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A collection of Jewish history and current Jewish events, in date format, updated daily in this Jewish history blog.

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    July 29

    1099:  Pope Urban II, the man behind the First Crusade, passed away.  Considering the impact of the Crusades on the Jews of Europe, his impact on Jewish history is self-obvious.

    1108: Louis VI, during whose reign “jurisdiction over the Jews and their revenues gradually passed from royal control to the hands of the Catholic Church” began his reign as King of the Franks.

    1336: Led by John Zimberlin, a self-proclaimed prophet, a group of peasants in Germany known as the Armleder (for their leather straps warn on their arms) attacked Jewish communities in Franconia and the Alsace region. They also destroyed Jewish communities in Bohemia, Moravia and elsewhere along the Rhine. Roughly 1500 Jews were murdered. Eventually when the Armleder began to attack non-Jews, they were opposed by local Lords.

    1567: James VI is crowned King of Scotland. Scotland’s King James VI will enter history as King James I of Great Britain, the monarch who gave his name to the King James Bible, the English translation of the holy book whose text most Americans (including many Jews) will think of as the real words of God.

    1588: English naval forces under command of Lord Charles Howard and Sir Francis Drake defeats the Spanish Armada off the coast of Gravelines, France. The defeat of the Spanish Armada meant that the Catholics and their Inquisition would not take control of the British Islesor re-take the Netherlands, the Protestant nation that was haven for European Jews.  Morrano spies reportedly provided information to the English which helped them to know when and where to expect the arrival of the Armada.

    1612(29thof Tammuz, 5372): Abraham Portaleone, the Italian physician who studied under Jacob Fano and who was granted special dispensation so he could treat such prominent Christians as the Dukes Guglielmo and Vincenzo of Mantua and Pope Gregory IV passed away today.

    1644: Urban VIII, the Pope who issued an edict in 1625 forbidding Jews in Rome from erecting gravestones, passed away.

    1654(Av, 5414):Miriam Lucerna, “the daughter of a well-known rabbi and physician, Leo Lucerna” and the wife of Meshullam Solomon Fischhof-Auerbach passed away today in Vienna.

    1792(10thof Av, 5551): Fast of Tish’a B’Av observed

    1808: As he prepared for surgery, Rothschild drew up his last will and testament.

    1816: “Abraham Wolf was ordered” by a justice of the Pennsylvania Supreme Court “to pay a fine of $4 for doing business on a Sunday” in violation of what were known as “Blue Laws.”  (As reported by Abraham P. Bloch)

    1827: In Strasbourg, “banker Adolphe Ratisbonne and his wife Charlotte Oppenheim” gave birth to French author Louis Raisbornne whose uncles had converted to Catholicism and become priests.

    1819: David Moses Dyte and Hannah Lazarus gave birth to Charles Dyte, who married Evelina Nathan and with whom he had five children.

    1830: Abdication of Charles X of France. Charles abdicated in favor of his grandson.  But the Chamber of Deputies rejected this move and chose Louis-Philippe, duc d'Orleans, to fill the vacant throne.  This proved to be a good thing for the French Jews since Louis would ratify a motion putting Judaism on a par with Christianity, granting State support to Synagogues and their Minister of Religion. This meant that France extended financial support to Jewish religious institutions on par with Christian institutions.

    1832(2nd of Av, 5592): Seventy-three year old Isaac Levy “of Bevis Marks, the faithful servant for 44 years to the family of Aaron Solomon”, passed away today and was buried this evening and was buried this evening at the Lauriston Road Jewish Cemetery.

    1832: Moses Levy, who had died on Shabbat, was buried today at the Canterbury Jewish Cemetery.

    1836(15th of Av, 5596): Tu B’Av celebrated for the last time during the Presidency of Andrew Jackson.

    1840: Birthdate of Simon Baruch, a physician, who was born in Schwersen, Germany (now part of Poland). He attended German schools and received a degree from the Medical College of Virginia (1862); was surgeon for the Confederate Army (1862-1865); and practiced in Camden, South Carolina, until 1881, then in New York. He was the Chairman of the South Carolina Board of Health (1880) and was the author of books on the use of hydrotherapy. He married Isabel Wolfe in 1867. His greatest claim to fame was that he was the father of Bernard Baruch, the famed financier and advisor to Presidents.

    1844: A day after he had passed away, Meyer Tobias Levy Keeling, the son of Sophia and Henry Levy Keeling was buried at the “Brompton (Fulham Road) Cemetery” today.

    1847: Grace Aguilar made her last entry in her Frankfort Journal, a 34,000 word long effort that recorded her family’s journey through Belgian and Germany.  It was also her last literary effort since she would pass away in September.

    1849: In Pest, Gabriel Südfeld, a Hebrew poet and his wife gave birth to Simon Maximilian Südfeld who gained fame as Max Nordau, the Zionist leader, physician, author, and social critic. He was a co-founder of the World Zionist Organization together with Theodor Herzl, and president or vice president of several Zionist congresses. Nordau died in Paris, France in 1923. In 1926 his remains were moved to Tel Aviv.

    1850(20th of Av, 5610): Sarah Moses, the daughter of Abraham Moses and the wife of Lazarus Moses, passed away and was buried in Chatham, Kent, England.

    1864: In article describing President Jefferson Davis' cabinet, the Richmond Sentinel reported that "The whole burden of the objections to the Secretary of State seems to have dwindled down to the fact that he is a Jew, for all admit his distinguished abilities. The time is at hand when his abilities will be needed, and we feel confident that when the occasion occurs he will not be found wanting, but will ably sustain the dignity of his office and his already acquired high reputation. "

    1866: Birthdate of New York native Solomon J. Wallach, the CCNY graduate and President of the Mendelssohn Benevolent Society who attended the organizations 100thanniversary celebration in 1941 where he read congratulatory letters from Governor Lehman and President Roosevelt.

    1868: Today, “Joseph Kirsh, Henry Walterstein and Isaac Hollander were named as trusteed to hold, manage and disposed of the of the property of Congregation Beth Israel” in Richmond, VA.

    1870: Benjamin Nathan’s body was discovered at 5:50 a.m. in his New York mansion. “Mr. Nathan was found lying dead with his skull smashed in…A heavy iron instrument used by ship carpenters called a ‘dog’ was found near the body.”  This was the murder instrument. Apparently, Mr. Nathan was killed when he interrupted a robbery that was taking place at his home. (Despite the offering of a large reward and numerous arrests, the murder remains unsolved.)

    1870: An “excitable weekly” called the Sunday Mercury published an unsigned article accusing Washington Nathan of murdering his father, Benjamin Nathan

    1870: The New York Stock Exchange offered a $10,000 reward for the arrest and conviction of the murder or murderers of Benjamin Nathan.  Nathan had been a member of the Exchange for thirty years.

    1873: In Odessa, Russia, Isaac Stone and Rose Leviash gave birth to Nahum I. Stone, the husband of Bertha Esther Levinson who earned an M.A. from Columbia University and was he the author of several works including “Capitalism on Trial in Russia,” “Economic Resources of Siberia” and “A Study of Agricultural Statistics in the United States.”

    1873:At Castle Garden (NY), the President of the Romania Society presented a letter at today’s meeting of the Commissioners of Emigration requesting “that the board take charge of five Rumanian emigrants and send them back home.”  The five are Orthodox Jews who could not exist on the food prepared at the commission’s Ward’s Island facility. The letter also stated that if the Commissioners would send the Jews home, the Society’s President would see to it “that the emigration” would be stopped in Roumania. The commission agreed to send them back and expressed “regret that the American Consul in Roumania had not stopped the emigration” in the first place.

    1875: Suffering from the effects of his trip to Palestine, a fatigued Sir Moses Montefiore spends the day rest in bed.

    1875: While visiting Palestine, Sir Moses Montefiore wrote a letter to Hayyim Guedalla in which he described the marked increase in the number of dwellings in Jerusalem, and, given the increasing density of the population, the need to start building “suitable dwellings” beyond the current city limits.

    1876(8th of Av, 5636): Shabbat Chazon, Erev Tish'a B'Av

    1877: It was reported today that the Jews have established Young Men’s Hebrew Associations in New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Chicago and Cincinnati.  They are modeled after the YMCA’s. The Jewish Messenger “thinks the system should be extended to other cities” because they have the “power to mold American Judaism.”

    1877: Seventy-eight year old Morris Abrahams who was born in 1799 and passed away on July 27 was interred today at the Bath Jewish Burial Ground.

    1877: “Any Change in Turkey For the Better” published today relying on information from the Duke of Argyll that first appeared in the Contemporary Review, described conditions in the Ottoman Empire in which “Moslem tyranny” exercises control “over the whole non-Moslem population while the government “has been friendly to the Jews”  “this toleration is nothing” in reality “but equal and indiscriminate contempt.”

    1878: “Palestine” published today described “the model of the entire country” now on exhibit at on the grounds near the Round Lake Hotel built on a scale of “two and a half feet to the mile” that allow “visitors” to walk from Jaffa to Jerusalem to the Dead Sea and after having taken a dip in the Jordan River to visit Bethlehem and Mt. Hermon

    1878: Five days after he has passed away, “Joseph Cohen, the eldest son of Minna and Leopold Cohen” was buried today at the Balls Pond Road Jewish Cemetery.

    1878: Hans Magnus who had been born in 1867 to Samuel and Zerline Magnus was buried today at “the Balls Pond Road Jewish Cemetery.”

    1879(9th of Av, 5639):Tish'a B'Av                                                                                    

    1879: The Standard’s Constantinople dispatch reported today that the Jewish quarter at Orta Keui, a village on the Bosporus, has been destroyed by “a terrific fire.”

    1881: Birthdate of San Francisco native, German trained thoracic surgeon Leo Eloesser a member of the Stanford Medical School Faculty whose fascinating life including serving with the Lincoln Brigade during the Spanish Civil War and being the 8th Route Army in China during WW II.

    1881: The first ships containing large numbers of Russian Jews arrived in New York following pogroms in Russia. This was the beginning of mass immigration to the U.S. during that would change the face of the American Jewish Community.  The great waves of immigration would slow with World War I and come to a halt during the 1920's when an isolationism, nativism and racism closed the doors of America to most immigrants. 

    1882: In Hungary, Solomon Schwarz, Abraham Buxbaum, Leopold Braun, and Hermann Wollner, were charged with murdering a Christian girl named Esther Solymosi . Josef Scharf, Adolf Jünger, Abraham Braun, Samuel Lustig, Lazar Weissstein, and Emanuel Taub, were charged with voluntarily assisting in the crime. Anselm Vogel, Jankel Smilovics, David Hersko, Martin Gross, and Ignaz Klein, were charged with abetting the crime and smuggling the body. This case which turned into a blood libel began in April and would rile the kingdom for at least another two years.

    1883: “Scenes on the East Side” published a visitors account of what he saw when he visited this section of Manhattan including “a colony of foreign-born Jews of the lower classing inhabiting the southern end of Allen-Street” and polyglot neighborhoods on Essex, Ludlow and Hester Streets that included a poor immigrants of many nationalities including Jews from Russia.

    1884: It was reported today two of the rioters who participated in the anti-Jewish riots at Zaleszozuky, Hungary were sentenced to five years in prison and another was sentenced to four years in prison. This was the Hungarian town that was the home of Esther Solomossy, a Christian girl who was allegedly killed by Jews as part of their religious rituals.

    1885: In Cincinnati, Ohio, Bernard Goodman and Pauline Louise de Coppetti gave birth toTheodosia Burr Goodman who gained fame as Theda Bara, the silent screen star known as “The Vamp.

    1885: The Chaplain of the British Embassy in Vienna has completed a census of the religious affiliations of Englishmen and Americans living in the Austrian capital.  The Anglo-American population of 1,316 included 111 Jews.

    1885: The “majority of the shops” in Ramsgate are closed today because the town is in mourning over the death of Sir Moses Montefiore.  The Town Hall is draped as sign of mourning and the municipal authorities including the Mayor plan to at tend the funeral for the Jewish philanthropist

    1886: At their meeting this afternoon, The Commissioners of Emigration listened to an appeal by several Jewish leaders including a representative of the Hebrew Immigration Society on behalf of eastern European immigrants being detained on Ward’s Island. The commissioners accepted the argument by the Jewish leaders that the immigrants had friends who would take care of them and were not therefore not indigent.  With the exception of a couple of the families in question, the rest were allowed to pass through Castle Garden on their way to a new life in the New World.

    1887: in Gross-Kanizsa, which at that time as part of the Austro Hungarian Empire, Adam and Clara Rosenberg gave birth to Siegmund Rosenberg who gained fame as composer and conductor Sigmund Romberg.

    1887: Isaac Ullmann, Jr. the secretary of the Utopia club obtained an injunction today restraining  the club from keep him from exercising his rights a member.  The members of the Utopia Club are wealthy New Haven (Ct) Jews.  Ullmann had been banned for a year when it was discovered that he had not paid a fine levied against him.

    1887: Adolph Reich, who had been convicted of murdering his wife is scheduled to be hung today.  When the Judge had pronounced the death penalty he expressed his surprise at a Jew being brought before him on such a charge, “since they were, as a rule orderly, law-abiding citizens.” He could not remember ever sentencing a Jew to be hanged.

    1888: Birthdate of Mir, Russia native Leon Cooper, the 1910 graduate of CCNY, “president of the Cooper Safety Razor Corporation in Brooklyn and husband of Lucy Price Cooper with whom he had two children – George W. Cooper and Mrs. Arthur Kimelfield.

    1889: A three story house owned on Main Street, Sing Sing, owned by David Ross which was home to numerous Jewish peddlers burned in a fire that started at three in the morning.  A machine shop owned by Abram Kipp then caught fire and, by the time it was over, only the walls remained.

    1889(1st of Av, 5649): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1890: “City and Suburban News” published today described plans for the upcoming benefit sponsored by B’nai B’rith as a fundraiser for the Home for old and Infirm Hebrews.

    1890: “The Shatchen” by Charles S. Dickson, featuring M.B. Curtis who starred in “Sam’l of Posen” is scheduled to open today at the Grand Opera House in Los Angeles.

    1890: Four Russian Jewish immigrants were stopped from going to work for Marcus Ullman, a peddler on New York’s east side when it was discovered that he was going to pay them $12 a month while the Labor Bureau had found work for them at salaries of $14 to $17 per month.

    1891(23rdof Tammuz, 5651): Sixteen year old Louis Rabinowitz, a Russian Jew, passed away today at New Haven, CT.

    1891(23rdof Tammuz, 5651): Jacob Levy, one of the suspects in the “Ripper Murders” passed away this evening at in the asylum for the mentally ill where had been confined.

    1891: Birthdate of Bernhard Zondek, the German born Israeli gynecologist who developed the first reliable pregnancy test.

    1891: Thirty Russian immigrants who sailed from Liverpool on the SS Norseman arrived in Boston today where they have been refused permission to land..

    1891: “The Russian Jew Persecutions” published today described the burning of “a little farming settlement four Russian miles from Veile” where fourteen Jews were burned today and twenty more were seriously injured. “All the time the Russians were rushing wildly about shouting, ‘Kill the Jews!  Kill the Jews!’”

    1892: Henry Heller, who had served as a Sergeant in Company A of the 66th Ohio Infantry during the Civil War was issued his Medal of Honor today for voluntary crossing into enemy lines under heavy fire to bring a Confederate officer who provided his superiors with “invaluable information” concerning the position of the enemy during the Battle of Chancellorsville, which was one of the worst defeats suffered by the Army of the Potomac.

    1892: “Dr. Michael Singer, who was reported a few weeks ago to have absconded with $25,000 of the Baron Hirsch Fund at Budapest” today “denied the charge and said he had written to Dr. Alexander Klein…to bring a suit for libel against” the paper that had published the charge.

    1893(16th of Av, 5653): Shabbat Nacahamu

    1893(16thof Av, 5653): Sixty-two year old historian Julius Aronius who was working on Regesten zur Geschichte der Juden in Deutschland at the time of his death passed away today.

    1894: Two days after she had passed away, 56 year old “Augusta Stock Levy…the wife of Samuel Levy” was buried today at the “West Ham Jewish Cemetery” on Buckingham Road.

    1894: As of today, the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children has provided excursions for 2,647 children and 1,213 mothers free of charge.  In addition 233 sick infants and children have been cared for at the Rockaway facility.

    1894: Contributions needed for the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children to continue its work may be sent to its managers – Nathan Lewis, Hezekiah Kohn and Joseph Davis.

    1894: “Germany In Earliest Times” published today provides a review of A History of Germany In The Middle Ages in which the author begins with a critical overview of the efforts of past historians including Josephus who he said “wrote of the same events in his Antiquities as in the War of the Jews and reported them differently.

    1895(8th of Av, 5655):Less than a month before his 84th birthday Joseph Derenbourg, or Joseph Naftali Derenburg, a Franco-German orientalist, who wrote an Essai sur l'histoire ella geographie de la Palestine passed away today.

    1895(8th of Av, 5655) Erev Tish'a B'Av

    1895: Two days after she had passed away, forty year old Leah Brenner, the daughter of Rebecca and Jacob Roxas was buried today at the “West Ham Jewish Cemetery.”

    1897: The Protective Musical Union Band will provide the entertainment at the second annual outing of the Brooklyn Hospital Society which is being held at Wissel’s Ridgewood Park.

    1898: “The Russian Jew in America” by Abraham Cahan, the man who ran the Forverts for 40 years appeared in the Atlantic Monthly bringing together one of those unlikely combinations – the immigrant Jew and the classical WASP intellectual journal.

    1898: Birthdate of physicist Isidor Isaac Rabi whose exploration of the atom earned him a Nobel Prize in 1944.

    1898: Birthdate of Pittsburg, PA native Irving Ralph “Red” Perlman” the WW I veteran who played guard for the undefeated 1917 U. of Pittsburgh “Panthers” and pursued a pro career in the 1920’s.

    1898: Isaac F. Goldenhorn, the attorney for Michael Aaronberg, Abraham Hoffman, Mendal Bloomkey, Jacob Joseph and Adolph Horowitz, the Trustees of the Moses Montefiore Congregation in Hoboken, NJ, went into court today to seek an injunction to keep David Engler from removing the building from its location at 76 Grand Street.

    1899: In describing his trip to Europe, John Ireland, the Archbishop of St. Paul, MN is reported to have told friends “that there is not so much turmoil over the Dreyfus Affiar as would appear from the press reports and that the decision of the court-martial whatever it may be will be accepted as final.” (Editor’s note – boy was he wrong)  He also said that the issue was no longer the guilt or innocence of Dreyfus but the honor of the army. (He was right about that)

    1899: “The treaties, declarations and final acts of the Hague Peace Conference which Jan Bloch attended were signed today.”

    1899: “Book News In London” published today described a English language translation of a monograph by Jules Huret on Sarah Bernhardt which has a preface by Edmond Rostand, the author of Cyrano de Bergerac.

    1904: Mathew Nathan succeeded Sir Henry Arthur Blake as the Governor of Hong Kong.

    1905: In Worcester, MA, Yetta Helen (née Jasspon) and Solomon Z. Kunitz gave birth to their third child, future Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress Stanley Jasspon Kunitz.

    1906: Birthdate of New York native and youthful resident of Oakland, CA,Norman Frank Feldheym who majored in history at the University of Cincinnati while earning ordination from HUC in 1932 after which he served congregations in Panama City and San Bernardino and earning a Bronze Star and 6 battle stars while serving as a U.S. Army chaplain in WW II and Korea.

    1906: Birthdate of New York City and attorney Gertrude Caesar who was the “Caeser” in the law firm of Feuer and Caesar founded “in the early 1930’s with her husband attorney Moses A. Feuer with whom she had two children Robert and Nancy, the future wife of attorney Milton Fischel.

    1907: Lt. Col. Mathew Nathan completes his service as the 13th Governor of Hong Kong.

    1911: In London, the First Universal Races Congress, an anti-racist organization which discussed the “Jewish Question” came to a close today.

    1912(15thof Av, 5672): Tu B’Av was celebrated for the last time during the Presidency of William Howard Taft.

    1912(15thof Av, 5672): Mayer Hahn, who on May 17, 1898 was nominated by William McKinley to serve as Collector of Customs for the District of Pamlico, in North Carolina and later approved by Congress, passed away today in Long Branch, NJ.

    1913: Two days after she passed away, funeral services were held for Mrs. Lena Jonas of Waterloo, IA at Furth’s Chapel.

    1913: Birthdate of Mankato, MN native Helen Barbara Kruger who gained fame as “Bobbie Nudie” Cohn the wife Nudie Cohn, the creator of outrageous clothing for such stars as Cher and Elvis Prseley.

    1913: Funeral services were held today for Mrs. Helena P. Monash, the mother of four sons and two married daughters at her home in Chicago.

    1914: A day after the Austro-Hungarians declared war on the Serbians, Czar Nicholas sent a telegram to Kaiser Wilhelm II suggesting “submitting the Austrian-Serbian problem to the Hague Convention” for resolution.

    1914: Birthdate of Brooklyn native Irwin Eli Cohen who gained fame as comedian Irwin Corey.(As reported by Ron Wertheimer)

    1917(10thof Av, 5677): Tish’a B’Av observed on Sunday

    1917: “In connection with the observance” of Tish’a B’Av, “special appeals have been sent to all rabbis throughout the city to ask their congregations to make contributions to the Joint Distribution Committee of Funds for Jewish War Sufferers.

    1917: “In the…the east side Jewish schools…the rabbis with the children prayed and mourned over the fate of Palestine” and “chanted the songs of Judah Halevi, the ancient poet and especially the ode to Zion that brings to every heart…a real yearning for Palestine.”

    1917:  It was reported today that in a statement celebrating Finland’s independence from Russia, the Diet issued a statement which provided assurances that “the rights of Russian citizens in Finland as well as those of the Jews will not undergo any modification.”

    1917: In an unusual move, today the New York Timespublished a list provide by the Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society of American Jews whom thousands of Jews in Russia and Poland are seeking to reach along with instructions for anybody seeing their name on the list trying to contact these relatives.

    1917: The Central Committee for the Relief of Jews Suffering Through the War of which Harry Fischel is the treasurer, as of today reported that it “had received new gifs totally more than $14,300.”

    1917: “Wife Number Two” a silent movie filmed by cinematographer Joseph Ruttenberg was released in the United States today by Fox Film Corporation.

    1917: It was reported today that the Finnish Diet has adopted a resolution reassuring the Jews that their rights “will not undergo any modification” under the new government.

    1918: It was reported today that Minister of Foreign Affairs Constantin C. Arion “declared in an interview that the Rumanian Government…would grant rights to the Jews in accordance with the peace treaty, and even more fully, and would completely abolish Article 7 of the Rumanian Constitution which lays it down that Jews in Rumania are aliens and that naturalization is only possible for them individually.” (The Rumanian government might hold a record for promising to grant full citizenship to Jews and then reneging on the promise – a pattern that began in the middle of the 19th century and continued through the Shoah when the issue became moot.)

    1919: The 21stAnnual Convention of the Progressive Order of the West ended today in Chicago.

    1919(2ndof Av, 5679): Twenty-eight year Jewish American racketeer Johnny Spanish, born John Weyler, was murdered by three unknown gunmen while entering a restaurant at 19Second Avenue in Manhattan ending what was the “Second Labor Sluggers War.”

    1920: Today after 270 of the Templers who had been living at the Tel Aviv neighborhood of Sarona and interred in Egypt by the British during WW I “had been repatriated in April to Bad Mergentheim, Germany, the House of Lorder permitted the remaining” 580 “internees to return to Palestine” where they found colony at Sarona to have been “plundered and vandalize.”

    1921: In Germany Hedwig Ehrenberg and Max Born gave birth to Gustav Victor Rudolf Born who served as the Sheild Professor of Professor of Pharmacology at Cambridge. He is the father of Professor Georgina Born and the uncle of singer Olivia Newton-John

    1921: Adolf Hitler becomes leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party.

    1922: In Los Angeles, “Benjamin Lewis, a lawyer and pianist Pauline Kallin” gave birth to Flora Lewis “a correspondent and columnist who explained international politics to readers of The New York Times and other publications for nearly 60 years.” [Editor’s note- Wiki shows the date as July 25 but quotes from the NYT obit that shows July 29] (As reported by Craig R. Whitney)

    1923: A review of The Soul of Woman: A Reflection on a Life by Gina Lombroso, the Italian-Jewish sociologist was published today.

    1923: In Bennington, VT, Congregation Beth El, which was founded in 1909 dedicated its new synagogue “at the corner of North and Adams Streets.” 

    1925: In Lviv, Izzak Natali Botwin a Polish communist and “labor activist assassinated Josef Cechnowski an agent of the Polish secret police Defensywa who had infiltrated the Communist Party and worked as an informer.

    1928: The Day, a Jewish newspaper printed in New York City, published a report from its correspondent in Palestine that Frieda and Goldina Rubinson, two sisters born in Hamburg now living in Tel Aviv claimed that the late composer Giacomo Pucini had plagiarized the score of his opera “Turnadot” from them. They claim to have proof that they composed the work in 1896 at which time they obtained a copyright in Germany and the United States.  The two sisters plan on making a trip to the United States to pursue their claim against, among others, the Metropolitan Opera Company which produced the work in 1927.

    1929: Dr. Arthur Ruppin addressed the second session of the 16th Biennial Zionist Congress in Zurich, Switzerland today.  He said that “conversion to other faiths, intermarriage, a decreasing birth rate and unchanged mortality rate” were “disintegrating forces menacing the continued existence of the Jews as a people.” 

    1930: Birthdate of Sol Steinmetz, the Hungarian born American “lexicographer, author and tenured member of Olbom (As reported by Margalit Fox)

    1931(15thof Av, 5691): Tu B’Av

    1931: Birthdate of Art Ginsburg the native of Troy, NY, who gained fame as the television chef and author known as “Mr. Food.
    1932: “The Vanishing Frontier” directed by Phil Rosen and produced by Sam Jaffe was released in the United States by Paramount Pictures.

    1933: In Vienna, Sara and Herman Kirchenbaum gave birth to Peretz Kidron who became a noted Israeli writer, journalist, and translator.

    1934: Birthdate of Stanton Friedman a nuclear physicist who was “the original civilian investigator of the Rockwell Incident.”

    1934: Two days after he had passed away, funeral service were held to for 68 year old Louis Ziv, the Russian born American attorney and the husband of Mary Ziv with whom he had five children – Sylvia, Lawrence, Royal, Seymour and John – at Beth El Temple in Chicago where he had been president of the congregation followed “burial in Waldheim Cemetery.”

    1934: The New York Times publishes an article by Sir Herbert Samuel in which the first British High Commissioner for Palestine describes the progress and problems facing the country.  His lengthy commentary is based on his first visit to Palestine in nine years.

    1935: Publication of Seven Pillars of Wisdom, T.E. Lawrence’s somewhat overwrought account of the “Arab Revolt” during World War I.  Lawrence supported the interests of Feisal against the Europeans including his own British Foreign Office.  Lawrence believed that there was room in the Middle East for both a Jewish homeland and an Arab Caliphate.

    1936: The Palestine Post reported that a British constable and 10 Arabs fell in a day-long battle near Nablus. Among the many arrested, one Arab claimed that he was forced to join the marauders. The Royal Air Force joined the land forces in their organized pursuit of the rebels, many of whom escaped into the more inaccessible areas, carrying their wounded. Arab terrorists warned local Arab villagers living near Motza and other neighborhoods close to Jerusalem that they would be killed and their property destroyed unless they submitted to all their demands. Six Jewish communists were deported to Russia and one to Poland.

    1936:The plan of the Austrian Government to broadcast to Germany the Salzburg festival performances has run afoul of Arturo Toscanini. It has just leaked out from circles in close contact with the Italian conductor that Mr. Toscanini has threatened to leave Salzburg immediately, never to return, if any performance conducted by him is broadcast to Germany.

    1936: “Abraham Kraditor, commander-in-chief of the Jewish War Veterans returned” today aboard the “French liner Champlain from Vienna where he had attended the second World Congress of Jewish War Veterans.

    1936: “Julius Streicher’s newspaper, the Stuermer, far from suffering suppression during the Olympics as has been reported appeared today with a special Olympic number” on the front page of which is a half-page cartoon showing a degenerate and brutal person labeled ‘Jew’ starring with envy and hatred at a Germanic-looking Olympic victor crowned with laurel” while the bottom of page is emblazoned with the slogan “Jews Are Our Misfortune.”

    1936: In Vienna this evening in pre-Olympic ceremony, the Nazi mob “formed in a procession” “howling down the Jewish Olympic athletes with shouts of ‘Perish the Jews!  Go back to Palestine.’”

    1936: “While the Jews in Palestine are not displeased by Colonial Minister Ormsby-Gore’s statement in the House of Commons today concerning the terms of reference of the royal commission, the Arabs are keenly disappointed.”

    1936: Levi “Lee” Shubert “the eldest of seven siblings of the theatrical Shubert family” “secretly married” Marcella Swanson today in Germany following which they would divorce in 1948 and re-marry in 1949.

    1937: Oscar A. Lewis, the leader of the La Guardia Republicans in Brooklyn was among those disappointed tonight when “the Kings County Republican Committee” voted to withhold “their endorsement of Mayor La Guardia as Republican candidate for re-nomination as Mayor.”

    1938(1st of Av, 5698): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1938: Dr. Kallman M. Davidson “reportedly” passed away today in Boston, MA.

    1938(1st of Av, 5698): Confronted with the realities of life in Nazi Germany, Dr. Friedreich Gernsheim and his wife Rosa committed suicide

    1838: It was reported today “that 2,980 Austrian Jews have emigrated with the aid of of other Jews since the March 13 annexation of Austria” and “that emigration would be faster if conditions for leaving Germany were simpler.

    1938: “Another appeal for German cooperation in” dealing with “the refugee problem was made in the House of Commons today by Earl Winterton, who head the British delegation to the conference on refugees at Evian.”

    1939: Ben Zion Meir Hai Uziel is installed as Chief Sephardic Rabbi of Haifa.

    1940: In a case of misplaced hosannas, Lifemagazine “praised António de Oliveira Salazar as ‘the greatest Portuguese since Henry the Navigator’” because Portugal was “seen…as a haven of hospitality for” Jewish refugees.  In point of fact, Salazar destroyed the career of Aristides de Sousa Mendes the diplomat who rescued thousands of Jews in defiance of the dictator’s wishes.

    1940: Orson Welles films the first scene of his classic “Citizen Kane.”  Herman J. Mankiewicz shared the Oscar for best screenplay for his work on this epic.  Who actually wrote the screenplay would become a source of controversy with many critics siding with Mankiewicz.

    1941(5th of Av, 5701): Twenty-nine Jewish mental patients from Lotz were taken away by truck and shot in the woods

    1941: In Manchester, Lancashire, Ada Doreen (née Hattersley) and Herbert Simon Warner, a Russian-Jewish nursing home proprietor David Warner, the stage actor who made his film debut in “Tom Jones”.

    1941: The Second Lvov Pogrom came to an end. “According to Yad Vashem 6 thousands Jews were killed by Einsatzgruppen, some Ukrainian nationalists and some Ukrainian militia.

    1942: A religious youth center, Tiferet Bachurim, was secretly opened in the Kovno ghetto

    1942: Signs were put up in the Warsaw Ghetto offering free bread for any family volunteering to be deported. This was a scheme designed to make the German job of rounding up 6,000 Jews a day a little easier.

    1943:Admiral Sir Barry Edward Domvile a distinguished Royal Navy officer who turned into a leading British Pro-German anti-Semite in the years before the Second World War was released today after having been interred for three years under Defense Regulation 18 B which allowed the government to inter people for their pro-Nazi sympathies. (The British had no trouble with his anti-Semitism, just his views on Hitler, et al.

    1943: During WW II, in Italy, the 16th Infantry including Samuel Fuller “had taken the high ground west of the Cerami River.”

    1944: 3520 Jews are forced on a death march westward from Warsaw. More than 200 die.

    1945: Rabbi Martin Riesenburge celebrated the first wedding at Berlin’s Rykestrasse Synagogue since the Nazis closed it in 1940.

    1946: The Paris Peace Conference during which the “victorious wartime Allied Powers” began negotiations with Italy, Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria and Finland which would lead to peace treaties officially marking the end of the war.

    1946: The New York State Supreme Court revoked the charter of the Ku Klux Klan thanks in no small part to the efforts of Nathaniel Goldstein, the New York State Attorney General.

    1947(12th of Av, 5707):Leo Stein passed away in Florence, Italy. Born in 1872 in Allegheny, Pennsylvania, he was an American art collector and critic. In addition to being elder brother to Gertrude Stein, he is also remembered as an influential promoter of 20th-century paintings.,+Poetry,+and+Prose&source=bl&ots=-NoPi2eYFt&sig=hsBcdPLTIHsQXmL-Uhnu9eyVmUg&hl=en&sa=X&ei=6WA1UKc4i5aZBd6vgKgO&sqi=2&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Appreciation%3A%20Painting%2C%20Poetry%2C%20and%20Prose&f=false

    1948: For the first time since the infamous 1936 Berlin Olympics, London hosts the Fourteenth Olympiad where two American Jews each won Gold Medals. Frank Spellman won his for weightlifting and Henry Wittenberg won his in freestyle wrestling.

    1948: As the United Nations investigates claims by Azzam Pasha, the Secretary General of the Arab League, that Israeli forces had committed atrocities during Operation Shorter, a team of UN observers came to survey the damage” at al-Tira “and did not find any bodies…”

    1949: “In the Good Old Summertime” a musical directed by Robert Z. Leonard, produced by Joe Pasternak based on a play by Milos Laszlo, with a screenplay co-authored by Samson Raphaelson and co-starring S.Z. Sakall was released in the United States today.

    1951(25thof Tammuz, 5711): On the day before his 71st birthday, Bernhard Weiss, the most prominent Jewish member of the Berlin police department who challenged the Nazi Party and successfully sued Joseph Goebbels, passed away.

    1951: Following its premiere in Albuquerque, NM in June, today Billy Wilder’s “Ace In The Hole” a film that provides a dark look at the values of a newspaper man starring Kirk Douglas was released to the rest of the United States by Paramount Pictures.

    1951:The Jerusalem Post reported that the stage was set for the elections to the Second Knesset. The number of eligible voters reached 900,000. The Ministry for Foreign Affairs signed an agreement with the UN providing for the training of nine experts in various economic, social and administrative fields.

    1954:The 1953 Stephen S. Wise award for an outstanding contribution to Jewish welfare was presented today to Youth Aliyah. The citation described the organization's work as "rescuing more than 65,000 children from over seventy-two lands during the past twenty years and educating them for creative citizenship in the land of Israel."

    1956: It was reported today the Rabbi Samuel Plutzik who came to the United States from Minsk in 1905, “served as spiritual head of the Jewish Community in Bristol, CT in the 1930’s and has been head of the teaching staff of the Talmud Torah of East New York” passed away yesterday leaving behind his widow Sadie, three sons, Hyam, David and Emanuel and two daughters Mrs. Alice Kurland and Mrs. Naomi Reiss to mourn his passing.

    1957(1st of Av, 5717): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1963(8thof Av, 5723): Erev Tish’a B’Av

    1963(8thof Av, 5723): Sixty-seven year old Rivka Pinchasovich, the daughter of Avraham and Liba Rochel Shapira, wife of Moshe Pinchasovich and mother of Mina Pinchasovich; Amnon Pinchasovich and Tamara Pinchasovich passed away in Petah Tikva, Israel.

    1964: “One Potato, Two Potato,” directed by Larry Peerce, the son of Jan Peerce and produced by Sam Weston was released today in the United States.

    1965: “Ship of Fools” the cinematic treatment of the novel by the same name set at the start of the Nazi era directed and produced by Stanley Kramer with a script by Abby Mann and music by Ernest Gold was released today in the United States.

    1966(12th of Av, 5726): One day after his 98th birthday French poet and Zionist Andre Spire passed away today.

    1969: Under the leadership of General Sharon, the Head of the IDF’s Southern Command, Israeli frogmen attacked Green Island during the War of Attrition.

    1970(25thof Tammuz, 5730: Seventy-eight year Hungarian native Dr. Melichior Palyi, the economist and adviser to the pre-Nazi era Reichsbank who fled to the United States where he taught at the University of Chicago, “wrote a weekly business column for The Chicago Tribune and authored several tomes including Man Aged Money at the Crossroads and An Inflation Primer passed away today

    1970(25th of Tammuz, 5730): Seventy-three year old George Szell who had had leading the Cleveland Orchestra since 1946 and the husband of the “former Helene Schulz whom he married in 1938 at Glasgow” passed away today.

    1970(25thof Tammuz, 5730): Sixty-nine year old Romanian conductor Jonel Perlea passed away today.

    1974(10th of Av, 5734:  Cass Elliott passed away.  Born Ellen Naomi Cohen in Baltimore in 1941, Elliott dropped out of school, changed her name and headed for New York. She found fame in fortune performing with the singing group, Mamas and Poppas.

    1974: Seventy-four year old real estate developer who had passed away four days ago was buried today in Palo Alto, CA.

    1975: Edward Graham Lee began serving as the Canadian ambassador to Israel.

    1975: President Gerald R. Ford became the first U.S. president to visit the site of the Nazi concentration camp Auschwitz in Poland as he paid tribute to the camp's victims.

    1976(2ndof Av, 5736): Sixty-two year old mobster Mickey Cohen passed away today.

    1976: “Rescuing the Entebbe Hostages” published today provides a detailed review of 90 Minutes At Entebbe, William Stevenson’s “hurriedly published paperback account of the” hostage rescuing raid. Stevenson, who is best known for A Man Called Intrepid, appears to won the race to publish the first account, if not the most thorough one.

    1976: The Jerusalem Post reported from Washington that contrary to earlier reports, the US had had direct contacts with the PLO "for some time" and that they would continue. Three hundred Americans were evacuated from Lebanon as Syrians and the PLO reached an agreement on this issue. The price of meat rose by two to three shekels per kilo as agreed between the Ministry of Commerce and Agriculture and the Histadrut's Consumer Authority.

    1979(5th of Av, 5739): Herbert Marcuse leftist German born, American philosopher passed away.  Marcuse influenced a whole generation of leftists, radicals and anarchists including Angela Davis and Abbe Hoffman.

    1979: A fifteen-day conference organized by Gerda Lerner and co-sponsored by Sarah Lawrence, the Women's Action Alliance and the Smithsonian Institution, which was intended for female leaders came to an end today.

    1981(27th of Tammuz, 5741):  Ninety-two year old Robert Moses scion of a well-to-do German Jewish family, who gained fame as New York’s master builder and whose critics and  supporters agreed that he was one of the 20th century’s influential urban planners passed away today


    1981: A bus was attacked in the entrance to Kibbutz Ma'ale Hahamisha near Jerusalem. A boy of 12 and a girl of 17 were wounded.

    1982(9th of Av, 5742): Tish'a B'Av

    1982: Sir Zelman Cowen, who was the 19th Governor-General of Australia, completed his term of office.

    1983: “Private School,” a teenage comedy with a script co-authored by Dan Greenburg and starring Phoebe Cates was released in the United States today.

    1985(11th of Av, 5745): Sixty-six year old Presidential Medal of Freedom honoree, former assistant surgeon general in the United United States Public Health Service and “a professor of community and preventive medicine and associate dean of the State University of New York School of Medicine at Stony Brook, L.I. Dr. Tamarath K. Yolles, the wife of Stanley Faust Yolles, with whom she had two children – Melanie and Jennifer – passed away today.

    1986(22nd of Tammuz, 5746): Seventy-seven year old Richard David Barnett a product of Cambridge, a veteran of WW II, and a Fellow of the British Academy who also served as President of the Jewish Historical Society of England and Chairman of the Anglo-Israel Archaeological Society.

    1986(22nd of Tammuz, 5746): Fifty-five year old Israeli poet and Holocaust survivor Dan Pagis passed away today.  A native of Romania, one of his most famous poems is “written in pencil in the sealed railway car.”

    1986: Chaim “Drukman left Morasha and returned to the NRP

    1986(22nd of Tammuz, 5746): Seventy-seven year old Richard David Barnett, a graduate of Cambridge, WW II RAF veteran and Fellow of the British Academy who was “the Keeper, Department of Western Asiatic Antiquities of the British Museum passed away.

    1987: Ben & Jerry's agree on a new flavor - Cherry Garcia

    1990(7th of Av, 5750): Bruno Kreisky passed away.  When Kreisky became Prime Minister of Austria during the 1970’s, he was the first Jew to hold that position.

    1992: Aryeh Gamliel begins serving as Deputy Minister of Housing and Construction.

    1993: “Robin Hood: Men in Tights” produced and directed by Mel Brooks who also co-authored  the script and co-starring Richard Lewis was released in the United States today by 20thCentury Fox.

    1993: The Israeli Supreme Court acquits accused Nazi death camp guard John Demjanjuk of all charges and he is set free

    1997:The documentary film Blacks and Jews, written and directed by Deborah Kaufman and Alan Snitow, was aired on PBS.

    1998: “The Parent Trap” a family comedy co-written and directed by Nancy Meyers was released in the United States today.

    1998(6th of Av, 5758): Seventy-nine year old Tony Award winning choreographer Jerome Robbins whose list of famous musical is almost endless and West Side Story, The King and I, Gypsy and The Pajama Game passed away today.

    2000:In “The Bible, as History, Flunks New Archaeological Tests; Hotly Debated Studies Cast Doubt on Many Familiar Stories,” Gustav Neibur described the supposed conflict between the tales of the Bible and findings of modern archaeology:

    2001(9thof Av, 5761): Tish’a B’Av

    2001: The New York Times book section includes a review of Blue Diary by Jewish author Alice Hoffman

    2001: Two people were injured today in a Jerusalem car bombing.

    2002: Today in the Edna Ferber’s “hometown of Appleton, Wisconsin, the U.S. Postal Service issued an 83¢ Distinguished Americans series postage stamp honoring.” which artist Mark Summers, well known for his scratchboard technique, created by referencing a black-and-white photograph of Ferber taken in 1927

    2003: President Bush and Prime Minister Ariel Sharon met at the White House.

    2003: Singer Barry “Manilow had a complete upper and lower facelift, which includes the removal of drooping skin from the eyelids and the general tightening of facial skin.”

    2004: A photo exhibit designed to memorialize Anne Frank in what would have been her 75thyear closes at the Kraushaar Galleries in New York City.

    2004: Seventy-two year old Susan Buffett, the wife of Warren Buffett, whose friendship with Dorothy Kripke the wife of Omaha Rabbi Myer S. Krippe led to a $70,000 investment turning into almost 25 million dollars which went to aid a number of worthwhile causes passed away today.

    2005(22ndof Tammuz, 5765): Eighty-two year old Sonny Hertzberg, an early NBA star, passed away today. (As reported by Richard Goldstein)

    2006: On Shabbat Chazon, Jews respond to a request from the Governing Council of the Chief Rabbinate by continuing to recite Psalms 83, 130 and 142 on a daily basis.

    2006(4thof Av, 5766): Seventy six year old French historian Pierre Vidal-Naquet passed away today. (As reported by Margalit Fox)

    2007: The National Gallery of Art presents a screening of “The Dybbuk,” the Yiddish film based on Ansky’s celebrated drama.

    2007: In Jerusalem,Off the Wall Comedy Empire presents "Find Me a Wife: Find You a Husband," an annual Tu B`Av special event show starring David Kilimnick. Kilimnick approaches the issues of the single man/woman in Jerusalem.

    2007:  The Washington Post book section features reviews of a biography of America’s first Jewish Secretary of State entitled Henry Kissinger and the American Century by Jeremi Suri and a novel entitled Kalooki Nights by Howard Jacobsen.The novel which purports to be an “examination of a Jewish sub-culture is a convoluted combination of family saga and semi-tepid murder mystery, focusing on its narrator, Max Glickman, a Jewish cartoonist with a hefty persecution complex and a series of anti-Semitic non-Jewish ex-wives.”

    2007:Ariel Sharon Hovers Between Life and Death and Dreams of Theodor Herzl” has its final performance at Theatre J.

    2007:The first edition of Yisrael Hayom (Israel Today) appeared.

    2007(14th of Av, 5767): Raya Czerner Schapiro, psychiatrist, Holocaust educator and author passed away at the age of 73 in Chicago.  After a harrowing experience, Mrs. Schapiro arrived in the United States at the age of 5 after fleeing from Nazi occupied Czechoslovakia.  She was inspired to pursue a medical career in memory of her uncle, a doctor, who had sheltered her before her escape and who died during the Holocaust.

    2007: Rep. Anthony Weiner and Rep. Jerrold Nadler (D-N.Y.) objected to a $20 billion arms deal that the Bush Administration had negotiated with Saudi Arabia because they do not want to provide "sophisticated weapons to a country that they believe has not done enough to stop terrorism," also noting that 15 of the 19 hijackers of September 11, 2001 were from Saudi Arabia. Weiner made the announcement outside of the Saudi Arabian consulate in Washington, stating that "We need to send a crystal clear message to the Saudi Arabian government that their tacit approval of terrorism can't go unpunished."

    2008: Robert Wexler, a six-term Jewish U.S. congressman from Florida, discusses and signs Fire-Breathing Liberal: How I Learned to Survive (and Thrive) in the Contact Sport of Congress(written with David Fisher) at the Sixth & I Historic Synagogue in Washington, D.C.

    2009(8th of Av, 5759): Fast begins at sundown

    2009(8th of Av, 5769): Eighty-six year old Dina Babiit who used her artistic skills to survive Auschwitz and to save her mother’s life, passed away.(As reported by Bruce Weber)

    2009:The Randi & Bruce Pergament Jewish Film Festival came to a close with aClosing Night Bash!” - A gala dessert reception and a chance to win membership and fitness benefits at the JCC.

    2009:An archeologist announced today that a unique Aramaic inscription on a stone cup commonly used for ritual purity during the first century has been uncovered in a dig on Mount Zion in Jerusalem.

    2009: In the aftermath of the fatal shooting of a security guard at the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C., a seven count indictment was handed up in U.S. District Court charging white supremacist James von Brunn in his murderous attacked on museum guard Stephen T. Johns.

    2009: The New York Times reviews books by Jewish authors including Cooperstown Confidential: Heroes Rouges, and the Inside story of the Baseball Hall of Fame by Zev Chafets.

    2010: “A Film Unfinished,” a rigorous and profound documentary that simultaneously exposes the perversity of Nazi propaganda, honors its victims and pays tribute to the resiliency of the filmmaker’s own grandmother and the other survivors of the Ghetto is scheduled to be shown at the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.

    2010: The Washington Postreported today that Jewish nonprofit group whose leader was accused of fabricating dramatic stories about rescued sefer Torahs has reached a deal with Maryland investigators forbidding it from publicizing such stories about sacred scrolls unless it can prove them. The agreement ends an investigation into the Rockville-based Save a Torah and its driving force, Rabbi Menachem Youlus, often described as "The Indiana Jones of Torah Scribes."

    2010:Israel is tied with Canada, Switzerland, and Australia as the world's eighth happiest country out of 155 surveyed, according to a Gallup World Poll posted by Forbes today

    2010: The 9th Congress of The European Association for Jewish Studies (EAJS) came to a close in Ravenna today.

    2010(18th of Av, 5770): Ninety-two year old Emmy Award winner Bernie West who served as a writer and producer for such cutting edge sitcoms and “All in the Family” and “The Jeffersons” passed away today.

    2010: Congressman Anthony “Weiner criticized Republicans for opposing the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act which would provide for funds for sick first responders to the 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Center, many of whom reside in Weiner's district. In a speech on the floor of the House, he accused Republicans of hiding behind procedural questions as an excuse to vote against the bill.”

    2011(27th of Tammuz, 5771): Eight-year old Shulamit Shamir, wife of Yithak Shamir, passed away today in Tel Aviv. (As reported by Gabe Kahn)

    2011:“Sarah’s Key,” a French film that centers on events that began with the roundup of French Jews in 1942, is scheduled to open in major US cities today.

    2011: Starting at 1 pm, a Beach Party, complete with eighty-tons of sand brought in just for the event, is scheduled to take place at the Malcha Mall in Jerusalem.

    2011:Following a day of advocacy and meetings at the White House, grassroots leaders from about twenty Jewish social justice organizations are scheduled to gather for Shabbat services and dinner at the Historic Sixth & I Synagogue in Washington, DC.


    2011: As the doctor’s labor dispute entered its 132nd day Israel Medical Association chairman Dr. Leonid Edelman continued his one-man hunger strike

    2011(27thof Tammuz, 5771): Tens of thousands mourned the death of Rabbi Elazar Abuchatzeira at his Jerusalem funeral this afternoon, after he was stabbed to death in the early hours of the morning.,7340,L-4101678,00.html

    2011:Women’s organizations that operate public day care centers for preschoolers, including WIZO and Naamat, today called for parents to join the housing protests and take part in demonstrations on Saturday night. The organizations said that the call comes following an announcement from the Finance and Industry Ministries' proposing a solution the law that currently offers education free from the age of three.

    2011: After finishing his career at Wisconsin, Gabe Carimi signed a four year contract with the Chicago Bears.

    2011: Punter Adam Podlesh signed with the Chicago Bears today marking the start of season which would see him play in all 16 regular season games where he kicked 89 punts for 3,903 yards for a 43.85 average

    2011: Minor league pitcher Josh Zeid who had played his college ball at Tulane was traded to the Houston Astros today.

    2012: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or special interest to Jewish readers including the recently released paperback editions of The Emperor of Lies by Steve Sem-Sandberg and An Anatomy of Addiction: Sigmund Freud, William Halsted and the Miracle Drug Cocaine by Howard Markel 

    2012(9thof Av, 5772): Tish’a B’Av

    2012(9thof Av, 5772): Eighty-six year old Amos Degani, the Sabra born at Kfar Vitkin who was an MK passed away today.

    2012: The fundraiser being held for US Republican presidential candidate Mitt Romney while he’s in Israel is scheduled to start at 9:30 p.m. this evening well after Tisha B’Av ends at sundown. The fundraiser will reportedly cost $60,000 a plate.

    2012: “Glickman,” a documentary about Marty Glickman, is scheduled to have its Bay Area Premiere at the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.

    2012:Police closed the Temple Mount to Jewish visitors this morning, the fast of Tisha Be’av, due to fears of “provocation” – despite a promise last night that the holiest site in Judaism would be open to Jewish worshipers

    2012: Shahar Peer was the last Israeli to play today, and she too lost in the first round. The tennis player was eliminated from competition at the London Games by Russian medal favorite Maria Sharapova, ending a disappointing day for the blue-and-white team. (As reported by Aaron Kalman)

    2012:US Defense Secretary Leon Panetta today touted the close security relationship between Israel and the US, suggesting that Israel remained on board with international efforts to pressure Iran on its nuclear program and had not decided to unilaterally strike the Islamic Republic.

    2012(9th of Av, 5772): Ninety year old August Kowalczyk the last survivor of the June 10, 1942 breakout from Auschwitz passed away today.

    2013: “The Last Sentence” a movie about Swedish anti-Nazi journalist Torgny Segerstedt is scheduled to be shown at the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.

    2013: Leading Jerusalem chefs are scheduled to lead a “Mahane Yehuda Shuk Outing!”

    2013: An Israeli negotiating team led by Justice Minister Tzipi Livni is scheduled to meet with Palestinian negotiators at the Washington, DC home of U. S. Secretary of State John Kerry prior to the start of peace negotiations which are scheduled to begin in earnest on July 30. (As reported by Herb Keinon)

    2013: A full-capacity crowd gathered this evening at the capital’s newly-launched Jerusalem Press Club to hear a panel discussion among luminaries Dr. Mehmet Oz, Rabbi Shmuley Boteach and Jewish Agency chairman Natan Sharansky about Jewish values and its impact on society. (As reported by Daniel K. Eisenbud)

    2013: Former Bank of Israel Governor withdrew his nomination to return to the position, Channel 2 reported today, following an ongoing scandal over an alleged shoplifting incident at a Hong Kong duty free store. (As reported by Nev Elis)

    2014: The JDC Archives is scheduled to host a presentation by Dr.Gerald Steinacher the Hymen Rosenberg Professor of Judaic Studies at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln entitled “The Red Cross, Jewish Relief Agencies, and the Holocaust” at the Center for Jewish History.

    2014: The Washington Jewish Film Festival is scheduled to host a Coen Brothers double header with showings of “Blood Simple” and “No Country For Old Men.”

    2014: The Historic 6th& I Synagogue is scheduled to host an hour of “Jewish Sangha.”

    2014: For the third time since the start of Operation Protective Edge “a UN aid agency for Palestinian refugees said today that a stockpile of Hamas rockets was found in of UNRWA’s Gaza School” – a fact “not publicized by UNRWA on its website or official Twitter feed.” (As reported by Ilan Ben Zion)

    2014: After a night where rockets “were fired at central and southern Israel more missiles were fired at Ashkelon and Sderot.

    2014: “Amid reports that jihadists with fighting experience from Syria were planning an imminent terrorist attack on Norwegian soil, the Jewish museum of Oslo is scheduled to remain closed today based on a recommendation from the police in Norway. (As reported by JTA)

    2014: “A high ranking military official spoke with journalists today about the next stages of the operation and said that "the political leadership must decide now – either we push deeper (into Gaza) or we backtrack." Indicating tensions between the IDF and Israel's political leadership, the senior official said "our responsibility is to lead the offensive to where it needs to go, not to where the public wants. This is not reality TV and rating is not a factor." (As reported by Yoav Zitun)

    2014: Today, US-born Sgt. Sahar Elbaz, from the Rimon Unit in the Givati Brigade remained in place while his unit came under attack from a grenade throwing terrorist cell “and despite coming under intense enemy fire” and “a glitch in his firearm” provided “covering fire” killing four of the attackers in the process.

    2014: For the third time in less than two weeks, UNRWA announced that rockets had been found in their schools in Gaza.

    2015: The StandWithUs Israel Education Center is scheduled to host a speech by Christian Arab Israeli diplomat George Deek.

    2015: Channel 2 reported today that an “Israeli strike on a car in the Syrian Golan Heights targeted notorious terrorist Samir Kuntar who took part in a 1979 terror raid where he killed four people including four year old Einat Haran whose head he smashed in with his rifle butt and “has planned multiple attacks against IDF soldiers on the Golan Heights.” (As reported by Joshua Davidovich)

    2015: The 92nd St Y is scheduled to host “Jazz & Sondheim, Side by Side,”

    2016: At the invitation of The Bucksbaum family the Des Moines Art Center and the Temple B'nai Jeshurun communities are scheduled to celebrate the life of Melva Bucksbaum at the Des Moines Art Center.

    2016: Twenty-seven year old Jehoshua Gross “was heading for the north coast of Wales today when he collided with a truck” and then continued to drive recklessly for another sixty miles so that he could, according to his attorney, reach home before Shabbat.

    2016: In a refreshing change of pace, Rabbi Feivel Strauss is scheduled to deliver the sermon this evening at Temple Israel in Memphis, TN.

    2016(23rd of Tammuz, 5777): Ninety-one year old patron of the theatre Zelda Fichandler passed away today.  (As reported by Bruce Weber and Bob Levey)

    2016: The first of the Great Jewish Books Summer Programs “a weeklong exploration of literature and culture for high school students” sponsored by the Yiddish Book Center is scheduled to come to an end. 2017(6thof Av, 5777): Shabbat Chazon

    2017: “Futures Past” is scheduled to be shown at the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival

    2018” “Djon Africa” and Samouni Road” are scheduled to be shown at the Jerusalem Film Festival.

    2018: The Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education center is scheduled to host a presentation in which “Dr. Diane Afoumado reveals how the Holocaust Survivors and Victims Resource Center staff at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum assist people from all over the world to find their families and learn their fate using the International Tracing Service collection and the Holocaust Survivors and Victims Database”

    2018: As part of the “Home: Lens on Israel” series, the Temple Emanuel Streicker Center is scheduled to open the photographic exhibition “The Ultra-Orthodox of Bnei Brak.”

    2018: The University of Iowa Hillel chapter is scheduled to host an evening of “Bowling for Dollars” at Pinstripes for the “Chicago Hawkeye Community.”



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    762:Caliph Al Mansur founded the city of Baghdad. By the start of the 10th century wealthy Jewish merchants were playing the role of “court bankers” and were reportedly lending funds to the caliphs and his their minister. 

    1192: The forces of Saladin successfully stormed the walls of Jaffa forcing the remaining Crusaders to take refuge in the town’s citadel.

    1286: Gregory Bar Hebraeus a bishop of the Syriac Orthodox Church whose name serves a reminder that he was the father of Jewish physician passed away today.

    1360: A butcher’s license for a carniceria was issued to a Christian named Bernard Arlouin. In Spain, Jews were not allowed to have butchers licenses.  In other words, they operated butcher shops, but were not allowed to own them. In this case, a Spanish Jew named Jafudenus Amilus operated the shop.

    1488: Sixteen Jews were burned at the stake in Barcelona.

    1492(9thof Av, 5252): The entire Jewish Community, numbering 200,000 souls was expelled from Spain.

    1492: Don Isaac Abravanel gave up his power, wealth and prestige to join his fellow Jews on their perilous road out of Spain.

    1494: In Toledo, an especially large auto da fé was held today with 16 persons from Guadalajara, Alcalá de Henares, and Toledo burned to death and 30 more condemned to life imprisonment.

    1549: Birthdate of Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany who “invited Jews, including Marranos, to settle in Pisa and the free port of *Leghorn, which before long became one of the great Jewish centers of the Mediterranean area.” (Jewish Virtual Library)

    1729:  Baltimore, Maryland is founded.  Jews were already living in the colony of Maryland when Baltimore was founded.  The Jewish community in Baltimore is one of the oldest in the country. However, the first building that was built as a synagogue, the Lloyd Street Synagogue, was not constructed until 1845.

    1756: In London Elie and Hana Pinto Vega gave birth to Abraham Furtado the President of the Assemblee des Notables and the assistant of the Mayor of Bordeaux.

    1794: As part of the Second Partition of Poland, Russian forces “occupied Vilna” a city with a large Jewish population many of whom had supported Kosciuszko’s Uprising and most of whom dreaded the change given their past experience with the Russians during the 17th century. (As reported by Abraham Bloch)

    1819: One day after she had passed away, 56 year old “Rosy Isaacs, the widow of Abraham Isaacs” was buried today at the Brady Street Cemetery.

    1825:  Birthdate of Ignaz Gorssman, the Hungarian born Rabbi who came to the United States in 1873 to Congregation Beth Elohim.

    1825: Birthdate of Chaim Aronson, a Lithuanian Jew, who was inventor and academic. Aronson's inventions, which included several machines for mass producing cigarettes, a clockwork calculator, a prototype for an early movie camera, and the microdiarama, were, for their time, ground breaking. Aronson, however, is better remembered for a series of memoirs he wrote, published long after his death in the book A Jewish Life Under the Tsars This is an autobiography of Aronson's own difficult life, but it also describes insightfully, the life of ordinary society in Imperial Russia.

    1829: Daniel O’Connell best known for his work in favor of the Emancipation of Catholics but who also supported Emancipation for Irish Jews and the repeal of the British law "De Judaismo", was elected to Parliament today

    1832: Three days after she had passed away erev Shabbat, seventy year old Rachel Elias, the wife of Godfrey Elias” was buried today at the Brady Street Jewish Cemetery.

    1833: Joshua Leavitt and Sarah Williams Leavitt gave birth to James Taylor Leavitt the husband of Sarah Bancrot Leavitt and the father of William, James and Samuel Leavitt.

    1836: Birthdate of Gustav Solomon Oppert, “German Indologist and Sanskrist who was the brother of Julius Oppert.

    1841: One day after she had passed away, “Jane Davis, the widow of Moses Davis” was buried today at the Brady Street Jewish Cemetery.

    1851: Rabbi Lyons officiated at the wedding of Mr. Solomons from Savannah, GA and Frances Joseph from Charleston, SC

    1856: In New York Asher Kursheedt and Abigail Kursheedt gave birth to Lionel Judah Kursheedt

    1860: The New York Times reported that The Fast of Ab. -- Yesterday was the fast of the month of Ab, the anniversary of the destruction of the temple of Solomon by Nebuchadnezzar, and of the second temple by Vespasian, among the Hebrew population all over the world; and was fully observed in the synagogues of this City. The fast of Ab is really one of abnegation. No meat is eaten, and but very little bread is broken. The synagogues yesterday were hung with black, and the Book of Lamentation was read in the original Hebrew.

    1861: Philadelphian Augustus Hassler enlisted for a three year hitch in the Forty-First Regiment where he rose to the rank of Sergeant in Company F.

    1861: Philadelphian Abraham B. Harris began serving a three year hit in the 65thRegiment also known as the 5th Cavalry during which he rose in rank from Sergeant, to Regimental Quartermaster Sergeant to Second Lieutenant.

    1862: During the American Civil War, General William T. Sherman wrote a letter from Union-occupied Memphis, Tennessee stating, "I found so many Jews and speculators here trading in cotton, and secessionists had become so open in refusing anything but gold, that I have felt myself bound to stop it. The gold can have but one use - the purchase of arms and ammunition... Of course, I have respected all permits by yourself or the Secretary of the Treasury, but in these new cases (swarms of Jews), I have stopped it."

    1863: The New York Times reported that “a Jew broker, made his appearance in Westchester, Penn., accompanied by a dozen others, whom he represented as anxious to serve as substitutes, for a consideration. Although some of the men, it is said, boasted of having taken part in the New-York riots, yet they were eagerly caught up by drafted men, and engaged at various prices as substitutes.” [The Times did not report on the ethnic or religious origins of any of the other participants in this scheme. This story was part of a series on the Draft Riots that racked New York in the summer of 1863.  Did the Times identify the rioters as “Catholics” or Irish Catholics? ]

    1863: Birthdate of American automaker Henry Ford. For Americans, Ford is the man who made the Model-T. For Jews, he is the man who popularized the "Protocols of the Elders Of Zion." Towards the end of his life, Ford apologized for his involvement with this anti-Semitic literature that still infects the world today.

    1863:Chief Rabbi Nathan Marcus Adler consecrated the new building housing the Bayswater Synagogue.

    1864: In Dublin, portrait photographer and dentist Hyman Davis and his wife gave birth to Julia Davis who became Julia Frankau in 1883 when she married Arthur Frankau and gained fame as a novelist under the penname Frank Danby. (Editor’s note – there seems to be some conflict as to the year in which she was born.  Wiki says 1859.  The Jewish Encyclopedia and “The Bookseller, Newsdealer and Stationer”, a trade journal that carried a contemporaneous obituary used the 1864 date.

    1864:  During the American Civil War, Union Army Sergeant Major Abraham Cohn distinguished himself at the Battle of the Crater at Petersburg, VA.  Cohn would be awarded the Medal of Honor for his fighting during the Wilderness Campaign and the Siege of Petersburg.

    1865: In Philadelphia, PA, the Benjamin Lodge of the Free Sons of Israel which conducted its proceedings in German was chartered today.

    1870: Birthdate of Emil Schiff who was shipped from Leipzig to Terezin where he was murdered at the age of 72.

    1870: Newspapers carry full accounts of what is called “A Horrible Murder” – the murder of prominent New Yorker Benjamin Nathan – and the so far fruitless efforts of the police to solve the crime.

    1871: It was reported today that “the industrious Jews” are “annoying Christians.” In New York, the Alanson M.E. Church on Norfolk Street occupies a building adjacent to a tenement house that is “occupied almost exclusively by” Orthodox Jews. The Jews go to the synagogue on Saturday and work on Sunday.  Many of them work as tailors “and the ceaseless whirr of their sewing-machines has proved very annoying to the worshipers in the church.” One of the Jews offered to stop working if the church members would pay him for his lost time.  The trustees have declined his offer and are considering taking legal action against the Jewish worker.

    1876(9th of Av, 5636): Tish'a B'Av

    1876: “A Jewish Festival,” an article published today, reported that Tish’a B’Av, “a Jewish festival” commemorating “the destruction of Jerusalem was begun at 9 o’clock last evening in many of the synagogues” in New York City “and will be generally observed today at the various Jewish temples of worship, notably those of the orthodox Jews.  In the churches of the latter, the services will consist of chants and prayers for the re-establishment of the Jewish hierarchy.”  In addition to praying and singing, “the festival is…observed…by a fast of twenty-four hours duration.”  [Ed. Note – It is worth noting that this brief but detailed description of a minor Jewish fast day appeared in the New York Times.

    1878: Birthdate of Adolf Guttman, the native Kleinstinach who served in the German Army during WW I.

    1878: German elections resulted in the reactionary element having a dominant voice in the Reichstag. This date is considered the birthday of modern German anti- Semitism.

    1880: Birthdate of Colonel Robert R. McCormick who gained famed as the editor and publisher of the Chicago Tribune in an era when newspapers were the dominant voice of the media in the United States.  He was a founder of the American First Committee, a powerful organization dedicated to keep the United States out of World War II which took on a decidedly anti-Semitic viewpoint. 

    1880: Birthdate of Bernhard Weiss, the German born lawyer who served as a top ranking police official during the Weimar Republic and fearlessly confronted the Nazis.

    1880: “Resting at Schooley’s Mountain” published today provided a brief history of this famous New Jersey resort area. The area had become so popular with Jewish vacationers that two of the cottages, Heath House and Belmont Hall, effectively banned Jewish guests. The ban was lifted when the locals saw its negative impact.  (This was one of only of series of bans instituted at hotels, etc. following the Civil War.)

    1881: Birthdate of Paterson, NJ, native Meyer Barnett, WWI veteran and holder of a degree in Electrical Engineering from Columbia.

    1881: “Foreign Topics” published today described the nightly anti-Semitic demonstrations taking place in Hammerstein, West Prussia.  The riots are similar to ones that have already taken placed in Baerwald, Pomerania.

    1881: It was reported today that troops fired on rioters in Poltava who have been attacking Jews, killing four and wounding two.

    1884: Theodor Herzl is admitted to the bar in Vienna.

    1884: Two New York detectives apprehended Samuel Barnett, a Polish Jew who reportedly has been committing a series of robberies over the last three months in Harlem.

    1884: In Nashville, TN, the jury hearing the case of Meyer Moskowitz and “Zeke” White was discharged this evening.  Moskowitz, a Jew and White had been charged with murdering Meyer Fried of Nashville.  The jury had acquitted White but was deadlocked on the issue of Moskowitz‘s guilt.

    1885: Myer S. Isaacs presided over a meeting of the Board of Delegates of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations which had been called to determine how to respond to the death of Sir Moses Montefiore.  The board decided to recommend that all Jewish congregations hold special memorial services on Friday night and Saturday morning in honor of the late philanthropist.  Plans will be made a later date for a more formal memorial service to be held in September.

    1885: “Two young gentlemen of Hebrew extraction who were engaged selling bullet-like green apples from a wagon at the rate of one cent per quart” unsuccessfully tried to escape Dr. Cyrus Edson, Chief of the Secondary Sanitary Division, and his officers during a raid on the lower east side as part of Edson’s drive to put an end to the sale of unsanitary produce.

    1886: Among the institutions that received money from the Board of Estimate and Apportionment today was the Hebrew Guardian Society in the amount of $2,858.29

    1886: “Jew and Gentile Wedded” published today described the elopement of Nellie Goodwin and Meier Weil.  Goodwin the 16 year old daughter of Reverend W.R. Goodwin of the Centenary Methodist Episcopal Church and Weil, the son of prominent Jewish merchant, have left Jacksonville, Illinois for parts unknown.

    1886(27thof Tammuz, 5646): Shlomo Ganzfried, the Hungarian rabbi who created the “Kitzur Schulchan Aruch” which may be viewed as a “summary” or abbreviation of the larger work by Joseph Karo which makes Jewish ritual, customs and laws available to the “average” Jew.

    1887: “Wealthy Hebrews Worried” published today described Isidor Freedman’s inability to gain membership in the Utopia Club, a social club for wealthy Jews living in New Haven, CT.  Freedman, part of the firm of Mendel & Freedman had been blackballed by Isaac Ullmann. (Not exactly the kind of story they taught us in Hebrew School)

    1888: Forty-five year old Irish-American playwright Barley Campbell author of “Siberia” a drama about the persecution of the Jews of Russia passed away

    1888:In Enghien-les-Bains, Val-d'Oise, dramatist Tristan Bernard and his wife gave birth to French playwright Jean-Jacques Bernard

    1888: In Paris Louis Lehmann Berr and Henriette Alice Berr gave birth to Maurice Berr.

    1890: “The Juvenile Band of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum” will play at today’s concert sponsored by B’nai B’rith for the benefit of the Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews in Yonkers. 1892: Waldemar Mordecai Wolff Haffkine, a Russian born Jewish bacteriologist, reported the results of his test of his cholera vaccine to the Biological Society in London.

    1890: The Times of London reported that the Russian government has ordered the enforcement of the edicts of 1882 which were aimed at limiting the economic opportunities for Jews and forcing them to live “in certain towns.”

    1890: The New York Times will forward a check for $30.50 that it received from Mrs. S.J. Nathan to the Hebrew Sanitarium, the charity for which the people of Sucassunna, NJ collected the money.

    1891: Morris Goodhart of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society was among those who testified as to the harmful effects of the Standard Gas Company works on the riverfront at east 114th Street.

    1891: The Russian immigrants who arrived at Boston yesterday from Liverpool will not be admitted into the country are because “they are deemed likely to be a pubic charge.”

    1892(6thof Av, 5652): Parashat Devarim and Shabbat Chazon

    1892(6thof Av, 5652): Eleven month old Adrian Calisch, the son of “Gussie Woolner Calisch” and “Rabbi Edward Calisch of Congregation Anshai Emeth,” passed away today after which he was buried at the Springdale Cemetery in Peoria, Illinois.

    1892: John Collins chaired the meeting of Fourth Assembly District Republicans held at the Hebrew Institute Hall.

    1892: Dr. C.H. Goodman and Mrs. Goodman set sail today aboard the SS Gallia for Liverpool.

    1892: Dr. Michael Singer’s denial of charges that he had “absconded” with funds from the Baron Hirsch Fund published today stated that “Mrs. David Bischitz, who is a million has charge of the fund and is the only person who handled any of its money.  We had a disagreement and she gave a certificate of character and 1,500 gulden in place of the usual notice of dismissal.”

    1892: “Divided Against Itself” published today described a dispute about the spending of funds by K.H. Sarasohn, the President of Society of the Hebrew Sheltering Home, which was founded “about eighteen months ago to provide temporary home” for Jewish immigrants for from Russia.

    1893(17thof Av, 5653): Seventy-six year old Solomon Heyman who operated a successful dry goods business and was one of the Directors of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum passed away while on vacation in Long Branch.

    1893: “Sir Richard Burton’s Life” published today provided a detailed review of The Life of Capt. Sir Richard F. Burton, the author of The Jew, The Gypsy and El Islam

    1894: Two days after he had passed away, thirty-four year old Joseph Levy was buried today at the “West Ham Jewish Cemetery” on Buckingham Road.”

    1894:Birthdate of Blanche Wolf Knopf. “Although her name and work have been overshadowed by those of her husband, Blanche Wolf Knopf carved out her own place in the publishing industry as vice-president and president of Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. Blanche Knopf was raised in New York, where she met Alfred Knopf in 1911. They were married in 1916; the year after Alfred Knopf launched his eponymous publishing firm. Blanche Knopf was involved in the firm from the start, and in 1921, she became a director and vice-president. In addition to running the office, Blanche Knopf's duties included frequent travel to meet with and recruit new authors for the press. By all accounts, she excelled in establishing relationships with writers on three continents. Under her leadership, Knopf published translations of French writers Albert Camus, André Gide, Simone de Beauvoir, and Jean-Paul Sartre; South American writers Jorge Amado, Gilberto Freyre, and Eduardo Mallea; and the first American edition of Sigmund Freud's Moses and Monotheism. Knopf published American classics, but under Blanche Knopf's urging the firm also published such new American writers as H.L. Mencken, Willa Cather, Dashiell Hammett, and Raymond Chandler. For her work in support of French literature in America, she was named a Chevalier de la Légion d'Honneur by the French government in 1949 and made an officer in 1960. Similarly, she was honored by the Brazilian government in 1950 with the Order of the Southern Cross. In 1957, Alfred Knopf became chairman of the board, and Blanche Knopf took over as president. However, in 1960, the firm was sold to Random House, which maintains the Knopf imprint as an independent entity. Blanche Knopf remained involved at the helm of the Knopf imprint until her death in 1966. Her New York Times obituary said that her "alertness and perspicacity in recruiting writers ... and her driving energy as an executive contributed immensely to the success of the house of Knopf." In a field dominated entirely by men, in which she was virtually the only woman in her time to take a leading role, Blanche Knopf had a lasting impact on Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., on the world of publishing, and on American letters.

    1894: “Socialist Leaders Went Too Far” described the conflict among the Cloakmakers nearly all of whom are Jewish which was resolved when they chose Socialist Joseph Barondess to serve as their president. One of the points of contention was the Socialist demand that the Union Zeitung which is published in Hebrew with a circulation of 10,000 paid subscribers should be replaced with the Arbeiter Zeitung, “a Hebrew Socialist organ.”

    1894: “Five jurors were impaneled” today “in part I. of the Court of General Sessions to try Policeman Jeremiah S. Levy” who is Jewish, “of the Thirty-first Precinct for bribery.

    1894: Max Lefkowitz signed an affidavit today saying that Officer Jeremiah Levy was not the man who had cheated him out of $25 in a scheme to provide testimony that would have freed his brother Ignatz who was facing charges of grand larceny.

    1895(9th of Av, 5655): Tisha B’Av

    1895(9thof Av, 5655): New York banker Simon Wormser passed away today.

    1895: The strike of the Brotherhood of Tailors, most of whom were Jewish, seemed to be coming to an today as could be seen by Meyer Schoefield that “at least seventy contractors had already signed an agreement to give the strikers what they demanded” and that another twenty were prepared to sign.

    1895: Samuel Gompers addressed a group of strikers tonight at Cooper Union.

    1895: Otto von Bismarck, the Iron Chancellor who was responsible for the unification of Germany passed away. A complex person, Bismarck’s views changed from the 1840’s when he “could not accept Jews serving in the name of his ‘holy majesty’” to serving as Chancellor when Jewish emancipation came in 1869.  For more see Were They Good for the Jews?by Elliot Rosenberg

    1897: In Olean, NY, founding of the Hebrew Relief Association which met on the second Sunday of each month for the purpose of urging “the founding of a City Hospital” whose members included Max L. Cohen, Benjamin Ruttenberg, Morris Cohen and H.I. Gloss.

    1898: Moses Montefiore Congregation in Hoboken, NJ is contesting the claim by David Engler that he actually owns the surface rights to the lot on which the synagogue sits and that he has the right to lift the building off of its foundation so that he can build a store on the property.

    1899:”The United Hebrew Charities acknowledged” today that it had received a total of $180.50 to help resettle a family of four in the country.  The parents have become chronic invalids from their work in the city and seek to support themselves in a rural area.

    1900(4thof Av, 5660): “Political economist Samuel Cohn” the native of Bromberg, Germany passed away today in Berlin.

    1901: Fifty-one year old historian Herbert Baxter Adams who wrote “valuable papers on the services” contributed by the “patriotic Jew” Chaim Salomon when others challenged his accomplishments, passed away today.

    1901: Those attending the “Conference of Chazanim” which ended today in Vienna “decided to establish a General Cantors’ Association.”

    1902: Over 50,000 mourners followed the casket of Rabbi Jacob Joseph during his funeral in New York today.

    1902: Dr. Paul Kaplan and A.H. Sarahson, an attorney were among those attending a meeting in the office of Dr. Julius Halpern tonight where the police were denounced “an a committee was appointed to investigate and formulate charges against the officers in charge” at the funeral of Rabbi Jacob Joseph.

    1902: “At a meeting of the John Steibling Republican Association of the Twelfth Assembly District a resolution was passed denouncing the employees and heads of departments of the R. Hoe & Co during the funeral” of Rabbi Jacob Joseph when they threw “hot water and missiles on the mourners.”

    1905(27thof Tammuz, 5665): Tobacconist Solomon Wallenstein passed away.  Born 1831, he married Esther Hellman Wallenstein, the founding president of the Hebrew Infant Asylum, in 1865.

    1905(27thof Tammuz, 5665): “Two female Bundists” – Ester Riskin and Gitial Zakhajm – were killed today by a bomb that “anarchists threw…into a patrol that stood near the Bundist exchange on Surazer Street which led to an attack on the Jews by the military which lasted into the night and left at least Jews dead and an untold number wounded.

    1905: In Bialystok, during the anti-Jewish riots, physicians were prevented from treating Jewish victims.

    1908: Dr. Franz Kafka walked into the building housing the Worker’s Accident Insurance Institute for the Kingdom of Bohemia in Prague and began working as an assistant in the legal department.  He would retire in 1922 because of complications from a lung disease.

    1909: “The first number of The Temple, a Louisville Jewish weekly edited” by Hyman Gerson Enelow appeared today.

    1911(5thof Av, 5671): Moritz Pinner, the father of Rogers Pinner, who was known as ‘Captain Mortiz Pinner’ passed away today.

    1912(16thof Av, 5672): Sixty-two year old author and publisher E.P. Goodman passed away today in Philadelphia, PA.

    1914: In a move the results of which resonant throughout the Middle East and beyond to this day, two days after the outbreak of WW I, the Ottoman Empire formed a secret alliance with Germany aimed specifically at Russia.

    1916: As of today, the American Jewish Relief Committee of which Felix M. Warburg is the treasurer “has collected since its organization about $4,500,000.”

    1916: It was reported today that among the contributions received by the Central Committee for the Relief of Jews Suffering Through the War included $41 from the Jews of Ironwood, Michigan and $150 from the Canada-Jewish Alliance.

    1916(29thof Tammuz, 5676): Dr.Albert Ludwig Sigesmund Neisser passed away.

    1917: It was reported today that Rabbi G.W. Margulies, the director of the United Hebrew Community, “one of the leading Orthodox rabbis” in the United States had said on Tish’a B’Av said that “the Jews will reach Zion” in only a few years – perhaps not more than seven years” and that “there were prophecies” in the Zohar “led him to believe that the Germans might win the war.

    1917: It was reported today that Rabbi “G.W. Margulies, director of the United Hebrew community and one of the leading orthodox rabbis in this country said that he hoped to see Palestine restored to the Jews within the next seven years.”

    1918(21st of Av, 5678): Rabbi Chaim Soloveitchik, the son of Rabbi Yosef Dov Soloveitchik  and author of the Chiddushei Rabbeinu Chaim, a commentary on the teachings of Maimonides, passed away today. Born in 1853, he was known as Reb Chaim Brisker because of the methodology he developed for studying Talmud.

    1918: In Paris, Rabbi Hyman Gerson went to the burial of a soldier with whom he had spent several hours during the day as he lay dying.

    1918: The Jewish Press Bureau in Stockholm described “a great sensation” that “has been caused among the Jewish workmen in Warsaw by the sudden disappearance of nineteen members of the executive committee of the Jewish trade unions.”

    1921: Birthdate of U.S. Army Alvin David Ungerleider who as a 23 year old lieutenant stormed Omaha Beach during the Normandy landings and helped to liberate the Concentration Camp at Nordhausen in 1945.

    1922: Birthdate of Henry W. Bloch, the co-founder and (since 2000) the chairman emeritus of H&R Block. Henry and his brother, Richard Bloch, founded H&R Block in 1955 in Kansas City, Missouri. Bloch was born in Kansas City. He attended Southwest High School, and was an undergraduate at University of Missouri–Kansas City and the University of Michigan, graduating from Michigan in 1944. Through the Army Air Corps he received graduate training at the Harvard Business School. Bloch and his wife Marion married in 1951 and live in the Kansas City metropolitan area. The Henry Wollman Block fountain in front of Union Station in Kansas City is named in his honor, as is The Henry W. Bloch School of Business and Public Administration at the University of Missouri–Kansas City and the Bloch Building, a major addition to the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art. Mr. Bloch was inducted into the Junior Achievement U.S. Business Hall of Fame in 2001.

    1925(9thof Av, 5685): Tish’a B’Av

    1925: Birthdate of Jakob Josef Petuchowski a native of Berlin, Germany. He was brought from Germany to London, in a children's transport, prior to the outbreak of World War II. After receiving a B.A. with honors in psychology from the University of London in 1947, Petuchowski moved to the United States in 1948 and earned his rabbinic ordination, master’s degree and Ph.D. from Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati, Ohio.  Petuchowski served in the congregational rabbinate in Welch, West Virginia and Washington Pennsylvania. He was also the High Holiday rabbi of Temple B'nai Israel, Laredo, Texas, from 1956 through 1991.

    1928: Claims by Frieda and Goldina Rubinson, two sisters born in Hamburg now living in Tel Aviv that they are the authors of the opera now known as “Turnadot” and that Puccini plagiarized the score from them were greeted with scorn and ridicule by sources in New York including William J Guard of the Metropolitan Opera Company and G. Ricordi & Co, the music publishers. 

    1929: In Zurich, at the second session of the sixteenth Biennial Zionist Congress, statistician and agricultural expert Dr. Arthur Ruppin of Tel Aviv delivers an address in which he described the negative impact that conversion, intermarriage, decreasing birth rate and an unchanged mortality rate were having on the survival of the Jewish people.

    1930: In Brooklyn, Leon Kretchamr, who “worked with his family’s Catskills hotels” and “Lilyan (Alperstein) Kretchmar gave birth to Elain Kretchmar who gained fame as Elaine Markson, one of “the first women to own a literary agency” which she used “to further the careers of fledgling feminist authors.” (As reported by Sam Roberts)

    1932: In Hamburg Germany, Dr. Hans Bruno and pianist Lotte Bruno gave birth to Michael Peter Bruno all of whom moved to Haifa a year later where young Michael began the education that would lead to him becoming him “a governor of Israel’s central bank and a World Bank Chief Economist.”

    1932: The 1932 Olympics opened in Los Angeles. Attila Petschauer a gold medal winning swordsman was part of the Hungarian Fencing Team.  The 1999 film Sunshine is a multi-generational study of Petschauer’s family and vividly depicts his death at the hands of the Nazis in 1943. Jewish Gold Medal winners includedIstvan Barta, Hungary water polo, Gyorgy Brody, Hungary, water polo; Lillian Copeland, USA, athletics, discus throw; George Gulack, USA, gymnastics, flying rings; Endre Kabos, Hungary, fencing, team saber; Miklos Sárkány, Hungary water polo.

    1933: “The editor of Der Surmer, Julius Streicher, newly appointed Reich Commissar for Franconia, gave orders that 250 Jewish tradesmen in Nuremberg should be arrested, and ‘set to plucking the grass out of a field with their teeth.’”

    1933: Catcher Harry Danning made his major league debut with the New York Giants.

    1934: The Rabbinical Advisor Committee of Fifty, which “was appointed by Aldermanic President last week to advise New York City on Kashruth” held its first meeting and “adopted resolution” calling for “strict rabbinical supervision of poultry markets.”

    1934: In Milwaukee, Ben Selig, an immigrant from Romania and the owner “of a car leasing company” and is wife gave birth to University of Wisconsin graduate and U.S. Army veteran Alan Huber “Bud” Selig, the owner of the Milwaukee Brewers and the Commissioner of Major League Baseball.

    1934: In Lodz, Poland, Eljasz (Edward) and Natka Skornicki gave birth to Paulina Skornicka.

    1936: It was reported today that at the meeting of the Second World Congress of Jewish War Veterans in Vienna, a resolution had been adopted “calling for the establishment of a village in Palestine in honor of the 12,000 German Jews killed in the World War.”

    1936: The Palestine Post reported on the appointment in London of the Royal Commission for Palestine, chaired by Earl Peel. Other members were Sir Horace Rumboldt, Sir Laurie Hammond, Sir Morris Carter, Sir Harold Morris and Professor Reginald Coupland. The commission's terms of reference were "to ascertain the underlying causes of the disturbances... to inquire into the manner in which the Mandate was implemented in relation to the obligations of the Mandatory towards the Arabs and Jews... to study legitimate grievances and make recommendations for their removal and for the prevention of their recurrence."

    1936: General Franco declared his Fascist government and the Spanish Civil War broke out. During the Second World War, Spain officially remained neutral, yet Franco sent troops to fight against the Russians, and Spain later served as a refuge for fleeing Nazis.

    1937(22ndof Av, 5697): Forty-three year old Jacob L. Zucker, the optometrist, former “secretary to the Public Service Commissioner” and “an examiner for the estates tax division of the State Tax Commission” who “was secretary and a founder Temple Shaari Israel of Brooklyn” and the father of “Sidney, Estelle, Mortimer and Mildred” Zucker passed away today “in the Jewish Hospital of Brooklyn.”

    1937: Pierre-Marie Gerlier who would be posthumously awarded the title Righteous among the Nations by Yad Vashem in 1981 was named Archbishop of Lyon today.

    1937: In Memphis, TN, Lewis Glick and Sylvia Kleinman Glick gave birth to Milton D. Glick, nationally renowned academic leader who served as the 15th president of the University of Nevada, Reno

    1937: “London by Night” a murder mystery produced by Sam Zimbalist was released today in the United States by Lowe’s Inc.

    1937: In Geneva, “The League of Nations Mandates Commission began its session on Palestine today, hearing in private along statement on British policy by W.G.A. Ormsby-Gore, the Colonial Secretary” who put the British Government” as publicly and officially favoring partition.

    1938: Today, “the most surprised people in the world were Italians when a report drafted by several anonymous but allegedly eminent fascist university professors warned them of all sorts of grave, though unspecified dangers” threatening them due to the presence of the Jewish minority “in their midst.”

    1938: Today Mussolini took is with the speech by Pope Pius on “racism” denying that Italy is following the policies of Germany while “The Tribuna said that racism must not be confused with anti-Semitism.”

    1939: Birthdate of movie director Peter Bogdanovich.

    1939(14th of Av, 5699): Dutch sculptor Joseph Mendes da Costa passed away.

    1939: In a private letter Neville Chamberlain, Prime Minister of Great Britain described Germany's jealousy of the Jews' superior cleverness and states: "No doubt Jews aren't a lovable people; I don't care about them myself; but that is not sufficient to explain the Pogrom."

    1939: Reacting to German anti-Jewish policies and reflecting the attitude of many other officials in Great Britain and Western Europe, British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain writes: "No doubt Jews aren't a lovable people; I don't care about them myself. But that is not sufficient to explain the pogrom."

    1940: Birthdate of producer Stanley Jaffe, the man who gave us Fatal Attracations.

    1941(6th of Av, 5701): At Ponar, outside of Vilna, approximately, 150 Jews are shot.  Most of the victims are elderly.

    1941: Following the German invasion of the Soviet Union in June, the Russians which had agreed to the dismemberment of Poland did an about-face by signing the Sirkorski-Mayski Agreement in which Stalin repudiated his previous treaties with the Germans that had made WW II possible.

    1941: “Today the Aktion Klostersturm (Operation Monastery) was ended by a decree of Hitler, who feared the increasing protests by the Catholic population might result in passive rebellions, harming the Nazi war effort at the eastern front.”

    1942: “Five hundred and fifty-seven refugees from Nazism who had been stranded in Portugal and unoccupied France, arrived” in Baltimore last night “aboard the Portuguese liner, S.S. Nyassa.” (JTA)

    1942: German industrialist Eduard Schulte, whose company has mines near Auschwitz, reveals to a Swiss colleague that Hitler and the German Reich have decided to round up the millions of Jews of Occupied Europe, concentrate them in the East, and murder them using prussic acid starting in the fall of 1942. The information is soon communicated to Swiss World Jewish Congress representative Gerhart Riegner.

    1942(16th of Av, 5702): German SS kills 25,000 Jews in Minsk, Belorussia

    1942(16thof Av, 5702): Seventy-eight year old George Moses Pirce, the native of Poltava who came to the New York City in 1882 where he earned an MD from New York University after which he combined his medical work with a career as an author in his field.

    1942:Esther "Etty" Hillesum was transferred to Westerbork.

    1942: The U.S. government established the Navy WAVES, or Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency Service, program. Though Navy women would not be allowed to serve outside the continental U.S., or even to go to sea, the military hoped that the recruitment of 10,000 women, who would work in onshore bases, would free sufficient numbers of men to fight overseas. Although women had served as nurses in the navy as early as the Spanish-American War, and officially in the Navy Nurse Corps since 1908, the WAVES program was by far the largest-scale effort to recruit women to active duty in the Navy. In the WAVES program, thousands of women performed nearly every possible job at over 500 naval stations through the Second World War. As military leaders had hoped, they enabled male officers and enlisted men to staff the ships that were responsible for the Allied victory in the Pacific theatre. Among the earliest group of women to enlist in the WAVES was Miriam Miller. Although her parents felt that military nursing "wasn't the life for a nice Jewish girl," Miller enlisted soon after her graduation from the Wilkes-Barre General Hospital School of Nursing, in Pennsylvania. She was assigned first to the Great Lakes Naval Station and then to the San Diego Naval Hospital. Later, when the Navy relaxed its prohibition on women serving outside the continental U.S., she worked in Guam, where she cared for soldiers injured in the battles of Iwo Jima and Okinawa. Active in veterans' affairs after the war, Miller was elected President of the Jewish War Veterans National Ladies Auxiliary in 1961.

    1943: First publication of Mishmar, a newspaper owned by Hashomer Hatzair that would be re-named Al HaMishmar

    1944(10th of Av, 5704): Since the 9th of Av fell on Shabbat, Tish'a B'Av is observed today.

    1944: Three tankers, carrying some 1750 Jews from the Italian-held islands of Kos and Rhodes, arrive at Piraeus, Greece, where the Jews are bullied onto trucks and driven to the Haidar detention camp near Athens

    1944: More than 100 Jews are deported from Toulouse, France, to Auschwitz.

    1944: Edi Weinstein, his father and his friend Berl Goldberg, all of whom who had escaped from Treblinka were discovered by German soldiers.  They killed Goldberg. Weinstein and his father survived and Edi Weinstein actually joined the Polish Army in 1945 helping to fight the Nazis in the waning days of the WW II. 

    1945: The administration of Germany is assumed by the Allied Control Council.

    1946: A three-day pogrom begins in Miskolc, Hungary.

    1946: Birthdate of two time Oscar winning documentary filmmaker Barbara Kopple.

    1947: It was announced at a press conference in New York today, that “official confirmation that the Parliament of Surinam, in Dutch Guiana, and the Netherlands Government have both approved the proposal of the Freeland League to settle 30,000 homeless European Jews in Surinam, was received by the Freeland League last week.” (As reported by JTA)

    1948: “Escape” directed by Joseph L. Mankiewicz and produced by William Perlberg was released in Los Angeles today by 20th Century Fox.

    1949(9thof Av, 5709): Sixty-eight year old Henrik Galeen, the actor, screenwriter and director from Lemberg whose first major film was “The Golem” a 1915 silent movie depiction of the Jewish character and who was forced to flee Europe when the Nazis came to power passed away today in Randolph Vermont.

    1950: James G. McDonald, the U.S. Ambassador to the state of Israel has submitted his resignation.  McDonald is coming to the end of a normal two year posting at Tel Aviv.

    1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that more than 1,500 polling stations opened to admit an estimated 880,000 voters for the Second Knesset. There were 17 lists of political parties contesting for the election of 120 Knesset members. About 75,000 Arabs were eligible to vote.

    1951: Voter turnout for today’s elections for the 2nd Knesset reaching 75.1%

    1951: Birthdate of Indian born, British artist and designer Gary Judah. For a look at his work go to

    1952(8thof Av, 5712): Seventy-nine year old Rebecca Weintraub, a native of Russia who was a 60 year veteran of the Yiddish theatre and the widow of Yiddish actor Sigmund Weintraub passed away today in New York.

    1953: Senator Robert Taft of Ohio passed away. Most people do not remember Senator Taft.  But in his day he was a political power.  Known as “Mr. Republican” Taft was considered a “shoe-in” for the Republican nomination for President in 1952.  However, his plans were upset by the surprise entry of Ike Eisenhower into the battle for the nomination.  Ike won and the rest is history. As a Conservative Republican, Taft opposed most the social legislation that was popular among the Jews of his day.  The Taft-Hartley Act was seen as a piece of anti-labor legislation that limited the power of labor and therefore the influence of many Jewish leaders.  However, Taft joined Senator Wagner of New York (his political opponent on most domestic issues) in introducing a resolution supporting a Jewish homeland in Palestine.  The resolution was introduced in October of 1945 and demonstrated the changing attitude towards Jews and the increasingly broad support for the Zionist cause among non-Jews.

    1956:In Tashken, Avner and Chana Leviev gave birth to Lev Avnerovich Leviev the businessman and philanthropist who served as president of the World Congress of Bukharian Jews.

    1959: “Blue Denim,” the cinema version of the Broadway play of the same name featuring Warren Berlinger as “Ernie” and with music by Bernard Herrmann was released today in the United States.

    1963(9thof Av, 5723): Tish’a B’Av

    1963: In Los Angeles, Nedra (née Stern) Kudrow, a travel agent, and Dr. Lee N. Kudrow , a physician who specialized in the treatment of headaches gave birth to  Lisa Kudrow the youngest sister of Helene Marla Kudrow and neurologist David B. Kudrow who “has received ten Emmy Award nominations, twelve Screen Actors Guild Award nominations, and a Golden Globe Award nomination” during her acting career.

    1965: US President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Social Security Act of 1965 into law, establishing Medicare and Medicaid. Wilbur Cohen, a man whose active career ran from the New Deal through the Great Society and was serving as Under Secretary of H.E.W. in 1965 was considered to be the driving force behind this landmark legislation that removed the fear of ill health for senior citizens and their families.  Johnson would later name Cohen, the Wisconsin born son of Jewish immigrants, to the position of Secretary of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare.

    1969(15thof Av, 5729): Tu B’Av

    1969:Barbra Streisand opens for Liberace at International Hotel, Las Vegas

    1969: A memorial service for 64 year old Carlos L. Israels, the son of architect Charles Israels and Belle Linder, the graduate of Amherst and Columbia University Law School, “a specialist in securities law” and “former president of the United Hias Service” who was the husband of “the former Ruth Goldstein” with whom he had three children – Charles, Michael and Elizabeth – is scheduled to held this afternoon at Temple Emanu-El.

    1970: Israeli airmen shot down four MIGs flown by Russian pilots over the Suez Canal. This marked the first military encounter between Israeli and Russian forces

    1976: Two French tourists were wounded when a bomb went off on a Jerusalem sidewalk.

    1976: The Jerusalem Post reported that Britain severed relations with Uganda after Idi Amin's regime failed to provide information on the fate of Dora Bloch, the British-Israeli dual national dragged from a Kampala hospital after her fellow hijacked Air France hostages had been rescued from the Entebbe airport by Israeli commandoes

    1976(2ndof Av, 5736): Seventy-five Emile Solomon Sachs, the Lithuanian born South African labor leader passed away today.

    1976: Yuri Vudka was “released from a labor camp” today “after serving a seven year sentence for ‘anti-Soviet activities.’”

    1978: Funeral services are scheduled to be held this afternoon for Edward A. Cohen, the husband of Ann Cohen and the brother of Joseph Cohen.

    1978: Funeral services are scheduled to be held this morning at the Riverside Chapel, for Bee S. Cohen, the “wife of the late Dr. Jacob Cohen” and “sister of Julius Smolen.

    1980: The Knesset passed the “The Jerusalem Law” establishing Jerusalem as the capital of the State of Israel.

    1982: “Night Shift” a comedy produced by Brian Grazer, written by Lowell Ganz, with music by Burt Bacharach and Carole Bayer Sager and co-starring Henry Winkler was released in the United States today by Warner Bros.

    1982: After opening in Japan four days ago “The Last American Virgin” directed by Boaz Davidson who also wrote the script, produced by Yoram Globus and Menahem Golan and filmed by cinematographer Adam Greenberg was released in the United States today.

    1983(20th of Av, 5743): MGM executive Howard Dietz passed away.

    1990: Today Linda Lavin took over the role of “Rose” in the 1989 Broadway Revival of “Gypsy” the musical created by Jule Syne, Stephen Sondheim and Arthur Laurents

    1992(29th of Tammuz, 5752):  Ken Meyer, the son of Australian entrepreneur and businessman Sidney Myer, and his wife died today in plane crash.

    1992(29th of Tammuz, 5752): Seventy-eight year old  Joe Shuster, co-creator of Superman, passed away.

    1993: “Rising Sun” an American murder mystery with a Japanese twist directed and produced by Philip Kaufman who co-authored the script and co-starring Harvey Keitel was released today in the United States by 20th Century Fox.

    1997(25th of Tammuz, 5757):  Double suicide bombings to place in Jerusalem that would eventually claim the lives of fourteen Israeli victims.

    1997(25thof Tammuz, 5757):Lev Desyatnik, 60, of Jerusalem; Regina Giber, 76, of Jerusalem; Valentina Kovalenko, 67, of Jerusalem; Shmuel Malka, 44, of Mevaseret Zion; David Nasco, 44, of Mevaseret Zion; Muhi A-din Othman, 33, of Eilabun; Simha Fremd, 92, of Jerusalem; Gregory Paskhovitz, 15, of Jerusalem; Leah Stern, 50, of Jerusalem; Rachel Tejgatrio, 83, of Jerusalem; Liliya Zelezniak, 47, of Jerusalem; Shalom (Golan) Zevulun, 52, of Jerusalem and Mark Rabinowitz, 80, of Jerusalem were murdered by Hamas today at Mahane Yehuda Market.

    1999: The INS Dolphin was commissioned today.

    1999: Russian born American conductor led Bournemouth Symphony Orchestra in the premiere of Peteris Vasks's Symphony No. 2 at the Royal Albert Hall

    2000: The African American/Jewish Coalition for Justice hosts a picnic at Seward Park in Seattle, Washington.

    2000: Bruce Fleisher carded a three day score of 198 to win the Lightpath Long Island Classic.

    2000: The New York Times features reviews books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Driving Mr. Albert: A Trip Across America With Einstein's Brain by Michael Paterniti, Inside the Halo and Beyond: The Anatomy of a Recovery by Jewish born author Maxine Kumin and Millicent Dillon's new novel entitled Harry Gold about Harry Gold, the American Jewish chemist who acted as a spy for the Soviet Union in the 1930's and 40's.

    2002(21st of Av, 5762): Five people were injured by a suicide bomber on Hanevi’im Street in Jerusalem

    2002: Simon and Shuster published a paperback edition of Harry Kemelman’s 1964 novel Friday the Rabbi Slept Late,“the first in Rabbi Small mystery series.”

    2003(1st of Av, 5763): Rosh Chodesh Av

    2004: In “Hyam Maccoby” Lawrence Joffe examines the life an accomplishments of this Jewish scholar who was the grandson and namesake of “Rabbi Hyam (or "Chaim") Maccoby better known as the "Kamenitzer Maggid," a passionate religious Zionist and advocate of vegetarianism and animal welfare.”

    2004: Following its premiere 4 days ago, “The Village” a horror film produced by Scott Rudin with a cast that included Adrien Brody and Jesse Eisenbeg was released throughout the United States today by Buena Vista Pictures.

    2004:Harold & Kumar Go to White Castle” with a script by Jon Hurwitz and featuring Dov Yosef Tiefenbach and David Krumholtz was released today in the United States.

    2006: Jewish golfer Corey Pavin won the U.S. Bank Championship in Milwaukee.

    2006: The New York Times features reviews books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including the recently released paperback edition of Freud's Requiem: Mourning, Memory, and the Invisible History of a Summer Walk by Matthew Von Unwerth. “This elegantly meandering look at Sigmund Freud's life and the intellectual world he moved in examines an obscure 1915 essay, "On Transience," in which Freud records a conversation with the poet Rainer Maria Rilke and the psychoanalyst Lou Andreas-Salomé.”

    2006: Hezbollah fired a record 140 Katyusha rockets at targets in northern Israel today wounding at least eight people, including a Haaretz correspondent.

    2006(5thof Av, 5766): One hundred and six year old Philip Montagu D’Arcy a pioneer in the field of Tuberculosis Research who was the son of solicitor Henry D’Arcy Hart, the husband of Ruth Meyer, the father of Harvard University economics professor Oliver Hart and the brother of engineer James D’Arcy Hart passed away today.

    2006(5th of Av, 5766): Murray Bookchin, American libertarian and socialist, passed away.

    2007: In Jerusalem, Peretz Eliyahu and Victoria Chana collaborate to perform original music tied to ancient texts about love at a Tu B’Av event.

    2007: Award winning news anchor for KTLA and published author Hal Fishman’s “last broadcast” took place this evening, “eight days before his death.

    2007: Victoria Redel, author of The Border of Truth based on the experiences of Jewish refugees aboard the SS Quanza, presents a reading at the Fine Arts Work Center in Provincetown, NY.

    2007(15th of Av, 5767): Tu B'Av. The 15th Day of Av, is both an ancient and modern holiday. Originally a post-biblical day of joy, it served as a matchmaking day for unmarried women in the second Temple period (before the fall of Jerusalem in 70 C.E.). Tu B'Av was almost unnoticed in the Jewish calendar for many centuries but it has been rejuvenated in recent decades, especially in the modern state of Israel. In its modern incarnation it is gradually becoming a Hebrew-Jewish Day of Love, slightly resembling Valentine's Day in English-speaking countries. There is no way to know exactly how early Tu B'Av began. The first mention of this date is in the Mishnah (compiled and edited in the end of the second century), where Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel is quoted saying, "There were no better (i.e. happier) days for the people of Israel than the Fifteenth of Av and Yom Kippur, since on these days the daughters of Israel/Jerusalem go out dressed in white and dance in the vineyards. What were they saying: Young man, consider whom you choose (to be your wife)…"( Taanit, Chapter 4). The Gemara (the later, interpretive layer of the Talmud) attempts to find the origin of this date as a special joyous day, and offers several explanations. One of them is that on this day the Biblical "tribes of Israel were permitted to mingle with each other," namely: to marry women from other tribes (Talmud, Taanit 30b). This explanation is somewhat surprising, since nowhere in the Bible is there a prohibition on "intermarriage" among the 12 tribes of Israel. This Talmudic source probably is alluding to a story in the book of Judges (chapter 21): After a civil war between the tribe of Benjamin and other Israelite tribes, the tribes vowed not to intermarry with men of the tribe of Benjamin. It should be noted that Tu B'Av, like several Jewish holidays (Passover, Sukkot, Tu Bishvat) begins on the night between the 14th and 15th day of the Hebrew month, since this is the night of a full moon in our lunar calendar. Linking the night of a full moon with romance, love, and fertility is not uncommon in ancient cultures. For almost 19 centuries--between the destruction of Jerusalem and the re-establishment of Jewish independence in the state of Israel in 1948--the only commemoration of Tu B'Av was that the Morning Prayer service did not include the penitence prayer (Tahanun). In recent decades Israeli civil culture promotes festivals of singing and dancing on the night of Tu B'Av. The entertainment and beauty industries work overtime on this date. It has no formal legal status as a holiday-- it is a regular workday--nor has the Israeli rabbinate initiated any addition to the liturgy or called for the introduction of any ancient religious practices. The cultural gap between Israeli secular society and the Orthodox rabbinate makes it unlikely that these two will find a common denominator in the celebration of this ancient/modern holiday in the foreseeable future.

    2008(27th of Tammuz, 5678): Eighty-seven year old RAF veteran, naturalist and television presenter John Gordon Miller, the cousin of violinist Yehudi Menuhin passed away today.

    2008:Prime Minister Ehud Olmert of Israel, embroiled in a high-profile corruption investigation, announced that he would resign his office after his party chose a new leader in September elections. In a televised public statement made from his official residence in Jerusalem, Mr. Olmert said he would not take part in the leadership election for his Kadima Party, opening the way for the next party leader to try to form a new government.“I have decided not to compete in the primaries in Kadima,” he said. “I will resign from my role as prime minister to allow a new leader to form a new government efficiently and quickly.”

    2009(9th of Av, 5769): Tish'a B'Av

    2009:Randi & Bruce Pergament Jewish Film Festival presents a screening of “Max Minsky & Me,” a delightful comedy set in contemporary Berlin in which Nelly, a bookish bat mitzvah candidate, who wants to be on her school basketball team so she can meet her prince charming recruits a reluctant coach who offers her athletic training and ultimately, his respect.”

    2009: In an interview today the head of the Israel Defense Forces' ground troops during the Gaza disengagement said the decision to evacuate Gaza Strip settlements in 2005 was "utter nonsense." Israel Defense Forces General (Res.) Yiftach Ron-Tal made the comment during an interview on Army Radio, a day before the fourth anniversary of the disengagement on the Hebrew calendar.

     2010:A Grad-type Katyusha rocket fired by Palestinian militants in the Gaza Strip struck close to an apartment building in a residential area of Ashkelon on today, while two mortar shells exploded in the western Negev just a few hours later.

    2010:An Israeli Air Force Boeing aircraft carrying the coffins of six IAF servicemen killed in Monday's Yasour helicopter crash in the Carpathian Mountains landed at the Tel Nof air base. The funerals of the fallen soldiers will be held at various military cemeteries throughout the day today. Lt.-Col. (Res.) Avner Goldman will be buried at 12:15 p.m. in Modi'in; Lt.-Col. Daniel Shipenbauer will be buried at 3:00 p.m. in Gdarot; Maj. Yahel Keshet will be buried at 1:00 PM in Sharona; Maj. Lior Shai will be buried at 2:00 p.m. in Hod Hasharon; Lt. Nir Lakrif will be buried at 12:30 p.m. in Haifa; and St.-Sgt. Oren Cohen will be buried at 1:00 p.m. in Rehovot.

    2010;It was reported today that the three bidders still in the mix to buy Newsweek magazine, according to the New York Times, are audio equipment tycoon Sidney Harman; tastefully named hedge fund guy Marc Lasry; and Mort Zuckerman chum Fred Drasner. All three are Members of the Tribe.

    2010: “Mother’s Savior: A Revelation” published today chronicles the misfortunes of the Peltzman family and Norbert Stern, “a piano prodigy” whose musical skills were just one more victim of the Nazis.

    2010: After premiering at the Sundance Film Festival, “The Kids Are All Right” an award winning comedy directed by Lisa Cholodenko and written by Cholodenko and Stuart Blumberg and co-produced by Gary Gilbert and Jordan Blumberg was released in the United States today.

    2010: “With Curious George” published today the plans for “Illumination Entertainment, the animation company founded by former Fox Animation President Chris Meledandri and whose movies Universal finances and distributes, is developing a new version of ‘Curious George,’"  the creation of the Jewish team of Hans and Margret Rey.

    2011: Gefen Books is scheduled to releaseConfidential: The Life of Secret Agent Turned Hollywood Tycoon Arnon Milchan, by brothers-in-law Meir Doron and Joseph Gelman, which “tells the story of an Israeli nuclear intelligence agent who found his way into the film business.”

    2011(28th of Tammuz, 5771): Yahrzeit of Rabbi Moshe Teitelbaum of Uhely, Hungary, author of Yismach Moshe and patriarch of the Hungarian Chassidic dynasties who passed away on the 28th of Tamuz, 5601 (July 17, 1841).

    2011: “Blood Relation” and “77 Steps” are scheduled to be shown at the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.

    2011:Those who are protesting the spiraling cost of living in Israel are planning to hold five marches tonight, in Tel Aviv, Jerusalem, Be'er Sheva, Haifa and Nazareth.

    2011: Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu was expected to put together a team to examine the burden of indirect taxes on the public in the coming days, Army Radio reported today.

    2011:An explosion was reported at a depot along the Egyptian natural gas pipeline in Sinai that normally supplies Israel with gas, Army Radio reported today. The attack on the pipeline was the third this month and the fifth since the beginning of 2011. It also followed a shootout between Egyptian security forces and apparent Islamic militants yesterday.

    2011:Hundreds of thousands of Israelis took part in protests held in cities across the country tonight, the largest collaborative protest yet in a popular movement over social issues that has swept the country in the past two weeks.

    2012: The Northern California Premiere of “Papirosen” is scheduled to take place at the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.

    2012: “Yossi,” a sequel to “Yossi and Jagger” is scheduled to be shown at the JCC in Manhattan.

    2012:Knesset Speaker Reuven Rivlin (Likud) today slammed proposals calling for IDF conscription of Arabs. “You don’t have to be a genius to realize that it’s impossible to draft the Arab public. Any initiatives of this sort smack of hypocrisy and even malice,” Rivlin said at a Ramadan Iftar feast at Kafar Qara

    2012:Following a day of mostly disappointing results for Israel at the London Olympic Games, two Israelis advanced to the semi-finals in their events in swimming and judo this morning. Amit Ivri set a new Israeli record in the 200 meter women's medley relay this morning. Ivri finished the race in 2:13:29, putting her in 12th place and allowing her to advance to the semi-finals this evening.

    2012: (11th of Av, 5772): Ninety-one year old philanthropist Fred Worms passed away today.(As reported by Greer Fay Cashman)

    2012: “In what appears like a clear endorsement of a presidential candidate, Defense Minister Ehud Barak said tonight that Barack Obama has been the most supportive president on matters of Israeli security throughout the two countries’ diplomatic relations.” (As reported by Yaakov Katz)

    2012:The climactic denouement of the Daf Yomi seven-year study cycle of the Talmud was staged in Tel Aviv and Jerusalem tonight, with tens of thousands of haredi men crowding into venues in the two cities to celebrate their having completed the study of the ancient work of Jewish law.(As reported by Jeremy Sharon)

    2013: A conference on “The Bible in the Iberian World: Fundaments of a Religious Melting Pot is scheduled to open at Leipzig, Germany.”

    2013: “Sukkah City” and “Neil Diamond: Solitary Man” are scheduled to be shown at the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.

    2013: Dancers from the Paris Opera are scheduled to appear at Haifa’s Rappaport Hall.

    2013: The Maccabiah Games are scheduled to come to an end.

    2013: Ninety-nine year old Berthold Beitz, the head of ThyssenKrupp who “was remembered for his efforts to save hundreds of Jews and Poles from the Nazis while stationed in Poland during World War II” passed away today. (As reported by Melissa Eddy)

    2013: “President Obama announced his intent to nominate Noah Mamet to be the U.S. ambassador to Argentina despite the fact that Mamet has never been to Argentina.”

    2013: Josh Zeid pitched in his first major league game as a member of the Houston Astros.

    2013:Senator Dianne Feinstein of California introduced a bill tonight that would have the Senate resolve itself to supporting Secretary of State John Kerry's push for a two-state solution. (By Michael Wilner)

    2013(23rd of Av, 5773): Ninety-four year old Ottie Schecthman, one of the pioneering stars of the NBA passed away today. (As reported by Richard Goldstein)

    2014: Historic 6th& Synagogue is scheduled to host Trivia Night sponsored by B’nai B’rith.
    2014: The Washington Jewish Film Festival is scheduled to host another night of Coen brothers’ films.
    2014: Hamas continued its attack on Israel with rockets being fired towards Ashkelon, Ashdod, Rishon, LeZion, Rehovot and Tel Aviv.(As reported by Matzn Tzuri)


    2014: “Conservative Jews” were photographed today praying “at the temporary egalitarian Robinson’s Arch prayer pavilion at the southern end of the Western Wall.”

    2014(3rd of Av, 5774):St.-Sgt. Matan Gotlib, 21, from Rishon Lezion, St.-Sgt.Omer Hay, 21, from Savyon, and St.-Sgt. Guy Algranati, 20, from Tel Aviv “were killed this morning in Gaza in an explosion at a booby-trapped UNRWA health clinic that housed a tunnel entry shaft.” (As reported by Mitch Ginsburg)

    2015: The Annual Karmiel Dance Festival is scheduled to come to an end.

    2015: “Only three weeks after being released, Yishai Schlissel stabbed six marchers during the Jerusalem gay pride parade.”

    2015(14th of Av, 5775): Lasker Award winning physician Dr. Louis Sokoloff, pioneer of the PET scan passed away at the age of 93. (As reported by Sam Roberts)

    2015(14th of Av, 5775): Seventy-eight year New York real estate lawyer Charles Goldstein who turned his legal efforts to recovering looted art for Holocaust victims and their families passed away today. (As reported by Sam Roberts)

    2015: In Mountain States Spotlight published today “ADL Board Chair-Elect Jim Kurtz-Phelan” shared “his passion for Israel, the law and working to ensure fair treatment for all.”

    2015: Lewis Black is scheduled to perform at the Hampton Beach Casino Ballroom in New Hampshire.

    2015: “In Poland, Searching for Jewish Heritage” published today Joseph Berger described “Jewish Poland” that has virtually no Jews.

    2016: “Minister-without-portfolio Tzachi Hanegbi of the Likud party asserted today that hundreds of Yemenite children were kidnapped from Israeli hospitals in the 1950s in connection with the so-called “Yemenite children affair.” (As reported by TOI)

    2016: At the Kennedy Center’s Eisenhower Theatre, in Washington, D.C., the curtain is scheduled to come down on the final performance Jonathan Munby’s version of “The Merchant of Venice” which for some has reignited “questions of whether this tragicomedy about a Jewish moneylender exacting a terrible revenge is a credible portrait of Jewish persecution, or something more like an antique, anti-Semitic tract.” (As reported by Peter Marks)

    2016: The Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center is scheduled to host a survivor talk by Matus Stolov who was saved in part by an aunt who “arranged for false papers for him and his mother through the underground.”

    2016(24th of Tammuz, 5776): Shabbat Pinchas

    2016(24th of Tammuz, 5776): Sixty-three year old weather meteorologist Dave Schwartz passed away today. (As reported by William McDonald)

    2016: Noam Banai, a member of the Banai musical dynasty is scheduled to begin a concert tour with a performance in Tel Aviv.

    2017: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including the recently released paperback editions of JACKSON, 1964: And Other Dispatches From Fifty Years of Reporting on Race in America by Calvin Trillin and The Inseparablesby Stuart Nadler.

    2017: “The Prudential Ridelondon-Surrrey 1000, a World Jewish Relief Challenge Event is scheduled to take place today.

    2017: In London, JW3 is scheduled to host a screening of “The Zookeeper’s Wife.”

    2017: Final showing of “Memory Unearthed: The Lodz Ghetto Photographs of Henryk Ross” is scheduled to come a close at the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston.

    2018: “Ambiguous Places” and “Leto, a musical drama based on the life of Soviet musician Viktor Tsoy” are scheduled to be shown today at the Jerusalem Film Festival.

    2018: JW3 is scheduled to host a screening of “Tracking Edith” in London

    2018: The family of Yotam Ovadia, the husband of Tal Ovadia and father of two children who was murdered by a terrorists last week, continue to sit shiva.

    2018: As the stock market opens this morning, investors will find out if the value of Mark Zuckerberg’s Facebook continues its precipitous fall.




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    July 31

    904: Thessaloniki, which is also known as Salonica, is sacked and looted by Saracens (an Arab group).  The Jewish population of Thessaloniki dates back at least to the first century of the Common Era.  By the time Benjamin of Tudela visited the city in the 11th century the Jewish population numbered a significant “hundred souls.”  Salonica’s Jewish population would grow when the Ottomans made it a refuge for Sephardic Jews following their expulsion in 1492.

    1009:  Pope Sergius IV becomes the 142nd pope, succeeding Pope John XVIII. During the Papacy of Sergius, the Fatimid caliph al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah destroyed the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem. There was a two-fold response in the West. Sergius issued a papal bull calling for Islam to be driven from the Holy Land and the Jews were attacked because rumors were circulated blaming them for inciting the Caliph to destroy the church.

    1255: An English boy who would become known as Little Saint Hugh of Lincoln disappeared setting the stage for the one of the more notorious blood libels in English history.

    1305: In Barcelona it is decreed that anybody who reads works of science and metaphysics before the age of 25 or who adheres to allegorical interpretations which rject the notion of revelation will be excommunicated.

    1390: Solomon Halevi converts and takes the name of Pablo de Santa Maria.  He became the Bishop of Burgos and Chancellor to the King of Castille.

    1391: Joshua Loki wrote to Pablo de Santa Maria, known as Solomon Halevi before he converted, rejecting Pablo’s interpretation of the messianic role of Jesus.  Lorki would convert ten years later and become a leading tormentor of the Jewish people.

    1492: The Jews are expelled from Spain when the Alhambra Decree takes effect.

    1527: Birthdate of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor. “In his diary entries, Maximilien described the Jews as a quarrelsome and deceitful people who denounced one another, gave usurious loans to miners and artisans and traded in inferior medals.  Between 1567 and 1573 the emperor repeatedly issued mandates to expel Jews” from Lower Austria.

    1556:  Ignatius Loyola, Spanish priest and founder of the Jesuits passed away. When accused of being crypto-Jew or having Jewish ancestry he replied If only I did! What could be more glorious than to be of the same blood as the Apostles, the Blessed Virgin, and our Lord Himself?" Robert Maryks, “an expert on the history of early Jesuits details the significant role of “conversos’’ — Jews and their descendants who were pressured to convert to Catholicism before and during the Spanish Inquisition in his recently published book, The Jesuit Order as a Synagogue of Jews: Jesuits of Jewish Ancestry and Purity-of-Blood Laws in the Early Society of Jesus 

    1571: The ghetto in Florence, Italy was established.

    1610: Paul V issued “Apostolicae Servitutis ,” a papal bull concerning the need for monks to learn Hebrew.

    1725: During the reign of Charles VI, an imperial order fixed the number of registered Jewish families in Moravia at 5,106 and threatened any locality which accepted Jews where they had not been previously settled with a fine of 1,000 ducats. (As reported by the Jewish Virtual Library)

    1743(10thof Av, 5503: In Jerusalem, Chaim ben Moses ibn Attar,Talmudist and Kabbalist passed away. He was buried on the Mount of Olives, Jerusalem. Born at Mequenez, Morocco in 1696 he was one of the most prominent rabbis in Morocco. In 1733 he decided to leave his native country and settle in the Land of Israel, then under the Ottoman Empire. En route he was detained in Livorno by the rich members of the Jewish community who established a yeshiva for him. Many of his pupils later became prominent and furnished him with funds to print his “Ohr ha-Chaim” or “The Light of Life,” a commentary on the Pentateuch. He was received with great honor wherever he traveled. This was due to his extensive knowledge, keen intellect and extraordinary piety. In the middle of 1742 he arrived in Jerusalem where he presided at the Beit Midrash Knesset Yisrael. One of his disciples there was Rabbi Chaim Joseph David Azulai, who wrote of his master's greatness: "Attar's heart pulsated with Talmud; he uprooted mountains like a resistless torrent; his holiness was that of an angel of the Lord ... having severed all connection with the affairs of this world. A prolific author, two of his other published works were “Hefetz Hashem or “God’s Desire,” consisting of dissertations on four Talmudic treatises and “Peri Toar” or “Beautiful Fruit,” a novella based on the Shulchan Aruch.

    1776(15th of Av, 5536): Francis Salvador, one of the most prominent Jews of the American Revolutionary period, , was shot and scalped by Indians after riding 28 miles to raise a militia after attacks occurred on settlers. His father (also named Francis Salvador) was a wealthy London Jew who financed the earliest Jewish settlers of Savannah, Georgia

    1781(9thof Av, 5541): Tish’a B’Av

    1800(9thof Av, 5560): Tish’a B’av observed for the first time in the 19thcentury.

    1806: In Baltimore, MD, Jacob Myers of Georgetown, SC, married Miriam Etting the daughter of prominent Jewish merchant Solomon Etting.

    1821: Lazarus Magnus, the son of Simon Magnus and the husband of Sarah Moses, passed away today in Chatham, Kent, England.

    1838(9th of Av, 5598): Tish’a B’Av

    1840(1st of Av, 5600): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1840(1st of Av, 5600): Nachman Kohen Krochmal, one of “the first Jewish historians to treat Jewish history as an integral part of all human history” passed away.  A native of Brody, Galicia, one of his most famous works was Moreh Nebuke ha-Zeman (Guide for the Perplexed of the Time).

    1841; The Ouse Valley Viaduct which had been designed in part by David Mocatta, was opened and in use.

    1845: In Great Britain, Parliament passes the Act for the relief of Persons of the Jewish Religion elected to Municipal Offices.

    1854: Birthdate of Fritz Hommel author of Ancient Hebrew Tradition in which “he attacked the Graf Wellhausen hypothesis” and “controverts the method deployed by the higher critics of the Old Testament.”

    1856:  Christchurch New Zealand is chartered as a city. According to Robert Case, the first Jews settled in Christchurch during the 1850’s. By 1860, there were fewer than four hundred Jews living in all of New Zealand.    Although the Jewish Community of Christchurch has always been a small one, it built a synagogue in 1890.  Today the Christchurch’s Canterburgy Hebrew Congregation consists of a synagogue, Temple Beth-El that offers regular Shabbat services as well as cheder classes, Bar and Bat Mitzvah training, conversion support, holiday services and a variety of social activities. It is also home to the South Island chapter of Habonim Dror and the Christchurch Council of Jewish Women. The community also has a Chevra Kedisha and Chabad House.

    1859(29th of Tammuz, 5619): Eighty-six year old Isaac Katzenelnbogen, the husband of Fanny Neuburg, passed away at Furth today.

    1861: Philadelphian David A. Barnett began serving with the 99thRegiment who reached the rank Corporal in Company B before dying in 1863 from wounds he suffered earlier at the Battle of Kelly’s Ford in Virginia.

    1863(15th Av, 5623): In the wake of a month that saw the bloodies battle of the Civil War and the horror of the Draft Riots, Jews mark a moment dedicated to love.

    1870:In the wake of the reported massacre of Jews in Romania, letters have been received in Washington, DC that states that Article 21 of the new constitution guarantees freedom of conscience to all.  These letters claim that the 400,000 Jews in Romania have 176 synagogues in which they “worship in the manner prescribed by their religion.”   The letters conclude by asking if religious persecution really existed why would the Jews be allowed to have so many synagogues which they are free to use

    1876: “Jonathan Manly Emanuel,” a son of English born physician Manly Emanuel, who had joined the U.S. Navy in 1862 during the Civil War began serving Tuscarora which was “running a line of sounds for a submarine cable from San Francisco to Yokomama.”

    1878(1st of Av, 5638): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1878(1st of Av, 5638): Abraham Benisch, the native of Bohemia who was editor of The Jewish Chronicle and helped to form the Anglo-Jewish Association who was a “Zionist” before Herzl, passed away.

    1878: In Paris, Siegfried Propper and Bertha Propper, the daughter of Kalmus and Pauline Levy gave birth to Michel Propper, the brother of Georges Propper.

    1878: Birthdate of philanthropist and child-welfare activist Madeleine Borg. Borg, who lived her whole life in New York City, was educated at Columbia University, where she studied the causes of juvenile delinquency. Subsequently, she held leadership positions in more than a dozen major child welfare organizations. Her roles included chair of the executive committee of the Jewish Board of Guardians of New York, director of the Child Welfare League, member of the executive committee of the Girls' Service League of America, and trustee of the Training School for Jewish Social Work. She also served on the executive boards of the American Jewish Committee and the Federation for the Support of Jewish Philanthropic Societies of New York. Borg's largest contribution to child welfare was probably her role in founding the Big Sister movement, beginning in 1912. Modeled on earlier Big Brother programs targeted at troubled boys, Big Sister programs provide young girls with role models and companions. In 1914, Borg was among the founders of the Jewish Big Sisters, which sought to help poor and troubled girls by providing them with role models from a similar ethnic and cultural background. Today, Jewish Big Brothers/Big Sisters programs also match adults with disabilities with non-disabled friends. Always interested in child welfare, Borg was also active in promoting psychiatric clinics as part of the study of child behavior. In 1954, the Jewish Board of Guardians renamed its Child Guidance Institute in Borg's honor. Borg's public roles also extended beyond child welfare and beyond the Jewish community. In 1929, then-Governor Franklin Roosevelt appointed her to the New York State Old Age Pensions Committee; she also served on the executive committee of the New York City Crime Prevention Bureau. In 1939, she became a trustee of the New York World's Fair. Also in 1939, she became president of the New York Federation of Jewish Philanthropies, the first woman to hold that post. Borg died on January 9, 1956.

    1881: It was reported today that the English publishers of the late Lord Beaconsfield’s works are about to issue a new edition of his works called the “Hughenden Edition.”  Surprise has also been expressed that so many of the Disraeli’s possessions have been sold instead of being preserved as family mementoes.

    1881: It was reported today after receiving payments from “wealthy Jewish capitalists,” the Sultan has agreed to allow a Jewish colony to be established on 1,500 acre tract in the districts of Gilead and Moab.

    1881: “Jews In Russia” published today said that Jews in Russia were not hated because they are richer than their Christian counterparts.  The Jews are hated because they do not practice the vices of the gentile counterparts.  “If the Jews would only get drunk and spend their money recklessly, there would be very little temptation to persecute them.”

    1882: “Russian Persecutions” published today, relying on information that first appeared in the London Telegraph described the conditions of the Jews in Kiev where the “persecution by the population” has been replaced by “legal proceedings” that are “less noisy” but even crueler and more effective in persecuting the Jews.

    1882: Rishon Lezion or First For Zion was founded by a group of 10 families in Eretz Israel. The settlement marked the beginning of the first Aliyah (going up) to Eretz- Israel, and the beginning of Rothschild’s deep involvement with settlement activities. Later that year, Baron Edmund De Rothschild in response to the Russian pogroms and a plea by Rabbi Samuel Mohilever agreed to help the new Moshava

    1882: Eliezer Ben-Yedhuda, the “father of modern Hebrew” and his wife gave birth to Ben-Zion Ben-Yehuda

    1882: Today’s review of National Religions and Universal Religions, a collection of lectures by Dr. Abraham Kuenen the Dutch theologian teaching at the University of Lyden, states that “the finest part of the lectures is the analysis of early Jewish religion under the prophets.”

    1883: Jewish leaders met in Baltimore, MD, tonight in response to a request for funds to support an agricultural colony of approximately 60 Russian Jewish immigrants at Middlesex, Va.  They were being asked to raise $200 per month to meet the pressing needs of the colonists.  (The settlement at Middlesex was part of an effort to settle Jews away from the major eastern cities in the United States.  These colonies would be found in South America and Canada as well as in the rural United States.)

    1884: Samuel Barnett, a Polish Jew, was arraigned before Justice Welde on multiple charges of theft and burglary.  Barnett immediately pleaded guilty to at least one of the charges.  His wife, who had been arrested as an accomplice, was released.  Many of the victims of Barnett’s criminal activities came to the police station looking for their possessions among the many items that had been seized at Barnett’s home at 136 Orchard Street.  This would have put him in close proximity to 97 Orchard Street, the tenement made famous by Jane Ziegleman in her book by that name.

    1885: Memorial services were held this evening B’nai Jeshurun in New York City to mark the passing of Sir Moses Motefiore who had died in England on July 28.  Rabbis Henry S. Jacobs and Alexander Kohut delivered the eulogies.  At the end of his remarks, Rabbi Jacobs said, “He conquered prejudice not by yielding to it, but by rising far superior to its pettiness, like the other hero whose loss America is mourning today.” (This closing comment was in reference to President U.S. Grant who had passed away on July 23.  This positive comparison between this larger than life Jewish leader and Grant is further evidence that the Jews of his time did not consider him an anti-Semite.)

    1887(10th of Av, 5647): Tish’a B’Av observed since the 9th fell on Shabbat.

    1887: “Diamonds and Vulgarity” published today describes the increasing presence of Jewish families and their friends at the New Jersey resort city of Long Branch.

    1888: Birthdate of Baltimore native C. Irving Latz, “the president of the Wolf-Dessauer Department Store in Fort Wayne, Indiana.

    1889: The Sanitarium for Hebrew Children’s fifth free excursion which was paid for entirely by Isaac Stern is will from a pier at the foot of the 5th Street and the East River.

    1889: During today’s session of the House Commons, Sir James Fergusson responded to reports that the Russian government intends to enforce the anti-Jewish edicts of 1882. According to the British Charge de Affaires at St. Petersburg, the government is not considering any “fresh measures” aimed at denying the Jews “any of the privileges they now enjoy.” (This begged the question since enforcing edicts from 1882 might not be considered as “fresh measures)

    1890: “Persecuting the Jews” published today provided a summary of the edicts  now being enforced which state  that prohibit Jews from owning mining stocks or working in mines; allow Jews to live in only 16 provinces; debar Jews from government posts and serving as officers in the military; prohibits Jews from practicing law, medicine or engineering and “entering any other professions.

    1890: It was reported today that Russian government hopes that enforcing the anti-Jewish edicts promulgated in 1882 will force one million Jews to leave the country. (This is a contemporary reference to the Czar’s “one third; one third; one third” policy under which one third of the Jews would convert, one third would leave and one third would die)

    1891: “Persecution of Jews” published today provided “harrowing stories…of the extremely unjust laws in force against the Jews” and “the general atrocities practiced upon” them “by the Russian soldiers.” “Any Russian Christian…, who wishes to possess himself of the property of a Jewish neighbor, can obtain it by paying one-tenth of its value to the Mayor or government representative.”

    1891: In Washington, DC, Acting Secretary of State William F. Wharton asserted that the Department of State does not have any information regarding any new edicts issued by the Russian government aimed at depriving the Jews of their rights.

    1891: A private letter received in Washington “from Moscow asserts that things are worse than ever in Russia” for the Jews.

    1891: “A dispatch was received in Wall Street from London” today stating that  Messrs. C. J. Hambro & Son of that City” has “been appointed bankers to the Russian Government” replacing the Rothschilds who have been their bankers for years.

    1892: “Still Persecuting The Jews In Russia” published today described the fate the Jews who have been expelled from Moscow.  Many of these families “had resided in Moscow a long time” and had been given a year to get out.  In the end, they were not able to sell their homes and businesses and they were “unable to get a penny of compensation for their splendid synagogue…which while they were to sell at once.”

    1892: In the period starting with June 28 and ending today, 93 mothers and children were admitted for treatment at the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children. The sanitarium cannot keep up with demand since “more applications for admission are being received than can be accommodated.”

    1893: During the Panic of 1893, there was a run on several New York financial institutions including the Dry Dock Savings Bank on the Bowery, most of whose depositors are Russian Jews.  Today $41,000 was withdrawn and only $14,000 was deposited.

    1893: Birthdate of Ali Levin, the native of Russia who migrated to the United States in 1911, joined the Jewish Legion in Toronto, served with 38th Royal Fusiliers in Palestine and eventually made Aliyah in 1955 joining his two daughters – one who lived at Gesher Haziv and the other who lived at Urim.

    1893: During a stop in New York, Dionysius Latas, a leading Greek archbishop told reporters “he intends to oppose the persecution of Jews” in his homeland.

    1894: Abraham Levy is the lawyer for Jeremiah J. Levy, the Jewish policeman whose case is being heard by a jury, some of whose members are also Jewish.

    1894: “Seventy-five little sewing school children held their closing celebration at the roof garden of the Hebrew Institute at East Broadway and Jefferson Street where they enjoyed a generous supply of ice cream.

    1895: Colonel George Waring, Jr. a leading sanitary engineer and civic reformer met with 2,000 children at the Hebrew Institute, most of whom were poor and spoke little English.  Waring “told them what children had done and could do for the cleanliness of the city.

    1895: In Brownsville, the striking tailors issued a manifesto countering the one issued by the contractors written in Hebrew asking the landlords “to have no mercy on the strikers” who cannot pay their rent.

    1895: Tobacco magnate, Sir Albert Levy, the founder of Adrath Tobacco Co. “registered the trademark Adrath in Ireland” today.

    1897: “Rabbinical Excommunication” published today relied on information that first appeared in The American Hebrew described a response by rabbis in Jerusalem to aggressive Christian attempts to gain converts among the city’s Jews.  Any Jew supplying their institutions with Kosher meat will have to deal with the threat of “cherem.”

    1897: Victor Joze has dedicated “his new book entitled La Tribu d’Isidore,  “the first volume of a series of historical novels about a Jewish family to Emile Zola, the defender of Dreyfus.

    1898(12thof Av, 5658): Fifty-three year old New York realtor and clothing merchant who came to the United States from Germany at the age of 22 passed away at his country home in Forest, PA.

    1898(12thof Av, 5658): Fifty-five year old Samuel Firuski, who had spent 22 years as an auctioneer in Brooklyn and was a member of Temple Israel in Brooklyn, passed away today at Pavilion Hotel in Sharon Spring

    1898: Samuel Gompers arrived in Springfield, Illinois where he planned to attend the upcoming state convention of the American Federation of Labor.  Mr. Gompers spoke out against the condition of workers in the territories recently annexed after the Spanish American War; specifically he demanded that slave labor be stamped out there in and in Hawaii.

    1899: Birthdate of New York native and “advertising executive Lawrence Valenstein” who on the day after his 18th birthday founded Grey Advertising Agency and who married Alice Starr with whom he had two children – John and Linda.

    1899:”What Paris Talks About” published today described the French reaction “to the sudden death from apoplexy of Baroness Nathaniel de Rothschild…the sister of Baron Alphonse de Rothschild, head of the French branch of the family and the first cousin of…Lord Rothschild,” head of the English branch of the family. The loss was felt even more by the artistic community than the financial community.  In her younger days she “showed real talent as a watercolorist.”  Later in life she bought the paintings of many “modern painters” before they gained fame as an act of generosity.

    1900: Herzl leaves Altaussee and travels to Luzern, Paris and London.  The trip will take a toll on his health and he will be ill by the he gets to London on August 7.

    1902: “Riot Mars Funeral of Rabbi Joseph” published today descried the outbreak of violence that occurred when the procession of mourners for the Grand Rabbi passed by the R. Hoe & Co. The workers who were at lunch began jeering,  threw buckets of water and finally bombarded the Jews with “paper saturated with oil, bits of iron, small blocks of wood and other missiles” which caused a violent reaction.

    1902: It was reported today Julius Weber had not been clubbed to death by police as originally claimed but was in fact being cared for by friends living on Suffolk Street after having been seriously injured during the near riot that had broken out during the funeral procession carrying Rabbi Joseph to his final resting place.

    1902(26th of Tammuz, 5662): Seventy-two year old Benjamin Szold passed away.  Born in Hungary in 1829, he came to the United States in 1859 to serve as the first rabbi at Temple Oheb Shalom in Baltimore.  While he accomplished a great deal serving in this capacity, his greatest claim to fame may be that he was the father of Henrietta Szold, the founder of Hadassah.

    1904: The Assembly of the Jewish Chautauqua Society is scheduled to end today in Atlantic City, NJ.

    1905: Sir Herbert Stern was created a Baronet, of Strawberry Hill in the Parish of Twickenham and County of Middlesex, in the Baronetage of the United Kingdom today.

    1906(9th of Av, 5666):Tish'a B'Av

    1906: In Austria, thirty-eight year old Siegfried Reginald Wolf and his wife Ida gave birth to Franz Karl Wolf.

    1908: Birthdate of New York City native Jack H. Fields, the “President of Garden State Prints” and the “founder of the Free Sons of Israel’s scholarship fund.”

    1910: In New Jersey, the first issue of the Newark Wochenblatt, a Yiddish weekly, was published today.

    1912: Birthdate of newspaper and Chicago literary institution Irv Kupcinet.

    1912: “The Jewish Socialist Federation came into formal existence” today.

    1912(17thof Av, 5672): Fifty-one year old Alphonse Weiner who had been appointed a school commissioner in 1910 passed away today in New York

    1912: In Brooklyn, “Sára Ethel (née Landau) and Jenő Saul Friedman,Jewish immigrants from Beregszász in Carpathian Ruthenia, Kingdom of Hungary (now Berehove in Ukraine)” who “worked as dry goods merchants gave birth to Nobel Prize winning economist and Federal Reserve Chairman Milton Friedman.

    1914: Fifty-four year old Jean Jaurès who was “one of the most energetic defenders of Alfred Dreyfus” was assassinated today by a French nationalist today.

    1914: In Vesoul, Haute-Saône, France Albert Samuel and Hélène Falk gave birth to Raymond Samuel who would gain fame as French Resistance leader Raymond Aubrac.

    1914: German Jewish industrialist Walter Rathenau published an article in the Berliner Tageblatt protesting Germany’s blind loyalty to Austria; a loyalty which he felt was leading to a great European war.  

    1915: In Brooklyn, Benjamin Aptheker, a successful manufacturer of women's underwear, and Rebecca Komar Aptheker gave birth to their fifth and youngest child Herbert Aptheker the Marxist historian and husband “Fay Philippa Aptheker, his first cousin.”  (As reported by Christopher Lehmann-Haupt)

    1916: In Hackney, London, Eva (née Kosky) and Mark Tafler gave birth to character actor Sydney Tafler best known may for his performances in “The Lavendar Hill Mob” and the James Bond thrill “The Spy Who Loved Me” who was the husband of actress Joy Shelton with whom he had three children – Jeremy, Jonathan and Jennifer.

    1917: The Battle of Passchendaele, also known as the Third Battle of Ypres where Monty Moss, a buyer for Moss Bros. which had been founded by his grandfather Moses and was now being run by his father George was killed and Canadian Myer Tutzer Cohen, “a lieutenant in the Black Watch” would win the Military Cross for Bravery, began today.

    1917: “A large party of American Consuls and missionaries from Turkey, Asia Minor and Palestine” arrived in Berne, Switzerland including H.H. Dick and Ottis A. Glazebook, the Counsel at Jerusalem who said “that about sixty American missionaries and ninety American Jews started for the West” at the same time he had and were “well treated by the Turkish and Austrian authorities during the journey.”

    1917: “The East Side Business Men’s Association gave a dinner” tonight in honor of “Borough President Marcus Marks…which was attended by 500 members and their guests” among whom Rabbi Alexander Lyons of Brooklyn and Samuel Goldstein, President of the Federation of Rumanian Jews – both of whom addressed the attendees.

    1918:Joseph Schlossberg, General Secretary Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America and Abraham Epstein, President Workmen's Circle were among the leaders of a meeting of a Conference of Trade Unions, Branches of the Workmen's Circle, and other Progressive Labor Organizations of Greater New York scheduled to be held be held in Webster Hall, 119 East 11th Street, for the purpose of organizing the workers into a permanent central body for aiding all persons prosecuted who are in need of help, and of arousing public opinion against the further suppression of constitutional rights and liberties.  The Conference will be held under the auspices of the Liberty Defense Union, and has been endorsed by the United Hebrews Trades and the National Executive Committee of the Workmen's Circle.

    1918: A Russian wireless message received in London today announced that “the Soviet Government at Moscow has issued a decree against anti-Semitism.”

    1919: Birthdate of the Italian-Jewish writer and chemist Primo Levi. Levi spent time fighting with Partisans during the war and survived Auschwitz. These experiences provided much of the material for his writings. He passed away in 1987. (We do not have the space to do his work justice and you are urged to read any of his several works which are available in English.)

    1921: In London, “British-born Harold Solomon and Russian-born Flora Beneson gave birth to Peter James Henry Solomon who gained fame as Peter Benenson the found of Amnesty International.

    1923: Birthdate of Boston native Maurice Cerier who rose to serve as the “United Jewish Appeal’s assistant vice president for major gifts” before his death in 1985 at the age of 62.

    1923: Birthdate of Richard Schifter, a native of Vienna who served as Assistant Secretary of State for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs from 1985 to 1992.  Schifter was a member of unique WW II intelligence unit known as the Ritchie Boys.

    1923: In Montreal, Alton Goldbloom and Annie Ballon gave birth to Victor Charles Goldbloom who served as Minster of the Environment and CEO of the Canadian Council of Christians and Jews.

    1923: A Hebrew version of Verdi’s “Traviata” was performed in Jerusalem this evening.  The performance was described as “brilliant.”  The Hebrew version of the opera had previously been performed in Tel Aviv.

    1924: In Jerusalem, Benaya Abba Shaul and Iranian born shoemaker and Torah scholar Eliyahu Shaul gave birth to Ben Zion Abba Shaul, “the rosh yeshiva of Porat Yosef Yeshiva.”

    1926: Birthdate of Dr. Bernard N. Nathanson, the self-described Jewish atheist who converted to Roman Catholicism.  Nathanson was “a campaigner for abortion rights who, after experiencing a change of heart in the 1970s became a prominent opponent of abortion and the on-screen narrator of the anti-abortion film “The Silent Scream.” (As reported by William Grimes)

    1926: In Strasbourg, journalist Bernard Klieger and his wife gave birth to Noah Klieger, the Auschwitz survivor, agent for Mossad LeAliyah Bet and “the doyen of Israeli sports journalism” who also used his literary skills to tell the tale of the Shoah.

    1928: When MGM introduces its first “talkie,” “White Shadows on the South Seas” the famed Lion Logo makes its first appearance.  With so many Jews involved in MGM, including Harry Rapf, Irving Thalberg, Louis B. Mayer and Nicholas Schenck one might wonder if the choice of the Lion was subtle reference to the Lion of Judah. 

    1928: Bobbie Rosenfeld won the silver medal in the 100-meter race, though many spectators thought she had actually finished first.

    1931(18thof Av, 5683): “Israel Alexander Symmons,” the son of Samuel Symmons, “who was appointed a Metropolitan Police Magistrate in 1911” making him “the first and only Jewish magistrate in London” passed away today.

    1932: National elections were held in Germany and the Nazi Party won 230 seats in the Reichstag.

    1933: By now, approximately 30,000 people are interned in Nazi concentration camps.

    1933: In the Boston neighborhood of Dorchester Alexander Bluestein, “a kitchen equipment salesman” and his wife Edith Gropman Bluestein gave birth to Janice Bluestein who after graduating from college “married her childhood sweetheart, Daniel T. (Dan) Longone” and became Jan Langone the 2000 winner of the “Food Arts Silver Spoon Award for her work in uncovering and preserving American culinary history.”

    1934 Today,: Jesse I. Straus, who had already given one fourth of his Macy’s stock because of the increase in federal estate taxes, “revised his 1933 will to remove list of gifs to 18 educational and charitable institutions because “the present Federal and State estate tax laws impose substantially increased tax burdens upon the estates of decedents and may under certain conditions cause undue hardship and financial sacrifice and loss resulting from untimely sale and liquidation of assets of estates to provide for the payment of such taxes.”

    1934: Birthdate of Stanley Edwin “Stan” Daniels, the native of Toronto who “won eight Emmy Awards for his work on “The Mary Tyler Moore Show” and “Taxi.”

    1936: Birthdate of Uzi Yari, the Ramat Gan native who rose to be a “brigade commander during the Yom Kippur War” and was killed while leading “the elite Israeli army commando unit Sayeret Matkal” as freed hostages taken by terrorists at Tel Aviv’s Savoy Hotel.

    1936(12th of Av, 5696):Rabbi Moses Simon Sivitz, renowned Jewish historian died in Montefiore Hospital ... He also wrote five books on Moses after years of research.

    1936: “An abortive plot to put typhoid germs in milk delivered to Jews was charged to the Black Legion today” in Detroit, Michigan.

    1936: The Palestine Post reported from London that the newly-appointed Royal Commission was expected to arrive in Palestine in October. Meanwhile a new wave of Arab rioting spread towards Tiberias where many Jews were compelled to leave the Old City. There were assaults, arson, and stone-throwing. The Arab police and the British authorities dealt with the rioters in a diffident and condoning manner.

    1937: A fight broke out between Gentiles and Jews on the beach at Coney Island “when an unidentified man wearing a lumber-jacket began parading along the beach carry a placed in red which read: ‘No Jews or Dogs Allowed on Beach.’”

    1938(3rd of Av, 5698): Seventy year old Vilna native Leon Zolotkoff, the “former editor of the Jewish Daily News of New York, one time assistant district of Cook County and founder of the Chicago Jewish Courier” who was an early and ardent Zionist and the husband of the late Fannie Zolotkoff with whom he had four children, “Julia, Sydney, Hyman and Albert – passed away today in Amityville, L.I.


    1938: “There were 120 civil marriages at Vienna City Hall” today including many brides “who have had to leave their Jewish employment with a compulsory gratuity” consisting of at least a month’s wages, “which with their savings make for an attractive dowry” but will not do anything to find them new jobs.

    1938: Joseph Buerckel, the Commissioner for Austria, issued an order today stating “that the principles of the Nuremberg laws are to exclusively be applied to all dealings with Jews…”

    1939: Isadore Breslau, the Zionist leadership's chief representative in Washington, wrote a letter showing  that former Associate Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis actively supported Aliyah in defiance of British policy as outlined in the May 1939 White Paper that severely limited the immigration of Jews to then British-run Palestine. The letter reveals that the widely respected jurist, who had just retired after nearly a quarter century on the court, held views on Jewish immigration to the Land of Israel that were in direct opposition to those of the British government, the Roosevelt administration and mainstream American Jewish groups and leaders."Speaking on the question of the immigration he [Brandeis] said that Jews would continue to immigrate regardless of the White Paper," the letter written by Isadore Breslau reads. "When someone suggested that it was illegal, he said that the Jewish people considered it legal in view of the fact that any attempt to curtail immigration was in violation of the terms of the Mandate; that it may be considered illegal by Great Britain, but that we Jews considered it to be legal."

    1940: According to The Olkusz Memorial book “a German police unit arrived in Olkusz” today and gathered all the Jewish men in the main square. There the Jews were forced to lie on the ground while the policemen and members of the SD “registered them”. During this process, the Germans brutally beat the Jews, shooting one of them. In order to further humiliate them, Rabbi Moshe Yitzhak Hagerman was forced to don his tallith (prayer shawl) and tefillin (phylacteries) that had been defiled, and to stand barefoot and pray next to the prostrate men of the Jewish community. At the end of the day, the Jews were permitted to return home, and the Germans left. Due to the beatings suffered by the Jews, the event was subsequently referred to as ‘Bloody Wednesday’”. (For a photo see  )

    1941: The Nazis officially undertook The Final Solution. Hermann Goring instructs SS Reich Security Service chief Reinhardt Heydrich by letter "to carry out all the necessary preparations with regard to organizational and financial matters for bringing about a complete solution of the Jewish question in the German sphere of influence." - That influence now covered a dozen countries. - "I further charge you with submitting to me promptly an overall plan... for the execution of the intended FINAL SOLUTION of the Jewish question."

    1942:  Governor Wilhelm Kube reports to Hinrich Lohse, Reichskommissar of the Baltic regions and Belorussia, that "Jewry has been completely eliminated" in the Minsk area.  According to Kube ‘16,000 Jews were liquidated in Lida, 8,000 in Slonim.’  In the previous ten weeks, 55,000 Jews have been liquidated.

    1942 (17th of Av, 5702):  Bluma Rozenfeld, 19, leaps to her death from a fifth-floor window in the Lódz (Poland) Ghetto.

    1942: Israel Lichtenstein writes from the Warsaw Ghetto: "At present, together with me, both of us get ready to meet and receive death. I wish my little daughter to be remembered. Margalith, twenty months old today....I don't lament my own life nor that of my wife. I pity only the so little, nice and talented girl. She deserves to be remembered."

    1942 (17th of Av, 5702):  German SS troops gassed 1,000 Jews in Minsk, Belorussia

    1942: In what was the first reference to Dan Schoor in FBI files, on this date FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover "asked the chief of the Special War Policies Unit for more information on Schoor's status as a 'representative of a foreign principal' because he was employed as a correspondent for the Netherland Indies News Agency.  During the Red Scare of the 1950's "Hoover told the CIA director that the bureau had looked over Schoor's background and had kept information on this travels to 'Iron Curtain Countries.'"  Is it possible that Hoover did not know that Schoor was the Moscow correspondent for CBS news which would have meant he traveled for Iron Curtain countries?  Ironically, the Soviets expelled him because they did not approve of his news gathering work.

    1944: The hull of the Liberty ship "Benjamin Peixotto" was laid down today.  The ship is named for the 19thcentury Jewish leader.

    1944(11th of Av, 5704): Eighteen year old Leendert Kleerekoper died at Auschwitz today.  He was the son of Gerrit Kleerekoper, the coach of the of the Dutch ladies’ gymnastics team, which won the Olympic title in Amsterdam in 1928.  The coach, his wife and his 14 year old daughter had already been gassed.

    On the exact same day at the exact same place, Kleerekoper, born February 15, 1897, also died together with his wife, Kaatje, and their 14-year-old daughter Elisabeth. His 18-year-old son Leendert died at Auschwitz on July 31, 1944.

    1944: Among 1300 Jews deported from Drancy, France (northwest of Paris), to Auschwitz are 258 Jewish orphans seized in and around Paris on July 24. Upon arrival at the camp, all 500 children and 300 adults are gassed. This is the last transport of Jews from the Drancy camp to Auschwitz. In total, 73,853 Jews have been shipped from Drancy to their deaths at Auschwitz and Sobibór.

    1944: As Western troops moved forward to Paris, a last train departed with over 300 deported Jewish children.

     1944: After have been transferred to the Special Operations Branch of the OSS, today, Aaron E. Bank “led the Jedburgh Team PACKARD, parachuting into Lozère Department of France and linking up with French Resistance.”

    1944: Three thousand Jews were transported from the labor camp at Blizyn to Birkenau where over 500 are gassed to death upon their arrival

    1944: By the end of July, French Jew Maurice Löwenberg, founder of the National Liberation Movement resistance group, is tortured to death by the Gestapo.

    1944: By the end of July 46,000 Jewish inmates are gassed and cremated at Auschwitz.

    1944: Ships carrying the Jewish population of Rhodes arrived at the port of Piraeus and the Jews were immediately shipped to the concentration camp at Haidari in suburban Athens where the Red Cross would not be allowed to supply them food and water.  

    1944: By the end of July SS General Richard Baer had become the new Auschwitz commandant.

    1945: French collaborationist politician Pierre Laval is arrested in Austria.  Laval was the driving force behind the Vichy Government which was so supportive of the Final Solution that it often delivered Jews “ahead of schedule.”


    1945: Birthdate of Rabbi Michael Berenbaum, the native of Newark, NJ, who has served as Deputy Director of the President's Commission on the Holocaust, Project Director of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum and Director of the USHMM's Holocaust Research Institute and whose books included The World Must Know, Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp

    1946: An Anglo-American committee jointly chaired by Henry Grady, an assistant secretary of state and Herbert Morrison, a British Labor Party leader published the Morrison-Grady plan which proposed a British dominated trusteeship that would “supervise separate Jewish and Arab provinces.”  The British loved it because it kept them in power.  The Arabs and the Jews rejected it for the same reason.

    1946: In Los Angeles, CA, Patti Lewis (née Esther Calonico) and Jerry Lewis gave birth to Gary Harold Lee Levitch who was the leader of a pop/rock band “Gary Lewis and the Playboys” and who appeared in a couple of his father’s films.

    1947: In reprisal for the execution of Avshalom Haviv, Yaakov Weisss and Meir Nakar, the Irgun killed two British sergeants whom they were holding captive.  “Following the death of the two sergeants and the publicity surrounding it, the British public demanded that the troops be brought home.  In Palestine, several Jews were murdered by British soldiers as a counter-reprisal.

    1947(14th of Ave, 5707): Sixty-seven year old art historian and collector Léonce Rosenberg who was a leading figure in the world of Modern Art before WW II passed away today.

    1948: Harry Dexter White, “the youngest child of Jewish Lithuanian immigrants” was accused today before the House Committee on Un-American Activities of having “been involved in espionage activities on behalf of the Soviet Union during World War II and had passed sensitive Treasury documents to Soviet agents.”

    1948: Leo Nomis reported to Modi Alon at Herzliya preparatory to flying with 101 Squadron.

    1950: In New Rochelle, NY, Sydney Mitchell, the chief executive officer and partial owner of a furniture manufacturing company in Manhattan and for forty years the president of Beth El Synagogue in New Rochelle” and Cecile Mitchell, “an administrator at the New York Institute of Technology gave birth to Arthur Mitchell a “Canadian politician, a member of the Legislative Assembly of Yukon” and brother of newscaster Andrea Mitchell.

    1951: The Jerusalem Post reported on most orderly elections to the Second Knesset. According to this newspaper's fifth successive edition which appeared at 6 a.m. Mapai won 42.23 per cent of the vote, Mapam 19.18, General Zionists 13.47, Hapoel Hamizrahi 7.37, Progressives 5.33, Herut 4.22, Poalei Aguda 1.49, Communists 1.36, Mizrahi 1.11, Aguda 1.07. The rest was split among smaller parties, which couldn't get even 1 percent of the vote to be eligible for a Knesset seat. [Editor's note: The Israelis use a system of proportional representation which works a strong two-party electoral system.  This system encourages all kinds of splintering, factionalism and gives disproportionate power to minor, but cohesive, groups.  This concept was so entrenched the Israeli psyche that not even David Ben Gurion could overcome it.]

    1952: Birthdate of Faye Kellerman the St. Louis native who trained to be a dentist but fortunately for us became one of the finest mystery writers of the 20th century.

    1952: It was reported today that Yiddish actress Weintraub, the widow of Sigmund Weintraub, is survived by her son Milton Weintraub and her daughters Pearl Weintraub and Mrs. Frances Weintraub Lax.

    1952: “Ivanhoe” a cinematic treatment of the novel that includes the tale of Isaac York and his daughter Rebecca produced by Pandro S. Berman was released in the United States today by MGM.

    1953: Today, the Jewish Chronicle “said there were 4,000 Jewish servicemen and women serving in the Allied Forces in Korea,” most of whom were Americans.

    1954: Mary Clawson, an American living in Jerusalem, watches as Arabs began “shooting over to this (the Jewish) side and after waiting a brief time to investigate to be sure the shooting was not just a trigger-happy Legionnaire, the Jewish side returned the fire.”

    1954: A raid led by Meir Har-Zion that takes the unit to the area around Jenin begins.

    1956: “Storm Center” a film that took on the twin topics of Communism and censorship at the height of the McCarthy period directed by Daniel Taradash who wrote the script and with film tile sequences created by Saul Bass was released in the United States today.

    1960(7th of Av, 5720): Seventy-year old Philip B. Perlman who “became the first Jewish U.S Solicitor General” when Harry Truman appointed him to the position in 1947 passed away today.

    1960(7th of Av, 5720):Fifty-three year old Helen Misener the Greenwich (UK) daughter of a Polish born Jew whose acting career included appearing in “A Night to Remember” and starring in a 1939 staging of “Night Must Fall” which produced “for the benefit of deportees on the German-Polish border” passed away today.

    1960(7th of Av, 5720): Seventy-two year old Ette Levy passed away today after which she was buried in the “cemetery donated by Samuel Myers Hyams to the Society of Israelites in Natchitoches, LA.”

    1960: Gary Lewis, the son of comedian Jerry Lewis, turned fourteen today and received a set of drums which would be his instrument of choice when he formed his band “Gary Lewis & the Playboys.”

    1961(18th of Av, 5721): Forty-nine year old Croatian opera star and Holocaust survivor Zdenka Rubinstein, the wife of Bartold Rubinstein died today succumbing to the effects of Parkinson disease.

    1961: The one millionth Oleh since the establishment of the Jewish State arrived in Israel.

    1963: United Kingdom premiere of “Cleopatra,” co-starring Elizabeth Taylor and Martin Landau, produced by Walter Wagner, directed by Joseph L. Mankiewicz and with a screenplay co-authored by Ben Hecht and Joseph L. Mankeiwicz.

    1968: “The Heart Is a Lonely Hunter” starring Alan Arkin was released in the United States today by Warner Bros.

    1968(6th of Av, 5728): Eighty-two year old retired furniture company president Isidor Teitlebaum, “an honorary vice president of the American Jewish Congress” and “former trustee of Temple Adath Israel in the Bronx” who was married to “the former Seiler” with whom he had one son – J. Lloyd Teitelbam  -- passed away today.

    1968: “5 Card Stud” a western film featuring Yaphet Kotto as Little George was released in the United States today Paramount Pictures.

    1970: In Finland, premiere of “Getting Straight” a comedy starring Elliot Gould, featuring Jeannie Berlin and John Rubinstein, the son of concert pianist Arthur Rubinstein.

    1970: Norwegian General Odd Bull completes his term as Chief of Staff United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO).  His thirteen year term included the Six Day War.

    1970: “Move” a comedy directed by Stuart Rosenberg, produced by Pandro S. Berman, starring Elliot Gould, with music by Marvin Hamlisch was released today in the United States by 20th Century Fox.

    1971(9thof Av, 5731): Parashat Devarim; Shabbat Chazon; No fast because it is Shabbat.

    1972: Premiere of “Greaser’s Palace,” starring Allan Arbus

    1981: The New York Times reported that Israelis were stunned and startled by U.S. anger following an Israeli air attack on Beirut.  Government officials in Jerusalem are hoping that their adherence to the Lebanon cease-fire arrangement will be seen in Washington as a gesture of good will to American interests.

    1981: Morton I. Abramowitz completed this three years of service as U.S. Ambassador to Thailand

    1983: Jewish golfer Corey Pavin won the Lufthansa German Open.

    1985: Three people were injured in a terrorist bombing at Haifa.

    1986: Eighty-six year old Chiune Sugihara passed away.  While servicing as Vice Council for Japan in Lithuania he defied his government and issued transit visas to thousands of Jews allowing them to escape the clutches of the Holocaust.

    1987:''Portraits of an Era: Photographs by Irv Kline,'' an exhibition that is part of the Jewish East End Celebration is scheduled to come to a close today.

    1987: “The Lost Boys” a comedic horror film directed by Joel Schumacher, produced by Harvey Bernhard and starring Corey Feldman, Jami Getz and Corey Haim was released today in the United States.

    1987(5thof Av, 5747): Eighty-four year old Justine Wise Polier, the Portland, OR, daughter of Rabbi Stephen Wise a co-founder of the American Jewish Congress and the NAACP, the graduate of Radcliffe and Yale Law School who served as Judge on New York’s family Court, passed away today.

    1987(5thof Av, 5747): Eighty-one year old movie producer Joseph E. Levine who had a hand in bringing over 500 films to the American screen passed away today. (As reported by Nan Robertson)

    1987: The third congress of the European Association for Jewish Studies organized by Professor Peter Schafter under the Presidency of Professor Arnold Goldberg came to an end at Scholoss Glienicke, Germany.

    1988:Dr. Joanna Lisa Fine, a child psychiatrist, and Stephen Michael Harnik, a lawyer, who graduated together from the Dalton School in 1971 were married today at the Loeb Boathouse in Central Park. Jerome Raik, the president of Ansche Chesed Congregation in Manhattan, officiated.

    1990(9th of Av, 5750):Tish'a B'Av

    1991: “Hot Shots” a comedy directed by Jim Abrahams who co-authored the script was released in the United States today.

    1992(1st of Av, 5752): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1994(23rd of Av, 5754): Ninety-four year old Karola Bloch, the anti-Stalinist communist and wife Ernst Bloch passed away today.

    1996(15thof Av, 5756): Tu B’Av

    1998: One person was injured today when a terrorist threw a bomb at a truck in North Jerusalem.

    1998:BASEketballa comedy directed by David Zucker who co-produced and co-wrote the script and co-starring Matt Stone and featuring Al Michaels was released today in the United States by Universal Pictures.

    2000: In a vote of 63 to 57, the Knesset chose Moshe Katsav to serve as President of Israel in a race against the favorite, Shimon Peres.

    2001: David G. Littman “organized a Parallel NGO Conference during the 53rd session of the UN Sub-Commission (Sponsor: AWE) on the subject of: Racism: Antisemitism / anti-Zionism and Genocidal Hate” which stood in stark contact to the anti-Semitic Conference in Durban.

    2002(22nd of Av, 5762): A bomb exploded inside a cafeteria at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, killing nine people, including five Americans.

    2003:The Israeli Knesset enacted the Nationality and Entry Into Israel Law, prohibiting any residency or citizenship status to Palestinians who live in the territories and are married to Israeli citizens.  The law was initiated in the midst of the second intifada by Prime Minister Ariel Sharon as an anti-terrorist measure.  The law would become the subject matter of 2008 documentary "Just Married."

    2006: As of today Kenny G (Kenneth Bruce Gorelick) had sold 48 million albums in the United States.

    2006: Funeral services are held at Temple B’nai Torah for PamelaWaechter, 58, who was killed in Friday's shooting at the Seattle offices of the Jewish Federation by an American Muslim.

    2007: In Jerusalem, the Israeli Wine-Tasting Festival, a celebration of wine tasting from the best vineyards in Israel takes place at the Israel Museum.

    2007(16thof Av, 5767): Ninety-two year old British historian Norman Cohn whose works included Warrant for Genocide  and who was the husband of Verio Broido, the daughter of Russian Jews and the father of writer Nik Cohn passed away today. (As reported by Douglas Martin)

    2007: Today, Jack Lebewohl announced that the Second Avenue Deli, home of the world’s greatest kosher meat knishes and tongue sandwiches, would reopen at a new location in the fall of 2007.

    2008(28thof Tammuz, 5768): Eighty-nine year old Harold Rosen, the graduate of University College in London, U.S. Army veteran and “academic” at London University’s Institute of Education who was the husband of Connie Isakofsky with whom he had three children – Brian, Alan and Michael – passed away today.

    2008: Solomon "Momy" Levy began serving as Mayor of Gibraltar.

    2008: At the Boston Public Library, the photographic exhibit, “Kids with Cameras: Beyond the Walls” sponsored by the Zionist House/Israel Cultural Central and the Consulate General of Israel to New England, comes to a close.

    2009: Opening of The National Parks and Nature Authority’s fifth annual Outdoor Acoustic Music Festival in Ein Hemed, a beautiful nature reserve just 10 minutes from Jerusalem. Each performer at this year’s festival will dedicate at least one song to the Earth, in order to promote environmental awareness.

     2009: In Jerusalem, Ohad Chitman takes the stage at Hama'abada, playing an acoustic show featuring the best hits from his two albums and from the third album on the way.

    2009: In Brooklyn, as part of Bargemusic at Fulton’s Landing Yoed Nir is the featured performer in “World of Cello” The Six Bach Suites for Solo Cello and Beyond, Part 1

    2009: U.S. President Barack Obama has decided to extend sanctions against Syria, despite positive signs of progress in the relationship between the two nations, a White House statement said today

    2009: Two brothers were arrested early this morning in connection with the shooting attack on disgraced soccer star Felix Halfon, who was seriously wounded when he was shot outside a Tel Aviv night club hours earlier.

    2009: Mark Polansky, “the commander of the STS-127 mission” “returned to Earth with his crew” today.

    2010: A screening of Jews and Baseball: An American Love Story is scheduled to take place at the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.

    2010: Ryan “Kalish was promoted to the Red Sox from the minor league team in Pawtucket.”

    2010: This morning the IDF confirmed that the Air Force hit several Hamas-linked targets in Gaza overnight.

    2010: The ninth congress of the European Association of Jewish Studies under the presidency of Professor Mauro Perania came to a close at Ravenna.

    2010(20thof Av, 5770):Ninety-nine year old Mitch Miller, the son of Russian Jewish immigrants who played a major role in the world of popular music and was best known for his “Sing A Long With Mitch” television show, passed away today. (As reported by Richard Severo)

    2011: Standing Silent and An Encounter with Simone Weil ,Julia Haslett’s documentary that looks at  the life of French philosopher Simone Weil, one of the great thinkers of the 20th century, who was raised by a secular Jewish family and lived during the rise of Fascism in Europe,  are scheduled to be shown at the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.

    2011: Members of the Cedar Rapids Jewish community are scheduled to celebrate “Faith and Family Day At The Ballpark” as they watch the Cedar Rapids Kernels play the Beloit Snappers

    2011: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Are You Serious? How to Be True and Get Real in the Age of Sillyby Lee Siegel and Exorcising Hitler: The Occupation and Denazification of Germany by Frederick Taylor.

    2011:The government will absorb the higher cost of gasoline in August, after Finance Minister Yuval Steinitz bowed to pressure from National Infrastructures Minister Uzi Landau today and signed a directive cutting the excise tax by an amount equal to the price rise. The price of self-service 95 octane gasoline was due to rise at midnight by NIS 0.31 per liter to NIS 7.53, just short of the record of NIS 7.62 set in May. Instead, it will remain at NIS 7.22, effective until the end of August.

    2011: Both Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu and US ambassador designate Dan Shapiro tried their hands at outreach today, with Netanyahu broadcasting a Ramadan message to Israeli Arabs and Muslims around the world, and Shapiro launching a Facebook page to interact with the Israeli public.  

    2012: “Mazel Tov! A Celebration of Jewish Weddings” is scheduled to come to a close at the Jewish Museum of Milwaukee.

    2012: As it prepares to move to its new location, Agudas Achim is scheduled to officially vacate its downtown Iowa City location.

    2012” “God’s Fiddler” is scheduled to be shown at the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.

    2012: Robin B. Jacobson, Director of Library Services, Adas Israel Congregation is scheduled to lead a discussion of Nemesisby Philip Roth sponsored by the Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington.

    2012:Egypt's President Mohammed Morsi sent a missive to President Shimon Peres, wishing stability and security for all of the region's nations, including Israel.  

    2012:Israel's Alice Schlesinger lost in the finals of the under 63kg Judo competition at the London Olympics today, falling to France's Gevrise Emane after losing to Slovenia's Urska Zolnir in the quarterfinals. Earlier on today, Schlesinger had defeated Austria's Hilde Drexler to advance to the quarterfinals.

    2012: Aly Raisman, a Jewish American, won the floor exercise in helping the U.S. women's team to the gold medal in the gymnastics competition at the London Olympics. The Americans today won their first team gold medal in women's gymnastics since the Atlanta Games in 1996, finishing with 183.596 points to defeat Russia (178.530) and Romania (176.414).

    2013: “American Jerusalem: Jews and the Making of San Francisco” is scheduled to be shown at the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.

    2013: The President of the United States “formally nominated Noah Mamet” a Spanish speaking member of the National Jewish Democratic Council to serve as U.S. Ambassador to Argentina.

    2013: “When Comedy Went To School” is scheduled to open at the JCC in Manhattan.

    2013: Leslie Cohen Berlowitz is scheduled to resign as President of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences today after she was accused of embellishing her resume with a spurious doctoral degree.(As reported by Todd Wallack in the Boston Globe)

    2013:Two controversial bills aimed at enabling the government to function better cleared a hurdle when they passed their first reading tonight in a stormy session of the parliament.(As reported by Gil Hoffman)

    2013: HUC announced the decision to have Rabbi Aaron Panken succed Rabbi David Ellison as president of The Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion, the Reform movement’s rabbinical school. Read more:

    2014: The Washington Jewish Film Festival is scheduled to host “Coen Brothers Trivia Night.”

    2014; “Ten days after her husband was killed in battle by Hamas gunmen inside the Israeli border with Gaza, Galaitu Kshaun, the widow of Warrant Officer Bayhesain Kshaun, 39, gave birth to a baby girl early today. (As reported by Yifa Yaakov)

    2014: As Ilia Salita became tne new CEO of Genesis Philanthropy Group Michael Fridman, co-founder of Genesis Philanthropy Group released a statement today that said “We are confident that Genesis Philanthropy Group’s management team under the leadership of Ilia Salita will expand and deepen the organization’s impact on Russian-speaking Jewish communities around the world,” (As reported by JTA and Times of Israel)

    2014: As anti-Semitic tensions mount a demonstration called by the Representative Council of Jewish Institutions took place in front of synagogue in Lyon, France.

    2014: This evening U.N. Secretary General Ban Ki-moon and U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry jointly announced that an unconditional 72 hour cease fire between Israel and Hamas is scheduled to go into effect tomorrow morning. (As reported by JTA)

    2015: Michael Slive is scheduled to retire as Commissioner of the Southeastern Conference (SEC).

    2015: Today, the Associated Press “published a follow-up story reporting that Germany had ‘shelved’ their Nazi war crimes investigation citing that” “a former Nazi commander named Michael Karkoc who led SS units that had been at the scene of “burning villages filled with men and women” as well as “the 1944 Warsaw Uprising, in which the Nazis brutally suppressed a Polish rebellion against German occupation” was not fit for trial.”

    2015(15th of Av, 5775): Seventy-five year old author and critic Alan Cheuse passed away today in San Jose, CA.  (As reported by Sam Roberts)

    2015(15th of Av, 5775): The 15th Day of Av, is both an ancient and modern holiday. Originally a post-biblical day of joy, it served as a matchmaking day for unmarried women in the second Temple period (before the fall of Jerusalem in 70 C.E.). Tu B'Av was almost unnoticed in the Jewish calendar for many centuries but it has been rejuvenated in recent decades, especially in the modern state of Israel. In its modern incarnation it is gradually becoming a Hebrew-Jewish Day of Love, slightly resembling Valentine's Day in English-speaking countries. There is no way to know exactly how early Tu B'Av began. The first mention of this date is in the Mishnah (compiled and edited in the end of the second century), where Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel is quoted saying, "There were no better (i.e. happier) days for the people of Israel than the Fifteenth of Av and Yom Kippur, since on these days the daughters of Israel/Jerusalem go out dressed in white and dance in the vineyards. What were they saying: Young man, consider whom you choose (to be your wife)…"( Taanit, Chapter 4). The Gemara (the later, interpretive layer of the Talmud) attempts to find the origin of this date as a special joyous day, and offers several explanations. One of them is that on this day the Biblical "tribes of Israel were permitted to mingle with each other," namely: to marry women from other tribes (Talmud, Taanit 30b). This explanation is somewhat surprising, since nowhere in the Bible is there a prohibition on "intermarriage" among the 12 tribes of Israel. This Talmudic source probably is alluding to a story in the book of Judges (chapter 21): After a civil war between the tribe of Benjamin and other Israelite tribes, the tribes vowed not to intermarry with men of the tribe of Benjamin. It should be noted that Tu B'Av, like several Jewish holidays (Passover, Sukkot, Tu Bishvat) begins on the night between the 14th and 15th day of the Hebrew month, since this is the night of a full moon in our lunar calendar. Linking the night of a full moon with romance, love, and fertility is not uncommon in ancient cultures. For almost 19 centuries--between the destruction of Jerusalem and the re-establishment of Jewish independence in the state of Israel in 1948--the only commemoration of Tu B'Av was that the Morning Prayer service did not include the penitence prayer (Tahanun). In recent decades Israeli civil culture promotes festivals of singing and dancing on the night of Tu B'Av. The entertainment and beauty industries work overtime on this date. It has no formal legal status as a holiday-- it is a regular workday--nor has the Israeli rabbinate initiated any addition to the liturgy or called for the introduction of any ancient religious practices. The cultural gap between Israeli secular society and the Orthodox rabbinate makes it unlikely that these two will find a common denominator in the celebration of this ancient/modern holiday in the foreseeable future.

    2015: Lewis Black is scheduled to perform at the Flynn Theatre in Burlington, VT.

    2015: The Museum of Jewish Heritage are scheduled to host SLOW/DOWN/TOWN, “a pre-Shabbat party.”

    2016: “Chasing Dreams: Baseball and Becoming American,” a pop-up exhibition from Philadelphia’s National Museum of American Jewish History (NMAJH) “that weaves together America’s favorite pastime and national identity with the story of American Jewish immigration and integration” is scheduled to come to an end today.

    2016: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or special interest to Jewish readers including The Angel: The Egyptian Spy Who Save Israel by Uri Bar-Joseph and City of Secrets by Stewart O’Nan, “a thriller set in Post-World War II Jerusalem.
    2016: An exhibition which is a companion to New York’s Yiddish Theatre: From Bowery to Broadway by Professor Edna Nahshon at the Museum of the City of New York presented by “the YIVO Institute for Jewish Research, the National Yiddish Book Center and the National Yiddish Theater Folksbiene, in association with the Museum of Jewish Heritage” is scheduled to come to a close today.

    2016: The final performance of “Redder Blood” co-produced by The Hub Theatre and the Jewish Community Center of Northern Virginias billed as the “Best New Jewish Play of 2016” is scheduled to take place tonight

    2016: “IDF Chief of Staff Gadi Eisenkot landed in the United States today to meet with members of the American military and Department of Defense, as Jerusalem and Washington hammer out the final details of an aid package for the coming years.”

    2016: The second “weeklong exploration of literature and culture for high school students where they will “read, discuss, argue about and fall in love with modern Jewish literature” sponsored by the Yiddish Book Center in Amherst, MA is scheduled to begin today. (As reported by Judah Ari Gross)

    2017: At a meeting in Milwaukee, WI, in a testament to ensuring Jewish survival through sharing resources, the Spertus Institute for Jewish Learning and Leadership in Chicago is scheduled to provide information about the MA in Jewish Professional Studies, a Milwaukee-area cohort of which is scheduled to being early next year.

    2017: In Fox Point, Wisconsin, Rabbi Ronald M. Shapiro is scheduled to present “Great and Esteemed Jews Who Contributed Beauty to the World.”

    2017: “Marc Chagall, Flowers and the French Riviera: The Color of Dreams” is scheduled to come a close today in Sarasota, FL.

    2018: “The Miseducation of Cameron Post” and a biopic “Mademoiselle Pardis” is scheduled to be shown at the Jerusalem Film Festival.

    2018: “Ziggy Marley, the son of legendary Bob Marley” is scheduled to perform at the Barby Club in Tel Aviv.

    2018: Zachary Truboff’s resignation as senior rabbi of Oheb-Zedek-Cedar Sinai Congregation in Lyndhurst is effective today following which he will “return to Jerusalem.”

    2018: JW3 is scheduled to host a screening of “Tracking Edith” in London.


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    August 1

    30 BCE:  Mark Antony died.  Following the victory of Octavian and Antony over those who had murdered Julius Caesar, Antony became ruler of the Eastern half of the Roman Empire.  Antony did name Herod as ruler of Judaea.  But when his lover Cleopatra let it be known that she wished to recreate the Ptolemy rule over the area, Antony partially reversed himself by giving the Queen Jericho and numerous other towns in Judaea.  None of this had anything to do with Antony’s feelings about the Jews but rather reflected his passion for Cleopatra. In the end none of this matter since Octavian defeated Antony and control of the Jews passed to the man who became Caesar Augustus.

    10 BCE: Birthdate of Claudius 4th Roman emperor. Claudius reigned from 41 through 54. Regardless of how the PBS television series portrayed, for a Roman Emperor, Claudius was a plus for the Jews of his time. He repealed the anti-Jewish edicts of his predecessors. He held the Samaritans responsible for the attacks on Jews in Judea and befriended the Jewish King, Agrippa. At one time he did exclude Jews from the city of Rome. But this appears to have been a matter of dealing with civil unrest sparked the early Christians living in the imperial city.

    388: The synagogue located on the Euphrates in Callinicum was looted and burned by Church officials. St. Ambrose (one of the four Latin doctors of the Catholic Church) defended the action. He reprimanded Theodosius the Great for ordering the local Bishop to pay restitution, even though expropriation was illegal under Roman law. St. Ambrose offered to burn the synagogue in Milan on his own. 

    527: Justinian I also known as Justinian the Great becomes the Byzantine Emperor.  For gentiles, Justinian might be considered “Great” but he was an enemy of the Jews.  Justinian’s celebrated code contains the following about his policy towards his Jewish subjects. “They shall enjoy no honors.  Their status shall reflect the baseness which in their souls they have elected and desired.”  “The principle of servitus Judaeorum (‘servitude of the Jews’) was established, and the hitherto uneven pattern of persecution was systemized for a Christian civilization march towards its age of faith.”  Justinian banned the recitation of the Shema because its declaration of the Oness of God was at odds with the Trinity.  In response to demands of his Bishops, Justinian banned the public reading of the Torah.  He also forbad the observance of Passover in the years when it preceded Easter on the calendar.

    1098: Fifty-three year old Adhemar of Le Puy, the French bishop who was a leader of the First Crusade which proved so devastating to the Jews of the Rhineland and the Holy Land died today at Antioch.

    1137: King Louis VI passed away and is succeed by his Louis VII who will launch the Second Crusade.  Louis VII’s reign was not “Jew friendly.” Following the logic of the time that it made no sense to go to Palestine to fight those holding on to the Christian Holy Sites and leave the defilers of Christianity at home alone, in 1144 Louis VII would expel all the Jews who had converted to Christianity and then returned to Judaism. In 1171 the first Blood Libel in France took place in Blois.

    1291: The Swiss Confederation is formed with the signature of the Federal Charter. The original Jews settled in what is now Switzerland during the days of the Roman Empire. Records of the Jewish community officially date back to the 13thcentury, with Jews having settled in Basel in 1213, seventy years before the confederation was formed. Jews from France and Germany settled in Bern by 1259, St. Gall in 1268, Zurich in 1273, Schaffhausen, Diessenhofen, and Luzerne in 1299. But anti-Semitism is almost as old as the confederation itself since in1294 in when many Jews living in Berne of the city were executed and the survivors expelled under the pretext of the murder of a Christian boy.

    1298: Although assisted by humane Christian citizens, the Jews of Nuremberg were overpowered and butchered today. Among the victims was Mordecai ben Hillel, a pupil of Jehiel ben Asher, with his wife and children.

    1431: “King Sigismund assured the Jews of Worms that all edicts annulling the outstanding debts owed them would be declared invalid upon the payment by each Jew of an indemnity.”

    1520: In Cracow, Poland, Sigismund I the Old and Bona Sforza of Milan, the niece of the Holy Roman emperor Maximilian, gave birth to Sigismund II Augustus, the Polish King who allowed “Jews to settle in Vilna without restriction” and who issued “the ‘Magna Cara of Jewish Self-Government’’ “which permitted Jews to elect their own chief rabbi and judges.”

    1580: Evard Mercurian, the fourth Superior General of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) passed away.  The first three leaders of the order had been Spanish and there was concern that they might be Coversos or at least have Jewish blood.  So Mercuvian, a native of Luxemburg got the job because Pope Gregory XIII wished to dispel an connotation of a Jewish connection.

    1626: In Izmir, Mordecai and Clara Sevi gave birth to Sabbatai Zevi, the most famous the False Messiahs.

    1670: As a result of a proclamation by the Emperor, as of today, all the Jews had left Vienna.

    1658: Coronation of Leopold I who borrowed large sums of money from banker Samuel Oppenheimer to fight the “Great Turkish War.

    1753: The Imperial Court rescinded the order confiscating copies of the prayer book and Talmud because they were found not contain derogatory statements about Christianity.

    1776(16thof Av, 5536): Twenty nine year old Francis Salvador, the member of a prominent Sephardic South Carolina family and an ardent Patriot, was killed while fighting the Tory and Indian supporters of the British.

    1787: In the UK, Hannah Montefiore, the daughter of Moses Montefiore and Esther Hannah Racah, married Moses Acona with whom she had five children – “Leah, Judah, Moses Montefiore, Esther and Sarah.”

    1789(9th of Av): Rabbi Abraham Isaac Castello, the native of Ancona whose works included "A Memorial Sermon on the Death of Francis I. of Germany", written in Spanish, and translated by Castello's son Joseph Castello into Italian passed away in Leghorn, Italy.

    1797: Two Jews named Bromet and DeLemon were elected members of the Second National Assembly of Holland today

    1798: The British Fleet under Nelson defeats the French Fleet in the Battle of the Nile.  Nelson’s victory left the British in control of the Mediterranean.  Napoleon’s army had already landed before the battle.  Although the French leader would score victories in Egypt and Syria, crossing through Eretz Israel, his victories would mean little since the French army could not be sustained.  Among the lesser known consequences was the end of promises Napoleon had made during the siege at Acre to create a Jewish homeland.

    1819: Birthdate of American novelist Herman Melville who was the special subject of study of Viola Sachs who “conducted research and studies for the decoding of Melville’s master works” and who survived the Holocaust by living in Brazil along with her husband, economist Ignacy Sachs

    1820: Hannah Joel, a widow who had died at “Jews Hospital” was buried today at the Brady Jewish Cemetery.

    1830: Today Isaac and Hannah Solomon were married at the Western Synagogue.

    1833: On a second reading a bill designed to free Jews from all civil disabilities which would open the world of politics to them, was defeated.

    1841: Birthdate of Dr. Isidor Cohnstein the native of Gnesen  and gynecologist  who married Ida Cohnstein.

    1844: Birthdate of Aaron E. Greenewald, the husband of Sallie Gimbel Greenewald.

    1846: Max-Théodore Cerfberr, a colonel in the French Army and president of the Consistoire Central Israelite de France “was reelected to the Chamber of Deputies today.

    1852: In Brighton, Dr. Loewe, the Oriental Linguist to the Duke of Sussex and first Principal of Jews’ College London and his wife gave birth to James H. Loewe, the “manager of the East-end branch of the International Bank of London, Ltd., founder and first President of the Finsbury-park Synagogue and of the North London Beth Hamedrash.

    1852: This afternoon, the new Jewish Synagogue in Eighth-street, between North First and North Second-streets, was dedicated by appropriate ceremonies of the Jewish religion. There were Hebrew chant and lectures by Rabbi, Max Lilienthal, Rabbi Samuel M. Isaacs and Rabbi Morris Raphall. Dr. Barnard officiated as Rabbi to the congregation. The Synagogue is to be known as the "House of Israel." There were many Gentiles present to view the ceremonies.

    1855: Castle Garden opened as the immigrant process center in New York.

    1856: Lauritz Weidemann, one of he framers of Norway’s constitution whose opposition to Jewish citizenship was expressed somewhat incoherently when he wrote “"The Jewish nation's history proves, that this people always has been rebellious and deceitful, and their religious teachings, the hope of again arising as a nation, so often they have acquired some remarkable fortune, led them to intrigues and to create a state within a state. It is of vital importance to the security of the state that an absolute exception be made about them" passed away today

    1859: The Report of Sir Moses Montefiore to the London Committee of Deputies of the British Jews on the subject of his mission to Rome in the Mortara Case was published today. While Sir Moses was thankful for those who assisted in him arranging meeting with Vatican officials, the Church refused to acknowledge any error in the case.  The conversion stands and the Jewish child stolen from his parents will be raised as a Catholic.

    1859: An editorial published today expressed disappointment at Rome’s refusal to yield on the issues in the “Mortara Case” while expressing relief “that such an enormity as the abduction of the Mortara child cannot be repeated even by Rome.”  The Times also points out the horrible conditions under which the Jews of Austria, a patron and protector of the Pope, are living. “The case of the Israelites…bad as it is in Rome, is still worse in Austria.”  Jews are restricted in the vocations they may pursue and are banned from “many of the higher vocations of trade.”  They are limited in their right to move to different parts of the empire and they need a special license if they want to leave the country altogether.  In some parts of the empire, there is a limit on the number of Jewish marriages “so that a young man must await the death of his parent before he can enter the state of matrimony. This hideous and demoralizing law is but one of the many horrors which Austrian persecution has designed for the Israelites living in Austria, and who are kept by the brutal system, in a state of ignorance which the condition of Jewish populations in free countries proves to abnormal with that portion of the human family.” [All of this will change with a stroke of a pen after Austria loses its war with Prussia and is forced to reorganize as the Austro-Hungarian Empire.]

    1862: In an interlude between the Siege of Corinth and the Second Battle of Corinth, Jacob C. Cohen of the 27th Ohio Infantry wrote to the Jewish Messenger to describe what life was like as they bivouacked at Camp Clear Creek just outside of the Mississippi town.

    1864: Birthdate of South Carolina Senator “Cotton Ed” Smith a supporter of the immigration quota system who wanted to exempt Jews from the quota system” because “their thrift, their economy and their love of learning” appealed to him. (As reported by Henry L. Feingold)

    1864: Today, following the end of the Schleswig War, Prussia, under the leadership of Bismarck who relied on his banker Gerson Bleichröder for financial advice took possession of the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein.

    1865(9th of Av, 5625): Tisha B'Av

    1865: It was reported today that “the Israelites in this city and throughout the world solemnized in sorrow and in sadness, in tears and in lamentation, in fasting and in prayer, the annual fast of Ab, founded on the destruction of the Temple, and the overthrow of the national government. Although nearly 2,300 years have elapsed since the first Temple was destroyed, and eighteen centuries since the construction of the second Temple, both occurrences taking place on the same day of the month, the fast is still continued from Monday evening to Tuesday night, in accordance with the Jewish ritual, and in consonance with Israelitish feeling. The fast is inaugurated with reciting the lamentations of Jeremiah, and, after the morning service, several hours are employed in the synagogues in chanting in plaintive tones the compositions of the saints of antiquity, and imploring the God of Israel to remove the rod of chastisement from Israel, and again to resume the light of other days, by the reestablishment of their Temple and restoration of their government to its original splendor.”

    1868: In Montgomery, Alabama, “Jacob and Bella (Mayer) Jonas gave birth to banker Nathan S. Jonas, the husband of Jennie Strauss who pre-deceased him.

    1869: Birthdate of Moishe Hillkowitz, the native of Riga, who gained famed as New York labor lawyer and Socialist political leader, Morris Hillquit.

    1870: Birthdate of Rabbi Tuvia Geffen who gained fame as “The Coca Cola Rabbi.”

    1870: A rumor swept New York today that the police had apprehended the murder of Benjamin Nathan – a plumber who with a lacerated face who was caught with a stolen watch belong to the deceased.

    1870: “The Jews in Romania” published today reported that there were 176 synagogues serving 400,000 Jews in Romania.

    1870: Di Post, the first Yiddish periodical to appear in the United States was published for the first time today in New York City

    1870: Benjamin Nathan, the prominent Jewish New York businessman who was murdered in his own home, was buried today at the Jewish Cemetery, Shearith Israel at Cypress Hill. His brother-in-law, Rabbi J.J. Lyons had officiated at funeral that was held at the deceased’s resident.

    1873: It was reported today that the last person to see ten year old John Henry Lance was “a Jew peddler in Williamsburg.”

    1875: In London, Rebecca and Michaelis Hallensein gave birth to Percy Hallenstein, the brother Emile and Henri Hallenstein who changed his named to Halsted, was the husband of Enid Miriam Gotthelf  and passed away in New Zealand.

    1875: “The Jews of Italy,” published today described the conditions of the Jews living in this newly reunited nation.  It focused on the deplorable conditions of many of the Jews living in the old ghetto of Rome along the Tiber, the improved condition of Jews living outside of the capital and the annual ceremony at St. John the Lateran set aside to baptize any Jew who has converted during the past 12 months. However, no Jew has participated in the ceremony in the last twenty years, despite the best efforts of the Church.

    1876:  Colorado is admitted as the 38th U.S. state.  The largest number of Jews began arriving in Colorado as part of the gold rush activities in 1859.  Jews helped supply the miners in many of the camps that later became small towns throughout the state.   Hyman and Fred Salomon, two Jewish brothers from Prussia, were leading members of the Denver community by the time statehood was declared.  In addition to their business ventures, they helped organize the Colorado Pioneer Society, the Denver Public Library and the Denver B’nai Brit Lodge.

    1876(11th of Av, 5636): Lewis Wormser, the native of Stuttgart who moved to Ireland in 1821 where he became such a successful businessman and leader of the Jewish community that he was waiting to begin serving as Lord Mayor of Dublin when he passed away today.  Had he lived, he would have been the first Jew to hold that position and honor that would fall to Robert Briscoe eighty years later.

    1877: Three weeks before her 40th birthday, in the UK, Sarah Ellis, the daughter of Abraham Ellis, married fifty year old Israel Levy.

    1878: Birthdate of Alfred W. Fleisher who would be buried in Mount Sinai Cemetery at Philadelphia when he passed away on Christmas Day, 1928.

    1878: The Hebrew Orphan Asylum Society of the City of Brooklyn was incorporated today under the leadership of President Ernst Nathan. 

    1879: Following the Russo-Turkish War, Czar Alexander II today awarded Joshua be Aaron Zeitlin “ a medal in recognition of his services” as “a contractor for the victorious Russian Army

    1879: As reported in the Jewish Messenger, "...About twenty, mostly young men, have formed themselves into a congregation under the name of 'Orach Chaim', Path of Life, their objective being to hold Divine service every day, morning and evening, as well as on Sabbath and holidays on strict orthodox principles, as it has been handed down to them by their fathers."

    1880: “A Christian Woman Becomes a Jewess” published today described the conversion ceremony of Mrs. Morse that took place last month in Rochester, NY.

    1881: No reason was given today when it was reported that the excursion of Athletic Society of Young Men’s Hebrew Association of Harlem has been postponed until later this month.

    1881: Birthdate of Otto Toeplitz, the third generation German mathematician who would seek refuge in Palestine after the rise of the Nazis.

    1881: Birthdate of  Fritz Spira, the Viennese actor who played Austrian Emperor Franz Josef in the 1926 film The Third Squadron but whose fame did not keep him from being arrested by the Nazis and dying ignominiously at the Ruma Concentration Camp in 1943.

    1882: Henry Robinson married Mary Pillischer today at the Brighton Synagogue.

    1882: Birthdate of  Jacob Benjamin Salutsky, the Russian immigrant who gained fame as the J.B.S. Hardman a prominent socialist who serve as Education of Director of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers after having left the Communist movement in apparent disgust.

    1882: As the Freight Handler’s strike continued the Russian Jews had been replaced by Germans as workers at Pier Number 39 of the Pennsylvania Railroad.

    1883: Birthdate of Amsterdam native Isidore Goudeket the “Dutch gymnast who competed in the 1908 Summer Olympics” was murder at Sobibor in 1943.

    1885: John T. Robeson, the U.S. Consul-General in Beirut sent a telegram to the governor-general of Syria protesting the order expelling Mordecai Yitzhak Lubowsky and his brother.  The two Jews were American citizens and the diplomat pointed out that expelling them was a violation of the treaty between the Porte and the United States since it discriminated based on religion.

    1885: A well-attended memorial service in honor of the late Sir Moses Montefiore, who was buried on Friday in Ramsgate, England, was held today at the Montefiore Home for Chronic Invalids, on the corner of Eighty-fourth-street and Avenue A in New York.

    1887(11th of Av, 5647): Issac Margolis, the Russo-Polish rabbi who was a descendant of Yom Tov Lippman Heller of Prague  who came to the United States in 1884 and assumed the leadership of Congregation Anshe-Kalvariya  passed away in New York.

    1887: Today, on his 18th birthday, Morris HIllquist joined the Socialist Labor Party of America.

    1888: Birthdate of Rene Marx Dormoy, the friend of fellow socialist Leon Blum in whose government he served as Minister of the Interior and defeated the attempt of the right-wing La Cagoule to overthrow the Third Republic before WW II.  Dormoy did not turn his back on Blum after the cowardly capitulation of the French and the rise of Vichy – a loyalty that cost him his life.

    1889: New York Mayor Hugh Grant received a letter today from Henry M. Leipziger, Director of the Hebrew Technical Institute concerning an exhibit for the upcoming World’s Fair. 

    1889: Nine year old Samuel Ehrenstein and five year old Lazarus Ehrenstein were left with Coroner Levy in New York.  A letter said that they were orphans and should be sent to a charitable institution for care

    1890: “The British House of Commons” published today describe activities in Parliament including Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs Sir James Fergusson’s reassurance that he has no proof that the Russian government plans on enforcing any edicts aimed at reducing the rights of Russian Jews.

    1890: “In the House of Lords…the Marquis of Salisbury…said he could not confirm reports…of any anti-Jewish edicts by the Russian government.”

    1890: New York Congressman Charles Baker asked the Committee on Foreign Affairs to consider “a resolution protesting ‘in the name of humanity, against such inhuman and barbarous acts as the enforcement by Russia of the edict of 1882, against the Jews, requesting the President to transmit, through our representatives in Russia, this protest to the Russian Government.”

    1891: It was reported today that U.S. government believes the fact that nothing has been heard from Dr. J.M. Crawford the United States Consul General in St. Petersburg “for a long time past” is “convincing proof” that the Russian government is not contemplating any action to enforce the edicts aimed at depriving the Jews of their rights.

    1891: Simon Wolf and Lewis Abraham of Washington, DC, representing the Union of American Hebrew Congregations, wrote to the Secretary of the Treasury concerning the immigration Russian Jews to the United States.

    1891: Secretary of Treasury Charles Foster wrote to Simon Wolf and Lewis Abraham assuring them that the immigration laws would be enforced “efficiently” but “humanely.

    1891:  Birthdate of Eliyahu Lulu, who would gain fame as a member of the First Knesset under the name of Eliyahu Hacarmeli.

    1891: “The Czar Changes Bankers” published today attributed the Russian government’s decision to move its accounts from the London branch of the House of Rothschild to Messrs. C.J. Hambro & Son to that country’s “attitude toward the Jews.”

    1892: Emma Goldman was among those attending the meeting of anarchists held tonight at 193 Bowery.

    1892: At a meeting of anarchist of Newark, NJ the speaker praised Alexander Berkman, who had attempted to assassinate Henry Clay Frick during the Homestead Steel Strike, by saying “I trust that in the near future we may all become Berkmanns.”

    1893: Birthdate of Rossien, Lithuania native Alexander Sachs who joined his brother Joseph in 1904 in the United States where he was educated at CCNY, Columbia and Harvard and became an influential economist and banker best known for delivering the “Einstein–Szilárd letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt” in October of 1939 which led to the Manhattan Project and the birth of the Atomic/Nuclear Age.

    1893(19thof Av, 5653): Joseph Korman, “an educated Russian Jew” who came to the United States about a year ago and who had been “a successful merchant at one time” passed away today after being for six months leaving behind a destitute widow and four children.

    1893: Today is the deadline for all the Jews living in Lifland to sell their property and move into the Pale.

    1893: It was reported today that Archbishop Dionysius Latas, a prominent Greek prelate, said that if the subject comes up during his visit to Chicago he intends to express his opposition to the persecution of the Jews.

    1893: The body of 76 year old Solomon Heyman who passed away yesterday in Long Branch will be brought to New York City today for burial.

    1894: “East Side Roof Gardens” published today described the growth of these popular venues including one that  “the young men of the Hebrew Institute” have established at the building on East Broadway and Jefferson Street. From 9 in the morning until 8 in the evening mothers and their “babes in arms” can sit under the big awning on the roof in attempt to stay cool during the summer heat.

    1894: The trial of Jeremiah J. Levy a Jewish policeman who has been charged with bribery continued today.

    1895: Birthdate of Béla Zsolt, the native of Komárom, Hungary who survived Bergen-Belsen, rode to freedom on the “Kasztner Train” and wrote Nine Suitcases a Holocaust memoir that would later be turned into a one act play.

    (For more information about the Kasztner Train see

    1895: “In The Real Estate Field” published today described the sale of a lot on the southeast corner of Lexington Avenue and 77th Street by the Hebrew Orphan Asylum Society for $87,500.

    1895: “The Clothing Industry” published today attributed the success in New York of the “industry  for manufacturing clothing” to “cheap labor.”  This labor “has not been made cheap through any effort or design of the manufactures” but is the result of vast number of Russian and Polish Jews who have “forced down the price” of labor.

    1896: It was reported today that the Jewish Colonization Company will pay the expenses of 800 Jews to return to Russia from Argentina because they know nothing about farming and are not able to work on the Hirsch colonies that have been established in that country.

    1896: Thirty year old Chaim Silberman, a Hebrew school teacher who arrived in the United States last January told the authorities about his harrowing trip to the United States during which 6 of his fellow passengers died of suffocation in a case of “criminal neglect.”

    1896: Colonel Eugene Levy and thirty –six year old Marie Melanie Simikins a former school teacher who converted from Catholicism to Judaism were married today at the mayor’s office.

    1898: A case involving that pits the Moses Montifiore Congregation of Hoboken against David Engler who claims to own the lot on which the synagogue sits and who is trying to force the congregation to move its building is scheduled to be hear in The Chancery Court in Jersey City, New Jersey today.

    1898: The body 53 year old Elias Jacobs who had passed away at his country home in Forest, PA was brought to New York City where his funeral will be held.

    1898(13thof Av, 5658): Ephriam W. Sells, of Sells Brothers Circus, passed away today in Columbus OH.

    1899: “The Jews in Babylon” by William Rainey Harpert was published in Volume 14 of The Biblical World.

    1899: Mordecai is scheduled to run in the Sixth Race at Brighton Beach. (No word as to Haman or Esther)

    1900(6th of Av, 5660): Forty-eight year old “German physiologist” Immanuel Munk, the brother of Hermann Munk, passed away today in Berlin.

    1903: Birthdate of Helena Nordheim, one of five Jewish members of the Dutch ladies’ gymnastics team, which won the Olympic title in Amsterdam in 1928. Forty years later, Helena Kloot- Nordheim, her husband Abraham and her 10-year old daughter Rebecca were gassed at Sobibor.

    1904: Birthdate of Edward Satz, a native of what was then Lwow, Poland, who gained fame as Eli Mintz who made the transition from the Yiddish Theatre to Broadway playing “Uncle David” in “Me and Molly” and was the brother of Ludwig Satz.

    1905: In the United Kingdom, the Star published “Jewish Literary Societies” today.

    1905(29thof Tammuz, 5665): Less than a month before his 47th birthday Leo Abram Errera a distinguished Belgian botanist who all wrote Les Juifs Russes: Extermination ou Emancipation?" passed away today in Brussels.

    1910: Birthdate of composer and arranger Walter Scharf, “the son of Yiddish theatre comic Bessie Zwerling” who worked with everybody from George Gershwin, to Rudy Valle, to Al Jolson to Elvis Presley.

    1911: Jews in Peoria, Illinois contribute one thousand dollars to Jews in Turkey suffering from the aftermath of major fires in that country.

    1912(18thof Av, 5672): Eighty-one year old Abraham Benjamin passed away today at St. Kilda, Melbourne.

    1912: The Young Men’s Hebrew Association of Camden, NJ was incorporated today.

    1913: A day after she had passed away, Jennie Leuria, the daughter of Bertha and Henry Leuria, was buried today at the “Belfast Jewish Cemetery in Northern Ireland.”

    1913: Birthdate of multi-talented composer Jerome Moross whose most famous works may be theme music for the western television series “Wagon Train” and the big screen western “The Big Country.”

    1913: In Buffalo, NY, “Berith Israel (Anshe Sfar) was “rededicated” today.

    1914: Germany declared war on Russia in WW I. The Jews of German fought valiantly for the Kaiser in defense of the Fatherland. But the Iron Crosses they earned would not save them or their progeny from the "Austrian Corporal’s Final Solution." According to Hitler’s Jewish Soldiers by Bryan Rigg, “About 10,000 volunteered for duty, and over 100,000 out of a total German-Jewish population of 550,000 served during World War One. Some 78% saw front-line duty, 12,000 died in battle, over 30,000 received decorations, and 19,000 were promoted. Approximately 2,000 Jews became military officers and 1,200 became medical officers.”

    1914: The British Ambassador to France “was to have dined with at Edmond de Rothschild Boulogne-sur Seine villa tonight but they have to dine in Paris instead because “all of his horses and automobiles have been appropriated” by the government as part of the mobilization for war.

    1914: In Saint Petersburg, Russia, Alexander Govorkovski and Ester Goverkovsky gave birth to Ella Govorkovski who became Ella Drori when she married Amnon Drori.

    1915: It was reported today that with 25,000 Jews already serving in the military, the British War Office has made serious efforts “to meet all of their religious requirements” including wherever possible making arrangements for them “to return from the firing line for Passover and for the Feast of Weeks.”

    1915: “The Jews were driven out of Brest-Litovsk” today “by order of the Russian High Command.

    1915: It was reported today that the officers of the “New Synagogue” the recently formed “liberal Jewish congregation” on New York’s West Side are Morris Rothschild, Chairman; Jerome Wile, Treasurer and J.L. Frankel, Secretary who will be supporting a professional staff consisting of Rabbi Ephraim Frisch and organist Clarence Adler.

    1916: In talking to the press today about the impact of Britain’s attempts to limit food supplies coming into Germany, Filed Marshall Von Batocki, “Germany’s food dictator” noted that “Polish Jews…who largely subsisted on fish were suffering intensely as a result of England’s economic pressure on neutrals particularly in the matter of dish exports to and through Germany.”

    1917: In Manhattan, Martha Schallek and Joseph S. Wallenstein gave birth to Herbert Joseph Wallenstein, the Republic political leader who served as Assistant State Attorney General for 20 years starting in 1959.

    1917: Harvey B. Franklin, of Stockton, CA is scheduled to begin serving as the Rabbi of Temple Sinai, Oakland, CA.

    1917: Eighteen year old Lawrence Valenstein “borrowed $100 from his mother” and today “opened a tiny headquarters” of which would become the Grey Advertising Agency, “one of the country[s leading advertising companies.”  (As reported by Suzanne Daley)

    1917: Based on information supplied by Ottis A. Glazebook, the U.S. Consul in Jerusalem who left that city for Switzerland after the U.S. entered the war on the side of the Allies, it was reported today that “there are now in Palestine 500 Jewish-American citizens” all of whom had “been given permission to leave” but preferred “to remain” where they were.

    1918: Birthdate of Abraham Brauner, the son of timber wholesaler in Łódź, Poland, who gained fame as movie producer Artur “Atze” Brauner, the husband of Theresa Albert with whom he had four children and the kinsman of 49 people who died during the Shoah including 12 murdered at Babi Yar.

    1918: During World War I, while serving in France a member of the Overseas Commission of the Jewish Welfare Board, Dr. Hyman Gerson Enelow wrote from Beaune, France today  “that there is work for everybody who wants to be helpful, that the Jewish soldiers “are very happy to see me” because it makes them “feel like they are not forgotten and that in addition to his official duties, he has spent several hours at the hospital trying to help “our doctors and nurse who are terribly overworked” and providing comfort to the wounded, especially those close to death.

    1918: Decree issued “securing the title of the Chestnut Street Cemetery” in Cincinnati, Ohio.

    1918: Abraham Schrameck, begin serving as Governor-General of Madagascar.

    1918: Joseph Schlossberg, General Secretary Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America and Abraham Epstein, President Workmen's Circle were among the leaders of a meeting of a Conference of Trade Unions, Branches of the Workmen's Circle, and other Progressive Labor Organizations of Greater New York scheduled to be held be held in Webster Hall, 119 East 11th Street, for the purpose of organizing the workers into a permanent central body for aiding all persons prosecuted who are in need of help, and of arousing public opinion against the further suppression of constitutional rights and liberties.  The Conference will be held under the auspices of the Liberty Defense Union, and has been endorsed by the United Hebrews Trades and the National Executive Committee of the Workmen's Circle.

    1919: As The Hungarian Soviet Republic came to an end, Bela Kun “fled as Romanian troops approached Budapest.”

    1919: Hungary limited the number of Jews in commerce, law, medicine, and banking. The new definition of a Jew is someone who converted after August 1, 1919. An estimated 5,000 Jews converted to Christianity during the weeks before the law went into effect. 

    1919: “The Jewess of Toledo” “a silent historical drama film directed by Otto Kreisler an adaptation of the 1872 play The Jewess of Toledo by Franz Grillparzer which was based on the relationship between Alfonso VIII of Castile and Rahel la Fermosa in 12th Century Spain” was released in Austria today.

    1919(5th of Av, 5679): Seventy-one year old businessman, theater impresario and composer Oscar Hammerstein I, the grandfather of lyricist Oscar Hammerstein II, passed away today.

    1920: Birthdate of Israeli politician Michael Dekel, the native of Pinsk who fought with the Soviet and Polish armies during WW II before making Aliyah in 1949.

    1920 The Zionist Actions Committee decided “to entrust the Jewish National Fund with the duty of carrying out a plan for a Nordau Garden City in Palestin

    1921(26thof Tammuz, 5681): Seventy-three year old “French economist and statistician Alfred Neymarck, the son of Mayes and Henritte Neymark, the husband of Jeanne Neymarck and “vice-president of the International Congress of Societies for Lawsuits and of the International Congress for Landed Property” passed away today.

    1922(7thof Av, 5682): Sixty-three year old mechanical engineer Donát Bánki the son of a Hungarian Jewish physician who helped to invent “the carburetor for the stationary engine.”

    1924: In Dąbrowica, Poland, Anna (Szapiro) and Maurice Charpak gave birth to Georges Charpak, the French physicist who won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1992.

    1924: Birthdate of Michael Stuart Rubin who as Michael Stewart was one of stable writers who got their start writing for Sid Caesar and who went on to became the Tony Award winning creator of “Bye Bye Birdies” and “Hello, Dolly!”

    1925: The (Turkish) Palestine Citizenship Ordinance went into effect. It said that any "Turkish subject" in Palestine as of August 1, 1925 shall become a Palestinian citizen, unless he opts for Turkish nationality, or nationality of another state.

    1926: At Constantinople it was announced that the Jews of Turkey formally renounced their rights as minorities. They would for now on be considered full citizens with equal rights as all citizens have.

    1926(21st of Av, 5686): Israel Zangwill passed away. The Russian born, Anglo-Jewish author, Zionist and champion of social justice is best known for two of his works - a novel entitled Children of the Ghetto: A Study of a Peculiar People a highly successful play entitled The Melting Pot.  Among those who saw and enjoyed this was President Theodore Roosevelt.

    1928(15thof Av, 5688): Tu B’Av is celebrated for the last time during the Presidency of Calvin Coolidge.

    1929: In Manhattan, Eva and Stanley Garfinkel gave birth to Howard Morris Garfinkel who changed the nature of basketball with his recruiting service and instructional camps. (As reported by Vincent M. Mallozzi)

    1930(7th of Av, 5690): Forty-eight year old Jack Zuta, an accountant for mobsters in Chicago was shot by unknown gunman while hiding out in Wisconsin.

    1930: “The Cabinet of Doctor Larifari,” a comedy with music by Franz Waxman and filmed by cinematographer Otto Heller was released today in German.

    1930: “Grumpy” directed by George Cukor, co-starring Paul Lukas and filmed by cinematographer David Abel was released today in the United States.

    1931:  “Tabu” a silent film set in the South Seas with music by Hugo Riesenfeld was released today in the Unites States.

    1931: Birthdate of Elliott Charles Adnopoz, who became famous as Ramblin' Jack Elliott

    1931: Eduard Strauch who would murder over 10,000 Jews from Riga in the Rumbula Forest joined the Nazi Party and the SA.

    1932: Birthdate of Meir Kahane, founder of the Jewish Defense League.

    1933: The Deutsche Modeamt, a newly-formed Nazi fashion office, announces that Jewish firms will not be permitted to exhibit in the exhibition of men's and women's wear.

    1933: Fritz Rosenfelder, leader and founder of the sports club at Saanstaat, Wurtenberg, commits suicide because he was expelled from the club; in a final letter to his former club colleagues, he wrote: "I am leaving with no hatred. My only wish is that Germany should be restored to reason . . . How more beautifully could I have given my life for my Fatherland."

    1933: The Commissariat for Medical Associations issues a decree prohibiting non-Jewish physicians from having any professional contact with Jewish physicians; non-Jewish medical
    men must not serve as consultants, and must not treat patients recommended to them by Jewish physicians.

    1933: The Dutch Society of Sculptors and Artists responds to an appeal on behalf of Jewish refugees from Germany by donating many objects of art which will be used in a lottery sanctioned by the Government.

     1936: The report of the Peel Commission was discussed today in Geneva, home of the League of Nations. Poland, Romania and other East European countries, debating the Peel Report on the proposed partition of Palestine, demanded that Great Britain continue to fulfill her obligations under the Mandate. The Arab leadership argued that the rights of the people of Palestine could not be contested and that any partition scheme was contrary to Articles 20 and 31 of the Covenant of the League of Nations. In a contradiction of facts the Arabs did not deny the rights of the Jewish minority in Palestine, and were even prepared to furnish guarantees in this respect, but they unanimously opposed the country's partition and demanded immediate, total independence. But part of the rights of the Jewish community under the terms of the Balfour Declaration and the Mandate was to a Jewish Homeland, not citizenship in an Arab country. In South Africa General J.C. Smuts, vice premier and minister of justice, expressed his grave misgivings about the partition scheme in general, and the smallness of the proposed Jewish state in particular. A total rejection of the partition was also the subject of letters written by Colonel J.C. Wedgwood, MP (Member of Parliament), and addressed to the British and world press.

    1936: Following the arrival of Rabbi Stephen S. Wise in Geneva, the organizations committee of “The World Jewish Congress” which is opening in Geneva on August 8 announced today that it “will devote one special session to the present situation in Palestine”

    1936: In Detroit, “Prosecutor Duncan C. McCrea said tonight that a chemist questioned about a reported Black Legion typhoid epidemic plot” aimed at Jews living in the area “has declared a high ranking legion officer inquired also how to make hand grenades and how to kill people with poison gas and hypodermic needles.”

    1936: Birthdate of Leonard Steinberg, Baron Steinberg of Belfast, founder of Stanley Leisure Ltd and found and first President of the Northern Ireland Friends of Israel

    1936: The Olympics open in Berlin.

    1937: Karl-Otto Koch, who would have the strange misfortune of being executed by the SS for mismanaging a concentration camp, today “was given command of the concentration camp at Buchenwald.”

    1937: Among the passengers on board the French line De Grasse which arrived in New York today was scholar and author Dr. Joachim Prinz and his wife who are scheduled to “tour American cities on behalf of the United Palestine appeal which is seeking to raise $4,500,000 for the settle of Jews from Poland, Silesia and Germany in Palestine.”

    1938: At the Roosevelt Hotel in New Orleans which had been purchased by Seymour Weiss in 1934, “the Main Bar” later known as the Sazerac Bar, opened with its famous “mahogany bar, walnut paneled walls and Paul Ninas murals.”

    1938(4thof Av, 5698): Eighty-two year old of New York native Albert Arnstein, the graduate of Packards Business College and the holder of an LL.B from St. Lawrence University who settled in St. Louis where he was President of the United Jewish and Charitable Associations passed away today.

    1938: In Austria, on “rent day” another of the Nuremberg Laws went into effect under “which it is sufficient for a single ‘Aryan’ in a block of flats to object to Jewish tenants for the Jews to receive notices” ordering them to vacate the premises – a move which is expected to lead to Jews being able to only live in flats where all of the other residents of the building are Jewish.

    1938: “Virtually all Jewish-owned cafes on Vienna’s famous Ring Boulevard were ordered today to close their doors” while all other cafes were ordered to post signs saying “Jews Not Wanted.”

    1940: In Tel Aviv, journalist Theodor Loevy and his wife Elisa gave birth to television director and writer Ram Loevy.

    1940: Antonio Origo and Iris Cutting Origo an Anglo-Irish writer who helped to save Jewish children through the kindertransport including the painter Frank Helmut Auerbach gave birth to their second child, and first daughter, Donata.

    1940: The Nazis begin the expulsion of the Jewish population from Cracow, Poland. One-third would be sent to Warsaw and other Polish towns.1942: The first "reliable report" of the Nazi plan to murder all the Jews reached the West. The U.S. State Department suppressed the report for several weeks, until Jews living in the United States heard about the report from other sources. 

    1941: Heydrich informed Himmler, “that in the future there will be no more Jews in the annexed Eastern Territories." Every day in every village and town, Jews would be hunted down, molested, tortured, and executed. 

    1941(8th of Av, 5701): Another 1,000 Jews were shot in the city of Kishenev. 

    1941: The Nazis established The Bialystok Ghetto.

    1942: In Danbury, CT, Annette and Lazarus Heyman gave birth to Abigail Heyman “a photographer whose stark portraits of women at work, at home and at weddings gave a visual concreteness to feminist doctrine of the 1970s about the oppressiveness of traditional female roles.” (As reported by Paul Vitello)

    1942 (18th of Av, 5702) Rabbi Shlomo Chanoch Rabinowicz, last Rebbe of the Radomsk dynasty, educator, a director of the Kesser Torah organization, member of the religious council in the Warsaw ghetto was murdered with his family in the Warsaw ghetto

    1942: Benjamin Sagalowitz, press secretary of the Swiss Federation of Jewish Communities phoned Gerhard Riegner with information from an unimpeachable source, a non-Jewish German industrialist, that Hitler had decided to have all European Jews exterminated by means of poison gas by the end of the year.

    1943: In Poland the final liquidation of the Bendzin Ghetto began today as the first batch of what would total 8,000 prisoners were deported today.

    1943: When the Nazis began their final liquidation of Bendzin Ghetto they are met with unexpected “armed resistance in several bunkers” led by young Jews that “hampered” the Germans forcing them to spend two weeks on this latest venture in murderous cruelty.

    1943: Rabbi Louis Werfel, a graduate of Yeshiva College and RIETS “was sent to North Africa, where he served as Chaplain with the 12th Air Force Service Command, where his area of operations included Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Sicily.

    1943(29thof Tammuz, 5703): Twenty year old Lydia Litvyak a fighter pilot in the Soviet Air Force during World War II with twelve solo victories, four shared kills over a total of 66 combat missions, over about two years of missions, who was the first female fighter pilot to shoot down an enemy plane, the first of two female fighter pilots who have earned the title of fighter ace, and the holder of the record for the greatest number of kills by a female fighter pilot was shot down near Orel during the Battle of Kursk as she attacked a formation of German planes today.

    1943(29thof Tammuz, 5703): Sixty-eight year old Ismar Elbogen the German rabbi and historian who wrote Jewish Liturgy: A Comprehensive History which has been updated many times since its first publication in 1913, passed away in New York City.

    1944: Sixty-six year old Manuel L. Quezon, the President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines who willing resettled Jews fleeing the killing grounds of Europe despite local opposition which was part of the theme of the movie “An Open Door” and for which he was posthumously honored by the Raoul Wallenberg Foundation passed away today.

    1944: Anne Frank writes the last entry in her diary.

    1944: Rose Valland, the French art historian and member of the Resistance “learned that the Germans were planning to ship out a last five boxcars full of art” most of which had been looted from French Jews and notified the Resistance “who prevented the train from leaving Paris.

    1944: Future Nobel Prize winner François Jacob who fought with Free French 2ndArmored Division “returned to a liberated Paris.”

    1944: Fourteen months after the Warsaw Ghetto, the Polish underground rises against the Nazis in Warsaw. Jewish fighters came of hiding to participate in the fight. However, those who could not come to the aide of the Jews in 1943 would now find out what it felt like. The Soviet Army waited outside the city and did not come to their aid. Instead, they let the Nazis slaughter the Poles and then they entered the city as liberating heroes

    1945: Birthdate of Douglas Dean Osheroff, winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1996.  His father was Jewish and his mother was Lithuanian.

    1945: Former Senator Guy M. Gillette of Iowa today announced his acceptance of the presidency of the American League for a Free Palestine and the post of chief political adviser to the Hebrew Committee of National Liberation.

    Declaring that he considers the "so-called Jewish problem not as a Jewish or a Hebrew question, but as an urgent problem of the United Nations and of the decent portion of mankind," Gillette urged that the Allied Control Commission in Europe recognize the "Hebrew national status" and permit "stateless or Axis Jews" to decide their own status as Hebrew nationals, or stateless, or nationals of Germany, Rumania or Hungary. He also recommended:

    1. Freeing of all Jews from Axis concentration camps.

    2. Extension of UNRRA relief operations to the Balkan countries where, he charged hundreds of thousands of Jews in Rumania and Hungary, particularly, are starving and have not yet received any UNRRA aid.

    3. Addition of Jewish representatives to the United Nations War Crimes Commission.

    4. Consideration by the Reparations Commission now meeting in Moscow of the "claims and rights" of surviving Jews, and inclusion of compensation for the losses of the Jewish people.

    Gillette said that every Jew in Europe should be authorized "to apply to the nearest British consulate and receive his first papers of Palestinian citizenship." He also suggested the creation of an Anglo-American-Russian committee with adequate powers to effect the speediest repatriation of all such applicants to Palestine. These steps, Gillette asserted, are "essential for the commencement of a solution of the entire problem." Annulment by the new British Government of "discriminatory laws against Jews in Palestine" was likewise demanded by Gillette. (As reported by Jewish Telegraph Agency)

    1945: The final Little Boy was assembled and ready to be dropped on Japan.

    1946(4th of Av, 5706): In Miskol, Hungry industrial workers stage a pogrom. Two Jews are lynched. This is an example of the post-war anti-Semitic violence that led approximately 4,000 Jews to leave Hungary for Palestine during the next two years.

    1946: In San Jose Rodolpho Liberman and his wife gave birth to businessman Luis Liberman Ginsburg, who became Second Vice President of his native Costa Rica.

    1948: IAF volunteer pilot Leo Nomi took a 25 minute truck ride to Netanya where he flew patrol in a D-114 with three other pilots including Ezer Weizman.

    1948: “Syd Antin and Red Finkel flew a pair of S-199s on patrol today, out of Netanya.

    1948: Birthdate of Avi Arad the native of Ramat Gan, son of Holocaust survivors from Poland and veteran of the Six Day War who “became the CEO of the company Toy Biz in the 1990s, and soon afterward became the chief creative officer of Marvel Entertainment, a Marvel director, and the chairman, CEO, and founder of Marvel Studios.”

    1948: Birthdate of Aline Goldsmith, Kominsky-Crumb, the Long Beach, NY native who “reshaped” the world of comics.

    1949: “Mr. Soft Touch” a crime movie directed by Henry Levin was released today in the United States by Columbia Pictures.

    1949: Warner Brothers releases a spoof about the movie industry – “It’s a Great Feeling” with a screenplay by Jack Rose and Melville Shavelson based on a story by I.A.L. Diamond, a score by Jule Styne all of which were brought together by producer Alex Gottlieb.

    1952: As part of a major cost reduction program at MGM studios, today is scheduled to be the last day of work for Richard Goldstone who has produced nine pictures for the studio over the last three years.

    1952: In Manhattan, Dr. Judith P. Sulzberger and Dr. Matthew Rosenschien, Jr. gave birth to Daniel Hays Cohen, the adopted son of Yale educated insurance broker Richard N. Cohen and “great-grandson of Adolph S. Ochs, the family patriarch who bought The Times in 1896, and a first cousin of Arthur O. Sulzberger Jr., the company’s current chairman and publisher, and of Michael Golden, the vice chairman. (As reported by Sam Roberts)


    1953: Birthdate of British born Jewish historian Martin David Goodman who specialized in the Roman period and whose works included The Ruling Class of Judaea: The Origins of the Jewish Revolt Against Rome, A.D. 66-70

    1954(2ndof Av, 5714): Seventy-three year old Dr. Harry E. Isaacs, “founder of the American Jewish Physicians Committee, an affiliate of the American Friends of the Hebrew University and the former Chief of Surgery at Beth El Hospital passed away today.

    1954: A group of ten raiders under the command of Meir Har-Zion returned from a raid conducted near Jenin where they “attacked two policemen and took one of them prisoner.”

    1955: “The Kentuckian” co-starring Walter Matthau with music by Bernard Hermann was released in the United States today by United Artists.

    1958: In Jerusalem, Michael and Shulamit Albeck gave birth to biochemist Amnon Albeck, the grandson of Hanoch Albeck, a “professor of Talmud at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem who was one of the founders of the scientific approach to the study of the Mishna.”

    1956: The Salk Vaccine, created by Dr. Jonas Salk, becomes available to the American public.

    1960: Ella Fitzgerald began recording what would become an album of the songs of Harold Arlen known as “Ella Fitzgerald Sings the Harold Arlen Songbook.”

    1960: Today, Senator John F. Kennedy, the Democratic Presidential nominee issued a statement “paying tribute to Philip B. Perlman, the former United States Solicitor General who died last night” acknowledging his help in drafting “the national platform of” the recently concluded Democratic convention in which “as in everything in his life, he gave unstintingly of his time and effort.”

    1963(11thof Av, 5723): Sixty-six year old “Morton J. Baum” the Phi Beta Kappa graduate of the University of Pennsylvania and WW I U.S. Navy veteran who became “president of the Hickey-Freeman Men’s Clothing Company and the husband of Margaret Baum with whom he had two children – Morton, Jr and Helen – died today after suffering a fatal heart attack.

    1964(23rdof Av, 5724): Parashat Eikev

    1964(23rdof Av, 5724): Seventy-six year old Rufus Learsi (Israel Goldberg) author of History of the Jewish People and The Jews in America: A History who with his wife had three children – David, Arthur and Judith – passed away today. (Editor’s Note: I still have my copy of The Jews in America, the text used at the Adas Israel Religious School where, unbeknownst to me this journey through Jewish history began)

    1965: Birthdate of English stage and film director Sam Mendes whose father was from Trinidad and whose mother was an English Jew.

    1969: In Shaker Heights, Ohio, Nina (née Saul) and Norman Wain gave birth to muti-talented David Benjamin Wain best known for directing “feature films.

    1970: Nobel Prize winner Otto Heinrich Warburg passed away.  Warburg was part of the famed Warburg clan but he was not Jewish.  His father, Emil, had converted to Christianity.

    1970: Ensio P.H. Siilasvuo of Finland assumes the role of Chief of Staff United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO)

    1971(10th of Av, 5731): Tish’a B’Av observed

    1971: “The Omega Man” a sci-fi film directed by Boris Sagal was released in the United States today.

    1971: CBS broadcast the first episode in the series “The Six Wives of Henry VII” co-starring Wolfe Morris as the villainous “Thomas Cromwell.”

    1973: After opening on Broadway at the Uris Theatre in March, “Seesaw,” a musical with lyrics by Dorothy Fields, music by Cy Coleman and book re-written by Neil Simon transferred to the Mark Hellinger Theatre.

    1975: The “Final Helsinki Act” was signed in Helsinki at the summit of 35 nations of Europe, USA and Canada

    1976:Natalia Grigoryevna Kushnir and the Russian volleyball team won a silver medal at the 1976 Olympics which closed at Montreal today.

    1979: “Melech Epstein Dead at 90” published today provided a brief account of the life of this former Communist and Jewish author.

    1979:Alleged violations by Egypt of its peace treaty with Israel were discussed here today by Defense Minister Ezer Weizman and Egypt’s Defense Minister Kamal Hassan Ali who ended his three-day visit to Israel this afternoon. Read more:

    1979:“Between today and through most of 1985, few merchants were as lavishly praised as Ed Finkelstein,” Isadore Barmash, a former retailing reporter for The New York Times, wrote in his 1989 book, “Macy’s for Sale.”

    1979: Following her graduation from rabbinical college in Philadelphia, Linda Joy Holtzman was appointed spiritual leader of the Conservative Beth Israel congregation in Coatesville, Pennsylvania, making her the first female rabbi to head a Jewish congregation in America. 

    1980: “Jerusalem Storm Just One More in Tortured History” published today described the city’s history in light of the Knesset’s vote this week “affirming Jerusalem as a united city and the capital of Israel.”

    1980: “Raise the Titanic,” an adventure film produced by Lew Grade's ITC Entertainment “and featuring Elya Baskin was released today.

    1980: “The Final Countdown” a film that combines the attack on Pearl Harbor with science fiction starring Kirk Douglas and produced by his son Peter was released in the United States today.

    1980: Egypt said today that it would not suspend the talks with Israel on autonomy for the occupied areas nor would it recall its Ambassador from Israel in response to the passage of an Israeli law formalizing the annexation of Jerusalem.

    1980: Two days after the Knesset passed the Jerusalem Law, an article entitled “Jerusalem Storm Just One More in a Tortured History” which traced the history of the city from ancient times to the period following the Six Days War was published. The article includes the following: “During the war that followed Israel’s independence in 1948, Jordan seized the eastern sector of Jerusalem…and the new state won control of the western sector.  The Jordanians evicted all Jews from the Old City; from 1948 to 1967 was off limits to Jews and most of the old synagogues there were destroyed.”  (Editor’s note – The author, working for The New York Times, writes about an eastern sector and a western sector of Jerusalem as well as the Old City.  The term “East Jerusalem and, its concept as a separate city, is apparently a more recent creation.) 

    1981(1st of Av, 5741): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1981: Dr. Donald Payne, the husband of Jessica Savitch, passed away today in Washington, DC.

    1981: Abu Daoud, a Black September commander who openly claimed to have helped plan the Munich attack, was shot multiple times by a gunman in a Warsaw hotel cafe. Daoud survived the attack

    1981(1st of Av, 5741): Paddy Chayefsky passed away. Born in 1923, Sydney "Paddy" Chayefsky began writing scripts for television during its golden age of drama in the 1950’s. He switched to films where he won three Oscar for writing "Marty", "Hospital" and "Network." (As reported by Colin Campbell)

    1985: Birthdate of Benjamin Levin, the son of David Robert Levin

    1985(14thof Av, 5745): Ninety two year old Jules Salvador Moch, the son of Captain Gaston Moch and the grandson of Colonel Jules Moch who fought with the Free French at Normandy before becoming a political leader passed away in Cabris.

    1986: “Howard The Duck” a sci-fi comedy co-produced by Gloria Katz who also wrote the script and featuring Liz Sagal as “Ronette” was released in the United States today.

    1987(6thof Av, 5747): Parashat Devarim and Shabbat Chazon

    1987(6thof Av, 5747): Harvey Clurman passed away today and was later buried at the New Montefiore Cemetery in Suffolk County.

    1989: Morton Abramowitz began serving as U.S. Ambassador to Turkey

    1989(29th of Tammuz, 5749): Fifty-nine year old Hungarian born Canadian director who had survived the Holocuast passed away today.

    1991: Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir accepted a formula for peace talks in the Middle East. 

    1991 Publication of Jewish Life in Germany: Memoirs from Three Centuries, edited by Monika Richarz.

    1992: In Montclair, NJ, “Stephen Rosenfield, a teacher of stand-up comedy and the founder of the American Comedy Institute in New York City” and actress Katherine Mathilde "Kate" Redway Rosenfield, gave birth to musician and actor Benjamin “Ben” Rosenfield whose most notable role may be have been in the totally amoral drama series “Boardwalk Empire.”

    1992: Thirty-four year old producer Scott Rudin “signed a deal with Tri-Star Pictures.”

    1993: Showtime broadcast the first episode of Executive Producer Sydney Pollack’s “Fallen Angels” produced by Steve Golin and with music by Elmer Berstein.

    1996(16thof Av, 5766): Eighty-eight year old Frank Glassman, the younger brother of Morris Glassman and lineman who played at Wilmington and Bliss College before spending a year in the NFL with the Buffalo Bisons passed away today.

    1998: Based on order by the Assassination Records Review Board (AARB) today was the deadline from transferring the Zapruder film of JFK’s assassination from the NARA’s film collection to the John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection.

    1999: U.K. premiere of “A Price Above Rubies,” a film about Chasidic Jews directed and written by Boaz Yankin and co-starring Julianna Marguiles.

    2000: Moshe Katsav was sworn in as President of Israel making him the first person to be elected to a seven year term and the first person from Likud to be elected President.

    2000: “Space Cowboys” a geriatric, galactic buddy-movie co-produced by Andrew Lazar and with a score by Lennie Niehaus was released n he United States today.

    2000: James “Jim” Steinberg completed his service as Deputy National Security Advisor under President Clinton.

    2001: Rita Levi-Montalcini “was appointed as Senator for Life by the President of Italy.

    2002: Premiere of “Yossi & Jagger,” an “Israeli romantic drama film directed by Eytan Fox.

    2002: The body Shani Ladani, 27, of Moshav Olash, shot and bound, was found west of Tulkarem, near the Green Line, in the industrial zone where he was employed.

    2002: Dalia Rabin-Pelossof, the daughter of Yitzhak Rabin, resigned as Deputy Minister of Defense.

    2003: Jill Abramson, the Washington bureau chief of the New York Times was one two people appointed today to serve as managing editor of the Times.  She “will be managing editor for news gathering.”

    2004: The New York Times book section features a review of'Jerome Robbins': From Stravinsky to the Sharks by Nicholas Fox Weber.

    2004: In Aspen, CO, Bernard Marcus, co-founder of Home Depot, Inc. is the headline speaker at United Jewish Communities (UJC) eighth annual Jewish Leadership Forum (JLF)

    2004: Lexington, KY native Jeffrey M. Lacker began serving as the President of the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond.

    2004(14th of Av, 5764): Sidney Morgenbesser passed away at the age of 82 from complications of ALS.  Morgenbesser was the Emeritus John Dewey Professor of Philosophy at Columbia. He attended JTS and earned a Ph.D. from Penn.  He was known for his erudition and his wit.  David Shatz of Yeshiva University recounted the story of Morgenbesser chastising a faculty member for hiding his Jewishness: “Oh, I see your model is Icognito, ergo sum.”

    2005 (25th of Tammuz, 5765): George Forman, a longtime comptroller of the American Civil Liberties Union, who brought fiscal discipline to a ramshackle organization near bankruptcy in the late 1970s and later helped it develop into a powerful civil liberties conglomerate, died today at the age of 88.(As reported by Lily Koppel)

    2005: President George W Bush nominated Roland Arnall to become the U.S. ambassador to the Netherlands.

    2005: A political essay written by Russian businessman and oligarch Mikhail Khodorkovsky in his prison cell, titled "Left Turn", was published in Vedomosti, calling for a turn to more social responsible state.

    2005 (25th of Tammuz, 5765): Al Aronowitz passed away at the age of 77.  He was a pioneering journalist who covered the Beat literary scene and engineered a meeting between Bob Dylan and the Beatles that has passed into rock 'n' roll legend.

    2005 (25th of Tammuz, 5765): George Forman, a longtime comptroller of the American Civil Liberties Union who brought fiscal discipline to a ramshackle organization near bankruptcy in the late 1970's and later helped it develop into a powerful civil liberties conglomerate passed away today at the age of 88.  "During the years of crisis he was more responsible than any other single person for keeping the program afloat," said Ira Glazer, the executive director of the A.C.L.U. from 1978 to 2001. He explained how Mr. Forman juggled the bills and even earned interest on a deficit operational budget, and recalled visits from officials of Chemical Bank who complained that although the organization was moving around millions of dollars, its average balance was $3.79.,"He was the chewing gum and rubber bands that held the organization together and made the high intellectual and strategic law possible," Mr. Glazer said. When Mr. Forman arrived at the A.C.L.U. in 1968, the organization had two lawyers, one part-time press person and no one in charge of administration and finances, fund-raising or development. By the time he retired in the late 1990's, the organization had a $50 million annual income, more than $100 million in assets and staffed offices in every state. Before joining the A.C.L.U., Mr. Forman was the comptroller of the Noma Corporation, a large, diversified holding company; he became unemployed when Noma merged with a predecessor of Gulf and Western. During World War II, he was an Army officer stationed in Washington, where he fell in love with a woman with whom he had his only daughter but felt he could not marry because she was not Jewish. He graduated magna cum laude from New York University in 1939 and earned a graduate degree in business administration there.

    2006(7th of Av, 5766): Sixty-two year art historian Arlene Raven passed away today. (As reported by Elaine Woo)

    2006: A three-judge panel of the Second Circuit Court of Appeals reversed Judge Sweet's decision, holding 2–1 that federal prosecutors could inspect the telephone records of Judith Miller

    2006(7th of Av, 5766): Skirmishes with Hezbollah guerrillas in the southern Lebanese village of Ayta al-Shaab left three soldiers, including an officer, of a Paratrooper Brigade unit dead and at least another 25 wounded. The names of the fallen have been released: St.-Sgt. Yehunatan Einhorn, 22, of Moshav Gimzo; First Sergeant Michael Levine, 21, of Jerusalem; and Lieutenant Ilan Gabbai, 22, of Kiryat Tivon.

    2006:A number of Jewish-owned stores in Italy had their doors sealed with glue and the shutters nailed down overnight as a response to Israel’s policies in Lebanon

    2006: Today, Peter “Gelb became the 16th General Manager of the Metropolitan Opera” following with he “launched…several new productions, including Madama Butterfly, The Barber of Seville, The First Emperor.”

    2007: U.S. President George Bush imposed sanctions on Syria today because of the role the Damascus government has played in creating regional instability.

    2007: U.S. Secretary of State Condi Rice arrives in Jerusalem.

    2008:  Solomon "Momy" Levy began serving his term as Mayor of Gibraltar.

    2008: Solomon Levy began serving as the Mayor of Gibraltar. 2008: In Falls Church VA (suburban Washington, D.C.), Jewish author Benjamin Rosenbaum reads from and discusses his new collection of SF tales, The Ant King and Other Stories

    2009: At Temple Judah, a Triple Header:

    1. Shabbat Nachamu

    2. Rabbi Todd Thalbum officially takes the pulpit at Temple Judah and reads the Torah portion at his first Cedar Rapids Shabbat Morning Service

    3. Raoul Wallenberg Sabbath  Annual  Observance of Raoul Wallenberg Memorial Day (August 4, 2009) which has been proclaimed by the Governor of Iowa for three years in a row. 

    2009(11th of Av, 5769): A gunman shot dead two people and wounded at least thirteen others in an attack at a central Tel Aviv gay and lesbian center tonight before fleeing the scene

    2010: The Skirball Cultural Center show "Monsters and Miracles: A Journey through Jewish Picture Books," is scheduled to come to a close today.

    2010: Jake Tapper completed his service as the interim anchor of ABC’s “This Week” – a career disappointment that would help take him to CNN.

    2010: Modern Art, Sacred Space: Motherwell, Ferber, and Gottlieb is scheduled to have its final showing at the Jewish Museum,in New York.

    2010: President Shimon Peres is scheduled to travel to Egypt today for a meeting with Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak.

    2010: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Telling Times:Writing and Living, 1954-2008by Nadine Gordimer, Running Commentary:The Contentious Magazine That Transformed the Jewish Left Into the Neoconservative Right by Benjamin Balint, Norman Podhoretz: A Biography by Thomas L. Jeffers, High Financer:The Lives and Time of Siegmund Warburgby Niall Ferguson and Red Hook Road by Ayelet Waldman

    2010:The Jewish Community Center in Omaha welcomed nearly 1,000 young Jewish athletes for an Olympic-style competition that will run through August 6.  This will be the third time in 19 years that the Maccabi Games have been held at the Jewish Community Center.

    2010(21 Av, 5770): Eighty-eight year old Reginald Levy, the airline captain who thwarted the hijacking of his Belgian airliner in 1972, passed away.(As reported by Dennis Hevesi)

    2010:“Curious George Saves the Day: The Art of Margret and H. A. Rey” is scheduled to be shown for the last time today at the Jewish Museum

    2011: A screening of “Bobby Fischer Against the World,” Liz Garbus’s documentary that takes us on Fischer’s journey from Jewish child prodigy to world chess master to virulent anti-Semite, is scheduled to be shown at the San Francisco Jewish Festival.

    2011(1st day of Av, 5771): Rosh Chodesh Av

    2011: Today, “just seven months after a gunman’s bullet nearly killed her, Arizona Rep. Gabrielle Giffords returned to the floor of the House of Representatives” to cast her firs vote. (JWA)

    2011: Today “on the 5th anniversary ("yarzheit") of Michael Levin's death according to the Gregorian calendar, a flag was flown over the US Capitol in his memory at the request of a man from his local area, Johnson Reynolds, who considered him both an Israeli and American hero. (A native Pennsylvanian, Levin had been killed in action while serving with a Paratroopers Brigaded during the Second Lebanon War.)

    2011: Today, for the first time, the IDF unveiled a special guided missile system that has been used successfully in action in Lebanon and the Gaza Strip. Called Tamuz, the missile is based on the Spike Long-Range Missile developed by Rafael and is operated by Meitar, an elite unit which operates under the Artillery Corps. The missile was opened to foreign exports last year

    2011: “Kmo Kulam” (Like Everyone Else) by Elisha Banai and the Forty Thieves was released today.

    2011:"Volunticipate," a weeklong encounter that brings together representatives of Jewish and Roma, or Gypsy, youth groups from eight countries begins today in Hungary. The youth are gathering to discuss how to build partnerships, plan joint initiatives, and exchange experiences about minority identity and grass-roots civil activism.

    2011:Leaders of the protest for affordable housing who met with President Shimon Peres today found a champion for the cause.  Speaking with the social movement's representatives at Beit Hanassi, Peres told them that their protest was legitimate and sincere, and that he would help them in every way possible to change the national agenda.

    2011: Haaretz’s board of directors has appointed Aluf Benn as the paper’s editor in chief, effective today. Benn, a veteran correspondent and commentator at Haaretz, replaces Dov Alfon, who has been editor in chief for the past three years and is leaving the paper to establish a new digital enterprise in cooperation with the Haaretz Group


    2011: “Just seven months after a gunman’s bullet nearly killed her, Arizona Rep. Gabrielle Giffords returned to the floor of the House of Representatives to cast her vote in favor of a bill to raise the nation’s debt ceiling.”

    2011: A Kassam rocket was fired at southern Israel from Gaza tonight “moderately wounding a women in her fifties who was his by shrapnel from the rocket.”

    2012: Ninety-two thousand Jews are scheduled to gather in New Jersey’s MetLife Stadium for the 12thSiyum Hashas.

    2012:US Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta is scheduled to arrive in Israel today to gauge Israel’s determination to attack Iran and to try to persuade Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu to give sanctions and diplomacy more time. (As reported by Yaakov Katz)

    2012: “Best of Tel Aviv,” celebrating the 40th anniversary of the Tel Aviv University film school, is scheduled to be shown at the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.

    2012: Rabbi Alfredo Borodowski is scheduled to begin teaching “Simply Mordecai M. Kaplan: From Heretic to Prophet of American Judaism” at the Skirball Center.

    2012: Yemen Blues, a group organized by Ravid Kahalani and Omer Avital, is scheduled to perform at Lincoln Center’s Damrosch Park.

    2012: In Houston, TX, brit milhah for Joseph Levy (Yosef Label) Strauss, son of Abbie and Feivel Strauss.

    2012: Barbara Berger, whose brother, David, was on the Israeli wrestling team in 1972, wrote in Haaretz today that families of the 11 victims of a Palestinian terrorist attack at the Munich Olympics would continue to advocate for a formal moment of silence at the Olympics, despite the refusal of the International Olympics Committee to allow such a moment this year, the massacre’s 40th anniversary. (As reported by JTA and The Times of Israel)

    2012: In some respects, today was a historic turning point for Israel — the day on which ultra-Orthodox Israelis became officially subject to the draft along with the rest of the country’s Jewish citizens. On the ground, however, things looked less than historic. At the army’s induction center in Jerusalem, in a sleepy religious neighborhood near the central bus station, there was the usual trickle of teenagers in shorts, T-shirts and tank tops eventually headed for the various units of the Israel Defense Forces, accompanied by the usual trickle of teenagers in black coats and hats coming to register for draft exemptions

    2012:Yakov Toumarkin today became only the second Israeli swimmer to reach the final of an Olympic event by finishing fifth in the semifinal of the men's 200m backstroke event. He also equaled the Israeli national record that he had set earlier in the day in the heats – 1:57.33 minutes. Later on today, Gal Nevo finished fourth in the semifinal of the men's Olympics 200m individual medley. Unlike Toumarkin, however, Nevo's semifinal time was not enough to reach a place in the finals, and he finished tenth overall.

    2012(13th of Av, 5772): Eighty-five year old New York Times editor Gerald Gold passed away. (As reported by Douglas Martin)

    2012(13th of Av, 5772): Seventy-four year old Esther Kartiganer who played on the undefeated women’s Brandies University basketball team and was a senior producer at “60 Minutes” passed away today. (As reported by Dennis Hevesi)


    2013: “Soldier on the Roof,” a documentary about the Jews living in Hebron, is scheduled to be shown at the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival today.

    2013: “Crossing Delancey” is scheduled to be shown this evening at the “Only In New York Summer Film Series.”

    2013: A gag order was lifted today on an espionage indictment filed against a 46-year-old Jerusalemite member of the anti-Zionist Neturei Karta Haredi Sect accused of offering to serve as a spy for the Iranian regime. (As reported by Havi Rettig Gur)

    2013: The 12th Annual March for Pride and Tolerance took place this evening in Jerusalem

    2013(25th of Av, 5773): Sixty-seven year old Igal Brightman the chairman and CEO of the major local accounting firm of Deloitte Brightman Almagor Zohar died when his plane crashed outside of Eilat.

    2013: The Los Angeles Time featured a review of Hothouse: The Art of Survival and the Survival of Art at America's Most Celebrated Publishing House, Farrar Straus & Giroux by Boris Kachka

    2014: The jury is scheduled to announce the winners in the Sukkah Design contest sponsored by Oregon Jewish Museum at the Mittleman Jewish Community Center.

    2014: A weeklong workshop “The Holocaust in Eastern Europe in the Records of the International Tracing Service Digital Archive” at the USHMM is scheduled to come to an end.

    2014: Based on announcement by U.N. Secretary General Ban Ki-moon and U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry a 72-hour unconditional cease-fire between Israel and Hamas is scheduled to begin at 8 a.m. local time today.

    2014(5thof Av, 5774): Major Benaya Sarel, 26, from Kiryat Arba and St.-Sgt. Liel Gidoni, 20, from Jerusalem both serving with the Givati Brigade were killed today after the cease fire had begun. At the same time 2nd Lt. Hadar Goldin, 23, from Kfar Saba was kidnapped. On August 2, Hadar was declared to have died in today’s attack as well. (In life they were loved and admired. They were swifter than eagles, they were stronger than lions.)

    2014: Twenty-four year old Lt. Eitan Fund “rushed into a tunnel to try and stop the kidnapping of Hadar Goldin who in fact had already been killed by the terrorist – an act of heroism for which he received the Distinguished Service Medal..

    2014: Representative Eric Cantor, the Virginia Republican whose last day as House majority leader yesterday, said today that he would resign his seat effective Aug. 18 in hopes that his successor will be able to participate in the lame-duck session after the November elections. Mr. Cantor’s departure means that they are no Jewish Republicans serving in the House of Representatives.

    2014: Following his defeat in his party’s primary election Eric Cantor gave up his position as House Majority leader.

    2014: Michael Bloomberg’s fellowship, the Genesis Generation Challenge is scheduled to “go live” today.

    2015(16th of Av, 5775): Parashat Vaetchanan and Shabbat Nachamu

    2015: Today “opposition leader Isaac Herzog issued a call to action against Jewish terrorism, and demanded that Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Defense Minister Moshe Ya’alon respond to such acts in the same way as Israel responds to Islamist terrorism.”

    2015: Lewis Black is scheduled to appear at the Main State Pier in Portland, ME.

    2015: Benjamin Levin, son of David Levin, hits the big Three Oh!

    2016: “In the wake of the stabbing attack at the Jerusalem Gay Pride Parade in which six people were injured by an ultra-Orthodox man,” “thousands of people attended a number of anti-violence, anti-homophobia rallies across Israel” this evening.

    2016: “The Farewell Party” is scheduled to be shown at The Hampton Synagogue Film Series which is now in its 14thyear.

    2016: Dani Dayan is scheduled to take office today “Israel’s new consul general in New York.” (As reported by Josef Federer)

    2017(9th of Av, 5777): Tish’a B’Av;

    (Editor’s Note:  As we read Lamentations, we will lament giving control to modern day Herodians and Zealots?)

    2017: As Jews commemorated “the Babylonian capture and conquest of the First Temple” “new finds in the City of David” that “confirm the biblical account” of the event were being made public. (As reported by Amanda Borschel-Dan)

    2017: The IDF is scheduled to “conduct a 24-hour exercise” that “will include a brisk movement of security and forces and vehicles” “in the vicinity of Nitzana communities and the area of the city of Eilat starting” today.

    2017(9th of Av, 5777): Seventy-four year old Jeff Brotman, “a founder of Costco” and the husband of “the former Susan Thrailkill” with whom he had two children, Justin and Amanda, passed away today.(As reported by Sam Roberts)

    2017: Marvin Krislov is scheduled to begin serving as the eighth president of Pace University in New York.

    2017: In London, on Finchley Road, JW3 is scheduled to host a screening of the “Zookeeper’s Wife.”

    2017: Friends and family of Benjamin Levin, the son of David Levin celebrate his natal day.

    2018: In Atlanta, MGM is scheduled to host a free screening of “Operation Finale,” a movie “based on the 1960 covert mission of Mossad agent Peter Malkin as he infiltrates Argentina and captures Adolf Eichmann, the Nazi officer who masterminded the transportation logistics that brought millions of innocent Jews to their deaths in concentration camps.”

    2018: “The Ancient Law,” a film that tells the story of a rabbi’s son who gains fame as an actor in Vienna, is scheduled to be shown at the Jerusalem Film Festival.

    2018: “The WOW festival with super star Jason Derulo” is scheduled to place “at Rishon Lezion”

    2018: And of course, it would not be a true history, it we did not take a personal moment to wish Benjamin Levin the happiest of birthdays.





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    August 2 

    338 BCE:  A Macedonian army led by Philip II defeated the combined forces of Athens and Thebes in the Battle of Chaeronea, securing Macedonian hegemony in Greece and the Aegean. Phillip was the father of Alexander Great.  His victory paved the way for Alexander’s conquests which had a major impact on the Jewish people of which we are reminded each year when we celebrate Chanukah.

    1100: King William Rufus, the second son of William the Conqueror who “managed to prevent in England the massacres of Jews that occurred in Rouen, and across France and the Rhineland, in the bloody frenzy the preceded the departure of the First Crusade in 1096” was fatally struck by an arrow which may have been a hunting accident or part of calculated plot to remove him from the throne.

    1222: Raymond VI, Count of Toulouse and Marquis of Provence passed away. “He was so sympathetic to the Jews that Pope Innocent III caused him to take an oath ‘that he would deprive the Jews of their offices and that he would never appoint any Jews or in any way favor them.’”

    1389: Catholic Archdeacon and Jew hater Ferran Martinez is denied the right to act as a judge or to preach after refusing to follow an order of the Pope.  The Archbishop of Seville issued this strong punishment because Martinez refused to issue permits for Jews to build new synagogues, in accordance with the wishes of the Pope.

    1492: According to some sources this day marked the beginning of the final expulsion of the Jews from Spain.  According to tradition it was Tisha B’Av on the Jewish calendar.

    1549: Birthdate of Russian nobleman Mikołaj Krzysztof Radziwiłł author of Podróż do Ziemi Świętej, Syrii i Egiptu 1582-1584 (The trip to Holy Land, Syria and Egypt 1582-1584) provided a first-hand description of life in Palestine at the end of the 16th century.

    1579(10th of Av): Joseph Nasi, duke of Naxos, passed away.

    1589: King Henry III of France passed away. Before he was King of France, as Henry of Anjou he was elected as the first King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.  He owed this victory to a Jew named Solomon Ashkenazi who was the principle adviser to the Emperor of the Ottoman Empire.

    1675: The "Great Synagogue" was inaugurated in Amsterdam on Rapenburgerstraat. This was a Sephardic synagogue, home to K.K. Talmud Torah, which was a union of Congregations Neveh Shalom founded in 1608 and Bet Yisrael found in 1618.

    1696:  Birthdate of Mahmud I, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. In 1739, Mahmud signed the Treaty of Belgrade that gave citizenship rights to the Ottoman Jews.  Austrian Jews were so impressed with the grant of rights that many of them applied for citizenship in Mahmud’s empire.

    1784(11th of Av): Rabbi Simcha ben Abraham Calimani poet and linguist, passed away at Venice.

    1790: The United States conducts its first census.  Out of a population of four million people, there are approximately 2,000 Jews.

    1792: In Charleston, Mrs. Nathan married Abraham Jones, “the clerk to the synagogue.”

    1795: Birthdate of Austrian Talmudist Aaron Kornfeld who was a native of Bohemia.

    1799(1st of Av, 5559): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1799(1st of Av, 5559): Golem Levi Marx, the infant son of Samuel and Eva Marx Levi passed away today in Trier.

    1812: Hannah Moses and Abraham Braham were married today at the Great Synagogue after which they had five children – Esther, Eliza Rosa, William and Edwain.

    1819: An anti-Semitic riot breaks out in the city of Wurzberg.  It will be the first in string of such violent actions to plague the Jews of Germany. The violence which lasted until October of 1891 was known as The Hep-Hep Riots taken from the rallying cry of the anti-Semitic rioters.  Nobody seems to know the true origin of the term.

    1820: Today,  Stanisław Staszic, a Catholic priest and government minister, “attempted to subject Polish Jewish books to the severest scrutiny” so that “no Jewish book was to be printed or sold in the land or imported from aboard through sale or subscription without the express permission of the Commission of Religion Denominations and Public Enlightenment.”

    1830: As turmoil gripped France, Charles X also known as Charles Phillippe during whose reign Judaism was placed on “an equal footing with other faiths” and the rabbinical college in Metz founded in 1829 “as recognized as state institution and granted a state subsidy” abdicated today.

    1846(10th of Av, 5606): Tish’a B’Av observed,

    1851: At Hyde Park Square, Kensington, UK, Joseph Mayer Montefiore and Henriietta Francisca Montefiore, the daughter of Salomon and Fanny Sichel, gave birth to Alice Julia Lucas

    1853: Samuel Joseph Rubenstein, a Jew who arrived from Russian in 1829, was naturalized as a citizen of the United Kingdom today,

    1858: In Mannheim, Germany, Lazarus Morgenthau, the son of Moses and Brunhilda Morgenthau, and Seline Babette Morgenthau gave birth to Julius Caesar Morgenthau

    1865: Birthdate of Antoine Targe, the native of Saint-Chamond whose investigation in 1903 during the Dreyfus Affair, “established the fact that several forgeries still existed in the War Ministry's offices, that some documents had clearly been altered, that there were erroneous commentaries, that exonerating documents had been hidden, and that others were "receptacles for every sort of gossip from dismissed servants and malicious concierges." He would ensure that these documents were available to the Court of Cassation when it considered the fate of Dreyfus.

    1866: The Aroostook Pioneer is quoted as saying that a religious movement is forming in Maine with the intent of immigrating to Jerusalem. A ship is being fitted out at Jonesport which should be ready to sail by the middle of next month. Land has already been purchased near Jaffa where the immigrants plan on making their home. [Ed. Note - the article does not mention if any Jews were involved or note.]

    1869: George Elliot (Mary Ann Evans), an unlikely “champion of Jews and Zionism” and author of Daniel Deronda, began writing her masterpiece, Middlemarch, today.

    1870: The report that police had apprehended the person responsible for the murder of prominent New York businessman Benjamin Nathan has turned out to be nothing more than an unfounded rumor.  The police are continuing to vigorously investigate the murder but will not take any action against any

    individual until they are absolutely sure of their facts.

    1873: “Life in Bohemia” published today provides an anecdotal account of conditions in this part of central Europe.  The section “The Jews” described the contempt that many of the Bohemians have for the Jews, which the author compares to that which Brian de Bois Guilbert had for Isaac of York and the other Jews of England in the novel Ivanhoe. Conditions are not better for the Jews of the newly created nation of Romania where Jews have been forbidden to take part in the newest commercial ventures.

    1878: Mrs. Josephine Lewinski, the wife Phillip Lewinski, a member of the Lowery gang of counterfeiters applied for alimony and legal fees as part of the divorce proceedings she has brought against her notorious husband.

    1878(3rd of Av: Shiye Mordecai Lifshits passed away

    1879: In Kensington, UK Leopold (Lippmann) Seligmann, the son of David and Fanny Seligman and Julia Levi gave birth to Edward Seligman

    1879: “Caring For The Sick Poor” published today traced the history of medical facilities in New York including the founding of Mount Sinai Hospital by the Jews in 1852.

    1879: In New York, Detectives Fogarty and Handy arrested a Jew named Louis Pollard because he had some shoes in his possession that matched the description of shoes stolen last September.  Pollard first claimed that he had bought the shoes at an auction but later said he got the shoes from a woman named Lena Bezona. She was arrested and Pollard was released.

    1879: The Medal of Honor was issued to David Orbansky for “his gallantry in action” at the Battle of Shiloh.

    1882(17th of Av, 5642): Austrian born author David Podiebrad who specialized in the history of the Jews of Prague passed away today.

    1883: Troops were called out to disperse rioters who attacked the Jews living in Ekaterinoslav, Russia.

    1884: Twenty three year old Solomon Rintel, a Hungarian born fresco painter living in New York was seen alive for the last time as he retired to his room at boarding house on 6th Street.

    1885: Birthdate of Oskar Blumenthal who in 1941 was transported from Prague to Terezin and from there to Riga in 1942 where he was murdered.

    1886(1st of Av, 5646): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1887: Birthdate of Nathan David Perlman, the native or Prusice, Poland who came to the United States in 1891 and after having graduated NYU Law School and passed the bar in 1909, pursued a political career that led to him being elected to the House of Representatives as a Republican in 1920.

    1887: In Jerusalem journalist Israel Dov Frumkin and his first wife Bielke Frumknn gave birth to Gad Frumkin

    1887: Birthdate of Aaron Gedalia Kaletzki, who gained fame as Harry “Fuzzy” Kallet, the All-American End at the University of Syracuse and husband of Kathryn Clifford with whom he “had two sons, Clifford and Richard” who spent 55 years working as “a practicing physician in Syracuse New York.

    1888: Poor youngsters and their mothers will have the chance to enjoy a free excursion today sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children

    1890: “The Jewish Persecutions” published today described the Marquis of Salisbury, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom speech in the House Of Lords in which he assured those present “that there were no grounds for dreading a wholesale invasion of Great Britain of pauper Jews from Russia.”

    1890: It was reported today that New York Congressman Charles S. Baker has expressed his concern for the fate of Russian Jews by asking the Foreign Affairs Committee to report favorably on a resolution calling on the President to intervene on their behalf.

    1890: The government in Berlin has sent orders to the frontier customs posts to watch for the threatened migration of Jews from Russia in response to the new edicts promulgated by the Czar’s government.

    1891: It was reported today that Hartog Veld who has been serving as a Rabbi in Troy, NY is moving to Montreal to serve another congregation in Canada.

    1891: “The Jews In Russia” published today challenges the contention that Russia’s treatment of its Jews has nothing to do with religion and his contention that somehow 4 million Jews are controlling the economic lives of sixty million Russians through their practice of usury.

    1891: “Jews Who Plow” published today provides Arnold White’s affirmative response to the question “Has a Jew ever been see to plow” in which he includes descriptions of active Jewish agricultural settlements.

    1892: In London, Ontario, “Benjamin Warner, a cobbler from Krasnosielc, Poland (then located in the "Russian" part of Poland known as Congress Kingdom), and his wife, the former Pearl Leah Eichelbaum” gave birth to Jacob Warner, who gained fame as Jack L. Warn who, along with his four brothers founded Warner Brothers, which became a giant in the film industry. Among other claims to fame Warner Brothers produced "The Jazz Singer," the first "talking" motion picture. Some of his stars included Bette Davis, James Cagney and Humphrey Bogart. Warner was known for his frugality and was not necessarily that well liked. At one point his son and namesake said of his dad, "At times he gloried in being a no-good sonofabitch. If his brothers hadn't hired him, he'd have been out of work."

    1892: “Wild Anarchist Talk” published today described a meeting attended by “300 wild-eyed, unshaven, unclean and foul-mouthed men and about a score of hard-featured cigarette-smoking young women” that was addressed by Emma Goldman who, speaking in German praised the man who had attempted to assassinate Henry Clay Frick.

    1892: “This Fellow Praised Berkmann” published today described a meeting of anarchist that met in a Newark, NJ neighborhood “populated almost entirely by Russian Jews…and the lower class of Germans.” (This was one of several meetings held to cheer Alexander Bermkimann, the Jewish anarchist who had attempted to assassinate Henry Clay Frick, the business leader whose exploitative behavior led to the infamous Homestead Steel Strike)

    1894: The prosecution completed presenting its case against Jeremiah S. Levy, the Jewish policeman charged with having accepted a bribe from Charles Krumm, “the Chrystie Street concert hall keeper for permitting him to” operate his business “without a license.”

    1895: “The Children And The Streets” published today described the visit of Colonel Waring to the Hebrew Institute where he told the immigrant children about the importance of their work in keeping cleaning the streets.

    1896: Colonel Eugene H. Levy and his bride Marie have gone to Old Point Comfort for their honeymoon. Levy is a journalist who served with the Confederates during the Civil War.  His wife is a former school teacher who converted to Judaism before the wedding.

    1896: It was reported today that Morris Lerner and Levi Milrod have retained Stiefel and Lauer to sue the owners of the SS Herman, the German steamship on which their sons Joseph Lerner and David Milrod who died as a result of their mistreatment while sailing to the United States

    1897: Birthdate of Karl Otto Koch, the commander of the concentration camps at Buchenwald and Majdanek who was executed by the Nazis in 1945.

    1899: “Boers Remain Intolerant” published today described the Volksraad’s decision to reject President Krueger’s proposal to allow Jews and Catholics to have the franchise. (These are the progenitors of the people who created Apartheid in South Africa)

    1902: At a mass meeting in Bradford, PA, forty members formed a Rishon L’Zion a new Zionist society

    1903: Redcliffe Nathan Salaman, the son of Myer and Sarah Salaman and his wife Nina Ruth Salaman gave birth to Myer Head Salaman.

    1903: Opening of the Bank Leumi’s first branch in Turkish Jaffa.

    1906: Birthdate of Chicago native Leo, Arnstein, a graduate of the University of Chicago and partner of Arnstein and Lehr who was admitted to the Illinois Bar in 1928 and served as a director of the Chicago Bar Association for eight years.

    1906: Birthdate of Atlantic City native Edwin Harvey Blum the screenwriter whose work includes “Stalag 17.”

    1909(15th of Av, 5669): Two weeks before his 78thbirthday Sir Henry Aaron Isaacs “English businessman and politician” who served as Lord Mayor of London in 1889, passed away today.

    1908(5th of 5668): Forty-six year old Benjamin Kohlman passed away today after which he was burined at the Springhill Avenue Temple Cemetery in Mobile, Alabama.

    1911: In Great Britain, Alderman Henry Hart completes his jubilee of service on the Canterbury Council.

    1912: The Jewish Socialist Federation of America whose purposes included the organization of the Jewish Organization of the Jewish Working Class” was officially formed today with offices in New York City.

    1912: The list of the trustees of the newly incorporated Young Men’s Hebrew Association of Camden, NJ published in today’s Philadelphia Inquirer included Benjamin Natal, Joseph F. Kantor, Max Goldich, Philip M. Pinksy, Bertrand Schneeberg, Arnold Weiss, Samuel Heine, Jacob Furer and Israel Heine.

    1913: SOCIALISTS CAPTURE FIRE PROTEST RALLY; Rose Schneiderman Turns a Fire Prevention Meeting to Their Purposes published today While a number of well-known men, including Amos R. Pinchot, William Jay Schieffelin, Henry Moscowitz, and the Rev. Percy Stickney Grant, were listed as patrons and possible speakers at a fire-prevention mass meeting held at the north end of Union Square yesterday at noon, they were conspicuously absent from the speakers' platform when the meeting was called to order.

    1913: It was reported today that Rabbi Isidor Koplowitz has resigned as the rabbi of Tifereth Israel in Des Moines, IA.

    1913: It was reported today that “The World’s Congress of Religious meeting in Paris has protested against the Blood charge against Jews in and the Beilis case in particular.”

    1913: Noble prize winning physicist Max Born married Martha E., née Ehrenberg. She had Jewish ancestors on her father’s side but was raised as a Lutheran.  This may help explain why born converted to that sect of Christianity in 1914.

    1914: In a move that would help push the Ottoman Empire to became a partner with the Central Powers, with all that that would mean for the future of Eretz Israel (among other places) the British seized two modern battleships that were being built in English shipyards for the Turkish navy

    1914: In St. Petersburg, the Twelfth International Ophthalmological Congress which Jewish physicians were promised they could attend without any of the usual restrictions on the “length of sojourn” was scheduled to come to an end today

    1914: In WW I, German troops began the bombardment of Kalisz, a Polish city in the Russian Empire which would result in “deliberate destruction” of “150 Jewish homes” the death of thirty three Jews in the center of the city.”

    1915: “Jewish Deputy N.M. Friedman” began his speech in the Duma today by saying that “In spite of the oppressed condition, in spite of the status of outlawry, the Jews nevertheless managed to rise to the exalted mood of the civil populate and in the course of the last year to participate in the war in a noteworthy manner.

    1915: In Methil, Scotland, Janet Gear and Porteous Gear, “a coal miner” gave birth to William Gear, one of the Monuments Men.

    1915: “A call was sent out today for a conference of representatives of Jewish societies, congregations, trades unions, lodges and clubs for the purposed of start a campaign for additional funds to aid Jewish war sufferers in Europe.”

    1916(3rd of Av, 5676): Seventy-year old historian Martin Phillipson who taught at the University of Brussels because of anti-Semitism in his native Germany and founded the “Society for the Advancement of Jewish Studies” passed away in Berlin.


    1916: Twenty five of the leading producers of motion pictures including Jesse Lasky met at the Hotel Claridge today “to approve the articles of incorporation” for the newly formed Associated Motion Picture Advertisers.

    1916: Colonel Harry Cutler of Providence, Rhodes Island and the Chairman of the Conference Committee of Jewish Organizations who has just returned from Chicago “issued a statement” today reporting that “substantial progress” has been made in reconciling the differences that will make it possible to convene an American Jewish Congress.”

    1917: Birthdate of Brigadier General Felix Sparks who as a Lt. Col. “led the 3rd Battalion of the 157th Infantry Regiment of the 45th Infantry Division of the United States Army, the first Allied force to enter Dachau concentration camp and liberate its prisoners.”

    1917: As of now there are approximately five hundred American Jews in Palestine and an additional 150 Americans in Turkey, most of whom are college teachers or university professors.

    1918: Birthdate of Irving Harold Franklin, the native of Brockton, MA, who is credited with creating the modern glove worn by major league baseball players when they are at bat. (As reported by Douglas Martin)

    1918: It was reported today that in London, Mrs. Myer Spielman has been appointed president of the Union of Jewish, succeeding the late Mrs. Nathaniel Louis Cohen who had held the job since the founding of the Union.

    1918: It was reported today that “strong efforts are being made to organize the Jewish communities in Batavia and Java, in the Dutch East Indies because the Jewish populations have increased to the size where a viable communal life is possible and necessary.

    1918: During a debate in the House of Lords, “the subject of Sir Edgar Speyer’s membership on the Privy Council Sir was brought up by Lord Lincolnshire” who condemned his “brutal and insolent German manner.”  [Editor’s Note – Considering what would happen in 30 years, there it is ironic to hear the Jewish Speyer being condemned for being a German.]

    1919: Birthdate of Nehmiah Persoff, the Jerusalem native who became famous as an American actor appearing in numerous films and television series.

    1919(6th of Av, 5679): Twenty-eight year old Hungarian communist Tibor Szamuely was killed as during the unsuccessful fight to establish the Hungarian Soviet Republic.

    1920: Birthdate of Eliyahu Moyal, MK who served as a community leader in his native Sale, Morocco before making Aliyah in 1945.

    1922: Birthdate of Eugene Hirsch Kummel,chairman and chief executive of one of the world’s largest advertising agencies, McCann Erickson Worldwide. “Under Mr. Kummel’s leadership, McCann Erickson created memorable television commercials like Coca-Cola’s ‘I’d like to teach the world to sing’ campaign in the 1970s and, several years later, the Miller Lite campaign, ‘Everything you always wanted in a beer, and less,’ with personalities like George Steinbrenner and Billy Martin arguing, ‘Tastes great, Less filling.’”

    1922(8th of Av, 5682): Erev Tish'a B'Av

    1922(8th of Av, 5682):Emil Ganz, a businessman and three-time mayor of Phoenix, Arizona., passed away.  The son of German Jews, he was a self-professed atheist.

    1923:  After falling ill, Warren Harding the 29th President of the United States passes away.  During his brief tenure, Harding’s record regarding Jews and Jewish issues was mixed.  He signed an immigration bill that was based on national origin quotas which put greatly limited Jewish immigration to the United States.  On the other hand, he appointed famous Chicago advertising man Albert Lasker as Chairman of the U.S. Shipping Board.  Under his tenure, the U.S. Merchant Marine was reorganized and improved.  In 1922, Harding signed a congressional Joint Resolution “favoring the establishment in Palestine of a National Home for the Jewish people.”

    1923 (20 Av, 5683): Birthdate of Shimon Peres.

    1924: A group of 12 settlers of Ashkenazi origin who received a plot of land from Yehoshua Hankin found Magdiel which would merge with Ramatayim, Hadar and Ramat Hadar in 1964 to form Hod HaSharon.

    1924: The first issue of the Saturday Review of Literature appeared. This famous literary publication was formed by Amy Lovemean and three colleagues who had worked together on The New York Evening Post. Loveman was listed as an associate editor. She remained at the Saturday Review for three decades, becoming the magazine's poetry editor in 1950. In the first two decades alone, she wrote close to 800 items for the Review. These included editorials, reviews, and answers to readers' questions. Born in 1881, Amy Loveman shaped the literary choices of generations of readers through her work with two important institutions: The Saturday Review and the Book-of-the-Month Club. Educated at Barnard College, where she earned a B.A. in 1901, Loveman's first literary work was as an assistant to an uncle who was revising The New International Encyclopedia. From that job, she moved to the New York Evening Post, where she became a book reviewer and then associate editor of the newspaper's literary review. In addition to her work at the Saturday Review, Loveman played an important role in the Book-of-the-Month Club, where she joined the reading committee soon after its founding in 1926. In 1939, she became head of the Club's editorial department, a job she balanced with her ongoing work at the Review. In this role, she helped to select books for the Club as well as writing frequent reviews herself. In 1951, she joined the Club's editorial board. Loveman's compelling writing style and devotion to literature were recognized by several awards. In 1946, she received both the Columbia University Medal for Excellence and the Constance Lindsay Skinner Achievement Award of the Women's National Book Association. Loveman died in 1955.

    1926: The American Jewish Congress cabled a message of condolence to Mrs. Israel Zangwill over the death of her husband.  The cablegram was signed by Carl Sherman, Acting Chairman and Bernard G. Richards, Executive Secretary.  Dr. Stephen Wise, the President of the AJC is England and is expected to represent the organization at the funeral.

    1926: Birthdate of Betsy Bloomingdale of department store fame.  Her husband was part of President Regan’s kitchen cabinet and she was a close friend of Nancy.

    1926: Leipzig, Yosef and Regina Wahrman gave birth to Rabbi Shlomo Wahrman, an eyewitness to Kristallnacht who escaped to the United States with his family in 1939 and eventually became Rosh HaYshiva of the Hebrew Academy of Nassau County and prolific author writing about Torah and Judaica. 

    1926: Harry Einstein and his wife gave birth to journalist Charles Einstein the author of  The Bloody Spur who was the older half-brother of Albert Brooks and Jacob Einstein

    1927: Birthdate of James Milton Young, known simply as “Jimmy” to several generations of congregants at Adas Israel where he served  as “caretaker and chief custodian” for 56 years.  Rabbis and cantors may come and go, but Jimmy was a rock of reliability who always had a kind word for the kids who were forced to hang around on Sundays when their parents were going to faculty meetings.

    1927: “Rhenish Girls and Rhenish Wine” a silent film written by Walter Reisch was released in Germany today.

    1929(25th of Tammuz, 5689): Seventy-one year old George W. Seligman, the son of the late Joseph Seligman who was one of the founders of the Seligman banking house, passed away today.

    1931: Einstein urges all scientists to refuse military work.

    1932: “Lillian Copeland set new world and Olympic records in discus, with a throw of 133 feet, 1 5/8 inches, winning a gold medal.

    1932: Birthdate of composer Marvin David Levy the native of Passaic, NJ who overcame prison to restart his career.

    1933: In Vilna,Ministry of Education announces that the Yiddish secondary school and the Hebrew gymnasium have been granted equality with the governmental high schools, and will therefore have the right to issue university admission certificates to their students.

    1933. The Ministry of Justice announces that Jewish students engaged in the study of law or economics will not be permitted to take the final examinations in Prussia, if they intend to become lawyers or university teachers.

    1933: In Manhattan, Lillian (Shapiro) Poses one of “the first women to graduate from NYU Law School” who also “worked for several New Deal Agencies” and Jack I. Poses, “founder and president of the fragrance manufacturer Parfums D’Orsay, a founder of Brandeis University and a vice chairman of the New York City Board of Higher Education gave birth to Barbara Joan Poses who after marrying Dr. Ernest Kafka became known as Barbara Kafka, the award winning “food columnist and cookbook author.” (As reported by Sam Roberts and Matt Schudel)


    1933: In a public address to foreign diplomats and journalists Dr. Anzesoria, Bolivian minister to Germany, indicates that his Government is prepared to open its doors to German emigrants, provided the German Government is ready to negotiate the transfer.

    1933: Der Angriff, a newspaper owned by Dr. Paul Josef Goebbels, Nazi Minister of Propaganda and Enlightenment carries a story that Jews are organizing themselves into military units to "attack Germany at the first opportunity."

    1933 The Breslauer Judengemeindeblatt is closed down by the Nazi state president "in the interest of public security."

    1934: Eight-six year old Paul von Hindenburg, the President of Germany passed away. Hindenburg’s death paved the way for Hitler, who was the Chancellor to consolidate power and rule as the Fuhrer.  When it became obvious that Germany had lost the World War in 1918 Hindenburg adroitly shifted the responsibility from the General Staff to the civilians who would become the leaders of the Weimer Republic.  In this way he helped to create the myth that Germany had not been defeated but had been stabbed in the back by traitors at home including the Jews.  This lie help to pave the way for the rise of the Nazis.

    1935: “Made Love” a film directed by Karl Fruend, starring Peter Loree, with music by Dimitri Tiomkin was released in the United Kingdom today.

    1935: Two months after opening in London, “The 39 Steps” a mystery produced by Michael Balcon, co-starring Lucie Mannheim and with music by Louis Levy was released in the United States today.

    1936: In “King Herod Finds a Faintly Sympathetic Biographer” published today, Alfred Kazin provided a review of Herod: A Biography by Jacob S. Minkin.

    1936: “Charging that Harold C. Keyes, a former Secret Service operative and at present a private detective of New York City had sought employment with the German Government with the idea of aligning Christian Americans against Jews, particularly in New York, Representative Samuel Dickstein of New York today made public a letter address to Secretary of State Edward J. Flynn requesting that the license of the detective be revoked.”

    1937: In Geneva, “the Mandates Commission of the League of Nations decided today to base its examination of the Palestine problem not on the British partition proposal but on the assumption underlying it – that the mandate is unworkable.”

    1938: In Berlin, the Nazi issued a new decree announcing the expiration of Jewish Medical Doctor’s licenses on September 30.

    1938(5th of Av, 5698):Yakov Mikhaylovich Yurovsky, an old line Bolshevik best known as the man who organized the execution of Czar Nicholas II passed away today.

    1939: Eugene Wigner introduced Leó Szilárd to Albert Einstein; a meeting which furthered the cause of getting America to develop the Atomic Bomb ahead of the Axis.

    1939: Albert Einstein signed a letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt urging creation of an atomic weapons research program. Einstein’s support was critical to getting Roosevelt’s support for what would become "The Manhattan Project." (What a difference eight years can make.)

    1939: In Manhattan, Phillip Barber, the director of the New York unit of the Federal Theatre Project and script writer Doris Frankel gave birth to Benjamin R. Barber, the founder and president of the Global Parliament Mayors Project, Walt Whitman Professor Emeritus, Rutgers University and author whose most famous work was Jihad vs. McWorld.

    1941(9th of Av, 5701): Parashat Devarim, Shabbat Chazon, Erev Tish’a B’Av

    1941: The Jews were ordered expelled from Hungarian Ruthenia.

    1941(9th of Av, 5701): Over 200 Jews were shot in Kovno on Shabbat.

    1941: The board of the Union of Jewish Communities “achieved the cancellation of the order that Jews wear the yellow badge and other measures, including the creation of ghettos in the cities and mobilizing women to join men in forced labor.” (Jewish Virtual Library)

    1942: Twelve days after the Nazis began transporting Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto to Treblinka, “the first part of the Ringelblum Archive” was hidden tonight.

    1942: After twelve days, approximately 75,000 Jews had been deported to the death camp at Treblinka. 

    1942: A large group of Jews who were trapped under Spanish and German rule in Morocco sent an eloquent appeal for help to the AJDC in New York. "Gentlemen, please excuse our daring attitude in addressing this pathetical letter to you, in our distressful hour; but it is written in the Talmud, 'when trouble comes upon Israel like a rushing stream, look for someone to help you.'." 

    1943: Harpers announced that Geoffrey Bles, Ltd will release the English edition of Bella Fromm’s Blood and Banquets: A Berlin Social Diary which was published last year in the United States.

    1943: The last major deportation from the Bendzin Ghetto continued for a second day.

    1943(2ndof Av, 5703): Sixty-six year old Viennese born actress died at Theresienstadt today. 1943: Led by a small group of prisoners using primitive weapons and pistols, inmates at Treblinka attacked the guards and burned down the barracks. Between 300 and 500 prisoners escaped although most of them were either captured or turned over by Polish peasants. Though the revolt did not stop all activities, the German government decided to liquidate the camp, which it did in October. [Samuel Willenberg and Kalman Taigman, 87-year-old Israelis, are devoting their final years to trying to preserve the memory of those slaughtered at the camp.]

    1943: Samuel Willenberg, “a 20-year old Polish Jew from Warsaw was one of the prisoners who” today “stole weapons, set fire to the Treblinka death camp and fled into the surrounding woods.”

    1943: Birthdate of English author Rose Treman, the “former Chancellor of the University of Anglia” whose The Gustav Sonata was her first novel “on a Jewish theme” and won both “Hadassah Magazine’s Harold U. Ribalow Prize for Jewish fiction” and “the 2017 National Jewish Book Award for fiction.”

    1943: Birthdate of Uzi Landau, the native of Haifa who served with the IDF, graduated from the Technin and earned a PhD from MIT before entering the Knesset and holding several ministerial positions.

    1943: “Young Ideas” a comedy directed by Jules Dassin was released in the United States today by MGM. (This entry may seem incongruous when compared to the ones just above.  It should give readers an idea of the difference between WW II in the United States and WW II in Europe, Asia and North Africa.

    1944: A handful of Jewish survivors of the Kovno ghetto - including Rabbi Efrayim Oshri, author of Responsa from the Holocaust - emerged from hiding. Rabbi Oshri was one of several Rabbis who wrote answers to those with troubling ethical dilemmas growing out of life under the Nazis.  To some, such behavior might seem ludicrous when you consider the conditions.  To others, it is a tribute to the vitality of Judaism and even a form of resistance.

    1944(13thof Av, 5704):Eleazer Silas Kadoorie, known as Sir Elly Kadoorie part of the Kadoorie family, a “tribe” of Jews who made their way from Baghdad, to Bombay to Shanghai passed away after having been freed from the Stanley Internment Camp in Hong Kong.

    1944: Felix Nussbaum, the surrealist painter and his wife arrived at Auschwitz.

    1945: Birthdate of Alan F. Segal the Ingeborg Rennert Professor of Jewish Studies at Barnard College and author of Life After Death: A History of the Afterlife in Western Religion.

    1945: Birthdate of U.S. Army Colonel Jack Howard Jacobs who earned the Congressional Medal of Honor for his actions during the Viet Nam War.

    1945: Commissioning of HMS Springer and S Class Submarined that would be sold to Israel in 1958 where it was recommissioned as the Tanin or Crocodile.

    1945: Birthdate of Alan F. Segal, “a leading scholar known for his comparative studies of how religions view the afterlife.”

    1945: The Potsdam Conference, the meeting of the leaders of the Big Three – U.S., U.K. and U.S.S.R. – comes to an end.  Among other things the leaders agreed to the complete denazification of Germany and the prosecution of war criminals.

    1947: The Runnymede Park, Ocean Vigour and Empire Rival which were carrying the passengers forced off of the SS Exodus arrived at Port-de-Bouc near Marseilles where “the French Government said it would allow disembarkation…only if it was voluntary on the part of the passengers.”

    1948: In New York City, Max Prager and Hilda Prager (née Friedfeld) gave birth radio talk show host Dennis Prager.

    1948: “The Israeli Government proclaimed the areas of Jerusalem under Israeli control to be Israeli-occupied territory and appointed Bernard Joseph as Military Governor.

    1949: Under a plan of the new Israeli government, part of the old city of Beersheba will be flooded as a 500-acre water reservoir for the projected new Negev city on the heights overlooking Beersheba. The reservoir would be formed by damming the Wadi Saba, rocky watercourse through which 10,000,000 cubic meters of rainwater sweep into the Mediterranean every winter.

    1951: “Mr. Belvedere Rings the Bell” a comedy directed by Henry Koster and featuring Zero Mostel as “Emmett” was released in the United States by 20th Century Fox.

    1951: “As Young As You Feel” a comedy written by Paddy Chayefsky and featuring Marilyn Monroe in one of her early screen appearances  was released in the United States today by 20th Century Fox.

    1951: Birthdate of Andrew Gold, a musical wizard who played backup with Linda Ronstadt before embarking on career of his own that included recording hits like “Lonely Boy” and “Thank You for Being a Friend.” (As reported by Paul Vitello)

    1951: Premiere of “As Young as You Feel,” a comedy written by Paddy Chayefsky.

    1956: “Bigger than Life” an early cinematic treatment of drug addiction with a screenplay co-authored by Richard Maibaum,  co-starring Walter Matthau and with music by David Raskin was released in the United States today.

    1951(29th of Tammuz, 5711):Eighty-two year old Heinrich Loewe a German born journalist, publicist, folklorist, linguist, philosopher, librarian and political figure passed away in Tel Aviv.

    1956: “Bigger Than Life” co-starring Walter Matthau, with a screenplay co-authored by Richard Maibaum and music by David Raskin was released in the United States today.

    1957:British oil interests were warned today that they might forfeit ownership of their refinery plants in Haifa if they suspended operations in Israel.

    1957(5thof Av, 5717): Sixty-six year old Lithuanian born, Brazilian artist Lasar Segal passed away today in São Paulo.

    1958: “Badman’s Country” a western film with music by Irving Getz was released in the United States today.

    1960: In California, Jane and Gerald Finerman gave birth to Oscar winning movie producer Wendy Finerman.

    1960(9thof Av, 5720): Tish’a B’Av

    1960: “Young Jesse James” yet another film about the famous outlaw with music by Irving Getz was released today in the United States.

    1964: With encouragement from Rudolf Serkin and Alexander Schneider, the second violinist of the Budapest String Quartet, “the new Guarneri Quartet” with Arnold Steinhardt as 1st Violin was launched today “with a concert at Marlboro, VT.

    1965(4thof Av, 5725): Seventy-seven year old František Langer a physician who was a general in the Czech Army during WW II who had gained fame as an author and who was the older brother Hebrew author Jiří Langer passed away today.

    1967: Birthdate of professional tennis star Aaron Krickstein

    1970: Birthdate of Colorado native and PGA tour member Jonathan Andrew Kaye

    1971: In Brighton, UK, Harry Lawrence and Sylvia Greybourne, both of whom were computer consultants gave birth to Ruth Elke Lawrnece who gained fame as Ruth Elke Lawrence-Naimark, “the child prodigy in mathematics” who is a “British mathematician and an Associate Professor of mathematics at the Einstein Institute of Mathematics, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and a researcher in knot theory and algebraic topology.”

    1972(22ndof Av, 5732): Sixty-year old author Paul Goodman

    1972: Catcher Bob Yeager made his major league debut with the Los Angeles Dodgers.

    1973: With the “ancient observation” that “the deeds of a man are his tombstone,” Yitzhak Navon. the chairman of the Zionist General Council and Deputy Knesset Speaker, rounded off a eulogy today for Louis A. Pincus at his graveside at the end of the shiva period” in the presence of his son’s Allon and David and “a large contingent of top Zionist leaders” including “Knesset speaker Yisrael Yeshayahu.”

    1976: Max Rayne, the grandson of “a Hebrew scholar and teacher” and the son of Phillip Rayne, a garment manufacturer from London’s East End who had had been knighted in 1969 was “made a life peer as Baron Rayne, of Prince's Meadow in the County of Greater London today.”

    1978: “The Magic of Lassie” a musical about the famous collie written by Robert and Richard Sherman who along with Irwin Kostal were also responsible for the music was released in the United States today.

    1979(9thof Av, 5739): Tish’a B’Av

    1979: “Gilda Radner Live From New York” opens on Broadway.

    1980:Egypt has asked for at least a temporary postponement of the talks with Israel and the United States on autonomy for the occupied areas to give the two countries time to respond to President Anwar el-Sadat's protest...

    1980: Eighty-five year old Columbus, Ohio, native Donald Ogden Stewart the Academy Award winning screenwriter who during the 1930’s was Chairman of the Hollywood Ant-Nazi League “the first American anti-Nazi organization that was not overtly linked to American Jews” and that “served as the focal point of the film industry’s anti-Nazism from 1936 through 1939 passed away today.

    1981: The funeral of playwright and three-time Academy Award Winner Paddy Chayefsky is scheduled to take place at Riverside Memorial Chapel in Manhattan.

    1984: The House of Representatives passed legislation spearheaded by Rabbi Malcolm Stern that would separate the National Archives from the General Services Administration which had already been passed by the Senate and which had the support of the genealogy and historical communities who saw this as a way to protect this valuable research tool from unwarranted cuts by the Republican administration.

    1985(15thof Av, 5745): Tu B’Av

    1986(26th of Tammuz, 5746):  Roy Cohn passed away. Born in 1927, Cohn gained fame (or notoriety) as the counsel for the McCarthy Hearings. He portrayed himself as a rabid anti-Communist. Ironically, it was his high-jinx with David Schine that helped to lead to McCarthy’s downfall and his loss of power.

    1988(19th of Av, 5748): Eighty-eight year old Robert Leon “Bob” Berman the catcher whose major league career consisted of playing two games for the Washington Senators in 1918 during which he was part of the battery with the great southpaw Walter Johnson passed away today.

    1989: “Parenthood” a comedy produced by Brian Grazer, with a screenplay by Lowell Ganz, music by Rany Newman and co-starring Rick Moranis was released in the United States today by Universal Pictures. 

    1990: Iraq invades Kuwait, eventually leading to conflict with coalition forces in the Gulf War.

    1990(11th of Av, 5750): Lucy Goldschmidt Moses, a philanthropist, passed away today at the age of 103. (As reported by Joan Cook)

    1991: Robert S. Strauss began serving as U.S. Ambassador to the now non-existent U.S.S.R.

    1992: In East Brunswick, NJ, Barry Eisenberg, a college professor and his wife Amy “who worked as a clown at children’s parties gave birth to American actress Hallie Kate Eisenberg “best known for being ‘The Pepsi Girl.’”

    1992(3rd of Av, 5752): French singer and songwriter Michel Berger died suddenly of a heart attack at the age of 44.

    1993(15th of Av, 5753): Tu B’Av observed for the first time during the Presidency of Bill Clinton.

    1994(25th of Av, 5754): “Yoram Sakuri, 30, of Kiryat Netafim in Samaria, died of stab wounds suffered when a terrorist broke into his home on July 1st.” (Jewish Virtual Library)

    1995: Norman Spector completed his services Canada’s Ambassador to Israel – a position some might have felt him uniquely qualified to hold since he was the first Canadian born Jew to hold the post.

    1996: Eighty-four year old Michel Debre a member of prominent Jewish who converted to Catholicism who served as the first Prime Minister of the Fifth Republic in France passed away today.

    1996: “Emma” a movie version of the 19th century novel starring Gwyneth Paltrow was released today.

    1997: “Lady in the Dark,” a musical with music by Kurt Weill, lyrics by Ira Gershwin and book and direction by Moss Hart, is performed for the last time at the Royal National Theatre in London.

    1998(10th of Av, 5758): Tish'a B'Av (The 9th of Av fell on Shabbat)

    1998(10th of Av, 5758): Television puppeteer Shari Lewis passed away. Born Shari Hurwitz in 1933, Lewis is best remember for her creations – Hush Puppy, Charlie Horse, and the ever-popular Lamb chop.

    1998: The New York Times featured a review of A Hope in the Unseen: An American Odyssey From the Inner City to the Ivy League by Jewish author Ron Suskind

    2005: The Jerusalem Post reported that an Israeli financial consortium announced that two Spanish companies were joining the group in preparing a bid for a massive desalinization project.  The need for new supplies of fresh water is critical to the growth of the Israeli economy and the survival of the Jewish state.

    2005: Haaretz reported that Tunisia is the new hotspot for Israeli tourists.

    2005(26th of Tammuz, 5765): Ninety-four year old Lou Bernstein (born Judah Leon Bernstein) the harmonica player turned photographer passed away today in Boca Raton, FL.

    2006(8th of Av, 5766): Some 210 rockets and missiles were launched toward northern communities - the largest number since the beginning of the fighting. Dave Lalchuk, 52, of Kibbutz Sa'ar, was killed and 16 others were wounded, three moderately, in the attacks, as Jews begin to prepare for the observance of Tisha B’Av.

    2006: On the same day that over 200 rockets were launched against Israel, Bella Freud “voiced an impassioned denunciation of Israel's "disproportionately violent aggression" in the 2006 Israel-Lebanon Conflict” during “an appearance on the BBC current affairs program Newsnight” today.

    2007(18th of Av, 5767): Frank Rosenfelt, a top movie executive at studios including MGM passed away at the age of 85. One of his proudest moments was the acquisition of the movie rights for “Dr. Zhivago.”  One of his biggest disappointments was the failure of the 1976 film “Network” to win the Oscar for Best Picture. (As reported by Douglas Martin)

    2008: In Cedar Rapids, at Temple Judah Triple Header Shabbat Morning Service

    1. Rosh Chodesh Av

    2. Completion of Bamidbar

    3. Observance of Raoul Wallenberg Day (actual date is August 4, 2008 by proclamation of the Governor of the State of Iowa

    2008: “The Fly, an opera in two acts by Canadian composer Howard Shore was broadcast by Radio France's station France Musique today.”

    2008 “Love, Loss and What I Wore” a play by Nora and Delia Ephron co-starring Linda Lavin was performed for the first time at the Bridgehampton Community House.

    2009: Cantor Jacob Chomsky of Tifereth Israel sings the National Anthem as part of Jewish Community Day during a Columbus Clippers’ home game.

    2009: The Los Angeles Times features books by Jewish authors and/or special interest to Jewish readers including Why This World: A Biography of Clarice Lispector, the Brazilian-Jewish author, by Benjamin Moser

    2009: Two Arab families were evicted from Jewish-owned homes in the Shimon HaTzaddik neighborhood of Jerusalem this morning. The evictions took place following a Supreme Court ruling in which the court found in favor of Jewish families who claimed ownership of homes in the area.

    2009: The Times of London features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Judas by Susan Gubar.


    2009(12th of Av, 5769): Seventy-five year old journalist and author Sidney Zion passed away. (As reported by Robert McFadden)




    2009(12th of Av, 5769):Seventy-one year old Michael A. Wiener, broadcasting mogul and patron of the arts passed away.(As reported by Geraldine Fabrikant)

    2010: “Ahead of Time,” a documentary about author, journalist and photographer Ruth Gerber is scheduled to be shown at the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.

    2010:The “First Jewish Women's Music Festival” is scheduled to begin at Falls Village, CT.

    2010:A huge explosion destroyed the home of a senior Hamas commander and injured 24, Palestinians reported today. Palestinians said the blast was caused by an Israeli airstrike, but this has been denied by the IDF.

    2010:Palestinian militants fired five rockets into the Israeli port city of Eilat with one of them landing in nearby Jordanian city of Aqaba, flaring up tensions in the Middle East anew. Though there were no immediate reports of casualties from the beach resort of Eilat, five persons were injured; four of them seriously, when one of the rockets strayed off course and hit the Jordanian city of Aqaba.

    2011: “Sholem Aleichem: Laughing in the Darkness,” “a riveting portrait of the man who transformed Yiddish from a vernacular language into a literary one” and “The Hangman,” a fascinating and complex portrait of Shalom Nagar, a Yemeni Jew, who as a young man worked as prison guard and was the execution of Adolf Eichmann.

    2011(2ndof Av, 5771): Einat Tavori, an Israeli traveling during a break from medical school in Hungary, passed away today after she fell off a cliff while hiking in the mountainous Parvati Valley region of northern India.

    2011(2ndof Av, 5771): Ninety year old Nobel Prize winning immunologist Dr. Baruj Benacerraf, passed away. (As reported by Denise Gellene)

    2011: The 2011 Security Briefing for Jewish Institutions is scheduled to take place at the Sixth & I Historic Synagogue.  Scheduled presenters included local police commanders and senior FBI security personnel.

    2011: The IDF spokesperson confirmed today that the air force attacked several targets in Gaza overnight, including a smuggling tunnel in the southern Strip and a terrorist center in the north.

    2011: Today Israel's Supreme Court issued an unprecedented ruling ordering the state to dismantle the largest illegal settlement outpost in the West Bank by April 2012.

    2011: A senior officer in the Israeli Navy said today that terrorists groups close to Israel are in possession of missiles capable of hitting all Israeli ports and offshore infrastructure such as oil rigs. Brigadier General Yaron Levi, the Navy's intelligence chief, spoke about the matter on today at a conference in Tel Aviv University that focused on the naval theater

    2011: In “Shame on Me, and Your for Taking Pleasure in It,” Dwight Garner reviewed Humiliationby Wayne Koestenbaum.

    2012: “The Moon is Jewish” is among the movies scheduled to be shown at the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.

    2012: “Fiddler on the Roof” with Cantor Joel Colman in the title role is scheduled to open in a production sponsored by Tulane University’s Summer Lyric Theatre.

     2012: Israel’s Counterterrorism Bureau warned Israeli citizens to leave Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula immediately. “We possess information that Gaza terror groups and others are planning attacks on Israeli tourists in the immediate future,” the government agency said in a statement released today.

    2012: Swimmer Yakov Toumarkin provided Israeli sports with a moment of history in an otherwise disappointing day of setbacks at the London Olympics today. The 20-year-old recorded the best ever result for an Israeli swimmer at the Olympics by ending the 200- meter backstroke final in seventh place in a time of 1:57.62 minutes.

    2013: “Dancing in Jaffa” is scheduled to be shown at the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.

    2013: “The Bible in the Iberian World: Fundaments of a Religious Melting Pot” is scheduled to come to an at Leipzig, Germany

    2013: “Fill the Void” is scheduled to open at theatres in Rochester, Richmond, Spokane and Madison, Wisconsin

    2013: A revival of “Fiddler on the Roof” is scheduled to premiere tonight at the Starlighters Theatre in Anamosa, Iowa.

    2013: President Obama has narrowed the field for Chairman of the Federal Reserve to a trio of Members of the Tribe – Lawrence Summers, Janet Yellin and Donald L. Kohn

    2013: Bank Hapoalim chief economist Leo Leiderman has turned down the nomination for becoming the next Bank of Israel governor, Israel Radio reported this afternoon. In a major embarrassment for Israel, Leiderman's announcement makes him the second nominee to pull out within less than a week.

    2014: The Washington Jewish Film Festival is scheduled to continue with its program of Coen Brothers films.

    2014: The traditional minyan at Temple Judah is scheduled to honor the Righteous Gentiles on Raoul Wallenberg Shabbat while mourning the deaths of the IDF who have given their lives to prevent another Holocaust.

    2014: St. Sgt. Maj. (res.) Omri (full name withheld for security reasons), from the Duvdevan Unit, who jumped on a fellow soldier after a grenade was thrown at the unit in Gaza today protecting him with his body.

    2014: “After 16 days of a ground incursion inside the Gaza Strip, the IDF started moving troops out of urban areas to the border area today, amid military estimates that the mission to destroy the 31 known terror tunnels will be completed within 24 hours.” (As reported by Roi Kais)

    2014: Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids is scheduled to host its first movie night with a showing of “Noah” preceded by Havdalah services.

    2015: The Illinois Holocaust Museum & Education Center is scheduled to “Family Day at the Museum” complete with a visit from the ice cream truck.

    2015: Marisa Scheinfeld whose photographs are on display in “Exhibits from the Borscht Belt” is scheduled to deliver a talk at Yiddish Book Center’s Brechner Gallery.

    2015: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Brush Back by Sara Paretsky.

    2015: The JCC of Northern Virginia is scheduled to host a screening of “The Age of Love” this afternoon.

    2015: The Oregon Jewish Museum and Center for Holocaust Education is scheduled to host a public memorial tour.

    2015: “Richard Avedon: Family Affairs” is scheduled to close today at the National Museum of Jewish History.

    2015(17thof Av, 5775): Three days after having been stabbed Yishai Schlissel during the Jerusalem Gay Pride Parade, “16 year old Shira Banki died of her wounds at the Hadassah Medical Center.”

    2016: The Historic Sixth & I Synagogue is scheduled to host an “outdoor screening of ‘Back to the Future.’”

    2016: The Historic Sixth & I Synagogue is scheduled to a discussion Purity, the fifth novel by Jonathan Franzen.

    2017: German prosecutors said today that Oskar Groening “a 96-year-old former Auschwitz death camp guard who was convicted as an accessory to murder is fit to go to prison.”

    2017: Today a 19 year old Palestinian stabbed a 47 year old Israeli “at a supermarket in Yavneh.”

    2017(10thof Av, 5777): Eighty-seven year old economist and Kremlinologist Marshall I. Goldman, one of the first to predict the downfall of the Soviet Union passed away today. (As reported by Sam Roberts)

    2017: In Germany, “Festival Week, a long-time highlight of Yiddish Summer Weimar” is scheduled to begin today.

    2017: In Milwaukee, WI, the Jewish Museum is scheduled to host “It Runs In The Family: Art and the Rosenblatts.”

    2018: JW3 is scheduled to host the final screening of “Tracking Edith” in London.

    2018: “From the East” and “Our New President,” a documentary about the election of Putin, are scheduled to be shown at the Jerusalem Film Festival.

    2018: JW3 is scheduled the first and only London screening of “Indignation,” based on the Philip Roth novel this evening.

    2018: “The Israeli Jazz Spotlight Festival, curated by Nadav Remez” is scheduled to open at the Cornelia Street Café.

    2018: “The Interpreter,” a “film starring Academy Award-winning director Jiri Menzel and Peter Simonischek that  brings together an unusual duo: the son of Holocaust victims and the son of the SS officer responsible for their deaths” is scheduled to be shown at the Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center.




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    August 3

    8 C.E.: Roman Empire general Tiberius defeats Dalmatians on the river Bathinus. As the stepson of Augustus, Tiberius would become Caesar four years after this victory.  Tiberius did appoint Pontius Pilate as the procurator of Judea.  On the other hand, he did have the good sense to overrule Pilate when the Jews of Jerusalem complained that he had desecrated the city by bringing inscribed shields into the Jewish capital. Tiberius’ inconsistent treatment of the Jews was consistent with the moody behavior of the Roman ruler who would have much preferred to serve as a general.

    435: Byzantine Emperor Theodosius II exiled the deposed Patriarch of Constantinople Nestorius, considered the originator of Nestorianism, to a monastery in Egypt.  Nestorianism was a form of Christianity that challenged the orthodoxy of its time and presented a political threat to the Roman Empire. Theodosius, like Constantine used the Christian religion as part of his political power base.  Therefore, it is not surprising to note that this is the same Theodosius II who issued Anti-Judaic laws in 438 that “forbade the Jews to accede to any public task,” made proselytism a capital crime and denied Jews the right to build new synagogues or “to embellish the old ones.”

    1108: Coronation of Louis VI during whose reign the monarch gradually ceded control of the Jews and the revenue they represented from the King to the Church.

    1399: Thanks to the efforts of an apostate named Pesach-Peter a large number of Jews in Prague are arrested and imprisoned.  Lipmann (Tab-Yomi) of Muhlhaussen, the German scholar versed in Torah, Talmud as well as the New Testament, which he had read in Latin was among the victims. 

    1492: Columbus set sail for the New World. There is an entry in Columbus' diary noting the expulsion of Jews from Spain right before he set sail. He was accompanied by Luis de Torres who is considered to be the first Jew to arrive in the “New World.” 

    1492: Jews depart Spain under orders of expulsion from the Catholic Monarchs, Isabella and Ferdinand.
    1493: Property confiscated from Jews and Conversos was used to finance the construction of the monastery of Santo Tomás de Ávila, which was completed today

    1599: During the reign of Sigismund III Vasa, the great synagogue in Grodno was destroyed by fire.

    1603: Tamar Barocas and twenty five year old Fra Diogo a Assungao, a Franciscan friar who became attracted to Judaism were burnt at the stake by the Inquisition at Lisbon.

    1766: Birthdate Rabbi Aron Chorin, the Hungarian born Rabbi who would become a center of controversy for his non-conformists views about Judaism and support for some of the views connected with the new-born Reform Movement.

    1770: Birthdate of King Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia, the reactionary monarch who would undo the reforms of the Napoleonic period and repudiate the Edict of 1812 that had elevated the civil status of the kingdom’s Jews.

    1792(15thof Av, 5552): Tu B’Av

    1797: The emperor of Bohemia ordered that Jews, who volunteered for army service, should be allowed to marry outside the restricted quota of marriage of Jews. 

    1797: “The Jewish Law of Franz II” dated today was “a milestone on the road towards equal status for the Jews.”

    1803: Birthdate of British architect Joseph Paxton who designed Mentmore Towers, the country home of Baron Mayer de Rothschild which “was the first of what was to become a virtual Rothschild enclave in the Vale of Aylesbury, as later, other members of the family built houses at Tring in Hertfordshire, Ascott, Aston Clinton, Waddesdon and Halton.”

    1806: Joseph David Sinzheim completed answering the questions that had been laid before the Assembly of Notables to the satisfaction of the French government officials.

    1822: Esther and Joseph Davis were married today at the Western Synagogue after which they had six children – Sarah, Hannah, Morris, Emilea, Elizabeth and Mary Ann.

    1823: Birthdate of German painter Gustav Richter, the husband of Cornelle Meyerbeer and the son-in-law of composer Giacomo Meyerbeer.

    1829: In the Cape Colony, Sir Anthony Oliphant and his wife Maria gave birth to Laurence Oliphant who  supported the building of a railway between Jaffa and Jerusalem, who starting in 1879 began working to “settle large number of Jews” especially those from Eastern Europe in Palestine and who himself lived for a time “in the Germany colony in Haifa.”

    1830(14th of Av, 5590): Austrian Rabbi Joseph Moses Spiro, the son of Rabbi Abraham Moses whose works included Mesillah le-Elohenu passed away today at Kanitz, Moravia.

    1833: One day after he passed away, 67 year old Godfrey Harris was buried at the Brady Street Jewish Cemetery in London.

    1836: In Rochester, NY, Alvah Strong and his wife gave birth to August Hopkins Strong, a Baptist minister and theologian whose Systematic Theology: The Doctrine of God “presented another explanation of the alleged inaccuracies in the Hebrew Bible” citing the use of idiom and metaphor by the author of the holy text which means that he was not part of those who believed in the concept of Biblical inerrancy which was so popular at the time.

    1836(20thof Av, 5596): Fifty-six year old “Dutch Jurist” Carel Asser, the son of Moses Salomon Asser and husband of Rose Levin who worked for the full emancipation of the Jewish people despite the opposition of Daniel Cohen d'Azevedo, rabbi of the Portuguese, as well as by Jacob Moses b. Saul Löwenstamm, rabbi of the Ashkenazim, who were afraid that political emancipation would result in the disintegration of Judaism

    1837: In Bavaria, Germany, Mendel Emanuel Suessenguth and Hannah Johanna Suessenguth gave birth to Lewis Seasongood, “the husband Emma Seasongood” with whom he had two daughters -- Alma Bettman and Clara Berolzheimer.”

    1839(23rdof Av, 5599): Seventy-four year old German novelist Dorothea von Schlegel, the oldest daughter of Moses Mendelssohn, passed away today.

    1842: Birthdate of Bertha Spiegelberg, the native of Borgholz, Germany who was the wife of Levi Spiegelberg and the mother of New York City native Eugene E. Sperry.

    1851: Birthdate of Adolph Greenhut, the native of Bohemia, husband of Eva Greenhut, who came to the United States “around 1866, became a naturalized citizen in 1874” and served as Mayor Pensacola, FL from 1913 to 1915.

    1853: Julius Landsberger married Pauline Leo the daughter of Rabbi Simon Leo with whom he had two children one of whom was Richard Landsberger, “the founder of a biological dentistry.”

    1856: Birthdate of Alfred Deakin, 2nd Prime Minister of Australia.  In 1905, Deakin appointed Isaac Alfred Isaacs to the position of Attorney General, making him the first Jew to serve in that post. The following year, Deakin scored another “first” for the Jewish people when he named Isaacs as a Justice to the High Court of Australia, 

    1857: Today’s “Foreign Correspondence” column reports that the second reading of the Jew Bill has passed by an immense majority.

    1857: Lord John Russell’s call for a Select Committee to inquire as to how far a certain act of Parliament that dispensed with the use of the words in the oath which excluded Jews from the House would go was agreed to.

    1857: Handbills were posted in Goldsboro ordering all Germans and Jews to leave Goldsboro, NC by August 4, 1857.

    1860: Today, in Boston, Louis Goldenberg, a jeweler by trade, informed his neighbors that he was lonely and he was to visit his wife who had gone to the country. Louis Goldenberg aged 55, was a German Jew, born in Russia, who had lived in the United States for the last ten year and had been employed by Currier & Trott as a watch repairer for the last six years. For the last several months Mr. Goldenberg had been engaged in a series of swindles in which at least six prominent jewelers were victimized to the tune of $5,000 in losses..  Mr. Goldenberg’s “visit to his wife in the country” was actually his getaway.

    1863: Louis, duc Decazes who while serving as Foreign Minister in 1875 “informed Henri Blowitz, the Bohemian Jew who was the Paris correspondent of The Times of a confidential dispatch from the French ambassador to Berlin, discussing German plans to attack France” which he asked Blowitz to publish as part of an effective plan to prevent the Germans from carrying out their plans married “Séverine-Rosalie von Löwenthal” today.

    1865: Philadelphian Theodore Jacobs completed his services as the Assistant Surgeon of the 187th Regiment of the Union Army.

    1870: The Toledo Blade reported that Bennett Scope has been hung after being convicted of murdering a Jewish peddler named Jacob Goodman.  Goodman had befriended his co-religionist Scope who had only recently arrived in this country, giving him money and employment. Although Scope protested his innocence to the end, the jury believed that the motive for the murder had been greed. Rabbi Mayer of Cleveland had unsuccessfully appealed to the governor of Ohio to spare his life.  Mayer was with Scope at the execution.

    1864(1stof Av, 5624): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1870: The Toledo (Ohio) Blade reported that Benenet Scop has been hung in Huron Count, Ohio after having been convicted of murder Jacob Goodman, a Jewish peddler for who he had been working.  The motive appeared to be robbery.

    1871: Birthdate of Versailles native and graduate of the Sorbonne Felix Weill, who in 1901 began teaching French at CCNY where he served as “Chairman of the Romance Language Department from 1935 to 1939” and who served as Secretary of the Alliance Francaise.

    1873: “Death of an Eminent Hebrew” published today memorialized the life of the late Sir David Salomons the Jewish banker who was leader in the fight for Jews to received full rights of citizenship.  It recounted his struggle which finally led to him serving as the Sheriff of London and sitting in the House of Commons. Described as an able and amiable man who was a generous benefactor to a variety of charities, readers were reminded that Prime Minister Gladstone had advised the Queen to “create him as a baronet,” a hereditary title that now passes to his nephew.

    1873: It was reported today, that out of the approximately 320 religious “newspapers” listed in Rowell’s American Newspaper Directory, nine are Jewish as compared with the 47 published by the Methodists.

    1876: Birthdate of Joseph W. Pincus, the Russian born agricultural expert who worked with Jewish farmers in the United States who was the author of “The Jewish Farmers’ Best Friend.”

    1878: Solomon Goldsmith of San Francisco received a cable today from Louis Goldsmith of New York stating that Michael Reese, a successful Jewish businessman and civic benefactor had died suddenly while visiting the Bavarian town of Wallerstein.

    1879: In keeping with generally accepted practice, a Jew named Adolph D. Pollack sold cigars and neckties to customers in White Plains, NY.  His action would lead to litigation challenging the violation of so-called “Blue Laws.”

    1881: The body “of Samuel Alt, an aged Hebrew…was found in the water at the foot of East Seventy-sixth street… this morning” bearing marks that would later lead authorities to concluded he had been “robbed and murdered.”

    1882: As the Tisza-Eszlar affair came to a climax, a Hungarian jury acquitted the Jewish defendants of murder charges touching off anti-Jewish riots in Budapest.

    1883: In “Darlinghurst, New South Wales, Australia,” “Rebecca and George Judah Cohen” gave birth to Sefton Louis Cullen, a barrister and husband of Nancy Cullen who during WW I served with the Royal Fusiliers and the Yorkshire Light Infantry after which he returned to Sydney in 1919 and became “a shareholder of David Cohen and Company, Ltd. In 1935

    1883: The anti-Semitic riots continued for another day at Ekaterinoslav, Russia.

    1883: A woman and her two children burned to death in a cabin belonging to Ivan M. Lotowski at the Jewish Colony in Estillville, NJ.

    1884: The body of Solomon Rintel, a 23 year old Hungarian Jew who worked as fresco painter, was found today in the room he was renting at 403 Sixth Street in New York.  It appears the Rinel took his own life.

    1884: Birthdate of composer Louis Gruenberg.  Born near Brest Litovsk Poland, Gruenberg immigrated to the United States.  He was one of several Jewish composers, including George and Ira Gershwin, who incorporated African-American themes in their musical works.

    1886: Lord Randolph Henry Spencer-Churchill, the father of Winston Churchill became his party’s leader in the House of Commons. Churchill was also the cousin of Colonel Charles Henry Churchill who while serving as British diplomat in the Middle East in the middle of the 19th century “declared his support for Jewish restoration of sovereignty over Palestine.”

    1887: In Rugby, Warwickshire, “William Parker Brooke, a Rugby schoolmaster and Ruth Mary Brooke, née Cotterill” gave birth to poet Rupert Brooke whom Alexander Aciman chosen to characterize as his “favorite anti-Semite.”

    1888: Four days after she had passed away “in her 82ndyear, Sarah Salomons (nee Hurwitz) the daughter of Hyman Hurwitz was buried today at the Balls Pond Road Jewish Cemetery.

    1889:  In Ulster County, NY, a group of ruffians known as the “Yellowstone Cowboys,” armed with pistols and bowie knives forced their way into a boarding house owned by J. Epstein, Jewish innkeeper in Saugerties, chased out the guests and demanded to be fed dinner.  They departed after about an hour.

    1890: The Young People’s Association of Congregation Beth Elohim in Brooklyn required the use of two barges for their excursion today to Washington Park on the Hudson River.

    1890: “Hebrew, Israelite and Jew” published today which relies on information first published in the Hebrew Journal described the origins of these three terms which today are used in the following manner: “Hebrew refers to race, Israelite refers to the nation, Jews to the religion.”

    1890: “Expected Migration of Jews” published today described the impact of new regulations of the Czar’s government which “will tend to drive vast bodies…of Jews who are settled in the frontier provinces” from the country.  “The dread of wholesale transportation to Siberia for failure to observe the edicts will impel the flight westward of many thousands of Jews.”  Jewish leaders in Berlin, Hamburg, and Frankfort have communicated with Jewish leaders in London “for the purpose of preparing” to provide relief for their “distressed” co-religionist.

    1890: “An Empire’s Young Chief” published today provides a description of the young Kaiser’s Germany including the fact “that a very large proportion of  Germany’s present authors are Jews and radicals which gives the contemptuous attitude of the dominant Berlin classes toward literature a decided political twist.”

    1891: In Paris, a conference of French Jews approved the plans of Baron Hirsh “for the amelioration of the condition of the destitute” Jews which will require “the cooperation of the Jews in Europe and America” in organizing the emigration of the Jews from Russia.

    1891(28th of Tammuz, 5651): Leopold Dukes, the Hungarian born student of Jewish literature who spent :20 years in England doing research that enable him “to completed the work of Leopold Zunz” the founder of what some call modern “Jewish Studies” or “Judaic Studies.”

    1891: Birthdate of Nathan “Kid Dropper” Kaplan a petty gangster and labor racketeer in New York.

    1893: In Warsaw, a Hebrew newspaper Ha’Tzfira printed a story describing “a festive dinner held in a Warsaw suburb” in honor of Rabbi Abraham Eliyahu Harkavi.(As reported by Vered Guttman)

    1894(1st of Av, 5654): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1894: The attorney for Jeremiah S. Levy the Jewish police officer accused of taking bribes began presenting testimony “in defense of his client” after the Judge denied his motion for acquittal on the grounds that the prosecution had failed to “prove its case.”

    1894(1stof Av, 5654): Twenty-seven year old Adolph Hobart Henriques passed away today. He is the son of Solomon Nunes Henriques who passed away 20 years ago.

    1895: “Sponging Houses” published today described the different literary treatment of these temporary quarters for English debtors including that found in Henrietta Temple a love story by the Earl of Beaconsfield, Benjamin Disraeli.

    1895: Despite attempts to silence him Aaron Drucker spoke out at a meeting in the Church of the Sea and Land being held to convert Jews to Christianity declaring that such meetings should not be held because they were “an outrage to humanity and “if a man is born a Jew of true Jewish parents he is always a Jew and nothing change him!”

    1895: Seventy-three year old Maria Moses, the daughter of Emanuel and Ann Moses, was buried today at the Balls Pond Road Jewish Cemetery.

    1895: Third base man Samuel Earl “Ike” Samuels makes his major league debut with the St. Louis Browns where he “went 1-for-2 in a 5-0 loss to Chicago.

    1896: In Chicago, Ukrainian Jewish immigrants Isidore and Rose (Rabinoff) Horowitz gave birth to Ralph Horwitz who gained fame as Harvard All-American football player Ralph Horween who went to play football in the NFL—mirroring the career of his brother Arnold who also played for Harvard the Cardinals.

    1896: Birthdate of New York City and fur merchant Abraham Isador Weinblatt, the son of “a cigar maker who had immigrated from Russia in 1888 and “traveling salesman for the firm of Kruskal and Kruskal” who with Milton Simon Mandel formed Mandel and Weinblatt.

    1897: According to today’s Times of London, Solomon Schechter of Cambridge University said [The Cairo Genizah] “is a battle field of books, and the literary productions of many centuries had their share in the battle.... Some of the belligerents have perished outright, and are literally ground to dust in the terrible struggle for space, whilst others...are squeezed into big, unshapely lumps."

    1898: During the Spanish-American War, the USS Scorpion, under the command of Adolph Marix, the first Jewish graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy, ended her blockade duties which had begun after the Battle at Manzanillo Harbor, and then headed back to Guantanamo Bay.

    1898: The funeral for fifty three year old Elias Jacobs who had been realtor and “engage in the clothing business for 21 years” is scheduled to take place at nine o’clock this morning at his home on East 80th Street.

    1899: The funeral for 55 year old Samuel Firuski who has worked in the auctioneering and storage business in Brooklyn for the last 22 years are scheduled to be held today at Temple Israel in Brooklyn

    1899: “Topics of the Times” published today described life among the Boers who are fighting the British including the decision of their Parliament to deny Jews and Catholics which shows these rebels to be something other than advocates for “toleration and progress.”

    1901: Birthdate of New Orleans native and U. of Cincinnati graduate Rabbi Gustave Ferdinand Falk, who after being ordained at Hebrew Union College went on to post graduate studies at the University of Chicago before graduating from the New York School Social Work and serving as the “Director at the School for Jewish Studies” in New York City.

    1902: Birthdate of Regina Jonas who when she ordained by Rabbi Max Dienemann in 1935 became the first female rabbi in Jewish history.

    1910(27th of Tammuz, 5670): The former Chief Rabbi of Turkey, Moise Levy, passed away in Constantinople at the age of 89.

    1911(9th of Av, 5671):Tish'a B'Av

    1911: In Paramaribo, Suriname, Daniel Joseph Harogh, the “son of David Levy Hartogh and Rachel Fernandes” married Estelle Celine Abrahams today.

    1912(20th of Av, 5672): Parashat Eikev

    1912: Approximately 75 people attended services at the Social Hall of the Forest House in Kennebunkport, Maine, led by Rabbi Bernard. G. Ehrenreich of Montgomery, Alabama.

    1913: Birthdate of Shmuel Tolchinsky, the native of shtetl near Odessa who gained fame as Mel Tolkin the head writer of “Your Show of Shows” where he helped to launch the careers of such greats as “Mel Brooks, Neil Simon and Larry Gelbart.

    1914: During WWI, Germany declares war against France, while Turkey declares itself neutral.   During the war, Jews from around the world came to help the French, including 600 Turkish Jews (as well as Jews from other Ottoman territories) signed up with the French Foreign Legion to help in the battle against the Germans.

    1915: Congressman Mayer London was reported today to be the chairman of the newly formed People’s Relief Committee which is committed to raise funds to alleviate the suffering of the Jews in the European war zone.

    1915: “Russian Allurements” published today described the importance of Riga the port city that was home to “the first Jewish synagogue known in Europe” to the Czar’s war effort.

    1915: Edith Cavell a British nurse was arrested in Belgium and charged with harboring Allied soldiers. Sadi Kirschen, the father of Claude-Anne Lopez, would be chosen to serve as her defense attorney.

    1916: During World War I, near the Egyptian town of Romani the Central Powers launched their last offensive to seize the Suez Canal in what would become known as the Battle of Romani.

    1916: It was reported today that “a new benefit for the Actors’ Fund of America has been arranged by Daniel Frohman in co-operation with the new theatrical club “The Lights” which will take place at the Amsterdam Theatre.

    1917(15th of Av, 5677): Tu B’Av

    1917: This afternoon, “two days after declaring war on Russia, Germany declared on France and France responded by declaring war on Germany – moves which among other things would pit French Jews against German Jews since Jews served in the armies of both countries.

    1917: The “Red Glove” a “new anti-Jewish league formed at Simferopol” “incited the populace to participate in pogroms.”

    1917: At Odessa, today, the “Jews were accused of molesting Christians going to church and desecrating churches.
    1917: In Leeds, UK, a mass-meeting held “under the auspices of the Jewish Representative Council” adopted a resolution asking the council “to take the necessary steps to protect the interests of those affective by the convention with the Russian Government affecting Russian subjects of military age” living in the United Kingdom.

    1917: In Egypt, a Zionist Organization was “formed to guide all Zionist societies” in the country

    1917: In Warsaw the dean of the Polytechnic Institute declares “that Jews are merely guests in Poland and their use of Yiddish evidence of the opposition to Polish nationalism.”

    1917: In Warsaw “anti-Semites openly agitate for a boycott” against the Jews, urge the closing of all business on Sundays” and “attacked” priests who trade with Jews.

    1917: Samuel Gompers, speaking on behalf of organized labor in America, announced that he and his organization would not be attending the planned conference in Stockholm that is called by some a “peace conference.”  Gompers is praised by Allied leaders for supporting the war against the Kaiser.

    1918:  Birthdate of Sidney Gottlieb who was an early and important official with the CIA.

    1918: During WW I, British troops landed at Vladivostok in what the Bolsheviks would come to view as an attempt by the West to overturn their Revolution

    1918:The proposal, made by the American Federation of Labor through its President, Samuel Gompers, to the Mexican labor unions, suggesting that conferences be held on the border between President Wilson and President Carranza, has been favorably accepted here.  Gompers believes that the meetings will help improve relations between the United States and Latin America.

    1918: Sixteen year old Yitak Jacov a member of the British Jewish Legion 38th Battalion Royal Fusiliers serving in Palestine wrote in his diary “Now that I placed my life at risk, it is becoming so interesting that I feel that everything must be written down, so that later either I – if I survive – or my friends can re-live these days.”

    1919: A wireless dispatch received today in London from Moscow described the shooting of General Gregorieff, “the Russian commander who captured Odessa…and whose troops are reported to have carried out a massacre in the Jewish quarter of Odessa.”

    1921: Birthdate of Broadway Composer Richard Adler. One of his most famous hits was Damn Yankees.

    1922(9th of Av, 5682):Tish'a B'Av

    1923: Birthdate of Hannah Golofski who would grow up to become noted fashion designer Anne Klein. Discovering her gift for design while attending Girl's Commercial High School in Brooklyn, she found work in the garment industry directly out of high school. Within a year, she was working at Varden Petites where she redesigned the firm's line, introducing a new style of ready-to-wear and sophisticated clothing for young (thin) women that would come to be known as Junior Miss. In 1948 she married clothing manufacturer Ben Klein and became principal designer of Junior Sophisticates, a new company established by her husband. In this role, Anne Klein transformed the type of clothing available for petite women like herself. Junior Sophisticates offered elegant styles to shorter women who previously had to make due with more child-like attire. In addition, Klein was the first designer to follow the example of French designer Coco Chanel, adapting men's clothes (suites, jackets, shirts) for women's use. Klein continued to innovate. During the 1950s, she introduced clothing that was sold as "separates," offering women a range of jackets, blouses, skirts, and slacks that could be bought together and then assembled into many different outfits. When the Klein marriage ended in 1960, so did her connection with Junior Sophisticates. In 1963, she remarried and established her own design studio. She specialized in redesigning the failing clothing lines of other companies. In 1968, Anne Klein and Company opened with Klein as director and half-owner. By the early 1970s, more than 800 American department stores and dress shops carried her creations.  Klein won numerous fashion awards. In 1973, she was the only woman invited to participate in a fashion show consisting of five American and five French prominent designers, intended to raise money for renovations at Versailles. The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York restaged the American component of this show in 1993. Since the designer's death in 1974, the Anne Klein label has remained a strong presence in retail stores around the world.

    1923:  Vice President Calvin Coolidge is sworn in as the 30th President of the United States following the death of President Warren Harding.  Coolidge was not an anti-Semite but some of his actions had a negative impact on Jews. In 1924, he signed the Johnson Act.  This immigration law effectively ended the wave of immigration that had started in 1880.  It contained a National Origins Quota System that favored Western Europeans while barring those from Southern and Eastern Europe.  This quota system would be in place during the Holocaust and would be used to deny Jews entry into the United States.  Silent Cal did speak favorably about the creation of a Jewish homeland in Palestine.  Finally, as Vice President he wrote a letter to a prominent Jewish leader which read in part, “’Teach the ancient landmarks to the youth of the Jewish race…That learning and wisdom which has been a sustaining influence to the Jewish race through all the centuries must be preserved for the benefit of mankind.  The youth of your people can associate themselves for no more patriotic purpose.’”

    1924: In New York William and Esther Diamond Kaufman gave birth to Melvyn Kaufman, “a quixotic, unabashedly contentious developer who helped shape Manhattan’s postwar streetscape and is credited with injecting his personal brand of whimsy into the city’s office towers…” (As reported by Margalit Fox)

    1924:  Birthdate of author Leon Uris.  The Baltimore native first came to national attention with the publication of Battle Cry, one of a series in what were called “the great American war novels.”  Uris based his on his own experiences as a Marine fighting during World War II.  He gained greater acclaim for his next major work, Exodus.  Exodus is one of those epic works of historic fiction which, in this case depicts the early days of Zionism and the fight to establish the Jewish state despite opposition from the British and the Arabs.  The novel was turned into a cinematic box office hit.  Uris followed this with several more novels on Jewish themes.  Mila 18 recounted the Warsaw Ghetto uprising.  QBVII, was based on a lawsuit actually filed by somebody who felt they had been defamed by a statement in Mila 18.  

    1925: In Brooklyn, “Henry A. Rosenthal, who owned a fabric business, and the former Cecile Coles” gave birth Lewis Phillip Rosenthal, who gained fame as Dr. Lewis Rowland, the “leading neurologist” whose name had been in changed while he was a teen because of the Jewish quotas at Ivy League schools. (As reported by Denise Grady)

    1925: Birthdate of Chicago native and football coach Marvin Daniel “Marv” Levy, the WW II veteran and Coe College athlete who may have be the only holder of a master’s degree from Harvard to coach multiple NFL teams and who, as of the turn of the century, was the only coach to make it to four Super Bowls with winning the championship game.

    1928(17th of Av, 5688): Seventy-seven year old Viennese native Alfred Sach, the son of Babette and Eduard Elkan Sachs and husband of Therese Sachs with whom he had three children – “Betty, Rudolf and Marie” passed away today.

    1928: “Under Suspicion,” a “silent crime film” directed by Constantin J. David was released in Germany today.

    1929(26th of Tammuz, 5689):  Inventor and scientist, Emil Berliner, passed away.  Born in German in 1851, Berliner worked in a number of fields.  He developed a microphone for the telephone.  He developed the prototype for the modern phonograph record which replaced Edison’s original recording cylinders.  Until the advent of tape and CDs, his phonograph record was the backbone of the recording and music industries.  He also developed a revolutionary lightweight engine which he then put into a experimental helicopter he developed. 

    1930(9th of, 5690): Tish’a B’Av

    1930: In Newark, NJ. Melvin Lamb and “the former Minna Feldman” gave birth to feminist playwright Myrna Lila Lamb. (As reported by Neil Genzlinger)

    1932: “Doctor X,” a horror film directed by Michael Curtiz was released today in the United States by First National Pictures through Warner Bros.

    1933: The Foreign Office agrees to support a complaint submitted by Polish Jews of German Upper Silesia to the arbitration tribunal at Beuthen, against the prohibition of skechita in the plebiscite area.

    1933: In Toronto, Mayor Stewart orders police to investigate the Swastika Club, an organization that has been placarding local beaches with swastikas.

    1933: The Government approves movement for settlement of fifty Jewish families in the Macedonian part of Yugoslavia.

    1933: Der Stuermer, Nuremberg daily, begins the publication of a black list of German young women seen in the company of Jewish men.

    1933: In Wurzburg, All the Jewish student homes are occupied by Nazi storm troops to be used for party offices; the Jewish Student Association is ordered to dissolve.

    1933: In Breslau, The Free Students Association, at a mass meeting decides to boycott lectures by Jewish instructors, and asks the Ministry of Education to expel the Jewish teachers remaining in the high schools.

    1933: According to reports from Jaffa, three Revisionist Zionists are under arrest as suspects in the murder of Dr. Arlosoroff are formally charged with conspiring to assassinate the Zionist leader.

    1934: Adolf Hitler becomes the supreme leader of Germany by joining the offices of President and Chancellor into Führer.

    1936: “A petition designed to bring the German oppression of Jews and non-Aryans formally before the League of Nations as an ‘issue of international concern’ was made public” in New York “and in Paris at the same time” today.

    1937: The debate over the Peel Commission report continued at the League of Nations meet at Geneva. The Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations decided to postpone until September its deliberations of the Royal (Peel) Commission¹s Report on Palestine. It set forth, however, in writing, the advantages and disadvantages of such options as the maintenance of the existing Mandate or its modification, the division of Palestine into cantons after the Swiss federal system, or a complete partition. It was also open to other suggestions.

    1937: At Zurich, during a meeting of the Zionist Congress the Jewish leaders were also discussing the Peel Commission Report. Dr. Chaim Weizmann said that for the past 2,000 years the Jewish people had not been confronted by the necessity to make such an important decision.  In the meantime, a Jewish water expert warned that the proposed partition border would deprive the Jewish state of all the most important water sources.  Chaim Weizmann and David Ben Gurion led the majority that decided to accept the partition plan in light of the Peel Report. Berl Katznelson, Menachem Ushishkin from Mapai (Labor) as well as the Revisionists and the Orthodox fiercely argued against it.

    1937: “In Stepney in the East End of London,” “Pauline (née Hyman), a housewife, and Alfred Berks, a tailor” gave birth to Leslie Steven Berks who gained fame as English playwright and actor Steven Berkoff.

    1938: “After having spent fourteen weeks in Palestine the British commission for implementing the partition scheme, head by Sir John Woodhead, has finished it task and its members sailed from Haifa today.

    1938: While speaking at a testimonial luncheon being given “to honor him for his work on behalf of Jewish refugees children, comedian Eddie Cantor warned “against a spread of anti-Semitism” in the United States and “bitterly denounced Henry Ford for accepting a decoration from the German government on July 27, 1938.

    1940: The government at Vichy France passed anti-Jewish racial laws. 

    1941(10th of Av, 5701): Tish’a B’Av

    1941: One thousand, two hundred Jews arrested in Czenowitz of whom almost seven hundred were executed. 

    1941: One thousand, five hundred fifty Jews were removed from the town of Mitau. 

    1941: In the East Galician town of Stanislawow, which was the home of Jerzy Feliks Urman which the Russians had occupied in 1939 but was taken by the Nazis in 1941, “nearly 1,000 intellectuals and professionals” including hundreds of doctors “were murdered” by the Germans and their Ukrainian allies.

    1942(20th of Av, 5702): Sixty-nine year old German born Nobel Award winning chemist Richard Willstätter who in 1924 he left his post a prominent German university because of the overt anti-Semitism he encountered passed away today in Switzerland after having left his homeland in the 1930’s.

    1943(3rd of Av, 5703): At Bedzin, a man named Baruch tried to challenge Nazi deportation orders and was shot for his effort. 

    1943: “The last major deportation of residents from the Bedzin Ghetto” which sparked an uprising by members of the ZOB ended today.

    1944(14th of Av, 5704): At Strassenhof Camp, 2,400 Jews were marched away never to return. They were all under the age of eighteen and gassed in a makeshift crematorium. Three days later the Red Army liberated the 600 surviving camp members

    1944:  After a series of delays, Monuments Man Lt. James Rorimer landed at Normandy on what had been Utah Beach on D-Day.

    1944: At the Haidari Concentration Camp, having stolen all of the glass from the Jews of Rhodes and extracted the gold from their teeth, the Germans loaded them in animal wagons, sealed the doors and shipped them to Auschwitz.

    1944: The Henry Gibbons arrived in New York carrying a shipload of Jewish refugees bound for the Fort Ontario Emergency Refugee Shelter.

    1946(6th of Av, 5706): Parshat Devarim and Shabbat Chazon

    1946(6th of Av, 5706): Seventy-seven year old Edwin I. Hyneman, the son of the Leon and Grace Marks Hyneman,  varsity football and baseball player for the University of Pennsylvania and “former part owner of the Philadelphia Phillies” passed away today after enduring the after effects of broken hip sustained when he fell on icy pavement. (Editor’s note - him passing away in 1945, but the New York Times obit is dated 1946)

    1947: As tensions mounted in Great Britain following the killing of two British sergeants by the Irgun in retaliation for the execution of three of its fighters, violence broke out today in Manchester where “groups of men began breaking the windows of shops in Cheetham Hill…which had home to a Jewish community since the early 19thcentury” while others tore “down the canopy of the Great Synagogue on Cheetham Hill Road” and surrounded “a Jewish wedding party at the Assembly Hall” shouting “abuse at the terrified guests until one in the morning.”

    1947: Three British ships - Runnymede Park, Ocean Vigour and Empire Rival – arrived in Marseilles carrying the Jewish immigrants from the SS Exodus whom the French said would only be allowed to leave the vessels if their departure were voluntary and not coerced by the British.

    1948(27th of Tammuz, 5708): Sixty year old Beatrice Venetia Stanley Montagu who chose Edwin Samuel Montagu over Prime Minister Asquith and converted to Judaism to marry the Liberal MP – a marriage that was cut short by his death and was unfulfilling for her while it lasted.

    1948(27th of Tammuz, 5708): Emanuel Rothstein died today while flying his Auster for the IAF.

    1948(27th of Tammuz, 5708): While flying her Auster, twenty-one year old Zahara Levitov an “American education bomber pilot with the IAF died today in an air crash between Jerusalem and Tel Aviv.

    1948(27th of Tammuz, 5708): Seventy-year old Hungarian nationalist and international pacifist Rosika "Rózsa" Bédy-Schwimmer  “died of pneumonia today in New York City.”

    1948: “In testimony under subpoena before the House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC),” penitent Communist Party member Whitaker “Chambers identified Lee Pressman” the son of Jewish immigrants, “as a member of the Ware group.”

    1949:  Founding of the National Basketball Association.  Jewish players and coaches had played a major role in professional basketball prior to World War II.  Ironically, the establishment of permanent professional league came at a time when Jewish participation had begun to decline.  There were still a few stars like Dolph Schayes and Red Holtzman.  Red Auberbach would prove to be the dominant coach of the fledgling league and Eddie Gottlieb continued his life time of involvement in professional basketball as the owner of the Philadelphia Warriors.

    1950: In Chicago, “Shirley Levine (née Magaziner) and Marshall Landis, an interior designer and decorator” gave birth to John David Landis, the director of such comedic classic hits “National Lampoon’s Animal House,” “The Blues Brothers” and “Trading Places.”

    1950: “A Lady Without Passport” a film noir directed by Joseph Lewish, produced by Samuel Marx, starring Hedy Lamar, featuring Steve Hill with a score by David Raskin was released in the United States today by MGM.

    1951(1st of Av, 5711): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1951: “The Secret of Convict Lake,” a western produced by Frank P. Rosenberg, with music by Sol Kaplan and script that Ben Hecht helped to write was released in the United States today.

    1952: In Helsinki, the Summer Olympics, during which Holocaust survivor Agnes Keleti and gymnast, won four medals, came to an end today.

    1953: Birthdate of San Pedro, CA native Robert Edwin “Bob” Gross the forward who played college ball at Seattle University and Long Beach St. before pursuing an NBA career with the Portland Trail Blazers and San Diego Clippers.

    1954: After having premiered in New York and Los Angeles, “About Mrs. Leslie” directed by Daniel Mann, produced by Hal Wallis and with a script co-authored by Hal Kanter was released throughout the United States today.

    1955(15thof Av, 5715): Tu B’Av

    1955: Birthdate of Mitchell Shubow Steir the UNC alum and chairman and CEO of Savils Studley who is married to entrepreneur Nancy Ganz with whom he had two children – Max and Rachel.

    1958: The oil pipeline from Eilat to Haifa was completed.  Since Israeli ships and ships that stopped at Israeli ports were barred from using the Suez this joining of Israel’s two major seaports was of great economic importance. 

    1958: Today the USS Nautilus which “was constructed under the direction of U.S. Navy Captain Hyman G. Rickover, a brilliant Russian-born” Jewish “engineer who joined the U.S. atomic program in 1946” “accomplishes the first undersea voyage to the geographic North Pole.”

    1963(13th of Av, 5723): Parashat Vaetchcanan and Shabbat Nachamu

    1963(13th of Av, 5723): Seventy-one year old James D. Zellerbach, the California born son of “Isadore Zellerbach and the former Jennie Baruh” who served as Chariman of the Board of the family business Crown Zellerbach before pursuing a career in public service that including being the U.S. Ambassador to Italy.

    1963: Allan Sherman releases "Hello Mudda, Hello Fadda" the musical parody on letters campers sent home to their parents.

    1963: Philip L. Graham, the chief executive officer of the Washington Post and the husband of Katherine Graham passed away today.

    1965: “You Must Be Joking” a comedy directed by Robert Michael Winner was released today in the United Kingdom.

    1965: Sixty year old Murray Webber, the Los Angeles businessman who “served on the City of Hope board of directors for 15 years” passed away today.

    1966(17th of Av, 5726): Comic Lenny Bruce passes away from a morphine overdose

    1966: “This Property Condemned” a tragic film set in the Deep South directed by Sydney Pollack and produced by John Housman who was the son an Alsatian Jew was released today in the United States by Paramount Pictures.

    1966: “The Man Called Flintstone,” an animated film featuring the voices of Mel Blanc, Harvey Korman and Paul Hersh Frees was released in the United States today.

    1967: In Paris, a Hungarian Jewish director and writer Peter Kassovitz and his Roman Catholic wife, film editor Chantal Remy gave birth to Mathieu Kassovitz who “has described himself as ‘not Jewish but I was brought up in a world of Jewish humor’”

    1970(1st of Av, 5730): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1970: “The Adventures of Huckleberry” a film version of the novel directed by Michael Curitz, produced by Samuel Goldwyn, Jr, co-starring Tony Randall and with music by Jerome Moross was released today in the United States.

    1970: Igal Shohat and Moshe Goldwasser were taken prisoner when their F4-E Phantom was shot down during the War of Attrition. Tragically, Goldwasswer reportedly died while in captivity and Shohat lost his leg.  [This is entry is a tragic reminder that the brave, unsung heroes have paid the highest price for the Jewish state of Israel.  The least we can do is remember – Zachor – their sacrifice and courage.]

    1971(12th of Av, 5731): Sixty-two year old Rutgers law school graduate Philip Jerome Levin, the husband of “the former Janice Hoffman” with whom he had three children “Catherine, Susan and Adam” and “the majority shareholder of MGM” as well as the “head of Madison Square Garden” passed away today.

    1973: It was reported today that Shaare Zedek in Jerusalem has announced “that its South African friends” have “decided to endow a ‘Louis Pincus post-operative intensive care project’ in memory of the late Zionist leader Louis A. Pincus.

    1975: “Prisoner of Zion Vladimir Markman arrived in Israel after serving three years imprisonment in the USSR.”

    1976: “Entebbe Raid Leader Moving Up” published described plans for Brigadier General Dan Shamron the 39 year old commander who led the operation to free the hostages at Entebbe and commanded an armored brigade during the Yom Kippur War to assume a more important position in the near future.

    1976: The 1976 Summer Paralympics opened in Toronto where Hagai Zamir would win a medal for volleyball.

    1977: The United States Senate held hearings on MKULTRA.  MKULTRA was a study of mind control methods begun at the CIAunder Allen Dulles.  Sydney Gottleib was the director of the project.

    1977: The former chief of US Air Force Intelligence, Maj.-Gen. George Keegan (Ret.) accused the Carter Administration of basing its current Middle Eastern policy on quicksand. Keegan charged that the US was not disclosing its back-door intelligence which indicated that the real intentions of the Arab desire to destroy Israel were still there.  

    1978: A Broadway reivival of  “Stop the World – I Want to Get Off Off” a musical “with a book, music, and lyrics” co-authored by Anthony Newley directed by Mel Shapiro with a cast that included Sammy Davis, Jr. opened today “at the New York State Theatre in Lincoln Center.

    1978: Ezzedine Kalak, chief of the PLO's Paris bureau, and his deputy Hamad Adnan, were killed at their offices in the Arab League building. Three other members of the Arab League and PLO staff were wounded

    1979: “North Dallas Forty,” the movie version of a marvelous little sports novel produced by Frank Yalbans who co-authored the script was released in the United States today.

    1980: “Israel Applying The 'Brakesim' To Foreignisms; Begin Favors Updating of Hebrew Old Language for New Needs” published today described what some view as “the plague” of invented, non-Hebraic terms that are rapidly being added to what was once viewed as the holy tongue. “Israelis have injected so many non-Hebrew words into ‘the language of holiness’” such as “autonomiya” for the English word “autonomy” or “pluggim” for spark plugs, that “some ultra-Orthodox Hasidic sects which formerly forbade Hebrew speech because it was the language of prayer, have all their members to witch from Yiddish to Hebrew.”

    1981(3rd of Av, 5741): Seventy-year old chess champion Wolfgang Heidenfeld the father of chess champion Mark Heidenfeld, passed away today.

    1982(14th of Av, 5742): Ninety-two year old Leopold Philipp passed away after which he was buried at the Adath Jeshurun Cemetery in Philadelphia.

    1983(24thAv, 5743): Seventy-two year old year old Walter Landauer, the Viennese native who was part of  a popular piano duo whose career spanned almost 40 years.

    1985(15th of Av, 5745): Tu B’Av

    1985: “An exhibition of Al Hirschfeld’s caricatures” including “several dozen of his works dating from the 1920’s to the 1980’s” that has been on display “on the second floor of London’s National Theatre” marking the first time such a showing had taken place in the United Kingdom is scheduled to come to an end today.

    1986: It was reported today that Beatrice Siegel's latest book for young readers is Sam Ellis's Island.

    1991(23rd of Av, 5751): Seventy-six Isador Perlman who worked with radio isotopes and taught archeology at Hebrew University passed away today.

     1992: Los Angeles premiere of the “Unforgiven” a dark western featuring Saul Rubinek as W. W. Beauchamp.

    1993: The Senate voted 96-3 to confirm Supreme Court nominee Ruth Bader Ginsburg. 

    1993: Yakov Kreizbergmade his debut at The BBC Proms conducting the BBC Symphony Orchestra today.

    1994: A plane piloted by King Hussein of Jordan flew over Jerusalem.  It was the King’s first aerial view of the city and, at the time, seen as harbinger for better times.

    1994: Stephen G. Breyer completed his service as Chief Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit.

    1994: Stephen G. Breyer was sworn in as a Supreme Court justice in a private ceremony at Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist's Vermont summer home. At this time Jews are less than two per cent of the population and make up twenty two percent of the Justices on the Court.  

    1994: Hadassah’s 80th Convention, held at the New York Hilton, comes to an end

    1997: The Long Island Journal featured a report about Camp Wonderland, part of the Suffolk Y Jewish Community Center in Commack that contains a city-of-Jerusalem-playground which is the newest addition to the Y.

    1997: It was reported today that “American Jewry funneled more money into religious education, and less into social activism, as the concern grew about runaway assimilation.”

    1997: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including  One Hundred Years of Socialism: The West European Left in the Twentieth Century by Donald Sassoon who describes himself as a middle Eastern Jew despite having lived in England for forty years, Selected Poems, 1960-1990by Jewish born Pulitzer Prize winner Maxine Kumin, Our Guys: The Glen Ridge Rape and the Secret Life of the Perfrect Suburb by Bernard Lefkowitz and Nothing Ever Happens on 90th  Streetby Roni Schotter.

    1998: Russian composer Alfred Garyevich Schnittke whose father was Jewish and whose mother was not, passed away. 


    1999: Janet Yellin completed her service as Chair of “President Bill Clinton’s Council of Economic Advsioers.”

    1999(21st of Av, 5759: Eighty-five year old Yitzhak Rafael passed away today.  Born in Galicia, he made Aliyah in 1935 and eventually became active in Israeli political life as an MK and Minister of Religions.

    2000(2nd of Av, 5760): Seventy-nine year old London native Michael Leverson Meyerson the scion of “a timber merchant family of Jewish origin” who “won the 1971 Whitbread Award for Biography” and whose “autobiography Not Prince Hamlet was published in 1989 passed away today.

    2001: 98 U.S. senators express concern about popular anti-Semitism in Russia by sending a letter to then-President Vladimir Putin. The letter asks Putin to take a stronger stance in publicly condemning anti-Semitism, which gained traction from “ideological...

    2003: The Sunday New York Times book section features a review of Fabulous Small Jews by Joseph Epstein, a collection of short stories in which “most of the characters are secular Jews who -- like Epstein himself -- are men over 50 who grew up in or around Chicago.”

    2003: HBO broadcast the comedy special “Tracey Ullman in the Trailer Tales” which starred Ullman who also wrote the script and directed the show.

    2004: The United Jewish Communities (UJC) eighth annual Jewish Leadership Forum (JLF) in Aspen, CO comes to a close.

    2005: In a triumph for Israeli scientific and engineering capabilities a “new $250 million desalination plant in Ashkelon began pumping potable water filtered from the Mediterranean Sea” today

    2006(9th of Av, 5766) Tish'a B'Av

    2006: Jews all over the world observe the Fast Day of Tisha B’Av as the IDF battles against Hezbollah and Hamas. A barrage of Hezbollah rockets slammed into northern Israel today, killing at least eight Israelis. Four people were killed when a rocket crashed directly into a house near the northern town of Ma'alot, and another four were killed when a rocket exploded near their vehicle in Acre. Four people were seriously wounded and two others sustained moderate wounds in rocket strikes in Acre, Hurfeish and Kiryat Shmona. Another 31 people were also lightly wounded in the attacks. Shimon Zaribi, 44, and Albert ben Abu, 41, both of Acre, were killed in the rocket attack on their hometown. Sinati Sinati, Amir Naeem and Mohammed Fouad, all 17-year-old residents of the village of Tarshiha, were killed in the attack near Ma'alot.

    2006: In “Hezbollah Missile Threat Assessed” published today, Frank Gardner described the threat still facing Israel after three weeks “of an intensive…air campaign.”

    2007: “Hot Rod,” directed by Akiva Schaffer, starring Andy Samberg and with music by Trevor Rabin was released today in the United States.

    2007: Israel Defense Forces troops shot and killed Read Abu Ads, the Islamic Jihad commander in Nablus

    2008: The Sunday New York TimesEditor’s Choice listings included Moral Clarity: A Guide for Grown-Up Idealists, by Susan Neiman in which the Jewish born author “champions Enlightenment values without any hint of oversimplification, dogmatism or misplaced piety.”

    2008: The Washington Postfeatured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Book of Dahlia by Jewish author Elisa Albert Hitler, The Germans and the Final Solution by Ian Kershawand Hitler’s Priests: Catholic Clergy and National SocialismbyKevin P. Spicer

    2008: At the Jewish Museum in New York, an exhibition entitled Warhol's Jews: Ten Portraits Reconsidered comes to an end. Andy Warhol's Ten Portraits of Jews of the Twentieth Century(1980) depicts renowned luminaries of Jewish culture: Sarah Bernhardt, Louis Brandeis, Martin Buber, Albert Einstein, Sigmund Freud, George Gershwin, Franz Kafka, the Marx Brothers, Golda Meir, and Gertrude Stein. Warhol referred to this pantheon of great thinkers, politicians, performers, and writers as his "Jewish geniuses." Warhol's iconic portraits attest to the lasting achievements and fame of these singular figures. Originally published as a portfolio of silkscreen prints on paper, Warhol was so pleased with the commercial success of his Ten Portraits that he decided to create additional versions of the series as silkscreen paintings on canvas. The Jewish Museum initially showed three sets of paintings and an edition of prints in the fall of 1980. On view in this exhibition are one of the five complete sets of ten paintings, an edition of the final print portfolio, several sketches, a preparatory collage, and the photographs that Warhol used as source images, offering new insights into their development and historical context.

    2009: In Jerusalem,Beit Avi Chai's Music on Monday’s series presents A Groyse Metsie: Jewish music in various styles. The Jewish melodies and instruments take on new forms, blending with a range of modern styles such as rock, hip hop, reggae, and even hard rock, and spiced with superb humor. The group includes Eyal Nisenboym on drums, Shai Perelman playing guitar and vocals, David Adah on keyboards, Oren Tsor onviolin and vocals, Nadav Bachar onguitars and vocals and Ofer Eshed on bass.

    2009:About half of Israelis believe that in order to be a "true Israeli," one has to have been born in Israel, so finds the Israel Democracy Institute in its annual Israeli Democracy Index, published today.

    2009:An American-Israeli crime ring conspired to defraud United States tax authorities of tens of millions of dollars for at least five years, according to Israeli and American court documents filed today. The suspects filed thousands of fraudulent requests for tax refunds in the names of prisoners in federal penitentiaries, without the prisoners’ knowledge, according to an indictment filed in Chicago. They then laundered the money through Israeli bank accounts, the authorities said. Two Americans and seven Israelis went to a Tel Aviv court for a hearing on Monday in connection with the case. Other Americans have been arrested in Chicago and other parts of the United States. The man accused of leading the ring, Marvin Berkowitz, 62, fled the United States for Israel in 2003, according to the Israeli authorities, and has been living in Jerusalem. The American indictment states that the suspects sought to get more than $35 million in federal and state income tax refunds. Israeli investigators say they have found $12 million worth of tax refunds in Israeli bank accounts controlled by Mr. Berkowitz and his accomplices. Mr. Berkowitz is suspected of arranging at least $800,000 in tax refunds to be paid to, or for the benefit of, eight or more members of his family, including two sons who have been arrested in the United States.

    Federal officials said the men had sought tax refunds using the identities of about 3,300 federal prisoners. Mr. Berkowitz, who was charged with six counts of identity theft, is suspected of recruiting and paying others to travel to federal courthouses to collect personal information about federal inmates, including Social Security numbers. The Israeli case resulted from an undercover investigation that had lasted for months by the Israeli national fraud unit working with American authorities, the Israeli police said Monday. Last month, 11 Israelis were arrested and accused of swindling millions of dollars by calling elderly Americans from an office in Tel Aviv and telling them they had won the lottery and had to pay a preliminary tax.

    2009(13th of Av, 5769): Rabbi Aharon Zelig Epstein Rosh yeshiva of Yeshiva Shaar HaTorah-Grodno, passed away today.

    2009:Chabad Lubavitch presented a request today to Yad Vashem to recognize a high-ranking military commander in the Third Reich as a righteous gentile for saving Rabbi Yitzhak Yosef Schneerson, the sixth Chabad rebbe. Admiral Canaris, commander of the Nazi Abwehr, or intelligence, had a central role in securing Schneerson's escape from the Warsaw Ghetto along with members of Schneerson's family and entourage, said Yosef Kaminetzky, a writer who recently completed a book on the escape story. Kaminetzky, along with Kfar Chabad secretary Rabbi Binyamin Lipshitz sent a letter of request to Yad Vashem to consider Canaris as a candidate for righteous gentile status. "He saved the rebbe, why shouldn't he be recognized as a righteous gentile?" said Kaminetzky, explaining why it was important to Chabad. "What makes Canaris even more worthy of praise is the fact that he came from the Nazi leadership." However, Dr. Ephraim Zuroff, director of the Wiesenthal Center in Israel called Chabad's request "problematic.""It smacks of a certain particularism," said Zuroff in a telephone interview. "It is not fair to judge Canaris by a specific good deed when at the same he was in the upper hierarchy of the Third Reich." A Yad Vashem spokesperson said that since they had not yet received an official request they could not comment on the Canaris issue. Chabad's effort was based on new information revealed by historian Danny Orbach, the author of a new book in Hebrew entitled Valkyrie -German Resistance to Hitler. Orbach, a doctoral student at Harvard University of modern Japanese history, said he has devoted the last six years to researching German opposition to the Nazi regime. Orbach said that in 2002 he issued a request to Yad Vashem that was later rejected to recognize Canaris as a righteous gentile. Orbach said that Yad Vashem's rejection of the request was based on two claims: first, that Canaris did not risk his life to save Jews, rather he used his authority as a commander; second that Canaris helped the war effort and did not oppose it. "For the sake of historical justice I believe Canaris should be recognized as a righteous gentile," said Orbach. "I have proof that he did risk his life to save Jews and that he also actively attempted to hurt the Nazi war effort by convincing Franco the Spanish dictator not to join the Nazis." Another request presented by Orbach in 2002 was accepted. Canaris's aide Hans von Dohnanyi, who acted on Canaris's behalf, was named a righteous gentile in 2003. Both Von Dohnanyi and Canaris were executed by the Nazis. Canaris was executed in the last days of the war after it was discovered that he had tried to assassinate Hitler. He was hanged naked by SS guards on April 9, 1945 together with Hans Oster, deputy head of the Abwehr under Canaris, and Dietrich Bonhoeffer, a Lutheran pastor and theologian who opposed the Nazi regime.

    2010: Tzofim Friendship Caravan Family Concert featuring the Israeli Scouts is scheduled to take place at the Washington DCJCC.

    2010(23rd of Av, 5770):Israel Defense Forces analysts believe that the Lebanese sniper fire at the Israel-Lebanon border today , which killed Lt. Col. Dov Harari and seriously wounded Captain Ezra Lakia, was in fact an ambush planned by a Lebanese officer who was encouraged by his commanders.

    2010(23rd of Av, 5770):Family and friends of Dov Harari, affectionately called "Barry", who was killed Tuesday in a military confrontation on the Israel-Lebanon border, said that Harari loved his country and the Israel Defense Forces, and that everyone who knew him loved him. Harari was killed by sniper fire on his observation post while he was overseeing a tree pruning operation along the border fence with Lebanon.His father, Yaakov Harari, told Channel 2 news that Dov was about to retire from reserve duty, but voluntarily asked to continue. Another relative, Yossi Dayan, talked about Dov's love for the army, saying, "this was supposed to be his last reserve duty. And in the end, it really was."Harari, 45 years old and father of 4, engineering corps reserves battalion commander, was an owner of a building materials store in Netanya. Friends said that he had lived his whole life in Netanya, and that he had met his wife all the way back in elementary school. "They began dating in the eighth grade, and they were the first couple among their friends to get married. Theirs was a warm home, small but always filled with their kids' friends," his friends said.His brother Shmuel said that Dov was loved by many and known to all. "There isn't a single person in Netanya that wouldn't say that he was a good man. He would help people, do good deeds, build furniture for children's nurseries. So many people loved him, he was just plain lovable.""Barry was a guy that knew it all, electronics, carpentry, mechanics," his brother said. "He has left behind a great void. We have to pick up the pieces and move on." Lee, his niece, said, "He raised me, he was the best. He always cared for the people around him, there wasn't a single person in Netanya that didn't know him." She added that "He always looked out for others first, for his kids, for his wife, even for people that he just met."Tamir Ganot, Harari's friend, said, "Barry was an amazing man, salt of the earth. He loved to help out, hammer in hand. He would help out poor people, children's nurseries, old ladies in need of help – he only knew how to give, give, give. Everyone in Netanya knew him."Ganot added that "Barry loved the army and loved reserve duty, all throughout his army career. He was someone who was always called upon, and he would arrive instantly. He is an example of the good Israeli. When the army retreated from Lebanon, he tried to reach the border to help his friends from the South Lebanon Army acclimate in Israel. No one can say a bad word about him – even when he was alive."

    Shimon, a family friend, said that "There was nobody like Barry, a man that helped children and poor people, volunteered for everything, modest, humble and shy. He volunteered for reserve duty and loved Israel and the IDF, there was nobody like him. It's impossible to describe the loss. Head and shoulders above the rest, so loved."

    2010(23rd of Av, 5770):A Jewish father of three was among the victims of a shooting rampage at a Connecticut beer warehouse. Louis Felder, the director of operations at the Hartford Distributors in Manchester, was one of eight people shot dead Tuesday morning by an employee accused of stealing, who then killed himself.Felder was a member of the Young Israel of Stamford.Steve Hollander, the company's head of marketing, and a member of the Hollander family that founded and owns the company, was reported to have been shot, according to the Hartford Courant. “The Hollander family is probably one of the most venerated families in the Hartford area in the Jewish community," U.S. Rep. John Larson (D-Conn.) told the Courant. "There isn’t a charity that they haven’t contributed to.”

    2010(23rd of Av, 5770):American Rabbi Bruce M. Cohen, who joined with Farhat Agbaria an Israeli Arab in found Interns for Peace passed away today at the age of 65.

    2010(23rd of Av, 5770): Ninety-seven Herman L. “Reds” Bassman the native of Philadelphia native, alum of Ursinus College and Army Air Corps Veteran who was the “oldest living former Philadelphia Eagles player” when he passed away today in Petersburg, VA.

     2011: Rabbi Alfredo Borodowski is scheduled to give the first in a series of lectures entitled “The Essential Heschel: Teachings of a Modern Day Revolutionary Prophet” at the Skirball Center for Adult Jewish Learning.

    2011: Dr. Regina Stein is scheduled to give the first in a series of lectures entitled “Jewish Holidays for Grownups” at the Skirball Center for Adult Jewish Learning.

    2011: Michael “Fishman appeared on the Passover episode of Roseanne Barr’s reality show “Roseanne’s Nuts.”

    2011:The Knesset passed a controversial housing bill today, despite the objections of leaders of the housing protest movement that has been gaining momentum across the country in recent weeks. The bill, which will slash red tape for construction by setting up national committees to approve new housing projects, was passed by a vote of 57 to 45. Netanyahu has strongly promoted the bill as the solution to the housing crisis.

    2011:MK Benjamin Ben-Eliezer (Labor) told Army Radio today that he and Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu offered former Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak political asylum several months ago.

      2012(15th of Av): Tu B’Av

    2012: Fifty-nine year old award winning theatre and television producer Joan Stein passed away today.

    2012: The celebration of the Israeli holiday of love, Tu B’Av is scheduled to begin this morning in the open courtyard of the Citadel of the Tower of David Museum with a musical performance of Neapolitan love songs.  

    2012: Sam Kringlen, son of Janice Binder and Jim Kringlen is scheduled to participate in Friday Night Services at Temple Judah as his Bar Mitzvah weekend begins.

    2012: Hamas freed a Salafi leader of an al-Qaeda affiliated terror group, it was reported today (As reported by Ron Friedman and Michal Shmulovich)

    2012: A bipartisan group of six Congress members is sponsoring a bill that would ensure recognition of the plight of 850,000 Jewish refugees displaced from Arab countries since Israel's War of Independence in 1948. Their bill in the US House of Representatives also would recognize other displaced populations, including Christians from countries in the Middle East, North Africa and the Persian Gulf.

    2013: “Lies in the Closet” is among the films scheduled to be shown this evening at the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.

    2013: A revival performance of Wicked: The Untold Story of the Witches of Oz a musical with music and lyrics by Stephen Schwartz and book by Winnie Holzman opened at the Dentsu-Shiki Theatre in Tokyo.

    2013: Final performance of “Division Avenue,” a new comedic play by Miki Bone that uses the orthodoxy of the Hasidic culture to explore the challenges facing those trying to find their way in the face of doubt and modern culture´ is scheduled to take place at the June Havoc Theatre.

    2013: In Cedar Rapids, Iowa, the traditional minyan at Temple Judah is scheduled to observe Raoul Wallenberg Shabbat where we Remember the Righteous Among the Nations including Chiune Sugihara, the Japanese diplomat who defied his government by issuing transit papers to Lithuanian Jews so they could escape the Holocaust and Aristides de Sousa Mendes who defied his government and issued transit papers to Jews so they could escape

    2013(27thof Av, 5773): Eighty-six year old journalist Yehuda Lev the WW II veteran who helped to smuggle Jews into Palestine passed away today.

    2013: Israeli swimmers, Guy Barnea and Jonathan Koplover, finished first and fourth respectively qualiftying to swim in the finals at the World Swimming Championships in Barcelona, Spain.

    2013: “Betrayed by Braun, Brewers Owner Twists in an Ill Wind” published today described the impact Ryan Braum, “The Hebrew Hammer” has had on fans, friends et al when “he was exposed as serial liar” whose greatness may rest not on his skill but on his use of performance-enhancing drugs.

    2014: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Invisible Bridge: The Fall of Nixon and the Rise of Reaganby Rick Perlstein, The Magician’s Land by Lev Grossman, The Rise and Fall of Great Powers by Tom Rachman, J.D. Salinger: The Escape Artistby Thomas Beller, The Mantle of Command: FDR at War, 1941-1942 by Nigel Hamilton and Reagan at Reykjavik: Forty-Eight Hours That Ended the Cold Warby Ken Adelman as well as an interview with Amy Bloom.

    2014: The Coen Brother’s double feature is scheduled to be shown for the last time at the Washington Jewish Film Festival.

    2014 The IDF spokesman announced early this morning, Israeli time that at 11:25 p.m. yesterday, August 2, the Chief Rabbi of the IDF, Brigadier Gen. Rafi Peretz, declared the death of IDF officer Lt. Hadar Goldin, who fell in the Gaza Strip on August 1, 2014. (In life he was loved and admired. He was swifter than eagles and stronger than lions.)  

    2014: “Israeli singer David Broza was at the Yehud military cemetery today to sing his song "Mitahat LaShamayim" ("Under the Sky"), the song that was to be Captain Omri Tal and his girlfriend Liat Zimerman's wedding song. Instead, Broza's words floated through the air of the cemetery, over Omri's grave.”

    2014: “Some 12,000 people turned out Sunday in Johannesburg, South Africa at a rally in solidarity with Israel.”

    2014: “Turkish Prime Minister Tayyip Erdogan accused Israel on Sunday of deliberately killing Palestinian mothers and warned it would "drown in the blood it sheds”

    2015: “As Israel sweltered in the grips of a sizzling heat wave, with temperatures in Jerusalem breaking 100º Fahrenheit (40º Celcius), the country broke its electricity use record today for the second day in a row.

    2015: In Aspen, CO, Ambassador Dennis Ross is scheduled to speak at the Chabad Jewish Community Center.

    2015: Starting today, “the Jewish Museum of Maryland in conjunction with the Baltimore Jewish Council and the Maryland State Department of Education, is scheduled to host a three day workshop on Holocaust education that focuses on giving educators the tools to help their students understand the Holocaust.”

    2016: Today, “Hasbara Fellowships Canada filed a formal complaint with the Ontario Human Rights Tribunal, where it accused the student and faculty associations of the University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT) and Durham College of discriminating against Jewish students and Israel, following the banning of Hasbara Fellowships Canada from participating in a student association-sponsored “Social Justice Week” five months ago.”

    2016: The 92nd Street Y is scheduled to host a screening of John Frankenheimer’s “The Young Savages.”

    2016(28thof Tammuz, 5776): Eighty-six year old Dolphin researcher Louis M. Herman passed away today. (As reported by Sam Roberts)

    2016: “International Olympic Committee President Thomas Bach led a mourning ceremony today for the 11 Israeli athletes and coaches slain by Palestinian terrorists at the 1972 Munich Olympics — a tribute that a widow of one of the victims said brought “closure” for the families

    2016: The 92nd Street Y is scheduled to host an exploration of the rebirth of the Lower East Side by a tour of four art galleries conducted by Ronnit Vasserman.

    2017: “The Heart and the Wellspring, an Israeli ensemble led by Naor Carmi and clarinetist Chilik Frank” is scheduled to present and evening of “Chassidic Music from Israel at YSW.

    2017: In London, JW3 is scheduled to host the final screening of “The Zookeeper’s Wife.”

    2017: The Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center is scheduled to host “Carnival, a Summer Soiree” a fun, fundraising activity that includes everything from acrobats to silent auctions.

    2017: “In conjunction with the exhibition 500 Years of Treasures from Oxford presented by Corpus Christi College, the Center for Jewish History, and Yeshiva University Museum,” Jan Joosten, Regius Professor of Hebrew at the University of Oxford is scheduled to lecture on “Hebrew: A Holy Language?”

    2018: The Cornelia Street Café is scheduled to host the second night of the Israeli Jazz Spotlight Festival.

    2018: “The Prayer” and “Cellfish,” a film that “explores the life and work of artist Shelly Federman” are scheduled to shown at the Jerusalem Film Festival.

    2018: “The American Sephardi Federation Young Leaders” is scheduled to host a “Sephardic Summer Shabbat Dinner” this evening at the Center for Jewish History in Manhattan.



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    August 4

    70: According to some record, the date on the secular calendar when the Second Temple was destroyed by the Romans.

    367: Gratian, son of Roman Emperor Valentinian I, is named co-August by his father and associated to the throne aged eight.  The reign of Valentinan I was a period of religious toleration where all cults, including Judaism, were practiced with little or no interference from the state.  Gratian would reverse his father’s policy of toleration, although most of his actual edicts were aimed against the Pagans.

    1060: The reign of King Henry I of France ended today when his most famous Jewish subject, Rashi, was 20 years old. 

    1265: During the Baron’s War, Prince Edward (the future King Edward I of England), leading the armies his father, King Henry III defeated the forces of rebellious barons led by Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester at the Battle of Evesham killing de Montfort and many of his allies. “During the Barons Wars, the Jews were seen as instruments of royal oppression and one Jewish community after another was ransacked and many of its inhabitants killed during the fighting” which had begun in 1263.  In 1264, the violence became so bad, that many Jews fled to Normandy.  As bad as things were under King Henry III, life would be worse under the reign of Edward who would order their expulsion in 1290.

    1278: Nicholas III issued a Papal Bull ordering Jews to hear sermons on conversion. 

    1442: Eugene IV issued “Dudum ad nostrum audientam” a Papal Bull that “forbade Jews to live with Christians or fill public functions.1558: The first printed edition of the Zohar appeared. This popularized the study of Kabbalah, mysticism and Messianism. 

    1578: This date is considered a Moroccan Purim (Purim de Los Christianos); a celebration of a time when Jews there faced near disaster because forces led by King Sebastian of Portugal nearly succeeded in conquering the country. The Portuguese were defeated at al-Qasr al-Kabir. Their defeat meant that the Inquisition would not be coming to Morocco. The Jews of Morocco saw themselves as being delivered from a Portuguese Haman, hence the name of the celebration. 

    1704: During the War of the Spanish Succession, a joint Anglo-Dutch force attacks and captures Gibraltar.  Under the terms of the treaty ending the war, the British will gain control of Gibraltar but the British are enjoined from allowing Jews to settle on this newly acquired possession.  The British ignore the prohibition and Jews are allowed to live there.

    1769: Herz Wesel Gumperz and Abraham Wesel Gumperz gave birth Ruben Samuel Gumperz the husband of Roeschen Gumperz

    1776: Colonel William Thomson wrote a letter to William Drayton from the banks of the Keowee River in which he described the death of 29 year old Francis Salvador.  Salvador, a Jewish patriot had been killed in South Carolina on the first of the month.  After having been wounded he was scalped.  He died of his wounds and according to Thomson, was lucid to the end.

    1780: In London, Solomon da Silva Solis and Benvenida de Isaac Henriques Valentine gave birth to Jacob da Silva Solis who arrived in the United States in 1803 married Charity Hayes with whom he had seven children and still found time to found “Congregation Shanarai Chasset in New Orleans” and later became active in Congregation Shearith Israel in Mt. Pleasant, NY.

    1784: Zipporah Phillips, “daughter of Jonas and Rebecca Mendes ‘Machado’ Phillips” became Zipporah Phillips Noah today when she married Manuel Noah with whom she had two children – “Mordecai Manuel Noah and Judith Noah.”

    1785: Joseph de Palacios a Sephardic Jew living in Charleston, SC, married Mrs. Nathan Harris, a widow from the Island of St. Eustatius.

    1789: Almost a month after the storming of the Bastille on July 14, today “members of the Constituent Assembly took an oath to end feudalism” – an action that would help move the Jews one step closer to full citizenship in a future French Republic.

    1790: A newly passed tariff act creates the Revenue Cutter Service (the forerunner of the United States Coast Guard). Some of the Jews were members of, or associated with this valiant force were: musician and vocalist, Mel Torme,; Arthur Fiedler who “volunteered during the early days of World War II for the Temporary Reserve of the U.S. Coast Guard and was later a member of the Coast Guard Auxiliary” and comedian and television star Sid Caear who joined the Coast Guard in 1939. This proved to be a boon to his career. Assigned to play in military shows, he caught the attention of producer Max Liebman, who was impressed by his ability to make other musicians laugh. Liebman took him out of the orchestra and cast him as a comedian, jump-starting his career upon release from the Coast Guard in 1945. And the rest is show biz history. When Sid Caesar was celebrating his 80th birthday, The Coast Guard presented him with a public service award that read as follows:


    "The Commandant of the United Stated Coast Guard takes great pleasure in wishing a joyous 80th birthday to Coast Guard veteran Sid Caesar and presenting to him this Coast Guard Certificate of Appreciation, in recognition of his public support of the Coast Guard, most notably in the early days of his career as an actor, musician and comedian and more recently as public spokesperson for the U.S. Coast Guard. Mr. Caesar joined the Coast Guard in 1939, after studying saxophone at the Julliard School of Music and playing in a number of prominent big bands. In the Coast Guard, he was assigned to play in military revues and shows, such as "Tars and Spars," but he showed a natural penchant for comedy by entertaining other band members with his improvised routines, prompting show producer Max Liebman to move him from the orchestra and cast him as a stand-up comedian to entertain troops, jump-starting his career upon his release from the Coast Guard in 1945. After leaving the Coast Guard, Mr. Caesar went on to perform his "war routine" in both the stage and movie versions of the revue, and continued under Liebman's guidance after the war, in theatrical performances in the Catskills and Florida, but he never forgot the service that launched his career. Mr. Caesar's performance distinguished the Coast Guard as an honorable and valuable service. Friends and acquaintances say he always kept the Coast Guard close to his heart, especially its hardworking enlisted members. Each and every time the Coast Guard asked Mr. Caesar for a favor, he came through for us, whether it was speaking before the Coast Guard Chief Petty Officers Association or recording audio public service announcements for Coast Guard recruiting campaigns. His respect, admiration and fondness for our service shines bright. Mr. Caesar's years of generosity, concern and dedication to the Coast Guard family are deeply appreciated and are in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Coast Guard and public service."


    1814: Samuel Marx confirmed with seven other witnesses that his brother Heinrich was born in April 1777 Saarlouis.

    1817: Birthdate of Max Ring, the native of Silesia who gained fame as a German poet, author and playwright.

    1819: Lewis Emanuel married Rachel Henriks today at the Great Synagogue.

    1819: Michael and Catherine Solomon were married today at the New Synagouge..

    1821: Birthdate of Louis Vuitton, French designer and founder of the French fashion house that bears his name. According to Louis Vuitton, A French Saga, by French journalist Stephanie Bonvicin the fashion house collaborated with the Nazis during the German occupation of France. Reportedly, “members of the Vuitton family actively aided the puppet government led by Marshal Philippe Pétain and increased their wealth from their business affairs with the Germans. The family set up a factory dedicated to producing artifacts glorifying Pétain, including more than 2,500 busts. Petain's Vichy regime was responsible for the deportation of French Jews to German concentration camps.”

    1823: Birthdate of Oliver P. Morton, who as Governor of Indiana during the Civil War gave Frederick Knefler his first “leg up” on a military career that would lead to him becoming a Major General by the end of the war. Morton showed that in America, a man’s patriotism was more important than his religious background.

    1827: In Romania, untold numbers of Jews perished when the Jewish quarter of Jassy was swept by fire.

    1835(9thof Av, 5595): Tish’a B’Av

    1847: Ralph Levy and Phoebe Abrahams were married today at the Great Synagogue.

    1856: The "Literary Items" column reported that a soon to be published 8 volume work about the religious and scholastic learning of the Jews by J.W. Etheridge is to be called Jerusalem and Tiberias, Sora and Cordova.  According to the title page, the book was designed to be “A survey of the religious and scholastic learning of the Jews; designed as an introduction to the study of Hebrew Literature.”

    1857:  According to handbills which had been posted today is the deadline for all Germans and all Jews to leave Goldsboro, N.C. The order, from parties unknown, stemmed from a violent outburst that had taken place during a trial that pitted Dr. John W. Davis, a popular local physician, against Falk Odenheimer, a German-Jewish merchant.  During the trial Windal T. Robinson, a nephew of Dr. Davis, struck Odenheimer on the head with a spade, or shovel, breaking his skull. In the ensuing mêlée Charley Spaght, a step-son of Odenheimer shot Dr. Davis, seriously wounding him. Even though Davis’ nephew had started the trouble, a crowd formed that wanted to lynch Odenheimer.  Odenheimer had to be taken jail for his own safety where he was protected by a brave local citizen named T.T. Hollowell. Odenheimer and Davis both recovered from their wounds and many of the Jews who had gradually returned to Goldsboro.

    1858: Solomon Harris married Elizabeth Hart today at the Great Synagogue.

    1858: A report published today describing the impact of the final passage of the Oaths Bill in Great Britain said that “Henceforth Jews may sit in Parliament. The Oaths Bill from the House of Lords has passed in the Commons, and is the law of the realm. A Jew may now qualify without swearing to uphold the Christian religion.” The final passage took place on July 21.  Word of the passage was brought by ship from England.

    1860: It was reported today that the Times of London no longer has a “special advantage” or “monopoly on information” which would make a sought after journal because Mr. Reuters, “that clever and far-seeing German Jew” has used his control over “telegraphic communication to see to it that all newspapers receive the same domestic and foreign news make The Daily News the equal of the Times or its other high priced rivals. (Reuters actually converted shortly after he arrived in England from Germany, but the impact of his news service is accurately described)

    1861: In Bischofstein, Prussia, Rabbi Goldreich and his wife gave birth to Samuel Goldreich, the resident of Nottingham, UK and President of the South Africa Zionist Federation who was “publicly thank by the High Commissioner for South Africa for services rendered to the Government.”

    1864: In accordance with the Proclamation issued by President Lincoln, today was observed as a day of fasting and prayer. All business was voluntarily suspended, the public offices, the banks and stores were closed, and citizens flocked to such places of worship as were open for services.  At the Wooster Street Synagogue, Rabbi S.M. Isaacs, “after the usual morning service, read the Prayer for the Government, and delivered a discourse from Jonah, 3d chapter, 8th verse: "Let men and beast be covered with sackcloth, and let man call unto God with might, and let them turn everyone from his evil way, and from the violence which is in his hands." He referred to the proclamation of the President calling upon all loyal and law-abiding people to convene at their usual places of worship and implore the Almighty not to forsake the nation. He alluded to these days of fasting and humiliation recommended to be observed by the Executive authorities as losing their value from the circumstance that fasting and prayer are too often devoid of meaning; that they are unaccompanied by practical amendment. This idea was predicated on the Book of Jonah, where it is recorded that God repented of the evil he intended the Ninevites, because He observed that they forsook their evil ways and became truly penitent. He adverted to the critical condition of the country and the singular appropriateness of our national appeal to the never-ceasing mercy and goodness of Heaven. Israelites, especially, have reason to sincerely pray for the restoration of the Republic to its former greatness, prosperity and harmony. While recognizing the unspeakable happiness they had enjoyed under the protection of the Stars and Stripes, they should gaze hopefully heavenward, and their supplication would not be in vain. He prayerfully invoked Heaven to endow the rulers and the people of the land with the proper spirit -- the spirit of genuine, earnest patriotism -- that the severe trial to which our capacity for self-government and our professed loyalty to the principles of liberty and right may be for our ultimate benefit and regeneration; that the war which is now desolating the land may be speedily terminated by the return of the disaffected to the embrace of the banner whose far-spreading folds yearned to receive them as of old. He concluded his address with a suitable prayer. "

    1865: A Jewish cigar peddler, hailing from New-York, was arrested and taken before Recorder Avery, of Hoboken, today, charged with peddling cigars without a license, and for which he was required to pay a fine of $5. The accused, who gave his name as Louis, pleaded and begged to be let off, declaring that he was poor; had only a dollar and a quarter; that he got married only six months since and that his wife had a baby, etc. When Wolfksy realized that the Recorder was unmoved by his plea for mercy, and that he would have to go to jail if he did not pay the fine, he very quickly produced the money and paid the fine.

    1872: A group of Jewish immigrants from Alsac and Lorraine met at Mehl’s Assembly Rooms in New York.  They appointed a committee that was to organize a congregation made up of members from these two former French provinces.

    1878: “Ill-Treating A Faithful Wife” published today described eventful life of Mrs. Josephine Lewinski who is seeking a divorce from Phillip Lewinski “one of the members of the notorious Lowery gang of gang of counterfeiters” who were arrested in Brooklyn.

    1878: Mr. Ottinger is President of a new Jewish organization in New York that has been formed to provide free trips up and down the Hudson River for poor and sick children during the summer.  If the group can raise more than the $1,200 it already has, it will provide “seaside” recreation for poor Jewish girls working in local shops and factories.

    1878:  The facts surrounding the condition of Jennie Minster which has been described as a “case of insanity” were revealed at Bellevue Hospital tonight.  Miss Minster, an 18 year old Jewess, went to work for Simon Metzger, a prominent Jew living in New Haven, Connecticut. Given her beauty and accomplished nature, Metzger made her the governess for her children.  Last week she was brought back to her parents’ home in New York by Mr. Metzger who said she was “a violent lunatic.”  According to Metzger, Miss Minster had been bathing with the family at the summer resorts called Savin Rock when she sank in the water.  She was rescued and when she regained consciousness, “it was found that her fright had entirely robbed her of her sanity.”  Her parents took her to Bellevue where she was placed in a padded cell due to her violent nature.  Authorities accept Metzger’s version of events but are still puzzled as what to do next.

    1878: The San Francisco Chronicle reported that the estate of the Jewish businessman Michael Reese is valued at somewhere between five and ten million dollars. The bequests show the same broad generosity that he had displayed during his lifetime. Among the beneficiaries are the University of California which is to get $650,000 and the Hebrew Orphan Asylum which is to get $25,000.

    1878: It was reported that “a number of charitable Hebrew gentlemen” in New York “have formed an association for the purpose of taking” sick and poor Jewish children on excursions on the Hudson River.  So far they have raised $1,200.  If they can raise more money they plan to include “poor shop or factory girls” in the excursions.

    1881(9thof Av, 5641): Tish’a B’Av

    1881: In what would seem to be a strange choice of date, the Young Men’s Hebrew Association is scheduled to host an outing aboard the SS Long Branch will sail out to and around Staten Island.

    1881: After the deputy coroner performed an autopsy on Samuel Alt, an elderly Jewish man found floating in the water at the foot of east 76th Street, the coroner concluded  that “death resulted from concussion of the brain and compression due to serious effusion caused by violence.”  The deceased had probably been knocked down by a “violent blow over the left eye” and after being rendered unconscious was “thrown or pushed into the water.”

    1882: Birthdate of Jerusalem native Dr. Nima H. Adlerblum, a promoter of the works of John Dewey as well and active member of the world’s Jewish community as can be seen in her role as “a founder of the national cultural and educational program of Hadassah and her authorship of such works as A Perspective of Jewish Life Through Its Festivals

    1882: In New York State Supreme Court, Judge Donahue granted Fannie Warburg a limited divorced from her husband August Warburg “on the grounds of inhuman conduct toward her…”  The judge awarded her custody of the four children and appointed a Referee to recommend that amount of alimony she should receive.

    1883(1stof Av, 5643): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1883: It was reported that the ten Hungarian Jews who have been standing trial on charges that they killed a Christian girl so they could her blood “in their Passover bread” have been acquitted. While the prosecution had not case, the defendants would have been found guilty were it not for the fact that the “abundant perjury” prosecution witnesses had been exposed to the world “under the bright light of publicity.”

    1883: Charles A.L. Totten, one of those who supported the plan for the Jews to return to “their old homes in Palestine” “through an international conference” began serving as Professor of Military Science and Tactics at the Cathedral School of St. Paul in New York

    1884: It was reported today that Solomon Rintel, a Jewish immigrant from Hungary had taken his own life because he was despondent about having lost his job.  In a note found by Max Schack, his brother-in-law, Rintel had tried to commit suicide three years ago while he was living in Gratz. [Adjustment to a new land was tough on immigrants as stories like this remind us.  The streets were not paved with gold.]

    1884: Herzl enters his law practice in the service of the state.

    1884: Birthdate of Benjamin Antin, the Russian born American lawyer who served in the New York State Assembly and New York State Senate.

    1885: It was reported today the Cassell & Co will soon be published a new novel – As It Was Written: A Jewish Musician’s Story by Sidney Luska. “The name Sidney Luska is a pseudonym.  The author is said to be a young man, the son of a noted lawyer” who has spent so much time with the Jews “that he fairly thinks as a” Jew. (For more about this from an non-contemporaneous source see Josh Lambert’s “As It was written: A Jewish Musicians Story”

    1887: Birthdate of Minneapolis native Louis H. Phillips, the WW I veteran, lawyer and National Commander of the United Veterans of the Republic.

    1888: At least 20 people died today when the Stern Building in the Bowery went up in flames. The fire probably began in the stove of a loft occupied by Solomon Cohn. At first the authorities thought that the fire was set intentionally but when they discovered that none of the tenants had insurance they discounted that theory.  Mr. Stern, the owner of the building has asked the United Hebrew Charities to take of the funeral arrangements, which along with any medical expenses, he will pay for out of his own pocket.

    1888: Rabbi Tabenahus preached his first sermon at the Temple Gates of Hope based on the teachings of Isaiah, “And then thy children shall be taught of the Lord and great peace shall come to thy children.”

    1888: “Mistaken Quotations” published today described the repeated attempts to attributed to the Bible stories that are not actually there, including the one that the Hebrews in the Bible were commanded to make bricks without straws. “If men would examine the Bible text more carefully before they assail it or before they attempt it defense, there would fewer blunders made in both directions.” (For those of you living in the United States, you realize that this advice is still very valid in the 21st century.)

    1889: In Ulster County, NY, a gang of thugs calling themselves the “Yellowstone Cowboys” were arrested this morning when they returned to a Mr. Epstein’s boarding house with the intent of forcing him to feed them a free breakfast.

    1889(7thof Av, 5649): Seventy-seven year old Isaac Phillips, the fifth child of Naphtali Phillips and Rachel Hannah, the husband of Miriam Timble who had converted to Judaism before her marriage, who “served as president of Congregation Shearith Israel” and co-founder of Mount Sinai Hospital passed away today.

    1890: In Jerusalem, Rabbi Chaim Hirschenson, originally of Safed, and Eva (Cohen) Hirschenson gave birth to Tamar de Sola Pool.

    1891: Twenty-one of the Russian Jews who had been detained at the Barge Office, New York’s entry point for immigrants, were allowed to leave and continue on their respective destinations.

    1891: Thirteen Jewish immigrants who arrived at Locust Point, MD aboard a Dutch ship were allowed to land today.

    1891(29th of Tammuz, 5651): Seventy-three year old Salvatore de Benedetti, the Italian scholar who took advantage of the news granted to the Jewish people under Victor Emmanuel to pursue an academic career that included becoming a Professor of Hebrew at the University of Pisa where he wrote Vita e Morte di Moses, a compilation of “the legends concerning the great Hebrew legislator.”

    1891: “The Russian Jew Exodus” published today described the plans sponsored by Baron Hirsch and supported by Western Jews to deal with wave of immigrants leaving the Czar’s Kingdom.  A delegation will be sent to St. Petersburg to serve as a central committee and will establish provincial committees which will be “charged with regulating the exodus.”  Russian Jews who leave “without the sanction of the Central Committee” will not receive the benefits offered by Baron Hirsch. (Compare the 19th century response to the crisis of Russian Jewry with the 20th century response to the crisis of German Jewry)

    1892: “Sanitarium for Hebrew Children” published today provided a summary of the society’s including the fact that from June 28 to July 31, it has provided free excursions for 3,481 mothers and children.

    1892(11th of Av, 5652): Eighty two year old Ernestine Louis Rose, the daughter of a Polish rabbi who became a leading feminist, abolitionist and self-declared atheist, passed away.

    1893: Abraham Finberg, the President of a small Orthodox congregation at 44 Orchard Street said he is prepared to go to court to retrieve the synagogues records that had been taken Louis Cohen, who had been deposed as the rabbi.

    1894: As evidence of the acceptance of Jews at the highest level of British society, Lord Rothschild nominates six horses for the upcoming Derby.

    1895: Birthdate of “Brailov, Russia” native Samuel L. Calechaman who came to New Haven, CT in 1897 where he attended Yale, worked as an “insurance agent and chemist” who was an active member of the Jewish Community Center.

    1895: Birthdate of New York native Edward Anthony, a reporter for the New York Herald, press director for Herbert Hoover’s 1928 presidential campaign and the publisher of two leading magazines – “Woman’s Home Companion” and “Colliers.

    1895: The Jewish citizens of Yonkers, NY, were reported today to have chosen B.H. Shulman to serve as president of their newly formed “religious organization” which hold High Holiday Services at the Odd Fellows Hall this September.

    1895: Attorney Meyer J. Stein filed a suit in replevin in Kings County on behalf of a client who had a dispute over a hotel bill from a stay at the Hotel Lowry owned by J.L. Lowery which had sign saying “No Jews” posted.

    1895: Aaron Drucker was fined five dollars in the Essex Market Court today  after the Magistrate “told him he had acted wrongly” when he interrupted the services Church of Sea and Land denouncing them as a vehicle for converting Jews to Christianity.

    1895: “Jewish Women’s Council” published today provided a history and description of the National Council of Jewish Women which was formed following “the Woman’s Congress held at Chicago in 1893” during the Columbian Exposition. The council was formed in Chicago in 1894 and currently has chapters in 13 cities. Mrs. Rebekah Kohut is President of the New York Council. Miss Rosa Sonneschein is the editor of The American Jewess, the council’s monthly magazine. The next national convention is scheduled to take place at New York in May, 1896.

    1896: Rehearsals began today at the Olympia Theatre for Oscar Hammerstein’s “new romantic comic opera ‘Santa Maria.’”

    1896(25thof Av, 5656):Bertha Lewis (née Cohen), the daughter of Rabbi Raphael Isaac Cohen, sister of Theresa Otterbourg (née Cohen) and wife of David Lewis with whom she supported many Jewish institutions including “the Seel Street and Princes Road synagogues of the Liverpool Old Hebrew Congregation” passed away today. Her obituary in the Jewish Chronicle states: “She had friends everywhere – in France and Germany as in England. During the last few years, she resided at Devonshire Lodge, Landbroke Terrace, and at her home one was almost sure of meeting somebody interesting – a painter or a sculptor or a professor.”

    1897: “The Pan-Anglican or Lambeth Conference issued an encyclical today that, among other things expressed “a wish for an increase in proselytizing among the Jews.” (Ah the 1890’s – the Russian are trying to kill the Jews and the English are trying to convert the Jews)

    1898: Joseph Purzin began teaching at a summer school funded by the Baron de Hirsch Fund at Osborn Street and Sutter Avenue in Brownsville.

    1898: Corporal Moses Blum, 1st Sergeant John F. Wolfson and Private Charles Myer were among those who became part of the United States Military when the 3rd Mississippi Volunteer Infantry was mustered into service today at Jackson, Mississippi.

    1898: Mrs. Bella Pesin and her husband gave birth to Samuel Pesin a graduate of NYU Law School and New Jersey state legislator who served as the Secretary of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association in Hudson, NJ and was the husband of Libby Pessin with whom he had two children – Edward and Ada.

    1899:”Actors Get Engagements” published today provided information about the upcoming theatrical season including the fact that Jacob LItt has hired Sidney Herbert to play a leading part in “The Ghetto” which will open at the Broadway Theatre in October.

    1900: Birthdate of George Himmelfarb, the son of a Lodz shoe manufacture and the hold of a Ph.D in Comparative Religion who settled in London in 1937 where he gained fame as George Him the “freelance designer and design consultant” whose clients included El Al and illustrator of children’s books including The Little Red Engine Gets a Name.

    1900(9th of Av, 5660): Russian-born artist Isaac Levitan died days before his fortieth birthday. For a look at some of his works see

    1901(19thof Av, 5661): “Simon Rice of Scranton, PA,” passed away today “in a hospital in Philadelphia” leaving behind bequests that included “$100 each to the Deborah and Jewish Relief Societies of Scranton” and a provision in his will that “the residue of the estates, amounting to $40,000 or $50,000 to be equally divided – after his wife’s demise – between the Hebrew Union College, the Jewish Hospital for Consumptives in Denver, CO and the Farm School in Doylestown, PA.

    1902(1stof Av, 5662): Rosh Chodesh Av

    1909: In São Paulo, Brazil, “Cecilia Burle, an upper class Brazilian Catholic woman whose family came from Pernambuco and France, and Wilhelm Marx, a German Jew, born in Stuttgart and raised in Trier gave birth to landscape artist Roberto Burle Marx.

    1910: Birthdate of Hedwig Lindenberg, the Bucharest native who gained fame as “Hedda Sterne, an artist whose association with the Abstract Expressionists became fixed forever when she appeared prominently in a now-famous 1951 Life magazine photograph of the movement’s leading lights”  (As reported by William Grimes)

    1910: Birthdate of American composer and educator William Schuman. Schuman passed away in 1992 at the age of 81. 

    1911(10thof Av, 5671): Seventy year old Heinemann Vogelstein a leader of the Reform Movement who served as the rabbi in Pilsen and then Szczein and expressed his opposition to Zionism in a pamphlet entitled “Zionism, A Threat to the Prosperous Development of Judaism” passed away today in St. Moritz.

    1911: Birthdate of Jacob Mortimer Rothschild the son of Pittsburgh, PA residents Lillian and Meyer Rothschild.

    1911: In Russia, the St. Petersburg Jewish community opened a Teacher’s Training College and Museum in memory of two deceased Jewish communal leaders, Barons Horace and David de Gunzberg.

    1911: The Jewish community of Ekaternioslaff, a Russian city on the Dneiper River, petitioned the government for the right to build a medical school next to the local Jewish hospital.  The government agreed if the Jewish enrollment was limited to fifteen per cent.  By October, the governor of the province would be attempting to ban Jews from the town.

    1911: In Great Britain, American Reform Rabbi Israel I. Mattuck was named as the first spiritual leader of the Liberal Jewish Synagogue.  Born in 1883, Mattuck, who passed away in 1954, was an author, commentator and proponent of Classical Reform Judaism

    1911: At a conference in New York, the Seventh Day Adventists adopted resolutions condemning the mistreatment of Jews.

    1911: Birthdate of Bernardo Segall, the native of Campinas Brazil who became a popular American composer and pianist.

    1911: Samuel Oppenheimer was elected professor of Astronomy at the University of Vienna.

    1912: Birthdate of Raoul Wallenberg, one of the truly great, brave people of history. A Swede, Wallenberg risked his life by going to Hungary in 1944 and literally yanking thousands of Jews from the jaws of death. He disappeared into the hands of the Red Army when it liberated Budapest. Some claim that he passed away in a Soviet prison in 1947. But nobody really knows what happened to him other than the fact the world did nothing to save him.  

    1911: Rabbi Israel I. Mattuck was “elected as the first minster of the Liberal Jewish Synagogue” in London.

    1912: In Donora, PA, founding of Congregation Ohab Sholom

    1912: Birthdate of historian Daniel Baruch Aaron.

    1912: In Trenton, NJ, founding of People of Truth Synagogue

    1912:  Birthdate of composer and writer David Raskin who wrote the scores for numerous films, many of which were famous in their day but now are only seen on TCM or other such venues.  Raskin was caught up in the Red Witch Hunt of the late 1940’s and 1950’s.  He was not a victim of the blacklist since he gave the investigators the one thing they wanted, the names of more people they could investigate. He passed away in 2004.

    1913(1stof Av, 5673): Rosh Chodesh Av (Unbeknownst to anybody, Europe is starting its last twelve months of peace.  A year from now WW I will have begun. To paraphrase one English statesmen, the lights of the world were about to go out and we do not know when they will come back on again.

    1914: After Great Britain had declared war on Germany at the start of World War I, Sir Edgar Speyer resigned as a partner in the Frankfort branch of his family’s banking business.   Speyer, the American born son of German parents had become a naturalized British citizen in 1892. Speyer would spend the war defending himself against charges of being disloyal and accusations that he was supporter/spy for Germany.  

    1914: “When war was declared” today, “the Jewish Chronicle front page headline proclaimed: “England has been all she could be to Jews; Jews will be all they can be to England” and as proof of that statement “within a year 10,000” Jews had signed up “including Lieutenant Frank De Pass, who was to become the first Jewish soldier awarded the Victoria Cross – and the very first soldier in the Indian Army to be awarded a VC.” (As reported by Lord Sterling, president of the Association of Jewish Ex-Servicemen and Women (AJEX))

    1914: Germany invades Belgium which forces Great Britain to declare war on Germany since the British are guarantors of Belgian independence and neutrality.  It was the invasion of Belgium that “sealed the deal” and turned the nascent European hostilities into World War I.  From the vantage point of the 21stcentury, we can see so many places where this war might have been avoided and all that flowed from it including the Shoah.  In other words, if the Germans had viewed treaties as more than “a scrap of paper” (the way one German leader reportedly described the treaty guaranteeing Belgium’s independence, six million Jews might not have been smoke and ashes.)

    1915: “On the Lower East Side of Manhattan, Max Schwartz, “a carpenter who sang in local choirs” and his wife Eva gave birth to Yitzhak Schwartz, the youngest of their six children who gained fame as pianist and band leader Irving Fields who “pioneered the melding of Cuban sound with Jewish rhythm via his Bagels and Bongos series in the 1950's to create a vibe which is equal parts Havana, Harlem, and the Catskills.”

    1915: It was reported today that among the ten thousand prisoners being held by the Germans in a camp “near the university town of Giesen in Upper House includes “Russian Jews.”

    1916: During the Battle of Romani, the last attempt by the Central Powers to cross the Suez, the Anzac Mounted Division engaged the German Pasha I formation and the Ottoman 3rd Infantry Division slowing their advance and giving other units of the British Army to mount a defense.

    1917(16th of Av, 5677): Shabbat Nachamu is observed for the first time after the U.S. began fighting in WW I.

    1917: “Late reports from the local exemption boards in all parts of New York tonight indicated that the 30,000 men for the National Army to be supplied by New York City,” a significant number of whom will be Jewish according to Benjamin Swartz, will be met by the end of this week.

    1918: Birthdate of Sidney Harman the Montreal native an audio pioneer who built the first high-fidelity stereo receiver, dabbled in education and government, and made a late-in-life splash by acquiring an antiquated Newsweek magazine and wedding it with a sassy young Web site, The Daily Beast…(As reported by Robert McFadden)

    1918: “An Allied force landed at Arkhangelsk, Russia, beginning a famous military expedition dubbed Operation Archangel with the professed objective of which was to prevent the German Empire from obtaining Allied military supplies stored in the region” but was really thought to be a way of thwarting the Bolshevik Revolution.

    1918: “Mrs. Moses Mielzner, he widow of the late Dr. Moses Mielziner, dean of the faculty of Hebrew Union College…celebrated her 80th birthday anniversary at the home of her son Benjamin Mielziner” where she was joined by “her son Leo Mielziner, the artist from New York City, her daughters Belle and Ernestine, the latter of whom is a Red Cross Nurse at Camp Sherman” but not by her son Rabbi Jacob Mielziner, the 1900 graduate of Hebrew Union College “who is ow living in Copenhagen” with his wife.

    1918: Corporal Adolf Hitler was award the Iron Cross, First class, based on the recommendation of his regimental adjutant, Captain Hugo Guttman who was Jewish.

    1918: In “East Side’s Patriotic Upheaval” published today, Richard Barry described the change in this predominately Jewish neighborhood from Socialism to American patriotism in the last six months.