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- 07/08/18--20:58: _This Day, July 9, I...
- 07/09/18--19:40: _This Day, July 10, ...
- 07/10/18--18:23: _This Day, July 11, ...
- 07/11/18--19:26: _This Day, July 12, ...
- 07/12/18--19:46: _This Day, July 13, ...
- 07/13/18--19:16: _This Day, July 14, ...
- 07/14/18--19:42: _This Day, July 15, ...
- 07/15/18--18:55: _This Day, July 16, ...
- 07/16/18--18:49: _This Day, July 17, ...
- 07/17/18--18:33: _This Day, July 18, ...
- 07/18/18--18:27: _This Day, July 19, ...
- 07/19/18--18:43: _This Day, July 20, ...
- 07/20/18--20:40: _This Day, July 21, ...
- 07/21/18--19:25: _This Day, July 22, ...
- 07/22/18--19:09: _This Day, July 23, ...
- 07/23/18--21:13: _This Day, July 24, ...
- 07/24/18--19:49: _This Day, July 25, ...
- 07/25/18--17:34: _This Day, July 26, ...
- 07/26/18--19:31: _This Day, July 27, ...
- 07/27/18--19:47: _This Day, July 28, ...
- 07/08/18--20:58: This Day, July 9, In Jewish History by Mitchell A. Levin
- 07/09/18--19:40: This Day, July 10, In Jewish History by Mitchell A. Levin
- 07/10/18--18:23: This Day, July 11, In Jewish History by Mitchell A. Levin
- 07/11/18--19:26: This Day, July 12, In Jewish History by Mitchell A. Levin
- 07/12/18--19:46: This Day, July 13, In Jewish History by Mitchell A. Levin
- 07/13/18--19:16: This Day, July 14, In Jewish History by Mitchell A. Levin
- 07/14/18--19:42: This Day, July 15, In Jewish History by Mitchell A. Levin
118: Hadrian, Rome's new emperor, made his entry into the Imperial City. Regardless of how history remembers him, for Jews, Hadrian is the Emperor who helped to start the Third Rebellion against Rome. In this case it was the lead by Bar Kochba and supported by Rabbi Akiva. It lasted from 132 until 135. It was the last uprising against Rome and really marked the beginning of the end of a vital Jewish community in Palestine.
425: A decree of the emperors Theodosius II and Valentinian III, addressed to Amatius, prefect of Gaul prohibited Jews and pagans from practicing law and from holding public offices ("militandi"), in order that Christians should not be in subjection to them, and thus be incited to change their faith.
507: At Daphne (near Antioch in Syria), a sporting event was held in the form of a chariot race between two parties, the Greens and the Whites. For no apparent reason, the supporters of the greens attacked the local synagogue killing those Jews who were inside.
518: Byzantine Emperor Anastasius I, whose war with the Sassanid Empire doomed the Red Sea trading activities of the Jews of Yotabe, passed away today.
1228: Cardinal Stephen Langton, who in 1218, as the Archbishop Canterbury “made Jews wear an oblong white patch of two finger-lengths by four” which made them an easy to identify mark for the mobs, encouraged by the Barons to ransack Jewish homes and destroy the “records of the debts owed by the nobility, passed away today.
721: The Franks defeat the Muslims at the Battle of Toulouse. This victory checks the spread of Islam in Western Europe which will be confined to Spain. This will not be the last battle between these forces. That will be left to Charles Martel who led the Franks at the Battle of Tours eleven years later.
1391: Violence in Valencia, Spain that had begun a month earlier under the direction Ferrand Martinez continued unabated. Ferrand Martinez was the Archdeacon of Ecija in the fourteenth century, and one of the most inveterate enemies of the Jewish people. Among Christians he was highly respected for his piety and philanthropy. In his sermons and public discourses he continually fanned the hatred of the Christian population against the Jews, to whom he ascribed all sorts of vices. As vicar-general of Archbishop Barroso of Seville he arrogated to himself the right of jurisdiction over the Jews in his diocese, injuring them wherever he could, and demanding that the magistrates of Alcalá de Guadeyra, Ecija, and other places no longer suffer the Jews among them.The community of Valencia was destroyed and 250 Jews massacred. Many others including the king's physician converted to Christianity while still others found refuge in the houses of their Christian neighbors.
1391: A rabbi's personal letter written in Saragossa, Spain on this date is one of the few firsthand accounts of the total chaos in Spain: "If I were to tell you here all the numerous sufferings we have endured you would be dumbfounded at the thought of them…On the day of the New Moon of the fateful month Tammuz in the year 5151, the Lord bent the bow of the enemies against the populous community of Seville where there were between 6,000-7,000 heads of families, and they destroyed the gates by fire and killed in that very place a great number of people; the majority, however, changed their faith.
1553: “The Elector Maurice of Saxony” who in 1542 “expelled the Jews from Zwickau” where they had lived since 1308 and who expelled them from Plauen in 1543 passed away today.
1667(17thof Tammuz, 5427):Joseph Athias’ father Abraham Athias, a Marrano Jew, was burnt at the stake together with the Marranos Jacob Rodríguez Cáceres and Raquel Nuñez Fernández in Córdoba by the Spanish Inquisition
1701: During the War of the Spanish Succession which began today, Samson Wertheimer, the Hungarian Rabbi turned Austrian financier and “court Jew” united with Samuel Oppenheimer to procure the money necessary for the equipment of the Austrian imperiall army and for the supply of provisions.
1713:Lourença Coutinho the mother of Portugese dramatist António José da Silva who was known as “O Judeu” or “The Jew” died today in today’s the auto-da-fé
1730(24h of Tammuz, 5490): Sixty-nine year old Issachar Berend Lehman, one of the leading court Jews of the 16th and 17th century who used the influence he gained with various German princes due to his business acumen to better the lot of his coreligionists.
1733: Abigaill Levy Franks, the most noted of American Jewish colonial letter writers, wrote her son Naphtali, admonishing him to eat nothing but "bread & butter" wherever food preparation was "not done after our Strict Juidacall [kosher] method."
1746: “In the middle of the night, two Jews of the Roman ghetto, Amadio Abbina and Sabato Isacco Ambron, left the city. (The description of their adventures and the places they visited during their long pilgrimage to the Holy Land have reached us for the first time in 2012 in manuscripts published by Paola Abbina and Asher Salah. By providing a biographical sketch of these two intrepid Jewish friends, this lecture by Asher Salah (Bezalel Academy) aims at understanding the reasons why they undertook such a perilous journey.)
1749(23rdof Tammuz, 5509):Ezekiel Katzenellenbogen ben Abraham passed away. Born in Lithuania was a Polish-German rabbi who served the communities at Kėdainiai (Keidani) and Altona.
1754: During the French and Indian War, the name of Michael Franks, a member of the Jewish family that supplied soldiers in this and the Revolutionary War, appeared as a private in a roster of created today by Captain van Braam.
1765:Samuel Israel, Alexander Solomon, and Joseph Depalacios, three Sephardim who were the first Jews in Alabama bought property today in Mobile County.
1791: Judah Cohen married Gracia Da Costa in Kingston, Jamaica.
1797: Edmund Burke, British philosopher and statesman, passed away. Burke is the author of the quote “The only thing necessary for the triumph of evil is for good men to do nothing.” This quote has often been used by commentators and historians in attempts to explain the Holocaust.
1797: Gompertz Alexander married Betsy Simon at the Great Synagouge.
1804: Birthdate of Jonas Bondi, the native of Dresden who was the rabbi at Anshe Chesed in New York before he began publishing The Hebrew Leader and whose daughter Selma married the founder of the Reform Movement in the United States Isaac M. Wise.
1805: Levy Ephraim Green married Emilia Hyams at the Great Synagogue.
1816: Argentina declares independence from Spain. The first Jews probably came to Argentina as conversos following the Spanish Inquisition. Bernardino Rivadavia, Argentina’s first president gave support to policies that promoted freedom of immigration and respect for human rights, including the abolishing of the Inquisition. These changes in the social and political climate paved the way for a new wave of Jewish immigration.
1835: The dedicatory date on the tombstone of Mrs. Shoshan Levi in The Penang Jewish Cemetery.
1841(20thof Tammuz, 5601): Joseph “Yosef” Friedlander, he son of Aharon Jehuda Friedlander and the husband of Gittel Rinkel who was a dealer in second hand close passed away today.
1842: Lt. Colonel Max-Théodore Cerfberr who served as president of the Consistoire Central Israelite de France “took his seat in the Chamber Deputies” today “as representative from Wissembourg.
1845: In London, Dr. Nathan Marcus Adler “was inaugurated as Chief Rabbi of the Great Synagogue.”
1845: Joseph Magnus married Emma Fileman.
1845: Lazarus Phillips married Bloomah Marks at the Great Synagogue.
1846: The chief rabbis of Baghdad announced a curse (Herem) on the Christian missionaries who had come to convert the Jews in their community.
1847: “The Jewish Chronicle” went from being published every two weeks to being published as a weekly.
1850: President Zachary Taylor dies and Millard Fillmore becomes the 13th President of the United States. Millard Fillmore is one the lesser known U.S. Presidents. But he played a major role in furthering the acceptance of Jews as full citizens of the United States. In 1851, the United States Senate considered a treaty with Switzerland. The treaty included a clause that would the governments of the individual Swiss Cantons to treat U.S. citizens in the same way they treated their own citizens. Some of the cantons had laws that discriminated against Jews. Ratification of the treaty would have meant that American citizens could be treated differently based on their religion. Fillmore declared that part of the treat to be “a decisive objection. In leading the successful opposition to the treaty Fillmore declared that “neither by law, nor by treaty, nor by any other official proceeding is it competent for the Government of the United States to establish any distinction between its citizens founded on differences in religious beliefs.”
1896: In the trial of Adolph Herschkopf for the murder of Lizzie Jaeger, the prosecution rested today.
1901: According to reports published in the New York Times, Montefiore Isaacs, the nephew of the late Sir Moses Montefiore, is one of the most popular bachelors who belong to the posh Metropolitan Club. Among other things, Montefiore is famous for his skills as a magician; skills which he has used in “thousands of performances” given for a wide variety of charities. He is also a well regarded for his knowledge of Shakespeare and his collection of very rare books.
1902: Another interview with Lord Rothschild takes place during which Herzl submits the details of Colonization Company for the development of Sinai, El Arish and Cyprus. Rothschild promises to discuss the plan with the British Minister for the Colonies, Joseph Chamberlain.
1904: The National Democratic Convention which Samuel Untermyer attended as a delegate from New York and nominated Alton B. Parker to run against Socialist Eugene Debs and Republican Theodore Roosevelt came to a close. In the fall, in New York’s 8th Assembly District on the Lower East Side which was dominated by Jewish voters, “Democrat Alton B. Parker crushed Socialist Debs by nearly 3 to 1, but the “all-American” Republican, Theodore Roosevelt, beat them both and easily swept the neighborhood.” (As reported by Michael Medved)
1905: “The sole memorial service” honoring the recently deceased Secretary of State John Hay “to be held in New York City” took place “in the synagogue of the First Romanian-American Congregation” where “recognition of the services of the United States in behalf of the Jews during Mr. Hay’s secretaryship” were a key part of the event.
1905: The Ninth Summer Assembly of the Jewish Chautauqua Society continued for a second day in Atlantic City, NJ.
1908: In Yampil, a town in the western Ukraine, Bluma and Moshe Mikardo gave birth to British Labor MP Ian Mikardo.
The President of the United States of America, authorized by Act of Congress, July 9, 1918, takes pleasure in presenting the Army Distinguished Service Medal to Mr. Bernard M. Baruch, a United States Civilian, for exceptionally meritorious and distinguished services to the Government of the United States, in a duty of great responsibility during World War I, in the organization and administration of the War Industries Board and in the coordination of allied purchases in the United States. By establishing a broad and comprehensive policy for the supervision and control of the raw materials, manufacturing facilities, and distribution of the products of industry, he stimulated the production of war supplies, coordinated the needs of the military service and the civilian population, and contributed alike to the completeness and speed of the mobilization and equipment of the military forces and the continuity of their supply. War Department, General Orders No. 15 (1921)
1918 Colonel Harry Cutler, Retired, “was awarded the Army Distinguished Service Medal for services rendered to help in the war effort.
The President of the United States of America, authorized by Act of Congress, July 9, 1918, takes pleasure in presenting the Army Distinguished Service Medal to Colonel (Retired) Harry Cutler, Rhode Island National Guard, a United States Civilian, for exceptionally meritorious and distinguished services to the Government of the United States, in a duty of great responsibility during World War I as Chairman, Executive Committee, of the Jewish Welfare Board.
1918: By direction of the President, under the provisions of the act of Congress approved today (Bul. No. 43, W.D., 1918), Private Lester Bergman (MCSN: 158340/117036), United States Marine Corps, is cited by the Commanding General, American Expeditionary Forces, for gallantry in action and a silver star may be placed upon the ribbon of the Victory Medals awarded him. Private Bergman distinguished himself by gallantry in action while serving with Company E, 5th Regiment (Marines), 2d Division, American Expeditionary Forces, in action in the Bois de Belleau, France, 13 June 1918, in attacking, with eight comrades, an enemy machine gun nest.
1919(11th of Tammuz, 5679): Alexander Benjamin “Broadway” Smith, the turn of the century major leaguer who played for the New York Giants, Boston Red Sox and Chicago Cubs passed away today.
1919: By a vote of 209 to 16 the German National Assembly ratified the Versailles Treaty which the Nazis would use as part of their drive to power.
1920: Birthdate of Zalman Lev Steinberg, the Moscow native who as Leo Steinberg became “one of the most brilliant, influential and controversial art historians of the last half of the 20th century.”
1922: The Philadelphia Inquirer described the career of Dr. M. H. Spare who had “directed the erection of a $35,000 building” to serve the needs of the Jewish community of Chester, PA.
1922: It was reported today that “in a recent campaign” the Young Men’s and Young Women’s Hebrew Association of Camden have “increased their membership to 1,000.”
1924(7thof Tammuz, 5684): Sixty-four year old Russian-born American labor statistician and Yiddish language intellectual passed away today.
1924: The Democratic National Convention, during which Doctor Stephen S. Wise, the Rabbi of the Free Synagogue had delivered the invocation” came to a close today.
1925(17th of Tammuz, 5685): Tzom Tammuz
1926: Birthdate of Dr. Mathilde Krim, scientist and AIDS activist. She recognized soon after the first cases of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) were reported in 1981 that this new disease raised grave scientific and medical questions and that it might have important socio-political consequences. She dedicated herself to increasing the public's awareness of AIDS and to a better understanding of its cause, its modes of transmission, and its epidemiologic pattern. . It was during her doctoral studies that Krim converted to Judaism, inspired in part by learning the truth about the Holocaust and in part by her association with Jews from Israel (then Palestine) who were studying at the University. In 1953, Krim moved with her husband and daughter to Israel, where she found a position at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot. At Weizmann, she contributed to studies that laid the foundation for amniocentesis, became one of the first experts in culturing cells, and studied the viruses thought to cause some forms of cancer. After moving to New York 1958, she joined the research faculty at Cornell Medical College and later at Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research. For many years, she was deeply involved in the study of interferons, natural substances that were considered promising for the treatment of cancer. Just as the study of interferons was falling out of favor, AIDS was becoming a major public health concern. Krim left full-time research and became involved in AIDS treatment and activism. In 1985, she founded the AIDS Medical Foundation (AMF), the first private organization concerned with fostering and supporting AIDS research. In August, 2000 she was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian honor in the United States.
1927: Birthdate of Boston native Harriet Shapiro who gained game as actress Susan Cabot
1928(21stof Tammuz, 5688): Talmudic scholar, Rabbi Shlomo Polachek passed away. Born in Grodna in 1877 when Jews constituted almost half of the city’s population he served as rosh yeshiva in Lida and Bialystok before moving to the United States in 1922 to serve as Rosh Yeshiva at the Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary (RIETS) the Rabbinical School of Yeshiva University and its Yeshiva College, America's first yeshiva.
1929: Writer and sculptor Alfred Dreyfus who was committed to the Manhattan State Hospital in 1928 was transferred to Dr. McDonald’s house at Central Valley, NY.
1929: Birthdate of King Hassan II of Morocco. King Hassan served as a “back channel” during negotiations between Israeli and Arab officials. He played a critical, if somewhat still undefined role, in the Camp David Negotiations that led to the peace agreement between Israel and Egypt in 1973.
1930: At Michael Reiss Hospital in Chicago, Robert B. Bregman of Cleveland, Ohio and his wife Claire Styne Bregman, the sister of songwriter Jule Styne gave birth to musical arranger and record producer Buddy Bregman who is the father of “Tracey Elizabeth Bregman, who plays Lauren Fenmore on Young & Restless and Bold & Beautiful.”
1931: In Gadsden, Alabama, “Alvin Rosenbaum Lowi, who founded a chemical company, and the former Janice Haas, a piano teacher and silent movie accompanist” gave birth to Theodore Jay Lowi, the Professor in the Government Department of Cornell University whose students included “Israel Serigo-Waismel-Manor, a lecturer at the University of Haifa.”
1932: Birthdate of Soviet refusenik Iosif “Yosef” Ziselovich Begun
1933: In North London, Dr. Samuel Sacks and Muriel Elsie Landau, one of the first female surgeons in England gave birth to Oliver Wolf Sacks the neurologist and author who was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) in 2008.
1934: Two days after he passed away in Saratoga Springs, NY, Melvin Beilis was buried at the Mount Carmel Cemetery in Queens which is also the final resting place of Sholem Aleichem and Leo Frank.
1936:The Palestine Post reported from London that Mr. Ormsby-Gore, the Colonial Secretary, admitted in the House of Commons that since the Palestine Government's expenditure on Moslem Religious Courts exceeded income, it was inevitable that the Jewish taxpayer had contributed approximately £9,000 to the maintenance of the Moslem Supreme Council, while Jewish religious courts and the Chief Rabbinate received no support from the government. More British troops were transferred from Egypt to Palestine. Ha'aretz and Haboker dailies were suspended for five days for the "publication of false news, likely to create alarm and despondency" (the comment on the failure of the British troops and of the Palestine Police to deal effectively with Arab disturbances).
1936: “The United States liner Manhattan arrived” at New York today “with 785 passengers” of whom 100 were “Jewish refugees from Germany.”
1936: At Tannersville, NY, the convention of the Rabbinical Assembly of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America “endorsed a special campaign for a national fund to plant 100,000 trees in Palestine to replace those destroyed during the current disturbances” and “recommended that the next annual convention be held in connection with the fiftieth anniversary of the Jewish Theological Seminary.”
1936: In Paris, Francois Pietri, the former Minister of Finance told the Chamber of Deputies that “the International Olympic Committee had received assurances from German sport authorities that there would be no discrimination against Jews and that the Jews would be represented among the German athletes.”
1936(19thof Tammuz, 5696): Zionist Morris Paul Tax passed away today in Milwaukee. Wisconsin.
1937: George Gershwin was rushed back to Cedars of Lebanon hospital after collapsing tonight at the home of lyricist Yip Harburg where they had been working on the score of the “Goldwyn Follies.”
1938(10th of Tammuz, 5698): Famed jurist Benjamin Cardozo passed away. Cardozo was part of Sephardic family that had deep roots in the American experience. One of his ancestors fought in the American Revolution. Born in 1870 in New York, Cardozo had a long, distinguished career as an author on legal matters and a jurist before being named an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court by Herbert Hoover in 1932. Cardozo was the second Jew to reach this height; the first being Louis D. Brandies. At one time, Cardozo was ranked as one of the "ten most foremost judges in American Judicial history." Cardozo was an active member of the Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue in New York. During the 1930’s, with the rise of European anti-Semitism and Hitler, Cardozo became a public supporter of Palestine as a homeland for the Jews.
1938(10thof Tammuz, 5698): Eighty-year old Calude Goldsmid Montefiore the son of Nathaniel Montefiore and the grandson of Sir I.L. Goldsmid passed away today who was one of the founders of Liberal (Reform) Judaism in the United Kingdom passed away today.
1938: Two seventeen year old Jewish hikers were stabbed and seriously wounded this morning “while passing through an Arab village, a mile from Tel Aviv on the main Jaffa-Jerusalem road. They were stripped and left by the roadside until found by a passing motorist.” The attack marked the end of bloody week in which Arab attackers had killed 12 Jews and wounded another 24.
1939(22nd of Tammuz, 5699): Ukrainian born Boris Thomashefsky who came to the United States in 1881 where his singing and acting skills made him “one of the biggest stars in the Yiddish theatre” passed away today.
1940:With the end of the subscription series of the Palestine Symphony Orchestra the musical season has closed. Thirteen series have been presented this year in Tel Aviv, Haifa, and Jerusalem--compared to the ten series of former years. Special programs for the colonies
1940: Between today and the end of August, 2,139 Jewish and Gentile Poles received visas from the Japanese.
1941: Birthdate of Yosef Shiloach, the native of Iranian Kurdisan and Israeli actor who made Aliyah at the age of 9.
1941(14thof Tammuz, 5701): In Liepāja, Latvia, Erhard Grauel, a detachment of Einsatzkommando 2 under the command of Erhard Grauel, murdered another 100 people today, most of whom were Jews.
1941:Birthdate of Bobby Frankel, one of the most successful American thoroughbred trainers, whose horses included the champions Bertrando, Ghostzapper and Empire Maker, the winner of the 2003 Belmont Stakes.
1941(14thof Tammuz, 5701): Seventy-three year old Zionist leader David Jochelman who opposed the offer of Uganda as a Jewish home and spent WW I in London where he founded the Jewish War Victims’ Fund and the Russo-Jewish War Fund passed away today.
1941: During the invasion of the Soviet Union, Zhitomir, a city in the Ukraine with pre-war Jewish population of 29,503 was seized by the Nazis.
1941: Hungary invaded the eastern Ukraine. Hungary was an ally of Nazi Germany during the war. Hungary's Jews suffered at the hand of homegrown anti-Semites. But eventually Eichman arrived and the full weight of the Final Solution fell, first in the countryside in places like Sighet and later in the big cities, most notably Budapest.
1942(24thof Tammuz, 5702): Eighty-two year old German historian Ernst Bernheim who lost his career during the Nazi era because he was classified as a Jew died today.
1942: Anne Frank’s family went into hiding in an attic above her father’s office in an Amsterdam warehouse.
1942: Jewish partisan Vitka Kempner returns to the Vilna Ghetto, having successfully planted a land mine and blown up the engine and ammunition cars of a German military train.
1943(6thof Tammuz, 5703): Sixty year old Isidore Goudeket, the Amsterdam native who was part of the Dutch gymnastic at the 1908 Summer Olympics was murdered today at Sobibor.
1943: Operation Husky began tonight as Allied troops began landing in Sicily. The Germans and Italians were not expecting the landings thanks, in large part, to Operation Mincemeat. Operation Mincemeat was one of the most successful acts of subterfuge carried during World War II. It was mastermind by Edwin Montagu, a Colonel in the British Army who belonged to of the UK’s most distinguished Jewish families. Operation Mincemeat convinced the Germans that the invasion would come at Greece or Sardinia and not the island off the toe of the Italian Boot. For more about this you might want to see “The Man Who Never Was” or read the recently published Operation Mincemeat by Ben Macintyre.
1945: Birthdate of Rabbi Gene Levy, the spiritual leader, in the truest sense of that term, of Temple B’Nai Israel in Little Rock, AR.
1945: Sixty-three year old Amalie ("Emma") Henriette Jessen the widow of German historian Ernst Bernheim who lost his career during the Nazi era because he was classified as a Jew passed away today.
1947: Today, the day on which Noah Klieger was supposed to lead of a group of DP’s across France to the port of Sete, plans were upset because “the French trucking union opened a nationwide strike for higher wages and built road blockades on all mainline roads.”
1948: During the War of Independence, Egyptian artillery opened fire on Kfar Darom. This was followed by an attack led by an armored column and infantry. When the Egyptians entered the settlement they found that the Jews had already decamped. Goliath had beaten David, but it was a pyrrhic victory, since the defenders had upset the Egyptian timetable for taking Tel Aviv. This military action took place during what was supposed to be a four week cease fire between the Arabs and the Israelis.
1948: The four week cease fire between the Israelis and the invading Arab armies was set to end. The Arabs rejected attempts by Count Bernadotte, the U.N. envoy, to extend the cease fire for another ten days.
1948: Israeli forces launched Operation Danny, an offensive designed “to capture territory east of Tel Aviv” and then open the road to Jerusalem in a bid to break the Arab stranglehold on the city. The offensive was named after Danny Mass, the commander of “Convoy 35” and was under the command of Yigal Allon and Yitzhak Rabin. The undertrained and poorly armed Jewish forces were up against the Arab Legion, the elite British trained army of Jordan. The ultimate key to victory would in the need to capture the seemingly impregnable Arab position at Latrun. “Convoy 35” refers to an attempt made by a detachment of Haganah troopers to bring supplies to the Gush Etzion kibbutzim in January of 1948. Thirty-five died in the attempt and many of their bodies were mutilated beyond recognition.
1948: Israeli forces launched an all-night bombardment as part of an attempt to re-take the Old City.
1948(2ndof Tammuz): Twenty-six year old Robert “Bob” Vickman a WW II veteran of the USAAF who was a member of 101 Squadron died today while fighting against aircraft from the REAF.
1948: The fifth Israeli attack on the Egyptian-held police fort of Iraq Suwaydan came to an end with the installation still in the hands of the Arabs.
1948:Mordechai Weingarten “was chosen to meet Abdullah el Tell, now the Jordanian Military Commander of the Old City, to discuss the release of the prisoners taken in the Jewish Quarter, the burial of bodies left in the Quarter, and the rescue of any Scrolls of the Law that had survived.”
1950: In Israel, 100 orderlies joined 2,000 nurses who were already on strike. Both groups are “demanding better working conditions.”
1951: Australia, South Africa and the United Kingdom ended their state of war with Germany today.
1951: Haifa native Ivry “Gitlis made his debut in Paris, playing a recital at the 'Salle Gaveau', sponsored by the music manager.”
1951:The Jerusalem Post reported that Jerusalem was assured of a regular supply of ice for domestic purposes from outside of the city and that the government granted a subsidy, due to the cost of the transport of ice from the coast. The Jerusalem Program for Zionism, replacing the Basel Program drawn up at the First Zionist Congress in 1897, was drawn up for the 23rd Zionist Congress to be held in Jerusalem on August 14.
1952: In Hollywood, CA, Nicholas M. Schenck of New York, president of Loew’s, Inc. outlined plans for the company’s first sweeping economy move since the Great Depression which included an immediate pay cut of 25 to 50 percent for any executive making more than $1,000 a week.
1955(19thof Tammuz, 5715): Parashat Pinchas
1955(19thof Tammuz, 5715): Eighty-six year old Chicago born Albert Pick, Sr. the founder of what has become the Pick Hotels Corporation which is now headed by his son Albert Pick, Jr and the father of Mrs. Gertrude Edmunds passed away today in Miami Beach, FL.
1955: Today “just two weeks before the Big Four…are scheduled to meet at Geneva” where nuclear disarmament will be an agenda item, pacifist Earl Russell is scheduled to released “a statement on nuclear weapons by Dr. Albert Einstein” which the Nobel Prize winner had given him shortly before his death.
1955: The Russell-Einstein Manifesto was released by Bertrand Russell in London. The manifesto was an attempt by the “peace advocates” to deescalate the Cold War by calling attention to the dangers of nuclear weapons. It contained a call for an international conference to deal with issues of nuclear disarmament. The Einstein in the manifesto was Albert Einstein who died shortly after the manifesto was issued.
1956(1st of Av, 5716): Rosh Chodesh Av
1957(10thof Tammuz, 5717): Fifty-five year old Maxwell Abbell, the Polish born son of Morris and Freida Abell, husband of Fannie Abell with whom he had five children and Harvard graduate who worked as an accountant in Chicago until he passed the Illinois bar 1938 after which he became the “owner of hotels and buildings throughout the United States” and a leader in the Jewish community as can be seen by his service as “vice president of the American-Palestine Trading Corporation,” President of the United Synagogues of America and trustee of the JNF passed away today.
1957: “Loving You” the first of Elvis Presley’s musicals directed Hal Kanter who co-wrote the screenplay and produced by Hal B. Wallis and with music by Walter Scharf was released today in the United States (Editor’s Note – Elvis was not Jewish but all of the others were.
1958: Shayetet 13 operatives infiltrated Beirut harbor in Operation Yovel. They were discovered, and a gunfight and chase ensued. The commandos were able to retreat without any casualties
1961: Israel officially recognized South Korea
1962: “Yossele Schumacher, who was reunited with both his parents last night for the first time in more than two years,” is scheduled to take the stand today “in Jerusalem District Court in the trial of a couple charged with hiding him before he was spirited out of Israel.”
1962: Birthdate of New York native and Ivy League educated (Penn and Harvard Law) investor Steve Eisman who gained fame after appearing The Big Short by Michael Lewis which provided the fodder for the film of the same name that exposed the sub-prime market and who is a vocal opponent of “for profit colleges” – the educational equivalent of the sub-prime cesspool.
1963(17thof Tammuz, 5723): Unbeknownst to anybody, last observance of Tzom Tammuz during the Presidency of John Kennedy.
1963(17thof Tammuz, 5723): Eighty-eight year old Lawrence A. Tanzer, the Ivy League educated lawyer (Harvard and Columbia University Law School) the son of Arnold and Ida Tanzer and husband of Florence Keller Tanzer with whom he had two daughters who was a civic reformer and a driving force behind creation of the city charter that was in effect until January of this year, passed away today.
1964: Mr. and Mrs. Zeev Jabotinsky are scheduled to be reinterred in a Jerusalem cemetery today.
1967:“Mezzo-soprano Jennie Tourel joined Leonard Bernstein for a concert on Jerusalem's Mount Scopus to celebrate the end of the Six-Day War. It was a moment that brought together several of the themes of her life: music, dedication to Israel, and work with prominent composers and conductors. Born in Vitebsk, Belorussia (now Belarus) in 1900, she trained as a singer in Paris, where she debuted at the Opéra Comique in 1933. She won acclaim for her performance of the title role in Bizet's Carmen. For nearly a decade, she was the star of the Opéra Comique, singing the roles of Charlotte in Massenet's Werther and the title role in Thomas's Mignon. Fleeing Paris just a week before the Nazi invasion, Tourel made her way to New York via Portugal, Cuba, and Canada. Though at first she had trouble finding work, she eventually impressed a musical agent who arranged an audition with the conductor Arturo Toscanini. Toscanini, in turn, hired her to sing with the New York Philharmonic, and she soon appeared with the Boston Symphony Orchestra and the Philadelphia Orchestra as well. Later, Leonard Bernstein wrote the Jeremiah Symphony especially for her voice, and Tourel performed it all over the world. In her late forties, Tourel became well-known as a song recitalist. Though she had received critical and popular acclaim for her work in opera, her performances of French, German, and Russian songs, including Ravel's Shéhérazade, Mussorgsky's Songs and Dances of Death, and works by Schubert and Schumann, gained her an even wider circle of fans. At an age when many singers retire, Tourel continued to give acclaimed performances to eager audiences. She continued to perform until past the age of seventy. In addition to performing all over the world, Tourel taught at New York's Juilliard School, and annually at the Samuel Rubin Academy of Music in Jerusalem. In 1949, she became one of the first internationally-known artists to visit the infant Jewish state. Following that first visit, she remained involved in the musical life of Israel, with frequent visits and master classes. Tourel died on
1967: INS Eilat, a Z Class destroyer commanded by Yitzhak Shushan, set sail due west toward the Sinai coast.
1967: Ninety-three year old Dr. Eugene Fisher the member of the Nazi Party who was appointed rector of the Frederick William University of Berlin by Adolf Hitler, who provided the basis for many of Nazi policies on eugenics and who escaped prosecution by whitewashing his record, passed away today.
1969: Egyptian commandos raid an Israeli tank depot, killing 8, wounding nine and taking one prisoner.
1969: Twenty-two year old Israeli singer/song writer Mike Brant, who had changed his name from Moshe in an attempt to increase his appeal, arrived in Paris today where he was told he could meet a producer who would further his music career.
1970: “Where’s Poppa?” a comedy starring George Segal and Ron Leibman directed by Carl Reiner who cast his son Rob as “Roger” was released in the United States today.
1970: A London revival production of a musical “with a book by Moss Hart” and lyrics co-written by Oscar Hammerstein II opened today at the Drury Lane Theatre.
1973: The Ninth Maccabiah games open in Tel Aviv, Israel.
1974(19thof Tammuz, 5734): Seventy year old Lithuanian born “choreographer and dance teacher” Sonia Gaskell who in 1939 move to her husband’s home in the Netherlands where she survived the war and continued teaching until she passed away today in Paris.
1975: “Smile” a satirical comedy with a screenplay by Jerry Belson that Marvin Hamlisch would convert into a 1986 Broadway musical was released today in the United States.
1976: The Jerusalem Post reported on the tragic fate of Dora Bloch, who held both British and Israeli citizenship, and who remained at a Ugandan hospital after all the other hijacked Israelis were freed by the Entebbe IDF operation. She ominously disappeared from the hospital after having been visited by a British official, one day after the Israeli raid, and was suspected of having been later murdered. Israel cited this case at the UN as an apparent example of Ugandan complicity in the high jacking of the Air France plane.
1976: In response to the demands of African governments, the UN Security Council is met today “to take up their charge that Israel’s recuse of hijacked hostages at Entebbe airport in Uganda was a case of ‘wanton aggression.’”
1976: In Highland Park, Illinois, Joanne and Lewis Savage gave birth to actor Frederick Aaron “Fred” Savage the older brother of actor Ben Savage and actress Kala Savage.
1978: After 147 performances a revival of David Merrick’s “Hello Dolly starring Carol Channing came to a close at the Lunt-Fontanne Theatre.
1979: A car bomb destroys a Renault owned by famed "Nazi hunters" Serge and Beate Klarsfeld at their home in France. A note purportedly from ODESSA claims responsibility.
1986(2nd of Tammuz, 5746): Seventy-five year old journalist, author and political science professor Harold Isaacs passed away today. (As reported by Jane Perlez)
1991: Playwright Ariel Dorfman’s “Death and the Maiden” premiered at the Royal Court Theatre today.
1993(20thof Tammuz, 5753): Sixty-seven year old television producer and director Steve Previn, the brother Andre Previn passed away today.
1997: Michael Eitan succeeded Benjamin Netanyahu as Minister of Science and Technology
1998: ABC broadcast the final episode of “Prey” a sci-fi television series starring Debra Messing.
1999: U.S. premier of “American Pie,” the first in a series of coming-of-age teen movies produced and directed Paul Weitz and Chris Weitz, featuring Eugene Levy as Noah Levenstein and Eli Marienthal as Matt Stifler
2000: The New York Times features reviews books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Oberammergau: The Troubling Story of the World's Most Famous Passion Play by James Shapiro and Freud’s Megalomania by Israel Rosenfield.
2001: President George Bush awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom to 11 people including A.M. Rosenthal of the New York Times and Katherine Graham of the Washington Post.
2001: Hamas took credit for today’s bombing at the Kussufim border crossing.
2001(18thof Tammuz, 5761)(Capt. Shai Shalom Cohen, 22, of Pardes Hanna, was killed and another soldier was wounded when an explosive charge detonated beneath their jeep after leaving the Aduraim IDF base south of Hebron.
2001(18thof Tammuz, 5761): Eighty-three year old “Morris H. Bergreen, a lawyer, businessman and administrator who as president of the Skirball Foundation oversaw the donation of millions of dollars to New York University, the Skirball Cultural Center in Los Angeles” passed away today. (As reported by Eric Pace)
2001: “Playing a Bit of Wagner Sets Off an Uproar in Israel” published today described the reaction to Daniel Barenboim’s decision to use a piece by the German composer at a Jerusalem concert.
2002: A production of “Pacific Overtures,” “a musical written by Stephen Sondheim and John Weidman” set in Japan when the Americans were arriving in 1853 opened at Avery Fisher Hall at Lincoln Center.
2002: Moshe "Bogie" Ya'alon was appointed IDF Chief of Staff.
2002: “Zig Zag,” a movie treatment of the novel directed by David S. Goyer was released in the United States today.
2004: After premiering in Los Angeles, “Anchorman: The Legend of Ron Burgundy” a comedy produced by Judd Apatow and co-starring Paull Rudd was released throughout the United States.
2004(20thof Tammuz, 5764: Sixty-six year old Rudy “Roughhouse Rudy” LaRusso the Dartmouth grad who went on career in the NBA passed away today.
2006(13thof Tammuz, 5766): Alan Senitt, a 27 year old political activist from north London who was being prepped for a glittering career, was stabbed to death in Georgetown. Police said he was trying to protect his female companion when they were targeted by armed robbers as they walked home in Washington DC. The former chairman of the Union of Jewish Students (UJS), Senitt had moved to the US to work on Democrat Mark Warner's presidential campaign.
2007: Ryan Kalish was named New York Penn – League Player for the week starting today.
2007: “Spielberg on Spielberg’ – a 90 minute documentary about the celebrated film maker – appears on TCM, The Turner Classic Movies Channel.
2007: In a story entitled “Bishop mourns Latin decree, Jews ask for clarity,” The Washington Post reported that “a decree by Pope Benedict allowing priests to say the old Latin Mass more frequently has sparked criticism within both Catholic and Jewish ranks…Some Jewish leaders have sharply criticized the decree, which revives a passage from the old Latin prayer book for Good Friday calling for Jews to be converted. Others, however, took a more measured tone and called for clarification. “I think there are those who have interpreted it in an extremely alarmist fashion,’ Rabbi David Rosen of the American Jewish Committee (AJC) told Reuters.’ That doesn't mean that there aren't things that need clarification but there is no question of Pope Benedict's commitment to respectful relations with the Jewish people.’ The AJC's Rome representative, Lisa Palmieri-Billig, said the text of the decree was ambiguous on the issue. Church officials however had no doubt the prayer could now be said in certain circumstances, even if its use would probably be rare. ‘I find it difficult to believe that the Pope would permit the Good Friday prayer, it could be a communication mistake,’ Palmieri-Billig said. ‘Conversion is a very sensitive issue for Jews and if the prayer is allowed, it would be a step backwards for dialogue.’ French Cardinal Jean-Pierre Ricard, who warned last year against meeting traditionalists' demands for the Latin mass, said on Saturday the prayer could be changed if it caused difficulties with Jews.”
2007: In a night time gathering, some 30,000 people including about 5,000 Negev residents attended the "We are all Sderot" solidarity concert at Rabin Square in Tel Aviv, to show support for the residents of Sderot and other communities bordering the Gaza Strip, who live under the constant threat of Qassam rocket fire.
2007: French-Israeli writer Andre Chouraqui, known for his French-language translation of the Bible and his work in government in Israel, passed away at the age of 89 at his home in Jerusalem.
2008: In Washington, D.C., Robert Wexler a six-term U.S. congressman from Florida, discusses and signs Fire-Breathing Liberal: How I Learned to Survive (and Thrive) in the Contact Sport of Congress(written with David Fisher) at Borders Books.
2008: Ted Koppel’sfour-part Discovery Channel series, “The People’s Republic of Capitalism,” which illustrates how dramatically China has changed begins with three other installments at the same time on successive nights.
2008: At Temple Sinai in Roslyn, NY, funeral services were held for Brenda “Bunny” Koppelman the wife of Charles Koppelman.
2008: Professor Sarah Stroumsa of the departments of Arabic Language and Literature and of Jewish Thought has been elected by the Senate of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem as the institution’s new rector.
2009: “The House Homeland Security Committee today will consider the Transportation Security Workforce Enhancement Act of 2009, introduced earlier this year by Rep. Nita Lowey (D-N.Y.). The bill gives workers the option to join a union, codifies veterans preference in hiring and whistleblower protections.” (As reported by Ed O’Keefe)
2009: The Jerusalem Film Festival features a screening of “A Matter of Size,” a film about a group of disillusioned dieting Jews from Ramla who, through the efforts of one of their cohorts named Herzl and his Japanese employer, learn about the wonders of Sumo wrestling which liberates them physically and spiritually.
2009(17th of Tammuz, 5769): Tzom Tammuz:
2010: Chief of General Staff Lt.-Gen. Gabi Ashkenazi and Defense Minister Ehud Barak announced a round of new appointments within the General Staff. The IDF military attaché in Washington, DC, Maj.-Gen Benny Gantz, will be next deputy chief of general staff, in place of Maj.-Gen Dan Harel. Two other contenders for the top post were OC Northern Command Maj.-Gen. Gadi Eizenkot and OC Southern Command Maj.-Gen. Yoav Galant. They will remain in their positions for another year, although there is a possibility that Galant will be appointed head of Ground Forces Command. Barak and Ashkenazi also decided that Maj.-Gen. Amos Yadlin, head of Military Intelligence, will remain in his post for a fifth year. Defense officials have said that disagreements between Ashkenazi and Barak have been holding up a final decision on the new appointments. Ashkenazi was said to have favored Eizenkot as his deputy. Barak was said to have preferred Gantz.
2010: The 7th AICE Australian Film Festival is scheduled to show “Samson and Delilah” in Tel Aviv.
2013: IDF troops found the remains today of the first rocket to be fired from Egypt since the July 3 overthrow of the Islamist government there, a military official said.
2013: A haredi soldier was attacked by dozens of haredi men tonight in the ultra- Orthodox Jerusalem neighborhood of Mea She’arim.
2014: In Portland, Oregon, Congregation Ahavath Achim is scheduled to show “The Longest Journey,” a cinematic tribute to the lost Jewish community of Rhodes.
2014: According to reports today, filming of “Woman in Gold” was underway in Los Angeles.
2014: The Agudas Achim Sisterhood is scheduled to “provide signs, pompoms and cheers” as part of “Sisterhood Night at the Ball Park.
2014: “President-elect Reuven Rivlin, Chief Rabbi Lau, and an assembly of interfaith leader called today for an end to violence which has engulfed southern Israel and Gaza in recent days.”Stop the cycle of violence, and prevent further harm to innocent lives." (As reported by Kobi Nachshoni)
2014: “Barring any unusual developments, three of the six suspects arrested for the murder of Mohammed Abu Khdeir will be released on a seven-day house arrest tomorrow, the Petah Tikva Magistrate's Court decided today.” (As reported by Aviel Magnezi)
2014(11thof Tammuz, 5774): Ninety-two year old Holocaust survivor, successful businessman and generous philanthropist David Azrieli passed away today.
2014: “Code Red sirens blared across southern and central Israel tonight, from Ashkelon to Gan Yavne, as Gaza militants resumed their rocket-launching activities.”
2014(11thof Tammuz, 5774): Ninety-year old “Robert Stein, who helped expand the scope of women’s magazines as editor in chief of McCall’s and Redbook in the early stages of the modern women’s movement, publishing articles about race and politics and introducing readers to the nascent writings of feminist leaders like Betty Friedan and Gloria Steinem,” passed away today.
48 BCE: In his war with Pompey, Julius Caesar barely avoids defeat at the Battle of Dyrrhachium. A month later, after regrouping his forces, Caesar defeated Pompey at the Battle of Pharsalus. While neither of the Roman leaders were candidates for humanitarian of the year, Caesar was the better of the two; certainly from a Jewish point of view. Pompey had shown his contempt for the Jews when he desecrated the Holy of Holies. Caesar, on the other hand, took a benevolent attitude towards the Jews and did not mistreat them.
138: The Roman Emperor Hadrian died. From a Jewish perspective, Hadrian would have to rank as one of the worst of the Roman Emperors. He triggered the Bar Kochbah Revolt with his anti-Jewish decrees that included a ban on circumcision and the announcement that he was going to build a Temple to Jupiter in Jerusalem thus turning the sacred city of the Jews into a pagan shrine. The three yearlong rebellion was a savage one at the end of which over half a million Jewish rebels were killed. Furthermore so many towns and villages were laid waste that home of the Jews became a veritable wasteland. While the Romans may have one the victory must have been a hollow one since, when making his report to the Senate, Hadrian omitted that standard victory statement, “I am my army are well.” Hadrian took his vengeance on the Jews. He had a Torah scroll burned on the Temple Mount. He renamed Jerusalem Aelia Capitolina and changed the name of the country from Judea to Syria Palestina. We are reminded of Hadrian’s evil each year at the High Holiday season when we remember the martyrs who slain by him for continuing to teach the Torah. Ironically, Hadrian’s handpicked successor would repeal many of Hadrian’s anti-Semitic decrees. But the damage was one and the fate of the Jews of in Eretz Israel continued on a downward spiral.
988: The City of Dublin is founded on the banks of the river Liffey. Since the earliest mention of Jews dates from 1079, there were no Jews among the founders. During the first half of the 20thcentury the Portobello section of Dublin was known as Little Jerusalem because it was the center of the Irish Jewish community. Ironically, the most famous Jewish “citizen” of Little Jerusalem never really lived there because he was “Leopold Bloom, the fictional Jewish character at the heart of the James Joyce novel Ulysses, lived at 52 Clanbrassil Street Upper.”
1236: In Anjou, France, “crusading monks trampled three thousand Jews to death and destroyed the community.” (The History of the Jewish People)
1290: King Ladislaus IV of Hungary died. His reign was not one of the high points in the history of Hungarian Jewry. The Synod of Buda which was held during his reign decreed that every Jew appearing in public should wear on the left side of his upper garment a piece of red cloth; that any Christian transacting business with a Jew not so marked, or living in a house or on land together with any Jew, should be refused admittance to the Church services; and that a Christian entrusting any office to a Jew should be excommunicated.
1391: As news of the Spanish riots reached Majorca, riots broke out all over the island. Despite the efforts of Francisco Sa Garriga, the local viceroy, in many towns the entire Jewish community was destroyed and its inhabitants either converted or murdered. Over 110 families converted; the remnants fled to North Africa. Although the following year a number Jews were again invited to reside there, a blood libel 40 years later ended the 800-year old Jewish community.
1509: Birthdate of Protestant religious leader and theologian John Calvin. According to at least one commentator, Calvin “generally had a more benevolent view of the Jews” than did other Protestant reformers such as Martin Luther. “Although at times his remarks could be acerbic, he nevertheless taught that the Bible indicated a time when Israel would be restored by coming to faith in their Messiah. In speaking about the Jews, Calvin said, "I extend the word Israel to all the people of God, according to this meaning, When the Gentiles shall come in, the Jews also shall return from their defection to the obedience of faith; and thus shall be completed the salvation of the whole Israel of God, which must be gathered from both; and yet in such a way that the Jews shall obtain the first place, being as it were the first born in God's family.” “As Jews are the firstborn, what the Prophet declares must be fulfilled, especially in them: for that scripture calls all the people of God Israelites, it is to be ascribed to the pre-eminence of that nation, who God had preferred to all other nations...God distinctly claims for himself a certain seed, so that his redemption may be effectual in his elect and peculiar nation...God was not unmindful of the covenant which he had made with their fathers, and by which he testified that according to his eternal purpose he loved that nation: and this he confirms by this remarkable declaration, that the grace of the divine calling cannot be made void." One of the issues confronting Christians was the determination of the proper age for Baptism. Calvin believed in the baptism of infants. He saw baptism as analogous to circumcision – a rite by which the child is sealed in the faith of his fathers. Since God had ordained circumcision for Jewish infants, it was obvious that He intended for Christian to undergo their version of the ritual as infants as well.
1548: Eighteen hundred marranos were released from the prisons of the Portuguese Inquisition
1733: George Frederick Handel conducted the premiere performance of “Athalia” at the Sheldonian Theatre in Oxford, UK. This was one of many times that the German born British musical giant used Jewish Biblical tales as the theme for his musical masterpieces. In this case, his work was based on the literary masterpiece by Racine which is fairly accurate depiction of this Jewish Lady Macbeth.
1767: George Goldsmid married Rebecca Cohen in Amersfoort, Holland.
1778: The French King, Louis XVI, allies his nation with the American revolutionaries and declares war on Great Britain. French support of the newly created United States was a decisive factor in the success of the American Revolution which gave birth to a nation that has provided Jews with unparalleled opportunities for success and safety. At the same time, the king’s support of the American cause helped to bankrupt France; a bankruptcy which was a key element in bringing about the French Revolution which changed France into a land where Jews were able to flourish during the 19thand first half of the 20th century.
1781(17thof Tammuz, 5541): Tzom Tammuz
1781: Esther Mordecai and Philip Moses Russell who “was a surgeon’s mate at Valley Forge during the Revolutionary War” gave birth to Zipporah Russell who married Isaac D. Mordecai and became Zipporah Russell Mordecai the mother of Isaac, John and Samuel Mordecai.
1782: In Mogador, Morocco, “Eliahu Ha’Levi ibn Yuli a Shab as-Sultan (a court Jew) to Mohammed ben Abdallah, Sultan Sidi Muhammed III” and his wife gave birth to Moses Elias Levy, the father of David Levy Yulee, the future U.S. Senator from the state of Florida.
1800(17thof Tammuz, 5560): Tzom Tammuz is observed for the first time in the 19thcentury and the last time during the Presidency of John Adams.
1829: Birthdate of Filosseno (Philoxene) Luzzatto, an Italian scholar, who devoted himself to the study of Sanskrit and Semitic Languages. A native of Trieste, he was the son of Samuel David Luzzatto
1830:Birthdate of Camille Pissarro. Of Sephardic extraction, he became an important Impressionist painter and teacher. He mostly painted the busy streets of Paris and landscapes. He was associated with Monet and Corot. In the last years of his life he achieved recognition, and although suffering from an eye ailment painted 160 works in the last three years of his life.
1835: In Lublin, Tadeusz Wieniawski, Sr. and Regina Wieniawska gave birth to Henryk Wieniawski the husband of Izabella Wieniawska.
1837: Thirty-four year old Moritz Moses Jacob von Goldschmidt and Anna Netti von Goldschmidt gave birth to Theodor von Goldschmidt.
1839(28thof Tammuz, 5599): Seventy-two year old Philadelphia native Joseph Mordecai the third son of Moses and Elizabeth “Esther” Mordecai and the husband of Esther “Hetty” Marache the daughter of Solomon and Rebecca Marche who had lived in Virginia and South Carolina passed away today in Charleston.
1845: John Cuffe, 3rd Earl of Desart, and Lady Elizabeth Lucy Campbell gave birth to William Cuffe, 4th Earl of Desart who married Ellen Odette Cuffe, Countess of Desart, the daughter of German banker Henri Louis Bischoffsheim who has been described as “the most important Jewish woman in Irish history.”
1850: Millard Fillmore is inaugurated as the 13th President of the United States upon the death of President Zachary Taylor, 16 months into his term. In 1851, Fillmore expressed his opposition to ratifying a treaty with Switzerland that would allow the Swiss to discriminate against American Jews. The Senate did not ratify the treaty. In 1852, Fillmore became the first President to try and appoint a Jew to the Supreme Court when he offered the position to Judah P. Benjamin, the U.S. Senator from Louisiana. Benjamin declined the offer.
1855: Birthdate of Isaac Newton Seligman, the New York born son of Joseph Seligman who was an “American banker and communal worker.” Educated at Columbia Grammar School and Columbia College, from which he graduated in 1876, Seligman was one of the crew which won the university eight-oar college race on Saratoga Lake in 1874. In 1878, after having finished an apprenticeship in the firm of Seligman & Hellman, New Orleans, he joined the New York establishment, of which he became head in 1880, on the death of his father. A trustee of nineteen important commercial, financial, and other institutions and societies, including the Munich Life Assurance Company, St. John's Guild, and the McKinley Memorial Association, and he has also been a member of the Committee of Seventy, of Fifteen, and of Nine, each of which attempted at various times to reform municipal government in New York; of the last-named body he was chairman. He has served as a trustee of Temple Emanu-El, the Hebrew Orphan Asylum and the United Hebrew Charities. (From the Jewish Encyclopedia)
1857: The correspondent for the New York Times writes from London today that the House of Lords will vote tonight on the “Jew Bill” and if it is rejected, Rothschild will resign immediately.
1862: Today, “the Chief Rabbi, Dr. N.M. laid the foundation stone” for the Bayswater Synagogue on Chichester Road.
1864: Carl-Hyman Marcuse and Sophie Lewis, the parents of Wyatt Earp’s mistress Sadie Marcus, gave birth to Henrietta Marcus.
1865: “Miscellaneous: The Jews In the Papal States” published today reported that “The Vicar-General of Velletri has issued an order permitting Jews to remain ten days in that town upon lawful and honest business. During that time they must net return to their lodgings later than 1 o'clock in the morning, or leave before dawn. They are forbidden to approach all monasteries, academics and other pious places under episcopal jurisdiction, and in their intercourse and conversation with Christians they are to refrain from familiarity. The violation of any of these dispositions is to be punished by imprisonment and a fine of five crowns, to be applied to pious establishments.”
1865: The party under the command of Captain Charles Wilson that had made the most recent and most accurate survey of Jerusalem arrived in England.
1866: “In the village Shekhman, Tambov Governorate in Russia (now Tambov Oblast),” French surgeon Serge Abrahamovitch Voronoff, the son of “Abram Veniaminovich Voronov, a distiller and Rachel-Esther Lipsky was circumcised today in a synagogue.
1871: In Brooklyn, Nathan May and Matilda Mulhauser gave birth to Columbia School graduate Mitchell May, the Congressman from the 6th New York Congressional District, Secretary of State of New York, state Supreme Court Justice and husband of Pauline Joli.
1871: Birthdate of French author Marcel Proust. The following excerpt from “Marcel Proust”provides an interesting insight into Proust’s Jewish origins and his literary treatment of his ancestors on his mother’s side. “Marcel Proust was the son of a Christian father and a Jewish mother. He himself was baptized (on August 5, 1871, at the church of Saint-Louis d'Antin) and later confirmed as a Catholic, but he never practiced that faith and as an adult could best be described as a mystical atheist, someone imbued with spirituality who nonetheless did not believe in a personal God, much less in a savior. Although Jews trace their religion through their mothers, Proust never considered himself Jewish and even became vexed when a newspaper article listed him as a Jewish author. His father once warned him not to stay in a certain hotel since there were "too many" Jewish guests there, and, to be sure, in Remembrance of Things Past there are unflattering caricatures of the members of one Jewish family, the Blochs. Jews were still considered exotic, even "oriental," in France; in 1872 there were only eighty-six thousand Jews in the whole country. In a typically offensive passage Proust writes that in a French drawing room "a Jew making his entry as though he were emerging from the desert, his body crouching like a hyena's, his neck thrust forward, offering profound `salaams,' completely satisfies a certain taste for the oriental." Proust never refers to his Jewish origins in his fiction, although in the youthful novel he abandoned, Jean Santeuil(first published only in 1952, thirty years after his death), there is a very striking, if buried, reference to Judaism. The autobiographical hero has quarreled with his parents and in his rage deliberately smashed a piece of delicate Venetian glass his mother had given him. When he and his mother are reconciled, he tells her what he has done: "He expected that she would scold him, and so revive in his mind the memory of their quarrel. But there was no cloud upon her tenderness. She gave him a kiss, and whispered in his ear: `It shall be, as in the Temple, the symbol of an indestructible union.'" This reference to the rite of smashing a glass during the Orthodox Jewish wedding ceremony, in this case sealing the marriage of mother to son, is not only spontaneous but chilling. In an essay about his mother he referred, with characteristic ambiguity, to "the beautiful lines of her Jewish face, completely marked with Christian sweetness and Jansenist resignation, turning her into Esther herself"--a reference, significantly, to the heroine of the Old Testament (and of Racine's play), who concealed her Jewish identity until she had become the wife of King Ahasuerus and was in a position to save her people. The apparently gentile Proust, who had campaigned for Dreyfus and had been baptized Catholic, was a sort of modern Esther. Despite Proust's silences and lapses on the subject of his mother's religion, it would be unfair, especially in light of the rampant anti-Semitism of turn-of-the-century France, to say that he was unique or even extreme in his prejudice against Jews. And yet his anti-Semitism is more than curious, given his love for his mother and given, after her death, something very much like a religious cult that he developed around her. His mother, out of respect for her parents, had remained faithful to their religion, and Proust revered her and her relatives; after her death he regretted that he was too ill to visit her grave and the graves of her parents and uncle in the Jewish cemetery and to mark each visit with a stone. More important, although he had many friends among the aristocracy whom he had assiduously cultivated, nevertheless when he was forced to take sides during the Dreyfus Affair, which had begun in 1894 and erupted in 1898, he chose to sign a petition prominently printed in a newspaper calling for a retrial. The Dreyfus Affair is worth a short detour, since it split French society for many years and it became a major topic in Proust's life--and in Remembrance of Things Past. Alfred Dreyfus (1859-1935) was a Jew and a captain in the French army. In December 1894 he was condemned by a military court for having sold military secrets to the Germans and was sent for life to Devil's Island. The accusation was based on the evidence of a memorandum stolen from the German embassy in Paris (despite the fact that the writing did not resemble Dreyfus's) and of a dossier (which was kept classified and secret) handed over to the military court by the minister of war. In 1896 another French soldier, Major Georges Picquart, proved that the memorandum had been written not by Dreyfus but by a certain Major Marie Charles Esterhazy. Yet Esterhazy was acquitted and Picquart was imprisoned. Instantly a large part of the population called for a retrial of Dreyfus. On January 13, 1898, the writer Emile Zola published an open letter, "J'accuse," directed against the army's general staff; Zola was tried and found guilty of besmirching the reputation of the army. He was forced to flee to England. Then in September 1898 it was proved that the only piece of evidence against Dreyfus in the secret military dossier had been faked by Joseph Henry, who confessed his misdeed and committed suicide. At last the government ordered a retrial of Dreyfus. Public opinion was bitterly divided between the leftist Dreyfusards, who demanded "justice and truth," and the anti-Dreyfusards, who led an anti-Semitic campaign, defended the honor of the army, and rejected the call for a retrial. The conflict led to a virtual civil war. In 1899 Dreyfus was found guilty again, although this time under extenuating circumstances--and the president pardoned him. Only in 1906 was Dreyfus fully rehabilitated, named an officer once again, and decorated with the Legion of Honor. Interestingly, Theodor Herzl, the Paris correspondent for a Viennese newspaper, was so overwhelmed by the virulent anti-Semitism of the Dreyfus Affair that he was inspired by the prophetic idea of a Jewish state. In defending Dreyfus, Proust not only angered conservative, Catholic, pro-army aristocrats, but he also alienated his own father. In writing about the 1890s in Remembrance of Things Past, Proust remarks that "the Dreyfus case was shortly to relegate the Jews to the lowest rung of the social ladder." Typically, the ultraconservative Gustave Schlumberger, a great Byzantine scholar, could give in his posthumous memoirs as offensive a description of his old friend Charles Haas (a model for Proust's character Swann) as this: "The delightful Charles Haas, the most likeable and glittering socialite, the best of friends, had nothing Jewish about him except his origins and was not afflicted, as far as I know, with any of the faults of his race, which makes him an exception virtually unique." It would be misleading to suggest that Proust took his controversial, pro-Dreyfus stand simply because he was half-Jewish. No, he was only obeying the dictates of his conscience, even though he lost many highborn Catholic friends by doing so and exposed himself to the snide anti-Semitic accusation of merely automatically siding with his co-religionists.”
1876: The New York Times featured a review of Clarel: A Poem and Pilgrimage in the Holy Land a two volume American epic poem by Herman Melville, “Clarel,” the longest poem in American literature, is divided into four parts – Jerusalem, The Wilderness, Mar Saba, Bethlehem – and epilogue.
1877: According to reports circulating on Wall Street today, Mr. Gabriel Netter “of the Jewish banking house of Netter & Co…had received a letter from Saratoga signed ‘Wilkinson,’ saying that the Grand Union Hotel proprietors would be happy to extend all the accommodations the hotel affords to Mr. Netter and his family.” Mr. Netter refused to confirm or deny if he had received such a letter. But, if he had, he had no intention of responding.
1877: In Berlin, Harry and Caroline Breslau gave birth to Ernst Ludwig Bresslau
1877: The fourth council of the Union of American Hebrew Congregation opened this morning at St. George’s Hall in Philadelphia and as the first order of business elected B.F. Peixtto President.
1878: Approximately 300 people attended a banquet at the Plankinton House given by the Jews of Milwaukee in honor of the delegates of the Hebrew Council meeting here.
1879:Mr. William B. Hackenburg, President of the Sixth Council of the Union of American and Hebrew Congregations, called the morning session of the Council to order at 9:30 A. M. today. Dr. Samuel Hirsch of Philadelphia delivered the opening prayer. Among other matters of business, the delegates debated whether or not to fund a project that would raise money for the purchase of land so that Jewish immigrants could become farmers.
1879: Delegates to the Sixth Council of the Union of American and Hebrew Congregations hold a banquet at Delmonico’s for which “a competent Jewish caterer has been engaged to supervise the preparation of the dinner.”
1881: The New York Times published an extensive review of Poems and Ballads of Heinrich Heine translated by Emma Lazarus. The reviewer does not see any irony in the work of the apostate Jew being translated by a leading American Jewish poetess.
1881: It was reported today that Sir Edward Poynter is about to begin another of his larger than life historical paintings which is titled “Visit of the Queen of Sheba to Solomon.” The canvas will be 8 feet by 5 feet depicting the queen ascending the steps to the throne of the Jewish monarch. [Note – Poynter had already drawn on Jewish themes when he painted “Israel in Egypt” in 1867.
1881: “German Army Volunteers” published today provided a detailed account of the recruiting and service paradigms in the Kaiser’s military including the fact that “the sons of Jews, seldom, if ever compete for commissions because they know they could not get them.”
1881: It was reported today that Tavistock House, the home for many years of Charles Dickens, has been purchased by Jews’ College a twenty-five year old day school in London that was established as a day school for training rabbis.
1882: This morning, 250 Jewish exiles arrived in St. Louis, MO. These European refugees, who have terrible tales to tell about their treatment in the Old World, are destitute so they are being cared for by a local committee of their coreligionists.
1882: It was reported today that the first free excursion-boat trip of the season sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children will take place later week.
1883: The SS Lydian Monarch arrived in New York from London. Among the passengers were five Jewish families from Poland. According to these passengers, their tickets had been paid for by either the Hebrew Society in London or the Hebrew Ladies’ Society of London. While the English Jews had provided them with passage, they had not given them any more money which meant that they were destitute. The new arrivals have no one in the United States to sponsor them.
1883: An announcement was made today in Nyreghhaza, Hungary at the trial of the Jews who have been charged with murdering a Christian girl, that a coachman who was an important witness for the defense has committed suicide.
1883: Lipman Levi presided over the opening session of the 10th annual council of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations. Two hundred and fifty delegates representing approximately 125 congregations filled Eureka Hall in Cincinnati, Ohio where the first order of business was to choose permanent officers to serve the Union in the coming year.
1886: Birthdate of Joseph Bruce Perskie, the native of Alliance, NY, graduate of Penn law school, state Supreme Court judge and an officer of the Federation of Jewish Federation of Jewish Charities and B’nai B’rith.
1887(18thof Tammuz, 5647): Fast of Tammuz observed since the 17th fell on Shabbat
1887: It was reported today that the Sanitarium for Hebrew children has raised $1,779 so far this year so it can provide free boating excursions for poor children and their mothers living in the tenements of the Lower East Side.
1888: “Mr. B.F. Peixotto of New York, who delivered the oration at the dedication of the Jewish Orphan Asylum” in Cleveland “20 years ago, will deliver the oration today at the dedication of the new building just completed at a cost of $200,000.”
1889: A spirited debate took place this morning at the Hebrew Union Convention in Detroit over whether or not there should be a special Jewish celebration of the upcoming 400th anniversary of the discovery of America which is to take place in 1892. Josiah Cohen of Pittsburgh spoke on behalf of the eastern delegates, most of whom favored a uniquely Jewish celebration. Israel Cohen of Chicago spoke on behalf of the western delegates, most of whom favored participation in the celebrations planned by the secular society and saw no need for a special Jewish event. In the end, the convention voted to adopt the report of a committee that had been formed to study the matter and had state that a uniquely Jewish celebration was “inexpedient,” “unnecessary” and “would be entirely out of place.”
1889: “The Hebrew Council” published today described a meeting of the Sunday School Union which listened to a report by Dr. Mielziner, the Professor of Talmudic Literature at Hebrew Union College.
1889: “Need Hebrews Apply?” published todaydescribed the on-going controversy surrounding the nomination of state Senator Jacob A. Cantor for membership in the exclusive Harlem Club. While some expressed the opinion that if the members could vote on the nomination a majority would support Cantor enough of the members supported the sentiment that “in this club we draw the line at Hebrews” that there were more than enough “blackballs” available to defeat Cantor’s nomination.
1889: After registering at the Brunswick Hotel and going to her rooms at the fashionable Brunswick Hotel in Ocean Beach, NJ, Mrs. Joseph Davis was told by the proprietor that he had learned that she was Jewish. Since it was the policy of the hotel not to rent to Jews, she and her children would have to leave the hotel. He told her she could stay the night but she left immediately and took shelter at the cottage of leather merchant Moses Strauss.
1890: Wyoming becomes the 44th state to join the Union. Wyoming had granted women the right to vote in 1869 while it was still a territory. When it joined the union, it was the first state to give women the right to vote. Two of those who took advantage of this political power and the “freer ambiance” were Bertha Frank Myers of Cheyenne and her daughter Elsie. Bertha Myers was a native New Yorker who came to Cheyenne in 1873 as the bride of a prominent merchant, William Myers. Bertha was known as an expert horsewoman, bicyclist and the first motorist in Cheyenne. The mother of four was active in civic and Jewish communal fairs. She was a driving force in the fundraising for Cheyenne’s first Reform Temple. She also started the local Sunday School in which she and her daughter served as teachers for twenty years.
1890: “Anxious For Arbitration” published today described the fight between the cloak manufacturers and their employees” which James H. Hoffman, Hyman Blum and M.W. Platzek of the United Hebrew Charities have offered to serve as intermediaries in an attempt to reach a settlement.
1890: Daniel Frohman, the manager of the Lyceum Theatre, who has been in Europe for the last month resting and gathering new material for his productions, spent a few hours at his office for the first time since the end of May.
1890: As of this date, contributions totaling $4,862.25 have been received by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children to provide free summer excursions
1891: It was reported today that for the fiscal year ending on June 30, 1891, 405,654 immigrants arrived in New York of whom 33,504 were from Russia “most of whom were Jews.”
1892: It was reported today that “Max Margolis of Wilna, Berlin and Columbia College” will present a series of lectures this summer on “Jewish Literature From the Close of the Scripture Canon to the Close of the Talmud” which covers a period from 100 BCE to 600 CE.
1892: The third annual Convention of American Rabbis will end with an evening session at Temple Israel in Harlem.
1892: “L'Osservatore Romano, the Vatican's official newspaper, carries an article supporting the ancient myth that Jews kill Christians for their blood.”
1893: “A Lively Week For Germany” published today described the opening of the new Reichstag in which “the Jew-baiter” Hermann Ahlwardt is sitting next to “Liebermann von Sonnenberg, his Anti-Semitic colleague.
1894: Samuel Gompers expressed his support for the striking Pullman workers. He said that if Pullman’s claim that the company could not raise their pay because they were building the railway cars below cost merely to provide work for their laborers were true, Pullman had no reason to fear submitting the issues to arbitration.
1894: Samuel Gompers is leaving on the evening New York Central train for Chicago where he will be attending the meeting of the Executive Council of the American Federation of Labor.
1894: “Lecture To East Side Mothers” published today described a lecture delivered by Dr. Solotaroff at the Hebrew Institute in which he emphasized “the value of sterilized mile and the reasons why it is to be preferred to boiled and plain milk.”
1895: Dr. Max Landsberg and Dr. Gustav Gottheil are scheduled to be the first speakers at the opening session of the annual Central Conference of American Rabbis which opens tonight in Rochester, NY
1895: The will of Moses Heidelbach was filed for probate in the Surrogate’s office today.
1895: Birthdate of Nahum Goldman, the native of “Vishnevo, Russian Empire, a shtetl in the Pale of Settlement (now Vishnyeva, Belarus” “the founder and longtime President of the World Jewish Congress who attended the Tenth Zionist Congress with his father while still a high school student.
1895: “Schools Before Christ’s Times” published today provided a detailed review of Historical Survey of Pre-Christian Education by S.S. Laure which included the observation that among the Romans and Greeks “there was apparently no conception that education was…a human right” and that it was only for the aristocrat. But in other places, including Judea, theoretically nothing stood “between the lowest member of the community and the best the State could offer in the way of education except poverty.”
1896: It was reported today that 77 year old Isaac Bramfield will not survive the gunshot wound he sustained when he was accidentally shot by William Johnson.
1897: Well-known attorney and author Daniel Greenleaf Thompson, a non-Jew who was a member of the Jewish Historical Society passed away today.
1898: Three days after she had passed away at the age of 73, Hanna Barder, the wife of Louis Barder was buried at the Plashet Jewish Cemetery in London.
1898: In Atlantic City, NJ. Rabbi Henry H. Meyer offered the opening prayer at the first session of the second annual summer assembly of the Jewish Chautauqua Society
1899: In Poughkeepsie, NY, five merchants were arraigned before the Recorder on charges of having violated the Sunday Closing Laws. Among them was Aaron Friedman, “a Jew who closes his store on Saturdays.” Friedman was fined 5 dollars after being convicted; a conviction which his attorney says he will appeal.
1899: “Blue Laws in Worcester” published today described the renewed enforcement in this Massachusetts town “of the old blue laws relating to Sunday business” closures which “grew out of the recent determination…to stop the Jews from doing business on the Sabbath.”
1900: Birthdate of Sacha Baraniev, the native of Mykolaiv, Ukraine, who gained fame as newspaperman and screenwriter Sidney “Sy” Barlett.
1903: Birthdate of Dr. Karl Rudolf Werner Best the native of Darmstadt, SS-Obergruppenführer and Nazi Party leader and the Third Reich's Plenipotentiary (Reichsbevollmächtigter) in Denmark whose post-war death sentence was changed to 12 years of which he only served three, much to the dismay of the Danish people.
1904: The Assembly of the Jewish Chautauqua Society is scheduled to begin today in Atlantic City, NJ
1905: Birthdate of Polish native Maurice B. Pekarsky who came to the United States in 1921 and was ordained in 1933 by Hebrew Union College after which he began a lifetime of service to Hillel including serving as Director of the Jewish College youth organization at the University of Chicago starting in 1940.
1905: The Ninth Summer Assembly of the Jewish Chautauqua Society continued for a third day in Atlantic City, NJ.
1906(17thof Tammuz, 5666): Tzom Tammuz
1908: Birthdate of Brooklyn native, Robert “Buck” Halpern who “played guard at the City College of New York from 1926-1928” and “then played as a guard in the NFL with the Staten Island Stapletons in 1930.”
1908: Levie (Louis) Hillesum the father of diarist Esther (Etty) Hillesum published his Latin thesis De imperfecti et aoristi usu Thucydidis (On Thucydides' use of the imperfect and the aorist, also awarded cum laude).
1908: In Denver, CO, the Democratic National Convention which Samuel Untermyer had attended as a delegate from New York came to an end to after nominating William Jennings Bryan for President of the United States. This was Bryan’s third and final run. When he ran for the first time in 1896 he said of the Jews “I do not know of any class of our people who, by reason of their history, can better sympathize with the struggling masses in this campaign than can the Hebrew race." In 1920, Bryan was one of a 100 leading citizens who signed “The Perils of Racial Prejudice, a statement that urged "all those who are molders of public opinion" to "strike at" The International Jew, which it characterized as "un-American, un-Christian agitation." The International Jew was a notorious anti-Semitic work published by automobile make Henry Ford Sr. (As reported by the Virtual Jewish Library.
1910: According to the American Jewish Archives, birthdate of Polish born conductor and composer Chemo Vinaver who escaped to the United States in 1938 and after a successful career made Aliyah in 1960 and who “was the second husband of the poet Mascha Kaléko” and the father of playwright Steve Vinaver. (According to some sources, Vinaver was born in 1895 and I have not been able to resolve the descrepency.)
1910: In London, “Isadore and Anna Kertman Stein, immigrants from Ukraine who owned a butter-and-egg store” gave birth to Claire Styne the sister of songwriter July Styne who became Claire Styne Bregman while she married composer and conductor Buddy Bregman.
1911: In Milwaukee, Wisconsin, the 15th annual summer assembly of the Jewish Chautauqua Society led by Chancellor Henry Berkowitz continued for a fourth day.1
1912(25thof Tammuz, 5672): Seventy-four year Nathan Mayer, a “physician and drama critic” passed away today in Hartford, CT.
1912(25thof Tammuz, 5672): Seventy-two year old Chicagoan Isaac Block passed away today.
1912(25thof Tammuz, 5672): Seventy year Uniontown, PA, merchant Max Baum passed away today.
1912: Four hundred public school teachers, educators and New York notables were among those attending funeral services for educator Julia Richman at Temple Ahawath Chesed Shaar Hashomayim, Rabbi Isaac Moses delivered a eulogy in which he praised Miss Richman for her many contributions while that the role of the teacher is both important yet thankless.
1913(5thof Tammuz, 5673): Eighty-seven year old Prague native and Czech trained physician William Tausig who immigrated to New York in 1847 and moved on to St. Louis a year later where he was elected Mayor in 1852 in which would mark the start of decades of public service that included serving as St. Louis County Judge, the raising of two regiments during the Civil War to turn back Rebel raiders and the construction of the first road and railroad bridge across the Mississippi River passed away today.
1914: The Government of Greece abolished office of the Chief Rabbi of Salonica and placed the Jews of Salonica under the jurisdiction of the Chief Rabbi of Athens. At this time, the position of Chief Rabbi of Athens was vacant.
1914: Birthdate of Rabbi Aharon Zelig Epstein who served as Rosh Yeshiva of Yeshiva Shaar HaTorah-Grodno in Queens, New York.
1914: In Toronto, Julius Shuster (originally Shusterowich), an immigrant from Rotterdam who had a tailor shop in Toronto's garment district and Ida (Katharske) Shuster a native of Kiev in Ukraine gave birth to Joseph Shuster who along with Jerry Siegel created the comic character “Superman” and was the cousin of comedian Wayne Shuster.
1915: Sixty year old Ernst Henrici, the grammar school teacher who became a leading anti-Semitic politician passed away.In 1882 he participated in the first International Anti-Jewish Congress in Dresden. His anti-Semitic diatribes led to the burning of the synagogue at Neustettin.
1915: British General Sir Ian Hamilton wrote from the General Headquarters of the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force today:
“It may interest you to know that I have here, fighting under my orders a purely Jewish unit As far as I know, this is the first time in the Christian era such a thing has happened. The men who compose it were cruelly driven out of Jerusalem by the Turks and arrived in Egypt with their families absolutely destitute and starving. A complete transport corps was there raised from them for voluntary service with me against the Turks whom they naturally detest. These troops were officially described as ‘Zion Mule Corps,’ and the officers and ranks and file have shown great courage in taking water and supplies and up to the fighting line under heavy fire. One of the private soldiers has been specially recommended by me for gallantry and has duly received from the King the Distinguished Conduct Medal.”
1915: Birthdate of Saul Bellow. Born in Quebec to Russian-Jewish immigrants, Bellow was educated in the United States. A Nobel Prize winning author (1976) some of Bellow’s more famous works include Herzog, The Adventures of Augie March and Humboldt’s Gift. It was this last work published in 1975 for which he earned the Pulitzer Prize for Literature in 1976.
1916: It was reported today that there are 341 Young Judaea Clubs in the United States and Canada and that there are 3,500 Young Judeans living in New York.
1916: It was reported today that the United Synagogues of America has voted “to send three delegates to the conference of the American Jewish Committee” which is “to be held in New York on July 16, 1916.
1917: The Board of Directors of the Federated Orthodox Jewish Charities met at the Hotel Sherman this evening where it approved a budget for the month of $9, 758.87 for the various organizations it supports including the Marks Nathan Orphan Home and the Moses Montefiore Hebrew School.
1918: In the Netherlands, “The Jewish Correspondence Bureau of the Hague today” said that it has learned from Berlin that the “Pan Germans are agitating for a tax on Jews.”
1919: Fifty-nine year old Baltimore born Naval Academy graduate Brigadier General Charles H. Lauchheimer, “the Adjutant and Inspector of the United States Marine Corps” during World War “became seriously ill” and was admitted to the hospital today,” where he would die in 1920.
1919(12th of Tammuz, 5679): Abraham Jacobi passed away. Born in 1830, he was a pioneer of pediatrics, opening the first children's clinic in the United States. To date, he is the only foreign born president of the American Medical Association.
1920: In the United Kingdom, textile manufacturer Henry Pasamount and his wife gave birth to Sir Leslie Porter.
1920: “A Lemberg dispatch reports that Professor Israel Friedlander” and Rabbi Max Cantor of the Free Synagogue, “were killed by bandits” while “distributing funds for the American Joint Distribution Committee.”
1922: Birthdate of Ewald-Heinrich von Kleist who took part in the plot to assassinate Hitler.
1925: Jerome Koholberg Sr., an importer and his wife Edith “a writer and charity worker” gave birth to Jerome Kohlberg, Jr. the pioneer of leveraged buyouts who is the Kohlberg in Kohlberg Kravis Roberts and Company.
1928: Birthdate of Moshe Greenberg – author, teacher and recognized expert in the field of Biblical Studies. Greenberg earned his PhD at Penn and did post-doctoral work at the Jewish Theology. He is on the faculty at Hebrew University and has taught at several American schools including JTS and UC-Berkley. He is a Guggenheim Fellow and a recipient of the Israel Prize. He was editor in chief for the Ketuvim (Writings) sections of the new JPS translation of the TaNaCh. He was also the editor of the Book of Ezekiel in the Anchor Bible series.
1928: The London Daily Telegraph reported that “The Minister of the Interior at Peking thought the Zionist wanted to purchase land in China for the purpose of settling Jews there and promised a special treaty if the Zionists would indicate the site for the proposed homeland and the approximate area required.The Director of Lands had already proceeded with drafting an agreement, when, through the British Minister at Pekin, the delegate managed to explain he only required permission to raise funds among Jews in China for the Palestine upbuilding work. This permission was granted. “ (As reported by JTA)
1928: The New York Times describes the reaction of various Jewish newspapers in Palestine to the recently published report of the Non-partisan Survey Commission. Based on press reaction, readers may wonder how “non-partisan” the Survey Commission really is. Doar Hayom, a Jerusalem daily, praised the report since it agreed with the conclusions about the need for “private initiatives and private holdings. Haaretz was critical of the reports lack of support for communal agriculture settlements and the land purchases of the JNF. Davar, a paper published by the General Jewish Labor Federation was highly critical of the report seeing it as an assault on all of the growth that has been accomplished under adverse conditions including violent opposition from some Arabs.
1929: Karl Radek, who had been born to a Lemberg Jewish family as Karol Sobelsohn, a supporter of Trotsky in his battle for control of the Communist Party with Stalin “signed a document capitulating to Stalin” which earned him “particular disdain” because it included the betrayal of fellow Jewish Socialist Yakov Blmkin.
1931: Birthdate of Jerry Herman “an American composer and lyricist, known for his work in Broadway musical theater” including the “scores…Hello, Dolly!, Mame, and La Cage aux Folles. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerry_Herman
1932: The foundation stone of the Oscar Straus School was laid at Nathanyah. The event was attended by several many Jewish and Arab notables. The project is being sponsored by the Naotaiah Colonization Agency (Palestine Settlers Service of NYC.)
1174: Amalric I who had been King of Jerusalem since 1162 passed away. During his reign most of the Jews were expelled from Jerusalem; a ban that would last until 1175.
1244:“Khorezmian Turkish horsemen launch an attack on Jerusalem, sacking the city and killing most of the Christians and driving out the Jews. The Khorezmian Turks then move on to Egypt. Khwarezmia is at this time a state located around the Aral Salt Flats near the Caspian Sea. It has allied itself with the Ayyub sultan of Egypt against the Muslims in Damascus.”
1346: Charles IV of Luxembourg is elected emperor of the Holy Roman Empire which included the Bohemian city of Prague. According to the descendant of Moses ben Israel Naphtaly Hirsch Porges, “The long reign of Emperor Charles IV brought the Prague Jews new privileges and relative calm even though the Luxembourg rulers - the reigning local dynasty - treated Jewish property as though it were their own. They put it in pawn, sold it, or used it as backing for guarantees. But the king ensured protection and, among others, offered a chance for them to settle inside the walls of the arising New Town. A sign of the status of the Jewish community is a banner that has survived, given to the Jews of Prague by Charles IV in 1375.From that year on the Jews would, over the centuries, come to the gates of the ghetto to welcome the kings of Bohemia in Prague.”
1533: Clement VII excommunicated Henry VIII for divorcing Catherine of Aragon, and afterward marrying Anne Boleyn. Henry VIII had relied on the Book of Leviticus when he sought to marry Catherine, the widow of his brother. Nobody was going to hit him with a sandal. When it came time to shed Mary, Henry sought support from Rabbis, hoping that their interpretation of Biblical law would somehow sway the Pope. The Rabbis, who were living in Italy, stayed out of the conflict. They had no reason to trust Henry, who had promised to keep the Jews out of England, when he got married.
1578: In Emden, Moses Uri (Philip Joosten) Halevie, the “founder and first ḥakam (Rabbi) of the Spanish-Portuguese congregation in Amsterdam in 1596/97” and Bele Halevi gave birth to Aaron Halevie
1657: Birthdate of King Frederick I of Prussia whose greatest claim to fame is the fact that he was the father of King Frederick II also known as Frederick the Great. Father and son quarreled about many things but they did agree on at least one thing. They both abhorred their Jewish subjects, viewing them as aliens in their Germanic kingdom.
1715: During the War of the Spanish Succession which came to an end today, Samson Wertheimer, “the chief rabbi of Hungary and Moravia” who was “also an Austrian financier, court Jew and Shtadlan to Austrian Emperor Leopold I” and Samuel Oppenheimer procured “the money necessary” to equip and supply the victorious Austrian imperial army
1720(5thof Tammuz, 5480): Ahron Lwow passed away in Vienna.
1733: A month after the founding of the colony of Georgia by James Oglethorpe, Jewish settlers arrived in Savannah. The group of forty Sephardic Jews was joined within a year by a group of Ashkenazi Jews. The Sephardic Jews had brought a Torah and other religious items with them and quickly founded a congregation called Mikveh Israel (Hope of Israel). One of the reasons given for the lack of European-styled anti-Semitism in America was that the Jews arrived in the New World at the same time everybody else did.
1734: Birthdate of Philip (Uri) Minis, the Jewish infant who was also the first male white child born in Georgia.
1740: Czarina Anne ordered the Jews expelled from Little Russia. Little Russia is another term for an area that includes the Ukraine.
1767: Birthdate John Quincy Adams, Sixth President of the United States. Like his father, John Quincy had a positive attitude towards the Jewish people. In a letter to Major Mordecai Manuel Noah, he wrote, “[I believe in the] rebuilding of Judea as an independent nation.” Of course this could have been one the earliest attempt to secure Jewish political support by espousing the cause of the Jewish homeland. More than likely, it was an expression of popular Protestant belief of the time that Jews returning to the Promised Land was a necessary precursor for the ultimate Second Coming. While many Jews know Noah as the founder of the utopian Jewish community of Ararat, he was a major diplomatic and political figure who was the leader of the Tammany Hall political machine during the 1820’s.
1775(13thof Tammuz, 5535): Abraham Seligman, the patriarch of the family that included American financiers Joseph and Jacob Seligman passed away today.
1797: Charles Macklin, the famous Anglo-Irish actor whose greatest claim to fame was his portrayal of Shylock in a completely new manner, passed away.
1797: The gates of the Jewish ghetto in Venice were torn down. This was a direct result of the victories of the French armies led by Napoleon.
1798(27th of Tammuz, 5558): Breina Jaffe the daughter of Mordechai Jaffe passed away today.
1804: Vice President Aaron Burr and Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton fought a duel. Hamilton fell mortally wounded. Hamilton had been born on the British controlled island of Nevis in the West Indies in 1755. His mother was Jewish. His father was a prominent citizen. Hamilton’s mother was married, but not to Hamilton’s father. Hamilton attended a Jewish school which was housed in a synagogue in the island’s capital city. After finishing his school he made his way to North America where he would eventually become a favorite of George Washington and was one of the authors of the famous Federalist Papers. Hamilton never identified himself as a Jew and lived the life of a prominent Protestant political and financial leader.
1817: Eight year old Ralph Disraeli, the son of Maria and Isaac Disraeli, and the brother of Benjamin Disraeli was christened today at St. Andrew’s in a ceremony that would change the history of the United Kingdom.
1821: Issachar Ber ben Eliezer Jacob married Yetta bat Aaron at the Western Synagogue today.
1821: James Samuel married Elizabeth Davis at the Great Synagogue today.
1824: In Frankfurt, Germany, James de Rothschild married his niece Betty Salomon von Rothschild the daughter of his brother, Salomon Mayer von Rothschild
1827: Rabbi S.C. Peixotto officiated at the wedding of Nathan A. Cohen and Clara Harris, the third daughter of Jacob Harris, Jr. of Charleston, SC.
1827: Lewis Lyon married Mary Phillips at the Western Synagogue today.
1827: Solomon Worms married Henrietta Samuel at the Great Synagogue today.
1831: Birthdate of Mark Blumenthal, the Bavarian born American graduate of College of Physicians and Surgeons at Columbia University who “was president of and physician to the Institution for the Improved Instruction of Deaf Mutes, founded and supported by Jews for the benefit of Jewish and other children” from 1862 to 1894.
1832: Reuben Salomons married Sarah Hurwitz today.
1858: Birthdate of Cyrus L. Sulzberger, the native of Philadelphia, who “went to New York in 1877 as bookkeeper for the firm of Erlanger, Blumgart & Co., of which he later became the head. An active participant in movement’s to reform New York City’s corrupt political environment, he was a candidate on the Fusion ticket for president of the borough of Manhattan, New York in 1904. Sulzberger was also active in Jewish communal affairs serving for many years as treasurer of the United Hebrew, vice president of the American Zionist Federation and, in 1905, as president of the Jewish Agricultural and Industrial Aid Society.
1859: Birthdate of John Grenfell Maxwell, who as a Lt. Col in his majesty’s army served as commander of the Zion Mule Corps which is considered to be the first “Jewish fighting force” since the end of the Bar Kochba Revolt.
1860: “A meeting of residents in the new suburb of Bayswater was held, and an agreement reached as to the desirability of establishing a new congregation in the neighborhood.”
1861: Jules Mires, the Franco-Jewish banker, was condemned to five years in prison and order to pay a fine of 3,000 francs by the Correctional Tribunal of Paris.
1861 In London Assur Henry Moses and Henrietta Moses gave birth to Marianna Floretta Raphael the wife of Arthur Lewis Raphael.
1865(17th of Tammuz, 5625):Tzom Tammuz
1865(17th of Tammuz, 5625): Author and historian Elias Chaim Lindo, the native of St. Thomas who settled in London in 1832 where he published several works including History of the Jews of Spain and Portugal passed away today.
1866: Upon recurrence of blood libel accusations, Sultan Aziz issued a firman taking the Jews under his protection. Thanks to this firman the Greek Orthodox patriarchate had to issue encyclicals to all churches, forbidding such practices.
1869: Birthdate of Elyakum Heinrich or in German Heinrich Loewe, the German intellectual who attended the first Zionist Congress in Basel and as an orientalist was appointed to a professorship at the University of Berlin in 1915.
1870: Birthdate of Brooklyn native Mitchell May, the graduate of Brooklyn Polytechnic and Columbia University Law school whose political career including serving one term as a member of the U.S. House Representatives and 18 years as justice of the New York State Supreme Court.
1877(1st of Av, 5637): Rosh Chodesh Av
1877: Reports published today described conditions in Eastern Europe as the Russian Army continues its advance against the forces of Romania including the execution of two spies by the Russians. According to the reporter, one stood tall and faced his executioners with a sneer before being shot. The other, a Jew, groveled in front of his captors invoking his forefathers and expressing a willingness to convert if they would spare his life. He was shot where he lay. The reporter also included a description of Galician Jews whom he said were “so disgusting that even their co-religionists in Europe and America would refuse them all sympathy if they could see them.”
1877: In Philadelphia, PA, Simon Benjamin Fleisher and Cecilia Hofheimer Fleisher gave birth to Dr. Edwin Adler Fleischer, “one of the most influential and important musical philanthropists of the 20th century” who established the Symphony Club in 1909.
1877: The Fourth Council of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations met for a second day in Philadelphia, PA.
1879: In Cleveland, Ohio, Emanuel and Sarah Ullman gave birth to Solomon Emanuel Ullman the “husband of Belle May Lowenstein
1879: Delegates to the Sixth Council of the Union of American and Hebrew Congregations visited various public institutions controlled by the Commissioner of Charities and Corrections followed by visits to various institutions supported by Jewish charities.
1879; In Cincinnati, Ohio, “Louis and Rose (Winkler) Amerberg gave birth to Constance Amberg, the University of Cincinnati graduate who worked as a volunteer in New York settlement houses before marrying attorney William Dick Sporborg and becoming Constance Amberg Sporborg, the mother of Elizabeth and William Dick Sporborg, Jr.
1879: Delegates to the Sixth Council of the Union of American and Hebrew attended a banquet at Delmonico’s
1879: Rabbi Isaac Meyer Wise of Cincinnati delivered a lecture at Temple Emanu-el based on the renewal of the covenant at Gilgal in the days of the prophet Samuel
1881: “The Bible and Science” published today provides a detailed review of Hours With the Bible: Volume II by Cunningham Geikie. In this second of what will become a multi-volume work, Geike provides an in depth study of the period from Moses to the Judges.
1881: Arnold Bogumil Ehrlich, the native of Wlodawa, Poland who came to New York from Hamburg in 1874 to teach at the Emanu-El Theological School became a naturalized U.S. citizen today, listing as “his occupation ‘Teacher of Languages.’”
1881: In Chicago, Dr. Ellinger read a paper tonight on “Ancient and Modern Rabbis” at a meeting of the Rabbinical Literary Society. The society is a national organization that draws it membership from Jewish theologians throughout the United States.
1882: As the Freight Handlers’ strike turned violent, Levi Cossowtich, a Russian-Jewish peddler was assaulted this morning at Henderson and 11th Streets by person or persons unknown. At noon, as he went to dinner, Louise Marble, one of the Jewish freight handlers working at the Erie depot, was assaulted and robbed.
1882: Birthdate of German mathematician Leonard Nelson who was the co-founder of The Internationaler Sozialistischer Kampfbund ("International Socialist Militant League")
1883: “Current Foreign Topics” published today described events at the trial in Hungary where Jews who were charged with murdering a Christian girl lost an important witness when a local coachman committed suicide.
1883: The Hebrew Union Council met for a second day in Cincinnati, Ohio. The Committee on Circuit Preaching reported favorably on a proposal of engaging circuit rabbis to service those areas where the Jewish population is too scattered to support full-time ministers. The Rabbinical Association asked that the Union provided a fund for “the support of enfeebled ministers in their old age.”
1883: Today’s commencement exercises of the Hebrew Union College are scheduled to be held at the Plum Street Temple in Cincinnati, Ohio followed by a banquet at the Highland House and a reception at the Zoological Garden. The high point of the event will be the consecration of seven new rabbis, the first such class to be produced by the school and the first rabbis to be trained solely in the United States.[Note HUC would become the flagship institution for the Reform Movement. While there is a popular misconception of American Jewry being a New York centric culture, in this a city in eastern Ohio, at the entry to the American heartland was the focal point of this significant segment of American Jewry.]
1883: In Cincinnati, Ohio, a banquet was held “in honor of the first graduating class of HUC” and the delegates attending “the Hebrew Union Council” where shell fish were served and other aspects of the Jews dietary laws were violated earning the event the title of “The Trefa Banquet” which marked an irreparable break between the Reform movement and the Orthodox and Conservative branches of Judaism
1883: County Coroner A.F Park came to the Oakdale, Connecticut to examine the body of a 24 year old Russian Jew, Moses Sadock. Sadock’s body was found in the woods, lying on his back “with his throat cut from ear to ear.” Sadock was the center of a developing scandal involving accusations that he was a bigamist.
1884: As word reached Albany, New York that Governor Grover Cleveland had been selected as the Presidential nominee of the Democrat Party, the Jewish “banking firm of Wormser & Co in New York sent hearty congratulations…”
1884: It was reported today that in Brooklyn, Beth Elohim has hired William Sparger to serve as its rabbi. The 26 year old Sparger was born in Hungary graduated from Prince Rudolph University of Vienna. A member of the reforming movement, Sparger replaces Rabbi Mosher who left the pulpit 6 months ago due to illness.
1885: In an attempt to put an end to the disputes with Rabbi Kauffman Kohler of Temple Beth-El, Rabbi Alexander of Kohut of Ahavath Chesed said today, “I desire that it should be understood that as far as I am concerned the pulpit controversy that has been carried out between myself and Dr. Kohler… is declared at end. I will make no more responses to any of Dr. Kohler’s sermons and expect a reciprocation from in this matter…In the interest of my religion and for the sake of harmony…I wish to avoid controversy in the pulpit.” This was an attempt to bring an end to the public dispute between these leaders of traditional and liberal Judaism.
1885: In Baltimore, MD, Judge Phelps rendered a decision in the case of the District Grand Lodge of B’nai B’rith v the Jedijah Lodge. The District had revoked the chapter’s charter and was seeking to recover funds that the lodge had collected. The judge decided that under the rules of equity, the District Grand Lodge had no right to the funds.
1886: It was reported today that the lady managers of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society have accepted the offer of boats from the New York Towing Company to be used for upcoming summer-time excursions.
1889: It was reported today that the Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati, Ohio is in desperate need of funds. The school is $9,000 in debt and needs an additional $15,500 to maintain operations. (More to added next year)
1889: The Trustees of the Harlem Club met this evening to consider the application for membership of New York State Senator Jacob A. Cantor. Robert Bonynge nominated him and David F. Porter seconded the nomination. However, there was enough opposition that it was obvious that the Senator would be “blackballed.” At the end of the meeting the Trustees refused to announce their decision saying that they would send a letter with the information to Cantor within the next ten days
1889: The cornerstone for a new synagogue to be used by New York’s Sephardic Jews was laid today at the corner of 160 East One Hundred and Sixteenth Street. This is the second synagogue in New York designed to meet the needs of the Spanish-Portuguese Community.
1889: Joseph Davis, “a junior member of…S&J Davis” a catering firm serving Orange and Newark, NJ, rented a summer cottage for his wife and their children at Ocean Beach after they had been forced to leave the Brunswick Hotel because the proprietor found out that they were Jewish.
1890: Birthdate of Captain Koreshige Inuzuka the native of Tokyo who “was the head of the Japanese Imperial Navy's Advisory Bureau on Jewish Affairs from March 1939 until April 1942” and who in 1941 was granted a silver cigarette case by the Union of Orthodox Rabbis of the United States” for his role in rescuing Jews from Nazi Germany. (Yes history can be convoluted and complicated)
1890: Theatrical manager Daniel Frohman described some of the plays he acquired on his recent trip to London and Paris that will be produced in the coming season. Among them are two French comedies – “Fen Toupinel” and La Femme Nervevie” – and two English comedies – “The Idler” and “The Solicitor”
1891: “The Expatriated Jews” published today described a letter the Assistant Secretary sent to the Acting Superintendent of Immigration at New York to question Russian Jews arriving at his port to see if any of them “had been diverted from their original destination to this country by foreign officials”, to record any such incidents in detail and send the report to Washington.
1891: On New York’s Lower East Side, Dr. Samuel Clurman and his wife Bertha gave birth to World War I veteran Albert Clurman, the graduate of Cornell who earned an LL.B from NYU and went on to practice in his home town.
1891: Birthdate of Otto Armster a German intelligence officer who was one of the few participants in the July 20 plot to assassinate Hitler who survived WW II.
1891: Israel Pimkus a sixty year old Russian Jew was among the passengers who arrived at New York’s Barge Office aboard the SS Fürst Bismarck. When asked if he would become a public charge he opened a satchel containing $17,500 which he said he was planning on using to buy land in the “West” before sending for his brothers.
1892: Birthdate of Hungarian born Dr. Joseph Shick, a chaplain in the Hungarian Army during WW I who came to the United States in 1922 where he served as the Rabbi of the West Side Jewish Center and the principal of the West Side Hebrew School.
1892: “Close of the Rabbis’ Convention” published today described the final session of “the annual convention of American rabbis that ended last night at a well-attended meeting at Temple Israel on 125th Street and Fifth Avenue.
1892: In Little Rock AR, eighty-two year old Samuel Bloch, a well-known writer who had lived in Cincinnati and Chicago passed away today.
1893(27thof Tammuz, 5653): Israel Joshua Trunk, the rabbi at Kutno, passed away today.
1894: In San Francisco, Stella (Stettheimer) and Sigmund Feuchtwanger gave birth to Walter Feuchtwanger who gained fame as movie producer Walter Wagner.
1894: “Aid For The Workingman” published today describes the success of the Order of Round Robins a fraternal and welfare organization designed to benefits workers and employers originally conceived by Colonel Jacob Bloom, the manager of the Baron de Hirsch Trade School located in New York City.
1894: The representatives of the United Hebrew Trades Union, the Socialist Party and the Knights of Labor met tonight at the Labor Lyceum to finalize plans for the upcoming mass meeting in Union Square.
1894: A list of the amount of annual appropriations of state moneys to be paid to different New York institutions and the year the appropriation was first approved included the Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum $110 per head by law of 1874, Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society $104 per head by law of 1889 and the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children $5,000 a year by law of
1894: In Albany, during the Constitutional Convention’s Committees on Legislate Powers, Education, Taxation and Charities hearing “on the question of abolishing sectarian appropriations Elbridge T. Gerry expressed his fear that adoption “would cripple the great Hebrew Guardian Society.”
1894: Samuel Gompers will chair the meeting of the Executive Council of the American Federation of Labor in Chicago where they will discuss the possibility of a general strike if the current strike against Pullman fails.
1895:In Rochester, NY, the annual Central Conference of American Rabbis continues to meet for a second day.
1895: A list of the bequests of the late Moses Heidelbach published today included $500 to Mount Sinai Hospital; a one thousand dollar bond to the Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum of New York City; $500 to Abraham Friedlander which he is to contribute charities in Cincinnati, Ohio.
1895: According to figures published today during the month of June, the Employment Bureau of the United Hebrew Charities of New York found employment for 667 of its 748 applicants
1896: Herzl achieves the agreement of Sir Samuel Montagu and Colonel Goldsmid to work with him for a vassal Jewish state under Turkish rule. Goldsmid promises to write a letter to Baron Rothschild.
1897: Forty Jewish families from Poland who had arrived in New York aboard the steamships Veendam and Scilia were turned over to the Immigration Bureau on the suspicion that they were destitute and therefore not eligible to enter the United States.
1897: Birthdate of New York native Oscar Tobler, the lightweight boxer who fought under the name of Willie Jackson or Young Willie Jackson.
1897: It was reported today that “Yemen’s Arabian Jews have Negus Menelek for permission to settle in the towns of Abyssinia on the ground that Menelek is one of the chosen people being descendedfrom King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba”
1898: “Restlessness Among Children: Its Causes; Its Effects; Its Treatment” a presentation by Miss Carrie W. Kearns of New York City will be the feature of today’s session of the Teachers’ Institute
1898: The Hebrew Bath House Society, whose members include S.D. Solomon, Charles Serling and Israel Kaplan was founded today in Syracuse, NY.
1898: During the Spanish-American War, Sergeant Philips S. Golderman began serving as the Color Sergeant in Company I, of the 203rd New York Infantry.
1899: Nathan Israel, the founder of Israel’s Department Store which was “one of the largest and oldest stores in pre-World War II Germany” and his wife gave birth to Wilfrid Israel “an Anglo-German businessman who was active in the rescue of Jews from Nazi Germany.
1899: In Poughkeepsie, NY, the leaders of the Y.M.C.A. who have been conducting a crusade to enforce the Sunday closing laws, have asked that the fines of the merchants convicted of violating the law, including Louis Grossman and Aaron Friedman be remitted because they only wished to have their stores closed on Sunday and not to have the merchants punished.
1899: The American Jews wishing to present a jeweled sword to Captain Dreyfus to mark his successfully overcoming the charges of treason received a telegram from Emile Zola stating “Dreyfus family consulted. Thank you, but impossible to accept.”
1901: Grossherzog Friedrich of Baden informs Herzl that the Czar will not receive him.
1902: In The Hague, Isaac Goudsmit, a manufacturer of water-closets, and Marianne Goudsmit-Gompers who ran a millinery shop who were murdered by the Nazis in 1943 gave birth to Dutch-American physicist Samuel Goudsmit.
1903: Birthdate of Sidney Franklin. Born Sidney Frumkin, Franklin was the first famous bullfighter from north of the Rio Grande.
1904: The Eight Annual meeting of the Board of Governors of The Education League for Higher Education led by its President, Rabbi Moses J. Gries was held today in Cleveland, Ohio.
1905: The Ninth Summer Assembly of the Jewish Chautauqua Society continued for a fourth day in Atlantic City, NJ.
1911: In Milwaukee, Wisconsin, the 15th annual summer assembly of the Jewish Chautauqua Society led by Chancellor Henry Berkowitz continued for a fifth day.
1911: A strong protest was provided by Moses Gaster when the London Times published an article from Vienna stating that Jews are influencing the Salonica Committee which is bringing harsh measures to bear against the Albanians.
1912: Sarah Sophia Bensaude Abecassis “married her cousin Salomão Abecassis Seruya in the Great Synagogue, Cape Town, South Africa. He was the son of Mark (Mojluf) Seruya and Esther Conquy Abecassis. Born in Lisbon 1883, she was the daughter of Isaac Conquy Abecassis and Helena Nathan Bensaude
1914(17thof Tammuz, 5674): Fast not observed because it is Shabbat
1914(17thof Tammuz,5674): Seventy-three year old Julius Rodenberg, (born Julius Levy) who “wrote the libretto to Anton Rubinstein's opera, “Feramors” and who founded the political journal Deutsche Rundschau in 1874 passed away today.
1915: Dr. Cyrus Adler addressed the opening session of the convention of the United Synagogue of America today.
1915: As of today, The Red Cross European Fund in New York City of which Jacob H. Schiff is the treasurer has raised $511,185.56
1916: Birthdate of Mortimer Caplan the New York attorney who was a founding member of Caplin & Drysdale and who was appointed IRS Commissioner by President Kennedy
1916: British businessman and cricket enthusiast Sir Julien Cahn married Phyllis Muriel Wolfe with whom he had three children – Patience, Albert Jonas who assumed the baronetcy when his father passed away and Albert Jonas Cahn.
1917: Samuel Katzprowsky, a native of Russia now residing in Berkeley, CA applied for a patent on “a certain news and useful Process of Treating Dried Fruit” which “relates to a processing of treating raisings, prunes, figs and other fruits which are dried.”
1918: “At the semi-annual convention of the Orthodox Rabbis of America” led by its President, Rabbi Margolies of New York, being held at the Broadway Central Hotel, “resolutions were adopted thanks Great Britain and the Allies for their formal declarations favoring the establishment of a national Jewish homeland in Palestine.”
1919: Birthdate of Russian born Israeli artist and author Benjamin Tammuz.
1920: At the first Zionist conference held after World War I, Olga Ginsburg initiated the founding of the Women’s International Zionist Organization (WIZO), together with representatives from organizations in Palestine, England, Germany, Poland, The Netherlands, Russia and South Africa. It was decided to establish the central office in Palestine and to divide the work between the world center and London. (As reported by Esther Carmel-Hakim)
1921: Former US President William Howard Taft was sworn in as 10th Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court, becoming the only person to ever be both President and Chief Justice. Unlike the Associate Justices, the Chief Justice has major administrative responsibility for both the High Court and the Federal judiciary system. It was in this latter arena that both Louis Brandies and Felix Frankfurter reported that Taft excelled.
1921(5thof Tammuz, 5681): Sixty-nine year old Hungarian native Rabbi Joseph Zeisler, the son Edouard and Josefine Zeisler, the “husband of Mrs. Hermaine Kafka Zeisler and father of Eugene, Cornelius, Pauline and Florance Zeisle” who had lead several congreagations including San Bernardino’s Congregation Emanu El and Beth Ha-Tefilah in Ashville, NC, passed away today in Brooklyn.
1921: The Irish War of Independence in which Robert “Bob” Briscoe, the second Jewish Lord Mayor of Dublin, served in the Irish Republican Army and Sinn Fein, came to an end.
1923: Birthdate of Helen Wasser, the native of the Lower East Side who gained fame as the “matriarch” of Kutsher’s Country Club, the last of great borscht belt hostelries. (As reported by Joseph Berger)
1923: Albert Einstein delivers his Nobel Lecture in Gothenburg, Sweden
1923: In Cieszyn, Poland, “Marek Pipes who ran a chocolate factory” and “homemaker Sara Sofia (Haskelberg) Pipes, who went by Zosia” gave birth to Ryszard Edgar Pipes who gained fame as Richard Pipes, the American historian who specialized in Russian affairs.
1924: It was reported today that the Counsel for Fanny Brice’s husband Nicky Arnstein, who had entered Leavenworth in May, “sought before General Sessions Judge Koenig to have the charges against him relating to having received $5,000,000 of securities stolen by messengers of Wall Street brokers five years ago dismissed.
1926: The first international conference of representatives of Liberal Judaism will open in London today. Delegates from the reform congregations of the United States and several European countries, ministers and laymen, are expected to participate. The majority of the papers to be read at the conference will deal with the fundamental aspects of Liberal Judaism today.
1927: Birthdate of Holocaust survivor Vera Lindeblit, the Berlin native whose father was murdered at Auschwitz and who gained fame as Vera Stern, the one-time wife of Isaac Stern with whom she helped to save Carnegie Hall from the wrecking ball.
1927: The Hadassah offices in New York City received a cable from Dr. E.M. Bluestone, director of the Hadassah Medical Organization in Palestine stating that “the earthquake situation ‘is well in hand.’” (As reported by William Grimes)
1927: In Los Angeles, CA, electrical engineer Abraham “Abe” Maiman and inventor Rose Abramson gave birth to Theodore Harold "Ted" Maiman the “American engineer and physicist credited with the invention of the first working laser.”
1928 In Cardiff, Wales, Litvaks “Barnett Janner and Elsie Sybil, née Cohen” gave birth to Granville Janner, the Member of Parliament and future Baron Janner of Braunstone whose sister Ruth became Lady Morris of Kenwood.
1929: Critic and producer Mark Helleinger and Gladys Glad got married today.
1929: Birthdate of Juergen Corleis whose mother was Jewish which did not keep him from hiding as a student in an elite SS training school. A 1985 film produced by Corleis is a permanent feature at the Bergen-Belsen memorial, where it has been seen by millions of visitors.
1930: Birthdate of literary critic Harold Bloom. Bloom is the Sterling Professor of Humanities at Yale. The Bronx born Bloom is reputed to have learned Yiddish and literary Hebrew before he learned English.
1931: “Smart Money” a gangster movie starring Edward G. Robinson (Emanuel Goldenberg) was released in the United States today.
1931: In New York City Charles Kelm, who was Jewish and the former Gertrud Gelien was not gave birth to Arthur Andrew Klem who gained fame as Tab Hunter, the teenage heartthrob who was raised by his mother after his parent’s divorce
1933: Birthdate of George R Whyte, a British national who had been born in Budapest and whose greatest claim to fame is his recognition as a “world authority on the Dreyfus Affair.”
1933: In Floral Park, NY, Dr. Abraham and Mrs. Phyllis Neuwirth gave birth to Robert Samuels Neuwirth, “a prominent gynecologist who developed minimally invasive techniques that helped many women avoid hysterectomies.” (As reported by William Yardley.)
1936: A review of What I Left Unsaid by Daisy, Princess of Pless (yes that is the name of a real person) included her observation that “in Soviet Russia Jews ‘are crucifying the Russian peoples as their ancestors crucified Christ.” Furthermore “for twenty-five years the ‘low, base Jewish profiteers’ who run the moving picture industry have ‘mentally posed the people of the British Empire and have ‘almost destroyed the immense prestige England once enjoyed’ throughout the world” and her solution is that “Great Britain and Germany must unite for the good of mankind.”
1936: To the surprise of everybody, Chancellor Kurt Schuschnigg delivered a speech over the radio tonight announcing “the conclusion of an agreement between Austria and Nazi Germany” which has left “the Jewish population fearful” because “it sees the door opening to rapid Nazification of Austria and the introduction of German methods of anti-Semitism.”
1937: Composer George Gershwin passed away. Born in 1898, Gershwin made musical history during his very short lifetime. Among his most famous productions was "Porgy and Bess" a classic whose music is still sung today.
1937: “In Jerusalem, the Arab National Defense issued a manifesto severely condemn the recommendation of the British Royal Commission for splitting Palestine into separate Arab and Jewish states and the creation of a new British mandate controlling the holy cities of Jerusalem, Bethlehem and Nazareth.”
1938: During an appearance in the House of Commons, Colonial Secretary Malcolm MacDonald refused to respond to an inquiry about whether he would ask the French to expel the Grand Mufti from Syria, the base from which he is directing the on-going campaign of violence gripping Palestine.
1941In Liepāja, Latvia, SS-Untersturmführer (Second Lieutenant) Wolfgang Kügler replaced Erhard Grauel, as commander of Einsatzkommando 2 today and continued shooting “small groups of Jews’ every evening.
1941(16th of Tammuz, 5701): Forty-four year old bond broker, Monroe Mayhoff, who had risen to the rank of Captain while serving in the New York National Guard passed away today. He was the son of Charles Mayhoff and Ameilia Levy Mayhoff who survived both her husband and son.
1941: Following the murder of most of the Jews at Jedwabne, Poland by the Polish population on the previous days, the Germans reasserted their authority and forbade the Poles from killing any more Jews on their own.
1941: The Gestapo officially took control of the prisons in Riga where “Latvian gangs had already killed a number of Jewish inmates.”
1942: Sixty-four year old artist and designer Friedrich Adler, the native of Laupeheim whose”birthplace is now the Café Hermes, was shipped to Auschwitz today and was killed soon after because he was “judged too old to work.”
1942: This day was called the "Black Sabbath" in Salonica, Greece. Ten thousand men were assembled for forced labor registration by the Germans. Surrounded by machine gun carrying Germans, 7,000 Jews had to stand erect, and sometimes in a squatting position in the 100 degree sun under threat of death nearly all day. An untold number of Jews died because they were beaten, tortured, and deprived of both food and water. Nine thousand of them are assigned to the Organisation Todt labor battalions.
1943: In the early morning hours, airborne troops drop onto Sicily followed by a seaborne assault by troops under the command of Patton and Montgomery in what was known as Operation Husky. At that time Operation Husky was the largest amphibious assault ever attempted and its success depended on fooling the enemy as to where the landings would take place. Thanks to Operation Mincemeat, which has been described as the Allies’ most successful act of deception during the war, the Axis forces were taken by surprise. Operation Mincemeat was masterminded by Captain Ewen Montagu, a member of a prominent British Jewish family who would serve as President of the United Synagogue and Vice President of the Anglo-Jewish Association. [For more about this fascinating act of deception see a movie called The Man Who Never Was or read Operation Mincemeat.]
1943: Martin Bormann, head of the Nazi Party secretariat, issued a circular on the instructions of Hitler. "Whenever the Jewish question was brought up in public, there may be no discussion of a future overall solution. It may however be mentioned that the Jews are taken in groups for appropriate labor purposes."
1944: “Prime Minister Winston Churchill put an end to the proposal to swap Jews for trucks and other goods with a memo that there should be ‘no negotiations of any kind on this subject.’”
1944: Birthdate of Michael Abraham Levy, “a Labour member of the House of Lords, President of Jewish Care and the Jewish Free School, and formerly the chief fundraiser for the Labour Party and several charities.”
1944: The Nazis liquidated the Kovno Ghetto.
1945: The British High Commissioner caves in to Arab pressure and issues a decree ending the Jerusalem municipality. He imposed a system of six British officials to administer the city, a system that ended the democratically elected government of Jerusalem.
1945: During WW II, at Pearl Harbor, Dr. Abraham Koransky who was awarded the Silver Start for his role at the Battle of Attu in 1943, married “Lt. Pauline Setnetsky, an Army nurse” in a marriage that lasted until he passed away in 1999.
1946: A Polish primate, Cardinal August Hlond, blames the Jews of Kielce, Poland, for the murderous pogrom that had taken place on July 4.
1947: Today, the SS Exodus with 23 year old Yitzhak Ahronovitch at the helm,a dilapidated American coastal steamer, left Sete, France filled with Jewish refugees who planning on defying the British ban on Jewish immigration to Palestine. The events surrounding the real SS Exodus would form the nucleus of Exodus by Leon Uris, a novel (and later movie) that provided a sympathetic description of events surrounding the birth of the modern state of Israel.
1948: During “Operation Danny,” Israeli forces captured Lydda.
1948: Birthdate of Norman Lebrecht the native of London known as a controversial music and cultural affairs critic
1950: The New York Times reports that Crown Publishers will distribute “an American edition of Ari Ibn-Zahav’s second novel, David and Bathsheba in 1951. “The book, on which the author worked nearly seven years covering those places in Israel where the incidents took place was published in Hebrew in Jerusalem in 1929.” Jessica My Daughter was the name of Ibn-Zahav’s first novel.
1950: Two British planes which had landed at Lydda Airport without permission last week have been released by Israeli and are scheduled to leave Lydda Airport today. The two planes had landed in Israel on July 9 carrying more than 100 Iraqi Jews who had fled to Teheran where they had chartered these two British aircraft. The planes had been detained because landing rights had been obtained for only one plane.
1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that Israel had been allocated $23.5m. grant-in-aid under the economic part of the US Mutual Security Program for the Middle East. The size of the no-man's-land in Jerusalem had been reduced by marking of the border houses by the joint Israel-Jordan Mixed Armistice Commission. Syria asked Iraq to withdraw all its troops which had been sent to reinforce the Syrian forces during the Hula conflict with Israel.
1951: Today, W.H. Young, a deputy undersecretary of state, “sent a secret cablegram to the American consul in Haifa, directing that the passport of Paul Shulman” the man described a Israel’s Vounteer Admiral “be canceled except for travel to the United States.
1952: In New York, Theresa (née Volmer) Lang and Eugene Lang, a prominent entrepreneur and philanthropist gave birth to actor and playwright Stephen Lang, the youngest brother of Jane and David Lang.
1952: “Speaking at a reception given by Labour MPs in honour of a Histadrut delegation of 62 American and Canadian Jews en route to Israel,” “Labour Party leaders praised the courage and enthusiasm of the new State of Israel and said that it would overcome the great odds which it faces.
1955: Susan Strasberg, who was nominated for a Tony for her portrayal of Anne Frank, appeared on the cover of Life Magazine.
1956: Seventy-four year old Vienna born banker Felix Somary who before the Anschluss repeatedly tried to get Baron Louis Nathaniel de Rothschild to leave Austria passed away today.
1958: In Tunisia, one of the last vestiges of this venerable community, The Jewish Community Council in Tunisia was dissolved. The Jewish Community Council was one of the last vestiges of the venerable Tunisian Jewish Community. The Jewish Community in Tunisia traced its roots to the days of the Second Temple. The community began in Carthage, the rival to Rome that you may remember as the homeland of the great general, Hannibal. Soon after the council was dissolved, the Hara, (Jewish quarter) together with the oldest synagogue was destroyed as part of a slum-clearance project.
1958(23rdof Tammuz, 5718): Seventy-six year old Sir Eric Miller the Chairman of the Board of Harrisons and Crosfield who was lifelong champion of the rubber industry passed away today.
1959: Birthdate of New York comedian, comic actor and scriptwriter Barry Sobel
1961(27thof Tammuz, 5721): Thirty one year old Sidney Cole, who had ridden his first victory in 1950 “died today after being thrown from the saddle of a 2 year old filly and into a guard rail at Aqueduct.”
1961: Birthdate of Ophir Pines-Paz, the native of Rishon LeZion who served as an MK and filled several ministerial posts.
1962(9thof Tammuz, 5722): Today, a day after his 57th birthday Polish native Maurice B. Pekarsky who came to the United States in 1921 and was ordained in 1933 by Hebrew Union College after which he began a lifetime of service to Hillel including serving as Director of the Jewish College youth organization at the University of Chicago starting in 1940 passed away.
1963: Arthur Goldreich, a South African Jew, who helped lead the armed struggle against apartheid in South Africa was among the top 16 ANC leaders who were arrested today at Liliesleaf. This was the farm where Goldreich posed as the manager while Nelson Mandel masqueraded as his houseboy in their fight against the apartheid government of South Africa.
1966(23rd of Tammuz, 5726): Poet Delmore Schwartz, the son of Jewish immigrants from Romania passed away.
1966: In Los Angeles, Sandy (née Klein) and Gerry Grunberg gave birth to American television actor Gregory Phillip Grunberg,
1967: The Battle of Rumani a naval engagement that took place tonight between Israeli and Egyptian naval forces, near the vicinity of Rumani. Two Egyptian torpedo boats were sunk in the action for no Israeli losses.
1971(18thof Tammuz, 5731): Tzom Tammuz is observed because the 17th fell on Shabbat.
1972: Second day of The Democratic National Convention which Robert Abrams, the 9thBorough President of the Bronx attended as a delegate from New York.
1972: Birthdate of actor Michael Rosenbaum whose current claim to fame is his portrayal of Superman’s evil opponent - Lex Luthor.
1973(11thof Tammuz, 5733): Seventy-eight year old jurist Simon Sobeloff who served as Solicitor General passed away today.
1975: “Cleopatra Jones and the Casino of Gold,” a sequel to “Cleopatra Jones” starring Norman Fell was released today in the United States.
1976: The Jerusalem Post reported that Israel told the UN Security Council that the entire Entebbe hijack affair was one of collusion, from beginning to end, on the part of the Ugandan government and Palestinian terrorists. Israeli envoy Chaim Herzog challenged Uganda to produce Mrs. Dora Bloch, who was both a British and Israeli national and was hospitalized in Entebbe the day before the raid. The British official who visited her a day after the raid reported that she was guarded by two plainclothes men and that he was denied access after he returned to meet her again an hour later. The British Foreign Office recalled its high commissioner from Kampala after he received a "totally unacceptable" reply from Idi Amin on the fate of Mrs. Bloch.
1976: In a pre-recorded interview broadcast today on the CBS news program Face the Nation, “Prime Minister Rabin denounced President Amin. ‘For years he has given refuge, assistance, training, support of all kinds to Palestinian terror organizations that worked against Israel.’” He went on to say “that President Amin was a full partner to the hijacking, if not when it began, then certainly in the later stage.” [Note – Rabin’s comments came in the wake of attacks by Uganda, and other nations of sub-Saharan Africa on Israel and implied, if not stated, support for the hijackers. Thirty years later, some of these same states would get a taste of what Israel was dealing with when they began to deal with Al Qaeda and other Moslem terrorists operating in their countries.]
1976: “An all-black cast staged the first Broadway review” of “Guys and Dolls a musical with music and lyrics by Frank Loesser and book by Jo Swerling and Abe Burrows” which opened with a preview performance today at the Broadway Theatre.
1978(6thof Tammuz, 5738): Seventy-two year old “art historian and critic” Harold Rosenberg passed away today.
1978: The trial of Anatoly Sharansky continued to a second day.
1983(1st of Av, 5743): Rosh Chodesh Av
1986: In Los Angles “Lee Schwartz, a business consultant to manufacturing companies, and Olivia Goodkin, an attorney” gave birth to Offensive Tackle Geoff Schwartz
1986: As part of the celebrations of the centennial of the Statue of Liberty, Liz Lerman's Still Crossing was performed in Manhattan. The performance, part of a series of dance performances in a show called "Liberty Dances," brought together dancers from both of Lerman's companies: Dancers of the Third Age, a company of elderly dancers, and the younger Dance Exchange. The professional dancers were joined by members of the 92nd Street Y and a YWCA in Brooklyn in a piece that the New York Times reviewer described as simple but moving, with "dignity and eloquence." Choreographer Liz Lerman was educated at the University of Maryland and at George Washington University, where she earned an M.A. in dance. She established the Dance Exchange in Washington, DC, in 1976, as a school that included classes for senior adults and "special populations." After three years, she also launched a touring Dance Exchange company; the school was later closed so that Lerman and the company could focus on creating new works. From the beginning, Lerman's work has been deeply involved in issues of community building and community-based art. Like Dancers of the Third Age, many of her projects have incorporated performers outside of the mainstream dance world. In addition, she has created site-specific projects, including dances celebrating the 200th anniversary of the Portsmouth, NH, naval shipyard. Similarly, many of her dances take on themes of political or social importance. A 1987 program called "Atomic Priests and Other Dances" included a dance based on an official Department of Energy Report about how people 10,000 years from now might deal with nuclear waste. She has also produced what she calls a docudance entitled "Nine Short Dances About the Defense Budget and Other Military Matters." A reviewer has called Lerman "one of the most articulate and compassionate of social commentators in the arts today." Lerman's work has been widely recognized for excellence. Lincoln Center, the American Dance Festival, BalletMet, and the Kennedy Center have all commissioned works. In 1988, Lerman was named Washingtonian of the Year by Washingtonian magazine. She has also received an American Choreographer Award, an American Jewish Congress "Golda" Award, and, in 2002, a MacArthur Fellowship. Today, the Liz Lerman Dance Exchange operates out of Takoma Park, MD, and performs all over the United States and the world. Dancers of the Third Age, which also performs widely, operates as an adjunct company to the Dance Exchange. Current projects include "Prayer as a Radical Act/Radical Action as Prayer," which will be a dance/theatre piece that draws from ancient and contemporary prayer practices to explore unity and division, and "Ferocious Beauty: Genome," which will be a multi-media work exploring the impact of genetic research on our lives.
1987(14th of Tamuz, 5747): Avi Ran, Israeli goalkeeper for Maccabia Haifa died in a boating accident.
1987(14th of Tammuz, 5747): Rabbi Yaakov Yitzchok Ruderman passed away. Born in 1901 at Daŭhinava he “was a prominent Talmudic scholar… who founded and served as Rosh Yeshiva of Yeshiva Ner Yisroel in Baltimore.
1988: Today, Economics Minister Gad Yaacobi said the 7-month Arab uprising has cost Israel more than $600 million, including losses in tourism, exports and production revenues. Defense Minister Yitzhak Rabin said Israel has spent about $160 million to quell the unrest.
1994: The second round of family tours of Israel sponsored by the American Jewish Congress are scheduled to begin today.
1997(6thof Tammuz, 5757): Eighty-five year old Edward Lasker, the son of Albert Davis Lasker, who was a movie producer, thoroughbred racehorse owner and businessman passed away today.
1999: Roman Bronfman and Alexander Tzinker left Yisrael BaAliyah and formed the Democratic Choice faction.
1999(27thof Tammuz, 5759): Seventy-nine year old Everett Greenbaum, the native of Buffalo, NY, who wrote scripts for several movies starring Don Knotts and who wrote script for numerous popular television shows including “Mr. Peepers” and “MASH” passed away today.
1999: The New York Times reviews books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including recently release paperback editions of Explaining Hitler: The Search for the Origins of His Evil” by Ron Rosenbaum and “Between Dignity and Despair: Jewish Life in Nazi Germany”, by Marion A. Kaplan.
2000; Talks opened at Camp David between Yasser Arafat and Ehud Barak under the auspices of Bill Clinton. “Israeli Prime Minsiter, Ehud Barak, tells US President, Bill Clinton, his starting position: Jerusalem would never be shared. Palestinian Chairman, Yasser Arafat, demands half Jerusalem as his capital and Palestinian sovereignty over what the Muslims know as the Haram al-Sharif, which is the Jews' Temple Mount.”
2002: An exhibition entitled “Michael Rovner: The Space Between” opened at the Whitney Museum in New York City.
2000: Yithak Vankin ended his service as Deputy Minister of Communications when Shas resigned from the government today.
2000: Haim Ramon succeeded Natan Sharansky as Internal Affairs Minister.
2000: Eli Suissa completed his service as Minister of Energy and Water Resources
2000: Starting today, President Clinton hosted negotiations between Prime Minister Ehud Barak and Chairman Yassar Arafat aimed at creating “an agreement on permanent status.”
2002: In Helena, Montana, the building that housed Temple Emanu-El which had been dedicated in 1891 “was placed on the National Register of Historic Places” today.
2003: Kate Remembered by A. Scott Berg “a biography-cum-memoir detailing his 20-year friendship with the Hollywood actress Katharine Hepburn was published today, 12 days before her death.
2004(22ndof Tammuz, 5764): “Sgt. Ma'ayan Na'im, 19, of Bat Yam, was murdered and 33 others were wounded when a bomb exploded at a bus stop in downtown Tel Aviv at about 7 a.m. One person was critically wounded, four were moderately wounded, and the rest were lightly hurt.”
2004(22nd of Tammuz, 5764): Eighty-two year old fitness guru Joe Gold, the creator of the ubiquitous Gold’s Gyms, passed away today. (As reported by Wolfgang Saxon)
2005: Opening ceremonies for the 17th Maccabiah.
2006: “Grilled” featuring Lisa Edelstein, Michael Rapaport and Barry Newman “was released direct-to-video in the United States today.
2007: Ninety-two year old American born Canadian businessman, philanthropist and theatrical impresario Ed Mirvish, the owner of Hones Ed’s discount store passed away today.
2007: In Sydney, Australia, the International Conference of Christian and Jews comes to an end.
2008: US Ambassador to Israel Richard Jones leave his post, some three years after taking up the position. He will be replaced by James Cunningham, whose appointment has already been confirmed by the US Senate.
2008: U.S. premiere of “Hellboy II: The Golden Army” produced by Lloyd Levin and Joe Roth, co-starring Ron Perlman, Selma Blair and Jeffrey Tambor and with music by Danny Elfman.
2008: At a conference on the Dead Sea Scrolls at the Orion Center held by the Hebrew University's Mandel Institute of Jewish Studies and the Israel Museum Professor Israel Knohl from the Department of Bible Studies at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem presented a new and surprising interpretation to a text found on a stone tablet that has been called the ''Vision of Gabriel''. According to his interpretation, the word Hayia – or ''will live''– that appears on the tablet is an old form of the imperative word ''Live!'' and shows that the angel Gabriel resurrected a messianic leader by the name of Sar HaSarin, or ''prince of princes'' three days after his death. The Vision of Gabriel is a text written on stone from the first century B.C.E. that was discovered in Transjordan, and describes an apocalyptic vision that is told by the angel Gabriel. The vision recounts that an evil king will succeed in destroying many of the people of Israel and killing its leader, the ''Prince of Princes''. After three days, this leader will be resurrected by the angel Gabriel. Prof. Knohl, who is the Yehezkel Kauffman Professor of Biblical Studies, suggests reconstructing the words from a fragmented line in the text ''in three days come back to life, angel Gabriel commands you''. Prof. Knohl claims that in this line it is clear that Gabriel is approaching someone and commanding him to come back to life after three days. Prof. Knohl found that development of the tradition regarding the messiah son of Joseph is based on real historic events, and that the belief in the resurrection of the messiah and on his rising up to heaven three days after his death developed before Christ's crucifixion. ''We are able to determine that the period in which the Vision of Gabriel was written was at the end of the first century B.C.E, close in time to the birth of Jesus of Nazareth. The idea that the death of the messiah is an integral part of the salvation process was at the time a commonly held belief among certain circles,'' claims Prof. Knohl. ''Therefore, if there was a Jewish tradition of a messiah who will be resurrected, it is possible to believe that Jesus was the Jewish messiah who goes to his death out of the belief that his spilled blood will cause G-d to bring about the redemption of the Jewish people. This discovery should bring about a renewed appreciation of the parallel development of Jewish and Christian messianism.''
2009: In Tel Aviv, Israel faces Russia in Day 2 of the Davis Cup Quarterfinals.
2009: At the Jerusalem Film Festival, a screening of “Camera Obscura” a film based on a novel by Angélica Gorodisher set at the end of the 19th century, in a colony of Jewish immigrants living in Entre Ríos Province, Argentina.
2010: The final performance of the World Premiere engagement of The Socialization of Ruthie Shapiro is scheduled to take place at Theatre West in Los Angeles.
2010: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Council of Dads: My Daughters, My Illness, and the Men Who Could Be Me by Bruce Feiler and The Men Who Would Be King by Nicole LaPorte which chronicles how Jewish showbiz veterans Steven Spielberg, David Geffen and Jeffrey Katzenberg banded together to form DreamWorks SKG, their own custom-designed production studio and the first new Hollywood studio in 60 years.
2010: The 70th yahrzeit of Vladimir Ze'ev Jabotinsky was marked today, at Mount Herzl cemetery in Jerusalem, by Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and President Shimon Peres
2011: Nirvana, a dance show from Korea, based on ancient ritual Buddhist dances, is scheduled to performed at the Performing Arts Center in Herzliya
2011: The "Boycott Bill" was approved in its final reading in the Knesset tonight, after a plenum discussion that lasted nearly six hours and uncertainty throughout the day as to whether a vote would take place.
2011: Argentinean Rabbi Sergio Bergman won a seat on the Buenos Aires municipal legislature today, leading the vote tally with 45 percent of the votes. Bergman garnered triple the number of votes of the candidate who came in second place, Juan Cabandié of the Victory Front Party, who won 14 percent of the vote.
2011: A leading rabbi and halachic authority in Israel has recognized the Chuetas of Palma de Majorca as Jewish, the Shavei Israel organization announced today. The Chuetas are descended from the Jewish inhabitants of the Spanish island of Majorca who suffered extreme oppression in the Middle Ages, until by 1435 all of them had been killed or forcibly converted to Catholicism. Because the Chuetas are related to the previous generations and married among themselves they should be considered Jewish, Shavei Israel Chairman Michael Freund told reporters that Rabbi Nissim Karlewitz, chairman of the Beit Din Tzedek (rabbinical court) in Bnei Brak, wrote in a letter to the organization. “Since it has become clear that it is accepted among them [the Chuetas] that throughout the generations most of them married among themselves, then all those who are related to the former generations are Jews, from our brethren the children of Israel, the nation of God,” Karlewitz wrote. “We, the Jewish people, have a responsibility to the Chuetas,” Freund told The Jerusalem Post. “Their ancestors were kidnapped from us and taken against their will six centuries ago. The Inquisition sought to quash their Jewish identity down through the ages and we are coming here today to say that the Inquisition did not succeed. Jews are still here and the Chuetas are still here, and the best revenge on the Inquisition would be to bring as many of these people as possible back to their roots and back to their people.” Despite having been converted, the Chuetas – whose name comes from the Catalan word for pig – continued to face intense discrimination and oppression, and were not allowed to marry Catholics or adopt certain professions. Because of the ban on intermarriage, the Chuetas almost exclusively married within their own community. “Although there is no actual discrimination any longer against Chuetas, on a societal level many feel ostracized and to a certain extent outsiders,” Freund said. “Acceptance of the Chuetas over the past 40 years has grown, which is positive, but brings with it a greater danger of assimilation, which is why the timing of this announcement is so important.” Karelitz’s decision refers to the Chuetas as a collective, and for anyone wanting to return in full to the Jewish community it will be necessary for a rabbinical court to speak with the individual. According to Freund, many of the Chuetas have documentation attesting to their family lines, often going back 500 years. “There are 15 distinct Chueta family names. Because of the historical circumstances and because of the endogamy practices, it is relatively easy to document and prove their genealogy,” Freund said. In May, the president of the Balearic Islands province of Spain, Francesc Antich, attended a memorial service in the Majorcan capital of Palma commemorating the execution in 1691 of 37 Chuetas for practicing Judaism in secret, including Rabbi Rafael Valls, the secret rabbi of the Chuetas who, along with two others, was burned alive. Antich condemned the “grave injustice” done against the Chuetas, the first time an official from Majorca had condemned such events. “The recognition of their Jewishness was received with great happiness and joy, some people at the announcement burst into tears, because they now know the Jewish people are aware of them and feel a kinship with them,” Freund said of the press conference on Monday. Rabbi Nissan Ben-Avraham, who is of Chuetas origin and works for Shavei Israel in Palma de Majorca, will be joining with the Arachim outreach organization to provide a program of lessons in Hebrew, Jewish history, culture and religion for the Chuetas. “We are not coming here to tell people how to live their lives, we are just presenting them with an option. Those who wish to return to the Jewish people will now have opportunity to do so and will be welcomed back with open arms. Our goal is to help as many as possible to return to their Jewish roots,” Freund said.
2011: A four-alarm fire broke out tonight at an Upper East Side synagogue, Congregation Kehilath Jeshurun, which was being renovated, spitting flames through stained-glass windows, destroying the roof and heavily damaging the upper floors, the Fire Department said.
2011: Aaron “Swartz was indicted by a federal grand jury on charges of wire fraud, computer fraud, unlawfully obtaining information from a protected computer and recklessly damaging a protected computer.”
2012: While it is said that “wine gladdens the hear” the Historic 6th& I Synagogue in Washington, DC turns its attention to another form of fermented refreshment tonight when it is scheduled to host “Summer Brews: A Season Tasting with The Beer Activist.”
2012: The 92ndStreet Y is scheduled to present “Saving America’s Working Class” – a discussion with James Carville and Stan Greenberg.” (Guess which one is not Jewish)
2012: In Jerusalem, Dalik Voloniz is scheduled to moderate “Destruction and Hope,” a pre–Tisha B’Av event that combines discussion, song, and music.
2012: Former US secretary of state Condoleezza Rice today confirmed the accuracy of her account of a 2008 meeting with Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas in which he had told her why he couldn’t accept then-Israeli prime minister Ehud Olmert’s terms for a permanent Israeli-Palestinian peace accord. In an interview over the weekend, Abbas had denied that the conversation Rice described and quoted in her memoir had taken place at all.
2012(21stof Tammuz, 5772): Eighty-seven year old author Donald J. Sobol passed away today.(As reported by Denise Grady)
2012: A meeting between Vice Prime Minister Moshe Ya’alon and MK Yohanan Plesner focused on drafting universal conscription legislation ended today with the two sides unable to come together, and with Plesner storming out.
1191: The armies of the Third Crusade (1189-92), led by England's King Richard ('The Lionhearted'), captured the Syrian seaport of Acre. The Third Crusade would end in failure for the Christian forces. King Richard would be taken prisoner by the Austrians on his way home. The Jews of England would be called upon to help pay the ransom of their monarch, who had left the kingdom under the control of his brother Prince John.
1216: Pope Innocent III who issued a Letter on the Jews in 1199 which prohibited the forced conversion of Jews passed away today.
1290: The Jews were expelled from England by order of King Edward I. Edward gets reasonably high marks for setting up the "Model Parliament." American moviegoers know him as "Longshanks" the King who was the villain in the film "Braveheart." The banishment of the Jews from the kingdom was part of slow decline engineered by the English king for a variety of reasons. Before the final edict he found one more way to extract money from his Jewish subjects. In 1287, he arrested several prominent Jewish leaders and demanded the community produce a 12,000-pound ransom for their freedom. The date for the actual order of expulsion is given by some as July 12 and by others as July 18. Regardless, Edward gave the Jews three months to leave. After All-Saints Day, any Jew found in the realm was subject to death. The Jews would not officially return to England until 17th century and the era of Cromwell.
1536: Desiderius Erasmus, the Dutch writer and philosopher passed away. According to Elliot Rosenberg, Erasmus’ relations with the Jews presented a mixed bag. Unlike Thomas More, “Erasmus spoke out in defense of the Jews and Judaism. ‘If it is Christian to hate the Jews, all of us are only too Christians.’ On the other hand he also write “Jews are very numerous in Italy; in Spain there are hardly any…I am afraid that when the occasion arises, that pest, formerly suppressed, will raise its head again. Finally, Erasmus only provided lukewarm support when Johann Reuchlin took on “dogmatic Talmud-burners in Central Europe.”
1555: In his Bull Cum Nimis Absurdum, Pope Paul IV renewed all previous anti-Jewish legislation and installed a ghetto in Rome. Jews were forced to wear a given cap and forbidden to own real estate or practice medicine on Christians. Communities weren't allowed to have more than one synagogue and Jews in all the Papal States were forced to lock themselves into the confines of the ghettos each night.
1567(25thof Tammuz, 5327): Latest date on which Meir Ashkenzai was killed on a voyage from Gava to Dakhel while service as an envoy of the Tartar Kahan.
1630: A Dutch man, Michael Paauw, acquires Gull Island from the Mohegan Indians renames it Oyster Island. At the time of the American Revolution, a New York merchant named Samuel Ellis purchased the island and renames it in honor of his family. This is how the famous point of entry for millions of immigrants included an untold number of Jews came to be known as Ellis Island.
1753: Birthdate of Moses Dobruška, a cousin of Jacob Frank, who convert to Catholicism and was guillotined in Paris on charges of treason and espionage.
1794: Hymen Cohen and Zipporah Isaacs gave birth to Judah Hyman Cohen who would pass away at the age of 61 in Brighton.
1796: French Revolutionary troops under Jean Baptiste Kléber besieged Frankfurt by shelling the city that including its Judengasse.
1804: Former United States Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton dies a day after being shot in a duel.
1824: In Frankfurt-am-Main Zerline (Worms) Beyfus and Meyer (Mayer) Levin Beyfus gave birth to Wilhelm Beyfus.
1828: Birthdate of Count Iosif Gurko, who as military commander of the districts of Warsaw, Wilna and Kovno would seek royal permission to expel all of the population most of whom were Jews 60 versts or 40 miles from the border.
1825: Three days after she had passed away, Miriam (Mary) Proops was buried today.
1840: Birthdate of merchant Benjamin Altman, founder of B. Altman and Co. He was the son of Bavarian Jews, who immigrated to America in 1835 and soon opened a small store. Altman opened his first store in 1865 and, after thirty years of acquisition and growth formed B. Altman & Co. Altman was one of a whole series of Jewish merchants and department store moguls who were tied to such famous American emporiums as Macy's, Neiman Marcus, Sears & Roebuck and Home Depot. B. Altman met its corporate demise in 1989. Altman, like so many other Jewish merchants, both large and small, was noted for his philanthropy. Shortly before his death in 1913, he established the Altman Foundation, of which $20,000,000 represented by his art collection, was given to the Metropolitan Museum, New York.
1841: The London & Brighton Railway began passenger service through the East Croydon Station which was designed by Anglo-Jewish architect David Mocatta.
1841: Joseph L. Friedlander who was salesman and a “dealer in second-hand clothes” was buried today at the Old Jewish Cemetery in Dresden, Saxony, Germany.
1845: Thirty seven year old Norwegian author Henrik Wergeland who supported the ban on Jews settling in Norway passed away today.
1846(18thof Tammuz, 5606): Tzom Tammuz observed.
1846: In Upper Austria, Simon and Regina Fuchs gave birth to Solomon Fox the husband of Caroline Fox.
1848: Archduke John, who helped in the presentation of the plan of Moses Sachs to settle “Jews as farmers in Palestine under Austrian protection to the Austrian government” was appointed Imperial Vicar today.
1848: Birthdate of Leopold Adler, the Prague native who worked with his younger brother and old brother Mortiz to develop his skills as a photographer.
1859: Today “the cornerstone of the first Ashkenazic synagogue in British North America, Congregation Shaar Hashomayim, was laid at 41 St. Constant (now de Bullion Street), just below de la Gauchetière. It accommodated 150 men and 50 women. The building was 48 by 111 feet. The services were modeled after the Bayswater Synagogue in London, England.
1860: Commodore Uriah P. Levy saluted the Stars and Stripes and walked down the gangplank for the last time. Yet his country had use for him: President Lincoln apparently suggested to Gideon Welles, the Secretary of the Navy, that Levy's unique experience of the military justice system should not be wasted. The old sailor's last assignment has a distinctly Lincolnesque humor: President of the Naval Court-Martial Board.
1861: Michael Van Gelder was buried today at the West Ham Jewish Cemetery on Buckingham Road.
1862: The Medal of Honor was authorized by the United States Congress. The Medal of Honor is popularly known as the Congressional Medal of Honor. It is the highest decoration military service personnel can earn. From the Civil War through the Vietnam War, 18 Jews have won this honor.
1865: Corporal Levi K. Kauffman, who had been serving since November, 1863 completed his service in Company H of the 52nd Regiment.
1865: Fifty-three year old Frederick David Goldsmid began serving as a Member of Parliament
1869: In New York City, Jacob A. Weil and Dina Lilienthal gave birth to Abraham Weil an art student at Cooper Union and the Academy of Design whose artwork for newspapers including daily cartoons for the New York Evening Telegram which he stopped in 1898 so he could illustrate books, design art calendars and create theatrical posters for various New York City lithographing firms.
1870: Adolph Marix, the native of Germany who joined the U.S. Navy in 1864 while living in Iowa was promoted from Ensign to Master today.
1872: Birthdate of Boehmia native Emil Hacha, who as the last President of an “independent” Czechoslovakia bowed to personal pressure from Hitler and became the “State President of Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia” where, regardless of what else he did to help or combat the Nazis, signed “into law legislation modeled after the Nuremberg Laws that meant the Jews were no longer Czech citizens in any sense of that term”
1872: Maurice and Johanna Kahn gave birth to Jacobus Henricus Kann the Dutch banker and partner of the banking house Lissa & Kann who was the co-founder of the Jewish Colonial Trust and who died at Theresienstadt in 1944.
1873: Shah Nasr-ed-Din and Adolphe Cremieux met in Persia to discuss the problems of oppressive social and economic discrimination against the Jews. The shah agreed to encourage Jewish schools, and work to improve the Jewish condition. Unfortunately, despite his intentions, the government did little to prevent attacks against the Jewish population or to rescind many of the anti-Jewish regulations. 1876: Birthdate of Max Jacob, French painter, poet and writer. Jacob converted to Catholicism before World War I. Unfortunately for Jacob, the Nazis and Vichy still saw him as a Jew. His brothers, sister and brother-in-law died at Auschwitz. Jacob was arrested by the Gestapo in 1944. However, he died at the French concentration camp called Drancy before he could be shipped east for the Final Solution 1876: At the City Republican Meeting at Cooper Institute in New York, Judge Abraham Jesse Dittenhoefter read the letters of those regretting that they could not attend
1879: Rabbi David Einhorn gave his final sermon at Congregation Beth-El in New York. Einhorn proudly recalled his role in speaking out against slavery while serving as a rabbi in Baltimore at the outbreak of the Civil War. He was equally proud of his role in the Reform movement although he said he remained staunchly opposed to replacing Saturday with Sunday as the day for Jews to celebrate the Sabbath. He also urged Jews to continue using German in their sermons and teachings because this was a key in remaining connected to the best in Jewish learning.
1879: According to reports published today, Rabbi Gustav Koehler of Chicago will replace Rabbi David Einhorn as the leader of Congregation in Beth-El in New York. These same reports contend that Koehler plans on holding services on Sunday and will be delivering sermons in English.
1880(4th of Av, 5640): French financier Isaac Pereire passed away. Pereire and his brother were rivals of the House of Rothschild. However, the Pereire brothers were Sephardic Jews while the Rothschilds were Ashkenazim. Born in 1806, Piereire and his brother Emile built the first railroad in France in 1835. For a brief period he owned the Paris daily "La Liberté" and he was named a knight of the Legion of Honor for his many philanthropic efforts.
1880: It was reported today that a memoir written by Professor Daniel Chwolson the Jewish professor at the University of St. Petersburg which contains information about the newly discovered Hebrew eptipahs found in the Crimea is in the hands of the printers.
1881: The 8thannual conference of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations is scheduled to begin today in Chicago, Illinois.
1882: As the Freight Handlers’ Strike continued in New York Polish Jews were working in place of the Italians most of whom had been arrested by the police.
1882: The attacks on the Jews and Italians who have replaced the striking freight handlers are reported to have become much more frequent. It is reported that the attacks are the works of ruffians who are robbing the Jews and then blaming it on the strikers.
1883: The first free excursion of the season sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children will leave from a pier at the foot of 5th Street at nine o’clock this morning
1883: At the third day’s meeting of the Hebrew Union Council the delegates will vote on the recommendation of the Committee on Agricultural Pursuits the Jewish organization work with the Cincinnati Agricultural Society which has already establish established a successful colony in Kansas.
1884: Birthdate of Italian painter and sculptor, Amedeo Modigliani. In 1906, Modigliani went to Paris to study where he was confronted with the anti-Semitism connected with retrial of Captain Alfred Dreyfus. Modigliani signed his sketches "Modigliani - Jew." Modigliani lived his life as the typical starving artist. His paintings began to gain in financial worth in shows starting in 1919. In November of that year Modigliani's health began to rapidly decline. According to legend he sang the Kaddish for himself when he began spitting blood. He died two months later. Since his death his paintings have soared in value. In 1989 one of his paintings was sold for over eight million dollars.
1884: In Prague, Jakob and Barbara Bondy gave birth to Anna Fischl
1884: In Minsk, Jacob Meir and Sarah Meltzer gave birth to Lazar Meir who gained fame as movie mogul Louis B. Meyer
1884 (19thof Tammuz, 5664): In Tuscany, Eugénie Garsin, the descendant from Sephardic Jews from France and Flamino Modigliani gave birth to Italian painter and sculptor, Amedeo Modigliani. In 1906, Modigliani went to Paris to study where he was confronted with the anti-Semitism connected with retrial of Captain Alfred Dreyfus. Modigliani signed his sketches "Modigliani - Jew." Modigliani lived his life as the typical starving artist. His paintings began to gain in financial worth in shows starting in 1919. In November of that year Modigliani's health began to rapidly decline. According to legend he sang the Kaddish for himself when he began spitting blood. He died two months later. Since his death his paintings have soared in value. In 1989 one of his paintings was sold for over eight million dollars.
1885: It was reported today that the Hebrew Standard has said “The meanest class of Jewish merchants are those who refuse to close half a day on the Jewish Sabbath.”
1886: The children in the care of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society will leave for an excursion on the East River at 8 o’clock this morning.
1887: The 14thannual council of the Hebrew Congregations holds its opening meeting in Pittsburgh where Josiah Cohen was chosen Chairman of the Council, Adolph Freund of Detroit is chosen Vice President and Levi Lipman of Cincinnati is chosen as Secretary. Dr. Stephen Wise gave the opening address where he reported on conditions at the Hebrew Union College.
1889(13thof Tammuz, 5649): Isaac Phillips, the son of Naphtali and Rachel Mendez Phillips, a New York lawyer who served as an appraiser for the Port of New York and who was a member of Shearith Israel passed away today.
1889: In Austria Alfred Sachs, the son Babette and Eduard Elkan Sachs and his wife Therese Sachs gave birth to Dr. Rudolf Sachs.
1889: Birthdate of Marty Friedman, the defensive guard who played pro-basketball from 1908 to 1927 and who was half of the duo known as “The Heavenly Twins – the other half being fellow Jew Barney Sedran.
1890: “City and Suburban News” published today provides a list of upcoming events in the New York area including plans for Rabbi Sabito Morais to deliver a talk at the Jewish Theological Seminary.
1891: Israel Pimkus, a sixty year old Russian Jew who has just arrived in the United States announced his intentions “of going West” and sending for his five brothers to join him once he gets settled. Pimkus had escaped Russia with $17,500 that the Czar’s police had failed to find when they ransacked his family’s home.
1891: In Amsterdam, Geertruida (née Warradijn) and Wolf Mozes Goudeket, a wealthy diamond cutter, gave birth to Julie Henriette Goudeket who gained fame as silent movie start Jetta Goudal.
1891: “To Celebrate a Centennial” published today described upcoming plans to observe the 102nd anniversary of the fall of the Bastille and the 100thanniversary of the emancipation of the Jews of France which will take place in New York’s Lion Park.
1892: In Drohobych which was then part of Austrian Galicia and now is part of Ukraine, cloth merchant Jakub Schulz and Henrietta née Kuhmerker gave birth to author and painter Bruno Schulz, Polish author who will be killed by a Gestapo officer in 1942 under unusual circumstances. A mural that he painted just before his death would become a point of contention between Ukrainian authorities and the officials at Yad Vashem in 2001
1892: An old Jewish peddler named Gustave Berkowitz was clubbed by a group of Italians who had been fighting among themselves on Thompson Street.
1893: Mrs. Sarah Goldstein a widow with six children who lives at 181 Orchard Street “was served with a notice to vacate her apartments” because she had not paid her rent. She had used her rent money to pay for medicine for five of her children who had contracted measles.
1894: Concerns about a general strike in New York City seem to have been unfounded as could be seen “at the headquarters of the American Federation of Labor on Clinton” where “there was nothing to indicate that there were even rumors of strikes”
1894: In New York, labor leader Patrick Murphy obtained a parade permit that will enable 15,000 union members including those belong to the United Hebrew Trades Union to take part in a parade tomorrow night.
1894: The members of the United Hebrew Trade Unions are scheduled to form up at Rutgers Square before joining up with members of other labor unions for a mass meeting at Union Square.
1894: Abram Cahan is scheduled to be one of the speakers at tonight’s mass meeting at Union Square sponsored by several labor unions in New York.
1894: In Plymouth, MA, The School of Applied Ethics with Felix Adler as Dean, opened its third annual session today.
1895: Birthdate of lyricist Oscar Hammerstein II. He is the Hammerstein of the team (Richard) Rogers and Hammerstein that produced a string of Broadway Musicals including "Oklahoma" and "Carousal." Hammerstein passed away in 1960.
1895: This evening, Dr. Joseph Adolph Moses of Louisville, KY is scheduled to address the annual Central Conference of American Rabbis meeting in Rochester, NY.
1895: In Rochester the most important subject discussed at this morning’s session of the Rabbinical Conference “was that touch upon by President Wise in his annual address – “What Is Our Relation in All Religious Matters to Our Post Biblical, our Patriotic Literature Including Talmud!”
1896: “About the Ancients” published today described Mr. Maspero’s confirmation of Mr. Flanders Petrie’s discovery of the work “Yisraal” on the Merenptah inscriptionand believes it to be the earliest mention of Israel so far found in Egypt…”
1896: “About the Ancients” published today described the work of Chabas who in 1864 when “studying the records of Ramses found the word ‘Apouriou’ and came to the hasty conclusion that ‘Apouriou’ meant Hebrew.”
1896(2ndof Av, 5656): Moritz Kirstein, the native of Filehne who earned his M.D. in 1885 and was a member of the Berlin Board of Health, passed away today.
1896: “Art And Utility Linked” published today described The International Art Exhibition in Berlin which includes “Summer Evening In the Ghetto” by Ludwig Knaus that depicts “a centenary Hebrew…seated in a big armchair…attended by his granddaughter.”
1896: Rabbi Isaac ben Sheshet (Ribash) whose remains had been removed from his grave by orders of the government of Algiers was reinterred today. Sheshet was a Spanish Talmudic authority who had been born in 1326 and who had fled to Algeria in 1391 when the persecution of the Jews increased under the spell of the preaching of Fernandes Martinez. He passed away in 1408. [For more about this sage see Rabbi Isaac ben Sheshet Perfet and his times by Abraham Moses Hershman]
1896: Herzl attends a mass meeting at the workings-men's Club in the East End of London. Working men’s clubs were designed to bring education and recreation for the members of Britain’s emerging working class at the end of the 19th century
1896: “An East Sided Romance” published today provides a detailed reviews of Yekl – A Tale of the New York Ghetto by Abraham Cahan.
1896: “New Plans for a Jewish State” published today described the creation of a chartered company to create a “Jewish autonomous state in Palestine” which the Turks “are to look favorably upon.”
1897: Forty Jewish families who arrived from Poland are being deported because it has been determined that “they are in a destitute condition” which means they are likely to become “public charges” which makes them ineligible for entry into the United States under the law.
1897: Birthdate of Sam Mintz, the native of Belarus the American writer who created almost 40 screenplays including “Skippy” which was nominated “in the category of Best Adapted Screenplay at the 4th Academy Awards.
1898: One day after she had passed away, 53 year old “Fanny Levy, the widow of David Levy” was buried today at Plashet Jewish Cemetery in London
1899 (5th of Av): Seventy-nine year old German born Rabbi Israel Hildesheimer, the son of Rabbi Löb Glee Hildesheime and one of the founders of Modern Orthodox Judaism passed away.
1899: Maitre Demange, the counsel for Captain Alfred Dreyfus met with the President of the Court Martial regarding setting a date for the hearing and discussing the procedures to be followed.
1899: Attorney Maitre Demange met with Captain Dreyfus for two hours today.
1900: In Holyoke, MA, organization of Congregation Anshei Rodfei Sholem
1901: Birthdate of Benjamin Sonnenberg, the native of Brest-Litovsk whose “first work in the public relations field was writing stories for the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee.”
1902: Herzl submits a written outline of his plans and the need for financial support to Rothschild. “Aware of Rothschild’s aversion to settlement in Palestine, Herzl also told Rothschild about the settlement of European Jews in Mesopotamia proposed by the Sultan.
1903(17th of Tammuz, 5663): Tzom Tammuz
1904: Birthdate of Pinchas Lavon, the native of Galicia who made Aliyah in 1929 and who is best known for his role in the Lavon Affair that occurred while he was serving as Minister of Defense.
1905: The Ninth Summer Assembly of the Jewish Chautauqua Society continued for a 5th day in Atlantic City, NJ.
1906: Birthdate of New York City native Henry Cohen the attorney who earned a BS at City College and a law degree at Harvard.
1906: Colonel Alfred Dreyfus was finally pardoned, restored to his rank and returned to his regiment. The effects of the Dreyfus Affair did not end with the return of Dreyfus to active duty. The Dreyfus Affair produced the modern Zionist political movement which in turn gave birth to the state of Israel. The Dreyfus Affair also provided another dividing between the Left and the Right in both the French political and social scene and put another arrow in the quiver of right wing anti-Semites. This would find full flower in the government at Vichy during World War II.
1906: The Central Conference of American Rabbis described today as “a day preceding closely the annual celebration of the victory of liberty in France” as “a red letter day in the history of Israel” because “it marks the triumph of righteousness in a cause which affected not just the individual (Dreyfus) but our whole people, the martyr people to which was assigned the mission ‘to open the blind eyes, to bring out the prisoners from the dungeon, and them that sit in darkness, out of the prison house.’”
1907: In Worcester, MA, Elias Harry Pofcher and Fanny G. Pofcher gave birth to Cecile Gwendolyn Pofcher who became Cecile Strauss when she married Harry Strauss.
1908: In New York City, Moses Berlinger, “a paint and varnish salesman” and Sarah (Sadie) Glantz Berlinger gave birth to Mendel Berlinger who gained fame as Milton Berle, known to a whole generation of television as “Uncle Miltie” or Mr. Television, one of the first stars of the new medium in poster WW II America.
1908: It was reported that Dr. Moses Gaster has obtained an ancient copy of the Book of Joshua in Samaria.
1911: In Milwaukee, Wisconsin, the 15th annual summer assembly of the Jewish Chautauqua Society led by Chancellor Henry Berkowitz continued for a 6th day.
1911: Martin A. Marks of Cleveland, Ohio was “re-elected President of the Library Board” today.
1912: Les Amours de la reine Élisabeth (The Loves of Queen Elizabeth) a French silent film starring Sarah Bernhardt which was completed with funds from Adolph Zukor who “brought it to New York where it was released” today.
1913: During the Second Balkan War, DimitriI Auguelov, a wine merchant from Serres, who had been arrested on July 7 and was shut up in the school, escaped with a Jewish prisoner today and was concealed by Jews of the town.
1913: Birthdate of Mildred Cohn an American biochemist winner of the Garvan-Olin Medal the National Medal of Science and the first woman to become president of the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
1913: The National Conference of Charities and Correction which Simon I. Blum has been attending as a delegate from Illinois, is scheduled to come to an end today in Seattle, WA.
1913: It was reported today that Republican political leader Maurice J. Speiser, who had been serving as a member of the House of Representatives of the state of Pennsylvania has been appointed to serve as assistant district attorney.
1913: It was reported today that “Professor Nathan Slouschz has been made an officer of the Legion of Honor of Morocco by the Sultan in recognition of his services.”
1914(18thof Tammuz, 5674): Tzom Tammuz observed because the 17th fell on Shabbat
1914: Birthdate of Boston native Avery Berlw Cohan, the graduate of Cornell who earned a Ph.D. at Columbia before serving as a teaching fellow at Harvard and a professor of finance at the Unitersity of North Carolina at Chapel for twenty years..
1915: Opening of the Summer Session The Teacher’s Institute of the Hebrew Union College.
1915: In New York City, “the summer course in social service conducted by the Jewish Chautauqua Society opened today at the Free Synagogue House” with introductory remarks by Abram I. Elkus, President of the Society, followed by a speech by Dr. Henry Berkowitz, “the Chancellor of the Society.”
1915: There were approximately 125 delegates scheduled to attend the second day of convention of the United Synagogue of America being held at the Hotel Nautilus at Arverne, Long Island where they were expected to respond to Dr. Cyrus Adler’s call for the Jews of the United States “and Canada” to “make further efforts to help those of their race who were suffering in the countries at war.”
1916: “When he did not received the annuity granted to VC (Victoria Cross) recipients,” thirty-year old Leonard Maurice Keysor, the native of London today “wrote to the Military Secretary enquiring when he could expect to receive it.
1917(22ndof Tammuz, 5677): Forty-seven year old Samuel I. Hyman, the son of Polish born Talmudist Gerson Hyman, the husband of the former Tillie Endel with whom he had two children – Norma and George – and the founder of S.I. Hyman and Brother whose leadership in the Jewish community can be seen in his helping to build the 85th Street and the Far Rockaway synagogues and serving as “a member of the Executive Committee of the Kahila, passed away today.
1917: It was reported today from Russia that “after a consultation with Chief of Staff Aleksei Brusilov it was announced that the army would have Jewish chaplains in addition to orthodox priests” and that “Rabbi Jeffa of Tamboy” is the first person to be appointed with a total of thirty more to be named.
1918: According to reports from Copenhagen sent to the Exchange Telegraph in London today, “the Finnish Senate has decided to expel all Jews from Finland” which means that more than 300 Jewish families will be forced to leave the country.” (Editor’s Note – While Finland may have gained its independence from Russia, it has clung to the anti-Semitism of the imperial domain.)
1918: “In a letter received by David Agramowski bearing today’s date, Hillel Agramwoski from Brooklyn who had been serving with the 9th Infantry since 1917 and was missing in action wrote his brother that “he had been cited in orders.
1919: Birthdate of George Weissman, “who helped transform Philip Morris from a midlevel tobacco company to a diversified conglomerate known for contributions to the arts, and who then led Lincoln Center for nearly a decade.” “Baruch College's Weissman School of Arts and Sciences is named after him, and his wife Mildred.” Weissman had graduated from Baruch when it was the business school of the City College of New York
1919: Abraham Schrameck completed his service as Governor-General of Madagascar.
1920: The Lithuanian Wars of Independence with the signing of the Soviet–Lithuanian Peace Treaty in which the Soviet Union recognized the independence of Lithuania. Over 3,000 Jews fought with the Lithuanian Army during the fight for independence. Jewish support would be rewarded with a certain amount of autonomy and acceptance which erode with the growth of anti-Semitism in the 1930’s.
1920: Garolyi Huszar, the former Hungarian Premier whom the Federation of Hungarian Jews in American demanded be deported arrived aboard the SS Rotterdam in a first class cabin with a passport and not as a stowaway trying to sneak into the country.
1921: “New York banker Joseph L. Seligman, also known as J.L. Seligman reported the theft of his wife's jewels, valued at $25,000, while the couple was sailing from Europe to New York as first class passengers aboard the White Star Line, Olympic.”
1923: On Manhattan’s Lower East Side, Louis Berger, a furrier, and his wife Rebecca gave birth to Seymour “Sy” Perry Berger, “the father of the modern-day baseball trading card.” (As reported by Richard Goldstein)
1923: In Ferndale, NY, Jack Feldman who “ran a Catskill resort known as the Queen Mountain House” and his wife gave birth to Fred Feldman who gained fame movie producer Freddie Fields, the brother of bandleader of Shep Fields. (As reported by Margalit Fox)
1923: A letter from Meyer Dizengoff, Mayor of Tel Aviv thanking everybody from the Mayor on down for the hospitality shown to him during his recent trip to New York in which he expressed his hope that the “first Jewish city” would benefit from the things shown him including the city’s public utility system was published today.
1926: Jewish middleweight Abie Bain beat Jack McVey, “the Pride of Harlem due to a disqualification by McVey in the fifth round at Laurel Garden in Newark, NJ.
1927: According to reports by the correspondent for the Daily Mail, Palestine is in shambles following the recent earthquake. He reports riots, failed businesses and the plans for departure by many of the Jewish immigrants. His description is at odds with those of Jewish leaders and agencies including Hadassah.
1929: Having premiered at Grauman’s Chinese Theatre on the west coast and in New York City on the east coast, “The Broadway Melody,” the first “talkie” to win an Oscar for Best picture produced by Irving Thalberg and Lawrence Weingarten, with music by Arthur Freed and starring Eddie Kane who would be buried at Mt. Sinai Cemetery in Los Angeles, was released throughout the United States today.
1932: Helen Menken, who had divorced Humphrey Bogart married Dr. Henry T. Smith.
1933: Founding of the Screen Actors Guild (SAG) whose early success was due in part to the friendship of its second President, Eddie Cantor with FDR.
1934: Memorial services are held at Carnegie Hall in honor of the late Hebrew poet laureate, Chaim Nachman Bialik whom Mrs. Samuel Halprin, President of Hadassah described as “the embodiment of Jewish life” whose “gifts were the apotheosis of Jewish creative life.”
1935: “Mad Love” a horror film directed by Karl Freund, starring Peter Lorre and with music by Dimitri Timokin was released in the United States today.
1935(11th of Tammuz, 5695): Three decades after being exonerated of all charges, Colonel Alfred Dreyfus passed away at the age of 75.
1935: U.S. premiere of “Mad Love” a horror film directed by Karl Fruend, starring Peter Lorre with music by Dimitri Z. Tiomkin.
1936: The Palestine Post reported that a Jewish mechanic, Dov Ben-Ammi, 30, was killed and several persons were injured when a bus overturned into a ditch as the result of an Arab ambush near Jenin. Four Arabs were killed in this incident and in an attempt to derail a train in the same neighborhood. Two watchmen, Zvi Lichtenberg and Dov Deitler, were injured in two separate Arab attacks on Jewish settlements.
1936: Following last night’s announcement by Chancellor Kurt Schusnigg of an agreement between Austria and Nazi Germany, it was reported that “the Jewish population is fearful” seeing this as being the opening “to rapid Nazification of Austria and the introduction of German methods of anti-Semitism.”
1936: It was reported today “Hitler is finally prepared to recognize, nominally at least, the independence of Austria but that he is unable “to alter his attitude” on the question of “Jews and Communists” whom are “to be exterminated.”
1936: An unnamed “young Jewish tailor walking in a Jewish residential quarter was fired on by Arabs who jumped from behind a wall.”
1936: As Arab violence continued in Palestine, “Isaac Cohen one of the leading merchants of Jerusalem was shot and seriously wounded” “while walking home from his store” which brought expression of “indignation” from “moderate Arabs” because Cohen “is an Oriental Jew counting more friends among the Arabs than among Jews.”
1936: Seventy-one year old Samuel Parkes Cadman the English born American Clergyman whose support of Jews can be measured by his appearance at a non-sectarian mass meeting in 1916 to raise funds for the relief of Jews in the war zones of Europe as well as by his support the 1935 UJA drive to raise funds for the “rehabilitation of Jews in Germany and Eastern Europe” and calls to boycott the 1936 Olympics in Nazi Germany passed away today.
1937: “Abbie an’ Slats” initially written by Al Capp appeared for the first time.
1937: A delegation from the American Jewish Congress led by its President, Dr. Stephen S. Wise gave Secretary of State Cordell Hull a memorandum describing the oppression and discrimination suffered by the Jews of Poland which led Hull to admit that he was aware of the conditions of the Jews but made no statement about any attempts to interfere in any way to aid “the most oppressed and perhaps the most desperate group of human beings.” (Editor’s note – Hull’s response was consistent with the isolationist mentality in the United States as well as the prevailing anti-Semitism at the Department and his fear of being philo-Semitic because of his wife’s Jewish origins.)
1938: In “commenting n a telegram sent from a group of Williams College undergraduate and Raymond Ingersoll, the Brooklyn Borough President, to the head librarian of the Austrian National Library offering to buy those ‘non-Aryan’ books that they suspect will be destroyed or removed, the Boersen Zeitgung,” a German newspaper today dismissed their concerns in an editor that ended by stating “that since academic circles in the United States are so preponderantly Jewish the object of the telegram may not have been so much the specific one mentioned as the mere desire to contribute to the wave of anti-German propaganda in the United States.” (Editor’s Note – Guess the newspaper missed the book burnings in Germany)
1940: Today, twenty-seven year old Canadian composer John Jacob Weinzweig married Helen Tenenbaum who gained famed as author Helen Winzweig whose “novel Basic Black with Pearls won the Toronto Book Award in 1981.”
1940(6th of Tammuz, 5700): Sixty-nine year old Victor Rosewater, former editor of the Omaha (Nebraska) Bee and Republican political powerhouse, passed away today.
1941: Relase date for “The Bride Came C.O.D.” a comedy featuring George Tobias with a script co-authored by Julius and Philip G. Epstein and music by Max Steiner.
1942: The SS President Warfield, a ship belonging to the Baltimore Steam Pack Company that had been sailing between Baltimore, MD and Norfolk, VA since 1928 was acquired by the War Shipping Administration today. The ship was converted into a military transport and was turned over to the British. The irony of this is that the Warfield would morph into the SS Exodus five years later in an attempt to run the British blockade of Palestine.
1942: While flying a Spitfire today, Royal Canadian Air Force fighter pilot George Beurling, who would die while flying for the Israeli Air Force in 1948, shot down two more enemy plane over Malta.
1943: On the back of a “picture of young Louis Loewe” an orientalist and companion of Moses Montefiore his 92 year old son James Lowe wrote cryptically “The original oil painting are today the property of the heirs of my sister Pauline Hirscfeld…”
1944: In New York City, Phoebe and Henry Ephron gave birth to Delia Ephron the multi-talented writer whose work includes a marvelous off-beat film, “Michael” which gave John Travolta a chance to literally and figuratively spread his comedic wings.
1944: Many of the 8000 Jews remaining in the Kovno (Lithuania) Ghetto are killed, and the ghetto is burned. Nearby, a Lithuanian carpenter named Jan Pauvlavicius shields at least eight Kovno Jews in a hiding place he has constructed in his cellar.
1944: In Baltimore, MD, bartender Joseph Rubin and Annette Rubin gave birth to Arlene Rubin who gained fame as Arlene Raven “a co-founder of numerous feminist art organizations in Los Angeles in the 1970s.”
1944: Birthdate of Michael Abraham Levy, “a Labour member of the House of Lords who was the chief fundraiser for the UK Labour Party and long-standing friend of former Prime Minister, Tony Blair.
1948(5thof Tammuz, 5708): Ninety-one year old Dr. Solomon Solis Cohen, the son of Myer David Cohen and Judith Simha Solis who graduated from Jefferson Medical College and taught at Philadelphia Polyclinic and Dartmouth College while helping to found the YMHA of Philadelphia, the Jewish Publication Society of America and attending the Third Zionist Congress at Basel passed away today.
1948: During the War of Independence, Israeli forces took Ramle. With the end of the truce, Israeli forces sought to strengthen their position in the area between Tel Aviv and Jerusalem. The victory at Ramle, which had been preceded by the successfully seizure of the airport at Lod, was part of that plan which forced the Israelis to fight the Arab Legion, the name of the Jordanian Army which was an elite military force.
1948: Israeli forces defeated Iraqi troops at Rosh Ha-Ayin. This village controlled the headwaters of the Yarkon River, the source of much of Jerusalem’s water supply. Continued control of the Yarkon would have left Jerusalem at the mercy of the Arabs.
1948: As part of Operation Danny, the Palmach began an attack on the village of Suba.
1948: As they renewed their drive on Tel Aviv, Egyptian forces attacked the settlement of Negba in the northern Negev. The Egyptians opened the attack with air attacks and artillery barrages. The battle lasted for over seven hours with at least four thousand shells falling on Negba. In the end, the 150 defenders hung on and the Egyptians withdrew.
1948: Les Shagam of 101 Squadron north from the field at Herzliya to provide air cover over Mishmar HaYardan where he would Syrian AT-6s.
1950: Syrian forces killed “one Israeli today and wounded another as they went to the aide of an Israeli police patrol boat whose propeller had become enmeshed in submerged nets along the northern shore of the Sea of Galilee. Israel has lodged a strong complaint with the United Nations…”
1950: The Israeli Government clarified its position today on the proposed establishment of a new oil refinery in Haifa and the allocation of exploratory oil rights to independent American oil companies as recently reported. Bartley Crum is representing the interests of American companies while Finance Minister Kaplan and his Under-Secretary David Horowitz are negotiating on behalf of the Israelis.
1950: U.S. premiere of “Three Little Words” a musical biography based on the lives of Harry Ruby and Bert Kalmar with a score by André Previn.
1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that seven marauders were killed and several others wounded in an engagement with an Israeli patrol on Jordanian border. Tel Aviv set up ice rationing to a fourth of a block per consumer daily. It was hoped that this ration would be increased to the third of a block on weekends.
1953: The Foreign Ministry of Israel transferred its offices from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem.
1953: Birthdate of Mexican human rights activist Andrés Roemer, who protested anti-Israel United Nations resolutions.
1960(17thof Tammuz, 5720): Tzom Tammuz observed for the last time during the Presidency of D.D. Eisenhower.
1961(28thof Tammuz, 5721): Seventy-eight year old Palestine native Isaac Alpern, the founder and President of Alpern and Company, “the largest realty concern in Middlesex County, NJ,” the “former President of the Perth Amboy Trust Company and the Raritan Trust Company” who “was instrumental in promoting the construction of a Young Men’s Hebrew Association building in Perth Amboy” passed away today in Beverly Hills, CA.
1963(20thof Tammuz, 5723): In Charlotte Amalie, Saint Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, 78 year old Lithuanian born merchant Isaac Paiwonsky, whose interests included everything from a distillery to a soft drink factory and with his wife Rebecca had four children including “Ralph Paiwonsky, the first St. Thomian-born Governor of the Virgin Islands” passed away today after suffering a cerebral hemorrhage.
1964: In France premiere of “Joy House” a mystery film with music by Lalo Schifrin
1967: As the sun rose this morning sailors aboard the INS Eilat and their comrades aboard two torpedo boats savored their victory over the Egyptian off the Rumani coast where they sank two enemy vessels without suffering any casualties.
1965: Recording of the best known version of P.F. Sloan’s “Eve of Destruction” which was released by Dunhill Records began today.
1968: “A Lovely Way To Die” a crime movie starring Kirk Douglas and Eli Wallach was released today in the United States.
1969: First broadcast of “Doctor in the House” a British comedy series featuring Anglo-Jewish actor Jonathan Lynn as “medical student Danny Hooley.”
1974: Confrontation: The Middle East and World Politics by Walter Laqueur, The Jews in Their Land, conceived and edited by David Ben-Gurion, translated by Mordechai Nurock and MIsha Louvish and Kabbalah by Gershom Scholem were on the “New Books” list published today.
1976: It was reported today that Idi Amin, President of Uganda had called Baruch Bar-Lev, a retired Israeli Lt. Col. who had served in Uganda. Reportedly Amin asked Bar-Lev to tell Prime Minister Rabin that “he was finished with terrorists” which apparently meant that he would no longer deal with groups like the pro-Palestinian terrorists who had held Jewish hostages at Entebbe. Amin also asked Bar-Lev if the Israelis would spare parts for his military equipment as it had when the two nations had diplomatic relations.
1976:The Jerusalem Post reported from Washington that Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin said that Israel considered Idi Amin and his Ugandan government responsible for the fate of Mrs. Dora Bloch, the 75-year-old woman of dual British and Israeli citizenship, left behind in a Ugandan hospital, following the rescue of more than 100 hostages at Entebbe airport. The Israeli Embassy in London expressed surprise that Britain sent condolences to Idi Amin on the death of the seven Ugandan soldiers killed during the raid.
1976:The Jerusalem Post reported that while fierce fighting went on in Lebanon between PLO leftist groups and Christians, over 1,700 Lebanese received medical attention at the Israeli army clinics set up on the border.
1977: The 12thMaccabiah opens
1978(7thof Tammuz, 5738): Eighty year old Paul Parnes the son of Louis and Clara Asia Parnes and the husband of Fay Parnes with whom he had two children – Arlene and William -- passed away today in Hollywood, FL after which he was buried at Mt. Hebron Cemetery in Flushing, NY.
1978: In the Soviet Union, the trial of Natan Sharansky continued for a third day today.
1978: Louis H. Pollak began serving as a Judge of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.
1979(17thof Tammuz, 5739): Tzom Tammuz
1981: “Prime Minister Menachem Begin today compared the June 7 attack on Iraq's Osirak nuclear reactor to the Israeli mission that recued more than 100 hostages in Entebbe, Uganda, on July 4, 1976” saying at a ceremony commemorating the fifth anniversary of the death of Lieut. Col. Yehonatan Netanyahu, the commander of the Entebbe raid “that both were "rescue operations."
1982(21st of Tammuz, 5742): Ninety-six year old “radical, activist Clara Lemlich Shavelson” whose daughter Rita Margules was one of many who believed “she changed the world” starting with the mass meeting that followed the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory” passed away today
1983:The Frank Memorial Synagogue a synagogue in Philadelphia, named after philanthropist Henry S. Frank which “was built in 1901 on the grounds of the Jewish Hospital of Philadelphia, now the Albert Einstein Medical Center” “was added to the National Register of Historic Places today.
1984: The Willis Eye Hospital non-profit eye clinic and hospital in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania where Isaac Hays practiced from its opening until 1854 was placed on the National Registry of Historic Places today.
1985: Thomas R. Pickering appointed U.S. Ambassador to Israel.
1985: Lawrence Kasdan’s western “Silverado” co-starring Kevin Kline and Jeff Goldblum premiered in the United States.
1988: Due to his disappointment with Mapam's policy towards the First Intifada, Muhammed Wattad left Mapam to join Hadash
1989: "When Harry Met Sally," with a screenplay by Nora Ephron, which would be nominated for an Oscar and a Golden Globe Award was released today in the United States.
1989(9thof Tammuz, 5749): Eighty-six year old conservative political philosopher Sidney Hook passed away today. (As reported by Richard Bernstein)
1989: In writing about the condition of Jewish Day Schools in New York, the Times said today that “the yeshivas combined vocational and spiritual training – Talmud above all, Torah, Hebrew language and Jewish history from eight to three” followed by training in “secular subjects in the afternoon until six or beyond in high school.”
1989: Today, in writing about Jewish educational practices, “Joseph Berger suggested that the teaching methods left something to be desired, since the rabbinical seminaries had ‘little forma training in education, a situation that is a legacy of the traditional forms of Jewish education” that had been prevalent “in the lost Jewish schools of Europe” where even if the teacher was less than competent, “the cohesiveness of the Jewish communities was such that even if the teach lacked magnetism or finesse, the lesson would eventually sink in.”
1991(1stof Av, 5751): Rosh Chodesh Av
1991: Release date for “Regarding Henry” directed by Mike Nichols, co-produced by Mike Nichols with a script by J.J. Abrams.
1996:Amschel Rothschild, the man who many people believed was in line to lead the Rothschild family's legendary banking dynasty, committed suicide this week, the company said today. Relatives of the 41-year-old Mr. Rothschild refused to give any details of his death, which was originally reported as having resulted from a heart attack. Amschel's grandfather Charles committed suicide in 1923 while suffering from encephalitis, a brain illness. "One has to realize the kind of pressure that someone who belongs to a family with that much money and that much in the public eye comes under," said Derek Wilson, author of "Rothschild: A Story of Wealth and Power." "Some members thrive on it, and others don't. Some want to be quiet people, but as a Rothschild you can never be that." Mr. Rothschild, who is a member of the sixth generation of the family, entered the family business in 1988, rising to chairman of Rothschild Asset Management in 1990. Many experts said that put him in line to succeed Sir Evelyn, who is 64, as chairman of the entire bank. The most likely candidate to succeed Sir Evelyn now appears to be a French cousin, David Rothschild, though there is some question as to whether the City's British banking establishment would react well to working with a member of the French branch of the family. Amschel's brother, Lionel, is said to be a "gentleman farmer" who is not interested in being part of the banking business. Sir Evelyn's oldest son is considered too young for the job and is reported to have shown little interest in finance.
1996: Hazel Josephine Cosgrove (Lady Cosgrove) began serving as a Senator of the College of Justice making her the first woman to be appointed as a judge of Scotland’s Supreme Court.
1998(18thof Tammuz, 5758): Tzom Tammuz observed
1998: The New York Times featured books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Abraham Joshua Heschel: Prophetic Witness by Edward K. Kaplan and Samuel H. Dresner and Mrs. Einsteinby Anna McGrail.
2000(9thof Tammuz, 5760): Eighty year old Alf James, the South African boxer born Alfred Abraham, passed away today in Pretoria.
2001: Daniel C. Kurtzer appointed U.S. Ambassador to Israel.
2002: U.S. premiere of “Road to Perdition” starring Paul Newman with music by Thomas Newman the son of composer Alfred Newman.
2004(23rd of Tammuz, 5764): Sergeant Maayan Naim, 19, was killed by terrorists in Israel.
2005: Rod Rosenstein, who would find himself caught up in the investigations regarding President Donald Trump, began serving as the United States Attorney for the District of Maryland during the Presidency of George W. Bush today.
2006: Today “the Alabama-Coushatta tribe filed a federal racketeering lawsuit against now-convicted Jack Abramoff and his cohorts.”
2006: Baron Michael Levy was arrested and questioned in connection with the "Cash for Honours" inquiry by the Metropolitan Police today, concerning the allegation that monies were paid to political parties in return for peerages. It would take a year for authorities to decide not to prosecute due to lack of evidence.
2006:Jerusalem's Confederation House, one of the premier venues for ethnic music in Israel, presents the first in a series of three concerts based on bakashot (requests), songs of supplication traditionally sung during the early hours of Shabbat morning in Middle Eastern Jewish communities.
2006: “In the presence of the living descendants of both Émile Zola and Alfred Dreyfus,” French President “Jacques Chirac held an official state ceremony marking the centenary of the official rehabilitation of Dreyfus” “in the same cobblestone courtyard of Paris's École Militaire where Captain Dreyfus had been officially stripped of his officer's rank.”
2006: The July War or Second Lebanon War began when Hezbollah forces in southern Lebanon attacked IDF forces in Israel with rockets and mortars. Besides killing IDF soldiers, Hezbollah kidnapped two Israeli soldiers. Apparently they planned on using them as bargaining chips in some future action. Amir Peretz was the Defense Minister when the war began.
2006: Today, four years after “he had revealed that he Parkinson’s disease,” Michael Kinsley, “under went deep brain stimulation, a type of surgery designed to reduce its symptoms.”
2006(16thof Tammuz, 5766): Ninety-five year old “Sylvia Maibuam, the widow of screenwriter Richard Maibum who wrote 13 James Bond films” passed away today.
2006: The following were among a total of 43 Israeli civilians (including four who died of heart attacks during rocket barrages) and 116 IDF soldiers who were killed in the Israel-Hizbullah war: Sgt.-Maj. Shani Turgeman, 24, of Beit She'an; Sgt.-Maj Eyal Benin, 22, of Omer; Wasim Nazal, 27, of Yanuh-Jat; St.-Sgt. Alexei Kushnirski, 21, of Ness Ziona; Sgt. Yaniv Bar-On, 19, of Maccabim; Sgt. Nimrod Cohen, 19, of Kibbutz Mitzpe Shalem; Sgt.-Maj. St.-Sgt. Gadi Musiev, 20; St.-Sgt. Shlomi Yirmiyahu, 20
2007: In Rochester, N.Y., a screening of “The Cantor’s Son” at the Rochester Jewish Film Festival.
2007: In Jerusalem, at a concert"Libi Er," my heart is awake, performs songs, ballads, prayers, and original ethnic music at the Confederation House.
2007: The Conference on the Future of the Jewish People meeting in Jerusalem comes to a close.
2008: Day Two of The 25th annual Jerusalem Film Festival, which offers screenings of 200 local and international films highlighting a wide range of genres within categories such as new features, acclaimed documentaries, avant garde films, shorts, animation, retrospectives and classics. Special focus is placed on new directors, films that capture the Jewish experience and French cinema, among other areas of interest.
2008: In Melbourne, opening of the first Australian production of the Stephen Schwartz musical “Wicked.”
2009: As of today Brad Ausmus “was third all-time among catchers in fielding percentage.”
2009: After over a century of being in business, all of the Gottschalks stores were closed for good. Emil Gottschalk, an immigrant Jew from Germany had opened the first of the stores to bear his name in 1904 in Fresno, California. One of the Gottschalk stores had been located at Wasilla, Alaska, the town that Sarah Pallin would make famous.
2009: In Tel Aviv, Israel faces Russia in Day 3 of the Davis Cup Quarterfinals.
2009: The Washington Post features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Attack on the Liberty: The Untold Story of Israel's Deadly 1967 Assault on a U.S. Spy Ship by James Scott.
2010: Israeli born cellist Yoed Nir is scheduled to perform at Bargemusic in Brooklyn, NY.
2010(1st of Av, 5770): Rosh Chodesh Av
2010: Major General (res) Giora Eiland presented the report of his committee which had examined the preparations for and actual boarding of, the Pro-Palestinian Gaza Flotilla.
2010: The chairperson of the Women of the Wall prayer group Anat Hoffman was released from police custody this afternoon, after being taken in for questioning for allegedly defying the High Court ruling outlawing women from reading from the Torah at the Western Wall. Women of the Wall Public Relations Director Michelle Handelman told The Jerusalem Post that Hoffman was not reading from the Torah, but only holding it, which is not against the law according to the ruling.
2010: Carmen Weinstein, the head of Egypt’s tiny Jewish community, was convicted of fraud by an Egyptian court today and may face time behind bars. 2010(1st of Av, 5770): Seventy-year old Harvey Pekar, whose autobiographical comic book “American Splendor” attracted a cult following for its unvarnished stories of a depressed, aggrieved Everyman negotiating daily life in Cleveland and became the basis for a critically acclaimed 2003 film, died today at his home in Cleveland Heights, Ohio. (As reported by William Grimes)
2010(1stof Av, 5770): Rosh Chodesh Av
2010(1st of Av, 5770): Eighty-eight year old Tuli Kupferberg, a poet and singer who went from being a noted Beat to becoming, in his words, “the world’s oldest rock star” when he helped found the Fugs, the bawdy and politically pugnacious rock group, died today in Manhattan. (As reported by Ben Sisario)
2010: As of today Israeli professional tennis player Shahar Pe’er is ranked No. 16 in singles and No. 39 in doubles.
2011: Hadassah is scheduled to open its 2011 Business Meeting in Las Vegas.
2011: Israel's most crucial tie to Egypt, an economic one, is deteriorating, National Infrastructures Minister Uzi Landau told Army Radio this morning.
2011: Saboteurs blew up an Egyptian gas pipeline distribution station in northern Sinai that supplies natural gas to Israel, the official MENA news agency reported. The explosion was the fourth attack this year on pipelines in Sinai that supply gas to Israel and Jordan.
2011: Fifth anniversary of the war with Lebanon that began with a Hezbollah attacked that killed Lt. Col. Dov (Berry) Harari.
2011: Days after Berlin announced plans to sell tanks to Saudi Arabia, German Defense Minister Thomas de Maiziere will arrive for his first visit to Israel today, during which he will meet with Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu and Defense Minister Ehud Barak for talks expected to focus on the ongoing upheaval in the Middle East and the Iranian nuclear threat.
2012: In “Atomic Bombshell,” published today, Isabella Ginor and Gideon Remez, the authors of Foxbats Over Dimona, examine “the allegations that Dr. Max Eitingon, an early student of Sigmund Freud and a financial sponsor of the early psychoanalytic movement, was also an agent of Soviet intelligence.”
2012: The Washington DCJCC is scheduled to present “Meghan McCain with America, You Sexy B**ch”
2012: Catherine Howell of the Victoria and Albert Museum of Childhood is scheduled to lead the interactive workshop “Playing at war: an up-close look at childhood games of battle and conflict” at the Wiener Library on Russell Square in London, UK.
2012: In “The Reading Life: Harvey Pekar's Jewish question” published today David L. Ulin examines the contradictory legacy of the later Jewish author.
2013: “In Bloom” and “Our Nixon” are two of the films scheduled to be shown today at the Jerusalem Film Festival.”
2013: Rena Sherel Sofer appeared for the first time “in a newly created role of Quinn Fuller” on “the CBS soap opera The Bold and the Beautiful.
2013: “Fill the Void” a film which “tells the story of an Orthodox Chassidic Family from Tel Aviv” is scheduled to open at the Drexel East 3 in Columbus, Ohio
2013: Ido Akov and Itai Meir, “two outstanding soloists from the Jerusalem Academy of Music and Dance are schedule to perform at the Eden-Tamir Music Center.
2013: “Der Purimspieler” - a romantic comedy about a drifter who wanders from shtetl to shtetl. He finds brief happiness when he falls in love with a shoemaker’s daughter in a small Galician town. A likeable fantasy about s love triangle and man’s quest for the unobtainable – is scheduled to be shown as the first offering in the July Yiddish Film Festival at Agudas Achim following Shabbat eve services.
2013: In “Echoes From the Roman Ghetto” published today, David Laskin takes readers back to the Portico d’Ottavia which “half a millennium…has been the heart of Rome’s Jewish ghetto” but which 70 years ago became the scene in yet one more act in the Axis plan to create a Jew-Free World.
100 BCE: Birthdate of Julius Caesar. When Caesar and Pompey fought for control of the Empire, the Jews supported Caesar because of the evil Pompey had done to the Jewish people including desecrating the Temple and shipping thousands of Judeans to Roman slave markets. Caesar returned Jaffa to Judean control and allowed the walls of Jerusalem to be rebuilt. The Jews of Rome were allowed to organize as a community and Jews living on the Italian peninsula were able to improve their economic condition.
982: Kalonymos da Lucca, “the second Jew mentioned in the annals of Germanic history” “saved the life of Emperor Otto II” “who rewarded him with a house and citizenship in the city of Main where he could live safely as a Jew under the protection of the Archbishop.” (As described by Leo Sievers)
1024: Henry II, the Holy Roman Emperor whose expulsion of the Jews from Mayence was lamented in dirges composed by the poet Simon ben Isaac and of which Gershom ben Yehuda said, “Thou hast made those who despise They Law to have dominion over Thy people…” passed away today.
1105(29thof Tammuz, 4865: On the secular calendar Rabbi Shlomo ben Isaac also known as Rashi passed away. Rashi is a Hebrew acrostic for Rabbi Shlmoh ben Isaac. Born in 1040 he was the leading rabbinic commentator in his day on the TaNaCh and Talmud. His work is so basic to Jewish study, that it is said when we study Torah we must study Rashi. Rashi lived at the time of the Crusades. He passed away five years before the birth of that other great medieval sage, Maimonides. (See the attachment for a fuller treatment of his life.) While there is much to be learned from the teachings of Rashi, there are also lessons that we can learn from his life. While he studied with the greatest teachers in Germany, he lived in a French town with a comparatively small Jewish population. For those living in small towns this should serve as a reminder that living in small town is no reason not to study. Rashi was a Rabbi. He was also a successful businessman. He was a wine merchant who was able to care for his family and support students and yeshivas. In other words, just because most of us have to work for a living, we can still find time for study. Rashi had three daughters and no sons. Unlike the example of the mythical Tevye, Rashi’s daughters were all educated scholars. According to the stories told about them, all five wore tefillin. In other words, for Rashi, women were not to be "barefoot, pregnant and in the kitchen." His example means we should be providing a full Jewish education for all of our community, regardless of sex. (See Maggie Anton’s books about Rashi’s daughters for more about this)(www.rashisdaughters.com)
1148: Anti-Jewish riots take place in Cordova, Spain.
1564: In Brest Litvosk (Lithuania), Abraham, the son of a wealthy and envied Jewish tax collector was accused of killing the family's Christian servant for ritual purposes. He was tortured and executed. King Sigmund Augustus forbade the charge of ritual murder.
1608: Birthdate of Ferdinand III the Holy Roman Emperor who awarded the Jewish community their own banner in recognition for their services in the defense of Prague during the Thirty Years War.
1756: Birthdate of artist and caricaturist Thomas Rowlandson a non-Jew who born in Old Jewry, a street that takes its name from the fact that it was part of a Jewish quarter that had first existed at least as far back as the 13thcentury.
1787: According to the “Kaisers Patent” bearing today’s date issued by Austrian Emperor Josef II, Jews “were forced to send their children to Christian schools and take German names.”
1787: The Continental Congress enacts the Northwest Ordinance establishing governing rules for the Northwest Territory. It is important to note that there were no religious qualifications to settling in the area, owning land or taking part in political activities. This openness encouraged Jews to settle the lands west of the Allegheny Mountains. It also forced some of the east coast states to remove their remaining religious qualifications for participating in state government
1788(4thof Shevat, 5548): Leah Ancona, the daughter of Moses Ancona and Hannah Montefiore passed away today in London.
1793(4thof Av, 5553): Parashat Devarim, Shabbat Chazon
1793(4thof Av, 5553): Rebecca Hart Myers, the daughter of Joseph Hart Myers and Leah Jacobs passed away today in the UK.
1796: When French forces renew their bombardment of Frankfurt this evening, fire breaks out in the city including the area known as the Judengasse.
1798: Birthdate of Warder Cresson, the Quaker born Philadelphian who changed his name to Michoel Boaz Yisroel ben Avraham when he converted to Judaism. After surviving a sanity hearing, Cresson became an ardent supporter of Jewish settlement in Palestine moving to Jerusalem where he married a Sephardic women, raised a family and eventually passed away.
1813: Birthdate of Lazare Isidore who served as chief rabbi of France from 1867 until his death in 1888.
1816: Birthdate of German novelist Gustav Freytag who was married to a Jew but who authored Debit And Credit the popular anti-Semitic six volume novel that featured he Jewish Ehrenthal family who are money-lenders and speculators and their criminal employee Veitel Itzig and promoted negative stereotypes of Jews.
1815: Future President John Q. Adams wrote in a letter: 'The Hebrews have done more to civilize men than any other nation. If I were an atheist, I should still believe fate had ordained the Jews to be the most essential instrument for civilizing the nations.'
1823: Birthdate of French poet Eugène Manuel, the son of Parisian Jewish doctor.
1841: Birthdate of Austrian architect Otto Wagner. Budapest's Rumbach Synagogue, built in the 1870s, was his first major work. There seems to be some dispute as to whether or not Wagner himself was Jewish. We post his name because of the synagogue construction since we have not been able to verify whether or not he was Jewish.
1852: In New York, the Board of Alderman approved placing gas lamps in front of the synagogue on Greene Street.
1859: Sir Moses Montefiore was informed that in an interview Mr. Odo Russell, a British diplomat, had with Cardinal Giacomo Antonelli, a senior Vatican official closely associated with the Pope, the latter said that the issue of Edgardo Mortara was “a closed question.” In other words, Vatican was standing fast on the seizure of the Jewish child and had no intention of returning him.
1861: In Nevada, Israel ben Joseph Benjamin, a German-Jewish traveler who was a passenger on one of the first scheduled daily overland stagecoaches passed through Jacobs Well “a foundling way station for changing horses or mules on the Daily Overland Mail stage.”
1863: During the Draft Riots which began today in New York City, mobs came down the street where the Hebrew Orphan Asylum was located but passed the building without attacking.
1863: In London, Rabbi Samuel Marcus Gollancz, the cantor of the Hambro Synagogue, London, and his wife, Johanna Koppell gave birth “to the sixth of their seven children, English literature professor Sir Israel Gollancz who married Alide Goldschmidt in 1910.
1865: "Russia: Extensive Fires" published today describe a fire has destroyed 108 houses in Gerdok most of which belonged to Jews. Two children died in the fire. A fire in the Jewish quarter at Grodno destroyed eighty-two houses. The Synagogue in Borisoff was among the buildings that fell victim to the flames when fire swept the town.
1872: According to reports published today, The Jewish Messenger endorsed the proposal of the New York Times that poor and orphaned children in New York should be able to enjoy at least one excursion during the month of July. In urging its readers to contribute to this cause the Messenger reminded that among the beneficiaries would be at least four hundred Jewish children.
1873: “Cleanliness Versus Godliness” published today took issue with the contention of the historian Eusebus that the Apostle James never took a bath. “The assertion is most improabable, for not only were all the apostles strict Jews, but St. James, the Bishop or Jerusalem, could least of all have afforded to despise so sacred a Jewish habits as cleanliness” since James “was held in the highest esteem by the Judaizing party in the Church.
1875: Representatives from a group of Jewish congregations from across the United States held their second annual meeting in Buffalo, NY. Joseph Cohn of Pittsburg, PA was elected President; Henry Brock of Buffalo was elected Vice President; Lippman Levy of Cincinnati was elected Secretary; S. J. Lowenstein of Evansville, Indiana was elected Assistant Secretary.
1876: Judge Abraham Jesse Dittenhoefter described the meeting in which New York Governor Samuel J. Tilden was told that he had been nominated by the Democratic Party as their candidate for President. He then read a sample of letters from those supporting this candidate of reform. (Tilden is the “Tilden” of the famous Hayes-Tilden electoral stalemate)
1877: A review of Poet and Merchant by Bethold Auerbach, “a Jewish romance” in which all but a couple of the characters are Jews was published today.
1874: Jewish leaders from all over the United States are gathering in Cleveland, Ohio for tomorrow’s meeting of the Council of the American Union of Hebrew Congregations.
1878: At the conclusion of the Congress of Berlin, the European powers sign the Treaty of Berlin designed to officially the end of the Russo-Turkish War. One of the issues settled by the treaty was the question of independence for Romania. The Romanians promised that they would improve the treatment of the Jews living in Romania. Rather than trust the Romanian leaders, the authors of the treaty bowed to pressure from influential European Jews and insisted “that Romania must guarantee Jewish political emancipation before her sovereignty could be recognized.” The requirement was incorporated into the Treaty of Berlin under Article 62.
1879: A delegation of Rabbis from congregations across the United States, including both Reform and Orthodox came to house of Rabbi David Einhorn and presented him with a resolution enumerating his various accomplishments as his decade’s long career. The 72 year old native of Bavaria is retiring as the spiritual leader of Congregation Beth-El with a pension of $3.500.
1879: An article published today based on information from The Saturday Review, a London weekly magazine, examined the life of the late Lionel Rothschild. Rothschild was held in high esteem for his philanthropies that included an unexpectedly large donation for the relief of those who suffered during the Irish Famine in the 1840’s. Rothschild was praised for being more than “nominally a Jew” and for taking a leading role in the affairs of the Jewish community. Rothschild was “too rich too powerful and too socially important to be tempted to seek to rise by a calculated conversion.” On a personal level, one of Rothschild’s crowning moments came when he won the Epsom Derby in 1879 thanks to the efforts of “Sir Bevys.” Much of the prejudice that Jews have experienced in England has dissipated due, in part, to the example of the Rothschilds which includes the unique Jewish trait of “setting as much store on the attainment of high education and the development of business faculties in the women as in the men.”
1881: It was reported today that a resolution was introduced at the 8th annual council of the Union of American Hebrew congregations calling upon the Union to the steps that would lead to the abolition of the Religious Department of the Census Bureau. Those in favor of the proposal felt that the “Church and State were separated by a wide gulf” and that the government did not have any right to ask Americans about their religious beliefs. Those who were opposed to the proposal felt that the Hebrew Union did not have the right to interfere with the operations of the government. The latter view prevailed and the motion was withdrawn.
1882: President Lotte of Cincinnati presided over a meeting of the Executive Board of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations at Saratoga, NY. The Board represents 15 congregations.
1882(26thof Tammuz, 5642): Thirty-nine year old Sigmund Ferdinand Strauss, the brother of MP Arthur Isidor Strauss and Heinrich Alphons Strauss passed away today in Paris.
1883: It was reported today that the expenses of the Hebrew Union College have exceeded income by $18,200. The shortfall was covered by money taken from the Sinking Fund. In order to avoid further financial problems the Union will collect a head tax of one dollar for each congregant belonging to the congregations across the country.
1883: In Poland, Rebekah and Abraham Simcha (Simon) Flashtiq gave birth to Joseph Flashtiq, the husband of Ida Flashtiq and father of Reginald Flashtiq
1885: Marcus Berheimer delivered a welcoming address to the delegates from the United Hebrew Relief Associations from the principle cities in the United States who had gathered in St. Louis to form a union of the Hebrew Charities into a national organization.
1887: At 14thannual meeting of the leaders of the Hebrew Congregations of America, leaders of the Reform Movement expressed their disgust with the treatment of Jewish-American citizens doing business with, or visiting, Russia. The group wants changes made to the Russo-American Treaty that will guarantee American Jews will be treated with same respect as is shown to American Catholics and Protestants.
1888: Birthdate of Isaac Nachman Steinberg, the Russian born lawyer and political leader who served with Lenin but then was forced to flee to the West in the 1920’s when the political winds of the Bolsheviks blew in another direction.
1889: “Harlem Club and Senator Cantor” published today described attempts to minimize the action of club members. They claimed that the Jewish political leader had not been blackballed; merely postponed. While it was thought that a majority of the members would vote in favor of membership, the “blackball system” would keep that from happening.
1890: Rabbi Sabato Morais of Philadelphia, PA is giving a lecture this morning entitled “Some Hebrew Grammarians” at the Jewish Theological Seminary in New York.
1891:”Russians Facing Famine” published today described the effects of the worst food shortage since the earliest days of the Romanov dynasty including the suffering of the Jews especially those living at Rovnopol where they “are practically dying of hunger.” During a tour of the area, the governor saw the Jews “destitute of bread and corn” and “several families living together in one hut for the sake of warmth generated by propinquity.”
1892: The assailant who attacked Gustave Berkowitz, an old Jewish peddler, escaped from custody today.
1893: Among the people who were killed in today’s train wreck at Newburgh, NY was
“an unknown woman, apparently thirty-four years old, of Hebrew cast of countenance” (In other words she looked like a Jew). Among the injured were five members of the family of Leopold Michael, a retired diamond merchant on his way to spend the summer in the Catskills.
1893: The decision by the family of Captain Dreyfus not to accept a jewel sword which a group of American Jews plan to purchase in his honor and the decision by Emile Zola not to accept an engraved gold pen from the same group was made public today. The plan to buy these items had split the Jewish community with the editors of the Forwards being most vocal in their opposition.
1893: “Soon To Have A New Temple” published today provides a detailed description of Shaaray Tefilla’s home located on 82nd Street between Columbus and Amsterdam Avenues
1894: Birthdate of Isaak Babel Russian short-story writer and dramatist. He is known by many as the author of "Red Calvary." Babel’s artistic career ended when he was arrested by the Soviet secret police in one of those periodic purges brought on by Stalin’s paranoia. Babel was shot after a secret trial proved he was a traitor.
1894: Albert Mortiz was promoted from Assistant Engineer to Past (First) Assistant Engineer today in the United States Navy.
1894: A day after she had passed away, 74 year old Rachel Sampson, the widow of Simon Sampson was buried today at the West Ham Jewish Cemetery on Buckingham Road.
1894: Even though Eugene Debs said it was his decision, the Knights of Labor blamed Samuel Gompers for calling off the planned strike intended to show support for the Pullman workers.
1985: In the United Kingdom, the General Election that would see Harry Marks emerge victorious in his campaign to represent St. George, Tower Hamlets, began.
1895: On Shabbat, Dr. Samuel Sale of St. Louis, MO will deliver the sermon at the annual Central Conference American Rabbis meeting in Rochester, NY.
1895: “A Jewish Confession of Faith” published today listed the ten point formula “for the reception of proselytes being considered by the Reform movement.
1895: It was reported today that a new translation of Conventional Lies of Our Civilization by Max Nordeau is being published in London that will replace the one that appeared in Chicago ten years ago.
1896: “Bugs, Worms and Beetles” published today described the history and impact of these critters including the fact that the “Jews of Morocco regard male grasshoppers as unclean” and that they only eat the females “which have peculiar markings on their bodies” which are said to be Hebrew letters that “make it lawful to devour the animals bearing them.” (No shrimp or lobster; but we can eat female grasshoppers in Morocco – such a deal)
1896: Birthdate of Israeli painter Mordecai Ardon. Born in Poland when it was part of the Russian Empire, Ardon later moved to Germany where he was a student at the "Bauhaus" School from 1920 to 1925. This was the period in German history known as the Weimar Republic. Ardon moved to Jerusalem in 1933. He had his first American exhibition at the Jewish Museum in New York in 1948. There are numerous websites where you can view his works. He passed away in 1992. One of his most famous is the "Ardon Windows" in the Jewish National and University Library
1896: Herzl meets with representatives of Hovevei Zion Britain.
1897: Louis Leblois, lawyer for Lieutenant Colonel Georges Picquart, informed Senator Auguste Scheurer-Kestner in detail about the Dreyfus Affair – the first step in a journey that would lead to his involvement in the ultimate re-habilitation of the French Jewish officer.
1898: When the 3rd Nebraska Volunteer Infantry was mustered in today at Omaha, those taking the oath included Sergeant Herbert L. Stern, Corporal George Steinbach, and Privates Henry H. Lyons, Sam Orlofsky and Bert Polsky, all from Lincoln as well as Omaha Musician Harry C. Lyon.
1898: When the 6th Missouri Volunteer Infantry was mustered in today at Jefferson Barracks, those taking the oath included Bernhardt K. Stunberg, Hospital Steward; Captain John H. Goldman, Company A; Private Harry H. Rosenberger, Company C; Musician Oscar Bennewitz and Private Levi Harris, Company D; Private Louis Bleistein, Company G;
1899: The Knights of Zion, a Jewish fraternal organization, was incorporated today at Albany, NY.
1900: In New York City Jozue Perla and Fannie Herzruecken Perlan gave birth to Dr. David Perla the Columbia Medical School graduate who served as “associate pathologist and immunologist at Montefiore Hospital” from 1927 until his death in 1940 and was a “leading investigator and writer on the mechanism of immunity to infection in the human body.”
1901: Birthdate of Myrtle Ehrlich, the Brooklyn native who became the successful American businesswoman, Tillie Ehrlich Lewis, “the tomato queen.”
1902: Birthdate of Labour Party leader Maurice Orbach, “a self-proclaimed Labour Zionist” who was the father of psychotherapist Susie Orbach and Laurence Orbach, the former chairman and CEO of The Quatro Group.
1904(1st of Av, 5664): Rosh Chodesh Av
1904(1stof Av, 5664): Forty-seven year old English soprano and actress Giulia Warwick (born Julia Ehrenberg) passed away today.
1905: “Their Only Hope” published today in The American Israelite described conditions in Russia following the defeat by Japan including plans of the government to hold on to power by sacrificing “the Jews of Russia to the bitter hatred of their enemies” – “the hierarchy of the Russian Church and members of the business community who see the Jews as competitors -- and concludes with a plea to “great Jewish financers” to use their power “to save five million men, women and children – their coreligionist – from impending destruction.
1905: Sir Reginald Francis Douce Palgrave, the Clerk of the House of Commons passed away. His father was Sir Francis Palgrave, born Francis Ephraim Cohen, who converted and changed his name so that he could marry Elizabeth Turner.
1905: The Ninth Summer Assembly of the Jewish Chautauqua Society continued for a sixth day in Atlantic City, NJ.
1909(24th of Tammuz, 5669): Jacob Bettelheim, the Viennese born dramatist and author passed away in Berlin.
1910: Fire destroys 21 buildings in the Jewish quarter of Salonica, damage near 600,000 Francs.
1910: Birthdate of Swiss philosopher and Einstein Medal winner Jeanne Hersch.
1911(17th of Tammuz, 5671): Tzom Tammuz
1911(17thof Tammuz, 5671): New Yorker Gustav Mehringer who made “bequests of $2,584.52 each to Mt. Sinai Hospital, the Montefiore Home, the United Hebrew Charities and the Hebrew Orphan Asylum” and a bequest of $2,000 to Temple Emanu-El passed away today.
1911: Birthdate of Brooklyn native WW II Army veteran Hyam Plutzik, the graduate of Trinity College and holder of a master’s degree from Yale and Professor of English at Rutgers whose “awards for Poetry included Yale’s Albert S. Cook Prize in Poetry, an award from the National Institutes of Arts and Letters and a Lillian Fairchild Award” and who was the husband of the former Tanya Roth with whom he had four children – Roberta, Deborah, Alan and Jonathan.
1913: As the wars continue in the Balkans, the Turks capture the Greek city of Didymoteikhon which is ruled by the Bulgarians. Unfortunately for the Jews, who had suffered property losses when the Bulgarians took the city in 1912, the economy continued to deteriorate under Ottoman rule.
1915: Abram I. Elkus, the President of the Jewish Chautauqua Society was reported today to have said that he was “discouraged” because “the American Jewish Relief Committee and all constituted agencies” are being overwhelmed by the demands to help Jews in the war zone and “with all the efforts that have been made, all the Jews” in the United States “have not given $1,000,000 where millions are needed.”
1916: At Paramount Corporation's annual board meeting, William Wadsworth Hodkinson found himself ousted from the presidency and replaced by Hiram Abrams, who won the seat by a single vote after which he announced to the board, "On behalf of Adolph Zukor, who has purchased my shares in Paramount, I call this meeting to order."
1917: Peter von Ustinow, who was serving with Army Air Service of the German Army and who was the brother of Jaffa native Jona Von Ustinov who worked with MI5 in WW II, was killed in action today.
1917: “Announcement was made at today’s meeting of the Joint Distribution Committee of the Funds for Jews War Sufferers held at the office of the Chairman, Felix M. Warburg, that following negotiations with the State Department carried on since the entrance of the United States into the war, arrangements have just been completed for sending Jewish Relief Funds into all those countries occupied by foreign armies.”
1918(4thof Av, 5678): Parashat Devarim; Shabbat Chazon
1918(4thof Av, 5678): Twenty-two year old Private Robert P. Friedman the son of Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Friedman and a graduate of CCNY while serving with Company A of the 102nd Engineers lived for “only two hours after a shell severed his spinal cord.”
1918: It was reported today that in Finland, the Senate justified the decision to expel all the Jews from the country “on the ground that Jewish financiers placed funds at the disposal of the Red Guards” – a charge denied by the Jews who said “they were forced by the Red Guards to give them large sums of money.”
1919: Birthdate of Eliot Asinof whose journalistic re-creation of the 1919 Black Sox scandal, Eight Men Out became a classic of both baseball literature and narrative nonfiction. Eliot Tager Asinof was born in Manhattan and grew up in Manhattan and Cedarhurst, N.Y. His grandfather Morris, a Russian immigrant, was a tailor who eventually opened a men’s store in Manhattan.Eliot’s father, Max, worked there, and when young Eliot went to work there as well, it was a tenet that he had to sew a suit before he would be allowed to sell one. The dexterity he developed served him well. Mr. Asinof was an accomplished amateur pianist and sculptor. He was also a carpenter who in 1985, with his son, built the Ancramdale house he lived in for the rest of his life. He shot his age on a golf course for the first time at 79. After graduating from Swarthmore, Mr. Asinof played baseball briefly in the minor leagues — he was a first baseman in the Philadelphia Phillies organization — before he joined the Army. When he returned, his son said, the Phillies invited him to return, but he pulled a muscle during his first practice, and that was it for his sports career. He turned to writing. He also had a gift for finding the company of other gifted people. A compact man with a gravelly voice and a New York accent, he was gregarious and shrewdly charming.“A writer whose shrewdness and insight trumped his style, which was plainspoken and realistic, Mr. Asinof was productive and versatile. He wrote more than a dozen books, including a novel, Final Judgment that is set on a college campus and concerns a protest to keep President Bush from delivering a commencement address, and is to be published in September by Bunim & Bannigan.Weeks before his death, his son said, Mr. Asinof completed a memoir of his World War II service in the Army Corps on Adak Island in the Aleutians. Seven Days to Sunday his 1968 account of a week in the life of the New York Giants football team as it prepared for a game, was an early if not groundbreaking enterprise of journalistic embedding in the world of sports. His first novel, Man on Spikes published in 1955 and based on a longtime friend who spent years in the minor leagues, was a prescient condemnation of baseball’s feudal control over the players. That system was not dissolved until 1975 with the abolition of the so-called reserve clause in standard contracts, which allowed teams to retain in virtual perpetuity the services of players in their employ.Mr. Asinof also wrote for television and the movies, although his published credits were limited, probably because he was among the many writers who were blacklisted in the 1950s. In his case, he once wrote after he got hold of his F.B.I. file, the blacklisting came about because “I had at one time signed a petition outside of Yankee Stadium to encourage the New York Yankees to hire black ballplayers.”But he is best known for “Eight Men Out,” published in 1963, and for the 1988 movie of the same title. The book is an exhaustively reported and slightly fictionalized account of how eight members of the 1919 Chicago White Sox allowed their anger at the parsimonious team owner, Charles Comiskey, to corrupt their integrity, leading them to welcome the overtures of gamblers, who persuaded them to throw the World Series against the Cincinnati Reds. A seminal event in the history of the game, it led to the appointment of the first baseball commissioner, Kenesaw Mountain Landis. Mr. Asinof spent nearly three years researching the book, including interviewing the two members of the team, Joe Jackson and Happy Feltsch, who were still alive. In the end, “Eight Men Out” was a book that made plain the connection between sport and money and between sport and the underworld. “Here is the underbelly of baseball vividly dissected,” said Fay Vincent, the former baseball commissioner.In the Camelot of the Kennedy 1960s, the book also made plain, if only by inference, the unsavory potential in American culture, a theme that ran throughout Mr. Asinof’s work. Twenty-five years later, “Eight Men Out” was made into a popular film directed by John Sayles, with a script by Mr. Sayles and Mr. Asinof.” He passed away at the age of 88 in June, 2008.
1919: The London Jewish Hospital opened for out-patients.
1920: Birthdate of Anna Schuman who gained fame as dance pioneer Anna Halprin, the wife of landscape architect Lawrence Halprin
1921: Birthdate of Ernst Sigmund Goldner, the native of Vienna who gained fame as Ernest Gold, composer of the score from the hit film “Exodus” for which he won an Oscar.
1921: In Ross, CA, Frank Moore Cross, Sr. and his wife gave birth to Frank Moore Cross, Jr. “an influential Harvard biblical scholar who specialized in the ancient cultures and languages that helped shape the Hebrew Bible and who played a central role in interpreting the Dead Sea Scrolls.” (As reported by William Yardley)
1921(7th of Tammuz, 5681): Jonas Ferdinand Gabriel Lippmann a Franco-Luxembourgish physicist and inventor, and Nobel laureate in physics for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference, later known as the Lippmann plate passed away.
1923(29thof Tammuz, 5683): Birmingham, Alabama native David L. Baumgarten, the former Vice President of Durell Brothers Shoe Company who was elected to the House of Representatives from the second Congressional District of Ohio in 1917, a President of the United States and China Company passed away today.
1923: In Brazil, Isaac Israel Benchimol and Nina "Lili" Siqueira gave birth to Samuel Isaac Benchimol, the economist whom the Brazilian government honored by establishing the Benchimol Prize and who was the father of Jaime Samuel Benchimol,
1924: Birthdate of Gyorgy Deutsch the native of Hungary and Holocaust survivor who gained fame as “George Lang, a restaurateur and cookbook writer who in the 1970s transformed Café des Artistes into one of New York’s most romantic, beloved dining spots and in the 1990s helped restore the historic Budapest restaurant Gundel to its former glory.” (As reported by William Grimes)
1925: Flo Ziegfeld and his Ziegfeld Follies begin the creation of what would become an American Icon. Comedian W.C. Fields went home to attend his mother's funeral. In a last minute desperate move, a comparatively unknown cowboy from Oklahoma named Will Rogers began his comedic career.
1926: Birthdate of composer Meyer Kupferman.
1927: In Nice, France, André Jacob, an architect, and the former Yvonne Steinmetz gave birth Simone Jacob, the youngest of their four children, who survived the Shoah gained fame as French lawyer and political leader Simon Veil.
1928: In Cricklewood, Hertfordshire, Rachel and Hersch Lauterpacht gave birth to Sir Elihu Lauterpacht CBE QC LLD a British academic and lawyer, specializing in International Law,
1930:Robert Sarnoff, head of RCA (Radio Corporation of America) tells the in New York Times "TV would be a theater in every home." Okay, so it is not Micah or Jeremiah, but it is a Jew providing prophecy in one sense of the term.
1930: Birthdate of Naomi Shemer one of Israel's most important and prolific song writers. During her lifetime, she was hailed as the "First Lady of Israeli Song." Born Naomi Sapir, Shemer did her own songwriting and composing, as well as setting famous poems to music, such as those of the Israeli poet, Rachel, and adapting well-known songs into Hebrew, such as the Beatles songs "Hey Jude" and "Let it Be" ("Lu Yehi"). Israeli songwriter Naomi Shemer's grave on the shores of the Sea of Galilee (Kinneret)]. The stones were left by visitors, in keeping with an ancient Jewish custom Naomi Shemer was born and raised in Kevutzat Kinneret, a kibbutz that her parents had helped to found, on the shore of the Sea of Galilee. In the 1950s she served in the Israeli Defense Force's Nahal entertainment troupe and studied music at the Rubin Academy in Jerusalem. She married Mordechai Horowitz and had two children, Lali and Ariel.In 1983, Shemer received the Israel Prize for her contribution to Israeli culture. Several of Shemer's songs have the quality of anthems, striking deep national and emotional chords in the hearts of Israelis. Her most famous song is "Yerushalayim shel zahav" ("Jerusalem of Gold"). She wrote it in 1967, before the Six Day War, and added another stanza after Israel captured East Jerusalem and regained access to the Western Wall. In 1968, Uri Avnery, then a member of the Israeli parliament, proposed that "Jerusalem of Gold" become the Israeli anthem. The proposal was rejected, but the nomination itself says something about the power of Shemer's songs. Shemer continued to write and perform until her death. She died of cancer in 2004 at the age of seventy three.
1933(19thof Tammuz, 5693): Sixty-year old William Dick Sporborg, “the song of the late Joseph and Clara Dick Sporborg,” the husband of the former Constance Amberg of Cincinnati, and graduate of Harvard where “he was a member of the baseball team” who graduated the Columbia University Law School and served as Treasurer of the Port Arthur Jews Center passed away today.
1933: In Germany, Nazism was declared the sole German party.
1935: On her 34th birthday, Tillie Lewis opened the first Flotill cannery in Stockton, California. By 1951, Flotill Products, later known as Tillie Lewis Foods, Inc., was earning $30 million per year, making it one of the five largest canning companies in the country. In the same year, Lewis was named "businesswoman of the year" by the Associated Press. In 1952, the company introduced a line of diet foods using low-calorie sweeteners and known as Tasti-Diet. Tillie Lewis Foods was eventually bought by the Ogden Corporation, which made Lewis one of its directors. Lewis died in 1977, but the Italian Pomodoro tomatoes she introduced to the U.S. are still a staple of American agriculture. (As reported by Jewish Women’s Archives)
1936: As the Arab attacks in Palestine continued, the Emir Abudllah said today in Trans-Jordan that he did not “know how much long he could hold them” – referring to his Bedouins who want to cross the Jordan and joint in the fight.
1936: In an interview given tonight, “John D.M. Hamilton chairman of the Republican National Committee laid at the door of the Democrats responsibility for spreading rumors that he was anti-Semitic and that Jews who had been prominent in other national Republican campaigns were to be kept out of important positions in the” Presidential campaign of Governor Alf Landon.
1936: After meeting with Republican Presidential candidate Alf M. Landon at Topeka, George N. Peek, the former head of the Export-Import Bank offered his views on numerous topics to newspaper reporters including the observation the “Jewish influence” on the policies of the Roosevelt administration had helped to cost the country two successive sales of more than 800,000 bales of cotton to Germany. “The administration has not been particularly sympathetic to Hitler and Hitler hasn’t been particularly sympathetic to the Jews” was the way he described the situation.
1936: Following the death of Reverend S. Parkes Cadmen yesterday, Rabbi Israel H. Levinthal, the former President of the Rabbinical Association of America said, “The Jews of America feel heavily the sorrow of his passing because they had in him an understanding friend and an unselfish champion” whose “heart beat with love and sympathy for all mankind regardless of race, color or creed.”
1936: The Palestine Post reported that two Jews were seriously injured by Arabs in Jerusalem. Figures prepared by this newspaper indicated that 41 Jews had been killed and over 150 seriously injured since the outbreak of the Arab disturbances on April 19. British forces lost five men. The estimated damage to Jewish property was over 100,000 pounds. The Tel Aviv Port jetty had been lengthened to 200 meters.
1936: According to some sources, today marks the start of the Spanish Civil War (I have found at least two other dates)
1937(5thof Av, 5697): Edgard Cattaui, the son of Moise Cattaui and Ida Ross and the husband of Lia Cattaui passed away today in Cairo.
1937: In what has to have been one of the most erroneous predictions of the pre-WWII period, Dr. Carol Joachim Friedrich of Harvard predicted “in an address at the Summer Institute for Social Progress at Wellesley today” that “sooner or later the German people will overthrow the Nazi regime” adding the he would be “surprised if the Hitler dictatorship lasts twenty years, that is to 1953.”
1938: Declaring that the maintenance of a proper Supreme Court was of paramount concern to the country, Senator Arthur H. Vandenberg urged in a speech here tonight that an extra session of the Senate be called before the Supreme Court convened in October to confirm or reject President Roosevelt's nominee to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Justice Benjamin N. Cardozo
1938: The immediate transfer to Palestine of "tens of thousands of Jewish children now trapped in Germany, Austria and Poland" was urged by Hadassah, the women's Zionist organization of America, in a message sent today to the London executive of the Jewish Agency for Palestine for transmission to the Intergovernmental Refugees Committee, meeting in Evian, France. The message was signed my Mrs. Moses P. Epstein, president of the organization and sent on behalf of Hadassah’s 70,000 members.
1939: Producer and screen writer Milton Sperling married Betty Warner, the daughter of movie mogul Harry Warner and the younger sister of Doris Warner.
1939: U.S. premiere of “The Man in the Iron Mask” co-starring Joseph Schildkraut as Fouquet
1940: “My Love Came Back” directed by Curtis Bernhardt and directed by Hal B. Wallis was released by Warner Bros. Pictures in the United States.
1941(18thof Tammuz, 5701): Tzom Tammuz because the 17th fell on Shabbat.
1942: French police arrested author Irene Nemirovsky, as “a foreign Jew.” She was shipped to Auschwitz where she died five weeks later at the age of 39. She gained famed in the 21st century with posthumous publication of two newly discovered manuscripts, Suite Francaise and Fire in the Blood.
1942: Five thousand Jews of Rovno (Polish Ukraine) were executed by the Nazis.
1942: The Einsatzkommando returned to daily actions of murder. Seven thousand Jews were rounded up in Rowne ghetto. Over the next two days, the SS would slaughter 5,000 of them.
1943: Alexander Schmorell and Kurt Huber, members of the White Rose resistance movement, are beheaded with a guillotine by the Nazi government. (Everybody remembers the killers and those who remained silent. This is a chance to those made the final sacrifice when the world was plunged into darkness) (As reported by Austin Cline)
1943: Father Marie Benoît traveled to Rome today to seek the help of Pope Pius XII in transferring Jews to northern Italy. A meeting was arranged between Father Benoît and the pope. When Father Benoit explained that the police in Vichy France were acting against the Jews, Pius XII was surprised, saying, "Who could ever expect this from noble France?" He promised to diligently deal with the situation. However, the North African plan was eventually foiled when the Germans occupied northern Italy and the Italian-occupied zone of France
1943: Thirty-five year old Gerda Baier was deported from Prague to Theresienstadt after which she would be shipped to Auschwitz where the Nazi murdered her.
1943: In New York City, “Aaron and Fruma Zlotowitz, immigrants from Lithuania” gave birth to their youngest child “Rabbi Meir Zlotowitz who took a small wedding-invitation print shop and turned it into ArtScroll Mesorah, the leading publisher of prayer books and volumes of Torah and Talmud in the expanding Orthodox Jewish world, books notable for their easily readable typography, instructions and translations. (As reported by Joseph Berger)
1944: The Red Army liberated Vilna, Lithuania. Eight thousand Nazis and their allies had been killed during the five day fight. The legions of the Red Army included the Jewish partisans led by Abba Kovner and his two closest associates, Vita Kempner and Ruzka Korczak. On this day, the Jewish partisans first met Ilya Ehrenburg, “a Jew from Russia, a writer and poet whose dispatches from the front had been a tremendous inspiration” for these and other partisans fighting in the woods and marshes of Eastern Europe. Ehrenburg took pictures of the Jewish brigade and was the first to tell their story to a wide, non-Jewish audience.
1945: In Berlin at the Rykestrasse Synagogue Soviet City Commander Nikolai Berzarin attended the first Shabbat eve service which was organized by Erich Nehlhans a Shoah survivor who was the new president of Jüdische Gemeinde zu Berlin
1945:Birthdate of Ilan Shlagi, an Israeli political leader who served in the Knesset and held several cabinet positions including Minister of the Environment and Minister of Science & Technology.
1945(3rdof Av, 5705): Sixty-six year old Russian born American actress Alla Nazimova passed away today in Los Angeles.
1946(14th of Tammuz, 5706): Eighty-two year old Alfred Stieglitz the first born son of German Jewish immigrant parents who became one of Americas most famous and prominent photographers and who was also instrumental in promoting modernist art to the American mainstream public, passed away.
1947: Emil Andsrom and two his UNSCOP colleagues held a secret meeting with the leaders of the Haganah in the Jerusalem suburb of Talipot. They wanted to know if the Haganah had the means and the will to protect the Jewish areas against Arab attack in the event of the establishment of a Jewish state. The six Haganah representatives, including Yigael Yadin, made a strong case in the affirmative. Their arguments were based, in part on their zeal, in part on their determination and, in part, their ability to artfully dodge the questions being asked.
1948: During the War of Independence Abba Eban spoke before the U.N. Security Council. He questioned why the Arabs had rejected the U.N. request to extend the cease fire between the Arabs and the Israelis for another ten days. Using the majestic tones of a Cambridge graduate he asked, “What are the ambitions which rest upon so flimsy a moral foundation that they cannot endure tend days and nights of peace?”
1948: During the War of Independence, Israeli forces continued their efforts to widen the corridor between Tel Aviv and Jerusalem. To that end, they captured the village of Tsora – the birthplace of the Biblical figure Samson – from the Egyptians. This gave the Israelis control over another section of the railway running between the coast and the City of David.
1948: During the War of Independence, an Irgun unit began a night attack on Malah that lasted into the early hours of July 14. “Seventeen Irgunists were killed including Nathan Cahsman, from London, who had arrived in Israel on the ill-fated Atalena.
1949: The first “talkie” version of “The Great Gatsby” produced by Richard Maibum who also co-authored the script and featuring Shelly Winters and Howard Da Silva as Myrtle Wilson and George Wilson was released today in the United States.
1950: At Boston’s Suffolk Downs, a three year old named Tel Aviv runs in the Fourth Race, a six furlong claiming event.
1950: In discussing the guiding principles of Israel’s foreign policy, Moshe Sharett said “that in the ideological struggle between the democratic and communist social orders Israel had definitely chosen democracy…Israel is most eager to promote friendly relations with all nations, regardless of their internal regimes. Yet it was impossible to ignore the fact that it only in democratic countries that Jewish communities enjoyed freedom of organization, expression and independent activity.”
1951(9th of Tammuz, 5711): Seventy-six year old Arnold Schoenberg passed away. Born in Vienna in 1874, Schoenberg enjoyed a brilliant musical career. When the Nazis came to power in 1933, he was dismissed from his post as a director of a school for musical composition at the Prussian Academy of Arts in Berlin. His response was a formal, public return to the Jewish faith, which he had left early in life. America offered a haven and became his home. He wrote numerous works using Jewish themes including the Holocaust and the birth of the state of Israel.
1951: Birthdate of Edith Bernstein who morphed into Didi Conn, an actress who has appeared in film on the stage, and in television who was the wife of David Shire.
1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that 128,000 immigrants entered Israel during the first half of 1951 (one every two minutes). Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion presided over the meeting of the government-Jewish Agency's Coordination Board responsible for the newcomers' housing, employment and the state of sanitation in transit camps. "The attainment of freedom and security often takes precedence over personal convenience," David Ben-Gurion told a large audience in Beersheba.
1954(12thof Tammuz, 5714): Sixty three year old Pittsburgh born, Harvard grad Irving Pichel whose career as an actor and director included performing in the 1930’s film version of An American Tragedy and serving as the narrator for the Western classic “She Wore a Yellow Ribbon.”
1954(12th of Tammuz, 5714): Mexican painter Frida Kahlo who claimed that her father Carol Wilhelm Kahlo was Jewish, a claim which has been challenged by at least one biographer passed away today.
1955: The Beaux Arts Trio featuring pianist Menahem Pressler debuted at the Berkshire Music Festival.
1955: Birthdate of Ehud Havazelet an award-winning American novelist and short story writer who was born in Jerusalem. His father, Meir Havazalet, a rabbi and professor at Yeshiva University immigrated to the United States in 1957. He graduated from Columbia University in 1977, and received an M.F.A at the University of Iowa Writers Workshop in 1984. He became a Jones Lecturer at Stanford University, from 1985 to 1989, and a Wallace Stegner Fellow. He taught creative writing at Oregon State University from 1989 to 1999. Since 1999, he has taught creative writing at the University of Oregon.
1960: “The Lost World” a cinematic treatment of the novel of the same name directed by Irwin Allen who co-produced and co-wrote the script was released today in the United States.
1960: Forty-five year old Joy Davidman the “child prodigy” and American author who converted to christianly and whose marriage to C.S Lewis was a joining of two intellects passed away today.
1962: Former Connecticut Governor Abraham “Abe” Ribicoff completed his service as the United Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) today.
1962: “Photographer and photojournalist” George Barris took what proved to be the last picture of Marilyn Monroe today while they were “collaborating on a book titled Marilyn: Her Life In Her Own Words.”
1963: Israel adopts a law prohibiting the raising of pigs in Jewish settlements.
1966: “How to Steal a Million” directed by William Wyler who also served as co-producer, with a script by Harry Kurnitz and co-starring Eli Wallach was released today by 20thCentury Fox today in the United States.
1969: “Me, Natalie” produced by Stanley Shapiro who also wrote the script co-starring Martin Balsam as Uncle Harold, Bob Balaban as Morris and Milt Kaman as the Plastic Surgeon was released today by National General Pictures in the United States.
1969: The New York Times featured a review of The Story of Masada by Yigael Yadin; retold for young readers by Gerald Gottlieb.
1971: Max Moses Heller who “with the help of Mary Mill a young Christian from Greenville, SC obtained a visa that made it possible for him to leave his native Austria after the Anschluss” became the “29th Mayor Greenville” today after which he “desegregated all municipal departments and commissions.”
1971: “The Panic in Needle Park” directed by Jerry Schatzberg was release today by 20thCentury Fox in the United States.
1972: Carroll Rosenbloom, owner of the Baltimore Colts, traded teams with the owner of the Los Angeles Rams. Rosenbloom was now the owner of the Los Angeles Rams, which became the St. Louis Rams.
1972: The Democratic Convention came to end having chosen a candidate and adopted certain platform planks that would lead some Jews to do what they had not thought of doing – voting for Richard Nixon in the Fall election.
1975(5thof Av, 5735): Fifty-six year old Queens native Judith Graham Pool, the daughter of Nellie (Baron) Graham, a schoolteacher, and Leon Graham, a stockbroker” and the physiologist whose scientific discoveries revolutionized the treatment of hemophilia” passed away today.
1976: In a letter dated today, the Supreme Commander's Staff of the Imperial Iranian Armed Forces praised the Israeli commandos for the mission and extended condolences for "the loss and martyrdom" of Netanyahu
1976: The Jerusalem Post reported that Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin told the Knesset, at the special festive session marking the US bicentennial, that a strong and confident America was needed to assure freedom, democracy and peace. The Knesset sent a special, congratulatory message to the US Congress.
1976: The Jerusalem Post reported that in London, the British minister of state announced that there was little doubt that Mrs. Dora Bloch was dead and that the Ugandan government must bring those responsible to justice. Britain regarded all Ugandan explanations as "totally unacceptable."
1978:Alexander Ginzburg, Soviet poet and political dissident was sentenced by a Soviet court to 8 years in prison. Although he was a practicing Russian Orthodox Christian, he adopted his mother's Jewish family name as a young man to protest Stalin's anti-Semitic campaigns.
1979: A 45-hour siege began at the Egyptian Embassy in Ankara, Turkey. Four Palestinian guerrillas killed two security men and seized 20 hostages. Now that Egypt was at peace with Israel, she was fair game for attack by Palestinian terrorists.
1979: “The Wanderers” a gang movie set in the Bronx directed by Philip Kaufman who wrote the script along with Rose Kaufman and featuring Alan Rosenburg was released in the United States today.
1981: It was reported today that Prime Minister Begin compared the rescue mission at Entebbe with the bombing of Iran’s Osirak nuclear reactor saying that the former rescued hundreds of Jews while the latter resulted in “the rescue of an infinite number of Jews.”
1982(22ndof Tammuz, 5742): Seventy-four year old Michael Blankfort the screen writer and author whose “novels dealt with the clash of traditional Jewish values with the current cultural and social milieu” passed away today.
1986(6thof Tammuz, 5746): Eighty-seven year old photographer and pioneer in the field of documentary films passed away to day.
1987: “The Brave Little Toaster” an animated musical with a score by David Newman and featuring the voice of Jon Lovitz was released in Los Angeles today.
1989: Thirteenth Maccabiah comes to an end.
1989: At six o’clock in the evening al public transport in Jerusalem stopped for one minute in memory of a terrorist attack that had taken place on July 6 that targeted bus 405 that ran between Tel Aviv and Jerusalem.
1992: David Levy steps down as Israel’s Foreign Minister.
1992: Yithak Rabin replaced Moshe Arens as Minister of Defense.
1992: Ovadia Eli completed his term as Deputy Minister of Defense.
1992: Binyamin Ben-Eliezer “was appointed Minister of Housing and Construction in Yitzhak Rabin's government.
1992: Rafael Pinhasi finished his term as Israel’s Communication Minister. Born in Kabul in 1940, Pinhasi made Aliyah in 1950. A member of Shas, he has held a variety of positions in local and national governmental positions.
1992: Binyamin Ben-Eliezer was appointed Minister of Housing and Construction in Yitzhak Rabin's government.
1992: Moshe Shahal replaced Roni Milo as Minister of Public Security
1992: Moshe Shahal begins serving as Israel’s Communication Minister. Born in 1934 in Iraq, he made Aliyah in 1950. After graduating with a law degree from Tel Aviv University, he began a political career that included a variety of governmental positions and membership in the Alignment and Labor Parties.
1992: Yitzhak Shamir completed his second term as Prime Minister of Israel.
1993: “Jews decry 'slap in face' from academy Big alumni event scheduled for Yom Kippur holy day” published today” described the reaction to the Naval Academy celebrating Homecoming on the Day of Atonement.
1997: In “Israel Games Draw Westchester Athletes,” published today Chuck Slater provides a graphic portrait of Lorin Ambinder, Nina Zeitlin, Matthew Deutsch and Scott Grayson, the four young athletes from Westchester County who are in Israel to represent the United States in the 15th Maccabiah Games, opening tomorrow.
1997: The Sunday New York Times book section features a review of The Sense of Reality: Studies in Ideas and Their History by Isaiah Berlin and Man Without A Face the autobiography of East Germany’s spymaster Markus Wolf, the German Jew, who while head of Stasi, provided training camps for the PLO in East Germany where they could master the use of guns, explosives and guerilla tactics. Yes, Isaiah Berlin and Markus Wolf are both Jews which raises the question, “what is a typical Jew?”
1998: Silvan Shalom succeeded Michael Etian as Minister of Science and Technology.
1998(19thof Tammuz, 5778): One day after the observance of Tzom Tammuz, 79 year old Ben Zion Abba Shaul, the Jerusalem born son of Eliyahu and Benaya Abba Shaul and husband of Hadassah, the daughter of Rabbi Yosef Shaharbani, who for the last 15 years of his life was “the rosh yeshiva of Porat Yosef Yeshiva in Jerusalem” passed away today after which “an estimated 200,000 people attended his funeral.
1999: Detroit Catcher Bradley David "Brad" Ausmus is one of the reserve players on this American League All Star team which played the National League tonight.
2000: Jan Karski, a liaison officer of the Polish underground who infiltrated both the Warsaw Ghetto and a German concentration camp and then carried the first eyewitness accounts of the Holocaust to a mostly disbelieving “West,” died in Washington.
2000: Ezer Weizman completed his term as the 7th President of Israel.
2001(22ndof Tammuz, 5761)”: Forty-nine year old Yehezkel (Hezi) Mualem, father of four from Kiryat Arba, was shot and killed between Kiryat Arba and Hebron
2001: U.S. premiere of “Legally Blonde” an American comedy co-starring Selma Blair and Victor Garber.
2002: A production of “Pacific Overtures,” “a musical written by Stephen Sondheim and John Weidman” set in Japan when the Americans were arriving in 1853 was performed for the final time at Avery Fisher Hall at Lincoln Center.
2003: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Absolutely American: Culture War at West Pointby David Lipsky and the recently released paperback edition of King of the Jews by Leslie Epstein, a Holocaust novel that focuses on the morally ambiguous politics of survival of a Judenrat, forced to collaborate with the Nazis in a Polish ghetto.
2004: Jacobo Kaufmann, Israeli acclaimed theatre and opera director, directs and designs the scenery of the Biblical opera "Nabucco" by Giuseppe Verdi at the Teatro dell'Opera di Roma, opening at the world famous Terme di Caracalla. He is the first Israeli ever to be hired to direct an opera in Italy.
2004: Yosef Paritzky completed his term as Minister of Energy and Infrastructure.
2005: The government of Israel sealed the borders with the West Bank and Gaza following a Tuesday night suicide bombing at Netanya. Netanya is the site of the Maccabiah Games. No athletes were victims of the attack and all had vowed to stay for the rest of the competition.
2005: Stephen Schwartz’s musical “Wicked” opened at Chicago’s Ford Center-Oriental Theatre.
2006: In a debate broadcast today on the BBC's This Week, Maureen Lipman argued that "human life is not cheap to the Israelis, and human life on the other side is quite cheap actually, because they strap bombs to people and send them to blow themselves up."
2006(17th of Tammuz, 5766): Fast of the 17th of Tammuz. The solemnity of the day is heightened by reports that Hezbollah terrorists have kidnapped two members of the IDF on the border of Lebanon. In addition to which, eight members of IDF have fallen during the terrorist attack and/or as part of the military action aimed at rescuing them.
2006: In “The Risks of Israel’s Two-Front War” published today Scott Macleod examines the risk of a return to the conditions of 20 years ago.
2006: The following were among a total of 43 Israeli civilians (including four who died of heart attacks during rocket barrages) and 116 IDF soldiers were killed in the Israel-Hizbullah war: Monica Lehrer Zeidman, 40, of Nahariya; Nitzo Rubin, 33, of Safed.
2006(17th of Tammuz, 5766): Eighty-seven year old Oscar winning actor Red Buttons (born Aaron Chwatt) passed away. (As reported by Mervyn Rothstein)
2007: In Jerusalem, "Performances in Nature" presents Yarok Ad (Evergreen) performing Irish music at Ein Chemed
2008: Abbas and Olmert were expected to discuss the status of the Israeli-Palestinian peace talks on the sidelines of a conference hosted by French President Nicolas Sarkozy to boost cooperation between the European Union, Middle Eastern and North African countries.
2008: The 94thHadassah Annual Convention opens in Los Angeles.
2008: The Washington Post features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Prague in Danger: The Years of German Occupation, 1939-45: Memories and History, Terror and Resistance, Theater and Jazz, Film and Poetry, Politics and War by Peter Demetz whowas a boy living in Prague as a “first degree half-Jew” (his mother was Jewish) during the war, Lady Liberty by Doreen Rapport, a noted author of children’s books including The Secret Seder and In the Promised Land: Lives of Jewish Americans and The Owner of the House: New and Collected Poems 1940-2001 by Louis Simpson who mixes the warmth of memories of his Jewish ancestry with the grim realities that brought it to an end; "In my grandmother's house there was always chicken soup/And talk of the old country -- mud and boards,/Poverty,/The snow falling down the necks of lovers. But the Germans killed them./I know it's in bad taste to say it,/But it's true. The Germans killed them all."
2008: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Rome 1960: The Olympics That Changed the World by David Maraniss, Atmospheric Disturbances by Rivka Glachen, and As Good As Anybody: Martin Luther King Jr. and Abraham Joshua Heschel’s Amazing March Toward Freedom by Richard Michelson.
2008: Ofira Henig, makes her directorial debut at the Weill Auditorium in Kfar Shmaryahu when the curtain rises on “Yerma” written by Spanish playwright and poet Federico Garcia.
2009: “Prosecutors charged John Demjanjuk who was guard at Sobibor with 27,900 counts of accessory to murder.
2009:The 18th Maccabiah Games, which draw Jewish athletes from around the world as well as Israeli citizens, both Jewish and Arab, opens today in Israel.
2009:Kolech, a modern Orthodox women's organization, will hold its sixth international conference entitled "The Woman and Her Judaism."
2009:As part of the Noontime Lecture Series: “Balance of Power in the Persian Gulf” The National Museum of American Jewish Military History presents “Iraq vs. the United States, Gulf War I” in which Dr. Jeffrey Greenhut will show how the Iraqi seizure of Kuwait was a direct outcome of the Iran-Iraq War, and then how the United States, under the leadership of President George H. W. Bush, formed a vast international coalition that was able to liberate Kuwait in one of the most effective military campaigns since World War II. Dr. Jeffrey Greenhut is the former Program Director of the US Army Center of Military History.
2009: It was announced today that Britain's chief rabbi, Dr. Jonathan Sacks, has been made a life peer.
2010: Mothers Circle, an education and support group for non-Jewish women raising Jewish children, is scheduled to meet at the Historic 6th& I Synagogue in Washington, D.C.
2010: “A Jewish Girl In Shanghai” is scheduled to be shown at the Jerusalem Film Festival.
2010:The Libyan organizers of an aid ship trying to breach Israel's blockade the Gaza Strip said today that an Israeli military vessel had confronted the ship and ordered it to change course for the Egyptian port of el-Arish.
2010:U.S. President Barack Obama today nominated Deputy Secretary of State Jacob (Jack) Lew, a religious Jew, as his new director of a budget that suffers from a budget deficit approaching $1.3 trillion. The appointment must be confirmed by the Senate, which may question Lew whether he can function while observing the Sabbath..
2010:US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton called on Jewish organizations TIDAT to assist in securing the release of a Jewish-American government contractor, Alan P. Gross, who has been held in Cuba for seven months without charge.
2010: Tzachi “Hanegbi was convicted of perjury, and subsequently was fined 10,000 NIS, and moral turpitude was added to the offense.”
2010: Canadian businessman Paul Godfrey became President and CEO of Postmedia Network.
2011: In Las Vegas, Nevada, Hadassah is scheduled to hold the second and final day of its 2011 National Business Meeting.
2011: Nirvana, dance show from Korea, which is based on ancient ritual Buddhist dances is scheduled to be performed at the Karmiel Amphitheater.
2011: In Vienna, the 13th European Maccabiah Games are scheduled to come to an end.
2011: An arrest for tax evasion in the Mea Sha’arim neighborhood of Jerusalem degenerated into violence this morning, when hundreds of ultra-Orthodox protesters threw rocks, steel bars, and Molotov cocktails at the municipality officials and police.
1086: Toirdelbach Ua Briain passed away. Born in 1009, he was the King of Munster and the High King of Ireland. During his reign, in 1079, Jews reportedly made their first appearance in the Emerald Isle. “The Annals of Inisfallen record ‘Five Jews came from over sea with gifts to Toirdelbach [king of Munster], and they were sent back again over sea’”.
1223:Philip II Augustus, King of France died. Like so many other anti-Semites, King Phillip based his animus towards the Jews on Christian teachings and then used this hate to despoil. Shortly after his coronation, the King ordered the arrest of all the Jews on a Saturday, when they were easy pickings and then demanded a ransom for their release. He canceled the loans Christians owed to the Jews, seized their property and then expelled them. Years later he would readmit the Jews but only after they paid another ransom and submit to a confiscatory scheme of taxation.
1223: Louis VIII becomes King of France upon the death of his father, Philip II of France. After his coronation, Louis reversed the policy of his father and ordered his officials to stop recording the debts Christians owed to Jews. This was part of the on-going struggle that Christians had over the question of usury – charging interest when lending money. For Christians usury was a sin that led to excommunication. Since Jews were not Christians they could not be excommunicated so some Christian leaders felt it was acceptable to borrow from them. The Church frowned on this. Louis’ ban was an attempt to reach a compromise. Jew could lend. Christians could borrow. But Christians did not necessarily end up having to pay back. At least one major French noble became a foe of Louis over this since he had taxed his Jews on the profits from their money-lending activities. This was a fry cry from the days of Louis VI and Louis VII both of whom were protective of Jews to the extent that Jews were a significant part of the populace of Paris.
1349: Today “all the Jews living in Frankfurt were murdered and their houses burnt.”
1391:The jurados of Valencia reported today that Don Samuel Abravalla, “the richest Jew in Valenciea” had been baptized yesterday in the palace of En Gasto. His Christian name is Alfonso Ferrandes de Villaneuva.” (According to the Jewish Encyclopedia, this Samuel Abravalla should not be confused with
1555: Paul IV issued Cum nimis absurdum, a Papal Bull that“placed religious and economic restrictions on Jews in the Papal States. The bull renewed anti-Jewish decrees. It forced Jews to wear special clothing, to live in a ghetto in Rome and forbade them to own real estate or practice medicine among Christians. Jews were forbidden to practice any trade except ragpicking, and were restricted to one synagogue per city. Since all property had to be sold, and was inevitably sold at below market value, the Bull, like most such ordinances was theft as well.”
1614: The Jews of Worms succeeded in repelling an attack on the Jewish quarter today.
1647: A Jew from the city of Alessandra “who had discovered a new process of refining gunpowder” told the city officials of the plans the Duke of Modena to take control of the city by bribing him to destroy the supply of gunpowder.
1656: In New York, the municipal authorities grand the Jews a lot “for a place of interment” which “was on New Bowery, near Olive Street” “which the Jewish community” later “augmented by the purchase of adjoining tracts in 1681, 1729, and 1755.”
1663(9thof Tammuz, 5423): According to Leopold Zunz, Nathan ben Moses Hannover the Jewish historian and Talmudist best known for writing Yeven Mezulah that described the Khmelnytsky Uprising in which an unprecedented number of Jews were murdered, passed away today. “Some of them [the Jews] had their skins flayed off them and their flesh was flung to the dogs. The hands and feet of others were cut off and they [their bodies] were flung onto the roadway where carts ran over them and they were trodden underfoot by horse ... And many were buried alive. Children were slaughtered at their mother’s bosoms and many children were torn apart like fish. They ripped up the bellies of pregnant women, took out the unborn children, and flung them in their faces. They tore open the bellies of some of them and placed a living cat within the belly and they left them alive thus, first cutting off their hands so that they should not be able to take the living cat out of the belly ... and there was never an unnatural death in the world that they did not inflict upon them.”
1757: During a dispute surrounding titles used by members of the Bet Din in London, Isaac Nieto “was prohibited from exercising the functions of assessor.” The son of David Nieto, Isaac Nieto had served as spiritual leader of Bevis Marx and had started the first synagogue in Gibraltar. He had returned to London in 1751 to serve as one of three judges in the city’s Rabbinical Court. He passed away in 1774.
1785: Birthdate of Mordecai Manuel Noah, the native of Philadelphia, who “was an American playwright, diplomat, journalist, and utopian. Born in a family of Portuguese Sephardic ancestry, he was the most important Jewish lay leader in New York in the pre-Civil War period, and the first Jew born in the United States to reach national prominence.”
1789: This date marks the fall of the Bastille in France. Although Jews by and large were not allowed to participate in the election of the Estates-General, which became the Constituent National Assembly, they viewed the fall of the Bastille as a triumph. Many of them enlisted in the National Guard. At the same time more than 1000 Jews in Alsace were forced to flee during the Agrarian revolt there.
1790(3rdof Av, 5550):Uziel Barrah the English born butcher whose conviction led to his being sent as a convict toe Australia passed away there today.
1792: Coronation of Francis II who relied on Berhnard Eskeles for financial “advice.”
1796: As the sun rise over Frankfort, the Jews examined the extensive damage done to the Judengrasse by the French shelling. The damage was so extensive that the Jews were allowed to disperse to other sections of the city leading to the de facto end of the “Jewish Quarter.:
1798: The Sedition Act, part of the four laws known as the Alien and Sedition Acts become law during the administration of President John Adams. Adams was the leader of the Federalist Party and the opponents of the Democrat Party led by Thomas Jefferson. According to historian Howard M. Sachar, “the Federalist remained plainspoken opponents of political rights for non-Christians.” The Jews “sensed that the underlying animus” expressed against the French and other “foreigners” in this legislation was aimed at Jews (the quintessential foreigners) as much as anybody else. This drove most Jews into the welcoming arms of the Democrat Party which a strange admixture of Southern aristocrats and Northern urban leaders as typified by Aaron Burr.
1816(18th of Tammuz, 5576): Since the 17th of Tammuz fell on Shabbat Tzom Tammuz was observed today.
1827: Birthdate of Wilhelm Rapp, the German native who participated in the Revolutions of 1848 before moving to United States in 1852 where he became a newspaper whose anti-slavery views led to a meeting with President Abraham Lincoln.
1828: Today “Dora Wordsworth and her father William Wordsworth and their friend Samuel Taylor Coleridge…came upon a Jewish family while walking along the Rhine near St. Goar.” Dora recorded the meeting in her journal, while her father, the poet, recorded his feelings in a poem entitled “A Jewish Family” that was published in 1835. According to Judith W. Page, “Dora attempted to humanize the family and to see them as individuals. William…idealized and distanced his subjects, thus denying them their particular identities and historical grounding. What follows is Wordsworth description of the events that led to the creation of “A Jewish Family.”
Coleridge, my daughter, and I, in 1828, passed a fortnight upon the banks of the Rhine, principally under the hospitable roof of Mr. Aders of Gotesburg, but two days of the time we spent at St. Goar in rambles among the neighbouring valleys. It was at St. Goar that I saw the Jewish family here described. Though exceedingly poor, and in rags, they were not less beautiful than I have endeavoured to make them appear. We had taken a little dinner with us in a basket, and invited them to partake of it, which the mother refused to do, both for herself and children, saying it was with them a fast-day; adding diffidently, that whether such observances were right or wrong, she felt it her duty to keep them strictly. The Jews, who are numerous on this part of the Rhine, greatly surpass the German peasantry in the beauty of their features and in the intelligence of their countenances. But the lower classes of the German peasantry have, here at least, the air of people grieviously opprest. Nursing mothers, at the age of seven or eight and twenty often look haggard and far more decayed and withered than women of Cumberland and Westmoreland twice their age. This comes from being underfed and overworked in their vineyards in a hot and glaring sun.
“A Jewish Family”
GENIUS of Raphael! if thy wings
Might bear thee to this glen,
With faithful memory left of things
To pencil dear and pen,
Thou would'st forego the neighbouring Rhine,
And all his majesty--
A studious forehead to incline
O'er this poor family.
The Mother--her thou must have seen,
In spirit, ere she came
To dwell these rifted rocks between,
Or found on earth a name;
An image, too, of that sweet Boy,
Thy inspirations give--
Of playfulness, and love, and joy,
Predestined here to live.
Downcast, or shooting glances far,
How beautiful his eyes,
That blend the nature of the star
With that of summer skies!
I speak as if of sense beguiled;
Uncounted months are gone,
Yet am I with the Jewish Child,
That exquisite Saint John.
I see the dark-brown curls, the brow,
The smooth transparent skin,
Refined, as with intent to show
The holiness within;
The grace of parting Infancy
By blushes yet untamed;
Age faithful to the mother's knee,
Nor of her arms ashamed.
Two lovely Sisters, still and sweet
As flowers, stand side by side;
Their soul-subduing looks might cheat
The Christian of his pride:
Such beauty hath the Eternal poured
Upon them not forlorn,
Though of a lineage once abhorred,
Nor yet redeemed from scorn.
Mysterious safeguard, that, in spite
Of poverty and wrong,
Doth here preserve a living light,
From Hebrew fountains sprung;
That gives this ragged group to cast
Around the dell a gleam
Of Palestine, of glory past,
And proud Jerusalem!
1850: Following a major fire in Philadelphia, the Hebrew ladies of Philadelphia met this morning and afternoon, and made up a large quantity of garments to supply immediate necessities for those who had suffered losses as a result of the blaze.
1850: Sixty-one year old German theologian and historian Johann August Wilhelm Neander who had been born David Mendel, the son of Jewish peddler Emmanuel Mendel, passed away today.
1854: The New York Times published a letter from James Finn, the English Consul at Jerusalem that was critical of an U.S. citizen named Jones who was allegedly selling relics to visitors for 60 pounds sterling. Finn was a philanthropist as well as diplomat who established a farm for training Jewish agriculture workers and employed Jewish workers to build the first house at Kerem Avraham, a piece of land he had purchased that was outside the walls of the Old City.
1858: In Chicago Gertrude and Herman Benjamin Felsenthal, “a school board member in Chicago” gave birth to University of Chicago trained lawyer Eli Benjamin Felsenthal who was a “charter member of the board of trustees of the University of Chicago” and the husband of Nettie Felsenthal.
1858: "The First Mormon Settlement--Its Temple" published today described the Mormon settlement in Ohio including a school that has a classroom for the teaching of Hebrew which is overseen by a Jew named Sexias whom the Reverend Stewart also consults on matters relating to "Hebrew authority."
1862: Jeweler Isaac Sommers, the son of Lawrence and Rebecca Somers was buried today in the West Ham Jewish Cemetery.
1863: Jews of Holstein, Germany were granted equality.
1867: Birthdate of Georg Stern, the native of Konigsberg who pursued a career as an engineer with AEG until he retired in 1930 to devote himself to his musical compositions.
1870: In Great Britain, the United Synagogue Act which brought into existence the United Synagogue received Royal Assent.
1870: In Shreveport, LA, Arthur Lee Kahn and Julia Sour gave birth to playwright Arthur Lee Kahn.
1871: In Kensington, London, “Leopold (Lippmann) Seligman, the son of Fanny and David Isaac Seligman and Julia Seligman gave birth to Herbert Spencer Seligman
1874: The newly formed Union of American Hebrew Congregations is scheduled to have its second annual meeting today.
763 BCE: Forty-one years before their conquest of Israel, the Assyrians observe and record a solar eclipse which is the basis for much of the dating of activities in the Fertile Crescent, including Eretz Israel, prior to the seventh century BCE (As reported by Austin Cline)
1099: Godfrey de Bouillon entered Jerusalem, drove all the Jews into the synagogue, and set them afire while he marched around the synagogue singing, "Christ, we adore thee". This marked the end of Jerusalem as a Jewish center for centuries, although Jews did return in limited numbers after the Moslem reconquest in 1187. It is estimated that between 20,000 and 30,000 Jews were massacred or captured and sold as slaves in Italy.
OR (You pick the version)
1099: The crusaders final assault on Jerusalem was successful and the city was sacked. This was in keeping with the general rule that, if a fortified place did not surrender, it might be sacked and its inhabitants killed or enslaved. Although there was considerable bloodshed in Jerusalem, , recent research has demonstrated that crusade leaders intervened to protect some of the inhabitants, including Muslims and Jews. Among those who took this step was Godfrey of Bouillon. Some Muslims and Jews were slaughtered, but some were escorted to Muslim territory.
1205: Pope Innocent III laid down the principle that Jews were doomed to perpetual servitude and subjugation because they had crucified Jesus. This classic charge of deicide was officially removed in 1963.
1291: King Rudolf I, who had negated the freedom of Jews of Germany by declaring them servi camerae ("serfs of the treasury") in 1286, passed away today.
1389: Murad I is killed following the Ottoman defeat of the Christians at the Battle of Kosovo also known as the Battle of Blackbird’s Field. Murad had allowed Jews fleeing Hungary to settle in Thrace and Anatolia so his death was a net loss for them. (While it is not a matter of Jewish History, memories of this battle would resurface at the end of the 20th century when Moslems and Christians squared off in the Balkan Wars following the dissolution of Yugoslavia)
1567: Not for the first time, nor for the last time, the Jews were expelled from the entire Republic of Genoa today.
1572 (5332) Isaac Luria passed away. There is no way this simple guide can do justice to the life of this giant of Judaism. For those who are interested, here are two places to begin: http://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/111878/jewish/Rabbi-Isaac-Luria-The-Ari-Hakodosh.htm
1606: Birthdate of the Dutch painter Rembrandt van Rijn. Rembrandt lived in a Jewish quarter in Amsterdam. He often depicted Jewish people on his canvases. One of his most famous paintings is styled “Moses Breaking the Tablets of the Law.” There are several special events planned to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Rembrandt’s and many of them highlight his special relationship with the Dutch Jewish community. For more on this subject, you might want to read the recently published Rembrandt’s Jews by Steven Nadler.
1629: A clerical commission meeting today to look into the guilt of Yom-Tov Heller “asked him how he dared to eulogize the Talmud after it had been burned by papal order” – a charge which he could not answer to the commission’s satisfaction which to his being condemned to death.
1631: Birthdate of Richard Cumberland, the Bishop of Peterborough who was the author of “An essay towards the recovery of the Jewish measures & weights, comprehending their monies, by help of ancient standards, compared with ours of England useful also to state many of those of the Greeks and Romans, and the eastern nations.”
1694:The Jesuits, who were opposed to the printing efforts of Shabbethai ben Joseph Bass, “sent a letter to the magistrate of Breslau to have the sale of Hebrew books interdicted on the ground that such works contained "blasphemous and irreligious words"
1738(27thof Tammuz, 5498): Baruch Laibov and Alexander Voznitzin were burnt alive in St. Petersburg, Russia, with the consent of Empress Anna Johanova. Voznitzin, a naval captain, was guilty of the crime of converting to Judaism. Laibov was guilty of helping him. http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=346&letter=B
1790: Members of Kahal Kadosh Beth Elohim of the Jewish Congregation of Charleston wrote a letter to congratulate the President of the United States George Washington on the occasion of the establishment of a federal government.
1799: The Rosetta Stone is found in the Egyptian village of Rosetta by French Captain Pierre-François Bouchard during Napoleon's Egyptian Campaign. The discovery of the Stone helped to fuel interest in archaeology, including what would become the field of modern Biblical archaeology.
1799: Birthdate of Samuel Bleichröder the Jewish banker who worked with the Rothschilds and who was the father of Gerson von Bleichröder and Julius Bleichröder who followed in their father’s footsteps.
1801: In what might seem like a weakening of the position of French Jews, Napoleon signs a Concordat that recognizes Catholocism as the religion of “the great majority of Frenchmen.”
1808: A day after she had passed away, Elizabeth Town, the daughter of Benjamin Town was buried today at the Brady Street Jewish Cemetery,
1815(9thof Av, 5575): Tisha B’Av
1815(9thof Av, 5575): The Chozen of Lublin (The Seer of Lublin) passed away. Born Yaakov Yitzchak in 1745, he was a leading Polish Chasidc Rebbe.
1815: Napoleon Bonaparte surrenders for the final TIME aboard HMS Bellerophon. Having learned their lesson from Napoleon’s escape from captivity following his first surrender, the conquering European powers exile him to St. Helena where he will live out his days. This final surrender seems to mark the return of the Ancien Regime to Europe in general and France in particular. The forces of reaction will try and undo the gains in liberty made by the Jews of Europe.
1818: In Savannah, GA, Levy Hart married Abigail Minis Sheftall, the youngest daughter of the last Levy Sheftall.
1818: Abraham and Clara Moses were married today at the Great Synaogue.
1818: Mosely (Moshe) Woolf and Hannah Woolf gave birth to Cecilia Woolf who became Cecilia Marks when she married David Marks.
1832: Solomon Etting, a Jewish citizen of Baltimore, MD, wrote a letter to Henry Clay, the U.S. Senator from Kentucky, saying that he other co-religionists “feel both surprised and hurt by the manner in which you introduced the expression ‘the Jew’ in debated in the Senate of the United States, evidently applying it as a reproachful designation of a man whom you considered obnoxious in character and conduct.” Since Ettinger did not know the man in question and since he assumes that Clay has no “antipathy” for the Jewish people, he asked that Clay write to him why he had used this particular expression in this particular manner.
1834: The child-Queen Isabella's mother, Christina, issued an official and final edict abolishing the Inquisition in Spain. The words read, "It is declared that the Tribunal of the Inquisition is definitely suppressed. The Inquisitions had been in place for nearly three and one half centuries.
1836: In Michelfeld, thirty-seven year old Marx Oppenheimer and his second wife Sarah gave birth to Karoline Levy.
1838: Ralph Waldo Emerson delivers the Divinity School Address at Harvard Divinity School, discounting Biblical miracles and declaring Jesus a great man, but not God. The Protestant community reacts with outrage. This was not the first or last time that Emerson would express views on religion that were out of step with prevailing Christian views. In describing the Last Supper, Emerson states “Jesus is a Jew sitting with a countrymen celebrating their national feast.” Jesus’ Jewishness would not become an accepted tenant of many Christian beliefs until the second half of the twentieth century.
1843: Birthdate of Indiana native William W. Morrow who as a Congressman from California who would champion the cause of Adolph Kutner, the Russian born American businessman who was afraid to return to his native land because of the Czar’s policies regarding Jews.
1850: Birthdate of Amalia Loeb who was buried in the Jewish Cemetery a Morgan City, LA.
1853: In Bangor, Main, Julius Spitz and Julia Wolf gave birth to Nancy Spirtz, the director of the Leopold Morse Home, the Hebrew Women’s Sewing Society and honorary director of the Federation of Jewish Charities who is the wife of Godfrey J. Spitz
1854: The Israelite, the first Jewish newspaper published in Cincinnati, Ohio, was established today. This English language newspaper was founded by Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise, the “founding father” of Reform Judaism in America whose other “firsts” included the creation of the Hebrew Union College.
1854: A letter from E.R. McGregor, the Editor of the Jewish Chronicle was published today in which he takes issue with the Times report that a U.S. citizen named Jones has been guilty of selling pieces of ancient columns and other such items to unsuspecting tourists in Jerusalem According to McGregor Jones is a “Christian and a gentlemen” who was sent to Palestine by the American Society for Meliorating the Condition of the Jews (A.S.M.C. Jew) to examine the feasibility of establishing “agricultural colonies and schools for the benefit of the Jews and others residing in the country.” James Finn, the British Consul in Jerusalem, is the source of the negative stories about Mr. Jones. According to McGregor, Finn is responsible for large losses connected with land near Bethlehem that was supposed to be purchased with American funds for the purpose of creating an agricultural colony. (Editor’s note – Other sources describe Finn as “a devout Christian, who belonged to the London Society for Promoting Christianity Amongst the Jews, but who did not engage in missionary work during his years” as British Consul in Jerusalem. According to these sources, Finn bought a piece of land outside of the Old City that he turned into an agricultural training facility for Jews. Finally, he bought land, at a place called Artas near Bethlehem where employed otherwise impoverished Jews as laborers. Further research is obviously necessary.)
1856: Birthdate of Charles Frohman, the native of Sandusky Ohio, one of the three Frohman brothers, who became a noted Broadway impresario who co-founded the Theatrical Syndicate.
1860: In Cologne, Albert Oppenheim, a member of the Jewish banking family who had converted to Catholicism and his wife Pauline Engels gave birth to Max von Oppenheim.
1862: Birthdate of Frank Putnam Flint, the U.S. Senator from California who supported efforts to get the Governor of Georgia to commute the death sentence of Leo Frank.
1869: In New York City, Adolph Tuska and Elise Robitscher gave birth to “consulting engineer” Gustave R. Tuska, a graduate of CCNY and Columbia and husband of Isabel Pappenheimer who filled severed as chief engineer for the Panama R.R. Co, the Atlantic Construction Co. and the American Power Co. as well as Director of the Hebrew Technical Institue
1870: In Cleveland, Ohio, Rabbi Max Lienthal of Cincinnati Ohio, presented the following resolutions to a meeting of rabbis from across the nation who adopted them unanimously.
According to the attendees, “these resolution…clearly express…the religious and political creed of Judaism.”
1874(1st of Av, 5634): Rosh Chodesh Av
1877: “Protection for Jews in Palestine” published today included the text of a letter from the Acting Secretary of State to Meyer S. Isaacs, President of the Board of Delegates of American Israelites. The letter was in response to a request from Mr. Isaacs seeking American protection for Russian Jews living in and around Jerusalem from abuse by the Ottoman authorities. Mr. Seward explained that normally, the U.S. government only provides protection for its own citizens living abroad. He conceded that the United States has a reputation for helping oppressed people in foreign countries; but that help can only be provided if all of the parties involved go through proper diplomatic channels.
1877: Sixty-one year old Isaac Phillips, the husband of Julia Hyman with whom he had two children –Esther and Rebecca – and who was “one of the founders of the Jewish Female Mourning Society” was buried today at the West Ham Jewish Cemetery.
1877: The Jewish Messenger reported that Secretary of State Seward had sent a letter to Meyer S. Isaacs, President of the Board of Delegates of Israelites in response to his letter of June 4 asking that the United States help provide protection for Jews from Russia living in and around Jerusalem. Speaking in that unique language of diplomats, Seward told Isaacs that the U.S. usually only extends such protection to its own citizens living abroad. But he assured him that the United States was sympathetic to “all the oppressed peoples in foreign countries” and would act accordingly within the spirit of “international courtesy and diplomatic usage…The desired protection will be extended if these conditions are complied with.” [This was one of the first times that American Jews had asked the United States government to intervene on behalf of their co-religionists living in Eretz-Israel. Seward’s understated reply was more potent than it might appear. He was a real power in the Republican having served as a U.S. Senator and having been a serious candidate for the Presidency in 1860. Also, he had actually visited Palestine in the years prior to the Civil War so he had a firsthand knowledge of the area and the Ottomans who ruled it .
1877: Union of Hebrew Congregations completed its meeting in Philadelphia, PA. Several speeches were delivered in favor of having all the Jews in the United States represented by one national organization. The delegates agreed to hold their next meeting in July of 1878 at Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
1877: “The English Jews in Politics,” published today reprinted the views of Goldwin Smith that originally appeared in theFort-nightly Review. According to Smith, the Jews supported the Liberal Party until they gained full rights (including the change in oath that made it possible for them to sit in Parliament) and then they “gravitated toward the party of wealth” – the Conservative Party. Smith went on to describe Judaism as “surviving relic of the primeval world” that was a “tribal religion” inferior to Christianity that belonged to “the ages before humanity.” As such, Jews “cannot be expected to have much sympathy with progress” and since they are now wealthy, they are obviously supporter of the “plutocratic party.” [Editor’s note – What the publishers of the article do not say is that Smith was a member of the Liberal Party and strong opponent of Benjamin Disraeli, the leader of the Conservative Party. He later became a professor at Cornell University before finally settling in Canada. According to the Canadian Encyclopedia, Goldwin Smith was “a major exponent of anti-Semitism in the 19th century…. A pathological anti-Semite, Smith disseminated his hatred in dozens of books, articles and letters. Jews, he charged, were "parasites,""dangerous" to their host country and "enemies of civilization." His bilious anti-Jewish tirades helped set the tone of a still unmoulded Canadian society and had a profound impact on such young Canadians as W.L. Mackenzie King, Henri Bourassa and scores of others. Indeed in 1905 in the most vituperative anti-Jewish speech in the history of the House of Commons, borrowing heavily from Smith, Bourassa urged Canada to keep its gates shut to Jewish immigrants.” This should explain much of the content of Smith’s article.)
1880: The second annual convention of the National Rabbinical Association came to a close today in Detroit, Michigan. About half of the 56 member rabbis were in attendance. A large number of non-Jews attended the sessions at which papers on several topics related to Judaism were presented.
1880: An unidentified man was buried in a pauper’s grave today in Hoboken, NJ. The undertaker had initially identified the man as being Jewish and the town’s Jewish community had donated funds to provide him with a Jewish burial. It is not clear what caused the confusion, but the undertaker is refusing to return the funds to the Jews.
1880: “Notes of Literary News” published today described the upcoming publication of Jewish Life in the East a collection of papers written by Sydney M. Samuel on the condition of Jews living in Palestine and other parts of the Levant including an examination of their physical and moral condition and their manners and customs.At Jerusalem, in 1879-80, Sydney M. Samuel found 416 heads of families pursuing 29 handicrafts, among whom were tinkers, goldsmiths, watchmakers, smiths, turners, and masons ("Jewish Life in the East," p. 78)
1880: Among the charities designated to receive funds from Excise Fund in New York was the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society in the amount of $1,686.
1880: In Merkine, Hinde Bernstein and Isaac Margolis gave birth to Elias Margolis.
1881(18thof Tammuz, 5641): Sixty-six year old Austrian banker Friedrich Freiherr Schey von Koromla, the father of Charlotte Przibram and the maternal grandfather of biologist Hans Leo Przibram passed away today.
1881: Two days after he had passed away, George Novra, a native of Prussia and the husband of Rebecca Abrahams with whom he had four children – Henry, Maria, Benjamin and Lewis – was buried today at the Balls Pond Road Jewish Cemetery.
1881: Four of the five newly elected officers of the Executive Board of the Hebrew Union come from Cincinnati, Ohio, the home of Hebrew Union College. The only exception was A.L. Sanger of New York who was elected to serve as Vice President.
1881: It was reported today that the just concluded meeting of the Council of the Hebrew Union had rejected Rabbi Wise’s proposal to provide stipends for worthy students who lacked the funds to attend Hebrew Union College. Wise was concerned that “poverty” would keep those with “talent” from serving as Rabbis. The attendees refused to even vote on a proposal requiring that a rabbi must get the consent of his congregation before talking to another congregation about a new position. The Council felt that they had no business interfering in the relationships that rabbis had with their congregations.
1882: In an attempt to eliminate a source of strikebreakers, it was suggested that the striking freight handlers meet with the Polish Jews and offer to provide them with enough money so that they can buy a stock of small goods and go on the road as peddlers. The idea was based on reports that the Polish Jews only planned to work on the docks until they had earned enough money to go into business for themselves.
1882: “Russian Refugees Returning Home” published today described the plight of Russian Jewish immigrants who have arrived in Philadelphia in the last few months. Only a third of the 600 recent arrivals have found jobs and 51 of the families will be shipping out from New York today as they return to their homeland.
1883: In responding to charges by Charles D. Kellogg that “65 per cent of the public charity was mis- directed” Superintendent Hirsch of the New York United Hebrew Charities offered his ‘most emphatic dissent” saying that “very few underserving persons are successful with us” “and what is better comparatively few make the attempt.”
1884(22nd of Tammuz, 5644): French painter Alphonse Hirsch passed away. Born in Paris in 1843, he studied with Meissonier and Bonnat. Among his most famous portrait was one painted in 1877 - “Isidor, the chief Rabbi of France.”
1884: The last remnant of the Judengasse in Frankfort, Germany, is scheduled to be demolished today.
1884: “At the Great Synagogue, Sydney, Henry Emanuel married Sophie Frank the daughter of Leo Frank of Hanover, Germany who had arrived in Sydney some twelve months previously as governess to Sigmond Hoffnung’s children.”
1884: Twenty people from four families arrived in New York today aboard the SS India. Their passage had been paid for by the Hebrew Relief Committee of Breslau.
1885: In what appears to be a botched murder/suicide brought on by a domestic dispute, Augustus Erwin, a German Jew, shot his wife and Margaret and then turned the gun on himself.
1885: It was reported today that the newly formed Union of Hebrew Charities will require favorable responses from 12 of the Jewish charitable organizations before it will officially begin its work.
1886: Birthdate of Milwaukee native Irma Cain, the graduate of Vassar who become Irma Cain Firestone when she married Northwestern University Law School graduate Milton Firestone and was the mother of “Ruth Firestone Brin” her “third child and only daughter.”
1886: It was reported today the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children will be sponsoring three free excursions this summer for the enjoyment of the poor Jewish children and their mothers.
1886: Today’s outing to the Catskills sponsored by the Five Points Mission was an ecumenical affair since it included children of Italian, German, Irish and Jewish immigrants. Actually the mixture merely mirrored the multiplicity of immigrant groups that were living in the squalor of the Lower East Side’s worst neighborhood.
1886: In Bloomington, Illinois, Miss Ida Clark who converted to Judaism last week so that she could marry an English Jew named Holland tonight suffered a great embarrassment and disappointment today. She received word that he had changed his mind and had called off the engagement without any explanation.
1886: “Dog Catchers Defeated” published today described how James Flanagan, Joseph Kelly and James Murphy unsuccessfully tried to capture a spitz owned by Nathan Weissbaum. Their ineptitude was exacerbated by the interference of “several hundred Polish Jews” bent on mischief who unhitched the dogcatchers horse from its cart leaving the trio afoot on Hester Street.
1887: “Harry the Jew,” a well-known New York crook sent to the county jail Asbury Park, NJ to await charges of having robbed several bathhouses. Harry’s last name is various listed as Harris, Fell and Luster.
1887(23rd of Tammuz, 5647): One hundred nine year old Hirsh Harris, known as “Rabbi Hirsch” passed away today in Brooklyn.
1889: In Victoria, TX, the Jewish Children’s Aid Society was founded five years before Congregation B’nai Israel was founded “under the supervision of Rabbi Cohen of Galveston.”
1891: There was “a large party” of Russian Jews aboard the SS Pickhuben that arrived today at Montreal.
1891: The Democrats nominated Gustavus H. Wald as their candidate for Justice of the State Supreme Court in Ohio. The Hamilton County Jew had been a Republican until 1884 James Blaine was nominated to run for President.
1891(9thof Tammuz, 5651): Jerome Blumenthal, the fifteen year old son of Mr. and Mrs. Henry Blumenthal drowned today.
1891: For reasons that nobody can explain, it was reported today that few Jews attended the Bastille Day celebration at Lion Park in New York during which the French organizers had planned on marking the 100th anniversary of the emancipation of French Jews. (This might reflect that there were few French Jews in New York or that a large number of the Jews living in New York were from Germany and like most Germans, had little or not affection for the French who were their continental enemies.)
1891: “Jews Barred From Romania” published today described conditions on the border between Romania and Russia where Romanian troops have been deployed to prevent any Jews from crossing over from the land of the Czars. In addition to which, policies have been enacted to keep Russian Jews from landing at Romanian ports.
1892: “Russian Synagogue Schools Abolished” published today described a series of measures approved by the Imperia Council that “abolish synagogue schools in the form in which they now exist and to replace them by Government schools where the elements of the Jewish religion, Hebrew and the holy Scriptures shall be taught by men under the constant control of a special board of Orthodox Greek inspectors.” The changes appear to be due “to a desire to improve the Jewish schools” but “really aims at their complete suppression.
1892: “A Jew Enters the Greek Church” published today described the baptism of Nakhim Aphroim Zeldin a 19 year old Jew being held “in the prison of Sergivey Possad.” As soon as the ceremony was completed the Russian authorities released him from prison.
1892: Birthdate of Walter Benjamin German literary critic and writer. Benjamin died in 1940 on the border between France and Spain as he tried to escape from the Nazis. According to some he committed suicide, although this is disputed by others. Regardless this brilliant man who combined the ideas of Brecht and Scholem died too soon, another victim of the Holocaust.
1893: The SS Umbria arrived in Queenstown town with one less passenger than had been on board when the ship left New York because Asher Weinstein, a New York realtor who “was connected with several Hebrew charitable organizations”, had fallen overboard in what is assumed to have been a tragic accident and not a suicide.
1893: Four hundred of the 800 passengers, most of whom are Russian Jews, who arrived in New York yesterday aboard the SS Red will be “debarred as paupers” and will be sent back to Europe. Authorities feel the immigrants were victims of a scheme concocted by the ship’s owners to dump unsuspecting foreigners on American soil with the assumption that the U.S. government would pay for their expenses to stay or be returned. That is why the government is demanding that the ship’s owners post a ten thousand dollar bond to cover the costs.
1893: An unknown number of “rascals…cut the backs and sets cushions of an early a hundred seats and broke several chairs” at the Thalia Theatre as part of protest trigged by “a boycott declared against Isidor Lindemann…by the United Hebrew Trades.”
1893: “The German Reichstag announced that for first time a Jew has been elected to the Town Council of Rostock.”
1894: Three days after she had passed away, fifty year old Hanna Jacobs, the wife of Lewis Jacobs with she had had five children – Rachel, Normal, Solomon, Joseph and Fanny – was buried today at the West Ham Jewish Cemetery.
1894: Having completed its investigation of the management of charitable institutions in eastern New York, the Committee on Charities of the Constitutional Convention chaired by Edward Lauterbach will turn its attention to the charitable institutions in the western part of the state. (Attorney Lauterbach is Republican leader, defense attorney and longtime supporter of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum.
1894: A portion of the Board of Trade’s annual report showed that aliens living in Whitechapel, most of whom are Russian Jews make up 18 per cent of the population but “contribute less than 1 per cent to its pauperism.” The Russian Jews do not compete in lines of work performed by the English and “the average earnings of Jewish girls” working “in tailoring establishments are higher than those of English girls.”
1895(23rdof Tammuz, 5655): Simon Sternberger, who suffered from Bright’s Disease passed away today in Long Branch, NJ. Sternberger came to the United States 50 years ago, settling first in Philadelphia before coming to New York where he “amassed a large fortune” and served as a Director of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum.
1895: “The Summer session of the Hebrew Technical Institute opened” today.
1896: In Patterson, NJ, founding of the Patterson Hebrew Free School Association whose members incude Nathan Barnert, Marcus Cohen, Joseph Krulansky, D.H. Bilder and I.H. Levine.
1896: While serving as the Rabbi at Temple Israel in Omaha, Nebraska. Rabbi Leo Morris Franklin married Hattie Oberfelder at her parent’s home in Chicago Illinois. Their first daughter, Ruth, was born in Omaha.
1898(25thof Tammuz, 5658): Fifty year old Charles Lewis, “a well-known wool merchant” and founder of Charles Lewis & Brothers whose activities in the New York Jewish community included serving as Treasurer of the West End Synagogue, passed away this morning.
1898: Philip H. Stern began serving as a 1st Lt. with the U.S. Volunteer Infantry during the Spanish American War.
1899: Le Roy Eltinge, the author of Psychology of War which contained such anti-Semitic passages as “He doesn’t know what patriotism means”, “the soldiers lot is hard physical work” which “the Jew despises and “he does not have any of the qualities of a good soldier” – remarks which forced the War Department to order him to go over the book and remove all such objectionable portions – was promoted to the rank of First Lieutenant in the 6th United States Cavalry
1899: At tonight’s meeting to discuss the future of the Presbyterian Church in New York City, Revered Alexander J Kerr said that some of the churches on the Upper East Side have given up their mission because “a large Jewish population has settle in that district.” (Editor’s note – This is one denomination that would flee than fight i.e. spend time trying to convert the Jewish population)
1901(28thof Tammuz, 5661): Forty-seven year old German mathematician Ferdinand Caspary passed away today in Berlin.
1902: “Wealthy Chicago contractor Harry Korshak” and Rebecca Beatrice Lash, the father of Sidney Roy Korshak whom the FBI said was “the most powerful in the world” were married today.
1902(10thof Tammuz, 5662): Seventy-one year old Adelaide Samuel (Malkah bat Eliezer) a native of Lancashire and the daughter of Louis Samuel (Eliezer ben Menachem) passed away today.
1904: Vyacheslav Von Plehve, Russian Minister of Interior was assassinated. Von Plehve was responsible for the Kishinev massacres in which forty-seven Jews were killed, ninety-two severely wounded or crippled, and five hundred slightly wounded. His assassin was a member of the socialist revolutionary movement, which had suffered as well by his policies. Czar Nicholas was frightened into making a few concessions. Unfortunately, he did not make enough to meet public demand.
1905:In Allenhurst, NJ. Lew Fields of the vaudeville team of Weber and Fields and his wife gave birth to Dorothy Field “who wrote lyrics to over 400 songs over a half a century including "I Can't Give You Anything But Love,""On the Sunny Side of the Street,""I'm in the Mood for Love," and "Don't Blame Me," all in 1928. “In a field in which the names of Jewish men from George and Ira Gershwin to Richard Rodgers and Stephen Sondheim are ubiquitous, Fields made her mark with some of the American musical theater's most memorable songs.” (According to some sources, her birthdate was 1904)
1908: Birthdate of Max M. Fisher who would gain fame as a Detroit oil and real estate magnate known for his philanthropy and for the advice he gave Republican presidents on the Middle East and Jewish issues.
(Editor’s Note – Special thanks to Murray Wolf, playwright, poet and translator of Yiddish authors who first brought Sutzkever to my attention.)
1915(4thof Av, 5675): Sixty-eight year old Martin Engel, native of the Bowery who followed in his father’s footsteps and became a kosher butcher before becoming a Tammany leader who based his power on the immigrant “Jews from Russia, Rumania, Bohemia and Hungary” passed away today at his home at 29 East Third Street.
1915: Based on a dispatch that first appeared in Neueste Nachrichten, “a Munich Journal” it was reported today that before the fall of Lemberg, “Grand Duke Nicholas issued an order of the day to the Jewish soldiers in his army, stating that he had decided to give them a special opportunity of showing courage and patriotism.” Since, he said, “one of the aims of the struggle with Turkey was” the re-conquest of “Palestine for the Jews so they could live there united and independent” he called upon the Jewish soldiers the Jewish soldiers in the Galician army who “were then transferred to the Army of the Caucasus” to “reconquer Palestine for yourselves and a new day of glory will dawn for Jewry.”
1915: Birthdate of London native and English solicitor Sir David Napley, the husband of Leah Rose Saturley whom he married after serving in WW II.
1915: In St. Louis, MO, Benjamin Landesman, an immigrant Jewish artist from Berlin, and his wife Beatrice, who dealt in antiques, gave birth to Irving Ned Landesman, who gained fame as Jay Landesman, a writer and editor whose journal Neurotica analyzed the anxieties of postwar America and whose Broadway musical, “The Nervous Set,” has been called the first (and only) Beat musical…(As reported by William Grimes)
1916(14thof Tammuz, 5676) Parashat Pinchas
1916(14thof Tammuz, 5676): Seventy-one year old Nobel Prize winning immunologist Elie Metchnikoff whose mother was “Emilia Lvovna (Nevakhovich), the daughter of the Jewish writer Leo Nevakhovich” passed away today in Paris.
1916: It was reported today that Justice Louis D. Brandeis, Judge Hugo Pam of Chicago and former Judge Leon Sanders are scheduled to peat at the upcoming conference of Jewish organizations to be held at New York’s Astor Hotel.
1916: Dr. Talcott Williams, Dean of the School of Journalism at Columbia, who was born in Turkey and who is in close touch with affairs in Oriental countries” today gave a summary of the Moslem situation as it affects and is affected by the European” including the observation that “if the Allies win the final victory in the European war it is an open secret that Great Britain…would secure English domination in the East” and that Central Powers win the “Caliphate on the Bosporus” i.e. Turkey, will remain in place. (Editor’s note: This should serve as a reminder that events in the Middle East were being decided by the European powers and not by the Zionists or the Arabs.)
1916: Today was the deadline those “societies” that wish to join the proposed federation of Jewish Philanthropic Societies to “give their consent to the plans” for the federation and to “name their representatives on both the Organization Committee and Board of Delegates.”
1917: Among the contributions made to The Central Committee for the Relief of Jews Suffering the War of which Harry Fischel is the treasurer acknowledged today were $580 from Congregation Orach Chodesh and $705 from The Jewish Daily News.
1917: Among the contributions made to The American Jewish Relief Committee for the Suffers from the War of which Louis Marshall is the Chairman acknowledged today were $5,000 from Congregation Beth Emeth of Albany New York and $25,000 from Julius Rosenwald.
1917: It was reported today that “Chaim Berman, a merchant and teacher from Grodno, Poland, has come to America in hope of finding his wife and children from whom he became separate when the Germans” invaded Poland.
1918: During World War I, start of the Second Battle of the Marne. The Second Battle of the Marne marked the climactic German offensive on the Western Front during World War I. With the Russians already out of the war, victory here would have meant that the Kaiser and his forces would have won “The Great War.” The mind boggles at what that might have meant i.e. no Hitler, no Holocaust? Who knows? The fact remains that the Allies would halt the Germans. The great offensive would collapse and the Germans would surrender in November of 1918.
1918: The Second Annual Zionist Summer Course sponsored by the Intercollegiate Zionist Association are scheduled to being today in New York.
1918: During World War I, 500 German and Turkish prisoners of war were marched through the streets of Jerusalem.
1919: Birthdate of Irving Ned Landesman, the St. Louis native, who gained fame as “Jay Landesman, a writer and editor whose journal Neurotica analyzed the anxieties of postwar America and whose Broadway musical, “The Nervous Set,” has been called the first (and only) Beat musical.”
1919: In the United States, The War Department General Orders No. 90 of this date described the heroism shown by Private Jean Mathis, Company F, 5th Regiment, United States Marine Corps during the fighting at Bellau Woods saying “For extraordinary heroism in action in the Boise de Belleau, France” on June 11, 1918 when “after all the other members of his group had been killed or wounded by fire from an enemy machine gun, Pvt. Mathis charged the position alone, killing three of the crew and capturing the gun.”
1922: Birthdate of American physicist and Nobel Prize Winner, Leon Lederman
1922: Birthdate of Jacob Mincer, the native of Poland who survived WW II to become Joseph L. Buttenwiser Professor of Economics and Social Relations at Columbia University.
1923: Funeral services are scheduled to held today in New York for “former Congressman David Louis Baumgarten” after which he will be buried in Cincinnati, Ohio.
1927: In Vienna, The July Revolt in which Elias Canetti took part and which ignited his fascination with nature of crowds and their behavior, began today.
1928(27th of Tammuz, 5688): Sir Charles James Jessel, the son of famed English jurist Sir George Jessel, passed away. A successful barrister and magistrate in his own right, he was a member of the Anglo-Jewish aristocracy as can be seen by his marriage to Edith Goldsmid, the daughter of Sir Julian Goldsmid. The fact that the North Borneo Company named its leading trading post Jesselton in his honor attests to his business acumen. He was also one of several Jews who had served as High Sheriff in Kent.
1929(7th of Tammuz, 5689): Hugo von Hofmannst passed away. Born in 1874, Hewas an Austrian novelist, librettist, poet, dramatist, narrator, and essayist. His great-grandfather, to whom his family owed the noble title "von Hofmannsthal," was a Jewish merchant ennobled by the Austrian emperor.
1929: One day she had passed away, Nachama Liba Miller, a native of Russia who had settled in Belfast and who was the wife of Israel Miller with whom she had five children – Harris, Fanny, Abraham, Pauline and Annie – was buried today in the Belfast Jewish Cemetery.
1930: In El Biar (Algiers) Haïm Aaron Prosper Charles (Aimé) Derrida and Georgette Sultana Esther Safar gave birth to Jackie Élie Derrida who gained fame as philosopher Jacques Derrida.
1930(19th of Tammuz, 5690): Hungarian born violinist Leopold Auer passed away. Born in 1845, Auer taught many violinists who later became famous, including Efrem Zimbalist, Nathan Milstein, Mischa Elman, and Jascha Heifetz. Sometime before his death Auer converted to Christianity.
1930(19thof Tammuz, 56900: Sixty-eight year old Rudolph Schildkraut the native of Istanbul who became a successful actor in Austria passed and who married Erma Weinstein the mother of his son actor Joseph Schildkraut, passed away today in Los Angeles.
1931: Birthdate of Dr.. Renata Laxova, the native of Brno, Czechoslovakia and “American pediatric geneticist who survived the Holocaust thanks to the Kindertransport and discovered “the Neu-Laxová syndrome, a rare congenital abnormality involving multiple organs, with autosomal recessive inheritance.”
1931: Birthdate of American graphic designer Thomas Geismar who in 1957 joined with Serge Chermayeff, a Russian born Jew, to form Chermayeff & Geismar & Haviv
1932: “Strange Interlude,” the film version of the stage play by the same name starring Norma Shearer was released today in the United States.
1932: Birthdate of Helen M. Berg, the wife of forestry professor of Alan Berg and “the longest serving mayor of Corvallis, Oregon.:
1932: The New York Times reported that a list of 133 prominent Jews outside of the United States was published in today's issue of The American Hebrew and Jewish Tribune. The journal describes the list as "Our Foreign "Who's Who, being the first roster ever printed of outstanding Jews in lands other than the United States. Among those listed are Sir Isaac Alfred Isaacs, Governor General of Australia…Oscar Straus, Viennese composer; Paul Hyams, Belgian Minister of Justice; Georg Cohn, counselor to the Foreign Ministry of Denmark…”
1933: In Philadelphia, Clare Laventhol and Jesse Laventhol, “a political reporter for the Philadelphia Record” gave birth to newspaper publisher David Abram Laventhol.
1934(3rdof Av, 5694): Seventy-year old Charleston, SC native Louis Albert Sussdorf, “a retired member of the New York Stock Exchange” passed away today.
1934: Seventy year old composer and conductor Louis Ferdinand Gottschalk passed away today in Los Angeles.
1934(3rd of Av, 5694): In Germany, Simon Strauss and his son were shot dead by Kurt Baer. The court found that the murdered Jews actually "committed suicide". Baer found guilty only of breaching the peace.
1935(14thof Tammuz, 5695): Amelia J. Allen, the Philadelphia born daughter of Miriam and Lewis Marks Allen, “the superintendent of the Northern Hebrew Sunday School” and “Supervising Principal for the Daniel Webseter Combined Secondary and Primary School” as well as “one of the founding members of the women’s branch of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association” passed away today.
1935: Nazi gangs attacked Berlin Jews as part of a round of Anti-Jewish riots.
1936:The Palestine Post reported that nine Arab terrorists were killed by British troops near Jenin and Safed. One British soldier was killed and several wounded when their lorry overturned during the engagement. There were repeated attempts by Arab terrorists to interfere with railway traffic. Arab merchants expressed considerable dissatisfaction and asked for a speedy end to their prolonged general strike.
1936: It was reported today that according to the United Palestine Appeal, “14,707 Jewish immigrants reached Palestine from January 1, 1936 through April 30, 1936.”
1936: In Vienna, “grave anxieties are expressed among the Jews” as Chancellor Kurt Schuschnigg prepares to appoint pro-Nazis members to the General Council of the Fatherland Front which was created by the recently adopted Fatherland Front Law.
1937: A concentration camp was established at Buchenwald, Germany.
1937: “While British reaction to the report of the Palestine commission and its recommendations for the partition of that country have been almost unanimously favorably” today in London “there is increasing apprehension…that the bitter hostility of the Arab extremists, led by Haj Amin Husseini, Mufti of Jerusalem, if allowed to proceed unchecked, will wreck the chances of a settlement.”
1938: “The Shopworn Angel,” a WW I tear-jerker produced by Joseph L. Mankiewicz and filmed by cinematographer Joseph Ruttenberg was released today in the United States.
1938: At Evian, France, the international conference on refugees came to an end.
1938(16th of Tammuz, 5698): At an orange grove near Hadera, Arab attackers shot and killed a Jewish worker while a group of workers leaving a grove near Tulkarm were attacked with one being wounded seriously, but not mortally.
1938: Police found a bomb at Hadassah Hospital in Jerusalem two hours before it was set to detonate while a large store of arms and munitions was found near the Mosque of Omar.
1939: After 291 performances, the curtain came down on the Broadway production of “Leave It to Me!” a musical with a book by Samuel and Bella Spewack.
1940: Five hundred Jews who had been taken from Szczebrzeszyn, Poland were sent to various work camps. From then on all Jews between the ages of sixteen and fifty had to report daily for selection.
1941: Birthdate of Lawrence G. "Larry" Cohen “an American film producer, director, and screenwriter” who “is best known for directing his own low-budget, satirical, and inventive horror films and thrillers that are laced with scathing social commentary about modern American society.”
1941: (20th Tammuz, 5701): Nazi forces and local Lithuanian sympathizers massacred the male population of Telz, including Rabbi Avraham Yitzchak Bloch and the faculty of the yeshiva.
1941: Among the people disembarking in Montevideo from the ship Cabo de Buena Esperanza (Cape of Good Hope) today was German-born photographer Jeanne Mandello, who had managed to escape from France.
1942: The first 2,000 deportees left Holland from the Westerbork transit camp for Auschwitz. Most of them were German Jews who found safety there years earlier.
1942: “That Old Black Magic” a popular tune with music by Harold Arlen was recorded for the first time today.
1942(1st of Av, 5702): Rosh Chodesh Av
1942(1st of Av, 5702): One thousand Jews from Moczadz were taken to the woods and shot dead.
1942(1st of Av, 5702): One thousand Jews were murdered in Bereza Kartuska, Belerus in the Soviet Union.
1942: Etty Hillesum “received an appointment to the office on the Lijnbaansgracht” where she worked until she was transferred to Westerbrook.
1942: At the end of the workday, 48 year old Alfred Le Guellec, “who held an important position in the service of foreign national for the Prefecture of Police is upset when he hears a rumor that a mass arrest of Jews is planned for tomorrow. As soon as he was safely away from the building he warned everybody he saw wearing a yellow star about the impending doom and told them to hide. This bravery would save the life of his friend Marcel Skurnik, his wife and their daughter Dora. (More tomorrow)
1943: Brigadier General Leslie R. Groves, director of the Manhattan Project (the super-secret project to build the Atomic Bomb) verbally ordered that Robert J. Oppenheimer be given security clearance regardless of accusations about his loyalty.
1943: A week after Bruno Kittel, an Oberscharfuhrer in the German Security Police ordered Jacob Gens, “the de factor head of the Vilna Ghetto” to immediately surrender “Itzik Wittenberg, the Communist commander of the Fareynikte Partizaner Organizatsye (FPO), the United Partisans Organization, the ghetto’s underground resistance movement” today “Jacob Gens summoned the leaders of the FPO—Wittenberg, Abba Kovner, Abrasha Chwojnik, and Chenia Borowska—to a meeting at his office in the Judenrat building, Gens’s headquarters.”
1943: Henry Levin began his Hollywood career as dialogue director for “Appointment in Berlin,” a war move that premiered today which was produced by Samuel Bischoff and featured Felix Basch as Hoppner
1944: After 7,176 Jews had been shipped from Lodz to Chelmon, deportations were halted. They would resume again in August.
1944: The Red Army approached Siauliai, Lithuania, so the Germans cleared the town of its remaining four thousand Jews. More and more Jews were finding freedom in the arms of the advancing Red Army.
1944: The Kovno Ghetto was cleared out of its remaining Jews.
1944: The Chicago Sun reported "1,000,000 Hungarian Jews Face Massacre, Hull Says." Hull was Cordell Hull the Secretary of State whose wife’s father was a Jewish immigrant from Austria. She was raised as an Episcopalian. The level of anti-Semitism in the United States was such that, according to biographer Irwin Gellman, Hull hid her Jewish connection to protect his political career.
1944: Today “Anne McCormick, a foreign correspondent for The New York Times wrote in defense of Hungary as the last refuge of Jews in Europe, declaring that "as long as they exercised any authority in their own house, the Hungarians tried to protect the Jews.
1944: Birthdate of Kobi Oshrat “an Israeli composer and conductor who composed and conducted the winning entry at the 1979 Eurovision Song Contest Hallelujah sung by Gali Atari and Milk and Honey.”
1944: Australian Prime Minister John Curtin informed Isaac Steinberg that “the Australian government would not ‘depart from the long-established policy in regard to alien settlement in Australia’ and could not ‘entertain the proposal for a group settlement of the exclusive type contemplated by the Freeland League’” i.e. the settlement of a large number of Jewish refugees in the Kimberly region of Western Australiza.
1948:President Harry Truman was nominated for another term by the Democratic Party. Truman’s candidacy was pronounced dead on arrival. The Dixiecrats left the party over the issue of Civil Rights and backed Strom Thurmond for President. Part of the left wing of the party left to support the candidacy of Henry Wallace, the man who had been Vice President during Roosevelt’s third term. Truman’s victory over Dewey would be one of the greatest upsets in political history. Truman garnered a large part of the Jewish vote which was congregated in key states with large electoral votes. Jewish support was in no small part a reward for Truman’s decision to recognize the Jewish state which was fighting for survival as the man from Missouri fought for his political life.
1948: Still seeking a way to reach Tel Aviv, the Egyptians attacked Be’erot Yitzhak. In a day long desperate fight, the outnumbered defenders drove off the Egyptians. As the Egyptians retreated, seventeen of the Israeli fighter lay dead and all of the settlement’s buildings had been destroyed. Tel Aviv was saved, but the cost was high.
1948: While the fighting flared, the diplomats dithered. The United Nations decided that the Arab rejection of the extension of the truce that had been proposed by Count Bernadotte was a “breach of the peace” and ordered a permanent cease-fire. The Arabs ignored the threat of sanctions and rejected the cease-fire.
1948: Israeli forces renewed their attempts to retake the Old City by launching attacks on the New Gate, the Jaffa Gate and the Zion Gate, none of which would prove successful.
1948: During Operation Dekel, Israeli planes attacked the village of Saffuriya
1948: Israeli forces began another attack on the Latrun Fortress, the Jordanian held military installation that was blocking the road to Jerusalem.
1948: Yosef “Sprinzak was elected to the position of speaker of the provisional parliament.”
1949: “Miss Liberty,” a musical with lyrics and music by Irving Berlin, “directed by Moss Hart and choreographed by Jerome Robbins” opened on Broadway at the Imperial Threatre
1949: “The best known version” of "I Can Dream, Can't I?" a popular song written by Sammy Fain with lyrics by Irving Kahal “was recorded by the Andrews Sister” who were not Jewish.
1949: “Any Number Can Play” the film version of the novel by the same name directed by Mervyn LeRoy, produced Arthur Freed and with a script by Richard Brooks was released in the United States today.
1951: Ted Lurie, The Jerusalem Post reporter and future editor, visited Eilat and described the difficulties facing the new settlers. There was no bakery, the water tasted rusty and caused diarrhea, there was no facility to chill water or bottled drinks. But a large cold-storage plant was being planned to make the import of meat from East Africa possible.
1952: The first production of “The Seven Year Itch” the hit comedy by George Axelrod, the son of Russian Jewish immigrant Herman Axelrod took place at the Fulton Theatre in New York City.
1953: “Gentlemen Prefer Blondes” the movie version of the Broadway musical with a book by Joseph Fields and music by Jules Styne, produced by Sol C. Siegel and starring Marilyn Monroe who would later convert to Judaism, was released by 20thCentury Fox today in the United States.
1955: “The Cobweb” the film version of the novel by the same name co-starring Lauren Bacall with music by Leonard Rosenman was released in the United States today.
1955: Eighteen Nobel laureates signed the Mainau Declaration against nuclear weapons. The declaration was created by Otto Hahn and Max Born. Hahn had stayed in Germany after the rise of the Nazis and played a major role in the atomic program. Born had to leave Germany in 1933. He had become a Lutheran but his parents were Jewish and as far as the Nazis were concerned Born was still Jewish.
1956(7thof Av, 5716): Forty-one year old Canadian born author David W. Petegorsky who was the Executive Director of the American Jewish Congress passed away today
1958: Five thousand U.S. Marines landed in Beirut, Lebanon, to protect the pro-Western government. This landing took place at the same time that the pro-Western government of Iraq was being overthrown. The fighting in Lebanon was part of an on-going struggle between the Christians and the Moslems which had supposedly been settled by a power-sharing agreement set up by the French before they ended their imperial role there. The collapse of this power-sharing agreement would explode in a civil war in the 1970’s, the aftermath of which exists today. Needless to say, this instability in its northern neighbor has added to Israel’s problems.
1959(9th of Tammuz, 5719):Swiss-born American composer Ernest Bloch passed away. While his works covered a variety of themes, from a Jewish point of view, one of his most interesting works was Schelomo, a composition for cello and orchestra written in 1915 that was completed during Bloch's "Jewish Cycle," which lasted from 1912–1926
1959: Birthdate of Istanbul native David Tzur, who made Aliyah at the age of six and pursued a career in security with the government before being elected to the Knesset in the elections of 2013.
1965: “Eve of Destruction,” written by P.F. Sloan was recorded to with Sloan on guitar and Hal Blaine on drums.
1965: Birthdate of David Miliband, leader of the British Labour Party.
1967: During the War of Attrition an Israeli Air Force Mirage III is shot down by Egyptian MiG-21.
1968: ABC broadcast the first episode of “One Life to Live” a soap opera in which Doris Belack appeared for nearly a decade as “Anna Wolke Craig” a role which she created and
1969:Rod Carew ties the record with his 7th steal of home in a season. Carew is not Jewish, although he has been mistakenly identified as one. He is married to a Jewish woman and his children have been raised in the faith of their mother.
1973: General Shmuel Gonen assumed command of Israel’s Southern Front. He replaced Ariel Sharon who was leaving the army to go into politics. Just prior to the change in command, Sharon told Defense Minister Dayan that Gonen lacked the experience to handle the command if war should break out. Dayan assured Sharon that Gonen had plenty of time to gain the needed experience since there was not going to be a war in 1973.
1973 CIA Director Richard Helms sent a telegram to Henry Kissinger, Richard Nixon's National Security Advisor, stating that King Hussein of Jordan had told him that Jordanian intelligence had learned of a Syrian attack to recapture the Golan Heights originally which had been delayed since June could take place at any time; probably sooner than later. One of the Jordanian intelligence sources was the commander of a Syrian armored brigade, and the Jordanians had obtained a copy of the battle plans, which had been coordinated with Egypt and Iraq. Once again, instability in the Middle East is shown not to be “an Israeli problem.” In fact the Americans would call upon the Israelis to assist in thwarting the planned attacked.3
1974: Birthdate of Menachem Stark.
1974: “Over 150 Belgian academics handed a petition to Soviet Ambassador Sobelev expressing concern at the fate of their colleagues who seek to emigrate from the USSR.”
1976(17thof Tammuz, 5736): Tzom Tammuz
1976: It was reported today that the Labor Party Government is being pressed by a large number of British citizens “to take some firm action” in response to the “presumed death of 73 year old Dora Bloch, an Anglo-Israeli who disappeared after the Israeli raid on Entebbe.
1976: The Jerusalem Post reported that former defense minister Moshe Dayan called for an arrangement whereby Jews and Arabs would live together in the administered territories, with the Arabs remaining Jordanians and the land remaining under Israeli control. He stressed that Israelis were in the territories by right, not as conquerors. Questioned whether Arabs would agree to this, he replied that if we had to do things according to the desires of the Arabs, we could pack our bags and go to Canada. A delegation of Israeli legal and atomic energy experts visited Washington to work out final details of the sale of two US 450-megawatt reactors to Israel.
1977(29thof Tammuz, 5737): Eighty-two year old talent and literary agent Adeline Jaffe passed away today.
1981)13thof Tammuz, 5741): Three people were murdered and 25 more injured “in rocket attacks today in northern Israel.
1982: “The Last American Virgin” directed by Boaz Davidson who also wrote the script, produced by Yoram Globus and Menahem Golan and filmed by cinematographer Adam Greenberg was released in Germany today.
1986(8th of Tammuz, 5746): Actor and comedian Benny Rubin passed away at the age of 87.
1991(4thof Av, 5751): Seventy-nine year old New York native Morris “Moe” Spahn the all-star basketball player for CCNY who went on to a successful pro career in the American Basketball League and was the father Dartmouth basketball player Steve Spahn, passed away today.
1991: Award winning “British economic historian” Robert Skidelsky, the father of journalist William Skidelsky and university lecturer Edward Skidelsky, “was created a life peer as Baron Skidelsky, of Tilton in the County of East Sussex.”
1991: The Landmarks Preservation commission held a public hearing on the proposed designation as a Landmark of the New York Public Library, Aguilar Branch, and the proposed designation of the related Landmark Site. “The Aguilar Branch of the New York Public Library initially was built for the Aguilar Free Library Society which was founded in 1886 as an independent library to provide circulating books for immigrant Jews. The society was named after Grace Aguilar a popular 19thcentury British novelist and essayist of Sephardic Jewish descent.” (As reported by the Landmarks Preservation Commission)
1992: In “Orphans Gather For A Family Reunion” published today Ron Grossman provides a history of the Marks Nathan Home.
1997(10thof Tammuz, 5757): Fifty-eight year old NYU player and coach Mark Reiner passed away today.
1993: Fourteenth Maccabiah comes to an end.
1994: “Angels in the Outfield” a baseball comedy/fantasy co-produced by Joe Roth and Roger Birnbaum and music by Randy Edelman was released in the United States today.
1999(2ndof Av, 5759): Eighty-year old Benjamin Forester “Ben” Sohn the San Diego High School who was an all-star lineman at USC in the late 1930’s and played a season for the New York Football Giants passed away today.
1999: “The Last Days” a documentary that “tells the stories of five Hungarian Jews during the Shoah” that “focuses on the horrors of life in the concentration camps” was released in Australia today.
1999: “Pursuant to Security Council Resolution 1244, the nominated Dr. Bernard Kouchner as the second UN Special Representative and Head of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK)
2001: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Supreme Injustice by Alan M. Dershowitz, Vote: Bush, Gore and the Supreme Court edited by Cass R. Sunstein and Richard A. Epstein, to be published by the University of Chicago Press in October and currently available as an e-book on the Web site www.thevotebook.com) and the recently release