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A collection of Jewish history and current Jewish events, in date format, updated daily in this Jewish history blog.

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    July 9

    118: Hadrian, Rome's new emperor, made his entry into the Imperial City. Regardless of how history remembers him, for Jews, Hadrian is the Emperor who helped to start the Third Rebellion against Rome. In this case it was the lead by Bar Kochba and supported by Rabbi Akiva. It lasted from 132 until 135. It was the last uprising against Rome and really marked the beginning of the end of a vital Jewish community in Palestine.

    425: A decree of the emperors Theodosius II and Valentinian III, addressed to Amatius, prefect of Gaul prohibited Jews and pagans from practicing law and from holding public offices ("militandi"), in order that Christians should not be in subjection to them, and thus be incited to change their faith.

    491: Anastasius I begins his reign as the Byzantine Emperor. The reign of Anastasius marked the renewal of warfare with the Sassanid Empire.  The Sassanid Empire was the name given to the Persian Empire of the day.  This renewal of warfare would have a negative impact on the Jews who ruled the island of Yotabe also known as Tiran, which is in the straits of Tiran.  The Jews of Yotabe played an instrumental role in the trade along the Red Sea and when the Byzantines sought to move East to take control of this trade and defeat the Sassanids, they would replace the Jewish leaders with their own people.

    507: At Daphne (near Antioch in Syria), a sporting event was held in the form of a chariot race between two parties, the Greens and the Whites. For no apparent reason, the supporters of the greens attacked the local synagogue killing those Jews who were inside.

    518: Byzantine Emperor Anastasius I, whose war with the Sassanid Empire doomed the Red Sea trading activities of the Jews of Yotabe, passed away today.

    1228: Cardinal Stephen Langton, who in 1218, as the Archbishop Canterbury “made Jews wear an oblong white patch of two finger-lengths by four” which made them an easy to identify mark for the mobs, encouraged by the Barons to ransack Jewish homes and destroy the “records of the debts owed by the nobility, passed away today.

    721: The Franks defeat the Muslims at the Battle of Toulouse.  This victory checks the spread of Islam in Western Europe which will be confined to Spain.  This will not be the last battle between these forces. That will be left to Charles Martel who led the Franks at the Battle of Tours eleven years later.

    1391: Violence in Valencia, Spain that had begun a month earlier under the direction Ferrand Martinez continued unabated. Ferrand Martinez was the Archdeacon of Ecija in the fourteenth century, and one of the most inveterate enemies of the Jewish people. Among Christians he was highly respected for his piety and philanthropy. In his sermons and public discourses he continually fanned the hatred of the Christian population against the Jews, to whom he ascribed all sorts of vices. As vicar-general of Archbishop Barroso of Seville he arrogated to himself the right of jurisdiction over the Jews in his diocese, injuring them wherever he could, and demanding that the magistrates of Alcalá de Guadeyra, Ecija, and other places no longer suffer the Jews among them.The community of Valencia was destroyed and 250 Jews massacred. Many others including the king's physician converted to Christianity while still others found refuge in the houses of their Christian neighbors.

    1391:  A rabbi's personal letter written in Saragossa, Spain on this date is one of the few firsthand accounts of the total chaos in Spain: "If I were to tell you here all the numerous sufferings we have endured you would be dumbfounded at the thought of them…On the day of the New Moon of the fateful month Tammuz in the year 5151, the Lord bent the bow of the enemies against the populous community of Seville where there were between 6,000-7,000 heads of families, and they destroyed the gates by fire and killed in that very place a great number of people; the majority, however, changed their faith.

    1553: “The Elector Maurice of Saxony” who in 1542 “expelled the Jews from Zwickau” where they had lived since 1308 and who expelled them from Plauen in 1543 passed away today.

    1667(17thof Tammuz, 5427):Joseph Athias’ father Abraham Athias, a Marrano Jew, was burnt at the stake together with the Marranos Jacob Rodríguez Cáceres and Raquel Nuñez Fernández in Córdoba by the Spanish Inquisition

    1701: During the War of the Spanish Succession which began today, Samson Wertheimer, the Hungarian Rabbi turned Austrian financier and “court Jew” united with Samuel Oppenheimer to procure the money necessary for the equipment of the Austrian imperiall army and for the supply of provisions.

    1713:Lourença Coutinho the mother of Portugese dramatist António José da Silva who was known as “O Judeu” or “The Jew” died today in today’s the auto-da-fé

    1730(24h of Tammuz, 5490): Sixty-nine year old Issachar Berend Lehman, one of the leading court Jews of the 16th and 17th century who used the influence he gained with various German princes due to his business acumen to better the lot of his coreligionists.

    1733: Abigaill Levy Franks, the most noted of American Jewish colonial letter writers, wrote her son Naphtali, admonishing him to eat nothing but "bread & butter" wherever food preparation was "not done after our Strict Juidacall [kosher] method."

    1746: “In the middle of the night, two Jews of the Roman ghetto, Amadio Abbina and Sabato Isacco Ambron, left the city. (The description of their adventures and the places they visited during their long pilgrimage to the Holy Land have reached us for the first time in 2012 in manuscripts published by Paola Abbina and Asher Salah. By providing a biographical sketch of these two intrepid Jewish friends, this lecture by Asher Salah (Bezalel Academy) aims at understanding the reasons why they undertook such a perilous journey.)

    1749(23rdof Tammuz, 5509):Ezekiel Katzenellenbogen ben Abraham passed away. Born in Lithuania was a Polish-German rabbi who served the communities at Kėdainiai (Keidani) and Altona.

    1754: During the French and Indian War, the name of Michael Franks, a member of the Jewish family that supplied soldiers in this and the Revolutionary War, appeared as a private in a roster of created today by Captain van Braam.

    1765:Samuel Israel, Alexander Solomon, and Joseph Depalacios, three Sephardim who were the first Jews in Alabama bought property today in Mobile County.

    1791: Judah Cohen married Gracia Da Costa in Kingston, Jamaica.

    1797: Edmund Burke, British philosopher and statesman, passed away.  Burke is the author of the quote “The only thing necessary for the triumph of evil is for good men to do nothing.”  This quote has often been used by commentators and historians in attempts to explain the Holocaust.

    1797: Gompertz Alexander married Betsy Simon at the Great Synagouge.

    1804: Birthdate of Jonas Bondi, the native of Dresden who was the rabbi at Anshe Chesed in New York before he began publishing The Hebrew Leader  and whose daughter Selma married the founder of the Reform Movement in the United States Isaac M. Wise.

    1805: Levy Ephraim Green married Emilia Hyams at the Great Synagogue.

    1816:  Argentina declares independence from Spain. The first Jews probably came to Argentina as conversos following the Spanish Inquisition.  Bernardino Rivadavia, Argentina’s first president gave support to policies that promoted freedom of immigration and respect for human rights, including the abolishing of the Inquisition. These changes in the social and political climate paved the way for a new wave of Jewish immigration.

    1825: Birthdate of Hamburg native, Julius Oppert, who eventually settled in France where he gained fame as an Assyriologist.

    1826: David Jonassohn married Charlotte Bauer in Hamburg, Germany

    1833: In Mayence, Samuel and Sophie Bondi gave birth to Baruch-Bertram Bondi.

    1835: The dedicatory date on the tombstone of Mrs. Shoshan Levi in The Penang Jewish Cemetery.

    1841(20thof Tammuz, 5601): Joseph “Yosef” Friedlander, he son of Aharon Jehuda Friedlander and the husband of Gittel Rinkel who was a dealer in second hand close passed away today.

    1842: Lt. Colonel Max-Théodore Cerfberr who served as president of the Consistoire Central Israelite de France “took his seat in the Chamber Deputies” today “as representative from Wissembourg.

    1845: In London, Dr. Nathan Marcus Adler “was inaugurated as Chief Rabbi of the Great Synagogue.”

    1845: Joseph Magnus married Emma Fileman.

    1845: Lazarus Phillips married Bloomah Marks at the Great Synagogue.

    1846: The chief rabbis of Baghdad announced a curse (Herem) on the Christian missionaries who had come to convert the Jews in their community.

    1847: “The Jewish Chronicle” went from being published every two weeks to being published as a weekly.

    1850:  President Zachary Taylor dies and Millard Fillmore becomes the 13th President of the United States.  Millard Fillmore is one the lesser known U.S. Presidents.  But he played a major role in furthering the acceptance of Jews as full citizens of the United States.  In 1851, the United States Senate considered a treaty with Switzerland.  The treaty included a clause that would the governments of the individual Swiss Cantons to treat U.S. citizens in the same way they treated their own citizens.  Some of the cantons had laws that discriminated against Jews.  Ratification of the treaty would have meant that American citizens could be treated differently based on their religion.   Fillmore declared that part of the treat to be “a decisive objection.  In leading the successful opposition to the treaty Fillmore declared that “neither by law, nor by treaty, nor by any other official proceeding is it competent for the Government of the United States to establish any distinction between its citizens founded on differences in religious beliefs.”

    1850:A major fire struck Philadelphia in which “many Israelites shared in the same calamity, which overwhelmed their neighbors.” Among the dead were two or three members of the Marcus family including the eldest son and daughter. At least one other Israelite was reported as being “severely wounded.
    1851: In London Caroline Antonine Geradine Louyet married Jacob Levi Montefiore, the son Isaac Levi and his wife Esther Hannah, née Montefiore.  “Esther was a first cousin of Sir Moses Montefiore and connected to the Rothschilds by marriage. Jacob and his brothers adopted the name of Montefiore.”

    1856: In Philadelphia, Meyer Guggenheim and his wife gave birth industrialist and philanthropist Daniel Guggenheim.

    1856: On Rikers Island, “Young Barney Aaron won a” the son of British bareknuckle boxer Barney Aaron won a bout that “lasted 80 rounds” or “2 hours and 20 minutes.

    1856: Ellis Abraham Frankline married Adelaide Samuel at the Great Synagogue today.

    1858:  Birthdate of Franz Boas, “the Father of American Anthropology.”

    1860(19th of Tammuz, 5620): Forty nine year old Charleston, SC native Eleazer Levy Hyams passed away today in Natchitoches.

    1860: Dr. Barnard Van Oven who in 1827 had been appointed physician to the poor of the Great Synagogue and who was one of the pioneers in the movement for the removal of the disabilities of the Jews in England as can be seen by his pamphlet "An Appeal to the British Nation on Behalf of the Jews “passed away today. Van Oven was following in the footsteps of his father Joshua Van Ovan the English surgeon who established the Jews’ Free School and the Jews’ Hospital in Mile End.

    1861: Union forces that would come to include the Cameron Dragoons (officially the 65th Regiment led by Colonel Max Friedman and which contained a large segment of Philadelphia Jews) skirmished at Vienna, Virginia as they made their way to Manassas where they would fight the First Battle of Bull Run.

    1862: The Jew's Hospital is reported to be one of the places to which those wounded on the battle fields of the Peninsula are being brought.

    1866: Four days after he had passed away, forty-four year old Edmund Myer Tobias, “the youngest son of Myer Tobias and Hannah Wolf” was buried today at the Balls Pond Road Jewish Cemetery.

    1871(20th of Tammuz, 5631): Sixty-six year old Lelio Hillel Della Torre, the Italian rabbi who was the son of Solomon Jehiel Raphael ha-Kohen passed away today in Padua.

    1870: Jonathan Manly Emanual, the son of London born Dr. Manly Emanuel, who began serving in the U.S. Navy during the Civil War in 1862 began an eleven month stint on board the Dictator.

    1873: In Cincinnati, Ohio, a conference of Jewish leaders formed the Union of American Hebrew Congregations and adopted a constitution for the organization.  The Union is committed to establishing a theological college.  Membership in the Union is open to all Jewish congregations in the United States.

    1875: A lodge of B’nai B’rith was formed today in Austin, TX making it the first officially Jewish organization in the state’s capital city.

    1875: In New York, Judge Richard Larremore denied the motion for a permanent injunction sought by Israel J. Solomon in which the plaintiff sought to enjoin the trustees of B’Nai Jeshrun from making “innovations in the mode of worship.”  Specifically, he sought to prevent the congregation from putting an end to separate seating for men and women which would mean that families could sit together.  He claimed that “the proposed mingling of the sexes” would in violation of the charter” of the synagogues “and the ancient custom of Polish and German Jews.”  He also claimed that the change violated “his rights as a pew owner” and was conducive to immorality. Essentially, the Judge ruled that the matter at hand was, as a matter of law, to be decided by the religious authorities and not the civil courts.

    1877: Henry Hilton wrote a letter to a friend of his in Chicago defending his decision to ban Jews as guest at the Grand Union Hotel in Saratoga Springs, NY.  Hilton said that he had expected some “adverse criticism” when he made the decision.  The new hotel had been completed at great expense and if he did not ban Jews, he would lose “other and more valuable guests.” He did not fear a boycott of his businesses by the Jews and said that if the reverse were done the Jews would be the ultimate losers.  As far as Hilton knew, the law allowed an owner to ban whomsoever he wished notwithstanding all of the objections from “Moses and all his descendants.”

    1879: Delegates to the Sixth Council of the Union of American and Hebrew Congregations enjoy an excursion to Manhattan Beach

    1879: The Sixth Council of the Union of American and Hebrew Congregations met this morning at 9 for it second and final day.  After approving committee reports, the council voted to meet again on the second Tuesday of July 1881 in Chicago, Illinois.

    1881: “Old Indigo and the New” published today provided a history of this ancient material which “the Jews first introduced into Europe as dye during the Middle Ages.”  The Jews “practiced the art of dyeing with” indigo “and other coloring matters on the shores of the Levant.”

    1882: In Wheeling, West Virginia, General Morris Horkheimer, the Republican political leader and Cecilia Horkheimer gave birth Herbert Morris Horkehimer

    1882: In “A Plea for the Egyptians” published today, Simon Wolf, the American Jew who has been serving as the United States Consul-General in Egypt summarizes his view of the current situation in Egypt.  After describing the divisions within the society and presenting a socio-economic snapshot of the country, he reports the desire of the local population to be free of the Ottomans but not at the expense of taking on a European yoke.  He sees the British as the greatest threat to progress and independence and expresses the view that America should support the Egyptians in their attempts to modernize their society. [Note – In tone and in some case in fact, one can see a prequel of descriptions and aspirations tied to the 21stcentury Arab Spring.]

    1882: Birthdate of Samuel Lionel "Roxy" Rothafel, the native of Stillwater, MN, “a showman of the 1920s silent film era and the impresario for many of the great New York movie palaces that he managed such as the Strand, Rialto, Rivoli, Capitol, the eponymous Roxy Theatre in New York City and the Radio City Music Hall who passed away in 1936

    1883: The funeral of Joseph Reckendorfer is scheduled to take place at his home in New York City. Reckendorfer was a prominent member of the Jewish community as can be seen by the notices requesting members of Temple Emanu-El, members of the Board of Relief of the United Hebrew Charities and the Directors of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum to attend the funeral.  His success in the world of commerce can be seen by a similar request to members and officers of the Stationer’s Board of Trade. Reckendorfer will be remembered by his associates as the man who bought Hyman Lipman’s patent for attaching an eraser to the end of pencil in 1862 for $100,000 only to have the Supreme Court declare the patent invalid in a case in 185 involving Faber Castell.

    1883: In New York City, Samuel and Rosalie Abraham gave birth to Columbia University trained chemist, who became chairman of the board of Ruberoid Company and author of authoritative Asphalt and Allied Substances who was the husband of the former Dorothy Jacoby.

    1884: Birthdate of Mikhail Gruzenberg, the Belarus native known as Comintern agent Mikhail Borodin.

    1884: “Destruction of the Judengasse” published today informed those planning to visit Frankfort this summer that one of the sights described in their guide books – the Judengasse – will have disappeared by the time they arrive in the German city. The Judgengasse (Jew’s Alley) was the ghetto established for the Jews in the 15th century. In 1808 the gates that had locked the Jews in were removed and most of them have moved to other parts of the city.  Only houses on one side of the “alley” are left and they will soon be demolished.

    1885: “In the village of Cabanas de Viriato in the scenic northern province of Beira Alta, Portugal, Jose de Sousa Mendes, a well-to-do high court judge, and Maria Angelina de Abranches gave birth to Aristides de Sousa Mendes the Portuguese diplomat who defied his government and saved thousands from the clutches of Hitler and the Gestapo.

    1885: It was reported today that the first excursion for the poor children and their mothers sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children has been scheduled for next week.

    1885: “Jews of the Northern Caucasus” published today provided an account of Dag Chufut or Mountain Jews who live in several communities “in the provinces of Daghestan, Terek and Kouban.  Numbering about 500 families they claim to be descendants of Persian families who came here in the 15th century because the local princes wished to exploit their commercial skills.  They speak the local dialects but write in Farsi, the language in which their Talmud is written.  Religion is the only thing that they have in common with Jews living in the eastern part of the Russian Empire and they look to their own rabbis for spiritual guidance.

    1885: Josef Ahondorowsky, his wife and six children are scheduled to sail back to Russia on board the State of Indiana today.  This Jewish family arrived on July 2 claiming that their passage had been paid for by the Hebrew Aid Society of Paris while admitting that they had no money. 

    1887: “Squelching Rabbi Browne” published today described some of the embarrassing antics of Rabbi E.B.M. Browne that included publicly proclaiming himself to be the “Modern Maccabee” and the “Jewish Beecher” and his role in defending convicted wife killer Adolf Reich. He earned further disdain for attempting to play a role in the funeral of the later President Grant.  He insisted that as an Orthodox Jew he would have to walk to the cemetery because the funeral was held on Shabbat.  Apparently he assumed everybody was ignorant of the fact that Jews do not attend funerals on the Sabbath.  The dwindling number of congregants at Gates of Hope was the final blow to his remaining as leader of the congregation.

    1888(1st of Av, 5648) Rosh Chodesh Av

    1888: It was reported today that a Bet Din consisting of 4 rabbis and led by Rabbi Jacob Charif will meet twice a week to render opinions related to Jewish law. However, Charif, the newly arrived Orthodox Rabbi who was brought to the United States to lead the primarily immigrant community of Jews living on the lower East Side has not made up his mind if he will remain in the United States or return to Vilna.

    1889: The Council of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations assembled in Detroit today and continued in session for three days. Among the many prominent Jewish leaders attending, none will garner more attention than Rabbi Isaac Meyer Wise, the President of the Hebrew Union College whose recent 70thbirthday was the cause for nationwide celebration among his Reform colleagues and other supporters.

    1889: Thanks to “the efforts of the Reformed or Liberal branch of the Jewish teachers: the Central Conference of American rabbis was organized today in Detroit Michigan.

    1889: Mr. Robert  Bongynge said today that regardless of what the Board of Trustees of the Harlem Club might do, he was sure that if a could be taken among the general membership could be taken Senator Jacob A. Cantor would be admitted as a member regardless of the fact that he was Jewish

    1890: Daniel Froman, the manager of the Lyceum Theatre arrived in New York City today and went immediately to his country home in Stamford, CT.

    1890)21st of Tammuz, 5650): Sixty-five year old German Rabbi Immanuel Heinrich Ritter passed away today in Bohemia.

    1890: “Arthur Dale Chairman of the Joint Board of Cutters, tailors and contractors received a letter from the United Hebrew Charities signed by James H. Hoffman, Hyman Blum and M.W. Platzek, stating that it was their duty to assist in settling the difficulty, and that they would be pleased to meet Mr. Dale or other gentlemen who represent the interest of the working people that are affected and discuss the situation with the view of arriving at a satisfactory understanding.”

    1891: “A Home For The Jews” published today described a meeting “held at Lemberg, the capital of Galicia between Arnold White representing Baron Hirsch, Herr Franzos representing the Jews of Berlin, and Dr. Karunda” representing the Jews of Vienna where the trio agreed that it would be best to direct Jews fleeing Europe to settlements in Argentina especially since no plans can be developed for settling Jews in Palestine.

    1891: It was reported today that committees have been formed at Odessa and other ports throughout Europe to help Jews reach Argentina.

    1891: “The compilation of immigration statistics for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1891 was completed today” showing “that during the period 405, 654 immigrants” landed at New York, 33,504 of whom were from Russia and “the majority of them were Jews.”

    1891: Charles Stern, a New York peddler who went to Brazil claiming to be a farmer, wrote a letter complaining that the government had not given him farm but had put him to work on railroad construction “compelling him to work like a slave.”

    1892: In New York all of the delegates attending the annual convention of American rabbis went to Sabbath services this morning at Temple Beth-El.

    1892: Birthdate of Budapest native Sandor Harmati, the “American violinist and composer” who in 1921 was a founding member of the American Music Guild and is best known for his song "Bluebird of Happiness" written in 1934 for Jan Peerce”

    1893: The SS Red Seawhich is scheduled to arrive in New York today with 800 immigrants in steerage including 120 Russian Jews will be met by immigration officials to ensure the passengers meet the financial requirements for coming to the United States.  Officials are trying to discourage the trafficking in indigent immigrants that owners of tramp steamers have been engaging in.

    1894: Twice as many mothers are expected to attend today’s lecture on the care and feeding of children during warm weather being held at the Hebrew Institute than attended the first such lecture.

    1895: It was reported today that Dr. Max Landsberg is scheduled to deliver the welcoming address at the upcoming annual Central Conference of American Rabbis which will be held at Rochester, NY.

    1895: Judge Stover has vacated the order he had issued to allow the District Attorney to exhume the body of the late Mrs. Wolf Silverman because the insurance company thought her death was suspicious.  The judge said that if the insurance company had any proof to back up their allegations about her husband they should submit them to the District Attorneyeb

    1895: “Hebrews Want Representation” published today described efforts of the Jews to have one of their co-religionist appointed as a School Trustee of Tenth Ward where 95% of the students are Jews. Nathan Shevy, a New York lawyer, has proposed that Trustee position held by Charles B. Stover be declared vacant since he has not attended a meeting for seven months and that he be replaced by a Jew.  The only Jew who had been a Trustee was not reappointed and currently all of the Trustees are Christians.

    1896: William Jennings Bryan gave his “Cross of Gold Speech” at the Democratic National Convention.

    1896: It was reported today that Lord Rosebery’s marriage to “a wealthy Jewess at time when his finances were at the lowest ebb…was sufficient to spoil his chances with the working classes” which has sealed his political doom.

    1896: Birthdate of Gershon Hadas, the husband of Anne Eisenberg Hadas and the Rabbi at Beth Shalom Synagogue.

    1896: In the trial of Adolph Herschkopf for the murder of Lizzie Jaeger, the prosecution rested today.

    1898: The month-long mustering in process for the 6thVirginia Volunteer Infantry whose members included Mathew N. Levy of Norfolk began today.

    1899:Police made renewed efforts today in Worcester, MA, to enforce the blue laws related to Sunday closings following a demand by Jewish merchants who had been targeted by the police for selling merchandize on “the Sabbath.”

    1897: On the day after he passed away David bar Abraham HaCohen was buried at the Plashet Jewish Cemetery in London.

    1899: The list of bequests made by the late David Krakauer published today included $1,000 to the Montefiore Home and the Hebrew Sheltering Orphan Asylum; $2,000 for Mount Sinai Hospital; and $500 to the Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews and the United Hebrew Charities

    1900: Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom gives royal assent to an act creating the Commonwealth of Australia thus uniting separate colonies on the continent under on891: e federal government. The first Jews arrived in Australia, in 1788 when European convicts settled in what was to become the city of Sydney.  Jews played an active role in the growth and development of the various colonies that would make up the CommonHealth of Australia.  Members of Montefiore family, which was part of the clan headed by Sir Moses Montefiore the famed philanthropist and businessman, developed several commercial ventures and held numerous public positions during this time. The township of Montefiore stands as a testament to the family’s active role in the development of Australia and its Jewish community.

    1901: According to reports published in the New York Times, Montefiore Isaacs, the nephew of the late Sir Moses Montefiore, is one of the most popular bachelors who belong to the posh Metropolitan Club.  Among other things, Montefiore is famous for his skills as a magician; skills which he has used in “thousands of performances” given for a wide variety of charities.  He is also a well regarded for his knowledge of Shakespeare and his collection of very rare books.

    1902: Another interview with Lord Rothschild takes place during which Herzl submits the details of Colonization Company for the development of Sinai, El Arish and Cyprus. Rothschild promises to discuss the plan with the British Minister for the Colonies, Joseph Chamberlain.

    1904: The National Democratic Convention which Samuel Untermyer attended as a delegate from New York and nominated Alton B. Parker to run against Socialist Eugene Debs and Republican Theodore Roosevelt came to a close. In the fall, in New York’s 8th Assembly District on the Lower East Side which was dominated by Jewish voters, “Democrat Alton B. Parker crushed Socialist Debs by nearly 3 to 1, but the “all-American” Republican, Theodore Roosevelt, beat them both and easily swept the neighborhood.” (As reported by Michael Medved)

    1905: “The sole memorial service” honoring the recently deceased Secretary of State John Hay “to be held in New York City” took place “in the synagogue of the First Romanian-American Congregation” where “recognition of the services of the United States in behalf of the Jews during Mr. Hay’s secretaryship” were a key part of the event.

    1905: The Ninth Summer Assembly of the Jewish Chautauqua Society continued for a second day in Atlantic City, NJ.

    1908: In Yampil, a town in the western Ukraine, Bluma and Moshe Mikardo gave birth to British Labor MP Ian Mikardo.

    1909: The Jews of Persia take refuge inside the Turkish consulate during a revolt. They appeal to the Hahambashi of Turkey to help them become Ottoman subjects.

    1909: In Daruvar, Rebekka (née Figel) Frankfurter and Rabbi Mavro Frankfurter gave birth to David Franfkfurter who assassinated German NSDAP leader Wilhelm Gustloff

    1911: In Milwaukee, Wisconsin, the 15th annual summer assembly of the Jewish Chautauqua Society led by Chancellor Henry Berkowitz continued for a third day.

    1912(24th of Tammuz, 5672): Seventy-eight year old George Stause passed away today in New York City.

    1913: Birthdate of Rabbi Sándor Scheiber, the director of the Rabbinical Seminary in Budapest.

    1915: Charles Edward Sebag-Montefiore and Muriel Alice Ruth de Pass gave birth to Lt.Col. Oliver Robert Marne Sebag-Montefiore who passed away in October, 1993.

    1915: Birthdate of American composer David Leo Diamond who for more than five decades figured prominently among mainstream American composers. Born in Rochester, New York, to Yiddish-speaking immigrant parents from the area around Lemberg, Galicia (now Ukraine), he received a typical Jewish religious education in the local afternoon Hebrew school. At the age of seven he displayed musical gifts on the violin, which he learned to play initially on his own, and he began composing small pieces while still a child—also without formal instruction. There followed violin lessons at public grammar school and, briefly, while his family was in temporary residence in Cleveland, Ohio, during the 1920s, some studies at the Cleveland Institute of Music. Later, he was awarded a scholarship at the Eastman School of Music, in Rochester, where he studied with Bernard Rogers. The premiere of his first orchestral work, a one-movement symphony, was conducted by Eastman's resident composer and composition department chairman, Howard Hanson. As a student in Rochester, Diamond was fascinated by the cantorial art he heard in the local synagogue and at concerts given by visiting cantorial celebrities—especially, as he could still recall more than seven decades later, the famous Yossele Rosenblatt (1882–1933). Diamond also developed an intellectual interest in Jewish music history, acquainting himself with much of the available literature. During his studies with Rogers, he began writing short pieces that incorporated Jewish themes and modes. Before completing the course at Eastman, however, Diamond left for New York City, where he became a pupil of Roger Sessions and studied at the Dalcroze Institute. Sessions, like Rogers, had been a student of Ernest Bloch, and Diamond always felt that this provided him an indirect yet significant influence of that acknowledged 20th-century master. Shortly after arriving in New York, Diamond introduced himself to Lazare Saminsky then the music director at Temple Emanu-El, the city's flagship Reform congregation. Saminsky, an established and respected composer in the general music world who was also one of the major personalities on the American Jewish music scene, took an interest in the young composer's gifts and became something of a patron. He invited Diamond to write various liturgical settings for Emanu-El's services, and Diamond continued on his own to add to that repertoire. Saminsky's encouragement proved significant on several levels: "It was really Mr. Saminsky who got me writing more and more," Diamond later acknowledged. In those initial New York years Saminsky also introduced him to the highly regarded and well-established American born composer, the first composition professor at The Juilliard School, Frederick Jacobi (1891–1952), who, like Diamond, included Judaically related works among his overall opera. Jacobi quietly organized some private financial assistance for Diamond to help him continue his studies and pursue his artistic goals.

    1915: Having just returned from a tour of the Western Front, Chief Rabbi Joseph Herman Hertz and Rabbi Michael Adler, Senior Chaplin for the Jewish soldiers serving in the field, reported on the conditions of the Jewish troops serving on activity duty.  Based on published figures, of the 200,000 Jews living in the British Isles, 20,000 are serving on active duty and another 5,000 are in training units. Actually, there may be more Jews serving than this tally indicates.  When many Jews were enlisting in the early days of the war, they neglected to indicate their religion, so they were automatically labeled as Church of England.  The two clerics quoted Field Marshall Sir John French as paying the highest possible tribute to the bravery and patriotism of the Jewish soldiers serving in his command. The enthusiastic response of the Jews is attributed to the treatment they have received as citizens of the British Empire.  Rabbis of fighting age are serving in the ranks and the sons of Rabbis who are of military age have almost all enlisted. The sons of the rich and powerful are well-represented as can be seen by the names of Montefiore, Rothschild and Henriques.  In addition to the males serving at the front, hundreds of Jewish women are serving as Red Cross nurses both on the Western Front and on the home front.

    1915: As of today, “hundreds of Jewish women are serving as Red Cross nurses on the battlefields” in France and “the hospitals” in Great Britain.

    1916: In Long Branch, NJ, ten year old Abraham Stollar greeted the delegates at the morning session of the Young Judea Convention with a talk in Hebrew which was replied to by Emanuel Neumann who also spoke in Hebrew.

    1916: At their convention in Far Rockaway, the United Synagogues of America “adopted a resolution offered by Dr. Cyrus Adler calling on the organization to co-operate with the army and navy branch of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association in aiding dependents of the 5,000 Jews in the National Guard who have been ordered to the Mexican border.”

    1916: As of today, the fund of the American Jewish Relief Committee of which Felix M. Warburg is Treasurer has collect approximately $4,400,000.

    1916: It was reported today that among the contributions received by The Central Committee for the Relief of Jews Suffering Through the War of which Harr Fischel is the Treasurer was a $196 from the Jewish community of Sioux City, IA and $130 from Warheit Publishing Company in New York City.

    1917: It was reported today that “at a regular meeting of the Board of Alderman of New York…a formal resolution of appreciation for the work carried on by Nathan Strauss with his milk stations whereby he has save the lives of at least a quarter of a million babies in the past twenty-five years was unanimously adopted.”

    1917: “The Jewish Welfare Board was formed by a group of prominent Jewish Americans today as a response by the American Jewish Community to the United States’ entry into the First World War on April 6th.

    1917: Jacob Schiff, Herbert Parsons, Dr. Henry Moskowitz, Morris Hillquit, and Abraham Cahan were among the throng that greeted the Russian Commission led by Boris Bakhmeteff at the Henry Street Settlement House.

    1918 Bernard Baruch “was awarded the Army Distinguished Service Medal for services rendered to help in the war effort.

    The President of the United States of America, authorized by Act of Congress, July 9, 1918, takes pleasure in presenting the Army Distinguished Service Medal to Mr. Bernard M. Baruch, a United States Civilian, for exceptionally meritorious and distinguished services to the Government of the United States, in a duty of great responsibility during World War I, in the organization and administration of the War Industries Board and in the coordination of allied purchases in the United States. By establishing a broad and comprehensive policy for the supervision and control of the raw materials, manufacturing facilities, and distribution of the products of industry, he stimulated the production of war supplies, coordinated the needs of the military service and the civilian population, and contributed alike to the completeness and speed of the mobilization and equipment of the military forces and the continuity of their supply. War Department, General Orders No. 15 (1921)

    1918 Colonel Harry Cutler, Retired, “was awarded the Army Distinguished Service Medal for services rendered to help in the war effort.

    The President of the United States of America, authorized by Act of Congress, July 9, 1918, takes pleasure in presenting the Army Distinguished Service Medal to Colonel (Retired) Harry Cutler, Rhode Island National Guard, a United States Civilian, for exceptionally meritorious and distinguished services to the Government of the United States, in a duty of great responsibility during World War I as Chairman, Executive Committee, of the Jewish Welfare Board.

    1918: By direction of the President, under the provisions of the act of Congress approved today (Bul. No. 43, W.D., 1918), Private Lester Bergman (MCSN: 158340/117036), United States Marine Corps, is cited by the Commanding General, American Expeditionary Forces, for gallantry in action and a silver star may be placed upon the ribbon of the Victory Medals awarded him. Private Bergman distinguished himself by gallantry in action while serving with Company E, 5th Regiment (Marines), 2d Division, American Expeditionary Forces, in action in the Bois de Belleau, France, 13 June 1918, in attacking, with eight comrades, an enemy machine gun nest.

    1919(11th of Tammuz, 5679): Alexander Benjamin “Broadway” Smith, the turn of the century major leaguer who played for the New York Giants, Boston Red Sox and Chicago Cubs passed away today.

    1919: By a vote of 209 to 16 the German National Assembly ratified the Versailles Treaty which the Nazis would use as part of their drive to power.

    1920: Birthdate of Zalman Lev Steinberg, the Moscow native who as Leo Steinberg became “one of the most brilliant, influential and controversial art historians of the last half of the 20th century.”

    1922: The Philadelphia Inquirer described the career of Dr. M. H. Spare who had “directed the erection of a $35,000 building” to serve the needs of the Jewish community of Chester, PA.

    1922: It was reported today that “in a recent campaign” the Young Men’s and Young Women’s Hebrew Association of Camden have “increased their membership to 1,000.”

    1924(7thof Tammuz, 5684): Sixty-four year old Russian-born American labor statistician and Yiddish language intellectual passed away today.

    1924: The Democratic National Convention, during which Doctor Stephen S. Wise, the Rabbi of the Free Synagogue had delivered the invocation” came to a close today.

    1925(17th of Tammuz, 5685): Tzom Tammuz

    1926: Birthdate of Dr. Mathilde Krim, scientist and AIDS activist. She recognized soon after the first cases of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) were reported in 1981 that this new disease raised grave scientific and medical questions and that it might have important socio-political consequences. She dedicated herself to increasing the public's awareness of AIDS and to a better understanding of its cause, its modes of transmission, and its epidemiologic pattern. . It was during her doctoral studies that Krim converted to Judaism, inspired in part by learning the truth about the Holocaust and in part by her association with Jews from Israel (then Palestine) who were studying at the University. In 1953, Krim moved with her husband and daughter to Israel, where she found a position at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot. At Weizmann, she contributed to studies that laid the foundation for amniocentesis, became one of the first experts in culturing cells, and studied the viruses thought to cause some forms of cancer. After moving to New York 1958, she joined the research faculty at Cornell Medical College and later at Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research. For many years, she was deeply involved in the study of interferons, natural substances that were considered promising for the treatment of cancer. Just as the study of interferons was falling out of favor, AIDS was becoming a major public health concern. Krim left full-time research and became involved in AIDS treatment and activism. In 1985, she founded the AIDS Medical Foundation (AMF), the first private organization concerned with fostering and supporting AIDS research. In August, 2000 she was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian honor in the United States.

    1927: Birthdate of Boston native Harriet Shapiro who gained game as actress Susan Cabot

    1928(21stof Tammuz, 5688): Talmudic scholar, Rabbi Shlomo Polachek passed away.  Born in Grodna in 1877 when Jews constituted almost half of the city’s population he served as rosh yeshiva in Lida and Bialystok before moving to the United States in 1922 to serve as Rosh Yeshiva at the Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary (RIETS) the Rabbinical School of Yeshiva University and its Yeshiva College, America's first yeshiva.

    1929: Writer and sculptor Alfred Dreyfus who was committed to the Manhattan State Hospital in 1928 was transferred to Dr. McDonald’s house at Central Valley, NY.

    1929:  Birthdate of King Hassan II of Morocco.  King Hassan served as a “back channel” during negotiations between Israeli and Arab officials.  He played a critical, if somewhat still undefined role, in the Camp David Negotiations that led to the peace agreement between Israel and Egypt in 1973.

    1930: At Michael Reiss Hospital in Chicago, Robert B. Bregman of Cleveland, Ohio and his wife Claire Styne Bregman, the sister of songwriter Jule Styne gave birth to musical arranger and record producer Buddy Bregman who is the father of “Tracey Elizabeth Bregman, who plays Lauren Fenmore on Young & Restless and Bold & Beautiful.”

    1931: In Gadsden, Alabama, “Alvin Rosenbaum Lowi, who founded a chemical company, and the former Janice Haas, a piano teacher and silent movie accompanist” gave birth to Theodore Jay Lowi, the Professor in the Government Department of Cornell University whose students included “Israel Serigo-Waismel-Manor, a lecturer at the University of Haifa.”

    1932: Birthdate of Soviet refusenik Iosif “Yosef” Ziselovich Begun

    1933: In North London, Dr. Samuel Sacks and Muriel Elsie Landau, one of the first female surgeons in England gave birth to Oliver Wolf Sacks the neurologist and author who was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) in 2008.

    1934: Two days after he passed away in Saratoga Springs, NY, Melvin Beilis was buried at the Mount Carmel Cemetery in Queens which is also the final resting place of Sholem Aleichem and Leo Frank.

    1936:The Palestine Post reported from London that Mr. Ormsby-Gore, the Colonial Secretary, admitted in the House of Commons that since the Palestine Government's expenditure on Moslem Religious Courts exceeded income, it was inevitable that the Jewish taxpayer had contributed approximately £9,000 to the maintenance of the Moslem Supreme Council, while Jewish religious courts and the Chief Rabbinate received no support from the government. More British troops were transferred from Egypt to Palestine. Ha'aretz and Haboker dailies were suspended for five days for the "publication of false news, likely to create alarm and despondency" (the comment on the failure of the British troops and of the Palestine Police to deal effectively with Arab disturbances).

    1936: “The United States liner Manhattan arrived” at New York today “with 785 passengers” of whom 100 were “Jewish refugees from Germany.”

    1936: At Tannersville, NY, the convention of the Rabbinical Assembly of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America “endorsed a special campaign for a national fund to plant 100,000 trees in Palestine to replace those destroyed during the current disturbances” and “recommended that the next annual convention be held in connection with the fiftieth anniversary of the Jewish Theological Seminary.”

    1936: In Paris, Francois Pietri, the former Minister of Finance told the Chamber of Deputies that “the International Olympic Committee had received assurances from German sport authorities that there would be no discrimination against Jews and that the Jews would be represented among the German athletes.”

    1936(19thof Tammuz, 5696): Zionist Morris Paul Tax passed away today in Milwaukee. Wisconsin.

    1937: George Gershwin was rushed back to Cedars of Lebanon hospital after collapsing tonight at the home of lyricist Yip Harburg where they had been working on the score of the “Goldwyn Follies.”

    1938(10th of Tammuz, 5698): Famed jurist Benjamin Cardozo passed away. Cardozo was part of Sephardic family that had deep roots in the American experience. One of his ancestors fought in the American Revolution. Born in 1870 in New York, Cardozo had a long, distinguished career as an author on legal matters and a jurist before being named an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court by Herbert Hoover in 1932. Cardozo was the second Jew to reach this height; the first being Louis D. Brandies. At one time, Cardozo was ranked as one of the "ten most foremost judges in American Judicial history." Cardozo was an active member of the Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue in New York. During the 1930’s, with the rise of European anti-Semitism and Hitler, Cardozo became a public supporter of Palestine as a homeland for the Jews.

    1938(10thof Tammuz, 5698): Eighty-year old Calude Goldsmid Montefiore the son of Nathaniel Montefiore and the grandson of Sir I.L. Goldsmid passed away today who was one of the founders of Liberal (Reform) Judaism in the United Kingdom passed away today.

    1938: Two seventeen year old Jewish hikers were stabbed and seriously wounded this morning “while passing through an Arab village, a mile from Tel Aviv on the main Jaffa-Jerusalem road.  They were stripped and left by the roadside until found by a passing motorist.” The attack marked the end of bloody week in which Arab attackers had killed 12 Jews and wounded another 24.

    1939(22nd of Tammuz, 5699): Ukrainian born Boris Thomashefsky who came to the United States in 1881 where his singing and acting skills made him “one of the biggest stars in the Yiddish theatre” passed away today.

    1940:With the end of the subscription series of the Palestine Symphony Orchestra the musical season has closed. Thirteen series have been presented this year in Tel Aviv, Haifa, and Jerusalem--compared to the ten series of former years. Special programs for the colonies

    1940: Between today and the end of August, 2,139 Jewish and Gentile Poles received visas from the Japanese.

    1941: Birthdate of Yosef Shiloach, the native of Iranian Kurdisan and Israeli actor who made Aliyah at the age of 9.

    1941(14thof Tammuz, 5701): In Liepāja, Latvia, Erhard Grauel, a detachment of Einsatzkommando 2 under the command of Erhard Grauel,  murdered another 100 people today, most of whom were Jews.

    1941:Birthdate of Bobby Frankel, one of the most successful American thoroughbred trainers, whose horses included the champions Bertrando, Ghostzapper and Empire Maker, the winner of the 2003 Belmont Stakes.

    1941(14thof Tammuz, 5701): Seventy-three year old Zionist leader David Jochelman who opposed the offer of Uganda as a Jewish home and spent WW I in London where he founded the Jewish War Victims’ Fund and the Russo-Jewish War Fund passed away today.

    1941: During the invasion of the Soviet Union, Zhitomir, a city in the Ukraine with pre-war Jewish population of 29,503 was seized by the Nazis.

    1941: Hungary invaded the eastern Ukraine. Hungary was an ally of Nazi Germany during the war. Hungary's Jews suffered at the hand of homegrown anti-Semites.  But eventually Eichman arrived and the full weight of the Final Solution fell, first in the countryside in places like Sighet and later in the big cities, most notably Budapest.

    1942(24thof Tammuz, 5702): Eighty-two year old German historian Ernst Bernheim who lost his career during the Nazi era because he was classified as a Jew died today.

    1942: Anne Frank’s family went into hiding in an attic above her father’s office in an Amsterdam warehouse.

    1942: Jewish partisan Vitka Kempner returns to the Vilna Ghetto, having successfully planted a land mine and blown up the engine and ammunition cars of a German military train.

    1943(6thof Tammuz, 5703): Sixty year old Isidore Goudeket, the Amsterdam native who was part of the Dutch gymnastic at the 1908 Summer Olympics was murdered today at Sobibor.

    1943: Operation Husky began tonight as Allied troops began landing in Sicily.  The Germans and Italians were not expecting the landings thanks, in large part, to Operation Mincemeat.  Operation Mincemeat was one of the most successful acts of subterfuge carried during World War II.  It was mastermind by Edwin Montagu, a Colonel in the British Army who belonged to of the UK’s most distinguished Jewish families.  Operation Mincemeat convinced the Germans that the invasion would come at Greece or Sardinia and not the island off the toe of the Italian Boot.  For more about this you might want to see “The Man Who Never Was” or read the recently published Operation Mincemeat by Ben Macintyre.

    1944: Responding to Allied pressure, especially threats to hold Hungary’s leadership responsible for the shipment of Hungarian Jews to Auschwitz prompted Admiral Miklos Horthy, Hungary's regent, to stop deportations.

    1944: Jack Simonowitz and the former Rose Cohen gave birth to Evelyn May Simonowitz who gained fame as Evelyn Lieberman who was “the first woman to serve as deputy chief of staff to a U.S. President” and “banished” Monica Lewinskey “to a job outside the White House.” (As reported by Sam Roberts)

    1944: Raoul Wallenberg arrived in Budapest where he presented visas for 630 Hungarian Jews. Raoul Wallenberg was one of the greatest human beings in history. This Swedish national risked his life over and over again to save the Jews of Hungary. With only Chutzpah, Courage and a fair stash of cash, this man faced down the Nazi murder machine and made it give up some of its Jews. He is living proof that one person can make a difference. I have never been able to find any satisfactory reason why he risked his life for this thankless undertaking. In the end, the Soviets entered Budapest and took him away to a fate that is still unknown. That the world remained silent while Six Million perished is an oft-told tale. That the world (specifically the governments of the Allied powers) did not push for this man’s release is a permanent stain.

    1944: Today the “Kasztner Rescue Train” which had left Budapest on June 30th was diverted to Bergen Belsen today. [For more see Gaylen Ross’  2 Disc Dvd of “Killing Kasztner” which is now available on  Amazon

    1944: Ed Koch, the future Mayor of New York, who was fighting with U.S. Army in Europe wrote in his diary: “Patrolling today. Our object was to get out of a forest. We had to go from cover to cover. I hid behind a tree and assumed the prone position. Lt. Reed came over with the Lt. Col. and said, “Koch, on what side of a tree do you aim from,” I said, “On the right side.” He said, “So what the hell are you doing on the left side?”

    1945; Birthdate of Donald Lee “Don” Novick, the native of Cheyenne, Wyoming whose culinary skill and generosity would make him an unsung hero of the Cedar Rapids Jewish community before his untimely death.

    1945: Birthdate of Rabbi Gene Levy, the spiritual leader, in the truest sense of that term, of Temple B’Nai Israel in Little Rock, AR.

    1945: Sixty-three year old Amalie ("Emma") Henriette Jessen the widow of German historian Ernst Bernheim who lost his career during the Nazi era because he was classified as a Jew passed away today.

    1947: Today, the day on which Noah Klieger was supposed to lead of a group of DP’s across France to the port of Sete, plans were upset because “the French trucking union opened a nationwide strike for higher wages and built road blockades on all mainline roads.”

    1948:  During the War of Independence, Egyptian artillery opened fire on Kfar Darom.  This was followed by an attack led by an armored column and infantry.  When the Egyptians entered the settlement they found that the Jews had already decamped. Goliath had beaten David, but it was a pyrrhic victory, since the defenders had upset the Egyptian timetable for taking Tel Aviv. This military action took place during what was supposed to be a four week cease fire between the Arabs and the Israelis.

    1948: The four week cease fire between the Israelis and the invading Arab armies was set to end.  The Arabs rejected attempts by Count Bernadotte, the U.N. envoy, to extend the cease fire for another ten days.

    1948: Israeli forces launched Operation Danny, an offensive designed “to capture territory east of Tel Aviv” and then open the road to Jerusalem in a bid to break the Arab stranglehold on the city. The offensive was named after Danny Mass, the commander of “Convoy 35” and was under the command of Yigal Allon and Yitzhak Rabin.  The undertrained and poorly armed Jewish forces were up against the Arab Legion, the elite British trained army of Jordan.  The ultimate key to victory would in the need to capture the seemingly impregnable Arab position at Latrun. “Convoy 35” refers to an attempt made by a detachment of Haganah troopers to bring supplies to the Gush Etzion kibbutzim in January of 1948.  Thirty-five died in the attempt and many of their bodies were mutilated beyond recognition.

    1948: Israeli forces launched an all-night bombardment as part of an attempt to re-take the Old City.

    1948(2ndof Tammuz): Twenty-six year old Robert “Bob” Vickman a WW II veteran of the USAAF who was a member of 101 Squadron died today while fighting against aircraft from the REAF.

    1948: The fifth Israeli attack on the Egyptian-held police fort of Iraq Suwaydan came to an end with the installation still in the hands of the Arabs.

    1948:Mordechai Weingarten “was chosen to meet Abdullah el Tell, now the Jordanian Military Commander of the Old City, to discuss the release of the prisoners taken in the Jewish Quarter, the burial of bodies left in the Quarter, and the rescue of any Scrolls of the Law that had survived.”

    1950: In Israel, 100 orderlies joined 2,000 nurses who were already on strike.  Both groups are “demanding better working conditions.”

    1951: Australia, South Africa and the United Kingdom ended their state of war with Germany today.

    1951: Haifa native Ivry “Gitlis made his debut in Paris, playing a recital at the 'Salle Gaveau', sponsored by the music manager.”

    1951:The Jerusalem Post reported that Jerusalem was assured of a regular supply of ice for domestic purposes from outside of the city and that the government granted a subsidy, due to the cost of the transport of ice from the coast. The Jerusalem Program for Zionism, replacing the Basel Program drawn up at the First Zionist Congress in 1897, was drawn up for the 23rd Zionist Congress to be held in Jerusalem on August 14.

    1952: In Hollywood, CA, Nicholas M. Schenck of New York, president of Loew’s, Inc. outlined plans for the company’s first sweeping economy move since the Great Depression which included an immediate pay cut of 25 to 50 percent for any executive making more than $1,000 a week.

    1955(19thof Tammuz, 5715): Parashat Pinchas

    1955(19thof Tammuz, 5715): Eighty-six year old Chicago born Albert Pick, Sr. the founder of what has become the Pick Hotels Corporation which is now headed by his son Albert Pick, Jr and the father of Mrs. Gertrude Edmunds passed away today in Miami Beach, FL.

    1955: Today “just two weeks before the Big Four…are scheduled to meet at Geneva” where nuclear disarmament will be an agenda item, pacifist Earl Russell is scheduled to released “a statement on nuclear weapons by Dr. Albert Einstein” which the Nobel Prize winner had given him shortly before his death.

    1955: The Russell-Einstein Manifesto was released by Bertrand Russell in London.  The manifesto was an attempt by the “peace advocates” to deescalate the Cold War by calling attention to the dangers of nuclear weapons.  It contained a call for an international conference to deal with issues of nuclear disarmament.  The Einstein in the manifesto was Albert Einstein who died shortly after the manifesto was issued.

    1956(1st of Av, 5716): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1957(10thof Tammuz, 5717): Fifty-five year old Maxwell Abbell, the Polish born son of Morris and Freida Abell, husband of Fannie Abell with whom he had five children and Harvard graduate who worked as an accountant in Chicago until he passed the Illinois bar 1938 after which he became the “owner of hotels and buildings throughout the United States” and a leader in the Jewish community as can be seen by his service as “vice president of the  American-Palestine Trading Corporation,” President of the United Synagogues of America and trustee of the JNF passed away today.

    1957: “Loving You” the first of Elvis Presley’s musicals directed Hal Kanter who co-wrote the screenplay and produced by Hal B. Wallis and with music by Walter Scharf was released today in the United States (Editor’s Note – Elvis was not Jewish but all of the others were.

    1958: Shayetet 13 operatives infiltrated Beirut harbor in Operation Yovel. They were discovered, and a gunfight and chase ensued. The commandos were able to retreat without any casualties

    1961: Israel officially recognized South Korea

    1962: “Yossele Schumacher, who was reunited with both his parents last night for the first time in more than two years,” is scheduled to take the stand today “in Jerusalem District Court in the trial of a couple charged with hiding him before he was spirited out of Israel.”

    1962: Birthdate of New York native and Ivy League educated (Penn and Harvard Law) investor Steve Eisman who gained fame after appearing The Big Short by Michael Lewis which provided the fodder for the film of the same name that exposed the sub-prime market and who is a vocal opponent of “for profit colleges” – the educational equivalent of the sub-prime cesspool.

    1963(17thof Tammuz, 5723): Unbeknownst to anybody, last observance of Tzom Tammuz during the Presidency of John Kennedy.

    1963(17thof Tammuz, 5723): Eighty-eight year old Lawrence A. Tanzer, the Ivy League educated lawyer (Harvard and Columbia University Law School) the son of Arnold and Ida Tanzer and husband of Florence Keller Tanzer with whom he had two daughters who was a civic reformer and a driving force behind creation of the city charter that was in effect until January of this year, passed away today.

    1964: Mr. and Mrs. Zeev Jabotinsky are scheduled to be reinterred in a Jerusalem cemetery today.

    1967:Mezzo-soprano Jennie Tourel joined Leonard Bernstein for a concert on Jerusalem's Mount Scopus to celebrate the end of the Six-Day War. It was a moment that brought together several of the themes of her life: music, dedication to Israel, and work with prominent composers and conductors. Born in Vitebsk, Belorussia (now Belarus) in 1900, she trained as a singer in Paris, where she debuted at the Opéra Comique in 1933. She won acclaim for her performance of the title role in Bizet's Carmen. For nearly a decade, she was the star of the Opéra Comique, singing the roles of Charlotte in Massenet's Werther and the title role in Thomas's Mignon. Fleeing Paris just a week before the Nazi invasion, Tourel made her way to New York via Portugal, Cuba, and Canada. Though at first she had trouble finding work, she eventually impressed a musical agent who arranged an audition with the conductor Arturo Toscanini. Toscanini, in turn, hired her to sing with the New York Philharmonic, and she soon appeared with the Boston Symphony Orchestra and the Philadelphia Orchestra as well. Later, Leonard Bernstein wrote the Jeremiah Symphony especially for her voice, and Tourel performed it all over the world. In her late forties, Tourel became well-known as a song recitalist. Though she had received critical and popular acclaim for her work in opera, her performances of French, German, and Russian songs, including Ravel's Shéhérazade, Mussorgsky's Songs and Dances of Death, and works by Schubert and Schumann, gained her an even wider circle of fans. At an age when many singers retire, Tourel continued to give acclaimed performances to eager audiences. She continued to perform until past the age of seventy. In addition to performing all over the world, Tourel taught at New York's Juilliard School, and annually at the Samuel Rubin Academy of Music in Jerusalem. In 1949, she became one of the first internationally-known artists to visit the infant Jewish state. Following that first visit, she remained involved in the musical life of Israel, with frequent visits and master classes. Tourel died on November 23, 1973. Leonard Bernstein paid her tribute in a eulogy at her funeral, saying, ‘when Jennie opened her mouth, God spoke.’”

    1967: INS Eilat, a Z Class destroyer commanded by Yitzhak Shushan, set sail due west toward the Sinai coast.

    1967: Ninety-three year old Dr. Eugene Fisher the member of the Nazi Party who was appointed rector of the Frederick William University of Berlin by Adolf Hitler, who provided the basis for many of Nazi policies on eugenics and who escaped prosecution by whitewashing his record, passed away today.

    1969:  Egyptian commandos raid an Israeli tank depot, killing 8, wounding nine and taking one prisoner.

    1969: Twenty-two year old Israeli singer/song writer Mike Brant, who had changed his name from Moshe in an attempt to increase his appeal, arrived in Paris today where he was told he could meet a producer who would further his music career.

    1970:  “Where’s Poppa?” a comedy starring George Segal and Ron Leibman directed by Carl Reiner who cast his son Rob as “Roger” was released in the United States today.

    1970: A London revival production of a musical “with a book by Moss Hart” and lyrics co-written by Oscar Hammerstein II opened today at the Drury Lane Theatre.

    1973: The Ninth Maccabiah games open in Tel Aviv, Israel.

    1974(19thof Tammuz, 5734): Seventy year old Lithuanian born “choreographer and dance teacher” Sonia Gaskell who in 1939 move to her husband’s home in the Netherlands where she survived the war  and continued teaching until she passed away today in Paris.

    1975: “Smile” a satirical comedy with a screenplay by Jerry Belson that Marvin Hamlisch would convert into a 1986 Broadway musical was released today in the United States.

    1976: The Jerusalem Post reported on the tragic fate of Dora Bloch, who held both British and Israeli citizenship, and who remained at a Ugandan hospital after all the other hijacked Israelis were freed by the Entebbe IDF operation. She ominously disappeared from the hospital after having been visited by a British official, one day after the Israeli raid, and was suspected of having been later murdered. Israel cited this case at the UN as an apparent example of Ugandan complicity in the high jacking of the Air France plane.

    1976: In response to the demands of African governments, the UN Security Council is met today “to take up their charge that Israel’s recuse of hijacked hostages at Entebbe airport in Uganda was a case of ‘wanton aggression.’”

    1976: In Highland Park, Illinois, Joanne and Lewis Savage gave birth to actor Frederick Aaron “Fred” Savage the older brother of actor Ben Savage and actress Kala Savage.

    1978: After 147 performances a revival of David Merrick’s “Hello Dolly starring Carol Channing came to a close at the Lunt-Fontanne Theatre.

    1979: A car bomb destroys a Renault owned by famed "Nazi hunters" Serge and Beate Klarsfeld at their home in France. A note purportedly from ODESSA claims responsibility.

    1986(2nd of Tammuz, 5746): Seventy-five year old journalist, author and political science professor Harold Isaacs passed away today. (As reported by Jane Perlez)

    1991: Playwright Ariel Dorfman’s “Death and the Maiden” premiered at the Royal Court Theatre today.

    1993(20thof Tammuz, 5753): Sixty-seven year old television producer and director Steve Previn, the brother Andre Previn passed away today.

    1997: Michael Eitan succeeded Benjamin Netanyahu as Minister of Science and Technology

    1998: ABC broadcast the final episode of “Prey” a sci-fi television series starring Debra Messing.

    1999: U.S. premier of “American Pie,” the first in a series of coming-of-age teen movies produced and directed Paul Weitz and Chris Weitz, featuring Eugene Levy as Noah Levenstein and Eli Marienthal as Matt Stifler

    2000: The New York Times features reviews books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Oberammergau: The Troubling Story of the World's Most Famous Passion Play by James Shapiro and Freud’s Megalomania by Israel Rosenfield.

    2001: President George Bush awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom to 11 people including A.M. Rosenthal of the New York Times and Katherine Graham of the Washington Post.

    2001: Hamas took credit for today’s bombing at the Kussufim border crossing.

    2001(18thof Tammuz, 5761)(Capt. Shai Shalom Cohen, 22, of Pardes Hanna, was killed and another soldier was wounded when an explosive charge detonated beneath their jeep after leaving the Aduraim IDF base south of Hebron.

    2001(18thof Tammuz, 5761): Eighty-three year old “Morris H. Bergreen, a lawyer, businessman and administrator who as president of the Skirball Foundation oversaw the donation of millions of dollars to New York University, the Skirball Cultural Center in Los Angeles” passed away today. (As reported by Eric Pace)

    2001: “Playing a Bit of Wagner Sets Off an Uproar in Israel” published today described the reaction to Daniel Barenboim’s decision to use a piece by the German composer at a Jerusalem concert.

    2002: A production of “Pacific Overtures,” “a musical written by Stephen Sondheim and John Weidman” set in Japan when the Americans were arriving in 1853 opened at Avery Fisher Hall at Lincoln Center.

    2002: Moshe "Bogie" Ya'alon was appointed IDF Chief of Staff.

    2002: “Zig Zag,” a movie treatment of the novel directed by David S. Goyer was released in the United States today.

    2004: After premiering in Los Angeles, “Anchorman: The Legend of Ron Burgundy” a comedy produced by Judd Apatow and co-starring Paull Rudd was released throughout the United States.

    2004(20thof Tammuz, 5764: Sixty-six year old Rudy “Roughhouse Rudy” LaRusso the Dartmouth grad who went on career in the NBA passed away today.

    2006(13thof Tammuz, 5766): Alan Senitt, a 27 year old political activist from north London who was being prepped for a glittering career, was stabbed to death in Georgetown.  Police said he was trying to protect his female companion when they were targeted by armed robbers as they walked home in Washington DC. The former chairman of the Union of Jewish Students (UJS), Senitt had moved to the US to work on Democrat Mark Warner's presidential campaign.

    2007: Ryan Kalish was named New York Penn – League Player for the week starting today.

    2007: “Spielberg on Spielberg’ – a 90 minute documentary about the celebrated film maker – appears on TCM, The Turner Classic Movies Channel.

    2007: In a story entitled “Bishop mourns Latin decree, Jews ask for clarity,” The Washington Post reported that “a decree by Pope Benedict allowing priests to say the old Latin Mass more frequently has sparked criticism within both Catholic and Jewish ranks…Some Jewish leaders have sharply criticized the decree, which revives a passage from the old Latin prayer book for Good Friday calling for Jews to be converted. Others, however, took a more measured tone and called for clarification. “I think there are those who have interpreted it in an extremely alarmist fashion,’ Rabbi David Rosen of the American Jewish Committee (AJC) told Reuters.’ That doesn't mean that there aren't things that need clarification but there is no question of Pope Benedict's commitment to respectful relations with the Jewish people.’ The AJC's Rome representative, Lisa Palmieri-Billig, said the text of the decree was ambiguous on the issue. Church officials however had no doubt the prayer could now be said in certain circumstances, even if its use would probably be rare. ‘I find it difficult to believe that the Pope would permit the Good Friday prayer, it could be a communication mistake,’ Palmieri-Billig said. ‘Conversion is a very sensitive issue for Jews and if the prayer is allowed, it would be a step backwards for dialogue.’ French Cardinal Jean-Pierre Ricard, who warned last year against meeting traditionalists' demands for the Latin mass, said on Saturday the prayer could be changed if it caused difficulties with Jews.”

    2007: In a night time gathering, some 30,000 people including about 5,000 Negev residents attended the "We are all Sderot" solidarity concert at Rabin Square in Tel Aviv, to show support for the residents of Sderot and other communities bordering the Gaza Strip, who live under the constant threat of Qassam rocket fire.

    2007: French-Israeli writer Andre Chouraqui, known for his French-language translation of the Bible and his work in government in Israel, passed away at the age of 89 at his home in Jerusalem.

    2008:  In Washington, D.C., Robert Wexler a six-term U.S. congressman from Florida, discusses and signs Fire-Breathing Liberal: How I Learned to Survive (and Thrive) in the Contact Sport of Congress(written with David Fisher) at Borders Books.

    2008: Ted Koppel’sfour-part Discovery Channel series, “The People’s Republic of Capitalism,” which illustrates how dramatically China has changed begins with three other installments at the same time on successive nights.

    2008: At Temple Sinai in Roslyn, NY, funeral services were held for Brenda “Bunny” Koppelman the wife of Charles Koppelman.

    2008: Professor Sarah Stroumsa of the departments of Arabic Language and Literature and of Jewish Thought has been elected by the Senate of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem as the institution’s new rector.

    2009: “The House Homeland Security Committee today will consider the Transportation Security Workforce Enhancement Act of 2009, introduced earlier this year by Rep. Nita Lowey (D-N.Y.). The bill gives workers the option to join a union, codifies veterans preference in hiring and whistleblower protections.” (As reported by Ed O’Keefe)

    2009: The Jerusalem Film Festival features a screening of “A Matter of Size,” a film about a group of disillusioned dieting Jews from Ramla who, through the efforts of one of their cohorts named Herzl and his Japanese employer, learn about the wonders of Sumo wrestling which liberates them physically and spiritually.

    2009(17th of Tammuz, 5769): Tzom Tammuz:

    2010: Chief of General Staff Lt.-Gen. Gabi Ashkenazi and Defense Minister Ehud Barak announced a round of new appointments within the General Staff. The IDF military attaché in Washington, DC, Maj.-Gen Benny Gantz, will be next deputy chief of general staff, in place of Maj.-Gen Dan Harel. Two other contenders for the top post were OC Northern Command Maj.-Gen. Gadi Eizenkot and OC Southern Command Maj.-Gen. Yoav Galant. They will remain in their positions for another year, although there is a possibility that Galant will be appointed head of Ground Forces Command. Barak and Ashkenazi also decided that Maj.-Gen. Amos Yadlin, head of Military Intelligence, will remain in his post for a fifth year. Defense officials have said that disagreements between Ashkenazi and Barak have been holding up a final decision on the new appointments. Ashkenazi was said to have favored Eizenkot as his deputy. Barak was said to have preferred Gantz.

    2010: The 7th AICE Australian Film Festival is scheduled to show “Samson and Delilah” in Tel Aviv.

    2010: The Schalits expressed their disappointment when they left their meeting with Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu today. "We did not receive any news today, that can calm us," said Noam. He continued, "the prime minister did not tell use anything new. We will not leave the protest tent [outside the prime minister's official residence] without Gilad."
    2010(27th of Tammuz, 5770)RabbYehuda Amital, the Rosh Yeshiva of Yeshivat Har Etzion and a former member of the Israeli cabinet passed away today
    2011: Jennifer Chadick is scheduled to be called to the Torah as a Bat Mitzvah at Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, IA.

    2011: William “Bill” Gasway, a pillar of the Cedar Rapids Jewish community and an all around “good guy” and his grandsons Adam & Sam, are each scheduled to be called to the Torah in Door County, Wisconsin as part of a Triple Header Bar Mitzvah. Bill joins the comedian Henny Youngman in proving age is no bar to celebrating a Bar Mitzvah.
    2011(7thof Tammuz): Yahrzeit of Rabbi Pinchas Horowitz
    2011: In Detroit, Michigan, Isaac Agree Downtown Synagogue is scheduled to combine religious observance with popular culture in an evening of Havdalah and The Difference, a music revue.
    2011:A senior Hamas official hinted today that captured IDF soldier Gilad Shalit is still alive, Channel 10 reported.
    2012: If Dani Dayan, the head of the settlers’ Yesha Council has his way a vote of confidence will be held today to decide if there is popular support for “his pragmatic strategy.”
    2012: A day-long Golf Classic sponsored by B'nai B'rith Great Lakes Region is scheduled to take place at the Wabeek Country Club.
    2012: “The Sephardic Divas” and the band Ofir are scheduled to perform at the Inaugural Gibraltar World Music Festival. (As reported by Mordechai Shinefield)

    2012: The Israel Air Force fire on two Hamas targets in the Gaza Strip late tonight, according to Ynet. The outlet first quoted Palestinian sources, then noted that the IDF Spokesman’s Office had confirmed the air strikes. One target was in Rafiah and the other was Khan Younis, according to Palestinian rescue services.
    2012: Non-Orthodox US Jews below the age of 35 are more attached to Israel than those aged 35-44, but are skeptical about Israeli policies concerning the Palestinians, according to a recent survey.
    2012: “The Levy Report, officially called Report on the Legal Status of Building in Judea and Samaria  an 89-page report on West Bank settlements authored by a three member committee headed by former Israeli Supreme Court justice Edmund Levy was published today.

    2013: Paula “Abdul was a guest judge on So You Think You Can Dance.”
     2013: “Sukkah City” is among the films scheduled to be shown today at the 30th Annual Jerusalem Film Festival.
    2013: “Claims Conference board members Natan Sharansky, chairman of the Jewish Agency for Israel, and Ronald Lauder, president of the World Jewish Congress, demanded today that, to maintain independence, any such future investigation must be composed mainly of representatives of the State of Israel and of Jewish groups that do not sit on the Claims Conference board.” (As reported by Paul Berger)
    2013: The British Association for Jewish Studies Annual Conference is scheduled to come to an end today.
    2013: Ravid Kahalani, an Israeli born Yemenite Jew, is scheduled to perform at City Winery in New York City.
    2013 Hezbollah blamed Israel for a powerful car bomb blasted the illusive quiet in a Hezbollah area of Beirut t0day, wounding at least 50 people.  No deaths have been reported, despite initial accounts that “one to several” people died in the explosion. (As reported by Tzvi Ben-Gedalyahu)

    2013: IDF troops found the remains today of the first rocket to be fired from Egypt since the July 3 overthrow of the Islamist government there, a military official said.

    2013: A haredi soldier was attacked by dozens of haredi men tonight in the ultra- Orthodox Jerusalem neighborhood of Mea She’arim.

    2014: In Portland, Oregon, Congregation Ahavath Achim is scheduled to show “The Longest Journey,” a cinematic tribute to the lost Jewish community of Rhodes.

    2014: According to reports today, filming of “Woman in Gold” was underway in Los Angeles.

    2014: The Agudas Achim Sisterhood is scheduled to “provide signs, pompoms and cheers” as part of “Sisterhood Night at the Ball Park.

    2014: “President-elect Reuven Rivlin, Chief Rabbi Lau, and an assembly of interfaith leader called today for an end to violence which has engulfed southern Israel and Gaza in recent days.”Stop the cycle of violence, and prevent further harm to innocent lives." (As reported by Kobi Nachshoni)

    2014: “Barring any unusual developments, three of the six suspects arrested for the murder of Mohammed Abu Khdeir will be released on a seven-day house arrest tomorrow, the Petah Tikva Magistrate's Court decided today.” (As reported by Aviel Magnezi)

    2014(11thof Tammuz, 5774): Ninety-two year old Holocaust survivor, successful businessman and generous philanthropist David Azrieli passed away today.

    2014: “Code Red sirens blared across southern and central Israel tonight, from Ashkelon to Gan Yavne, as Gaza militants resumed their rocket-launching activities.”

    2014(11thof Tammuz, 5774): Ninety-year old “Robert Stein, who helped expand the scope of women’s magazines as editor in chief of McCall’s and Redbook in the early stages of the modern women’s movement, publishing articles about race and politics and introducing readers to the nascent writings of feminist leaders like Betty Friedan and Gloria Steinem,” passed away today.

    2015: “Following a lawsuit from Haaretz and Yedioth Ahronoth a gag was lifted that made it possible for an Israeli security source to tell reports that twenty-eight year old “Ethiopian-born Israeli Mengistu” from Ashkelon who crossed the border into Gaza for unknown reasons in September “is alive and being kept by Hamas in Gaza. (As reported by Ave Lewis, Judah Ari Gorss and Raphael Ahren)

    2015: The Center for Jewish History is scheduled to host Shelly Oria, a “New York based Israeli author, who will read from her best-selling debut New York 1, Tel Aviv 0, and talk about writing between the here and there of spaces and languages, about the amalgamating Israeli and American literary influences on her work, and more.”

    2015: “The opening of the Jerusalem International Film Festival was punctuated tonight by booing for Culture and Sports Minister Miri Regev (Likud) and remembrances for Lia Van Leer, the doyenne of the country’s film scene who died earlier this year.”

    2015(22ndof Tammuz, 5775): Seventy- four year old “stockbroker-turned-composer Michael Masser” passed away today. (As reported by Sam Roberts)

    2015:Center for Jewish History, American Jewish Historical Society and Leo Baeck Institute are scheduled to host the event marking the opening the exhibition “Allied in the Fight: Jews, Blacks and the Struggle for Civil Rights.

    2015: Settlement Over Anti-Semitic Bullying at Pine Bush Central Schools Is Approved published today.

    2015: An exhibition of the works of Haifa born artist Guy Yanai who now works and lives in Tel Aviv is scheduled to open in New York.

    2016(3rdof Tammuz, 5776): Parshat Korach

    2016(3rdof Tammuz, 5776): Twenty-second Yahrtzeit of The Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem M. Schneerson of Righteous Memory.

    2016(3rdof Tammuz, 5776): Eighty-two year old “Sydney H. Schanberg, a correspondent for The New York Times who won a Pulitzer Prize for covering Cambodia’s fall to the Khmer Rouge in 1975 and inspired the film “The Killing Fields” with the story of his Cambodian colleague’s survival during the genocide of millions” passed away today. (As reported by Robert D. McFadden)

    2016: In Memphis, at Temple Israel, Rabbi Kamin, son of Dawn Butler and Dr. Ehud Kamin is scheduled to be called to the Torah as a Bar Mitzvah.

    2016: “Indignation” a film based on the Philip Roth’s novel is scheduled to be shown at the Jerusalem Film Festival.

    2016: “Opposition members raised the possibility today of Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu being forced to step down in light of various investigations into his financial conduct.”

    2017: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Doorpost of Your House and On Your Gates by Jacob Bacharach, Behave: The Biology of Humans at Our Best and Worst by Robert M. Sapolsky and the recently released paperback edition of Mischling by Affinity Konar as well as an interview with A. Scott Berg, “The biographer and consulting producer of Amazon’s “The Last Tycoon”

    2017: Today, “a few remaining survivors and France’s Grand Rabbi Haim Korisa” gathered in the city of Sete which was marking the 70th anniversary of attempt by approximately 4,500 Jews to escape aboard “a rickety steamer” and run the British blockade in an attempt to reach Palestine.

    2017: In a testament to the vitality of “small town Jewry,” in Coralville, IA, the Sisterhood is scheduled to host a Challah Baking Demonstration.

    2017: The HUB is scheduled to host “an Israeli event featuring the best of Israeli food, music and entertainment” “at the Maccabiah version of an Olympic Village.”

    2017: The final performance of “Parade,” which is based on the lynching of Leo Frank is scheduled to take place today at the Writer’s Theater in Glencoe, a suburb of Chicago.

    2017: The YIVO Institute for Jewish Research is scheduled to present the “annual Mordkhe Schaecter Memorial Program.”

    2018: JW3 is scheduled to host a screening of Episodes 1-3 of “Your Honor” “binge-worthy thriller” from Israel.

    2018: Based on reports last night from “Arab media outlets” that the IAF had struck at Iranian forces stationed in Syria, Israeli’s are bracing for an attack from forces in Gaza, north of the Golan, Lebanon or Judea-Samaria.

    2018: “Ben Gurion, Epilogue” is scheduled to be shown at the 9th Annual Axelrod Israel Jewish Film Festival.

    2018: “The Museum Teacher Fellowship Program” sponsored by the US Holocaust Memorial Museum that “seeks to train leaders in the field of Holocaust education” is scheduled to being today.



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    July 10

    48 BCE: In his war with Pompey, Julius Caesar barely avoids defeat at the Battle of Dyrrhachium.  A month later, after regrouping his forces, Caesar defeated Pompey at the Battle of Pharsalus.  While neither of the Roman leaders were candidates for humanitarian of the year, Caesar was the better of the two; certainly from a Jewish point of view.  Pompey had shown his contempt for the Jews when he desecrated the Holy of Holies.  Caesar, on the other hand, took a benevolent attitude towards the Jews and did not mistreat them.

    138: The Roman Emperor Hadrian died. From a Jewish perspective, Hadrian would have to rank as one of the worst of the Roman Emperors.  He triggered the Bar Kochbah Revolt with his anti-Jewish decrees that included a ban on circumcision and the announcement that he was going to build a Temple to Jupiter in Jerusalem thus turning the sacred city of the Jews into a pagan shrine. The three yearlong rebellion was a savage one at the end of which over half a million Jewish rebels were killed.  Furthermore so many towns and villages were laid waste that home of the Jews became a veritable wasteland.  While the Romans may have one the victory must have been a hollow one since, when making his report to the Senate, Hadrian omitted that standard victory statement, “I am my army are well.”  Hadrian took his vengeance on the Jews.  He had a Torah scroll burned on the Temple Mount.  He renamed Jerusalem Aelia Capitolina and changed the name of the country from Judea to Syria Palestina. We are reminded of Hadrian’s evil each year at the High Holiday season when we remember the martyrs who slain by him for continuing to teach the Torah.  Ironically, Hadrian’s handpicked successor would repeal many of Hadrian’s anti-Semitic decrees.  But the damage was one and the fate of the Jews of in Eretz Israel continued on a downward spiral.

    988: The City of Dublin is founded on the banks of the river Liffey. Since the earliest mention of Jews dates from 1079, there were no Jews among the founders.  During the first half of the 20thcentury the Portobello section of Dublin was known as Little Jerusalem because it was the center of the Irish Jewish community.  Ironically, the most famous Jewish “citizen” of Little Jerusalem never really lived there because he was “Leopold Bloom, the fictional Jewish character at the heart of the James Joyce novel Ulysses, lived at 52 Clanbrassil Street Upper.”

    1236: In Anjou, France, “crusading monks trampled three thousand Jews to death and destroyed the community.” (The History of the Jewish People)

    1290: King Ladislaus IV of Hungary died. His reign was not one of the high points in the history of Hungarian Jewry. The Synod of Buda which was held during his reign decreed that every Jew appearing in public should wear on the left side of his upper garment a piece of red cloth; that any Christian transacting business with a Jew not so marked, or living in a house or on land together with any Jew, should be refused admittance to the Church services; and that a Christian entrusting any office to a Jew should be excommunicated.

    1391: As news of the Spanish riots reached Majorca, riots broke out all over the island. Despite the efforts of Francisco Sa Garriga, the local viceroy, in many towns the entire Jewish community was destroyed and its inhabitants either converted or murdered. Over 110 families converted; the remnants fled to North Africa. Although the following year a number Jews were again invited to reside there, a blood libel 40 years later ended the 800-year old Jewish community.

    1509: Birthdate of Protestant religious leader and theologian John Calvin.  According to at least one commentator, Calvin “generally had a more benevolent view of the Jews” than did other Protestant reformers such as Martin Luther.  “Although at times his remarks could be acerbic, he nevertheless taught that the Bible indicated a time when Israel would be restored by coming to faith in their Messiah.  In speaking about the Jews, Calvin said,  "I extend the word Israel to all the people of God, according to this meaning, ­When the Gentiles shall come in, the Jews also shall return from their defection to the obedience of faith; and thus shall be completed the salvation of the whole Israel of God, which must be gathered from both; and yet in such a way that the Jews shall obtain the first place, being as it were the first born in God's family.” “As Jews are the firstborn, what the Prophet declares must be fulfilled, especially in them: for that scripture calls all the people of God Israelites, it is to be ascribed to the pre-eminence of that nation, who God had preferred to all other nations...God distinctly claims for himself a certain seed, so that his redemption may be effectual in his elect and peculiar nation...God was not unmindful of the covenant which he had made with their fathers, and by which he testified that according to his eternal purpose he loved that nation: and this he confirms by this remarkable declaration, ­that the grace of the divine calling cannot be made void." One of the issues confronting Christians was the determination of the proper age for Baptism.  Calvin believed in the baptism of infants.  He saw baptism as analogous to circumcision – a rite by which the child is sealed in the faith of his fathers.  Since God had ordained circumcision for Jewish infants, it was obvious that He intended for Christian to undergo their version of the ritual as infants as well.

    1548: Eighteen hundred marranos were released from the prisons of the Portuguese Inquisition

    1733: George Frederick Handel conducted the premiere performance of “Athalia” at the Sheldonian Theatre in Oxford, UK. This was one of many times that the German born British musical giant used Jewish Biblical tales as the theme for his musical masterpieces. In this case, his work was based on the literary masterpiece by Racine which is fairly accurate depiction of this Jewish Lady Macbeth.

    1767: George Goldsmid married Rebecca Cohen in Amersfoort, Holland.

    1778: The French King, Louis XVI, allies his nation with the American revolutionaries and declares war on Great Britain. French support of the newly created United States was a decisive factor in the success of the American Revolution which gave birth to a nation that has provided Jews with unparalleled opportunities for success and safety.  At the same time, the king’s support of the American cause helped to bankrupt France; a bankruptcy which was a key element in bringing about the French Revolution which changed France into a land where Jews were able to flourish during the 19thand first half of the 20th century.   

    1781(17thof Tammuz, 5541): Tzom Tammuz

    1781: Esther Mordecai and Philip Moses Russell who “was a surgeon’s mate at Valley Forge during the Revolutionary War” gave birth to Zipporah Russell who married Isaac D. Mordecai and became Zipporah Russell Mordecai the mother of Isaac, John and Samuel Mordecai.

    1782: In Mogador, Morocco, “Eliahu Ha’Levi ibn Yuli a Shab as-Sultan (a court Jew) to Mohammed ben Abdallah, Sultan Sidi Muhammed III” and his wife gave birth to Moses Elias Levy, the father of David Levy Yulee, the future U.S. Senator from the state of Florida.

    1800(17thof Tammuz, 5560): Tzom Tammuz is observed for the first time in the 19thcentury and the last time during the Presidency of John Adams.

    1829: Birthdate of Filosseno (Philoxene) Luzzatto, an Italian scholar, who devoted himself to the study of Sanskrit and Semitic Languages. A native of Trieste, he was the son of Samuel David Luzzatto

    1830:Birthdate of Camille Pissarro. Of Sephardic extraction, he became an important Impressionist painter and teacher. He mostly painted the busy streets of Paris and landscapes. He was associated with Monet and Corot. In the last years of his life he achieved recognition, and although suffering from an eye ailment painted 160 works in the last three years of his life.

    1835: In Lublin, Tadeusz Wieniawski, Sr. and Regina Wieniawska gave birth to Henryk Wieniawski the husband of Izabella Wieniawska.

    1837: Thirty-four year old Moritz Moses Jacob von Goldschmidt and Anna Netti von Goldschmidt gave birth to Theodor von Goldschmidt.

    1839(28thof Tammuz, 5599): Seventy-two year old Philadelphia native Joseph Mordecai the third son of Moses and Elizabeth “Esther” Mordecai and the husband of Esther “Hetty” Marache the daughter of Solomon and Rebecca Marche who had lived in Virginia and South Carolina passed away today in Charleston.

    1845: John Cuffe, 3rd Earl of Desart, and Lady Elizabeth Lucy Campbell gave birth to William Cuffe, 4th Earl of Desart who married Ellen Odette Cuffe, Countess of Desart, the daughter of German banker Henri Louis Bischoffsheim who has been described as “the most important Jewish woman in Irish history.”

    1849: The United States Department of the Interior is established. Joel D. Wolfsohn who served as Assistant Secretary of the Department from in the final months of the Truman Administration appears to be the highest ranking Jew to have served at the Department of the Interior. He served from July 10, 1952 through February 20, 1953.

    1850: Millard Fillmore is inaugurated as the 13th President of the United States upon the death of President Zachary Taylor, 16 months into his term. In 1851, Fillmore expressed his opposition to ratifying a treaty with Switzerland that would allow the Swiss to discriminate against American Jews.  The Senate did not ratify the treaty. In 1852, Fillmore became the first President to try and appoint a Jew to the Supreme Court when he offered the position to Judah P. Benjamin, the U.S. Senator from Louisiana.  Benjamin declined the offer.

    1855: Birthdate of Isaac Newton Seligman, the New York born son of Joseph Seligman who was an “American banker and communal worker.” Educated at Columbia Grammar School and Columbia College, from which he graduated in 1876, Seligman was one of the crew which won the university eight-oar college race on Saratoga Lake in 1874. In 1878, after having finished an apprenticeship in the firm of Seligman & Hellman, New Orleans, he joined the New York establishment, of which he became head in 1880, on the death of his father. A trustee of nineteen important commercial, financial, and other institutions and societies, including the Munich Life Assurance Company, St. John's Guild, and the McKinley Memorial Association, and he has also been a member of the Committee of Seventy, of Fifteen, and of Nine, each of which attempted at various times to reform municipal government in New York; of the last-named body he was chairman. He has served as a trustee of Temple Emanu-El, the Hebrew Orphan Asylum and the United Hebrew Charities. (From the Jewish Encyclopedia)

    1857: The correspondent for the New York Times writes from London today that the House of Lords will vote tonight on the “Jew Bill” and if it is rejected, Rothschild will resign immediately.

    1862: Today, “the Chief Rabbi, Dr. N.M. laid the foundation stone” for the Bayswater Synagogue on Chichester Road.

    1864: Carl-Hyman Marcuse and Sophie Lewis, the parents of Wyatt Earp’s mistress Sadie Marcus, gave birth to Henrietta Marcus.

    1865: “Miscellaneous: The Jews In the Papal States” published today reported that “The Vicar-General of Velletri has issued an order permitting Jews to remain ten days in that town upon lawful and honest business. During that time they must net return to their lodgings later than 1 o'clock in the morning, or leave before dawn. They are forbidden to approach all monasteries, academics and other pious places under episcopal jurisdiction, and in their intercourse and conversation with Christians they are to refrain from familiarity. The violation of any of these dispositions is to be punished by imprisonment and a fine of five crowns, to be applied to pious establishments.”

    1865: The party under the command of Captain Charles Wilson that had made the most recent and most accurate survey of Jerusalem arrived in England.

    1866: “In the village Shekhman, Tambov Governorate in Russia (now Tambov Oblast),” French surgeon Serge Abrahamovitch Voronoff, the son of “Abram Veniaminovich Voronov, a distiller and Rachel-Esther Lipsky was circumcised today in a synagogue.

    1871: In Brooklyn, Nathan May and Matilda Mulhauser gave birth to Columbia School graduate Mitchell May, the Congressman from the 6th New York Congressional District, Secretary of State of New York, state Supreme Court Justice and husband of Pauline Joli.

    1871: Birthdate of French author Marcel Proust.  The following excerpt from “Marcel Proust”provides an interesting insight into Proust’s Jewish origins and his literary treatment of his ancestors on his mother’s side. “Marcel Proust was the son of a Christian father and a Jewish mother. He himself was baptized (on August 5, 1871, at the church of Saint-Louis d'Antin) and later confirmed as a Catholic, but he never practiced that faith and as an adult could best be described as a mystical atheist, someone imbued with spirituality who nonetheless did not believe in a personal God, much less in a savior. Although Jews trace their religion through their mothers, Proust never considered himself Jewish and even became vexed when a newspaper article listed him as a Jewish author. His father once warned him not to stay in a certain hotel since there were "too many" Jewish guests there, and, to be sure, in Remembrance of Things Past there are unflattering caricatures of the members of one Jewish family, the Blochs. Jews were still considered exotic, even "oriental," in France; in 1872 there were only eighty-six thousand Jews in the whole country. In a typically offensive passage Proust writes that in a French drawing room "a Jew making his entry as though he were emerging from the desert, his body crouching like a hyena's, his neck thrust forward, offering profound `salaams,' completely satisfies a certain taste for the oriental."  Proust never refers to his Jewish origins in his fiction, although in the youthful novel he abandoned, Jean Santeuil(first published only in 1952, thirty years after his death), there is a very striking, if buried, reference to Judaism. The autobiographical hero has quarreled with his parents and in his rage deliberately smashed a piece of delicate Venetian glass his mother had given him. When he and his mother are reconciled, he tells her what he has done: "He expected that she would scold him, and so revive in his mind the memory of their quarrel. But there was no cloud upon her tenderness. She gave him a kiss, and whispered in his ear: `It shall be, as in the Temple, the symbol of an indestructible union.'" This reference to the rite of smashing a glass during the Orthodox Jewish wedding ceremony, in this case sealing the marriage of mother to son, is not only spontaneous but chilling. In an essay about his mother he referred, with characteristic ambiguity, to "the beautiful lines of her Jewish face, completely marked with Christian sweetness and Jansenist resignation, turning her into Esther herself"--a reference, significantly, to the heroine of the Old Testament (and of Racine's play), who concealed her Jewish identity until she had become the wife of King Ahasuerus and was in a position to save her people. The apparently gentile Proust, who had campaigned for Dreyfus and had been baptized Catholic, was a sort of modern Esther.  Despite Proust's silences and lapses on the subject of his mother's religion, it would be unfair, especially in light of the rampant anti-Semitism of turn-of-the-century France, to say that he was unique or even extreme in his prejudice against Jews. And yet his anti-Semitism is more than curious, given his love for his mother and given, after her death, something very much like a religious cult that he developed around her. His mother, out of respect for her parents, had remained faithful to their religion, and Proust revered her and her relatives; after her death he regretted that he was too ill to visit her grave and the graves of her parents and uncle in the Jewish cemetery and to mark each visit with a stone. More important, although he had many friends among the aristocracy whom he had assiduously cultivated, nevertheless when he was forced to take sides during the Dreyfus Affair, which had begun in 1894 and erupted in 1898, he chose to sign a petition prominently printed in a newspaper calling for a retrial. The Dreyfus Affair is worth a short detour, since it split French society for many years and it became a major topic in Proust's life--and in Remembrance of Things Past. Alfred Dreyfus (1859-1935) was a Jew and a captain in the French army. In December 1894 he was condemned by a military court for having sold military secrets to the Germans and was sent for life to Devil's Island. The accusation was based on the evidence of a memorandum stolen from the German embassy in Paris (despite the fact that the writing did not resemble Dreyfus's) and of a dossier (which was kept classified and secret) handed over to the military court by the minister of war. In 1896 another French soldier, Major Georges Picquart, proved that the memorandum had been written not by Dreyfus but by a certain Major Marie Charles Esterhazy. Yet Esterhazy was acquitted and Picquart was imprisoned. Instantly a large part of the population called for a retrial of Dreyfus. On January 13, 1898, the writer Emile Zola published an open letter, "J'accuse," directed against the army's general staff; Zola was tried and found guilty of besmirching the reputation of the army. He was forced to flee to England. Then in September 1898 it was proved that the only piece of evidence against Dreyfus in the secret military dossier had been faked by Joseph Henry, who confessed his misdeed and committed suicide. At last the government ordered a retrial of Dreyfus. Public opinion was bitterly divided between the leftist Dreyfusards, who demanded "justice and truth," and the anti-Dreyfusards, who led an anti-Semitic campaign, defended the honor of the army, and rejected the call for a retrial. The conflict led to a virtual civil war. In 1899 Dreyfus was found guilty again, although this time under extenuating circumstances--and the president pardoned him. Only in 1906 was Dreyfus fully rehabilitated, named an officer once again, and decorated with the Legion of Honor. Interestingly, Theodor Herzl, the Paris correspondent for a Viennese newspaper, was so overwhelmed by the virulent anti-Semitism of the Dreyfus Affair that he was inspired by the prophetic idea of a Jewish state.  In defending Dreyfus, Proust not only angered conservative, Catholic, pro-army aristocrats, but he also alienated his own father. In writing about the 1890s in Remembrance of Things Past, Proust remarks that "the Dreyfus case was shortly to relegate the Jews to the lowest rung of the social ladder." Typically, the ultraconservative Gustave Schlumberger, a great Byzantine scholar, could give in his posthumous memoirs as offensive a description of his old friend Charles Haas (a model for Proust's character Swann) as this: "The delightful Charles Haas, the most likeable and glittering socialite, the best of friends, had nothing Jewish about him except his origins and was not afflicted, as far as I know, with any of the faults of his race, which makes him an exception virtually unique." It would be misleading to suggest that Proust took his controversial, pro-Dreyfus stand simply because he was half-Jewish. No, he was only obeying the dictates of his conscience, even though he lost many highborn Catholic friends by doing so and exposed himself to the snide anti-Semitic accusation of merely automatically siding with his co-religionists.”

    1876: The New York Times featured a review of Clarel: A Poem and Pilgrimage in the Holy Land a two volume American epic poem by Herman Melville, “Clarel,” the longest poem in American literature, is divided into four parts – Jerusalem, The Wilderness, Mar Saba, Bethlehem – and epilogue.

    1877: According to reports circulating on Wall Street today, Mr. Gabriel Netter “of the Jewish banking house of Netter & Co…had received a letter from Saratoga signed ‘Wilkinson,’ saying that the Grand Union Hotel proprietors would be happy to extend all the accommodations the hotel affords to Mr. Netter and his family.”  Mr. Netter refused to confirm or deny if he had received such a letter.  But, if he had, he had no intention of responding.

    1877: In Berlin, Harry and Caroline Breslau gave birth to Ernst Ludwig Bresslau

    1877: The fourth council of the Union of American Hebrew Congregation opened this morning at St. George’s Hall in Philadelphia and as the first order of business elected B.F. Peixtto President.

    1878: Approximately 300 people attended a banquet at the Plankinton House given by the Jews of Milwaukee in honor of the delegates of the Hebrew Council meeting here.

    1879:Mr. William B. Hackenburg, President of the Sixth Council of the Union of American and Hebrew Congregations, called the morning session of the Council to order at 9:30 A. M. today. Dr. Samuel Hirsch of Philadelphia delivered the opening prayer.  Among other matters of business, the delegates debated whether or not to fund a project that would raise money for the purchase of land so that Jewish immigrants could become farmers.

    1879: Delegates to the Sixth Council of the Union of American and Hebrew Congregations hold a banquet at Delmonico’s for which “a competent Jewish caterer has been engaged to supervise the preparation of the dinner.”

    1881: The New York Times published an extensive review of Poems and Ballads of Heinrich Heine translated by Emma Lazarus.  The reviewer does not see any irony in the work of the apostate Jew being translated by a leading American Jewish poetess.

    1881: It was reported today that Sir Edward Poynter is about to begin another of his larger than life historical paintings which is titled “Visit of the Queen of Sheba to Solomon.” The canvas will be 8 feet by 5 feet depicting the queen ascending the steps to the throne of the Jewish monarch.  [Note – Poynter had already drawn on Jewish themes when he painted “Israel in Egypt” in 1867.

    1881: “German Army Volunteers” published today provided a detailed account of the recruiting and service paradigms in the Kaiser’s military including the fact that “the sons of Jews, seldom, if ever compete for commissions because they know they could not get them.”

    1881: It was reported today that Tavistock House, the home for many years of Charles Dickens, has been purchased by Jews’ College a twenty-five year old day school in London that was established as a day school for training rabbis.

    1882: This morning, 250 Jewish exiles arrived in St. Louis, MO. These European refugees, who have terrible tales to tell about their treatment in the Old World, are destitute so they are being cared for by a local committee of their coreligionists.

    1882: It was reported today that the first free excursion-boat trip of the season sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children will take place later week.

    1883: The SS Lydian Monarch arrived in New York from London.  Among the passengers were five Jewish families from Poland.  According to these passengers, their tickets had been paid for by either the Hebrew Society in London or the Hebrew Ladies’ Society of London.  While the English Jews had provided them with passage, they had not given them any more money which meant that they were destitute. The new arrivals have no one in the United States to sponsor them.

    1883: An announcement was made today in Nyreghhaza, Hungary at the trial of the Jews who have been charged with murdering a Christian girl, that a coachman who was an important witness for the defense has committed suicide.

    1883: Lipman Levi presided over the opening session of the 10th annual council of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations.  Two hundred and fifty delegates representing approximately 125 congregations filled Eureka Hall in Cincinnati, Ohio where the first order of business was to choose permanent officers to serve the Union in the coming year.

    1886: Birthdate of Joseph Bruce Perskie, the native of Alliance, NY, graduate of Penn law school, state Supreme Court judge and an officer of the Federation of Jewish Federation of Jewish Charities and B’nai B’rith.

    1887(18thof Tammuz, 5647): Fast of Tammuz observed since the 17th fell on Shabbat

    1887: It was reported today that the Sanitarium for Hebrew children has raised $1,779 so far this year so it can provide free boating excursions for poor children and their mothers living in the tenements of the Lower East Side.

    1888: “Mr. B.F. Peixotto of New York, who delivered the oration at the dedication of the Jewish Orphan Asylum” in Cleveland “20 years ago, will deliver the oration today at the dedication of the new building just completed at a cost of $200,000.”

    1889: A spirited debate took place this morning at the Hebrew Union Convention in Detroit over whether or not there should be a special Jewish celebration of the upcoming 400th anniversary of the discovery of America which is to take place in 1892.  Josiah Cohen of Pittsburgh spoke on behalf of the eastern delegates, most of whom favored a uniquely Jewish celebration.  Israel Cohen of Chicago spoke on behalf of the western delegates, most of whom favored participation in the celebrations planned by the secular society and saw no need for a special Jewish event. In the end, the convention voted to adopt the report of a committee that had been formed to study the matter and had state that a uniquely Jewish celebration was “inexpedient,” “unnecessary” and “would be entirely out of place.”

    1889: “The Hebrew Council” published today described a meeting of the Sunday School Union which listened to a report by Dr. Mielziner,  the Professor of Talmudic Literature at Hebrew Union College.

    1889: “Need Hebrews Apply?” published todaydescribed the on-going controversy surrounding the nomination of state Senator Jacob A. Cantor for membership in the exclusive Harlem Club. While some expressed the opinion that if the members could vote on the nomination a majority would support Cantor enough of the members supported the sentiment that “in this club we draw the line at Hebrews” that there were more than enough “blackballs” available to defeat Cantor’s nomination.

    1889: After registering at the Brunswick Hotel and going to her rooms at the fashionable Brunswick Hotel in Ocean Beach, NJ, Mrs. Joseph Davis was told by the proprietor that he had learned that she was Jewish.  Since it was the policy of the hotel not to rent to Jews, she and her children would have to leave the hotel.  He told her she could stay the night but she left immediately and took shelter at the cottage of leather merchant Moses Strauss.

    1890:  Wyoming becomes the 44th state to join the Union.  Wyoming had granted women the right to vote in 1869 while it was still a territory.  When it joined the union, it was the first state to give women the right to vote.  Two of those who took advantage of this political power and the “freer ambiance” were Bertha Frank Myers of Cheyenne and her daughter Elsie.  Bertha Myers was a native New Yorker who came to Cheyenne in 1873 as the bride of a prominent merchant, William Myers.  Bertha was known as an expert horsewoman, bicyclist and the first motorist in Cheyenne.   The mother of four was active in civic and Jewish communal fairs.  She was a driving force in the fundraising for Cheyenne’s first Reform Temple.  She also started the local Sunday School in which she and her daughter served as teachers for twenty years.

    1890: “Anxious For Arbitration” published today described the fight between the cloak manufacturers and their employees” which James H. Hoffman, Hyman Blum and M.W. Platzek of the United Hebrew Charities have offered to serve as intermediaries in an attempt to reach a settlement.

    1890: Daniel Frohman, the manager of the Lyceum Theatre, who has been in Europe for the last month resting and gathering new material for his productions, spent a few hours at his office for the first time since the end of May.

    1890: As of this date, contributions totaling $4,862.25 have been received by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children to provide free summer excursions

    1891: It was reported today that for the fiscal year ending on June 30, 1891, 405,654 immigrants arrived in New York of whom 33,504 were from Russia “most of whom were Jews.”

    1892: It was reported today that “Max Margolis of Wilna, Berlin and Columbia College” will present a series of lectures this summer on “Jewish Literature From the Close of the Scripture Canon to the Close of the Talmud” which covers a period from 100 BCE to 600 CE.

    1892: The alumni of the Hebrew Union College will have a re-union this afternoon at Temple Beth-El in New York City

    1892: The third annual Convention of American Rabbis will end with an evening session at Temple Israel in Harlem.

    1892: “L'Osservatore Romano, the Vatican's official newspaper, carries an article supporting the ancient myth that Jews kill Christians for their blood.”

    1893: “A Lively Week For Germany” published today described the opening of the new Reichstag in which “the Jew-baiter” Hermann Ahlwardt is sitting next to “Liebermann von Sonnenberg, his Anti-Semitic colleague.

    1894: Samuel Gompers expressed his support for the striking Pullman workers.  He said that if Pullman’s claim that the company  could not raise their pay because they were building the railway cars below cost merely to provide work for their laborers were true, Pullman had no reason to fear submitting the issues to arbitration.

    1894: Samuel Gompers is leaving on the evening New York Central train for Chicago where he will be attending the meeting of the Executive Council of the American Federation of Labor.

    1894: “Lecture To East Side Mothers” published today described a lecture delivered by Dr. Solotaroff at the Hebrew Institute in which he emphasized “the value of sterilized mile and the reasons why it is to be preferred to boiled and plain milk.”

    1895: Dr. Max Landsberg and Dr. Gustav Gottheil are scheduled to be the first speakers at the opening session of the annual Central Conference of American Rabbis which opens tonight in Rochester, NY

    1895: The will of Moses Heidelbach was filed for probate in the Surrogate’s office today.

    1895: Birthdate of Nahum Goldman, the native of “Vishnevo, Russian Empire, a shtetl in the Pale of Settlement (now Vishnyeva, Belarus”  “the founder and longtime President of the World Jewish Congress who attended the Tenth Zionist Congress with his father while still a high school student.

    1895: “Schools Before Christ’s Times” published today provided a detailed review of Historical Survey of Pre-Christian Education by S.S. Laure which included the observation that among the Romans and Greeks “there was apparently no conception that education was…a human right” and that it was only for the aristocrat.  But in other places, including Judea, theoretically nothing stood “between the lowest member of the community and the best the State could offer in the way of education except poverty.”

    1896: It was reported today that 77 year old Isaac Bramfield will not survive the gunshot wound he sustained when he was accidentally shot by William Johnson.

    1897: Well-known attorney and author Daniel Greenleaf Thompson, a non-Jew who was a member of the Jewish Historical Society passed away today.

    1898: Three days after she had passed away at the age of 73, Hanna Barder, the wife of Louis Barder was buried at the Plashet Jewish Cemetery in London.

    1898: In Atlantic City, NJ. Rabbi Henry H. Meyer offered the opening prayer at the first session of the second annual summer assembly of the Jewish Chautauqua Society

    1899: In Poughkeepsie, NY, five merchants were arraigned before the Recorder on charges of having violated the Sunday Closing Laws. Among them was Aaron Friedman, “a Jew who closes his store on Saturdays.”  Friedman was fined 5 dollars after being convicted; a conviction which his attorney says he will appeal.

    1899: “Blue Laws in Worcester” published today described the renewed enforcement in this Massachusetts town “of the old blue laws relating to Sunday business” closures which “grew out of the recent determination…to stop the Jews from doing business on the Sabbath.”

    1900: Birthdate of Sacha Baraniev, the native of Mykolaiv, Ukraine, who gained fame as newspaperman and screenwriter Sidney “Sy” Barlett.

    1903: Birthdate of Dr. Karl Rudolf Werner Best the native of Darmstadt, SS-Obergruppenführer and Nazi Party leader and the Third Reich's Plenipotentiary (Reichsbevollmächtigter) in Denmark whose post-war death sentence was changed to 12 years of which he only served three, much to the dismay of the Danish people.

    1904: The Assembly of the Jewish Chautauqua Society is scheduled to begin today in Atlantic City, NJ

    1905: Birthdate of Polish native Maurice B. Pekarsky who came to the United States in 1921 and was ordained in 1933 by Hebrew Union College after which he began a lifetime of service to Hillel including serving as Director of the Jewish College youth organization at the University of Chicago starting in 1940.

    1905: The Ninth Summer Assembly of the Jewish Chautauqua Society continued for a third day in Atlantic City, NJ.

    1906(17thof Tammuz, 5666): Tzom Tammuz

    1908: Birthdate of Brooklyn native, Robert “Buck” Halpern who “played guard at the City College of New York from 1926-1928” and “then played as a guard in the NFL with the Staten Island Stapletons in 1930.”

    1908: Levie (Louis) Hillesum the father of diarist Esther (Etty) Hillesum published his Latin thesis De imperfecti et aoristi usu Thucydidis (On Thucydides' use of the imperfect and the aorist, also awarded cum laude).

    1908: In Denver, CO, the Democratic National Convention which Samuel Untermyer had attended as a delegate from New York came to an end to after nominating William Jennings Bryan for President of the United States. This was Bryan’s third and final run.  When he ran for the first time in 1896 he said of the Jews “I do not know of any class of our people who, by reason of their history, can better sympathize with the struggling masses in this campaign than can the Hebrew race." In 1920, Bryan was one of a 100 leading citizens who signed “The Perils of Racial Prejudice, a statement that urged "all those who are molders of public opinion" to "strike at" The International Jew, which it characterized as "un-American, un-Christian agitation." The International Jew was a notorious anti-Semitic work published by automobile make Henry Ford Sr. (As reported by the Virtual Jewish Library.

    1910: According to the American Jewish Archives, birthdate of Polish born conductor and composer Chemo Vinaver who escaped to the United States in 1938 and after a successful career made Aliyah in 1960 and who “was the second husband of the poet Mascha Kaléko” and the father of playwright Steve Vinaver.  (According to some sources, Vinaver was born in 1895 and I have not been able to resolve the descrepency.)

    1910: In London, “Isadore and Anna Kertman Stein, immigrants from Ukraine who owned a butter-and-egg store” gave birth to Claire Styne the sister of songwriter July Styne who became Claire Styne Bregman while she married composer and conductor Buddy Bregman.

    1911: In Milwaukee, Wisconsin, the 15th annual summer assembly of the Jewish Chautauqua Society led by Chancellor Henry Berkowitz continued for a fourth day.1

    1912(25thof Tammuz, 5672): Seventy-four year Nathan Mayer, a “physician and drama critic” passed away today in Hartford, CT.

    1912(25thof Tammuz, 5672): Seventy-two year old Chicagoan Isaac Block passed away today.

    1912(25thof Tammuz, 5672): Seventy year Uniontown, PA, merchant Max Baum passed away today.

    1912: Four hundred public school teachers, educators and New York notables were among those attending funeral services for educator Julia Richman at Temple Ahawath Chesed Shaar Hashomayim, Rabbi Isaac Moses delivered a eulogy in which he praised Miss Richman for her many contributions while that the role of the teacher is both important yet thankless.

    1913(5thof Tammuz, 5673): Eighty-seven year old Prague native and Czech trained physician William Tausig who immigrated to New York in 1847 and moved on to St. Louis a year later where he was elected Mayor in 1852 in which would mark the start of decades of public service that included serving as St. Louis County Judge, the raising of two regiments during the Civil War to turn back Rebel raiders and the construction of the first road and railroad bridge across the Mississippi River passed away today.

    1914:  The Government of Greece abolished office of the Chief Rabbi of Salonica and placed the Jews of Salonica under the jurisdiction of the Chief Rabbi of Athens. At this time, the position of Chief Rabbi of Athens was vacant.

    1914: Birthdate of Rabbi Aharon Zelig Epstein who served as Rosh Yeshiva of Yeshiva Shaar HaTorah-Grodno in Queens, New York.

    1914: In Toronto, Julius Shuster (originally Shusterowich), an immigrant from Rotterdam who had a tailor shop in Toronto's garment district and Ida (Katharske) Shuster a native of Kiev in Ukraine gave birth to Joseph Shuster who along with Jerry Siegel created the comic character “Superman” and was the cousin of comedian Wayne Shuster.

    1915: Sixty year old Ernst Henrici, the grammar school teacher who became a leading anti-Semitic politician passed away.In 1882 he participated in the first International Anti-Jewish Congress in Dresden. His anti-Semitic diatribes led to the burning of the synagogue at Neustettin.

    1915: British General Sir Ian Hamilton wrote from the General Headquarters of the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force today:

    “It may interest you to know that I have here, fighting under my orders a purely Jewish unit As far as I know, this is the first time in the Christian era such a thing has happened.  The men who compose it were cruelly driven out of Jerusalem by the Turks and arrived in Egypt with their families absolutely destitute and starving.  A complete transport corps was there raised from them for voluntary service with me against the Turks whom they naturally detest.  These troops were officially described as ‘Zion Mule Corps,’ and the officers and ranks and file have shown great courage in taking water and supplies and up to the fighting line under heavy fire.  One of the private soldiers has been specially recommended by me for gallantry and has duly received from the King the Distinguished Conduct Medal.”

    1915: Birthdate of Saul Bellow. Born in Quebec to Russian-Jewish immigrants, Bellow was educated in the United States. A Nobel Prize winning author (1976) some of Bellow’s more famous works include Herzog, The Adventures of Augie March and Humboldt’s Gift. It was this last work published in 1975 for which he earned the Pulitzer Prize for Literature in 1976.

    1916: It was reported today that there are 341 Young Judaea Clubs in the United States and Canada and that there are 3,500 Young Judeans living in New York.

    1916: It was reported today that the United Synagogues of America has voted “to send three delegates to the conference of the American Jewish Committee” which is “to be held in New York on July 16, 1916.

    1917: The Board of Directors of the Federated Orthodox Jewish Charities met at the Hotel Sherman this evening where it approved a budget for the month of $9, 758.87 for the various organizations it supports including the Marks Nathan Orphan Home and the Moses Montefiore Hebrew School.

    1918: In the Netherlands, “The Jewish Correspondence Bureau of the Hague today” said that it has learned from Berlin that the “Pan Germans are agitating for a tax on Jews.”

    1919: Fifty-nine year old Baltimore born Naval Academy graduate Brigadier General Charles H. Lauchheimer, “the Adjutant and Inspector of the United States Marine Corps” during World War “became seriously ill” and was admitted to the hospital today,” where he would die in 1920.

    1919(12th of Tammuz, 5679): Abraham Jacobi passed away. Born in 1830, he was a pioneer of pediatrics, opening the first children's clinic in the United States. To date, he is the only foreign born president of the American Medical Association.

    1920: In the United Kingdom, textile manufacturer Henry Pasamount and his wife gave birth to Sir Leslie Porter.

    1920: “A Lemberg dispatch reports that Professor Israel Friedlander” and Rabbi Max Cantor of the Free Synagogue, “were killed by bandits” while “distributing funds for the American Joint Distribution Committee.”

    1922: Birthdate of Ewald-Heinrich von Kleist who took part in the plot to assassinate Hitler.

    1925: Jerome Koholberg Sr., an importer and his wife Edith “a writer and charity worker” gave birth to Jerome Kohlberg, Jr. the pioneer of leveraged buyouts who is the Kohlberg in Kohlberg Kravis Roberts and Company.

    1928:  Birthdate of Moshe Greenberg – author, teacher and recognized expert in the field of Biblical Studies.  Greenberg earned his PhD at Penn and did post-doctoral work at the Jewish Theology.  He is on the faculty at Hebrew University and has taught at several American schools including JTS and UC-Berkley.  He is a Guggenheim Fellow and a recipient of the Israel Prize.  He was editor in chief for the Ketuvim (Writings) sections of the new JPS translation of the TaNaCh.  He was also the editor of the Book of Ezekiel in the Anchor Bible series.

    1928: The London Daily Telegraph reported that “The Minister of the Interior at Peking thought the Zionist wanted to purchase land in China for the purpose of settling Jews there and promised a special treaty if the Zionists would indicate the site for the proposed homeland and the approximate area required.The Director of Lands had already proceeded with drafting an agreement, when, through the British Minister at Pekin, the delegate managed to explain he only required permission to raise funds among Jews in China for the Palestine upbuilding work. This permission was granted. “ (As reported by JTA)

    1928: The New York Times describes the reaction of various Jewish newspapers in Palestine to the recently published report of the Non-partisan Survey Commission. Based on press reaction, readers may wonder how “non-partisan” the Survey Commission really is.  Doar Hayom, a Jerusalem daily, praised the report since it agreed with the conclusions about the need for “private initiatives and private holdings.  Haaretz was critical of the reports lack of support for communal agriculture settlements and the land purchases of the JNF.  Davar, a paper published by the General Jewish Labor Federation was highly critical of the report seeing it as an assault on all of the growth that has been accomplished under adverse conditions including violent opposition from some Arabs.

    1929: Karl Radek, who had been born to a Lemberg Jewish family as Karol Sobelsohn, a supporter of Trotsky in his battle for control of the Communist Party with Stalin “signed a document capitulating to Stalin” which earned him “particular disdain” because it included the betrayal of fellow Jewish Socialist Yakov Blmkin.

    1931: Birthdate of Jerry Herman “an American composer and lyricist, known for his work in Broadway musical theater” including the “scores…Hello, Dolly!, Mame, and La Cage aux Folles.

    1932: The foundation stone of the Oscar Straus School was laid at Nathanyah. The event was attended by several many Jewish and Arab notables. The project is being sponsored by the Naotaiah Colonization Agency (Palestine Settlers Service of NYC.)

    1933:German newspapers publish their first stories about the new concordat between Nazi Germany and the Vatican (Reichskonkordat).

    1933: "Prayer (Oh Lord, make me a movie star)" written Rodgers and Hart, was registered for copyright as an unpublished work today.

    1933: Alfred Feld, who go on to become “longest serving employee at Goldman Sachs with more than 80 years of service” began his career today when he joined the firm “as an office boy today” at the office at 30 Pine Street.

    1934: The Polish anti-Semitic organization Oboz Narodowo-Radykalny(ONR- NATIONAL Radical Camp) is banned by Polish leader Marshal Jozef Pilsudski, three months after its formation.

    1936: The Second International Conference on Jewish Social Work has its final session in London. Among those attending the conference was Professor Maurice Karpf who had written “The Jewish Community Organization” for presentation at the conference.

    1936: It was reported today that in Potsdam, doctors declared that fifty-five year old Ludwig Lion, a Jewish physician had committed suicide by taking rat poison while waiting in jail to stand trial “for alleged race shame based on relations with an Aryan woman.”

    1936: As of today these rabbis are the officers of the Rabbinical Assembly of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America are Eugene Kohn, president; Simon Greenberg, vice president; Alexander Basel, treasurer; Henry Fisher, recording secretary and Arthur Neulander, corresponding secretary.

    1936: The Palestine Post reported that Joseph Katz, 16, was killed and four quarry workers seriously injured when their bus was ambushed on a side road off the Castel bends on the Jerusalem-Jaffa road. Senior Arab public servants submitted a memorandum to the high commissioner recommending a total stoppage of Jewish immigration. Four dunams of fruit-bearing trees were destroyed near Hadera.

    1936: The Palestine Post reported that the body Yehiel Goldstadt, a young halutz from Poland, who tried to smuggle himself into Palestine on a coal transport ship, and apparently had been killed by sacks of coal falling on him was discovered.

    1936: As secret negotiations between Germany and Austria became public it was reported that the Germans “desire to see the Austrian question settled” and that the Nazis are demanding “immediate Anschluss and a general program against the Jews in Austria.

    1936: Birthdate of Lois Ada Goldberg, the native of Chicago who gained famed as Lois Lilienstein, part of the trio “Sharon, Lois & Bram.”

    1936: “The Bride Walks Out” a romantic comedy produced by Edward Small and a screenplay co-authored by Philip G. Epstein was released in the United States today.

    1937: Birthdate of Sandra Galitz who gain fame as American pop singer Sandy Stewart and the wife of Moose Claptrap.

    1937: In “Palestine Plan Only Small Part of Larger Problem,” published today Anne O’Hare McCormick contends that the problem in this part of the world “is not restricted to a tiny strip of territory between the Syrian and Egyptian borders at the eastern end of the Mediterranean” but actually “involves all of the Arabian peninsula and reaches across the African desert into Algeria.” (Editor’s Note – Apparently we have not learned the lessons she was trying to teach 80 years later.)

    1938:National and State leaders paid tribute to Associate Justice Benjamin Nathan Cardozo of the United States Supreme Court at brief and simple funeral services held at Beth Elohim Cemetery in Brooklyn. Justice Cardozo, who was known for his modesty, had expressly requested that he be buried without eulogy.

    1938(11thof Tammuz, 5698): Alexander Zaid, who was born at Zima in 1886 and was “one of the founders of Bar Giora and Hashomer passed away today.

    1938(11thof Tammuz, 5698): A month before his fifty-third birthday, Otto Eisler the son of Alois and Emilie Eisler and the husband of Alice Eisler passed away today in his native Vienna.

    1938: Government soldiers and police shot it out with a band of Arabs near Dabbuyria, killing three of the terrorists. A Jewish policeman serving with the government forces was killed during the action and three British soldiers were wounded.

    1939: Unless the British government relents, 16 year old Heinz Bernard will be expelled and forced to return to his native Germany

    1940:  The French government was established at Vichy.  The French had surrendered after a mere six weeks of fighting against the Germans.  While the French soldiers had acted with courage and fortitude, the French military establishment behaved in a most craven and inept manner.  The government at Vichy was headed by Pierre Petain, hero of the Battle of Verdun in World War I.  Pierre Laval was the political engine that drove this fascist, collaborationist government.  Vichy was so riven with anti-Semites and wished to become part of the New German World order so badly, that the French government actually began rounding up Jews before the Nazis even for them to do so.  After the war, Laval was executed for his role.  Petain was spared the death sentence because he was an old man whom DeGaulle remembered as a giant from the First World War.

    1940: Leon “Blum was thunderstruck when a majority of his Socialist comrades rallied behind the new government of Pierre Laval.”

    1941(15th of Tammuz, 5701): At Vilna 1,600 Jews are tortured then driven into a barn and burned alive.

    1941: The Jewish residents of the Polish town of Jedwabne are accosted by their Polish neighbors and by peasants from outlying areas, and are marched to the central market. In a day-long ordeal, the Jews are tortured and subsequently herded into a barn, which is set ablaze with kerosene. The massacre is not carried out by the Germans, who maintain only a token presence in Jedwabne on this day.  The Polish role in the massacre only recently became common knowledge, much to the shame of those living in Poland today. For more details about this read Neighbors by Jan T. Gross

    1941 Birthdate of Alain Krivine, “a leader of the Trotskyist movement in France.”

    1941(15th of Tammuz, 5701): In Liepāja, Latvia, Erhard Grauel, a detachment of Einsatzkommando 2 under the command of Erhard Grauel,  murdered another 100 people today, most of whom were Jews.

    1941: In Poland’s eastern village of Jedwabne 1,600 local Jews were burned alive by their neighbors – fellow Poles –  in a massacre that puts the lie to the myth that only German Nazis killed Jews.

    1942: Royal Canadian Air Force fighter pilot George Beurling, who would die while flying for the Israeli Air Force in 1948, became an ace today when shot down his fifth enemy plane over Malta.

    1942: Dutch banker Jacobus Henricus Kann owner of the Lissa and Kann bank, the delegate to the first Zionist Congress who purchased the land for the first houses in Tel Aviv “wrote his daughter-in-law” today “In a fortnight I will reach the age of wisdom. It took a long time to reach this age.  I wonder how did we manage to bring the world to such an awful and chaotic state with so many people at the age of wisdom !!!”

    1942: The first Medical Experiments take place at Auschwitz. 100 Women are taken from their barracks and sterilized through a series of hideous experiments.

    1942: “Five hundred and fifty-seven refugees from Nazism who had been stranded in Portugal and unoccupied France” left Lisbon today aboard the S.S. Nyassa. (As reported by JTA)

    1943(7th of Tammuz, 5703): Thousands of Jews from Lvov, Ukraine, are murdered at Kamenka-Bugskaya

    1943: In Warsaw, the search for Jews continued weeks after the Warsaw Ghetto had been destroyed. Thirty men were shot in the Pawiak prison.

    1943: Samuel Fuller and the rest of the 16th Infantry, boarded landing craft for the assault Sicily, seized the beach and “pushed into the hills beyond” where they hung to their territory despite being hit hard with an armored counterattack by German tanks.

    1944(19thof Tammuz, 5704): Eight-one year old landscape painter and engraver Lucien Pissaro, the oldest child of impressionist Camille Pissarro “and his wife Julie Vellay and husband of Esther Levi Bensusan passed away today

    1944: In France, U.S. Army Lt. Bert Katz is hit in shoulder and left hand by German shrapnel.  The wound gets him a Purple Heart but not a ticket home which in this case is Cedar Rapids, Iowa.  Katz did return home after the war where he became a successful businessman, a noted philanthropist and a pillar of the Jewish community.

    1944: German resistance fighter Robert Abshagen was beheaded today for his role in anti-Nazi activities.

    1947: Tonight a group of refugees traveling in 170 trucks, under the leadership of Noah Klieger, “the commissioner of Mossad Aliyah Bet” reached the port of Sete, a port on the Mediterranean coast of France, where they were to board a vessel that would run the British blockade.

    1948: During Operation Dekel, the 7th Armored Brigade, a battalion from the Carmeli Brigade along with some elements from the Golani Brigade captured Kuwaykat,Jiddin and Khirbat.

    1948: With the end of the truce, a company of sixteen and seventeen year old boys under the command of twenty-one year Oded Chai set out to take the high ground west of Jerusalem.  Chai, who was a veteran of the Jewish Brigade died almost as soon as the attack had begun, the victim of a sniper’s bullet.  The new commander, Elaihu Lichtenstein rallied the troops with a new battle cry, “For Oded” and reached the summit of the hill.  That hill is now known as Mount Herzel.  [Editors note:  The source for much of the information about the War of Independence comes from Israel by Martin Gilbert.  Events like these remind us that every inch of Israel was watered by the blood of Jewish fighters, many of whom never made it out of their teens.]

    1948:  Israeli forces attacked a bridgehead that the Syrians had established on the west bank of the Jordan River.  The Syrians had seized the bridgehead during what was supposed to be the Four Week Cease Fire.  The Syrian air force dominated the sky above the battlefield.  The Syrian artillery outraged the Israeli guns.  Despite ten days of see-saw fighting, the bridgehead would remain in Syrian hands.

    1948(3rdof Tammuz, 5708): An Egyptian Spitfire (yes the same Spitfires that had won the Battle of Britain) “dropped a number of bombs on the Jewish sector of Jerusalem killing three children.”

    1948(3rdof Tammuz, 5708): Seventy-eight year old Berlin native Else Preuß, the daughter of Carl Theodor Liebermann and Antonie (Toni) Amalie Liebermann and wife of Dr. of Jurisprudence Hugo Preuß passed away today in Paris.

    1948: Two attempts by the Arab Legion to break into the New City (Jerusalem) were thwarted.

    1948(3rdof Tammuz, 5708): Lionel Bloch who “flew with SAAF in Italy in latter half of WW II, crashed near Quneitra today while providing air cover for Israeli troops who were being attacked by Syrian AT-6s.

    1948:Hortense Calisher's award-winning short story "The Middle Drawer" was published in the New Yorker Magazine.

    1950: “Israeli authorities released two British planes detained since last week for landing at Lydda Airport without permission.”

    1951:The Jerusalem Postreported that the government had decided to subsidize the import of hides in order to keep shoe prices at their present level.

    1951:The Jerusalem Postreported that the Ministry of Labor investigating the cause of the Castel quarry disaster in which seven workers lost their lives resolved to issue strict regulations on the handling of explosives and to impose severe penalties to discourage workers from violating specific instructions.

    1951:The Jerusalem Postreported that electricity consumption restrictions were eased throughout the country.

    1951:The Jerusalem Postreported that one thousand newcomers arrived from Romania.

    1952: Robert Lehman celebrated his third marriage when he tied the know with Elena Lyn today in New York.

    1952: The cost-cutting measures at M-G-M studio headed by Nicholas M. Schneck and Dore Schary were described today as being necessary because of the “new operating and operating conditions” that have “resulted in enforced economies at all Hollywood studios.

    1952: Joel D. Wolfsohn began serving as Assistant Secretary of the Department of Interior in the final months of the Truman Administration. Up to that time, he appears to be the highest ranking Jew to have served at the Department of the Interior. He served from July 10, 1952 through February 20, 1953.

    1957(11th of Tammuz, 5717):Sholem Asch, a Polish-born American Jewish novelist, dramatist, and essayist in the Yiddish language passed away.

    1957: “The Pride and the Passion” an epic set in the Napoleonic era directed and produced by Stanley Kramer was released in the United States today.

    1960: “The Rate Race” “ produced by William Perlberg, written by Garson Kanin, with music by Elmer Bernstein and starring Tony Curtis and Don Rickles and featuring Norman Fell was released in the United States today.

    1962(8th of Tammuz, 5722): RabbiYehuda Leib Maimon passed away. Born in 1875 in what was then a part of the Russian Empire, he was one of the founders of the Mizrachi movement in 1902.  He would later help develop the movement in the U.S. during WW I after he had been expelled from Palestine by the Turks.  He returned to Palestine in 1919 where he worked to develop the Jewish home during the inter-war years.  The highpoint of his career may have come when he helped draft Israel’s Declaration of Independence, a document of which he was a signatory.

    1964: Mortimer Kaplan completed his term as the IRS Commissioner.

    1964: A recording of "Do Wah Diddy Diddy" a song written by Jeff Barry and Ellie Greenwich and originally recorded in 1963, as "Do-Wah-Diddy" was released today.

    1965: Arthur Andrew Julian completed his service as Canada’s ambassador to Israel.

    1966: The new Israeli Parliament building, the Knesset was inaugurated.

    1966: In Northampton, MA, “Joan Wallach Scott, the Harold F. Linder Professor at the School of Social Science in the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey” and Donald Scott, a professor of American history at The City University of New York (CUNY) gave birth to Anthony Oliver Scott, “the grandnephew of actor Eli Wallach” who gained fame as A.O. Scot, “the chief film critic of the New York Times

    1969: “Putney Swope” directed by Robert Downey, Sr. whose paternal grandparents were Romanian Jews and whose mother was of “half Hungarian Jewish ancestry” and co-starring Allen Garfield was released today in the United States.

    1969: The body of the lone Israeli captured by Egyptian commandos when they raided an Israeli tank depot on June 9, 1969 is found.  From the evidence, he had been summarily executed by his captors.  The attack and the execution set the stage for the subsequent Israeli commando raid on Green Island, an Egyptian fortress in the Gulf of Suez.

    1971: Gloria “Steinem was one of over 300 women who founded the National Women's Political Caucus (NWPC)” today.

    1971: Ed Rendell, future Mayor if Philadelphia and Governor of Pennsylvania marries Marjorie Rendell in what is the most common form of inter-marriage – a Jew marrying a Catholic.

    1971: Hassan II of Morocco, a moarch who would a vital role in bridging the gap between the Jewish state and the Arab world and who later be described as "a friend to the governments of Israel in their voyage toward peace with the Arab people” survives an attempted coup d'état.

    1972: Democratic National Convention opened in Miami Beach, FL at which, in case of Jew versus Jew, Betty Friedan and Gloria Steinem would clash on how the National Women’s Political Caucus should deal with various issues.

    1973(10thof Tammuz, 5733): Seventy-five year old Frederick Marcus Warburg, the son of Felix and Frieda Marcus, an alumnus of Harvard, partner at Kuhn, Loeb since 1931, a member of the board of trustees of Smith College and the husband of Wilma Warburg passed away today at Winchester City, VA.

    1973: The Commonwealth of the Bahamas gains full independence within the Commonwealth of Nations.There were probably between one hundred and two hundred Jews living in the Bahamas at this time. The Bahamas Jewish Congregation, a modern orthodox congregation is located in Nassau.The Community in Freeport, on Grand Bahama Island, the Freeport Hebrew Congregation, is somewhat lesser in numbers than in Nassau, and is affiliated to the Union for Reform Judaism. Its Synagogue, named the Luis De Torres Synagogue is named for a Luis De Torres, a Marrano who sailed with Columbus and who was the first person of Jewish heritage to reach the Bahamas.

    1974: The second part of the Agranat Commission’s three-part report was released today.  The Commission had been established to examine the failures before and during the Yom Kippur War. The report called for the dismissal of some senior officers and resulted in changes in basic military doctrine.

    1975: Malcolm Toon presented his credentials as U.S. Ambassador to Israel.

    1975: Birthdate of Roi Klein, the native of Raanan Israel, the son of Holocaust survivors who rose to the rank of Major in the Golani Brigade before being killed in the 2006 War with Lebanon.

    1976: It was reported today that the Foreign Minister of Uganda has demanded UN condemnation of Israel’s raid on the Entebbe airport.  Israel’s Chief UN delegate responded by telling the Security Council in no uncertain terms that that Preside Amin and others had collaborated with the hijackers. As the clash between the two diplomats came to a head, Herzog raised the issue of Dora Bloch a 75 year old hostage with dual Israeli and British citizenship who had been taken to a Ugandan hospital before the raid.  The Foreign Minister said she had been returned to the plane before the raid.  Herzog called this “a blatant untruth” because a British official had visited her in the hospital the day after the rescue mission.

    1978: Anatoly Sharansky was on trial for espionage and treason.

    1979(15th of Tammuz, 5739): Eighty-four year old  orchestra leader Arthur Fiedler whose name is synonymous with the Boston Pops and the spirit of Americanism that is connected with it every Fourth of July passed away today.

    1979: “Having been Knighted in 1960,” Myer Galpern “was given a life peerage as Baron Galpern of Shettleston in the District of the City of Glasgow” today.

    1981: “The Fox and the Hound” an animated film version of the novel by the same name featuring the voice of Jack Albertson, Paul Winchell and Corey Feldman was released in the United States today.

    1981: PLO units that had occupied southern Lebanon turning into “a state with a state” unleashed a massive rocket attack on northern Israel.

    1985(21stof Tammuz, 5745): Sixty-eight year old Oscar nominated cinematographer Arthur Ornitz, the son of screenwriter Samuel Orntiz passed away today in his native New York City.

    1985: “Return to Oz” with music by David Shire and co-staring Piper Laure (Rosetta Jacobs) was released today in the United Kingdom.

    1987: “Revenge of the Nerds II: Nerds in Paradise” a sequel to the 1984 comedy directed by Joe Roth and featuring Barry Sobel was released today in the United States.

    1987(13thof Tammuz, 5747): Sixty-six year old “Alexandre P. Rosenberg, founding president of the Art Dealers Association of America and for many years a prominent art dealer in New York, died of a heart attack in London” today. (As reported by John Russell)

    1989(7th of Tammuz, 5749): Eighty-one year Mel Blanc passed away today. Born Melvin Jerome Blanc on May 30, 1908, in San Francisco, where his parents managed a ladies' ready-to-wear apparel business he was known as "The Man of a Thousand Voices." At one point he supplied the voices for 90 per cent of the Warner Brothers cartoon characters. Generations know him as the voice of Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck and Porky Pig. In talking about the Porky Pig role Blanc said they "called me in and asked me if I could do a pig -- a fine thing to ask a Jewish kid.”

    1993(21st of Tammuz, 5753):Peretz Miransky, a member of an influential young Yiddish literary group in Poland between World Wars I and II, died today in a hospital in Toronto at the age of 85. “Mr. Miransky won the National Jewish Book Award in the United States in 1980 and twice won the J. I. Segal award of Canada for Yiddish poetry. He wrote fables and poetry as a member of Young Vilna, a group of writers from Vilna who adapted traditional Yiddish to express concerns of their generation. His early manuscripts were lost when he escaped the German invasion in World War II. He later recorded his early writings from memory in his first book, "A Light for a Penny." After resettling in Canada in 1949, he worked as a shipper for a store, then as a Canadian distribution agent for The Yiddish Daily Journal, which had headquarters in New York City. Later he became an agent for other Yiddish papers. After he retired in the mid-1970's, he wrote poetry full time and published three collections.

    1993: NBC broadcast the final episode of “A Different World” a sitcom whose first season had been produced by Anne Beatts.

    1994: Hedge fund manager, William Albert Ackerman, “the founder and CEO of Pershing Square Capital Management, “married Karen Ann Herskovitz, a graduate of Harvard University and a landscape architect” today.

    1998: U.S. premiere of Pi (π) directed and co-produced by Daren Aronofsky who also co-authored the script and starring Mark Margolis and Ben Shenkman.

    1998: In an article entitled “Hadera Journal; Jewish Family Heirloom: 15 Square Miles of Death,” Serge Schemann describes how Zypora Frank, Polish born Jew, who survived the Holocaust reacted when she learned that her family owned the land on which the infamous Auschwitz death camp had been built.

    2000: “In Paper Seen as Villain in Abuse Accusations Against Rabbi” published today, Felicity Barringer described the impact of an article by Gary Rosenblatt entitled “Stolen Innocence” that described charges made against Rabbi Baruch Lanner concerning the abuse of “teenagers in his charge.

    2001: Two Palestinian terrorists shot 45 year old Yosef Twito near Moshav Ahisemekh.

    2001:Australia's entrants in the Maccabiah Games gathered in Sydney this evening to prepare for a return to Israel, their first since the disastrous bridge collapse killed four of their team members in 1997 and left many more fighting for compensation.

    2002(1st of Av): Rosh Chodesh Av

    2002(1st of Av): “IDF officer Capt. Hagai Lev, 24, of Jerusalem, deputy commander of a Givati reconaissance unit, was killed by Palestinian sniper fire while conducting a search for weapons smuggling tunnels in Rafah, in the southern Gaza Strip. The Fatah Al Aksa Martyrs Brigades claimed responsibility for the shooting.”

    2003:The British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem, amalgamated within the Council for British Research in the Levant (CBRL) in 1998, was officially renamed the Kenyon Institute today in honour of Dame Kathleen Kenyon “the most influential female archaeologist in the 21st century” known for her work at Jericho.

    2004: Ninety-four year old actress Inge Meyself “who was banned from performing 1935 until 1945 because her father, Julius Meysel, was Jewish, passed away today.

    2005: Ben Stiller and his wife Christine Taylor gave birth to their son Quinlin Dempsey.

    2005: U.S premiere of “Say Uncle” a comedy co-starring Lisa Edelstein as Sarah Faber

    2005: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Lion of Hollywood: The Life and Legend of Louis B. Mayer by Scott Eyman.

    2006:Jews gather in major cities all over the world to show their solidarity for the immediate release of Cpl. Gilad Shalit, who was kidnapped two weeks ago from his army outpost.

    2007:Today, the Chabad of Brazos Valley, also known as the Chabad Center of Texas A&M, was founded by Rabbi Yossi Lararoff and his wife Manya

    2007: In Jerusalem, a concert at Israel MuseumCelebrate the opening event of the summer at the Israel Museum with a performance by the Jerusalem Symphony Orchestra - Israel Broadcasting Authority, conducted by Daniel Kosov. The performance includes pieces by Strauss, Haydn, Bruch, Mendelssohn, Bizet and Britten, performed by the orchestra and outstanding young soloists from Israel and abroad. Concert takes place in the Art Garden at 9pm and is included with museum admission.

    2007: The Conference on the Future of the Jewish People opens in Jerusalem.

    2008: At the public library in Iowa City, Agudas Achim and Hillel sponsor an exhibit of art by Jack Balch who died in 1980 and who was the father of the late Iowa Economics Professor, Dr. Michael Balch. Father and son were members of Agudas Achim.

    2008:The Los Angeles premiere of “Parade” at Tony Award winning musical that “dramatizes the 1913 trial of Leo Frank” took place at the Neighborhood Playhouse of Palos Verdes

    2008: Following a week of near-daily Palestinian violations of the Israeli-Hamas cease-fire, two Kassam rockets struck the western Negev.  A faction of Fatah claimed responsibility for the attack while eight Palestinians, members of a cell of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, were arrested on suspicion of throwing Molotov cocktails at cars on the road near Mt. Scopus

    2009: "Bruno" debuts in Britain and the United States. The movie is Baron Cohen's follow-up to his 2006 hit "Borat: Cultural Learnings of America for Make Benefit Glorious Nation of Kazakhstan," in which he played a clueless journalist on a U.S. tour.

    2009:In Tel Aviv, Israel faces a team from Russia in Day 1 of the Davis Cup Quarter-Final matches.

    2010: The 7th AICE Australian Film Festival is scheduled come to an end with a screening of “Beautiful Kate” in Tel Aviv.

    2010:The Jerusalem Cinematheque, which is currently in the midst of running its annual Jerusalem Film Festival this week in the capital, released a statement this evening saying that comments made last week regarding the possibility of Dustin Hoffman attending the event were in fact misleading and incorrect.

    2011: “20 Years-Searching for the Answer,” an exhibit that explores questions about the Armenian genocide through art is scheduled to come to an end at the Holocaust Memorial Center in Farmington Hills, Michigan.

    2011: Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu announced today Israel's official recognition of South Sudan as an independent state.

    2011: Police are turning a blind eye to ultra-orthodox efforts to block traffic on a central Jerusalem street every Saturday, with hundreds of religious men often resorting to violence in a bid to prevent cars from desecrating Shabbat, secular activists reported today

    2011: Nirvana, a hypnotizing dance show from Korea, that is touring Israel for the first time, is scheduled to be performed at the Jerusalem Theatre.

    2011: The New York Times featured reviews of books written by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Lee Krasner: A Biography by Gail Levin and Rene Blum and The Ballets Russes:  In Search of a Lost Life by Judith Chazin-Bennahum

    2011: The Galilee Music Festival is scheduled to come to an end.

    2011: The Jewish Women's Archive “2011 Institute for Educators” is scheduled to start today.

    2011: In Israel, the “Conversion Bill Moratorium” is scheduled to come to an end.

    2011: An ancient rock inscription of the word “Shabbat” was uncovered near Lake Kinneret this week – the first and only discovery of a stone Shabbat boundary in Hebrew. The etching in the Lower Galilee community of Timrat appears to date from the Roman or Byzantine period. News of the inscription, discovered by chance today by a visitor strolling the community grounds, quickly reached Mordechai Aviam, head of the Institute for Galilean Archeology at Kinneret College. “This is the first time we’ve found a Shabbat boundary inscription in Hebrew,” he said. “The letters are so clear that there is no doubt that the word is ‘Shabbat.’” Aviam said Jews living in the area in the Roman or Byzantine era (1st-7th centuries CE) likely used the stone to denote bounds within which Jews could travel on Shabbat. The Lower Galilee of Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages had a Jewish majority – many of the Talmudic sages bore toponyms indicative of Galilee communities. The engraving uncovered in Timrat is the first and only Shabbat boundary marker yet discovered in Hebrew – a similar inscription was found in the vicinity of the ancient Western Galilee village of Usha, but its text was written in Greek. Aviam and his colleagues plan to enlist local help in scouring neighboring areas to locate additional inscriptions, and eventually to publish their findings in an academic journal. “This represents a beautiful, fascinating link between our modern world and antiquity, both emotional and archeological,” Aviam said. “Certainly for those of us who are religiously observant, but also for the secular among us who enjoy a stroll on Shabbat to know that we’re walking in places where Jewish history lived two thousand years ago.”  

    2012: CBS News Middle East correspondent Dan Ravi who co-authored Spies Against Armageddon with Yossi Melman is scheduled to speak tonight at the Historic 6th& I Synagogue in Washington, DC.

    2012: Israeli settlements in the West Bank are a danger to Israel and threaten its long-term status as a center of Jewish life, President Shimon Peres said this evening.

    2012:Hezbollah arrested three people it suspects of running a spy network for Israel and the United States, pan-Arab news channel Al Arabiya reported today

    2012:Ehud Olmert, a former prime minister of Israel, was acquitted of corruption charges in two major matters by a court today but was convicted in a third, closing a high-profile prosecution that cut short his term in office and changed the course of Israeli politics and diplomacy.

    2012(20thof Tammuz, 5772): Seventy-four year old Dutch Jewish author Berthe Meijer, whose life intersected with Anne Frank’s passed away today (As reported by Toby Sterling)

    2012:Rabbi Joel Levenson of Congregation B'nai Jacob, Woodbridge/New Haven, CT, gave the opening prayer at the U.S. House of Representatives.

    2013: “Koch” and “Wilt Chamberlain: Borscht Belt Bellhop” are two of the two movies scheduled to be shown today at the 30th Jerusalem Film Festival.

    2013: “Israel: A Home Movie” is scheduled to be shown at the Film Forum.

    2013: The William Breman Jewish Museum and the Jewish Genealogical Society of Georgia are scheduled to sponsor “Commemorating 280 Years of Jews In Georgia.”

    2013:The Alexandria Kleztet is scheduled to perform in Annandale, VA.

    2013: The Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington in partnership Adas Israel Congregation, EntryPoint DC, andThe Foundation for Jewish Studies are scheduled to sponsor a lecture by author “Beth Kanter will share stories she collected while writing the book and guide attendees in producing their own food writing.”

    2013: Jewish-Palestinian journalist, politician and Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) member, Ilan Halevi, passed away today in Paris at the age of 70

    2013:The first Haredi pre-military academy funded by the Defense Ministry will open this August in the Jordan Valley. News of its establishment today follows heightened tensions surrounding the issue of haredi enlistment in the IDF and an attack against a haredi soldier carried out by a mob of ultra-Orthodox men in Jerusalem lasr night.  (As reported by Jeremy Sharon)

    2014: The 92nd Street Y is scheduled to host a conversation with Patricia Bosworth and Oscar winning Jewish actress Lee Grant who was a victim of the Black List and author of I Said Yes to Everything

    2014: Terrorist rockets set off the warning sirens in Jerusalem while other rockets hit a house in Ashdod and a home in the Sha’ar HaNegev Regional Council.

    2014: “Despite ongoing rocket fire at Israel from Gaza Strip, some 200 trucks of goods including food and basic products passed into Gaza from Israel's Kerem Shalom crossing with Gaza.” (As reported by Yoav Zitun and Roi Kais.

    2014: A 17-year-old Jewish girl is pepper-sprayed at Paris’ Place du Colonel-Fabien square.

    2014: In “Brooklyn, a Trove of Hebrew Books From Centuries Past” published today described the volumes to be found in the newly opened Chabad-Lubavitch Library.

    2014: The Jewish community in South Africa condemned the ANC’s comparison of Israel’s action in Gaza with those of Nazi Germany. (As reported by Raphael Ahren)

    2015: “Millions of Iranians took part in anti-Israel and anti-US rallies across Iran today, chanting “Down with America” and “Death to Israel” on Al-Quds Day, internationally observed annually on the last Friday of the month of Ramadan.”

    2015: “The Second Mother” is scheduled to be shown at the Jerusalem Film Festival.

    2015: The Eden-Tamir Music Center is scheduled to present a piano recital by Adi Neuhaus as part of its “Future Generation Series.”

    2015: “Amy,” “a new documentary cover the life of the late Jewish-British singer Amy Winehouse” is scheduled to “hit U.S. theatres nationwide” today.

    2015: “WarCraft” “an exhibition of video installations by Israeli artist Nevet Yitzhak” is scheduled to come an end at the Yossi Milo Gallery

    2015: The 35th International Conference on Jewish Genealogy is scheduled to come to an end today.

    2016: The Jewish Genealogical Society of Illinois and the Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center are scheduled to host a presentation by “Mike Karsen, past President of the Jewish Genealogical Society of Illinois who explores the personal value of connecting with one's roots, and shares a case study based on David Laskin's book, "The Family," which illustrates how to locate U.S. records and those held by Yad Vashem.”

    2016: A celebration of life is scheduled to be held this morning at the Brotherhood Synagogue to mark the passing of Julius Kahn “a veteran of the coffee industry for over 60 years” whose wife Isabel had passed away in 2012.

    2016: Final screening of “The Kind Words” is scheduled to take place at the Lincoln Plaza Cinema today.

    2016: “Commemorations were held today in the north-eastern town of Jedwabne to mark the 75th anniversary of the 10 July 1941 massacre of around 300 Jews during the occupation of Poland by Nazi Germany.

    2016: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Bridge Ladies: A Memoir by Betsy Lerner, Ordinarily Well: The Case for Antidepressants by Peter D. Kramer and You’ll Grow Out Of It by Jessi Klein along with an interview with author Cynthia Ozick.

    2017: Joseph J. Schacter is scheduled to deliver his first lecture on "Majesty and Humility: The Life, Leadership, and Legacy of Joseph B. Soloveitchik"

    2017: In “Who Is Rob Goldstone, Donald Trump Jr.’s Russian Connection?” published today Dave Goldiner examined the role of this “British Jewish music publicist” in the 2016 U.S. Presidential elections.

    2017: “Accompanied by clarinetist Avigail Malachi-Baev and vocalist Inbar Goldman, Cellist Elad Kabilio of MusicTalks, is scheduled to host “a musical journey through Yeshiva University Museum’s exhibition City of Gold, Bronze and Light: Jerusalem between Word and Image.”

     2017: The Maccabiah’s night rights, considing of three heats -- 5K, 10K, and a half marathon- 21K – is scheduled to take place this evening in Jerusalem “with a celebratory party at the Hatachana compound.”

    2018: With the opening of the 2018 FIFA World Cup games, “Kulna Jerusalem” and the Tower of David Museum are scheduled to host an event in which “about 100 young people from East and West Jerusalem will compete in 2 penalty-kick contests, one for men and one for women, which will occur simultaneously with professional goalies in the stands – famous goalies from the past together with current ones.

    2018: “The Testament is scheduled to be shown at the Axelrod Israel Jewish Film Festival.

    2018: Israelis brace for an increase in terrorist attacks and condemnation from the usual international Pro-Palestinian groups following yesterday’s “closure of the Kerem Shalom as incendiary kites and balloons continue coming from Gaza into Israel scorching thousands of acres Israeli farmland and woodland.”




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    July 11

    1174: Amalric I who had been King of Jerusalem since 1162 passed away.  During his reign most of the Jews were expelled from Jerusalem; a ban that would last until 1175.

    1244:Khorezmian Turkish horsemen launch an attack on Jerusalem, sacking the city and killing most of the Christians and driving out the Jews. The Khorezmian Turks then move on to Egypt. Khwarezmia is at this time a state located around the Aral Salt Flats near the Caspian Sea. It has allied itself with the Ayyub sultan of Egypt against the Muslims in Damascus.”

    1346: Charles IV of Luxembourg is elected emperor of the Holy Roman Empire which included the Bohemian city of Prague. According to the descendant of Moses ben Israel Naphtaly Hirsch Porges, “The long reign of Emperor Charles IV brought the Prague Jews new privileges and relative calm even though the Luxembourg rulers - the reigning local dynasty - treated Jewish property as though it were their own. They put it in pawn, sold it, or used it as backing for guarantees. But the king ensured protection and, among others, offered a chance for them to settle inside the walls of the arising New Town. A sign of the status of the Jewish community is a banner that has survived, given to the Jews of Prague by Charles IV in 1375.From that year on the Jews would, over the centuries, come to the gates of the ghetto to welcome the kings of Bohemia in Prague.”

    1533: Clement VII excommunicated Henry VIII for divorcing Catherine of Aragon, and afterward marrying Anne Boleyn. Henry VIII had relied on the Book of Leviticus when he sought to marry Catherine, the widow of his brother.  Nobody was going to hit him with a sandal.  When it came time to shed Mary, Henry sought support from Rabbis, hoping that their interpretation of Biblical law would somehow sway the Pope.  The Rabbis, who were living in Italy, stayed out of the conflict. They had no reason to trust Henry, who had promised to keep the Jews out of England, when he got married. 

    1578: In Emden, Moses Uri (Philip Joosten) Halevie, the “founder and first ḥakam (Rabbi) of the Spanish-Portuguese congregation in Amsterdam in 1596/97” and Bele Halevi gave birth to Aaron Halevie

    1657:  Birthdate of King Frederick I of Prussia whose greatest claim to fame is the fact that he was the father of King Frederick II also known as Frederick the Great.  Father and son quarreled about many things but they did agree on at least one thing.  They both abhorred their Jewish subjects, viewing them as aliens in their Germanic kingdom.

    1715: During the War of the Spanish Succession which came to an end today, Samson Wertheimer, “the chief rabbi of Hungary and Moravia” who was “also an Austrian financier, court Jew and Shtadlan to Austrian Emperor Leopold I” and Samuel Oppenheimer procured “the money necessary” to equip and supply the victorious Austrian imperial army

    1720(5thof Tammuz, 5480): Ahron Lwow passed away in Vienna.

    1733: A month after the founding of the colony of Georgia by James Oglethorpe, Jewish settlers arrived in Savannah. The group of forty Sephardic Jews was joined within a year by a group of Ashkenazi Jews. The Sephardic Jews had brought a Torah and other religious items with them and quickly founded a congregation called Mikveh Israel (Hope of Israel). One of the reasons given for the lack of European-styled anti-Semitism in America was that the Jews arrived in the New World at the same time everybody else did.

    1734: Birthdate of Philip (Uri) Minis, the Jewish infant who was also the first male white child born in Georgia.

    1740: Czarina Anne ordered the Jews expelled from Little Russia. Little Russia is another term for an area that includes the Ukraine.

    1767:  Birthdate John Quincy Adams, Sixth President of the United States. Like his father, John Quincy had a positive attitude towards the Jewish people.  In a letter to Major Mordecai Manuel Noah, he wrote, “[I believe in the] rebuilding of Judea as an independent nation.”  Of course this could have been one the earliest attempt to secure Jewish political support by espousing the cause of the Jewish homeland. More than likely, it was an expression of popular Protestant belief of the time that Jews returning to the Promised Land was a necessary precursor for the ultimate Second Coming.  While many Jews know Noah as the founder of the utopian Jewish community of Ararat, he was a major diplomatic and political figure who was the leader of the Tammany Hall political machine during the 1820’s.

    1775(13thof Tammuz, 5535): Abraham Seligman, the patriarch of the family that included American financiers Joseph and Jacob Seligman passed away today.

    1797: Charles Macklin, the famous Anglo-Irish actor whose greatest claim to fame was his portrayal of Shylock in a completely new manner, passed away.

    1797: The gates of the Jewish ghetto in Venice were torn down. This was a direct result of the victories of the French armies led by Napoleon.

    1798(27th of Tammuz, 5558): Breina Jaffe the daughter of Mordechai Jaffe passed away today.

    1804:  Vice President Aaron Burr and Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton fought a duel.  Hamilton fell mortally wounded. Hamilton had been born on the British controlled island of Nevis in the West Indies in 1755.  His mother was Jewish.  His father was a prominent citizen.  Hamilton’s mother was married, but not to Hamilton’s father. Hamilton attended a Jewish school which was housed in a synagogue in the island’s capital city.  After finishing his school he made his way to North America where he would eventually become a favorite of George Washington and was one of the authors of the famous Federalist Papers.  Hamilton never identified himself as a Jew and lived the life of a prominent Protestant political and financial leader.

    1817: Eight year old Ralph Disraeli, the son of Maria and Isaac Disraeli, and the brother of Benjamin Disraeli was christened today at St. Andrew’s in a ceremony that would change the history of the United Kingdom.

    1821: Issachar Ber ben Eliezer Jacob married Yetta bat Aaron at the Western Synagogue today.

    1821: James Samuel married Elizabeth Davis at the Great Synagogue today.

    1824: In Frankfurt, Germany, James de Rothschild married his niece Betty Salomon von Rothschild the daughter of his brother, Salomon Mayer von Rothschild

    1827: Rabbi S.C. Peixotto officiated at the wedding of Nathan A. Cohen and Clara Harris, the third daughter of Jacob Harris, Jr. of Charleston, SC.

    1827: Lewis Lyon married Mary Phillips at the Western Synagogue today.

    1827: Solomon Worms married Henrietta Samuel at the Great Synagogue today.

    1831: Birthdate of Mark Blumenthal, the Bavarian born American graduate of College of Physicians and Surgeons at Columbia University who “was president of and physician to the Institution for the Improved Instruction of Deaf Mutes, founded and supported by Jews for the benefit of Jewish and other children” from 1862 to 1894.

    1832: Reuben Salomons married Sarah Hurwitz today.

    1858: Birthdate of Cyrus L. Sulzberger, the native of Philadelphia, who  “went to New York in 1877 as bookkeeper for the firm of Erlanger, Blumgart & Co., of which he later became the head. An active participant in movement’s to reform New York City’s corrupt political environment, he was a candidate on the Fusion ticket for president of the borough of Manhattan, New York in 1904. Sulzberger was also active in Jewish communal affairs serving for many years as treasurer of the United Hebrew, vice president of the American Zionist Federation and, in 1905, as president of the Jewish Agricultural and Industrial Aid Society.

    1859: Birthdate of John Grenfell Maxwell, who as a Lt. Col in his majesty’s army served as commander of the Zion Mule Corps which is considered to be the first “Jewish fighting force” since the end of the Bar Kochba Revolt.

    1860: “A meeting of residents in the new suburb of Bayswater was held, and an agreement reached as to the desirability of establishing a new congregation in the neighborhood.”

    1861: Jules Mires, the Franco-Jewish banker, was condemned to five years in prison and order to pay a fine of 3,000 francs by the Correctional Tribunal of Paris.

    1861 In London Assur Henry Moses and Henrietta Moses gave birth to Marianna Floretta Raphael the wife of Arthur Lewis Raphael.

    1865(17th of Tammuz, 5625):Tzom Tammuz

    1865(17th of Tammuz, 5625): Author and historian Elias Chaim Lindo, the native of St. Thomas who settled in London in 1832 where he published several works including History of the Jews of Spain and Portugal passed away today.

    1866: Upon recurrence of blood libel accusations, Sultan Aziz issued a firman taking the Jews under his protection. Thanks to this firman the Greek Orthodox patriarchate had to issue encyclicals to all churches, forbidding such practices.

    1869: Birthdate of Elyakum Heinrich or in German Heinrich Loewe, the German intellectual who attended the first Zionist Congress in Basel and as an orientalist was appointed to a professorship at the University of Berlin in 1915.

    1870: Birthdate of Brooklyn native Mitchell May, the graduate of Brooklyn Polytechnic and Columbia University Law school whose political career including serving one term as a member of the U.S. House Representatives and 18 years as justice of the New York State Supreme Court.

    1877(1st of Av, 5637): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1877: Reports published today described conditions in Eastern Europe as the Russian Army continues its advance against the forces of Romania including the execution of two spies by the Russians.  According to the reporter, one stood tall and faced his executioners with a sneer before being shot.  The other, a Jew, groveled in front of his captors invoking his forefathers and expressing a willingness to convert if they would spare his life.  He was shot where he lay.  The reporter also included a description of Galician Jews whom he said were “so disgusting that even their co-religionists in Europe and America would refuse them all sympathy if they could see them.”

    1877: In Philadelphia, PA, Simon Benjamin Fleisher and Cecilia Hofheimer Fleisher gave birth to Dr. Edwin Adler Fleischer, “one of the most influential and important musical philanthropists of the 20th century” who established the Symphony Club in 1909.

    1877: The Fourth Council of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations met for a second day in Philadelphia, PA.

    1879: In Cleveland, Ohio, Emanuel and Sarah Ullman gave birth to Solomon Emanuel Ullman the “husband of Belle May Lowenstein

    1879: Delegates to the Sixth Council of the Union of American and Hebrew Congregations visited various public institutions controlled by the Commissioner of Charities and Corrections followed by visits to various institutions supported by Jewish charities.

    1879; In Cincinnati, Ohio, “Louis and Rose (Winkler) Amerberg gave birth to Constance Amberg, the University of Cincinnati graduate who worked as a volunteer in New York settlement houses before marrying attorney William Dick Sporborg and becoming Constance Amberg Sporborg, the mother of Elizabeth and William Dick Sporborg, Jr.

    1879: Delegates to the Sixth Council of the Union of American and Hebrew attended a banquet at Delmonico’s

    1879: Rabbi Isaac Meyer Wise of Cincinnati delivered a lecture at Temple Emanu-el based on the renewal of the covenant at Gilgal in the days of the prophet Samuel

    1881: “The Bible and Science” published today provides a detailed review of Hours With the Bible: Volume II by Cunningham Geikie.  In this second of what will become a multi-volume work, Geike provides an in depth study of the period from Moses to the Judges.

    1881: Arnold Bogumil Ehrlich, the native of Wlodawa, Poland who came to New York from Hamburg in 1874 to teach at the Emanu-El Theological School became a naturalized U.S. citizen today, listing as “his occupation ‘Teacher of Languages.’”

    1881: In Chicago, Dr. Ellinger read a paper tonight on “Ancient and Modern Rabbis” at a meeting of the Rabbinical Literary Society.  The society is a national organization that draws it membership from Jewish theologians throughout the United States.

    1882: As the Freight Handlers’ strike turned violent, Levi Cossowtich, a Russian-Jewish peddler was assaulted this morning at Henderson and 11th Streets by person or persons unknown. At noon, as he went to dinner, Louise Marble, one of the Jewish freight handlers working at the Erie depot, was assaulted and robbed.

    1882: Birthdate of German mathematician Leonard Nelson who was the co-founder of The Internationaler Sozialistischer Kampfbund ("International Socialist Militant League")

    1883: “Current Foreign Topics” published today described events at the trial in Hungary where Jews who were charged with murdering a Christian girl lost an important witness when a local coachman committed suicide.

    1883:  The Hebrew Union Council met for a second day in Cincinnati, Ohio. The Committee on Circuit Preaching reported favorably on a proposal of engaging circuit rabbis to service those areas where the Jewish population is too scattered to support full-time ministers.  The Rabbinical Association asked that the Union provided a fund for “the support of enfeebled ministers in their old age.”

    1883: Today’s commencement exercises of the Hebrew Union College are scheduled to be held at the Plum Street Temple in Cincinnati, Ohio followed by a banquet at the Highland House and a reception at the Zoological Garden.  The high point of the event will be the consecration of seven new rabbis, the first such class to be produced by the school and the first rabbis to be trained solely in the United States.[Note HUC would become the flagship institution for the Reform Movement.  While there is a popular misconception of American Jewry being a New York centric culture, in this a city in eastern Ohio, at the entry to the American heartland was the focal point of this significant segment of American Jewry.]

    1883: In Cincinnati, Ohio, a banquet was held “in honor of the first graduating class of HUC” and the delegates attending “the Hebrew Union Council” where shell fish were served and other aspects of the Jews dietary laws were violated earning the event the title of “The Trefa Banquet” which marked an irreparable break between the Reform movement and the Orthodox and Conservative branches of Judaism


    1883: County Coroner A.F Park came to the Oakdale, Connecticut to examine the body of a 24 year old Russian Jew, Moses Sadock.  Sadock’s body was found in the woods, lying on his back “with his throat cut from ear to ear.” Sadock was the center of a developing scandal involving accusations that he was a bigamist.

    1884: As word reached Albany, New York that Governor Grover Cleveland had been selected as the Presidential nominee of the Democrat Party, the Jewish “banking firm of Wormser & Co in New York sent hearty congratulations…”

    1884: It was reported today that in Brooklyn, Beth Elohim has hired William Sparger to serve as its rabbi.  The 26 year old Sparger was born in Hungary graduated from Prince Rudolph University of Vienna.  A member of the reforming movement, Sparger replaces Rabbi Mosher who left the pulpit 6 months ago due to illness.

    1885: In an attempt to put an end to the disputes with Rabbi Kauffman Kohler of Temple Beth-El, Rabbi Alexander of Kohut of Ahavath Chesed said today, “I desire that it should be understood that as far as I am concerned the pulpit controversy that has been carried out between myself and Dr. Kohler… is declared at end.  I will make no more responses to any of Dr. Kohler’s sermons and expect a reciprocation from in this matter…In the interest of my religion and for the sake of harmony…I wish to avoid controversy in the pulpit.”  This was an attempt to bring an end to the public dispute between these leaders of traditional and liberal Judaism.

    1885: In Baltimore, MD, Judge Phelps rendered a decision in the case of the District Grand Lodge of B’nai B’rith v the Jedijah Lodge.  The District had revoked the chapter’s charter and was seeking to recover funds that the lodge had collected.  The judge decided that under the rules of equity, the District Grand Lodge had no right to the funds.

    1886: It was reported today that the lady managers of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society have accepted the offer of boats from the New York Towing Company to be used for upcoming summer-time excursions.

    1889: It was reported today that the Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati, Ohio is in desperate need of funds.  The school is $9,000 in debt and needs an additional $15,500 to maintain operations. (More to added next year)

    1889: The Trustees of the Harlem Club met this evening to consider the application for membership of New York State Senator Jacob A. Cantor.  Robert Bonynge nominated him and David F. Porter seconded the nomination.  However, there was enough opposition that it was obvious that the Senator would be “blackballed.”  At the end of the meeting the Trustees refused to announce their decision saying that they would send a letter with the information to Cantor within the next ten days

    1889: The cornerstone for a new synagogue to be used by New York’s Sephardic Jews was laid today at the corner of 160 East One Hundred and Sixteenth Street.  This is the second synagogue in New York designed to meet the needs of the Spanish-Portuguese Community.

    1889: Joseph Davis, “a junior member of…S&J Davis” a catering firm serving Orange and Newark, NJ, rented a summer cottage for his wife and their children at Ocean Beach after they had been forced to leave the Brunswick Hotel because the proprietor found out that they were Jewish.

    1890: Birthdate of Captain Koreshige Inuzuka the native of Tokyo who “was the head of the Japanese Imperial Navy's Advisory Bureau on Jewish Affairs from March 1939 until April 1942” and who in 1941 was granted a silver cigarette case by the Union of Orthodox Rabbis of the United States” for his role in rescuing Jews from Nazi Germany. (Yes history can be convoluted and complicated)

    1890: Theatrical manager Daniel Frohman described some of the plays he acquired on his recent trip to London and Paris that will be produced in the coming season. Among them are two French comedies – “Fen Toupinel” and La Femme Nervevie” – and two English comedies – “The Idler” and “The Solicitor”

    1891: “The Expatriated Jews” published today described a letter the Assistant Secretary sent to the Acting Superintendent of Immigration at New York to question Russian Jews arriving at his port to see if any of them “had been diverted from their original destination to this country by foreign officials”, to record any such incidents in detail and send the report to Washington.

    1891: On New York’s Lower East Side, Dr. Samuel Clurman and his wife Bertha gave birth to World War I veteran Albert Clurman, the graduate of Cornell who earned an LL.B from NYU and went on to practice in his home town.

    1891: Birthdate of Otto Armster a German intelligence officer who was one of the few participants in the July 20 plot to assassinate Hitler who survived WW II.

    1891: Israel Pimkus a sixty year old Russian Jew was among the passengers who arrived at New York’s Barge Office aboard the SS Fürst Bismarck. When asked if he would become a public charge he opened a satchel containing $17,500 which he said he was planning on using to buy land in the “West” before sending for his brothers.

    1892: Birthdate of Hungarian born Dr. Joseph Shick, a chaplain in the Hungarian Army during WW I who came to the United States in 1922 where he served as the Rabbi of the West Side Jewish Center and the principal of the West Side Hebrew School.

    1892: “Close of the Rabbis’ Convention” published today described the final session of “the annual convention of American rabbis that ended last night at a well-attended meeting at Temple Israel on 125th Street and Fifth Avenue.

    1892: In Little Rock AR, eighty-two year old Samuel Bloch, a well-known writer who had lived in Cincinnati and Chicago passed away today.

    1893(27thof Tammuz, 5653): Israel Joshua Trunk, the rabbi at Kutno, passed away today.

    1894: In San Francisco, Stella (Stettheimer) and Sigmund Feuchtwanger gave birth to Walter Feuchtwanger who gained fame as movie producer Walter Wagner.

    1894: “Aid For The Workingman” published today describes the success of the Order of Round Robins a fraternal and welfare organization designed to benefits workers and employers originally conceived by Colonel Jacob Bloom, the manager of the Baron de Hirsch Trade School located in New York City.

    1894: The representatives of the United Hebrew Trades Union, the Socialist Party and the Knights of Labor met tonight at the Labor Lyceum to finalize plans for the upcoming mass meeting in Union Square.

    1894: A list of the amount of annual appropriations of state moneys to be paid to different New York institutions and the year the appropriation was first approved included the Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum $110 per head by law of 1874, Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society $104 per head by law of 1889 and the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children $5,000 a year by law of

    1894: In Albany, during the Constitutional Convention’s Committees on Legislate Powers, Education, Taxation and Charities hearing “on the question of abolishing sectarian appropriations Elbridge T. Gerry expressed his fear that adoption “would cripple the great Hebrew Guardian Society.”

    1894: Samuel Gompers will chair the meeting of the Executive Council of the American Federation of Labor in Chicago where they will discuss the possibility of a general strike if the current strike against Pullman fails.

    1895:In Rochester, NY, the annual Central Conference of American Rabbis continues to meet for a second day.

    1895: A list of the bequests of the late Moses Heidelbach published today included $500 to Mount Sinai Hospital; a one thousand dollar bond to the Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum of New York City; $500 to Abraham Friedlander which he is to contribute charities in Cincinnati, Ohio.

    1895: According to figures published today during the month of June, the Employment Bureau of the United Hebrew Charities of New York found employment for 667 of its 748 applicants

    1896: Herzl achieves the agreement of Sir Samuel Montagu and Colonel Goldsmid to work with him for a vassal Jewish state under Turkish rule. Goldsmid promises to write a letter to Baron Rothschild.

    1897: Forty Jewish families from Poland who had arrived in New York aboard the steamships Veendam and Scilia were turned over to the Immigration Bureau on the suspicion that they were destitute and therefore not eligible to enter the United States.

    1897: Birthdate of New York native Oscar Tobler, the lightweight boxer who fought under the name of Willie Jackson or Young Willie Jackson.

    1897: It was reported today that “Yemen’s Arabian Jews have Negus Menelek for permission to settle in the towns of Abyssinia on the ground that Menelek is one of the chosen people being descendedfrom King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba”

    1898: “Restlessness Among Children: Its Causes; Its Effects; Its Treatment” a presentation by Miss Carrie W. Kearns of New York City will be the feature of today’s session of the Teachers’ Institute

    1898: The Hebrew Bath House Society, whose members include S.D. Solomon, Charles Serling and Israel Kaplan was founded today in Syracuse, NY.

    1898: During the Spanish-American War, Sergeant Philips S. Golderman began serving as the Color Sergeant in Company I, of the 203rd New York Infantry.

    1899: Nathan Israel, the founder of Israel’s Department Store which was “one of the largest and oldest stores in pre-World War II Germany” and his wife gave birth to Wilfrid Israel “an Anglo-German businessman who was active in the rescue of Jews from Nazi Germany.

    1899: In Poughkeepsie, NY, the leaders of the Y.M.C.A. who have been conducting a crusade to enforce the Sunday closing laws, have asked that the fines of the merchants convicted of violating the law, including Louis Grossman and Aaron Friedman be remitted because they only wished to have their stores closed on Sunday and not to have the merchants punished.

    1899: The American Jews wishing to present a jeweled sword to Captain Dreyfus to mark his successfully overcoming the charges of treason received a telegram from Emile Zola stating “Dreyfus family consulted.  Thank you, but impossible to accept.”

    1901: Grossherzog Friedrich of Baden informs Herzl that the Czar will not receive him.

    1902: In The Hague, Isaac Goudsmit, a manufacturer of water-closets, and Marianne Goudsmit-Gompers who ran a millinery shop who were murdered by the Nazis in 1943 gave birth to Dutch-American physicist Samuel Goudsmit.,+Samuel+

    1903: Birthdate of Sidney Franklin.  Born Sidney Frumkin, Franklin was the first famous bullfighter from north of the Rio Grande.

    1904: The Eight Annual meeting of the Board of Governors of The Education League for Higher Education led by its President, Rabbi Moses J. Gries was held today in Cleveland, Ohio.

    1905: The Ninth Summer Assembly of the Jewish Chautauqua Society continued for a fourth day in Atlantic City, NJ.

    1911: In Milwaukee, Wisconsin, the 15th annual summer assembly of the Jewish Chautauqua Society led by Chancellor Henry Berkowitz continued for a fifth day.

    1911: A strong protest was provided by Moses Gaster when the London Times published an article from Vienna stating that Jews are influencing the Salonica Committee which is bringing harsh measures to bear against the Albanians.

    1912: Sarah Sophia Bensaude Abecassis “married her cousin Salomão Abecassis Seruya in the Great Synagogue, Cape Town, South Africa. He was the son of Mark (Mojluf) Seruya and Esther Conquy Abecassis. Born in Lisbon 1883, she was the daughter of Isaac Conquy Abecassis and Helena Nathan Bensaude

    1914(17thof Tammuz, 5674): Fast not observed because it is Shabbat

    1914(17thof Tammuz,5674): Seventy-three year old Julius Rodenberg, (born Julius Levy) who “wrote the libretto to Anton Rubinstein's opera, “Feramors” and who founded the political journal Deutsche Rundschau in 1874 passed away today.,_1889,_von_C.W.Allers.jpg

    1915: Dr. Cyrus Adler addressed the opening session of the convention of the United Synagogue of America today.

    1915: As of today, The Red Cross European Fund in New York City of which Jacob H. Schiff is the treasurer has raised $511,185.56

    1916: Birthdate of Mortimer Caplan the New York attorney who was a founding member of Caplin & Drysdale and who was appointed IRS Commissioner by President Kennedy

    1916: British businessman and cricket enthusiast Sir Julien Cahn married Phyllis Muriel Wolfe with whom he had three children – Patience, Albert Jonas who assumed the baronetcy when his father passed away and Albert Jonas Cahn.

    1917: Samuel Katzprowsky, a native of Russia now residing in Berkeley, CA applied for a patent on “a certain news and useful Process of Treating Dried Fruit” which “relates to a processing of treating raisings, prunes, figs and other fruits which are dried.”

    1918: “At the semi-annual convention of the Orthodox Rabbis of America” led by its President, Rabbi Margolies of New York, being held at the Broadway Central Hotel, “resolutions were adopted thanks Great Britain and the Allies for their formal declarations favoring the establishment of a national Jewish homeland in Palestine.”

    1919: Birthdate of Russian born Israeli artist and author Benjamin Tammuz.

    1920: At the first Zionist conference held after World War I, Olga Ginsburg initiated the founding of the Women’s International Zionist Organization (WIZO), together with representatives from organizations in Palestine, England, Germany, Poland, The Netherlands, Russia and South Africa. It was decided to establish the central office in Palestine and to divide the work between the world center and London. (As reported by Esther Carmel-Hakim)

    1921: Former US President William Howard Taft was sworn in as 10th Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court, becoming the only person to ever be both President and Chief Justice.  Unlike the Associate Justices, the Chief Justice has major administrative responsibility for both the High Court and the Federal judiciary system.  It was in this latter arena that both Louis Brandies and Felix Frankfurter reported that Taft excelled.

    1921(5thof Tammuz, 5681): Sixty-nine year old Hungarian native Rabbi Joseph Zeisler, the son Edouard and Josefine Zeisler, the “husband of Mrs. Hermaine Kafka Zeisler and father of Eugene, Cornelius, Pauline and Florance Zeisle” who had lead several congreagations including San Bernardino’s Congregation Emanu El and Beth Ha-Tefilah in Ashville, NC, passed away today in Brooklyn.

    1921: The Irish War of Independence in which Robert “Bob” Briscoe, the second Jewish Lord Mayor of Dublin, served in the Irish Republican Army and Sinn Fein, came to an end. 

    1923: Birthdate of Helen Wasser, the native of the Lower East Side who gained fame as the “matriarch” of Kutsher’s Country Club, the last of great borscht belt hostelries. (As reported by Joseph Berger)

    1923: Albert Einstein delivers his Nobel Lecture in Gothenburg, Sweden

    1923: In Cieszyn, Poland, “Marek Pipes who ran a chocolate factory” and “homemaker Sara Sofia (Haskelberg) Pipes, who went by Zosia” gave birth to Ryszard Edgar Pipes who gained fame as Richard Pipes, the American historian who specialized in Russian affairs.

    1924: It was reported today that the Counsel for Fanny Brice’s husband Nicky Arnstein, who had entered Leavenworth in May, “sought before General Sessions Judge Koenig to have the charges against him relating to having received $5,000,000 of securities stolen by messengers of Wall Street brokers five years ago dismissed.

    1926: The first international conference of representatives of Liberal Judaism will open in London today. Delegates from the reform congregations of the United States and several European countries, ministers and laymen, are expected to participate. The majority of the papers to be read at the conference will deal with the fundamental aspects of Liberal Judaism today.

    1927: Birthdate of Holocaust survivor Vera Lindeblit, the Berlin native  whose father was murdered at Auschwitz and who gained fame as Vera Stern, the one-time wife of Isaac Stern with whom she helped to save Carnegie Hall from the wrecking ball.

    1927: The Hadassah offices in New York City received a cable from Dr. E.M. Bluestone, director of the Hadassah Medical Organization in Palestine stating that “the earthquake situation ‘is well in hand.’” (As reported by William Grimes)

    1927: In Los Angeles, CA, electrical engineer Abraham “Abe” Maiman and inventor Rose Abramson gave birth to Theodore Harold "Ted" Maiman the “American engineer and physicist credited with the invention of the first working laser.”

    1928 In Cardiff, Wales, Litvaks “Barnett Janner and Elsie Sybil, née Cohen” gave birth to Granville Janner, the Member of Parliament and future Baron Janner of Braunstone whose sister Ruth became Lady Morris of Kenwood.

    1929: Critic and producer Mark Helleinger and Gladys Glad got married today.

    1929: Birthdate of Juergen Corleis whose mother was Jewish which did not keep him from hiding as a student in an elite SS training school. A 1985 film produced by Corleis is a permanent feature at the Bergen-Belsen memorial, where it has been seen by millions of visitors.

    1930: Birthdate of literary critic Harold Bloom. Bloom is the Sterling Professor of Humanities at Yale.  The Bronx born Bloom is reputed to have learned Yiddish and literary Hebrew before he learned English.

    1931: “Smart Money” a gangster movie starring Edward G. Robinson (Emanuel Goldenberg) was released in the United States today.

    1931: In New York City Charles Kelm, who was Jewish and the former Gertrud Gelien was not gave birth to Arthur Andrew Klem who gained fame as Tab Hunter, the teenage heartthrob who was raised by his mother after his parent’s divorce


    1933: Birthdate of George R Whyte, a British national who had been born in Budapest and whose greatest claim to fame is his recognition as a “world authority on the Dreyfus Affair.”

    1933: In Floral Park, NY, Dr. Abraham and Mrs. Phyllis Neuwirth gave birth to Robert Samuels Neuwirth, “a prominent gynecologist who developed minimally invasive techniques that helped many women avoid hysterectomies.” (As reported by William Yardley.)

    1936: A review of What I Left Unsaid by Daisy, Princess of Pless (yes that is the name of a real person) included her observation that “in Soviet Russia Jews ‘are crucifying the Russian peoples as their ancestors crucified Christ.”  Furthermore “for twenty-five years the ‘low, base Jewish profiteers’ who run the moving picture industry have ‘mentally posed the people of the British Empire and have ‘almost destroyed the immense prestige England once enjoyed’ throughout the world” and her solution is that “Great Britain and Germany must unite for the good of mankind.”

    1936: To the surprise of everybody, Chancellor Kurt Schuschnigg delivered a speech over the radio tonight announcing “the conclusion of an agreement between Austria and Nazi Germany” which has left “the Jewish population fearful” because “it sees the door opening to rapid Nazification of Austria and the introduction of German methods of anti-Semitism.”

    1937: Composer George Gershwin passed away. Born in 1898, Gershwin made musical history during his very short lifetime. Among his most famous productions was "Porgy and Bess" a classic whose music is still sung today.

    1937: “In Jerusalem, the Arab National Defense issued a manifesto severely condemn the recommendation of the British Royal Commission for splitting Palestine into separate Arab and Jewish states and the creation of a new British mandate controlling the holy cities of Jerusalem, Bethlehem and Nazareth.”

    1938: During an appearance in the House of Commons, Colonial Secretary Malcolm MacDonald refused to respond to an inquiry about whether he would ask the French to expel the Grand Mufti from Syria, the base from which he is directing the on-going campaign of violence gripping Palestine.

    1941In Liepāja, Latvia, SS-Untersturmführer (Second Lieutenant) Wolfgang Kügler replaced Erhard Grauel, as commander of Einsatzkommando 2 today and continued shooting “small groups of Jews’ every evening.

    1941(16th of Tammuz, 5701): Forty-four year old  bond broker, Monroe Mayhoff, who had risen to the rank of Captain while serving in the New York National Guard passed away today. He was the son of Charles Mayhoff and Ameilia Levy Mayhoff who survived both her husband and son.

    1941:  Following the murder of most of the Jews at Jedwabne, Poland by the Polish population on the previous days, the Germans reasserted their authority and forbade the Poles from killing any more Jews on their own.

    1941: The Gestapo officially took control of the prisons in Riga where “Latvian gangs had already killed a number of Jewish inmates.”

    1942: Sixty-four year old artist and designer Friedrich Adler, the native of Laupeheim whose”birthplace is now the Café Hermes, was shipped to Auschwitz today and was killed soon after because he was “judged too old to work.”

    1942: This day was called the "Black Sabbath" in Salonica, Greece. Ten thousand men were assembled for forced labor registration by the Germans. Surrounded by machine gun carrying Germans, 7,000 Jews had to stand erect, and sometimes in a squatting position in the 100 degree sun under threat of death nearly all day. An untold number of Jews died because they were beaten, tortured, and deprived of both food and water. Nine thousand of them are assigned to the Organisation Todt labor battalions.

    1943: In the early morning hours, airborne troops drop onto Sicily followed by a seaborne assault by troops under the command of Patton and Montgomery in what was known as Operation Husky.  At that time Operation Husky was the largest amphibious assault ever attempted and its success depended on fooling the enemy as to where the landings would take place.  Thanks to Operation Mincemeat, which has been described as the Allies’ most successful act of deception during the war, the Axis forces were taken by surprise.  Operation Mincemeat was masterminded by Captain Ewen Montagu, a member of a prominent British Jewish family who would serve as President of the United Synagogue and Vice President of the Anglo-Jewish Association.  [For more about this fascinating act of deception see a movie called The Man Who Never Was or read Operation Mincemeat.]

    1943: Martin Bormann, head of the Nazi Party secretariat, issued a circular on the instructions of Hitler. "Whenever the Jewish question was brought up in public, there may be no discussion of a future overall solution. It may however be mentioned that the Jews are taken in groups for appropriate labor purposes."

    1944: “Prime Minister Winston Churchill put an end to the proposal to swap Jews for trucks and other goods with a memo that there should be ‘no negotiations of any kind on this subject.’”

    1944: Birthdate of Michael Abraham Levy, “a Labour member of the House of Lords, President of Jewish Care and the Jewish Free School, and formerly the chief fundraiser for the Labour Party and several charities.”

    1944: The Nazis liquidated the Kovno Ghetto.

    1945: The British High Commissioner caves in to Arab pressure and issues a decree ending the Jerusalem municipality.  He imposed a system of six British officials to administer the city, a system that ended the democratically elected government of Jerusalem.

    1945: During WW II, at Pearl Harbor, Dr. Abraham Koransky who was awarded the Silver Start for his role at the Battle of Attu in 1943, married “Lt. Pauline Setnetsky, an Army nurse” in a marriage that lasted until he passed away in 1999.

    1946: A Polish primate, Cardinal August Hlond, blames the Jews of Kielce, Poland, for the murderous pogrom that had taken place on July 4.

    1947: Today, the SS Exodus with 23 year old Yitzhak Ahronovitch at the helm,a dilapidated American coastal steamer, left Sete, France filled with Jewish refugees who planning on defying the British ban on Jewish immigration to Palestine.  The events surrounding the real SS Exodus would form the nucleus of Exodus by Leon Uris, a novel (and later movie) that provided a sympathetic description of events surrounding the birth of the modern state of Israel.

    1948: During “Operation Danny,” Israeli forces captured Lydda.

    1948: Birthdate of Norman Lebrecht the native of London known as a controversial music and cultural affairs critic

    1950: The New York Times reports that Crown Publishers will distribute “an American edition of Ari Ibn-Zahav’s second novel, David and Bathsheba in 1951.  “The book, on which the author worked nearly seven years covering those places in Israel where the incidents took place was published in Hebrew in Jerusalem in 1929.”  Jessica My Daughter was the name of Ibn-Zahav’s first novel.

    1950: Two British planes which had landed at Lydda Airport without permission last week have been released by Israeli and are scheduled to leave Lydda Airport today. The two planes had landed in Israel on July 9 carrying more than 100 Iraqi Jews who had fled to Teheran where they had chartered these two British aircraft.  The planes had been detained because landing rights had been obtained for only one plane.

    1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that Israel had been allocated $23.5m. grant-in-aid under the economic part of the US Mutual Security Program for the Middle East. The size of the no-man's-land in Jerusalem had been reduced by marking of the border houses by the joint Israel-Jordan Mixed Armistice Commission. Syria asked Iraq to withdraw all its troops which had been sent to reinforce the Syrian forces during the Hula conflict with Israel.

    1951: Today, W.H. Young, a deputy undersecretary of state, “sent a secret cablegram to the American consul in Haifa, directing that the passport of Paul Shulman” the man described a Israel’s Vounteer Admiral “be canceled except for travel to the United States.

    1952: In New York, Theresa (née Volmer) Lang and Eugene Lang, a prominent entrepreneur and philanthropist gave birth to actor and playwright Stephen Lang, the youngest brother of Jane and David Lang.

    1952: “Speaking at a reception given by Labour MPs in honour of a Histadrut delegation of 62 American and Canadian Jews en route to Israel,” “Labour Party leaders praised the courage and enthusiasm of the new State of Israel and said that it would overcome the great odds which it faces.

    1955: Susan Strasberg, who was nominated for a Tony for her portrayal of Anne Frank, appeared on the cover of Life Magazine.

    1956: Seventy-four year old Vienna born banker Felix Somary who before the Anschluss repeatedly tried to get Baron Louis Nathaniel de Rothschild to leave Austria passed away today.

    1958: In Tunisia, one of the last vestiges of this venerable community, The Jewish Community Council in Tunisia was dissolved. The Jewish Community Council was one of the last vestiges of the venerable Tunisian Jewish Community. The Jewish Community in Tunisia traced its roots to the days of the Second Temple. The community began in Carthage, the rival to Rome that you may remember as the homeland of the great general, Hannibal. Soon after the council was dissolved, the Hara, (Jewish quarter) together with the oldest synagogue was destroyed as part of a slum-clearance project.

    1958(23rdof Tammuz, 5718): Seventy-six year old Sir Eric Miller the Chairman of the Board of Harrisons and Crosfield who was lifelong champion of the rubber industry passed away today.

    1959: Birthdate of New York comedian, comic actor and scriptwriter Barry Sobel

    1961(27thof Tammuz, 5721): Thirty one year old Sidney Cole, who had ridden his first victory in 1950 “died today after being thrown from the saddle of a 2 year old filly and into a guard rail at Aqueduct.”

    1961: Birthdate of Ophir Pines-Paz, the native of Rishon LeZion who served as an MK and filled several ministerial posts.


    1962(9thof Tammuz, 5722): Today, a day after his 57th birthday Polish native Maurice B. Pekarsky who came to the United States in 1921 and was ordained in 1933 by Hebrew Union College after which he began a lifetime of service to Hillel including serving as Director of the Jewish College youth organization at the University of Chicago starting in 1940 passed away.



    1963: Arthur Goldreich, a South African Jew, who helped lead the armed struggle against apartheid in South Africa was among the top 16 ANC leaders who were arrested today at Liliesleaf.  This was the farm where Goldreich posed as the manager while Nelson Mandel masqueraded as his houseboy in their fight against the apartheid government of South Africa.

    1966(23rd of Tammuz, 5726): Poet Delmore Schwartz, the son of Jewish immigrants from Romania passed away.

    1966: In Los Angeles, Sandy (née Klein) and Gerry Grunberg gave birth to American television actor Gregory Phillip Grunberg,

    1967: The Battle of Rumani a naval engagement that took place tonight between Israeli and Egyptian naval forces, near the vicinity of Rumani. Two Egyptian torpedo boats were sunk in the action for no Israeli losses.

    1971(18thof Tammuz, 5731): Tzom Tammuz is observed because the 17th fell on Shabbat.

    1972: Second day of The Democratic National Convention which Robert Abrams, the 9thBorough President of the Bronx attended as a delegate from New York.

    1972:  Birthdate of actor Michael Rosenbaum whose current claim to fame is his portrayal of Superman’s evil opponent - Lex Luthor.

    1973(11thof Tammuz, 5733): Seventy-eight year old jurist Simon Sobeloff who served as Solicitor General passed away today.

    1975: “Cleopatra Jones and the Casino of Gold,” a sequel to “Cleopatra Jones” starring Norman Fell was released today in the United States.

    1976: The Jerusalem Post reported that Israel told the UN Security Council that the entire Entebbe hijack affair was one of collusion, from beginning to end, on the part of the Ugandan government and Palestinian terrorists. Israeli envoy Chaim Herzog challenged Uganda to produce Mrs. Dora Bloch, who was both a British and Israeli national and was hospitalized in Entebbe the day before the raid. The British official who visited her a day after the raid reported that she was guarded by two plainclothes men and that he was denied access after he returned to meet her again an hour later. The British Foreign Office recalled its high commissioner from Kampala after he received a "totally unacceptable" reply from Idi Amin on the fate of Mrs. Bloch.

    1976: In a pre-recorded interview broadcast today on the CBS news program Face the Nation, “Prime Minister Rabin denounced President Amin. ‘For years he has given refuge, assistance, training, support of all kinds to Palestinian terror organizations that worked against Israel.’” He went on to say “that President Amin was a full partner to the hijacking, if not when it began, then certainly in the later stage.” [Note – Rabin’s comments came in the wake of attacks by Uganda, and other nations of sub-Saharan Africa on Israel and implied, if not stated, support for the hijackers. Thirty years later, some of these same states would get a taste of what Israel was dealing with when they began to deal with Al Qaeda and other Moslem terrorists operating in their countries.]

    1976: “An all-black cast staged the first Broadway review” of “Guys and Dolls a musical with music and lyrics by Frank Loesser and book by Jo Swerling and Abe Burrows” which  opened with a preview performance today at the Broadway Theatre.

    1978(6thof Tammuz, 5738): Seventy-two year old “art historian and critic” Harold Rosenberg passed away today.


    1978: The trial of Anatoly Sharansky continued to a second day.

    1983(1st of Av, 5743): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1986: In Los Angles “Lee Schwartz, a business consultant to manufacturing companies, and Olivia Goodkin, an attorney” gave birth to Offensive Tackle Geoff Schwartz

    1986: As part of the celebrations of the centennial of the Statue of Liberty, Liz Lerman's Still Crossing was performed in Manhattan. The performance, part of a series of dance performances in a show called "Liberty Dances," brought together dancers from both of Lerman's companies: Dancers of the Third Age, a company of elderly dancers, and the younger Dance Exchange. The professional dancers were joined by members of the 92nd Street Y and a YWCA in Brooklyn in a piece that the New York Times reviewer described as simple but moving, with "dignity and eloquence." Choreographer Liz Lerman was educated at the University of Maryland and at George Washington University, where she earned an M.A. in dance. She established the Dance Exchange in Washington, DC, in 1976, as a school that included classes for senior adults and "special populations." After three years, she also launched a touring Dance Exchange company; the school was later closed so that Lerman and the company could focus on creating new works. From the beginning, Lerman's work has been deeply involved in issues of community building and community-based art. Like Dancers of the Third Age, many of her projects have incorporated performers outside of the mainstream dance world. In addition, she has created site-specific projects, including dances celebrating the 200th anniversary of the Portsmouth, NH, naval shipyard. Similarly, many of her dances take on themes of political or social importance. A 1987 program called "Atomic Priests and Other Dances" included a dance based on an official Department of Energy Report about how people 10,000 years from now might deal with nuclear waste. She has also produced what she calls a docudance entitled "Nine Short Dances About the Defense Budget and Other Military Matters." A reviewer has called Lerman "one of the most articulate and compassionate of social commentators in the arts today." Lerman's work has been widely recognized for excellence. Lincoln Center, the American Dance Festival, BalletMet, and the Kennedy Center have all commissioned works. In 1988, Lerman was named Washingtonian of the Year by Washingtonian magazine. She has also received an American Choreographer Award, an American Jewish Congress "Golda" Award, and, in 2002, a MacArthur Fellowship. Today, the Liz Lerman Dance Exchange operates out of Takoma Park, MD, and performs all over the United States and the world. Dancers of the Third Age, which also performs widely, operates as an adjunct company to the Dance Exchange. Current projects include "Prayer as a Radical Act/Radical Action as Prayer," which will be a dance/theatre piece that draws from ancient and contemporary prayer practices to explore unity and division, and "Ferocious Beauty: Genome," which will be a multi-media work exploring the impact of genetic research on our lives.

    1987(14th of Tamuz, 5747): Avi Ran, Israeli goalkeeper for Maccabia Haifa died in a boating accident.

    1987(14th of Tammuz, 5747): Rabbi Yaakov Yitzchok Ruderman passed away. Born in 1901 at Daŭhinava he “was a prominent Talmudic scholar… who founded and served as Rosh Yeshiva of Yeshiva Ner Yisroel in Baltimore.

    1988: Today, Economics Minister Gad Yaacobi said the 7-month Arab uprising has cost Israel more than $600 million, including losses in tourism, exports and production revenues. Defense Minister Yitzhak Rabin said Israel has spent about $160 million to quell the unrest.

    1994: The second round of family tours of Israel sponsored by the American Jewish Congress are scheduled to begin today.

    1997(6thof Tammuz, 5757): Eighty-five year old Edward Lasker, the son of Albert Davis Lasker, who was a movie producer, thoroughbred racehorse owner and businessman passed away today.

    1999: Roman Bronfman and Alexander Tzinker left Yisrael BaAliyah and formed the Democratic Choice faction.

    1999(27thof Tammuz, 5759): Seventy-nine year old Everett Greenbaum, the native of Buffalo, NY, who wrote scripts for several movies starring Don Knotts and who wrote script for numerous popular television shows including “Mr. Peepers” and “MASH” passed away today.

    1999: The New York Times reviews books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including recently release paperback editions of Explaining Hitler: The Search for the Origins of His Evil” by Ron Rosenbaum and “Between Dignity and Despair: Jewish Life in Nazi Germany”, by Marion A. Kaplan.

    2000; Talks opened at Camp David between Yasser Arafat and Ehud Barak under the auspices of Bill Clinton. “Israeli Prime Minsiter, Ehud Barak, tells US President, Bill Clinton, his starting position: Jerusalem would never be shared. Palestinian Chairman, Yasser Arafat, demands half Jerusalem as his capital and Palestinian sovereignty over what the Muslims know as the Haram al-Sharif, which is the Jews' Temple Mount.”


    2002: An exhibition entitled “Michael Rovner: The Space Between” opened at the Whitney Museum in New York City.

    2000: Yithak Vankin ended his service as Deputy Minister of Communications when Shas resigned from the government today.

    2000: Haim Ramon succeeded Natan Sharansky as Internal Affairs Minister.

    2000: Eli Suissa completed his service as Minister of Energy and Water Resources

    2000: Starting today, President Clinton hosted negotiations between Prime Minister Ehud Barak and Chairman Yassar Arafat aimed at creating “an agreement on permanent status.”

    2002: In Helena, Montana, the building that housed Temple Emanu-El which had been dedicated in 1891 “was placed on the National Register of Historic Places” today.,_Montana)#/media/File:Temple_Emanu-El_02.jpg

    2003: Kate Remembered by A. Scott Berg  “a biography-cum-memoir detailing his 20-year friendship with the Hollywood actress Katharine Hepburn was published today, 12 days before her death.

    2004(22ndof Tammuz, 5764): “Sgt. Ma'ayan Na'im, 19, of Bat Yam, was murdered and 33 others were wounded when a bomb exploded at a bus stop in downtown Tel Aviv at about 7 a.m. One person was critically wounded, four were moderately wounded, and the rest were lightly hurt.”

    2004(22nd of Tammuz, 5764): Eighty-two year old fitness guru Joe Gold, the creator of the ubiquitous Gold’s Gyms, passed away today. (As reported by Wolfgang Saxon)

    2005: Opening ceremonies for the 17th Maccabiah.

    2006: “Grilled” featuring Lisa Edelstein, Michael Rapaport and Barry Newman “was released direct-to-video in the United States today.

    2007: Ninety­-two year old American born Canadian businessman, philanthropist and theatrical impresario Ed Mirvish, the owner of Hones Ed’s discount store passed away today.

    2007: In Sydney, Australia, the International Conference of Christian and Jews comes to an end.

    2008: US Ambassador to Israel Richard Jones leave his post, some three years after taking up the position. He will be replaced by James Cunningham, whose appointment has already been confirmed by the US Senate.

    2008: U.S. premiere of “Hellboy II: The Golden Army” produced by Lloyd Levin and Joe Roth, co-starring Ron Perlman, Selma Blair and Jeffrey Tambor and with music by Danny Elfman.

    2008: At a conference on the Dead Sea Scrolls at the Orion Center held by the Hebrew University's Mandel Institute of Jewish Studies and the Israel Museum Professor Israel Knohl from the Department of Bible Studies at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem presented a new and surprising interpretation to a text found on a stone tablet that has been called the ''Vision of Gabriel''. According to his interpretation, the word Hayia – or ''will live''– that appears on the tablet is an old form of the imperative word ''Live!'' and shows that the angel Gabriel resurrected a messianic leader by the name of Sar HaSarin, or ''prince of princes'' three days after his death. The Vision of Gabriel is a text written on stone from the first century B.C.E. that was discovered in Transjordan, and describes an apocalyptic vision that is told by the angel Gabriel. The vision recounts that an evil king will succeed in destroying many of the people of Israel and killing its leader, the ''Prince of Princes''. After three days, this leader will be resurrected by the angel Gabriel. Prof. Knohl, who is the Yehezkel Kauffman Professor of Biblical Studies, suggests reconstructing the words from a fragmented line in the text ''in three days come back to life, angel Gabriel commands you''. Prof. Knohl claims that in this line it is clear that Gabriel is approaching someone and commanding him to come back to life after three days. Prof. Knohl found that development of the tradition regarding the messiah son of Joseph is based on real historic events, and that the belief in the resurrection of the messiah and on his rising up to heaven three days after his death developed before Christ's crucifixion. ''We are able to determine that the period in which the Vision of Gabriel was written was at the end of the first century B.C.E, close in time to the birth of Jesus of Nazareth. The idea that the death of the messiah is an integral part of the salvation process was at the time a commonly held belief among certain circles,'' claims Prof. Knohl. ''Therefore, if there was a Jewish tradition of a messiah who will be resurrected, it is possible to believe that Jesus was the Jewish messiah who goes to his death out of the belief that his spilled blood will cause G-d to bring about the redemption of the Jewish people. This discovery should bring about a renewed appreciation of the parallel development of Jewish and Christian messianism.''

    2009: In Tel Aviv, Israel faces Russia in Day 2 of the Davis Cup Quarterfinals.

    2009: At the Jerusalem Film Festival, a screening of “Camera Obscura” a film based on a novel by Angélica Gorodisher set at the end of the 19th century, in a colony of Jewish immigrants living in Entre Ríos Province, Argentina.

    2010: The final performance of the World Premiere engagement of The Socialization of Ruthie Shapiro is scheduled to take place at Theatre West in Los Angeles.

    2010: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Council of Dads: My Daughters, My Illness, and the Men Who Could Be Me by Bruce Feiler and The Men Who Would Be King by Nicole LaPorte which chronicles how Jewish showbiz veterans Steven Spielberg, David Geffen and Jeffrey Katzenberg banded together to form DreamWorks SKG, their own custom-­designed production studio and the first new Hollywood studio in 60 years.

    2010: The 70th yahrzeit of Vladimir Ze'ev Jabotinsky was marked today, at Mount Herzl cemetery in Jerusalem, by Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and President Shimon Peres

    2011: Nirvana, a dance show from Korea, based on ancient ritual Buddhist dances, is scheduled to performed at the Performing Arts Center in Herzliya

    2011: The "Boycott Bill" was approved in its final reading in the Knesset tonight, after a plenum discussion that lasted nearly six hours and uncertainty throughout the day as to whether a vote would take place.

    2011: Argentinean Rabbi Sergio Bergman won a seat on the Buenos Aires municipal legislature today, leading the vote tally with 45 percent of the votes.  Bergman garnered triple the number of votes of the candidate who came in second place, Juan Cabandié of the Victory Front Party,  who won 14 percent of the vote.

    2011: A leading rabbi and halachic authority in Israel has recognized the Chuetas of Palma de Majorca as Jewish, the Shavei Israel organization announced today. The Chuetas are descended from the Jewish inhabitants of the Spanish island of Majorca who suffered extreme oppression in the Middle Ages, until by 1435 all of them had been killed or forcibly converted to Catholicism. Because the Chuetas are related to the previous generations and married among themselves they should be considered Jewish, Shavei Israel Chairman Michael Freund told reporters that Rabbi Nissim Karlewitz, chairman of the Beit Din Tzedek (rabbinical court) in Bnei Brak, wrote in a letter to the organization. “Since it has become clear that it is accepted among them [the Chuetas] that throughout the generations most of them married among themselves, then all those who are related to the former generations are Jews, from our brethren the children of Israel, the nation of God,” Karlewitz wrote. “We, the Jewish people, have a responsibility to the Chuetas,” Freund told The Jerusalem Post. “Their ancestors were kidnapped from us and taken against their will six centuries ago. The Inquisition sought to quash their Jewish identity down through the ages and we are coming here today to say that the Inquisition did not succeed. Jews are still here and the Chuetas are still here, and the best revenge on the Inquisition would be to bring as many of these people as possible back to their roots and back to their people.” Despite having been converted, the Chuetas – whose name comes from the Catalan word for pig – continued to face intense discrimination and oppression, and were not allowed to marry Catholics or adopt certain professions. Because of the ban on intermarriage, the Chuetas almost exclusively married within their own community. “Although there is no actual discrimination any longer against Chuetas, on a societal level many feel ostracized and to a certain extent outsiders,” Freund said. “Acceptance of the Chuetas over the past 40 years has grown, which is positive, but brings with it a greater danger of assimilation, which is why the timing of this announcement is so important.” Karelitz’s decision refers to the Chuetas as a collective, and for anyone wanting to return in full to the Jewish community it will be necessary for a rabbinical court to speak with the individual. According to Freund, many of the Chuetas have documentation attesting to their family lines, often going back 500 years. “There are 15 distinct Chueta family names. Because of the historical circumstances and because of the endogamy practices, it is relatively easy to document and prove their genealogy,” Freund said. In May, the president of the Balearic Islands province of Spain, Francesc Antich, attended a memorial service in the Majorcan capital of Palma commemorating the execution in 1691 of 37 Chuetas for practicing Judaism in secret, including Rabbi Rafael Valls, the secret rabbi of the Chuetas who, along with two others, was burned alive. Antich condemned the “grave injustice” done against the Chuetas, the first time an official from Majorca had condemned such events. “The recognition of their Jewishness was received with great happiness and joy, some people at the announcement burst into tears, because they now know the Jewish people are aware of them and feel a kinship with them,” Freund said of the press conference on Monday. Rabbi Nissan Ben-Avraham, who is of Chuetas origin and works for Shavei Israel in Palma de Majorca, will be joining with the Arachim outreach organization to provide a program of lessons in Hebrew, Jewish history, culture and religion for the Chuetas. “We are not coming here to tell people how to live their lives, we are just presenting them with an option. Those who wish to return to the Jewish people will now have opportunity to do so and will be welcomed back with open arms. Our goal is to help as many as possible to return to their Jewish roots,” Freund said.

    2011: A four-alarm fire broke out tonight at an Upper East Side synagogue, Congregation Kehilath Jeshurun, which was being renovated, spitting flames through stained-glass windows, destroying the roof and heavily damaging the upper floors, the Fire Department said.

    2011: Aaron “Swartz was indicted by a federal grand jury on charges of wire fraud, computer fraud, unlawfully obtaining information from a protected computer and recklessly damaging a protected computer.”

    2012: While it is said that “wine gladdens the hear” the Historic 6th& I Synagogue in Washington, DC turns its attention to another form of fermented refreshment tonight when it is scheduled to host “Summer Brews: A Season Tasting with The Beer Activist.”

    2012: The 92ndStreet Y is scheduled to present “Saving America’s Working Class” – a discussion with James Carville and Stan Greenberg.”  (Guess which one is not Jewish)

    2012: In Jerusalem, Dalik Voloniz is scheduled to moderate “Destruction and Hope,” a pre–Tisha B’Av event that combines discussion, song, and music.

    2012: Former US secretary of state Condoleezza Rice today confirmed the accuracy of her account of a 2008 meeting with Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas in which he had told her why he couldn’t accept then-Israeli prime minister Ehud Olmert’s terms for a permanent Israeli-Palestinian peace accord. In an interview over the weekend, Abbas had denied that the conversation Rice described and quoted in her memoir had taken place at all.

    2012(21stof Tammuz, 5772): Eighty-seven year old author Donald J. Sobol passed away today.(As reported by Denise Grady)

    2012: A meeting between Vice Prime Minister Moshe Ya’alon and MK Yohanan Plesner focused on drafting universal conscription legislation ended today with the two sides unable to come together, and with Plesner storming out.

    2012(21st of Tammuz, 5772):Eighty-seven year old ” Marvin S. Traub, the retailing impresario who transformed Bloomingdale’s from a stodgy Upper East Side family department store into a trendsetting international showcase of style and showmanship in the 1970s and ’80s” passed away today. (As reported by Robert D McFadden)

    2013: “The Longest Journey – The Last Days of the Jews of Rhodes” is scheduled to be shown at the 30th Jerusalem Film Festival.

    2013: In San Francisco, the Contemporary Jewish Museum is scheduled to host an examination of the life of Allen Ginsberg entitled “The Beat Generation with Biographer Bill Morgan and Poet David Meltzer”

    2013: The Wiener Library for the Study of the Holocaust & Genocide and the International Study Group for Education and Research on Anti-Semitism are scheduled to sponsor a workshop that seeks to analyze “the University and College Union, Anti-Semitism and the boycotts campaigns against Israel”

    2013: The UKJF is scheduled to sponsor a screening of “Salsa Tel Aviv” preceded by a free salsa class.

    2013: In the second such attack in two days, this evening a uniformed soldier was assaulted in the capital by fellow haredim opposed to ultra- Orthodox army service. According to Police spokesman Micky Rosenfeld, around 6:30 p.m., while the soldier was walking alone on Shmuel Hanavi Street, the assailants drove up and began cursing him and throwing objects at him without provocation. (As reported by Daniel K. Eisenbud and Jeremy Sharon)

    2013: Today, Nicholas Brooks, the second of Joseph Brook’s (Joseph Kaplan) children was found guilty of murdering his girlfriend, a crime for which he was sentenced to 25 years to life in prison.

    2013: The Dallas Mavericks signed Gal Mekel a native of Ramat HaSharon to a three-year minimum fully guaranteed contract, and he became the second Israeli to join the NBA

    2013: Egypt is reported to be prepared to ask Israel for permission, under the terms of their decade’s long peace treaty, to enter the Sinai with such sufficient forces “to launch a broad campaign to root out Islamic extremists in the largely wild peninsula.” (As reported by Asher Zeiger)

    2013(4th of Av, 5773): Eighty-six year old Reuven Helman, a Weightlifting Champion, hero of the 1948 War for Independence and follower of the Lubavitcher Rebbe passed away today.

    2014: Members of SHINDC (Sephardic Heritage in DC) are scheduled to lead a service spiced with Sephardi traditions, melodies, and practices, followed by a Persian (Iranian) dinner at the Historic 6th& I Synagogue.

    2014: John and Susan Nicholson are scheduled to play at the Summer Kaleidoscope Music Series in Milwaukee which begins after Shabbat eve services.

    2014: A group of anti-Israel hackers who support the Palestinian terrorists are scheduled to launch a large-scale cyber-attack on Israel with a denial of service (DDOS) Attack. (As reported by David Shamah)

    2014: “At least one rocket fired from southern Lebanon exploded early this morning in an open area near Metula, Israel's most northern town sitting on the Lebanese border.” (As reported by Roi Kais and Itay Blumenthal)

    2014: “Rocket fire on Israel from Gaza continued tonight as Israel went into the Sabbath.

    2014: “The Israel Air Force targeted a meeting of senior terrorists in the Gaza Strip, the IDF said tonight, after a day of Israeli air strikes in Gaza and Gazan rockets on Israel.”

    2015: The new documentary about Amy Winehouse which was first shown at the Cannes Film Festival is scheduled to be shown today at the Jerusalem Film Festival.

    2015: The Eden-Tamir Music Center is scheduled to host the Ensemble Concertante.

    2015: Larry and Mindy are scheduled to perform at Ornament Harmonya Gallery in Jaffa.

    2016: Maxwell Wiley of State Supreme Court in Manhattan, is to rule on a series of evidentiary issues in the case in which Pedro Hernandez is charged with killing of Etan Patz, the 6 year old Jewish boy who vanished in 1979.

    2016: “Weiner” a documentary about the disgraced New York Congressman whose wife is a close confidante of Hillary Clinton is scheduled to be shown at the Jerusalem Film Festival.

    2017: Russ and Daughters is scheduled to celebrate the New Catch Holland Herring Season which includes New Catch Holland trays certified as kosher by the Chief Rabbinate of Holland at the Astor Center today, a month after holding such a celebration at the Jewish Museum.

    2017: “Tribe is scheduled to come together to practice mindfulness in a session that will include mindfulness readings, guided meditation, and discussion for the purpose of being present in the moment as a community” at Congregation Rodeph Sholom in NYC.

    2017: “A tournament named after” Holocaust survivor and wrestler Josef Roytman “who can be credit with the Russian martial art Sambo to Israel” “in honor of the 20th Maccabiah Games is scheduled to take place in Bat Yam today “with participants from the world Sambo team, Maccabi Russia, and the Israeli team all competing for the Josef Roytman medal.”

    2017: “Several hundred Bostonians gathered to rededicate the New England Holocaust Memorial today following an act of vandalism committed two weeks ago.” (As reported by Matt Lebovic)

    2017: The YIVO Institute for Jewish Research is scheduled to host a screening of “The Muses of Bashevis Singer” followed by a Question and Answer session with Director Asaf Galay.

    2017(17th of Tammuz, 5777): Tzom Tammuz

    2017: Today placed “Maj-Gen. (res.) Eli Marom the former commander of the Israeli Navy under house arrest after question him for hours on suspicion of receiving bribes in the multi-million dollar purchase of naval vessels from Germany” (As reported by TOI)

    2018: “The Cakemaker” is scheduled to be shown at The 9thAnnual AXELROD Israel Jewish Film Festival.

    2018: JW3 is scheduled to host a screening of episodes four through six of “Your Honor” the Israeli series directed by Ron Ninio in London today.
    2018: “With the opening of the 2018 FIFA World Cup games, “Kulna Jerusalem” and the Tower of David Museum” are scheduled to present “a penalty-kick contest for the general public at the Tower of David Museum garden exit” after which “when Jerusalem discovers who the penalty-kick champions are, the second game of the semi-finals will be screened both at the Tower of David and Jaffa Gate in Hebrew and Arabic.”




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    July 12

    1191: The armies of the Third Crusade (1189-92), led by England's King Richard ('The Lionhearted'), captured the Syrian seaport of Acre.  The Third Crusade would end in failure for the Christian forces.  King Richard would be taken prisoner by the Austrians on his way home.  The Jews of England would be called upon to help pay the ransom of their monarch, who had left the kingdom under the control of his brother Prince John.

    1216: Pope Innocent III who issued a Letter on the Jews in 1199 which prohibited the forced conversion of Jews passed away today.

    1290: The Jews were expelled from England by order of King Edward I. Edward gets reasonably high marks for setting up the "Model Parliament." American moviegoers know him as "Longshanks" the King who was the villain in the film "Braveheart." The banishment of the Jews from the kingdom was part of slow decline engineered by the English king for a variety of reasons. Before the final edict he found one more way to extract money from his Jewish subjects. In 1287, he arrested several prominent Jewish leaders and demanded the community produce a 12,000-pound ransom for their freedom. The date for the actual order of expulsion is given by some as July 12 and by others as July 18. Regardless, Edward gave the Jews three months to leave. After All-Saints Day, any Jew found in the realm was subject to death. The Jews would not officially return to England until 17th century and the era of Cromwell.

    1536: Desiderius Erasmus, the Dutch writer and philosopher passed away. According to Elliot Rosenberg, Erasmus’ relations with the Jews presented a mixed bag.  Unlike Thomas More, “Erasmus spoke out in defense of the Jews and Judaism. ‘If it is Christian to hate the Jews, all of us are only too Christians.’  On the other hand he also write “Jews are very numerous in Italy; in Spain there are hardly any…I am afraid that when the occasion arises, that pest, formerly suppressed, will raise its head again.  Finally, Erasmus only provided lukewarm support when Johann Reuchlin took on “dogmatic Talmud-burners in Central Europe.”

    1555: In his Bull Cum Nimis Absurdum, Pope Paul IV renewed all previous anti-Jewish legislation and installed a ghetto in Rome. Jews were forced to wear a given cap and forbidden to own real estate or practice medicine on Christians. Communities weren't allowed to have more than one synagogue and Jews in all the Papal States were forced to lock themselves into the confines of the ghettos each night.

    1567(25thof Tammuz, 5327): Latest date on which Meir Ashkenzai was killed on a voyage from Gava to Dakhel while service as an envoy of the Tartar Kahan.

    1630: A Dutch man, Michael Paauw, acquires Gull Island from the Mohegan Indians renames it Oyster Island. At the time of the American Revolution, a New York merchant named Samuel Ellis purchased the island and renames it in honor of his family.  This is how the famous point of entry for millions of immigrants included an untold number of Jews came to be known as Ellis Island.

    1753: Birthdate of Moses Dobruška, a cousin of Jacob Frank, who convert to Catholicism and was guillotined in Paris on charges of treason and espionage.

    1794: Hymen Cohen and Zipporah Isaacs gave birth to Judah Hyman Cohen who would pass away at the age of 61 in Brighton.

    1796: French Revolutionary troops under Jean Baptiste Kléber besieged Frankfurt by shelling the city that including its Judengasse.

    1804: Former United States Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton dies a day after being shot in a duel.

    1824: In Frankfurt-am-Main Zerline (Worms) Beyfus and Meyer (Mayer) Levin Beyfus  gave birth to Wilhelm Beyfus.

    1828: Birthdate of Count Iosif Gurko, who as military commander of the districts of Warsaw, Wilna and Kovno would seek royal permission to expel all of the population most of whom were Jews 60 versts or 40 miles from the border.

    1825: Three days after she had passed away, Miriam (Mary) Proops was buried today.

    1840:  Birthdate of merchant Benjamin Altman, founder of B. Altman and Co.  He was the son of Bavarian Jews, who immigrated to America in 1835 and soon opened a small store.  Altman opened his first store in 1865 and, after thirty years of acquisition and growth formed B. Altman & Co.  Altman was one of a whole series of Jewish merchants and department store moguls who were tied to such famous American emporiums as Macy's, Neiman Marcus, Sears & Roebuck and Home Depot.  B. Altman met its corporate demise in 1989.  Altman, like so many other Jewish merchants, both large and small, was noted for his philanthropy. Shortly before his death in 1913, he established the Altman Foundation, of which $20,000,000 represented by his art collection, was given to the Metropolitan Museum, New York.

    1841: The London & Brighton Railway began passenger service through the East Croydon Station which was designed by Anglo-Jewish architect David Mocatta.

    1841: Joseph L. Friedlander who was salesman and a “dealer in second-hand clothes” was buried today at the Old Jewish Cemetery in Dresden, Saxony, Germany.

    1845: Thirty seven year old Norwegian author Henrik Wergeland who supported the ban on Jews settling in Norway passed away today.

    1846(18thof Tammuz, 5606): Tzom Tammuz observed.

    1846: In Upper Austria, Simon and Regina Fuchs gave birth to Solomon Fox the husband of Caroline Fox.

    1848: Archduke John, who helped in the presentation of the plan of Moses Sachs to settle “Jews as farmers in Palestine under Austrian protection to the Austrian government” was appointed Imperial Vicar today.

    1848: Birthdate of Leopold Adler, the Prague native who worked with his younger brother and old brother Mortiz to develop his skills as a photographer.

    1859: Today “the cornerstone of the first Ashkenazic synagogue in British North America, Congregation Shaar Hashomayim, was laid at 41 St. Constant (now de Bullion Street), just below de la Gauchetière. It accommodated 150 men and 50 women. The building was 48 by 111 feet. The services were modeled after the Bayswater Synagogue in London, England.

    1860: Commodore Uriah P. Levy saluted the Stars and Stripes and walked down the gangplank for the last time. Yet his country had use for him: President Lincoln apparently suggested to Gideon Welles, the Secretary of the Navy, that Levy's unique experience of the military justice system should not be wasted. The old sailor's last assignment has a distinctly Lincolnesque humor: President of the Naval Court-Martial Board.

    1861: Michael Van Gelder was buried today at the West Ham Jewish Cemetery on Buckingham Road.

    1862: The Medal of Honor was authorized by the United States Congress. The Medal of Honor is popularly known as the Congressional Medal of Honor.  It is the highest decoration military service personnel can earn.  From the Civil War through the Vietnam War, 18 Jews have won this honor.

    1865: Corporal Levi K. Kauffman, who had been serving since November, 1863 completed his service in Company H of the 52nd Regiment.

    1865: Fifty-three year old Frederick David Goldsmid began serving as a Member of Parliament

    1869: In New York City, Jacob A. Weil and Dina Lilienthal gave birth to Abraham Weil an art student at Cooper Union and the Academy of Design whose artwork for newspapers including daily cartoons for the New York Evening Telegram which he stopped in 1898 so he could illustrate books, design art calendars and create theatrical posters for various New York City lithographing firms.

    1870: Adolph Marix, the native of Germany who joined the U.S. Navy in 1864 while living in Iowa was promoted from Ensign to Master today.

    1872: Birthdate of Boehmia native Emil Hacha, who as the last President of an “independent” Czechoslovakia bowed to personal pressure from Hitler and became the “State President of Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia” where, regardless of what else he did to help or combat the Nazis, signed “into law legislation modeled after the Nuremberg Laws that meant the Jews were no longer Czech citizens in any sense of that term”

    1872: Maurice and Johanna Kahn gave birth to Jacobus Henricus Kann the Dutch banker and partner of the banking house Lissa & Kann who was the co-founder of the Jewish Colonial Trust and who died at Theresienstadt in 1944.

    1873: Shah Nasr-ed-Din and Adolphe Cremieux met in Persia to discuss the problems of oppressive social and economic discrimination against the Jews. The shah agreed to encourage Jewish schools, and work to improve the Jewish condition. Unfortunately, despite his intentions, the government did little to prevent attacks against the Jewish population or to rescind many of the anti-Jewish regulations. 1876:  Birthdate of Max Jacob, French painter, poet and writer.  Jacob converted to Catholicism before World War I.  Unfortunately for Jacob, the Nazis and Vichy still saw him as a Jew.  His brothers, sister and brother-in-law died at Auschwitz.  Jacob was arrested by the Gestapo in 1944.  However, he died at the French concentration camp called Drancy before he could be shipped east for the Final Solution 1876: At the City Republican Meeting at Cooper Institute in New York, Judge Abraham Jesse Dittenhoefter read the letters of those regretting that they could not attend

    1879: Rabbi David Einhorn gave his final sermon at Congregation Beth-El in New York.  Einhorn proudly recalled his role in speaking out against slavery while serving as a rabbi in Baltimore at the outbreak of the Civil War. He was equally proud of his role in the Reform movement although he said he remained staunchly opposed to replacing Saturday with Sunday as the day for Jews to celebrate the Sabbath.  He also urged Jews to continue using German in their sermons and teachings because this was a key in remaining connected to the best in Jewish learning. 

    1879: According to reports published today, Rabbi Gustav Koehler of Chicago will replace Rabbi David Einhorn as the leader of Congregation in Beth-El in New York. These same reports contend that Koehler plans on holding services on Sunday and will be delivering sermons in English.

    1880(4th of Av, 5640): French financier Isaac Pereire passed away. Pereire and his brother were rivals of the House of Rothschild.  However, the Pereire brothers were Sephardic Jews while the Rothschilds were Ashkenazim. Born in 1806, Piereire and his brother Emile built the first railroad in France in 1835. For a brief period he owned the Paris daily "La Liberté" and he was named a knight of the Legion of Honor for his many philanthropic efforts.

    1880: It was reported today that a memoir written by Professor Daniel Chwolson the Jewish professor at the University of St. Petersburg which contains information about the newly discovered Hebrew eptipahs found in the Crimea is in the hands of the printers.

    1881: The 8thannual conference of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations is scheduled to begin today in Chicago, Illinois.

    1882: As the Freight Handlers’ Strike continued in New York Polish Jews were working in place of the Italians most of whom had been arrested by the police. 

    1882: The attacks on the Jews and Italians who have replaced the striking freight handlers are reported to have become much more frequent.  It is reported that the attacks are the works of ruffians who are robbing the Jews and then blaming it on the strikers.

    1883: The first free excursion of the season sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children will leave from a pier at the foot of 5th Street at nine o’clock this morning

    1883: At the third day’s meeting of the Hebrew Union Council the delegates will vote on the recommendation of the Committee on Agricultural Pursuits the Jewish organization work with the Cincinnati Agricultural Society which has already establish established a successful colony in Kansas.

    1884:  Birthdate of Italian painter and sculptor, Amedeo Modigliani.  In 1906, Modigliani went to Paris to study where he was confronted with the anti-Semitism connected with retrial of Captain Alfred Dreyfus.  Modigliani signed his sketches "Modigliani - Jew."  Modigliani lived his life as the typical starving artist.  His paintings began to gain in financial worth in shows starting in 1919.  In November of that year Modigliani's health began to rapidly decline.  According to legend he sang the Kaddish for himself when he began spitting blood. He died two months later.  Since his death his paintings have soared in value.  In 1989 one of his paintings was sold for over eight million dollars.

    1884: In Prague, Jakob and Barbara Bondy gave birth to Anna Fischl

    1884: In Minsk, Jacob Meir and Sarah Meltzer gave birth to Lazar Meir who gained fame as movie mogul Louis B. Meyer


    1884 (19thof Tammuz, 5664): In Tuscany, Eugénie Garsin, the descendant from Sephardic Jews from France and Flamino Modigliani gave birth to Italian painter and sculptor, Amedeo Modigliani.  In 1906, Modigliani went to Paris to study where he was confronted with the anti-Semitism connected with retrial of Captain Alfred Dreyfus.  Modigliani signed his sketches "Modigliani - Jew."  Modigliani lived his life as the typical starving artist.  His paintings began to gain in financial worth in shows starting in 1919.  In November of that year Modigliani's health began to rapidly decline.  According to legend he sang the Kaddish for himself when he began spitting blood. He died two months later.  Since his death his paintings have soared in value.  In 1989 one of his paintings was sold for over eight million dollars.  

    1885: It was reported today that the Hebrew Standard has said “The meanest class of Jewish merchants are those who refuse to close half a day on the Jewish Sabbath.”

    1886: The children in the care of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society will leave for an excursion on the East River at 8 o’clock this morning.

    1887: The 14thannual council of the Hebrew Congregations holds its opening meeting in Pittsburgh where Josiah Cohen was chosen Chairman of the Council, Adolph Freund of Detroit is chosen Vice President and Levi Lipman of Cincinnati is chosen as Secretary.  Dr. Stephen Wise gave the opening address where he reported on conditions at the Hebrew Union College.

    1889(13thof Tammuz, 5649): Isaac Phillips, the son of Naphtali and Rachel Mendez Phillips, a New York lawyer who served as an appraiser for the Port of New York and who was a member of Shearith Israel passed away today.

    1889: In Austria Alfred Sachs, the son Babette and Eduard Elkan Sachs and his wife Therese Sachs gave birth to Dr. Rudolf Sachs.

    1889: Birthdate of Marty Friedman, the defensive guard who played pro-basketball from 1908 to 1927 and who was half of the duo known as “The Heavenly Twins – the other half being fellow Jew Barney Sedran.

    1890: “City and Suburban News” published today provides a list of upcoming events in the New York area including plans for Rabbi Sabito Morais to deliver a talk at the Jewish Theological Seminary.

    1891: Israel Pimkus, a sixty year old Russian Jew who has just arrived in the United States announced his intentions “of going West” and sending for his five brothers to join him once he gets settled.  Pimkus had escaped Russia with $17,500 that the Czar’s police had failed to find when they ransacked his family’s home.

    1891: In Amsterdam, Geertruida (née Warradijn) and Wolf Mozes Goudeket, a wealthy diamond cutter, gave birth to  Julie Henriette Goudeket who gained fame as silent movie start Jetta Goudal.

    1891: “To Celebrate a Centennial” published today described upcoming plans to observe the 102nd anniversary of the fall of the Bastille and the 100thanniversary of the emancipation of the Jews of France which will take place in New York’s Lion Park.

    1892: In Drohobych which was then part of Austrian Galicia and now is part of Ukraine, cloth merchant Jakub Schulz and Henrietta née Kuhmerker gave birth to author and painter Bruno Schulz, Polish author who will be killed by a Gestapo officer in 1942 under unusual circumstances.  A mural that he painted just before his death would become a point of contention between Ukrainian authorities and the officials at Yad Vashem in 2001

    1892: An old Jewish peddler named Gustave Berkowitz was clubbed by a group of Italians who had been fighting among themselves on Thompson Street.

    1893: Mrs. Sarah Goldstein a widow with six children who lives at 181 Orchard Street “was served with a notice to vacate her apartments” because she had not paid her rent.  She had used her rent money to pay for medicine for five of her children who had contracted measles.

    1894: Concerns about a general strike in New York City seem to have been unfounded as could be seen “at the headquarters of the American Federation of Labor on Clinton” where “there was nothing to indicate that there were even rumors of strikes”

    1894: In New York, labor leader Patrick Murphy obtained a parade permit that will enable 15,000 union members including those belong to the United Hebrew Trades Union to take part in a parade tomorrow night.

    1894: The members of the United Hebrew Trade Unions are scheduled to form up at Rutgers Square before joining up with members of other labor unions for a mass meeting at Union Square.

    1894: Abram Cahan is scheduled to be one of the speakers at tonight’s mass meeting at Union Square sponsored by several labor unions in New York.

    1894: In Plymouth, MA, The School of Applied Ethics with Felix Adler as Dean, opened its third annual session today.

    1895: Birthdate of lyricist Oscar Hammerstein II. He is the Hammerstein of the team (Richard) Rogers and Hammerstein that produced a string of Broadway Musicals including "Oklahoma" and "Carousal." Hammerstein passed away in 1960.

    1895: This evening, Dr. Joseph Adolph Moses of Louisville, KY is scheduled to address the annual Central Conference of American Rabbis meeting in Rochester, NY.

    1895: In Rochester the most important subject discussed at this morning’s session of the Rabbinical Conference “was that touch upon by President Wise in his annual address – “What Is Our Relation in All Religious Matters to Our Post Biblical, our Patriotic Literature Including Talmud!”

    1896: “About the Ancients” published today described Mr. Maspero’s confirmation of Mr. Flanders Petrie’s discovery of the work “Yisraal” on the Merenptah inscriptionand believes it to be the earliest mention of Israel so far found in Egypt…”

    1896: “About the Ancients” published today described the work of Chabas who in 1864 when “studying the records of Ramses found the word ‘Apouriou’ and came to the hasty conclusion that ‘Apouriou’ meant Hebrew.” 

    1896(2ndof Av, 5656): Moritz Kirstein, the native of Filehne who earned his M.D. in 1885 and was a member of the Berlin Board of Health, passed away today.

    1896: “Art And Utility Linked” published today described The International Art Exhibition in Berlin which includes “Summer Evening In the Ghetto” by Ludwig Knaus that depicts “a centenary Hebrew…seated in a big armchair…attended by his granddaughter.”


    1896: Rabbi Isaac ben Sheshet (Ribash) whose remains had been removed from his grave by orders of the government of Algiers was reinterred today. Sheshet was a Spanish Talmudic authority who had been born in 1326 and who had fled to Algeria in 1391 when the persecution of the Jews increased under the spell of the preaching of Fernandes Martinez. He passed away in 1408.  [For more about this sage see Rabbi Isaac ben Sheshet Perfet and his times by Abraham Moses Hershman]

    1896: Herzl attends a mass meeting at the workings-men's Club in the East End of London.  Working men’s clubs were designed to bring education and recreation for the members of Britain’s emerging working class at the end of the 19th century

    1896: “An East Sided Romance” published today provides a detailed reviews of Yekl – A Tale of the New York Ghetto by Abraham Cahan.

    1896: “New Plans for a Jewish State” published today described the creation of a chartered company to create a “Jewish autonomous state in Palestine” which the Turks “are to look favorably upon.”

    1897: Forty Jewish families who arrived from Poland are being deported because it has been determined that “they are in a destitute condition” which means they are likely to become “public charges” which makes them ineligible for entry into the United States under the law.

    1897: Birthdate of Sam Mintz, the native of Belarus the American writer who created almost 40 screenplays including “Skippy” which was nominated “in the category of Best Adapted Screenplay at the 4th Academy Awards.

    1898: One day after she had passed away, 53 year old “Fanny Levy, the widow of David Levy” was buried today at Plashet Jewish Cemetery in London

    1899 (5th of Av): Seventy-nine year old German born Rabbi Israel Hildesheimer, the son of Rabbi Löb Glee Hildesheime and one of the founders of Modern Orthodox Judaism passed away.

    1899: Maitre Demange, the counsel for Captain Alfred Dreyfus met with the President of the Court Martial regarding setting a date for the hearing and discussing the procedures to be followed.

    1899: Attorney Maitre Demange met with Captain Dreyfus for two hours today.

    1900: In Holyoke, MA, organization of Congregation Anshei Rodfei Sholem

    1901: Birthdate of Benjamin Sonnenberg, the native of Brest-Litovsk whose “first work in the public relations field was writing stories for the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee.”

    1902: Herzl submits a written outline of his plans and the need for financial support to Rothschild. “Aware of Rothschild’s aversion to settlement in Palestine, Herzl also told Rothschild about the settlement of European Jews in Mesopotamia proposed by the Sultan.

    1903(17th of Tammuz, 5663): Tzom Tammuz

    1904: Birthdate of Pinchas Lavon, the native of Galicia who made Aliyah in 1929 and who is best known for his role in the Lavon Affair that occurred while he was serving as Minister of Defense.

    1905: The Ninth Summer Assembly of the Jewish Chautauqua Society continued for a 5th day in Atlantic City, NJ.

    1906: Birthdate of New York City native Henry Cohen the attorney who earned a BS at City College and a law degree at Harvard.

    1906:  Colonel Alfred Dreyfus was finally pardoned, restored to his rank and returned to his regiment. The effects of the Dreyfus Affair did not end with the return of Dreyfus to active duty.  The Dreyfus Affair produced the modern Zionist political movement which in turn gave birth to the state of Israel.  The Dreyfus Affair also provided another dividing between the Left and the Right in both the French political and social scene and put another arrow in the quiver of right wing anti-Semites.  This would find full flower in the government at Vichy during World War II.

    1906: The Central Conference of American Rabbis described today as “a day preceding closely the annual celebration of the victory of liberty in France” as “a red letter day in the history of Israel” because “it marks the triumph of righteousness in a cause which affected not just the individual (Dreyfus) but our whole people, the martyr people to which was assigned the mission ‘to open the blind eyes, to bring out the prisoners from the dungeon, and them that sit in darkness, out of the prison house.’”

    1907: In Worcester, MA, Elias Harry Pofcher and Fanny G. Pofcher gave birth to Cecile Gwendolyn Pofcher who became Cecile Strauss when she married Harry Strauss.

    1908:  In New York City, Moses Berlinger, “a paint and varnish salesman” and Sarah (Sadie) Glantz Berlinger gave birth to Mendel Berlinger who gained fame as Milton Berle, known to a whole generation of television as “Uncle Miltie” or Mr. Television, one of the first stars of the new medium in poster WW II America.

    1908: It was reported that Dr. Moses Gaster has obtained an ancient copy of the Book of Joshua in Samaria.

    1911: In Milwaukee, Wisconsin, the 15th annual summer assembly of the Jewish Chautauqua Society led by Chancellor Henry Berkowitz continued for a 6th day.

    1911: Martin A. Marks of Cleveland, Ohio was “re-elected President of the Library Board” today.

    1912: Les Amours de la reine Élisabeth (The Loves of Queen Elizabeth) a French silent film starring Sarah Bernhardt which was completed with funds from Adolph Zukor who “brought it to New York where it was released” today.

    1913: During the Second Balkan War, DimitriI Auguelov, a wine merchant from Serres, who had been arrested on July 7 and was shut up in the school, escaped with a Jewish prisoner today and was concealed by Jews of the town.

    1913: Birthdate of Mildred Cohn an American biochemist winner of the Garvan-Olin Medal the National Medal of Science and the first woman to become president of the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

    1913: The National Conference of Charities and Correction which Simon I. Blum has been attending as a delegate from Illinois, is scheduled to come to an end today in Seattle, WA.

    1913: It was reported today that Republican political leader Maurice J. Speiser, who had been serving as a member of the House of Representatives of the state of Pennsylvania has been appointed to serve as assistant district attorney.

    1913: It was reported today that “Professor Nathan Slouschz has been made an officer of the Legion of Honor of Morocco by the Sultan in recognition of his services.”

    1914(18thof Tammuz, 5674): Tzom Tammuz observed because the 17th fell on Shabbat

    1914: Birthdate of Boston native Avery Berlw Cohan, the graduate of Cornell who earned a Ph.D. at Columbia before serving as a teaching fellow at Harvard and a professor of finance at the Unitersity of North Carolina at Chapel for twenty years..

    1915: Opening of the Summer Session The Teacher’s Institute of the Hebrew Union College.

    1915: In New York City, “the summer course in social service conducted by the Jewish Chautauqua Society opened today at the Free Synagogue House” with introductory remarks by Abram I. Elkus, President of the Society, followed by a speech by Dr. Henry Berkowitz, “the Chancellor of the Society.”

    1915: There were approximately 125 delegates scheduled to attend the second day of convention of the United Synagogue of America being held at the Hotel Nautilus at Arverne, Long Island where they were expected to respond to Dr. Cyrus Adler’s call for the Jews of the United States “and Canada” to “make further efforts to help those of their race who were suffering in the countries at war.”

    1916: “When he did not received the annuity granted to VC (Victoria Cross) recipients,” thirty-year old Leonard Maurice Keysor, the native of London today “wrote to the Military Secretary enquiring when he could expect to receive it.

    1917(22ndof Tammuz, 5677): Forty-seven year old Samuel I. Hyman, the son of Polish born Talmudist Gerson Hyman, the husband of the former Tillie Endel with whom he had two children – Norma and George – and the founder of S.I. Hyman and Brother whose leadership in the Jewish community can be seen in his helping to build the 85th Street and the Far Rockaway synagogues and serving as “a member of the Executive Committee of the Kahila, passed away today.

    1917: It was reported today from Russia that “after a consultation with Chief of Staff Aleksei Brusilov it was announced that the army would have Jewish chaplains in addition to orthodox priests” and that “Rabbi Jeffa of Tamboy” is the first person to be appointed with a total of thirty more to be named.

    1918: According to reports from Copenhagen sent to the Exchange Telegraph in London today, “the Finnish Senate has decided to expel all Jews from Finland” which means that more than 300 Jewish families will be forced to leave the country.”  (Editor’s Note – While Finland may have gained its independence from Russia, it has clung to the anti-Semitism of the imperial domain.)

    1918: “In a letter received by David Agramowski bearing today’s date, Hillel Agramwoski from Brooklyn who had been serving with the 9th Infantry since 1917 and was missing in action wrote his brother that “he had been cited in orders.

    1919: Birthdate of George Weissman, “who helped transform Philip Morris from a midlevel tobacco company to a diversified conglomerate known for contributions to the arts, and who then led Lincoln Center for nearly a decade.”  “Baruch College's Weissman School of Arts and Sciences is named after him, and his wife Mildred.” Weissman had graduated from Baruch when it was the business school of the City College of New York

    1919: Abraham Schrameck completed his service as Governor-General of Madagascar.

    1920: The Lithuanian Wars of Independence with the signing of the Soviet–Lithuanian Peace Treaty in which the Soviet Union recognized the independence of Lithuania. Over 3,000 Jews fought with the Lithuanian Army during the fight for independence.  Jewish support would be rewarded with a certain amount of autonomy and acceptance which erode with the growth of anti-Semitism in the 1930’s.

    1920: Garolyi Huszar, the former Hungarian Premier whom the Federation of Hungarian Jews in American demanded be deported arrived aboard the SS Rotterdam in a first class cabin with a passport and not as a stowaway trying to sneak into the country.

    1921: “New York banker Joseph L. Seligman, also known as J.L. Seligman reported the theft of his wife's jewels, valued at $25,000, while the couple was sailing from Europe to New York as first class passengers aboard the White Star Line, Olympic.”

    1923: On Manhattan’s Lower East Side, Louis Berger, a furrier, and his wife Rebecca gave birth to Seymour “Sy” Perry Berger, “the father of the modern-day baseball trading card.” (As reported by Richard Goldstein)

    1923: In Ferndale, NY, Jack Feldman who “ran a Catskill resort known as the Queen Mountain House” and his wife gave birth to Fred Feldman who gained fame movie producer Freddie Fields,   the brother of bandleader of Shep Fields. (As reported by Margalit Fox)

    1923: A letter from Meyer Dizengoff, Mayor of Tel Aviv thanking everybody from the Mayor on down for the hospitality shown to him during his recent trip to New York in which he expressed his hope that the “first Jewish city” would benefit from the things shown him including the city’s public utility system was published today.

    1926: Jewish middleweight Abie Bain beat Jack McVey, “the Pride of Harlem due to a disqualification by McVey in the fifth round at Laurel Garden in Newark, NJ.

    1927:  According to reports by the correspondent for the Daily Mail, Palestine is in shambles following the recent earthquake.  He reports riots, failed businesses and the plans for departure by many of the Jewish immigrants.  His description is at odds with those of Jewish leaders and agencies including Hadassah.

    1929: Having premiered at Grauman’s Chinese Theatre on the west coast and in New York City on the east coast, “The Broadway Melody,” the first “talkie” to win an Oscar for Best picture produced by Irving Thalberg and Lawrence Weingarten, with music by Arthur Freed and starring Eddie Kane who would be buried at Mt. Sinai Cemetery in Los Angeles, was released throughout the United States today.

    1932: Helen Menken, who had divorced Humphrey Bogart married Dr. Henry T. Smith.

    1933: Founding of the Screen Actors Guild (SAG) whose early success was due in part to the friendship of its second President, Eddie Cantor with FDR.

    1934: Memorial services are held at Carnegie Hall in honor of the late Hebrew poet laureate, Chaim Nachman Bialik whom Mrs. Samuel Halprin, President of Hadassah described as “the embodiment of Jewish life” whose “gifts were the apotheosis of Jewish creative life.”

    1935: “Mad Love” a horror film directed by Karl Freund, starring Peter Lorre and with music by Dimitri Timokin was released in the United States today.

    1935(11th of Tammuz, 5695): Three decades after being exonerated of all charges, Colonel Alfred Dreyfus passed away at the age of 75.

    1935: U.S. premiere of “Mad Love” a horror film directed by Karl Fruend, starring Peter Lorre with music by Dimitri Z. Tiomkin.

    1936: The Palestine Post reported that a Jewish mechanic, Dov Ben-Ammi, 30, was killed and several persons were injured when a bus overturned into a ditch as the result of an Arab ambush near Jenin. Four Arabs were killed in this incident and in an attempt to derail a train in the same neighborhood. Two watchmen, Zvi Lichtenberg and Dov Deitler, were injured in two separate Arab attacks on Jewish settlements.

    1936: Following last night’s announcement by Chancellor Kurt Schusnigg of an agreement between Austria and Nazi Germany, it was reported that “the Jewish population is fearful” seeing this as being the opening “to rapid Nazification of Austria and the introduction of German methods of anti-Semitism.”

    1936: It was reported today “Hitler is finally prepared to recognize, nominally at least, the independence of Austria but that he is unable “to alter his attitude” on the question of “Jews and Communists” whom are “to be exterminated.”

    1936: An unnamed “young Jewish tailor walking in a Jewish residential quarter was fired on by Arabs who jumped from behind a wall.”

    1936: As Arab violence continued in Palestine, “Isaac Cohen one of the leading merchants of Jerusalem was shot and seriously wounded” “while walking home from his store” which brought expression of “indignation” from “moderate Arabs” because Cohen “is an Oriental Jew counting more friends among the Arabs than among Jews.”

    1936: Seventy-one year old Samuel Parkes Cadman the English born American Clergyman whose support of Jews can be measured by his appearance at a non-sectarian mass meeting in 1916 to raise funds for the relief of Jews in the war zones of Europe as well as by his support the 1935 UJA drive to raise funds for the “rehabilitation of Jews in Germany and Eastern Europe” and calls to boycott the 1936 Olympics in Nazi Germany passed away today.

    1937: “Abbie an’ Slats” initially written by Al Capp appeared for the first time.

    1937: A delegation from the American Jewish Congress led by its President, Dr. Stephen S. Wise gave Secretary of State Cordell Hull a memorandum describing the oppression and discrimination suffered by the Jews of Poland which led Hull to admit that he was aware of the conditions of the Jews but made no statement about any attempts to interfere in any way to aid “the most oppressed and perhaps the most desperate group of human beings.” (Editor’s note – Hull’s response was consistent with the isolationist mentality in the United States as well as the prevailing anti-Semitism at the Department and his fear of being philo-Semitic because of his wife’s Jewish origins.)

    1938: In “commenting n a telegram sent from a group of Williams College undergraduate and Raymond Ingersoll, the Brooklyn  Borough  President, to the head librarian of the Austrian National Library offering to buy those ‘non-Aryan’ books that they suspect will be destroyed or removed, the Boersen Zeitgung,” a German newspaper today dismissed their concerns in an editor that ended by stating “that since academic circles in the United States are so preponderantly Jewish the object of the telegram may not have been so much the specific one mentioned as the mere desire to contribute to the wave of anti-German propaganda in the United States.”  (Editor’s Note – Guess the newspaper missed the book burnings in Germany)

    1940: Today, twenty-seven year old Canadian composer John Jacob Weinzweig married Helen Tenenbaum who gained famed as author Helen Winzweig whose “novel Basic Black with Pearls won the Toronto Book Award in 1981.”

    1940(6th of Tammuz, 5700): Sixty-nine year old Victor Rosewater, former editor of the Omaha (Nebraska) Bee and Republican political powerhouse, passed away today.

    1941: Relase date for “The Bride Came C.O.D.” a comedy featuring George Tobias with a script co-authored by Julius and Philip G. Epstein and music by Max Steiner.

    1942: The SS President Warfield, a ship belonging to the Baltimore Steam Pack Company that had been sailing between Baltimore, MD and Norfolk, VA since 1928 was acquired by the War Shipping Administration today.  The ship was converted into a military transport and was turned over to the British. The irony of this is that the Warfield would morph into the SS Exodus five years later in an attempt to run the British blockade of Palestine.

    1942: While flying a Spitfire today, Royal Canadian Air Force fighter pilot George Beurling, who would die while flying for the Israeli Air Force in 1948, shot down two more enemy plane over Malta.

    1943: On the back of a “picture of young Louis Loewe” an orientalist and companion of Moses Montefiore his 92 year old son James Lowe wrote cryptically “The original oil painting are today the property of the heirs of my sister Pauline Hirscfeld…”

    1944: In New York City, Phoebe and Henry Ephron gave birth to Delia Ephron the multi­-talented writer whose work includes a marvelous off-beat film, “Michael” which gave John Travolta a chance to literally and figuratively spread his comedic wings.

    1944: Many of the 8000 Jews remaining in the Kovno (Lithuania) Ghetto are killed, and the ghetto is burned. Nearby, a Lithuanian carpenter named Jan Pauvlavicius shields at least eight Kovno Jews in a hiding place he has constructed in his cellar.

    1944: In Baltimore, MD, bartender Joseph Rubin and Annette Rubin gave birth to Arlene Rubin who gained fame as Arlene Raven “a co-founder of numerous feminist art organizations in Los Angeles in the 1970s.”

    1944: Birthdate of Michael Abraham Levy, “a Labour member of the House of Lords who was the chief fundraiser for the UK Labour Party and long-standing friend of former Prime Minister, Tony Blair.

    1948(5thof Tammuz, 5708): Ninety-one year old Dr. Solomon Solis Cohen, the son of Myer David Cohen and Judith Simha Solis who graduated from Jefferson Medical College and taught at Philadelphia Polyclinic and Dartmouth College while helping to found the YMHA of Philadelphia, the Jewish Publication Society of America and attending the Third Zionist Congress at Basel passed away today.

    1948:  During the War of Independence, Israeli forces took Ramle.  With the end of the truce, Israeli forces sought to strengthen their position in the area between Tel Aviv and Jerusalem.  The victory at Ramle, which had been preceded by the successfully seizure of the airport at Lod, was part of that plan which forced the Israelis to fight the Arab Legion, the name of the Jordanian Army which was an elite military force.

    1948: Israeli forces defeated Iraqi troops at Rosh Ha-Ayin.  This village controlled the headwaters of the Yarkon River, the source of much of Jerusalem’s water supply.  Continued control of the Yarkon would have left Jerusalem at the mercy of the Arabs. 

    1948: As part of Operation Danny, the Palmach began an attack on the village of Suba.

    1948: As they renewed their drive on Tel Aviv, Egyptian forces attacked the settlement of Negba in the northern Negev. The Egyptians opened the attack with air attacks and artillery barrages.  The battle lasted for over seven hours with at least four thousand shells falling on Negba.  In the end, the 150 defenders hung on and the Egyptians withdrew. 

    1948: Les Shagam of 101 Squadron north from the field at Herzliya to provide air cover over Mishmar HaYardan where he would Syrian AT-6s.

    1950: Syrian forces killed “one Israeli today and wounded another as they went to the aide of an Israeli police patrol boat whose propeller had become enmeshed in submerged nets along the northern shore of the Sea of Galilee.  Israel has lodged a strong complaint with the United Nations…”

    1950: The Israeli Government clarified its position today on the proposed establishment of a new oil refinery in Haifa and the allocation of exploratory oil rights to independent American oil companies as recently reported. Bartley Crum is representing the interests of American companies while Finance Minister Kaplan and his Under-Secretary David Horowitz are negotiating on behalf of the Israelis.

    1950: U.S. premiere of “Three Little Words” a musical biography based on the lives of Harry Ruby and Bert Kalmar with a score by André Previn.

    1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that seven marauders were killed and several others wounded in an engagement with an Israeli patrol on Jordanian border. Tel Aviv set up ice rationing to a fourth of a block per consumer daily. It was hoped that this ration would be increased to the third of a block on weekends.

    1953: The Foreign Ministry of Israel transferred its offices from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem.

    1953: Birthdate of Mexican human rights activist Andrés Roemer, who protested anti-Israel United Nations resolutions.

    1960(17thof Tammuz, 5720): Tzom Tammuz observed for the last time during the Presidency of D.D. Eisenhower.

    1961(28thof Tammuz, 5721): Seventy-eight year old Palestine native Isaac Alpern, the founder and President of Alpern and Company, “the largest realty concern in Middlesex County, NJ,” the “former President of the Perth Amboy Trust Company and the Raritan Trust Company” who “was instrumental in promoting the construction of a Young Men’s Hebrew Association building in Perth Amboy” passed away today in Beverly Hills, CA.

    1963(20thof Tammuz, 5723): In Charlotte Amalie, Saint Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, 78 year old Lithuanian born merchant Isaac Paiwonsky, whose interests included everything from a distillery to a soft drink factory and with his wife Rebecca had four children including “Ralph Paiwonsky, the first St. Thomian-born Governor of the Virgin Islands” passed away today after suffering a cerebral hemorrhage.

    1964: In France premiere of “Joy House” a mystery film with music by Lalo Schifrin

    1967: As the sun rose this morning sailors aboard the INS Eilat and their comrades aboard two torpedo boats savored their victory over the Egyptian off the Rumani coast where they sank two enemy vessels without suffering any casualties.

    1965: Recording of the best known version of P.F. Sloan’s “Eve of Destruction” which was released by Dunhill Records began today.

    1968: “A Lovely Way To Die” a crime movie starring Kirk Douglas and Eli Wallach was released today in the United States.

    1969: First broadcast of “Doctor in the House” a British comedy series featuring Anglo-Jewish actor Jonathan Lynn as “medical student Danny Hooley.”

    1974: Confrontation: The Middle East and World Politics by Walter Laqueur, The Jews in Their Land, conceived and edited by David Ben-Gurion, translated by Mordechai Nurock and MIsha Louvish and Kabbalah by Gershom Scholem were on the “New Books” list published today.

    1976: It was reported today that Idi Amin, President of Uganda had called Baruch Bar-Lev, a retired Israeli Lt. Col. who had served in Uganda.  Reportedly Amin asked Bar-Lev to tell Prime Minister Rabin that “he was finished with terrorists” which apparently meant that he would no longer deal with groups like the pro-Palestinian terrorists who had held Jewish hostages at Entebbe.  Amin also asked Bar-Lev if the Israelis would spare parts for his military equipment as it had when the two nations had diplomatic relations.

    1976:The Jerusalem Post reported from Washington that Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin said that Israel considered Idi Amin and his Ugandan government responsible for the fate of Mrs. Dora Bloch, the 75-year-old woman of dual British and Israeli citizenship, left behind in a Ugandan hospital, following the rescue of more than 100 hostages at Entebbe airport. The Israeli Embassy in London expressed surprise that Britain sent condolences to Idi Amin on the death of the seven Ugandan soldiers killed during the raid.

    1976:The Jerusalem Post reported that while fierce fighting went on in Lebanon between PLO leftist groups and Christians, over 1,700 Lebanese received medical attention at the Israeli army clinics set up on the border.

    1977: The 12thMaccabiah opens

    1978(7thof Tammuz, 5738): Eighty year old Paul Parnes the son of Louis and Clara Asia Parnes and the husband of Fay Parnes with whom he had two children – Arlene and William -- passed away today in Hollywood, FL after which he was buried at Mt. Hebron Cemetery in Flushing, NY.

    1978: In the Soviet Union, the trial of Natan Sharansky continued for a third day today.

    1978: Louis H. Pollak began serving as a Judge of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

    1979(17thof Tammuz, 5739): Tzom Tammuz

    1981: “Prime Minister Menachem Begin today compared the June 7 attack on Iraq's Osirak nuclear reactor to the Israeli mission that recued more than 100 hostages in Entebbe, Uganda, on July 4, 1976” saying at a ceremony commemorating the fifth anniversary of the death of Lieut. Col. Yehonatan Netanyahu, the commander of the Entebbe raid “that both were "rescue operations."

    1982(21st of Tammuz, 5742): Ninety-six year old “radical, activist Clara Lemlich Shavelson” whose daughter Rita Margules was one of many who believed “she changed the world” starting with the mass meeting that followed the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory” passed away today

    1983:The Frank Memorial Synagogue a synagogue in Philadelphia, named after philanthropist Henry S. Frank which “was built in 1901 on the grounds of the Jewish Hospital of Philadelphia, now the Albert Einstein Medical Center” “was added to the National Register of Historic Places today.

    1984: The Willis Eye Hospital non-profit eye clinic and hospital in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania where Isaac Hays practiced from its opening until 1854 was placed on the National Registry of Historic Places today.,_Philadelphia,_by_Newell,_R.,_d._1897.jpg

    1985: Thomas R. Pickering appointed U.S. Ambassador to Israel.

    1985: Lawrence Kasdan’s western “Silverado” co-starring Kevin Kline and Jeff Goldblum premiered in the United States.

    1988: Due to his disappointment with Mapam's policy towards the First Intifada, Muhammed Wattad left Mapam to join Hadash

    1989: "When Harry Met Sally," with a screenplay by Nora Ephron, which would be nominated for an Oscar and a Golden Globe Award was released today in the United States.

    1989(9thof Tammuz, 5749): Eighty-six year old conservative political philosopher Sidney Hook passed away today. (As reported by Richard Bernstein)

    1989: In writing about the condition of Jewish Day Schools in New York, the Times said today that “the yeshivas combined vocational and spiritual training – Talmud above all, Torah, Hebrew language and Jewish history from eight to three” followed by training in “secular subjects in the afternoon until six or beyond in high school.”

    1989: Today, in writing about Jewish educational practices, “Joseph Berger suggested that the teaching methods left something to be desired, since the rabbinical seminaries had ‘little forma training in education, a situation that is a legacy of the traditional forms of Jewish education” that had been prevalent “in the lost Jewish schools of Europe” where even if the teacher was less than competent, “the cohesiveness of the Jewish communities was such that even if the teach lacked magnetism or finesse, the lesson would eventually sink in.”

    1991(1stof Av, 5751): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1991: Release date for “Regarding Henry” directed by Mike Nichols, co-produced by Mike Nichols with a script by J.J. Abrams.

    1996:Amschel Rothschild, the man who many people believed was in line to lead the Rothschild family's legendary banking dynasty, committed suicide this week, the company said today. Relatives of the 41-year-old Mr. Rothschild refused to give any details of his death, which was originally reported as having resulted from a heart attack. Amschel's grandfather Charles committed suicide in 1923 while suffering from encephalitis, a brain illness. "One has to realize the kind of pressure that someone who belongs to a family with that much money and that much in the public eye comes under," said Derek Wilson, author of "Rothschild: A Story of Wealth and Power." "Some members thrive on it, and others don't. Some want to be quiet people, but as a Rothschild you can never be that." Mr. Rothschild, who is a member of the sixth generation of the family, entered the family business in 1988, rising to chairman of Rothschild Asset Management in 1990. Many experts said that put him in line to succeed Sir Evelyn, who is 64, as chairman of the entire bank. The most likely candidate to succeed Sir Evelyn now appears to be a French cousin, David Rothschild, though there is some question as to whether the City's British banking establishment would react well to working with a member of the French branch of the family. Amschel's brother, Lionel, is said to be a "gentleman farmer" who is not interested in being part of the banking business. Sir Evelyn's oldest son is considered too young for the job and is reported to have shown little interest in finance.

    1996: Hazel Josephine Cosgrove (Lady Cosgrove) began serving as a Senator of the College of Justice making her the first woman to be appointed as a judge of Scotland’s Supreme Court.

    1998(18thof Tammuz, 5758): Tzom Tammuz observed

    1998: The New York Times featured books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Abraham Joshua Heschel: Prophetic Witness by Edward K. Kaplan and Samuel H. Dresner and Mrs. Einsteinby Anna McGrail.

    2000(9thof Tammuz, 5760): Eighty year old Alf James, the South African boxer born Alfred Abraham, passed away today in Pretoria.

    2001: Daniel C. Kurtzer appointed U.S. Ambassador to Israel.

    2002: U.S. premiere of “Road to Perdition” starring Paul Newman with music by Thomas Newman the son of composer Alfred Newman.

    2004(23rd of Tammuz, 5764): Sergeant Maayan Naim, 19, was killed by terrorists in Israel.

    2005: Rod Rosenstein, who would find himself caught up in the investigations regarding President Donald Trump, began serving as the United States Attorney for the District of Maryland during the Presidency of George W. Bush today.

    2006: Today “the Alabama-Coushatta tribe filed a federal racketeering lawsuit against now-convicted Jack Abramoff and his cohorts.”

    2006: Baron Michael Levy was arrested and questioned in connection with the "Cash for Honours" inquiry by the Metropolitan Police today, concerning the allegation that monies were paid to political parties in return for peerages. It would take a year for authorities to decide not to prosecute due to lack of evidence.

    2006:Jerusalem's Confederation House, one of the premier venues for ethnic music in Israel, presents the first in a series of three concerts based on bakashot (requests), songs of supplication traditionally sung during the early hours of Shabbat morning in Middle Eastern Jewish communities.

    2006: “In the presence of the living descendants of both Émile Zola and Alfred Dreyfus,” French President “Jacques Chirac held an official state ceremony marking the centenary of the official rehabilitation of Dreyfus” “in the same cobblestone courtyard of Paris's École Militaire where Captain Dreyfus had been officially stripped of his officer's rank.”

    2006: The July War or Second Lebanon War began when Hezbollah forces in southern Lebanon attacked IDF forces in Israel with rockets and mortars.  Besides killing IDF soldiers, Hezbollah kidnapped two Israeli soldiers.  Apparently they planned on using them as bargaining chips in some future action. Amir Peretz was the Defense Minister when the war began.

    2006: Today, four years after “he had revealed that he Parkinson’s disease,” Michael Kinsley, “under went deep brain stimulation, a type of surgery designed to reduce its symptoms.”

    2006(16thof Tammuz, 5766): Ninety-five year old “Sylvia Maibuam, the widow of screenwriter Richard Maibum who wrote 13 James Bond films” passed away today.

    2006: The following were among a total of 43 Israeli civilians (including four who died of heart attacks during rocket barrages) and 116 IDF soldiers who were killed in the Israel-Hizbullah war: Sgt.-Maj. Shani Turgeman, 24, of Beit She'an; Sgt.-Maj Eyal Benin, 22, of Omer; Wasim Nazal, 27, of Yanuh-Jat; St.-Sgt. Alexei Kushnirski, 21, of Ness Ziona; Sgt. Yaniv Bar-On, 19, of Maccabim; Sgt. Nimrod Cohen, 19, of Kibbutz Mitzpe Shalem; Sgt.-Maj. St.-Sgt. Gadi Musiev, 20; St.-Sgt. Shlomi Yirmiyahu, 20

    2007: In Rochester, N.Y., a screening of “The Cantor’s Son” at the Rochester Jewish Film Festival.

    2007: In Jerusalem, at a concert"Libi Er," my heart is awake, performs songs, ballads, prayers, and original ethnic music at the Confederation House.

    2007: The Conference on the Future of the Jewish People meeting in Jerusalem comes to a close.

    2008: Day Two of The 25th annual Jerusalem Film Festival, which offers screenings of 200 local and international films highlighting a wide range of genres within categories such as new features, acclaimed documentaries, avant garde films, shorts, animation, retrospectives and classics. Special focus is placed on new directors, films that capture the Jewish experience and French cinema, among other areas of interest.

    2008: In Melbourne, opening of the first Australian production of the Stephen Schwartz musical “Wicked.”

    2009: As of today Brad Ausmus “was third all-time among catchers in fielding percentage.”

    2009: After over a century of being in business, all of the Gottschalks stores were closed for good. Emil Gottschalk, an immigrant Jew from Germany had opened the first of the stores to bear his name in 1904 in Fresno, California.  One of the Gottschalk stores had been located at Wasilla, Alaska, the town that Sarah Pallin would make famous.

    2009: In Tel Aviv, Israel faces Russia in Day 3 of the Davis Cup Quarterfinals.

    2009: The Washington Post features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Attack on the Liberty: The Untold Story of Israel's Deadly 1967 Assault on a U.S. Spy Ship by James Scott.

    2010: Israeli born cellist Yoed Nir is scheduled to perform at Bargemusic in Brooklyn, NY.

    2010(1st of Av, 5770): Rosh Chodesh Av

    2010: Major General (res) Giora Eiland presented the report of his committee which had examined the preparations for and actual boarding of, the Pro-Palestinian Gaza Flotilla.

    2010: The chairperson of the Women of the Wall prayer group Anat Hoffman was released from police custody this afternoon, after being taken in for questioning for allegedly defying the High Court ruling outlawing women from reading from the Torah at the Western Wall. Women of the Wall Public Relations Director Michelle Handelman told The Jerusalem Post that Hoffman was not reading from the Torah, but only holding it, which is not against the law according to the ruling.

    2010: Carmen Weinstein, the head of Egypt’s tiny Jewish community, was convicted of fraud by an Egyptian court today and may face time behind bars. 2010(1st of Av, 5770): Seventy-year old Harvey Pekar, whose autobiographical comic book “American Splendor” attracted a cult following for its unvarnished stories of a depressed, aggrieved Everyman negotiating daily life in Cleveland and became the basis for a critically acclaimed 2003 film, died today  at his home in Cleveland Heights, Ohio. (As reported by William Grimes)

    2010(1stof Av, 5770): Rosh Chodesh Av

    2010(1st of Av, 5770): Eighty-eight year old Tuli Kupferberg, a poet and singer who went from being a noted Beat to becoming, in his words, “the world’s oldest rock star” when he helped found the Fugs, the bawdy and politically pugnacious rock group, died today in Manhattan. (As reported by Ben Sisario)

    2010: As of today Israeli professional tennis player Shahar Pe’er is ranked No. 16 in singles and No. 39 in doubles.

    2011: Hadassah is scheduled to open its 2011 Business Meeting in Las Vegas.

    2011: Israel's most crucial tie to Egypt, an economic one, is deteriorating, National Infrastructures Minister Uzi Landau told Army Radio this morning.

    2011: Saboteurs blew up an Egyptian gas pipeline distribution station in northern Sinai that supplies natural gas to Israel, the official MENA news agency reported. The explosion was the fourth attack this year on pipelines in Sinai that supply gas to Israel and Jordan.

    2011: Fifth anniversary of the war with Lebanon that began with a Hezbollah attacked that killed Lt. Col. Dov (Berry) Harari.

    2011: Days after Berlin announced plans to sell tanks to Saudi Arabia, German Defense Minister Thomas de Maiziere will arrive for his first visit to Israel today, during which he will meet with Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu and Defense Minister Ehud Barak for talks expected to focus on the ongoing upheaval in the Middle East and the Iranian nuclear threat.

    2012: In “Atomic Bombshell,” published today, Isabella Ginor and Gideon Remez, the authors of Foxbats Over Dimona, examine “the allegations that Dr. Max Eitingon, an early student of Sigmund Freud and a financial sponsor of the early psychoanalytic movement, was also an agent of Soviet intelligence.”

    2012: The Washington DCJCC is scheduled to present “Meghan McCain with America, You Sexy B**ch”

    2012: Catherine Howell of the Victoria and Albert Museum of Childhood is scheduled to lead the interactive workshop “Playing at war: an up-close look at childhood games of battle and conflict” at the Wiener Library on Russell Square in London, UK.

    2012: In “The Reading Life: Harvey Pekar's Jewish question” published today David L. Ulin examines the contradictory legacy of the later Jewish author.

    2013: “In Bloom” and “Our Nixon” are two of the films scheduled to be shown today at the Jerusalem Film Festival.”

    2013: Rena Sherel Sofer appeared for the first time “in a newly created role of Quinn Fuller” on “the CBS soap opera The Bold and the Beautiful.

    2013: “Fill the Void” a film which “tells the story of an Orthodox Chassidic Family from Tel Aviv” is scheduled to open at the Drexel East 3 in Columbus, Ohio

    2013: Ido Akov and Itai Meir, “two outstanding soloists from the Jerusalem Academy of Music and Dance are schedule to perform at the Eden-Tamir Music Center.

    2013: “Der Purimspieler” - a romantic comedy about a drifter who wanders from shtetl to shtetl. He finds brief happiness when he falls in love with a shoemaker’s daughter in a small Galician town. A likeable fantasy about s love triangle and man’s quest for the unobtainable – is scheduled to be shown as the first offering in the July Yiddish Film Festival at Agudas Achim following Shabbat eve services.

    2013: In “Echoes From the Roman Ghetto” published today, David Laskin takes readers back to the Portico d’Ottavia which “half a millennium…has been the heart of Rome’s Jewish ghetto” but which 70 years ago became the scene in yet one more act in the Axis plan to create a Jew-Free World.

    2014: A Czech film festival that earned the ire of the local Jewish community because it honored Mel Gibson who gained infamy with his “2006 drunken anti-Semitic rant” and created “The Passion of the Christ” “which some critics have called anti-Semitic.” (As reported by JTA)

    2014: Illumination Music & Arts Festival, the creation of two Jewish students Dustin Stern and Jaime Rosenberg, is scheduled to come to an end “at a private campground in southwestern Ontario’s Grey County

    2014: Israeli’s braced for another round of rocket attacks from terrorists in Gaza.

    2014(14th of Tammuz. 5774): Ninety three old Louis Herman “Red” Klotz who according to Dr. Ron Reider scored the final basket as a member of the Washington Generals the last team to beat the Harlem Globetrotters passed away today.

    2014: “Sirens sounded in Nahariya, Rosh Hanikra, Shlomi, Kabri and Hanita, along the border with Lebanon as rockets were fired from Lebanon by a Palestinian Lebeanese terror group. A Lebanese security source told AFP at least one rocket was fired at around 10:20 pm (1920 GMT) from an area south of the port of Tyre, about a dozen kilometers from the border” (As reported by Gil Ronen)

    2014: Chloe Valadry a senior at the University of New Orleans, who was one of the students assaulted by a pro-Palestinian mob calling Jews “Christ Killers”, pressed charges with the Boston Police Department against “a woman related to the incident.”

    2014: Hamas fired dozens of rockets at Jerusalem and Tel Aviv

    2015: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Ally: My Journey Across the American-Israeli Divide by Michael Oren and KL: A History of the Nazi Concentration Camps by Nikolaus Wachsmann

    2015: The YIVO Institute for Jewish History and the Yiddish League are scheduled to host Annual Memorial in Honor of Mordkhe Schaechter during which Kenneth (Binyomen) Moss will deliver a talk in Yiddish on "Nationalism, the State and the New Antisemitism in Zionist, Diasporist and Territorialist Thought, 1929-1939,” followed by a musical program by Zhenya Lopatnik.

    2015: One hundred year old historian Janusz Durko who hid 20 Jews during WW II was among “nearly elderly Christians Poles who saved Jews” who were honored by Jewish leaders today in Warsaw.

    2015: The Jewish War Veterans of the United States of America/ DC Department is scheduled to host a memorial ceremony in honor of British General Orde Wingate who “was a great soldier, lover of Zion and an admirer of the Jewish people” known during the days of the Mandate as “YaYedid – The Friend.”

    2015: “Vita Activa, The Spirit of Hannah Arendt” is scheduled to be shown at the Jerusalem Film Festival.

    2016(6th of Tammuz, 5776): Seventy-six year old Department of Justice legend David Margolis passed away today. (As reported by Eric Lichtblau)

    2016: The JDC Archives and the Center for Jewish History are scheduled to present “Rescue through Collaboration: The Rescue Activities of the Comité d’Aide aux Refugiés in Italian-Occupied Southeastern France, a lecture by Dr. Luca Fenoglio  who will describe the rescue activities of the Comité Dubouchage  which helped Jews prior to the great roundup across Vichy France of August 1942.

    2016: “A State Department grant intended to rally support for peace between Israel and Palestine also helped set up political infrastructure that was later used for a campaign opposing Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu in 2015, according to a bipartisan Senate investigative report released” today.

    2016: “Mapplethorpe: Look at the Pictures” and “Little Men” are scheduled to be shown at the Jerusalem Film Festival.

    2017: In conjunction with the exhibition “500 Years of Treasures from Oxford,” the Center for Jewish History, Oxford University's Corpus Christi College & Yeshiva University Museum are scheduled to present a lecture by  Lenn Goodman on “Oxford's Aleppo Connection: Edward Pococke (1604-91) from Humanism to Enlightenment via Hebrew and Arabic Learning.”

    2017: In “I’m Blacklisted by Israel’s Rabbinate and Proud of It” published today, Rabbi Alexander Davis, the “senior rabbi of Beth El Synagogue in Minneapolis” described his feeling on being “one of the 160 rabbis…blacklisted by Chief Rabbi David Lau” – a move some might find reminiscent First Kings 12:16.

    2017(18th of Tammuz, 5777): Ninety-two year old “comic-book artist,” graphic novelist and author of A Sailor’s Story passed away today. (As reported by Richard Sandomir)

    2017: The ceremony honoring member of the World Maccabi World Union who make the Maccabiah such a successful event is scheduled to take place this evening in the new wing of the Tel Aviv Museum.

    2018: JW3 is scheduled to host two screenings today of episodes of seven through nine of “of the new Israeli binge-worthy thriller Your Honor.”

    2018: The Center for Jewish History is scheduled to present “Family History Today: Genealogy Lecture for Sephardi and Mizrahi Families” this evening.

    2018: The Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington is scheduled to host “an evening walking tour for young professional of Jewish downtown Washington” that starts at the Carving Room “a Jewish inspired deli” (serves traif).

     2018: “The Wedding Plan” is scheduled to be shown at the 9th Annual AXERLROD Israel Jewish Film Festival




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    July 13

    100 BCE: Birthdate of Julius Caesar.  When Caesar and Pompey fought for control of the Empire, the Jews supported Caesar because of the evil Pompey had done to the Jewish people including desecrating the Temple and shipping thousands of Judeans to Roman slave markets.  Caesar returned Jaffa to Judean control and allowed the walls of Jerusalem to be rebuilt. The Jews of Rome were allowed to organize as a community and Jews living on the Italian peninsula were able to improve their economic condition.

    982: Kalonymos da Lucca, “the second Jew mentioned in the annals of Germanic history” “saved the life of Emperor Otto II” “who rewarded him with a house and citizenship in the city of Main where he could live safely as a Jew under the protection of the Archbishop.” (As described by Leo Sievers)

    1024: Henry II, the Holy Roman Emperor whose expulsion of the Jews from Mayence was lamented in dirges composed by the poet Simon ben Isaac and of which Gershom ben Yehuda said, “Thou hast made those who despise They Law to have dominion over Thy people…” passed away today.

    1105(29thof Tammuz, 4865: On the secular calendar Rabbi Shlomo ben Isaac also known as Rashi passed away. Rashi is a Hebrew acrostic for Rabbi Shlmoh ben Isaac. Born in 1040 he was the leading rabbinic commentator in his day on the TaNaCh and Talmud. His work is so basic to Jewish study, that it is said when we study Torah we must study Rashi. Rashi lived at the time of the Crusades. He passed away five years before the birth of that other great medieval sage, Maimonides. (See the attachment for a fuller treatment of his life.) While there is much to be learned from the teachings of Rashi, there are also lessons that we can learn from his life. While he studied with the greatest teachers in Germany, he lived in a French town with a comparatively small Jewish population. For those living in small towns this should serve as a reminder that living in small town is no reason not to study. Rashi was a Rabbi. He was also a successful businessman. He was a wine merchant who was able to care for his family and support students and yeshivas. In other words, just because most of us have to work for a living, we can still find time for study. Rashi had three daughters and no sons. Unlike the example of the mythical Tevye, Rashi’s daughters were all educated scholars. According to the stories told about them, all five wore tefillin. In other words, for Rashi, women were not to be "barefoot, pregnant and in the kitchen." His example means we should be providing a full Jewish education for all of our community, regardless of sex. (See Maggie Anton’s books about Rashi’s daughters for more about this)(

    1148: Anti-Jewish riots take place in Cordova, Spain.

    1391: The richest Jew in Valencia, “the great Don Samuel Abravalla,” was baptized to in the palace of En Gasto.  He is now known as Alfonso Ferrandes de Villanueva.

    1564: In Brest Litvosk (Lithuania), Abraham, the son of a wealthy and envied Jewish tax collector was accused of killing the family's Christian servant for ritual purposes. He was tortured and executed. King Sigmund Augustus forbade the charge of ritual murder.

    1608: Birthdate of Ferdinand III the Holy Roman Emperor who awarded the Jewish community their own banner in recognition for their services in the defense of Prague during the Thirty Years War.

    1756: Birthdate of artist and caricaturist Thomas Rowlandson a non-Jew who born in Old Jewry, a street that takes its name from the fact that it was part of a Jewish quarter that had first existed at least as far back as the 13thcentury.

    1787: According to the “Kaisers Patent” bearing today’s date issued by Austrian Emperor Josef II, Jews “were forced to send their children to Christian schools and take German names.”

    1787:  The Continental Congress enacts the Northwest Ordinance establishing governing rules for the Northwest Territory. It is important to note that there were no religious qualifications to settling in the area, owning land or taking part in political activities.  This openness encouraged Jews to settle the lands west of the Allegheny Mountains.  It also forced some of the east coast states to remove their remaining religious qualifications for participating in state government

    1788(4thof Shevat, 5548): Leah Ancona, the daughter of Moses Ancona and Hannah Montefiore passed away today in London.

    1793(4thof Av, 5553): Parashat Devarim, Shabbat Chazon

    1793(4thof Av, 5553): Rebecca Hart Myers, the daughter of Joseph Hart Myers and Leah Jacobs passed away today in the UK.

    1796: When French forces renew their bombardment of Frankfurt this evening, fire breaks out in the city including the area known as the Judengasse.

    1798: Birthdate of Warder Cresson, the Quaker born Philadelphian who changed his name to Michoel Boaz Yisroel ben Avraham when he converted to Judaism. After surviving a sanity hearing, Cresson became an ardent supporter of Jewish settlement in Palestine moving to Jerusalem where he married a Sephardic women, raised a family and eventually passed away.

    1813: Birthdate of Lazare Isidore who served as chief rabbi of France from 1867 until his death in 1888.

    1816: Birthdate of German novelist Gustav Freytag who was married to a Jew but who authored Debit And Credit the popular anti-Semitic six volume novel that featured he Jewish Ehrenthal family who are money-lenders and speculators and their criminal employee Veitel Itzig and promoted negative stereotypes of Jews.

    1815: Future President John Q. Adams wrote in a letter: 'The Hebrews have done more to civilize men than any other nation. If I were an atheist, I should still believe fate had ordained the Jews to be the most essential instrument for civilizing the nations.'

    1823: Birthdate of French poet Eugène Manuel, the son of Parisian Jewish doctor.

    1841: Birthdate of Austrian architect Otto Wagner. Budapest's Rumbach Synagogue, built in the 1870s, was his first major work. There seems to be some dispute as to whether or not Wagner himself was Jewish.  We post his name because of the synagogue construction since we have not been able to verify whether or not he was Jewish.

    1852: In New York, the Board of Alderman approved placing gas lamps in front of the synagogue on Greene Street.

    1859: Sir Moses Montefiore was informed that in an interview Mr. Odo Russell, a British diplomat, had with Cardinal Giacomo Antonelli, a senior Vatican official closely associated with the Pope, the latter said that the issue of Edgardo Mortara was “a closed question.”  In other words, Vatican was standing fast on the seizure of the Jewish child and had no intention of returning him. 

    1861: In Nevada, Israel ben Joseph Benjamin, a German-Jewish traveler who was a passenger on one of the first scheduled daily overland stagecoaches passed through Jacobs Well “a foundling way station for changing horses or mules on the Daily Overland Mail stage.”

    1863: During the Draft Riots which began today in New York City, mobs came down the street where the Hebrew Orphan Asylum was located but passed the building without attacking.

    1863: In London, Rabbi Samuel Marcus Gollancz, the cantor of the Hambro Synagogue, London, and his wife, Johanna Koppell gave birth “to the sixth of their seven children, English literature professor Sir Israel Gollancz who married Alide Goldschmidt in 1910.

    1865: "Russia: Extensive Fires" published today describe a fire has destroyed 108 houses in Gerdok most of which belonged to Jews. Two children died in the fire.  A fire in the Jewish quarter at Grodno destroyed eighty-two houses. The Synagogue in Borisoff was among the buildings that fell victim to the flames when fire swept the town.

    1872: According to reports published today, The Jewish Messenger endorsed the proposal of the New York Times that poor and orphaned children in New York should be able to enjoy at least one excursion during the month of July.  In urging its readers to contribute to this cause the Messenger reminded that among the beneficiaries would be at least four hundred Jewish children.

    1873: “Cleanliness Versus Godliness” published today took issue with the contention of the historian Eusebus that the Apostle James never took a bath.  “The assertion is most improabable, for not only were all the apostles strict Jews, but St. James, the Bishop or Jerusalem, could least of all have afforded to despise so sacred a Jewish habits as cleanliness”  since James “was held in the highest esteem by the  Judaizing party in the Church.

    1875: Representatives from a group of Jewish congregations from across the United States held their second annual meeting in Buffalo, NY. Joseph Cohn of Pittsburg, PA was elected President; Henry Brock of Buffalo was elected Vice President; Lippman Levy of Cincinnati was elected Secretary; S. J. Lowenstein of Evansville, Indiana was elected Assistant Secretary. 

    1876: Judge Abraham Jesse Dittenhoefter described the meeting in which New York Governor Samuel J.  Tilden was told that he had been nominated by the Democratic Party as their candidate for President. He then read a sample of letters from those supporting this candidate of reform. (Tilden is the “Tilden” of the famous Hayes-Tilden electoral stalemate)

    1877: A review of Poet and Merchant by Bethold Auerbach, “a Jewish romance” in which all but a couple of the characters are Jews was published today.

    1874: Jewish leaders from all over the United States are gathering in Cleveland, Ohio for tomorrow’s meeting of the Council of the American Union of Hebrew Congregations.

    1878: At the conclusion of the Congress of Berlin, the European powers sign the Treaty of Berlin designed to officially the end of the Russo-Turkish War.  One of the issues settled by the treaty was the question of independence for Romania.  The Romanians promised that they would improve the treatment of the Jews living in Romania.  Rather than trust the Romanian leaders, the authors of the treaty bowed to pressure from influential European Jews and insisted “that Romania must guarantee Jewish political emancipation before her sovereignty could be recognized.”  The requirement was incorporated into the Treaty of Berlin under Article 62.

    1879: A delegation of Rabbis from congregations across the United States, including both Reform and Orthodox came to house of Rabbi David Einhorn and presented him with a resolution enumerating his various accomplishments as his decade’s long career.  The 72 year old native of Bavaria is retiring as the spiritual leader of Congregation Beth-El with a pension of $3.500.

    1879: An article published today based on information from The Saturday Review, a London weekly magazine, examined the life of the late Lionel Rothschild.  Rothschild was held in high esteem for his philanthropies that included an unexpectedly large donation for the relief of those who suffered during the Irish Famine in the 1840’s.  Rothschild was praised for being more than “nominally a Jew” and for taking a leading role in the affairs of the Jewish community.  Rothschild was “too rich too powerful and too socially important to be tempted to seek to rise by a calculated conversion.”  On a personal level, one of Rothschild’s crowning moments came when he won the Epsom Derby in 1879 thanks to the efforts of “Sir Bevys.”   Much of the prejudice that Jews have experienced in England has dissipated due, in part, to the example of the Rothschilds which includes the unique Jewish trait of “setting as much store on the attainment of high education and the development of business faculties in the women as in the men.”

    1881: It was reported today that a resolution was introduced at the 8th annual council of the Union of American Hebrew congregations calling upon the Union to the steps that would lead to the abolition of the Religious Department of the Census Bureau.  Those in favor of the proposal felt that the “Church and State were separated by a wide gulf” and that the government did not have any right to ask Americans about their religious beliefs.  Those who were opposed to the proposal felt that the Hebrew Union did not have the right to interfere with the operations of the government.  The latter view prevailed and the motion was withdrawn.

    1882: President Lotte of Cincinnati presided over a meeting of the Executive Board of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations at Saratoga, NY.  The Board represents 15 congregations.

    1882(26thof Tammuz, 5642): Thirty-nine year old Sigmund Ferdinand Strauss, the brother of MP Arthur Isidor Strauss and Heinrich Alphons Strauss passed away today in Paris.

    1883: It was reported today that the expenses of the Hebrew Union College have exceeded income by $18,200. The shortfall was covered by money taken from the Sinking Fund.  In order to avoid further financial problems the Union will collect a head tax of one dollar for each congregant belonging to the congregations across the country.

    1883: In Poland, Rebekah and Abraham Simcha (Simon) Flashtiq gave birth to Joseph Flashtiq, the husband of Ida Flashtiq and father of Reginald Flashtiq

    1885: Marcus Berheimer delivered a welcoming address to the delegates from the United Hebrew Relief Associations from the principle cities in the United States who had gathered in St. Louis to form a union of the Hebrew Charities into a national organization.

    1887: At 14thannual meeting of the leaders of the Hebrew Congregations of America, leaders of the Reform Movement expressed their disgust with the treatment of Jewish-American citizens doing business with, or visiting, Russia.  The group wants changes made to the Russo-American Treaty that will guarantee American Jews will be treated with same respect as is shown to American Catholics and Protestants.

    1888: Birthdate of Isaac Nachman Steinberg, the Russian born lawyer and political leader who served with Lenin but then was forced to flee to the West in the 1920’s when the political winds of the Bolsheviks blew in another direction.

    1889: “Harlem Club and Senator Cantor” published today described attempts to minimize the action of club members.  They claimed that the Jewish political leader had not been blackballed; merely postponed.  While it was thought that a majority of the members would vote in favor of membership, the “blackball system” would keep that from happening.

    1890: Rabbi Sabato Morais of Philadelphia, PA is giving a lecture this morning entitled “Some Hebrew Grammarians” at the Jewish Theological Seminary in New York.

    1891:”Russians Facing Famine” published today described the effects of the worst food shortage since the earliest days of the Romanov dynasty including the suffering of the Jews especially those living at Rovnopol where they “are practically dying of hunger.” During a tour of the area, the governor saw the Jews “destitute of bread and corn” and “several families living together in one hut for the sake of warmth generated by propinquity.”

    1892: The assailant who attacked Gustave Berkowitz, an old Jewish peddler, escaped from custody today.

    1893: Among the people who were killed in today’s train wreck at Newburgh, NY was
    “an unknown woman, apparently thirty-four years old, of Hebrew cast of countenance” (In other words she looked like a Jew).  Among the injured were five members of the family of Leopold Michael, a retired diamond merchant on his way to spend the summer in the Catskills.

    1893: The decision by the family of Captain Dreyfus not to accept a jewel sword which a group of American Jews plan to purchase in his honor and the decision by Emile Zola not to accept an engraved gold pen from the same group was made public today. The plan to buy these items had split the Jewish community with the editors of the Forwards being most vocal in their opposition.

    1893: “Soon To Have A New Temple” published today provides a detailed description of Shaaray Tefilla’s home located on 82nd Street between Columbus and Amsterdam Avenues

    1894: Birthdate of Isaak Babel Russian short-story writer and dramatist. He is known by many as the author of "Red Calvary." Babel’s artistic career ended when he was arrested by the Soviet secret police in one of those periodic purges brought on by Stalin’s paranoia. Babel was shot after a secret trial proved he was a traitor.

    1894: Albert Mortiz was promoted from Assistant Engineer to Past (First) Assistant Engineer today in the United States Navy.

    1894: A day after she had passed away, 74 year old Rachel Sampson, the widow of Simon Sampson was buried today at the West Ham Jewish Cemetery on Buckingham Road.

    1894: Even though Eugene Debs said it was his decision, the Knights of Labor blamed Samuel Gompers for calling off the planned strike intended to show support for the Pullman workers. 

    1985: In the United Kingdom, the General Election that would see Harry Marks emerge victorious in his campaign to represent St. George, Tower Hamlets, began.

    1895: On Shabbat, Dr. Samuel Sale of St. Louis, MO will deliver the sermon at the annual Central Conference American Rabbis meeting in Rochester, NY.

    1895: “A Jewish Confession of Faith” published today listed the ten point formula “for the reception of proselytes being considered by the Reform movement.

    1895: It was reported today that a new translation of Conventional Lies of Our Civilization by Max Nordeau is being published in London that will replace the one that appeared in Chicago ten years ago.

    1896: “Bugs, Worms and Beetles” published today described the history and impact of these critters including the fact that the “Jews of Morocco regard male grasshoppers as unclean” and that they only eat the females “which have peculiar markings on their bodies” which are said to be Hebrew letters that “make it lawful to devour the animals bearing them.” (No shrimp or lobster; but we can eat female grasshoppers in Morocco – such a deal)

    1896: Birthdate of Israeli painter Mordecai Ardon.  Born in Poland when it was part of the Russian Empire, Ardon later moved to Germany where he was a student at the "Bauhaus" School from 1920 to 1925.  This was the period in German history known as the Weimar Republic.  Ardon moved to Jerusalem in 1933.  He had his first American exhibition at the Jewish Museum in New York in 1948. There are numerous websites where you can view his works.  He passed away in 1992. One of his most famous is the "Ardon Windows" in the Jewish National and University Library

    1896: Herzl meets with representatives of Hovevei Zion Britain.

    1897: Louis Leblois, lawyer for Lieutenant Colonel Georges Picquart, informed Senator Auguste Scheurer-Kestner in detail about the Dreyfus Affair – the first step in a journey that would lead to his involvement in the ultimate re-habilitation of the French Jewish officer.

    1898: When the 3rd Nebraska Volunteer Infantry was mustered in today at Omaha, those taking the oath included Sergeant Herbert L. Stern, Corporal George Steinbach, and Privates Henry H. Lyons, Sam Orlofsky and Bert Polsky, all from Lincoln as well as Omaha Musician Harry C. Lyon.

    1898: When the 6th Missouri Volunteer Infantry was mustered in today at Jefferson Barracks, those taking the oath included Bernhardt K. Stunberg, Hospital Steward; Captain John H. Goldman, Company A; Private Harry H. Rosenberger, Company C; Musician Oscar Bennewitz and Private Levi Harris, Company D; Private Louis Bleistein, Company G;

    1899: The Knights of Zion, a Jewish fraternal organization, was incorporated today at Albany, NY.

    1900: In New York City Jozue Perla and Fannie Herzruecken Perlan gave birth to Dr. David Perla the Columbia Medical School graduate who served as “associate pathologist and immunologist at Montefiore Hospital” from 1927 until his death in 1940 and was a “leading investigator and writer on the mechanism of immunity to infection in the human body.”

    1901: Birthdate of Myrtle Ehrlich, the Brooklyn native who became the successful American businesswoman, Tillie Ehrlich Lewis, “the tomato queen.”,33009,857087-1,00.html

    1902: Birthdate of Labour Party leader Maurice Orbach, “a self-proclaimed Labour Zionist” who was the father of psychotherapist Susie Orbach and Laurence Orbach, the former chairman and CEO of The Quatro Group.

    1904(1st of Av, 5664): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1904(1stof Av, 5664): Forty-seven year old English soprano and actress Giulia Warwick (born Julia Ehrenberg) passed away today.

    1905: “Their Only Hope” published today in The American Israelite described conditions in Russia following the defeat by Japan including plans of the government to hold on to power by sacrificing “the Jews of Russia to the bitter hatred of their enemies” –  “the hierarchy of the Russian Church and members of the business community who see the Jews as competitors --  and concludes with a plea to “great Jewish financers” to use their power “to save five million men, women and children – their coreligionist – from impending destruction.

    1905: Sir Reginald Francis Douce Palgrave, the Clerk of the House of Commons passed away.  His father was Sir Francis Palgrave, born Francis Ephraim Cohen, who converted and changed his name so that he could marry Elizabeth Turner.

    1905: The Ninth Summer Assembly of the Jewish Chautauqua Society continued for a sixth day in Atlantic City, NJ.

    1909(24th of Tammuz, 5669): Jacob Bettelheim, the Viennese born dramatist and author passed away in Berlin.

    1910: Fire destroys 21 buildings in the Jewish quarter of Salonica, damage near 600,000 Francs.

    1910: Birthdate of Swiss philosopher and Einstein Medal winner Jeanne Hersch.

    1911(17th of Tammuz, 5671): Tzom Tammuz

    1911(17thof Tammuz, 5671): New Yorker Gustav Mehringer who made “bequests of $2,584.52 each to Mt. Sinai Hospital, the Montefiore Home, the United Hebrew Charities and the Hebrew Orphan Asylum” and a bequest of $2,000 to Temple Emanu-El passed away today.

    1911: Birthdate of Brooklyn native WW II Army veteran Hyam Plutzik, the graduate of Trinity College and holder of a master’s degree from Yale and Professor of English at Rutgers whose “awards for Poetry included Yale’s Albert S. Cook Prize in Poetry, an award from the National Institutes of Arts and Letters and a Lillian Fairchild Award” and who was the husband of the former Tanya Roth with whom he had four children – Roberta, Deborah, Alan and Jonathan.

    1913: As the wars continue in the Balkans, the Turks capture the Greek city of Didymoteikhon which is ruled by the Bulgarians.  Unfortunately for the Jews, who had suffered property losses when the Bulgarians took the city in 1912, the economy continued to deteriorate under Ottoman rule.

    1915: Abram I. Elkus, the President of the Jewish Chautauqua Society was reported today to have said that he was “discouraged” because “the American Jewish Relief Committee and all constituted agencies” are being overwhelmed by the demands to help Jews in the war zone and “with all the efforts that have been made, all the Jews” in the United States “have not given $1,000,000 where millions are needed.”

    1916: At Paramount Corporation's annual board meeting, William Wadsworth Hodkinson found himself ousted from the presidency and replaced by Hiram Abrams, who won the seat by a single vote after which he announced to the board, "On behalf of Adolph Zukor, who has purchased my shares in Paramount, I call this meeting to order."

    1917: Peter von Ustinow, who was serving with Army Air Service of the German Army and who was the brother of Jaffa native Jona Von Ustinov who worked with MI5 in WW II, was killed in action today.

    1917: “Announcement was made at today’s meeting of the Joint Distribution Committee of the Funds for Jews War Sufferers held at the office of the Chairman, Felix M. Warburg, that following negotiations with the State Department carried on since the entrance of the United States into the war, arrangements have just been completed for sending Jewish Relief Funds into all those countries occupied by foreign armies.”

    1918(4thof Av, 5678): Parashat Devarim; Shabbat Chazon

    1918(4thof Av, 5678): Twenty-two year old Private Robert P. Friedman the son of Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Friedman and a graduate of CCNY while serving with Company A of the 102nd Engineers lived for “only two hours after a shell severed his spinal cord.”

    1918: It was reported today that in Finland, the Senate justified the decision to expel all the Jews from the country “on the ground that Jewish financiers placed funds at the disposal of the Red Guards” – a charge denied by the Jews who said “they were forced by the Red Guards to give them large sums of money.”

    1919: Birthdate of Eliot Asinof whose journalistic re-creation of the 1919 Black Sox scandal, Eight Men Out became a classic of both baseball literature and narrative nonfiction. Eliot Tager Asinof was born in Manhattan and grew up in Manhattan and Cedarhurst, N.Y. His grandfather Morris, a Russian immigrant, was a tailor who eventually opened a men’s store in Manhattan.Eliot’s father, Max, worked there, and when young Eliot went to work there as well, it was a tenet that he had to sew a suit before he would be allowed to sell one. The dexterity he developed served him well. Mr. Asinof was an accomplished amateur pianist and sculptor. He was also a carpenter who in 1985, with his son, built the Ancramdale house he lived in for the rest of his life. He shot his age on a golf course for the first time at 79. After graduating from Swarthmore, Mr. Asinof played baseball briefly in the minor leagues — he was a first baseman in the Philadelphia Phillies organization — before he joined the Army. When he returned, his son said, the Phillies invited him to return, but he pulled a muscle during his first practice, and that was it for his sports career. He turned to writing. He also had a gift for finding the company of other gifted people. A compact man with a gravelly voice and a New York accent, he was gregarious and shrewdly charming.A writer whose shrewdness and insight trumped his style, which was plainspoken and realistic, Mr. Asinof was productive and versatile. He wrote more than a dozen books, including a novel, Final Judgment that is set on a college campus and concerns a protest to keep President Bush from delivering a commencement address, and is to be published in September by Bunim & Bannigan.Weeks before his death, his son said, Mr. Asinof completed a memoir of his World War II service in the Army Corps on Adak Island in the Aleutians. Seven Days to Sunday his 1968 account of a week in the life of the New York Giants football team as it prepared for a game, was an early if not groundbreaking enterprise of journalistic embedding in the world of sports. His first novel, Man on Spikes published in 1955 and based on a longtime friend who spent years in the minor leagues, was a prescient condemnation of baseball’s feudal control over the players. That system was not dissolved until 1975 with the abolition of the so-called reserve clause in standard contracts, which allowed teams to retain in virtual perpetuity the services of players in their employ.Mr. Asinof also wrote for television and the movies, although his published credits were limited, probably because he was among the many writers who were blacklisted in the 1950s. In his case, he once wrote after he got hold of his F.B.I. file, the blacklisting came about because “I had at one time signed a petition outside of Yankee Stadium to encourage the New York Yankees to hire black ballplayers.”But he is best known for “Eight Men Out,” published in 1963, and for the 1988 movie of the same title. The book is an exhaustively reported and slightly fictionalized account of how eight members of the 1919 Chicago White Sox allowed their anger at the parsimonious team owner, Charles Comiskey, to corrupt their integrity, leading them to welcome the overtures of gamblers, who persuaded them to throw the World Series against the Cincinnati Reds. A seminal event in the history of the game, it led to the appointment of the first baseball commissioner, Kenesaw Mountain Landis. Mr. Asinof spent nearly three years researching the book, including interviewing the two members of the team, Joe Jackson and Happy Feltsch, who were still alive. In the end, “Eight Men Out” was a book that made plain the connection between sport and money and between sport and the underworld. “Here is the underbelly of baseball vividly dissected,” said Fay Vincent, the former baseball commissioner.In the Camelot of the Kennedy 1960s, the book also made plain, if only by inference, the unsavory potential in American culture, a theme that ran throughout Mr. Asinof’s work. Twenty-five years later, “Eight Men Out” was made into a popular film directed by John Sayles, with a script by Mr. Sayles and Mr. Asinof.” He passed away at the age of 88 in June, 2008.

    1919: The London Jewish Hospital opened for out-patients.

    1920: Birthdate of Anna Schuman who gained fame as dance pioneer Anna Halprin, the wife of landscape architect Lawrence Halprin

    1921: Birthdate of Ernst Sigmund Goldner, the native of Vienna who gained fame as Ernest Gold, composer of the score from the hit film “Exodus” for which he won an Oscar.

    1921: In Ross, CA, Frank Moore Cross, Sr. and his wife gave birth to Frank Moore Cross, Jr. “an influential Harvard biblical scholar who specialized in the ancient cultures and languages that helped shape the Hebrew Bible and who played a central role in interpreting the Dead Sea Scrolls.” (As reported by William Yardley)

    1921(7th of Tammuz, 5681): Jonas Ferdinand Gabriel Lippmann a Franco-Luxembourgish physicist and inventor, and Nobel laureate in physics for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference, later known as the Lippmann plate passed away.

    1923(29thof Tammuz, 5683): Birmingham, Alabama native David L. Baumgarten, the former Vice President of Durell Brothers Shoe Company who was elected to the House of Representatives from the second Congressional District of Ohio in 1917, a President of the United States and China Company passed away today.

    1923: In Brazil, Isaac Israel Benchimol and Nina "Lili" Siqueira gave birth to Samuel Isaac Benchimol, the economist whom the Brazilian government honored by establishing the Benchimol Prize and who was the father of Jaime Samuel Benchimol,

    1924: Birthdate of Gyorgy Deutsch the native of Hungary and Holocaust survivor who gained fame as “George Lang, a restaurateur and cookbook writer who in the 1970s transformed Café des Artistes into one of New York’s most romantic, beloved dining spots and in the 1990s helped restore the historic Budapest restaurant Gundel to its former glory.” (As reported by William Grimes)

    1925:  Flo Ziegfeld and his Ziegfeld Follies begin the creation of what would become an American Icon.  Comedian W.C. Fields went home to attend his mother's funeral.  In a last minute desperate move, a comparatively unknown cowboy from Oklahoma named Will Rogers began his comedic career. 

    1926: Birthdate of composer Meyer Kupferman.

    1927: In Nice, France, André Jacob, an architect, and the former Yvonne Steinmetz gave birth Simone Jacob, the youngest of their four children, who survived the Shoah gained fame as French lawyer and political leader Simon Veil.

    1928: In Cricklewood, Hertfordshire, Rachel and Hersch Lauterpacht gave birth to Sir Elihu Lauterpacht CBE QC LLD a British academic and lawyer, specializing in International Law,

    1930:Robert Sarnoff, head of RCA (Radio Corporation of America) tells the in New York Times "TV would be a theater in every home."  Okay, so it is not Micah or Jeremiah, but it is a Jew providing prophecy in one sense of the term.

    1930: Birthdate of Naomi Shemer one of Israel's most important and prolific song writers. During her lifetime, she was hailed as the "First Lady of Israeli Song."  Born Naomi Sapir, Shemer did her own songwriting and composing, as well as setting famous poems to music, such as those of the Israeli poet, Rachel, and adapting well-known songs into Hebrew, such as the Beatles songs "Hey Jude" and "Let it Be" ("Lu Yehi"). Israeli songwriter Naomi Shemer's grave on the shores of the Sea of Galilee (Kinneret)]. The stones were left by visitors, in keeping with an ancient Jewish custom Naomi Shemer was born and raised in Kevutzat Kinneret, a kibbutz that her parents had helped to found, on the shore of the Sea of Galilee. In the 1950s she served in the Israeli Defense Force's Nahal entertainment troupe and studied music at the Rubin Academy in Jerusalem. She married Mordechai Horowitz and had two children, Lali and Ariel.In 1983, Shemer received the Israel Prize for her contribution to Israeli culture. Several of Shemer's songs have the quality of anthems, striking deep national and emotional chords in the hearts of Israelis. Her most famous song is "Yerushalayim shel zahav" ("Jerusalem of Gold"). She wrote it in 1967, before the Six Day War, and added another stanza after Israel captured East Jerusalem and regained access to the Western Wall. In 1968, Uri Avnery, then a member of the Israeli parliament, proposed that "Jerusalem of Gold" become the Israeli anthem. The proposal was rejected, but the nomination itself says something about the power of Shemer's songs.  Shemer continued to write and perform until her death. She died of cancer in 2004 at the age of seventy three.

    1933(19thof Tammuz, 5693): Sixty-year old William Dick Sporborg, “the song of the late Joseph and Clara Dick Sporborg,” the husband of the former Constance Amberg of Cincinnati, and graduate of Harvard where “he was a member of the baseball team” who graduated the Columbia University Law School and served as Treasurer of the Port Arthur Jews Center passed away today.

    1933: In Germany, Nazism was declared the sole German party.

    1935: On her 34th birthday, Tillie Lewis opened the first Flotill cannery in Stockton, California. By 1951, Flotill Products, later known as Tillie Lewis Foods, Inc., was earning $30 million per year, making it one of the five largest canning companies in the country. In the same year, Lewis was named "businesswoman of the year" by the Associated Press. In 1952, the company introduced a line of diet foods using low-calorie sweeteners and known as Tasti-Diet. Tillie Lewis Foods was eventually bought by the Ogden Corporation, which made Lewis one of its directors. Lewis died in 1977, but the Italian Pomodoro tomatoes she introduced to the U.S. are still a staple of American agriculture. (As reported by Jewish Women’s Archives)

    1936: As the Arab attacks in Palestine continued, the Emir Abudllah said today in Trans-Jordan that he did not “know how much long he could hold them” – referring to his Bedouins who want to cross the Jordan and joint in the fight.

    1936: In an interview given tonight, “John D.M. Hamilton chairman of the Republican National Committee laid at the door of the Democrats responsibility for spreading rumors that he was anti-Semitic and that Jews who had been prominent in other national Republican campaigns were to be kept out of important positions in the” Presidential campaign of Governor Alf Landon.

    1936: After meeting with Republican Presidential candidate Alf M. Landon at Topeka, George N. Peek, the former head of the Export-Import Bank offered his views on numerous topics to newspaper reporters including the observation the “Jewish influence” on the policies of the Roosevelt administration had helped to cost the country two successive sales of more than 800,000 bales of cotton to Germany. “The administration has not been particularly sympathetic to Hitler and Hitler hasn’t been particularly sympathetic to the Jews” was the way he described the situation.

    1936: Following the death of Reverend S. Parkes Cadmen yesterday, Rabbi Israel H. Levinthal, the former President of the Rabbinical Association of America said, “The Jews of America feel heavily the sorrow of his passing because they had in him an understanding friend and an unselfish champion” whose “heart beat with love and sympathy for all mankind regardless of race, color or creed.”

    1936: The Palestine Post reported that two Jews were seriously injured by Arabs in Jerusalem. Figures prepared by this newspaper indicated that 41 Jews had been killed and over 150 seriously injured since the outbreak of the Arab disturbances on April 19. British forces lost five men. The estimated damage to Jewish property was over 100,000 pounds. The Tel Aviv Port jetty had been lengthened to 200 meters.

    1936: According to some sources, today marks the start of the Spanish Civil War (I have found at least two other dates)

    1937(5thof Av, 5697): Edgard Cattaui, the son of Moise Cattaui and Ida Ross and the husband of Lia Cattaui passed away today in Cairo.

    1937: In what has to have been one of the most erroneous predictions of the pre-WWII period, Dr. Carol Joachim Friedrich of Harvard predicted “in an address at the Summer Institute for Social Progress at Wellesley today” that “sooner or later the German people will overthrow the Nazi regime” adding the he would be “surprised if the Hitler dictatorship lasts twenty years, that is to 1953.”

    1938: Declaring that the maintenance of a proper Supreme Court was of paramount concern to the country, Senator Arthur H. Vandenberg urged in a speech here tonight that an extra session of the Senate be called before the Supreme Court convened in October to confirm or reject President Roosevelt's nominee to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Justice Benjamin N. Cardozo

    1938: The immediate transfer to Palestine of "tens of thousands of Jewish children now trapped in Germany, Austria and Poland" was urged by Hadassah, the women's Zionist organization of America, in a message sent today to the London executive of the Jewish Agency for Palestine for transmission to the Intergovernmental Refugees Committee, meeting in Evian, France.  The message was signed my Mrs. Moses P. Epstein, president of the organization and sent on behalf of Hadassah’s 70,000 members.

    1939: Producer and screen writer Milton Sperling married Betty Warner, the daughter of movie mogul Harry Warner and the younger sister of Doris Warner.

    1939: U.S. premiere of “The Man in the Iron Mask” co-starring Joseph Schildkraut as Fouquet

    1940: “My Love Came Back” directed by Curtis Bernhardt and directed by Hal B. Wallis was released by Warner Bros. Pictures in the United States.

    1941(18thof Tammuz, 5701): Tzom Tammuz because the 17th fell on Shabbat.

    1941: Birthdate of Ehud Manor “an Israeli songwriter, translator, and radio and TV personality.”

    1942: French police arrested author Irene Nemirovsky, as “a foreign Jew.”  She was shipped to Auschwitz where she died five weeks later at the age of 39.  She gained famed in the 21st century with posthumous publication of two newly discovered manuscripts, Suite Francaise and Fire in the Blood.

    1942: Five thousand Jews of Rovno (Polish Ukraine) were executed by the Nazis.

    1942: The Einsatzkommando returned to daily actions of murder. Seven thousand Jews were rounded up in Rowne ghetto. Over the next two days, the SS would slaughter 5,000 of them.

    1943: Alexander Schmorell and Kurt Huber, members of the White Rose resistance movement, are beheaded with a guillotine by the Nazi government. (Everybody remembers the killers and those who remained silent.  This is a chance to those made the final sacrifice when the world was plunged into darkness) (As reported by Austin Cline)

    1943: Father Marie Benoît traveled to Rome today to seek the help of Pope Pius XII in transferring Jews to northern Italy. A meeting was arranged between Father Benoît and the pope. When Father Benoit explained that the police in Vichy France were acting against the Jews, Pius XII was surprised, saying, "Who could ever expect this from noble France?" He promised to diligently deal with the situation. However, the North African plan was eventually foiled when the Germans occupied northern Italy and the Italian-occupied zone of France

    1943: Thirty-five year old Gerda Baier was deported from Prague to Theresienstadt after which she would be shipped to Auschwitz where the Nazi murdered her.

    1943: In New York City, “Aaron and Fruma Zlotowitz, immigrants from Lithuania” gave birth to their youngest child “Rabbi Meir Zlotowitz who took a small wedding-invitation print shop and turned it into ArtScroll Mesorah, the leading publisher of prayer books and volumes of Torah and Talmud in the expanding Orthodox Jewish world, books notable for their easily readable typography, instructions and translations. (As reported by Joseph Berger)

    1944: The Red Army liberated Vilna, Lithuania.  Eight thousand Nazis and their allies had been killed during the five day fight.  The legions of the Red Army included the Jewish partisans led by Abba Kovner and his two closest associates, Vita Kempner and Ruzka Korczak. On this day, the Jewish partisans first met Ilya Ehrenburg, “a Jew from Russia, a writer and poet whose dispatches from the front had been a tremendous inspiration” for these and other partisans fighting in the woods and marshes of Eastern Europe.  Ehrenburg took pictures of the Jewish brigade and was the first to tell their story to a wide, non-Jewish audience.

    1945: In Berlin at the Rykestrasse Synagogue Soviet City Commander Nikolai Berzarin attended the first Shabbat eve service which was organized by Erich Nehlhans a Shoah survivor who was the new president of Jüdische Gemeinde zu Berlin

    1945:Birthdate of Ilan Shlagi, an Israeli political leader who served in the Knesset and held several cabinet positions including Minister of the Environment and Minister of Science & Technology.

    1945(3rdof Av, 5705): Sixty-six year old Russian born American actress Alla Nazimova passed away today in Los Angeles.

    1946(14th of Tammuz, 5706): Eighty-two year old Alfred Stieglitz  the first born son of German Jewish immigrant parents who became one of Americas most famous and prominent photographers and who was also instrumental in promoting modernist art to the American mainstream public, passed away.

    1947: Emil Andsrom and two his UNSCOP colleagues held a secret meeting with the leaders of the Haganah in the Jerusalem suburb of Talipot.  They wanted to know if the Haganah had the means and the will to protect the Jewish areas against Arab attack in the event of the establishment of a Jewish state.  The six Haganah representatives, including Yigael Yadin, made a strong case in the affirmative.  Their arguments were based, in part on their zeal, in part on their determination and, in part, their ability to artfully dodge the questions being asked.

    1948:  During the War of Independence Abba Eban spoke before the U.N. Security Council.  He questioned why the Arabs had rejected the U.N. request to extend the cease fire between the Arabs and the Israelis for another ten days.  Using the majestic tones of a Cambridge graduate he asked, “What are the ambitions which rest upon so flimsy a moral foundation that they cannot endure tend days and nights of peace?”

    1948:  During the War of Independence, Israeli forces continued their efforts to widen the corridor between Tel Aviv and Jerusalem.  To that end, they captured the village of Tsora – the birthplace of the Biblical figure Samson – from the Egyptians. This gave the Israelis control over another section of the railway running between the coast and the City of David.

    1948: During the War of Independence, an Irgun unit began a night attack on Malah that lasted into the early hours of July 14.  “Seventeen Irgunists were killed including Nathan Cahsman, from London, who had arrived in Israel on the ill-fated Atalena. 

    1949: The first “talkie” version of “The Great Gatsby” produced by Richard Maibum who also co-authored the script and featuring Shelly Winters and Howard Da Silva as Myrtle Wilson and George Wilson was released today in the United States.

    1950: At Boston’s Suffolk Downs, a three year old named Tel Aviv runs in the Fourth Race, a six furlong claiming event.

    1950: In discussing the guiding principles of Israel’s foreign policy, Moshe Sharett said “that in the ideological struggle between the democratic and communist social orders Israel had definitely chosen democracy…Israel is most eager to promote friendly relations with all nations, regardless of their internal regimes.  Yet it was impossible to ignore the fact that it only in democratic countries that Jewish communities enjoyed freedom of organization, expression and independent activity.”

    1951(9th of Tammuz, 5711):  Seventy-six year old Arnold Schoenberg passed away. Born in Vienna in 1874, Schoenberg enjoyed a brilliant musical career. When the Nazis came to power in 1933, he was dismissed from his post as a director of a school for musical composition at the Prussian Academy of Arts in Berlin. His response was a formal, public return to the Jewish faith, which he had left early in life. America offered a haven and became his home. He wrote numerous works using Jewish themes including the Holocaust and the birth of the state of Israel.

    1951: Birthdate of Edith Bernstein who morphed into Didi Conn, an actress who has appeared in film on the stage, and in television who was the wife of David Shire.

    1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that 128,000 immigrants entered Israel during the first half of 1951 (one every two minutes). Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion presided over the meeting of the government-Jewish Agency's Coordination Board responsible for the newcomers' housing, employment and the state of sanitation in transit camps. "The attainment of freedom and security often takes precedence over personal convenience," David Ben-Gurion told a large audience in Beersheba.

    1954(12thof Tammuz, 5714): Sixty three year old Pittsburgh born, Harvard grad Irving Pichel whose career as an actor and director included performing in the 1930’s film version of An American Tragedy and serving as the narrator for the Western classic “She Wore a Yellow Ribbon.”

    1954(12th of Tammuz, 5714): Mexican painter Frida Kahlo who claimed that her father Carol Wilhelm Kahlo was Jewish, a claim which has been challenged by at least one biographer passed away today.

    1955: The Beaux Arts Trio featuring pianist Menahem Pressler debuted at the Berkshire Music Festival.

    1955: Birthdate of Ehud Havazelet an award-winning American novelist and short story writer who was born in Jerusalem. His father, Meir Havazalet, a rabbi and professor at Yeshiva University immigrated to the United States in 1957. He graduated from Columbia University in 1977, and received an M.F.A at the University of Iowa Writers Workshop in 1984. He became a Jones Lecturer at Stanford University, from 1985 to 1989, and a Wallace Stegner Fellow. He taught creative writing at Oregon State University from 1989 to 1999. Since 1999, he has taught creative writing at the University of Oregon.

    1960: “The Lost World” a cinematic treatment of the novel of the same name directed by Irwin Allen who co-produced and co-wrote the script was released today in the United States.

    1960: Forty-five year old Joy Davidman the “child prodigy” and American author who converted to christianly and whose marriage to C.S Lewis was a joining of two intellects passed away today.

    1962: Former Connecticut Governor Abraham “Abe” Ribicoff completed his service as the United Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) today.

    1962: “Photographer and photojournalist” George Barris took what proved to be the last picture of Marilyn Monroe today while they were “collaborating on a book titled Marilyn: Her Life In Her Own Words.”

    1963: Israel adopts a law prohibiting the raising of pigs in Jewish settlements.

    1966: “How to Steal a Million” directed by William Wyler who also served as co-producer, with a script by Harry Kurnitz and co-starring Eli Wallach was released today by 20thCentury Fox today in the United States.

    1969: “Me, Natalie” produced by Stanley Shapiro who also wrote the script co-starring Martin Balsam as Uncle Harold, Bob Balaban as Morris and Milt Kaman as the Plastic Surgeon was released today by National General Pictures in the United States.

    1969: The New York Times featured a review of The Story of Masada by Yigael Yadin; retold for young readers by Gerald Gottlieb.

    1971: Max Moses Heller who “with the help of Mary Mill a young Christian from Greenville, SC obtained a visa that made it possible for him to leave his native Austria after the Anschluss” became the “29th Mayor Greenville” today  after which he “desegregated all municipal departments and commissions.”

    1971: “The Panic in Needle Park” directed by Jerry Schatzberg was release today by 20thCentury Fox in the United States.

    1972:  Carroll Rosenbloom, owner of the Baltimore Colts, traded teams with the owner of the Los Angeles Rams. Rosenbloom was now the owner of the Los Angeles Rams, which became the St. Louis Rams.

    1972: The Democratic Convention came to end having chosen a candidate and adopted certain platform planks that would lead some Jews to do what they had not thought of doing – voting for Richard Nixon in the Fall election.

    1975(5thof Av, 5735): Fifty-six year old Queens native Judith Graham Pool, the daughter of Nellie (Baron) Graham, a schoolteacher, and Leon Graham, a stockbroker” and the physiologist whose scientific discoveries revolutionized the treatment of hemophilia” passed away today.

    1976: In a letter dated today, the Supreme Commander's Staff of the Imperial Iranian Armed Forces praised the Israeli commandos for the mission and extended condolences for "the loss and martyrdom" of Netanyahu

    1976: The Jerusalem Post reported that Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin told the Knesset, at the special festive session marking the US bicentennial, that a strong and confident America was needed to assure freedom, democracy and peace. The Knesset sent a special, congratulatory message to the US Congress.

    1976: The Jerusalem Post reported that in London, the British minister of state announced that there was little doubt that Mrs. Dora Bloch was dead and that the Ugandan government must bring those responsible to justice. Britain regarded all Ugandan explanations as "totally unacceptable."

    1978:Alexander Ginzburg, Soviet poet and political dissident was sentenced by a Soviet court to 8 years in prison. Although he was a practicing Russian Orthodox Christian, he adopted his mother's Jewish family name as a young man to protest Stalin's anti-Semitic campaigns.

    1979:  A 45-hour siege began at the Egyptian Embassy in Ankara, Turkey. Four Palestinian guerrillas killed two security men and seized 20 hostages. Now that Egypt was at peace with Israel, she was fair game for attack by Palestinian terrorists.

    1979: “The Wanderers” a gang movie set in the Bronx directed by Philip Kaufman who wrote the script along with Rose Kaufman and featuring Alan Rosenburg was released in the United States today.

    1981: It was reported today that Prime Minister Begin compared the rescue mission at Entebbe with the bombing of Iran’s Osirak nuclear reactor saying that the former rescued hundreds of Jews while the latter resulted in “the rescue of an infinite number of Jews.”

    1982(22ndof Tammuz, 5742): Seventy-four year old Michael Blankfort the screen writer and author whose “novels dealt with the clash of traditional Jewish values with the current cultural and social milieu” passed away today.

    1986(6thof Tammuz, 5746): Eighty-seven year old photographer and pioneer in the field of documentary films passed away to day.

    1987: “The Brave Little Toaster” an animated musical with a score by David Newman and featuring the voice of Jon Lovitz was released in Los Angeles today.

    1989: Thirteenth Maccabiah comes to an end.

    1989: At six o’clock in the evening al public transport in Jerusalem stopped for one minute in memory of a terrorist attack that had taken place on July 6 that targeted bus 405 that ran between Tel Aviv and Jerusalem.

    1992: David Levy steps down as Israel’s Foreign Minister.

    1992: Yithak Rabin replaced Moshe Arens as Minister of Defense.

    1992: Ovadia Eli completed his term as Deputy Minister of Defense.

    1992: Binyamin Ben-Eliezer “was appointed Minister of Housing and Construction in Yitzhak Rabin's government.

    1992: Rafael Pinhasi finished his term as Israel’s Communication Minister. Born in Kabul in 1940, Pinhasi made Aliyah in 1950. A member of Shas, he has held a variety of positions in local and national governmental positions.

    1992: Binyamin Ben-Eliezer was appointed Minister of Housing and Construction in Yitzhak Rabin's government.

    1992: Moshe Shahal replaced Roni Milo as Minister of Public Security

    1992: Moshe Shahal begins serving as Israel’s Communication Minister. Born in 1934 in Iraq, he made Aliyah in 1950.  After graduating with a law degree from Tel Aviv University, he began a political career that included a variety of governmental positions and membership in the Alignment and Labor Parties.

    1992: Yitzhak Shamir completed his second term as Prime Minister of Israel.

    1993: “Jews decry 'slap in face' from academy Big alumni event scheduled for Yom Kippur holy day” published today” described the reaction to the Naval Academy celebrating Homecoming on the Day of Atonement.

    1997: In “Israel Games Draw Westchester Athletes,” published today Chuck Slater provides a graphic portrait of Lorin Ambinder, Nina Zeitlin, Matthew Deutsch and Scott Grayson, the four young athletes from Westchester County who are in Israel to represent the United States in the 15th Maccabiah Games, opening tomorrow.

    1997: The Sunday New York Times book section features a review of The Sense of Reality: Studies in Ideas and Their History by Isaiah Berlin and Man Without A Face the autobiography of East Germany’s spymaster Markus Wolf, the German Jew, who while head of Stasi, provided training camps for the PLO in East Germany where they could master the use of guns, explosives and guerilla tactics. Yes, Isaiah Berlin and Markus Wolf are both Jews which raises the question, “what is a typical Jew?”

    1998: Silvan Shalom succeeded Michael Etian as Minister of Science and Technology.

    1998(19thof Tammuz, 5778): One day after the observance of Tzom Tammuz, 79 year old Ben Zion Abba Shaul, the Jerusalem born son of Eliyahu and Benaya Abba Shaul and husband of Hadassah, the daughter of Rabbi Yosef Shaharbani, who for the last 15 years of his life was “the rosh yeshiva of Porat Yosef Yeshiva in Jerusalem” passed away today after which “an estimated 200,000 people attended his funeral.

    1999: Detroit Catcher Bradley David "Brad" Ausmus is one of the reserve players on this American League All Star team which played the National League tonight.

    2000: Jan Karski, a liaison officer of the Polish underground who infiltrated both the Warsaw Ghetto and a German concentration camp and then carried the first eyewitness accounts of the Holocaust to a mostly disbelieving “West,” died in Washington.

    2000: Ezer Weizman completed his term as the 7th President of Israel.

    2001(22ndof Tammuz, 5761)”: Forty-nine year old  Yehezkel (Hezi) Mualem, father of four from Kiryat Arba, was shot and killed between Kiryat Arba and Hebron

    2001: U.S. premiere of “Legally Blonde” an American comedy co-starring Selma Blair and Victor Garber.

    2002: A production of “Pacific Overtures,” “a musical written by Stephen Sondheim and John Weidman” set in Japan when the Americans were arriving in 1853 was performed for the final time at Avery Fisher Hall at Lincoln Center.

    2003: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Absolutely American: Culture War at West Pointby David Lipsky and the recently released paperback edition of King of the Jews by Leslie Epstein, a Holocaust novel that focuses on the morally ambiguous politics of survival of a Judenrat, forced to collaborate with the Nazis in a Polish ghetto.

    2004: Jacobo Kaufmann, Israeli  acclaimed theatre and opera  director, directs and designs the scenery of the Biblical opera "Nabucco" by Giuseppe Verdi at the Teatro dell'Opera di Roma, opening at the world famous Terme di Caracalla. He is the first Israeli ever to be hired to direct an opera in Italy.  

    2004: Yosef Paritzky completed his term as Minister of Energy and Infrastructure.

    2005:  The government of Israel sealed the borders with the West Bank and Gaza following a Tuesday night suicide bombing at Netanya.  Netanya is the site of the Maccabiah Games.  No athletes were victims of the attack and all had vowed to stay for the rest of the competition.

    2005: Stephen Schwartz’s musical “Wicked” opened at Chicago’s Ford Center-Oriental Theatre.

    2006: In a debate broadcast today on the BBC's This Week, Maureen Lipman argued that "human life is not cheap to the Israelis, and human life on the other side is quite cheap actually, because they strap bombs to people and send them to blow themselves up."

    2006(17th of Tammuz, 5766): Fast of the 17th of Tammuz.  The solemnity of the day is heightened by reports that Hezbollah terrorists have kidnapped two members of the IDF on the border of Lebanon.  In addition to which, eight members of IDF have fallen during the terrorist attack and/or as part of the military action aimed at rescuing them.

    2006: In “The Risks of Israel’s Two-Front War” published today Scott Macleod examines the risk of a return to the conditions of 20 years ago.,8599,1213591,00.html

    2006: The following were among a total of 43 Israeli civilians (including four who died of heart attacks during rocket barrages) and 116 IDF soldiers were killed in the Israel-Hizbullah war: Monica Lehrer Zeidman, 40, of Nahariya; Nitzo Rubin, 33, of Safed.

    2006(17th of Tammuz, 5766): Eighty-seven year old Oscar winning actor Red Buttons (born Aaron Chwatt) passed away. (As reported by Mervyn Rothstein)

    2007: In Jerusalem, "Performances in Nature" presents Yarok Ad (Evergreen) performing Irish music at Ein Chemed

    2008: Abbas and Olmert were expected to discuss the status of the Israeli-Palestinian peace talks on the sidelines of a conference hosted by French President Nicolas Sarkozy to boost cooperation between the European Union, Middle Eastern and North African countries.

    2008: The 94thHadassah Annual Convention opens in Los Angeles.

    2008: The Washington Post features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Prague in Danger:  The Years of German Occupation, 1939-45: Memories and History, Terror and Resistance, Theater and Jazz, Film and Poetry, Politics and War by Peter Demetz whowas a boy living in Prague as a “first degree half-Jew” (his mother was Jewish) during the war, Lady Liberty by Doreen Rapport, a noted author of children’s books including The Secret Seder and In the Promised Land: Lives of Jewish Americans and The Owner of the House: New and Collected Poems 1940-2001 by Louis Simpson who mixes the warmth of memories of his Jewish ancestry with the grim realities that brought it to an end; "In my grandmother's house there was always chicken soup/And talk of the old country -- mud and boards,/Poverty,/The snow falling down the necks of lovers. But the Germans killed them./I know it's in bad taste to say it,/But it's true. The Germans killed them all."

    2008: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Rome 1960: The Olympics That Changed the World by David Maraniss, Atmospheric Disturbances by Rivka Glachen, and As Good As Anybody:  Martin Luther King Jr. and Abraham Joshua Heschel’s Amazing March Toward Freedom by Richard Michelson.

    2008: Ofira Henig, makes her directorial debut at the Weill Auditorium in Kfar Shmaryahu when the curtain rises on “Yerma” written by Spanish playwright and poet Federico Garcia.

    2009: “Prosecutors charged John Demjanjuk who was guard at Sobibor with 27,900 counts of accessory to murder.

    2009:The 18th Maccabiah Games, which draw Jewish athletes from around the world as well as Israeli citizens, both Jewish and Arab, opens today in Israel. 

    2009:Kolech, a modern Orthodox women's organization, will hold its sixth international conference entitled "The Woman and Her Judaism."

    2009:As part of the Noontime Lecture Series: “Balance of Power in the Persian Gulf” The National Museum of American Jewish Military History presents “Iraq vs. the United States, Gulf War I”  in which Dr. Jeffrey Greenhut will show how the Iraqi seizure of Kuwait was a direct outcome of the Iran-Iraq War, and then how the United States, under the leadership of President George H. W. Bush, formed a vast international coalition that was able to liberate Kuwait in one of the most effective military campaigns since World War II. Dr. Jeffrey Greenhut is the former Program Director of the US Army Center of Military History.

    2009: It was announced today that Britain's chief rabbi, Dr. Jonathan Sacks, has been made a life peer.

    2010: Mothers Circle, an education and support group for non-Jewish women raising Jewish children, is scheduled to meet at the Historic 6th& I Synagogue in Washington, D.C.

    2010: “A Jewish Girl In Shanghai” is scheduled to be shown at the Jerusalem Film Festival.

    2010:The Libyan organizers of an aid ship trying to breach Israel's blockade the Gaza Strip said today that an Israeli military vessel had confronted the ship and ordered it to change course for the Egyptian port of el-Arish.

    2010:U.S. President Barack Obama today nominated Deputy Secretary of State Jacob (Jack) Lew, a religious Jew, as his new director of a budget that suffers from a budget deficit approaching $1.3 trillion. The appointment must be confirmed by the Senate, which may question Lew whether he can function while observing the Sabbath..

    2010:US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton called on Jewish organizations TIDAT to assist in securing the release of a Jewish-American government contractor, Alan P. Gross, who has been held in Cuba for seven months without charge.

    2010: Tzachi “Hanegbi was convicted of perjury, and subsequently was fined 10,000 NIS, and moral turpitude was added to the offense.”

    2010: Canadian businessman Paul Godfrey became President and CEO of Postmedia Network.

    2011: In Las Vegas, Nevada, Hadassah is scheduled to hold the second and final day of its 2011 National Business Meeting.

    2011: Nirvana, dance show from Korea, which is based on ancient ritual Buddhist dances is scheduled to be performed at the Karmiel Amphitheater.

    2011: In Vienna, the 13th European Maccabiah Games are scheduled to come to an end.

    2011: An arrest for tax evasion in the Mea Sha’arim neighborhood of Jerusalem degenerated into violence this morning, when hundreds of ultra-Orthodox protesters threw rocks, steel bars, and Molotov cocktails at the municipality officials and police.

    2011:The Prime Minister's Office issued a statement saying that Benjamin Netanyahu is categorically opposed to a bill allowing the Knesset to have the authority to vet – and if need be veto - Supreme Court candidates.

    2012: The Vertigo Dance Company which was founded in Jerusalem in 1992,is scheduled to make its debut performance at the Durham (NC) Performing Arts Center

    2012: CNN is scheduled to broadcast the first of its “Green Pioneers” program. “CNN has named Yosef Abramowitz, president and cofounder of the firm responsible for Israel’s first solar field, as one of six global “Green Pioneers.”

    2012” ConAgra has until today to officially respond to the complaint filed by 11 plaintiffs who are seeking unspecified damages and restitution for ConAgra’s “deceptively and misleading mislabeling Hebrew National products as strictly 100% kosher, when they are not,”  (As reported by Renee Ghert-Zand)

    2012: Dr Daniel Wildmann is scheduled to deliver a lecture entitled ‘Desired Bodies': Leni Riefenstahl, the Berlin Olympics 1936 and Aryan Masculinity at the Wiener Library in London.

    2012: A brush fire broke out tonight in Park Snir between Kibbutz Maayan Baruch and Kibbutz HaGoshrim in the North. Large forces of fire fighters and police were called to the scene and managed to extinguish the fire after several hours.


    2012: In two separate incidents along Israel's southern borders today, IDF forces fired upon Palestinians trying to infiltrate into the country, killing two and wounding one.

    2012: IDF troops killed a Palestinian terrorist who opened fire on their patrol, near the Erez crossing, on the Gaza border this afternoon.(As reported by Ron Friedman)

    2012(23rd of Tammuz, 5772): Sixty-five year old Shlomo Bentin an Israeli neuropsychologist and recipient of the 2012 Israel Prize in psychology was killed in a traffic accident while riding a bicycle near the University of California, Berkeley. (As reported by Asher Zeiger)

    2013: Tatiana Rubina, the Russian pianist, is scheduled to perform today at the Eden-Tamir Music Center.

    2013: “Valentine Road” and “A Man Vanishes” are two of the films scheduled to be shown at the 30th Jerusalem Film Festival

    2013: The works of Jerusalem native Tamar Ettun are among those to be shown at LMCC’s Open Studios in New York City.

    2013: This evening, Temple Judah’s very own Jared Roach is scheduled to throw out the opening pitch this as the Cedar Rapids Kernels square off against the Bowling Green Hot Rods

    2013: “Social justice protesters blocked the northbound lanes of the Ayalon Freeway from the La Guardia exit to the Shalom exit in Tel Aviv tonight.”

    2014(15th of Tammuz, 5774): Ninety year old South African author and Nobel Prize Winner Nadine Gordimer passed away today.

    2014(15th of Tammuz, 5774): Eighty-four year old former child prodigy, music director and conductor Lorin Maazel passed away today.

    2014: Shir Chadash, the Conservative congregation in Metairie, LA, a New Orleans suburb is scheduled to begin is “Nearly New Sale.”  (Editor’s Note – This Congregation gave me my first teaching job when I was a student a Tulane so I take a personal note of pleasure in seeing how it has grown and prospered.)

    2014: The Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center a screening of “A Song for You,” a film about the escape of George and Gisela Karp and their infant daughter from the Nazis that took them across the Pyrenees and the impact of their experiences on the next generation.

    2014: Jewish Federation leaders are scheduled to arrive in Israel where they will visit “a number of areas targeted by rockets, including the “Yaelim” absorption center in Beersheba, Kibbutz Or Ha’Ner, a resilient center in Sderot with Talia Levanon, the director of the Israel Trauma Coalition followed by visits to the towns of Ashkelon, Sderot and the Gaza border region.”

    2014: Hamas gains popularity as it fires another 130 rockets into Israel today one of which reached Ariel, over fifty miles away.

    2014: A rocket fired from Gaza cut the power lines that left 70,000 Palestinians without electricity tonight – a situation that Israeli repairmen will rectify immediately due the ongoing violence that that could get them killed.

    2014: Anti-Israel protesters trapped hundreds of Jews in Paris synagogue.

    2015: Collaborative Artists LTD, in association with English National Theatre of Israel, are scheduled to present the Israeli premiere of “You won't succeed on Broadway, if you don't have any Jews” celebrating 80 years of Broadway's greatest Jewish success stories.

    2015: A thirty-three year old Yoga instructor pleaded not guilty to 18 misdemeanor counts at a hearing in Scottsdale City Court stemming from her behavior at post Bar Mitzvah party.

    2015: “My Friend Raffi” and “42nd Street” are scheduled to be shown at the Jerusalem Film Festival.

    2015: Thirty “Holocaust survivors whose bar mitzvah or bat mitzvah fell during World War II” finally celebrated the even today at the Kotel. (As reported by Jonathan Beck)

    2016(7th of Tammuz, 5776): Seventy year old “Argentine-born Brazilian film director, screenwriter, producer and actor” Héctor Eduardo Babenco passed away today.

    2016: Border Police officers opened fire on a Palestinian vehicle that tried to run them over near A-Ram just north of Jerusalem, in an incident occurring in the early hours of this morning

    2016: Dr. Suzanne Schneider of the Brooklyn Institute for Jewish Research is scheduled to present the second session of “Primo Levi: Memory, Meaning and the Holocaust.”

    2016: The Mateh Asher and Partnership2GETHER Delegation are scheduled to make their first visit in celebration of the West Des Moines – Mateh Asher Sister Cities Partnership.

    2016: “Ben-Gurion Epilogue” and “Zero Days” are scheduled to be shown at the Jerusalem Film Festival.

    2016: In Paris, pro-Palestinian attacked two synagogues -- the Synagogue de la Roquette and The Synagogue de la rue des Tournelles – today.

    2017: “The ancient streets of Jaffa” are scheduled to “come alive with open galleries, local artist exhibition and speed dating events” as part of the Maccabiah social event “Street Party TLV.”

    2017: In Winston-Salem, NC, the Aperture Cinema is scheduled to host the final screening of “Letters from Baghdad,” a documentary that tells “the true story of Gertrude Bell and Iraq.”

    2017: The Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington is scheduled to host a lecture by author Clare Lise on “Jewish History in Montgomery County” which will feature several leaders including •        Albert Small and the Silver Spring Shopping Center; Isadore Gudelsky and Montgomery Arms; Sam Eig and the Jewish Community Center; Morton Luchs and Luxmanor and Abraham Kay and Indian Spring Club Estates

    2017: “Former Israeli Defense Minister Moshe Ya’alon called Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu “corrupt” today and said he should resign over a possible conflict of interest related to the purchase of German submarines. (As reported by Stuart Winer)

    2017: Today “a federal appeals court overturned the conviction on corruption charges of former New York state assembly speaker Sheldon Silver, saying the jury was improperly instructed on the legal aspects of the case.” (As reported by JTA)

    2017(19th of Tammuz, 5777): Thirty-eight year old William Sachs Goldman, “an assistant professor at the University of San Francisco” and “the grandson of San Francisco philanthropist Richard and Rhoda Goldman and Levi Strauss heir” died today in a plane crash.

    2018: The Bennett Career Institute in Washington, D.C. is scheduled to host a screening of “Rosenwald” written, produced and directed by Aviva Kempner.

    2018: A “Tel Aviv pillow fight is scheduled to take place at Namal Tel Aviv, North Port, Light Club at Hangar 23” this afternoon.

    2018: The weeklong Museum Teacher Fellowship Program is scheduled to end today at the U.S. Holocaust Museum in Washington, D.C.

    2018(1st of Av, 5778): According to tradition, on this date on the Hebrew Calendar, anniversary of the “death of Elazar, son of Aaron, the second high priest.”

    2018(1st of Av, 5778):  Rosh Chodesh Av; for more see





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    July 14

    1086: Toirdelbach Ua Briain passed away.  Born in 1009, he was the King of Munster and the High King of Ireland. During his reign, in 1079, Jews reportedly made their first appearance in the Emerald Isle. “The Annals of Inisfallen record ‘Five Jews came from over sea with gifts to Toirdelbach [king of Munster], and they were sent back again over sea’”.

    1223:Philip II Augustus, King of France died. Like so many other anti-Semites, King Phillip based his animus towards the Jews on Christian teachings and then used this hate to despoil.  Shortly after his coronation, the King ordered the arrest of all the Jews on a Saturday, when they were easy pickings and then demanded a ransom for their release.  He canceled the loans Christians owed to the Jews, seized their property and then expelled them.  Years later he would readmit the Jews but only after they paid another ransom and submit to a confiscatory scheme of taxation.

    1223:  Louis VIII becomes King of France upon the death of his father, Philip II of France.  After his coronation, Louis reversed the policy of his father and ordered his officials to stop recording the debts Christians owed to Jews.  This was part of the on-going struggle that Christians had over the question of usury – charging interest when lending money.  For Christians usury was a sin that led to excommunication.  Since Jews were not Christians they could not be excommunicated so some Christian leaders felt it was acceptable to borrow from them.  The Church frowned on this.  Louis’ ban was an attempt to reach a compromise.  Jew could lend.  Christians could borrow.  But Christians did not necessarily end up having to pay back.  At least one major French noble became a foe of Louis over this since he had taxed his Jews on the profits from their money-lending activities.   This was a fry cry from the days of Louis VI and Louis VII both of whom were protective of Jews to the extent that Jews were a significant part of the populace of Paris.

    1349: Today “all the Jews living in Frankfurt were murdered and their houses burnt.”

    1391:The jurados of Valencia reported today that Don Samuel Abravalla, “the richest Jew in Valenciea” had been baptized yesterday in the palace of En Gasto.  His Christian name is Alfonso Ferrandes de Villaneuva.”  (According to the Jewish Encyclopedia, this Samuel Abravalla should not be confused with

    Don Samuel Abravanel, who was also forcefully baptized in 1391, but took the name Juan de Sevilla. Both men returned to Judaism as soon as they had the chance to recant their respective baptisms.

    1555: Paul IV issued Cum nimis absurdum, a Papal Bull thatplaced religious and economic restrictions on Jews in the Papal States. The bull renewed anti-Jewish decrees. It forced Jews to wear special clothing, to live in a ghetto in Rome and forbade them to own real estate or practice medicine among Christians. Jews were forbidden to practice any trade except ragpicking, and were restricted to one synagogue per city. Since all property had to be sold, and was inevitably sold at below market value, the Bull, like most such ordinances was theft as well.”

    1614: The Jews of Worms succeeded in repelling an attack on the Jewish quarter today.

    1647: A Jew from the city of Alessandra “who had discovered a new process of refining gunpowder” told the city officials of the plans the Duke of Modena to take control of the city by bribing him to destroy the supply of gunpowder.

    1656: In New York, the municipal authorities grand the Jews a lot “for a place of interment” which “was on New Bowery, near Olive Street” “which the Jewish community” later “augmented by the purchase of adjoining tracts in 1681, 1729, and 1755.”

    1663(9thof Tammuz, 5423): According to Leopold Zunz, Nathan ben Moses Hannover the Jewish historian and Talmudist best known for writing Yeven Mezulah that described the Khmelnytsky Uprising in which an unprecedented number of Jews were murdered, passed away today.  “Some of them [the Jews] had their skins flayed off them and their flesh was flung to the dogs. The hands and feet of others were cut off and they [their bodies] were flung onto the roadway where carts ran over them and they were trodden underfoot by horse ... And many were buried alive. Children were slaughtered at their mother’s bosoms and many children were torn apart like fish. They ripped up the bellies of pregnant women, took out the unborn children, and flung them in their faces. They tore open the bellies of some of them and placed a living cat within the belly and they left them alive thus, first cutting off their hands so that they should not be able to take the living cat out of the belly ... and there was never an unnatural death in the world that they did not inflict upon them.”

    1757: During a dispute surrounding titles used by members of the Bet Din in London, Isaac Nieto “was prohibited from exercising the functions of assessor.” The son of David Nieto, Isaac Nieto had served as spiritual leader of Bevis Marx and had started the first synagogue in Gibraltar.  He had returned to London in 1751 to serve as one of three judges in the city’s Rabbinical Court.  He passed away in 1774.

    1785: Birthdate of Mordecai Manuel Noah, the native of Philadelphia, who “was an American playwright, diplomat, journalist, and utopian. Born in a family of Portuguese Sephardic ancestry, he was the most important Jewish lay leader in New York in the pre-Civil War period, and the first Jew born in the United States to reach national prominence.”

    1789: This date marks the fall of the Bastille in France. Although Jews by and large were not allowed to participate in the election of the Estates-General, which became the Constituent National Assembly, they viewed the fall of the Bastille as a triumph. Many of them enlisted in the National Guard. At the same time more than 1000 Jews in Alsace were forced to flee during the Agrarian revolt there.

    1790(3rdof Av, 5550):Uziel Barrah the English born butcher whose conviction led to his being sent as a convict toe Australia passed away there today.

    1792: Coronation of Francis II who relied on Berhnard Eskeles for financial “advice.”

    1796: As the sun rise over Frankfort, the Jews examined the extensive damage done to the Judengrasse by the French shelling.  The damage was so extensive that the Jews were allowed to disperse to other sections of the city leading to the de facto end of the “Jewish Quarter.:

    1798: The Sedition Act, part of the four laws known as the Alien and Sedition Acts become law during the administration of President John Adams. Adams was the leader of the Federalist Party and the opponents of the Democrat Party led by Thomas Jefferson.  According to historian Howard M. Sachar, “the Federalist remained plainspoken opponents of political rights for non-Christians.” The Jews “sensed that the underlying animus” expressed against the French and other “foreigners” in this legislation was aimed at Jews (the quintessential foreigners) as much as anybody else.  This drove most Jews into the welcoming arms of the Democrat Party which a strange admixture of Southern aristocrats and Northern urban leaders as typified by Aaron Burr.

    1816(18th of Tammuz, 5576): Since the 17th of Tammuz fell on Shabbat Tzom Tammuz was observed today.

    1827: Birthdate of Wilhelm Rapp, the German native who participated in the Revolutions of 1848 before moving to United States in 1852 where he became a newspaper whose anti-slavery views led to a meeting with President Abraham Lincoln.

    1828: Today “Dora Wordsworth and her father William Wordsworth and their friend Samuel Taylor Coleridge…came upon a Jewish family while walking along the Rhine near St. Goar.”  Dora recorded the meeting in her journal, while her father, the poet, recorded his feelings in a poem entitled “A Jewish Family” that was published in 1835. According to Judith W. Page, “Dora attempted to humanize the family and to see them as individuals.  William…idealized and distanced his subjects, thus denying them their particular identities and historical grounding. What follows is Wordsworth description of the events that led to the creation of “A Jewish Family.”

    Coleridge, my daughter, and I, in 1828, passed a fortnight upon the banks of the Rhine, principally under the hospitable roof of Mr. Aders of Gotesburg, but two days of the time we spent at St. Goar in rambles among the neighbouring valleys. It was at St. Goar that I saw the Jewish family here described. Though exceedingly poor, and in rags, they were not less beautiful than I have endeavoured to make them appear. We had taken a little dinner with us in a basket, and invited them to partake of it, which the mother refused to do, both for herself and children, saying it was with them a fast-day; adding diffidently, that whether such observances were right or wrong, she felt it her duty to keep them strictly. The Jews, who are numerous on this part of the Rhine, greatly surpass the German peasantry in the beauty of their features and in the intelligence of their countenances. But the lower classes of the German peasantry have, here at least, the air of people grieviously opprest. Nursing mothers, at the age of seven or eight and twenty often look haggard and far more decayed and withered than women of Cumberland and Westmoreland twice their age. This comes from being underfed and overworked in their vineyards in a hot and glaring sun.

    “A Jewish Family”

    GENIUS of Raphael! if thy wings

    Might bear thee to this glen,

    With faithful memory left of things

    To pencil dear and pen,

    Thou would'st forego the neighbouring Rhine,

    And all his majesty--

    A studious forehead to incline

    O'er this poor family.


    The Mother--her thou must have seen,

    In spirit, ere she came

    To dwell these rifted rocks between,

    Or found on earth a name;

    An image, too, of that sweet Boy,

    Thy inspirations give--

    Of playfulness, and love, and joy,

    Predestined here to live.


    Downcast, or shooting glances far,

    How beautiful his eyes,

    That blend the nature of the star

    With that of summer skies!

    I speak as if of sense beguiled;

    Uncounted months are gone,

    Yet am I with the Jewish Child,

    That exquisite Saint John.


    I see the dark-brown curls, the brow,

    The smooth transparent skin,

    Refined, as with intent to show

    The holiness within;

    The grace of parting Infancy

    By blushes yet untamed;

    Age faithful to the mother's knee,

    Nor of her arms ashamed.


    Two lovely Sisters, still and sweet

    As flowers, stand side by side;

    Their soul-subduing looks might cheat

    The Christian of his pride:

    Such beauty hath the Eternal poured

    Upon them not forlorn,

    Though of a lineage once abhorred,

    Nor yet redeemed from scorn.


    Mysterious safeguard, that, in spite

    Of poverty and wrong,

    Doth here preserve a living light,

    From Hebrew fountains sprung;

    That gives this ragged group to cast

    Around the dell a gleam

    Of Palestine, of glory past,

    And proud Jerusalem!

    1850: Following a major fire in Philadelphia, the Hebrew ladies of Philadelphia met this morning and afternoon, and made up a large quantity of garments to supply immediate necessities for those who had suffered losses as a result of the blaze.

    1850: Sixty-one year old German theologian and historian Johann August Wilhelm Neander who had been born David Mendel, the son of Jewish peddler Emmanuel Mendel, passed away today.

    1854: The New York Times published a letter from James Finn, the English Consul at Jerusalem that was critical of an U.S. citizen named Jones who was allegedly selling relics to visitors for 60 pounds sterling.  Finn was a philanthropist as well as diplomat who established a farm for training Jewish agriculture workers and employed Jewish workers to build the first house at Kerem Avraham, a piece of land he had purchased that was outside the walls of the Old City.

    1858: In Chicago Gertrude and Herman Benjamin Felsenthal, “a school board member in Chicago” gave birth to University of Chicago trained lawyer Eli Benjamin Felsenthal who was a “charter member of the board of trustees of the University of Chicago” and the husband of Nettie Felsenthal.

    1858: "The First Mormon Settlement--Its Temple" published today described the Mormon settlement in Ohio including a school that has a classroom for the teaching of Hebrew which is overseen by a Jew named Sexias whom the Reverend Stewart also consults on matters relating to "Hebrew authority."

    1862: Jeweler Isaac Sommers, the son of Lawrence and Rebecca Somers was buried today in the West Ham Jewish Cemetery.

    1863: Jews of Holstein, Germany were granted equality.

    1867: Birthdate of Georg Stern, the native of Konigsberg who pursued a career as an engineer with AEG until he retired in 1930 to devote himself to his musical compositions.

    1870: In Great Britain, the United Synagogue Act which brought into existence the United Synagogue received Royal Assent.

    1870: In Shreveport, LA, Arthur Lee Kahn and Julia Sour gave birth to playwright Arthur Lee Kahn.

    1871: In Kensington, London, “Leopold (Lippmann) Seligman, the son of Fanny and David Isaac Seligman and Julia Seligman gave birth to Herbert Spencer Seligman

    1874: The newly formed Union of American Hebrew Congregations is scheduled to have its second annual meeting today.

    1874: At Cleveland, Ohio, Moritz Loth of Cincinnati was elected President of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations.

    1875: In Williamsport, PA, Baruch and Pauline Fleishman gave birth to Estelle A. May Affedler, the wife of Louis J. Affelder, the Pittsburgh civil engineer and civic leader with whom she had three children Mrs. Emanuel, Mrs. S. Lewis Merritt and Paul B. Affelder, the music critic for the Brooklyn Eagle.

    1877: Leopold Ullstein, a Bavrian Jew, purchased the Neue Berliner Tageblatt newspaper, a subsidiary of the liberal Berliner Tageblatt published by Rudolf Mosse who was a leader of the Berlin Jewish community.

    1878: While meeting in Milwaukee, the Jewish Council “formally approved the union of all Hebrew congregations under one organization.  The goals of the organization include the creation of institutions “for instruction in Hebrew literature and theology,” the establishment of relations “with other Jewish organizations in different parts of the world” dedicated to improving the conditions of oppressed Jews and the promotion of religious instruction for young people include young Jewish ladies.

    1880: A free aquatic excursion for poor Jewish children six years of age and under is scheduled to begin at nine o’clock this morning

    1881: In Chicago, Il, the 8th annual meeting of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations came to an end.  Moritz Loth of Cincinnati has served as President and Lipman Levy has servered as the Secretary of the Union.

    1882: It was reported today that Patrick Auglen has charged a group of Polish Jews living in the same rooming house where he was staying had dragged him into their apartment and beaten him brutally.  The Jews did not deny having fought with him but claimed they were acting in self-defense since Auglen had begun the disturbance by kicking down their door.  The fight was part of the violence that was surrounding the current Freight Handlers Strike.

    1882: “Help For The Russian Jews” published today the Executive Board of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations had agreed to issue an appeal to all of its member congregations to solicit aid for Russian refugees and to require every Jewish male over the age of 13 to contribute one dollar to a fund for aiding the poor.

    1882: Nearly 300 Russian Jewish refugees arrived in Philadelphia aboard the SS Pennsylvania.  They came from Odessa and Kiev and have left for settlement in the West.

    1882: In Baltimore, MD, Jennie R. Saks and Andrew Saks whose “daughter, Leila Saks Meyer…survived the sinking of the Titanic when she was returning from his funeral” gave birth to Horace A. Saks, who along with Bernard Gimbel created Saks Fifth Avenue

    1883: It was reported today that “several Jews have been tortured and murdered” in the Russian town of Ostrog.

    1884(21st of Tammuz, 5644): Rabbi George Jacobs of Beth El-Emeth in Philadelphia, passed away today in Germantown, PA after an extended illness. A native of Kingston Jamaica, he came to the United States at the age of two and went into business in Richmond Va.  In 1857, he joined the rabbinate in that Southern city and served there until 1869 when he moved to Philadelphia.  Jacobs was the author of numerous works including “Sketches of Abarbanel’s Commentaries” and “Specimens of Hebrew Literature, from the Redaction of the Mishnah to 1800.”

    1884: Birthdate of Abraham Zevi Idelsohn, the Latvian born South African cantor who is one of the earlies students of the history of Jewish music.

    1884: It was reported today that the courts have ruled that the French artist Gustave Jean Jacquet may not display his portrait showing Alexander Dumas as a Jew of Baghdad. The son of the great novelist apparently felt to be portrayed as member of this ethnic group was an insult.  The whole matter was moot, since 18 months ago, the son-in-law of Dumas had struck the head in the painting with his cane thus destroying the offending visage. [Another example of the uneven French view of Jews]

    1885: The Union of Hebrew Charities met in St. Louis, MO, this morning and voted unanimously to change the name to the Associated Hebrew Charities of the United States.  Delegates from Louisville, Nashville, Baltimore, St. Paul, MN, New Orleans, Wilmington, Delaware and Montgomery, Alabama promised to immediately join the newly re-named organization.

    1885: It was reported today that Marcus Bernheimer has been elected of a yet unnamed national union of Hebrew charities.  J.L. Isaacs of New York has been elected Vice President and Albert Arstein of St. Louis has been elected to serve as Secretary.

    1885: “A Weakness for Pictures” published today reported that Dr. Felton proposed that $500 be appropriated by the Georgia Legislature to buy pictures of Reverend Mercer and Bishop Pierce in what some saw was an attempt to gain votes in his upcoming run for the governorship. Representative Arnheim drew laughter from the attendees when he moved that an additional $25 be appropriated to buy “a cheap picture of Moses.  [Note - Louis Arnheim was Jewish and represented Dougherty County in the state legislature. Dr. Felton is a candidate for Governor]

    1886: Birthdate of Henry Hurwitz, the native of Lithuania whose family immigrated to Massachusetts in 1891 where he earned a B.A. and M.A. from Harvard and went on “to establish the Intercollegiate Menorah Association (IMA) which expanded the objectives of the Harvard Menorah Society to a national scale.”

    1886: In Charleston, SC, Rabbi David Levy officiated at the wedding of Isaac P. Rosenthal and Hannah Kosminsky.

    1886: This evening, in Charleston, SC, Rabbi David Levy officiated at the wedding of Emanuel Iseman of Darlington, SC, to Hulda Lewith “the eldest daughter of E.J. Lewith” at the home of the bride’s parents.

    1887: Birthdate of New York native Milton Montague Adler, the graduate of Adelphi College and Newark, NJ, merchant who served as an officer of the New Jersey Jewish War Relief and was “active in B’nai B’rith.

    1887: It was reported at Pittsburg, PA, the Committee on Civil Rights recommended that the Board of Delegates should take notice of the recent outbreak of prejudice aimed at the Jews of Louisiana and urged the Jewish delegated to work for legislations that would protect them throughout the United States.

    1889: It was reported today from Round Lake, NY, that this season’s Round Lake Assembly will feature a new attraction – a replica of the Tabernacle used by the Israelites in the Wilderness.  Built to one third the scale of the original, it will include a replica of the ark and all of the sacrificial accoutrements used by the priests and Levites. W.H. Groat of Rupert, VT, who furnished the designs and oversaw the actual construction, will deliver lectures about the Tabernacle using the model as a teaching tool.

    1890: Birthdate of Russian born sculptor Ossip Zadkine.

    1891: Birthdate of Trondheim native Marie Dvoretsky, the homemaker who was deported Auschwitz in 1942 where she was murdered in 1943.

    1891; Joseph Thoron, the President of the French Hospital Board and the French Benevolent Society prepared the program which is being distributed at today’s celebration of Bastille Day and the centennial of the political emancipation of the Jews of France. The pamphlet includes “a sketch of the emancipation of the Jews of France and an outline of the life of Coroner Ferdinand Levy.” Coroner Levy delivered an address on behalf of the Jews.

    1891: The weekly excursion for sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children for underprivileged Jewish children and their mothers is scheduled to take place today.

    1892: Agent Rheinherz of the United Hebrew Charities presented Superintendent of Immigration Weber with “a fine crayon port of himself by the Hebrew, German, Irish, Polish and Italian Societies.”

    1892: Alexander Berkman, the anarchist who would attempt to assassinate Clay Frick, arrived in Pittsburgh today.

    1893: Russian Jews made up the majority of the 800 refugees aboard the Red Sea, a tramp steamship that arrived today at Ellis Island.  The immigrants were not allowed to land due to concern about their financial situation.

    1893(1st of Av, 5653): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1893(1st of Ave, 5653): While sailing from New York to Liverpool aboard the Cunard Line steamship Umbria, New York realtor Ascher Weinstein who was connected with several Jewish charitable institutions fell overboard today in a tragic accident.

    1894: Fifteen hundred members of the United Hebrew Trades Unions led by the International Cloakmakers Union marched up with Bowery behind an array of Red Flags on their way to mass meeting at Union Square where supporters of the Pullman strikers were gathered.

    1895: The attendees at the annual Central Conference of American Rabbis including begin leaving Rochester, NY for the homes in Cincinnati, Louisville, and New York City to name but a few of the cities from which the delegates came.

    1895: “The Brightside Day Nursery” published today described the function of this institution which, for the payment of 5 cents a day, provides care for children under the age of six whose mother must work during the day.  The organization is led by its President, Mrs. S.R. Guggenheim and a Board of Managers that includes Rabbi Gustav Gottheil, Rabbi Joseph Silverman, Jacob Schiff and Solomon Guggenheim.

    1897:“After an interval of seven years, T. Macon, a printer, undertook the publication of a third "Anti-Juif," which” first appeared today “in Algiers as the "organ of the Anti-Semitic League

    1899: According to Andrew Sarris, In New York City Victor and Helen Cukor, immigrant Jews from Hungary gave birth to director George Dewey Cukor

    1899: Birthdate of Léonide Maguilevsky, the native of St. Petersburg, Russia who gained as French moviemaker Léonide Moguy

    1899: “Knights of Zion Incorporated” published today described the function of the new Jewish organization that was “formed to promote good fellowship and social intercourse…as well as to inculcate a love for the Jewish faith in the hearts and minds of Jewish children. Directors include Samuel W. Greenbaum, Nathan Greenbaum, Jacob Hamburger and Herman Schapp.” (This should not be confused with the Knights of Zion, a Zionist organization formed in Chicago in 1895)

    1899(7th of Av, 5659): Forty six year old pioneer German social worker Jeanette Schwerin passed away.

    1899: During proceedings at the County Court House in which Reverend Herman Faust was contesting the judgment obtained by the Sun Printing and Publishing against him, Faust claimed that he was a converted Jew and this litigation was a manifestation of the persecution he was suffering at the hands of Orthodox Jews.  He offered no evidence to support his contention.

    1901 In London, John Abraham (Jack) Finzi (of Italian Jewish descent) and Eliza Emma (Lizzie) Leverson (daughter of Montague Leverson, of German Jewish descent) gave birth to British composer Gerald Raphael Finzi.

    1901: Birthdate of George Tobias, one of those marvelous “character actors” whose name you don’t know but whose visage in quickly recognized as when he played “Pusher” in “Sergeant York.”

    1902(9th of Tammuz, 5662): Russian sculptor Mark Antokolsky passed away. In an unusual turn of events, this Litvak (Lithuanian Jew) ended ups studying at the Imperial Academy of Art where his impoverished circumstances forced him to do some of his initial work in wood instead of marble. Some of his early works - "Jewish Tailor", "Nathan The Wise", "Inquisition's Attack against Jews", "The Talmudic Debate"– were based on Jewish on themes

    1903: Birthdate of author Irving Stone. Born Irving Tenenbaum in San Francisco, one of Stone’s most famous works was Lust For Life, a fictionalized biography of Vincent Van Gogh. The film version provided employment for another Jew, Kirk Douglas who played the starring role.

    1904: Birthdate of Yiddish novelist, Isaac Bashevis Singer. Singer, author of many volumes including Enemies and Yentel won the Nobel Prize in 1978. He passed away in 1991.

    1904: Birthdate of Rudolf Julius Arnheim, the Berlin native, “a distinguished psychologist, philosopher and critic whose work explored the cognitive basis of art — how we interpret it and, by extension, the world.” (As reported by Margalit Fox)

    1905: The Ninth Summer Assembly of the Jewish Chautauqua Society continued for a 7th day in Atlantic City, NJ.

    1907: In Berlin, Georg Joseph Stern and Bertha Elisabeth Stern gave birth to Maria Solveg-Matray the German actress who fled the Nazis, eventually finding refuge in the United States before returning to Germany after WW II.

    1909: Dorothy Levitt attended Major General Sir Alfred Turner's "Salon reception" at the Picadilly Hotel today,

    1911: In Mannheim, Germany Otto and Nell Scharff gaive berith to Gertrude Scharff the renowned physicist who fled Germany after she earned her Ph.D in 1935 and eventually came to the United States where married Maurice Goldhaber and became famous as Gertrude Scharff-Goldhaber.

    1911(18thof Tammuz, 5671): Seventy-one year old German banker, the son of Adolph Meyer and the grandson of Simon Meyer who was a leader of the Hanover Jewish community passed away today

    1911(18thof Tammuz, 5671): Fifty-nine year old Alfred Chalom passed away in Cairo, Egypt.

    1912: The Advisory Council the Jewish Community of New York City endorsed a resolution adopted by the Board of Alderman calling for consideration of the “building of structures for pushcart peddlers and adopted another resolution “asking authorities to permit pushcart peddlers to use vacant property belonging to the city.”

    1912: “Julius Tannenbaum, a captain in the New York State National Guard” sued the “management of the Mononotto Inn,” at Fisher’s Island, NY “which had requested him to leave the hotel” because he was Jewish.

    1912:  Birthdate of Woody Guthrie, famed American folk singer who gave a musical voice to downtrodden masses suffering during the Great Depression and the fight against fascism as can be heard in the famed tune describing the sinking of the Rubin James.  Guthrie was not Jewish but his Brooklyn born mother-in-law, with whom he collaborated was.  For more about Woody’s Jewish connection see

    1914: Leon Zalatkoff, editor of The Jew Daily News will preside over a memorial service marking the 10 anniversary of the death of Theodore Herzl being held in the Bronx at the London Casino.  Rabbi Bernard Wolf will lead a religious service after which Dr. Schmarja Levin of Berlin who was a member of the first Russian Duma will deliver an address.  His remarks will include a response to Jacob Schiff’s criticism of Levin’s role in the debate over the use of Hebrew or German at the Technion in Haifa.

    1914: Louis Lipsky, Chairman of The American Federation of Zionists will preside over a memorial service marking the 10 anniversary of the death of Theodore Herzl being held at the National Theatre on Houston Street in New York City. Rabbi Joseph Rosenblatt will lead a religious service after which Dr. Schmarja Levin of Berlin who was a member of the first Russian Duma will deliver an address.  His remarks will include a response to Jacob Schiff’s criticism of Levin’s role in the debate over the use of Hebrew or German at the Technion in Haifa. Bernard Rosenblatt, the Secretary of the American Federation of Zionists will also speak at the memorial service.

    1915: During World War I, the New York Timespublished reports from “the semi-official Wolff Telegraph Bureau” that the French had been the first to used gas in February of 1915 two months before the Germans used at the Second Battle of Yypres. (In one of those many ironies of German history, the Wolff Telegraphy Bureau, which was seen as a spokesman for the Kaiser was the creation of Bernhard Wolff, a German-Jewish businessman.)

    1915: In Cleveland, Ohio, Sarah and Samuel Schwartz gave birth to Jerome Lawrence Schwartz who gained fame as Jerome Lawrence the co-author of “Inherit the Wind.”

    1916: In Palermo, Sicily, “Giuseppe Levi, a renowned Italian histologist, was born into a Jewish Italian family and Lidia Tanzi, who was Catholic” gave birth to Natlie Levi who gained fame as novelist, essayist, translator and playwright Natalia Ginzburg. During the 1930’s her parent’s home was bastion of anti-Mussolini sentiment. She married Leon Ginzburg, a brilliant intellectual of that time. The Ginzburgs endured exile and house arrest for their anti-fascist views. During the war Leon Ginzburg was arrested and murdered for his anti-fascism. Ginzburg returned to Rome after the war where she resumed her career. She died in 1991.

    1916: On Manhattan’s Lower East Side, David Hoffzimer, a manufacturer of children’s books and the former Rebecca Gross gave birth to Irving Hoffzimer who gained fame as furniture designer Irving Harper. (As reported by Sam Roberts)

    1916: Samuel Gompers, the President of the American Federation of Labor came to New York from Washington in what proved to be a futile effort to “prevent the settlement of the eleven week long strike by the cloakmakers.”

    1917: It was reported today that the Joint Distribution Committee has appropriated $150,000 for Jews living in Poland and Lithuania under German occupation and $100,000 for Jews living in Poland under Austrian occupation as well as $50,000 for feeding and clothing the children in Hebrew schools in Warsa and $40,000 for the Jews of Romania.

    1917: It was reported today that during the month of June, Michael Reese Hospital treated 669 free patients, 247 private ward patients and 275 private room patients.

    1917: Birthdate of Arthur Laurents, “the playwright, screenwriter and director who wrote and ultimately transformed two of Broadway’s landmark shows, “Gypsy” and “West Side Story,” and created one of Hollywood’s most well-known romances, “The Way We Were.”

    1918: In Shanghai, E.S. Kadoorie gave twenty five thousand francs ($5000) for the purchase of ambulances for the French Army today.

    1918: At the London Opera House, “The importance of the work for civilization which the Jewish State in Palestine could perform was the keynote of the speeches” at this afternoon’s welcoming ceremony for the American Zionist Medical Unit where Sir Alfred Mond “spoke of wha Jews had already done in the war, saying that now they were determined that Palestine should never again be returned to the devastating hands of the Turks.”

    1918: At Chalons, American troops including Sergeant Abraham Blaustein of the 165thRegiment who would eventually receive the Croix de Guerre, drove back the “Boche” who counter-attacked five times in a battle that would prove to be a turning point in the war on the Western Front.

    1919: In New York, Archbishop Platon, “who is the senior surviving Bishop of the Russian Church” delivered a speech today in which he said “I warn the Jews, woe will be their future in Russia when a stable” i.e. non-Bolshevik “government is restored.”

    1920: In Halifax, Nova Scotia, the cornerstone was laid for the Robie Street Shul.

    1920: As matters deteriorate in the Middle East with the French and British asserting their colonial plans, in Syria, French General “Gouraud gave Faisal an ultimatum demanding he submit to French authority and disband his ‘Arab Army.’”

    1921: Birthdate of John Gordon Miller the son of London tobacconist and cousin of violinist Yehudi Menuhin who served in RAF during WW II and went on to become “a co-presenter of ‘How,’ Southern Television’s popular science show for children.

    1921: Sacco and Vanzetti were convicted in Dedham Mass, of killing their shoe company's paymaster.  The case of the two Italian immigrants would become a cause célèbre among civil libertarians and their reactionary opponents.  Felix Frankfurter, who would become the third Jewish member of the Supreme Court, was part of the legal team that sought, unsuccessfully, to save their lives.

    1921: In NYC, Manhattan dentist “Howard N. Hyman and his wife Marie Ziegler gave birth to Joan Hyman the University of Michigan graduate who became Joan Tisch when she married Preston Robert “Bob” Tisch in 1948 with she had three children – Steve, Jonathan and Laurie Tisch.

    1928: In, Timisoara, Transylvania Judah Loeb Fleisher and his wife gave birth to Ezra Fleischer the Romanian born Israeli Hebrew-language poet and philologist who served as the director of the Geniza Research Institute for Hebrew Poetry of the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities.

    1930: Outfielder Harry Rosenberg made his major league debut with the New York Giants.

    1930: In Knoxville, TN, Lucy (née Lawhorn) and William Hugh Burgin gave birth to Nellie Paulina Burgin who gained fame as actress Polly Bergen who converted to Judaism when she married Freddie Fields in 1957.

    1930: Birthdate of Transylvania native Shoney Alex Braun, the violinist who as a youngster “would steal into the woods to hear Gypsies play until at the age of 13 he “was imprisoned in a Nazi concentration camp” and after the war which he and his wife Shari survived wrote a “Symphony of the Holocaust.”

    1931:In Basle, Switzerland, Nahum Sokolow was elected president of the World Zionist Organization today by a vote of 118 to 48, succeeding Dr. Chaim Weizmann, who had been president for ten years.

    1933: In Germany, all political parties were outlawed except for the Nazi Party.

    1933: Hitler’s cabinet formally approved the Concordat between the Vatican and Germany. The Concordat was one of the earliest expression of “approval” of the new Nazi regime.

    1933: In Poland, “Dr. Jacob Wigodsky wrote in a Vilna newspaper: ‘We must continue to fight against the Hitler pogroms…We are fighting for the equal rights of all, everywhere in the world, but first and foremost, equal rights for us.’”

    1933: Germany adopts The Law Regarding Revocation of Naturalization and the Annulment of German Citizenship that stripped German citizenship from Eastern European Jews. This will eventually lead to the forced repatriation of Polish Jews living in German – an act of great misery since the Poles did not want to admit the Jews.

    1933:It was reported today that Czechoslovak and German Governments have reached agreement under which Czech citizens residing in Germany, who wish to return to Czechoslovakia, will be permitted to take with them all their possessions. The reports do not say if this includes Czech Jews who have been living in Germany.

    1933: It was reported today that “The Arische Rundschau, a Nazi weekly established but a few months ago, has been discontinued.” (As reported by JTA)

    1934: A Jewish delegation from Adrianople spoke with the Turkish government in an attempt to ensure that police would continue to present to prevent looting.

    1934: Birthdate of Lee Friedlander, one of those Jews who used a Leica 35 mm camera and rolls of black and white film to create unforgettable art.

    1935: Birthdate of New York City native Paul Zweig, “the chairman of the department of comparative of literature at Queens College” and the poet and critic who wrote the “highly acclaimed” Walt Whitman: The Making of a Poet.

    1936: In New York Pearl (née Zisez) and Alexander Turner gave birth to Gloria Rose Turner who gained fame as screenwriter and actress Barbara Turner who was the wife of actor Vic Morrow and the mother of actress Jennifer Jason Leigh.

    1937: “They Won’t Forget” a film based on fictionalized version of the Leo Frank case directed by Mervyn LeRoy, who produced it along with Jack L. Warner with a script by Robert Rossen was released by Warner Bros. Pictures in the United States today.

    1938(15thof Tammuz, 5698):Isaac Goldberg passed away. Born in 1887, he was an American journalist, author, critic, translator, editor, publisher, and lecturer. Born in Boston he studied at Harvard University and received a BA degree in 1910, a MA degree in 1911 and a PhD in 1912. While he actively covered European culture for the Boston Evening Transcript during World War I, Goldberg never actually traveled abroad. In fact, he turned down a 1932 Guggenheim Fellowship awarded to Goldberg for travel to South America. He wrote biographies of H. L. Mencken, Havelock Ellis, W. S. Gilbert, Arthur Sullivan, and George Gershwin, books on theatrical and musical appreciation, and contributed articles for many magazines. He also founded, published, and edited a monthly news magazine called Panorama. He was fluent in Yiddish, Spanish, French, German, Italian, and Portuguese and translated a variety of literary works into English. He received a fellowship from the Guggenheim Foundation in 1932 to write a history of Spanish and Portuguese literature in America. He was also a lecturer on Hispanic literature at Harvard University from 1931 to 1932.

    1938:  Recognizing the intent of the Evian Conference nations in regard to the Jews, a Nazi newspaper headlines: "JEWS FOR SALE AT A BARGAIN PRICE--WHO WANTS THEM? NO ONE."

    1938: Birthdate of self-proclaimed political activist Jerry Rubin who passed away in 1994

    1938: Birthdate of Moshe Safdie the native of Haifa whose parents moved to Canada in 1953 where he became a leading architect, designing “Habitat 67” as well as fathering playwright Oren Safdie.

    1938: A week after their civil marriage in Amsterdam, Ruth and Max Nussbaum were photographed “descending the steps of a Berlin synagogue” after they had been “married under a chupah by Rabbi Baeck.

    1939: On Bastille Day, the 17,000 internees at Gurs Concentration Camp of Spanish origin arranged themselves in military formation in the sports field and sang La Marseillaise, followed by sports presentations and choral and instrumental concerts.

    1940: “The fourth and last meeting of the National Executive Council of the Jewish War Veterans is scheduled to take place this afternoon at the Belmont Plaza in New York.

    1941(19th of Tammuz, 5701): Six thousand Lithuanian Jews were killed.

    1942: Thousands of Dutch Jews are arrested in Amsterdam and deported to Auschwitz, where many are gassed.

    1942: “The Pride of the Yankees” produced by Samuel Goldwyn, with a screenplay by Jo Swerling and Herman J. Mankiewicz and filmed by cinematographer Rudolph Maté was released by RKO Radio Pictures in the United States today.

    1942: The Przemysl, Poland, ghetto is sealed by the Nazis.

    1943: During WW II, on Sicily, as of today Samuel Fuller and the rest of the 16thRegiment had fought their way through Pietraperzia, Enna, and Villarosa as they head toward the high ground west of the Cerami River.

    1944(23rd of Tammuz, 5704): Hungarian Jews held at the Reval, Estonia, slave-labor camp are shot in a nearby forest.

    1944(23rd of Tammuz, 5704): Germans murder hundreds of POWs and Jewish partisans at Vercors, France.        

    1944(23rd of Tammuz, 5704): Forty-two Jews laboring in workshops at the Pawiak prison in Warsaw are executed by Germans anticipating a Red Army assault.

    1944: Approximately 200 Jews were alive today in Grodno when it was liberated by Soviet troops.

    1945: A train left Los Alamos carrying several "bomb units" for Little Boy (the major non-nuclear parts of a gun-type bomb) together with a single completed uranium projectile; the uranium target was still incomplete.”  Little Boy was the name given to the first atomic boy which was developed by the Manhattan Project under the command of Robert Oppenheimer.

    1945: “As a result of Military Government Law No. 52, all Reich-owned film assets of UFI Holding” a German film company co-founded by Hermann Frenkel that the Nazis took control of” were seized today.

    1945: "Lest We Forget," an exhibition of death-camp photography organized by the St. Louis Post-Dispatch and the Washington Evening Star comes to an end. By the end of the tour nearly 90,000 Americans have viewed this testament to the Holocaust.

    1945: “The Cheaters,” a Christmas comedy starring Joseph Schildkraut was released in the United States today.

    1947: Birthdate of Cy Young Award winning pitcher and sportscaster Steve Stone. “He was one of the best Jewish pitchers in major league history, 3rd career-wise in wins (107) and strikeout (1,065), behind Ken Holtzman and Sandy Koufax, and 9th in games (320).“

    1948: During Operation Dekiel, the Irgun occupied the Arab village of Malha after a fierce battle. Several hours later, the Arabs launched a counterattack, but Israeli reinforcements arrived, and the village was retaken at a cost of 17 dead.

    1948:  After failing to capture the northern Negev town of Negba, the Egyptians attacked the settlement of Gal-On.  Gal-On was 15 miles east of Negba and another impediment to the Egyptian advance towards Tel Aviv.  The defenders beat off the Egyptian attackers forcing them to seek another route to the Jewish metropolis.

    1948: The Israelis launched their third attack on the Arab fortress of Latrun.  Latrun was held by the crack Arab Legion and blocked the normal road to Jerusalem.  The Arabs, who had modern armored vehicles, beat off the attacking Israelis who had not anti-tank weapons. 

    1948:  As part of “Operation Dekel,” an offensive designed to take the city of Nazareth, Israeli forces move southeast from the coast and take the town of Shefaram.

    1948: Forces of the Arab Liberation Army which had been staying in the village began their retreat from Ein Kerem.

    1948: The Irgun lost 17 men in the battle for the village of Mahla.

    1948: Israeli planes bombed the airport at Cairo.

    1949: Following its premiere in New York City a week ago, “Follow Me Quietly” a film noire directed by Richard Fleischer was released by RKO Radio Pictures in the United States today

    1950: Today, Erev of Shabbat, Moscow radio broadcast charges that “Israel ‘openly sided with the American aggressors’ in approving United Nations intervention in Korea.”  The broadcast repeated published charges “that Prime Minister David Ben Gurion’s speech before the Israeli Parliament was a repetition of recent statements by President Truman and Secretary of State Dean Acheson.

    1951: After 102 performances the curtain came down on “Make a Wish” a musical at the Winter Garden Theatre with a book co-authored by Abe Burrows.

    1956(6thof Av, 5716): Fifty-three year old Siegfried Ferdinand Stephan Nada, the son of a Galician lawyer and recipient of a Doctorate in Musicology from the University of Vienna who served as an officer with the British Army during WW II and was a Professor of Anthropology at the ANU and Dean of the School of Pacific Studies at the time of his death on this date.

    1956(6th of Av, 5716):Isaac Rosenfeld passed away. Born in Chicago in 1918, he was a Jewish-American writer who became a prominent member of the New York literary elite. Rosenfeld wrote one novel Passage from Home which, according to literary critic Marck Shechner, "helped fashion a uniquely American voice by marrying the incisiveness of Mark Twain to the Russian melancholy of Dostoevsky," and many articles for The Nation, Partisan Review, and The New Republic. Some of those articles were posthumously published in a volume titled An Age of Enormity, and his short stories were later published as Alpha and Omega.

    1958: In Iraq, Arab nationalists overthrew the monarchy which had been installed by the British, in a violent, gruesome revolt that included the murder of Faisal II. As with so much turmoil in the Middle East, this had nothing to do with Israel. The revolt was anti-Western. As the Arab leader Nasser said, the Arabs were not anti-Western because of Israel. They were anti-Israel because Israel was Western.

    1958: Birthdate of producer Scott Rudin who is “one of the few people who have an Emmy, Grammy, Oscar and Tony”

    1960: Congress authorized a one-time Chaplain’s Medal for Heroism today.  The medal was created to honor The Four Dorchester Chaplains and had to be created because of the strict definition of heroism under fire used for awarding the Congressional Medal of Honor. Rabbi Alexander Goode, of blessed memory, was one of the four recipients of the medal.

    1963: In “Keeping the Peace” published today Dana Adams Schmidt reviews Between Arab and Israeli by Lt. Gen. E.L.M. Burns

    1966:  “Torn Curtain” a Cold War thriller starring Paul Newman and David Opatoshu was released by Universal Pictures today in the United States.

    1966: Birthdate of Brian Selznick the New Jersey native and distant blood relation of producer David O. Sleznick who “won the 2008 Caldecott Medal for The Invention of Hugo Cabret, “an American historical fiction book” which he both wrote and illustrated.

    1967: Chile voted against the reunification of Jerusalem after the *Six-Day War

    1967: As artillery exchanges and aerial duels erupt near the Suez Canal. Israeli forces shot down 7 Egyptian fighter aircraft.

    1975: Following a “similar announcement in the Soviet weekly Nedelya, Intourist announced that ‘tourist-Zionists’ will be regarded as ‘interfering in Russia’s internal affairs.’”

    1976: After 4 days of debate, the Security Council of the United Nations failed to adopt a resolution supported by most African states condemning Israel’s raid on Entebbe as violation of Uganda’s sovereignty.  At the same time, a majority could not be mustered to support the Anglo-American resolution condemning the hijacking of airplanes and calling on “all governments to prevent and punish all such terrorist acts.” (Note – Is today’s news nothing more than a recycling of yesterday’s events?) As reported by Kathleen Teltsch

    1976: In light of Mexico’s denunciation of the raid on Entebbe, Zionist in the United States are calling on American Jews to boycott Mexican goods and to avoid travel to Mexico.

    1977:“I Never Promised You a Rose Garden,”  “film based on the Joanne Greenberg novel of the same name was released today in the United States.

    1978: Anatoly Sharansky was “found guilty of espionage and treason and sentenced to 3 years in prison plus 10 years in a forced labor camp.”

    1978:“Moscow dissident Alexandr Ginzburg was sentenced to 8 years imprisonment in a forced labor camp for anti-Soviet activities and propaganda and Viktor Petkus, chairman of the Lithuanian Helsinki Group – to 10 years imprisonment, as “an agent of foreign intelligence”.

    1980(1st of Av, 5740): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1981(12thof Tammuz, 5741): One soldier was killed and five others were injured by a terrorist’s bomb in southern Gaza.

    1982: After premiering at Cannes, “Pink Floyd – The Wall” with music by Michael Kamen was released by Metro-Goldwyn-Meyer today in the United States.

    1985: Today, the New York Times described David Cantor’s performance of “Che” in the musical “Evita” as “marvelous…never lapsing into excessive snideness, singing gorgeously and, at times, sailing into the stratosphere with his crystalline 'high-flying, adored' pianissimi."

    1989: An Israeli F-16 shot down a Syrian MIG-21. This marks the first time that an Israeli piloted F-16 has shot down an enemy aircraft.

    1992: Shimon Peres begins serving as Israel’s Foreign Minister.

    1992: Yitzhak Rabin, Israel’s new Prime Minister awaited a response to his offer made the day before to travel to the capitals of any Arab country to further the cause of peace in the Middle East.

    1995:  “The Indian in the Cupboard” directed by Frank Oz with music by Randy Edelman was released in the United States today.

    1997: The opening of the 15th Maccabiah Games in Tel Aviv was marred by disaster.  As the Australian team walked across a bridge, the bridge collapsed plunging the team into the Yarkon River.  Greg Small Elizabeth Sawicki, Yetty Bennett and Warren Zines lost their lives and 60 others were injured.

    2001(23rdof Tammuz, 5761): Twenty eight year old David Cohen of Betar Illit “died today of injuries sustained in a drive-by shooting on July 12.

    2002: In an article entitled “The Shadow of Circumstance,” Daphne Merkin describes her visit to Israel with her daughter to attend a nephew’s wedding; a visit of unbelievable normality except for the fact it was bracketed by two bombings and included a “red alert” in Jerusalem.

    2002: A three-week workshop on Jewish History and Culture opens at Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

    2002(5thof Av, 5762): Eighty-eight year David Asseo who was the Hakham Bashi (or Chief Rabbi) of the Republic of Turkey from 1960 until his death in 2002 on this date.

    2003: Today, in an act that right wingers would have called treasonous, political commentator Robert Novak’s column publicly divulged he CIA identity of Valery Plame.

    2003: Jerry Springer filed papers to run for the U.S. Senate from Ohio.

    2006:  While Jews across the world offer recite the lines Sim Shalom at the conclusion with a renewed fervor they also offer up prayers for the safety of the IDF and the citizens of Israel as they deal with attacks from terrorists operating from Gaza and Lebanon.

    2006: This morning, “one of the branch heads of naval intelligence, Lieutenant-Colonel Y. briefed the head of naval intelligence, Colonel Ram Rothberg, telling him that "ships enforcing Israel's naval blockade on Hezbollah should take into account the possibility of a C-802 missile being fired on them." The assessment, however, did not result in a warning.”

    2006: The INS Hanit, Sa'ar 5-class corvette, was damaged today when it was struck by a C-802 anti-ship missile fired by Hezbollah.

    2006: The following were among a total of 43 Israeli civilians (including four who died of heart attacks during rocket barrages) and 116 IDF soldiers were killed in the Israel-Hizbullah war:St.-Sgt. Tal Amgar, 21, of Ashdod; Cpl. Shai Atias, 19, of Rishon Lezion; Sgt. Yaniv Hershkovitz, 21, of Haifa; and St.-Sgt. Dov Shtierenshos, 37, of Karmiel. Yehudit Itzkovich, 58, of Meron, and her grandson Omer Pesahov, seven, of Nahariya.

    2007: In Jerusalem, Off the Wall Comedy Empire presents "The Jerusalem Comedy Show," starring David Kilimnick, Boris Melamed and Anat Hoffman, a comedy show about life in Jerusalem.

    2007:  The Cedars Rapids Gazette featured an article entitled “N.Y. Mayor Bloomberg’s Jewish faith a non-issue” describes Bloomberg’s upbringing as a Conservative Jew in Medford, Mass. and his philanthropic support of Jewish institutions. The article states that “there’s no evidence Jews will support Bloomberg because of their shared faith.” But the article says nothing about how non-Jews would respond to a serious Jewish candidate for President.

    2007: PLO Ambassador Afif Sieh, a supporter of Fatahn and Ali Abunimah, a support of Hamas appeared on Worldview, a daily global affairs program produced by Chicago Public Radio station WBEZ (91.5),

    2008: Eli Aflalo succeeded Yaakov Edri was Minister of Immigrant Absorption.  Edri continued to serve as Minister of Negev and Galilee Development.

    2008: In Washington, D.C. Ethan Caninreads from and signs his new novel, America America, at Politics and Prose Bookstore.

    2008: Barring any rebellion before votes are tallied,Randi Weingarten is expected to be elected to the top position of the 1.4 million-member American Federation of Teachers at its Chicago convention. Weingarten has served for the past decade as head of the 200,000-member New York teachers group, known as the UFT.As the AFT's president, Weingarten will be the only woman leading a major U.S. union—one that has been growing, unlike much of organized labor. Weingarten is not the first Jew to serve as President of AFT.  That distinction goes to the late Albert Shanker.

    2009: Arthur Laurents “Broadway’s Last Ferocious Man” celebrates his 92ndbirthday.

    2009: At the 18th Maccabiah Games the following basketball games are played: Germany v Canada, Greece v Brazil, Russia v Argentina and Mexico v the United States.

    2009:Israel accused Lebanon of violating United Nations Security Council Resolution 1701 today after a Hizbullah arms cache hidden inside a southern Lebanese town accidentally exploded.

    2009:The softball tournament at the Maccabiah Games was brought to an abrupt close on this afternoon when police stormed the field at the Baptist Village without any prior warning.

    2009:In a new signal to Iran, two Sa'ar 5-class Israeli Navy ships crossed through the Suez Canal from the Mediterranean to the Red Sea today to beef up Israel's naval presence near Eilat.

    2009:In a move that threatens to strain diplomatic ties, Britain has blocked the sale of spare parts for Israel’s fleet of missile gunships because they were used in the recent campaign in Gaza.

    2010:Tovah Feldshuh, star of stage and big and small screen, is scheduled to make a special appearance at the screening of the indie comedy hit Goyband today where she will receive the Jersey Shore Film Festival Award for Artistic Achievement

    2010:The Knesset voted today, in a preliminary reading, in favor of a bill that would prevent the transfer of funds to the Palestinian Authority if it continues to encourage and enforce a boycott of goods manufactured in Jewish communities.

    2011: Nirvana, a dance show from Korea, which is based on ancient ritual Buddhist dances, is scheduled to appear at TAPAC in Tel Aviv.

    2011:Violinist Vadim Gluzman is scheduled to return to Israel to perform Shostakovich’s Violin Concerto No. 1 with the Jerusalem Symphony under the baton of Dmitry Sitkovetsky at the Jerusalem Theater.

    2011: A memorial service for Suzanne Rosenbaum Katz, wife of Bert Katz and a longtime member of Hadassah, Temple Judah and its Sisterhood, is scheduled to be held at Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 

    2011:Israeli Air Force planes bombed two smuggling tunnels in southern Gaza in retaliation for rocket attacks on southern Israeli communities. .
    2012: French filmmaker Claude Lanzman received the French Legion of Honor.
    2011: The mayor of San Antonio, Texas, Julián Castro, signed agreements with Israel to share knowledge and economic cooperation today as he was wrapping up a five-day trip to Israel focused on economic cooperation.

    2012: Jerusalem’s Vertigo Dance Company is scheduled to perform for the last time at the Durham Performing Arts Center in North Carolina.

    2012: A man set himself on fire on Tel Aviv’s Kaplan Street during a social justice rally tonight, police said. The Haifa man identified as Moshe Silman, 46 years old, came out of an apartment building, poured flammable material over his clothes and body and lit himself with a burning object (As reported by Yaakov Lappin, Michael Omer-Man and Gil Shefler)

    2012:Rabbi Brous is scheduled to lead a discussion about “The IKAR Phenomenon” as part of the Bnai David Judea Nosh and Drosh Summer Series. At a time when affiliation rates at synagogues and temples is waning, are non-affiliated movements like IKAR part of the answer for the future of the Jewish community?

    2012: Israeli organizers expect tens of thousands to take part in nationwide demonstrations tonight to mark the first anniversary of last summer’s social justice protests

    2012(24th of Tammuz): Yarhrzeit for the Jews of Jerusalem who were murdered by the crusaders on this date in 1099 (5772)

    2012(24th of Tammuz, 5772): Sixty five year old “Gustin L. Reichbach who went from the carefree fraternity life to leading student protests at Columbia University in 1968 and then to a career as a fiercely independent lawyer and judge” passed away today. (As reported by Jim Dwyer)

    2013: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Love Affairs of Nathaniel P. by Adelle Waldman.
    2013: Final day of the 30th annual Jerusalem Film Festival.
    2013:  Pianist Sagy Segal and Vocalist Gal Klein are scheduled to perform at a special Bastille Day Concert at the Eden-Tamir Music Center.
    2013: Observance of Bastille Day which provides an excellent opportunity to consider the uneven history of the Jews of France which, according to the Jewish Encyclopedia dates to the first decades of the common era when Jews were found at Vienna and Lyon.

    2013: This morning Economy Minister Naftali Bennett against what he called “incitement” by one of the most senior religious figures of Shas. In a video posted Sunday morning (Hebrew) on the Haredi website Kikar Hashabbat, Rabbi Shalom Cohen, a member of Shas’s Council of Torah Sages and the head of the influential Porat Yosef Yeshiva, is seen calling national religious Israelis “Amalek” and suggesting that they aren’t Jews. (As reported by Haviv Rettig Gur)

    2013: The police reported that another haredi attack on a religious soldier took place this afternoon in the ultra-Orthodox Jerusalem neighborhood of Beit Yisrael, close to Mea Shearim. According to police spokesman Shmuel Ben-Ruby, two haredi men attacked a uniformed soldier with a knitted yarmulke who was passing by on Sha’arei Shamayim Street. (As rerpoted by Jeremy Sharon)

    2013: Today “Israeli Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu telephoned Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas and said he hoped the two sides could resume peace talks, stalled for three years, Israeli officials said.

    2014: On Bastille Day, “celebrations in Paris turned violent” when “anti-Israel rioters attacked the Don Isaac Abravanel synagogue on Rue de la Roquette, and its congregants fought back.” (As reported by Stephanie Butnick)

    2014: In New Orleans, final shivah minyan for Dietician, artist Bettie Florence Stovall Rosenbaum who passed away at the age of 87 is scheduled to take place at the home of Linda and Scott Hart in Lakeview. (As reported by the Crescent City Jewish News)

    2014: “The Places You’ll Go” by Israeli playwright Hila Ben Gera, a graduate of Yoram Lowenstein’s Performing Arts Studio in Tel Avi is scheduled to open at @Dixon Place in New York.

    2014: “Sukkah City USA” and “Under the Same Sun” are scheduled to be shown at the Berkshire Jewish Film Festival.

    2014: “A delegation from the Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations is scheduled to arrive today, and meet government and military officials and tour areas susceptible to rocket fire by Hamas.” (As reported by JTA)

    2014: Following a day in which the IAf shot down a drone for the first time over Tel Aviv, 2 rockets hit the city of Eilat at Israel’s southernmost tip tonight, lightly injuring five people in the first attack on the city from Gaza since the campaign began.

    2014: Yaakov Amidror, a former national security adviser to Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said today that Hamas still has almost 90 percent of their rockets as the government prepares to consider Egypt’s proposal for a cease fire.

    2014: The Israeli government accepted a cease-fire that was backed by Palestinian president Mahmoud Abbas but would prove worthless since he could not control Hamas.

    2015(27th of Tammuz, 5775): Eighty-four year old pioneering news broadcaster Marlene Sanders, the wife of television producer Jerome Toobin and the mother of CNN legal analyst Jeffrey Toobin passed away today.

    2015: “Paper Planes” and “Songs my Brothers Taught Me” are scheduled to be shown at the Jerusalem Film Festival.

    2015: “Wet Hot American Summer” is scheduled to be shown at the Washington Jewish Film Festival.

    2015: The Jacob Rader Marcus Center of the American Jewish Archives is scheduled to host Benjamin Steiner's seminar, "The Lieberman Clause Revisited: Panacea or Polemic?"

    2015: In what some may consider a case of carrying coals to New Castle, the OU Israel Center is scheduled to host a “Challah Baking Workshop” in Jerusalem.

    2015: At its convention in Philadelphia, the NAACP hosted the showing of “Rosenwald” a documentary about Julius Rosenwald whose philanthropy created educational opportunities for African-Americans in the Jim Crow 1930’s.

    2016: The Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center is scheduled to host a special commemorative event in memory of Elie Weisel who passed away last Saturday

    2016(8th of Tammuz, 5776): Eighty-six year old New Orleans advertising Peter Arno Mayer passed away today.

    2016: In Des Moines, Iowa AIPAC is scheduled to host its annual event, “Iowa Celebrates Israel”

    2016: The UKJF is scheduled to host a showing of “Labyrinth of Lies,” a “drama about an idealistic young prosecutor who begins a campaign against Nazis who seemingly faded away at the end of World War II” at Cineworld Manchester.

    2016: In Jerusalem, “The High Rabbinical Court” sentenced a man to five years “in prison for refusing to give his wife a divorce.

    2016: In what may be a sign of changing diplomatic dynamics “Foreign Ministry Director-General Dore Gold met Chad President Idriss Déby today at his presidential palace in the city of Fada,

    2016: “My Friend Yaniv” and “To Take a Wife” are scheduled to be shown at the Jerusalem Film Festival.

    2017: Today on “a day of prayer for Moslems and the eve of the Jewish Sabbath two policeman, Hail Satawin and Kamil Shnaan, were brutally gunned down and a third was lightly wounded “in a terror attack this morning when three terrorists opened fire at Border Police forces at the Lions' Gate in Jerusalem's Old City.”  (As reported by Isabel Kershner)

    2017(20th of Tammuz, 5777): “An infant girl was among three people injured in a firebomb attack in Jerusalem today hours after two Israeli police were killed in an attack by three Israeli-Arab terrorists on the Temple Mount.”

    2017: "Majesty and Humility: The Life, Leadership, and Legacy of Joseph B. Soloveitchik" led by Professor Jacob J. Schacter is scheduled to come to an end.

    2017: “Letters from Baghdad” is scheduled to open at Houston, Portland, OR, Detroit, Dearborn, MI and Eugene, OR.

    2017: The master’s hockey teams are scheduled to compete for the gold at today’s Maccabiah games in Jerusalem.

    2017: As part of the events surrounding the Maccabiah Games, “a Kabbalat Shabbat and lunch are scheduled to take place at Jerusalem’s Cinema City.

    2018: Inbal Segev and Juho Pohjonen are scheduled “to open their program at the Tannery in New Lebanon with two works by Beethoven.”

    2018(2nd of Av): On the Jewish calendar Yahrtzeit or “Talmudic scholar and author of Mate Aharon” Rabbi Aaron ben Moses Teomim of Worms.

    2018(2nd of Av, 5778): Parashat Matot – Masay marks the end of the reading of the Book of Numbers; for more see




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    July 15

    763 BCE: Forty-one years before their conquest of Israel, the Assyrians observe and record a solar eclipse which is the basis for much of the dating of activities in the Fertile Crescent, including Eretz Israel, prior to the seventh century BCE (As reported by Austin Cline)

    1099: Godfrey de Bouillon entered Jerusalem, drove all the Jews into the synagogue, and set them afire while he marched around the synagogue singing, "Christ, we adore thee". This marked the end of Jerusalem as a Jewish center for centuries, although Jews did return in limited numbers after the Moslem reconquest in 1187. It is estimated that between 20,000 and 30,000 Jews were massacred or captured and sold as slaves in Italy.

                                                    OR (You pick the version)

    1099: The crusaders final assault on Jerusalem was successful and the city was sacked. This was in keeping with the general rule that, if a fortified place did not surrender, it might be sacked and its inhabitants killed or enslaved. Although there was considerable bloodshed in Jerusalem, , recent research has demonstrated that crusade leaders intervened to protect some of the inhabitants, including Muslims and Jews. Among those who took this step was Godfrey of Bouillon. Some Muslims and Jews were slaughtered, but some were escorted to Muslim territory.

    1174:Baldwin IV was crowned King of Jerusalem.  Graetz claims that the Leperous King was the one who banned the Jews from Jerusalem.  That honor should go to his father who took the throne in 1162 and the ban began in 1165 and last until 1175. Since Baldwin was only 13 at the time of his coronation credit for lifting the ban probably should go to the Raymond III of Tripoli, the regent who negotiated a treaty with Saladin.

    1205: Pope Innocent III laid down the principle that Jews were doomed to perpetual servitude and subjugation because they had crucified Jesus. This classic charge of deicide was officially removed in 1963.

    1291: King Rudolf I, who had negated the freedom of Jews of Germany by declaring them servi camerae ("serfs of the treasury") in 1286, passed away today.

    1389: Murad I is killed following the Ottoman defeat of the Christians at the Battle of Kosovo also known as the Battle of Blackbird’s Field. Murad had allowed Jews fleeing Hungary to settle in Thrace and Anatolia so his death was a net loss for them. (While it is not a matter of Jewish History, memories of this battle would resurface at the end of the 20th century when Moslems and Christians squared off in the Balkan Wars following the dissolution of Yugoslavia)

    1567: Not for the first time, nor for the last time, the Jews were expelled from the entire Republic of Genoa today.

    1572 (5332) Isaac Luria passed away.  There is no way this simple guide can do justice to the life of this giant of Judaism.  For those who are interested, here are two places to begin:

    1606:  Birthdate of the Dutch painter Rembrandt van Rijn. Rembrandt lived in a Jewish quarter in Amsterdam. He often depicted Jewish people on his canvases. One of his most famous paintings is styled “Moses Breaking the Tablets of the Law.” There are several special events planned to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Rembrandt’s and many of them highlight his special relationship with the Dutch Jewish community.  For more on this subject, you might want to read the recently published Rembrandt’s Jews by Steven Nadler.

    1629: A clerical commission meeting today to look into the guilt of Yom-Tov Heller “asked him how he dared to eulogize the Talmud after it had been burned by papal order” – a charge which he could not answer to the commission’s satisfaction which to his being condemned to death.

    1631: Birthdate of Richard Cumberland, the Bishop of Peterborough who was the  author of “An essay towards the recovery of the Jewish measures & weights, comprehending their monies, by help of ancient standards, compared with ours of England useful also to state many of those of the Greeks and Romans, and the eastern nations.”

    1694:The Jesuits, who were opposed to the printing efforts of Shabbethai ben Joseph Bass, “sent a letter to the magistrate of Breslau to have the sale of Hebrew books interdicted on the ground that such works contained "blasphemous and irreligious words"

    1738(27thof Tammuz, 5498): Baruch Laibov and Alexander Voznitzin were burnt alive in St. Petersburg, Russia, with the consent of Empress Anna Johanova. Voznitzin, a naval captain, was guilty of the crime of converting to Judaism. Laibov was guilty of helping him.

    1790: Members of Kahal Kadosh Beth Elohim of the Jewish Congregation of Charleston wrote a letter to congratulate the President of the United States George Washington on the occasion of the establishment of a federal government.

    1799: The Rosetta Stone is found in the Egyptian village of Rosetta by French Captain Pierre-François Bouchard during Napoleon's Egyptian Campaign. The discovery of the Stone helped to fuel interest in archaeology, including what would become the field of modern Biblical archaeology.

    1799: Birthdate of Samuel Bleichröder the Jewish banker who worked with the Rothschilds and who was the father of Gerson von Bleichröder and Julius Bleichröder who followed in their father’s footsteps.

    1801: In what might seem like a weakening of the position of French Jews, Napoleon signs a Concordat that recognizes Catholocism as the religion of “the great majority of Frenchmen.”

    1808: A day after she had passed away, Elizabeth Town, the daughter of Benjamin Town was buried today at the Brady Street Jewish Cemetery,

    1815(9thof Av, 5575):  Tisha B’Av

    1815(9thof Av, 5575): The Chozen of Lublin (The Seer of Lublin) passed away.  Born Yaakov Yitzchak in 1745, he was a leading Polish Chasidc Rebbe.

    1815: Napoleon Bonaparte surrenders for the final TIME aboard HMS Bellerophon. Having learned their lesson from Napoleon’s escape from captivity following his first surrender, the conquering European powers exile him to St. Helena where he will live out his days.  This final surrender seems to mark the return of the Ancien Regime to Europe in general and France in particular.  The forces of reaction will try and undo the gains in liberty made by the Jews of Europe.

    1818: In Savannah, GA, Levy Hart married Abigail Minis Sheftall, the youngest daughter of the last Levy Sheftall.

    1818: Abraham and Clara Moses were married today at the Great Synaogue.

    1818: Mosely (Moshe) Woolf and Hannah Woolf gave birth to Cecilia Woolf who became Cecilia Marks when she married David Marks.

    1832: Solomon Etting, a Jewish citizen of Baltimore, MD, wrote a letter to Henry Clay, the U.S. Senator from Kentucky, saying that he other co-religionists “feel both surprised and hurt by the manner in which you introduced the expression ‘the Jew’ in debated in the Senate of the United States, evidently applying it as a reproachful designation of a man whom you considered obnoxious in character and conduct.” Since Ettinger did not know the man in question and since he assumes that Clay has no “antipathy” for the Jewish people, he asked that Clay write to him why he had used this particular expression in this particular manner.

    1834: The child-Queen Isabella's mother, Christina, issued an official and final edict abolishing the Inquisition in Spain. The words read, "It is declared that the Tribunal of the Inquisition is definitely suppressed. The Inquisitions had been in place for nearly three and one half centuries.

    1836: In Michelfeld, thirty-seven year old Marx Oppenheimer and his second wife Sarah gave birth to Karoline Levy.

    1838: Ralph Waldo Emerson delivers the Divinity School Address at Harvard Divinity School, discounting Biblical miracles and declaring Jesus a great man, but not God. The Protestant community reacts with outrage. This was not the first or last time that Emerson would express views on religion that were out of step with prevailing Christian views. In describing the Last Supper, Emerson states “Jesus is a Jew sitting with a countrymen celebrating their national feast.”  Jesus’ Jewishness would not become an accepted tenant of many Christian beliefs until the second half of the twentieth century.

    1843: Birthdate of Indiana native William W. Morrow who as a Congressman from California who would champion the cause of Adolph Kutner, the Russian born American businessman who was afraid to return to his native land because of the Czar’s policies regarding Jews.

    1850: Birthdate of Amalia Loeb who was buried in the Jewish Cemetery a Morgan City, LA.

    1853: In Bangor, Main, Julius Spitz and Julia Wolf gave birth to Nancy Spirtz, the director of the Leopold Morse Home, the Hebrew Women’s Sewing Society and honorary director of the Federation of Jewish Charities who is the wife of Godfrey J. Spitz

    1854: The Israelite, the first Jewish newspaper published in Cincinnati, Ohio, was established today. This English language newspaper was founded by Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise, the “founding father” of Reform Judaism in America whose other “firsts” included the creation of the Hebrew Union College.

    1854: A letter from E.R. McGregor, the Editor of the Jewish Chronicle was published today in which he takes issue with the Times report that a U.S. citizen named Jones has been guilty of selling pieces of ancient columns and other such items to unsuspecting tourists in Jerusalem  According to McGregor Jones is a “Christian and a gentlemen” who was sent to Palestine by the American Society for Meliorating the Condition of the Jews (A.S.M.C. Jew) to examine the feasibility of establishing “agricultural colonies and schools for the benefit of the Jews and others residing in the country.” James Finn, the British Consul in Jerusalem, is the source of the negative stories about Mr. Jones.  According to McGregor, Finn is responsible for large losses connected with land near Bethlehem that was supposed to be purchased with American funds for the purpose of creating an agricultural colony. (Editor’s note – Other sources describe Finn  as “a  devout Christian, who belonged to the London Society for Promoting Christianity Amongst the Jews, but who did not engage in missionary work during his years” as British Consul in Jerusalem. According to these sources, Finn bought a piece of land outside of the Old City that he turned into an agricultural training facility for Jews. Finally, he bought land, at a place called Artas near Bethlehem where employed otherwise impoverished Jews as laborers.  Further research is obviously necessary.)

    1856: Birthdate of Charles Frohman, the native of Sandusky Ohio, one of the three Frohman brothers, who became a noted Broadway impresario who co-founded the Theatrical Syndicate.

    1860: In Cologne, Albert Oppenheim, a member of the Jewish banking family who had converted to Catholicism and his wife Pauline Engels gave birth to Max von Oppenheim.

    1862: Birthdate of Frank Putnam Flint, the U.S. Senator from California who supported efforts to get the Governor of Georgia to commute the death sentence of Leo Frank.

    1869: In New York City, Adolph Tuska and Elise Robitscher gave birth to “consulting engineer” Gustave R. Tuska, a graduate of CCNY and Columbia and husband of Isabel Pappenheimer who filled severed as chief engineer for the Panama R.R. Co, the Atlantic Construction Co. and the American Power Co. as well as Director of the Hebrew Technical Institue

    1870: In Cleveland, Ohio, Rabbi Max Lienthal of Cincinnati Ohio, presented the following resolutions to a meeting of rabbis from across the nation who adopted them unanimously.

    Whereas, In consideration of the religious commotion now agitating the public mind in both hemispheres, in accordance with the principles of Judaism it is unanimously declared:

    1.       Because with unshaken faith and firmness we believe in one indivisible and eternal God; we also believe in the common Fatherhood of God and the common brotherhood of men.

    2.       We glory in the sublime doctrine of our religion, which teaches that the righteous of all nations, without distinction of creed, will enjoy eternal life and everlasting happiness.

    3.       The divine command, the most sublime passage of the Bible “Thou shalt love thy fellow man as thyself,” extends to the entire human family without distinction of either race or creed.

    4.       Civil and religious liberty, and hence the separation of Church and State, are the inalienable rights of man, we consider them to be the brightest gems in the Constitutions of the United States.

    5.       We love and revere this country as our home and fatherland for us and our children, and therefore consider it our paramount duty to sustain and support the Government, to favor by all means the system of free education leaving religious instruction to the care of the different denominations.

    6.       We expect the universal elevation and fraternization of the human family to be achieved by the natural means of science, morality, freedom, justice and truth.

    According to the attendees, “these resolution…clearly express…the religious and political creed of Judaism.”

    1874(1st of Av, 5634): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1877: “Protection for Jews in Palestine”  published today included the text of a letter from the Acting Secretary of State to Meyer S. Isaacs, President of the Board of Delegates of American Israelites.  The letter was in response to a request from Mr. Isaacs seeking American protection for Russian Jews living in and around Jerusalem from abuse by the Ottoman authorities.  Mr. Seward explained that normally, the U.S. government only provides protection for its own citizens living abroad.  He conceded that the United States has a reputation for helping oppressed people in foreign countries; but that help can only be provided if all of the parties involved go through proper diplomatic channels. 

    1877: Sixty-one year old Isaac Phillips, the husband of Julia Hyman with whom he had two children –Esther and Rebecca – and who was “one of the founders of the Jewish Female Mourning Society” was buried today at the West Ham Jewish Cemetery.

    1877: The Jewish Messenger reported that Secretary of State Seward had sent a letter to Meyer S. Isaacs, President of the Board of Delegates of Israelites in response to his letter of June 4 asking that the United States help provide protection for Jews from Russia living in and around Jerusalem. Speaking in that unique language of diplomats, Seward told Isaacs that the U.S. usually only extends such protection to its own citizens living abroad.  But he assured him that the United States was sympathetic to “all the oppressed peoples in foreign countries” and would act accordingly within the spirit of “international courtesy and diplomatic usage…The desired protection will be extended if these conditions are complied with.”  [This was one of the first times that American Jews had asked the United States government to intervene on behalf of their co-religionists living in Eretz-Israel.  Seward’s understated reply was more potent than it might appear.  He was a real power in the Republican having served as a U.S. Senator and having been a serious candidate for the Presidency in 1860.  Also, he had actually visited Palestine in the years prior to the Civil War so he had a firsthand knowledge of the area and the Ottomans who ruled it .

    1877: Union of Hebrew Congregations completed its meeting in Philadelphia, PA. Several speeches were delivered in favor of having all the Jews in the United States represented by one national organization. The delegates agreed to hold their next meeting in July of 1878 at Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

    1877: “The English Jews in Politics,” published today reprinted the views of Goldwin Smith that originally appeared in theFort-nightly Review. According to Smith, the Jews supported the Liberal Party until they gained full rights (including the change in oath that made it possible for them to sit in Parliament) and then they “gravitated toward the party of wealth” – the Conservative Party.  Smith went on to describe Judaism as “surviving relic of the primeval world” that was a “tribal religion” inferior to Christianity that belonged to “the ages before humanity.” As such, Jews “cannot be expected to have much sympathy with progress” and since they are now wealthy, they are obviously supporter of the “plutocratic party.” [Editor’s note – What the publishers of the article do not say is that Smith was a member of the Liberal Party and strong opponent of Benjamin Disraeli, the leader of the Conservative Party.  He later became a professor at Cornell University before finally settling in Canada. According to the Canadian Encyclopedia, Goldwin Smith was “a major exponent of anti-Semitism in the 19th century…. A pathological anti-Semite, Smith disseminated his hatred in dozens of books, articles and letters. Jews, he charged, were "parasites,""dangerous" to their host country and "enemies of civilization." His bilious anti-Jewish tirades helped set the tone of a still unmoulded Canadian society and had a profound impact on such young Canadians as W.L. Mackenzie King, Henri Bourassa and scores of others. Indeed in 1905 in the most vituperative anti-Jewish speech in the history of the House of Commons, borrowing heavily from Smith, Bourassa urged Canada to keep its gates shut to Jewish immigrants.”  This should explain much of the content of Smith’s article.)

    1880: The second annual convention of the National Rabbinical Association came to a close today in Detroit, Michigan.  About half of the 56 member rabbis were in attendance.  A large number of non-Jews attended the sessions at which papers on several topics related to Judaism were presented.

    1880: An unidentified man was buried in a pauper’s grave today in Hoboken, NJ.  The undertaker had initially identified the man as being Jewish and the town’s Jewish community had donated funds to provide him with a Jewish burial.  It is not clear what caused the confusion, but the undertaker is refusing to return the funds to the Jews.

    1880: “Notes of Literary News” published today described the upcoming publication of Jewish Life in the East a collection of papers written by Sydney M. Samuel on the condition of Jews living in Palestine and other parts of the Levant including an examination of their  physical and moral condition and their manners and customs.At Jerusalem, in 1879-80, Sydney M. Samuel found 416 heads of families pursuing 29 handicrafts, among whom were tinkers, goldsmiths, watchmakers, smiths, turners, and masons ("Jewish Life in the East," p. 78)

    1880: Among the charities designated to receive funds from Excise Fund in New York was the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society in the amount of $1,686.

    1880: In Merkine, Hinde Bernstein and Isaac Margolis gave birth to Elias Margolis.

    1881(18thof Tammuz, 5641): Sixty-six year old Austrian banker Friedrich Freiherr Schey von Koromla, the father of Charlotte Przibram and the maternal grandfather of biologist Hans Leo Przibram passed away today.

    1881: Two days after he had passed away, George Novra, a native of Prussia and the husband of Rebecca Abrahams with whom he had four children – Henry, Maria, Benjamin and Lewis – was buried today at the Balls Pond Road Jewish Cemetery.

    1881: Four of the five newly elected officers of the Executive Board of the Hebrew Union come from Cincinnati, Ohio, the home of Hebrew Union College. The only exception was A.L. Sanger of New York who was elected to serve as Vice President.

    1881: It was reported today that the just concluded meeting of the Council of the Hebrew Union had rejected Rabbi Wise’s proposal to provide stipends for worthy students who lacked the funds to attend Hebrew Union College.  Wise was concerned that “poverty” would keep those with “talent” from serving as Rabbis. The attendees refused to even vote on a proposal requiring that a rabbi must get the consent of his congregation before talking to another congregation about a new position.  The Council felt that they had no business interfering in the relationships that rabbis had with their congregations.

    1882: In an attempt to eliminate a source of strikebreakers, it was suggested that the striking freight handlers meet with the Polish Jews and offer to provide them with enough money so that they can buy a stock of small goods and go on the road as peddlers.  The idea was based on reports that the Polish Jews only planned to work on the docks until they had earned enough money to go into business for themselves.

    1882: “Russian Refugees Returning Home” published today described the plight of Russian Jewish immigrants who have arrived in Philadelphia in the last few months.  Only a third of the 600 recent arrivals have found jobs and 51 of the families will be shipping out from New York today as they return to their homeland.

    1883: In responding to charges by Charles D. Kellogg that “65 per cent of the public charity was mis- directed” Superintendent Hirsch of the New York United Hebrew Charities offered his ‘most emphatic dissent” saying that “very few underserving persons are successful with us” “and what is better comparatively few make the attempt.”

    1884(22nd of Tammuz, 5644): French painter Alphonse Hirsch passed away.  Born in Paris in 1843, he studied with Meissonier and Bonnat. Among his most famous portrait was one painted in 1877 - “Isidor, the chief Rabbi of France.”

    1884: The last remnant of the Judengasse in Frankfort, Germany, is scheduled to be demolished today.

    1884: “At the Great Synagogue, Sydney, Henry Emanuel married Sophie Frank the daughter of Leo Frank of Hanover, Germany who had arrived in Sydney some twelve months previously as governess to Sigmond Hoffnung’s children.”

    1884: Twenty people from four families arrived in New York today aboard the SS India.  Their passage had been paid for by the Hebrew Relief Committee of Breslau.

    1885: In what appears to be a botched murder/suicide brought on by a domestic dispute, Augustus Erwin, a German Jew, shot his wife and Margaret and then turned the gun on himself. 

    1885: It was reported today that the newly formed Union of Hebrew Charities will require favorable responses from 12 of the Jewish charitable organizations before it will officially begin its work.

    1886: Birthdate of Milwaukee native Irma Cain, the graduate of Vassar who become Irma Cain Firestone when she married Northwestern University Law School graduate Milton Firestone and was the mother of “Ruth Firestone Brin” her “third child and only daughter.”

    1886: It was reported today the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children will be sponsoring three free excursions this summer for the enjoyment of the poor Jewish children and their mothers.

    1886: Today’s outing to the Catskills sponsored by the Five Points Mission was an ecumenical affair since it included children of Italian, German, Irish and Jewish immigrants.  Actually the mixture merely mirrored the multiplicity of immigrant groups that were living in the squalor of the Lower East Side’s worst neighborhood.

    1886: In Bloomington, Illinois, Miss Ida Clark who converted to Judaism last week so that she could marry an English Jew named Holland tonight suffered a great embarrassment and disappointment today.  She received word that he had changed his mind and had called off the engagement without any explanation.

    1886: “Dog Catchers Defeated” published today described how James Flanagan, Joseph Kelly and James Murphy unsuccessfully tried to capture a spitz owned by Nathan Weissbaum.  Their ineptitude was exacerbated by the interference of “several hundred Polish Jews” bent on mischief who unhitched the dogcatchers horse from its cart leaving the trio afoot on Hester Street.

    1887: “Harry the Jew,” a well-known New York crook sent to the county jail Asbury Park, NJ to await charges of having robbed several bathhouses.  Harry’s last name is various listed as Harris, Fell and Luster.

    1887(23rd of Tammuz, 5647): One hundred nine year old Hirsh Harris, known as “Rabbi Hirsch” passed away today in Brooklyn.

    1889: In Victoria, TX, the Jewish Children’s Aid Society was founded five years before Congregation B’nai Israel was founded “under the supervision of Rabbi Cohen of Galveston.”

    1891: There was “a large party” of Russian Jews aboard the SS Pickhuben that arrived today at Montreal.

    1891: The Democrats nominated Gustavus H. Wald as their candidate for Justice of the State Supreme Court in Ohio.  The Hamilton County Jew had been a Republican until 1884 James Blaine was nominated to run for President.

    1891(9thof Tammuz, 5651): Jerome Blumenthal, the fifteen year old son of Mr. and Mrs. Henry Blumenthal drowned today.

    1891: For reasons that nobody can explain, it was reported today that few Jews attended the Bastille Day celebration at Lion Park in New York during which the French organizers had planned on marking the 100th anniversary of the emancipation of French Jews.  (This might reflect that there were few French Jews in New York or that a large number of the Jews living in New York were from Germany and like most Germans, had little or not affection for the French who were their continental enemies.)

    1891: “Jews Barred From Romania” published today described conditions on the border between Romania and Russia where Romanian troops have been deployed to prevent any Jews from crossing over from the land of the Czars.  In addition to which, policies have been enacted to keep Russian Jews from landing at Romanian ports.

    1892: “Russian Synagogue Schools Abolished” published today described a series of measures approved by the Imperia Council that “abolish synagogue schools in the form in which they now exist and to replace them by Government schools where the elements of the Jewish religion, Hebrew and the holy Scriptures shall be taught by men under the constant control of a special board of Orthodox Greek inspectors.” The changes appear to be due “to a desire to improve the Jewish schools” but “really aims at their complete suppression.

    1892: “A Jew Enters the Greek Church” published today described the baptism of Nakhim Aphroim Zeldin a 19 year old Jew being held “in the prison of Sergivey Possad.”  As soon as the ceremony was completed the Russian authorities released him from prison.

    1892: Birthdate of Walter Benjamin German literary critic and writer.  Benjamin died in 1940 on the border between France and Spain as he tried to escape from the Nazis.  According to some he committed suicide, although this is disputed by others.  Regardless this brilliant man who combined the ideas of Brecht and Scholem died too soon, another victim of the Holocaust.

    1893: The SS Umbria arrived in Queenstown town with one less passenger than had been on board when the ship left New York because Asher Weinstein, a New York realtor who “was connected with several Hebrew charitable organizations”, had fallen overboard in what is assumed to have been a tragic accident and not a suicide.

    1893: Four hundred of the 800 passengers, most of whom are Russian Jews, who arrived in New York yesterday aboard the SS Red will be “debarred as paupers” and will be sent back to Europe.  Authorities feel the immigrants were victims of a scheme concocted by the ship’s owners to dump unsuspecting foreigners on American soil with the assumption that the U.S. government would pay for their expenses to stay or be returned.  That is why the government is demanding that the ship’s owners post a ten thousand dollar bond to cover the costs. 

    1893: An unknown number of “rascals…cut the backs and sets cushions of an early a hundred seats and broke several chairs” at the Thalia Theatre as part of protest trigged by “a boycott declared against Isidor Lindemann…by the United Hebrew Trades.”

    1893: “The German Reichstag announced that for first time a Jew has been elected to the Town Council of Rostock.”

    1894: Three days after she had passed away, fifty year old Hanna Jacobs, the wife of Lewis Jacobs with she had had five children – Rachel, Normal, Solomon, Joseph and Fanny – was buried today at the West Ham Jewish Cemetery.

    1894: Having completed its investigation of the management of charitable institutions in eastern New York, the Committee on Charities of the Constitutional Convention chaired by Edward Lauterbach will turn its attention to the charitable institutions in the western part of the state. (Attorney Lauterbach is Republican leader, defense attorney and longtime supporter of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum.

    1894: A portion of the Board of Trade’s annual report showed that aliens living in Whitechapel, most of whom are Russian Jews make up 18 per cent of the population but “contribute less than 1 per cent to its pauperism.” The Russian Jews do not compete in lines of work performed by the English and “the average earnings of Jewish girls” working “in tailoring establishments are higher than those of English girls.”

    1895(23rdof Tammuz, 5655): Simon Sternberger, who suffered from Bright’s Disease passed away today in Long Branch, NJ.  Sternberger came to the United States 50 years ago, settling first in Philadelphia before coming to New York where he “amassed a large fortune” and served as a Director of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum.

    1895: “The Summer session of the Hebrew Technical Institute opened” today.

    1896: In Patterson, NJ, founding of the Patterson Hebrew Free School Association whose members incude Nathan Barnert, Marcus Cohen, Joseph Krulansky, D.H. Bilder and I.H. Levine.

    1896: While serving as the Rabbi at Temple Israel in Omaha, Nebraska. Rabbi Leo Morris Franklin married Hattie Oberfelder at her parent’s home in Chicago Illinois.  Their first daughter, Ruth, was born in Omaha.

    1898(25thof Tammuz, 5658): Fifty year old Charles Lewis, “a well-known wool merchant” and founder of Charles Lewis & Brothers whose activities in the New York Jewish community included serving as Treasurer of the West End Synagogue, passed away this morning.

    1898: Philip H. Stern began serving as a 1st Lt. with the U.S. Volunteer Infantry during the Spanish American War.

    1899: Le Roy Eltinge, the author of Psychology of War which contained such anti-Semitic passages as “He doesn’t know what patriotism means”, “the soldiers lot is hard physical work” which “the Jew despises and “he does not have any of the qualities of a good soldier” – remarks which forced the War Department to order him to go over the book and remove all such objectionable portions – was promoted to the rank of First Lieutenant in the 6th United States Cavalry

    1899: At tonight’s meeting to discuss the future of the Presbyterian Church in New York City, Revered Alexander J Kerr said that some of the churches on the Upper East Side have given up their mission because “a large Jewish population has settle in that district.” (Editor’s note – This is one denomination that would flee than fight i.e. spend time trying to convert the Jewish population)

    1901(28thof Tammuz, 5661): Forty-seven year old German mathematician Ferdinand Caspary passed away today in Berlin.

    1902: “Wealthy Chicago contractor Harry Korshak” and Rebecca Beatrice Lash, the father of Sidney Roy Korshak whom the FBI said was “the most powerful in the world” were married today.

    1902(10thof Tammuz, 5662): Seventy-one year old Adelaide Samuel (Malkah bat Eliezer) a native of Lancashire and the daughter of Louis Samuel (Eliezer ben Menachem) passed away today.

    1904: Vyacheslav Von Plehve, Russian Minister of Interior was assassinated. Von Plehve was responsible for the Kishinev massacres in which forty-seven Jews were killed, ninety-two severely wounded or crippled, and five hundred slightly wounded. His assassin was a member of the socialist revolutionary movement, which had suffered as well by his policies. Czar Nicholas was frightened into making a few concessions. Unfortunately, he did not make enough to meet public demand.

    1905:In Allenhurst, NJ. Lew Fields of the vaudeville team of Weber and Fields and his wife gave birth to Dorothy Field “who wrote lyrics to over 400 songs over a half a century including "I Can't Give You Anything But Love,""On the Sunny Side of the Street,""I'm in the Mood for Love," and "Don't Blame Me," all in 1928. “In a field in which the names of Jewish men from George and Ira Gershwin to Richard Rodgers and Stephen Sondheim are ubiquitous, Fields made her mark with some of the American musical theater's most memorable songs.” (According to some sources, her birthdate was 1904)

    1908: Birthdate of Max M. Fisher who would gain fame as a Detroit oil and real estate magnate known for his philanthropy and for the advice he gave Republican presidents on the Middle East and Jewish issues.

    1908: Birthdate of Chicago native Louis James “Lou” Gordon, the standout lineman with the University of Illinois from 1927 to 1929 who went on to play with NFL teams – Chicago Cardinals, Brooklyn Dodgers, Green Packers and the Chicago Bears – from 1930 through 1938.

    1909: In Montreal, “Louis Shlakman, a tailor and shirtwaist factory foreman, and the former Lena Hendler, both Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe” gave birth to economist Vera Shlakman who lost her job during the Red Scare of the 1950’s. (Editor’s note – It wasn’t just Ten Hollywood writers who lost their careers thanks to a bunch or Right Wing pseudo-patriorts.)

    1909: Birthdate of Jean Hamburger “a French physician, surgeon and essayist” who “is particularly known for his contribution to nephrology, and for having performed the first renal transplantation in France in 1952.”  He passed away in 1992.

    1911(19thof Tammuz, 5671): Parashat Pinchas

    1911(19thof Tammuz, 5671): Eighty-year old Rabbi and author Eliezer Simcha Rabinowtsch passed away in Kalvaria, Poland.

    1912: Pitcher Ed Mensor made his major league debut with the Pittsburgh Pirates.

    1913: Birthdate of Avrom Sutzkever. Born in Russia, this Holocaust survivor is variously described as “an acclaimed Yiddish poet,” “one of the great poets of the 20th century” and "the greatest poet of the Holocaust." According to David G. Roskies, Sutzkever was the greatest poet of the Holocaust, who was also a leader of the Vilna ghetto and a partisan fighter. It would have been enough, he tells us, had Sutzkever been only ''a symbol of hope and creative power for the powerless Jews of the ghetto,'' but he was much more. As ''the foremost among Jewish poets'' Sutzkever ''made the memory of the dead the nexus of his artistic expression.'' In his major prose poem, ''Green Aquarium,'' Sutzkever accomplishes the transcendence of the dead by proposing the victory of poetry over death, art over destruction, neo-classical form over chaos, and the beauty of what remains in the universe after barbarism has done its terrible work He passed away in Tel Aviv.  There is no way to do justice to his work, which you can read in English at,+no+World+Creator%E2%80%9D+by+Sutzkever&source=bl&ots=JG4u2QKDQN&sig=6vpMQYzJq5SY7Bp9mOOOPsKllJE&hl=en&ei=sdocTqWtMuG60AGMzZDVBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&sqi=2&ved=0CBUQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false

    (Editor’s Note – Special thanks to Murray Wolf, playwright, poet and translator of Yiddish authors who first brought Sutzkever to my attention.)

    1915(4thof Av, 5675): Sixty-eight year old Martin Engel, native of the Bowery who followed in his father’s footsteps and became a kosher butcher before becoming a Tammany leader who based his power on the immigrant “Jews from Russia, Rumania, Bohemia and Hungary” passed away today at his home at 29 East Third Street.

    1915: Based on a dispatch that first appeared in Neueste Nachrichten, “a Munich Journal” it was reported today that before the fall of Lemberg, “Grand Duke Nicholas issued an order of the day to the Jewish soldiers in his army, stating that he had decided to give them a special opportunity of showing courage and patriotism.” Since, he said, “one of the aims of the struggle with Turkey was” the re-conquest of “Palestine for the Jews so they could live there united and independent” he called upon the Jewish soldiers the Jewish soldiers in the Galician army who “were then transferred to the Army of the Caucasus” to “reconquer Palestine for yourselves and a new day of glory will dawn for Jewry.”

    1915: Birthdate of London native and English solicitor Sir David Napley, the husband of Leah Rose Saturley whom he married after serving in WW II.

    1915: In St. Louis, MO, Benjamin Landesman, an immigrant Jewish artist from Berlin, and his wife Beatrice, who dealt in antiques, gave birth to Irving Ned Landesman, who gained fame as Jay Landesman, a writer and editor whose journal Neurotica analyzed the anxieties of postwar America and whose Broadway musical, “The Nervous Set,” has been called the first (and only) Beat musical…(As reported by William Grimes)

    1916(14thof Tammuz, 5676) Parashat Pinchas

    1916(14thof Tammuz, 5676): Seventy-one year old Nobel Prize winning immunologist Elie Metchnikoff whose mother was “Emilia Lvovna (Nevakhovich), the daughter of the Jewish writer Leo Nevakhovich” passed away today in Paris.

    1916: It was reported today that Justice Louis D. Brandeis, Judge Hugo Pam of Chicago and former Judge Leon Sanders are scheduled to peat at the upcoming conference of Jewish organizations to be held at New York’s Astor Hotel.

    1916: Dr. Talcott Williams, Dean of the School of Journalism at Columbia, who was born in Turkey and who is in close touch with affairs in Oriental countries” today gave a summary of the Moslem situation as it affects and is affected by the European” including the observation that “if the Allies win the final victory in the European war it is an open secret that Great Britain…would secure English domination in the East” and that Central Powers win the “Caliphate on the Bosporus” i.e. Turkey, will remain in place.  (Editor’s note: This should serve as a reminder that events in the Middle East were being decided by the European powers and not by the Zionists or the Arabs.)

    1916: Today was the deadline those “societies” that wish to join the proposed federation of Jewish Philanthropic Societies to “give their consent to the plans” for the federation and to “name their representatives on both the Organization Committee and Board of Delegates.”

    1917: Among the contributions made to The Central Committee for the Relief of Jews Suffering the War of which Harry Fischel is the treasurer acknowledged today were $580 from Congregation Orach Chodesh and $705 from The Jewish Daily News.

    1917: Among the contributions made to The American Jewish Relief Committee for the Suffers from the War of which Louis Marshall is the Chairman acknowledged today were $5,000 from Congregation Beth Emeth of Albany New York and $25,000 from Julius Rosenwald.

    1917: It was reported today that “Chaim Berman, a merchant and teacher from Grodno, Poland, has come to America in hope of finding his wife and children from whom he became separate when the Germans” invaded Poland.

    1918: During World War I, start of the Second Battle of the Marne. The Second Battle of the Marne marked the climactic German offensive on the Western Front during World War I.  With the Russians already out of the war, victory here would have meant that the Kaiser and his forces would have won “The Great War.”  The mind boggles at what that might have meant i.e. no Hitler, no Holocaust?  Who knows?  The fact remains that the Allies would halt the Germans.  The great offensive would collapse and the Germans would surrender in November of 1918. 

    1918: The Second Annual Zionist Summer Course sponsored by the Intercollegiate Zionist Association are scheduled to being today in New York.

    1918: During World War I, 500 German and Turkish prisoners of war were marched through the streets of Jerusalem.

    1919: Birthdate of Irving Ned Landesman, the St. Louis native, who gained fame as “Jay Landesman, a writer and editor whose journal Neurotica analyzed the anxieties of postwar America and whose Broadway musical, “The Nervous Set,” has been called the first (and only) Beat musical.”

    1919: In the United States, The War Department General Orders No. 90 of this date described the heroism shown by Private Jean Mathis, Company F, 5th Regiment, United States Marine Corps during the fighting at Bellau Woods saying “For extraordinary heroism in action in the Boise de Belleau, France” on June 11, 1918 when “after all the other members of his group had been killed or wounded by fire from an enemy machine gun, Pvt. Mathis charged the position alone, killing three of the crew and capturing the gun.”

    1922:  Birthdate of American physicist and Nobel Prize Winner, Leon Lederman

    1922: Birthdate of Jacob Mincer, the native of Poland who survived WW II to become Joseph L. Buttenwiser Professor of Economics and Social Relations at Columbia University.

    1923: Funeral services are scheduled to held today in New York for “former Congressman David Louis Baumgarten” after which he will be buried in Cincinnati, Ohio.

    1927: In Vienna, The July Revolt in which Elias Canetti took part and which ignited his fascination with nature of crowds and their behavior, began today.

    1928(27th of Tammuz, 5688): Sir Charles James Jessel, the son of famed English jurist Sir George Jessel, passed away. A successful barrister and magistrate in his own right, he was a member of the Anglo-Jewish aristocracy as can be seen by his marriage to Edith Goldsmid, the daughter of Sir Julian Goldsmid.  The fact that the North Borneo Company named its leading trading post Jesselton in his honor attests to his business acumen. He was also one of several Jews who had served as High Sheriff in Kent.

    1929(7th of Tammuz, 5689): Hugo von Hofmannst passed away. Born in 1874, Hewas an Austrian novelist, librettist, poet, dramatist, narrator, and essayist. His great-grandfather, to whom his family owed the noble title "von Hofmannsthal," was a Jewish merchant ennobled by the Austrian emperor.

    1929: One day she had passed away, Nachama Liba Miller, a native of Russia who had settled in Belfast and who was  the wife of Israel Miller with whom she had five children – Harris, Fanny, Abraham, Pauline and Annie – was buried today in the Belfast Jewish Cemetery.

    1930: In El Biar (Algiers) Haïm Aaron Prosper Charles (Aimé) Derrida and Georgette Sultana Esther Safar gave birth to Jackie Élie Derrida who gained fame as philosopher Jacques Derrida.

    1930(19th of Tammuz, 5690): Hungarian born violinist Leopold Auer passed away.  Born in 1845, Auer taught many violinists who later became famous, including Efrem Zimbalist, Nathan Milstein, Mischa Elman, and Jascha Heifetz.  Sometime before his death Auer converted to Christianity.

    1930(19thof Tammuz, 56900: Sixty-eight year old Rudolph Schildkraut the native of Istanbul who became a successful actor in Austria passed and who married Erma Weinstein the mother of his son actor Joseph Schildkraut, passed away today in Los Angeles.

    1931: Birthdate of Dr.. Renata Laxova, the native of Brno, Czechoslovakia and “American pediatric geneticist who survived the Holocaust thanks to the Kindertransport and discovered “the Neu-Laxová syndrome, a rare congenital abnormality involving multiple organs, with autosomal recessive inheritance.”

    1931: Birthdate of American graphic designer Thomas Geismar who in 1957 joined with Serge Chermayeff, a Russian born Jew, to form Chermayeff & Geismar & Haviv

    1932: “Strange Interlude,” the film version of the stage play by the same name starring Norma Shearer was released today in the United States.

    1932: Birthdate of Helen M. Berg, the wife of forestry professor of Alan Berg and “the longest serving mayor of Corvallis, Oregon.:

    1932: The New York Times reported that a list of 133 prominent Jews outside of the United States was published in today's issue of The American Hebrew and Jewish Tribune. The journal describes the list as "Our Foreign "Who's Who, being the first roster ever printed of outstanding Jews in lands other than the United States. Among those listed are Sir Isaac Alfred Isaacs, Governor General of Australia…Oscar Straus, Viennese composer; Paul Hyams, Belgian Minister of Justice; Georg Cohn, counselor to the Foreign Ministry of Denmark…”

    1933: In Philadelphia, Clare Laventhol and Jesse Laventhol, “a political reporter for the Philadelphia Record” gave birth to newspaper publisher David Abram Laventhol.

    1934(3rdof Av, 5694): Seventy-year old Charleston, SC native Louis Albert Sussdorf, “a retired member of the New York Stock Exchange” passed away today.

    1934: Seventy year old composer and conductor Louis Ferdinand Gottschalk passed away today in Los Angeles.

    1934(3rd of Av, 5694): In Germany, Simon Strauss and his son were shot dead by Kurt Baer. The court found that the murdered Jews actually "committed suicide". Baer found guilty only of breaching the peace.

    1935(14thof Tammuz, 5695): Amelia J. Allen, the Philadelphia born daughter of Miriam and Lewis Marks Allen, “the superintendent of the Northern Hebrew Sunday School” and “Supervising Principal for the Daniel Webseter Combined Secondary and Primary School” as well as “one of the founding members of the women’s branch of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association” passed away today.

    1935: Nazi gangs attacked Berlin Jews as part of a round of Anti-Jewish riots.

    1936:The Palestine Post reported that nine Arab terrorists were killed by British troops near Jenin and Safed. One British soldier was killed and several wounded when their lorry overturned during the engagement. There were repeated attempts by Arab terrorists to interfere with railway traffic. Arab merchants expressed considerable dissatisfaction and asked for a speedy end to their prolonged general strike.

    1936: It was reported today that according to the United Palestine Appeal, “14,707 Jewish immigrants reached Palestine from January 1, 1936 through April 30, 1936.”

    1936: In Vienna, “grave anxieties are expressed among the Jews” as Chancellor Kurt Schuschnigg prepares to appoint pro-Nazis members to the General Council of the Fatherland Front which was created by the recently adopted Fatherland Front Law.

    1937:  A concentration camp was established at Buchenwald, Germany.

    1937: “While British reaction to the report of the Palestine commission and its recommendations for the partition of that country have been almost unanimously favorably” today in London “there is increasing apprehension…that the bitter hostility of the Arab extremists, led by Haj Amin Husseini, Mufti of Jerusalem, if allowed to proceed unchecked, will wreck the chances of a settlement.”

    1938: “The Shopworn Angel,” a WW I tear-jerker produced by Joseph L. Mankiewicz and filmed by cinematographer Joseph Ruttenberg was released today in the United States.

    1938: At Evian, France, the international conference on refugees came to an end.


    1938(16th of Tammuz, 5698): At an orange grove near Hadera, Arab attackers shot and killed a Jewish worker while a group of workers leaving a grove near Tulkarm were attacked with one being wounded seriously, but not mortally.

    1938: Police found a bomb at Hadassah Hospital in Jerusalem two hours before it was set to detonate while a large store of arms and munitions was found near the Mosque of Omar.

    1939: After 291 performances, the curtain came down on the Broadway production of “Leave It to Me!” a musical with a book by Samuel and Bella Spewack.

    1940: As they prepared to leave Lisbon for Rio, Margret and Hans Rey "had their vaccination papers signed and stamped.”  Hans Rey is the creator of Curious George.

    1940: Five hundred Jews who had been taken from Szczebrzeszyn, Poland were sent to various work camps. From then on all Jews between the ages of sixteen and fifty had to report daily for selection.

    1941: Birthdate of Lawrence G. "Larry" Cohen “an American film producer, director, and screenwriter” who “is best known for directing his own low-budget, satirical, and inventive horror films and thrillers that are laced with scathing social commentary about modern American society.”

    1941: (20th Tammuz, 5701): Nazi forces and local Lithuanian sympathizers massacred the male population of Telz, including Rabbi Avraham Yitzchak Bloch and the faculty of the yeshiva.

    1941: Among the people disembarking in Montevideo from the ship Cabo de Buena Esperanza (Cape of Good Hope) today was German-born photographer Jeanne Mandello, who had managed to escape from France.

    1942: The first 2,000 deportees left Holland from the Westerbork transit camp for Auschwitz. Most of them were German Jews who found safety there years earlier.

    1942: “That Old Black Magic” a popular tune with music by Harold Arlen was recorded for the first time today.

    1942(1st of Av, 5702): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1942(1st of Av, 5702): One thousand Jews from Moczadz were taken to the woods and shot dead.

    1942(1st of Av, 5702): One thousand Jews were murdered in Bereza Kartuska, Belerus in the Soviet Union.

    1942: Etty Hillesum “received an appointment to the office on the Lijnbaansgracht” where she worked until she was transferred to Westerbrook.

    1942: At the end of the workday, 48 year old Alfred Le Guellec, “who held an important position in the service of foreign national for the Prefecture of Police is upset when he hears a rumor that a mass arrest of Jews is planned for tomorrow. As soon as he was safely away from the building he warned everybody he saw wearing a yellow star about the impending doom and told them to hide. This bravery would save the life of his friend Marcel Skurnik, his wife and their daughter Dora. (More tomorrow)

    1943: Brigadier General Leslie R. Groves,   director of the Manhattan Project (the super-secret project to build the Atomic Bomb) verbally ordered that Robert J. Oppenheimer be given security clearance regardless of accusations about his loyalty.

    1943: A week after Bruno Kittel, an Oberscharfuhrer in the German Security Police ordered Jacob Gens, “the de factor head of the Vilna Ghetto” to immediately surrender “Itzik Wittenberg, the Communist commander of the Fareynikte Partizaner Organizatsye (FPO), the United Partisans Organization, the ghetto’s underground resistance movement” today “Jacob Gens summoned the leaders of the FPO—Wittenberg, Abba Kovner, Abrasha Chwojnik, and Chenia Borowska—to a meeting at his office in the Judenrat building, Gens’s headquarters.”

    1943: Henry Levin began his Hollywood career as dialogue director for “Appointment in Berlin,” a war move that premiered today which was produced by Samuel Bischoff and featured Felix Basch as Hoppner

    1944: After 7,176 Jews had been shipped from Lodz to Chelmon, deportations were halted.  They would resume again in August.

    1944: The Red Army approached Siauliai, Lithuania, so the Germans cleared the town of its remaining four thousand Jews. More and more Jews were finding freedom in the arms of the advancing Red Army.

    1944: The Kovno Ghetto was cleared out of its remaining Jews.

    1944: The Chicago Sun reported "1,000,000 Hungarian Jews Face Massacre, Hull Says."  Hull was Cordell Hull the Secretary of State whose wife’s father was a Jewish immigrant from Austria. She was raised as an Episcopalian.  The level of anti-Semitism in the United States was such that, according to biographer Irwin Gellman, Hull hid her Jewish connection to protect his political career. 

    1944: Today “Anne McCormick, a foreign correspondent for The New York Times wrote in defense of Hungary as the last refuge of Jews in Europe, declaring that "as long as they exercised any authority in their own house, the Hungarians tried to protect the Jews.

    1944: Birthdate of Kobi Oshrat “an Israeli  composer and conductor who composed and conducted the winning entry at the 1979 Eurovision Song Contest Hallelujah sung by Gali Atari and Milk and Honey.”

    1944: Australian Prime Minister John Curtin informed Isaac Steinberg that “the Australian government would not ‘depart from the long-established policy in regard to alien settlement in Australia’ and could not ‘entertain the proposal for a group settlement of the exclusive type contemplated by the Freeland League’” i.e. the settlement of a large number of Jewish refugees in the Kimberly region of Western Australiza.

    1948:President Harry Truman was nominated for another term by the Democratic Party.  Truman’s candidacy was pronounced dead on arrival.  The Dixiecrats left the party over the issue of Civil Rights and backed Strom Thurmond for President.  Part of the left wing of the party left to support the candidacy of Henry Wallace, the man who had been Vice President during Roosevelt’s third term.  Truman’s victory over Dewey would be one of the greatest upsets in political history.  Truman garnered a large part of the Jewish vote which was congregated in key states with large electoral votes.  Jewish support was in no small part a reward for Truman’s decision to recognize the Jewish state which was fighting for survival as the man from Missouri fought for his political life.

    1948: Still seeking a way to reach Tel Aviv, the Egyptians attacked Be’erot Yitzhak.  In a day long desperate fight, the outnumbered defenders drove off the Egyptians.  As the Egyptians retreated, seventeen of the Israeli fighter lay dead and all of the settlement’s buildings had been destroyed.  Tel Aviv was saved, but the cost was high.

    1948: Continuing their drive for Nazareth, Israeli forces take Zippori after fierce fighting.

    1948: While the fighting flared, the diplomats dithered.  The United Nations decided that the Arab rejection of the extension of the truce that had been proposed by Count Bernadotte was a “breach of the peace” and ordered a permanent cease-fire.  The Arabs ignored the threat of sanctions and rejected the cease-fire. 

    1948: Israeli forces renewed their attempts to retake the Old City by launching attacks on the New Gate, the Jaffa Gate and the Zion Gate, none of which would prove successful.

    1948: During Operation Dekel, Israeli planes attacked the village of Saffuriya

    1948: Israeli forces began another attack on the Latrun Fortress, the Jordanian held military installation that was blocking the road to Jerusalem.

    1948: Yosef “Sprinzak was elected to the position of speaker of the provisional parliament.”

    1949: “Miss Liberty,” a musical with lyrics and music by Irving Berlin, “directed by Moss Hart and choreographed by Jerome Robbins” opened on Broadway at the Imperial Threatre

    1949: “The best known version” of "I Can Dream, Can't I?" a popular song written by Sammy Fain with lyrics by Irving Kahal “was recorded by the Andrews Sister” who were not Jewish.

    1949: “Any Number Can Play” the film version of the novel by the same name directed by Mervyn LeRoy, produced Arthur Freed and with a script by Richard Brooks was released in the United States today.

    1951: Ted Lurie, The Jerusalem Post reporter and future editor, visited Eilat and described the difficulties facing the new settlers. There was no bakery, the water tasted rusty and caused diarrhea, there was no facility to chill water or bottled drinks. But a large cold-storage plant was being planned to make the import of meat from East Africa possible.

    1952: The first production of “The Seven Year Itch” the hit comedy by George Axelrod, the son of Russian Jewish immigrant Herman Axelrod took place at the Fulton Theatre in New York City.

    1953: “Gentlemen Prefer Blondes” the movie version of the Broadway musical with a book by Joseph Fields and music by Jules Styne, produced by Sol C. Siegel and starring Marilyn Monroe who would later convert to Judaism, was released by 20thCentury Fox today in the United States.

    1955: “The Cobweb” the film version of the novel by the same name co-starring Lauren Bacall with music by Leonard Rosenman was released in the United States today.

    1955: Eighteen Nobel laureates signed the Mainau Declaration against nuclear weapons. The declaration was created by Otto Hahn and Max Born.  Hahn had stayed in Germany after the rise of the Nazis and played a major role in the atomic program.  Born had to leave Germany in 1933.  He had become a Lutheran but his parents were Jewish and as far as the Nazis were concerned Born was still Jewish.

    1956(7thof Av, 5716): Forty-one year old Canadian born author David W. Petegorsky who was the Executive Director of the American Jewish Congress passed away today;rad

    1958: Five thousand U.S. Marines landed in Beirut, Lebanon, to protect the pro-Western government. This landing took place at the same time that the pro-Western government of Iraq was being overthrown. The fighting in Lebanon was part of an on-going struggle between the Christians and the Moslems which had supposedly been settled by a power-sharing agreement set up by the French before they ended their imperial role there. The collapse of this power-sharing agreement would explode in a civil war in the 1970’s, the aftermath of which exists today. Needless to say, this instability in its northern neighbor has added to Israel’s problems.

    1959(9th of Tammuz, 5719):Swiss-born American composer Ernest Bloch passed away.  While his works covered a variety of themes, from a Jewish point of view, one of his most interesting works was Schelomo, a composition for cello and orchestra written in 1915 that was completed during Bloch's "Jewish Cycle," which lasted from 1912–1926

    1959: Birthdate of Istanbul native David Tzur, who made Aliyah at the age of six and pursued a career in security with the government before being elected to the Knesset in the elections of 2013.

    1965: “Eve of Destruction,” written by P.F. Sloan was recorded to with Sloan on guitar and Hal Blaine on drums.

    1965: Birthdate of David Miliband, leader of the British Labour Party.

    1967: During the War of Attrition an Israeli Air Force Mirage III is shot down by Egyptian MiG-21.

    1968: ABC broadcast the first episode of “One Life to Live” a soap opera in which Doris Belack appeared for nearly a decade as “Anna Wolke Craig” a role which she created and

    1969:Rod Carew ties the record with his 7th steal of home in a season.  Carew is not Jewish, although he has been mistakenly identified as one.  He is married to a Jewish woman and his children have been raised in the faith of their mother.

    1973: General Shmuel Gonen assumed command of Israel’s Southern Front.  He replaced Ariel Sharon who was leaving the army to go into politics.  Just prior to the change in command, Sharon told Defense Minister Dayan that Gonen lacked the experience to handle the command if war should break out.  Dayan assured Sharon that Gonen had plenty of time to gain the needed experience since there was not going to be a war in 1973.

    1973 CIA Director Richard Helms sent a telegram to Henry Kissinger,  Richard Nixon's National Security Advisor, stating that King Hussein of Jordan had told him that Jordanian intelligence had learned of a Syrian attack to recapture the Golan Heights originally  which had been delayed since June could take place at any time; probably sooner than later. One of the Jordanian intelligence sources was the commander of a Syrian armored brigade, and the Jordanians had obtained a copy of the battle plans, which had been coordinated with Egypt and Iraq. Once again, instability in the Middle East is shown not to be “an Israeli problem.”  In fact the Americans would call upon the Israelis to assist in thwarting the planned attacked.3

    1974: Birthdate of Menachem Stark.

    1974: “Over 150 Belgian academics handed a petition to Soviet Ambassador Sobelev expressing concern at the fate of their colleagues who seek to emigrate from the USSR.”

    1976(17thof Tammuz, 5736): Tzom Tammuz

    1976: It was reported today that the Labor Party Government is being pressed by a large number of British citizens “to take some firm action” in response to the “presumed death of 73 year old Dora Bloch, an Anglo-Israeli who disappeared after the Israeli raid on Entebbe.

    1976: The Jerusalem Post reported that former defense minister Moshe Dayan called for an arrangement whereby Jews and Arabs would live together in the administered territories, with the Arabs remaining Jordanians and the land remaining under Israeli control. He stressed that Israelis were in the territories by right, not as conquerors. Questioned whether Arabs would agree to this, he replied that if we had to do things according to the desires of the Arabs, we could pack our bags and go to Canada. A delegation of Israeli legal and atomic energy experts visited Washington to work out final details of the sale of two US 450-megawatt reactors to Israel.

    1977(29thof Tammuz, 5737): Eighty-two year old talent and literary agent Adeline Jaffe passed away today.

    1981)13thof Tammuz, 5741): Three people were murdered and 25 more injured “in rocket attacks today in northern Israel.

    1982: “The Last American Virgin” directed by Boaz Davidson who also wrote the script, produced by Yoram Globus and Menahem Golan and filmed by cinematographer Adam Greenberg was released in Germany today.

    1986(8th of Tammuz, 5746):  Actor and comedian Benny Rubin passed away at the age of 87.

    1991(4thof Av, 5751): Seventy-nine year old New York native Morris “Moe” Spahn the all-star basketball player for CCNY who went on to a successful pro career in the American Basketball League and was the father Dartmouth basketball player Steve Spahn, passed away today.

    1991: Award winning “British economic historian” Robert Skidelsky, the father of journalist William Skidelsky and university lecturer Edward Skidelsky, “was created a life peer as Baron Skidelsky, of Tilton in the County of East Sussex.”

    1991: The Landmarks Preservation commission held a public hearing on the proposed designation as a Landmark of the New York Public Library, Aguilar Branch, and the proposed designation of the related Landmark Site. “The Aguilar Branch of the New York Public Library initially was built for the Aguilar Free Library Society which was founded in 1886 as an independent library to provide circulating books for immigrant Jews.  The society was named after Grace Aguilar a popular 19thcentury British novelist and essayist of Sephardic Jewish descent.” (As reported by the Landmarks Preservation Commission)

    1992: In “Orphans Gather For A Family Reunion” published today Ron Grossman provides a history of the Marks Nathan Home.

    1997(10thof Tammuz, 5757): Fifty-eight year old NYU player and coach Mark Reiner passed away today.

    1993: Fourteenth Maccabiah comes to an end.

    1994: “Angels in the Outfield” a baseball comedy/fantasy co-produced by Joe Roth and Roger Birnbaum and music by Randy Edelman was released in the United States today.

    1999(2ndof Av, 5759): Eighty-year old Benjamin Forester “Ben” Sohn the San Diego High School who was an all-star lineman at USC in the late 1930’s and played a season for the New York Football Giants passed away today.

    1999: “The Last Days” a documentary that “tells the stories of five Hungarian Jews during the Shoah” that “focuses on the horrors of life in the concentration camps” was released in Australia today.

    1999: “Pursuant to Security Council Resolution 1244, the nominated Dr. Bernard Kouchner as the second UN Special Representative and Head of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK)

    2001: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Supreme Injustice by Alan M. Dershowitz, Vote: Bush, Gore and the Supreme Court edited by Cass R. Sunstein and Richard A. Epstein, to be published by the University of Chicago Press in October and currently available as an e-book on the Web site and the recently release