Rosewater was par excellence the all-around man of the [Bee] establishment. He seemed to have obtained the secret of two of the attributes of Deity, he was omnipresent and apparently omniscient. He wrote heavy editorials and pungent editorial paragraphs; contributed local political news to the city page, clipped selections for the news columns, selected items for those startling chestnuts dubbed 'Connubial Bliss,''Peppermint Drops' and 'Honey for the Ladies,' regulated the business office a dozen times a day, and took subscriptions on the streets and advertising contracts from the merchants. I used to think his only sorrow was that he had not in addition been born a steam engine so that he could run the presses. . . "In addition to his ordinary duties above named, he constantly developed strong interest in local politics, and always had a dozen fights and twice that number of ward politicians on his hands. On city or county election days, The Bee office was usually depopulated and every man, from editor down, after rushing in copy, early took a whirl at the polls. After a hard day's work on election day, followed by an all night session in collecting returns, the editor would bob up serenely at 9 o'clock the next morning with his arm full of exchanges and his mouth full of suggestions about the paper, . . ."His indomitable energy, his uncompromising persistency and his invincible pluck were at once the wonder and admiration of the office. . . . Overworked himself, he took his own high tension as the norm of work, and found it difficult to understand why all of his employees could not endure cheerfully the same racking. This made him often very unpleasant as an employer

    1890: Police officers Oram and English waited in vain for “a short, stout, red whiskered Polish Jew” named Marcus Goldstein to come to the Gill Engraving printing where he was supposed to retrieve plates for making lottery tickets that were thought to be part of counterfeiting scheme. (more tomorrow)

    1891: It was reported today that applications for the summer session The Hebrew Technical Institute under the direction of Henry Leipziger may be made now at its building on Stuyvesant Street.

    1891: The list of the graduates from Hebrew Technical Institute published today included Coleman Borwn, Jacob Brown, Joseph Elias, Morris Farkas, Joseph L. Gensler, Louis Gevertz, Arthur Gross, Philip Levenhal, Michale L. Levy, Marks Lisk, Joseph Mayer, Max Mayer, Mortimer L Newman, Hyman Rosensohn, Abraham Saruya, Rduolph Shack, August Schweitzer and Jacob Szabo.

    1892: “Austrian Jew Baiters Thrashed” published today described an episode at Vienna’s Prater Restaurant, witnessed by a correspondent from the London Daily News during which three “Jew baiters” were thrashed by “a beardless youth” after enduring their taunts in silence. It turned out the young man was not Jewish but was in fact an English jockey who had several races at Vienna.

    1892: It was reported today that Sarah “Bernhardt continues to play to big audiences in which is proving the most success of all her London seasons.

    1892: “Rejected at the Theatre Francais” published today includes a negative review of Le Prince d'Aurec, a satire on the nobility by Henri Lavedan that features a Jewish banker named de Horn as the villain.

    1893: Henry Gottgetreu, the attorney for the late Samuel Adler, spoke of behalf of himself and the family when he denied any knowledge of financial problems that Adler had been facing since they assumed that his “fortune” was “at least a quarter of a million dollars.” Mr. Adler had been active in a number of Jewish organizations including the Sons of Israel, the Sons of Benjamin and B’nai B’rith.

    1893: “Hebrew Printers at Odds” published today described conflict between Jews workers including a declaration by the Central Labor Federation that “the Hebrew Typographical Union was the only true Hebrew printing union in New York” and a denunciation of the “Hebrew Typographical Union No. 317 as shoemakers, tailors and cloakmakers organized to fight Socialism.” (This small item gives a window into the internecine conflict of the Jewish working class; a conflict that was even more intense than the one with the businesses many of which were owned by Jews)

    1893(5th of Tammuz, 5653): Fifty year old Adolph S. Jaeger, a prosperous cigar manufacturer who was, with his brother Morris S., co-owner of Jaeger Brothers, died today, apparently of a self-inflicted gunshot wound.

    1893: It was reported today that the brass band from the Hebrew Orphan Asylum played at the reception marking the opening of the Lebanon Hospital

    1895: “Literary Notes” published today described the upcoming publication by G.P. Putnam of Israel Among the Nations, “as study of the Jews and anti-Semitism by Anatole Leroy-Beaulieu which has been translated into English by Frances Hellman

    1895: In Vienna, Austria, Reuben Ben Mordechai Brainin and Marie (Masha, Mussa) Brainin gave birth to Joseph Brainin, a Corporal in the Jewish Legion who had enlisted while living in Montreal and after having served in Palestine was mustered out after which he married Salomea Newark and eventually served as executive Vice President of the American Committee for the Weizmann Institute.

    1896 The true nature of the Hebrew Technical Institute can be discerned by the papers delivered at the recent graduation exercises including

    1896: “The Jews of Russia” published today describes the restrictive laws under which the Israelites have lived in the land of the Czars including the Ukase of 1727 that expelled the Jews from Russia, the Ukase of 1742 which did the same and the creation by Catherine II and Alexander I of special zone to which the Jews were to confine themselves.

    1897: “The Talmud Again” published today provides an in-depth review of the two-volume New Edition of the Babylonian Talmud formulated and punctuated by Michael L Rodkinson which includes the original text and an English translation reviewed by Dr. Isaac W. Wise. Born in 1845, Rodkinson was the grandson of Aaron ha-Levi ben Moses, the son of Alexander Sender Frumkin and the half-brother of Israel Dov Bar Frumkin

    1897: Among the gifts and contributions listed at the meeting of the Board of Directors of the Hebrew Technical Institute were $250 from Julius Goldschmidt for tools and physical instruments; a band saw from James Loeb; $500 from the late Bernard Cohen for lathes; $1,000 from the late Leopold Boscowitz for general supplies. (The nature of the contributions is consistent with vocational mission of the institute)

    1897: “Articles of incorporation were filed” today “in the County Clerk’s office by the Sons of Abraham, a Hebrew benevolent society.”

    1897: Mrs. Jennie Cohen who had been recently widowed and her four young children ranging in age from six years to four months arrived in New York from New Haven, CT and since they were destitute spent the night at the Hebrew Sheltering House Association at 210 Madison.

    1897:  Birthdate of comedian Moe Howard who gained fame as one of the Three Stooges

    1899: In Baltimore, MD, Dr. Richard Gottheil chaired the opening session of the second annual conference of the Federation of American Zionists.

    1899: As of today the Federation of American Zionists has 10,000 members divided into “125 societies” with a total of $415.92 in its treasurer.

    1899: This evening Rabbi Gustave Gottheil of New York’s Temple Emanu-El addressed a mass meeting in Baltimore in which “he delivered a bitter” indictment “against the injustice done Dreyfus.

    1899: In his recent announcement of his resignation as pastor of the Calvary Presbyterian Church on West 116th Street in Manhattan, Reverend James Chambers predicted that the congregation would soon disband because of the changing nature of the neighborhood where “well-to-do residents of the Jewish faith…have crowded out their Christian neighbors.”

    1900: Herzl and Wolffsohn settle their differences about the Trust's affairs. And Herzl asks his good dear "Daade" to address him by the familiar "Du" instead of the formal "Sie".

    1903: In Halle, Germany, Irmgard (née Wüst) and Friedrich Litten who had converted to Lutheranism gave birth to Hans Achim Litten, the attorney who defended anti-Nazis during trials held in the last years of the Weimar Republic and actually cross-examined Adolf Hitler – a cross-examination that led to his imprisonment, torture and death at Dachau.

    1903: The British Foreign Office sends the first of two letters to Herzl rejecting his proposal to establish a Jewish colony in the Sinai.

    1903: In Halle Irmgard (nee Wust) and Fritz Litten, “a Jews who converted to Lutheranism in order to further his career as a law professor” gave birth to Hans Litten, a lawyer who represented opponents of the Nazis – a role that ended him in Dachau where he died.

    1904: Birthdate of New Yorker Lester Cole, the son of a union organizer in the garment district who was a co-founder of the Writers Guild of America and whose membership in the Communist Party led to his being blacklisted as a member of the “Hollywood Ten.”

    1906: In Berlin,Margarete (née Eisner) and Michael Chain gave birth to German born and educated British chemist, Sir Ernst Boris Chain.  Chain left Germany when the Nazis came to power.  As an English citizen this leading biochemist won the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1945 for his work on the effects of penicillin.

    1908: After selecting William Howard Taft, who would become the first sitting President to attend a Seder, the Republican National Convention adjourned today in Chicago, Illinois.

    1909: Birthdate of Maurice Zimring, the native of Waterloo, Iowa who gained fame as “Maurice Zimm,an American radio, television and film writer, whose most famous creation was the Creature from the Black Lagoon.”

    1910: Birthdate of Abe Fortas, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court. Fortas was a close friend and advisor to Lyndon Johnson. There are several stories about Fortas providing Johnson with what we would call a "reality check." Fortas was reluctant to give up his lucrative law practice and accept the position on the high court. He did tell Johnson that the Jewish community would not consider him as the "Jewish Justice" in the sense of a Brandies or Goldberg since he was not a part of that community. In the end Fortas gave into Lyndon’s famed arm-twisting and the rest is history. Fortas ended up resigning from the court in 1969 after questions were raised about some of his business dealings. Fortas passed away in 1982 at the age of 71.

    1912: In Philadelphia, PA, Jewish immigrants Ruth (née Herzog) and Israel Gabel, a jeweler, gave birth to actor, director and producer Martin Gabel

    1913: In Chicago, The Temple Emanuel Woman’s Auxiliary is scheduled to hold its annual luncheon at the Bismarck Gardens this afternoon.

    1913: When the Austrian Parliament met today Ignaz Kuranda, “a leader of the assimilations section of Austrian Jewry” spoke out against the riots at Vienna University which “embitter not only the Jews but every educated man” and through which “Austrian Nationalism will not gain in power” but which “the Jews will learn to appreciate the fact that anti-Semitism is growing in this country.”

    1913: Abram I. Elkus addressed the graduates at the City College commencement ceremony.

    1914: Louis D. Brandeis, special counsel to the Interstate Commerce Commission in the 5 per cent. advance rate case, to-day appeared before the Senate Committee on Interstate Commerce in opposition to the Rayburn Stock and Bond bill, which proposes to confer authority upon the commission to control and approve issues of securities by common carriers.

    1915: In the Bronx, Romanian-Jewish immigrants “Joseph and Bertha Schwartz to cartoonist Julius Schwartz who as an editor at DC Comics worked on Superman and Batman.

    1915: Friends and family of Leo Frank, including his wife, father and mother visited him “in his cell in the Tower today” as they awaited word as to whether or not Governor Slaton would commute is sentence to life in prison.

    1915: The Jews of Morocco suffered indignities under the French regime that were unknown while under the rule of the old sultans.

    1916: The Adjutant General of the New York National guard “ended the public hearings…in the investigation to determine whether discrimination had shown against Jews in the National Guard” despite objections by Maurice Simmons “who has been presenting the case for the Jews.”

    1916: It was reported today that “a gift of $165,000 to Mount Sinai Hospital has just been announced by the Guggenheim brothers of the American Smelting and Refining Company” which “supplements previous gifts of more than $500,000 already given by the Guggenheim brothers.”

    1916: The delegates to the eighth annual convention of the Federation of Russian-Polish Jews of America are scheduled to meet for a second session tonight at seven o’clock at the Harlem Hebrew Educational Institute.

    1916: It was reported today that Louis D. Brandies, Louis Edward Levy of Philadelphia and Dr. Harry Friedenwald are scheduled to be among the speakers at next week’s annual convention of the Federation of American Zionists which will be held at the Metropolitan Opera House in Philadelphia.

    1917: In Alexandria, Egypt, Nelly Grün and Leopold Percy Hobsbaum gave birth to “Eric J. Hobsbawm, whose three-volume economic history of the rise of industrial capitalism established him as Britain’s pre-eminent Marxist historian.” (As reported by William Grimes)

    1917: In Chicago, The Baron Hirsch Workers are scheduled “to hold a directors’ meeting this after at the Lincoln Park.

    1917: Dr. Bernard Revel, President of the Faculty of the Rabbinical College of America opened “the first annual meeting of the Society of Jewish Academicians” in New York by delivering “an address on ‘The Place of Jewish Scholarship in America.’”

    1917: Based on information from the American minister to Sweden, Abram I. Ilkus, the American Ambassador to Turkey has left Constantinople and is scheduled to arrive in Berne today.

    1917: “The cornerstone of the new synagogue to be erected at 257-265 West Eighty-Eighth Street for the Congregation B’nai Jeshurun” one of the oldest congregations in New York “was set in place”

    1918: In Fitzgerald, GA, gave birth to “Sam Abram, a harness maker and storekeeper born in Romania, and the former Irene Cohen, the daughter of a doctor and a granddaughter of Rabbi Elias Eppstein, one of the first Reform rabbis in the United States gave birth to Morris Berthold Abram, the advocate for Civil Rights and President of Brandeis University. (As reported by William Honan)

    1919:  Birthdate of movie critic Pauline Kael.  As movie critic for the New York Times, Kael was one of the most influential influences in the world of cinema criticism.  With her high quality of writing and edgy style, she was a trend setter in an era when women were too often consigned to the style section and gossip columns.

    1920: The first anti-Semitic article appeared in the Dearborn Independent, owned by Henry Ford who was a Jew hater part excellence.

    1925: In Detroit, Michigan, Morris Burros, “an unsuccessful furrier and inventor” and the former Clara Krellman gave birth to Marion Ann Burrow who gained fame as Marian Javits, the wife of Jacob Javits, the U.S. Senator from New York and a leader of the Republican Party’s liberal wing.

    1925: In a cave at Tabgha, near Jerusalem, archaeologists discover a primitive human skull that bears a close resemblance to the Neanderthal man previously discovered in Europe.

    1926: Birthdate of New Jersey native Dr. Erna Schneider Hoover “an American mathematician notable for inventing a computerized telephone switching method which "revolutionized modern communication" according to several reports.”

    1926: “Footloose Widows” a comedy filmed by cinematographer David Abel was released in the United States today.

    1926: Birthdate of Luxembourg native Arno Joseph Mayer whose family fled to the United States after the Nazi invasion which led to his successful career that culminated in being named “Dayton-Stockton Professor of History, Emeritus, at Princeton University.”

    1928(1stof Tammuz, 5688): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1928(1stof Tammuz, 5688): Just weeks short of his 61st birthday labor leader Joseph Baroness known as “the King of the Cloakmakers” passed away today.

    1930: Mrs. Samuel Halprin wrote to  “American attorney, social worker, and philanthropist” Joseph C. Hyman

    1933(25thof Sivan, 5693): Fifty-one year old Ukrainian born chazzan Jose “Yossele” Rosenblatt passed away today in Jerusalem.

    1933: On a day when he received an honorary degree from Brown University Justice Benjamin N. Cardozo of the United States Supreme Court delivered an address to the alumni of that Rhode Island institution of higher education in which he declared, “The day is past when problems of public law can be solved by pulling down the law books and marking without other aids the "signposts on the road,"

    1933: Cardinal Pacelli issued a concordant known as the Hitler Concordant. Hitler described it as "unrestricted acceptance of National Socialism by the Vatican." Cardinal Pacelli later became Pope Pious XII.

    1934: American author Nathaniel West, the son of Litvak immigrants to the United States, published A Cool Million, the second of the three novels he created during his career which was cut short by an untimely death in an automobile accident.

    1934(6th of Tammuz, 5694): Seventy-six German businessman Max Pinkus passed away at Neustadt, Germany.

    1935: In Palestine, the German consulate advises Jews not to travel to Germany, not even if they are citizens and not even for short trips. According to the consul, Jews entering Germany are likely to be apprehended by the Gestapo and placed in a concentration camp.

    1936: “Great Britain is determined to restore order in Palestine, ‘even if it means using inevitably harsh measures,’ Colonial Secretary William G.A. Ormsby-Gore told the House of Commons today at the end of a full-length debate on recent disturbances in the Holy Land.”

    1936: Rabbi B.A. Tinner delivered the Friday night sermon at the Temple of the Covenant on West 180th Street in New York.

    1936: “We Went to College” a comedy produced by Harry Rapf who co-authored the script along with Richard Maibaum was released in the United States today.

    1936: Leopold S. Amery, the former Colonial Secretary told the House, “nothing could be more cruel than the position in which the German Jews are placed today.”

    1936: This evening in New York Georg Bernhard, the German editor-in-chief of the Pariser Tageseitung who has been living in exile in Paris since Hitler came to power “gave a farewell address on “A World Jewish Question” in which he said that world was no longer interested in the persecution of the Jews by the Nazis” and that “consequently, the entire German Jewry is now exposed to torture and slavery.”

    1936: Earl Winterton, former Under-Secretary for India told the House of Commons that he “thought the Jews had ‘behaved admirably on the whole’ and complimented them for what they had done in Palestine” adding that he loathed “the manner in which they have been treated in a certain country of Europe.”

    1936: As Arab violence continues to sweep across Palestine, The Palestine Post reported that one Jew was killed and several deafened and injured by a primitive bomb which was thrown into a bus in Tel Aviv. Avraham Ben-Yehuda, one of the original founders of Atarot, died of injuries sustained when Arab snipers opened fire on a bus in Jerusalem. Trees were cut down and the aerodrome damaged at Lydda. The Jerusalem water pipe was damaged by a dynamite charge. Two Arabs injured themselves seriously while trying to blow up a road culvert near Nablus.

    1938: On the 22nd anniversary of the Battle of Verdun, “1,000 Jewish and non-Jewish veterans including General Andre Weller,” attending the “unveiling of a monument at Doumont”, honoring “6,500 French Jews and 2,000 Americans and British Jews of the Foreign Legion who fell in the war” heard “Deputy Caesar Campinchi, speaking on behalf of the French Government” condemning persecution and advising “Jews to remember history, to be patient and not to despair.

    1939: The Mizrachi Women's Organization opened its first independent meeting in Atlantic City. Although it was the group's fourteenth annual meeting, it was the first conducted separately from a men's organization. Now the largest religious Zionist organization in the United States (under the name AMIT), the organization owes its creation to Freda Resnikoff.

    1939: Governor Lehman addressed the delegates attending the convention of the Independent Order of B’rith Abraham in Convention Hall at Saratoga Springs, NY.

    1939:In Palestine, eighteen Arabs--nine men, six women and three children-- were killed and twenty-four wounded by the explosion of a time bomb. In replying to accusations by the British that Jews were responsible for the violence, “Jewish communal leaders condemned the ‘dastardly murder of innocent Arabs, women and children.’”

    1940(13th of Sivan, 5700):Zalman David Levontin passed away. Born in 1856, he was one of the first of the Hovevei Zion group and one of the founders of Rishon LeZion and Yesod Hamaaleh. In 1903, Levontin founded the Anglo Palestine Bank in Jaffa and acted as its manager until 1924.

    1941: Today, the residents of Metulla, “a Jewish agricultural community” were recovering from the destruction from the French artillery attacks launched from Merdjayoun.” (It is assumed that these French forces were under the control of Vichy which shows to what extent the Petain, et al would go to serve their fellow fascists.”

    1941: Rabbi Leo Jung, a Professor of Ethics, presided over “special services” marking the “150th anniversary of the ratification of the Bill Rights” which were held today prior to the 10thannual Commencement Exercises at Yeshiva University.

    1942(4th of Tammuz, 5702): Jews revolt at Glebokie, Belorussia; 2500 are murdered in the Borek Forest.

    1942: The family of famed historian Moses Schorr including his wife, his daughter Felicia and his grandchildren were “interned at Warsaw’s Pawiak Prison as citizens of a neutral state.”

    1942: Birthdate of Jack Edward Oliver author of the “Swan Esther,” a 1982 musical based on the Megalith Esther.

    1943: Joseph Goebbels announces that Berlin is free of Jews.

    1944(28thof Sivan, 5704): Forty-four year old Lilli Jahn “a German-Jewish doctor and victim of the Nazism in Germany who gained international fame posthumously following the publication of her letters to her five children which she wrote during her imprisonment in the labor camp Breitenau after which she was deported to the concentration camp Auschwitz where she was murdered today.

    1944: Five hundred Jews were transferred from the death camp of Birkenau to the work camp at Dachau.

    1945: Judge Irving Lehman, the brother of former Governor Herman Lehman, delivered the address of welcome at New York City's reception honoring General Dwight D. Eisenhower, who has returned from leading the Allies to victory over the Nazis.

    1945: In Birmingham, Alabama, Rosemary (Loftus) and Arthur Samuels Wolff, an aeronautical engineer “from a Jewish background” gave birth to author Tobias Wolff who did not find out his “Jewish connection” until he was an adult.

    1948: Panama and Costa Rica (recognized Israel.

    1949: In Queens, NY, “Shirley and Arthur Canton, who worked in the film industry on marketing and publicity, e.g. for Lawrence of Arabia” gave birth to movie producer and Hollywood executive Mark Canton

    1950: In Toronto, Ruth (née Burstyn), an interior designer, and comedian Frank Shuster gave birth to comedy writer, who during the 1970’s was the wife of Saturday Night Live’s creator Lorne MIchaels

    1950: Israel apologized to the Swedish Government today for the assassination of Count Bernadotte, United Nations Mediator for Palestine, by terrorists on Sept. 17, 1948.

    1951: For the first time, a Soviet citizen (Jewish) was issued an immigrant visa to Israel. The hoped-for easing of the Russian policy of not letting its citizens out would not materialize for decades to come.

    1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that the Knesset passed the first reading of a bill empowering the government to sign an agreement with Bank Leumi Le'Israel, nominating the bank as the currency issue bank of Israel.

    1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that the secretary of the Iraqi Jewish Community Council, Dr. Habasi, was detained by police in Baghdad together with seven other Jews, on charges of hiding "huge quantities of arms." All of the detained previously renounced their Iraqi citizenship and were waiting for emigration to Israel.

    1952: The original version of “I've Got a Secret” created by Allan Sherman and produced by Mark Goodson and Bill Todman premiered tonight.

    1952:Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion expressed satisfaction today that the Zionist Organization of America at its convention in New York this week had cleared up the misunderstanding about the right of foreign Zionists to participate in the shaping of Israel's policies.

    1952: Birthdate of actress Carol Kane who played Simka on the television show Taxi.

    1953: Execution of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg who had been convicted of conspiracy to commit espionage, relating to passing information about the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union.

    1953: Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were executed after having been convicted as spies.

    1954: In Flushing, NY, “Hy Pearlman, who ran a dry cleaning business, and Reenie Pearlman, a school lunchroom aide” gave birth to “music executive” Louis Jay "Lou" Pearlman, “the first cousin of Art Garfunkel. (As reported by Liam Stack)

    1954: François Mitterrand, the future President of France, was named to serve as Minister of the Interior in the first government head by prime Minister Pierre Mendes France who served as his own Minister of Foreign Affairs.

    1954: “Them!” a highly forgettable sci-fic flic whose only claim to fame was that it featured one of the first screen appearances by Leonard Nimoy was released in the United States today.

    1957: Saul Rogovin pitched his last major league baseball game.

    1959: The U.S. Senate rejects Ike's appointment of Lewis Strauss for Secretary of Commerce.  At a time when most Jews were Democrats, Strauss was a Republican. He was part of the liberal, internationalist wing of the party.  He had worked with Herbert Hoover on war relief during World War I.  Strauss made special efforts to see to that aid from the Jewish Joint Distribution Committee got to the Jews of Europe who were in dire straits.  He served in the Navy during World War II and became involved in atomic energy.  He was rejected because of his role in dealing with Robert J. Oppenheimer. 

    1962:  In San Fernando, CA, Harry Abdul, a Syrian Jew raised in Brazil and the concert pianist Lorraine M. (née Rykiss), who grew up in one of the two Jewish families in Minnedosa, Manitoba in Canada gave birth to pop star Paula Abdul.

    1962(17th of Sivan, 5722): Seventy-nine year old Arnold K. Israeeli the St. Petersburg born and educated lawyer who pursued a career in journalism and business that included serving as “advertising manager for General Motors in South American for five Years and the “director of information for the American Zionist Council” passed away today in Brooklyn.

    1963: “PT 109” a war movie about JFK’s days in the South Pacific featuring Norman Fell was released in the United States today.

    1964: The United States Senate passed The Civil Rights Bill that would eventually become the Civil Rights Act of 1964. This landmark legislation outlawed a variety of forms of discrimination including that based on religion. The bill, which was primarily aimed at ending racial segregation, had support from Jewish groups and Jewish legislators. In the House, the bill was managed by Congressman Cellar who helped bring it to victory in that body.

    1965: A novella entitled "Hapworth 16, 1924", the last published work of J.D. Salinger appeared today in The New Yorker magazine

    1966(1st of Tammuz, 5726): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1966(1st of Tammuz, 5726): Comedian Ed Wynn passed away. Born Isaiah Edwin Leopold in 1886 in Philadelphia, Wynn’s father was a successful milliner. He did not want his son to go into show business. When the son would not yield, his father asked him to at least change his name so as not to disgrace the family. He decided to split his first name "Edwin" into Ed Wynn. Wynn was a successful comic in vaudeville and the early days of show business. He had his own show, which won an Emmy. He would appear in baggy pants suits pedaling a tricycle fitted with a piano. When his brand of clown-like comedy lost its popular appeal, Wynn followed the advice of his son and turned to acting. He appeared in a wide variety of hits including Marjorie Morningstar, The Diary of Anne Frank and Mary Poppins attesting to his real skill as an actor.

    1967: Prime Minister Levi Eshkol announced that "as an interim stage, a military situation will remain in the West Bank."

    1967: “In a secret decision, the government of Levi Eshkol offered Syria ‘full peace on the basis of the international border,’ with adjustments for Israeli security needs.”

    1967: “The Thomas Crown Affair” an elegant crime movie featuring Jack Weston and Yaphet Kotto and filmed by cinematographer Haskell Wexler was released today in the United States.

    1972: “One Is a Lonely Number” directed by Mel Stuart, produced by Stan Margulies, with a script by David Seltzer and co-starring Melvyn Douglas and Jonathan Lippe was released today in the United States.

    1973: An attack on the El Al office in Athens was thwarted and the Palestinian terrorist was able to gain his freedom as part of a hostage negotiation conducted by local police.

    1974: Seventy-three year old American molecular biologist Alfred Mirsky passed away.

    1974: Vladimir Slepak, Anatoly Sharansky, Lev Kogan, Alexander Lunts, Yuli Kosharovsky and Zahar Tesker were among those arrested today in an attempt to silence an Jewish protest that might be planned for the upcoming visit to the Soviet Union by President Nixon.

    1977: Funeral services are scheduled to be held today in New York for David Kulock, “the Past President of the Insurance Fund of the Free Sons of Israel.

    1977: “A monument to the memory of the late Bella Hoffman” is scheduled to be unveiled today.

    1979: Birthdate of Daniel Jonathan Sieradski “a Jewish American writer and activist” who was “the founding publisher and editor-in-chief of Jewschool, a popular left-wing Jewish weblog, as well as the weblogs Radical Torah and Orthodox Anarchist. He is also the creator of the synagogue listings and reviews website ShulShopper.”

    1980: In Charleston, SC, the Greek Revival building housing Kahal Kadosh Beth Elohim Synagogue was designated as a National Historic Landmark. For those who think of American Jewry as being a New York or eastern creation, it comes as a surprise that this is the second oldest synagogue building in continuous operation in the United States.  Also, when this congregation adopted the Reform minhag in 1824 it became one of the founding forces of the Reform Movement in the United States – something most people connect with Cincinnati, Ohio.

    1980: “Rough Cut” directed by Don Siegel, produced by David Merrick and with a screenplay by Larry Gelbart was released in the United States today.

    1981: The United States Security Council adopted a resolution condemning Israel’s attack on the Iraqi nuclear reactor being built near Baghdad.

    1983(8th of Tammuz, 5743): Simcha Erlich, the native of Poland who made Aliyah in 1938 where he became a political ally of Menachem Begin under whom he served as Deputy Prime Minister passed away today.

    1984(19th of Sivan, 5744): Abstract expressionist Lee Krasner passed away.

    1984(19thof Sivan, 5744) Sixty-three year old, Egyptian anesthesiologist Jack Chalon, the son of William and Helen (Hirsch) Chalon and the husband of Barbara Elizabeth Coombs with whom he had two children – Mary and Jonathan – passed away today.

    1987: Ben & Jerry Ice Cream founded by Ben Cohen and Jerry Greenfield announce a new ice cream flavor, “Cherry Garcia.”

    1989(16th of Sivan, 5749): Writer and social critic I(sidor) F(einstein) Stone passes away at the age of 81.

    1992: In Palermo, the Fifth International Convention of Studies of "Italia Judaica" came to a close.

    1993: Philosopher and movie star Bernard-Henri Levy married actress Arielle Bombasle.

    1993(30th of Tammuz, 5753): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1993(30th of Tammuz, 5753): Seventy-five year old philosopher Abraham Kaplan passed away in Haifa where he had been living since 1972.

    1994(10th of Tammuz, 5754): Sheina Chaya, the wife Rabbi Yosef Shalom Elyashiv and the daughter of Rabbi Aryeh Levin passed away.

    1994: The BBC broadcast the final episode of “That’s Life!” a mixture of news and satire featuring Esther Rantzen as Presenter.

    1994: The New York Timespublished a review of History of Resistance: The Warsaw Ghetto Uprisingby Israel Gutman. "They refused to surrender, preferring instead to fight to the death and thus preserve their honor," Israel Gutman writes in Resistance, his account of the band of starving Jews who fought the Nazis in Poland in April 1943. Mr. Gutman, a Holocaust survivor who teaches modern Jewish history at Hebrew University in Jerusalem and is the director of the research center at Israel's national Holocaust memorial, Yad Vashem, intelligently outlines the elements that weakened the Jewish resistance movement in Warsaw. These included not only Nazi air attacks and arson, food and water shortages and the neglect of the Polish underground resistance movement, but also the abandonment of the ghetto by its most prominent political leaders and arguments among the many rival Jewish organizations over a course of action. One wishes that Mr. Gutman had recorded events chronologically rather than switching back and forth in time. One longs for more information about heroes like Mordecai Anielewicz, the brave underground leader who escaped Warsaw but returned to command the uprising, and Yitzhak Zuckerman, the uprising's deputy commander, who survived to write about it. Still, Resistance, which is published in association with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, lucidly illustrates how a few hundred Jewish fighters with Molotov cocktails, homemade grenades and no military training twice forced the Germans to retreat from the ghetto and refused to go like lambs to the slaughter.

    1995:The cartoon strip Rhymes With Orange appeared in syndication for the first time. With its debut, twenty-five-year-old cartoonist Hilary Price became the youngest woman ever to have a nationally-syndicated cartoon strip. (JWA)

    1995:David Libai begins his term as Minister of Internal Affairs.

    1995: Jean-François Copé began his first term as Mayor Meaux.

    1996(2nd of Tammuz, 5756): G. David Shine passed away. Roy Cohn, the Chief Counsel, named Shine as investigator for the McCarthy Committee, which was supposedly exposing the Communist Conspiracy during the 1950’s. Shine was drafted and McCarthy claimed the drafting of his investigator was part of the Communist Conspiracy to thwart his efforts. He attacked the U.S. Army for being involved in the Communist Conspiracy. These charges led to the famous Army-McCarthy Hearings, which led to his downfall.

    1996(2nd of Tammuz, 5756): Bessie Margolin the Russian born labor attorney who grew up at the Jewish Children’s Home in New Orleans before graduating from Sophie Newcomb College and Tulane Law School passed away today.

    1996: The Eldridge Street Synagogue was designated as a National Historic Landmark. Located at 12 Eldridge Street on New York’s lower east side, it was built in 1887 to meet the needs of the growing population of eastern European Jews. As demographics changed, the synagogue fell on hard times in the 1950’s.  In the 1980’s restoration projects began which reinvigorate and physically restore the synagogue.

    2001(28th of Sivan, 5761): Fifteen year old Yevgeniya Dorfman from Bat Yam died today from the injuries she suffered during the Dolphinarium discotheque suicide bombing in Tel Aviv.

    1998(25th of Sivan, 5758): Eighty-nine year old New York native Dora Goldwater, the daughter of Pauline Meltsner and Joseph Goldwater passed away today in Florida.

    2001(28th of Sivan, 5761): Seventy-nine year old Rabbi Bernard Mandelbaum, president from 1966 to 1971 of the Jewish Theological Seminary, the academic and spiritual center of Conservative Judaism, passed away today (As reported by Ari L. Goldman)

    2002(9th of Tammuz, 5762): Seven people were killed and 50 injured, three of them critically, when a suicide bomber blew himself up at a crowded bus stop and hitchhiking post at the French Hill intersection in northern Jerusalem shortly after 7:00 P.M., as people were returning home from work. The Fatah Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades claimed responsibility for the attack. The victims: Noa Alon, 60, of Ofra; Gal Eisenman, 5, of Ma’ale Adumim; Michal Franklin, 22, of Jerusalem; Tatiana Igelski, 43, of Moldova; Hadassah Jungreis, 20, of Migdal Haemek; Gila Sara Kessler, 19, of Eli; and Shmuel Yerushalmi, 17, of Shilo

    2003: In New York, The Israel Fest Foundation proudly presented Academy Award winning director Milos Forman with the 19th Israel Film Festival 2003 Lifetime Achievement Award and Israeli director Dina Zvi Riklis with the 2003 IFF Cinematic Award. The Award Ceremony is followed by the premiere of the hit romantic comedy Wisdom of the Pretzel directed by Ilan Heitner, starring Guy Loel, Osnat Hakim& Yoram Sachs.

    2003: Rudy Giuliani led the U.S. delegation to the first Organization for Security and Cooperation conference on anti-Semitism being held in Vienna.  The conference came about, in part, because of the strong support from the Bush Administration.

    2003(19th of Sivan, 5763): Avner Mordechai, 58, of Moshav Sde Trumot, was killed when a suicide bomber blew up in his grocery on Sde Trumot, south of Beit Shean. The suicide bomber was killed. The Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility for the attack.

    2005: Seventy-five year old foreign correspondent James Feron, who covered the Six Days War for the New York Times passed away today.

    2005: Eric Edelman completes his service as United States Ambassador to Trukey.

    2005: The Washington Post reported that meetings had been held over the weekend at Yifat, Israel in which Deputy Prime Minister Shimon Peres announced that he would seek the top spot in Israel’s government.  Despite the fact that he is now 81 and that he has failed to accomplish the goal in four previous attempts. Peres thinks that now is the time for him to finally reach his goal.

    2005: The Washington Post reported that Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice declared from Jerusalem, “that her meetings with Israeli and Palestinian leaders convinced her that both sides share a commitment to ensuring Israel’s withdrawal from Gaza takes place smoothly and peacefully.”  At the end of the same article the Post reported that “Coinciding with Rice’s visit Sunday, Palestinians…attacked Israelis…in the southern Gaza Strip killing one Israeli and wounding two others…The attack was the second major assault on Israeli targets in recent days.”  Islamic Jihad and a group affiliated with Mahmoud Abbas’ Fatah movement took credit for the attack.  As head of the PLA, Abbas is one of those Palestinian leaders whom Secretary Rice said was committed to a smooth and peaceful Israeli withdrawal from Gaza.

    2005:The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including the recently release paperback editions of Letters to a Young Lawyer by Alan Dershowitz and Sweet Land Storiesby E.L. Doctorow.

    2006: Haaretz reported on the Sderot's municipal council decision to seal off the city's entrance for a 24-hour period in protest of continuing Qassam rocket attacks by Palestinians against the western Negev city. “Sderot is going on strike and no one will enter or leave it," Sderot mayor Eli Moyal said. Kassam attacks have left five dead and dozens wounded over the past months.

    2006: In Romania and France, premiere of “Them” a Franco-Romanian horror film starring Michaël Cohen as “Lucas.”

    2006:  Jerusalem Finding 'Oxygen' In Revival of Creative Arts, published today describes the renaissance of the arts taking place in Jerusalem.  The artistic renaissance covers a full spectrum of endeavors and is having a positive influence on the spiritual rejuvenation of the City of David.  [Editor’s Note - What is even more amazing, this is article is devoid of the usual “stuff” that permeates almost all reporting on Israel and Jewish culture in the Middle East.]

    2006:Israel's ambassador to Germany presented medals of honor on to relatives of five members of the first "European Union" - an anti-Nazi resistance group whose members hid and fed Jews during World War Two. This European Union, which had the same name but nothing to do with the modern 25-nation bloc of European countries, was an underground, Marxist-oriented group with around 50 to 60 German members, according to a protocol prepared by Yad Vashem Holocaust museum.

    2006: Carol Vogel described the history of Gustav Klimt’s Adele Bloch-Bauer I in “Lauder Pays $135 Million, a Record, for a Klimt Portrait.”

    2007(3rdof Tammuz, 5767):Seventy four year old Zeev Schiff, the dean of Israeli military correspondents, defense editor of the newspaper Haaretz and author of numerous books, died today in Tel Aviv.

    2007: The second annual Jerusalem Jazz Festival opens in Israel’s capital city.

    2007(3rdof Tammuz, 5767): Yahrzeit for the Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem M. Schneerson, of righteous memory.

    2007: Rachel Elizabeth Levin, daughter of Michelle and Michael Levin, sister of Jacob Levin, arrives in Lubbock, Texas. 

    2008: Hazak Week of Study comes to an end.

    2008: At Temple Chai in Long Grove, Illinois, Israeli author Eva Etzioni-Halevy speaks about her latest biblical novel, “The Triumph of Deborah.”

    2008:More than 100 Israeli political and cultural leaders from across the political spectrum have signed a petition to Yad Vashem that they present to Yad Vashem chairman Avner Shalev urging the Holocaust museum to add material about the Holocaust rescue activists known as the Bergson Group to its exhibits. “The Bergson Group was a maverick activist group in the US in the 1940s, led by Peter Bergson, also known as Hillel Kook that raised public awareness of the Holocaust and campaigned for US rescue action to save European Jewry during World War II. At the time, mainstream American Jewish leaders viewed the organization as being too forthright in its criticism of the Roosevelt administration's failure to rescue Jewish refugees. However, in recent years most Jewish leaders have come to recognize the group's contribution to the belated rescue effort. The Bergson Group is credited with helping to persuade the US president in 1944 to establish the War Refugee Board, which ultimately saved 200,000 Jewish lives - including future Congressman Tom Lantos, who passed away earlier this year. Despite opposition from mainstream US Jewish leaders, the group actively campaigned to save the doomed Jews of Europe through theatrical pageants, lobbying on Capitol Hill, the placement of more than 200 newspaper advertisements, and a march in Washington by 400 rabbis, which the Wyman Institute said was the only rally for rescue held in the nation's capital during the Holocaust.”

    2008:The agreement for a cease-fire between Israel and Hamas in the Gaza Strip is to go into effect at 6 A.M.

    2008: The United Nations’ Children Fund (UNICEF) swore off any relationship with Israeli diamond mogul, Lev Leviev because of his construction of settlements on the West Bank.

    2009:Police officers, Holocaust survivors and employees of the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum gathered at the Ebenezer AME Church on Allentown Road in Fort Washington today for the funeral services for security officer Stephen T. Johns who was slain last week in an attack at the popular Washington museum. The funeral began about 11 a.m. but the first mourners got to the church around 7:30. Johns's bronze coffin arrived at the church in a white hearse and was carried in by an honor guard of officers from the Metropolitan Police Department and the Smithsonian Museum. At 9 a.m. mourners were allowed in to view the body, walking up to two security guards posted on both sides of the open casket. Leading the mourners were Johns's fellow security officers from Wackenhut security firm. Several officers saluted the casket as they walked by. Johns was dressed in a cream linen suit, a toy butterfly on the pillow next to him. A recording of local recording artist Jeff Majors's "Psalm 23" was played as mourners streamed in to view the body. Police officers from a variety of law enforcement agencies were present. Assistant D.C. Assistant Police Chief Alfred Durham and Joseph Persichini, head of the FBI's Washington field office, led a platoon of police officials into the church. Durham praised Johns's sacrifice saying he "laid down his life to protect something. it means a lot to all of us." Persichini, after walking past Johns's casket, talked about the special bond among all who wear law enforcement uniforms and said that extends to "the response to the shooting incident and now the investigation being done and conducted jointly." Evelyn Gambell, 67, did not know Johns but left her Bladensburg home at 5:30 to come to the church pay her respects. "This touched my heart. I had to come," Gambell said. "We live in a cruel world, but I believe he's resting in the arms of the Lord." Several sections within the 3,000 seat sanctuary were reserved. One section was for Holocaust survivors who came to the funeral. Nesse Godin, 81, a Holocaust survivor who volunteers at the museum, said Johns and the other officers would greet them with a kiss on the cheek and a hug each morning when she arrived."He was a wonderful man," she said. About 9:30 a.m. a caravan of buses rolled up to the church, carrying several hundred staff members from the Holocaust Museum. Johns was working as a security guard last week at the museum when white supremacist James W. von Brunn, 88, allegedly walked in with a rifle and fatally shot Johns after the officer opened the door for him, authorities say. Von Brunn was charged with killing while in possession of a firearm in a federal facility. He remains in a hospital with gunshot wounds from another officer. The Holocaust Museum will be closed until 3 p.m. to allow employees and volunteers to attend the services. Museum officials set up a memorial fund for the Johns family. To make an online contribution, go to the Johns Family Fund at Checks payable to the Johns Family Fund may be mailed to the museum at 100 Raoul Wallenberg Pl. SW, Washington, D.C. 20024. Contributions can also be made by calling 877-918-7466.

    2009: The funeral for Seymour “Sy” Brody author of Jewish Heroes of America and Jewish Heroes and Heroines in America is scheduled to take place today at Morris Plains, NJ.

    2009: As her Bat Mitzvah weekend begins, Rachel Maikon helps to lead Friday evening services at Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, Iowa.

    2010: The Jewish National Fund is scheduled to host Shabbat in the Park at New York’s Central Park Zoo.

    2010:In a unique way to say farewell to Shabbat, a pre-camp Havdallah and swim party for campers and their families is scheduled to be held at the 14th Street Y in New York City.

    2011: “The People in the Picture” by Iris Rainer Dart has its final showing at the Round About Theatre.

    2011: In San Diego, CA, The Used Book Sale to benefit the Samuel & Rebecca Astor Judaica Library is scheduled to come to a close.

    2011: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish author and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including “The Secret Knowledge: On the Dismantling of American Culture” by David Mamet and “House of Exile: The Lives and Times of Heinrich Mann and Nelly Kroeger-Mann” by Evelyn Juers

    2011: Elbit, with headquarters in Haifa, announced that its subsidiary Elisra Electronic Systems Ltd. was awarded a contract valued at approximately €5 million to supply hundreds of units of its AN/PRC-684 Personal Locator Beacon to the French Ministry of Defense, equipping the French Air Force, Army, Navy and DGA (Direction Générale de l'Armement).

    2011(17th of Sivan, 5771): Centenarian plus 2, Charlotte Bloomberg, the mother of New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg passed away.

    2011(17th of Sivan, 5771): Ninety year old Don Diamond passed away.  For those who watched television in the 1950’s and 1960’s, they saw him in many episodes of F-Troop and Zorro as well as later series as  “Newhart,” “L.A. Law,” “MacGyver,” “Dallas” and “Dynasty,” “Lou Grant,” “Chico and the Man” and “The Streets of San Francisco”

    2011(17th of Sivan, 5771): Ninety-year old Holocaust survivor Samuil Manski passed away. Manski credited his survival to a transit visa issued to him by a Japanese diplomat name Chiune Sughira who risked his career by acting against the orders of his country.  At the time of his death, Manski was working to Sughira recognized as a Righteous Gentile.

    2012: “When Israel Went Out,” a film that retraces the danger-filled route traveled by the Falasha during the 1980’s is scheduled to be shown at the JCC in Manhattan.

    2012: Dr. Anthony Grenville, author of ‘Jewish Refugees from Germany and Austria in Britain’ and film director Dr. Bea Lewkowicz are scheduled to take part in a Q&A following a screening of “Double Exposure” at the Wiener Library in London. 

    2012: The National Endowment for the Arts announced that Andy Statman would be awarded a National Heritage Fellowship, the nation's highest honor in the folk and traditional arts

    2012:Hamas has launched a barrage of rockets toward southern Israel this afternoon, after months of restraint on behalf of the Gaza rulers. Seven rockets exploded in open areas in Eshkol Regional Council this afternoon, after four rockets were fired at Hof Ashkelon and Sha'ar Hanegev regional councils overnight Monday. More rockets were subsequently fired, but caused no casualties or damage.

    2012: “As part of his plans to expand on hardware, today, Steve Ballmer revealed Microsoft's first ever computer device, a tablet called Microsoft Surface at an event held in Hollywood.”

    2012:Ta'al MK Ahmed Tibi condemned plans to name a new space center in his north-central Arab village Taybeh after Israel's first and only astronaut, the late Ilan Ramon. In a letter to the Science and Technology Ministy, Tibi said Ramon served in the IAF as a fighter pilot, which could offend the Arab community. Calling the decision "distasteful" and "unjustified," Tibi noted that during Ramon's military service, he attacked civilian targets in Lebanon and participated in the attack on Iraq's nuclear reactor.

    2012(29th of Sivan, 5772): Eight-one year old futurist Anthony Weiner passed away today. (As reported by Douglas Martin)

    2013: In London, the Pears Institute for the study of Antisemitism scheduled to host the International Consortium for Research on Antisemitism and Racism.

    2013: Leo Baeck Institute and Chelsea Music Festival are scheduled to present “From Pompeii to Fingal's Cave - A Mendelssohn Perspective”

    2013: “The New Catch Herring Season” is scheduled to begin Russ & Daughters.

    2013: Ian Paul Livingston, Baron Livingston of Parkhead, “the fourth generation son of Polish-Lithuanian Jews who arrived in Scotland 120 years ago” “announced that he is leaving BT Group to become the Minister for Trade and Investment in the UK Government.

    2013: Friends and family of Rachel Levin celebrate the birthday of the world’s greatest granddaughter.

    2013: Four Jewish Israelis were arrested at the Temple Mount today after praying in the Jerusalem compound, considered Judaism’s holiest site.

    2013: This morning Palestinians fired a rocket from the Gaza strip toward southern Israel, setting off alarms in the coastal city of Ashkelon and its environs.

    2014: The Wiener Library for the Study of the Holocaust & Genocide is scheduled to host “a special creative writing workshop exploring the lives and contributions of refugees in their new country of residence led by facilitator Lynette Craig

    2014: “Luis Moses Gomez: Pioneer Merchant in Colonial America” is scheduled to open at the Center for Jewish History

    2014: “Magic Men” is scheduled to be shown at the JCC in Manhattan on the last night of the Israel Film Center Festival.

    2014: “Charlotte Salomon: Life? Or Theatre?” an exhibition of the works of the 23 year old Jewish from Berlin who ended up in Auschwitz is scheduled to open today at the Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center.

    2014: All eyes are on Columbus Ohio for the celebration of the birthday of the amazing Rachel Levin.

    2014: “The IDF arrested 30 Hamas men across the West Bank early today, as part of its ongoing large-scale operation to find the three Israeli teenagers – Naftali Frankel, Gil-ad Shaar, and Eyal Yifrach — who were kidnapped last week.

    2014: U.S. Ambassador to Israel today visited the family of Naftali Frankel, one of three Yeshiva students kidnapped last week to offer the support of the U.S government as well as his own strong personal support.

    2014: John Rubinstein, the original Pippin in 1972, replaced Terrence Mann in the role of Charles in Stephen Schwartz’s Tony Award-winning musical “Pippin.”

    2014: “Former Jerusalem Mayor Uri Lupolianski was sentenced to six years’ imprisonment today and fined half a million shekels ($145,000) for accepting bribes in the Holyland affair.”

    2014(21st of Sivan, 5774): Seventy-five year old songwriter Gerry Goffin passed away today. (As reported by William Yardley and Peter Keepnews)

    2014(21st of Sivan, 5774): Eighty-six year old Avraham Shalom, the former director of Shin Bet, passed away today

    2015: The Oxford University Jewish Society is scheduled to host “Leavers’ Friday Night Dinner.”

    2015(2nd of Tammuz, 5775): “A Palestinian group claiming affiliation with Hamas took responsibility for a cold-blooded terrorist attack” today in which a 25 year old electrical engineering student from Lod Israeli man was killed and a second Israeli was  injured.

    2015:” WJC President Ronald S. Lauder presented the Helen Mirren with the WJC Recognition Award for her work in the film “Woman in Gold” in which she portrayed Maria Altmann, who fought the Austrian government for years to secure the return of five Gustav Klimt paintings stolen from her Jewish family during World War II.”

    2015(2nd of Tammuz, 5775): Ninety year old author James Salter passed away today. (As reported by Helen T. Verongos)

    2015: In Columbia, MD, Beth Shalom Congregation is scheduled to host “From Dust to Dust? Shiva and Cremations” in which Rabbi Susan Grossman and Ira Levinson, of Sol Levinson and Brothers Funeral Home tackle such questions as “Why does Judaism prohibit cremation and what do we do when a loved one requests cremation? Can their ashes be buried in a Jewish cemetery? Can we sit shiva?”

    2015: In Coralville, Iowa, Agudas Achim is scheduled to host its annual Father’s Day Shabbat “that will include participation of fathers and their sons/daughters in the service, readings about fathers, and an Oneg Shabbat that will have a slide show of fathers…”

    2015: “The Jewish Theological Seminary plans to sell a 1455 edition of the Book of Esther from a rare Gutenberg Bible at auction today, the latest sign that the school is grappling with a long-running financial crisis.” (As reported by Josh Nathan-Kazis)

    2016(13th of Sivan, 5776): Twenty-seven year old Anton Viktorovich Yelchin, the Russian born American actor best for his playing “Pavel Chekov” in “three Star Trek films” died today in a freak automobile accident.

    2016: “The Kind Words” and “Time to Say Goodbye” are scheduled to be shown at the Portland Jewish Film Festival.

    2016: “Wounded Land” is scheduled to be shown at the 13th annual Israeli Film Festival in Ottawa, Canada.

    2016: “Inheritance is a 2006 documentary film about Monika Hertwig a.k.a. Monika Christiane Knauss, the daughter of Ruth Irene Kalder and Amon Goeth, Commandant of Kraków-Płaszów concentration camp” is scheduled to be shown at the Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center today.

    2016: “Ruth Gruber, Photojournalist” an exhibition at the Oregon Jewish Museum and Center for Holocaust Education is scheduled to come to an end today.

    2016: Final performance of “Suddenly, A Knock at the Door” based on stories by Israeli author and filmmaker Etgar Keret at the Theatre for the New City is scheduled to take place this evening.

    2016: The New York Times featured books by Jewish authors and or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Money Cult: Capitalism, Christianity and the Unmaking of the American Dream by Chris Lehmann and an interview with A.B. Yehosua.

    2017: In London, JW3 is scheduled to host a screening of “Dough.”

    2017(25th of Sivan, 5777): Twenty-two year old Otto F. Warmbier, “the University of Virginia honors student” who was released in a coma after spending 17 months in a North Korean prison passed away today.

    2017: Steve Eisenberg is scheduled to discuss the weekly Torah Portion followed by an informal “conversation” with Rabbi Mark Wildes in Manhattan.

    2018: The Jerusalem Municipality sports department is scheduled to host a class in Kickboxing at the First Station complex

    2018: Dr. Dovid Gottlieb, the rabbi who was a Professor of Philosophy at John Hopkins University is scheduled to lecture on “Reason to Believe” this evening at the OU Israel Center in Jerusalem.

    2018: In Manchester, UK, JW3 is scheduled to host a screening of “Zuzana: Music is Life” that tells the story of “90-year-old Zuzana Ruzickova survived three concentration camps, including Auschwitz, and decades-long oppression and harassment under the totalitarian regime in her native Czech Republic to become a world-famous harpsichordist and the only musician to ever record all the keyboard works of Bach.”

    2018: “Israeli poet Amir Or” is scheduled to visit Bryant Park Reading Room for a celebration of “the publication of his latest collection, Wings, in an English translation by Seth Michelson.”

    2018: From Ohio, to Oklahoma, to Iowa friends and family prepare to celebrate Rachel Levin’s natal day.










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    JUNE 20

    840: Louis the Pious, King of the Franks and the Holy Roman Emperor by virtue of being the son of Charlemagne. When it came to dealing with his Jewish subjects, Louis followed in the footsteps of his father. During his reign charters were issued giving “Jews permission ‘live according to their Law.’ They promised protection of body and property and permitted freedom of movement and trade including…the right to hire Christians to work in their homes.  Some Jews were also exempted from the laws of trial by ‘ordeal of fire and water.’”

    1214:  University of Oxford received its charter. Jews were not always welcome at Oxford.  The Oxford University Reform Act passed in 1854 allowed Jews to take degrees at Oxford. Today, Oxford offers degrees in both Hebrew and Jewish Studies.

    1239: Pope Gregory IX ordered all copies of the Talmud to Dominican and Franciscan friars who would review the text looking for disparaging references to Jesus and Mary.  Any copies that were found to contain such references were to be burned.  This is the same Pope who in 1234 had “invested the doctrine of perpetua servitus iudaeorum – perpetual servitude of the Jews – with the force of canonical law. According to this, the followers of the Talmud would have to remain in a condition of political servitude until Judgment Day.”

    1338:Duke Otto and Duke Albert issued their “Jews’ Decree.”

    1391 (17thof Tammuz): “The Christian population of Toledo rose against the largest Jewish community in Spain.” Four thousand Jews were killed.

    1510: Birthdate of Beatrice de Luna who gained fame as Gracia Mendes Nasi one of the richest and most powerful women of her times who was the mother-in-law of Don Joseph Nasi.

    1567: Jews were expelled from Brazil by order of Regent Don Henrique

    1616: Sir Henry Finch the author of The World's Great Restauration, or Calling of the Jews, and with them of all Nations and Kingdoms of the Earth to the Faith of Christ which called for the “restoration of the Jews to the promised land as a step to the Second Coming was knighted at Whitehall Plalace

    1647: In Dresden, John George II and Magdalene Sybille of Brandenburg-Bayreuth gave birth to their only son John George III, Elector of Saxony who in 1682 “issued a new decree, in which the onerous regulations relating to Jews passing through the country were somewhat modified, since those regulations were found to be detrimental to the yearly fairs at Leipsic.”

    1652: During the reign of Mehemed IV, Tarhoncu Ahmet Paşa was appointed grand vezir of the Ottoman Empire.  During Pasa’s time of service, Mehmemed Jews fleeing the Chmielnitzki Uprising were encouraged to settle on the banks of the Danube in Morea, Kavala, Istanbul and Salonica.

    1667: Clement IX began his papacy during which Giovanni Battista Jona, the rabbi who converted to Christianity at Warsaw in 1625, dedicated a translation into Hebrew of The New Testatment.

    1768: The third of the Haidamack uprisings called Koliyivschyna began. During the uprising an estimated 50,000 Ukrainian Jews were murdered by the Cossacks.  “The Haidmamaks were gangs of Cossacks, who along with their peasant allies robbed traveling merchants and plundered the towns and villages in the Ukraine. They saw themselves as heirs to Khmelnitski. The Khmelnitski were the Cossacks who slaughtered Jews and Poles in wholesale lots in the middle of the 17th century.  Both of these murderous slaughters were part of the drift into degradation that became the lot of increasing numbers of Eastern European Jews.  This drift into degradation brought about numerous responses on the part of the Jews ranging from mysticism and messianicism to the Haskalah and immigration to Western Europe and eventually to the New World. 

    1757: In Kameiek (Podolia), the Frankists, calling themselves Zoharists, decided to wage war against the Talmud. They contacted the local bishop, Dembovsky, and convinced him to arrange a disputation. Naturally, the Talmud was condemned and thousands of copies were burned. The Frankists then became practicing Christians. The Frankists were Jews who were followers of Jacob Frank who had proclaimed himself the Messiah.

    1792(30thof Sivan 5552): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1792: Eighteen month old Heva bat Jacob Levi, who had passed away yesterday, was buried today at “Alderney Road (Globe Rd.) Jewish Cemetery.”

    1792: Moses Magnus married Rachel Solomons today at the Great Synagogue.

    1792: Birthdate of Samuel Israel Mulder, the Amsterdam native who was the first person to translate TaNaCh into Dutch.

    1794: In Brno, Gottlieb Bezalel Jeiteles and Johanna Jeitteles gave birth to Alois Jeitteles the founder of the Jewish weekly Siona and the author of poetic works set to music by Ludwig van Beethoven.

    1794: Birthdate of Austrian physician and author Alois Isidor Jeitteles, who founded the Jewish Weekly “Siona” and was the father of suffragette Ottilie Bondy.

    1808:  Birthdate of Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch, leading founder of what some call Modern Orthodox Judaism.

    1811: Lewis Henry Lazarus married Eliza Aaron today at the Great Synagogue.

    1811: In Charleston, SC, Rabbi Emanuel Nunes Carvalho who had been serving as the rabbi for the Jewish community in Bridgetown, Barbados, officiated at the wedding of Mrs. Catherine Jacobs and Solomon Hyams.

    1812: In Philadelphia, Ezekiel Jacob Ezekiel and his wife Rebecca, both of whom had come from Amsterdam, gave birth to their second child and first son Jacob Ezekiel, the grandson of Hebrews scribe Eleazer Israel and nephew of Michael E. Cohen who adopted him when his mother died and began his career at the age of 13 as an apprentice book binder.

    1815: Lord Rowerth, an agent of Nathan Rothschild who had stayed at Ostend awaiting to hear the outcome of the Battle of Waterloo brought word to the Jewish banker who “immediately transmitted the information to the government” – a fact that runs contrary to the myth that Rothschild made a fortune while keeping the news a secret.

    1819: In Herxheim am Berg, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, Therese Aron and Simon Kuhn gave brith to Abraham Kuhn.

    1819: In Cologne, Isaac Judah (Eberst) Offenbach and Marianne Offenbach to composer Jacques Jacob Offenbach, who created almost 100 operettas in a twenty year period.

    1823: In Germany, the government issued a decree “ordaining that Jewish services should be conducted exclusively in the German language and that the reading in Hebrew of sections of the Bible should be followed by their translation into the vernacular.”

    1828: Mordecai M. Noah accused Elijah J. Roberts, “a former business associate” of having “violently assaulted” him on the steps of the Park Theatre. (Noah was one of the pre-eminent American Jews in the years between the Revolutionary and Civil Wars)

    1832: Ellis Moses married Miriam Judah at the Western Synagogue in the United Kingdom.

    1837: King William IV of Great Britain and Ireland who in 1797 while still the Prince of Wales visited Barbados where “he visited the synagogue and was presented with an address and a sword by the Congregation” passed away today.

    1837:  With the death of her uncle, King William IV, Queen Victoria assumes the throne.  Since the British monarch reigns but does not rule, her influence on the progress of Jews of Britain and Europe were primarily tangential. Her treatment of Jews was a mixed bag.  During the Damascus Blood Libel, the Queen put a British ship at the disposal of her friend and neighbor Moses Montefiore.  But in 1869, the Queen blocked Lionel Rothschild elevation to the House of Lords.  However, later she would agree to the elevation of Lionel’s son and would socialize with the French branch of the Rothschild family when she made trips across the channel.  The change was brought about by Jewish financial support for the Suez project and her relationship with Benjamin Disraeli. 

    1839: Birthdate of Jacob Freudenthal, the native of Hanover and graduate of the rabbinical seminary of Breslau whose visit to the Netherlands to research the life of Spinoza produced Die Lebensgeschichte Spinoza's

    1841: Mr. G.M. Loewentritt married Miss Betty Goldberg to at Sheyareeth Israel in Charleston, SC.

    1843: In Oberlauterbach, Alsace, Isaiah Rosenthal and Rosa Walter gave birth to Jonas Rosenthal the husband of Jeanette Weil who came to the United States in 1860 where he attended school in Alexandria, LA before serving the Confederate Army for three and a half years in the Civil War following which he held several public positions capped off by being appointed U.S. Postmaster of Alexandria by President Grover Cleveland.

    1849: Solomon Salamo married Phoebe Levy at the Great Synagogue.

    1850: Five days after it application was received, Simon Lodge No. 4 of the Independent Order of Free Sons of Israel was “installed” today.

    1854: Lieutenant Colonel Albert Goldsmid, a veteran of the Napoleonic Wars and the son of Benjamin Goldsmid was promoted to the rank of Colonel.

    1856: In Bombay, Hannah Moise and Sir Albert Sassoon gave birth to Sir Edward Albert Sassoon.

    1858: Rabbi Bernhard Felsenthal, the German born rabbi who had moved to Chicago “and accepted employment in the banking-house of Greenebaum Brothers” helped to found the Jüdische Reformverein today.

    1859: In Luzerne County, PA, John and Helen McKeon Curran gave birth “the Very Rev. Mgr. John J. Curran’ the “militant Catholic priest nationally known as a friend of organized labor” who had a an ecumenical view of the world, long before that became fashionable as can be seen by the fact he “he was reputed to have as many friends among Protestants and Jews as among Catholic clergy and layman” and in the best sense of the Gospels “was the good neighbor to all.”

    1871: Birthdate of Helmstedt, Germany native Edmund Moser a passenger on the ill-fated SS. St. Louis who survived the war even though his “country of disembarkation” was France which meant he was luckier than fellow family member and shipmate Roaslie Moser who did not survive.

    1871: One day after he passed away, mathematician Numa Edward Hartog, the son of Alphonse and Marion Hartog was buried today at West Ham Jewish Cemetery.

    1874: In Warsaw, “Israel Isaac and Chasha Peltz Zambrowsky” gave birth to S. Joshua Zambrowsky who served as rabbi “Congregation Tifereth Israel in Warsaw from 1901 to 1923” after which he served as the rabbi of “Congregation Poilez Tzedeck in Syracuse for ten years” and the “chief rabbi of the Buffalo Council of Jewish Congregations, Inc.”

    1875: Congregation B'Nai Israel of Galveston voted to become one of the charter members of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations.

    1875: Five days after he passed away, sixty-seven year old Isaac Benjamin was buried today at the “Lauriston Road Jewish Cemetery.”

    1877: Meyer Freeman who owns a butcher shop at 38 Ludlow Street was awakened by two men –later identified as David Milstein and Isaac Goldstein – who had broken into his bedroom and were trying to steal the contents of a bureau that contained jewelry and box with $35 in cash.  Freeman, clad only in his bed clothes, chased the robbers through the streets and captured Milstein whom he turned over to the policy.  Milstein is a well-known criminal having spent 21 of the last 28 years in jail

    1877:  It was reported today that several other Jews who have been guests for several seasons at the Grand Union Hotel besides Joseph Seligman have been refused service at the Saratoga Springs Hotel.  These include Mr. Marcus Goldman, the broker, Mrs. Louis Josephthal, the wholesale manufacturer and Mr. Max Landman, “the well-known tobacconist.”  Each of them lives in Manhattan.  Each of them wrote asking for rooms as they have done in the past.  And each was refused without any explanation.  The strangest case of rejection centered around Judge Joseph Koch, the distinguished jurist who had sat on the bench of the Fifth District Court.  Judge Koch met with Mr. Calire, one of the managers of the hotel, at A.T. Stewart’s store in Manhattan.  At that time Mr. Claire assured the Koch that he could have the same accommodations as he had in previous years.  When Koch asked if he could have “a more desirable suite of apartments” Claire said that he would see to it as soon as he arrived at the hotel.  However, Judge Koch has heard nothing more from Mr. Claire and assumes that he is as unwelcome as his coreligionists.

    1877: It was reported today that the Jews of New York have had a mixed reaction to Mr. Seligman’s being banned from the Grand Union because he was Jewish.  Some view this as part of a conflict between Judge Hilton and Mr. Seligman which has more to do with business than with religion.  Others say that there is nothing new about such a ban.  Other hotel owners have tried it, suffered financially and rescinded the ban.  Yet others are bothered by the fact that Jews as a group were banned.  They could understand not renting to people who do not pay their bills or who present other problems, but singling out Jews as a group does not make any sense. There seems to be a general consensus that it is best to avoid making this a matter for public demonstrations.

    1877: It was reported today that many hotel owners in Boston were surprised to hear about the Judge Hilton’s decision to ban Jews from the Grand Union.  Some of them know Mr. Seligman and hold him in the highest esteem.  From a business point of view, times are so hard that turning away any guests who can afford to stay at their hotels does not make any sense to these owners.  And if there is some grand plan afoot to ban Jews from hotels, they do not want to be a part of it.

    1877: “The Position of New York Hotels” published today described the attitude of various hostelries in the Big Apple regarding Jewish guests.  The St. James and the Albemarle follow the same exclusionary policies as those practiced by the Grand Union in Saratoga. The Windsor does not have the slightest possible objection to having Jews as guest finding them “as a class the promptest paying customers.” The Grand Central management thought that the Grand Union had made a “great mistake.” The Grand Union in Manhattan, the Hotel Brunswick, the Rossmore Hotel, the Fifth Avenue Hotel and the Sturtevant House all said they had no policy against Jewish guests and several of the hotels reported having some staying there at this very time.

    1879: In New York City, The Jewish Messengerreports that "A new congregation has been started on East 57th Street, called Orach Chaim.” Some of the members of the new congregation were disaffected members of Adas Israel, another congregation located on the same street.

    1880: Four days after he passed away “in the 76th year of his life” Moritz Moses Maurice was buried at the Balls Pond Road Jewish Cemetery.

    1880: “Puritan Christian Names” published today described how the printing of the Geneva Bible, an affordable English translation of the sacred text led to the adoption of many Old Testament (Jewish) names by English Puritans.  Apparently, having finally been able to read the text, the “Puritan spirit led those whom it animated to a strong and very marked preference for the Jewish part of the Bible over the Christian.”

    1881: The Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society took two hundred children on an outing aboard the steam boat Bellevue. The boat stopped at Hart’s Island so the children could enjoy themselves. [These outings were part of a program to get slum children out of the city and into the fresh air of the country.]

    1882: An assignment for the benefit of creditors by Abraham Samuels to Lester Cohn was filed in the county clerk’s office today.

    1883: Anglican Bishop and Biblical scholar John William Colenso the author of The Pentateuch and Book of Joshua Critically Examined which he wrote in response to being questioned about the historical accuracy of these books and whether or not they should be taken literally passed away today. (Colenso was one of a series of Jewish and Christian theologians and authors who re-examined the traditional view of these texts as being literal truth or the modernist view that they were just a series of manufactured myths)

    1884: It was reported today that a serious outbreak of anti-Semitic violence has broken out in Krivoroge, Russia.

    1886: “Clubs Without Number” published today described the variety of New York social clubs that cater to various segments of the city’s population including the Jews some of whom frequent the Harmonie Club on 42nd Street while a greater number are found at the Hebrew Association at 317 Third Avenue.  Actually Jews can be found at most of the popular clubs except for the Union and Knickerbocker clubs.

    1887: Two Jewish peddlers, Simon Kleber and Judah Waser, were abused and driven out of a liquor store by the bartender when they tried to sell him their wares.  The two men sought protection from Policeman Frederick Timme who responded by clubbing them and driving them away.

    1887: “Jews and Gentiles In London” published today provided a snapshot of Jewish economic conditions in the capital of the UK picturing them as being wealthier than the non-Jewish population. For example, the average annual Jewish income is 82 pounds as compared with 35 ponds for the non-Jews.  Jews with an income over 10,000 pounds are 20 times as numerous as the number found in the non-Jewish population. [Editor’s note – This report is totally misleading since it fails to capture the wealth of the gentry which would have reported in the counties and boroughs where there estates were located.]

    1888: It was reported today that the executors of the Bernhard Stern’s will have paid out over $25,000 in bequests to variety of Jewish and secular institutions in New York City.  The largest bequest was $5,000 given to the United Hebrew Charities.

    1890: The Executive Committee of the United Hebrew Charities reported today that during the month it had found employment for 364 applicants during the month of May.  The committee had spent $8,756.08 during the month to aid needy Jews including the 1,987 immigrants who had arrived at Castle Garden.

    1890: As of today, the managers of the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children have received $4,091.50 which will be used to provide free summer excursions for Jewish children and their mothers.

    1890: Police officers arrested Marcus Goldstein, a Polish Jew, when came to the Gill Engraving Company this morning to collect what he thought were the blank plates that would enable him to print (and sell) counterfeit tickets for the Hamburg Lottery.

    1891: Birthdate of Zionist leader and native of Prague, Robert Weltsch, who died in Jerusalem a century later.

    1892: In Kaunas Count (modern day Lithuania) Joseph and Gertrude Janner gave birth to Anglo-Jewish political and civic leader Barnett Janner who would serve as an MP first from the Liberal Party and then from the Labour Party

    1893: Philadelphia lawyer Charles Isaiah Hoffman married Fanny Binswanger in the City of Brotherly love. Seven years later he would enter the JTS, graduated and was ordained in 1904 and spent most of the rest of his life as the spiritual leader of Oheb Shalom in Newark, NJ. [Sort of a modern day version of “Rachel, the wife of Akiva”]

    1893: After having viewed the body of Jewish cigar manufacturer Adolph S. Jaeger, Deputy Coroner O’Hare said that the deceased had taken his own life and turned his remains over to the undertaker.

    1894: Today’s meeting of the Constitutional Convention looking at charitable contributions made by the State of New York, first heard from Myer Sterne, the “former Commissioner of Charities and Correction who appeared in behalf of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum of which the late Jesse Seligman was President.”

    1895: “Governor William McKinley delivered an address at Ottawa, Kansas in which he referred to an American flag with a biblical inscription on it” which Chicago Republic Abraham Kohn had presented to Abraham Lincoln “one month prior to his assumption of the Presidency.” Kohn was President of Chicago’s KAM Congregation.  Actually two biblical verses had been painted on to the flag both of which were from from the first chapter of the book of Joshua verses 5 and 9.including the famous charge “Be strong and of great courage.  Be not afraid, neither be dismayed.”  After several attempts, McKinley would finally be elected President in 1896 and re-elected in 1900.  He would die at the hands of an assassin bringing Teddy Roosevelt to the White House.

    1896: A character of sketch of the recently deceased Marquis de Mores published today described him as “eccentric” whose “hatred of England…was almost a mania” and who “was a rabid enemy of the Jews.” (Editor’s note – For those who do not recognize the name his anti-Semitism including fight a duel French Deputy Ferdinand-Camille Dreyfus)

    1897: Mrs. Jennie Cohen, formerly of New Haven, CN, and her four children ranging in ages from six years to four months were being cared for at Police Headquarters after having spent the night in rooms provided for by the Hebrew Sheltering House Association on Madison Street.

    1897: The Baron Hirsch Free Hebrew School of Chicago was formally incorporated at Springfield, Illinois, the state capital.

    1897: “Biblical Titles” published today described the refusal of the Lord Chamberlain’s office to grant a license to a biblical drama entitled “Joseph of Canaan” by George Walters, an Australian clergyman and Rubinstein’s opera “Judas Maccabaeus”  Apparently it is Biblical titles that upset the English official and not religion per se since a license, which is necessary for public performance, was granted to “The Sign of the Cross.”

    1897: “The Reverend Herman Warszawiak” the Jewish convert to Christianity “whose application to the Presbytery was rejected last week after a trail for unministerial conduct gave vent to his feelings today” comparing himself to St. Paul” and declaring “that he had been hounded because he was of Jewish orgin and the Presbyterians did not want any Jews.

    1897: The Philadelphia Inquirer reported that articles of incorporation have been filed by the Sons of Abraham “a Hebrew benevolent society” in Camden, NJ.

    1898(30thof Sivan, 5658): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1898(30thof Sivan, 5658): Fifty year old Moses Stein “a well-known resident of Bath Beach” passed away at Mount Sinai Hospital.  A retired Manhattan wholesale butcher; he was one of the founders of the Hebrew Congregational Society in Bath Beach.

    1898: During the Spanish American War, ships of the U.S Navy (in which 20 Jews served as officers) entered the harbor at Guam. (Whether any those officers were at Guam is not a matter of record.)

    1899: Chicago Jews are among those contributing funds to the purchase of memorial items to be presented to Captain Dreyfus, Colonel Picquart and author Emile Zola.  The latter two played key roles in exonerating the former when he was falsely convicted of treason and subject to a barrage of anti-Semitism.

    1899: In Chicago, 50 boys half of whom were Christians and half of whom were Jewish fought it on Stewart Avenue until the police arrived from the Maxwell Street Station and put an end to the violence.

    1899: Jews living on the Lower East Side learned that “Winslow W. Dunlap, the self-appointed missionary” seeking to convert the Jews also makes loans to anybody with a salary between $20 to $200. “It is the custom of Dunlap to advance a man, say $80 and deduct $5 for the expenses of the loan. Besides this $5 he charges $40.80 interest making the borrower pay $70.80 for $25 in “easy” payments of from $2.50 to $5 per week.

    1899: “Law and Order” published today decried the attack on a Christian missionary earlier this week who was preaching on the streets of the Lower East Side by a mob and the failure of the police to intervene because in civil society people have a right to express their opinions no matter how distasteful they may be to the public that is forced to hear them.

    1899: “Conference of Zionists” published today included a description of a proposal submitted by the English Zionist Federation “proposing the re-establishment of Judea as an independent state, suggesting the purchase of the Maccabean sites in Palestine and the beginning of the work by the establishment of a Jewish colony and a Jewish Agricultural College there.”

    1899: “The Jew-Hater in France” published today provided the views of Gustav Gottheil, a leading American Reform Rabbi on the condition of the Jews in France as that nation is convulsed by the Dreyfus affair.  As to Dreyfus, he said, “the fact that he was a Jew was the strongest accusation against him.” “Even though “no race has been more patriotic than the French Jews” “the real spirit of malice and persecution will never change and they will never be friendly to the Jewish people.” And in a view that may have been the result of his attendance at the Zionist Congress at Basel “The effect of the triumph in the Zionistic movement stands out in clear and unmistakable character.”

    1899(12th of Tammuz, 5659): Fifty-six year old Jacob Baiz, the Venezuelan born son of Abraham and Sarah Naar who after being raised in Elizabethport, NJ, became a successful businessman in Latin America, serving as Consul-General of the Government of Honduras and a member of the Coffee Exchange as well as Vice President of the Hebrew Sheltering and Guardian Society passed away today in New York.

    1902: Herzl learns that Turkey accepted the Rouvier Project. Maruice Rouvier was one of those permanent political animals created by the revolving door governments in the days of France’s Third Republic. He was not Jewish.  Depending upon who formed the government Rouvier held different cabinet posts including finance and foreign affairs.  He was Prime Minister twice himself.  At this time, Rouvier was serving as the Minister of Finance.  At the same time, like most French politicians, he was always looking for ways to counter German influence.  The Turks were in need of financial assistance and Rouvier was willing to do what he could if it would keep the Kaiser out of the Mediterranean. 

    1903: Maurice Arnold de Forest, one of the two adopted sons of Baroness Clara de Hirsch and Baron Maurice de Hirsch de Gereuth resigned his commission in the Prince of Wales's Own Norfolk Artillery

    1905: In New Orleans, Max Bernard Hellman and Julia gave birth to playwright and social activist Lillian Hellman.

    1907: Frederick Henriques, the son Joseph Gutteres Henriques, was buried today at the “Balls Pond Road Jewish Cemetery.”

    1910: Fanny Brice debuted at the Ziegfield Follies (As reported by the Jewish Women’s Archive)

    1911(24thof Sivan, 5671): Rosenberg, TX native and University of Texas alum Helene Gladys Daily, the Houston lawyer and a leader of the League of Women Voters passed away today.

    1913(15th of Sivan, 5673): Eighty-three year old “cantor and journalist” Jacob Tattlebaum passed away today in Patterson, NJ.

    1913: Rabbi Israel Klein is scheduled to deliver the Friday night sermon at Zion Temple in Chicago, Illinois.

    1915: In Canonsburg, PA, dedication of Tree of Life Synagogue.

    1915: At the Astor Hotel, Louis Marshall presided over the meeting of the American Jewish Committee today where it was “decided to convoke a general congress of American Jews to consider methods of assisting their” co-religionists “in the war zones” following “the receipt of the first news of atrocities committed against Jews in the warring countries.”

    1915: The Turkish government permitted “expelled Jews” to return to parts of Palestine including Tel Aviv and its “suburbs.”

    1915: “Interest in the case of the condemned man” Leo Frank “reached fever heat in Atlanta today” where “it was the one subject of discussion everywhere” as Governor Slaton’s decision was expected by tomorrow.

    1916(19th of Sivan, 5676): Eighty-one year old Leopold Adler, the German born husband of Rose Adler passed away today in Chicago.

    1916: Birthdate of Zelda Berkowitz who as Zelda Kaplan became as an inimitable fixture on fashion’s front lines and an inveterate clubgoer in Manhattan. (As reported by Ruth La Ferla)

    1916: “Max J. Klein, whose charge that he had been excluded from the Second Field Artillery because he was a Jews started the inquiry into discrimination in the National Guard, announced” tonight” that he was organizing a company to serve in the Guard.

    1917: This evening, at eight o’clock, the Young Men’s Hebrew Association is scheduled to host “an entertainment and dance in the Assembly Hall of the Hebrew Institute to celebrate the installation of its new officers.”

    1917: “Jacob H. Schiff, Felix M. Warburg, Louis Marshall and thirty other members of the Joint Distribution Committee” raising “funds for Jewish War sufferers voted” today “to the Morgenthau commission ‘unlimited funds’ for the relief of the Jews in Palestine.”

    1917: The Turkish government permitted the Jews who had been expelled to return to Tel Aviv and Jaffa

    1917: Birthdate of Franklin Littell, a pioneer in the field of Holocaust scholarship, who was also president of Iowa Wesleyan College and a founding board member of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, in Washington. His best-known book, The Crucifixion of the Jews, pressed his view that Christianity is essentially Jewish and that Jesus, Paul and Peter would have been executed at Auschwitz. (As reported by Douglas Martin)

    1918: Birthdate of Lillian Sylvia Lukashefsky, the Brooklyn native who gained famed as Yiddish actress, author and singer Lillian Lux who was the wife of Pesach Burnstein and the mother of actor Mike Burstyn.

    1918: Two days after he passed away, Michael Abrahams, “the son of David and Eva Abrahams” was buried today at the “Plashet Jewish Cemetery” in London.

    1918: United States President Wilson sent Henry Morgenthau and Felix Frankfurter to Egypt to investigate how to best aid Jews in Palestine.

    1919: One day after she passed away Martha Friedland, the daughter of Myer Friedland, was buried at the “Belfast Jewish Cemetery” in Northern Ireland.

    1919: After having been elected to the Weimar National Assembly, Bernhard Dernberg completed to months of service as Federal Minister of Finance and Vice Chancellor.

    1921: Shortstop Reuben Ewing made his major league debut with the St. Louis Cardinals.

    1922: Dr. Lee K. Frankel, Vice President of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, is scheduled to sail for Europe today aboard the SS Beregaria.  He is head of a committee appointed by the American Jewish Relief Commission that is visiting Jewish population centers in Austria, Poland, Romania, Hungary, Czechoslovakia and Russia in an effort to determine how best to spend th $18,000,000 that has been collected by American Jews for their coreligionists living in Eastern Europe.

    1923: At meeting of the Board of Directors of the National Farm School held today, a memorial was adopted praising the work of the late Rabbi Joseph Krauskopf, the founder and President of the National Farm School.

    1924(18th of Sivan, 5684): Eighty-eight year old Nicholas Scharff, the native of Bavaria who was married at Port Gibson, Mississippi in 1870 passed away today in St. Louis.

    1925(28thof Sivan, 5685):Dr. Josef Bruer, the Austrian physician who worked with Freud to develop the modern field of psychoanalysis passed away in Vienna.

    1926: In Cleveland, Ohio, “Maurice and Rachel (Shapiro) Gelfand gave birth to history professor Lawrence E. “Larry” Gelfand, the husband of Miram Ifland and WW II veteran who joined the Department of History at the University of Iowa in 1962 “after teaching at the Universities of Hawaii, Washington and Wyoming.

    1926: Birthdate of Rehavam "Gandhi" Ze'evi the native of Jerusalem who rose to the rank of general and founded the Moledet Party.

    1926: In the Czech Republic Pavel Bondy and Franziska Bondy, the daughter of Leopold and Valerie Pick, who was murdered during the Holocaust gave birth to Eduard Bondy who murdered during the Holocaust at the age of 15.

    1927: Birthdate of Sherman Bernard Goldberg who gained fame as producer and screenwriter Judd Bernard.

    1927: Birthdate of Newark native, Wharton graduate and WW II veteran Milton Perlumutter who became a successful supermarket executive passed away today.

    1928: In Brooklyn, “Morris Landau, a machinist and the former Selma Buchman gave birth to Oscar winning actor Martin Landau who may be best remembered for his continuing role in the hit television series “Mission Impossible.”

    1928: In the Bronx, Florence and Louis Slobodkin gave birth to “Lawrence B. Slobodkin, a central figure in the development of ecology as a modern science and a co-author of one of its most inspiring inquiries, a paper known informally as “The World Is Green” (As reported by Carol Kaesuk Yoon)

    1928: A court in Tel Aviv “imposed short jail terms and sentences of deportation” on three Jews who resisted the police efforts to break up a demonstration protesting the flogging of prisoners in Palestine jails.”  The three were additionally accused of being “Communists.”  The demonstration was part of a larger protest by Jews against the propensity of the British immigration authorities for deporting Jews on the slightest pretext with little or no evidence of serious wrongdoing.

    1929: In Montreal, Samuel and Saidye Rosner Bronfman gave birth to Edgar Miles Bronfman.

    1931: A newspaper in Salonica called the Macedonia ran an article about a resident named Isaac D. Cohen. Cohen was sent as a representative to the meeting of the Maccabiah which was held in Sophia, Bulgaria. However the newspaper stated while away, he also attended a conference held by a revolutionary organization, which had come up with the decision to sue for the independence of Greek and Yugoslav Macedonia. This lie led to attacks on Jews who were said not to be patriotic.

    1935(19th of Sivan, 5695): San Luis Obispo, CA, native Marcel Ernest Cert the graduate of Hastings Law School and California Superior Court Judge whose sister Rebecca died tragically in a hotel fire, passed away today.

    1936: “Jewish children from the east side of Berlin found themselves unexpectedly barred today from Bad Klingenberg on Lake Rummelsburg” when they were confronted with recently erected signs reading “Jews not wanted.”

    1936: “In the Bakaa quarter on the Jerusalem-Bethlehem Road” “a burning rag soaked in kerosene was thrown through a window in the storeroom of a Jewish baby home” which housed “ninety-seven infants and fifty adults including mothers and nurses” in what was “one of the cruelest acts of terrorism perpetrated in the cause of Arab nationalism.”

    1936: “Supreme Court Justice William T. Collins criticized Germany’s racial policy in a decision” today permitting Marcel M. Holzer who had been “sent to a concentration camp in 1933 for six months because he was a Jew” and who was a former employee of the Reichsbahn (German State Railroads) “to bring sut here for upward of $50,000 damages because he was discharged as a ‘non-Aryan.’”

    1936: “The Palestine Government today extended the death penalty to crimes of sabotage as it fought to end the violence and destruction that in the last nine weeks have resulted in more than eighty deaths of Jews, Arabs and Christians.”

    1936:The Palestine Post reported that according to the new Palestine Emergency Regulations a life sentence could be imposed on any person carrying arms, bombs or incendiary material. Arab attacks on Jewish settlements continued unabated. Police patrols were stoned in Arab villages and three British soldiers were injured in various shooting incidents throughout the country.

    1937: “The Latest Book Received” column published today included a listing for If I Forget Thee a novel by Josef Dunner that is described as “a story of the reorientation of two German Jews.”

    1937: While preaching his “last sermon of the season” today at Congregation Ohab Zadek in New York, Rabbi William Margolis said today, “Current happenings in Europe are finally convincing the world that the enemies of democracy are the foes of all men”

    1939: In commenting on wave of violence gripping Palestine including yesterday’s bombing in Haifa, Davar wrote, “”Who throws bombs?  Is it the same hand that is sowing blood and ruin in the Arab market in the Jewish suburb?  These are not the ways of the Jewish population in Palestine in their struggle…Ruin and paralysis of economic life will only hurt the Jews in Palestine.  Sacrifices may be necessary for our political struggle but every act paralyzing our life unnecessarily weakens the Jews here more than its sabotages the Palestine Government’s new policy and it only causes failure of Palestine Jewry’s struggle against the policy.” In a separate column, David Ben Gurion condemned the violence saying “The Jews must sacrifice everything for immigration, colonization, self-defense and independence but we must not sully our struggle with despicable acts of madness such as have been recently committed at Tel Aviv, Jerusalem and Haifa.   The murder of innocent Arabs and Jews and stupid sabotage are act that are only helping our most bitter enemies.  Such criminal acts soil our just struggle, undermine the efficiency of our work and play the game of our foes.”

    1939: Final broadcast of Song School, a radio show featuring Jewish Jazzman Benny Goodman

    1940: Jewish prisoners began arriving at Ferramonti, one of the 15 concentration camps established by Mussolini during the summer of 1940. In the next three years, 3,800 Jews would be imprisoned in all of the camps.

    1940: On the day when France surrendered to Germany Propper de Callejón was First Secretary of the Spanish Embassy in Paris. In order to prevent the German army from plundering the art collection that his wife's family kept at the Chateau de Royaumont, he declared this castle to be his main residence, so it would be treated in the same privileged way as the accommodation of any other diplomat. Among the art works thus saved are a triptych of Van Eyck (one of Adolf Hitler´s favorite painters). In July 1940, , in co-operation with the Portuguese Consul Arístedes de Sousa Menendes, he would issue from the Spanish Consulate in Bordeaux more than thirty thousand transit visas to Jews, so that they could cross Spain to reach Portugal. When Spain's Foreign Minister Ramón Serrano Suñer learned that Propper de Callejón was issuing visas without the previous authorization of his Ministry, he had him transferred to the Consulate of Larache in the Spanish protectorate in Morocco. Afterwards, he would be posted to Rabat, Zurich Washington, Ottawa and Oslo.Propper de Callejón's father, Max Propper, was a Bohemian Jew, and his mother, Juana Callejón, was a Spanish Catholic; they raised Eduardo and his brothers in the Catholic faith His wife, Hélène Fould-Springer was a socialite and painter. She was from a notable Jewish Austrian-French banking family, though she converted to Catholicism upon their marriage and is a sister of prominent Paris art patron and philanthropist Liliane de Rothschild (Baroness Élie de Rothschild,) 1916—2003). He never gained public recognition for his heroic acts before his death in 1972 in London.

    1940:  As they continued their dangerous trek to avoid capture by the Nazis, Hans and Margaret Reys arrived in Bayonne, France where they received visas that had been signed by Portuguese Vice-Consul Manuel Vierira Braga which enabled them to cross the border into Spain, the next step on an odyssey that took them to Lisbon, Rio and finally New York.  Hans Reys is the creator of Curious George.  Like so many others, he owes his life to the Portuguese diplomat Aristides de Sousa Mendes.

    1941: In Leicester, UK, Russell E. Frears, a general practitioner and accountant, and Ruth M. (née Danziger) who did not tell her son that she Jewish “until he was in his late twenties” gave birth to Stephen Arthur Frears

    1941: As of today, “more than 2,000,000 Jews live in New York City” but “about 35 percent of the employable 365,000 Jewish young men and women have been unable to find jobs”

    1941: As of today, “among the three largest banks” in New York City “with a payroll of 20,000 only about 200 Jews are on the salary list.

    1942: Grace Goodside married cinematographer Jess Paley meaning that she would gain fame as Grace Paley.

    1942: Mass killings of Jews by the Nazis began at Auschwitz.

    1942: After breaking into a warehouse at Auschwitz, Ukrainian Eugeniusz Bendera and three Poles, Kazimierz Piechowski, Stanisław Gustaw Jaster, and Józef Lempart dressed as members of the SS-Totenkopfverbände (the SS units responsible for concentration camps), armed themselves, and stole an SS staff car, which they then drove unchallenged through the main gate

    1942: From now until October 9th, 13,776 Jews would be deported from Vienna to Theresienstadt

    1943: Rabbi Harold I. Saperstein responded to tributes paid at a gathering this evening celebrating ten ears of rabbinical service to Temple Emanu-El and provided a sendoff for the leave of absence he was taking to begin serving as a chaplain in the U.S. Army that ended with his hope that just as the first decade of his service was marked by the “accession of Hitler to power” so this next decade “shall be inaugurated with the triumph of democracy.”

    1943: Five thousand Jews from Amsterdam are deported to Auschwitz.

    1943: The Ternopol (Ukraine) Ghetto is liquidated.

    1943: Himmler sent 100 Jews to a concentration camp in Alsace called Natzweiler. They were killed there and their skeletons were sent to the Anatomical Museum in Strasbourg.

    1943: Five thousand, five hundred Jews were rounded up in Amsterdam and deported.

    1944: Max and Frieda Löwy Sipser applied to be sent to the refugee shelter that had just been established at Fort Ontario, NY on the same day that the Displaced Persons Sub-Commission of the Allied Control Commission posted the notice for applicants.

    1945(9th of Tammuz, 5705): Fifty-eight year old German born author and playwright Bruno Frank who left Germany with his wife Liesl after the Reichstag Fire and eventually made his way to the United States where he wrote scripts for such films as “The Hunchback of Notre Dame.”

    1945: Aware that “British hostility to the Zionist enterprise was often a mask for anti-Semitism,” Churchill cautioned his colleague Lord Croft to “not be drawn into any campaign that might be represented as anti-Semitism.”

    1946: In Moscow, Alexander Kazhdan and his wife gave birth to Dmitry Aleksandrovich Kazhdan who emigrated from the Soviet Union in 1975 at which time he changed his name David Kazhdan, became an Orthodox Jew who made Aliyah in 2002 where he became a professor of Mathematics at Hebrew University.

    1947: Following his announcement that he was leaving Beth El in Camden for a new position At Beth Abraham in Oakland, CA, Camden Mayor Brunner wrote a letter published in today’s “Voice” expression his admiration for Rabbi Philip Lipis saying “that Camden was privileged to enjoy his presence and leadership for twelve years.”

    1947(2nd of Tammuz, 5707): Ben "Bugsy" Siegel was gunned down by fellow mobsters over financial irregularities surrounding the building of the Flamingo in Las Vegas.

    1947: “Twenty minutes after Bugsy Siegel was murder, Meyer “Lansky's associates, including Gus Greenbaum and Moe Sedway, walked into the Flamingo Hotel and took control of the property.”

    1948: During the Israeli War for Independence, the Etzel (Irgun) ship Altelena reached the coast of Tel Aviv carrying 800 new immigrants and weapons. The Etzel claimed they had an agreement that 20% of the arms on board would be used by its members in defending Jerusalem. David Ben Gurion, head of the new state of Israel, saw this as threat to the power of the new government. He believed that there could only be one army and that it had to be under the control of the national government. If the Irgun wanted to fight, then its members had to become part of the army just as the members of the Palmach and the Haganah had done. Ben Gurion refused to accept any compromise on this point. He ordered the ship to be fired upon. The incident almost caused a civil war and was only averted by an impassioned and at times incoherent speech made by Menachem Begin to his followers over the radio that night not to take up arms against fellow Jews. One only has to look at multiplicity of armed groups operating today on the West Bank and Gaza to see what would have happened if Ben Gurion had not reluctantly taken such bold action which was necessary if the new state of Israel was going to be a coherent nation.

    Because of the controversy that still revolves around this event I have published a second version

    1948: Just over a month after the State of Israel was established and shortly after the first cease fire in the War of Independence, Israel's first prime minister, David Ben-Gurion, gave one of the country's most controversial orders ever - to take the Altalena by force.Prior to the establishment of the state, several armed Jewish militias protected early Jewish settlers and fought against the British and hostile Arab forces. The largest of these groups were the Hagana and the Irgun Zva’I Leumi (Irgun or IZL). The Hagana, led by Ben-Gurion, became the Israeli Defense Forces once the state was declared in May 1948 and the Irgun was under the command of Menahem Begin.In mid-May 1948, during the War of Independence, Ben-Gurion ordered the various militias disbanded and integrated into the IDF in order to create one army under a unified command. While some of the militias willingly sent their fighters and weaponry to the IDF, others were unwilling to relinquish the established paramilitary organizations they had built. Notably, the Irgun, for both ideological and political reasons, was unwilling to put itself under Ben-Gurion’s command.Begin and other Irgun commanders were still attempting to ship significant amounts of weaponry and fresh immigrant fighters into Israel in the last days of the British Mandate. The Irgun organized a large ship carrying weaponry and fighters from France, scheduled to arrive on Israel’s shores in mid-May. Due to logistical and operational factors, however, the departure of the Altalena was delayed.By the time the ship was ready to sail, loaded with nearly 1,000 immigrant fighters and thousands of tons of materiel, the first ceasefire in the War of Independence had already been reached and importing weaponry would have constituted a violation of it. The Jewish state, however, was in need of weaponry and ammunition, so when Begin approached Ben-Gurion to inform him of the shipment, the two attempted to negotiate a deal that would see the ship’s cargo safely unloaded.In order to evade detection by United Nations observers overseeing the ceasefire, the Irgun and the newly anointed leaders of the state and its army decided that the Altalena should be offloaded at Kfar Vitkin, near Netanya.Negotiations between the Irgun and Ben-Gurion were complicated by Begin’s insistence on transferring most of the ship’s cargo to Irgun units operating within the newly established IDF, a condition to which Ben-Gurion could not agree. The new leader of Israel was already wary of having non-state controlled armed forces operating independently of the army and believed that directing the weaponry to IDF units from the Irgun would lead to an “army within an army.”As the ship began its final approach to Kfar Vitkin, IDF forces were ordered to surround the area in order to seize the payload. Following failed negotiations, the government decided to issue an ultimatum. The military commander on scene sent Begin a clear message: “I shall use all the means at my disposal in order to implement the order and to requisition the weapons which have reached shore and transfer them from private possession into the possession of the Israel government… You have ten minutes to give me your answer.” Small-scale fighting between the two sides broke out at Kfar Vitkin, but Begin and the Irgun, aware of their numerical and tactical disadvantage, decided to send the Altalena south to Tel Aviv where more fighters could be assembled and the army was not yet situated to intercept the ship. Irgun fighters who had already joined the IDF began defecting from their commands and headed to Tel Aviv to fight for their weaponry. As the two forces descended on Tel Aviv, fighting erupted along the shore and throughout the city, “mainly in the center and the south,” The Palestine Post reported in the aftermath of the clashes. The Israeli navy and artillery pieces on shore fired warning shots at the ship in a last-ditched attempt to force a surrender, but eventually hit the ship, setting it ablaze. Ultimately, over 20 Irgun fighters and more than a handful of IDF soldiers were killed in the fighting between the two Jewish forces. The Altalena was eventually brought out to sea and sunk.Ben-Gurion has been both praised and disdained for his decision to take the Altalena by force. Fearing a civil war and a lack of government legitimacy based on the concept of a monopoly of force, Ben-Gurion ultimately decided that he could not tolerate Begin’s brazen refusal to put himself, his fighters and weaponry under the state’s command. Following the Altalena incident, however, Irgun and other militia forces were integrated into the IDF and the non-democratic challenges to the state’s legitimacy came to an end. Nonetheless, the decision to order Jewish soldiers to act against fellow Jews – who too were fighting for the infant state’s survival – has never been forgiven by some who view it as a betrayal of the very purpose of a Jewish army. Until this day, the Altalena is invoked at times when state security forces are pitted against Jews, albeit not with the deadly consequences of June 1948.

    1948(13th of Sivan, 5708): Twenty Jews were killed in a bombing in the Jewish Quarter of Cairo.

    1948: In Cincinnati, Ohio, Carl and Edith Henry gave birth to photojournalist Diana Mara Henry whose subjects have included Elizabeth Holtzman and Bella Abzug, “her most enduring friend and client who since 1985 “has been writing, translating from the French, publishing and speaking] about the Natzweiler-Struthof concentration camp and its Nacht und Nebel political prisoners, including the Jewish spy Andre Scheinmann.”

    1950(5th of Tammuz, 5710): Sixty-two year old Sam Lazarus, the husband of Annie Stein Lazarus with whom he had five children, passed away today in Neptune Beach, FL.

    1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that legislation empowered the minister of finance to underwrite up to 50 percent of mortgage loans for the construction of low-cost housing.

    1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that Britain had promised to press Egypt to open the Suez Canal for oil tankers bound for the Haifa refineries. Contrary to earlier news, General William Riley, chief UN representative in the Middle East, reported to the UN Security Council on June 13 that Egyptian interference with Israel-bound shipping in the Suez Canal was an "aggressive, hostile action, undertaken in the spirit of blockade and having partial effects of a blockade."

    1951: “Kind Lady” a re-make of the 1935 film produced by Armand Deutsch with music by David Raksin and filmed by Cinematographer Joseph Ruttenberg was released in the United States today.

    1952: In address to the Commercial and Industrial Club, Schmuel Elyashiv, Israel’s Ambassador in Moscow “said there were prospects of expanding Israel’s trade relations with Russia.  This year Israel shipped oranges and bananas to Russia.”  The Soviets would have bought more if the Israelis had produced a larger crop.

    1954:  In Ramat Gan, Louis (Lutz) Eliezer Wolfermann and Tonya Krepel gave birth to Ilan Ramon, Israel’s first astronaut.

    1956: Birthdate of Pulitzer Prize winning reporter Tom Weiner, the author of One Man Against the World” The Tragedy of Richard Nixon.

    1960: Birthdate of Shachiv Shnaan the Druze Israeli who served in the Herev Battalion before starting a career in politics that included two stints as an MK.

    1962: In Brooklyn, funeral services were held for Brooklyn native Grace Baer Bachrach, the school teacher and wife of attorney Clarence G. Bachrach with whom she had two children who was so active in various civic and cultural organizations including the “Brooklyn division of the Federation of Jewish Philanthropies” that was honored as “Brooklyn’s First Lady of Philanthropy in 1956.

    1963: In London, world premiere of “The Great Escape” a must see movie with a memorable score by Elmer Bernstein.

    1964: “Nobody Loves an Albatross” a comedy produced by Philip Rose and directed by Gene Saks with Marian Winters in the role of “Marge Weber” came to a close today.

    1965(20th of Sivan, 5725): Ninety-four year old financier and presidential advisor Bernard Baruch passed away.

    1965:The New York Times reports on the challenge facing Jack Benny as he faces the first summer in 33 years when he “does not find himself in the midst of hectic preparations for a new season on radio or television.”

    1969(3rd of Tammuz, 5729): Terrorists set off three bombings near the Kotel killing one and injuring five.

    1970: Birthdate of Jason Robert Brown who wrote the music and lyrics for “Parade” the Tony and Drama Desk award winning musical based on the life and lynching of Leo Frank.

    1972: Birthdate of Yuval Semo, the Haifa native who a popular Israeli actor and comedian.

    1973: “A Touch of Class” starring George Segal, directed and produced by Melvin Frank and with a script by Frank and Jack Rose was released in the United States today

    1973: At Yale University in New Haven, CT, Bessie Margolin was awarded her Doctor of Science of Law degree today.

    1976: Mr. and Mrs. Sidney Davidooff announced the engagement of their daughter Norma, a producer reporter with Newsweek Broadcasting to Konrad J. Perlman the son of Mr. and Mrs. Alexander K. Perlman who used his master’s degree in city planning from Yale to become the chief of planning for the District of Columbia Department of Housing and Community Development.

    1976: The Jerusalem Post reported that the US administration informed Israel that it would receive $200m. in transitional aid, much less than it was expected. Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin told the Labor Party symposium "Israeli Arab citizens are entitled to full and equal rights, but with the knowledge that not all the duties of equal citizens are demanded of them, nor can all rights be granted to them as long as the enmity of the surrounding Arab world to Israel persists."

    1977: Time magazine “revealed” the marriage of 58 year old Alan Jay Lerner to 27 year old Nina Bushkin, the daughter of jazz pianist Joey Bushkin. It is her first marriage and his sixth.

    1977:Yitzhak Moda'I began serving as Minster of Energy and Water.

    1977: Ezer Weizman succeeds Shimon Peres as Defense Minister.

    1977:Gideon Patt succeeds Shlomo Rosen as Minister of Housing and Construction

    1977:Aharon Abuhatzira succeeds Haim Yosef Zadok as Minister of Religious Services

    1977: Meir Amit succeeds Aharon Uzan as Communications Minister.

    1977:Yosef Burg succeeds Shlomo Hillel as Interior Minister

    1977: Shlomo Hillel completed his service as Minister of Public Security after which the ministry was abolished Prime Minister Menachem Begin a situation that would change in 1984 when the position was resurrected.

    1978(15th of Sivan, 5738): Sixty-four year old Canadian born award-winning director Mark Robson passed away today.

    1979(25th of Sivan, 5739):Yisrael Yeshayahu Sharabi passed away.  Born in Yemen in 1908, he made Aliyah in 1929.  He served as an MK, cabinet minister and fifth Speaker of the Knesset

    1980(6th of Tammuz, 5740): David Feuerwerker, French born Canadian Rabbi and Historian, passed away.

    1980: “Can’t Stop the Music,” a musical comedy with a script co-authored by producer Allan Carr and co-starring Steve Guttenberg was released today in the United States.

    1980: U.S. premiere of “The Blues Brothers” directed by John Landis featuring Steve Lawrence, Frank Oz, Paul Reubens and Steven Spielberg.

    1982: Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin arrived in Washington.

    1985: In Dublin, the Irish Jewish Museum is opened bythe Irish born former President of Israel Dr. Chaim Herzog during his State visit to Ireland.

    1989: Birthdate of Christopher Charles Mintz-Plasse “an American actor known for starring in films such as Superbad, Role Models, Year One, and Kick-Ass.”

    1990(27th of Sivan, 5750): Actress Ina Balin died at the age of 52 from pulmonary hypertension.

    1990: “Rabbi With Tefillin” by Jan Styka goes on sale at Christie’s Auction House. The painting completed in 1892 was the product of a Polish artist.  Can such a painting be described as Jewish Art?  Look at the canvas and you decide.

    1991(8th of Tammuz, 5751): Ninety-three year old British philanthropist and businessman Sir Isaac Wolfson passed away today. (As reported by Eric Pace)

    1993: The first of four scheduled tours sponsored by the American Jewish Congress which include an opportunity to be a bar or bat Mitzvah at the Kotel or the in Masada begins today.

    1995: “Little Women” starring Winona Ruder with music by Thomas Newman “had its initial North America video release on VHS” today.

    1996: As he was laid to rest, “Mel Allen was recalled today as a devoted brother and uncle, a man who once left a hospital bed for Yom Kippur services, and a gentle voice who elevated "broadcasting to a prayer with three words: 'How about that?'" during services at Temple Beth-El led by Rabbi Joshua Hammerman.

    1996(3rd of Tammuz, 5756): Ninety-one year old Louis J. Lefkowitz, the longest serving state attorney general passed away today. (As reported by Nick Ravo)

    1997: “My Best Friend’s Wedding,” a romantic comedy produced by Jerry Zucker was released today in the United States.

    1999(6th of Tammuz, 5759): Ninety-five year old “super-intellectual Clifton Fadiman, the son of Russian Jewish immigrants who gained fame during the gold age of radio.” (As reported by Richard Severo)

    1999: The New York Timesfeatured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Noah's Flood: The New Scientific Discoveries About the Event That Changed Historyby William Ryan and Walter Pitman.

    2001(29th of Sivan, 5761): Ilya Krivitz, 62, of Homesh in Samaria was shot and killed at close range in an ambush late Wednesday afternoon in the nearby Palestinian town of Silat a-Dahar.

    2002: Jean-François Copé completed his first term as Mayor Meaux.

    2002: Following its showing at the Skirball, “Myer Myers: Jewish Silversmith in Colonial New York is scheduled to open today at the Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum in Delaware

    2002(10th of Tammuz, 5762): Rachel Shabo, 40, and three of her sons - Neria, 16, Zvika, 12, and Avishai, 5 - as well as a neighbor, Yosef Twito, 31, who came to their aid, were murdered when a terrorist entered their home in Itamar, south of Nablus, and opened fire. Two other children were injured, as well as two soldiers. The terrorist was killed by IDF forces. The PFLP and the Fatah Al Aqsa Brigades claimed responsibility for the attack.

    2003(20th of Sivan, 5763):Zvi Goldstein, 47, of Eli, was killed when his car was fired upon in an ambush by Palestinian terrorists near Ofra, north of Ramallah. His parents, Eugene and Lorraine Goldstein, from New York, were seriously wounded and his wife lightly injured. Hamas claimed responsibility for the attack. (Jewish Virtual Library)

    2003: “Hulk” a film based on the comic superhero created by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby, produced by Avi Arad and James Schamus who provided the story and co-author the script and with music by Danny Elfman  was released in the United States today.

    2003: Richard Nathan Haas completed his two year plus service as Director of Policy Planning under President Bush.

    2004(1st of Tammuz, 5764): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    2004: In an article styled “Remembering Anne Frank, now 75,” The Cedar Rapids Gazette notes events around the world intended to celebrate the life and writings of one of the most famous victims of the Shoah.

    2004:The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including War, Evil, and the End of History by Bernard-Henri Lévy; translated by Charlotte Mandell.

    2006: Haaretz reported thatIsrael's ambassador to Germany presented medals of honor on Monday to relatives of five members of the first "European Union" - an anti-Nazi resistance group whose members hid and fed Jews during World War Two. This European Union, which had the same name but nothing to do with the modern 25-nation bloc of European countries, was an underground, Marxist-oriented group with around 50 to 60 German members, according to a protocol prepared by Yad Vashem Holocaust museum.

    2007: In Jerusalem “legendary Israeli composer/singer Shlomo Gronich presents his newest compositions of biblical sources on a wide spectrum of themes: justice, righteousness, integrity, man and his identity, love songs & prayers. The performance includes Gronich on piano & shofar, the Jerusalem String Quartet and percussion.”

    2007: “ posted an online three-page excerpt from” A Tragic Legacy: How a Good vs. Evil Mentality Destroyed the Bush Presidency by Glenn Greenwald.

    2007(4th of Tammuz, 5767): Eighty-five year old Jerome “Jerry” Fleishman who played college basketball for NYU and professional basketball for the Philadelphia Warriors passed away today.

    2007: The Jerusalem Post carried a page one report stating that Shin Bet had foiled a bombing of the synagogue in Modin known as the “pizza shul” or Zichron L’Avraham.

    2008: Colonel Jack Weinstein was promoted to the rank of Brigadier General in the United States Air Force.

    2008: Australian businessman Richard J. Pratt was charged with lying about his knowledge of a price-fixing scandal. 

    2008: In Washington, D.C. Stephen Joel Trachtenberg, the former president of George Washington University, discusses and signs Big Man on Campus: A University President Speaks Out on Higher Education at Politics and Prose Bookstore.

    2008: The Spertus Museum announced that it was shutting down an exhibition entitled “Imaginary Coordinates” in the wake of an outcry from Chicago –area Jews that it expressed an anti-Israel basis.

    2008: In Sarajevo, at The Jewish Film Festival of Croatia, a member of the Jewish community speaks about filming the documentary “Sarayevo Mi Seudad de Oro,” (“Sarajevo My God City”) which tells the story of the Jewish community’s role in helping people escape the last war in Bosnia.

    2009: At Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, Iowa Sarah Maikon, daughter of Renee Maikon and Marc Maikon, and granddaughter of Sandy and Sol Maikon, is called to the Torah as a Bat Mitzvah.

    2009:G'day Shalom Salaam Israel, presented by the Australia Israel Cultural Exchange opens in Israel. As part of the G'day Shalom Salaam Israel event Deputy Prime Minister Julia Gillard will participate in the first Australian Israel Leadership Forum organized by the Australia Israel Cultural Exchange (AICE).

    2010:The Los Angeles Times features a “Sunday Conversation With Daniel Handler” who is perhaps better known for his pen name, Lemony Snicket, and his bestselling volumes of children's books, A Series of Unfortunate Eventsand The Latke Who Couldn't Stop Screaming: A Christmas Story.

    2010:Memorabilia and Memory: Hitler's Hat and other shorts by local filmmaker Jeff Krulik is scheduled to be shown as part of the Jewish Study Center Film Festival in Washington, D.C.

    2010:Bowing to worldwide pressure and condemnation, Israel formally announced an eased blockade of Gaza that could significantly expand the flow of goods overland into the impoverished coastal Palestinian enclave, isolated by the Israelis for three years. The White House said it “welcomes the new policy towards Gaza announced by the government of Israel, which responds to the calls of many in the international community.”

    2010: In “General Franco Gave List of Spanish Jews to Nazis” Giles Tremlett described this little known tale of how the Spanish dictator provided “fodder” for the German Murder Machine.

    2011: Bob Dylan performed at Ramat Gan Stadium tonight.

    2011: The Hillel Annual Milwaukee Meeting is scheduled to take place this evening in Wisconsin’s largest city.

    2011: The funeral for Morris Pollard, 95, a prominent U.S. researcher on viral diseases who died June 18 of complications from a bladder infection was held today.

    2011: Israel has returned nuclear waste from its Sorek nuclear reactor to the U.S., the head of Israel's Nuclear Energy Commission Dr Shaul Horev revealed today.

    2012: Jewish Social Service Agency (JSSA) Employment and Career Services is scheduled to present “Smart is Not Enough! Hidden Key to Career Success” featuring JSSA Life and Career Coach Phyllis Levinson.

    2012: Mandolin virtuoso Avi Avital is scheduled to perform Le Poisson Rouge in NYC

    2012: In a novel attempt to bring Judaism to the people, Rabbi Dan Ain is scheduled to be available to answering about God or whatever at Tribeca Café in NYC. 

    2012:A Gaza rocket has directly hit a home in the Sdot Negev Regional council today, as more than 30 rockets were fired into southern Israel since the morning. Meanwhile, the Iron Dome anti-missile system intercepted a rocket fired at Netivot for the first time on today. Another rocket, which was fired during the same barrage, directly hit a home in Sdot Negev, and several people suffered from shock. Four more rockets landed in open areas and no casualties or damage was reported. (As reported by Yanir Yagna, Gili Cohen and Avi Issacharoff)

    2012:The military wing of Hamas published a report today morning on its website, in which it states that “the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades continues to attack the enemy with rockets for the second straight day, and has launched 9 rockets at the Sofa military base.”

    2012(30thof Sivan, 5772): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    2012: Albert Sachs an opponent apartheid and Judge on the Constitution Court of South Africa received an Honorary Doctorate from the University of Dundee

    2012:Ultra-Orthodox residents of Beit Shemesh attacked a woman driving through the city on today. Police were investigating the incident. Police said the attackers threw stones at the car because they believed the driver was dressed in an inappropriate and immodest manner. (As reported by Aaron Kalman)

    2012: The body of Aaron Joseph Zindani, who was stabbed to death outside the US Embassy in Sana’a, Yemen, in May, was transported to Israel today. The arrival of the body marked the end of a long and complex operation by the Jewish Agency and the Foreign Ministry that also saw Zindani’s family, including his widow and the couple’s five children, brought to Israel. Zindani was a Jewish community leader in Yemen. He was 48 years old at the time of his murder.

    2012: Israeli Air Force jets bombed terrorist targets in the Gaza Strip for a second time Wednesday evening, following an unremitting rocket and mortar barrage on southern Israeli towns throughout the day. (As reported by Gabe Fisher)
    2012: Pierre Lellouche began serving as the Deputy for Paris’ 1st Constituency.

    2013: The Wiener Library for the Study of the Holocaust & Genocide is scheduled to co-host a Refugee Week writing workshop entitled “I’m Not Going Back.”

    2013: Barbra Streisand is scheduled to sing at Bloomfield Stadium in Jaffa.

    2013: After having strained his back again, New York Yankees third baseman Kevin Youkilis “underwent season ending surgery to repair a herniated disk in his back” today.

    2013: A rebel group that operates on the Syrian side of the Golan Heights stated today that it would not fight Israel if Israel sends forces into Syria. A spokesman for the rebel group, which is based in Quneitra, made the comments to Al-Jazeera. (As reported by Yoel Goldman)

    2013: Italian Praised for Saving Jews Is Now Seen as Nazi Collaborator (As reported by Patricia Cohen) tells the story of Giovanni Palatuccie, “the Italian Schindler” credited with saving 5,000 Jews during the Holocaust which may have been a giant fraud

    2014: Masses will be said in Luxemburg and Portugal today in remembrance of the June 17th“Day of Conscience” which honors the member of Aristides de Sousa, the Portuguese diplomat who defied Dictator Salazar and issued life-saving visas to thousands of refugees enough of whom were Jewish to earn him recognition by Yad Vashem. 

    2014: At the 92nd Street Y, A.J. Baime is scheduled to sign copies of The Arsenal of Democracy: FDR, Detroit, and an Epic Quest to Arm an America at War after his presentation on how the American automobile industry re-tooled itself in response to President Roosevelt’s call to make America “the Arsenal of Democracy."

    2014: “Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu met today with the families of kidnapped Israeli teens Naftali Frankel, Gil-ad Shaar, and Eyal Yifrach, who were abducted June 12 in Gush Etzion.”

    2014: Today “marked the last day of the 5774 school year for 673,000 Israeli high school students.”

    2014: Curator Zachary Paul Levine was interviewed on WAMU's Metro Connection about the Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington’s efforts to save D.C.'s only known synagogue mural. 

    2014: In Coralville, Iowa, Agudas Achim hosts Musical Shabbat with Rebecca Kushner.

    2015(3rd of Tammuz, 5775): Parashat Korach

    2015(3rd of Tammuz, 5775): Eighty-four year old photographer Harold Feinstein passed away today.

    2015: In a reminder that bigotry knows no boundaries “a website apparently created by Dylann Roof emerged today in which the accused Charleston church shooter rails against African Americans, “Jewish agitation of the black race,” and appears in photographs with guns and burning the US flag.”

    2015: The Eden-Tamir Music Center is scheduled to host a “Brahms Fest.”

    2015: A tour that includes visits to Krakow and Auschwitz/Birkenau sponsored by CANDLES (Children of Auschwitz Nazi Deadly Lab Experiments Survivors) is scheduled to depart from Chicago today.(As reported by William Grimes.)

    2015: An Unknown Country the new film by Ecuadorian-born Jewish filmmaker Eva Zelig that describes the history of this little known Jewish community is scheduled to be shown today as part of New York’s Ecuadorian Film Festival.

    2016: Migdalei haYam haTichon is scheduled to host "Classical & Romantic Beads" a unique piano solo recital featuring concert pianist Eliah Zabaly,

    2016: “Censored Voices” a film based on interviews conducted by Avraham Shapira and Amos Oz with Israeli soldiers following The Six Day War is scheduled to be shown at the Portland, Oregon Jewish Film Festival.

    2016: The second annual “Towards a New Law of Conference” sponsored by Shurat HaDin is scheduled to open today in Jerusalem.

    2017(26th of Sivan, 5777): Eighty-four year old “folklorist” Roger D. Abrahams passed away today.  (As reported by William Grimes)

    2017: Voters in Georgia’s 6th Congressional District take part in a runoff election featuring Jewish Democrat Jon Ossoff’s long-shot attempt to turn a very Red House Seat to Blue.

    2017: Roger Cohen of the NYT is scheduled to deliver a lecture on “Liberty and Facts: Isaiah Berlin in the Age of Trump” sponsored by the Center for Jewish History.

    2017: “Letters written by Albert Einstein about God, Israel and physics fetched nearly $210,000 at a Jerusalem auction today, with the highest bid going to a missive about God’s creation of the world.”

    2018: In New York City, the Rizzoli Bookstore is scheduled to host Eliezer Armon as he talks about his new book If Architecture Is A Language Then A Building Is A Story which was inspired, in part “by images from Israel and its landscape.

    2018: The Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center is scheduled to host an event as part of World Refugees which will include an address by “refugee protection specialist Katie Tobin of UNHCR.



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    JUNE 21

    356 B.C.E.: Birthdate of Alexander the Great. Alexander traveled back forth across Judea; first when he went down to conquer Egypt and then when he came back from his Egyptian conquest and moved east to conquer more of the Persian Empire. There is a tale about him coming to Jerusalem, but it is a myth that illustrates the positive attitude the Jews of that time had towards Alexander. He is treatment of the Jews was tolerant since he left them to practice their religion in peace and Jews found it easy to settle throughout his newly conquered domains.

    120 (18 Sivan 3881): This date marked the passing of Rabbi Gamliel II. Rabbi Gamliel was the successor to Rabbi Johanan Ben-Zakkai who had set up the Talmudic Academy in Yavneh after the war against Rome. Gamliel helped establish a new spiritual leadership and designed the foundation for survival in the Diaspora. He played a key role in keeping the peace between the Jewish community and Rome.

    1305: King Wenceslaus II of Bohemia died. During the Rindfleisch massacres in 1298, King Wenceslaus II had extorted large sums from Bohemian Jewry for protection.

    1377: The reign of King Edward III who had borrowed 140,000 florins from a consortium led by Vivelin of Strasbourg, “an Alsatian Jewish financer” “on the eve of the Hundred Years’ War” came to an end today when he passed away.

    1498: Citizens of Nuremberg, Bavaria received permission to expel its Jews from Emperor Maximillian

    1527: NIccolo dei Machiavelli, the author of The Prince, passed away today.

    1630: Birthdate of Samuel Oppenheimer “Jewish banker, imperial court diplomat, factor, and military supplier for the Holy Roman Emperor” who was the father of Simon Wolf Oppenheimer who established his own banking house in Hanover and Jakob Wolf Oppenheimer under who Mayer Amschel Rothschild served his apprenticeship.

    1639: Birthdate of Increase Mather, a member of the famous family of New England ministers who wrote “Dissertation Concerning the Future Conversion of the Jewish Nation” and who “thought the future conversion of the Jews to be both possible and not far distant in time.  He opposed John Lightfoot’s argument that a general conversion of the Jews was impossible, and he also attacked Baxter’s thesis that the Jews were converted once and for all after Christ, and that those who did not convert at the time were condemned to remain in the Jewish faith for all time. According to Mather, the “national conversion” of the Jews was a “glorious truth.”

    1689: The Maisel Synagogue burned today when fire swept through the ghetto in Prague.  Built in the early 1590’s it takes its name from Mordechai and Frumel Maisel, who financed its construction.  Today a rebuilt version of the synagogue services a Jewish Museum in Prague.

    1727(2nd of Tammuz, 5487): Joseph Jacob van Geldern the banker who was the “Court Jew” for Elector Johann Whilhelm passed away today.

    1749: Twenty-eight year old Simon von Geldern returned to Vienna from a journey which he claimed took him to North Africa, Jerusalem and other lands inhabited by Bedouins.  The son of Joseph von Geldern, a wealthy German physician with whom he had a falling out, Simon was the great-uncle of Heinrich Heine who kindly referred to him as “an adventurer and Utopian dreamer.”  

    1749: Founding Halifax, Nova Scotia.  Within a year, Jews were living in Halifax and by 1752 there were approximately 30 Jews living in the newly founded city.  The Jewish population would grow slowly and sporadically.  A congregation would not be formed until the end of the 19th century.

    1787;  New Hampshire became the 9th state to ratify the United States Constitution which meany the Constitution had been ratified by enough states to make it the law of the land. New Hampshire was one of the last states to change its laws so that Jews could hold office.  The final change took place in 1877. As can be seen from the attached article about the Jewish community in Bethlehem, NH, life has changed for the better for Jews living in the Granite State.

    1791(19th of Sivan, 5551): One month before his sixth birthday Aaron Isaac ben Gershon passed away in London.

    1794: Simon von Geldern “a German traveler and author, the great-uncle of Heinrich Heine, who describes him in his "Memoirs" as an adventurer and Utopian dreamer, “arrived in Vienna” after completing his first voyage.

    1795: Mungo Park the Scottish explorer who “noted the presence of Jews in the region of Timbuktu” having been told “by an Arab he met near Walata of there being many Arabic speaking Jews in Timbuktu whose prayers were similar to the Moors” reached the Gambia River on his first expedition to find the source of the Niger River.

    1798: The proclamation issued by the French governor of Cologne which stated in part "Whatever smacks of slavery is abolished. Only before God will you have to give an accounting of your religious beliefs. Your civic rights will no longer depend upon your creeds. Whatever these are, they will be tolerated without distinctions and enjoy equal protection” was an example of the newly found rights of citizenship that the Jews were to enjoy in a city from which they had been barred until 1794.

    1802: Birthdate of Michelangelo Asson, the native of Verona, who overcame the fact that his father died while he was an infant to become a “physician and medical author.”

    1812:  Birthdate of Moses Hess, an early advocate of a league of nations and a Jewish state in Palestine.  His most famous work was entitled Rome and Jerusalem published in 1862.  He died in 1875

    1819(28th of Sivan, 5579): Forty-six year old Hirschel Eliazer Kann, the founder of Lisa & Kann passed away at Den Haag, Zuid-Holland, Nederland

    1821: Isaac da Costa earned his Doctor of Philosophy today.

    1821: At Frankort-on-Main, Zerline and Meyer (Mayer) Levin Beyfus gave birth to Gustav Beyfus

    1824: At St. Thomas, Jacob Baiz, the native of Bayonne, France and his wife Leah Baiz gave birth to Aron Baiz

    1831: Mayer Lyons married Elizabeth Isaacs in Canterbury, UK.

    1838: A day after he passed a way, sixty-seven year old “Woolf Levy” was buried at the Brady Street Jewish Cemetery.

    1841: In Charleston, SC, Mr. Nathan married Ann Cohen, the “third daughter of Aaron N. Cohen.”

    1841: In Philadelphia, Fannie and Abraham Dessau gave birth to future communal leader Minnie Dessau Louis. (As reported by Seth Korelitz)

    1843: In Alsace, Isaiah Rosenthal and Rosa Walter gave birth to Jonas Rosenthal the husband of Jeanette Weill and Confederate Army veteran who was active in Rapides Parish (county) Louisiana politics and
    was appointed as U.S. Postmaster of Alexandria, LA.

    1845: Ralph Bernal Osborne, the eldest son of London Sephardic Spanish Jewish Parliamentarian Ralph Bernal, was the first person listed in the Railway Times as a member of “the provisional committee for the Leicester, Ashby-de-la-Zouch, Burton-upon-Trent and Stafford Junction Railway” a railway that was never built.

    1846: Michael Gashion married Leah Maria Abraham at the Great Synagogue.

    1854: "Gleanings from the Mail" published today cites a report appearing in the Boston Advertiser that "the Jews of the Holy Land are suffering great distress from destitution."

    1857: In Charleston, SC, Julius Fiegel married Theresa Klauber.

    1861: In Chicago, the Sinai Congregation dedicated its first temple on Monroe Street between Clark and La Salle in which the “Einhorn ritual” was used for the first time in “a Western congregation.”

    1863(4th of Tammuz, 5623): Sixty-nine year old Benjamin Golding, the British doctor who founded Charing Cross Hospital passed away today.

    1866: Rosa Kahn married Josua Hirschel to become Rosa Hirschel

    1868: In Motueka, NZ, John Clervaux Chaytor and his wife Emma gave birth to Major General Sir Edward Walter Clervaux Chaytor who, as a member of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force took part in the campaign to liberate the Sinai and Palestine, distinguishing himself at the Battle of Romani, the assault on Rafa and the capture of Rafa.

    1872(15th of Sivan, 5632): Marc Borchard, the native of Mecklenburg who earned his M.D. at Halle and became a forensic physician at Bordeaux before spending his final years writing in Paris where he passed away today.

    1873: The committee in charge of the excursions to be taken by the children who are the responsibility of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum and Free Schools, most of whom are from poor homes, announced their plans for the first outing which is scheduled to take place in two days.

    1877: Following publication of Judge Hilton’s explanation of his decision to ban Mr. Seligman from the Grand Union Hotel, the New York Times published a series of letters grouped under the headings of  “The Jewish Side of the Question” and the “The Other Side”.  The letters under “The Other Side” described the undesirability of Jews as a class and as hotel guests which made Hilton’s decision not only understandable but correct.  The letters under “The Jewish Side of the Question” included derisive comments on Hilton’s attempt to differentiate between a “Hebrew” and a “Jew” as well as refutation of his claim that he was willing to admit certain acceptable Hebrews since the daughter of one of those mentioned had, in fact, been turned away from the Grand Union.

    1878: Today six speakers took part in an oratorical contest at Yale University in which the contestants were competing for De Forest Medal. The third speaker was H.C. Coe, a Jew who spoke on “The Ancient and Modern Jew.”  The sixth and final speaker was Louis Hood of Newark who also spoke on “The Ancient and Modern Jew.” While all of the speakers were impressive, Hood walked off with the prize

    1881: Birthdate of Dov Ber Borochov,a Marxist Zionist and one of the founders of the Labor Zionist movement as well as a pioneer in the study of Yiddish as a language.  He passed away in 1917.
    1879: In Lancaster, PA, Frank Woolworth opened his first successful “Woolworth’s Great Five Center Store” the forerunner of the popular F.W. Woolworth’s which the Nazis mistakenly thought was owned by Jews and which they would target as part of their economic boycott of Jewish businesses in the 1930’s

    1880: “Politics of Europe and Asia” published today brought news about the conference being held in Madrid called to deal with the situation in Morocco. Senor Ludolf is schedule to introduce a resolution supported by the United State, Portugal and Germany that calls for religious liberty and better treatment of the Jews.

    1880: It was reported today that of the five and half million people living in Belgium only 15,000 are Protestants and 3,000 are Jews while all the rest are Catholics.

    1882: A summary of Dr. Goodman’s report on the feasibility of settling large number of Jewish refugees from Russia on agricultural communities which has been presented to the Hebrew Emigrant Aid Society of the United States was published today. According to Goodman it would cost $500, not counting the cost of the land, to provide each colonist with the necessities for survival.  “To start 2,000 heads of families on farms would require a cash advance of $1,000,000 for materials, implements, stock, seed, food etc. before they could become self-maintaing.”  Add in the cost of the land, and, according to Dr. Goodman, “the Jewish people in the United States looking to colonization of their destitute co-religionists must collect and invest…from two to four million dollars” over an extended period of time with no hope of a return on investment. 

    1884: In the case of Dumas v. Jacquet, the First Chamber of the Civil Tribunal of Paris delivered a judgment today that “enjoined the public exhibition of a picture in which the artist had represented Alexandre Duma, the novelist as “Marchand Juif.”

    1887: The Jews of London celebrated the first day of the 51st year of the reign of Queen Victoria over Great Britain at the Synagogue on St. James Place in Aldgate.  The crowded sanctuary was decorated for the occasion and the attendees were treated to a choral service.

    1888: “Barge Office Prizes” published today described the commercial activities that surrounded the sale and purchase of the “unclaimed, abandoned, and seized goods.” Before Ellis Island, the Barge Office was the point of entry for immigrants arriving in New York.  The majority of the those involved in the examination and purchase of the goods were reportedly Jews.

    1888: It was reported today that a rescript has been published ordering that a eulogy be read in all churches at upcoming Sunday services.  The offering of a eulogy by the Jews appears to have been optional. [Given the response of Rabbis in New York, it is safe to assume that many Jews mourned the passing of the first modern Kaiser.]

    1890: Mr. Comstock of the Society for the Suppression of Vice recognized a man named Marcus Goldstein who had been arrested for trying to obtain plates with which to make counterfeit lottery tickets as Mordecai S. Blaustein “whom he had arrested just four years ago in Orchard Street for swindling poor people” by selling them “bogus lottery tickets.” After having been convicted in 1886, this Polish Jew had been sentenced to 6 months at Blackwell/s Island. According to Comstock, Blaustein or Goldstein was first found to be swindling people on the lower east side in 1881 but he jumped bail and hid out in Chicago. 

    1891: “Jew Baiting” published today included a detailed review of Les Juifs De Russie Recueil D’Articles Et D’Etudes Sur Leur Situation Legale Sociale Et Economique (The Russian Jews: Collection of Articles and Studies on Their Legal, Social and Economic Situation) by Leopold Cerf.

    1892: Birthdate of American theologian Reinhold Niebuhr His views on Jews evolved over time from his early days as a minister in Detroit.  He warned against the rise of anti-Semitism in Hitler’s Germany and came to the conclusion that it was wrong to try and convert Jews. He expressed his strong pro-Zionist sentiments in “Our Stake in the State of Israel”

    1893: Five days after she passed aboard the SS Kaiboura, fifty-three year old “Dinah” Nathan, “the wife of Joseph E. Nathan of Wellington, New Zealand, was buried at the Willesden Jewish Cemetery

    1894: Edward Lauterbach, the Republican Jewish political leader was among those participating in the hearings being held at the Constitutional Convention in Albany.

    1894: Two days after he passed away, thirty-eight year old Alexander Solomon, the son of Rosetta and Ralph Solomon was buried at the “West Ham Jewish Cemetery.”

    1896: The St. Louis Republic described the decision to choose Rabbi Samuel Sale to deliver the opening prayer at the Republican Convention. According to the Republic, Sale had not been chosen as a compromise to avoid offending the APA and the Catholics but had been chosen because Baron Rothschild of London had sent a telegram requesting that this be done.  However, the reporter for the Republic had not seen the telegram and could not find anybody else who had.

    1896: Members of the Young Folk’s League of the Hebrew Infant Asylum are scheduled to enjoy an outing today aboard the SS Bay Queen

    1896(10th of Tammuz, 5656): Fifty year old Isaac B. Poznanski, the native of Charleston passed away in the UK where he was burred at the Hammersmith Old Cemetery in London.

    1897: “Family Left Destitute” published today described the plight of the Cohen family of New Haven.  Mrs. Cohen’s husband disappeared without explanation and she thought he had deserted her.  Actually, he had been killed in railway accident in New York City.  Authorities shipped the widow and her four children to New York where they are now in the care of the Hebrew Sheltering House Association.

    1897(21st of Sivan, 5657): Sixty-seven year old German born American businessman and philanthropist  Mayer Lehman who along with his brothers Henry and Emanuel  founded Lehman Brothers and who was the father of New York Court of Appeals Chief Judge Irving Lehman and New York  and U.S. Senator Herbert H. Lehman passed away today.

    1897: “Hebrew School In Chicago” published today described a soon to be opened educational institution in the Windy City where all instruction and conversation will be in Hebrew.  While classes will be offered in “the primary scholastic branches,” “the Hebrew Bible will be the principle subject of study.

    1897: Herman Warszawiak, the converted Jewish missionary, who had been expelled by the Presbyterians after having been found guilty of performing immoral acts including gambling was not available for public comment even though he had earlier said the conviction had come because some did not want a converted Jew to be a minister in the Presbyterian Church.

    1898: Two days after he passed away, fifty-five year old Chaim Kronman, a native of Bialystok, was buried at the “Plashet Jewish Cemetery” in London.

    1898: At Orange, NJ, 58 year old Getta Scholle, the vice president of the Home For Aged and Infirm Hebrews who was the widow of Jacob Scholle, passed away today.

    1899: “Boys in Religious War” published today described events leading up to a public brawl between over one Jewish and Christian boys in Chicago.  The Christians, who attend several local parochial schools, have been taunting and attacking the Jewish boys who finally fought back.  At first the Christians had the better of the battle, but the Jews found reinforcements and surrounded their attackers.  At this point, the police intervened and arrested some of the battlers.

    1899: The Jews of Chicago are planning on presenting Captain Dreyfus “with a gold-mounted, diamond-set and richly engraved sword.” They are planning on presenting Emile Zola with an engraved gold pen as token of appreciation for his defense of Dreyfus.  They are planning on present Colonel Picquart, the War Minister who befriended Dreyfus and helped to prove his innocence with a gold loving cup..

    1900(24th of Sivan, 5660): Sir Charles Oppenheimer, the native of Nastätten, Nassau the successful businessman and Jewish philanthropist who served as the British consul-general at Frankfort-on-the-Main passed away today.

    1903: In St. Louis, “Isaac and Rebecca Hirschfeld gave birth to Al Hirschfeld, award winning cartoonist

    1903(26th of Sivan, 5663): New York Banker Isidor Wormser passed away tonight in his home on Fifth Avenue.  Born in Germany he came to the U.S. in at the age of 18 with his brother Simon with whom he sailed around Cape Horn to California where they prospered selling merchandize in the Gold Fields and later at their store in Sacramento. Isidor and Simon came to New York in 1870 where they established the banking firm of I & S Wormser which prospered for over 30 years thanks in part, to the conservative fiscal practices of brothers and to the probity of their business dealings. A member of the New York Stock Exchange and a Democratic Presidential elector in 1892, Wormser’s interest in civic affairs could be seen by his membership in the Metropolitan Museum and his service as a trustee of the Brooklyn Bridge.

    1905: Judge Jacob William Mack and Bertha Mack gave birth Theresa Mack, the future wife of Joseph Geffen which would make her Therese Geffen, the mother of Alice Geffen.

    1905: Birthdate of philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre.  Towards the end of his life Sartre suffered what a critic called a “loss of historical hope.” Ironically, he turned to Judaism and Jewish history to find a source of hope and final philosophic underpinning.  “Sartre dealt with his loss of historical hope by painfully acquiring another kind of hope. He replaced both existential dread and Marxist utopianism with a Jewish messianic patience. In the final interview with his friend and associate, the unlikely baal t'shuva, (returnee to Judaism), Benny Levy (formerly Pierre Victor), he reports his discovery that "the messianic idea is the base of the revolutionary idea." For many months before he died, Sartre studied Salo Baron's voluminous, magisterial work on Jewish history and, with Levy, came to a new-old view of the human prospect. As if he had invented Buber and the Bible, Sartre now proclaims, "We belong to a single family." Of course, "the unity of the human enterprise is yet to be created…what I have is yours and what you have is mine. If I need, you give to me. If you need, I give to you. That is the future of morality.” In the end, Sartre became a kind of "Jew." Already in the resistance of 1940-45, he had risked his life against Fascism. In Les Temps Modernes, at the very time of the Six Day War, he published what remains the most balanced and useful collection of essays on Arab Jewish peace and declared his solidarity with Israel. He did not accept the Nobel Prize of literature. But he did accept an honorary degree from the Hebrew University in 1976, reminding the Israelis how deeply he shared their dreams, and telling them that the more he cared about them, the more he cared also about the Palestinian people. "In order to understand the Jew from the interior, I would have to be a Jew," Sartre told Benny Levy and he tried hard enough to achieve that very goal. Studying Jewish history, like many thinkers before him, he caught a vision of the messianic hope: survival, obedience and loyalty to humanity itself. "The Jew lives. He has a destiny. The finality toward which every Jew moves is to reunite humanity....It is the end that only the Jewish people (knows)….It is the beginning of the existence of men for each other." In the last days and in the last words of Jean-Paul Sartre, we find a brother and a teacher in Israel.”

    1907(10th of Av, 5667): Tish’a B’Av observed because the 9th of Av fell on Shabbat

    1907(10th of Av, 5667): Isidior Wormser, the successful New York Banker who is the father-in-law of Jefferson Seligman, passed away today.

    1912: “Claiming that Jews skin living animals, anti-Jewish agitators introduced a bill in the Duma to prohibit” Shehitah.

    1912: Russkoye Znamya, an anti-Semitic newspaper, warmed “Jews that criticism of the Government by Jewish deputies will be answered by pogroms”

    1913: It was reported today that steamer August Kessler had arrived in San Francisco with three million gallons of gasoline from Sumatra” belonging to the Rothschilds.

    1913: “Mr. Harvey Franklin, a student at the Hebrew Union College” is scheduled to lead services at K.A.M. in Chicago.

    1913: Rabbi Joseph Stoltz led services and delivered the sermon this morning at Isaiah Temple in Chicago.

    1913: It was reported today that “the Secretary of the Alliance Israelite Universelle has declared that henceforth the chief concern of his organization will be Jews and Jewish institutions in Palestine” an area that France has declared to be part of its protectorate despite the fact that it was part of the Ottoman Empire.

    1915: Five day before his term in office was scheduled to end, John M. Slaton, Governor of Georgia commuted the sentence of Leo Frank from death to life in prison.  The commutation came a day before Frank was scheduled to be hung.  Slaton, who had been a popular governor, left Georgia with the mob and threat of violence baying at his heels.  Tom Watson wrote an article calling for the lynching of Frank.

    1915: In an interview with Pope Benedict published in La Liberte today the Pontiff talked about the horrors of war including a report “hat the Russians on one occasion pushed before them 1,500 Jews so that they could advance behind this living barrier thus exposed to the bullets of the enemy.”

    1915: At a little before 5 o’clock this morning Sheriff Mangum and his party of deputies arrived with their prisoner, Leo M. Frank, at the Georgia State Penitentiary in Milledgeville, GA “just a few minutes after Warden J.N. Smith had been notified by authorities in Atlanta that the prisoner was in the custody of the officers and on the way to the State Prison.”

    1915: In editorializing about the commutation of Leo Frank’s sentence by Governor Slaton The Athens Daily Banner concluded with the statement that “Whatever may be the result to him he at least has the consolation of knowing that in the face of strenuous circumstances surround this case he did what his judgment told me was his duty to himself and to the State.”

    1915: “There was great relief and much joy at the home of Leo M. Frank’s parents, Mr. and Mrs. Rudolph Frank at 152 Underhill Avenue, Brooklyn this morning when word came that the Governor Slaton had commuted the death sentence.” Since the parents were in Atlanta, the telephone call from County Judge Harry E. Lewis with the good news was taken by the daughter and son-in-law Mr. and Mrs. Otto Stern.

    1915: “Local relatives of Leo M. Frank said today that there was absolutely no foundation for the report which had been circulated early in the case that Mrs. Frank was estranged from her husband.”

    1915: “In discussing the commutation of Leo Frank’s sentence, The Rome Tribune-Herald says that in its opinion 80 per cent of the people of Georgia opposed commutation, but it believes that this sentiment arose from fear that Frank would be released in a few years.”

    1915: Governor John M. Slaton “is guarded in his country home tonight by the a battalion of the Georgia National Guard because of the strenuous efforts of a crowd variously estimated at from 1,000 to 2,000 persons to get at the Governor to show their disapproval” of the commutation of Leo M. Frank’s death sentence to life imprisonment.

    1915: The Atlanta Journaleditorial on the commutation of the sentence of Leo M. Frank concluded by saying that “The Governor has shown wisdom and courage in his performance of an act of simple justice, and time will vindicate his moderation.”

    1915: In an interview given today following the announcement of the commutation of Leo Frank’s sentence “Louis Marshall, one of the counsel for Leo M. Frank” said “Governor Slaton has saved the honor of Georgia.  He the sentence of death pronounced against Frank been executed, it would have been a crime against justice for I am as firmly convinced of his absolute innocence as I am of my own.”

    1916: At a meeting tonight at Carnegie Hall, Nathan Straus, Rabbi Stephen S. Wise and other prominent Jews from various cities in the United States spoke in favor of “the calling of a democratic congress of Jews in Philadelphia to demand equal rights for Jews in all lands” – a meeting which the American Jewish Committee led by President Louis Marshall has opposed saying it would be best to wait until after the war.

    1916: A message was read to a meeting of Jews at Carnegie Hall “from Secretary of War Newton D. Baker…deploring the prejudice and ignorance that had has resulted in discrimination against Jews.”  (Editor’s Note: Baker’s boss, President Wilson is running for re-election and the Jewish vote certainly would help)

    1916: The Joint Distribution Committee of Funds for Jew War Suffers “consisting of representatives of the American Jewish Relief Committee, the Central Relief Committee and the People’s Relief Committee met this afternoon “at the office of Felix M. Warburg and appropriated $250,000 for the immediate relief of Jews who through the present movement of troops on the borders of the eastern war zones may be compelled again to evacuate their homes.”

    1917(1st of Tammuz, 5677): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1917(1st of Tammuz, 5677): Date given in the American Jewish year book for the death of London “restaurateur” Sir Joseph Lyons who according to all other sources passed away on June 22.  (Editor’s note – and now you know some of what makes this both confusing and interesting)

    1917: Mrs. Henry Morgenthau, who has always been interested in the work of the Red Cross, “left the United States” today “with her husband who was head of the mission sent to Egypt to investigate the conditions of the Jews In Palestine.”

    1918: “It was announced” tonight “that the case of Felix Sommerfield, a German subject who was at one time private secretary to the late President Francisco Madero of Mexico” and subsequently the arms supplier for Poncho Villa  is still being investigated by agents of the Justice Department who arrested him while he was staying at the Hotel Aster.  (Sommerfield was Jewish; Madero and Villa were not.

    1919: Birthdate of Norwegian tailor Harry Braude who was arrested in Oslo and shipped aboard the Donau to Auschwitz where he was murdered.

    1920:  Dr. Henry Keller, who “has recently returned from Palestine where he served as chief of the Orthopedics Department of the Zionist Medical Unit” is scheduled to deliver a lecture this evening at the Aeolian Concert Hall where his talk will included “a collection of unusual photographs vividly describing conditions in…the Holy Land.”

    1921: In New York City Abe and Helen (Gollomb) Tuvim gave birth to Judith Tuvim who gained fame as award winning actress Judy Holiday.

    1921: Birthdate of Leon Silverman, the Manhattan born attorney. (As reported by Sam Roberts)

     1922:  During a debate in Parliament, Lord Sydenham contends that the Arabs would not object to immigration if it were done by “well selected Jews” instead of by what  describes as Zionist settlers who are” Bolsheviks,” “sinister and “promiscuous people.” 

    1922: Following a debate in the House of Lords on the questions of continued British commitment to honor the Balfour Declaration, 60 Lords voted against the declaration and only 29 voted for it.

    1922:  Major Herbert Young, “a senior official” in the Colonial Office writes Churchill that the vote against the Balfour Declaration in the House of Lords will lead to greater Arab obstinacy and imperil Britain’s previous promises to the Jews.

    1922: Samuel Bronfman “married Saidye Rosner with whom he had four children -- Aileen Mindel "Minda" Bronfman de Gunzburg, Phyllis Lambert, Edgar Miles Bronfman and Charles Rosner Bronfman.

    1922: While meeting in London, the Prime Ministers of Canada, Newfoundland, Australia and New Zealand stated that they shared “Arab suspicions” of plans to ultimately create a Jewish majority in Palestine.

    1922:  In an address to the Dominion Prime Ministers Churchill described “The Zionist ideal as a very great idea” with which he had great personal sympathy.  He further reminded them that the Balfour Declaration was more than an ideal.  “It was an obligation made in wartime to enlist the aid of Jews all over the world and Britain must be very careful and punctilious to discharge its obligations.”

    1922(25th of Sivan, 5682): Seventy-five year old Louis Stern, the President of Stern Brothers, the New York department store, passed away unexpectedly in Paris. A native of Germany, Stern “learned the rudiments of merchandizing” in a small store owned by his uncle in Petersburg, West Virginia. In 1867 he and his brother Isaac opened a small dry goods and novelty store which was so successful that they opened a larger emporium on West 23rd Street in 1878.  After his brother’s retirement, Stern opened an even larger store on 42nd Street. Stern was active in numerous civic and communal organizations including serving as Chairman of the New York Commission to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition and President of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum.

    1923: A year after graduating from the Naval Academy, Ensign Hyman Rickover “was made engineer officer aboard “the destroyer La Vallette” as a reward for “his hard work and efficiency.”

    1925: Birthdate of Woodhaven, NY native Stanley Moss the American poet who “makes his living as a private art dealer.”

    1926: Abbot Lawrence Lowell, the President of Harvard University was featured on the cover of Time magazine. Although the cover story did not mention it, 1926 was a year of triumph for Lowell because he convinced the Harvard Board of Overseers to adopt new admission requirements that accomplished his goal of reducing the number of Jews at Harvard.  The year before these “non-academic” standards were added, 27% of the freshman class was Jewish.  By the time Lowell in 7 years after the standards had been put in place Jews made up 10% of the underclassmen

    1927: In New York, three Jewish interns at Kings County Hospital were attacked and tied up.

    1928: Birthdate of Judith Raskin, one of America's greatest lyric sopranos of the twentieth century. She was not only famous for her voice but also for her acting. Judith Raskin died on December 21, 1984, after a long struggle with cancer. Services were held at the Stephen Wise Free Synagogue in New York City where she was eulogized as being one of the finest artists of our time who could be emulated by other future Jewish aspirants of the concert and opera stage.

    1931: In Brooklyn, attorney “Nathaniel H. Kugelmass” and “the former Rose Goldstein, a high school administrator” gave birth to Lawrence Kugelmass Grossman the step-son of attorney Nathan Grossman who served as  President of NBC-TV News before becoming President of PBS. (As reported by Richard Sandomir)

    1932: In Buenos Aires Luis Schifrin, who “led the second violin section of the orchestra at the Teatro Colón for three decades” and his wife gave birth to Boris Claudio Schifrin who gained as Argentine pianist, composer, arranger and conductor” Lalo Schifrin.

    1932: In Paris, FranceDolores Porges (née Neubauer) and Pierre Louis-Dreyfus who headed the Louis Dreyfus Group and French Resistance leader gave birth to Gérard Louis-Dreyfus who as William Louis-Dreyfus became Chairman of the Louis Dreyfus Energy Service the multi-billionaire who is the great grandson of Léopold Louis-Dreyfus, founder of Louis Dreyfus Group and the father of award winning actress Julia Louis-Dreyfus.

    1933: Birthdate of actor Bernie Kopell who played Doc on the ABC hit television show, The Love Boat

    1933: A memorial meeting was held this evening at Beethoven Hall in New York City honoring Dr.Chaim Arlosoroff who had been murdered last Friday. It was attended by approximately 1,000 Jews and the leaders of various branches of the Zionist movement.  In his speech, Morris Rothenberg, President of the Zionist Organization of America (ZOA) made reference to reports that Revisionists had been connected with the murder and warned against any “rush to judgment” in determining who was responsible for the crime.

    1934:Dr. Frederick B. Robinson, president of City College, and Dr. Bernard Revel, president of Yeshiva College, spoke at the third annual commencement exercises of Yeshiva College, to be held at 4 o'clock this afternoon in the college auditorium, 186th Street and Amsterdam Avenue.

    1935: Eighty-nine year old Edmond Fitzmaurice, the 1stBaron Fitzmaurice who while serving as the Foreign Office’s spokesman in the House of Lords in 1906 expressed personal sympathy for the plight of the Russian Jews said that the government could not do anything to intervene to improve the situation because it would upset the Russian government and actually might do more harm than good, passed away today.

    1936(1st of Tammuz, 5696): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1936: Rabbi Morris Lichtenstein is scheduled to deliver a sermon on “What We Should Forget” at the Jewish Science Society on West 85 Street in Manhattan.

    1936: “Dr. James G. McDonald of the editorial staff of The New York Times and former league of Nations high commissioner for refugees from general spoke at a meeting of the General Council of Congregational and Christian Church where he that that in German, “not only are the Jews the scapegoat for political and partisan purposes, they are held responsible for all the adversity which the German people have had to undergo.”

    1936: In Palestine, Arabs killed Sergeant Henry Sills today and then “dragged his body into a cave.”

    1936: “The Jewish Agency Executive, recognized by the League of Nations mandate as the supreme Jewish authority in Palestine” “called upon the Jews of the world to mobilize their forces for ‘well-balanced political effort and strengthened constructive endeavor’ to protect the Jewish position in Palestine.”

    1936: It was reported today that Rabbi Charles Raddock of Brooklyn “is planning a literary monthly magazine addressed to the intelligent and non-partisan American Jewish reader” which he plans on calling Consensus and which he expects to start publishing in September.

    1936: The Palestine Post reported from London that the House of Commons held a full-dress debate on the Palestine crisis. There had been unanimity of views that stern measures should be taken to restore law and order in the country. Mr. Ormsby-Gore, the colonial secretary, expressed confidence in the High Commissioner, Sir Arthur Wauchope, but was conciliatory towards the Arabs.

    1936: A review of Judaism in Transition by Mordecai M. Kaplan was published today.

    1936: An armed band of approximately 60 Arabs attacked a convoy of Jewish owned buses on route to Tel Aviv from Haifa.A British sergeant, Henry Sills, of the Seaforth Highlanders, was killed and three privates of the Royal Scottish Fusiliers were wounded in subsequent fights between the Arab terrorists and the British troops assigned to provide protection.

    1937: Dr. Louis L. Mann, the Rabbi of Sinai Congregation in Chicago is scheduled to take part in a “Roundtable Discussion on Minorities in a Democracy” broadcast this afternoon by radio station WJZ.

    1938:In the first act of terrorism to take place in Tel Aviv, a bomb was thrown near a movie theatre seriously injuring a child.

    1938: In London, “Russian Jewish immigrants Morris and Betsy (née Kersh) Blackstone” gave birth to their youngest child Donald Blackstone who gained fame as Oscar winning lyricist Don Black.

    1939: At the World’s Fair in New York,  New Jersey Hadassah Day was celebrated with luncheons at the Café Tel Aviv and Toffenettti’s Restaurant while Dr. Albert Einstein and Rabbi Stephen Wise are the scheduled speakers at a luncheon for Rho Pi Phi Fraternity at the Café Tel Aviv.

    1940: France surrendered to Germany, a move that would doom the Jews of France as well as Jews from across Europe who had sought refuge in France before the start of World War II.

    1940: Prime Minister Winston Churchill “received a telegram from Lord Lothian, the British Ambassador in Washington, stating that the Jews in the United States ‘want Jews in Palestine to be organized under British command to defend Palestine from outside attack and to help the Allies.’  If Palestine were overrun (by the Nazis) and Jews had not been put in a position to defend their country, there would certainly be a most deplorable effect on American Jews’ opinion.’”

    1940: Georges Mandel and Pierre Mendes France were among the handful of French deputies who boarded the Massilia for North Africa where they planned on continuing the resistance against Nazi Germany.

    1941(26th of Sivan, 5701): Parashat Sh’lach

    1941(26th of Sivan, 5701): Sixty-one year old “internationally known dermatologist” Elmore Tauber passed away today in his hometown of Cincinnati, Ohio.

    1941: Vichy adopted a statue excluding Jewish students.

    1941: Today, “after having been arrested by the Vichy government “and sentenced to six years' imprisonment on a false charge of desertion” Pierre Mendès France”escaped and succeeded in reaching Britain, where he joined the Free French forces of Charles de Gaulle.”

    1942: At Tirzt Zevi, Israel, the temperature reached 129 degrees F (54 degrees C)

    1942: “The Affairs of Martha” directed by Jules Dassin with a script co-authored by Isobel Lennart was released in the United States today..

    1942: The parents of Paul Celan “were taken from their home and sent by train to an internment camp in Transnistria Governorate, where two-thirds of the deportees eventually perished” and where his father probably died from typhus and his mother was murdered by gunfire.

    1943: Himmler ordered the destruction of all ghettos in Russia. .

    1943(18th of Sivan, 5703): In Lvov, The Germans murdered most of the remaining ghetto population.

    1943(18th of Sivan, 5703): All Jewish workers at municipal factories in Drogobych, Ukraine, are killed.

    1943: Raymond Aubrac was one of eight senior Resistance leaders secretly meeting in a doctor's surgery in the Lyon suburb of Caluire when Gestapo officers, under the orders of Klaus Barbie, stormed the place and arrested all the eight leaders after having been tipped off by a turncoat member of the Resistance whose identity remains a mystery to this date.

    1943: German Professor August Hirt chooses 103 Jewish men and women at Auschwitz to be transported to the Natzweiler-Struthof camp near Strasbourg, France. There they are gassed. The soft tissues of their bodies are removed, and their skeletons are strung up as exhibits in the Reich Anatomical Institute of Strasbourg for the study of the Jewish race

    1944: The British Foreign Office informed Prime Minister Churchill that ‘Marshall Tito (the Yugoslav Communist leading the partisans) has consented to facilitate the escape of Jewish refugees through his lines from Hungary with the idea that they should reach southern Italy, via Dalmatia.

    1945: Guy Liddell, head of counter-espionage at MI5, kept during the 1940s and 50s dictated a diary entry to his secretary about a visit to his office by a British War Crimes Executive official, and representatives of MI6 and the Special Operations Executive, looking for evidence to support a war crimes prosecution in which he expressed his opinion that instead of formal war crime trials, any people found to have committed crimes should be arrested by the military and punished accordingly.

    1946: Birthdate of Conservative Party MP Sir Malcolm Leslie Rifkind

    1947: Birthdate of Dr. Rachel Adato, the native of Haifa who held several public health positions including vice president of Sha’arei Tzedek Medical Center before serving two terms as an MK.

    1948: The Rhodes Conference on the Israeli-Arab war opened. Rhodes is an island in the Mediterranean off the coast of Greece where the meetings were held. The negotiations were master-minded by Ralph Bunche. Bunche was an African-American diplomat who was a leader of the newly formed United Nations. The negotiations led to armistice agreements between the different Arab states and the state of Israel. Bunche earned the Nobel Prize for Peace as a reward for his efforts.

    1950: “Rabbi Judah L. Maimon, Minister for Religious Affairs” stormed out of a cabinet meeting today, claiming that he was resigning from Ben Gurion’s government.  Maimon was protesting the cuts to his department’s budget, the purchase of surplus meat from the United States that “does not conform to religious dietary laws” and what he claims are the failure of the government to enforce the strict observance of the laws of Kashrut in Israeli army kitchens.

    1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that Iraq charged that Jews had stored arms and ammunition in Baghdad and put a stop to Jewish emigration, pending an investigation. But planes carrying enforce the strict observance of the laws of Kashrut in Israeli army kitchens.

    1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that the Post Office planned to establish its own bank, under the new Postal Bank Law.

    1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that at least 35 political parties put up candidates for the forthcoming Second Knesset elections. (This number was later reduced to 20.)

    1954(20th of Sivan, 5714): Eighty-four year old Pittsburgh born Marcus Aaron, the son of Mina and Louis Israel Aaron and the husband of Stella Aaron with whom he had two children – Marcus and Fanny – who served as President of the Homer Laughlin China Company and as President of Rodef Shalom from 1930 to 1941 passed away today.

    1955: Perry Como, the crooner who would don a kippa every fall on his television show before singing Kol Nidre, recorded “Teena Marie” written by Bob Merrill (Henry Robert Merrill Levan)

    1956:  Playwright Arthur Miller appeared before H.U.A.C. and refused to implicate anybody as having taken part in Communists activities

    1960: Birthdate of David Makovskey, the “director of the Washington Institute for Near East Policy Project on the Middle East Peace Process.”

    1962: “The James Bond Theme,” the “signature theme song for the Bond series” which was written by Monty Norman (Monty Noserovitch) “was recorded” today “using five saxophones, nine brass instruments, a solo guitar and a rhythm section.”

    1964(11th of Tammuz, 5724): Three Civil Rights workers, Andrew Goodman, James Cheney and Mickey Schwermer were brutally murdered in Neshoba County, Mississippi by members of the Ku Klux Klan. Goodman and Schwermer were both Jewish. Cheney was an Afro-American. Goodman and Schwermer had come South as part of group who were determined to help Blacks register to vote. An all-white jury acquitted their killers, who included local law enforcement officials, of murder charges. They were later prosecuted in federal court and found guilty of having deprived the young trio of their civil rights. Goodman and Schwermer were part of a whole cadre of Jews who participated in the fight for equality for Blacks. This reality makes a sad counter-point to the anti-Semitic speeches of people like Al Sharpton and Louis Farrakhan.

    1967: U.S. premiere of “Divorce American Style” produced by Norman Lear who co-authored the script and featuring Tom Bosley.

    1969:  In response to Egyptian artillery attacks and other hostile acts, Israeli naval commandos attack and destroy the Egyptian radar facility at Ras El-Adabiya. The destruction of the radar complex left the Egyptians “blind” when Israeli jets attacked the artillery bases that had been firing on the Israelis.

    1969:In Monmouth County, Beth Miriam, “in conjunction with Rabbi Lefkowitz’s retirement after 25 years of devoted service and the Temple’s 80th Anniversary, held a gala dinner

    1970(17thof Sivan, 5730): Seventy one year old historian Cecil Roth whose works included the classic A History of the Jews in England passed away today.

    1970: “Catch-22” the movie version of Joseph Heller’s novel directed by Mike Nichols, with a screenplay by Buck Henry and featuring Alan Arkin, Bob Balaban, Martin Balsam, Buck Henry, Richard Benjamin, Norman Fell, Art Garfunkel, Jack Gilford and Charles Grodin  was released in the United States today.

    1972: ABC broadcast the first episode of “The Super” a sitcom created by Rob Reiner, Phil Mishkin, and Gerry Isenberg.

    1972: “Frenzy” Alfred Hitchcock’s penultimate film with a screenplay by Anthony Shaffer was released in the United Kingdom today.  (Hitch was not Jewish – Shaffer was)

    1974: “One hundred Moscow Jewish activists including Benjamin Levich, Alexander Lerner, Mikhail Agursky and Vitali Rubin wrote to President Nixon urging him not to permit his partners in Moscow negotiations to worsen situation of Soviet Jews.”

    1975(12th of Tammuz, 5735): Seventy-four year old Ukrainian born American composer David Tamkin passed away today.

    1976:The Jerusalem Post reported that the American navy evacuated 300 foreigners from Beirut.

    1976:The Jerusalem Post reported that a $15m. annual propaganda program, designed to swing the American public opinion away from Israel and toward the Arabs was reported in the US.

    1977:  Menachem Begin became the sixth Prime Minister of Israel.  This marked a major shift in Israeli politics.  The Labor-Zionists who had dominated the government since the start of the state were out and the Revisionists had gained power.  This reversal in fortune had many causes including corruption in the Labor Party and shifting demographics in Israel.

    1979: Three Palestinian terrorist were killed while “attempting build a bomb” near Jenin/

    1980: On the 41st anniversary of the creation of Camp Gurs, a reunion of hundred former detainees, members of the French resistance and “survivors of the Nazi death camps came to an end.  This was the second of what has become annual event thanks, in part, to the efforts of L'Amicale de Gurs, which was formed at this second reunion.

    1980: In Arnhem, Netherlands, opening of the Sixth Paralympic Games where Hagai Zamir and Igal Pazi would win a Gold Medal in Volleyball.

    1981(19th of Sivan, 5741):Isadore Blumenfeld a Jewish-American organized crime figure based in Minneapolis, Minnesota known as Kid Cann, passed away.

    1981: “A Hero, Soviet Style” provides a review of Borodin: Stalin's Man in China by Dan N. Jacobs, a biography of Michael Borodin (born Mikhail Markovich Gruzenberg) who fell victim to Stalin’s “anti-Semitic ‘cosmopolitan’ campaign.”

    1982: In London, Charles, Prince of Wales, and Diana, Princess of Wales gave birth to Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, the second in line to the British throne who in 2017 met with Auschwitz survivor and resistance fighter Freddie Knoller with whom he discussed his visit to “Stutthof, a former Nazi-run camp built in what is now Poland, where 65,000 people, including 28,000 members of the Jewish community, died before it was liberated by the Allies in May 1945.”

    1983: Fifty-eight Sala Burton, the widow of Congressman Philip Burton began serving as a “member of the U.S. House of Representatives from California’s 5th district.”

    1984: “The Last Winter” “a joint American-Israeli venture” “directed by Riki Shelach Nissimoff and produced by Avi Lerner” that is set in the aftermath of the Yom Kippur War was released today.

    1985: U.S. premiere of “Cocoon” a comedic look at aging and resurrection produced by Richard Zanuck co-starring Jack Gilford and Steven Guttenberg

    1985:  Scientists reported that skeletal remains exhumed in Brazil were Dr. Josef Mengele, the Angel of Death at Auschwitz.  Mengele escaped punishment after the war, thanks in no small part to support from his family in Germany.

    1985: “Return to Oz” with music by David Shire and co-staring Piper Laure (Rosetta Jacobs) was released today in the United States.

    1987(24th of Sivan, 5747): Seventy-nine year old Chicago born Phillip “Phil” Weintraub who played for Lane Technical College Prep High School and Loyola University who played first base and the outfield for several major league teams from 1933 to 1945 passed away today.

    1987(24th of Sivan, 5747):Abram Chasins “an American composer, pianist, piano teacher, lecturer, musicologist, music broadcaster, radio executive and author” passed away.

    1988: “Backfire” a film featuring a “murderous love triangle” featuring Dinah Manoff and with music by David Shire was released in the United States today.

    1990: NBC broadcast the final episode of season one for Seinfeld.

    1995: Eighty year old actor Vladimir Zeldin, was awarded the Order of Friendship today - for services to the state, achievements in work and significant contribution to strengthening friendship and cooperation between peoples

    1996: Good Morning America film critic Joel Siegel married artist Ena Swansea.

    1996: “Eraser” co-starring James Caan and filmed by cinematographer Adam Greenberg was released today in the United States.

    1996: U.S. premiere of “The Hunchback of Notre Dame” an animated version of the classic novel with a score by Alan Meken who joined with Stephen Schwartz to create the songs for the film which included the voice of Jason Alexander.

    1997: At Allessandria, Italy, opening of International Congress of the International Napoleonic Conference at which Dr. Ben Weider, is scheduled to deliver a paper –“Napoleon and the Jews.”

    1997: In Sagaponack, NY, Rabbi Joel Zion officiated at the marriage of 29 year old orthopedic resident Dr. Stephen Gregg Silver and 28 year old Melissa Wendy Katz, the senior director of press and publicity at Big Beat/Atlantic Records whose father-in-law is also in the music business serving as the vice president of Abkco Music and Records, Incl.

    1998: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Cardozo by Andrew L. Kaufman

    2000: “After two years of symptoms and misdiagnoses by eight doctors, Fran Drescher was admitted to Los Angeles's Cedars Sinai Hospital” today where she he had to undergo an immediate radical hysterectomy” as treatment for uterine cancer that doctors just discovered she had.

    2001(30th of Sivan, 5761): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    2001(30th of Sivan, 5761): Ninety-two year “Yiddishist” and “son of Ruchla Laja and Chaim Haskell Libeskind” Nachman Libeskin, the “self-taught artist” who survived “the Holocaust and Russian Labor Camps” passed away today.

    2001: The Dubnow Institute hosted an international conference on “Restitution and Memory” that began today in Vienna.

    2003: The Martin Beck Theatre in New York was renamed the Al Hirschfeld Theatre.

    2003(21st of Sivan, 5763):  Novelist Leon Uris passed away.  Uris first reached popular and critical acclaim with Battle Cry a novel about Marines fighting World War II.  Coincidentally, Uris had served with the Marines.  He hit the literary and financial jackpot with Exodus, a novel that depicted the birth of the state of Israel.  He followed with other books with Jewish themes including Mila 18, QB VII,  The Haj  and Mitla Pass.

    2003(21st of Sivan, 5763):  Eighty-one year old screenwriter, playwright, producer and director George Axelrod, the  son of non-Jewish screen star and a Russian Jew, passed away today. (As reported by Rick Lyman)

    2004: Wrestler Matt Bloom tore a rotator cuff.

    2004: Human rights activist Felice Gaer addressed the United Nations Conference on Anti-Semitism

    2004: - A foreign worker, Weerachai Wongput, 37, from the Nong Han District of the northeastern province of Udon Thani in Thailand, died after being hit by shrapnel from a mortar fired into greenhouses in Kfar Darom in the Gaza Strip. The mortar was fired by Palestinians trying to divert attention from an attempt to infiltrate the settlement. Hamas claimed responsibility for the attack

    2007(5th of Tammuz, 5767): Twenty-five year old Private First Class Daniel J. Agami, was killed by an improvised explosive device in Adhamiya, Iraq today. A native of Cleveland who grew up in Coral Springs, Florida, Agami came from a proud military and Jewish tradition.  His grandfather served in the Korean War and his father had served with the Israeli Army.  He enlisted four years after 9/11. “Agami flew an Israeli flag over his bunk in Schweinfurt, Germany, his home base, and then in Iraq. His rifle had “Hebrew Hammer” written across it, and his friends called him the GI Jew.

    2007:In Los Angeles, Mäni’s Bakery of Los Angeles teams up with Camp Max Straus on in a chocolate cake tasting, with 100% of the proceeds benefiting Camp Max Straus. The camp is non-denominational and is owned and operated by Jewish Big Brothers Big Sisters of Los Angeles. It serves approximately 2,000 children each year. Founded in 1915, Jewish Big Brothers Big Sisters of Los Angeles specializes in mentoring children through its core matching program, school-based mentoring program and Camp Max Straus residential, Sports Buddies and Arts Buddies programs. 

    2007: Severn years after undergoing a radical hysterectomy as treatment for uterine cancer, Fran Drescher “announced the national of the Chancer Schmancer Movement a non-profit organization dedicated to ensuring that all women's cancers be diagnosed while in Stage 1, the most curable stage.”

    2008: In Washington, D.C. former New York Times reporter Jane Fletcher Geniesse discusses and signs her new book, American Priestess: The Extraordinary Story of Anna Spafford and the American Colony in Jerusalem at Politics and Prose Bookstore.

    2009: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Digital Barbarism: A Writer’s Manifesto by Mark Helprin

    2009: The Washington Post featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including In Her Own Sweet Time by Rachel Lehmann-Haupt

    2009:The Sixth Australian Israel Film Festival, sponsored by AICE, the Australia Israel Cultural Exchange, opens at the Jerusalem Cinematheque with a screening of “Tackling Peace,” a documentary  about a joint Israeli/Palestinian team that was established to enter the 2008 AFL (Australian Rules) International Cup soccer competition, which was held in Victoria, Australia, last August.

    2009:The Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Consulate General of Israel in New York, the Israel Ministry of Tourism, the Israel Government Tourist Office in New York, and the Tel Aviv-Yafo Centennial Administration join together to sponsor The Tel Aviv Beach Party, part of the celebration of Tel Aviv’s 100th Anniversary. The Tel Aviv Beach Party will feature free beach games, tanning spots, giveaways, and a rock concert as the Naumberg Bandshell area in Central Park is transformed into an authentic Mediterranean beach front complete with, a 1,300 square foot sand section featuring chairs and parasols will allow sunbathing fans the perfect tanning experience. In addition to live music and entertainment, visitors will be able to get information about Tel Aviv's hotspots, tourism attractions and vibrant night life. El Al, the leading carrier to Israel, will be offering special deals for reservations made at Central Park.

    2010:The Sixth Republic Bank Golf Challenge benefiting Jewish Family & Career Services and the Jewish Community of Louisville's Jewish Community Center of Louisville is scheduled to be held today at Chariot Run, a Harrah's Golf Course.

    2010: Ten years to the day after having undergone a radical hysterectomy, Fran Drescher announced that she was still cancer free.

    2010: The Jewish Agency’s new strategic plan will place the state and land of Israel squarely at the center of Diaspora consciousness, according to a statement Jewish Agency chairman Natan Sharansky made to the Jerusalem Post today. The new plan calls for shifting the agency’s activities toward identity-forming experiences for Israeli and Diaspora youth, and has generated some concern among a group of agency lay leaders and Israeli officials over what they worry could be an abandonment of the organization’s traditional functions of nation-building and aliya

    2011: Family in Captivity, a film that “is an intimate story that follows the day to day efforts of the Shalit family to cope and bring Gilad home” is scheduled to be shown at The JCC in Manhattan.

    2011: The Kaye Innovation Awards are scheduled to be presented today during the Board Of Governors Meeting of the Hebrew University. The prizes were established in 1994 by Isaac Kaye – a prominent industrialist in the British pharmaceutical industry – to encourage HU faculty, staff and students to develop innovative methods and inventions with good commercial potential that will benefit the university and society. The winners are Prof. Haim Rabinowitch, Prof. Dan Gazit, Dr. Raanan Fattal, Katy Margulis- Goshen and Yftah Tal-Gan, Prof. Haim Rabinowitch of the university’s Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment has been named winner of the first prize. Rabinowitch, a former rector, is being recognized for his long-term innovations in genetic and breeding technologies. Over the last 25 years, his team’s novel breeding results have created a lucrative local seed industry. Indeed, the export of tomato, onion and shallot seeds Rabinowitch developed brings in about $50 million annually, with additional royalties going to the university. Today, he is leading the development of a unique garlic-breeding project and plant improvement technology that allows seed producers to easily adapt any plant variety to changing situations. Both projects were recently licensed by Yissum, the HU’s technology transfer company, to start-up companies that were established on the basis of these technologies. The second-prize winner among the faculty is Prof. Dan Gazit, head of the Skeletal Biotechnology Laboratory in Jerusalem’s Ein Kerem, for his team’s nearly 20-year research that has led to a breakthrough in the field of stem cell-based tissue engineering. TheraCell Inc., a California-based biotech start-up company, has licensed the bone tissue regeneration technology from Yissum. Dr. Raanan Fattal of the Benin School of Computer Science and Engineering, will be receiving the third prize for the development of second-generation wavelet-based image enhancement, which enhances sharpness of images. Fattal’s invention was licensed by Adobe and is already incorporated in the company’s leading software, Photoshop. Meanwhile, a method for increasing solubility developed by a graduate student at HU’s Casali Institute of Applied Chemistry has yielded promising commercial benefits for industry – particularly in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and agriculture. The method, created by Katy Margulis- Goshen, a doctoral student of Prof. Shlomo Magdassi, produces a rapid conversion of oilin- water microemulsions containing an insoluble substance into a dry powder composed of nanoparticles, which can easily be dissolved in water or other biological fluids. For her work, Marguis-Goshen, who immigrated to Israel from the Ukraine 21 years ago, has been chosen as another Kaye Award winner. The process she developed is of unique industrial importance, the university said, as it leads to a significant increase in solubility and dissolution properties of almost any active ingredient, without a high energy investment. Enhancing solubility is especially important in pharmaceutics, where nearly half of the newly discovered drugs can’t be administered, or are very poorly absorbed, due to their low solubility. Increasing solubility is also important in agriculture, since most insecticides are highly hydrophobic (resistant to mixing with water), and their regular application therefore requires the use of organic solvents, which are harmful to the farmer and the environment. The new process can also be applied to many other fields, such as nutrition and paint and printing-ink manufacture. Finally, Yftah Tal-Gan, a student of Prof. Chaim Gilon and Prof. Alexander Levitzki at the Institute of Chemistry, will receive a Kaye Award for the inhibition of protein kinase B (PKB, also called Akt). Since the activation of PKB is associated with tumors, selective inhibition of this protein becomes a promising strategy for targeted cancer therapy.

    2011:Israel runs the risk of losing the battle for public opinion in Latin America if it doesn’t devote more resources to its advocacy efforts there, Jewish officials from that part of the world warned at the World Jewish Congress, which drew to a close today.

    2011:Richard Stone, chairman of the Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations, and conference executive vice president Malcolm Hoenlein expressed dismay and regret today that Israeli agent Jonathan Pollard was not allowed to attend the funeral of his father Morris in Indiana the day before.

    2011:Lithuania's parliament passed a long-awaited bill to compensate the Jewish community for communal property taken during the Nazi and Soviet occupations of the country. More than 90 percent of Lithuania's 220,000-strong Jewish community were wiped out during the Holocaust

    2011(19thof Sivan, 5771): Eighty-three year old Jewish feminist author E.M. Broner passed away today in New York. (As reported by Margalit Fox)

    2012: JSSA (Jewish Social Service Agency) is scheduled to host an open house at the Ina Kay Building in Rockville, MD

    2012: The Weiner Library is scheduled to host a special tour as part of Gypsy Roma Traveller History Month, which will include a viewing exhibitions, archives and special collections relating to the 1936 Berlin Olympics and the Gypsy Roma Traveller experience during the Holocaust.

    2012: “Going Up: Jerusalem,” part of the Jerusalem Season of Culture is scheduled to open today.

    2012: Marianne Lubar is scheduled to receive the Spirit Community Award at a community luncheon at the Jewish Museum of Milwaukee.

    2012: Sabra Alon Yavnai and his Big Band are scheduled to perform at Bryant Park.

    2012:At least five rockets were fired from the Gaza Strip at the southern city of Ashkelon this evening as cross-border violence restarted after a day-long lull. Four of the rockets exploded in open fields near the city, and one was shot down by the Iron Dome missile defense system. No damage or injuries were reported.This evening’s rocket fire broke a lull since morning, following Hamas’s announcement yesterday that it was prepared to cooperate with Egyptian efforts to end the current round of rocket fire into Israel provided that Israel also cease its air strikes on Gaza. In all, at least 10 rockets were fired at Israel from the Gaza Strip today. Since June 18, over 120 missiles have been fired into Israel, including more than 70 fired yesterday alone.

    2012: Professor Peter Beinart and Abe Foxman were among those who spoke at the “What does World Jewry Expect from Israel?” conference.

    2012(1stof Tammuz, 5772): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    2012: Police detained a female activist at the Western Wall for over three hours today because she was wearing a “male-style” tallit. The incident took place after 65 women from the Women of the Wall organization concluded their Rosh Chodesh prayer service.(As reported by Jeremy Sharon and Melanie Lidman)

    2012(1stof Tammuz, 5772): Ninety year old, the composer and lyricist who created “The Pajama Game” and “Damn Yankees” two Broadway musicals that were cinema successes passed away today. (As reported by Margalit Fox)

    2012: Indian security forces arrested Sayed Zabiuddin Ansari alias Abu Hamza, alleged member of Lashker-e-Taiba (Army of the Righteous) and the Hindi instructor of 10 terrorists who executed the murderous attack in Mumbai in 2008.

    2012(1st of Tammuz, 5772): Ninety-Six year old Anna Schwartz, the research economists who collaborated with Milton Friedman, passed away today, (As reported by Robert D. Hershey)

    2013: The International Consortium for Research on Antisemitism and Racism, hosted by the Pears Institute for the study of Antisemitism is scheduled to come to an end at the University of London

    2013: Steve Schutzman’s “A Question of Water” under the direction of Tzipora Kaplan is scheduled to be performed as part of the Jewish Plays Project

    2013(13th of Tammuz, 5773): A Jewish man was killed this morning at the Western Wall plaza in Jerusalem after being shot multiple times by a security guard.  The guard told police that 46-year-old Doron Ben Shlush was in a public bathroom onsite, and that he shouted “Allahu Akbar,” an Arabic phrase meaning “God is greater.” The phrase, though common in Muslim parlance, has historically been shouted by terrorists ahead of perpetrating attacks in Israel

    2013: The US will cut five percent, or $175 million, from its annual military aid package to Israel as part of across-the-board budgetary spending cuts, a Hebrew daily reported today.  Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu had instructed Israeli officials in Washington, DC, to not ask the US government for an exception from the fiscal measures, according to Maariv. US military aid to Israel is currently set at $3.1 billion per year.

    2014: Israeli accordion virtuoso Uri Sharlin and his quartet are scheduled to “play original compositions that blend jazz and classical influences with Balkan rhythms, Arabic modes, and Brazilian harmonies” at Harold Square.

    2014: National Hebrew Book Week is scheduled to come to an end.

    2014: South African jurist Ablie Sachs who was an opponent of apartheid “was awarded Taiwan's inaugural Tang Prize in the Rule of Law for his contributions to human rights and justice globally.”

    2014: “Dozens of Jewish demonstrators gathered for a minute of silence today before the Argentina-Iran World Cup game, demanding justice for a still unsolved bombing attack against a Buenos Aires Jewish center 20 years ago that left 85 dead and for which Iran has been blamed.”

    2014: After “a rocket hit a road in the Hof Ashkelon Regional this morning” three more rockets were fired into southern Israel from Gaza this evening.” (As reported by Matan Tzuri, Ilana Curiel)

    2015:  A Palestinian terrorist stabbed an Israeli border police officer today near the Damascus Gate in Jerusalem.

    2015: “The Berlin Philharmonic members…finally reached a decision in a vote” today and chose Kirill Petrenko, 43, a Russian-born Jew, to be its new conductor.

    2015: The New York Timesfeatured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Odd Woman and The City: A Memoir by Vivian Gornick

    2015: The exhibition “Ordinary Matters" Animations and Paintings by Shelley Jordon is scheduled to come to a close at the Oregon Jewish Museum and Center for Holocaust Education.

    2015: “Examining Lives with Jewish Eyes” featuring the work of “FotoMacher Frank Barnett” is scheduled to come to a close at the Oregon Jewish Museum and Center Holocaust Education.

    2015: Florida International University is scheduled to host the opening session of International Research Conference of the Latin American Jewish Studies Association at the Wolfe University Center.

    2015: The YIVO Institute for Jew History “in collaboration with the Russian American Foundation and the Russian Museum of Ethnography is scheduled to host “the opening reception for the exhibit “Shtetl: Graphic Works and Sketches of Solomon Yudovin (1920-1940).”

    2015: Myron (Mickey) Glazer and his wife, Penina Glazer, are scheduled to read from the newly published collection of twenty-four stories, essays, and vignettes written by Mickey and his late brother, Irving (Itzik) Glasser, Itzik  and Mickey, at the Yiddish Book Center in Amherst, MA.

    2016: “The Last Mentsch” is scheduled to be shown at the Portland, Oregon Jewish Film Festival.

    2016: Fifty year old Esti Weinstein, a mother of eight and who had left the Gur Chasidic community in Israel eight years ago disappeared today, six days before her body would be found in her car.

    2016: The second annual “Towards a New Law of Conference” sponsored by Shurat HaDin is scheduled to come to an end today in Jerusalem.

    2017: Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg is scheduled to serve as the presiding judge at “A Mock Appeal for Shylock which is a commemoration of the 500th Anniversary of the Venice Ghetto. Sponsored by the Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington.

    2017: “Senior Advisor to the President Jared Kushner, Assistant to the President and Special Representative for International Negotiations Jason Greenblatt, and United States Ambassador to Israel David Friedman met today in Jerusalem with Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu of Israel and his senior advisors.”

    2017: “Katherine Dettwyler, an adjunct professor in the University of Delaware’s anthropology department” posted comments on Facebook, saying that Jewish university student “Otto Warmbier got exactly what he deserved.”

    2017: At the Center for Jewish History, Thomas Hansen, Professor Emeritus of German at Wellesley College is scheduled to speaking at a reception marking the opening of an exhibition “George Salter: A Legacy of Book Design” highlighting the work of a man whose parents converted him to Christianity at the age of one

    2018: In Lyndhust, “an eastern suburb of Cleveland,” shiva will be observed for Robert L. “Bob” Sill, “a founding member of the Cleveland Chapter of American ORT who went on to serve as national president of American ORT and chairman of the board of World ORT.”

    2018: The Center For Jewish History and the YIVO Institute For Jewish Research ae scheduled to present a screening of “An Article of Hope,” journalist Dan Cohen’s documentary about Ilan Ramon’s flight aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia.

    2018: In Pittsburgh, PA, the Society For American Baseball Research Convention is scheduled to host a session “Collusion and Collision: Hank Greenberg in Pittsburgh in 1947”

    2018: Filmmaker Aviva Kempner is scheduled to show a 24-minute work in progress clip, entitled "Moe Berg: All-Star Espionage?" at the Society for American Baseball Research Convention in Pittsburgh, PA.






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    JUNE 22

    217 BCE: Ptolemy IV of Egypt defeated Antiochus III at the Battle of Raphia. The Battle of Raphia, also known as the Battle of Gaza, was part of the ongoing power struggle between the Seleucids and the Ptolomies for the land mass that included Jerusalem and the land mass of Eretz Israel. Ptolemy's victory proved to be of short-term value.  Antiochus would defeat the Egyptians at the Battle of Paneas in 198 BCE.  This would ensure Seleucid rule over the Jewish population and set the stage for the Revolt of the Maccabees.

    168 BCE: The Romans under Lucius Aemilius Paullus defeated and captured Macedonian King Perseus at the Battle of Pydna ending the Third Macedonian War and further diminishing the role of the Greeks. A year later, Judah Maccabee would start his revolt against the Selucids, another Greek Empire.  In the end, it would be the Romans who supplant these fractured remnants of Alexander’s Empire much to the detriment of the Jewish people.  Yes, you can draw a line connecting Pydna, the Maccabees and the destruction of the Temple in 70.

    816: Papacy of Stephen IV began today. Stephen is the author of the Letter Against Jews Owning Land” which read in part, For this reason We are touched by sorrow, anxious even unto death, since We have known through you that the Jewish people, ever rebellious against God and derogatory of our rites, within the frontiers and territories of the Franks, own hereditary estates in the villages and suburbs, as if they were Christian residents; for they are the Lord's enemies... Christian men cultivate their vines and fields, and Christian men and women, living with those same deceivers both in town and out of town, are day and night strained by expressions of blasphemy... What was sworn to and handed over to those unbelievers by the Lord himself... has been taken away deservedly, in vengeance for the crucified Savior.” (As reported by Alexis Rubin in Scattered Among the Nations)

    1425: Francesco di Simone Tornabuoni and Nanna di Niccolo di Luigi Guicciardini gave birth to Lucrezia Tornabuoni, the Italian Renaissance poet who chose the Biblical figure of Queen Esther as a topic for her writings.

    1559: Jewish quarter of Prague was burned and looted.

    1623: William Leake II or the younger became a full member of the Stationer’s Company today. In 1652 he issued the 4th Quarto of The Merchant of Venice, featuring the evil Jew Shylock.  There are those who contend that he printed this as part of an attempt to keep Jews from being readmitted to England as full citizens.

    1689: The Jewish quarter of Prague was destroyed by French troops who shelled the area. In one synagogue, the roof caved in killing the 100 people who had sought refuge there. Their Christian neighbors took in most of the population until new shelters were built.

    1691: Suleiman II’s brief reign, during which the Jews continued to live in comparative peace and tranquility in the Ottoman Empire came to an end with his death.

    1770: Birthdate of German philosopher and writer Wilhelm Traugott Krug who was an advocated for the emancipation of the Jews of Saxony

    1791:  A day after he passed away, Aaron Isaac ben Gerson – aged 5 years and 11 months – was buried today at the Aldnerney Road Jewish Cemetery in London.

    1809: In Hamburg, Germany, Johanna and William Leo Wolf gave birth to Dr. George Wolf.

    1822: An order of the Prussian cabinet (German: Kabinettsordre) united the Province of Jülich-Cleves-Berg which Salomon Oppenheimer had been serving as a banker and tax collector with the Grand Duchy of the Lower Rhine province.

    1834: Isaiah Simmons married Caroline Benjamin at the Great Synagogue in the United Kingdom.

    1836: Birthdate of Gaston Cremieux who along with fellow Jew Adolphe Carcassone headed the Revolutionary Commission of the Département Bouches-du-Rhône for which he was condemned to death and executed  because of his role in the revolt that had followed the Franco-Prussian War.

    1836: Abraham Styer married Charlotte Levy at the Hambro Synagogue.

    1838: In Hanover, Germany Dr. Herman Herz Cohen and Sophie Sara Cohen gave birth to artist Eduard Cohen, the husband of Ida Cohen.

    1840: As Moses Montifiore prepared to go to Egypt to pleade for the release of eight Jews falsely imprisonsed  in  a blood libel connected to the disappeaerance of Father Tomaso, Lord Palmerston declared in Parliament, “I have already directed the English consul-general Hodges to represent to Mehmet Ali what effect news of such atrocities must produce in Europe…I have also sent instructions to her Majesty’s consul in Damascus to make a thorough investigation…and to send home a report as to the part which European consuls had taken in this matter.

    1841: The Jewish community in Mobile, Alabama purchased land to be used as a cemetery.

    1843: In Heidelsheim, Baden, “Abraham Sulzberger, a chazzan, shochet and teacher” and the former Sophie Einstein, “an ancestor of Albert Einstein gave birth to Mayer Sulzberger, an American judge and communal leader” who “went to Philadelphia with his parents in1848, and was educated at the Central High School of Philadelphia, and after graduating he studied law in the office of Moses A. Dropsie. In 1864 he was admitted to the bar, and attained eminence in the practice of his profession. He was elected judge of the Court of Common Pleas on the Republican ticket in 1895, and was reelected as a nominee of both parties in 1904, becoming the presiding judge of the Court of Common Pleas No. 2.Sulzberger has throughout his career shown great interest in Jewish affairs. While studying for the bar he taught at the Hebrew Education Society's school.” For a time he served as the Secretary of Board of Maimonides College. “He was closely associated with Isaac Leeser, and assisted that scholar in editing "The Occident," contributing to it a partial translation of Maimonides'"Morch Nebukim." After Leeser's death Sulzberger edited vol. xxvi. of "The Occident." He was one of the founders of the Young Men's Hebrew Association, which he served as president;” He was chosen to serve as vice president of  and the Jewish Hospital of Philadelphia in 1880 and  has been…chairman of the publication committee of the Jewish Publication Society of America.” He was one of the original trustees of the Baron de Hirsch fund and has taken a great deal of interest in the establishment of agricultural colonies at Woodbine, N. J., and in Connecticut” Sulzberger had “one of the best private libraries in America; it contained a very large number of Hebraica and Judaica, together with many other early Hebrew printed books (including no less than forty-five Incunabula), and many manuscripts.”  He presented these to the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, an institution which helped to reorganize. His younger brother, Jacob, is well known in Philadelphia literary circles both “for his verse and for is unusual knowledge of English literature.”

    1850: Birthdate of Ignác (Yitzhaq Yehuda) Goldziher, the Hungarian born Jew who was the one of the first Europeans who developed an expertise in Islam and the culture of the Muslim world

    1851: In San Francisco, following a fire at their “temporary home in Merchant’s Court on Washington Street between Montgomery and Sansome, Congregation Shearith Israel moved to building on Kearny Street between Washington and Jackson Streets.

    1851(22nd of Sivan, 5611): “Jacob Bach, a native of Posen” died today in a fire in the building housing Sherith Israel after which he was “interred in a plot” the congregation had “set aside for noted men.”

    1853: “Medical News” published today described a lecture delivered by Professor Owen to the Royal College of Surgeons in which he said, “For 1800 years the Jewish race has been dispersed into different latitudes and climates and they have preserved themselves most distinct from any intermixture with other races of mankind.”  He went on to say that they though they may have taken on the racial characteristics of those among whom they lived (dark skinned Jews living in Syrian and Lebanon; light skinned blue-eyed Jews in northern Europe) they have still been able to maintain themselves as unique people.

    1859: Harris Michaels married Elizabeth Daniel at the Great Synagogue in the United Kingdom.

    1859: In Breslau, Silesia, Helene von Heimburg, a former opera singer, and conductor Leopold Damrosch” whose father was Jewish gave birth to conductor Frank Damrosch

    1863: During the Polish uprising, in an attempt to gain the support Rabbis and Jewish religious leaders, The Insurgent National Government issued a proclamation, in which it promised to guarantee the equality of Jews, after gaining independence

    1864: During the Civil War, large number of those serving with the 59th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment which had been formed by Philip J. Joachimsen  near Petersburg during the Wilderness Campaign.

    1864: In Aleksota (Russian Empire), “Lewin Boruch Minkowski, a merchant who subsidized the building of The Choral synagogue in Kovno, and Rachel Taubmann gave birth to mathematician Hermann Minkowski who in 1907 “realized that the special theory of relativity, introduced by his former student Albert Einstein in 1905 and based on the previous work of Lorentz and Poincaré, could best be understood in a four-dimensional space, since known as the "Minkowski spacetime", in which time and space are not separated entities but intermingled in a four dimensional space–time, and in which the Lorentz geometry of special relativity can be effectively represented.”

    1865:The Archbishop of York chaired today’s first meeting of The Palestine Exploration Fund, a society that “has been formed under the patronage of Her Majesty the Queen.” The society chose Captain Charles Wilson to go out as the chief director of the explorations in Palestine that are to be made by the new society.  [Wilson gained fame as the author of Ordinance Survey of Jerusalem published in 1886.]

    1869: Birthdate of Odessa native Jacob Magidoff who came to the United States in 1886 where he earned a law degree from NYU and turned to a career in journalism that led to him serving as city editor of the Jewish Morning Journal for 42 years.

    1871(3rd of Tammuz, 5631): Bernard (Yissochar Dov) Illowy, the great-grandson of Rabbi Jacob Illowy passed away.  Born at Kolin, Bohemia in 1814, he moved to the United States after the failed revolutions in the Habsburg Empire where he filled pulpits for several Orthodox synagogues in St. Louis, New Orleans and Cincinnati.

    1873: In Chicago, a cyclone destroyed Congregation Beth-El

    1873: Members of Beth-El Congregation met this evening and began raising funds to replace their building which had been locate on the corner of May and Huron Streets on Chicago’s northwest side.

    1873: In St. Louis, Rabbis Wolfenstein and Sonnenschein officiated at the ceremony where the cornerstone was laid for a chapel at the Mount Sinai Cemetery which was under the control of the Mount Sinai Cemetery Association.

    1877: According to many of New York’s prominent Jewish merchants A.T. Stewart, the company controlled by Judge Hilton, could lose the business of the Jewish clothing merchants throughout the United States as a result of the Seligman Affair.  These merchants are offended by Hilton’s attempt to defend his actions by differentiating between Hebrews and Jews.  They contend that in the United States there are many variations among Jews just as there are among Christians.  They feel that Hilton has used Seligman as a way of attacking all Jews and they find this unacceptable.  They feel that Hilton is trying to create a clash between Americans and Jews while the real clash is between Hilton’s view of the Jews and the Jewish people.

    1877: According to reports published today, Mr. Seligman, nor any other Jewish leader, has plans to call for a public meeting protesting the recent action of Judge Hilton regarding the banning of Jews from the Grand Union Hotel.  Mr. Seligman said that if Christian leaders wish to hold such a meeting they may feel free to so.  Several of them have expressed their negative view of Hilton’s behavior but the consensus appears to have developed to let the matter die down.  Apparently only the Jews are still upset by this as can be seen from the decision by such firms as Fescheimer, Goodkind & Co., the largest clothing store in New York, Fescheimer, Frankel & Co. of Cincinnati and Bierman, Heidelberg & Co of Pittsburg to end all business dealing with Hilton’s A.T. Stewart and Co.

    1878: It was reported today that a young Jew named Louis Hood from Newark, NJ had won the De Forest Medal at an oratorical contest conducted at Yale University.  His topic was “The Ancient and Modern Jew.”

    1878: “Jewish journalist, Egyptian nationalist and playwright” Yaqub Sanu (James Sanua) went into exile today “sailing on the ship Freycinet from Alexandria to Marseilles” after having been banished for publishing the satirical magazine Aboud Naddara.

    1879(1st of Tammuz, 5639): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1879: In a review of The Lost Ten Tribes and 1882 published today, the author, Brooklyn minister Reverend Joseph Wild claims that “Queen Victoria is of ‘David’s Seed’ and the United States fulfills the role of the tribe of Manasseh.” In lampooning these and other such claims the reviewer concludes, “No wonder the Jews are accused of arrogance; they such folly rampant in Christian pulpits that they must feel themselves wise men in comparison.”

    1880: Detective Field arrested Ernest Fink, the former Treasurer of the Hebrew Benevolent Society Chebra B’nai Prasko on charges that he had embezzled $600 from the society.  He was arrested at his shoe shop on Catherine Street and confined to the Tombs.

    1880: The Conference on Morocco resumed today in Madrid.  The conference is expected to adopt a proposal on religious freedom which will benefit both Christians and Jews living in the North African kingdom. [Editor’s note – the real issues revolved around colonial control and revenue.]

    1881: Rabbi Reuben officiated at the marriage of Louis Lyons of Manning, SC and  Rose Levy, the second daughter of Marx Levy at her home in Charleston, SC.

    1882: During the Samuel Obright’s sanitary hearing, relatives told the Judge that “he had procured” ten dollars from his mother “by threatening to kill” her.  His attorney denied that charge as well as one that he had threatened to kill her if she did not give him $500 today.

    1882: Seventy Russian refugees arrived in New York from London by way of Boston and applied for assistance at the office of the Hebrew Emigrant Society. The group has been given permission to stay at Castle Garden until their permanent quarters are ready.

    1882: The six orations given during today’s graduation ceremonies of the University of the City of New York included Charles Harris Gelston Jones speaking on the “Persecution of the Jews in Russia” as one of the anomalies of the 19th century and Alden A. Freeman on “Benjamin Disraeli.”

    1883: It was reported today that several political leaders and office holders will attend the upcoming cornerstone laying ceremony for the Hebrew Orphan Asylum of Brooklyn.

    1883: A number of Jewish were pillaged during anti-Jewish riots at St. Gall, Switzerland.  After police the police were stoned when they tried to stop the violence, authorizes summoned soldiers to bring things under control

    1884: “From Across the Water” published today described how the “barbarity of Hungarian Jew-baiting has been brought to the attention of Londoners” with the arrival of Joseph Scharf, the emaciated sexton of the synagogue at Tisza-Ezler who was forced to flee for his life following accusations that the Jews kidnapped a Christian peasant girl to use in their religious rites.  While the charges were eventually disproved, Scharf’s health was “shattered, his business ruined and his property looted.” “Literally in danger of starvation he fled to London where his co-religionists are raising funds on his behalf.

    1886: The Hebrew Technical Institute, under the leadership of its President, James H. Hoffman hosted a reception and exhibition highlighting the accomplishment of its 68 pupils. The visitors, including noted journalist and political leader Carl Schurz, were told that the only limit on the size of the student body is the size of the facility since there are plenty of Jewish students who want to take vocational training courses.

    1887(30th of Sivan, 5647): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1888:Isaac and Dina Cohen, née Wolf gave birth Jeanette Wolff “one of the best-known German Jewish women in post-war Germany.” (As reported by Jael Geis)

    1890: “First Introduction to A Russian Border Town” described a visitors first experience when he crossed into the Czars kingdom where “We were just in time to see the sentinel half playfully clubbing and kicking an old Polish Jew in his long gown and fur cap and to hear his piteous cries for mercy.”

    1890: “New Publications” included a review of The Burnt Million, a novel by James Payn that revolves around. The “burnt million” refers to money burned by a Jewish money lender who then ships his brother off to America. From that point on the novel takes a rather convoluted turn where a Jewish millionaire has plans to marry off his three daughters but they can only inherit if they marry a Jew.  (And the plot thickens)

    1890: Dr. Alexander Kohut is scheduled to deliver a lecture at the Jewish Theological Seminary Association meeting this morning at Cooper Union entitled “Entertainment Books in the Time of the Talmud.”

    1890(4th of Tammuz, 5650): Thirty-five year old Hyman Harrowitz, a Russian-Jewish immigrant died today a Gouverneur Hospital from ammonia poisoning.

    1891: In Berlin, Dr. jur. Hugo Preuß  and Else Preuß gave birth to Ernst Gustav Preuß

    1891: Today, Isidor Straus wrote to Abraham Abraham “Two members of the firm of R H Macy & Co. contemplate finding their way to that suburb on the other side of the bridge Wednesday next Object of the expedition primarily to attend the unveiling of the Statue of Beecher - great men seem to be a country product. Secondarily to see what a small dry goods establishment looks like. Lastly but not leastly to themselves for the of the expedition by inflicting on Mr. Abraham a genuine city appetite for lunch - N BWater is a good thing for bathing purposes. (Translation, Isidor and Nathan Straus of Macy’s were coming to Brooklyn to visit their fellow Jewish merchant Abraham Abraham)

    1892: Birthdate of Morris Aaron Pawley, the native Cohoes, NY, the businessman and communal fundraising executive who helped organize Aleph Zadek Aleph and was active in the B’nai B’rith.

    1892(27th of Sivan, 5652): Sixty-nine year old Baruch Rothschild, the native of “Bruck, Germany” who wives were Fanny Rothschild and Miriam Marianne Rothschild passed away today.

    1893(8th of Tammuz, 5653): Forty-two year old Benaimino Luzzatto, passed away a Padua.  Born in 1850 at Padua, this son of Samuel David Luzzatto received his medical degree in 1872 and served as an assistant professor at Padua University while pursuing his medical career.

    1894: In Budapest, Prime Minister Sándor Wekerle announced that Government would introduce a bill next week “providing for equal religious rights for Jews and Christians.

    1894: Harry Houdini married Wilhelmina Beatrice Rahner who became known as Bess Houdini who was his stage assistant as well as his wife.

    1895: Georges Picquart who “became a Dreyfusard after having identified Estherhazy  as the author of the incriminating  bordeau, was appointed head of the French military’s Intelligence Office today.

    1896(11th of Tammuz, 5656): Forty-four year old actor and dramatist Sir Augustus Harries passed away at Folkstone. He also found time pursue a political career which included serving as one of the Sheriffs of London starting in 1891.  “He was of a Hebrew family, and properly proud of his race.”

    1897: The Board of Trustees of Williams College met today and announced faculty appointments including S.T. Livingston to serve as the instructor for Hebrew.

    1897: Birthdate of Academy Award winning art director, Vincent Korda, a native of Túrkeve, Hungary who joined his brothers Alexander and Zoltan in England where they all pursued their film careers.

    1897: In Cincinnati, Ohio, Lydia and Millard William Mack gave birth to William Jacob Mack.

    1898: (19 Sivan 5658): Rabbi Samuel Mohilever passed away. Born in 1824 in Russia, Mohilever was a Talmudic scholar and one of the leading orthodox rabbis of Eastern Europe. A graduate from the famous Voloshin Yeshiva, he was conversant in math, engineering and a number of languages. Mohilever encouraged Baron Edmond de Rothschild to support the resettling of Russian families in Eretz-Israel and was a mediator between the settlers and Rothschild in various disagreements that arose. He was the founder of Mizrachi, a religious Zionist organization. In 1881, he was one of the founders of the Hovevei Zion, Lovers of Zion.

    1898: Those attending today’s exhibition of work done by the students at the Hebrew Technical Institute saw electrical appliances made by the boys including a birchromate battery, a galvanometer and models of an Edison dynamo.

    1898: Albert W. Lilienthal began serving as a Captain with the 7thUnited States Volunteer Infantry today.

    1898: Birthdate of oil executive Rudolf Sonneborn, the fourth husband of New York Post owner Dorothy Schiff, President of the Israel Bond Drive and a key player in the secret shipments of arms to pre-State Jewish forces. (As reported by Wolfgang Saxon)

    1898: The Board of Trustees of the Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews held a special meeting day to adopt a memorial marking the passing Getta Scholle who was serving as Vice President at the time of her death.

    1899: The Hebrew Technical Institute hosted its commencement exercises tonight at Cooper Union.

    1899: Sixty year old Max Sandreczky, a German Christian pediatric surgeon who settled in Jerusalem in 1868, where in 1872 he established and ran the first pediatric hospital in Palestine where he treated all patients without regard to religious belief and refused to proselytize the children which meant he operated without funding from any church sources passed away today.

    1899; “Pierre Marie René Waldeck-Rousseau, the initiator of Alfred Dreyfus's 1899 pardon, as well as the law that, in 1900, offered amnesty for "all crimes and misdemeanors related to the Dreyfus Affair, or that have been included in a proceeding relative to one of these deeds” began serving as Prime Minister of France today.

    1899: The City College of New York held its 47th annual commencement exercises at Carnegie Hall. Among those honor students giving “senior orations” were Menahem Eichler, Henry Moskowitz and A.W. Levy.  This, along with a list of graduating seniors with names like Pinchas Israel, Henry Mendelsohn, Leon Schwartz, and Louis Jacob Cohen, attest to the extent to which Jewish youngsters availed themselves of this country’s educational opportunities which were their passport into mainstream America.

    1899: After 14 months, Julius F. Lewis completed his service with the Hospital Corps of the 2nd U.S. Volunteer Infantry in Santiago, Philippines.

    1903: Justice Scott is scheduled to deliver an oral opinion in the case of Isidor Wormser, Jr. versus Metropolitan Street Railway Company and Interurban Street Railway Company

    1906: The Jewish Chronicle reported that Mrs. Herman Cramer, a native of Jersey whose maiden name was Rebecca Amelia Lawton, gave a concert at Steinway Hall.

    1906: In Sucha Beskidzka, Austria-Hungary Max and Eugenia (née Dittler) Wilder gave birth to Samuel Wilder who became famous a movie director Billy Wilder whose hits included Some Like It Hot, Apartment, and Stalag 17.

    1907: Birthdate of Saul Elkins, the motion picture writer and director who was the father of David Elkins.

    1909:  Birthdate of producer Michael Todd. In addition to his other accomplishment, Todd was the husband of Elizabeth Taylor. He died in accident at the age of 48.

    1911: Birthdate of Ludwig Teller who served who represented New York’s 20th Congressional District from 1957 until 1961.

    1911: Birthdate of classical cellist Harvey Shapiro.

    1911: Birthdate of Manhattan native Ludwig Teller, the WW II Navy veteran and law school professor who “was elected as a Democrat to the 85th and 86th United States Congresses.’

    1911: Prague native Hugo PIesen and his wife Annie gave birth to Edmond Ludwig Piesen

    1911: The Anglo-Jewish boxer Matt Wells defeated “the great Jewish New York Boxer Leach Cross” in a ten round bout today at the Madison Athletic Club in New York

    1911: George V is crowned King of the United Kingdom, succeeding his father, Edward VII.Lord Balfour and his king, George V, are proudly commemorated all over Israel.

    1912: The Republican National Convention adopted a plank in its platform that approved of the action taken by the President and Congress to protect the rights of American Jews visiting Russia on business.

    1913: In Chicago, dedication of the Rachel Jackson Memorial Addition to Rest Haven.

    1913: Thirty-seven students are scheduled to receive their diplomas today during the 23rd annual graduation exercises of the Jewish Training School in Chicago.

    1915: Today is the date set for the execution of Leo Frank in Georgia. (The sentence was commuted and the execution did not take place)

    1915: “Martial law is still in force at Governor Slaton’s country estate five miles from Atlanta where two battalions of infantry with machine guns” are protecting Slaton from a mob “that threw bricks at the troops” injuring several of the soldiers.

    1915: After having spent his first night at the state prison in Milledgeville, Leo Frank is scheduled  to be examined by the prison physician to determine if he “is in the proper physical condition” to be put to “work as a farm hand – hoeing or plowing.”

    1915: The remarks of Louis Marshall who had represented Leo Frank before the Supreme Court made when received news of the commutation were published today and concluded with “Whatever those who sought to consign Frank to the gallows may now think, the time will certainly come when they will show their gratitude to Governor Slaton for having saved the State from the perpetration of a stupendous crime, for it is as sure as truth itself that ere long Frank’s innocence will be triumphant established.”

    1915: According to reports published today, The Rome Tribune Herald, in commenting on the commutation of Leo Frank’s sentence that “Governor Slaton must be credited with having done what he thought was right in the circumstances” and that Georgia will stand that much higher in the estimation of the country because of the Governor’s action.”

    1915: In its editorial on the Frank commutation The Atlanta Journal concluded that “The Governor has shown wisdom and courage in his performance of an act of simple justice and time will vindicate his moderation.”

    1915: In its editorial on the Frank commutation, The Enquirer-Sun concluded that the paper “has no inclination to criticize the Governor.  On the contrary it believes that he deserves the highest commendation for having performed his duty as he saw it.”

    1915: In its editorial on the commuting of the sentence of Leo Frank, The Brunswik(GA) News wrote that the governor “has spared the life a man where the evidence upon which was convicted was clouded with doubt and the atmosphere at which the trial occurred was charged with prejudice and with passion.” “Time will vindicate the Governor, and in the meantime, we commend him for his conduct.”

    1915: Pope Benedict was quoted in an interview published today as saying that he had “received from Austrian Bishops assurance…that the Russians on one occasion pushed before them 1,500 Jews so that they could advance behind this living barrier thus exposed to the bullets of the enemy.”

    1915: The New York Timeseditorially expressed the view that “The commutation of the death sentence of Leo M. Frank was the act of a righteous and fearless man”

    1916: The Foreign Office replied to criticism directed at the British Government by Judge Leon Sanders, President of the Hebrew Sheltering Aid and Immigrant Aid Society who said that the “British were holding up checks and drafts mailed from America for the relief of the suffering civil population of Russian Poland” by claiming that “an arrangement has been made with the American Express Company” to have that company convey remittances to Poland as long as American Express can guarantee that the funds “will reach the individual for whom they are intended and not fall into German hands.”

    1917: Special Reception Committees are scheduled to meet all delegates arriving in Baltimore, MD for the Twentieth Annual Convention of the Federation of American Zionists “at all railroad stations and steamer landings.”

    1917: In Chicago, the funeral for 76 year old Rosa Berman, the widow of the late Lewis Berman is scheduled to be held at 1 p.m. at Waldheim.

    1917: The funeral of Rose Stein Wolbach, the wife of Samuel N. Wolbach and the mother of Dr. S. Burt, Edwin J. and Emil Wolbach, is scheduled to take place in Grand Island, Nebraska.

    1917: It was reported today that due to pressure from the Russian government and the Romanian desire to take over Austrian provinces where Jews now enjoy complete rights of citizenship the government Romania is preparing to give the Jews of that country “complete citizenship.”

    1917: “Socialists serving on a Reichstag Committee criticized the Chancellor for forcing Jewish laborers in Poland and Lithuania to work for lower than standard wages” and get the committee to adopt a resolution calling for treating “Jewish workmen from Poland and Lithuania on an equal footing with Germans.”

    1917:In Wilmington, Delaware, Rabbi Samuel Rabinowitz delivered a sermon about thoughts that should be in people's minds during the coming summer months.

    1918: Today, “in a cablegram to the Jewish Monthly Journal, Romanian Premier Bratiano stated: ‘Our determination to give Jews equal civil and political rights is unanimous and definitive” but “technicalities of the Romanian constitution oblige us to postpone the vote on this reform till after the new elections which will take place on after the liberation of our territory.” (Editor’s Note – Starting with the middle of the 19thcentury Romania would finds reasons not to fulfill its promises about full citizenship for the Jews, always stalling until the Holocaust made this a moot point.)

    1918: The Cantors’ Association of America, “the official body of the cantors of Jewish synagogues” today organized “a war saving society” through which they pledged “to save and buy War Savings Stamps” and perform at no charge at any meeting held to increase the purchase of war savings stamps.

    1918: The Federation of Oriental Jews, who, remembering their persecutions in Turkey, “are eager to help win the war” have formed a war savings society.

    1920: General Introduction to Psychoanalysis by Sigmund Freud was published for the first time in the United States.

    1920: Opening of the Ziegfeld Follies of 1920 featuring Eddie Cantor and songs written by the Banjo Eyed performer.

    1920: At the Merrill Theatre in Chicago, Temple B’ne Jeshurun hosted a fundraising benefit to raise money for a new school and social center.

    1920: Birthdate of Solomon Hersh Frees the Chicago native who gained fame as Paul Frees whose ability to provide the vocalization for a variety of cartoon figurers earned him the sobriquet “The Man of a Thousand Voices.

    1921(16th of Sivan, 5681): “Dr. Morris Jastrow, Jr.,” one of the world’s foremost authorities on Semitic languages and a “Professor of Semitic Languages at the University of Pennsylvania since 1893 died suddenly today of heart disease at the home of his brother-in-law, F.H. Bachman, in Jenkintown, a suburb” of Philadelphia.  The sixty year old academic had not shown any signs of illness. A native of Warsaw, Jastow graduated from Penn in 1881 and earned a Ph.D. from Leipzig University in 1884.  Besides his work with Semitic languages, Jastrow had written extensively about “religion, education and Near Eastern politics.  He edited the Semitic department of the International Encyclopedia…and was a delegate to the last three European Congresses of Orientalists. Among “his more important works were ‘Religion of the Babylonians and Assyrians,’ ‘The Study of Religion,’ ‘Hebrew and Babylonian Traditions,’ and ‘Zionism and the Future of Palestine.’”

    1921: In Brooklyn, “Yetta (née Miritch), a seamstress, and Samuel Papirofsky, a trunkmaker” gave birth to Joseph Papirofsky, who gained fame as Joseph Papp, the producer/director best known for his Shakespeare in the Park.“Aside from his incredible creative talents which forever revolutionized the Broadway theatre, he immersed himself in doing acts of good deeds especially when the care and welfare of children were concerned. During his trips to Russia he saw firsthand the desperate conditions facing the handicapped, orphaned and neglected children in the Ukraine, which numbers in the thousands. It was then that he dedicated himself to do whatever he could to enhance the lives of these children caught in the midst of economic and political turmoil. His untimely passing came before he was able to fulfill his dream. Tzivos Hashem, with Gail Papp's blessing, has vowed to continue Joe's dream. Thanks to the successful Tzivos Hashem sponsored "Joseph Papp Children's Humanitarian Fund" Dinners, thousands of Ukrainian homeless, deprived and starving children are being given a second chance at life.”

    1922: In Paris, the body of Louis Stern, the President of Stern Brothers, was taken from Claridge’s Hotel to the mortuary where it will remain until a decision is made up where the burial will take place.  The seventy-five year old Stern had gone abroad with his daughter Beatrice and her husband to recuperate following surgery that had taken place in May. He was also planning on visiting his daughter Baroness Leo de Grafferies and his grandchildren during the trip.

    1924: In, Makó, Hungary, Terezia (Riesz) and liberal journalist Emo Vermes, gave birth to Geza Vermes “a religious scholar who argued that Jesus as a historical figure could be understood only through the Jewish tradition from which he emerged, and who helped expand that understanding through his widely read English translations of the Dead Sea Scrolls” (As reported by William Yardley). All three converted to Catholicism when Geza was seven years old which did not save his parents from dying in the Holocaust.

    1925(30thof Sivan, 5685): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1926: Birthdate of Arthur Rosenfeld, the Birmingham born “physicist who became widely known as the father of energy efficiency for championing energy-saving requirements for appliances and buildings.”

    1926: In Washington, DC, Harold Ripley and actress Mabel Ida Albertson, the sister of Jack Albertson gave birth to George Englund whose film resume includes directing “The Ugly American” a provocative look at Viet Nam before it became a national crisis and producing “The Shoes of the Fisherman” which provided an unconventional look at the Papacy.

    1927: “Men Before Marriage” a silent film directed by Constantin J. David and music by Artur Guttman was released today in Germany.

    1928: In the Bronx, Louis Slobodkin and Florence (Gersh) Slobodkin to Professor Lawrence B. (Larry) Slobodkin one of the leaders in the field of ecology to whom, if the world had listened, it might have avoided the damage done by extreme weather in the first part of the 21st century

    1929: In Baltimore, MD Israel and Fannie Gravitz Rehert gave birth to Rose Rehert who gained fame as American journalist and breast cancer advocate Rose Kushner author of Why Me? What Every Woman Should Know About Breast Cancer to Save Her Life.

    1933: The Jewish world continues to reel from the shock of the murder Hayim Arlosoff, a Zionist leader who was killed just outside of Tel Aviv. The Labor Zionist leaders contended that the killer was Abraham Stavsky, a member or the Revisionists. The victim’s widow who was walking with him on the beach at the time of his murder identified Stavsky. Stavsky was found guilty but his conviction was overturned on appeal because of a lack of corroborating testimony. The facts surrounding the case are murky to this day. But the episode help to further poison the relationship between the Labor Zionists and the Revisionists. Ironically, Stavsky was killed aboard the Altalena in 1948. The issue stills looms large in the memory of the early Zionists. Leah Rabin made reference to this episode when she talked about the causes of her husband’s death in 1995.

    1933: The Social Democratic party was officially banned as Hitler consolidated his power.

    1933: Birthdate of Dianne Feinstein. Feinstein was Mayor of San Francisco and is now a United States Senator from California.

    1935(21st of Sivan, 5695): Sixty-nine year old the Polish historian who promoted the “idea of describing a nation's history through its social and economic development as well as its international and diplomatic backdrop” and whose works included Danzig and Poland passed away today

    1936:The Palestine Postreported a seven-hour battle fought near Tulkarm between Arab terrorists who ambushed a convoy and British troops. British infantry and police rounded another Arab gang near Nablus where they lost a sergeant and a private. Arab losses were not known, but might have been considerable.

    1936: The Paris Tageszeitung reported today that “Germany has placed a ban on the motion picture ‘The Country Doctor” staring the Dionne quintuplets” because of the participation of “non-Aryans” in the production of the picture. (The non-Aryan may have been a reference to script writer Sonya Levien.)

    1936: This evening at a dinner at the Waldorf Astoria movie producer Carl Laemmle, Nathan Straus, Judge Julian W. Mack and Member of Parliament Major Henry Adams Proctor urged attendees to provide the maximum amount of support to the United Palestine Appeal which is working to raise $3,500,000 for the settlement of persecuted German and Polish Jews in Eretz Israel.

    1937: Leon Blum resigned as Prime Minister of France after losing support due to remain neutral during the Spanish Civil War.

    1937: Al Jolson is scheduled to serve as Master of Ceremonies on WABC’s variety show starting at 8:30 this evening.

    1937: The final report of the Royal Commission on Palestine chaired by Earl Peel was signed tonight but its contents remain secret and will probably not “published until early July” when it is presented to the League of Nations in Geneva.

    1938: Father John LaFarge, American Jesuit, met with Pope Pius XI about the drafting of an encyclical to condemn racism and anti-Semitism. LaFarge is told: "Simply say what you would say if you were Pope!" Impressed with Father LaFarge's antiracist writings and activism in America, Pope Pius XI goes outside the usual Vatican personnel to assign LaFarge the job of secretly writing Humani Generis Unitas ("The Unity of Humankind") to condemn racism and anti-Semitism. Father John LaFarge's draft of this encyclical is completed in September but it delayed by the Vatican bureaucracy. It won't reach the pope's desk until he suffers a heart attack in February 1939. His successor, Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli, takes the name Pope Pius XII and shelves the encyclical. No one hears about it again until well after the Holocaust. (As reported by Austin Cline)

    1938: Joe Louis beat Max Schmeling in the re-match that had been arranged by the German boxer’s Jewish manager Joe Jacobs, whom Schmeling had refused to fire despite intense pressure from the Nazis.

    1939: Birthdate of Ada E. Yonath “an Israeli crystallographer best known for her pioneering work on the structure of the ribosome. She is the current director of the Helen and Milton A. Kimmelman Center for Biomolecular Structure and Assembly of the Weizmann Institute of Science. In 2009, she received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry along with Venkatraman Ramakrishnan and Thomas A. Steitz for her studies on the structure and function of the ribosome, becoming the first Israeli woman to win the Nobel Prize out of nine Israeli Nobel laureates, the first woman from the Middle East to win a Nobel prize in the sciences,[citation needed] and the first woman in 45 years to win the Nobel Prize for Chemistry. However, she said herself that there was nothing special about a woman winning the Prize.”

    1940: After 1,108 performances the curtain came down on the ILGWU production of “Pins and Needles” a revue with music and lyrics by Harold Rome who also wrote the book along with several others including Marc Blitzstein, directed by Charles Friedman and choreographed by Benjamin Zemach.

    1940: In Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire, England, Katherine Flora (née Leverson) and Henry Barnato Rantzen gave birth to Dame Esther Louise Rantzen, the English journalist and television personality best known for the 21 years she spent with the television series “That’s Life!”

    1940: The French Government led by 84 year-old Marshal Henri-Philippe Petain and Pierre Laval signed a cease-fire agreement with Germany. This would mark the start of one of the most shameful periods in French history.  The fascists at Vichy would not only do the bidding of the Germans when it came to the Jews, they would actually move more quickly than expected in round up after round up of Jewish refugees and native born French Jews.

    1940: When France surrendered today “one of the terms of the armistice gave the Germans the right to demand that France surrender all "Germans named by the German Government" to the German occupation authorities” including Herschel Feibel Grynszpan who had assassinated Ernst von Rath in 1938.

    1940(16th of Sivan, 5700): Three days before his 75thbirthday, Rabbi Julius “Hesselson” Hess who served several congregations in the Middle West passed a way today after suffering perforated stomach ulcer.

    1940: In Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire, England, Katherine Flora (née Leverson and Henry Barnato Rantzen gave birth to British journalist and television personality Esther Louise Rantzen

    1940: General Charles de Gaulle, the self-appointed leader of the so-called “Free French” broadcast an appeal to the French people to continue the fight against the Nazis.  He assured them that the Americans and the British would support them in the effort.  Winston Churchill gave permission for the French brigadier to give the address over the BBC.  At a secular level, there is real irony in this since de Gaulle would become “the cross of Lorraine” that Churchill would have to carry throughout the war.  Several Jews would rally to de Gaulle, the Resistance and the Free French.  As to Frenchmen in general, to put it politely, Drancy and Vichy were exemplars of their true feelings for an extended period of time.

    1941: Operation Barbarossa begins. Germany began its surprise attack on the Soviet Union, despite the fact that the two nations had signed a non-aggression pact in 1939. Stalin had ignored a myriad of warnings that the attack was coming. For days after the attack, Stalin still refused to believe that Hitler had struck since the Russians had been supplying the Nazis with vital material. This day would see the start of systematic destruction of Jewish towns and communities. German killing squads, the Einsatgruppenwould begin to organize local collaborators in Lithuania, Latvia and the Ukrainian states. Thousands of Jews would be killed within the next few days. Within a few weeks millions more of the Jews of the Soviet Union would fall under Nazi rule.

    1941: While many refer to Operation Barbarossa that began today as a “surprise attack” such was not really the case since the Soviets received warnings from several sources including Krystyna Skarbek better known as British intelligence agent Christine Granville.

    1941: Special mobile killing squads--Einsatzgruppen--each assigned to a particular area of the Occupied Soviet Union began killing Jews on the spot wherever they are found; often with the help of local anti-Semites recruited to help.

    1941: Birthdate of David P. Landau, the winner of the  Aneesur Rahman Prize for Computational Physics and Director of the Center for Simulational Physics at the University of Georgia

    1941: Twenty-six year old American author and historian Milton Meltzer married Hilda "Hildy" Balinky

    1941(27th of Sivan, 5701): In the Soviet village of Virbalis, Einsatzgruppen machine-gunned all adult Jews and cover the corpses with lime. Local children are seized by the ankles, and their heads are smashed against walls and roads. Many of these children are buried alive.

    1941: In Brooklyn, George Lerner, “a fisherman and antiques dealer” and his wife Blanche gave birth to Academy Award nominated actor Michael Lerner.

    1942(7thof Tammuz, 5702): Sixty-six year old Hugo Piesen, the native of Prague and husband of Annie Piesen passed away today in Amityville, NY.

    1942: The Jewish Brigade was formed was formed as part of the British military. The Jewish Brigade fought in Italy and after the war helped many Jewish refugees escape to Palestine, despite the British Blockade. Veterans of the brigade would use their skills in the War For Independence.

    1943: “So Proudly We Hail!” produced and directed by Mark Sandrich with music by Edward Heyman was released in today in the United States.

    1943: In Poland, 5,000 Jews were deported from the Będzin Ghetto to a Nazi death camp.

    1944: The SS closes the concentration camp at Riga-Kaiserwald, Latvia.

    1944: Birthdate of Edna Arbel, the native of Jerusalem whose legal career included serving as State Attorney for 8 years before starting her service as a member of Israel’s Supreme Court.

    1944:  FDR signs the GI Bill of Rights.  Viewed as part of the war effort, this modestly named law was one of the most far-reaching pieces social legislation ever enacted.  It gave a whole group of Americans a chance at homeownership and college education that would not have otherwise occurred.  Among Jews, it sent people as disparate in temperament as Art Buchwald and Henry Kissinger on to the college campus.  Along with the automobile, the G.I. Bill of Rights created suburbia which destroyed many old Jewish neighborhoods and provided new challenges for Jews seeking to maintain their ethnic identity and religious customs in what would become a culture of rootlessness.   

    1944: One thousand Jews were transferred from the death camp of Birkenau to work in the factories of Dachau. They were "lucky" if you can call being at Dachau lucky. Ninety-eight percent of the Jews sent to Birkenau were gassed there. One thousand, five hundred pairs of twins were tortured by Dr. Joseph Mengele in during his "medical experiments".

    1944: Sir Nicholas George Winton the Englishman “who organized the rescue of 669 mostly Jewish children from German-occupied Czechoslovakia on the eve of the Second World War in an operation later known as the Czech Kindertransport” “was commissioned as an acting pilot officer on probation” today.

    1944: In Lyon Janine Sochaczewska and Alter Mojze Goldman, who were not married, gave birth to Pierre Goldman, “a French left-wing intellectual who was convicted of several robberies.”

    1944: “You Always Hurt the One You Love,” a “pop standard with music by Doris Fisher “first reached the Billboard magazine Best Seller chart today and lasted 20 weeks on the chart, peaking at #1

    1945: Birthdate of Alexander Pines, the native of Tel Aviv who became “Glenn T. Seaborg Professor of Chemistry at the University of California, Berkeley, Senior Scientist in the Materials Sciences Division of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and a member of the California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences (QB3) and the Department of Bioengineering.”

    1947: Birthdate of Maurice David Landau the native of the Golders Green neighborhood of London who was the diplomatic correspondent of The Jerusalem Post for 12 years, and its managing editor for four years following which he founded the English edition of Haaretz of which he was editor-in-chief and capped his career his career by serving as the paper’s editor-in –chief from 2004 to 2008.

    1947: Albert Einstein withdraws his support for theAlbert Einstein Foundation for Higher Learning, Inc.

    1948(15th of Sivan, 5708): Sixty-four year old Joseph Nunes Nabarro, the native of Islington, who was a partner in the firm of Narbarro Nathanson (Solictors) who “was an Elder of the Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue and a strong Zionist” passed away today.

    1948:Szapsel (Shabtai ) Rotholc, the boxer who had been expelled from the Jewish community for two years because he worked as a member of the Jewish Police in the Warsaw Ghetto, “was reinstated as a member of the Jewish Sports Federation.

    1950:A Government spokesman disclosed today that Israel had asked the United Nations to take all necessary steps to insure implementation of the armistice agreement between her and Jordan.

    1950(7th of Tammuz, 5710): Seventy-year old legal scholar Max Radin, the son of Rabbi Adolph Moses Radin, passed away today.

    1951:The Jerusalem Post reported that Israel spent IL50m. during 1950 on housing and work for more than 100,000 immigrants. The UN allocated a yearly sum of $100m. for a plan to resettle the Arab refugees. Mr. Blanford, the newly appointed head of UNRWA, hoped that he would thus be able to resettle some 30,000 Arab refugee families.

     1951: In a statement made to the Sephardic Community of Salisbury in Rhodesia Haham Solomon Gaon said, "The lack of spiritual leadership is unfortunately evident today even in the highest places. A Sephardic institution for the provision of teachers, ministers and rabbinic authorities is one of the most pressing needs of the present age…We, Sephardim, if properly organized, could give a lead to the Jewish world generally."

    1952: A small home-made bomb exploded at 1:30 A.M. today on the doorstep of the apartment of Minister of Communications David Z. Pinkas. The bombing was seen as part of protest against restrictions on driving which are to go into effect next week.  Israelis will not be allowed to drive their car for two days of each week.  One of the days that on which one cannot drive is Shabbat.  Opponents of the ban claim that the action has more to with attempts by Orthodox Jews to ban driving on the Sabbath than it does with gasoline conservation.  Pinkas is a leader of the Mizrachi Party and thought to be a leader of those supporting the Shabbat driving ban.

    1952: Journalist Ames Keinan and Shaltiel Ben Yair a reserve army officer who has no civilian occupation were arrested today for their alleged role in the bombing of the apartment building housing David Z. Pinkas.

    1952: In Israel, Scott George, the United States Vice Consul, said that because of upcoming changes in Israeli laws regarding citizenship, immigrants from the United States arriving in Israel after July 14 would lose their American citizenship unless they “opt out” of receiving Israeli citizenship.

    1957: In Los Angeles, Art Ginsburg opened Art’s Deli – “where every sandwich is a work of Art.”

    1957: After 717 performances the curtain came down “The Diary Anne Frank” which had opened at the Cort Theatre in October of 1955 before moving to the Ambassador Theatre.

    1960: Birthdate of Representative Adam Schiff, Congressman for California’s 29thDistrict.

    1960: The Mayor of New York announced at City Hall today that George Lincoln Rockwell, leader of the American Nazi Party, will not receive a permit to speak in New York “on July 4th or any other time” due to concerns for public safety and Rockwell’s personal safety.

    1962(20th of Sivan, 5722): Eighty-one year old Hugo Gutmann Hitler’s Jewish commanding officer who recommended him for the Iron Cross First Class and was known as Henry G. Grant in the United States passed away today in San Diego, CA.

    1962: Final broadcast of PM East/PM West, “a late night television talk show co-hosted by Mike Wallace.”

    1965(22nd of Sivan, 5725): Sixty-three year old movie producer David O Selznick, the son of silent film director Lewis J. Selznick, the son-in-law Louis B.Mayer  and the man most responsible for making the film classic “Gone With the Wind” passed away today

    1965: Dr. Milton D. Glick who would eventually serve as the 15th president of the University of Nevada Reno, married Peggy Porter today.

    1966: U.S. premiere of “Born Free” produced by Sam Jaffe and Paul Radin with an Oscar-winning title song co-authored by lyricist Don Black.

    1966: Release date for “Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf” the cinematic version of Edward Albee’s play directed by Mike Nichols, produced by Ernest Lehman, with a script by Ernest Lehman costarring Elizabeth Taylor and George Segal.

    1968:Jan Peerce made last appearance with the Metropolitan Opera company today at a parks concert in ''Faust.''

    1969: Author Jonathan Lewis Nasaw, the son of attorney Joshua J. Nasaw and the former Beatrice Kaplan married Soo Stone.

    1970: Birthdate of rock star Steven Page the lead singer for “Barenaked Ladies.”

    1972(10th of Tammuz, 5732): Eighty-two year old Austrian born British “writer, director and producer” Paul Czinner whose career began with “Inferno” in 1919 and was still going strong in 1966 with “Romeo and Juliet’ starring Rudolf Nureyev and Margot Fonteyn, passed away today.

    1973: “A Touch of Class” starring George Segal was released today in the United States.

    1973: Former U.S. New York Senator Kenneth B. Keating was appointed U.S. Ambassador to Israel.

    1974(2nd of Tammuz, 5734): Eighty-one year old “French composer and teacher” Darius Milhaud whose students included Jazz Great Dave Brubeck and Burt Bacharach passed away today.

    1976(24th of Sivan, 5736): Fifty-nine year old “Dr. Maurice S. Sage, president of the Jewish National Fund” passed away this evening “an hour after collapsing on the dais of Grand Ballroom of New York’s Hilton Hotel.”

    1976:The Jerusalem Post reported that the prices of foodstuffs (bread, milk, cooking oil, sugar etc.) would increase by about 30 percent due to another IL150m. subsidy cut.

    1976:The Jerusalem Post reported that the US State Department had announced that a public expression of thanks by President Gerald Ford to the Palestine Liberation Organization for its assistance in evacuating Americans from Beirut did not represent any change of policy towards this terrorist organization.

    1978: Neo-Nazis called off plans to march in the Jewish community of Skokie, Illinois.

    1979: “Escape from Alcatraz” a prison movie directed and produced by Don Siegel with music by Jerry Fielding was released in the United States today.

    1979: “The Main Event,” a comedy directed by Howard Zieff, produced by Howard Rosenman and starring Barbra Streisand was released in the United States today.

    1979: “Nightwing” the film version of the book by the same name directed by Arthur Hiller, produced by Martin Ranshoff and featuring David Warner and Stephen Macht was released in the United States today.

    1979: Weeks after having been released in the United Kingdom “The Muppet Movie” co-produced by Lew Grade with Frank Oz as the voices of Miss Piggy, Fozzie Bear, Animal, Sam Eagle,and Marvin Suggs was released in the United States.

    1980: The New York Times featured a review of Joshua Then and Now by Mordecai Richler.

    1982: In Tucson, AZ, Howard Kinsler, college basketball player and “warden at a state prison” and his Catholic wife gave birth to major league second baseman Ian Kinsler who was proud to be “ featured in the 2008 Hank Greenberg 75th Anniversary edition of Jewish Major Leaguers Baseball Cards, licensed by Major League Baseball, commemorating the Jewish major leaguers from 1871 through 2008.”

    1983: “The Survivors” an off-beat comedy co-starring Walter Matthau was released today in the United States.

    1984:”The Pope of Greenwich Village” a crime film directed by Stuart Rosenberg and co-produced by Howard Koch was released today in the United States.

    1986: Sir Moses I Finley, the American expatriate professor suffered a stroke today upon hearing that his wife had passed away.

    1989(19th of Sivan, 5749): In Jerusalem Professor Menachem Stern, a Hebrew University Scholar and member of the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities was stabbed to death by two teenage Arabs as he walked home.

    1990: “Robocop 2” directed by Irvin Kershner was released in the United States today.

    1992: Gil Stein was announced as the new president of the National Hockey League and formally took the position, succeeding John Ziegler

    1996: Pitcher Al Levine made his major league debut with the Chicago White Sox.

    1997: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including “Look, Listen, Read” by Claude Levi-Strauss, “Nazi Gold: The Full Story of the Fifty-Year Swiss-Nazi Conspiracy to Steal Billions From Europe's Jews and Holocaust Survivors” by Tom Bower

    2001(21st of Tammuz, 5761): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    2002: Funeral services for 92 year old Nachman Libeskind the survivor of Russian labor camps and the Holocaust are scheduled to be held today at the Plaza Jewish Community Chapel in New York.

    2001(21st of Tammuz, 5761):Sgt. Aviv Iszak, 19, of Kfar Saba, and Sgt. Ofir Kit, 19, of Jerusalem, were killed in a suicide bombing near Dugit in the Gaza Strip as a jeep with yellow Israeli license plates, supposedly stuck in the sand, blew up as they approached. Hamas took credit for the attack,

    2001:Daniel Charles Kurtzer left his post as U.S. Ambassador to Egypt. [Yes, an American Jew represented the U.S. in Cairo.] Born in 1949, he earned a Ph.D. from Columbia and served as dean of his alma mater Yeshiva University.  President Clinton had appointed him to the position in Egypt.  President Bush would appoint him as Ambassador to Israel in 2001; a post he would hold until 2005.

    2002(12th of Tammuz, 5762): Seventy-eight year old Fred Rochlin, architect, artist, photographer and collector of Western Jewish Americana passed away.

    2002(12th of Tammuz, 5762): Ann Landers passed away. Esther Pauline Friedman was born in Iowa on July 4, 1918. She began writing an advice column in the 1950’s. Her sister wrote an equally famous column under the name of Dear Abbey. (As reported by Margalit Fox)

    2002: Actress Embeth Davidtz married entertainment attorney Jason Sloane in a Jewish wedding in Los Angeles.

    2003(22nd of Sivan, 5763): Sixty-seven year old Joseph Chaikin, the Brooklyn born “actor and director” who was raised in Des Moines, Iowa and attended Drake University passed away today.

    2003:Jonathan Andrew Kaye won the Buick Classic, a major PGA tournament.

    2005: Opening session of Security Israel - The 19thannual International Homeland Security Exhibition .

    2006: The Red Cross humanitarian movement overcame Muslim objections and cleared away the last obstacle to full Israeli membership setting up formal admission after nearly six decades of exclusion, Israel's ambassador to international organizations in Geneva said. The International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent approved a resolution that enables Israel's Magen David Adom society to join while retaining its Red Star of David instead of having to adopt the Red Cross or Crescent used by other societies, Ambassador Itzhak Levanon said.

    2006: In “Brooklyn’s Oldest Synagogue Celebrates Its 150thAnniversary, Evan Barton traces the history of the Kane Street Synagogue.

    2007: In Jerusalem, the Center Stage Theater presents a matinee performance of Shakespeare’s "Much Ado About Nothing," followed by special party after the show.

    2008: A new government strategy to redefine ties with the Diaspora designed to be less patronizing and more humble which was developed jointly by Cabinet Secretary Ovad Yehezkel and Alan Hoffman, director-general of the Jewish Agency’s Education Department is unveiled.

    2008: In New York City, The Yeshiva University Museum presents the 2nd annual Family Puppet Festival.

    2008: In New York City, Logan Joseph Kleinwaksv presents “Searching Online Historical Directories - and - A New Tool for Shoah Research” at the Center for Jewish Studies.

    2008: In an election to select France’s next Chief Rabbi three hundred rabbis and communal leaders choose  between the incumbent, Joseph Sitruk, a 63-year-old Sephardic rabbi known for his common touch, and the challenger, Gilles Bernheim, a 56-year-old Ashkenazic philosopher who is the rabbi of Paris’s largest synagogue.

    2008: The general assembly of the Central Consistory elected Giles Bernheim Chief Rabbi of France.

    2008: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including “The Political Mind: Why You Can’t Understand 21st-Century Politics With an 18th-Century Brain” by Jewish linguist George Lakoff.

    2008: The Washington Postfeatured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Darin Smith’s “More Than It Hurts You” “a polarizing novel in which a black doctor accuses a Jewish mother of child abuse” and “My Five Years in Iraq”byRichard Engel, the Middle East correspondent who when he was interviewing the President was asked by Mr. Bush if he was Jewish; a question which he answered in the affirmative.

    2008: The New York Timesreported on the downbeat emotional and political attitudes of Israelis as the “truce” with Hamas begins in an article entitled “Israel in the Season of Dread.”

    2009: Rosh Chodesh Tammuz, 5769 (first day of a two day Rosh Chodesh)

    2009: In “Dead Sea Peril” published today Joseph Marks described the growing impact and causes of sinkholes on this unique Middle Eastern body of water.

    2009: In the United Kingdom, John Simon Bercow was elected Speaker of the House of Commons making him the first Jew to hold that position.

    2010: The Jewish Community Research Council is scheduled to hold its final session of the season by hosting a luncheon meeting with Virginia House Speaker William Howell and Virginia State Senate Chairman of Education & Health Committee Ed Houck.

    2010: Judge Martin “Feldman issued a preliminary injunction blocking a six-month moratorium on deep-water offshore drilling in Hornbeck Offshore Services LLC v. Salazar.”

    2011: The Art Show that began on June 13 is scheduled to come a close at the Skirball Center for Adult Jewish Learning.

    2011: The Sixth Street Community Synagogue and John Zorn's Tzadik Records are scheduled to present “Masada Guitars Revisited + Edom,” one of six concerts by some of the best and brightest musicians on New York's Downtown Jewish Music scene.

    2011: Today Israel’s Ambassador to the US Michael Oren defended the blockade of Gaza as a “matter of life and death” and said that it fully comports with international law, as a flotilla prepares to attempt to reach Gaza..

    2011: The number of millionaires in Israel rose in 2010 by more than 20.6 percent to 10,153, according to the latest annual Merrill Lynch-Capgemini World Wealth Report released today. The report found that the gross amount of capital of Israeli millionaires in 2010 came to $ 52 billion, relative to $ 43 billion from the previous year. The climb was in line with the global trend, which rose by 8.3 percent, hitting an all-time high of 10.9 million people in the world who are considered to be millionaires by the report's standards. A millionaire according to Merrill Lynch-Capgemini is one who owns at least one million dollars in liquid funds, excluding their primary residence. The firm considers a multi-millionaire one who owns capital of at least $ 30 million.

    2011: Israel Defense Forces made history when a woman was officially promoted to the rank of Major General for the first time. Major General Orna Barbivay, 49, replaced Major General Avi Zamir as commander of the IDF's Manpower Branch in an official ceremony today, which was attended by Defense Minister Ehud Barak, IDF chief Benny Gantz, and other senior army officials. During the ceremony, Barbivay said that her appointment is a "clear statement of equal opportunity" in the army. Gantz praised Barbivay, saying she "receives this position thanks to her successful work and professional qualifications and the way she carried out her different positions over the years." He pointed out that Barbivay was not given her ranking "out of charity." Barak called Barbivay's appointment "a very exciting moment for all of Israeli society.""The appointment first of all came from her record as an officer in the IDF," Barak said. He added that he was "certain" of her ability to lead the Manpower Branch. Barbivay, who is married with three children, enlisted in the army in 1981, joining the Adjutant Corps. She served in a variety of posts in the Corps, eventually commanding it, and also served as chief manpower officer in the Ground Corps Command. The rank of major general is the second-highest in the IDF, and is the highest a soldier can reach unless appointed chief-of-staff, who is always the only serving officer with the rank of lieutenant-general.

    2011: Judy Shalom Nir-Mozes, an Israeli socialite, investor and talk show host twitted about a rumor regarding the departure of journalist Yair Lapid to the world of politics

    2011(20thof Sivan, 5771): Eighty-seven year old screenwriter David Rayfiel whose work included “Three Days of the Condor,” “Out of Africa” and “The Way We Were” passed away.  (As reported by William Grimes)

    2012: Congregation Adat Reyim is scheduled to celebrate “Shabbat Under the Stars” in Springfield, VA.

    2012: As part of the attempts to undo some of the damage done through his relationship with Bernard Maddorff “J. Ezra Merkin agreed to pay back $405 million to investors in his hedge funds”

    2012: Cantor Larry Paul and musician Robyn Helzner are scheduled to a lead a Carlebach-inspired service at the Historic 6th& I Syngagogue.

    2012: The Go North & Northern Communities of Nefesh B’Nefesh are scheduled to offer a guided tour at Tzippori Park so Olim can see “amazing mosaics, a crusader fortress, an ancient reconstructed synagogue and the first century underground water system.

    2012: Two Kassam rockets fired from the Gaza Strip landed in open areas in the Eshkol Regional Council in southern Israel today. (As reported by Yoel Goodman)

    2012: Israeli Air Force strikes carried out today against terrorists operating in the Gaza Strip killed two and injured at least four others.

    2012: In “The Germans Are Prisoners of Their Past” published today Argentine-Israeli conductor Daniel Barenboim “explains why the Israeli antipathy toward Wagner is grotesque and argues that Israel shouldn't depend too.”

    2012: The findings of the 2011 census, released today by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, revealed the Jewish population to be 97,335. This means that Australia’s official Jewish population has risen by about 10 percent in the last five years (As reported by JTA)

    2012: Daphni Leef, one of the leaders of last summer’s mass social protest movement, was arrested, along with seven other activists, in Tel Aviv today after attempting to pitch tents on Rothschild Boulevard.

    2013: The Edin-Tamar Music is scheduled to host “Romantic Violin” program II featuring violinist Saida Bar Lev and pianist Yonatan Zak.

    2013(14th of Tammuz, 5773): Sixty-eight year old writer producer Gary David Goldberg, creator of “Family Ties” passed away today. (As reported by Bruce Weber)

    2013: Barbara Streisand is scheduled to perform at Bloomfield Stadium as part of the Israeli Presidential Conference.

    2013: Traffic Police over the weekend caught about 140 drunk drivers, the majority of which were subject to suspended licenses, Israel Radio today. (As reported by Jerusalem Post staff)

    2013: Today, Internal Security Minister Yitzhak Aharonovich (Yisrael Beytenu) called this week’s “price tag” incident in Abu Ghosh a terror attack, and vowed the police would continue to combat racially motivated violence


    2014: Masses are scheduled to take place at churches in Newark, NJ, Mineola, NY and Yonkers, NY honoring the memory of Aristides de Sousa Mendes, the Portuguese diplomat who defied his government and issued thousands of life saving visas to Jews trying to escape Hitler’s Europe.

    2014: The Center for Jewish History is scheduled to host a presentation by genealogist Miriam Weinter and Avrum who will ”reveal important—but relatively unknown—resources for family-history research.”

    2014: The New York Times reviewed books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers inducing The Train to Warsaw by Gwen Edelman, Suddenly, Love by Aharon Appelfeld and Hotel Florida: Truth, Love, and Death in the Spanish Civil War by Amanda Vaill.

    2014: The funeral for ‘the former director of the Shin Bet internal security organization Avraham Shalom” is scheduled to be held today.

    2014(24th of Sivan, 5774): Fifteen year old Mohammed Karkara, from the town of Arraba in the lower Galilee, who had accompanied his father to work on what was the first day of the summer vacation was killed in the Golan Heights this morning when an anti-tank missle was fired from Syria at an a vehicle delivering water to Israeli contractors working on a fence

    2014: “A Palestinian man armed with a hand grenade broke through the Gaza fence and tried to infiltrate an Israeli community before he was stopped early this morning, the military said.”

    2014: “May the force be with Jew” published today described the decision to have Israeli Ram Bergman produce “the next two Star War films, Star Wars Episodes VIII and IX.” (Debra Kamin)

    2014: Today Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu criticized the “disgraceful decision by the US Presbyterian Church to divest from three companies that provide supplies to Israeli forces and settlers in the West Bank.”

    2015: Professor Ellen Eisenberg, “the author of two forthcoming books on Jewish Oregonians,” is scheduled to be the guest speaker at the Annual Meeting of the Oregon Jewish Museum Center for Holocaust Education in Portland.

    2015(5th of Tammuz, 5775): Sixty-one year old Oscar winning composer James Horner passed away today. (As reported by Sam Roberts)

    2015: After a vote taken yesterday, the Berlin Philharmonic Symphony announced the appointment of  Kirill Petrenko, 43, a Russian-born Jew, to replace Sir Simon Rattle

    2015: French-Moroccan baritone David Serero is scheduled to appear as Shylock in his “Sephardi adaptation of” Shakespeare’s “The Merchant of Venice” which will feature Sephardi music.

    2015: Ruth Behar is scheduled to deliver a lecture on “Reflecting On Adio Kerida,” the awarding winning film that chronicles “the lives of Jews in Cuba and Jewish Cubans in Miami and New York.”

    2016: In Oregon, “P.S. Jerusalem” is scheduled to be shown today at the 24th annual Portland Jewish Film Festival.

    2017(28th of Sivan, 5777): Seventy-eight year old St. Louis born “feminist” Sheila Babs Michaels, the daughter of “Alma Weil Michaels (née Weil), a playwright and theatrical producer and Ephraim London, a civil rights attorney” passed away today.

    2017: The Jewish Federation of Greater did not hold its annual meeting today where it planned to present the Tikkun Olam Award to Seattle Police Chief Kathleen O’Toole on behalf of her department for incorporating Holocaust education into police training and collaborating with Jewish groups on a real-time communications tool developed after a shooting at the Federation’s headquarters in 2006 in the wake of “the death of Charleena Lyles, a 30-year old black woman, at the hands of police.”

    2017: “Some of Israel’s top chefs were on hand at today’s Tel Aviv launch of Joan Nathan’s latest cookbook, King Solomon’s Table: A Culinary Exploration of Jewish Cooking from Around the World.” (As reported by Jessica Steinberg)

    2017: In Coralville, IA, Agudas Achim is scheduled to hold its Congregational Meeting.

    2017: The Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington is scheduled to host a “Twilight Tour” of downtown Washington that will included visits to “four historic synagogues.”

    2017:  “Letters from Baghdad,” a documentary about the role of Gertrude Bell in the history of Iraq is scheduled to be shown for the last time in Montclair, NJ.

    2017: In Brooklyn the Batsheva Learning Center is scheduled to host an evening of “Sushi and Study.”

    2018: The Temple Emanu-El Streicker Center is scheduled to host a screening of a clip from “Spiral” followed by director and veteran journalist Laura Fairrie talking about” the rise of anti-Semitism in France and the quandary facing French Jews: “Pack up for Israel or remain to battle the rising hostility.”

    2018: “On the Edge,” an “exhibition on loan from the Universcience Museum in Paris Is scheduled to open at the Bloomfield Science Museum in Jerusalem.
    2018: Sitting in his home at Jaffa, erev Shabbat, Moshe Sakal, a product of the writing program at the University of Iowa describes his journey of self-discovery and discusses his first novel, The Diamond Setter.












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    JUNE 23

    79: Vespasian, the Roman general who was in the process of conquering Judea when he became Emperor, died.

    79: Titus, the Roman general whom the Jews will always remember for the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple succeeded his father Vespasian as tenth Roman Emperor.

    1295: The newly chosen head of the Roman Catholic Church, Pope Boniface VIII, entered Rome and spurned the Torah scrolls offered to him by the Jewish community.

    1298: Massacre of the Jews of Wiener-Neustadt, Austria.

    1550: “Queen Bona” awarded “the lease of the customs and inns of Pinsk, Kletzk and Gorodetzk for a term of years” Goshka Moshkevich and Nahum and Israel Yesofovich, the sons of Pesakh Yesofovich.

    1608: Samuel Pallache “a Jewish-Moroccan merchant, diplomat and pirate met stadholder Maurice of Nassau and the States-General in The Hague to negotiate an alliance of mutual assistance against Spain.

    1696: Jews of Posen, Poland were saved from a mob set to avenge the murder of a soldier when a peasant woman who was seized carrying the victim's clothing, confessed to her son's murder.

    1700: Solomon de Medina was dubbed a knight by William III.  He was the first Jew to receive this honor. Medina was military contractor who would provide invaluable aid to the Duke of Marlborough during the War of Spanish Succession.

    1762: Today Mary Wilkinson married Joseph Priestly who in 1786, “published his Letter to the Jews urging them to convert” which brought a strong response from David Levi that “led to his three-volume Dissertation on the Prophecies of the Old Testament.

    1779: Birthdate of Markus Bär Friedenthal who was a leading banker in Breslau where he was also active in Jewish communal affairs.

    1785(15th of Tammuz, 5545): Ninety year old Arieh Loeb who had served as a rabbi in Frankfort before becoming the Grand Rabbi of Metz passed away today.

    1786: Today, just ten years after its founding with the signing of the Declaration of Independence, the United States enters into the world of Islam and the Middle East when it signed a treaty with the “Barbary Coast State of Morocco” that “formally ended all Moroccan piracy against American shipping interests.”  (Editor’s note – for the initiated, this would be the first of many agreements made in this part of the world by the United States that would not be honored and it shows that American interest in this part of the world existed long before the Zionist movement. For more see Power, Faith and Fantasy by Michael B. Oren)

    1794: With the second partition of Poland additional territory was added to the Pale (the district in which the Jews were forced to live) that included parts of the Ukraine and the city of Kiev. Jews were granted permission by Empress Catherine II to settle in Kiev.

    1807: Birthdate of Ferdinand Hitzig, one of a number of non-Jewish biblical critics who examined the Old Testament in light of the discoveries of archaeology and linguists who wrote commentaries on several books of the Bible starting with Isaiah in the 1830’s and ending with Proverbs in 1858.

    1810 John Jacob Astor organized Pacific Fur Company at what is now Astoria, Oregon. There seems to be some dispute as to whether or not Astor was Jewish or "of Jewish origins."

    1810: According to a report published today, “France had 250 Jewish manufacturers and 2, 360 Jews were in schools or were employed in ‘useful professions.’”

    1815: Merlo ben Aaron Falk was buried today at the Alderney Road Jewish Road Cemetery.

    1823: Mordecai Manuel Noah, an early American Jewish leader who dabbled in politics and journalism, wrote a twenty page letter to President James Monroe seeking his support for William Crawford’s candidacy for President of the United States.  Crawford lost his bid which marked a decline in Noah’s self-appointed role a political king-maker.

    1839: Birthdate of Philadelphian Simon Sterne who gained fame as an attorney and economist.

    1839: Sixty-three year old Lady Hester Lucy Stanhope whose “archaeological expedition to Ashkelon in 1815 is considered the first modern excavation in the history of Holy Land archeology” passed away today. For more about her and her work see Memoirs of the Lady Hester Stanhope as related by herself in Conversations with her Physician by Dr. Charles Meryon.

    1840: “A large Jewish public assembly met at the Great Synagogue of London to map out plans for the journey of Moses Montefiore to Egypt to intercede with Governor Mehmet Ali to release eight Damascene Jews who had been tortured and charged with a blood ritual, following the disappearance of Father Tomaso, head of the Capuchin cloister.” (As reported by Abraham Bloch)

    1841: In Charleston, SC, Mr. M. Nathan married Ann Cohen the third daughter of Aaron N. Cohen.

    1842: In Albany, NY, Sampson Rosendale and Fannie Sachs gave birth to Simon W. Rosendale, husband of Helen Cohen who became the first Jew elected to a statewide office in New York when he was elected State Attorney General. While he was active in many American Jewish organizations including the Jewish Publication Society, the American Jewish Historical Society and B’nai B’rith he was among those who signed an anti-Zionist memorandum given to President Wilson before the Versailles Peace Conference.

    1846: Birthdate of French Egyptologist and student of the ancient middle east, Gaston Maspero.  His works included a report of what may have been the first “discovery of an Egyptian record in which the Hebrews are mentioned.”

    1848: In Paris, tens of thousands of French workers took to the streets in what came to be known as “June Days of Uprisings” which would lead to the end of the Second Republic during which Jews had gained full rights including the declaration that the “Oath More Judaico” was unconstitutional in 1846>

    1858: An incident, known as the Mortara Affair, began in Bologna: Edgardo Mortara, a seven year old Jewish boy, was kidnapped by the Roman Catholic Church on the pretext that a servant girl claimed that she had baptized him. The pope, Pious IX, refused to surrender him despite many protests. The combination of the Damascus affair and this affair led to unification among many Jews and later to the establishment of the Alliance Israelite.

    1860: In Baltimore, the reconvened session of the Democratic National Convention which nominated Stephen A. Douglas for President and which Henry Myer Phillips attended as a delegation came to an end today.  (Editor’s note – the real significance of the convention was that it was part of the secessionists planned road to bring an end to the United States so that they could protect their slavocracy)

    1863: John Salmon a London born grocer and husband Catherine Polack with whom he had 8 children was burred today at the Brompton Jewish Cemetery.

    1865: In Toledo, Ohio, Henry Calisch and Rebecca Van Norden gave birth to Edward N. Calisch the graduate of the University of Cincinnati, Hebrew Union College and University of Virginia (M.A.), the rabbi at Congregation Beth Ahaba in Richmond since 1891 and the author of “A Book of Prayer” and “A Child’s Bible.”

    1865: As the Union Army was disbanded after the Civil War, Samuel B. Salsburg who had risen to the rank of Sergeant in Company C of the 138th Regiment and who had been wounded at the Battle of Monocacy in Maryland 11 months ago completed his military service today.

    1866(10thof Tammuz, 5626): Parashat Chukat

    1866(10thof Tammuz, 5626): Fifty-three year old physician and economist Sarphati Samuel, passed away in Amsterdam, the city of his birth.

    1868(3rd of Tammuz, 5628): Rabbi Morris Jacob Raphall passed away. Born at Stockholm, Sweden, in 1798, “at the age of nine he was taken by his father, who was banker to the King of Sweden, to Copenhagen, where he was educated at the Hebrew grammar-school. Later he went to England, where he devoted himself to the study of languages, for the better acquisition of which he subsequently traveled in France, Germany, and Belgium. After lecturing on Hebrew poetry he began to publish the "Hebrew Review, and Magazine of Rabbinical Literature," which he was forced to discontinue in 1836 owing to ill health. For some time he acted as honorary secretary to Solomon Herschell, chief rabbi of Great Britain. He made translations from Maimonides, Albo, and Herz Wessely; conjointly with the Rev. D. A. de Sola he published a translation of eighteen treatises of the Mishnah; and he also began a translation of the Pentateuch, of which only one volume appeared. In 1840, when the blood accusation was made at Damascus, he published a refutation of it in four languages (Hebrew, English, French, and German) and wrote a defense of Judaism against an anonymous writer in the London "Times." In 1841 he was appointed minister of the Birmingham Synagogue and master of the school. He continued in these capacities for eight years, and then sailed for New York (1849). In that city he was appointed rabbi and preacher of the B'nei Jeshurun congregation, where he continued as pastor till 1866, his duties then being relaxed owing to his infirm health. Raphall was the author of a text-book of the post-Biblical history of the Jews (to the year 70 C.E.). He received the Ph.D. degree from the University of Erlangen (Germany).”

    1872(17thof Sivan, 5632): Seventy-year old Aaron Ben Asher of Karlin “also known as Rabbi Aaron II of Karlin” the famous Chasidic Rebbe whose daughter “Miriam, married Rabbi Avrohom Yaakov Friedeman the first Rebbe of the Sadigura Chasidic Dynasty” and the author of the his seminal work Bet Aharon (Aaron’s House) passed away today.

    1873: The children under the care of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum and Free School are scheduled to enjoy their first excursion of the summer today. Lewis S. Levy is the chairman of the committee that has organized the event.

    1876: It was reported today that an unnamed Moor stabbed eleven Jews with a dagger at Alcassar in the province of Fez, Morocco. Among the victims was Moses Abecasis. The Moor, who has been arrested, insists that “he was not aware of what he was doing when he committed the crimes.”  The British and Italian Vice Consuls have insisted that the provincial governor and the leading citizens of Alcasar “have a signed a document guaranteeing the lives and property of foreign Jews” living there.

    1877: At Ahaveth Chesed on the corner of Lexington and 55th in New York City, Rabbi Adolph Huesbech delivered a sermon based on Deuteronomy X:12, “And now, Israel, what doth the Lord thy God require of thee but to fear thy God, to walk in all His ways, and to love Him and serve the Lord thy God with all thy heart and with all thy soul.”  In the course of the sermon he spoke about the recent events surrounding the banning of Jews by Judge Hilton which he referred to as the “grievous occurrences of the past few days.”  While he abhors boasting, he believes that “the Jewish name must always be held in honor.” He decried the fact that the Jews “had been placed in a false position”  by this member of the nouveau riche who had used his newly “attained social eminence” to arouse enmity aimed at the Jews.  In the end, the Rabbi said he would fail.  “The Hiltons will die away but the principle of liberty as embodied in the American Constitution will live forever.

    1877: Rabbi Samuel Isaacs, the leader of New York’s Gates of Prayer, described the negative impact that Judge Hilton’s behavior would have on English Jewish leaders including the Rothschilds and Sir Moses Montefiore who is “personal and esteemed friend of Queen Victoria.”  They have always viewed the United States as a place where Jews were treated with the utmost “consideration and courtesy”; a situation similar to the treatment of Jews in the United Kingdom.  If the Queen can count Montifore among her friends, certainly Judge Hilton could treat a person like Mr. Seligman with “common civility.”  When asked Judge Hilton’s attempt to draw a distinction between “trade Jews and real “Hebrews, Rabbi Isaacs responded by recalling the “the words of the late Baron James Rothschild of Paris. ‘When we are poor and ignorant we Jews; when we are well to do we become Israelites; when we are rich and influential we are called Hebrews.’” Judge Hilton is trying to create a distinction that does not exist as a face-saving maneuver.

     1877: “The Jewish Question” published today reported that both sides in the dispute touched off by Judge Hilton’s banning of Jews from the Grand Union Hotel seemed to hold firm to their previously stated positions.  Various Jewish leaders, including Mr. Seligman’s attorney have advised against any further public discussions or meetings on the matter.  They are reassured by the public response and the decision by some not to do business with the firm controlled by Hilton.  Hilton will not change his policy and still claims that he does not dislike Jews.  After all, the messenger to whom he entrusts thousands of dollars each day is Jewish.

    1878: “The Jews and Titus,” an article published today, that originally appeared in the English publication, Fraser’s Magazine reviews events surrounding the decision of Titus to destroy Jerusalem and the Temple. The article points out that the Jews had a favorable impact on the western world in the era between Antiochus and Nero. Among other things the Jews are industrious and hardworking just like the people living “in the American Union are at Salt Lake.”  Even their leaders worked at “mechanical labor or rustic art.”  Even the Roman historian Tacitus acknowledged the virtues of the Jews.  When Titus conferred with his officers about sparing the Temple, they urged him to destroy it and the rest of the city as well.  Jerusalem had been the source of “two detestable religions, the Jewish and the Christian, which best be destroyed by uprooting their original home…”  Despite Roman cruelty and oppression which followed by “Christian animosity”  “the Jews and their religion” have survived without any deterioration over the centuries.  Unfortunately, the article concludes, the Jews “still have to plead for toleration and from justice Slavonic Europe.”

    1879: The Literary Notes Column reported that “Mr. Nutt, the Librarian of the Bodleian Library at Oxford University has edited” a manuscript in the library’s possession that is “a commentary on Isaiah” written “by Rabbi Eleazar of Beaugency.”  Nutt has included a preface that provides “a valuable account of Bibilical exegesis among the Spanish and French Jews of the Middle Ages. [Eleazar was a 12th century French Biblical commentary who lived at Beaugency. He was a “pupil of Samuel ben Meïr, the eminent grandson of Rashi.”]

    1880: The Young Men’s Hebrew Association of Harlem is sponsoring a strawberry festival this evening which is designed to raise funds for a gymnasium to be used by the members.

    1880: Joseph Lipkie married Rachel Davies in the United Kingdom

    1881: Seventy-seven year old German botanist Matthias Jakob Schleiden, a co-founder of the “cell theory” whose writings on Judaism “contrast with the academic anti-Semitism of his time” but “also break with the anti-Judaism of Kant and Fries.” “Schleiden's apology for Judaism is shown to be deeply rooted in his ideas about scientific progress, especially his methodology of microscopic botany.” (As presented by Ulrich Charpa)

    1882: Rabbi Levy arrived at the New York office of the Hebrew Emigrant Aid Society from South Carolina. He told those in charge that the European Jewish refugees “were unfit” for the work “on Southern Plantations.”  He brought 11 of the 30 refugees who had been placed in his care with him to New York.  He thinks that they could be successful working on small vegetable farms. [This was part of the move to create agrarian opportunities for the horde of Jewish refugees fleeing Eastern Europe.]

    1882: “Is He Sane Or Insane” published today described the travails of Samuel Obright who has been committed to Middletown Lunatic Asylum.  His wife, whom he married only a few days ago, contends that his family and friends had him committed because Obright who is Jewish chose to marry a Christian. The judge has ordered him held in the custody of the Sheriff until the matter can be decided.

    1882: It was reported today that Dr. Julius Goldman had delivered a report to the Hebrew Emigrant Aid Society entitled “Colonizing the Russian Refugees” and not Dr. Julius Goodman as stated in an earlier article.

    1883: In Chicago, Illinois, “Samuel and Lena (Alexander) Taussig gave birth to University of Chicago graduate Frances Taussig, the social worker who was the “executive director of the Jewish Family Service in New York City.”

    1883:  As anti-Jewish riots resumed today in St. Gall, Switzerland, dismounted dragoons were called out to disperse the mob.

    1883: It was reported today that those wishing to make contributions to support the upcoming summer excursions sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children can be sent to John Davis.

    1883: “Blood in Passover” published today described a trial at Nyreghhaza, Hungary, where “a number of Jews are accused of having murdered a Christian girl at Tisza-Ezlar for the sake of using her blood to mix with their Passover bread.” The article conclude with “a Catholic priest admitted that he was the author of an anonymous attack on the Jews accusing them of the murder of the girl.”

    1884(30thof Sivan, 5644): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1884: In Southern Russia, fighting broke out between Jews and Armenians at Titlis.

    1884: Birthdate of the pro-Nazi German actor Werner Krauss who “simultaneously played the roles of several stereotypical Jewish characters – among them Rabbi Loew and Sekretar Levy – in Veit Harlan's anti-Semitic propaganda film Jud Süß (1940), implementing Harlan's concept of a common Jewish root and Shylock in Lothar Müthel's extreme production of The Merchant of Venice staged at the Burgtheater in 1943 which made him a person favorite of Hitler.

    1885: Mr. Julius Bien of New York, President of the B’nai B’rith opened a meeting of the Jewish organization in Berlin. He was assisted in his efforts by Isaac Hamburger of New York and Henry Gruenbaum of Chicago.

    1886: It was reported today that Harris Cohen had been awarded the Lewis May Award at a reception sponsored by the Hebrew Technical Institute. Samuel Sass won the Carl Schurz Prize for the best essay on technical education.

    1887: Birthdate of Hugo Hermann the Moravian born author, publisher and Zionist leader who died in Jerusalem in 1940.

    1887(1stof Tammuz, 5647): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1887(1stof Tammuz, 5647): Joseph Freedman, a Russian-Jew who was a tin peddler died this evening at P.J. Kelly’s furniture store in New Haven, Conn.

    1888: The Eldridge Street Synagogue was filled with congregants for today’s memorial service held in honor of the late German Emperor. Rabbi Zinsler of the Henry Street Synagogue delivered a eulogy in German followed by Coroner Ferdinand Levy who delivered a eulogy in English.  [This was just one of many such services held by the Jews to honor the late Kaiser.]

    1888: Emile Hirsch, who serves as the Rabbi at Temple Sinai in Chicago returned to the Windy City after a brief visit to New Orleans.

    1888: This evening Rabbi Emile Hirsch addressed his congregation in Chicago outlined his view on inter-marriage, declaring that “Judaism was more than a religion or a creed…Judaism is a mission and a message of loved and righteousness.”

    1889: “In the Catskill Mountains” published today described the opening of the various hostelries in this New York vacation venue including the fact that “the anti-Hebrew crusade is practically a matter of the past.”  Generally speaking this movement was confined to the cottages at Pine Hill where Gentiles and Jews are equally welcome provided they can afford to pay the fee for entertainment which can be as much as one hundred dollars a week. [For those who connect the Catskills with the Borscht Belt, the idea of Jews being banned must seem a little strange.]

    1890: The reviewer of The Origin of the Aryans by Isaac Taylor longs “for the old days when it was comfortably agreed that Hebrew was the ‘oldest language’ and all the rest made their appearance on a certain occasion when the descendants of Noah were rebuked for their impiety and pride by the destruction of the Tower of Babel.”

    1890:  In New York, the Coroner is investigating the death of 35 year old Hyman Harrowitz, a Russian Jew who died from ammonia poisoning.  At first, it was thought he died at his own hand, but based on statements by his brother and friends, he may have been given the wrong medicine by the local druggist which led to his death.

    1890: Famed English archeologist Flinders Pitre has complained that the authors of Art in Sardinia, Syria, Judaea and Asia , Georges Perrot and Charles Chipiez “have omitted several Jewish antiquities in their profusely-illustrated volumes. The omissions are important because of the great scarity of objects of art or architecture which can be assigned to the Jews.”

    1892: In Manhattan, Zelda and Morris (or Milton or Moshe) Kiviat gave birth to middle distance runner and Olympic Medalist Abel Richard Kivat.

    1892: During the Dreyfus Affair, the Marquis de Mores mortally wounded Captain Armand Mayer in a duel that the anti-Semitic noble had forced on the Jewish officer. Mayer would die a couple of days later from his wounds.

    1892: The military band of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum played the opening march at the annual reception and commencement exercises of Grammar School Number 43 on Amsterdam Avenue in NYC.

    1893: “Swears Back What He Swore” published today provides a snapshot of the controversy surrounding the efforts of those aggressively trying to convert Jews living on the Lower East Side which are being resisted  by the United Hebrew Charities which feels these people are the victims of coercion and deception.

    1894:  The Jesse Seligman Literary Circle, a new Hebrew social and literary society has been organized in Orange, NJ

    1895: “An East Side Charity” published today traced the history of the Hebrew Sheltering House where “the homeless and hungry are cared for without inquiring in their religious faith…”  The charity located on New York’s lower east side is a creation of the Russian Jews who provide all of the funds for its operation with the exception of $7000 given by Jacob Schiff.

    1896: Herzl is received as a journalist of the Neue Freie Presse. Herzl offers that the Jews would undertake the regulation of the Turkish finances if they were given Palestine. Herzl cannot obtain an audience with the Sultan.

    1897: Isabella Levy, the native of Middlesex and fifth daughter of Henry Levy was buried today at the Balls Pond Road Jewish Cemetery.

    1897: The will of the late Moritz Cohn was filed for probate in the Surrogate’s office today.

    1898: The funeral for Getta Schole, is scheduled to be held at the Crematory, Fresh Pond, Long Island.  Mrs. Scholle is the widow of Jacob Scholle and was the Vice President of the Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews and a Directress of The Ladies’ Auxiliary Society for the Montefiore Home for Chronic Invalids.

    1898: President James H. Hoffman delivered the opening address at the commencement exercises of the Hebrew Technical Institute which were held at Cooper Union.

    1899: Joseph I. Leiner was the salutatorian and valedictorian of this year’s graduating class of the Hebrew Technical Institute for which he earned the Fred M. Stein Prize, the Carl Schurz Prize and a special prize for his accomplishments.

    1899: New De Hirsch Fund” published today reported that“a part of the income…of the Baron de Hirsch Fund allotted to America” will be used to improve conditions in Brownsville, a section of Brooklyn with a large Jewish population.  The project is being spearheaded by Abraham Abraham, a Brooklyn merchant and A.S. Solomon, the general agent of the Baron de Hirsch Fund in New York.

    1901(6thof Tammuz, 5661): Eighty-seven year old British composer and pianist Charles Salaman passed away.  In addition to his purely secular successes, Salaman created a musical version of Psalm 93 which is “sung on most Friday nights in the Sabbath eve service of the London Spanish & Portuguese Jewish community”

    1906: Birthdate of Sadie Marks, the native of Seattle, Washington, who gained fame as Mary Livingston “the wife and radio partner of Jack Benny.”  (Nobody would have thought that this All-American looking couple were really the children of Jewish immigrants.)

    1907: In Chicago members of Emanuel Congregation a reform temple founded in 1880, dedicated the cornerstone for their new facility on Buckingham Street near Halsted.

    1909: Helen Rosenfield of Portland, Oregon married Rabbi Jonah Bondi Wise. At the time he was the spiritual leader of Temple Beth Israel She passed away in 1950.   He passed away in 1959

    1909: Birthdate of political philosopher Valentin Feldman, the native of St. Petersburg who took refuge in France after the Russian Civil War only to perish at the hands of the Nazis during the Occupation.

    1909: It was reported today that the Alfred Seligman is one of the three members of the Louisville, Ky, Sewer Commission which is finally moving forward on the construction of a sewer system that had first been talked about 18 years ago.

    1909: Birthdate of Leo Hurwitz, the native of the Williamsburg section of Brooklyn, brother of dancer Sophia Delza and psychoanalyst Marie Briehl  and Emmy and Peabody award winning documentary filmmaker who was blacklisted during the McCarthy period.

    1911: Birthdate of New York native Hannah Weinstein the television producer and political activist who worked in the campaigns of Fiorello La Guardia, Franklin Roosevelt and Henry Wallace and ,

    1914(23rdof Sivan, 5674): Forty-six year old Isidor Wormser, the son of the late Simon Wormser and the Uncle of the late Isidor Wormser passed away at his home in France today. He had retired from the banking business several years ago and moved abroad because of his ill health.

    1914(23rdof Sivan, 5674): Isaac L. Mintz who moved from Russia to Charleston, SC before settling in New York in 1899 where he “engaged in the manufacture of clothing” passed away today.

    1915: “Jewish Communal Workers Unite” published today described the organization of an upcoming “training school for Jewish communal workers” which “will enable those engaged in Jewish charitable labors to exchange in views.”

    1915: “Rumors of a possible attack on the Georgia Prison Farm” at Milledgeville, GA, “where Leo M. Frank is confined, caused the management of the farm to increase the number of guards on both day and night duty.”

    1915: “A committee of Atlanta Jews today made an appeal to Solicitor General Hugh Dorsey, who prosecuted Leo M. Frank, in behalf of their co-religionists at Marietta, where it was asserted that a movement had been initiated to drive the Jews from the city as a result of the feeling aroused by the action of Governor Slaton in commuting Frank’s death sentence.”

    1915: Thirty-four of those arrested by police during the protests against Governor Slaton had hearings in Police Court where eight cases were dismissed and nominal fines were imposed in eleven of the cases including a fine levied of $15.75 imposed on “J.A. Bozeman, a policeman who said he would lead a crowd to the Governor’s home.”

    1916: “At the request of President Adolph Kraus of the order of B’nai B’rith, a committee of the American League of Romanian Jews met in conference with him” today “at the Hotel Astor, to arrange for a national and international co-operative effort toward securing for the Jews in Romania equal civil, economic and political rights with the citizens of that country.”

    1916: “The Executive Committee of the Independent Order of B’nai B’rith decided” today “that the order could not participate in the projected Jewish congress in this country because as an international organization it could not in the spirit of its constitution commit the European membership to the action of an assemblage composed exclusively of American Jews.”

    1916: The Executive Committee of the Independent Order of B’nai B’rith elected Henry Morgenthau as a member at large and appropriated an additional $5,000 for the relief of Romanian Jews.

    1917: As part of the Allied drive to dislodge the Turks from Palestine, a move supported by the Zionists, British aircraft bombed the railway station at Tulkarm, the airfield at Ramleh and the German military headquarters in Jerusalem, located in the August Victoria church and sanatorium on the summit of the Mount of Olives

    1917: In Brooklyn, the United Dramatic Circle performed “The Marriage Broker” in Yiddish as a benefit for the Mother’s Club.

    1917: Special Shabbat Morning Services will held in Baltimore, MD prior to the opening of the Twentieth Annual Convention of the Federation of Americans Zionists.

    1917: In Brooklyn, the United Dramatic Circle performed “The Marriage Broker,” a Yiddish play “for the benefit of the Mother’s Club.”

    1918: The twenty-first annual convention of the Federation of American Zionists opened today in Pittsburgh, PA with a pledge of “loyal support and unlimited aid of a united Jewry in the battle for democracy” delived by Julian W. Mack of Chicago.

    1918: “Jew Has High Rank In British Army” published today traces the career of Sir John Monash, the Australian Jew who has been promoted to the rank of Lieutenant General and given command of a British Army Corps.

    1919: “A pogrom took place today at Skvria in which 45 Jews were massacred, many were severely wounded, and 35 Jewish women were raped by army insurgents. As Whites, Reds and Cossacks battled for control of Russia during the Russian Civil War a series of pogroms took place in and around Kiev known as the Kiev Pogroms.

    1919: Birthdate of Nathan Cohen, the Brooklyn born son of a New York publicist who would gain fame as Lee Solters, “a foxy, flamboyant press agent who cranked up his raspy Brooklyn-accented voice to hyperbolize about Broadway, Hollywood and a raft of clients including Frank Sintra, Dolly Parton, Paul McCartney and Wings, Led Zeppelin, Gregory Peck, Cary Grant, the Muppets, Mae West and Michael Jackson. When he passed away in 2009, the New York Times would describe him as, “One of the last surviving links to a Runyonesque era when publicists would slip items to columnists at 1am over drinks at the landmark Manhattan bar Toots Shor's, Solters was a prominent press agent – or "flack", as the Americans call them – during the years when it was routine to "plant" items about stars in showbusiness columns by such gossip writers as Hedda Hopper and Walter Winchell. Over more than 40 years the gravel-voiced Solters handled more than 300 shows, including the Broadway musicals Annie, Guys and Dolls, My Fair Lady and Camelot, “major motion pictures including The Graduate and the hit television series, “Dallas.”

    1919: After serving in the position for all of World War I, Sidney Sonnion completed almost five years of service as Italy’s Minister of Foreign Affairs.

    1919: As the negotiations to conclude the Treaty of Versailles, Gustav Bauer, the head of the new German government gave in to the Allied ultimatum and sent a telegram confirming that “a German delegation would arrive to sign the treaty.”

    1921(17thof Sivan, 5681): “Communal worker” David Stanfield passed away today in South Africa.

    1922: Prominent New York attorney, Republican political leader and civic benefactor Edward Lauterbach paid tribute to the late Louis Stern, the longtime President of Stern Brothers who passed away while vacationing in Europe. He described his friend of 40 years as “Genial, kind hearted, good humored and never making an enemy in all his life…” While Stern was active in numerous civic and Jewish charities Lauterbach thinks “that the greatest achievement of Louis Stern was what he did for the benefit of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum” which he served as President for twenty years.

    1923: In Dallas, TX, grocery store owners Harry and Chaya Ruchel Andres gave birth to “Dr. Reubin Andres, a gerontologist who advanced the study of diabetes but gained his widest attention for arguing controversially that weight gain in older people increases longevity.” (As reported by Leslie Kaufman)

    1925(1stof Tammuz, 5685): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1925: In Houston, TX, Adolph and Marian (née Davidson) Blieden gave birth to Ivan Lawrence Blieden who gained fame as actor Larry Blyden.

    1925: In Brooklyn George L. and Kitty Maizman Modell gave birth to Arthur Bertam Modell whom the world will remember as Art Modell, the owner of the Cleveland Browns and the Baltimore Ravens.

    1926: The College Board administers the first SAT exam. “In 1926, Harvard and other Ivy League schools began using the SAT test to replace the admissions test on which urban Jews had performed well.” This was part of an overall attempt to limit Jewish attendance at these elite schools. “The SAT was grounded in the earlier Ellis Island and U.S. Army World War I tests in which Jews, among others, had performed poorly. That the poor performance was largely based on the lower literacy of the foreigners and their unfamiliarity with English and American terminology was not perceived to be the principal cause for the poor test performance. Here was a test that had provided evidence Jews did not perform well; its use might help bring about the desired results. Moreover, the fact that some of the SAT questions were developed and tested on Princeton freshman and Cooper Union students (all scholarship recipients), demonstrated that smart Gentiles did well on the tests. Ironically, as time passed and Jews became literate, absorbed American terminology, and learned how to take such tests, the outcomes completely reversed. But that was in the future and not anticipated when SAT testing began in 1926”.

    1929: Birthdate of Simcha Dinitz “an Israeli statesman and politician” who “served as Director General of the Prime Minister's office and political advisor to Prime Minister Golda Meir from 1969–1973, before becoming the Israeli Ambassador to the United States from 1973 to 1979.


    1929: In Ozone Park, Queens, Dr. Edward Edelman and his wife, the former Anna Freedman gave birth to Gerald Maurice Edelman who won the 1972 Nobel Prize “for a breakthough in immunology.” (As reported by Bruce Weber)

    1930: Birthdate of Harvey Slom Ginsberg, the Bangor, Maine native “a New York book editor who served long tenures at G. P. Putnam’s Sons, Harper & Row and William Morrow & Company, and whose most loyal writers included John Irving and Saul Bellow… His relationship with Mr. Bellow began at Harper & Row with Mr. Bellow’s book “The Dean’s December,” published in 1981. Mr. Ginsberg subsequently left Harper for Morrow, and for his next novel, “More Die of Heartbreak,” Mr. Bellow followed him. Mr. Ginsberg began his long partnership with Mr. Irving on the novel “The Cider House Rules,” published by Morrow in 1985, and he edited five other novels by Mr. Irving as well; they continued to work together through 2005 on a freelance basis even after Mr. Irving moved to another publishing house. His taste was high-minded, but he enjoyed a well-executed popular novel as well. In 1975 he edited “Black Sunday,” a first novel about a terror attack at the Super Bowl whose author, Thomas Harris, went on to write novels featuring the man/monster Hannibal Lecter”

    1930(27thof Sivan, 5690): Sixty-six year old Professor of English Language and Literature at King’s College Sir Israel Gollancz, a founding member of the British Academy who served as its first secretary passed away today.

    1930: Bantamweight Herman “Kid” Silvers (Herman Silverberg) fought his final bout, a defeat that left him with a lifetime record of 16 win, 15 losses and 4 draws.

    1930(27th of Sivan, 5690): Seventy year old Maurice Harris, who served as the Rabbi at Temple Israel for 48 years passed away today at Mt. Sinai Hospital (JTA)

    1934: “Art Trouble” starring Shemp Howard (one of the original 3 Stooges) was released in the United States today

    1935: Birthdate of gold medal winning Hungarian water polo player György Kárpáti

    1936: Samuel Untermeyer was among the delegates who attended the opening of the National Democratic National Convention in Philadelphia, PA.

    1936: “As the Arab anti-Jewish campaign continued” “a passenger on a Jewish owned bus was killed and three others were wounded today by rifle fire near Rosh Pinah.”

    1936: In Cape May, NJ, Dr. Felix A. Levy of Chicago attacked fascism and communism at the opening session of the 47th annual convention of the Central Conference of American Rabbis of America which was attended by “more than 200 rabbis from all parts of the country.”

    1936: In Bucharest, as “rioting by reactionary students’ organizations” continued tonight the windows of Jewish lawyers and doctors were smashed after which many of the offices were plundered.

    1937: George Gershwin was admitted to Cedars of Lebanon Hospital In Los Angeles for observation after a series of health problems including headaches and mood swings.

    1937: Radio station WJZ in New York broadcast “Easy Aces” at 7 pm.

    1937: “Bans Shakespeare Play” published today described the successful fight led by Maurice Tobin to ban the “reading of ‘Merchant of Venice’ in Boston Schools as result of complaints that the character of ‘Shylock’ was offensive to the Jewish race..”

    1937: Birthdate of real estate developer John E. Zucotti, the husband Susan Sessions Zucotti  the American historians whose studies and books about the Holocaust won her a National Jewish Book Award for Holocuast Studies whose works included Under His Very Windows: The Vatican and the Holocaust in Italy and Pere Marie-Benoit and Jewish Rescue.

    1938: Four persons were killed and at least a dozen seriously wounded in a series of shootings in Jaffa today. With heavy police reinforcements, scores were beaten by police clubs. Many bystanders were roughly handled by crowds. Residents of Jaffa’s Jewish quarter fled out of fear most of them heading for near-by Tel Aviv.

    1938: In explaining her motivation to become a rabbi, Regina Jonas, the first woman to be ordained said today. ““If I confess what motivated me, a woman, to become a rabbi, two things come to mind. My belief in God’s calling and my love of humans. God planted in our heart skills and a vocation without asking about gender. Therefore, it is the duty of men and women alike to work and create according to the skills given by God.”  (She would perform her duties in Theresienstadt before being murdered at Auschwitz Jewish Women’s Archive)

    1938: “Three Jewish farmers from the Zichron Jacob mysteriously disappeared this afternoon.  It is believed they were kidnapped by armed Arabs and carried off to the hills.

    1939(6thof Tammuz, 5699): Forty-seven year old British painter Mark Gertler passed away today after which he was buried at the Willesden Jewish Cemetery.

    1939: Dutch Jewish diarist Esther "Etty" Hillesum took the first of her master’s exams in Dutch Law.

    1939: Herman Goering, Hitler’s number 2, led a meeting of Reich Defense Council in which he told them to prepare for total war. Hitler planned to conscript seven million soldiers. This means production work is to be given to prisoners and inmates of prisons and concentration camps.

    1939: U.S. premiere of “Daughters Courageous” directed by Michael Curtiz, produced by Hal B. Wallis, with music by Max Steiner, a script co-authored by Philip and Julius Epstein and co-starring John Garfield.

    1940: Today, Sunday, at 1:30 pm Margret and Hans Rey arrived in Lisbon.

    1940: “The day after France signed the armistice that marked the country's official capitulation and partial occupation, Adolf Hitler toured Paris” footage of which “opens the earnest and unconventional French docudrama La Rafle the docudrama that “chronicles the Vel' d'Hiv Roundup of July 1942, in which roughly 13,000 Jews living in Paris (4,501 of them children) were removed from their homes by French police and sent to detention camps in the countryside, before being deported to Auschwitz.”

    1941:  In the evening, German forces enter the village of Jedwabne, Poland

    1941: The great yeshivot of Slobodka and Telz closed their doors the day after Germany invaded Lithuania.

    1941: One day after the German invasion of Latvia, the Holocaust begins in the Baltic Republic when Sonderkommando 1a members murdered six Jews in the church cemetery in the town of Grobina, near Liepāja

    1942: The first selections for the gas chamber at Auschwitz take place on a trainload of Jews from Paris.

    1942:  A German convoy deported Jews from Morocco to the death camps of Europe.

    1943: Ukrainian police surround a Jewish school at Czortków, Ukraine, where 534 Jewish slave laborers are housed. The camp commandant, Thomanek, shoots several prisoners and orders others carted off for execution. In The Holocaust, Martin Gilbert describes how a local gentile, Jan Nakonieczmy, risked his life to hide five Jews in his tiny henhouse. “The henhouse was only two feet high, four feet wide, and thirteen feet long.  The five Jews were Henryk Sperber, his mother, his sister, his fiancée and his cousin.  All five survived the war.  So did their savior.”

    1943: In Czortkow; Ukrainian police began an "action" that would destroy the remaining Jewish population of about 600 people.

    1943: By this date 50,000 Jews had been deported from France. The slow pace was not to the satisfaction of the Nazis.

    1943: Eighteen year old Henri Krasucki “was deported from Drancy to Jawischowitz, a sub-camp of Auschwitz, and then to Buchenwald.

    1943: Birthdate of James Levine, conductor of the Metropolitan Opera. Levine was born into a musical family; his maternal grandfather was a cantor and his father was a violinist.

    1944: Chaim Barlas, an agent of the Jewish Agency working in Istanbul received a copy of a 30 page report known as the ‘Auschwitz Protocols’ complied by two Jews who escaped from the camp that April.  The report made it clear that the camp was a killing ground for the Jews of Europe.

    1944: Operations resume at the Chelmno death camp.

    1944: The Allies learn that more than 430,000 Hungarian Jews have been deported to Auschwitz and murdered since May. There are about 300,000 Jews left alive in Hungary.

    1944: A Red Cross delegation visits the camp/ghetto at Theresienstadt, Czechoslovakia, and is apparently fooled by the camp's superficially benign atmosphere. However, the Red Cross almost simultaneously sends an official protest to Hungary about deportations of Hungarian Jews.

    1944: Under the direction of Raphael “Raifi” Schacter, Theresienstadt inmates performed Verdi’s Requiem Mass, its final performance today

    1944: After intensive search through the Lodz Ghetto for Jews, deportation began and did not end until July 14. Jews were shipped out at the rate of 3,000 a week for three weeks. They were told that they on their way to work as laborers in Berlin or outside of Leipzig. Actually the Jews were shipped to Chelmo where they would all perish once inside the camp.

    1944: The Red Cross visited the Theresienstadt ghetto during which a picture was taken of the children.

    1952(30th of Sivan, 5712): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1952: In New York Philip Alexander Kaplan and Phyllis Quasha gave birth to American journalist Robert David Kaplan.

    1952: In a letter to the New York Times, Lessing J. Rosenwald, President of the American Council of Judaism, an anti-Zionist organization reiterated the group’s disagreement with the Israeli government’s new policy concerning citizenships, declaring that nationality and religion are two different issues.

    1953: Birthdate of Betzalel "Tzali" Reshef a Sabra who served as Labor MK in the first decade of the 21st century.

    1953: In Los Angeles, Holocaust survivors Jack and Bluma Samuels gave birth to Lilly Samuels the philanthropist and cancer fighter who is the widow of Brandon Tartikoff and became Lily Tartikoff Karatz when she married Bruce Karatz in 2009.

    1954: Tax lawyer Martin D. Ginsburg married Ruth Bader, who gained fame as Associate Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg.

    1956: Gamal Abdel Nasser is elected President of the Republic of Egypt in a landslide in which 99.95 percent of the voters mark their ballots for him. A secular pan-Arabist who was the ringleader of the “Colonel’s Revolution” Nasser reportedly claimed that he did not hate the West because of Israel but hated Israel because it was of the West.

    1959(17thof Sivan, 5719): Seventy-nine year old San Luis Obispo, CA, native Rebecca Cerf, the University of California Graduate, WW I veteran of the Army Medical Corps and the sister of “San Francisco Superior Judge Marcel E. Cerf, Stockton rancher Cedric E. Cerf and Reed College Professor Barry Cerf” who was “a member of the Women’s Overseas Service League” died today when fire burned down the Stalheim Hotel in Norway.

    1959: Sixty-five year old Mrs. Sidney S. Kahn of San Francisco survived today’s fire at Norwegian resort hotel.

    1960: Premiere of “Bells Are Ringing,” a musical comedy co-starring Judy Holiday, produced by Arthur Freed, written by Betty Comden and Adolph Green with a score by Jule Styne.

    1961: Birthdate of author David Leavitt, a professor at the University of Florida whose works include the short-story collection Family Dancing which was the finalist for the PEN/Faulkner Award.

    1962(2st of Sivan, 5722): Parashat Beha’alotcha

    1962(21stof Sivan, 5722): Fifty-eight year old movie producer and writer Harvey Bernhard, the son of Moe Bernhard and the former Rose Minnie Cohn passed away today.

    1962: “Palisades Park” a pop song written by Chuck Barris reached No. 3 on the Billboard Hot 100 today.

    1965: U.S. premiere of “Harlow” the cinematic treatment of Irving Shulman’s Harlow: An Intimate Biography produced by Joseph E. Levine, filmed by cinematographer Joseph Ruttenberg and starring Carroll Baker and Red Buttons.

    1967(15thof Nisan, 5727): Seventy-three year old “Romanian born American businessman, Benjamin Abrams, a “founder of Emerson Radio and Phonography Corporation” and the Jewish communal leader who “was a founder of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine and the Greater New York Committee for State of Israel Bonds” passed away today.

    1967: Five thousand Muslims prayed on the Haram, including a thousand Israeli Muslims who had been denied access during the nineteen years of Jordanian rule.

    1969: “Stereo” a Canadian movie directed, produced written by, filmed by and edited by David Cronenberg was released in Canada today.

    1972: In Southfield, Michigan, Judge Molly Ann (née Cooke) and Elliot I. Beitner gave birth to Selma Blair Beitner who gained fame as actress Selma Blair.

    1974: “Thirty-four years Soviet Jews including Vitali Rubin and Mikhail Agursky appealed to US Senators Jackson, Javits and Ribicoff in connection with intensification of repressions and urged them to obtain firm Soviet guarantees on emigration before passing a trade bill.”

    1975(14thof Tammuz, 5735): Seventy-six year old Louis Reichenthal Gottschalk, the University of Chicago professor and expert on French history passed away today.

    1976: U.S. premiere of “The Big Bus” featuring Harold Gould as “Professor Baxter” and Stuart Margolin as “Alex” with music by David Shire.

    1978: It was reported today that Rabbi Leib Pinter has been sentenced to two years in federal prison and fined seventeen thousand dollars for having bribed Congressman Dan Flood “to obtain favorable treat for the social service programs of the B’nai Torah Institute.”

    1979: Jacques Derrida “recounts his first meeting with Avital Ronell in a letter bearing today’s date “from The Post Card: From Socrates to Freud and Beyond.”

    1981: Robert Badinter began serving as French Minister of Justice.

    1982(2ndof Tammuz, 5742): Sixty-five year old labor activist Nathan Peskin, “the executive direct at the Workmen’s Circle” passed away today at Long Beach, NY


    1986(16th of Sivan, 5746): Seventy-four year old classical scholar Sir Moses I. Finley, author of The Ancient Economy, passed away. Born Moses Israel Finkelstein in New York City he graduated from Syracuse and Columbia before taking the name of Finley in 1936.  After teaching at Columbia and City College he was fired by Rutgers when he “took the 5th” when called by Senator McCarthy’s red hunting committee.  He and his wife Mary moved to Great Britain where he pursued his career, another casualty of the Right Wing Red Witch Hunt. (As reported by Edwin McDowell)

    1987: In Palm Springs, CA, funeral services were held today for 79 year old Phil Weintraub, the Chicago born baseball player and husband of Jeanne Weintraub, who compiled a .295 batting average while playing first base and the outfield for “the New York Giants, Cincinnati Reds and Philadelphia Phillies.”

    1989: “Honey, I Shrunk the Kids,” starring Rick Moranis, a product of the Canadian Jewish community, premiered today.

    1989: In the UK, premiere of “The Tall Guy,” a comedy starring Jeff Goldblum.

    1991: Tony Randall and Jack Klugman starred in a Broadway Performance of "The Odd Couple." Two Jewish actors took their television roles of Felix Unger and Oscar Madison back to the New York stage from which these roles had sprung. The author of this All- American hit was another Jew named Neil Simon.

    1992:Maxine Frank Singer, a leading biochemistry researcher and advocate of science education, was awarded the National Medal of Science

    1992: Yitzhak Rabin wins the Israeli parliamentary elections and becomes Prime Minister for the second time.  A sabra, Rabin had begun his military career in the Palmach.  He rose to be Chief of Staff during the Israel’s smashing victory in 1967.  Rabin signed off on the Oslo Accords in a bold attempt to bring peace to the Middle East.  Rabin won the 1994 Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts.  Unfortunately Rabin was murdered by a right wing zealot in 1995.  This heinous crime robbed the Israelis of the one leader who might have been able to move the process forward.  Would things have been different if Rabin had lived?  We will never know.  Obviously the assassin and his supporters felt that by killing Rabin they could kill the peace process. 

    1992: Retired IDF General Avigdor Kahalani began serving as Labour Party MK.

    1994(14th of Tammuz, 5754): Sixty year old Irish journalist Stanley Gebler Davis passed away today.

    1994: In Los Angeles premiere of “Forest Fump” produced by Wendy Finerman and Steve Tisch, with a screenplay by Eric Roth.

    1995: “Pocahontas” an animated film based on the life of native-American “princess” co-directed by Eric Goldberg, with music by Alan Menken was released today in the United States.

    1995(27th of Sivan, 5755): Eighty-year old Dr. Jonas Salk, inventor of the first Polio Vaccine passed away.  Another Jew, Dr. Sabine, invented the second Polio Vaccine. This is but one of the many contributions that the American Jewish Community should be celebrating and sharing with our countrymen during the 350th Anniversary of the Jewish Community in the United States.(As reported by Harold M. Schmeck, Jr.)

    1997: Anna Halprin received the Samuel H. Scripps/American Dance Festival Award for lifetime achievement in modern dance.

    2001: British statistician Claus Adolf Moser “was made a Life peer with the title Baron Moser, of Regent's Park in the London Borough of Camden” today.

    2001:  The Dubnow Institute hosted an international conference on “Restitution and Memory” came to an end today in Vienna.

    2002: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Globalization and Its Discontents by Joseph E. Stiglitz

    2002(13rd Tammuz, 5762); Eighty-two year old South-African architect and opponent of apartheid Lionel “Rusty” Bernstein passed away.

    2005(16th of Sivan, 5765): Eighty-two year old violinist Isadore Cohen passed away today.

    2005(16th of Sivan, 5765): Seventy-nine year old ground-breaking print journalist Shana Alexander who was best known for part in the “Point-Counter Point” segment on “Sixty Minutes” passed away today.

    2005(16th of Sivan, 5765): Prof. Nahum M. Sarna, z"l passed away.

    2005: A roundabout in the 20th arrondissement of Paris was given the name “Place Henri Krasucki” in honor of Henri Krasucki, the trade unionist who was gassed at Auschwitz.

    2006: Shlomo Mola becomes the first Ethiopian to be chosen as a top executive of World Zionist Organization.  Mola who now serves as the Jewish Agency's senior consultant for Ethiopian immigrants, will head the department for Zionist institutions. According to Haaretz, the nomination is especially significant, since his confirmation would mark the first time an Ethiopian immigrant has been elected to a key leadership position within the Zionist establishment that does not deal specifically with the Ethiopian sector. "It was Prime Minister Olmert's idea to have an Ethiopian deal with non-Ethiopian issues," said one World Zionist Organization insider. "It was a way of showing that after 20 years in Israel; Ethiopians can be the boss of run-of-the-mill Israeli bureaucrats. The idea is that it shouldn't be looked at as strange, that Ethiopians have already become mainstream Israelis."

    2006: According to a report published in a scientific journal, ancient beads that may represent the oldest attempt by people at self-decoration have been identified from sites in Israel and Algeria,
    The beads, made from shells with holes bored into them, date to around 100,000 years ago, some 25,000 years older than similar beads discovered two years ago in South Africa, researchers report in the journal Science. The new find involves just three shells, two from Skhul in northern Israel, which the researchers said were about 100,000 years old and one from Oued Djebbana, Algeria, estimated to be 90,000 years old. The researchers said the shells were found many miles from the sea, indicating they were brought to those locations deliberately, most likely for bead-working.

    2006: Avraham Hirchson was quoted by Haaretzin today’s edition saying, "There are people who are trying to harm me and my family, by means of pressure and threats ... Detectives are following me, with the aim of harming me. This will not work with me; even if the threats intensify, I will continue to promote the reforms that are so important for the people of Israel."

    2006(27th of Sivan, 5766: Eighty-three year old Television producer Aaron Spelling passes away. (As reported by Bill Carter)

    2006: Donald Lewis Kohn “began serving his four year term as Vice Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.

    2007: In Cedar Rapids, Miriam Maikon becomes a Bat Mitzvah, at Temple Judah.

    2007: The Jewish Culture Festival in Krakow opens. The city's historic Jewish quarter (called Kazimierz) fills with music, art, dance, lectures and exhibits - all celebrating the 900-year history of Jews in Poland.

    2007:Pangs of The Messiah” has its English Language World Premiere at Theatre J in Washington, D.C.

    2008: In Washington, D.C., Alan Furst reads from and signs his new espionage thriller, The Spies of Warsaw, at Politics and Prose Bookstore

    2008: In Cedar Rapids, Iowa, at Temple Judah, a memorial service for Penny Binger, a sweet soul who loved Chasidic stories and was a self-styled “Shlomo Charlebach Groupie.”

    2008: Overnight, Palestinian gunmen in the Gaza Strip fired a mortar shell into Israel – the first breach of the cease fire since it went into effect five days ago.

    2008: Time magazine reviews “Apples and Oranges” by Marie Brenner

    2009: Rosh Chodesh Tammuz, 1st day of Tammuz, 5769

    2009:Israel released Aziz al-Dweik the speaker of the Palestinian Legislative Council from prison today, ending his three-year incarceration

    2009:A bankruptcy trustee recommended today that SHF Industries be allowed to buy most of the assets of Agriprocessors for $8.5 million, in addition to funds already committed to buy up about $21 million in debt owed two of Agriprocessors’ largest creditors. SHF is led by Heshey Friedman, the president of Montreal-based Polystar Plastics, which manufactures packaging for poultry and other meats. Friedman has two other partners in the venture, Daniel Hirsch and Mitch Kirschner.

    2010:The Yellow Submarine is scheduled to present Hatsai Tzvaim Hatsai Kolot: Israeli poet Rachel's poetry set to music, and The Naomi Ensemble: a tribute to Naomi Shemer - a tribute to two of Israel's finest poets.

    2010: In France, premiere of “The Chameleon” starring Ellen Barkin as “Kimberly Miller.”

    2010: Donald Kohn completed his four year term as Vice Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve Syste,

    2010:Beit Avi Chai is scheduled to present "Tel Aviv-New York -- Authentic jazz with a touch of the Mediterranean"

    2010: A conference organized by the Humphrey Institute for Social Research at Ben- Gurion University meeting today  dealt with “the political, social and cultural role of diasporas and their links with their countries of origin or, in the case of second and third generation diaspora children, the home countries of their parents and grandparents.”

    2011:Sheriff David Clarke will speak on "Security and Spirituality: Reflections on My Mission to Israel" at meeting sponsored by the Jewish Community Relations Council in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

    2011: A lively presentation featuring Naama Shefi of the Consulate General of Israel entitled A Food Lover's Tour of Israel” scheduled to be held at the  92nd St Y will give attendees a chance to “discover what cutting-edge Israeli chefs are creating in Israel and learn the history of dozens of the country's most famous dishes.”

    2011:There are widening gaps between poor and middle class citizens in Israel in the rate of incidences of chronic disease, a report published today revealed..

    2011: The failure of Prime Minister Ariel Sharon to retaliate in the Gaza Strip for rocket fire after disengagement – as he promised – was one of the major mistakes made after the 2005 pullout, Dan Kurtzer, who was the US envoy to Israel at the time, suggested today.

    2011: The Israeli Presidential Conference came to an end.

    2011(21stof Sivan, 5772): Eighty-eight year old composer and conductor Fred Steiner the creator of theme music for such shows as 'Gunsmoke,''The Twilight Zone,''Star Trek,''Have Gun, Will Travel,''Rawhide,''Hogan's Heroes,''The Bullwinkle Show' and other TV series passed away today. (As reported by Randy Lewis)

    2011(21stof Sivan, 5772): Eighty-three year old Peter Falk, who became synonymous with Colombo, the rumpled raincoat wearing detective who always had one more question, passed away today. (As reported by Bruce Weber)

     2011(21st of Sivan, 5772): Eighty-four year old Gene Colan one of the leading comic-book artists of the 20thcentury passed away. (As reported by Margalit Fox)

    2012(3rdof Tammuz, 5772): 18th Yahrtzeit of Rabbi Menachem M. Schneerson, of righteous memory simply known as The Rebbe.  This blog cannot do justice to his impact on Judaism or the lives of individual Jews. One does not have to be a Lubavitcher to have been impacted by the Rebbe or his corps of “Lamplighters” such as Rabbi PInchas Ciment, who brought the light of Chassidus and Judaism to some very dark places.

    2012: “Hungry Kite,” the creation of Choreographer Deganit Shemy is scheduled to perform for the last time at the Chocolate Factory at Long Island City.

    2012:Kulanu Toronto and Congregation Shir Libeynu are scheduled hold a pre-Pride Karaoke Night after Shabbat.

    2012:Rabbi Meir Soloveichik is scheduled to discuss “Serving Man and God in the Twilight Zone: Reflections on Judaism and Western Thought,”

    2012:Social activist Daphni Leef was treated today for injuries sustained during clashes with police that took place during a demonstration on Tel Aviv’s Rothschild Boulevard yesterday. Her arm was placed in a cast. Leef and 11 others were arrested in what was widely described as a violent sweep of crowd control.(As reported by Yoel Goldman)

    2012: Gaza-based terrorists fired 25 rockets into southern Israel today, causing damage to a school and factory.

    2013: The Israeli Squad is schedule to compete in the Cosmos Copa for the first time ever when it plays a double header against Italy and the Netherlands at Randalls Island.

    2013: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Bad Boy: My Life On and Off the Canvas by Eric Fischl and Michael Stone and Debtor’s Prison: The Politics of Austerity Versus Possibility by Robert Kuttner

     2013: The Spertus Institute is scheduled to host a lecture by Daniel Belasco entitled “Jewish Graphic Design from the Talmud to Today.”

    2013:The Chief Ashkenazi Rabbi of Israel, Yona Metzger, currently under house arrest on suspicion of financial crimes, announced today that he was suspending himself from his official duties.

    2013:A Jerusalem court today ordered the release of a Jewish youth who had been arrested on charges of praying on the Temple Mount. The youth was also cleared of charges that he attacked an Arab during his visit to the Mount. (As reported by David Lev)

    2013: Terrorists from Hamas-controlled Gaza fired three rockets into southern Israel tonight.The rockets landed in open areas in the Bnei Shimon Regional Council and near the city of Netivot. There were no physical injuries or damages. (As reported by Elad Benari)

    2014: The UK Jewish Film is scheduled to host its Celebration of Film Dinner.

    2014: “The Sturgeon Queens” is scheduled to be shown at Portland, Oregon, Jewish Film Festival.

    2014: An Evening with Paul Robeson: A Recital in Homage to the Great Singer and Humanitarian” is scheduled to be presented this evening in the Rubenstein Pavilion of the Jewish Home and Care Center, in Milwaukee, WI.

    2014: “The Israeli Air Force struck several targets belonging to Assad’s forces on the Syrian side of the Golan Heights overnight, Israeli media reported early this morning.”

    2014: Ziad Awad “a Hamas operative released under the 2011 exchange for Gilad Shalit and his son Izz Eddin Hassan Ziad Awad were indicited today for gunning down Baruch Mizrahi near Hebron on Passover eve. The father was the shoot while the son facilitated th getaway. (As reported by Marissa Newman)

    2014: Rabbi Haim Korsia was elected Chief Rabbi of France.

    2014: “Ewan McGregor signed on to play the lead role of Seymour "Swede" Levov, a former high school star athlete and successful Jewish American businessman” in the movie version of Philip Roth’s novel American Pastoral

    2014: “The tires of three cars were found punctured, and four others deflated, in a suspected racist tag attack in an Israeli-Arab East Jerusalem neighborhood today.”

    2014: J Street released a statement today saying that the Presbyterian Church vote in favor of divestment “would not be helpful to the cause of peace.” (As reported by Lazar Berman)

    2015(6thof Tammuz, 5775): Ninety-three year old Harvey Pollack who began compiling NBA statistics since 1946 passed away today. (As reported by Richard Goldstein

    2015: In Paris, the prosecution is expected to rest its case against 15 “members of the terrorist group Forsane Alizza “who planned attacks on French Jews” and targets that included “five Jewish supermarkets of the Hyper Cacher chain “

    2015: “An anti-missile "color red" siren was sounded after 10 p.m. tonight in the Hof Ashkelon regional council area, a region that frequently has been a target of Hamas rockets from Gaza.”

    2015: The 17th International Research Conference of the Latin American Jewish Studies Association is scheduled to come to an end.

    2015: The Center for Jewish For Jewish History is scheduled to host a lecture by Joseph Berger, author of The Pious Ones: The World of Hasidim and Their Battles With America.

    2015: The Center For Jewish History is scheduled to host “Changing Lives, Making History: CBST - The First Forty Years – CBST’s 40th Anniversary Book.”

    2016(17thof Tammuz, 5776): Parahat Balak

    2016(17thof Tammuz, 5776): Eighty-five year old Jerome Fisher, whose company at one time supplied “one out of every five pairs of shoes” that American women buy passed away today. (As reported by David E. Slotnik)

    2016(17thof Tammuz, 5776): Seventy-one year old Harold “Heshy” Jacob passed away today.

    2016: Jewish Historical Society Program and Outreach Manager Samantha Abramson is scheduled to explore “Jewish life and key personalities during the Civil War and changes the war brought for the newly expanded Jewish community of Washington, D.C.” in a lecture this evening.

    2016: “Rabin In His Own Words” is scheduled to be shown at the 13 annual Israeli Film Festival in Ottawa, Canada.

    2016: The American Sephardi Federation is scheduled to host an opening night reception in honor of David Serero’s performance of “Othello.”

    2016: In the ongoing drive to make Orthodox Judaism the state religion of Israel, the Supreme Court is scheduled to hold a “hearing the right immerse in state ritual baths according to one’s own custom, as was enshrined in a list of unenforced guidelines distributed by the Religious Affairs Ministry two years ago.” (As reported by Amanda Borshcel-Dan)

    2016: “The Kindergarten Teacher” is scheduled to be shown at the 24th annual Portland Jewish Film Festival.

    2017: The Oxford University Jewish Society is scheduled to host Kabbalat Shabbat followed by a Sabbath Dinner for anybody still around in 9th week.

    2017: Premiere screenings in Berkley and Sebastopol, CA of “The Women’s Balcony,” the “number one film of the year in Israel.

    2017: “Letters From Baghdad,” a documentary that tells the “true story of Gertrude Bell and Iraq” is scheduled to open today at theatres in Palo Alto, Sacramento, Minneapolis, Chicago and Philadelphia.  (Editor’s note – if you do not who Gertrude Bell is, then you should find out if you want to understand how the so-called modern Middle East came to be)

    2018: The 48th Convention of the Society for American Baseball Research featuring a presentation by Lee Lowenfish, author of Branch Rickey: Baseball’s Ferocious Gentleman is scheduled to continue meeting in Pittsburgh, PA.

    2018: Naomi Firestone-Teeter, the Jewish Book Council's executive director recommend spending Shabbat reading Memento Park by Mark Savaras and A Terrible Country by Keith Gessen

    2018: In Des Moines, IA, The Varsity Theatre is scheduled to host a screening of “A Bag of Marbles” a screen version of “the 1973 autobiographical best-seller” that “tells the story of the Nazi occupation of Paris through the eyes of two young Jewish boys.”

    2018: Yedidya Lau, “the rabbi of the town of Alon” is scheduled to teach at “the Weekly Parsha Club” hosted by the Menachim Begin Center.

    2018: As Israeli’s seek to enjoy Shabbat filled with shalom despite the attacks from terrorists, they are protected by Iron Dome and the newly installed “Sky Spotter system, which is being used to track fire kites and balloons launched into Israel from Gaza”

    2018(10thof Tammuz, 5778): Parashat Chukkat; for more see




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    JUNE 24

    586 BCE (9th of Tammuz, 3174): King Nebuchadnezzar’s army broke through the walls of Jerusalem and entered the City of David.

    1182: Phillip II, the seventeen year old French monarch “decreed the total expulsion of Jews from all royal possessions within two months. This was due in part to debts owed to Jewish moneylenders. The debtors were exempted from all payment to the Jews but had to pay a tax of 20% of their debt to the Treasury. This only served to force those Jews who were considered an asset into other French provinces not directly under the King's control. The Synagogue in Paris was converted into the Church of St. Madeleine, while the one in Orleans was changed into the Chapel of St. Sauveur. This expulsion - with the confiscation of land and property - was a strong factor in Jews leaving agriculture as a profession in favor of moveable property and trade.” (As reported by Eli Birnbaum)

    1190: Philip II Augustus of France and Richard the Lionheart of England break camp at Vezelay and head off for the Holy Land, officially launching the Third Crusade. Phillip was openly anti-Semitic.  Richard was protective of his Jewish subjects.  His absence during the Crusade left them to “the tender mercies” of Prince John and the local Anglo anti-Semites.  And of course, as always, the Jews suffered wherever the Crusading Christians marched.

    1241: Ivan Asen II, the Czar of Bulgaria also known as John Asen II who in 1230 “defeated Theodore Ducas Angelus of Epirus and after which threw two Jews off of a cliff for refusing to put out his eyes passed away today.

     1298: Massacre of the Jews of Ifhauben, Austria.

    1322: Charles IV of France expelled all the Jews from France without the promised one year's warning. This marked the second expulsion of the Jews from France.

    1339: A party commissioned by Pope Benedict XII to go to China that included Giovanni de' Marignolli left Constantinople and sailed across the Black Sea to Caffa. In 1342, following his arrival in China, Marginollia told of having engaged "in glorious disputations" in Beijing with both Muslims and Jews. This was one several reports of Jews living in China during the 14thcentury. These included Andrew of Perugia’s  complaint in 1326 that “the Jews of Quanzhou obdurately refused to accede to his pleas that they undergo baptism” and  the Muslim traveler ibn Battuta description of entering Hangzhou in 1346 “through a gate called the Jews’ Gate and statement that among the inhabitants of the city there were “Jews, Christians and sun-worshipping Turks.”

    1386: Birthdate John of Capistrano, a Franciscan friar who played a key role in having forty Jews burned at the stake in Breslau and sought to have King of Poland abolish the special privileges accorded to his Jewish subjects.

    1441: King Henry VI founded Eton College.  While there were no Jews in the Eton’s first class (there were no Jews living in England, King Henry would be surprised to find out that by 2009 Mr. Jonathan Paull was Head of Jewish studies at Eton and that Jewish students were putting on tefillin under the guidance of local Chabad representatives.

    1509:  Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon crowned King and Queen of England. There were no Jews living in England at this time.  Henry’s father (Henry VII) had promised Catherine’s parents (the Spanish monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella) that Jews would never be allowed the realm of the English monarchs.  Thanks to the turmoil that Henry would create when he went to shed Catherine as his Queen and royal mate, small numbers of Marranos and crypto-Jews would be living in England by the end of the century.

    1519: In Burgundy, “Pierre de Beze, royal governor of Vézelay” and Marie Bourdelot gave birth to French Protestant theologian Theodore Beza, the successor to John Calvin at Geneva and who like Luther was a believer “that Christian churches were largely responsible for the current unbelief among the Jews and “that there would a large-scale conversion of the Jews” while still acknowledging “the Justice of divine anger the Jewish people”

    1648: In Tulczyn, Poland, an agreement between the 2000 Jews and 600 Christians to defend the town at all costs succeeded in preventing the Cossacks from capturing the town. The Cossacks persuaded the Christians that they would let them go free if they would give them the Jews. The (furious) Jews were persuaded by the Rabbi that if they took revenge on the Poles other Jews would suffer. The gates were opened and most of the Jews killed. The Cossacks then turned on the Poles and killed most of them as well. For the most part, during the entire war the Poles and the Jews were uneasy allies against the Cossacks.

    1692: Founding of Kingston, Jamaica. By now, Jamaica was an English colony and Jews can only practice their religion as opposed to their secret observance that had been the norm during the Spanish rule. There were enough Jews living in Kingston that synagogues were reportedly opened in 1744 and 1787.

    1699: A committee that had been formed to find a larger place for the growing Congregation of Spanish and Portuguese Jews “leased from Lady Ann Pointz (alias Littleton) and Sir Thomas Pointz (alias Littleton) a tract of land at Plough Yard, in Bevis Marks, for 61 years, with the option of renewal for a further 38 years, at £120 a year.” This would be the location for the famed Bevis Marks Synagogue which was more than a house of worship.  It was the center the center of the Anglo Jewish world when that world encompassed the British Empire.

    1702: In Great Britain an “Act to oblige Jews to maintain and provide for their Protestant children” took effect. This act of Parliament grew out of case involving Jacob de Mendez Berta and his daughter Mary who became a Protestant.  According to one source, the father refused to continue to support his daughter after she converted and her newly adopted Protestant community did not want to shoulder the burden of her support.  Hence, this legislation was adopted and would stay in effect until the middle of the 19thcentury.

    1725: Over the next 12 months, starting from today, 26 of the entries for shipments from the port of New York involved Jewish merchants.  This was 6.7% of the total.  Of these entries, 6 were credited to Moses Levy, one of the colony’s leading merchants.

    1781(1st of Tammuz, 5541): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1781: George Washington wrote to Comte de Rochambeau as plans are made to move South and engage the British in Viriginia.

    1785: In Savannah, GA, Jacob de Pass and his wife gave birth to Ralph de Pass.

    1785: In Savannah, GA, Jacob de Pass and his first wife Leah gave birth to their daughter Sally.

    1761(14th of Sivan): Moses Brandeis Charif the chief rabbi of Mayence and cabalist who was the son of Jacob Brandeis passed away

    1793: As France continues to be embroiled in a Revolution that among other things removed the restrictions against the Jews of that country, the National Convention adopted that country’s first “republican constitution.

    1794: Bowdoin College was founded in Brunswick, Maine. Today about ten percent of Bowdoin’s 1,650 students are Jewish. The school has ten Jewish Studies courses and a Hillel Chapter.

    1803: In London, Judith (Barrow) Montefiore and Eliezer Montefiore, a prominent English merchant gave birth to their youngest son, Joseph Barrow Montefiore who made his fortune in Australia before returning to his native England.

    1806: Áron Chorin “a Hungarian rabbi and pioneer of religious reform” who had been censured and punished by an Orthodox tribunal appealed to the Imperial Government for relief. The government “annulled the judgment and condemned the leader of his adversaries at Arad to pay the expenses of the lawsuit…Chorin declared that he forgave his adversary, and declined his claims for compensation of the expenses. To avoid further trouble, he determined to give up writing.

    1807: Jacob Keyser married Harriet Jacobs at the Great Synagogue in the UK.

    1807: Joseph Phillips married Sarah Elizabeth at the Western Synagogue in the UK.

    1809: In Zülz, Prussian Silesia, Gittel and Marcus Jacob Loewe, Rabbi of Rosenburg gave birth to Louis Lowe who became a leading Orientalist and principal and director of Judith Lady Montefiore College at Ramsgate.

    1826(19th of Sivan, 5586): Parashat Baeha’aloctcha

    1826(19th of Sivan, 5586): Seventy-year old Israel ben Solomon Wahrmann, who had served as the rabbi at Bodrogh-Keresztur passed away today.

    1834: Two days after she passed away, fifty-four year old Harriet Gompertz, the unmarried daughter of Abraham Wiesel Gompertz was buried today at the Brady Street Jewish Cemetery today.

    1838: In Goldingen in the Duchy of Courland in the Russian Empire, Martin Sass Eder and Dorina Kaiser gave birth to James Martin Eder who was known as Santiago Martin Eder Kaiser don Santiago Eder in Columbia where he was a pioneer in the sugar industry and a leading businessman.

    1839: Birthdate of Solomon H. Sonnenschein, the Hungarian born American Rabbi who served Congregation Temple Israel in St. Louis and Temple B’nai Yeshurun in Des Moines, Iowa before his death in 1908.

    1840: Birthdate of Émile Duclaux, the French chemist and microbiologist who “was a vocal support of Alfred Dreyfus.”

    1842: In Sidney, Australia, The Voice of Jacob reported that the Sultan of Turkey had called for an audience attended by all religious leaders which included the Hahambashi (Chief or Grand Rabbi) where he issued a firman protecting "all religious denominations" in Syria.

    1843: “In in spite of the fact that the Jews of the city had contributed 12,900 scudi to do honor to the pope during his visit in 1841, an old decree was revived by Fra Vincenzo Soliva, Inquisitor of Ancona and other districts, forbidding Jews to reside or do business in any place where there was no ghetto, to employ Christian journeymen, to hire Christian servants, wet-nurses, or apprentices, to deal in books of any sort or in ecclesiastical robes, etc.”

    1846: In Hungary, the residence tax was officially abolished. In order to have it cancelled the Jews had to pay a one-time fee of 1,200,000 florins.

    1846(30th of Sivan, 5606): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1846: Isaac Harris married Rebekah Jacobs at the Western Synagogue in the UK.

    1859: In County Kerry, Lt. Col. Henry Horatio Kitchener and Frances Anne Chevallier-Cole Horatio Herbert Kitchener, the great British military leader known simply as Lord Kitchener. His first step on the road to glory came in 1874 when the 24 year old Kitchener led a mapping and survey expedition to parts of “the Holy Land” under the direction of the Palestine Exploration Fund. The effects of the mapping expedition are still felt today since, among other thing, they provided the basis for delineating the border between the state of Israel and Lebanon.

    1856: In Rome, a contingent of papal carabinieri “acting at the orders of the local Inquisitor, Father Pier Gaetan Feletti, took six year old Edgardo Mortara from his parent’s apartment because church officials discovered that Edgardo had been secretly baptized by a servant girls five years ago and that he could no longer “be raised in a Jewish household.”  Thus began the scandal known as the Mortara Affair.

    1861: Herman Makower helped to prepare “The General German Commercial Code” introduced in Prussia today.

    1863: Almost two years after becoming naturalized, Samuel (Isaac) Henry Gluckstein began working as a “cigar manufacturer.”

    1865: Jacob Ezekiel Hyneman, was mustered out as a soldier in the Union Army. He had enlisted in the Union Army in 1862 and had participated “in the battles of Chancellorsville, Brandy Station (where he was wounded), Gettysburg, Mine Run (where he was again wounded), Wilderness, Spotsylvania Court House, Cold Harbor, Five Forks, Petersburg, and Appomattox Court House. He was also present at the surrender of Lee

    1865: Philadelphian Henry Fr. Birnbuam who had enlisted as a Private in Company H completed three years of service in the Union Army as a Sergeant in the 65thRegiment of the Fifth Cavalry.

    1868: Saul Henriques Valetine married his second wife Sarah Ornstein, the daughter of Phineas Ornstein and Adelaide Samuel who was born in 1845 at Middlesex.

    1873: In a sermon, Reverend Henry Ward Beecher gave the first public warning of rising anti-Semitism in the U.S. Beecher was a fighter for social justice, an abolitionist and the father of Harriet Beecher Stowe.

    1877: According to reports published today, Judge Hilton is receiving more letters, calls and telegrams approving of his action (banning Jews from the Grand Union Hotel) than he has time to answer.  Jewish leaders appear willing to let the matter die since they feel they have been supported in the court of public opinion.

    1878: It was reported today that it appears as if there are no Jews spending the summer at the resort hotels in and around Longbeach, NJ.  According to one source, the absence of Jewish guests can be explained by the downtown in the New York real estate market which has caused great economic hardship.  Other sources attribute the absence to a desire on the part of the Jews to avoid being humiliated in an incident similar to that which had occurred last year at the Grand Union Hotel in Saratoga Springs, NY.

    1882: It was reported today that in Russia, Count Tolstoy, the Minister of the Interior published a circular stating that officers who do not “prevent outrages against Jews” will be dismissed immediately.

    1882: M.A. Kursheedt, the Managing Secretary of the Hebrew Emigrant Aid Society sent a letter to Secretary Jackson of the Board of Emigration that “the society will not take charge of any Russian refugees or other Jewish immigrants who may hereafter arrive in this city.”

    1882: “Aid Need For Hebrew Refugees” published today described the desperate conditions facing the Hebrew Emigrant Aid Society which lacks the funds to meet the needs of the growing stream of Jewish refugees from Eastern Europe.  Presently, the society can only provide shelter for only 500 of the 3,000 immigrants that include men, woman and children.  To help meet the shortfall in funds, Jacob Schiff has contributed $10,000, Kuhn, Loeb & Co has given an additional $5,000 and Jess Seligman has also contributed $5,000.  But Secretary Kursheedt said that others much follow the example of these donors if the society is going to be able to provide assistance to these immigrants let alone the thousands who are on their way.

    1882: At the sanity hearing of his brother-in-law Samuel Obreight, Bernard Tausick described Obreight’s attempts at suicide “and his peculiar behavior at a party given in honor of his engagement to another young lady” whom he chose not to wed.

    1883: Birthdate of Friedrich Löwy, the native of Bohemia, who gained famed as the librettist and lyricist Fritz Löhner-Beda. His fame was not enough to save him from being beaten to death at a camp near Auschwitz.   While at Buchenwald he wrote Das Buchenwaldlied ("The Buchenwald Song"): O Buchenwald, I can’t forget about you, because you are my fate. Who leaves you, only he can appreciate how wonderful freedom is! O Buchenwald, we don’t cry and complain and whatever may be our destiny, even so we shall say "yes" to life for once the day shall come when we shall be free!

    1883: Three days after he passed way, David Marcus Davis, the husband of Sarah Marcus and the father of Alice and Ernest Davis was buried today at the Balls Pond Cemetery.

    1883: Birthdate of Victor Francis Hess, Austrian-born American physicist and winner of the Nobel Prize.  Hess was not Jewish but his wife was.  When the Nazis came to Austria, Hess came to America to protect his wife from persecution. 

    1884(1stof Tammuz, 5644): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1885: Joseph Cohen married Naomi Lipkie in the United Kingdom.

    1885: It was reported today that the Pall Mall Gazette has printed “a hitherto unpublished proclamation of the Emir of Afghanistan” which he issued to his subjects in 1882. “It reviews the history of the Afghans, claiming that they are descended from the 10 lost tribes of Israel.  It traces their descent from Adam though Jacob, their subjection in Egypt, their deliverance therefrom by Moses, their wanderings in the desert and their settlement in Syria under…Saul and Solomon, to their Babylonian captivity, their release, their wanderings on the hills of Ghour and their final settlement in Afghanistan.”  The proclamation includes with an exhortation for his subjects “trust in God, who will preserve them from their terrible enemy, Russia” [Editor’s Note – Read in light of what has happened in Afghanistan since 1980, this is a fascinating little item.]

    1886: As a sign of how accepted Jews were in New York, Rabbi Weiss and J.H. Hoffman, President of the Hebrew Technical Institute were among the dignitaries seated on the platform at the graduation ceremonies for the Normal College of the City of New York, an institution of higher education for women.

    1887: “Probable Case of Suicide” published today described the last days of Joseph Freedman a Russian Jewish peddler who died in New Haven, Conn. After marrying Rittie Polrovideh a month ago, he left his child from an earlier marriage with her and went to Montreal.  She refused to join him there, even when he came back to New Haven to plead his case.  The failure of his personal and financial lives may have led him to poison himself. [Editor’s note – This is consistent with reports in the 21st century where there has been a major increase in suicides among the financially desperate in several southern European countries.]

    1888: Youngsters under the charge of the Orphan Asylum of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society participated in a two hour long ceremony today that demonstrated their knowledge of Jewish history and Judaism.  The children go to public school starting at the age of 6 and receive their training in Judaica at the asylum.  PIncus Spiro received a box of tools for placing first in the exams and Samuel Levi received drawing instruments for placing second.  Both boys have already passed the entrance exams for CCNY and will enter there in the fall.  Jennie Berdinger was the leading female student.

    1891: At their state convention, Iowa Democrats adopt a platform with a plank that reads “We abhor the persecutions of Russia toward the Jewish people and we believe that all civilized nations should protest against such barbarism and inhumanity.”

    1891: Birthdate of Irving PIchel, the native of Pittsburgh and 1914 Harvard University graduate who began as stage actor before shifting two films with the advent lf “talkies.”

    1892: The Marquis de Mores, an anti-Semitic French officer, has been arrested for killing Captain Mayer, a Jewish officer whom he forced into facing him in a duel. 

    1894: New York lawyer Edward Jacobs, the brother of the late Joseph A. Jacobs who was Deputy Clerk of the City Court for fourteen year, received a telegram from the Governor of New York “summoning him to Albany” so that he can be appoint a Quarantine Commissioner.

    1894: It is reported that the Czarevitch is visiting England accompanied by the Czar’s Court Chaplain, Janicheff, “a very prominent and active Jew-baiter.”

    1894: It is reported today that population of Hungary includes 9 million Catholics, 3 million Protestants and 5 million others that include Jews, Orthodox Serbs and Romanians

    1894: It was reported today that there are 12 Jews serving the Hungarian Chamber of Deputies and one serving in the upper legislative chamber. The Hungarian Diet had first recognized Jewish equality before the law in 1848 but was forced to rescind it following anti-Semitic riots.  In 1867, the rights were restored which has resulted in the current electoral mix.

    1894: The officers of the newly formed Jesse Seligman Literary Circle were listed today as George M. Hommell, President; Miss Nellie Gotthaimer, Vice President; Harry Hammell, Secretary and Miss Ella Stein, Treasurer.

    1897: President James H. Hoffman delivered the opening address at the graduation exercises for the Hebrew Technical Institute which were held tonight at Cooper Union.

    1897: At Temple Emanu-El, Rabbi Gustav Gottheil is scheduled to officiate at the funeral of Mayer Lehman, a native of Germany who moved from Alabama to New York where he was a member of Lehman Brothers who was the husband of Babetta Newgoff of New Orleans with whom he had four sons and three daughters.

    1897: The will of Jacob Seholle, the banker who passed away at Orange, NJ was filed for probate today.

    1897: The following bequests were reported today to be included in the will of the late Mortiz Cohn – $1,000 for Temple B’Nai Jeshurun; $750 for the Hebrew Orphan Asylum and Mt. Sinai Hospital; from $100 to $200 to eight other Jewish schools and charities; $30,000 to his granddaughter Ethel Klopfer.  The residue of the estates is to be divided between his son Julius M. Cohn and his daughter Klopfer.

    1897(24th of Sivan, 5657): Seventy-eight year old Sir John Law, the native of Jamaica who wanted to be a rabbi but became a successful lawyer instead which led to a seat in the House of Commons as a member of the Liberal Party, passed away today.

    1898: The funeral for Moses Stein, a resident of Bath Beach who had been a successful wholesale butcher in Manhattan will take place this afternoon followed by interment in Washington Cemetery.

    1898: It was reported today that Abraham Richter was the valedictorian of the 1898 Hebrew Technical Institute graduating class. 

    1898: In Boston, Julius B Rottenberg and Fannie Rottenberg gave birth to Viola Josephine Rottenberg, the graduate of Wellesley who became Viola Rottenberg Pinanski when she married Harvard Law School graduate and future judge, Abraham E. Pinanski

    1898: During the Spanish American War, Adolph Rebenstisch of San Antonio, TX was wounded today while serving as a Private in Troop F.

    1899: At Las Vegas, NM, Governor Theodore Roosevelt addressed a re-union of his “Rough Riders,” the regiment he created and led in the war against Spain.  In an appeal for national harmony, Roosevelt reminder the listeners that his was a typical American regiment that included Jews as well as Protestants, Catholics, Easterners, Westerners Northerners and Southerners.”  (This mention of Jews put the lie to claims being made at the time that Jews did not fight in American wars and were unpatriotic.  It also was a shrewd move on T.R’s part since Jews were an important of his constituency in New York)

    1899 “Burns and Scott Heroines” published today featured a comparison of the works of Robert Burn and Sir Walter Scott whose “masterpiece Ivanhoe” includes “villains…who bleed a Jew” and a description of Rebecca watching the deeds of the Black Knights from the lattice window of Torquilstone.

    1899: “Religious New and Views” published today described the plans of Temple Sinai Congregation to purchase the building belong to Calvary Presbyterian Church on 116th Street near Lenox Avenue.  After 18 years, the church is disbanding.  The congregation is Reformed, “as are the majority of the New York Jewish congregations.”

    1899: Attorney Max Cohen, the Vice President of the Orthodox Hebrew Society said today that “the society did not object to mission churches…but did object to the methods that have been employed.”

    1899: Max Cohen said today that the Orthodox Hebrew Society is working to encourage “a more general observation of the Sabbath” and to that end is trying “to secure a modification of the legislation in regard to opening stores on Sunday.”

    1899: “Religious News and Views” published today described the differences between the practices of the Reform congregations in New York.  In some, like the one on Hester, the men sit downstairs and the women sit upstairs and them pray with their hats on.  In other congregations, men and women sit together and men do not wear hats. Finally, there are those where the men and women sit together, but the men pray with their hats on.

    1900: In the village of Bezwodne, Joseph and Bella (Pomerantz) Lemkin gave birth to Raphael Lemkin a lawyer who fought against genocide, a word he coined in 1943 by coming the Greek “genos” (Family) and the Latin “cide” (Killing).

    1901: Birthdate of New York City native and Barnard College graduate Edith Mendel who gained fame as Edith Mendel Stern the author of four novels the first of which was Purse Strings and the wife attorney William A. Stern II.

    1901: Start of the Jewish National Fund. The JNF or Keren Kayemeth LeIsrael was established at the Fifth Zionist Congress, which declared that "the fund shall be the property of the Jewish people as a whole". The purpose of the Fund was to collect money from Jews throughout the world to buy land in Palestine. Because of the nature of the purchases, the land belonged collectively to all of the Jewish people. The JNF became famous for its "little blue boxes" and for its Tree Purchase Program. For more about this amazing organization see

    1903: “Interior Minister Plehve ordered the police to suppress ‘the propaganda of the ideal of Zionism’” because the movement had abandoned “its aim of settling Jews in Palestine in favor of organizing Jews ‘in places of their present domicile.’”

    1903: Russia prohibited Zionist meetings.

    1906(1stof Tammuz, 5666): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1906(1stof Tammuz, 5666): Joseph “Joe” Strauss whose baseball record is so murky that he either began his major career at the age of 26 or 40, was Jewish or was not Jewish and played the outfield, the infield, catcher and pitcher, passed away today.

    1908: Rabbi Martin Zielonka of El Paso, Texas, helps the Jews of Mexico organize their community.

    1908: President Grover Cleveland died of heart failure.  As President, Cleveland appointed Oscar Solomon Strauss envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to Turkey in 1887.  In 1897 Cleveland vetoed an immigration bill that included a literacy test.  The literacy test was a thinly veiled attempt to close the doors to immigrants including the wave of Jews coming from Eastern Europe.  In 1903, Cleveland, who was by now former President, was the featured speaker at the New York City rally protesting the Kishinev Pogroms.

    1910:  Birthdate of Judge Irving Kaufman, the presiding judge in the Rosenberg Spy Case.  He was the one who sentenced them to death after they were both found guilty.  Of course the anti-Semites who used the involvement of the Rosenbergs in a Soviet spy ring to further their claims of Communism being a Jewish conspiracy conveniently overlook the fact that Jews were involved in the prosecution and sentencing of the Rosenbergs.  Kaufman passed away in 1992 at the age of 81.

    1912(9th of Tammuz, 5672): Julia Richman the first Jewish woman to serve as principal in the New York Public School system and the first woman district superintendent of schools in the City of New York died in Paris as result of an infection that developed after an emergency operation.

    1913: In Springfield, Illinois, the annual conference of the American Association of Officials of Charities and Correction which Henry Solomon of New York was a delegate opened today.

    1913: In Chicago, “the monument in memory of Mrs. Mark T. Goldstine (nee Sadie Richter)” is scheduled to “be dedicated” this afternoon “at Graceland Cemetery.”

    1914(30thof Sivan, 5674): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1914: Birthdate of Jan Karski, “a Polish World War II resistance movement fighter who in 1942 and 1943 reported to the Polish government in exile and the Western Allies on the situation in German-occupied Poland, especially the destruction of the Warsaw Ghetto, and the secretive Nazi extermination camps.”

    1915: Benjamin “Benny” Snyder was attacked by three fellow inmates at the Tombs this morning just before he was to appear in court plead guilty to manslaughter in the death of “Joe the Greaser” Rosenzweig. The plea meant he got off with a ten year sentence but it earned him the reputation for being a rat and a squealer.(Yes, there are Jewish gangsters; but they are not the pride and joy of the community)

    1915: Birthdate of Sophie Falkenstein, the wife of German-Jewish immigrant Arthur Caan and the mother of famous actor James Edmund Caan whom many know as “Sonny” the oldest of the Godfather’s three sons.

    1916: It was reported today that plans for “the great federation for the support of Jewish Philanthropic Societies of New York City which have been under consideration for a long time have been approved by the Special Committee on Preliminaries” and been printed pamphlet form so it may be submitted for consideration prior to a final vote next month.

    1916: It was reported today that “while the Jewish population” of Romania which numbers about 250,000 “are not threatened with physical danger, they are persecuted…under civil laws” and “have never been admitted to general citizenship.”

    1917: Delegates are scheduled to register today as part of the opening session of the Twentieth Annual Convention of the Federation of American Zionists.

    1917: Mrs. Sam C. Klein presided over the June Social sponsored by the Ashe Emes Sisterhood.

    1917: “A plaque was awarded to the Hebrew Educational Society as the winner of a series of debates with the South Brooklyn Y.M.H.A.”

    1917: At Zion Temple on Ogden Avenue, Samuel Druck is scheduled to deliver a talk on Henri Bergson a today’s last regular meeting of the Jewish Literary Society.

    1917: “Felix M. Warburg entertained one hundred of the most prominent and active workers in the news local federation of charities at a lawn party on the grounds of his summer home at White Plains, NY.

    1918: In Pittsburgh, the 21st annual convention of the Federation of American Zionists continued for a second day.

    1918: Dr. Aaron Schaffer of Johns Hopkins University presided over “the fourth annual convention of the Intercollegiate Zionist Association.”

    1918: Jacob Schiff of New York City protests against the Red Cross which has discriminated against Jews from Bulgaria and Turkey, as well as Germany and Austro-Hungary. Red Cross stated Jews from these lands, or children who have fathers who were born in these lands cannot serve in the Red Cross.

    1919: In the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles, Polish Prime Minister Ignacy Paderewski signed the Minorities Treaty that “awarded full civil, religious and political rights to all citizens of the new Poland, with the term ‘citizen’ applied broadly to all person either born or ‘habitually’ resident on Polish territory.”  This meant that the Jews of Poland were guaranteed full citizenship in the newly reconstituted Poland.  Louis Marshall, a prominent American Jew who had been part of Wilson’s delegation to the Paris Peace Conference, was responsible for this language; language would be incorporated in other treaties that grew out of the Versailles Conference which, on paper at least, opened the path to full citizenship for the Jews of Austria, Bulgaria, Hungary and Turkey.

    1920: In London, Stephen Winsten and his wife gave birth to Ruth Winsten who gained fame as the “animal welfare campaigner” the Ruth Harrison.

    1920: In Cologne, German “painter Max Ernst and Luise Straus, a well-known art historian, journalist and a victim of the Nazis at Auschwitz gave birth to Hans-Ulrich Ernst who gained fame as artist Jimmy Ernst.

    1921: At Friday evening services, Rabbi I. Mortimer Bloom is scheduled to deliver a sermon on “Scapegoats” at the Hebrew Tabernacle on Broadway and 158thStreet.’

    1921: At Friday evening services, Rabbi B.A. Tintner is scheduled to deliver a sermon on “Organized Labor” at Temple Mount Zion on West 119th Street.

    1922(28th of Sivan, 5682:  An anti-Semitic nationalist assassinated Walter Rathenau, the Jewish German Foreign minister. Ironically, Rathenau was a German patriot who had been responsible for maintaining the German industrial might that enabled it to fight on for four years despite the Allied blockade.

    1922: The Literary Digest published Harvard ‘Talk’ About Jews today which described Harvard President Abbott Lawrence Lowell’s views about Jewish attendance at his elite institution.

    1922: In Brighton Beach, Brooklyn, Harry Chakrin and the former Anna Borofsky gave birth to Jack Chakrin who gained fame as Jack Carter, a comedian whose career spanned almost forty years. (As reported by Dennis Hevesi)

    1923: Premiere of Kurt Weill’s “String Quartet, Op 8” today by the Hindemith-Amar Quartet.

    1924: In New York City, Fay (née Resenthal), a secretary and bookkeeper, and Oscar Perl, a stationery salesman who founded a printing and advertising company gave birth Martin Lewis Perl who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1995.

    1927: Birthdate of American Physicist, Martin Lewis Perl.  The son of Eastern European Jewish immigrants, Perl won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1995.

    1928: The New York Times reports on mass meetings held in Tel Aviv protesting the unwarranted deportation of Jewish immigrants from Palestine.  A cable protesting the deportations sent by the citizens of Tel Aviv to the Colonial Office in London stated that “every Jew who enters Palestine is returning to his home.  He cannot, therefore, be expelled under any law…The expulsions are an insult to the entire Jewish population…and…cause despair in the minds of the masses in the Diaspora, undermining every hope for entering Palestine.”

    1929(16th of Sivan, 5689): Seventy year old Joseph Prag, the graduate of Queen’s College who was a member of the Anglo-Jewish Association and the Conjoint Committee for Foreign Affairs as well as a Warden of the North-West London Synagogue passed away today.

    1930(28thof Sivan, 5690): Rabbi “Ben Zion Perl” passed away today in New York City

    1930: Ceremonies began today marking the opening of the Chachmei Lublin Yeshiva.

    1932: In Karlsruhe, Germany Leo Traub who was a banker before the rise of the Nazis and Mimi Nussbaum gave birth to their only son Joseph Frederick Traub “who founded the computer science department at Columbia University and who helped develop algorithms used in scientific computing in physics and mathematics as well as on Wall Street.” (As reported by Steve Lohr)


    1933: On the day of her return from a three-month trip through Palestine, Russia and other countries Jewish theatrical star Molly Picon, said that a new culture, made up of elements of the cultures of many peoples, is being built up in Palestine by Jews.

    1933: Rabbi and Mrs. Morris Ginsberg gave birth to Sir Ian Derek Gainsford who served as Dean of King’s College of Medicine and Dentistry, Vice Principal of King’s College London and President of the Maccabaeans, a leading Anglo-Jewish charitable organization dating back to the 19th century.

    1934: An advertisement for “Rosebrae Guest House, the only Jewish Boarding House on the Isle of Jersey which was Kosher” appeared in today’s Jewish Chronicle.

    1935: Premiere of “Die schweigsame Frau” (The Silent Woman) for which Stefan Zweig provided the libretto

    1936: As Arab violence continued to escalate unabated, The Palestine Post reported that Arab snipers killed one Jew and wounded four others on a bus close to Rosh Pina. The Arab Strike Committee threatened and punished Arabs who refused to join the general strike or refused to contribute to their strike funds. Five Arab villagers were killed by the railway military patrol after trains were ambushed twice. Jewish damages since April 19, the day on which the Arab disturbances began, were estimated at some quarter of a million pounds.

    1937: Comedian Henny Youngman performed on the “Kate Smith Bandwagon” a variety show broadcast by WABC.

    1937: Arthur Fiedler conducted a performance by the Boston Pops Orchestra broadcast by WJZ.

    1937: After visiting with Benito Mussolini, Generoso Pope, a prominent New York City Italian American contractor, returned to the United States with a message from the Italian leader intended to reassure Jews in the United States that they had no reason to be concerned about the conditions of Italian Jews.

    1937: New Yorker Paul Safro presided over the opening of the fourth annual convention of “Massada, the youth section of the Zionist Organization of America” being held at the Roosevelt Hotel where attendees heard Isaac Imber recommend “the launching of a movement to train pioneer groups for Palestine.”

    1938: The outbreak of violence in the Jaffa-Tel Aviv area that began yesterday continued today with episodes of bomb-throwing and stabbing.  In one incident an as yet unidentified Jew from Tel Aviv who was out walking with his wife and brother-in-law was stabbed by a group of Arabs who fled before the authorities arrived.

    1938: The mutilated body of Father Mario Rozzine, head of an Italian convent near Jerusalem was discovered by the side of the road.  While the Italian Consulate claimed the priest was killed by unidentified personal enemies, others believe that he had fallen victim to Arab terrorists.

    1938: Today “movie-maker” Emeric Pressburg “married Ági Donáth, the daughter of Andor Donáth, a general merchant” in what would be a short, childless union.

    1939: Brazil admits three thousand Jewish refugees from Germany.

    1939: At the World’s Fair in New York City, The Café Tel Aviv at the Palestine Pavilion offers Kosher Cuisine including Palestinian specialties ranging in price from $.50 to $.85, lunch for $.65 and a complete dinner for $1.25.

    1940: Margret and Hans Rey made telephone calls and wrote letters from Lisbon letting friends and family know that they were safe. 

    1941: As it invaded Lithuania, the Wehrmacht occupied Kovno where 10,000 Jews will be murdered by the end of July and Vilna and killed the Jews of Gorzhdy. (Please note; with some of the military activity in WW II there is a variance of dates by one or two days according to different sources.  This can be accounted for in several ways including discrepancies between when an event may have begun and when it reached its height or the difference between the date an event happened and the date it appeared in the newspaper or other journals.)

    1941: Birthdate of Arthur Bruce “Art” Heyman, the 6’5” New Yorker who led Duke University to its first appearance in the Final Four before being drafted by the Knicks of the NBA. (As reported by William Yardely)

    1942: Thousands Jews from of Lvov in the Ukraine, are killed at Janówska, Ukraine, and Piaski, Poland.

    1942: In Los Angeles, CA, Sylvia Helen (née Silverstein) and Jack Dusick gave birth to Michele Lee Dusick who gained fame as the multi-talented Michele Lee whose career spanned television, Broadway and cinema.

    1942: “Star and Garter” a musical revue produced by Mike Todd “opened at Broadway’s Music Box Theatre.”

    1944:  The United States Military Air Operations declares that bombing rail lines to Auschwitz is "impracticable" because it could be achieved only by diverting air support from "decisive operations" in progress; i.e., bombing German synthetic-oil plants. The fact is that many of these plants are located near Auschwitz.

    1944:  Lovers Edward Galinski, a Polish gentile, and Mala Zimetbaum, a Jew, escape from Auschwitz-Birkenau in purloined SS uniforms and remain at liberty for two weeks.

    1944: At Birkenau, a Pole and a Jewish girl escaped. The girl, Mala Zimetbaum, escaped through an airlock in the gas chamber waiting room. She became the camp interpreter and fell in love with a Polish man. They managed to escape only to be eventually caught and brought back to Auschwitz where they were tortured. They then were to be hung in public view by thousands of prisoners. Instead she produced a razor blade and slashed her wrists in front of the onlookers. Incensed, the SS shot her dead.

    1944: Chaim Barlas sent a copy of the ‘Auschwitz Protocols’ to his friend Giuseppe Rocalli – the future Pope John XXIII- and Rocalli immediately sent a summary of the protocols by telegraph to the Vatican.  This undercuts the Vatican’s claim that it did not know about Auschwitz until October of 1944

    1945: The U.S.S.R. captures the Free Republic of Schwarzenberg. The Free Republic of Schwarzenberg (German: Freie Republik Schwarzenberg) was a de facto independent entity that existed for several weeks after the German capitulation on May 8, 1945. The term Free Republic of Schwarzenbergactually derives from the 1984 novel Schwarzenbergby Stefan Heym. As the novel is based on actual events, the term has become used as a convenient short-hand for them. Stefan Heym was a German Jewish writer born in 1913 in Chemnitz. Heym’s works included TheKing David Report, The Wandering Jewsand Schwarzenberg.  Stefan Heym was actually the pen name for Hellmuth Fleig who won the Jerusalem Prize in 1933.  He died in Jerusalem during the Heinrich Heine Conference.

    1947: Judge Simon Rifkind of New York, who had served on Ike’s staff, sent General Eisenhower a memo contending that establishing a Jewish state in Palestine would be in America’s best political and military interests.  Ike sent copies of the memo to Secretary of State George Marshall and General Tom Handy who would take it to the Secretary of War.

    1950: In the UK, Annette Krarup and Walter Freud gave birth to David Anthony Freud, the great grandson of Sigmund Freud who went from a career as a journalist and businessman to as political leader.

    1950: An Italian ship filled with 300 Torah scrolls, 2,000 prayer books and other religious items that had been left in Yemen by Jewish refugees docked at Elath after having sailed up the Gulf Aqaba, making it the first ship to use this route to reach the Jewish state. Up until now, Saudi Arabia and Egypt, who controlled the east and west sides of the Gulf had not allowed passage of any ships bound for Israel.  Nobody knows why the two Arab states did not stop the vessel or if the waterway would remain open.

    1950: In Kiryat Haim, David Smilansky and Batya Silber gave birth to Moshe Smilansky who as Moshe "Bogie" Ya'alon served as Chief of Staff of the IDF before joining Likud and serving in the Knesset “as well as the country's Vice Prime Minister and Minister of Strategic Affairs.”

    1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that despite all the recent Iraqi threats, six aircraft arrived from Baghdad with 574 immigrants, and the seventh was expected shortly. It was estimated that some 4,000 Jews waited in Baghdad for transportation to Israel.

    1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that the Council of Kibbutz Meuhad met at Givat Brenner with only Mapam members participating, following the Mapai members' decision to leave the movement.

    1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that Ffunerals took place of four Israeli soldiers killed in a clash with the Arab Legion near Kiryat Anavim.

    1952(1st of Tammuz, 5711): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1952(1st of Tammuz, 5711): Sixty-four year old Wax Gordon died at Alcatraz where he was serving a twenty-five year sentence.

    1952: Tel Aviv police were detaining two people suspected of stealing gold objects from the National Museum valued at $70,000 and then melting them down for sale as gold bullion.  The objects in question have been missing for over a month.

    1953: “Robot Monster” a black and white sci-fi film with music by Elmer Bernstein was released in the United States today.

    1955: With Brooklyn Dodgers trailing the Milwaukee Braves 7 – 1, Sandy Koufax made his major league debut in the fifth inning facing Shortstop Johnny Logan who “hit a bloop single” off the man who became one of the greatest pitchers of all-time.

    1957: In Roth v. United States, the U.S. Supreme Court rules that obscenity is not protected by the First Amendment. Roth is Samuel Roth, the Polish born Jew who began a literary career after moving to the Lower East of New York.

    1962:  After 16 performances at the New York City Center, the curtain come down a revival of “Fiorello!” the Jerry Bock musical with lyrics by Sheldon Harnick and a book co-authored by Jerome Weidman

    1966: A week after first being shown in London “Cul-de-Sac” a “comic thriller” directed by Roman Polanski and co-starring Lionel Stander, was shown at the Berlin International Film Festival.

    1968: Birthdate of Israeli chess grandmaster Boris Gelfand.

    1973: In Sioux City, Iowa, Laurie Goldblatt becomes Mrs. Bob Silber in a ceremony that joins together two future pillars of the Cedar Rapids, Iowa Jewish Community.

    1974: “Soviet police arrested Professor Alexander Voronel, principal organizer of refusenik scientists’ seminar following an unsuccessful attempt to induce him to cancel the seminar.”

    1974: “Andrei Sakharov urged President Nixon and Brezhnev to give more emphasis to human rights during their Moscow talks, including the release of Soviet political prisoners and free emigration.”

    1976: Today at the Fifth Avenue Synagogue Rabbi Emanuel Rackman presided at the funeral services for “Dr. Maurice Sage, the President of the Jewish National Fund of America, the Russian born, French trained rabbi who father was “a chief rabbi of Paris.”

    1976:  Premiere of “Buffalo Bill and the Indians, or Sitting Bull's History Lesson” co-starring Paul Newman and Harvey Keitel.

    1976: The Jerusalem Post reported that Israeli pound was devalued by another 2 percent to IL7.97 to the dollar. This was the 10th creeping devaluation, begun as a policy in June 1975.

    1976: The Jerusalem Post reported that Gush Emunim announced that it would resist moving out from Kaddum, unless the resettlement was part of an overall plan for establishing Jewish settlement throughout Judea and Samaria.

    1976: At a dinner hosted by Brandeis University, Elliot Richardson received the second annual Louis Dembitz Brandeis medal for distinguished legal service.  Richardson was the Attorney General dismissed by President Nixon for his courageous refusal to participate in the Watergate Cover-up.  The first recipient of the medal named for the distinguished Jewish lawyer and jurist, was Leon Jaworski who was a key player in the Watergate Investigations

    1976: The Jerusalem Post reported that Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin had asked Israelis to consume less and work more, and to accustom themselves to the realization of the country's difficult economic situation.

    1979(29th of Sivan, 5739): Eighty-eight year old Lessing J. Rosenwald, who succeeded his father as Julius as President and later Chairman of the Board of Sears, Roebuck and Company passed away today. (As reported by Eric Pace)

    1979: “Two Palestinians were killed while driving a truck bomb near a bus station in Tel Aviv.

    1980(10th of Tammuz, 5740): Seventy three year old Oscar and Golden Globe Award winning cinematographer Boris Abelevich Kaufman, the native of Bialystok and  the brother of filmmakers Dziga Vertov and Mikhail Kaufman passed away today in New York.

    1981: Moshe Dayan announced that Israel has the capacity to make an atomic bomb.

    1983: “Twilight Zone: The Movie” based on the Rod Serling television series produced by Steven Spielberg and co-starring Vic Morrow and Albert Brooks was released in the United States today.

    1983: Yasser Arafat was banned from Damascus. Arafat had more enemies among the Arabs than he did among the Israelis. He was thrown out of Jordan, Syria and Lebanon.

    1983: TheNew York Times reported on Mathilde Krim's newly established AIDS Medical Foundation.

    1985: Birthdate of Michael Steven “Mike” Brown the native of Northbrook, Illinois who played hockey for the University of Michigan before going on to a career in the NHL.

    1991(12th of Tammuz, 5751): Eighty-one year old Natie Brown, the native of Washington, DC, who fought Heavyweight Champion Joe Louis twice, reached the rank of Sergeant in WW II and lived in Charleston, West Virginia for 26 years where he worked for  Mackie Incorporated Wholesale Company and attended B’nai Jacob Synagogue passed away today.

    1992: In “Lee v Weisman” the U.S. Supreme Court protected the concept of separation of church and state by holding that “Including a clergy-led prayer within the events of a public high school graduation violates the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment.” In this case, a Jewish family objected to a prayer at a graduation even though, in this case, it was led by a Rabbi.

    1993: Yale computer science professor Dr. David Hillel Gelernter loses the sight in one eye, the hearing in one ear, and part of his right hand after receiving a mail-bomb from the Unabomber.  Gelernter is classified variously as a conservative in the true sense of the word and/or an iconoclast.  There was no apparent connection between his political beliefs and this evil deed.

    1994(15th of Tammuz, 5754): Eighty-six year old Sir Anthony Baruh Lousada, “a member of a prominent Anglo-Sepharid family who followed in the footsteps of his father Julian George Lousada, the solicitor and collector of impressionist paintings, passed away today.

    1995(26th of Sivan, 5755): Esther Rome, creator of the “Women and Their Bodies” and author of Our Bodies, Ourselvespassed away.

    1995(26th of Sivan, 5755): Meir "Zarro" Zorea passed away. Born in Bessarabia in 1923, he made Aliyah in 1925.  During his service with the Jewish Brigade during World War II he received the Military Cross for bravery.  His service with the IDF included leading a battalion during the War of Independence, aiding in the capture of Eichmann and commanding a tank corps in the Sinai during the Six Day War. After retiring with the rank of Major General he served as a member of the Knesset.

    1999: “The Department of the Navy Board for Correction of Naval Records the ultimate arbiter of whether or not Admiral Jermey Boorda was entitled to wear the Combat "V", determined that despite the additions to Boorda's personnel file, he was not” marking an end to this tragic moment in the career of an illustrious naval officer.

    2001: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Edward the Caresser: The Playboy Prince Who Became Edward VIIby Stanley Weintraub and Frontiers of Legal Theory by Richard Posner.

    2002:”President Bush demands that the Palestinian Authority’s first step to peace begins with democratic accountability, economic reforms, and immediate cooperation in ending terrorist acts.”

    2002: President Bush unveils his “vision of two states living side by side in peace and security as the key to peace, and to the roadmap as the route to get there.”

    2004(5th of Tammuz, 5764): Ninety-seven year old Olga Rubinow Lurie “a child psychologist and specialist in the emotional health of children,” the wife of Walter A. Lurie and the daughter of “Dr. I. M. Rubinow, noted authority on and advocate for Social Security” passed away today.

    2004: Elie Wiesel was awarded the Grand Cross of Merit of the Republic of Hungary by the nation’s president today. (Eight years later the Jewish Holocaust survivor and author would repudiate the award after accusing Hungary of “whitewashing tragic, criminal episodes.”

    2005: Closing session of Security Israel - The 19th annual International Homeland Security Exhibition.

    2005(17th of Sivan, 5765): Paul Winchell passed away at the age of 82.  Born Paul Wilchin had a successful career as a ventriloquist and “voice actor.”  Television audiences from the 1950’s will remember him and his two wooden-headed sidekicks – Jerry Mahoney and Knucklehead Smif.  Winchell never moved his lips.  One of his best comic bits was drinking a glass of water while Jerry Mahoney kept “talking.” (As reported by Adam Bernstein)

    2005: Release date for “Bewitched” directed and co-produced by Nora Ephron with a script by Salk Saks, Nora Ephron and Delia Ephron.

    2005(17th of Sivan, 5765): Ninety-six year old Yedida Shofet the former Chief Rabbi of Iran passed away in Los Angeles.

    2006:  In “Another Page from an Epic Chapter,”published today Danny Rubinstein reviewed   Mihutz laofek, mi'ever larehov (Beyond the Horizon, Across the Street) by Hanoch Bartov.

    2007: The opening game of the Israel Baseball League’s season takes place with the Modi’in Miracle facing the Petach Tikva Pioneers at Yarkon Sports Complex in Petah Tikva.  This is not just the first game of the season, it is the first professional baseball game played in Israel.

    2007: The Sunday New York Times book section featured a review of Travis Holland’s first novel, The Archivist’s Story which revolves around the fate of the Russian-Jewish short-story master Isaac Babel, author of the inimitable Red Cavalry tales. The New York Timesalso reviewed The Years of Extermination: Nazi Germany and the Jews, 1939-1945by Saul Friedländer. This is the second volume of Friedlander’s two-volume history of “Nazi Germany and the Jews.” The first volume, published in 1997 was entitled The Years of Persecution, 1933-1939. In these volumes, Friedländer convincingly challenges the view that the Holocaust was simply the result of bureaucrats doing what they were told.

    2007: The Los Angeles Times reviewed Everything Is Miscellaneous: The Power of the New Digital Disorder by David Weinberger.

    2008: In Washington, D.C. at the National Press Club Attorney Ted Sorensen, a trusted adviser to President John F. Kennedy, discusses and signs his new memoir, Counselor: A Life at the Edge of History. When asked about his religious, this native of Lincoln, Nebraska this son of a Unitarian lawyer of Danish lineage and a mother of Russian-Jewish descent responded that  under Jewish law I am Jewish, but I consider myself Unitarian.”

    2008(21st of Sivan, 5768): Ninety year old Leonid Hurwicz, the Nobel Prize winning economist passed away today. (As reported by William Grimes)

    2008:Sotheby's in Israel conducts an auction that is a fund-raiser for IsrALS, the local organization benefiting sufferers of the degenerative disease ALS.

    2008: The Jewish Agency for Israel wrapped up a meeting of its boards of governors facing a shortfall of $20 million to $30 million in the current fiscal year and a gap of $45 million for next year’s budget caused by the steady decline of the value of the American dollar. 

    2008: Three Kassam rockets hit the western Negev this afternoon, in a second violation of a cease-fire between Hamas and the Israeli government.  One of the rockets damaged a house in Sderot.

    2009: Canadian born actress Neve Campbell returned to television in a starring role on NBC's The Philanthropist. The descendant of Sephardic Jews who converted to Catholicism, Campbell has said, "I am a practicing Catholic, but my lineage is Jewish, so if someone asks me if I'm Jewish, I say yes"

    2009: David Makovsky, a fellow at the Washington Institute for Near East Policy, signs copies of his new book, Myths, Illusions, and Peace: Finding a New Direction for America in the Middle East which was written with Ambassador Dennis Ross, special adviser to the secretary of state for the Gulf and Southwest Asia) at Politics and Prose in Washington, D.C.

    2009: Bernard-Henri Lévy posted “a video on Dailymotion in support of the Iranian protesters who were being repressed after the contested elections.”

    2010:The Leo Baeck Institute is scheduled to present a book signing and discussion feature Eric Metaxes author of the newly released Bonhoeffer: Pastor, Martyr, Prophet, Spy.”Bonhoeffer: Pastor, Martyr, Prophet, Spy

    2010: Seventy-three year old Ben Sonnenberg the founder of the literary quarterly Grand Streetpassed away today. (As reported by William Grimes)

    2011: Downtown Shabbat featuring Robyn Helzner and Cantor Larry Paul is scheduled to take place at the Historic 6th& I Synagogue in Washington, DC.

    2011: Stephen M. Saland, “a Republican member of the New York State Senate, representing the 41st District voted for New York’s Marriage Equality Act today providing the decisive vote in the passage of the legislation – legislation he had opposed in December of 2009.

    2011: “Ghost the Musical” for which Cassie “Levy originated the role of Molly Jensen” transferred “London’s West End at the Piccadilly Theatre.”

    2011: The Hebrew Educational Alliance is scheduled to sponsor “Nashira! Let Us Sing”  followed by a community Shabbat Dinner.

    2011:Congregation Shaarey Zedek and the Alliance for Jewish Education are scheduled to sponsor Shabbat in the Park in Birmingham, Michigan.

    2011:The Obama administration is stepping up pressure on activists planning to challenge Israel's sea blockade of the Gaza Strip, warning that they will face action from Israeli authorities and that American participants may also be violating U.S. law. The U.S. State Department said today that attempts to break the blockade are "irresponsible and provocative" and that Israel has well-established means of delivering assistance to the Palestinian residents of Gaza.

    2011: The first Citizenship Ceremony was held in Dublin Castle. The ceremon “where new citizens swear an oath to the state and obtain their certificate of citizenship” was the creation of Irish political leader Alan Joseph Shatter.

    2011: According to today’s New Jersey Star Ledger, “Last week, the fledgling group,” Better Education For Kids co-founded by David Tepper, “launched a one million dollar campaign to advertise its mission and solicit donations.”

    2012: The Los Angeles Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including HHhH, Laurent Binet’s novel about the Nazi monster Reinhard Heydrich and the two Czechoslovakian war heroes who set out to assassinate him – “Jozef Gab¿ík, a Slovak, and Jan Kubiš, a Czech, both soldiers who made their way to England after their nation was overrun by Hitler.”

    2012: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Mission to Paris by Alan Furst, The Auschwitz Volunteer: Beyond Bravery by Witold Pilecki, Hitler by A. N. Wilson and As Consciousness Is Harnessed To Flesh: Journals and Notebooks, 1964-1980 by Susan Sontag. 

    2012:The American Conference of Cantors-Guild of Temple Musicians' Convention is scheduled to pen in Portland, OR.

    2012:HAZAK is scheduled to sponsor a docent led tour of the Columbus Museum of Art which will include a visit to the Lod Mosaic Exhibit.  “The Lod Mosaic was unearthed in 1996 as a group of workmen were in the process of widening a road in Lod. An extraordinarily detailed and large mosaic and exceptionally well-preserved, it dates from around 300 CE and is believed to be from a large villa of a wealthy Roman family. The mosaic is in the United States for a limited time before it travels to the Louvre in Paris, the Altes Museum in Berlin and then return to Israel.”

    2012:The League for Yiddish and YIVO Institute are scheduled to sponsor a program in memory of Dr. Mordkhe Schaechter Z"L. during which Dr. Kalman Weiser of York University, Toronto, will speak on "Max Weinreich's Attitude to American Jews and the Beginnings of Yiddish Studies at American Universities in the 1940s.".

    2012: Israeli cellist Yoed Nir is scheduled to perform at solo recital in Teaneck, NJ as part of the Classical Sunday Concert series.

    2012: Dr. Bob & Laurie Silber celebrate 39 years of wedded bliss

    2012:Five mortar bombs landed in the Eshkol Regional Council, ending several hours of rare calm in the south. One of the bombs fell near a community dining room and another other two in an open area. No damage and injuries were reported. Earlier today Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu vowed to hit back at Gaza for any infraction of the truce.

    2012: French police said they were investigating death threats made against the country’s chief rabbi. Polices said that they are looking for people connected to a photomontage disseminated through Facebook which shows Rabbi Gilles Bernheim with a revolver pointing at his head. The picture shows Bernheim wearing a Star of David on his forehead. (As reported by Times of Israel staff)

    2012:Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu’s office said tonight that Israel would respect the democratic process and the results of the vote in Egypt. Muslim Brotherhood candidate Mohammed Morsi was declared a winner of a run-off vote for president of the country today, the first civilian and democratically elected person to hold the title. Israel had expressed fears that an Egypt ruled by the hard-line Islamist Brotherhood would undo the peace treaty between the countries and lead to frostier relations with Cairo. Netanyahu’s statement seemed designed to iterate the importance of keeping to the three-decade old peace agreement.

    2012: “The Gershwins’ Porgy and Bess” which opened in January is scheduled to have its final performance today at the Richard Rodgers Theatre in Manhattan.

    2013: The Center for Jewish History and the Jewish Women’s Archives are scheduled to present “Bread and Roses, Too” a panel discussion about the role of Jewish women in the early labor movement.

    2013: In San Diego, CA, the Center for Jewish Culture is schedule to host “The Merchant of Venice: What is it About Shylock and the Jews?” featuring Barry Edelstein, Artistic Director of the Old Globe and Associate Producer of NYC’s Public Theatre’s recent Broadway production of The Merchant of Venice starring Al Pacino

     2013: The 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Israel Studies is scheduled to open today in Los Angeles, CA

    2013: Friends and family celebrate the 40th Wedding Anniversary of Dr. Bob and Laurie Silber.

    2013: The hotly debated “Prawer bill,” regulating Beduin settlements in the Negev narrowly passed in its first Knesset reading Monday, with 43 in favor and 40 opposed. (As reported by Lahav Harkov and Ariel Ben Solomon)

    2013: At least 6 rockets were fired from the Gaza Strip towards southern Israel very early this morning.  Two of the rockets were intercepted by Israel’s Iron Dome missile defense system.  The other rockets landed without causing any injuries.  The areas that were hit include Rahat, in the Bnei Shimon Regional Council, Be’er Sheva and the Lachish Regional Council. Three more rockets were fired toward the Ashkelon area. (As reported by Lori Lowenthal Marcus)

    2014: The Wiener Library for the Study of the Holocaust & Genocide is scheduled to host Marina Cantacuzino who will talk about The Forgiveness Project and “forgiveness, reconciliation and conflict resolution.”

    2014: “Big Bad Wolves” which was nominated for 11 Israeli Academy Awards is scheduled to be shown at the Portland (OR) Jewish Film Festival.

    2014: “A draft of one of the most popular songs of all time, Bob Dylan’s “Like a Rolling Stone,” sold today for $2 million, which the auction house called a world record for a popular music manuscript.”

    2014: “Four rockets were fired from Gaza Strip at Israel this evening, prompting the IAF to return fire and attack Gaza terror targets.” (As reported by Matan Tzuri)

    2014: “Rachel Fraenkel, the mother of kidnapped teen Naftali Fraenkel, pleaded for international assistance to secure the release of her son and fellow captives Eyal Yifrach and Gil-ad Shaar, at the UN Human Rights Council in Geneva” today. (As reported by Marissa Newman)

    2014: Dr. Michael Steinlauf is scheduled to leave JFK today as he leads a tour of “Jewish Poland” sponsored by Gratz College.

    2014: As he sought to serve in the U.S. House of Representatives from New York’s 1st district, Lee Zeldin won the Republican Primary today.

    2014: A French court drops its lawsuit against Dieudonné M’bala M’bala, ruling the French comedian’s video mocking the Holocaust doesn’t constitute hate speech. (Europe’s notoriously strict hate speech laws regulate Holocaust denial as well as “racially or religiously discriminatory expression”.) (As reported by Stephanie Butnick)

    2014(26th of Sivan, 5774): Ninety-eight year old actor Eli Wallach whose sixty year acting career on both stage in screen encompassed a wide variety of roles including, oddly enough, the role of the villainous  Mexican bandito in the macho cult classic “The Magnificent Seven.”

    2015: Today, President Obama signed an Executive Order, in the presence of the” family of Steve Sotloff of blessed memory “and other hostage families, for a broad overhaul regarding how it handles U.S. hostages held abroad by groups such as ISIS,”

    2015: “Israel canceled permission for hundreds of residents of Gaza to enter Jerusalem to pray during Ramadan in Al Aqsa Mosque, the third-holiest site in Islam, after rocket fire from the coastal enclave, Israeli officials said” today.

    2015: In Cedar Rapids, IA, the Hadassah Book Club is scheduled to meet at Temple Judah where attendees will discuss The Midwife of Venice by Roberta Rich.

    2015: Hadassah Associates of Hadassah Greater Washington is scheduled to host a charity Golf Outing in support of Hadassah’s Men's Health Initiative.

    2015: Steve Gimble, author of Einstein: His Space and Times is scheduled to talk about the famous scientist at the National Museum of American Jewish History.

    2016: This evening Shoshana Dembitz and Abigail Grafton “hosted a Shabbat dinner, during which their extended families met for the first time.”

    2016: The “6th Annual International Cybersecurity Conference, also known as Cyber Week…organized by Tel Aviv University’s Blavatnik Interdisciplinary Cyber Research Center, together with the Israeli National Cyber Bureau and Israel’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs” is scheduled to come to an end today.

    2016: “Three Kinds Words,” a “dramedy about three Jewish Israeli siblings” is scheduled to be shown at the Lincoln Plaza Cineman.

    2016: “Septembers of Shiraz,” “a film about a prosperous Jewish family in Iran caught up in the aftermath of the 1979 revolution that overthrew the Shah, based on Dalia Sofer’s well-received 2007 novel of the same name and which used her own family’s experiences as source material” is scheduled to “officially open a commercial run in New York and Los Angeles” today.

    2017(30th of Sivan, 5777): Parashat Korach; Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    2017(30th of Sivan, 5777): Seventy-three year old Rabbi Meir Zlotowitz, the founder of ArtScroll Mesorah, the dominate force in Jewish texts and husband of Rachel Zlotowitz with whom he had eight children including Ira, “the founder and President of Eastern Union Funding,” passed away today. (As reported by Joseph Berger)

    2017: “Several mortar shells exploded in an open area in the Golan Heights near the border with Syria” this afternoon “leading to retaliatory air strikes.”

    2017: Today “three women were kicked out of the Chicago Dyke March for carrying rainbow flags emblazoned with Jewish stars.”

    2017: The Oxford University Jewish Society is scheduled to host a Shabbat lunch following service for those “still around in 9th week.”

    2017: “The Sounds,” a four week long classical musical festival is scheduled to end today in Israel.

    2018: “The American Sephardi Federation and Caminos De Sefarad: Red de Juderías de España are scheduled to present a pop-up photographic exhibition on Spain’s formerly Jewish Quarters” during an evening that will also feature a presentation by Doreen Alhadeff, a member of Seattle’s Sephardic community, who was one of the first to be recognized under Spain’s Sephardic citizenship law, as well as a Spanish kosher wine tasting.”

    2018: In Manchester, UK, JW3 is scheduled to host a screening of “Zuzana: Music is Life” a film based on the life of harpsichordist Zuzana Ruzickova, who survived “three concentration camps, including Auschwitz.”

    2018: In a testament to the vitality of small-town Jewish life, in Coralville, Iowa, Agudas Achim is scheduled to hold its Sisterhood Mitzvah Brunch.

    2018: The Yotam Ben-Or Quartet is scheduled “to celebrate the release of their debut album in NYC” at the Cornelia Street Café.

    2018: “Speak Truth to Power: Human Rights Defenders Who Are Changing Our World,” an exhibit featuring black and white portraits of human rights defender from the book by Pulitzer Prize-winning photojournalist” is scheduled to close today at the Illinois Museum and Education Center.

    2018: The photographic exhibition “Bedouin and Arab Israeli Communities in the Negev” which is part of the “Home: Lens on Israel” series, at the Temple Emanuel Streicker Center is scheduled to come to an end today.

    2018: The United States government continues to sort out the issue of re-uniting the children of illegal immigrants with their parents following a change in a policy reportedly championed by White House official and Trump supporter Stephen Miller, whose Yiddish speaking family had come to the United States in the early 20th century “to escape the anti-Semitic pogroms in the Russian Empire.”

    2018: “The Maimonides Scholars Program is scheduled to open at Yale University.

    2018: “The 2018 Southern California Jewish Sports Hall of Fame induction ceremonies are scheduled to take place this afternoon, at American Jewish University in West Los Angeles.”






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    JUNE 25

    615: On three dates that the revolt began in Jerusalem again Khosrau II, the Persian Shah who was “was the last great king of the Sasanian Empire.”

    1080: The Antipope Clement III who “protested strongly when Emperor Henry IV permitted Jews who had become converted to Christianity during the anti-Jewish riots of the First Crusade to revert to Judaism” began his papacy today.

    1218: Simon de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester, who expelled the Jews from Leicester, died.

    1221 Although the Archbishop of Canterbury forbade anti-Jewish riots in Erfurt, Germany, they continued unabated. A group of religious 'pilgrims' on their way to the Holy Land attacked the Jewish quarter burning two synagogues. Some 26 Jews were killed and others threw themselves into the fire rather than be forcibly converted.

    1240: In Paris, a commission that was making an inquiry into the nature of the Talmud with a specific interest in alleged derogatory comments about Jesus began its deliberation.

    1240: “A public disputation” opened at the Court of Louis IX in the presence of Queen-Mother Blanche between Parisian Talmudist Rabbi Yechiel and Nicholas Donin, an apostate who wanted all copies of the Talmud to be burned.  (He would get his way in 1244 when 24 cartloads of the sacred text were burned)
    1477: At Ferrara, Italy, Abraham die Tintori completed printing Tur Yorch De’ah a work of halacha by Jacob ben Asher. Born in Cologne in 1269 he was known as the Ba’al ha-Turim, the Master of the Rows. His works were divided in four turim or rows.  The term probably comes from the tur or row of Jewels on the breastplate of the High Priest described in the Torah.  According to sketchy information he lived in Chios, Greece before arriving at Toledo where he reportedly passed away in 1343.


    1539: Joachim II Hector, Elector of Brandenburg acceded to the request of Josel von Rosheim and allowed the Jews to “settle in Margraviate again.

    1608: Today Mattias, who acceded to the wishes of the Dutch and “established religious peace” in their provinces which helped to turn the Netherlands into a place of refuge for the Jews fleeing Spain and Portugal, became Archduke of Austria and King of Hungary and Croatia.

    1629:  Rabbi Yom Tov Lipman Heller set out for Vienna to face baseless accusations that he had abused his powers as Chief Rabbi of Prague when raising funds demanded by the government to help pay for fighting the Thirty Years War.

    1644: Lope de Vera (Judah the Believer) was drawn to Judaism by the outrages of the Inquisition. He converted, and during his confinement in prison, he circumcised himself with a bone. He was then burned for refusing to yield to the Inquisition.

    1656: Rabbi Menashe Ben Yisrael applied for official permission to practice Judaism in England. The Council of State granted permission. This took place during the period when Oliver Cromwell was in effect the ruler of England. Cromwell and his followers were devout Christians. The agreed to the readmission of the Jews to England because it was pointed out to them that the Second Coming could not take place until Jews populated all parts of the world.

    1756: Provincial Governor Sir Charles Hardy confirms the last will and testament of Abraham Mendes Seixas. The will had been translated from Portuguese into English.

    1784: The Jewish Benevolent Society of South Carolina, the oldest Jewish charitable organization in the United States, was founded today.

    1788: Virginia ratified the U.S. Constitution making it the tenth state to enter the Union.  Virginia was of the states that had purged itself of religious qualifications prior to joining the new republic.  In 1784 James Madison led the forces that defeated a move to make Christianity the official religion of Virginia.  In 1786, Jefferson and Madison joined forces “to secure passage of a law which removed religious discrimination in Virginia.

    1791: In London, Michael and Judith Samson gave birth to Benjamin Samson who would not survive to celebrate his first birthday.

    1800: Jacob Hyam Nathan married Polly Isaacs at the Great Synagogue in the UK.

    1807: Mr. R.J. Ricardo and Miss Sarah Hyams, both of Charleston, SC, were married this evening.

    1827: Protestant theologian Johann Gottfried Eichorn who “has been called ‘the founder of modern Old Testament criticism’” passed away today.

    1828: Jones Spyer married Grace Josephs at the Great Synagogue in the UK.

    1834: Frederick Hart married Rebecca Hart at the Great Synagogue in the UK.

    1836: Birthdate of German-Jewish poet Friederike Kempner,

    1844: The Jews of Mobile, Alabama, who had been meeting in private homes for the last three years formed a congregation that adopted a constitution and by-laws and titled itself "Sha'arai Shomayim U-Maskil El Dol," which is Hebrew for "Congregation of the Gates of Heaven and Society of the Friends of the Needy." Within a year the congregation hired its first rabbi – Benjamin da Silva – and had its first home on St. Emanuel Street.

    1846(1stof Tammuz, 5605): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1851: Adolphus Simeon Solomons who “was a moving force in helping to establish the American Red Cross” “married Rachel Seixas Phillips, a descendant of colonial patriot families. They had eight daughters and a son.”

    1852: Three days after he passed away, 26 year old Leo Meyer was buried today at the Lauriston Road Jewish Cemetery.

    1856: “The Way they treat the Jew in England” published today reports that “The statesman who undertakes in England to bring forward a measure for the admission of the Jews to the same rights and privileges enjoyed by other citizens of that country, simply dooms himself to the Sisyphean labor of rolling up each year to the House of Lords a measure which is quietly rolled hack again.”

    1857: At Berirth Shalom Congregation, Rabbi Jacobs officiated at the wedding of Mr. Iszair and Miss Ann Mintz.

    1858: “The Jew Bill in Parliament – Prospect of a Concession” published today spoke approvingly of a compromise proposed by Lord Lucan.  His compromise would allow the Lords and the Commons to each adopt their own wording for the Oath of Office to be used by those members who, for religious or other reasons, could not use the current form of the oath. In effect, Lord Lucan’s compromise would permit either the two Houses of Parliament to admit Jews by resolution.  Since the Commons favors the admission of Jews and the Lords opposes their right to sit in Parliament, Lucan’s compromise would get the supporters of the “Jew Bill” half way to their destination.  The compromise was withdrawn because the members of the Commons objected to it.  If they had not, it appears that sufficient numbers of the Lords would have voted for it even though they object to Jews serving in either house of the English legislature.

    1861: Thirty-eight year old Abdülmecid I, the 31st Sultan of the Ottoman Empire passed away. The Sultan carried out reforms begun by his fathers which among other things allowed Jews to assume positions of importance as can be seen by the appoint of Dr. Spitzer to serve as the representative at Naples.  This progress was marred by “accusations of the blood libel in Syria and Rhodes which were part of the Ottoman Empire.

    1862: Joel Solomon married Matilda Hart today in the UK.

    1864: Charles I began his reign as the king of Württemberg during which he bought on the wooden models of the Temple Mount created by Conrad Schick, the “German architect, archaeologist and Protestant missionary who settled in Jerusalem in October of 1846.  Schick “designed the Mea Shearim neighborhood” and his home, Tabor House “is today considered one of Jerusalem’s most beautiful buildings.” (Moshe Gilad)

    1865: Birthdate of Julius Hess the native of Lithuania who served as a rabbi for several Midwestern congregations while living in St. Louis which was his family’s home.

    1866: Charles and Johanna Wessolowsky gave birth to Julius M. Wessolowsky.

    1870: Birthdate of Helena Rubinstein, one of the creators of the American cosmetics industry.

    1871: The Jewish Messenger complained that while there were a number of wealthy Jews in America who were “good men and true” they seemed to be more interested in making money than they were in taking part in projects to promote the civic good.  The Messenger compared the behavior of the Americans with that of their European counter-parts who were “prominent in all public matter – whether to relieve the poor or honor the rich; to rect a statue to the living or a monument to the dead.”

    1872: In New York Isidor Straus and the former Rosalie Ida Blun gave birth to Jesse I. Straus, the Macy’s executive and husband of Irma Nathan who “served as the American Ambassador to France from 1933 to 1936.”

    1873: In St. Louis, MO, Charles Bienenstok and Sarah Davis gave birth to Montefiore Bienenstok, a reporter for the St. Louis Star and editor of The Owl and the author of “short accounts about the Jews of St. Louis” as well as a novel on a Jewish theme who also served as “Assistant Secretary of the Jewish Charitable and Educational Union, Manager of the Free Employment Bureau of the United Jewish Charities and Secretary of the Home for Aged and Infirm Israelites.”

    1875: In Gutenberg, Germany, Isidor Straus and Rosalie Ida Blun gave birth to Jesse Isidor Straus, scion of the famous Straus department store family who served as FDR’s first Ambassador to France in 1933.


    1875: According to a report published today there are more Jews living in London today than living in Palestine.


    1875: The Jewish Messenger lamented the lack of involvement by “Israelite” men in the affairs of the community, especially when it came to better of civic activity and attempts to improve the lot of the less fortunate.  The paper feels that Jewish men are “good men and true” who are willing to contribute their money to worthy causes.  But they are apparently are too busy amassing wealth to give of themselves and their time.  This is the opposite of the case in Europe where wealthy Jews give both their time and money to causes that benefit both the Jewish community and the general society as well.


    1876: The Home and Foreign Events column published today reported that "nine Jewish ministers of this City have united to call the attention of their people to the 'growing evil or extravagance and displays at funerals."  They suggest a return 'the simplicity by which Jewish funerals were formerly characterized,' and that costly caskets and expensive floral displays be dispensed with.


    1876: George Geiger, a Jewish Sergeant from Cincinnati fought with distinction at the Battle of the Little Big Horn today.  According to the commendation he received for the Medal of Honor. "With 3 comrades during the entire engagement courageously held a position that secured water for the command"


    1876: The Home and Foreign Events column published today reported that "The Jews of Khiva, it is said, observe very strictly the feasts and ceremonies of the Jewish religion." [Khiva is a city in Uzbekistan.]


    1876: “Justice in Persia” published today contained examples of the lack of Justice available to the residents of this ancient country including a Jewish silversmith in Isfahan whose house “had been broken into and plundered by servants of the Governor” claiming that they were going to take him “before the Prince to answer a case in which a Persian” claimed he was really owed this money.”

    1879: In Charleston, SC, Rabbi David Levy officiated at the wedding of Frances E. Goldsmith and Rabbi E.S. Levy of Augusta, GA. (David Levy and E.S. Levy would serve as visiting rabbis for the congregation in Sumter, SC which could not afford a full time clergyman).

    1881: “Paris and Politics” published today described a benefit in the French capital sponsored by Baroness Rothschild to raise funds for the suffering “Israelites of Kiev and Elizabethgrad.” Russia.

    1882: During today’s session of the hearing investigating the sanity of Samuel Obrieght, his brother Dr. Max, L. Obreight described half dozen attempts by Samuel to commit suicide including taking strychnine, attempting to jump over Niagara Falls and trying to cut his throat.  Obreight’s family did not move to commit him until he jilted his Jewish fiancée and married a young Christian girl whom he had just met.

    1882: In Elizabeth, NJ, founding of Congregation B’nai Israel which holds services at nine o’clock on Saturday morning, uses the Nak Lane Cemetery in Clinton Township and is home to both the Young Men’s Hebrew Association and the a ladies auxiliary called the Daughters of Israel.

    1883: Mayor Nathan Barnet got into a scuffle with a Republican Alderman at tonight’s meeting of the Aldermanic License Committee in Paterson, NJ. Barnet, a Jew born in Pozen is a Democrat won election in April of 1883.

    1884: Birthdate of British novelist of Gilbert Cannan who was a friend and patron of Mark Gertler and the subject of his “Gilbert Cannan at his Mill.”

    1884: “Jew-Baiting in Russia” published today described an attack by Christians on the Jews of Nizhnee-Novogrod after reports that a Jew had kidnapped a Christian child and taken it to the local synagogue. An untold number of Jews were injured in this latest version of the blood libel and nine were murdered.

    1884: In Germany, “Herman and Rosa Frandenfelder Badman gave birth to Theodore Badman, the Eton educated “real estate and insurance agent’ who was active in the Democratic Party and “President of the Manhattan Washington Lodge of the B’nai B’rith and of the Free Sons of Israel Lodge.”

    1886: The Sanitarium for Hebrew Children is collecting funds to provide poor children and their mothers with summer day trips out of New York City.  Contributions can be sent to John J. Davis at the office of the Hebrew Journal on East 14th Street.

    1888: “Jew and Catholic United” published today described the marriage of Joseph J. Herrmann (Catholic) and Bertha Cahn (Jewish) in New Orleans.  Rabbi Emile Hirsch of Chicago performed the ceremony since the rabbis in the Crescent City refused to do so.

    1888: It was reported today that Orphan Asylum of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society is caring for 575 youngsters, 400 of whom are boys and 175 are girls.  The boys are housed at building on 11th Avenue while the girls are housed at a building on 87thStreet near the East River.

    1891: “Too Many and Too Mighty” published today takes issue with the list of the reasons given by the Russian government for its treatment of the Jews contending that “cruel restrictive laws…have made the Hebrews in the Czar’s dominions what they are.”

    1891: “Wants To Fight Tammany” published today described the decision of New York attorney William A. Gans who had served as the President of the B’nai B’rith to ally himself with Julius Harburger in the fight against the Democratic machine.

    1891: Point 14 of the platform of the Iowa Democratic Party published today included an expression for the support of Russian Jews.  “We abhor the persecutions of Russia toward the Jewish people and we believe that all civilized nations should protest against such barbarism and inhumanity.

    1892: The new sanitarium for Jewish children is scheduled to open today at Rockaway Park.

    1892: The Jews of Paris send condolences to the family of Armand Meyer, the Jewish French military officer who was killed in a duel brought on by the Marquis de Mores, a noted anti-Semite. Authorities take extra precaution because they fear violence by the Jews.  The reality is that the Jews have been the victims of attacks, something which does not bother these same officials.

    1892: “The French Duel” published today described the role of “an anti-Semitic journal in Paris” which deliberately goads Jews into fighting duels with the swashbuckling swordsman the Marquis de Mores who at least on one occasion has killed his Jewish opponent.

    1892: The Berlin Board of Alderman passed a resolution “calling upon the police to suppress the sale of indecent pamphlets assailing the Jews.”

    1893: All the students at the Jewish Theological Seminary including the members of the senior, junior and preparatory classes underwent final exams today.

    1893: “French Views of Russia” published today provided a detailed review of The Empire of the Tsars and The Russians by Anatole Leroy-Beauliue which warns that “Western readers cannot apply to Russia rules and notions which prevail in the West” because Russia belongs “to the Europe of three or four centuries ago.

    1894: Governor Flower appointed Edward Jacobs, a New York lawyer who was the brother of the Joseph Jacobs both of whom were active in the Jewish community, to serve as the new Quarantine Commissioner.

    1894: Birthdate of Dimitar Peshev “the Deputy Speaker of the National Assembly of Bulgaria and Minister of Justice before World War II” who “rebelled against the pro-Nazi cabinet and prevented the deportation of Bulgaria's 48,000 Jews and was bestowed the title of "Righteous Among the Nations".

    1894(21st of Sivan, 5654): Sixty-eight year old Wilhelm Diamant, the husband of Johanna Theres Diament and the son of Johanna and Hermann Diamant passed away today in Budapest.

    1894: The Hog and the Ass” published today described the ancient Roman belief on why Jews do not eat pigs. Even though Pompey and the soldiers of Titus saw that there was no representation of the Divinity when they entered the Temple, Romans still believed that “Jews worshipped clouds, celestial bodies and animals” among them the Hog or Pig.  They deduced that since the Jews were forbidden from eating Hogs or even, in the Talmud, from owning them, the Jews must worship this animal and the prohibition about consuming it had do with not consuming their “god.”

    1894: “Last of Great Jewish Generals” published today provided a detailed review of Judas Maccabaeus and the Jewish War of Independence by Calude Reignier Conder. This edition is an improvement over the first one published by Major Condor fifteen years ago because the author has been to Moab and Gilead in his role as the head of the Palestine Exploration Fund.

    1894: Annie Cohen Kopchovsky’s, known as Annie Londonderry,adventure began with a bet. In 1894, a gentleman in Boston bet another gentleman, $20,000 against $10,000, that no woman could travel around the world by bicycle, a feat that had been completed for the first time by a man in 1885. Although it is not clear w