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A collection of Jewish history and current Jewish events, in date format, updated daily in this Jewish history blog.

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    JUNE 10

    1190: During the Third Crusade Frederick I Barbarossa drowns in the Saleph River while leading an army to Jerusalem.  The German emperor was one of three monarchs leading the crusade.  The other two were Phillip Augustus of France and Richard the Lionhearted of England.  From the Jewish point of view, the untimely drowning was a great loss.  “For German Jewry, The Third Crusade could have raised havoc similar to the first.”  That it didn’t was a result of the foresight demonstrated by Frederick. “His timely order not to preach against the Jews, directed to monks and priests, helped, and his warnings to the Diet (Parliament) that anyone convicted of killing Jews would with his own life helped even more.  Local marshals dispersed surly mobs hovering around Jewish districts, and Frederick let it be known that anyone who inflicted injury on a Jew would have his hand chopped off.  At the emperor’s urging, bishops in his realm threatened people who attacked Jews with excommunication.  A Jewish chronicler, Ephraim ben-Jacob of Bonna, wrote, ‘Frederick defended us with all his might and enabled us to live among our enemies, so that no one harmed the Jews.’”

    1539: Pope Paul III sends out letters to his Bishops calling for a delay in the start of the Council of Trent, which would turn out to be one of the major conclaves in the history of the Catholic Church.  Pope Paul III is the Pope who is credited with starting a series of tribunals that became known as the Roman Inquisition or, more simply, The Inquisition. While the Inquisition was aimed at a variety of non-believers, over the centuries Jews, Marranos and Conversos suffered disproportionately under this scourge.

    1577: Pope Gregory XIII issued a warrant that “confirmed the statutes of the (Roman) Jewish community and permitted the collection of taxes.”

    1624: During the Dutch War for Independence France and the Netherlands sign the Treaty of Compiegne which enabled France to supply the Dutch with financial aid in their fight to gain independence from Spain. Since Protestant Holland’s victory over Catholic Spain was in the best interest of the Jews since the former had provided a safe haven and the latter followed a ruinous policy of anti-Semitism.

    1648: Start of the Cossacks ten year war with the Poles also known as the Chmielniki Uprising.  The Jews were caught between the Russian Orthodox Cossacks who hated the Roman Catholic Poles who had been occupying their land.  Jews had served as agents for the Polish nobles managing their lands and collecting the taxes.  For this, and the fact that they were Jews, the Cossack hated them.  At the same time, the Poles betrayed the Jews, in many instances turning them over to the Cossacks thinking that this would mollify the angry horde.  It didn't but from the Jews' point of view that really did not matter since they were killed regardless of what happened. In the ten tumultuous years that followed, over seven hundred Jewish communities were destroyed and between one hundred and five hundred thousand Jews lost their lives. The ensuing sense of helplessness contributed to the rise of the messianic movement which soon followed.

    1729(13th of Sivan): Rabbi Abraham ben David Yizhaki, author of Zera Abraham passed away

    1749 (7th Sivan 5509): Count Valentine Potocki is burned at the stake in Vilna. The count, along with his friend Zeremba, met an old Jew in a tavern and promised to convert if he could convince them of the preeminence of Judaism. Potoscki converted and eventually settled in Vilna. Zeremba hearing that his friend converted did likewise and moved to Eretz- Israel. His presence became known and he was put on trial for heresy when he refused to recant. His ashes were collected and buried in Vilna where the inscription on tomb read Abraham Ben Abraham Ger Zedek (a righteous proselyte). The Jews of Vilna would visit his grave and say Kaddish.

    1760 (26th of Sivan 5520): On the secular calendar, of Israel ben Eliezer passed away. Also known as the Baal Shem Tov he was the "founder" of the Chassidic Movement.  Born in 1700 in Lokop, Podolia and orphaned at a young age, he was raised by the Jewish community and spent much of his time alone in the nearby forests. After he married, he moved to the Carpathian Mountains and then to a small town where his wife set up an inn. At age thirty-six, he revealed himself to the community as a healer and a comforter. He received the name 'Baal Shem Tov' (Master of the Good Name) and was simply called the 'Besht'. His major philosophy consisted of worshipping G-d with joy and believing that simple prayers when uttered in earnest were more important that extreme intellectualization. The Besht believed that Tzaddikim, or righteous ones, were sent by G-d to guide the people. Though he left no writings of his own, he was immortalized by the often miraculous and magnified stories of his life as told by his closest followers.

    1760:Canadian businessman and political leader, Aaron Hart, became a member of the St. Paul's Lodge of Freemasons today “making him one of the first Jews in North America to become a Mason”

    1799(7thof Sivan, 5559): Last observance of Shavuot in the 18th century

    1815: “Prince Karl von Hardenberg, the Prussian representative to the Congress of Vienna, wrote an urgent request to the Senate of Lubeck to grant civil rights to its Jewish population.”

    1818(6th of Sivan 5578) Shavuot

    1827: Birthdate of Thomas W. Ferry, U.S. Senator from Michigan who would be the first President Pro Tempore of the United States Senate to attend the consecration of an orthodox synagogue in Washington, D.C.

    1829: Birthdate of Filosseno Luzzatto “an Italian Jewish scholar” who was the son of Samuel David Luzzatto.

    1837(7th of Sivan, 5597): Second Day of Shavuot

    1837(7th of Sivan): Rabbi Chaim Isaac Mussafia of Jerusalem, author of Chaim va Chesed passed away

    1846(16th of Sivan, 5606): Fifty-four year old Heimann Joseph Michael, the native of Hamburg who became a leading Hebrew bibliographer of the first half of the 19th century passed away. His impact outlived his death as can be seen by the fact that his seminal work Or ha-Hayyim which was edited by his son was published in Frankfort in 1891.

    1849: Birthdate of David Lubin the Polish born American merchant and agriculturalist who became Director of the International Society for the Colonization of Russian Jews in 1891.

    1852: In New York, a Jewish peddler was arrested today on charges of having stolen a watch valued at $30 from a resident of Newton.

    1859(8th of Sivan, 5619): Samuel Russell died today aboard the HMS Colossus from injuries he suffered when he fell from the main deck.  A resident of Sheerness, Russell was married to Yitta Russell.  Sun Street was renamed Russell Street in his honor.

    1860: In New York, Congregation B’nai Israel purchased additional land on the corner of Stanton and Forsyth Streets on which they were building a sanctuary that was consecrated in August of the same year.

    1867(7th of Sivan, 5627): Second Day of Shavuot

    1870: The New York Times reported that the fact that Sir Moses Montefiore has verified reports of the massacre of Jews in Romania has discredited claims that these attacks did not take place.

    1872: “The Russian Jews” published today described a paper on the Jews of northwestern Russia that was presented at a recent meeting of the Russian Geographical Society held at St. Petersburg.  The author of the paper divides the Jews into a variety of groups and sub-groups.  According to him the Jews belong to two major groupings which differ in regard to “religion and language.”  One group believes in the Talmud and speaks a “corrupt German dialectic.”  The second group, called the Karaites, “rejects the Talmud, are not even absolute believers in the Bible… “have their own traditions which have collected into a book” that “has the same authority over them as the Talmud has over other Jews”  and speak a language that “is of Tartar Origin.  The author goes on to divide the first group into two subgroups – the Mitnagdim and the Chasidim who are called “Jumpers” by the Russians because they leap from the ground when praying – and describes the differences in their respective views and practices.  Finally, the Jews are broken down into Four Groups that include “the worldly Jews,” “the devout” Jews, “the Germans” who are followers of Moses Mendelsohn and the “Epicureans” who reject all forms of Jewish custom and ceremony as well as the Talmud.

    1872:  “The Romanian Jews and the Reichstag”  published today reported that in May of this year  the German government has joined other European powers in responding to requests to help the Jews of Romania. The government announced that it could not interfere in the internal affairs of another country especially since none of those affected were German citizens. Germany reiterated the request of the other powers which had been made in February that persecution of the Jews stop.  The government also took credit for the release of some of the wrongfully convicted Jews. [Editor’s note- the issue of the treatment of Romania’s Jews is one that would agitate the European Powers and the United States during the last decades of the 19th century.]

    1872:  “The Israelites of Prussia” published today reported that “the Jewish questions” (the treatment of the Jews of Romania) is of special interest in Berlin because “trade and banking is mainly in the hands of the elect people.”  “The financial heads of the dispersed nation have make their power felt to get the other nations to act against Romania.“A Committee of the Alliance Israelite Universelle has been formed” in Berlin “as a standing council of war” that would destroy the value of Romanian bonds. “That is a strong measure, but one for which the Jews have the power.” [Editor’s Note – The view of the Jew as “the other” who is part of an international financial concern would grow along with other European stereotypes: International Communist Conspirator and impoverished shiftless vermin.]

    1872: The “Jewish University” published today reported that a Jewish university was opened at Berlin in May.  The Jewish community has been working on this project for several years and its opening is another example of the great strides made them in the Kaiser’s Empire.  The ceremony was attended only by Jewish officials but this should not be of any concern since there are plenty of Jews to attend the school.

    1875(7th of Sivan, 5635): Second Day of Shavuot

    1877: “A Jewish Suit For Divorce” published today described the adjudication of cause of action in Great Britain filed by an American Jew named Elias Isaacs naming his wife Deborah as respondent  and her lover, Bloc, as correspondent. The jury found that the respondent and co-respondent were guilty of damages but declined to assess damages because the petitioner had “conduced” (contributed to) his wife’s misconduct by separating from her for an extended period of time and not given her the protection one should expect in a marital relationship. [And  people think that Jews are dull and boring]

    1877:  “The Place of Wailing” published today reported that the picture which Jerusalem presents that longest haunts the memory is perhaps the spectacle of the Jews wailing before the ancient wall of their city.  There in full sunlight, bowed in every attitude of grief, their faces set against those gigantic blocks which reveal…their antiquity, a group of 30 to 40 Jews are seen, perhaps a little too much as in an opera, by a long line of cold-faced Europeans.  The two groups are in startling contrast. Everything in the one speaks of the orderly life, the suppression of feel, the formality of vesture, a colorless insipidity, the outcome of our modern conventional existence; the other shows us figures, for the most part, which might stepped froth from the pages of the Bible, some of the heads of such grandeur that they might be the descendents of prophets; maidens whose contrite aspect reminds one of Ruth and Esther, surrender themselves to a sorrow which reverberates through the ages and is the one true bond which connect the grand days of old with the present.

    1879: Today, the U.S. House of Representatives passed the point resolution reported by the Committee on Foreign Affairs in relation to treaty negotiations with Russia as to American Israelites.

    1880: Oliver Hazard Perry Belmont graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy.  Belmont was the son of August Belmont the Hessian Jew who came to the United States as a representative of the Rothschilds and built a fortune of his own.  The naval career might have seemed strange for the son of a Jews. But, his maternal grandfather Commodore Mathew Perry who commanded the naval expedition that opened trade with Japan and a maternal grand-uncle was Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry, the hero of the War of 1812.

    1880(1st of Tammuz, 5640: Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1882: Birthdate of John David Whiting, the native of Jerusalem who grew up in the American Colony and served as the U.S. Vice Counsul of Jerusalem from 1908 to 1910 and again from 1915 to 1917.

    1883(5th of Sivan, 5643): Sixty-three year old Baron Simon von Winterstein, Austrian businessman and member of the Imperial Council who also served as President of the Viennese Jewish Community passed away today.

    1883: It was reported today that soprano Sophia Neuberger will be accompanying violinist Camilla Urso on an extended concert tour.

    1886(7th of Sivan, 5646): Second Day of Shavuot

    1886: For the second day in a row, final exams are scheduled to be given on Shavuot at Philadelphia’s Central High School despite the requests of the city’s rabbis to make other arrangements.

    1890: It was reported today that the upcoming sixth annual graduation exercises for the students at the Hebrew Technical Institue will take place at the school which is located on Stuyvesant Street.

    1894(6th of Sivan, 5654): Shavuot

    1894: “No More New Plays To See” published today described the theatre season which has just come to the end including the fact that  Sidney Grundy has blamed the prejudice of the reviewers for the failure of his five act play, “An Old Jew.”  However, “anybody who reads the play will be likely to decide that it failed because it is a very bad play with a wildly-improbable plot and superabundance of talk.

    1894: As part of the increasingly aggressive campaign to convert Jews living in the United States, Reverend John Wilkinson, the English minister who leads the mission to convert English Jews, address the meeting of the American Hebrew Christian Mission Society.

    1894: Solomon Moses who has enjoyed a long association with the United Hebrew Charities is among those serving on the Tenement House Committee appointed the governor to examine conditions in this kind of dwelling in New York City.

    1895: It was reported today that there 475 girls enrolled in the Louis Down Town Sabbath and Daily Technical Schools which were founded by Mrs. A. H. Louis.

    1895(18th of Sivan, 5655): Forty-forty year old German born composer and conductor Martin Roder passed away in Boston where he had been serving as chairman of the vocal department in the New England Conservatory since 1892.

    1898: Rabbi H.P. Mendes of New York’s Spanish and Portuguese has been elected of the newly formed Orthodox Jewish Congregational Union of America which is made up of congregations from the United States and Canada.

    1898: “Minister Straus Honored” published today described “an informal reception” given by The Judeans Oscar S. Straus following his appointment as the U.S. Minister to Turkey.

    1898: The Jewish Chronicle carried a vivid account of an anti-Jewish riot in Jassy, Romania — a place that the paper decided was no longer safe for Jews

    1899: Louis Pearshall, Louis Stern, Isador Straus and Julia Richman are among the directors named to oversee the operations of the reconfigured Education Alliance.

    1899: Captain Alfred Dreyfus left French Guiana today on board the French cruiser Sfax.

    1899: As part of his ongoing “Jew-baiting crusade” Count Walter Puckler-Muskau gave a second lecture in Berlin today entitle “The Progressive Judaisation of Germany.

    1899: At Rodoph Shalom, Rabbi Rudolph Grossman delivered a sermon about the plight of Captain Dreyfus entitled “Justice.”

    1900: Anti-Semitic riots broke out at Tuchel, the West Prussian city that was the home of the famed pharmacologist and toxicologist Louis Lewin

    1901:  Birthdate of Austrian-born American composer, Frederic Lowe.  Lowe teamed with Alan Jay Lerner to create such hits as Brigadoon, Paint Your Wagon and My Fair Lady.

    1904: Theodor Kohn was forced to resign as an archbishop because he was born Jewish.  (Is this a reminder of the Inquisition or a harbinger of Nazi rules on race?)

    1905(7th of Sivan, 5665): Second Day of Shavuot

    1906: Sixty-three year old Mary Carinna Putnam Jacobi, an American suffragette and physician who was the widow of Dr. Abraham Jacobi, the pioneering Jewish pedestrian passed away.

    1907: The parents of Riva (Rebecca) Hillesum-Bernstein arrived in Amsterdam where they were re-united with their daughter and son.

    1908: Oliver Hazard Perry Belmont, the son of August Belmont, who inherited a fortune large enough when his father died to marry a Vanderbilt.  In an era of matrilineal Judaism, Belmont was not Jewish and he certainly was not considered to be one as he moved through the high society of his time. But he was August’s son and the enemies of August never let anybody forget about his Jewish antecedents.

    1909: First day of a two day conference held in New York that would create the youth organization known as Young Judaea.

    1910: Gustave Bauer, a banker from Madrid was elected, to the Spanish Parliament as the deputy for Corogna. He was the first Jew elected to public office since the expulsion in 1492.

    1911: Birthdate of Hans Herzl, son of Theodor Herzl.

    1915: In Lachine, Quebec, Lescha (née Gordin) and Abraham Bellows gave birth to Solomon Bellows who gained famed as author Sol Bellow whose famous works include  Herzog and Humboldt’s Gift and who won both the Pulitzer and the Nobel prizes.

    1916: Birthdate of William Rosenberg, founder of Dunkin Donuts.  Rosenberg opened his first Dunkin Donut shop in his native New England in 1950.  Not only was he a pioneer in this particular food genre, he was a pioneer in the franchise industry.  Rosenberg was an equine enthusiast and philanthropist.  By the time he died at the age of 86 he had given millions to several causes including Harvard Medical School where a chair was endowed in his honor.

    1916: “Degree of D.D., honoris causa” was conferred on Gotthard Deutsch by Hebrew Union College.

    1917: A column styled "Latest Publication" published today reported that copies of “The Russian Revolution” by Issac Don Levine and the “The Holy Scriptures,” a new English translation published by the Jewish Pubication Society were available in New York City.

    1917: In the United States, three hundred and thirty-five thousand people chose representatives for the first American Jewish Congress. The Congress would meet for the first time in 1918 under the leadership of Rabbi Stephen Wise. Founded to ameliorate the suffering from WW I, the Congress became an advocate for civil rights and civil liberties as well as seeing to it that the Jewish point of view was taken into consideration on the national political scene.  The organization is a staunch defender of the doctrine of separation of church and state and an ardent advocate for the state of Israel.

    1919: British economist William Cunningham passed away. Cunningham was the author of The Growth of English Industry and Commerce in which he described the status of Jews in medieval England.  “The Jews had no rights or status of their own; they were the mere chattles of the King; all that they had was his.  In this lay their security from popular violence: but it was a security for which they had to pay dearly.  Their transactions were all registered in the Exchequer.”  This meant that the debts due to Jewish money lenders were really due to the king.  And since Christians could not lend money interest, the English king “had indirectly a monopoly on money-lending” in his realm.

    1923: In Slatinské Doly, Mechel Hoch and Hannah Slomowitz gave birth to Ján Ludvík Hyman Binyamin Hoch who gained fame as British media mogul Ian Robert Maxwell.

    1923: Cornerstone laying ceremony for the New Hebrew Home for the aged at 1125 Spring Road, NW in Washington, DC.

    1925: In Boston, MA, Lena (Katzenberg) and Simon Hentoff historian and author Nat Hentoff

    1926: Rabbi Maurice Maser became Director of the Hebrew Home for the Aged in Washington, DC.

    1926: Socialist Congressman and champion of the underdog Meyer London was buried today at Mt. Carmel Cemetery in Queens following a funeral that included a procession of 50,000 mourners and half a million on-lookers.  London may have the distinction of being the only Socialist who was condemned as an anti-American radical to have a United States naval vessel named in his honor. The U.S.S. Meyer London, one the famed fleet of Liberty ships, was launched in 1943 and was sunk by an enemy torpedo off the coast of Libya in 1944.

    1928: In Philadelphia, Betty and Rabbi Simon Greenberg, the future vice chancellor of JTS gave birth to Moshe Greenberg, “one of the most influential Jewish biblical scholars of the 20th century.”

    1928: In Brooklyn, Polish Jewish immigrants Sadie (née Schindler) and Philip Sendak, a dressmaker gave birth to Maurice Sendak, author of Where the Wild Things Are.

    1932: In Brooklyn, Morris and Evelyn (Bayer) Ginsburg gave birth to Martin David Ginsberg Georgetown University Law Professor and famed tax attorney.

    1932(6th of Sivan, 5692):  Shavuot

    1933: President Roosevelt submitted the name of Dr. William E. Dodd to serve as Ambassador to Germany and the Senate voted to confirm the nomination.  Dodd served with distinction, but much to his dismay was unable to convince the State Department and others of the dangers presented by the rise of the Nazis.

    1933: Joe T. Robinson of Arkansas, the Democratic majority leader, gave a speech on the floor the U.S. Senate strongly condemning the persecution of the Jews in Germany.  He described what was going on in Germany as “sickening and terrifying.”  As the Senate’s leading Democrat, Senator Robinson often serves as the unofficial spokesman for the administration.  Jesse Metcalf, the Republican Senator from Rhode Island joined in the condemnation saying that “a violation of religious freedom in any part of the world is a blow at” American ideals. Senator Robert Wagner of New York expressed his “horror at the resorts of inteolerance, discrimination and violence.”  Wagner’s condemnation carried additional weight since he was born in Germany and grew up there.Senator Royal Copeland spoke approvingly of Jews as a group, endorsed the comments of Senator Robinson but expressed the view that the German people were not responsible but rather they were “under a power over which they have no control.” [An early version of “the Germans are not Nazis” argument]

    1934(27th of Sivan, 5694): Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky passed away. He “was a Soviet developmental psychologist whose work received widespread recognition in the Western world around the 1960s. According to Vygotsky, the intellectual development of children is a function of human communities, rather than of individuals.”

    1936: The Palestine Post reported that two Arabs died and 26 Arabs and Armenians were injured by a bomb which exploded inside the Jaffa Gate on June 8.

    1936: The Palestine Post reported that Mr. Ormsby Gore, the colonial secretary, told the House of Commons in London that the Palestine government was taking all possible action to protect life, property and communications in the country. The Palestine government was granted further emergency powers under the Palestine (Defense) Order in Council of 1931.

    1936: “Five Arabs were seriously wounded today in as part of a round of disorder such as have become typical of the Arab anti-Jewish campaign In Palestine.”  As the Arab uprising continued, “Jerusalem was again cut off from the rest of Palestine and the world in general when telephone and telegraph lines were severed” supposedly by Arab vandals.

    1938: L'Osservatore Romano, the official Vatican newspaper, publishes an article by Jesuit priest Father Enrico Rosa on the violent anti-Semitism in Germany

    1940: As the Nazi Blitz of the Low Countries and France was reaching a successful climax Italy under Mussolini, entered World War II on the side of the Germans. Italy's attack on France was described by Churchill as the hand that has held the dagger has now struck it in the back. This move by Mussolini would ultimately imperil the Italian Jewish Community, resulting in deportation and death later in the war.

    1940: The French government departed Paris as the German armies swept forward.  Soon an Armistice would be signed dividing control of France between Nazi occupation and the pro-Nazi Vichy Government.  Jews would be at peril in both places.

    1940: As two million Parisians flee the City of Light, Hans and Margaret Rey find themselves trapped in a city that the French government has declared “an open city.”  This declaration means that unlike Warsaw, London, etc. Paris will be the one major city not bombed by the Nazis. This marks the beginning of strangely cordial relationship between the Nazis and the French which bodes ill for the Jews trapped in France including Hans Rey, the creator of Curious George and his wife Margaret.

    1942: Polish actor and director August Kowalczyk escaped from Auschwitz.

    1942:Today, during the siege of Bir Hakeim, part of the battle being fought against Rommel in North Africa, the British campaign headquarters of the British 8th Army issued an order to retreat. By then The Jewish Company, a volunteer unit that had consisted of 400 men at the start of the fight, had lost 75% of its men as they fought to delay Rommel's offensive for 10 days.

    1942: Thousands of Jews were sent from Prague to ‘an unknown destination in the East' in cattle cars. The destination was Belzec, the site of their murder. The Jews of Biala Podlaska were sent to Sobibor.

    1942:Jews gathered on the west bank of the Dniestr River before their deportation to Transnistria on the east bank of the river

    1943: Birthdate of television news personality Jeff Greenfield.

    1943(7thof Sivan, 5703): Second Day of Shavuot

    1943(7thof Sivan, 5703): Fifty-two year old Louis Bookman the native of Lithuania who gained fame as a cricketer and footballer for his adopted home – Ireland – passed away today.

    1944(19th of Sivan, 5704): In the French village of Oradour-sur-Glane, Germans kill 642 residents as revenge for the killing of an SS officer by a Resistance sniper. Women and children are burned alive in a church and the men are machine-gunned. Of the 642 victims, seven are Jewish refugees who had escaped deportation to Auschwitz by living with sympathetic Oradour-sur-Glane villagers. Included among the dead is eight-year-old Serge Bergman.

    1944: Reszoe (Rudolf) Kasztner, head of the Aid and Rescue Committee known as Va’adah chose “388 members of his own extended family, as well as groups of family friends” to serve as a selected groups of Jews that will be allowed to leave Hungary as a token of German “good faith” during the negotiations with Eichmann and Himmler that are being conducted by Joel Brand.

    1944: Joel Brand who was being held by the British was allowed to speak with Moshe Shertok the head of the Jewish Agency’s Political Department about the deal the Nazis were offering “trade Jews for trucks.”

    1945: In Italy, refugees in the Bericah Movement were photographed with soldiers from Palestine.

    1948: Syrian forces over-ran Mishmar Ha-Yarden a Jewish settlement on the west bank of the Jordan River.  The Syrians had every advantage including control of the air, tanks and a full array of artillery.  Realizing the desperate nature of their situation, the Jewish settlers sent the women and children away.  The few surviving defenders were taken to Damascus.  The Syrians called the victory Faith-Allah (the Capture of God).  After the war, the Jews rebuilt Mishmar Ha-Yarden a mile from the original kibbutz.  The ruins of the original settlement were left as a memorial to those who fought and fell in the fight to create a Jewish home. This was one of the last military actions before the first truce between the Israelis and the Arabs which was slated to start on June 11.

    1948: The Negev Brigade attacked the Egyptian-held police fort of Iraq Suwaydan but were driven off in defeat.

    1951(6th of Sivan, 5711): Shavuot

    1955: Following its New York City premiere last month, “Love Me or Leave Me” directed by Charles Vidor and produced by Joe Pasternak was released in theatres across the United States today.

    1959: In the Bronx Anne (née Goldhaber), an English literature professor, and Bernard Spitzer, a real estate mogul gave birth to Eliot Spitzer New York State’s Attorney General, Governor and talking television head for cable news.

    1960(15th of Sivan, 5720): Charles Joseph Singer, distinguished “British historian of science, technology and medicine passed away.  He was the son of Simeon Singer, the Rabbi of London’s West End Synagogue who translated the Authorized Daily Prayer Book into English. He was the husband of Dorothea Waley Cohen, who in a manner unusual for her time was a leading historian of the Medieval Period.  There is no way that this blog can do justice to Singer’s long and distinguished career.

    1962: Birthdate of actress Gina Gershwin

    1966: Birthdate of Gina Bellman, “a New Zealand-born British actress.”

    1967: As of today, Syria had lost approximately 100 combat aircraft.

    1967: At 6:30 p.m. a cease-fire went into effect on the Golan Heights effectively ending the Six Day War. There was no Arab military force that could have kept the Israelis from taking Cairo, Damascus or Amman. But as Yitzchak Rabin pointed out, the Israelis had not gone to war to cease territory. They had gone to war only after all diplomatic efforts had failed and they were faced with the choice of fighting or facing extinction. In a week’s time they had changed the map of the Middle East. The forces facing them were not "tin men." Contrary to some of the comments made by the ill informed, the Arabs had fought hard and the IDF had suffered the casualties to prove it. The fact was that in a week Israel had gone from a nation with a noose around its neck to being victors who had reclaimed Jerusalem, seized the Golan Heights from which the Syrians had shelled Israeli farmers for almost two decades and occupied a swath of land from the Jordan River to the Suez Canal. In the weeks prior to the war, Israel had been subjected to constant shelling from the Golan Heights and blockading by Egypt of the Straits of Tiran (Israel's only southern sea outlet). Once the UN observer forces left the Sinai at Egypt's behest the stage was set for war. Within a few days, the entire Sinai was in Israel's hands, and despite being warned not to interfere, Jordan shelled Jerusalem opening that front as well. This battle led to the capture of the West Bank and the unification of Jerusalem. On the Syrian front, Israel succeeded in pushing the Syrians back to Kunetra and taking part of the Hermon range. In fewer then six days, Israel had routed all three of its neighbors losing over 700 men and having over 2,500 wounded. More than 400 Arab planes and 500 tanks were destroyed. The UN Security Council rejected a Soviet call for an unconditional pullback to the "green line".

    1970(6th of Sivan, 5730): Shavuot

    1976: The Jerusalem Post reported that the Knesset approved the Ben-Gurion Memorial Bill on its first reading. The memorial covered Ben-Gurion's home in Tel Aviv, the Institute for the Legacy of Ben-Gurion at Kibbutz Sde Boker and the Desert Institute in the Negev. There was a threat that Egged buses would grind to a halt as the cooperative was unable to pay its fuel suppliers to whom it owed IL 4m., in addition to millions it owed to suppliers of other equipment. The Ministry of Transport insisted that if the cooperative wished to obtain the IL 200m.government-guaranteed loan, it would have to deduct IL 300 per month from its members' salaries. But following the ministry's order to carry soldiers free, Egged reneged on this agreement.

    1976(12th of Sivan, 5736): Adolph Zukor, founder of Paramount Studios and one Hollywood’s early movie moguls passed away at the age of 103.

    1977: “Ford Honored” published today described President Gerald Ford’s speech condemning terrorism which he deliver at a dinner that was “raising funds for scholarships” for those attending Hebrew University.

    1982: Units of the Golani Brigad and the Barak Armored Brigade finished the fighting that resulted in the capture of two villages on the outskirts of Beiruit.

    1986: Khaled Ahmed Nazal, Secretary-General of the PLO's DFLP faction, was gunned down outside a hotel in Athens, Greece

    1994(1st of Tammuz, 5754): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1996: Publication of Tim Janof’s “Conversation with Janos Starker.”

    1998: In “King of Simon Says Is Up to His Old Games,” Joyce Walder described the career of 77 year old tumbler Allan Tresser.

    1999: In Baltimore, Maryland, Anshe-Emunah-Aitz Chaim-Tifereth Israel voted to merge with Moses Montifore Emunath Israel-Woodmoor Hebrew Congregation.

    2000(7th of Sivan, 5760): Second Day of Shavuot

    2001: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Skeptical Music:Essays on Modern Poetry by David Bromwich and Dance with Demons:The Life of Jerome Robbins by Greg Lawrence.

    2002: President Bush welcomed Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon to the White House.

    2003: “Wicked,” a Stephen Schwartz musical began its pre-Broadway run at the Curran Theatre in San Francisco.

    2004: Ambassador Earle I. Mack presented his credentials to the President of Finland, Tarja Halonen.

    2004:Effi Eitamand Yitzhak Levy quit the government to protest the plan to leave Gaza.

    2004: Tzipi Livini succeeded Effit Eitam as Minister of Housing and Construction.

    2005:Major General Yiftach Ron-Tal took command of Modash, the Field Intelligence Corps.

    2005: In a letter to the editor of Haaretz published today, “Avraham Cykiert of Mulgrave, Australia claimed to have ghost written” Caged, the memoirs of Warsaw Ghetto warrior David Landau “and said that Landau's daughter had "doctored" his manuscript.

    2006:  Bat Mitzvah of Gail Barnum, daughter of Amy and Joel Barnum.

    2007: In “Adjusted Income” published today, Daniel Handler described what it is like to have lots of money made by writing children’s books.

    2007: At Temple Judah, In Cedar Rapids, Iowa, Dr. Howard Lenhoff describes a real and modern exodus--the rescue of Ethiopian Jews and their deliverance to Israel. Dr. Lenhoff, a graduate of Coe College and a distinguished biologist at the University of California (Irvine), was instrumental in this rescue. He is the author of author of, Black Jews, Jews, and Other Heroes. How Grassroots Activism Led to the Rescue of the Ethiopian Jews

    2007: Annual Temple Judah Congregational Meeting in Cedar Rapids, Iowa.

    2007: The Sunday New York Times book section featured a review of Sylvia and The Collected Stories two works by the late Jewish author Leonard Michaels.

    2007: Norman Finkelstein, who gained famed for his controversial comments about the Holocaust, has been denied tenure by De Paul University

    2007: The Sunday Washington Post book section featured a review of 1967: Israel, the War and the Year That Transformed the Middle East by Tom Segev.

    2007:  The Sunday Chicago Tribune featured an article entitled “Facing a grim reality in Austrian Town” which tells of how beneath the quiet homes and neat hedges of Gusen, lie the remains of a Nazi concentration camp. Ironically, Mauthausen is only four miles away and it is preserved as a monument the victims of the Holocaust.  At Gusen, the citizens actually live in buildings left from the camp.  Christopher Mayer, a 32 year old artist has designed an audio tour for visitors  to hear the recollections of survivors.

    2007:Today, the Great Synagogue’s emeritus Rabbi, Raymond Apple, was confirmed as the keynote speaker for the International Council of Christians and Jews’ (ICCJ’s) 2007 conference in Sydney to be held in July.

    2007: Ronald Lauder was elected President of the World Jewish Congress today defeating the South African businessman Mendel Kaplan and Einat Wilf of Israel

    2008(7th of Sivan, 5768): Second Day Shavuot

    2008: Ninety percent of the Israeli public thinks that the country is tainted with corruption and over half say that corruptibility is a necessary to prerequisite to success in the political sphere, according to the Israeli Democracy Institute’s (IDI) annual Democracy Index which was submitted to President Shimon Peres.

    2008: Samuel Israel III’s GMC Envoy was found abandoned on the Bear Mountain Bridge today a day after he failed to report to prison.

    2009: Release date for “Jaffa” the film whose Hebrew name is Kalat Hayam (The Bride of the Sea)

    2009:Simon Schama, a professor of art history at Columbia University and a cultural critic for the New Yorker magazine, discusses and signs his new book, The American Future: A History at Politics and Prose in Washington, D.C.

    2009: The Hebrew Book Fair opens at Rabin Square in Tel Aviv.As part of the Book Fair events, the Centennial Year Administration will launch 4 new books dedicated to Tel Aviv – Yafo. These four volumes, selected from 50 candidates include: A Crane Points to the Sea– A poetry book by Gilad Cahane, The Sarona Templar Colony at Times of Struggle by Nir Mann, A City with a Concept: 100 Years of Urban Planning in Tel Aviv by Natty Marom and The Lost Children: Mandatory Tel Aviv's Back Yard by Dr. Tami Razi

    2009: The RSX European Open Windsurfing Championship begins at Tel Aviv’s Gordon Beach.

    2009: Ken “Feinberg was appointed by the U.S. Treasury Department to oversee the compensation of top executives at companies which have received federal bailout assistance.”

    2009:An American white supremacist opened fire at the US Holocaust Memorial Museum today killing a security guard before being shot himself, according to initial reports. The shooter was named as James Von Brunn by a law enforcement official, pending confirmation and speaking on condition of anonymity, who noted that his car had been found near the museum. Both Von Brunn and the unnamed security officer were rushed to hospital following the shootout, which took place at midday. Von Brunn was described by officials as in "grave condition." A Washington Fire Department spokesman said that a third person had been lightly wounded in the exchange, in which two officers fired back at the assailant. Following the attack, President Barack Obama reacted with shock, saying that the act demonstrated the need to fight anti-Semitism. "I am shocked and saddened by today's shooting at the US Holocaust Memorial Museum," he said in a statement. "This outrageous act reminds us that we must remain vigilant against anti-Semitism and prejudice in all its forms. No American institution is more important to this effort than the Holocaust Museum, and no act of violence will diminish our determination to honor those who were lost by building a more peaceful and tolerant world. "Today, we have lost a courageous security guard who stood watch at this place of solemn remembrance," the statement continued. "My thoughts and prayers are with his family and friends in this painful time." Bystanders described a scene of fear and chaos as they heard security officers yell at hundreds of students, tourists and museum staff to flee the premises. Public safety officers then secured the perimeter and cut off vehicles from the site. FBI agents are helping with the investigation, as authorities said they were checking for possible terror connections. Washington Police Chief Kathy Lanier said the police had received no information or threats that such an attack was in the offing. She refused to confirm that Von Brunn was the lead suspect during a press conference following the shooting. Von Brunn is a well-known white supremacist, Mark Potok of the Southern Poverty Law Center told CNN, referring to a Web site and publications he produced over several years in which he has "raged" against Jews and blacks. He noted that Von Brunn had been arrested in the past in connection to hate crimes. But some of the witnesses to today’s shooting said they didn't believe the shooter to be elderly, though Von Brunn is in his late 80s. However, they also noted that they found themselves amid chaos and confusion as museum-goers tried to figure out what to do. "People were running as fast as they could... People were on the floor," said 19-year-old Maria Hernandez, who heard the shots and saw blood covering the ground. "It was just chaos everywhere." She also heard this "very angry yell" coming from the perpetrator, while the guards were telling him to drop his weapon and get down on the floor. Karen Unruh, who was waiting in line with her two grandsons when the shooting started, heard a "bang, bang, bang" and worried that they would be the next victims, so "we just hit the floor." Standing among the throng of reporters and curious tourists outside the museum following the attack, she expressed shock at what happened. "I just can't believe this is happening to us in America." Ora Mois, who was visiting Washington from Kfar Saba, also couldn't believe that she found herself amid such violence in the US. "In Israel, we've gotten used to this, but here? It's the American dream, to come here, to travel, but not like this." But her brother Moti Shair said he wasn't surprised. "People are looking for Jews, wherever they are, to make a point," he said. "It's terrible. It reminds me of some sad memories from the past. They're still looking for Jewish targets." Several Jewish and Israel groups expressed alarm at the news. "We are shocked and saddened by today's shooting incident at the US Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington. The Embassy of Israel condemns this attack and is closely following the situation," the embassy said in a statement. Strategic Affairs Minister Moshe Ya'alon, who was concluding a two-day visit to Washington, was not believed to be in the area, as a visit to the museum was not on his itinerary. The Holocaust Museum also put out a statement emphasizing its concern for the injured security officer, before he passed away. "Our thoughts and prayers go out to the officer and his family," it read. The statement indicated the facility was expected to reopen Thursday. US President Barack Obama was saddened by the shooting at the museum, which is near the White House, a spokesman said. In Jerusalem, Diaspora Affairs Minister Yuli Edelstein said, "This evening's incident is, regrettably, yet another proof that anti-Semitism and Holocaust denial are still alive and well. Israel must fight these phenomena in the domestic arena, in the international arena, in the legal arena, in academia and in the media, and must demand that the rest of the world say 'No!' to incidents such as this." The Yad Vashem Holocaust Memorial expressed shock at the "appalling" shooting attack on the US Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington. Yad Vashem spokeswoman Iris Rosenberg said in a statement that "the museum, in addition to being a memorial to the victims of the Holocaust, is dedicated to educating against this kind of hate. His target makes this shooting that much more heinous." Yad Vashem Chairman Avner Shalev spoke to the Washington museum's Director Sara Bloomfield to express support, and deep empathy, to her and all the museum staff. The shooting was also condemned by the chief Nazi hunter of the Los Angeles-based Simon Wiesenthal Center. "On many levels it is a very symbolic target, and it is not surprising that someone who espouses White supremacy would want to attack an institution like that, since Holocaust museums are the antithesis of this person's racist ideology and anti-Semitism," said Dr. Efraim Zuroff, the organization's Israel director. He noted that the fact that the suspected shooter is 89 years old reinforces the organization's view that in terms of bringing Nazi war criminals to justice, age is not an issue. He added that the Wiesenthal Center in California has been the target of threats and violence, as well as actual property destruction.

    2010: Grammy Award-winners Susan McKeown and Lorin Sklamberg are scheduled to present Saints & Tzadiks, a project celebrating Yiddish and Irish song at the Washington Jewish Music Festival.

    2010:Inbal Pinto and Avshalom Pollak Dance Company is scheduled to perform “Oyster at Spoleto Festival USA in Charleston, South Carolina.

    2010: Israeli writer and peace activist David Grossman has been named winner of the 2010 Peace Prize by the German association of publishers and booksellers.Grossman, 56, is author of The Yellow Wind, a non-fiction work that examined the lives of the Palestinians, and To the End of the Land, a novel that examines the cost of war
    2011: The CSI Milwaukee Directors Seminar sponsored by the Coalition for Jewish Learning is scheduled to take place at the CJL in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

    2011:An award winning solo piece by Israeli based Idan Cohen - "My Sweet Little Fur" is scheduled to be performed by Ran Ben-Dror on the third night of Contemporary Israeli Dance Week.

    2011:Police entered a sensitive Jerusalem holy site to disperse Palestinian protesters who were hurling stones today. The scene of today's violence was the Old City compound known to Jews as the Temple Mount and to Muslims as the Noble Sanctuary.

    2011(8th of Sivan, 5771): Eighty-five year old Norman Redlich, a leading member of the New York bar and the Dean of New York University Law School passed away.  (As reported by Paul Vitello)

    2011(8th of Sivan, 5771):Adolph William ("Al") Schwimmer, founder of Israel Aircraft Industries and winner of the Israel Prize died today at Tel Hashomer hospital on his 94th birthday. Schwimmer, an American citizen born in New York, was convicted in 1950 of violating the Neutrality Act for smuggling planes to Israel during the 1948 War of Independence. He was stripped of his civil rights, but not imprisoned. The American Jew was able to covertly bring the aircrafts to Israel by establishing false companies, one of which was purportedly the official airline of Panama. Schwimmer was in the Air Transport Command in World War II, providing him with many contacts that were pilots and in the airplane industry. He was able to use his contacts to transport the planes to Israel. Schwimmer was pardoned in 2001 by then outgoing U.S. President Bill Clinton. The pardon was awarded without any formal request from Schwimmer. In an interview with the Jerusalem Report in 2001, Schwimmer said he never applied for a pardon, calling it is a "complicated process". The expatriate added that "you have to express regret for what you did, and I didn't feel that way." However, the eldest son of Hank Greenspun, a close friend of Schwimmer's who worked with him when he was smuggling arms into Israel during the Independence War, is an attorney and a friend of Clinton. The younger Greenspun sent all the paperwork to the Justice Department and told Schwimmer, "I'm not asking you. I'm telling you, I sent in your application for a pardon." After the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, Schwimmer joined the nascent Israel Air Force, after which he established an aircraft company that evolved to become the Israel Aircraft Industries during the 50's. Schwimmer ran the aircraft company for over 20 years, during which he became close with current President Shimon Peres. After disagreements with former Defense Ministers Moshe Dayan and Ezer Weizman, Schwimmer left Israel Aircradt Industries, becoming a "special adviser" for the Israeli government for which he was paid a symbolic one shekel a year. Schwimmer was awarded the Israel Prize for his contributions to Israeli society in 2006.

    2011: Congressman Anthony Weiner acknowledged he had exchanged at least five private messages on Twitter with a 17-year-old Delaware girl, but indicated that the messages were “neither explicit nor indecent.”  

    2012: 45th anniversary of the end of the “Six Days War.”  The Jews of the world gave a collective sigh of relief.  David had defeated a really big Goliath.  On June 5 when the war started the deck was stacked against Israel’s survival.  Not only were they facing an Arab alliance with a massive military, they were, in effect, facing the Soviets who were dedicated to the victory of their Moslem client states.  When the first reports of Arab claims about having inflicted  heavy losses on the Israelis, people were really scared.  Remember, this was in the days before the internet, etc. so communication from the battlefield was a dicey thing at best.  By the time the war was over, there were plenty of American Jews who had been ambivalent about Israel who know took great pride in the Jewish state and became active supporters.  Despite what the revisionists might write today, that victory not only saved Israel, it created a whole new positive feeling that many Jews (and non-Jews) had about being Jewish. 

    2012: As Temple Judah continues to celebrate the 90thanniversary of its founding the co-presidents of the congregation are scheduled to cook BBQ before tonight’s annual congregational meeting. 

    2012: David Broza is scheduled to perform at Israeli-American Night part of the Music Under the Stars program at Eisenhower Park.

    2012: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including A Difficult Woman: The Challenging Life and Times of Lillian Hellman by Alice Kessler-Harris

    2012: Greater Chicago Jewish Festival is scheduled to take place at St. Paul Woods in Morton Grove, Il

    2012:With his mind clearly on the dangers of a violent confrontation with settlers over the looming evacuation of the Ulpana outpost, Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu spoke at the annual Altalena memorial today about two principles enshrined by Menachem Begin: the supremacy of the rule of law and no civil war under any circumstance. (As reported by Herb Keinon)

    2012(20th of Sivan, 5772): Eight-two year old beach volleyball player and pioneer Gene Sleznick passed away today. (As reported by Baxter Holmes)

    2013: The Jewish Community Center of Northern Virginia is scheduled to host Yaacov Fisher who will speak on “The State of Israel’s Economy: Challenges Amidst Growth.”

    2013: The U.S. government has recovered 400 pages from the long-lost diary of Alfred Rosenberg, a confidant of Adolf Hitler who played a central role in the extermination of millions of Jews and others during World War Two. (As reported by Haaretz and Reuters)

    2013: As the fighting in Syria intensifies, the Lebanese newspaper Al-Akhbar President Bashar Assad has issued a strong warning to Israel saying that he is completely serious in opening up the Golan front against Israel (As reported by Ariel Ben Solomon)

     2013: Today Knesset Economics Committee Chairman Avishai Braverman…threw his support behind Bank of Israel Deputy Governor Karnit Flug to replace her boss, outgoing governor Stanley Fishcher (As reported by Niv Elis)

    2014: A “dialogue between Rabbi Adin Even-Israel Steinsaltz and the Honorable Antonin Scalia is scheduled to take place at the Museum of Jewish Heritage.”

    2014:Adam Phillips, one of the world's foremost authorities on Freud, is scheduled to join novelist and critic Daphne Merkin for a discussion of Phillips' new biography of the father of psychoanalysis at the 92nd Street Y.

    2014: The Center for Jewish History is scheduled to host “My Father’s Paradise: A Son’s Search for His Family’s Past” by Ariel Sabar.

    2014: Rabbi Marc Schneier, founder and president of the Foundation for Ethnic Understanding and founding rabbi of The Hampton Synagogue and Imam Shamsi Ali, the spiritual leader of two Muslim congregations, the Jamaica Muslim Center, New York City's largest Islamic center and Al-Hikmah Mosque are scheduled to participate in “Sons of Abraham: A candid conversation about the issues that divide and unite Jews and Muslims” at the Skirball Center.

    2014: Today, the Knesset chose year 74 year old Reuven Rivlin, a sabra born in Jerusalem whose career included three years as Speaker of the Knesset  to succeed Shimon Peres as President of Israel

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    JUNE 11

    1509:  Marriage of King Henry VIII of England and Katherine of Aragon. Before marrying Henry, the Spanish made him promise that he would never permit Jews to live in his Kingdom.  Henry agreed which was no big deal at the time since Jews had been officially banished from the realm for centuries.  In one of those ironic twists of history, Henry would rely on the book of Leviticus when seeking to divorce Katherine.  He sought support from Rabbis in Italy whose interpretation of the divine text might be different from the prelates in England.  The Italian Rabbis did not jump at the opportunity to bail out the English monarch since they had no desire of angering the “Bishop of Rome” who had power over their existence.

    1557: The reign of King John III of Portugal came to an end.  During his reign, John brought the Inquisition to Portugal and its colonies.  Since the Jews had been expelled from his realm the Inquisition was aimed at Conversos. Oddly enough, John met with David Reubeni in November 1525 where the King promised to supply him with ships and cannons.  The King recanted when he realize that it made sense to arming Jews while his Inquisition was hunting backsliding marranos.

    1590: The entire Jewish quarter of Posen which was built almost entirely of wood burned while the gentile population watched and pillaged. Fifteen people died and eighty scrolls were burned.

    1774: Jews in Algeria escape the attacks of the Spanish army.

    1777(6thof Sivan, 5537): Shavuot

    1807: Curacao businessman Moses Levy Maduro Peixotto landed in North America.  He would not be able to return to Curacao and settled in New York where he served as the Rabbi for Congregation Shearith Israel  

    1826(6thShavuot 5586): Shavuot

    1829: Birthdate of Alphonse Millaud, the nephew of French published and banker Moïse Polydore Millaud

    1834:Lewin Aron (`Libesch') Pinner, who served as a rabbi in Bombst and Wronke became a naturalized citizen of Posen under the terms of the Emancipation Act of 1834.

    1835: Congregation B'nai Israel laid the cornerstone for the first synagogue to be built in Cincinnati, Ohio. The congregation would hire Max Lilienthal as its Rabbi in June of 1855.

    1845(6thSivan, 5605): Shavuot

    1845: In Pikeln, Russian Empire, Rabbi Benjamin Rabinowitz and his wife gave birth to Elijah David Rabinowitz-Teomim, who served as Rosh Yeishiva of Mir before emigrating to Jerusalem in 1901.

    1847: The Jewish Chronicle reported that Maurice S. Mawson of Pernambuco had married Rose Phillips, the second daughter of Michael Phillips.  The bride was from Jersey and the wedding took place at St. Helier.

    1849: At the 14th meeting of The Free Sons of Israel, Noah Lodge Number 1, a constitution was adopted marking the real date from which the society began working as an effective organization.

    1852: “America’s Mail – Some Additional Items” published today included a copy of Lionel Rothschild’s “address to the independent electors of London” in which he thanked them for their twice electing him to the House of Commons even though he has been denied his right to take his seat in Parliament and soliciting their support in the upcoming election so that the will of the people will hold sway and he will finally be seated.

    1857: An article entitled "Moral and Religious," subtitled "Denominations in London," published today reports that according to Mr. Low's Handbook to Places of Worship London has 11 synagogues with 8,642 seats.

    1857: Today,Kehillat Anshe Ma'arab, the first Jewish congregation closed its original burial grounds which had been established by the now defunct Jewish Burial Ground Society and had the first burial in its new cemetery.

    1859: Prince Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, who served as Austria’s foreign minister for nearly forty years, passed away. Metternich’s dealings with Jews were as devious and Machiavellian as were his dealings with anybody else.  Metternich was careful not to pursue anti-Jewish policies that would offend the powerful Salomon Rothschild.  He did come to the defense of the Jews during the Damascus Blood Libel.  But Heinrich Graetz, the Jewish historian who lived during the Metternich Era, viewed him negatively saying that Metternich was prone to treat the Jews in a manner consistent with Maria Theresa rather than with the benevolence shown by Emperor Joseph II. During the Napoleonic era Metternich said of the Jews, “I fear that” they “will believe Napoleon to be their promised Messiah.”

    1859: A major silver strike known as the Comstock Lode is discovered in Nevada.  David H. Cohen was one of several who Jews worked “as ordinary muckers and miners” where they earned four dollars for spending 12 hours beneath the earth.  Adolph Sutro was a self-taught engineer who tried to bring modern technology to the mining operations.  This included the building of the Sutro Tunnel which a “passageway” designed to improve ventilation in the mines while providing an easier way to haul the ore and drain excess water.

    1859: Disraeli was replaced by his arch-rival William Gladstone as Chancellor of the Exchequer.

    1865(17thof Sivan, 5625): Elias Chaim Lindo, the nephew of Moses Mocatta who moved from St. Thomas to London in the 1830’s where he pursued a life of Jewish scholarship that included writing The History of the Jews of Spain and Portugal passed away today.

    1865:Frederick Knefler is mustered out of the Union Army with the rank of Brevet Brigadier General. He had joined the army in 1861 with the rank of Lieutenant.

    1868(21stof Sivan, 5628): Lazar Horowitz, the leading Orthodox Rabbi in Vienna who defended the historian Heinrich Graetz against charges of heresy and whose most famous work was “Yad Eleazar” passed away today.

    1870: The funeral of Mrs. D. Dinkelspiel, the wife of the Treasurer of the Hebrew Mutual Benefit Society is scheduled to be held this morning at Number 7, West 53rd St.

    1871: It was reported today that the Jewish Times has taken issue with criticism published in some Connecticut newspapers of the fact that a rabbi had been asked to lead the opening prayer at the state legislature.  The Times contended Protestant, Catholic or Jew could call upon the Divine to provide support for the legislators and that anybody who questioned that was neither a Christian nor a gentleman.

    1871: The Notes and News column reported on the efforts of Polish authorities to enforce the new Russian rules that require the Jews to give up their traditional garb and hairstyle – including the requirement that they shave their beards, cut off their side curls, give up their long coats and their short pants. The Jews are resisting the changes and the authorities are resorting to trickery and force to accomplish their goals.

    1871: Hatzofeh B’Eretz HaChadashah (The New Land Speculator) “the first Hebrew periodical in America published its first issue today in New York.”

    1872: “Jews versus Christians” published today described the efforts of various societies, many of which are located in England, to convert Jews. These efforts have met with “very limited success.”  Most Jews do not respond to these expensive attempts and the few that do “are of a sort whose private life and reputation does not render them very valuable acquisitions as citizens.”  The article continues with a repute of the attacks on the Jews of Smyrna and suggests that the money might be better spent teaching the Christians of Smyrna to behave like Christians.  The article concludes that considering the Christian violence in Smyrna, “people almost be excused for thinking that a liberal-minded Jew may easily be a better man than a Smyrna Christian.”

    1876: “Consecration of a Synagogue” published today described the services consecrating a new orthodox synagogue in Washington, DC which were attended by U.S. Grant, the President of the United States and the Speaker Pro Tempore of the U.S. Senate (Editor’s note: The article fails to name the Synagogue was Adas Israel which is still located in Washington, DC.)

    1876: Louis Raminsky, a Jew living on Mott Street was assaulted by Irishman named George Richardson who mistook him for a man named Rubenstein.

    1877(30th of Sivan, 5637): Rosh Chodesh Tamuz

    1878(10thof Sivan, 5638): Thirty-eight year old Lucien Levy passed away this afternoon.  Based on the note found with the body, he had committed suicide by taking strychnine.

    1879: “American Israelites in Russia” published today described the attempts of the U.S. House of Representatives to remedy an inequity when it came to Jews owing landing in Russia.  Under Russian law, Jews, including Jews who are citizens of the United States are not allowed to own land in Russia. British Jews are allowed to own land in Russia under a treaty that exists between those two countries.  The House wants the situation remedied since it amounts to discrimination again American citizens based on their religion; something which the legislators feel is intolerable.

    1881: Maruice Lippmann and Marie-Alexandrine-Henriette Dumas gave birth to French gold medal winning fencer Auguste-Alexandre Lippmann. 

    1881(14thof Sivan, 5641): British painter and engraver Solomon Alexander Hart, the son engraver and Hebrew teacher Samuel Hart passed away.  An observant Jew, “he was the first Jewish member of the Royal Academy in London.” “Among Hart's Jewish works are: "Hannah, the Mother of Samuel"; and "The Conference Between Manasseh ben Israel and Oliver Cromwell," which was bought by F. D. Mocatta, who subsequently presented it to Jews' College.”

    1881: It was reported today that there are 277,000 Jews living in Kiev; 155,000 in Kovno, 143,000 in Minsk; 119,000 in Vilna and 98,000 in Bessarabia.  The total Jewish population of Poland is reported to be 815,000.  Large communities of Jews can also be found in St. Petersburg and Moscow where they have been settling since the ban instituted by Nicholas I was overturned by his successors.

    1882: The New York Times published a review of Spinoza: A Novel by Berthold Auerbach which has been translated into English from the original German.

    1882: It was reported today that a dispatch from St. Petersburg states appointing Jews as Chief Surgeons in the Russian Army has been forbidden.

    1883(6thof Sivan, 5643): Shavuot

    1883: “Felix Adler and Israelites” published today described the belief of some Jewish leaders, including those who are friends of Felix Adler, that membership in his Ethical Cultural Society means that Jews have joined a group that is beyond the pale of the Jewish community.  Dr/ Solomon H. Sonneschein a leading rabbi in St. Louis has written an open letter published in the American Israelite that asks his friend Adler, “Are you still an Israelite, a disciple of Moses and the prophets, a standard bearer of God’s love and truth, as understood by reformed Judaism…or have you hopelessly abandoned the faith in which you were born and bred?”

    1885: It was reported today that a Jew named Solomon Ovitch has arrested for seditious practices at Kharkoff.

    1886(8th of Sivan, 5646): James Koppel Gutheim, who has been serving as Rabbi at Temple Sinai, the leading Reform congregation in New Orleans, passed away this evening in the Crescent City

    1887: Mrs. Abraham Bernstein, the wife of Jewish peddler living at Port Chester, found today that her husband was living in Glenville, Connecticut, with another woman. The towns are only a couple of miles apart.

    1887: Birthdate of Max Sievers, the chairman of the German Freethinkers League whose inability to get a visa while living in the United States in 1939 after having fled the Nazis meant he had to return to Europe where he was evening beheaded by the Germans.

    1888: In New York during trial being held in the Court of General Sessions, the defense attorney “spoke to the Jury as Christians and became very indignant” when held them that Jews do not believe “in the divinity or miracles of Christ.” He apparently forgot that five the jurors were Jewish.

    1891: In Berlin, an Associated Press correspondent met today with Herr Goldberg a prominent Jewish financer who is the Director of the International Bank in Berlin and serves as Consul General for Belgium

    1891: The first vice president and second vice president of the New York Life Insurance Company admitted today that Julio Merzbacher had not retired as the company’s Spanish-American because of ill health as previously announced but that he had left the company after his embezzlement of from $300,000 to $500,000 had been discovered.

    1893: The new Jewish cemetery on Long Island was dedicated today by the Mount Zion Association.

    1893: “A granite monument was unveiled today” in “memory of the late Moses Mehrbach” at Cypress Hills Cemetery.

    1893:In Atlantic City, N.J., dedication of the Jewish Seaside Home takes place. The home was the outgrowth of a project in which four cottages had been rented to provide a refuge designed to help improve the health of invalid mothers and their children. The cottages were purchased and converted into a thirty room institution which would meet the needs of these women and their offspring.

    1893: George Kennan will the guest of honor at dinner in London in honor of Colonel Goldsmid “who has just returned from organizing Hirsch colonies in Argentina

    1894(7th of Sivan, 5654): Second Day of Shavuot

    1895: S.K. Brown, the son of an Austrian rabbi was ordained as a Baptist minister in Camden, NJ.

    1897: The Jewish community in München protests against holding the Zionist congress in the city.

    1898: “London Literary Notes” published today includes a review of Jew, Gypsy and El Islam in which the author, the late Sir Richard Burton expresses his admiration for Mohammedanism but “abuses the Jews.”

    1898: “Mr. and Mrs. Bierman’s Garden Party” published today described the soiree given for more than 100 residents of the Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews who were served refreshments after enjoying musical selections played by the band from the Hebrew Orphan Asylum

    1898: “New Rabbis To Be Ordained” published today described the upcoming plans for the graduation exercises to be held at the Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati, Ohio.

    1899: “Dreyfus and Picquart” published today noted that Captain Dreyfus “has done nothing, absolutely nothing to become the center of all this fury except not have sold the military secrets of France.”  The real hero of affair is Major George Picquart, the Minister of War.

    1899: “Aid Asked for a Worthy Family” published today described the efforts of the United Hebrew Charities to raise $400 for a 35 year old man, his wife and four children.  “Through overwork, both the man and the wife have become chronic invalids” and the money would be used to help them open “a notion store” that would provide them with income and allow the family to stay together.

    1899: “In The Russian Capital” published today described the attack in Nicolaieff in which an unknown number of Jews have been killed or wounded. 

    1900: Birthdate of journalist, producer and broadcaster Lawrence E Spivak. Spivak was one of the creators, first producers and first moderators of Meet the Press. This was the original television news interview show. It was for its time because it put a major political or other such leader on television facing the unfiltered question of four members of the working press. In various formats, this program has survived for almost six decades. Spivak died in 1994.

    1901: In London Herzl attends a banquet at the Maccabaeans with Israel Zangwill and Sir Francis Montefiore and other influential and wealthy Jews. But the successes in London are merely social.

    1902(6th of Sivan, 5662): Shavuot

    1903: Leo Wise wrote a letter to Rabbi Zadok Kahn, the Chief Rabbi of France

    1906: As a prelude to the Bialystok Pogrom, “the Police Chief of Białystok, Derkacz, was murdered, most likely on the orders of the Russian commissar and fervent anti-Semite Szeremietiev. Derkacz, who was Polish, was known for his liberal sympathies and opposition to anti-Semitism; for this he was respected by both the Jewish Bund and the Polish Socialist Party. On a previous occasion, when Russian soldiers attacked Jews in the marketplace, Derkacz had sent in his policemen to put down the violence and had declared that a pogrom against the Jews would occur “only over his dead body”.

    1909: In New York, a two day conference that has created Young Judaea came to an end.

    1909(22nd of Sivan, 5669):Jacob Michailovitch Gordin “a Russian-born American playwright active in the early years of Yiddish theater” who “is known for introducing realism and naturalism into Yiddish theater” passed away.

    1912(26th of Sivan, 5672): Arthur L. Welsh passed away. Born in Kiev in 1881, Leibl Welcher, came to the United States with his father Abraham and mother Deborah at the age of 10 where he would become Arthur L. Welsh.  After trying a variety of careers, including a stint in the U.S. Navy, Welsh found his calling as test pilot with Orville and Wilbur Wright.  In 1912, the Wrights had sent Welsh to the U.S. Army Signal Corps in College Park, MD, to serve as a civilian test pilot for a new plane being developed for the War Department. On June 11, 1912, Welsh, accompanied by Signal Corps Lt. Leighton W. Hazelhurst, was attempting to complete final military tests of the Wright Model C airplane when the airplane buckled under its 450- pound load. Both men were killed instantly, the first-ever fatalities at College Park. Hap Arnold who gained fame as one of the most decorated leaders of the U.S. Army Air Force during World War II was one of his most famous students.

    1913(6th of Sivan, 5673): Shavuot

    1913: While fighting in the Philippine Islands against rebels resisting the American occupation, Private Louis C. Mosher “risked his life” so that he could “rescue a wounded soldier under enemy gunfire.” He was awarded the Medal of Honor for this rescue.

    1913: In the Bronx, Christian Steenberg, a Norwegian American and Sadie Mechanic who was Jewish gave birth to Risë Gus Steenberg who would gain fame as “Risë Stevens, the internationally renowned mezzo-soprano who had a 23-year career with the Metropolitan Opera, where she practically owned the role of Carmen during the 1940s and ’50s.” (As reported by Margalit Fox)

    1915: American ambassador to Turkey, Henry Morgenthau, received an honorary degree of LL.D. from University of Constantinople.

    1916: Djemal Pasha, military governor of Palestine for Ottoman Turkey, issued a warning to the Jewish settlers that the creation of future settlements would become more difficult. (This may have been in reaction to fact that a lot of the Zionists were Russians and the Turks assumed that they would make common cause with the Czar whose army they were fighting.)

    1916: The Federation of the Oriental Jews of America held its third annual meeting in New York.  Joseph Gedalecia served as President and Albert J. Amateau served as secretary. The 1000 member organization's purpose was the "Americanization and betterment of condition of Oriental Jews."

    1918: In Odessa, Ukraine, Rabbi Joseph J. Kaplan and Chava Lerner Kaplan gave birth to American philosopher Abraham Kaplan author of The Conduct of Inquiry.

    1920: Birthdate of Irving Howe. A graduate of CityCollegeand a veteran of World War II, Howe was a professor at CUNY, Brandeis and Stanford.  A noted editor of Yiddish literature who discovered the author Isaac Bashevis Singer for an English-speaking audience, his work includes A Treasury of Yiddish Poetry. His greatest popular acclaim came with the writing of World of Our Fathers.  He was a lifelong Socialist and was considered to be one of this country's most influential literary critics until his death in 1993.

    1921: Daniel Joseph Jaffé, the son of Martin Jaffé and a nephew of Sir Otto Jaffé, passed away. A noted waterworks consulting engineer, his most famous efforts were completed in China.  Evidence of his fame can be seen Hong Kong’s Jaffe Road which was named in his honor.

    1922: Prominent New York merchant Louis Stern arrived in Paris having crossed the Atlantic on board the SS Homeric.

    1922: In Mannville, Alberta, Canada, Max Goffman and Anne Goffman (née Averbach) gave birth to sociologist Erving Goffman,the 73rd president of the American Sociological Association

    1924: In Brooklyn Morris and Pauline Faust gave birth to high school guidance counselor and author Irvin Faust.

    1926: The Jewish Telegraphic Agency reported that “a concert hall will be erected in Tel Aviv through the efforts of Palestinian Jewish musicians as a commemoration of the 25th anniversary of the musical composer Engel.”

    1929: The British High Commissioner wrote to the Mufti defending the right of the Jews to ‘conduct their worship’ (at the Western Wall) as in the past.

    1932(7th of Sivan, 5692): Second Day of Shavuot

    1933: The New York Times reported that the German government “is digging through the backgrounds of over 350,000 civil servants to find out who is of ‘Jewish extraction’ and thus ‘liable to dismissal.’”

    1933:The Jewish organizations of Silesia hold a conference to discuss the safeguarding of rights of German Jews.”

    1934: Birthdate of Murray Wolfe, successful businessman, playwright, poet, Yiddishist, and, most important of all, a first class mensch. If you did not know that Murray was a real person, you would think his life story was one of those big historic novels written Leon Uris.

    1934(28th of Sivan, 5694): Lev Semenovich Vygotsky a developmental psychologist known for his socio-cultural perspective passed away. Born into a middle-class Jewish family in Orsha, Russia in 1896, Vygotsky's faith and social standing shaped many of his choices and views.

    1935: In Oklahoma City, OK, Sylvan N. Goldman and Margaret Katz Gold man gave birth real estate developer and philanthropist Monte H. Goldman.

    1935: Birthdate of Gene Wilder. Born Jerome Silberman in Milwaukee Wisconsin, Wilder is known for his roles in “Young Frankenstein” and “Silver Streak.”

    1936: As the wave of Arab violence increased, The Palestine Post reported that many Arabs were injured and a number might have been killed in a battle with police and British troops in the Ein Harod area and during a demonstration in Hebron. Arab crowds were dispersed in Jaffa where a British constable was stabbed. Arab terrorists cut telephone wires and set some forests on fire. The Second Battalion of the Dorset Regiment arrived in Jerusalem from Egypt. Over a thousand one-year-old citrus trees were uprooted in Kfar Yona and the late Field-Marshal Allenby's statue was damaged in Beersheba

    1936: As the Arab uprising continued, arsonists set fire to the fields of Kfar Joshua and to the forest at Ataroth which is located outside of Jerusalem. Guards at the forest fired shots at the arsonists as they escaped.

    1937: Marx Brothers'"A Day at the Races" released to popular acclaim. 

    1937: Stalin moves forward with the Great Purge which was animated in part by anti-Semitism as the Soviet Dictator went after those whom he claimed were followers of Trostky and which denuded the general staff of many seasoned officer which helps to explain the abysmal showing of the Russians when the Germans invaded in 1941.

    1940: As the Nazis sweep across France, Eugène Tisserant, a French Cardinal working at the Vatican writes to the Archbishop of Paris lamenting the silence of the Pope when it comes to the evil of the Nazis.

    1940: “As a result of internal pressure from citizens objecting to the large number of “transient” refugees (many of whom were Jews fleeing Hitler’s Europe) who had reached Ciudad Trujillo and were waiting there to procure entry into other North and South American countries, the Dominican Congress passed a bill barring all immigration except of persons intending to make the Republic their permanent home.” (JA)

    1941: Following the bombing of Haifa, which is an important naval base for the British, by German planes, the Vichy government has condemned reports by the British that the German war planes “returned” to the Aleppo airfield in Northern Syria. The term “returned” implies that the planes had flown from Aleppo to attack Haifa and the Vichy French claim that there are no German aircraft in Syria.  Syria is a French colony which is supposedly governed by the Vichy government under the terms of the surrender agreement signed with the Nazis.  

    1941: Hans and Margaret Rey try to buy two bikes so that they can leave Paris.  The search is fruitless.

    1941: Hans Rey spent 1,600 francs for two unassembled bikes.  He then spent the rest of the day putting them in working order.

    1942:Major Liebmann and his hundred surviving men (out of a company that had been 400 strong when the fight began on June 2) linked up with the forces of General Marie Pierre Koenig of the 1st Free French Division who was in charge of the fort at Bir Hakeim. The French general had no idea that his unit had been supported by this group of Jewish volunteers. In perfect French, Major Liebmann told him that his men were fighters from Palestine, but that they could not serve under their flag because of British rules. Koenig then told him to raise their Star of David flag, and all Free French officers around him saluted it.

    1942: One thousand Jews were deported from Prague, Czechoslovakia, to the “East,” where they are murdered.

    1942(26th of Sivan, 5702): Ten thousand Jews from the ghetto at Tarnów, Poland, were murdered at the Belzec extermination camp.

    1943: Himmler ordered the liquidation of all Polish ghettos.

    1944: For the next seven days the Germans shipped an additional 50,805 Hungarian Jews to Auschwitz.

    1944: Joel Brand, who is being held by the British, and Moshe Sharett continue their meetings where Brand continues to explain the “Jews for trucks” deal that he hopes will save the Jews of Hungary.

    1945(30th of Sivan, 5705): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1945(30th of Sivan, 5705): Fifty-two year old Eliyahu Golomb who played a key role in the creation of the Haganah and the Palmach passed away today. Born in Russia in 1893, he made Aliyah in 1909. After working at the famed kibbutz Dagania Alef he served with the British in the Jewish Legion during WW I. During the inter-war years he worked with the Revisionists to try and form a unified Jewish military defense force. During the Arab Revolts in the 1930’s he served with the FOSH.

    1948: Jordan’s King Abdullah ordered a “hunda” or ceasefire.

    1948: King Abdullah visited Jerusalem and promoted Abdullah el-Tell to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel and gave him command of three Jordanian infantry companies occupying the Old City. El-Tell would be the lead negotiator who met with Jewish military leaders in matters regarding Jerusalem.

    1948:  The first truce between the Israelis and the Arab invaders began. During four weeks the Israelis had not only survived, they were in control of respectable amount of territory.  This included the eastern and western portions of the Galilee, the Jezreel Valley from Haifaon the Mediterranean to the Jordan River, the coastal plain as far south as Ashdod, a major portion of the Negev and the corridor that connected Jerusalemwith the rest of the Jewish controlled territory.   The U.N. sponsored truce was supposed to last four weeks. 

    1948: As the first truce between Arabs and Israelis went into effect, Kfar Darom was completely surrounded by Egyptian forces laying siege to the Negev Kibbutz.  The Kibbutz had been under attack since December.  The Moslem Brotherhood had tried to capture it in April and the Egyptians had begun their assault in May. Although the Kibbutz would eventually have to evacuated, its gutsy stand gave heart to the embattled Israelis and prevented the Arabs from sweeping up the road to Tel Aviv.

    1948: David Shaltiel the Haganah district commander in Jerusalem began the first in a series of meetings with Abdullah el Tell the commander of the Arab Legion under the auspices of the UN.

    1948:  As of today, 300 people have been killed and 1,400 more have been wounded since the battle for Jerusalem began on May 14.  The Arab Legion had lobbed more than 14,000 shells at the Jewish defenders since the British High Commissioner flew off to Haifa.

    1948 (4th of Sivan, 5708):  As night fell on the first night of the truce, tragedy struck.  The Jewish commander of the Jerusalem Front, Mickey Marcus aka Mickey Stone, was shot by an Israeli guard.  Marcus was spending the night with a Palmach battalion.  When return from a trip to the latrine, Marcus was challenged by a guard.  Marcus spoke no Hebrew and was unable to respond.  The youngster fired a warning shot and called again for the password.  Marcus did not respond, but kept moving forward.  The young guard fired several more shots one of which hit Marcus, mortally wounding him.  Marcus’ most famous accomplishment was the construction of the “Burma Road” – the roadway to Jerusalem built under the threat of Arab guns that guaranteed Jerusalem would be part of the Jewish state.  Marcus’ body was taken back to the United States, escorted by several leading Israeli leaders.  Marcus was buried at West Point, the military academy that gave him the training to fight for his country during World War II and to fight for his people during the War of Independence.

    1948: Syrian forces captured Bnot Ya’akov Bridge which spans the Jordan River.  The Syrians will be forced to withdraw as a result of the 1949 Armistice Agreement.

    1950: “Israel notified Jordan that it was holding up the establishment of mixed border patrols” that are intended “to check Arab infiltrations into Israel” and thus limit the possibility of clash between the military forces of the two neighbors.  Israel said that its action was in response to Jordan’s failure to return three soldiers who had been captured six weeks ago.  Israel claims that three are survivors of a five-man patrol that had accidently crossed the Armistice line with Jordan. The Jordanian killed two of the Israelis and imprisoned the three survivors.  In the mean time, armed Arab gangs continue to infiltrate the Jewish state from Jordan.

    1950:Plans to proceed with the construction of what is to be the "Harry S. Truman" village (Kfar Truman) in Israel were announced here tonight at the "Land for Israel" dinner of the New England Jewish National Fund. “Vice President Alben W. Barkley who addressed the 1,500 guest accepted honorary chairmanship of the project.” In a letter addressed to Dr. Harris J. Levine, chairman of the JNF which was read at the dinner President Truman wrote, “I am highly honored and appreciate very much what you are proposing to do.

    1950: It was reported today that Rosemary Sebag-Montefiore the daughter of Colonel Thomas Henry Sebag-Montefiore and the late Mrs. Sebag-Montefiore plans to be married in England this October to her fiancé, Dr. Joseph Richmond, Levenson, the Phi Beta Kappa graduate of Harvard who is the son of Mr. and Mrs. Max Levenson of Massachusetts

    1951(7th of Sivan, 5711): Second Day of Shavuot.

    1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that Israel resumed the Hula drainage work with full UN authorization. Syria closed the frontier with Lebanon as a protest against the expulsion of about 1,000 Syrian laborers from Lebanon.

    1952: The Israeli Foreign Ministry sent a note to the Czechoslovak Foreign Ministry “drawing attention to the ‘atmosphere of mystery’ surrounding the arrest of Mardechai Oren, an Israeli citizen.

    1953: In response to a request made in March by Cardinal Pierre-Marie Gerlier, the Archbishop of Lyon, Germaine Ribière reported that the Finlay children were being held Basque priests.  She was a Catholic member of the French Resistance who had rescued Jews during the war.  The Finlay children were Jewish orphans who had been baptized and were being kept from the surviving members of their family.

    1954: Archeologist Yigael Yadin sent a telegram to Teddy Kollek stating that four Dead Sea Scrolls, including the Book of Isaiah, had been brought to the United States and were being offered for sale.  Yadin said they could be purchased for $250,000, what he considered a paltry sum for so great a treasure.  He said that he could raise the money from private sources but that it would take a year.  He pleaded with Kollek to get the Israeli government to provide the funds immediately.  Prime Minister Sharett agreed and authorized the Minister of Finance to provide the funds.  Thanks to the quick action, this national treasure was secured for Israel.

    1957: “Philip Klutznick, president of B’nai B’rith and Moshe Feinstein, president of the Hebrew P. E. N. Club of America. Dr. Moshe Davis, Provost of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America and chairman of the Hadoar executive committee were the speakers at a dinner celebrating the 35th anniversary of Hador, “the only Hebrew language weekly published in the United States.” (JTA)

    1967: “A delegation of former residents of the Jewish Quarter of Jerusalem asked the municipality for permission to rebuild their old homes.

    1967: Teddy Kollek arranged for 20,000 bottles of milk for infants to be taken in to the Muslim, Christian and Armenian Quarters of the OldCity.

    1968: Birthdate of Michelle Levin

    1969: Pierre Goldman, the son of Alter Mojze Goldman, robbed the Royal Bank of Canada in Puerto La Cruz , taking 2.6 million bolívars (the biggest hold-up of that year).

    1970(7thof Sivan, 5730): Second Day of Shavuot

    1976: The Jerusalem Post reported that in view of the voices emanating from Arab organizations "inviting Jews to return to Iraq and Morocco," Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin declared that Israel would not act under threats and would deal with this issue "in fundamental fashion." Syrian troops were reported to be moving east to face the Iraqi Army which expressed readiness to man the Golan front. Both the US and Israel were concerned that both Algeria and Libya might participate in the Arab League's "Peacemaking Force" aimed to patrol a proposed Lebanese cease-fire.

    1978(6th of Sivan, 5738): First Day of Shavuot

    1978(6th of Sivan, 5738: Herman Barron, the first Jewish golfer to win a PGA Tour event passed away.

    1978: In Italy, Premier Giulio Andreotti's government scheduled a national referendum for today despite the fact that it had been told that it was a Jewish holiday and observant Jews would not be able to participate in the vote.

    1982: The Jerusalem Post published a front page photograph of 21 year old Yoav Blum an IDF soldier pictured holding a portrait of Yasser Arafat taken from the PLO’s headquarters in southern Lebanon.

    1982: Israel and Syria stopped fighting in Lebanon. Israelhas since withdrawn from Lebanon.  Syria finally withdrew its armed forces from Lebanonwhich the late President Assad liked to consider was a province of Greater Syria. Syriacontinues to “meddle” in Lebanon’s internal politics.  At the same time, Lebanoncontinues to be a battleground for a variety of political and ideological groups that have interests beyond Lebanon including the destruction of the state of Israel.

    1983: Mayor Ed Koch and Bronx Borough President Stanley Simon are scheduled to a gathering that will celebrate the 10thanniversary of Lambert Houses, the award low-rising public housing buildings in the South Bronx.

    1983: Nigel Lawson completed his service as Secretary of State for Energy under Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher.

    1983: Nigel Lawson began serving as Chancellor of the Exchequer.

    1986: Birthdate of actor Shia LaBeouf

    1990(18th of Sivan, 5750): Seventy-four year old philanthropist Beatrice Coleman the widow of Dr. Joseph Coleman and head of Maidenform since 1968 passed away today.

    1990: Ariel Sharon succeeded David Levy as Minister of Housing and Construction.

    1990: Avner Shaki succeeded Zevulen Hammer as Minister of Religious Services.

    1990: Yuval Ne’eman began serving as Energy and Water Resources Minister.

    1990: Roni Milo began serving as Minister of Public Security.

    1997: Herb Gray began serving as Deputy Prime Minister of Canada.

    1997(6th of Sivan, 5757): Shavuot

    1997(6th of Sivan, 5757):Benjamin (Ben) Dunkelman passed away. Born in 1913 to Polish-Jewish parents who had settled in Toronto, he had a distinguished military career in the Canadian Army during WW II followed by service with the IDF during the 1948 War for Independence.

    1998: In “Turf; The Neighbors Rally Around the Mayor of Bedford Street, William Hamilton described Lawrence Selman’s fight to spend the rest of his life at his Greenwich Village home.

    1999: Polo Ralph Lauren became a public company traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol RL.

    2000:The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Ordinary Resurrections: Children in the Years of Hopeby Jonathan Kozol and the recently released paperback edition of Another Life: A Memoir of Other People by Michael Korda.

    2001:The Right Honourable Barbara Roche completed her term as Minister of State for Asylum and Immigration under Prime Minister Tony Blair.

    2003(11th of Sivan, 5763): In Jerusalem, seventeen people - 11 women and six men - were killed and over 100 wounded in a suicide bombing on Egged bus #14A outside the Klal building on Jaffa Road in the center of Jerusalem.

    2003 - Seventeen people were killed and over 100 wounded in a suicide bombing on Egged bus #14A outside the Klal building on Jaffa Road in the center of Jerusalem. Hamas claimed responsibility for the attack. The victims: Sgt. Tamar Ben-Eliahu, 20, of Moshav Paran; Alan Beer, 47, of Jerusalem; Eugenia Berman, 50, of Jerusalem; Elsa Cohen, 70, of Jerusalem; Zvi Cohen, 39, of Jerusalem; Roi Eliraz, 22, of Mevaseret Zion; Alexander Kazaris, 77, of Jerusalem; Yaffa Mualem, 65, of Jerusalem; Yaniv Obayed, 22, of Herzliya; >Bat-El Ohana, 21, of Kiryat Ata; Anna Orgal, 55, of Jerusalem; Zippora Pesahovitch;, 54, of Zur Hadassah; Bianca Shahrur, 62, of Jerusalem; Malka Sultan, 67, of Jerusalem; Bertine Tita, 75, of Jerusalem. Miriam Levy, 74, of Jerusalem died of her wounds on June 12. The 17th victim, male, who has not yet been positively identified, is believed to be a foreign worker from Eritrea. (Jewish Virtual Library)

    2003:President and Mrs. Bush host 70 members of the Jewish community at the White House for a Kosher dinner to honor of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum’s 10th anniversary.

    2005: The Queen’s Birthday Honors List published today awarded a knighthood (Knight Bachelor) to Michael Kadoorie.

    2005(4th of Sivan, 5765): Eighty-six year old veteran Yiddish actress Lillian Lux passed away today.

    2006:Shalshelet’s Second International Festival took place today at Ohr Kodesh Congregation, Chevy Chase, Maryland

    2006: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Mohr by Frederick Reuss and The Good Fight:Why Liberals — and Only Liberals — Can Win the War on Terror and Make America Great Againby Peter Beinart

    2007: Nobel Laureate Dr. Elie Wiesel delivers the 2nd Annual Gershon Jacobson Memorial Lecture at the Museum of Jewish Heritage in New York.

    2007: On the 40th anniversary of the Six Day War, U.S. News & World Report magazine features three articles on the subject including “A Changing Mind-Set Among Jerusalem's Palestinians,” “A Look Back at the Six-Day War” and “Marking the 40th Anniversary of the 1967 Six-Day War.” This last article was written by Fouad Ajami, a Lebanese born American professor who states that “at the heart of the war lay the willful Arab refusal to accept Israel’s Legitimacy and statehood.”

    2008: In Cedar Rapids, Iowa, TempleJudah combines the Annual Congregation Meeting with a BBQ Dinner. 

    2008: The Croatia Jewish Film Festival opened in Zagreb.

    2008: The New York Times includes a review of Travel Pictures by Heinrich Heine.  Of Judaism, he writes, “I wouldn’t wish it on my worst enemy.  It gives you nothing but scorn and shame, I tell you, it’s no religion at all, just a lot of hard luck.”  “Heine refers only once, bitingly, to German anti-Semitism.  Pointing out a hunting area, he concedes the sport’s pleasure for some. ‘My ancestors, however, did not belong to the hunters, but rather to the hunted.’”

    2009:President Obama's former pastor Rev. Jeremiah Wright again sought to tamp down controversy in the wake comments blaming "them Jews" for keeping him away from the president. He had meant to refer to "Zionists" and not all Jews, he said in an interview on SIRIUS Satellite Radio's "Make it Plain" with Mark Thompson."Let me say like Hillary, I misspoke," Wright said. "Let me just say: Zionists."

    2009: In Washington, D.C. the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum is closed for the day in honor of the memory of Stephen T. Johns who died from the wounds inflicted by an anti-Semitic white supremacist who attempted to shoot his way into the building on Wednesday

    2009(19thof Sivan, 5769): Eighty-seven year old Irving Schulman, MD who helped to found the Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital passed away today.

    2009:In Washington, D.C., David Makovsky, a fellow at the Washington Institute for Near East Policy, signs copies of his new book, which he coauthored with Ambassador Dennis Ross, special advisor to the secretary of state for the Gulf and Southwest Asia, entitled Myths, Illusions, and Peace: Finding a New Direction for America in the Middle East

    2010:Men’s Club Shabbat, completed with the installation of next year’s Board of Directors is scheduled to take place Congregation Olam Tikvah

    2010:Called up to life- Legends of the Baal Shem Tov” is scheduled to open in Gaithersburg, MD.

    2010:“Joan Rivers: A Piece of Work,” comes out today.

    2010:Two Border Police officers were lightly wounded in Wadi Joz this afternoon when a pickup truck rammed into them as they entered the east Jerusalem neighborhood amidst reports of potential rioting in the area.

    2011:Shelby Zukin is called to the Torah as a Bat Mitzvah in Iowa City, IA at Agudas Achim.

    2011:In New York City the duet "Heroes" is scheduled to be performed by Israeli based Yossi Berg and Oded Graf on the 4th night of the Contemporary Israeli Dance Week 

    2011: Bank of Israel Governor Stanley Fischer has decided to become a candidate for head of the International Monetary Fund, Israel's Channel Two News reported today.

    2011:Representative Anthony D. Weiner planned to check himself into a treatment center today after House Democratic leaders, including Nancy Pelosi, called on him to resign and suggested he needed psychiatric counseling.

    2012: The Carmen at Masada Opera Festival is scheduled to come to a close.

    2012: Dr. Paris Chronakis is scheduled to deliver a lecture entitled “Greeks and Jews in the 20th Century Salonika: History Through the Kaleidoscope,” at UCLA.

    2012:The Vatican is about to "indirectly recognize" Israel's annexation of East Jerusalem, according to  a report published today. This would be done if the draft of an economic agreement between the Jewish state and the Holy See, containing no distinction between sovereign Israel and the territories occupied by it in 1967, is approved by the two sides, Ha'aretz online reported.

    2012: Forty-year old Scream star David Arquette, whose mother was Jewish, celebrated his Bar Mitzvah today at the Wall.

    2013: Friends and family gather to celebrate the birthday of Michelle Levin an ashyish chayil of the first order who has done a wonderful job of creating a Jewish home for Jacob and Rachel Levin

    2013:Life in Stills” (Ha-Tzalmania) is scheduled to be shown at The JCC in Manhattan

    2013(3rd of Tammuz): Yahartzeit the Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem M. Schneerson, of righteous memory who passed away 19 years ago.

    2013(3rd of Tammuz, 5773): Eight-six year old Nobel prize winning economist Robert W. Fogel passed away. (As reported by Robert D. Hershey, Jr)

    2013: Chairwoman of the Knesset Committee on the Rights of the Child Likud Beiteinu MK Orly Levy-Abecasis called for “real and substantial integration” of Ethiopian pupils into the education system with their native-Israeli classmates at a meeting of the Committee on the subject held today. (As reported by Danielle Ziri)

    2013(3rd of Tammuz, 5773): Evelyn Kozak, who at age 113 is reputed to be the oldest Jew in the world, passed away today.

    2013: Professor Deborah Dash Moore, co-editor of Women in America: An Historical Encyclopedia, Pulitzer Prize-winning author Michael Chabon, film producer Scott Berrie, musicologist and conductor Leon Botstein, and Russ & Daughters, New York’s century-old purveyor of appetizers were presented with the Jewish Cultural Achievement Award from the Foundation for Jewish Culture today.

    2013:A bill to reserve four places on the rabbinical judges appointments committee for women was successfully passed into law in this morning, but not before haredi MKs repeatedly stalled the legislative process due to their vehement opposition to the terms of the new law. (As reported by Jeremy Sharon)

    2014: Despite opposition from 22 Arab nations, "People, Book, Land, The 3,500 Year Relationship of the Jewish People to the Holy Land" is scheduled to open today under the auspices of UNESCO.

    2014: The Oregon Jewish Museum is scheduled to host a reception marking the opening the exhibition “Vida Sefaradi: A Century of Sephardic Life In Portland.”

    2014: The Jewish Federation of Greater Washington, DC is scheduled to host its annual meeting.

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    JUNE 12

    816: Leo III, the Pope whose aggressive plan to crown Charlemagne gave the Jews of the Rhineland a comparatively benign ruler, passed away today.

    1240: Nicholas Donin, a renegade Jew under the patronage of Louis IX, convinced Pope Gregory IX to confiscate the Talmud on the grounds that it was anti-Christian. A debate ensued with Rabbi Yechiel ben Yosef of Paris and three other Rabbis speaking in defense of the Talmud. Yechiel ben Yosef of Paris was a major Talmudic scholar and Tosafist from northern France, father-in-law of Isaac ben Joseph of Corbeil. He was a disciple of Rabbi Judah Messer Leon, and succeeded him in 1225 as head of the Yeshiva of Paris, which then boasted some 300 students; his best known student was Meir of Rothenburg. But even a scholar like Rabbi Yechiel could prevail since he was not allowed to counterattack or take the offensive in his argument making the outcome a foregone conclusion. Ultimately 24 carriages loaded with Jewish books including all of the available copies of the Talmud were burned. Rabbi Yechiel eventually left France and in 1260 the rabbi arrived in Eretz Yisroel (Land of Israel) along with his son and a large group of followers, settling in Acre. There he established the Talmudic academy Midrash haGadol d'Paris. He is believed to have died there between 1265 and 1268, and is buried near Haifa, at Mount Carmel.

    1519: Birthdate of Cosimo de’ Medici whose reign was “originally beneficial for the Jews as can be seen by his issuance in 1551of “an invitation to merchants from the Levant, including Jews, to settle in Tuscany and do business there; previously; giving asylum to refugees from the Papal State; and his refusal “to implement the anti-Jewish restrictions issued by Pope *Paul IV or to hand over the Jews to the jurisdiction of the Inquisition.”  But when he wished to gain the favor of the Pope he burned the Talmud and he “rigorously applied to the obligation to wear the Jewish badge.” (Jewish Virtual Library)

    1648(22ndof Sivan, 5408): Rabbi Yechiel Michael ben Eliezer, the head of the Jewish community in Nemirov was clubbed to death before his mother’s eyes during the Chmielnicki Uprising, the worst massacre of Jews until the Holocaust.

    1665: The English rename New Amsterdam, New York. England had gained control of the colony as a result of winning the war with the Dutch. Ironically, Peter Stuyvesant the Dutch governor who had tried to keep the Jews out in 1654 had to leave the colony while the Jewish settlers got to stay.

    1713:: “Only a few weeks after the beginning of his reign,” Frederick William I, “appointed Moses Leven Gumperts of the famous Gumperts family of Cleves as Chief Court and Army Factor.

    1720: Birthdate of Isaac Pinto, translator of the first Jewish prayer book published in America. A member of Congregation Shearith Israel in the city of New York, he is remembered chiefly for having prepared what is probably the earliest Jewish prayer-book published in America, and certainly the first work of its kind printed in New York City. The work appeared in 1766, and the title-page reads as follows: "Prayers for Sabbath, Rosh-Hashanah and Kippur, or the Sabbath, the beginning of the year, and the Day of Atonement, with the Amidah and Musaf of the Moadim or Solemn Seasons, according to the Order of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews. Translated by Isaac Pinto and for him printed by John Holt in New York." Pinto was the friend and correspondent of Ezra Stiles, president of YaleCollege, who as late as 1790 mentions him in his diary as "a learned Jew at New York." From Stiles' account it appears that Pinto was a good Hebrew scholar, studying Ibn Ezra in the original.

    1755: Immanuel Kant, the German philosopher who had many Jewish friends and “believed that that Judaism is concerned only with things of this world, and lacks any formulation of the concept of immortality” received his Ph.D. today. (Jewish Virtual Library)

    1773: Birthdate of Amschel Mayer Rothschild “the second child and eldest son of Mayer Amschel Rothschild, the founder of the dynasty, and Gutlé Rothschild née Schnapper.

    1776: The Virginia Convention of Delegates unanimously adopted The Virginia Declaration of Rights which includes Article 16 that states,That religion, or the duty which we owe to our Creator and the manner of discharging it, can be directed by reason and conviction, not by force or violence; and therefore, all men are equally entitled to the free exercise of religion, according to the dictates of conscience;” The declaration was drafted by founding father George Mason.

    1777(7thof Sivan, 5537): Second Day of Shavuot

    1782(30thof Sivan, 5542): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1796(6thof Sivan, 5556): Shavuot is observed for the last time under the Presidency of George Washington.

    1796: Birthdate of George Bush “an American biblical scholar, pastor, abolitionist and Christian Restorationist academic” who was an early American supporter of the creation of a Jewish state of Israel. “In 1844 Bush published a book entitled ‘The Valley of Vision; or, The Dry Bones of Israel Revived.’ In it he denounced “the thralldom and oppression which has so long ground them (the Jews) to the dust,” and called for ‘elevating’ the Jews ‘to a rank of honorable repute among the nations of the earth’ by re-creating the Jewish State in the land of Israel. This, according to Bush, would benefit not only the Jews, but all of mankind, forming a ‘link of communication’ between humanity and God. ‘It will blaze in notoriety...It will flash a splendid demonstration upon all kindreds and tongues of the truth.’”

    1799: Rabbi Abraham Azuby officiated at the wedding of Phillip Cohen and Eleanor Moses, the daughter of the later Myer Moses, a successful Charleston SC merchant.

    1830:  The French begin their colonization of Algeria when they land 34,000 troops at point just to the west of the capital city, Algiers.  Initially the French administration conferred citizenship only on Frenchmen living in the colony.  The Jews, who had been living there for centuries, were, like the Arabs, treated as indigenous people and allowed to maintain their communal and judicial systems.

    1832: Rabbi Aaron Worms was unanimously elected chief rabbi of Metz.

    1847(28thof Sivan, 5607): Sixty-six year old philanthropist Abraham Muhr who fought for the full emancipation of German Jews passed away today.

    1856: An article entitled “Slidell, Blemont and Buchanan” described the role of “Auguste Belmont, the Austrian Jew” who was John Slidell’s nephew by marriage in a conspiracy to nominate James Buchanan as President of the United States.  Belmont was described as an “agent of the Rothschilds.”

    1859:  The Comstock Lodewas discovered near Virginia City, Nevada.  As with other such strikes, Jews were among those who arrived seeking to make their fortune.  Among them were David H. Cohen and Marcus Goldbaum whose names appear in connection with numerous other strikes.  One Jew who made did make his fortune from the Comstock Lode was Adolph Sutro. Sutro was not the run of the mill prospector.  Rather he was “a self taught financier and mining engineer” who developed a new ore extraction process and built the Sutro Tunnel that was designed to provide ventilation for the miners, “ease the hauling of ore and drain water from the mines.”  He sold Nevada interests for five million dollars and moved back to the more civilized environs of San Francisco.

    1861: During the Civil War the Union began placing restrictions on trade with the Confederacy for those living in Paducah, KY. This was one of many attempts by the Union Army to deny the Rebels of many of the goods they could not produce for themselves.  General Grant’s unfortunate order a year later was actually part of this larger attempt to cripple the Confederate Army by crippling the Southern economy.  This is not meant to excuse Grant’s action but to put it into a larger context.

    1862(14th of Sivan, 5622): Jacob Goodman, who had enlisted with Company D at Keokuk, Iowa, which became part of the 15th regiment died today.  He had distinguished himself at the Battle of Corinth (Miss.) where he was fatally wounded.

    1867: Following its defeat by Prussia, Austria reorganized itself into the Austro-Hungarian Empire and granted legal equality to Jews living with the new constituent states.

    1870: The annual examination of students of the Hebrew Free Schools of New York took place today at Steinway Hall. Several hundred students from the schools which were established five years ago by the Hebrew Free School Association took part in this rigorous, yet fun-filled annual event.  The students were quizzed by teachers from a cross section of the faculties.  They displayed “considerable proficiency” in “their knowledge of the Hebrew language and of the primary branches of English education.  Follow the exams, Alderman Henry Woltman addressed the attendees.  At the end, the principal, Mr. J.C. Noot distributed prizes to some fifty of the more “meritorious pupils.

    1872(6thof Sivan, 5632): Shavuot

    1873:According to a report published today the Hebrew Orphan and Benevolent Society has received contributions totaling $65,075.21 for the year 1872-1873.

    1874:  According to a report published today the Hebrew and Benevolent Society received contributions totaling $70,688.26 for the 1873-1874 reporting year.

    1876: George Richardson was fined ten dollars at the Tombs Police Court for having struck Louis Raminsky with enough force to cut the bearded Jew’s lip. Richardson struck Raminsky because he mistook him for a man named Rubinstein whom he identified as a “murder”.

    1877: According to reports published today Jews living in Bucharest are petitioning Secretary Evarts for protection. "They are Russian and Austrians Hebrews, and comprise the very worst types of the race, refusing either to work or to pay taxes

    1877(1st of Tammuz, 5637): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1878: A Coroner’s Inquest was held at the home of the late Lucien Levy to determine the cause of the death of the Jewish businessman who had died yesterday.  Among those giving testimony were his widow and his brother Henry.  After hearing all of the evidence, the coroner determined that the death was indeed a suicide and that no autopsy would be necessary.

    1880(3rdof Tammuz, 5640): A Jewish child named Kate Ungerleider died at police headquarters in New York of whooping cough.  Her father who was a member of the Simon Benevolent Society had abandoned Kate and her 3 siblings after their mother had eloped with one of his friends.

    1881: It was reported today that no matter of foreign policy has attracted as much attention in England was “the horrible persecution of the Jews in Russia.”  While several Jews are trying to get the government to aid their co-religionist, Baron Henry de Worms, the MP from Greenwich, who is not Jewish is leading the way in this manner.  When Parliament is sitting, “not a night passes without” without putting one or more questions on this matter to the responsible government minister.

    1882: “Jews Going of Russia” published today described the mass exodus of Jews seeking to escape the oppression of the Russian Empire and the measures being taken to deal with this in the West.

    1882: Joseph Wolf and Meyer Morris, two Jewish refugees from Russia who had arrived in New York two weeks ago, were under arrest today on charges that they had attacked a member of the Hebrew Emigrant Aid Society when he did not comply with their latest demands.

    1884(19thof Sivan, 5644): Eighty year old Rosa Gavay, passed away today at the Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews today she had an accident on the elevator and fell to her death.

    1884: At a time when many Jews were turning their backs on Hebrews, Protestants provided another example of their interest in the language when Reverend John M. Lansing was named to fill the newly created Gardner Sage Professorship of Hebrew at the Reformed Church in America’s seminary at New Brunswick, NJ.

    1886: It was reported today that Rabbi James K. Gutheim passed away in New Orleans.  At the time of his death he was the leader of Temple Sinai.  From 1868 until 1872 he had been the “English reader” at Temple Emanu-El in New York. [Note – this was at a time when services were conducted in German]  He was praised for his working to raise the level of education and health among all the people of the city regardless of their religious beliefs.

    1887: Oscar Straus, the U.S. Minister to Turkey had his first audience with the Sultan

    1887: It was reported today that “the officers and managers of the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children” are collecting funds so that, for the 9th year in a row, they can provide outings for poor and sick Jewish mothers and their children.  Last year there were seven such outings which provided service to over ten thousand woman, children and infants.  [These excursions were part of an effort in urban America to get youngsters out of the tenement districts for even a little while during the summer in the belief that fresh air would help their health.]

    1890: Over 500 people attended the graduation exercises of The Hebrew Technical Institute that were held this afternoon at its facility on Stuyvesant Street

    1890: As of today, the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children has received $4, 017.50.

    1890: Currently the officers of the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children are Nathan Lewis, President; Hezekiah Kohn, Treasurer; Joseph Davis, Secretary.

    1891(6thof Sivan, 5651): Shavuot

    1891: “A Trusted Agent’s Theft” published today described Julio Merzbacher’s theft of between $300,000 and $500,000 from his former employer, New York Life Insurance Company.

    1891: When Morris Vender was arraigned this morning in Newark, NJ on charges of non-support he claimed that he was divorced and produced a Hebrew language document to buttress his claim

    1891: “New Hebrew Cemetery Dedicated” published today described the services led by Rabbi Bernard Drachman of Park East Synagogue dedicating the new cemetery on Long Island.  Joseph Blumenthal, the President of the Mount Zion Association which owns the cemetery also spoke to the attendees.

    1892: The closing exercisies of the Louis Down-Town Sabbath and Day School took place this afternoon at Temple Emanu-El during which Rabbi Gustave Gottheil “administered the Confirmation Rites” on the graduating students.

    1893: “Monument to Moses Mehrbach” published today described the unveiling ceremony led by Rabbi Hirsch in the Hebrew section of Cypress Hills Cemetery of a granite monument in honor of Moses Mehrbach, of blessed memory who was a note philanthropist who served as a presidential elector for the Democrats in 1884 and 1888.

    1893: Colonel Weber, who had served as Superintendent of Immigration and who had been in Europe studying “the character and habits of those intending to emigrate to the United States said today that “the Polish Jews would dull indeed if they did not take the expulsion of their coreligionists in Russia to heart.” The new decrees, which could increase immigration to the United States are aimed at the hitherto protected classes (protection cost 1,000 rubles) including doctors, lawyers, engineers, architects, artists and university of graduates.”

    1893(28thof Sivan, 5653): The body of twenty-three year old Emanuel Weltman, a peddler living with his sister Mrs. Rosenbaum was found near High Bridge this morning.

    1894: The Constitutional Convention’s subcommittee on Charities and Education visited several institutions today including Mt. Sinai Hospital and the Hebrew Orphan Asylum

    1894: The Governor’s Tenement House Committee reportedly found that the Tenth Ward which is populated almost exclusively by Jews is in the worst condition of all wards because “its population is three times as dense as the most crowded quarter in London.”  Some of the streets in the ward have taken on the characteristics “of European Juden Strassess and Ghettos.”

    1894: Last will and testament of Dr. Benhard Grunhut which names Abraham Stern and William Ketcham as executors signed today.

    1895: “New Publications” published today included a brief review of As Others Saw Him: A Retrospect, a novel about the life of Christ “given in the guise of letters from Meshulam Ben Zadok, a scribe of the Jews of Alexandria” written to a physician in Corinth.

    1897: Birthdate of Anthony Eden. Edenwas the Foreign Minister under Winston Churchill and his loyal number two. Eden was an ardent anti-Nazi but many claim that he was the English leader who prevented action being taken to save the Jews of Europe during World War II. Eden became Prime Minister in the 1950’s and was the British Prime Minister at the time of the Suez Crisis in 1956. Eden agreed to the ill-fated plan that included a joint Anglo-French seizure of the Suez Canal. Despite the success of the Israelis against the Egyptians, the whole project falls apart in the face of joint U.S.-Soviet support for Egypt. In the end, the British withdrew and Edenwas forced from office.

    1897: The 700 peasants working on the estate of Baron Daniel, the Hungarian Minister of Commerce attacked a Jewish farmer today.  When four gendarmes were called to protect him the mob rush them, hacking at them with their scythes.

    1897: The Columbia University, home of the “Temple Emanu-El Library of Biblical and rabbinical literature, numbering 3,500 books and pamphlets rich in medieval and modern Hebrew works” will be closed today for the first time in its history so that it can move into its new facility which will open in October.

    1898: More than 100 pupils attended the closing exercises of the Religious School at Temple Rodeph Sholom this afternoon at 63rd Street and Lexington.

    1899: As the Zionist movement begins to gain strength, officers of the Order of Knights of Zion in Chicago, “received official notification from the Jewish Colonial Bank of London” that it now has 100,000 shareholders.

    1899: Birthdate of Fritz Albert LipmannAmerican biochemist and a co-discoverer in 1945 of coenzyme A. For this, together with other research on coenzyme A, he was awarded half the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1953.

    1899: Birthdate of Usher Fellig who changed his name to Arthur Fellig after coming to the United States from Austria to fend off anti-Semitism.  He is best known as Wegee the American photographer and photojournalist.

    1901: Birthdate of Ben Welden, the native of Toledo, Ohio who carved out a career as a “character actor” – one of those faces you recognize but whose name you do not know who are critical to the success of movies and television shows which in his case included the classic mystery, “The Big Sleep.”

    1902(7thof Sivan, 5662): Second Day of Shavuot

    1903: Sigma Alpha Iota International Music Fraternity for Women (Alpha Chapter) was founded at the University School of Music in Ann Arbor, Michigan by seven women.  Beverly Sills is one its many Laureates.

    1912: A kosher kitchen was installed at Ellis Island for use by immigrants.

    1913(7thof Sivan, 5673): Second Day of Shavuot

    1916: Birthdate of Irwin Allen. Allen gained fame as a producer of disaster movied. Allen helped bring to the screen two of the most famous disaster films ever made – The Poseidon Adventure and The Towering Inferno. His name is now synonymous with the genre – a name that can also be spotted amongst the tombstones of late and great Jewish performers in LA’s Mount Sinai cemetery.

    1917 The Ziegfeld Follies of 1917 featuring Eddie Cantor opened today.

    1918: Birthdate of Samuel Z. Arkoff. Born in Iowa, Arkoff was an entertainment attorney when he went to work for American International Pictures or AIP. As a producer at AIP he perfected a formula for low budget films in a variety of genres including gangster, horror and "blaxploitation." His studios produced everything from "The Amityville Horror" to the series of beach party movies starring Frankie Avalon and Annette Funicello. He provided the training ground for a many famous directors including Brian De Palma, Martin Scorsese, and Fancis Ford Coppola, as well as such performers as Robert De Niro, Jack Nicholson, and Melanie Griffin. He died in 2001 and is buried in Mt.SinaiCemetery in California.

    1920: Birthdate of Dave Berg. Berg gained famed as a cartoonist for "Mad Magazine". He passed away in 2002.

    1921(6thof Sivan, 5681): Shavuot

    1923: Harry Houdini (Eric Weiss) freed himself from a straitjacket while suspended upside down forty feet above the ground in New York City.

    1929: In Frankfort, Edith (Hollander) Frank and Otto Frank gave birth to Anne Frank, one of the most famous diarists in the history of Western civilization.

    1929:Birthdate of Frank Lawrence "Lefty" Rosenthal, sports handicapper and a former Las Vegas casino executive who also hosted a television talk show in Las Vegas during the late 1970s. He passed away on October 13, 2008.

    1931: Mickey Cohen fought and lost a match against World Featherweight Champion Tommy Paul, having been knocked out cold after 2:20 into the first round.

    1932: Birthdate of novelist Rona Jaffe.

    1935: Birthdate of Sanford Morton Gorssman, the frustrated sports broadcaster who “became an Emmy-winning director of National Football Games.” (As reported by Richard Sandomir)

    1936(22ndof Sivan, 5696): After a short illness, sixty-two year old Austrian author Karl Kraus passed away today.

    1938: Birthdate of French journalist and essayist Jean-Francois Kahn the brother of scientist Axel Kahn whose father was Jewish and mother was Catholic.

    1939:Leonard Kaplan graduates from West Point. Leonard Kaplan served as a captain, a major, and upon leaving active duty in 1947, only eight years from graduation, he was a lieutenant colonel. While in the Army Reserves, he ultimately reached the rank of colonel. His service record included the Legion of Merit, the Bronze Star with one oak leaf cluster, and a Purple Heart. During World War II he served as a battalion commander of one of the first amphibious units, serving in the South Pacific for33 months.

    1939: Shooting begins on Paramount Pictures'“Dr. Cyclops, “the first horror film photographed in three-strip Technicolor.  Paramount was dominated by two Jews: Adolph Zukor, the Chairman of the Board, and Barney Balaban, its President

    1940: Margaret and Hans Reys arrive at Etampes having pedaled 18 kilometers from Paris.  They find suitable lodging and spend the night

    1941(17th of Sivan, 5701):Harry "Pittsburgh Phil" Strauss who worked for Murder Incorporated was executed at Sing Sing.

    1941(17th of Sivan, 5701):Martin "Bugsy" Goldstein who worked for Murder Incorporated was executed at Sing Sing.

    1942: Anne Frank received a diary on her thirteenth birthday.

    1942: In Khmelnik, the Ukraine; babies, children and old people were ordered to assemble. The children were taken away, never to be seen again.

    1943: The Jewish community at Berezhany, Ukraine, is wiped out. On Shabbat, in the morning, the Nazis led 1,180 Jews of Berezhany to face death at the city's old Jewish graveyard, where the Nazis shot into a mass grave.

    1943 (9th of Sivan, 5703): In the Lódz (Poland) Ghetto, the chiefs of Jewish police are forced to witness Nazi executions of recaptured ghetto escapees: 23-year-old Hersch Fejgelis, 29-year-old Mordecai Standarowicz, and 31-year-old Abram Tandowski.

    1943: Birthdate of sportscaster Marv Albert.

    1944: In the weekly internal report of the War Refugee Board, it states that Ambassador MacVeagh in Cairoreports there are still 5,000 Jews hiding in Greece. "Those who have been able to join the Partisans reportedly run less risk of being exterminated by the Germans, who have thus far avoided the systematic pursuit of guerilla warriors."

    1944: The Fort Ontario Emergency Refugee Shelter was established in Oswego, New York by order of President Franklin D. Roosevelt and was operated by the War Relocation Authority

    1945(1stof Tammuz, 5705): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1946: Fifty-two of the officials and guards from the Flossenbürg concentration camp went on trial today.

    1950: U.S. release of 1950 film noir “Panic In the Streets” produced by Sol C. Siegel, co-starring Zero Mostel with music by Alfred Newman.

    1950: Birhdate of American journalist and author and Richard Ben Cramer.

    1950:Eddie Cantor, his wife Ida and Mr. and Mrs. Yolanda Markson of Los Angeles arrived in Israel this morning on what was Mr. Cantor’s first visit to Israel. Among those greeting him at the airport was United States Ambassador to Israel, James G. McDonald. Cantor has raised over ten million dollars to support the Jewish state.  He said that as a good American it was his duty to support the young democracy and that doing so was in the same spirit being shown by the United States in funding the Marshall Plan which was designed to support the democracies of Western Europe.

    1951(8th of Sivan, 5711): An unnamed Israeli soldier was killed when he sought to stop Jordanian troops from crossing the border into Israel.

    1952(19th of Sivan, 5712): Rabbi Henry Cohen who “served Congregation B'nai Israel in Galveston, Texas from 1888 to 1952” passed away. Born in 1863, Cohen played an integral role in the Galveston Movement. The Galveston Movement operated between 1907 and 1914 to divert Jews fleeing Russia and eastern Europe away from crowded East Coast cities. Ten thousand Jewish immigrants passed through Galveston, Texas during this era, approximately one-third the number who migrated to Palestine during the same period.”

    1952: Michael von Faulhaber, the Roman Catholic Cardinal who while Archbishop of Munich in 1933 defended the Old Testament against the anti-Semitism of the Nazis and courageously declared: “God always punishes the tormentors of his Chosen People, the Jews.""No Roman Catholic approves of the persecutions of Jews in Germany."

    1954: Kenneth Nichols, the General Manager of the Atomic Energy Commissioner recommended that Robert Oppenheimer's security clearance not be reinstated. In five "security findings," Nichols said that Oppenheimer was "a Communist in every sense except that he did not carry a party card," and that he "is not reliable or trustworthy." The commission agreed, and Oppenheimer was stripped of his security clearance

    1955: Outfielder Al Silvera made his major league debut with the Cincinnati Reds.

    1955: Comedian Buddy Hackett married Sherry Cohen.

    1959(6thof Sivan, 5719): Shavuot

    1961: Walworth Barbour presents his credentials as the United States Ambassador to Israel.

    1962:David Ben-Gurion sends a letter to Eliezer Steinman, in which he writes, Today, more than ever, the "religious" tend to relegate Judaism to observing dietary laws and preserving the Sabbath. This is considered religious reform. I prefer the Fifteenth Psalm, lovely are the psalms of Israel. The Shulchan Aruch is a product of our nation's life in the Exile. It was produced in the Exile, in conditions of Exile. A nation in the process of fulfilling its every task, physically and spiritually . . . must compose a "New Shulchan"--and our nation's intellectuals are required, in my opinion, to fulfill their responsibility in this.”

    1963: Cleopatra, co-starring Elizabeth Taylor opened.  During the filming of the this epic flic, Taylor, who had converted to Judaism and was married to Jewish crooner Eddie Fisher, began a torrid and public affair with her co-star Richard Burton.  Burton and Taylor both left their respective spouses, married, divorced and remarried.

    1965: After 540 performances a musical version of Budd Schulberg’s “What Makes Sammy Run?” closed at the 54th Street Theatre in New York.

    1967: First Israeli ship sailed through Gulf of Eilat after the Six Days War. It was the closure of the Gulf of Eilat and the blockade of the port of Eilat by the Egyptians in May that led to the June War.

    1967: The INS Dolphin arrived at Eilat

    1970(8thof Sivan, 5730): Sixty-six year old Israeli political leader Yisrael Barzilai passed away.  Born in Poland in 1913, he made Aliyah in 1934.  A member of the Knesset, he served in several ministerial positions included Minister of Postal Services and Minister of health.  Barzilai Medical Center in Ashkelon was named in his honor.

    1972(30th of Sivan, 5732): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1972(30th of Sivan, 5732): Saul David Alinsky radical, writer and social activist, passed away. Born in 1909, the son of Russian Jewish immigrants, Alinsky had a passion for justice that originated from his experience growing up in Chicago's Jewish ghetto where he witnessed suffering during the Depression.

    1979: The Center for Judaic Studies and Contemporary Jewish Life at the University of Connecticut in Storrs which was founded by the Board of Trustees in February of 1979, was formally launched at an Inaugural Program today when Nobel Laureate I.B. Singer addressed nearly 1,000 persons

    1983(1stof Tammuz, 5743): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1983(1stof Tammuz, 5743): Academy award winning actress Norma Shearer who converted to Judaism when she married Irving Thalberg, passed away today. (As reported by Eric Pace)

    1986: In an article entitled “The Jewish Freud,” Michael Ignatieff begins his review of “Freud’s Discovery of Psychoanalysis: The Politics of Hysteri”by William J. McGrath and “Freud and His Father”by Marianne Krull with the following story. “When Sigmund Freud was twelve and out walking with his father Jacob in the streets of Vienna, his father wanted to show his son how much better things had become for Jews since the days when he was a poor peddler wearing a beaver hat and a kaftan in the shtetls of Galicia. So he told his son about the time in Tysmenitz when a gentile had crossed his path on the pavement and had knocked his hat into the gutter jeering after him, 'Jew, get off the pavement.’”

    1990: Moshe Arens completed his term as Foreign Minister.

    1994(3rd of Tamuz, 5754): Ronald Goldman is murdered along with Nicole Brown Simpson.  OJ Simpson was found not guilty in the criminal case.  The civil trial turned out with just the opposite verdict.

    1994 (3 Tammuz on the Jewish calendar):  The Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem M. Schneerson, of righteous memory, passed away.  Rabbi Schneerson, or simply "The Rebbe" as he was known by his followers and admirers, was the leader of the Lubavitch movement for decades.  He is most famous for the outreach program that he began which reached Jews throughout the world.  Thanks to his effort, it is almost impossible to go any place and not find a Chabad House.  He sent "lamplighters" out into to the world to bring the light of Torah to Jews who were in darkness whether they were in Moscow, Morocco or Little Rock, Arkansas.  One did not have to accept all of tenets of Lubavitch to be welcome.  For more about this remarkable man see the following

    1997(7thof Sivan, 5757): Second Day of Shavuot

    1998: In an article describing the history of Savannah, Georgia, reporter R.W. Apple, Jr. reminded his readers of the early Jewish connection to this colonial seaport. “Only five years after General Oglethorpe's arrival in 1733 to found the last of the original 13 colonies, a group of Jews landed here, and descendants of some of them, including Sheftalls and Minises, remain prominent in Savannah's economic and cultural life. Temple MickveIsrael, built in 1876, is the only Gothic Revival synagogue in the United States; its interior has cast-iron cluster pillars, a fine Spanish chandelier and good stained glass. The temple owns the oldest Torah in America and a valuable collection of books and documents, including letters from Washington, Jefferson and Madison. Some of Savannah's prettiest squares and best antiques dealers are clustered in the same neighborhood as the temple. Prices are high, but so is quality.”

    2001(21stof Sivan, 5761): Sixty-nine year old “Amos Perlmutter, a Washington-based political scientist, author and commentator on Middle Eastern affairs” passed away today.  (As reported by Wolfgang Saxon)

    2001: In an article entitled ‘Anatomy of a Bagel” C. Claiborne asks “How many calories are in a plain, sesame or poppy seed bagel from a New York coffee shop? What are the ingredients and nutritional value?” and then provides the following answer: “Let us assume that you get the biggest plain, enriched bagel analyzed by the United States Department of Agriculture, 4 1/2 inches in diameter, weighing 110 grams, about 3.8 ounces. The ingredients -- flour, water, salt, yeast and malt, but no sugar, if it is a classic bagel -- are boiled and then baked. They add up to 302.5 calories, the U.S.D.A. says. On a standard nutrition facts label, the bagel would boast 1.76 grams of fat, no cholesterol, 587.4 milligrams of sodium, 111.1 milligrams of potassium, 58.74 grams of carbohydrate and 11.55 grams of protein. Vitamins and minerals include a significant amount of folate, 96.8 micrograms, from the enriched flour, but most are present in trace amounts. A bagel preserved with calcium propionate has more calcium than one without it: 81.4 milligrams, compared with 19.8 milligrams. Oddly, the U.S.D.A. does not differentiate among plain, onion, poppy seed and sesame bagels. Poppy seed, which the department considers a spice, not a food, would probably not add enough calories to make a weight watcher feel guilty. There are only about 15 calories in a teaspoonful, fewer than a spoon of sugar. Sesame seeds have perhaps 26 calories in a teaspoonful, figured at a sixth of an ounce, by volume.”

    2003(12thof Sivan, 5763): Avner Maimon, 51, of Netanya, was found shot to death in his car near Yabed in northern Samaria. The Fatah al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades claimed responsibility for the attack. (Jewish Virtual Library)

    2004 Ehud Barak defeated Amir Peretz in his bid to be the leader of the Labor Party.

    2005(5th of Sivan, 5765): Erev Shavuot

    2005:Several families gather in the beit midrash at Milken Community High School in Los Angeles, where the they fulfill a commandment derived from Deuteronomy 31:19 by each writing a letter in Torah scroll that will lead to its completion.

    2005:  The Cedar Rapids Gazette reported that Marv Levy, former coach of the Buffalo Bills and Coe College graduate was the speaker Coe’s Alumni weekend.  A 1950 graduate, Levy had excelled as a college athlete and student having earned a Phi Beta Kappa Key.  His topic for the alumnae address was “So You Want to Write a Book.”

    2005:  The Chicago Tribune featured reviews of two books that examined the role of Jews in the military.  GI Jews: How World War II Changed a Generation” by Deborah Dash Moore examined the impact of military service on American Jews and the gentiles with whom they came in contact during the Second World War. “Company C; An American’s Life as a Citizen-Soldier in Israel” by Haim Watzman examines the impact of military service on Jews, the Jewish character and Israeli society based on his twenty years of service as an active duty soldier and reservist. The reviewer does an artful job of showing how these two books deal with similar issues from differing points on the experiential compass.

    2005:The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including “Steinberg at The New Yorker” by Joel Smith and“Chaplin and Agee:The Untold Story of the Tramp, the Writer, and the Lost Screenplay”by John Wranovics

    2006:JWA launches Katrina’s Jewish Voices, one of the first online collecting projects

    2007:  In Los Angeles, The Skirball Cultural Center presents a double feature with the showing of two films, Sisai and Melting Siberia. “
    2007: The Jerusalem Post reported that “Eighty three percent of Jewish Israelis are satisfied or extremely satisfied with their lives, according to the Central Bureau of Statistics annual Social Survey 2006. Furthermore, more than half the population told researchers that they believed within the next few years, life in Israel would greatly improve for them.

    2007: The Washington Post reported about the programming on Shalom TV, a Jewish oriented cable television channel that has expanded in to the Washington-Baltimore region. The network offerings include a kosher cook-off program, hip-hop entertainer Russell Simmons discussing anti-Semitism, Hebrew lessons Talmud study and the “Jewish Mr. Rogers.”  Television targeting Jewish audiences certainly has come a long way since “Lamp unto my Feet.”

    2007: News broke that two Bear Stearns hedge funds speculating in mortgage-backed securities were melting down. (This “was the precursor to the panics and collapses” that have led to the worst economic crisis since the Great Depression which, when combined with activities of Bernard Madoff, have gutted or threatened the well-being of so many Jewish communal organizations)

    2007(26th of Sivan, 5767): Ninety-eight year old Baron Guy de Rothschild passed away today in Paris. (As reported by Paul Lewis)

    2008: Hazak Week of Study begins. Hazak is the United Synagogue's organization for Jews 55 and over.

    2008: The National Council of Jewish Women (NCJW) will honor Mildred and George Weissman at its Israel Benefit Luncheon today.  Shari Eshet, director of NCJW's Israel Office, will keynote the luncheon which is being held at the Jewish Museum in New York City

    2008: “Waiting for the Barbarians” an opera in two acts composed by Philip Glass was performed today at the Barbican Center in London

    2009: Mark Kurlansky, the author of “A Chosen Few,” discusses and signs his new book, “The Food of a Younger Land: A Portrait of American Food, Before the National Highway System, Before Chain Restaurants, and Before Frozen Food, When the Nation's Food Was Seasonal” at Politics and Prose in Washington, D.C.

    2009: At Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, Tessa Cohen, daughter of Terri and Brian Cohen, helps in leading Friday Night Shabbat Services as she begins the weekend that marks her Bat Mitzvah.

    2009: The U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C. reopened to large crowds after having been closed on Thursday to honor the memory of Stepehn T. Johns, the guard murdered by a anti-Semitic white supremacist who had tried to shoot his way into the shrine on Wednesday.
    2009: Opening of the Derfner Judaica Museum at Hebrew Home at Riverdale in the Bronx.

    2010(30th of Sivan, 5770): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    2010:Golem with Girls In Trouble are scheduled to perform at the Washington Jewish Music Festival.

    2010: The sitting of shivah by the family of Steve Averbach, who was injured thwarting an Arab terrorist attack, is scheduled to end this evening.

    2011: The award winning duet "Dinner" by Israeli based Maya Stern and Tomer Sharabi is scheduled to be performed by Tomer Sharabi and Tal Kol on the fifth and final night of Contemporary Israel Dance Week.

    2011:The Wisconsin Institute for Torah Study is scheduled to celebrate its 31st Anniversary and the Graduation of the WITS Class of 2011!

    2011:Palestine Solidarity Group Chairman, Per Gahrton who was reportedly responsible for the segregation of the Israeli team at Malamo in 2009, is scheduled to deliver an address at the stadium where Israel will play Sweden in major international handball completion an hour after the speech.

    2011: “I Married Wyatt Earp,” a musical based on the life Josephine Marcus is scheduled to have its final performance in New York.  Marcus was the eccentric Jewish daughter of a successful San Francisco family who ran away from home and ended up performing in Tombstone, Arizona where she met and wed the famous lawman.  It is because of Marcus that Earp is buried in a Jewish cemetery leading many to mistakenly assume that marshall who gained lasting fame at the OK Corral was Jewish.

    2011: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including “The Filter Bubble:What the Internet is Hiding From You” by Eli Pariser, “A Most Dangerous Book:Tacitus’s “Germania” From the Roman Empire to the Third Reich” by Christopher B. Krebs and “In the Garden of Beasts:Love, Terror, and an American Family in Hitler’s Berlin” by  Erik Larson that is a biography of William E. Dodd, FDR’s first Ambassador to Hitler’s Germany.

    2011:  In a modern day story of David beating Goliath, Mark Cuban’s Dallas Mavericks defeated the Miami Heat to win the NBA Championship.

    2011:It was announced that Leonid Borisovich Nevzlin had purchased a 20% stake in the Israeli newspaper Haaretz, for NIS 140m. Nevzlin's acquisition leaves the Schocken family with a 60 percent stake in the company 

    2011(10th of Sivan, 5771): Sixty-one year old Laura Ziskin, the American film producer who helped gives Pretty Woman and Spider Man, passed away. (As reported by Aljean Harmetz)

    2011(10th of Sivan, 5771): Eighty-one year old Alan L. Haberman, the man who played a key role in popularizing the now ubiquitous bar code passed away.  (As reported by Margalit Fox)

    2012: “Off-White Lies” (Orhim le-Rega) is scheduled to be shown tonight at the JCC in Manhattan

    2012:“The High Court justices who recommended state support for non-Orthodox rabbis had conflicts of interest, Religious Services Minister Ya’acov Margi charged today.”

    2012: The Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington is scheduled to sponsor “A Centennial Celebration of the First Jewish Aviator” honoring Arthur “Al” Walsh.

    2012:Aided by Orthodox, City’s Jewish Population Is Growing Again published today described the changing face of the Big Apple’s demographics.

    2012: The Foreign Ministry announced today that Russian President Putin is planning to make a visit to Israel this year, although an exact date has not been set. 

    2012:Knesset Speaker Reuven Rivlin said today that Israel has an obligation to remember the murder of more than a million Armenians at the hands of the Turks nearly a hundred years ago, but warned that the issue should not be turned into an attack on the Turkish government of today. The Knesset speaker made the comments at a Knesset discussion of the Armenian genocide. (As reported by Gil Hoffman)

    2012: According to Joseph Berger, “After decades of decline, the Jewish population of New York City is growing again, increasing to nearly 1.1 million, fueled by the “explosive” growth of the Hasidic and other Orthodox communities, a new study has found. It is a trend that is challenging long-held notions about the group’s cultural identity and revealing widening gaps on politics, education, wealth and religious observance.

    2012: “Speaking to the Haves, in a Plea to Consider All the Have-Nots” includes a review of End This Depression Now! by Paul Krugman.

    2012: Seventy eight year old Elinor Ostrom, whose father was Jewish and is, as of this date the only woman to win the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Science, passed away today. (As reported by Catherine Rampell)

    2013: “Wit’s End: The Satirical Cartoons of Stephen Roth featuring the works of the “Czech Jewish artist whose cartoons lampooned fascist dictators and put a wry spin on political events during the Second World War” is scheduled to come to an end at the Wiener Library in London, UK.

    2013: The American Jewish Historical Society and Yeshiva University are scheduled to present a Curator’s Tour of “Passages Through the Fire: Jews and the Civil War.”

    2013(4th of Tammuz): Yahrzeit of Rabbi Jacob Ben Meir Tam, the grandson of Rashi.

    2013: In “Born Again” Nicole Krauss reminiscesYoram Kaniuk , of blessed memory..

    2013: Traces of the crippling polio virus, discovered last week in Beersheba and Rahat, were found today in the sewers of Kiryat Gat and Ashdod as well. The Ministry of Health believes that the traces originated in the Bedouin village of Rahat. (As reported by Adiv Sterman & Stuart Winer)

    2013: Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said yoday that Israel sought a “historic compromise” with the Palestinians to end the conflict “once and for all” and was ready to enter negotiations “without preconditions [and] without delay.”

    2014: “A visitor’s center telling the story of the Eldridge Street Synagogue telling the s tory of the congregation and its place in its Baltimore neighborhood” is scheduled to open today. (As reported by Hillel Kuttler)

    2014: The Israeli Film Center Festival is scheduled to open at the JCC of Manhattan with a showing of “Operation Sunflower.”

    2014: In London, the Weiner Library is scheduled to host “Karl Kraus's The Last Days of Mankind as a German-Jewish Tragi-Comedy.”

    2014: The Lower East Side Film Festival is scheduled to open with a showing of “Sturgeon Queens.”


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    JUNE 13

    823: Birthdate of Charles the Bald, who as Holy Roman Emperor refused to comply with anti-Semitic edicts of Amulo, the Archbishop of Lyon.  In doing so, Charles was following in the footsteps of his grandfather Charlemagne who had also refused to comply with anti-Semitic edicts issued by Christian clerics.

    1299: Pope Boniface VIII allowed Jews accused by the Inquisition the right to know who their accusers were.

    1489: Joshua Solomon Soncino completed the printing of Talmud Babli Hullin.  During 1489, Soncino also completed the printing of Talmud Babli Shabbat and Talmud Babli Baba Kamma

    1727: Moses Susman was sentenced to death by the Supreme Court of Judicature for having stolen property from Moses Levy that included “silver money, bag, rings and some goods and chattles.”

    1777: Marquis de Lafayette arrives to help the colonists in their War for Independence.  Lafayette fell under the spell of Washington.  He was instrumental in getting French support the Americans which was key to ultimate victory.  The values of the American’s took root with Lafayette.  Despite being an aristocrat he took part in the early days of the French Revolution.  He voted in favor of a law that gave full rights to all French Jews except for those living in the northeast part of this country.   Later, when commanding French forces near the city of Metz, he assured the Jews that they and their property would be protected.  Unfortunately, not even the word of Lafayette could stop up against the Reign of Terror which was to follow. 

    1782(1stof Tammuz, 5542): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1843: In Boston, a dinner was held at Faneuil Hall to celebrate the completion of the Bunker Hill Monument. Judah Touro was honored for his role in the building of the memorial.  Bostonian patrician Amos Lawrence had pledged to give ten thousand dollars to the project if anybody would match his contribution.  Touro, who was living in New Orleans, heard about the challenge and immediately sent ten thousand dollars to Boston. The toast read at the banquet said,

    Amos and Judah venerated names,

    Patriarch and prophet, press their equal claims

    Like generous coursers, running neck and neck

    Each aids the other by giving it a check,

    Christian and Jew, they carr out one plan,

    For thous of different faiths, each is in heart a man

    1851: Seventy-three year old Joseph Johlson the Jewish theologian who championed such reforms as Shabbat services on Sunday, sermons in German and Confirmation for boys and girls while expressing the belief that circumcision was no longer a necessary ritual for Jews passed away today at Frankfurt am Main.

    1852: “Beis Hamedrash Hagadol was established at 60 Norfolk Street on the Lower East Side of Manhattan. Its first rav was Rabbi Avrohom Yosef Asch, zt”l, who had arrived in the United States earlier this year.”

    1865: In Vienna, Austrian Jewish laryngologist Johann Schnitzler and Luise Markbreiter gave birth to their second child Julius who became a surgeon.

    1870: An article published today entitled “Prophetic Disraeli” reviewed “Lothair,” the first novel published by Benjamin Disraeli after he became Prime Minister and discusses the as yet untitled sequel  that includes several Jewish characters and themes.

    1871: While visiting Jerusalem, former U.S. Secretary of State William H. Steward today described the city as occupying “two ridges of a mountain promontory, with the depress or valley between them.” According to Seward there are 4,000 Muslims living in the northeast quarter, 8,000 Jews living in the southeast quarter, 1,800 Armenians in the southwest quarter and 2,200 Christians belonging to assorted sects living in the northwest quarter.

    1877: Joseph Seligman, the famous New York financier arrived at the Grand Union Hotel in Saratoga Springs, NY, as he had every summer for the past ten years. When he asked for his rooms the manager told Seligman that “he was required to inform him that” Judge Henry Hilton, the owner of the hotel, “has given instruction that no Israelites shall be permitted in future to stop at this hotel.”  After overcoming his astonishment Mr. Seligman asked, “ Do you mean to tell me that you will not entertain Jewish people?” The manager replied, “That is our orders, Sir.”  Seligman wanted to know the reason for this asking, “Are they dirty, do they misbehave themselves, or have they refused to pay their bills.”  The manger replied that these were not the reason.  “The reason is simply this.”Business at the hotel was not good last season and we have a large number of Jews here.  Mr. Hilton came to the conclusion that Christians did not like their company, and for that reason shunned the hotel.  He resolved to run the Union on a different principle this season and gave us instruction to admit no Jew.” The manager expressed his personal regret at this turn of events since Mr. Seligman had been coming there for years, but he had to obey orders. An angry Mr. Seligman returned to New York where he wrote a “bitter and sarcastic letter to Hilton” and then informed his friends as to what had happened. [Editors Note – the treatment of Mr. Seligman would touch off a minor cause célèbre. It would also mark the “official start” of a period of increasing anti-Semitism in the United States that would include the public banning of Jews from a variety of Christian only hotels, neighborhoods, country clubs and other such institutions as well as the banning of Jews from certain professions & occupations and the creation of quota system, the most invidious of which was the one having to do with admittance to institutions of higher learning. You might think of this period as an era of Jewish Jim Crow and would persist into the last decades of the 20th century.]

    1878: “Mysterious Self-Murder” published today described the last days and self-inflicted death of Lucien Levys, a prominent member of the New York Jewish Community.

    1878: Lucien Levy, who took his own life for reasons which are still not clear, is to be buried today at New York’s Salem Fields Cemetery with services provided by Mishkan Israel, the congregation to which the family belongs.  Survivors include his widow, brother Henry and a sister, Mrs. Henry Block, all of New York City.

    1878: At a summit of European powers (Berlin Congress) discussing the Balkan region, civil rights were "guaranteed" for Rumanian Jews. The populace and the government soon ignored this order.

    1880: It was reported today that there are approximately 500,000 Jews living in Morocco most of whom are descendants of Jews who were exiled from Europe during the Middle Ages.  They “are oppressed, hated degraded and persecuted” in Morocco in a fashion worse “than in any other country.” The Jews work in “various arts and trades” displaying “the ingenuity, pliability and tenacity of their race.”

    1881: In the Pale of Settlement Esther and Israel Pinchus Antin gave birth to Maryashe Antin who gained fame American author and immigration rights activist Mary Antin.

    1882: Joseph Wolf and Meyer Morris, two recent Jewish refugees who have just arrived from Russia remained in jail because they could not pay the fine assessed them for having attacked and beaten an official of the Hebrew Emigrant Aid Society.

    1884: Birthdate of Sophie Tucker. Born Sonia Kalish, she was known as "the last of the red hot mammas."

    1884: Boris Moses who rose to the rank of Colonel in the French Army and “became an officer of the Legion of Honor” passed away today.

    1885(30thof Sivan, 5645): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1885: In New York a bill was signed “to amend the Penal Code in regard to Jews and the observance of Sunday.

    1886: The remains of James K. Gutheim who was the rabbi at Temple Sinai, lay in state at the New Orleans Reform congregation until three o’clock this afternoon when they were taken to the Metairie Cemetery in suburban New Orleans for final internment.

    1888: It was reported that the staff of the Hebrew Journal plans to sponsor a reception to raise funds for the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Agency.

    1889: New York state Senator Jacob A. Cantor is invited to the opening reception of the exclusive Harlem Club.  When a member learns that Robert Bonyge has proposed Cantor for membership, he publicly tells Cantor, “Jake I have known you for a long time, and I am a friend of yours, but I must stell yout that in this club we draw the line at Hebrews.” 

    1891(7thof Sivan, 5651): Second Day of Shavuot

    1891: Archibald H. Welch, a Second Vice President with New York Life Insurance Company publicly revised the company’s previous versions surrounding their former employee Julio Merzbacher.  Contrary to the first reports, Merzbacher, a 58 year old Jewish immigrant from Austria, had not retired but had left the company after reports of major financial irregularities.  Contrary to previous reports, these losses did not total $325,000 but probably exceeded one million dollars.

    1892: “Among The Russian Jews” published today provides a summary of the findings of Arnold White who had gone to Russia “to determine whether the Russian Jew was an agriculturist” or whether he had had ever been successful in that role. White’s report, which first appeared in the Contemporary Review went far beyond this and examined the conditions and character of Russian Jewry.  For those who wonder about the bravery of Jews, White answers the question “Will the Jew fight” as follows.  “If bull-dog courage be the test of manliness then the annals of the prize ring tells of brawny and burly with their fists, three quarters of a century ago in England held their own.  Three Russian generals have described the dauntless courage of Hebrew soldiers at the Shipka Pass.  In one instance a call for twenty-tive men to engage in a forlorn hope was answered by thirteen Jewish soldiers.(Editor’s note – The Schipka Pass is pass in the Balkans in modern day Bulgaria.  In the 19th century it was the site of five fierce battles during the war between the Russians and the Ottomans. )

    1893: “Russian Coercive Measures” published today the comments of Colonel John Weber, the former Superintendent of Immigration on condition of Russian and Polish Jews.  New decrees “directed toward Russian Jews” include ones that will force merchants who have been in business for the last twenty years to move into the Pale.  At the same time “doctors of medicine, lawyers, engineers, architects, artists, and graduates of the university…exactly the classes representing the highest” intellect are also being forced to move into the overcrowded Jewish zone. As to rumors of a mass exodus by Jews living in Poland, Weber said, “The Polish Jews would be dull indeed if they did not take expulsion of their coreligionists in Russia to hear.”

    1893(29TH of Sivan, 5653): Kiva Book, Annie Katzman and Joseph Mendelsohn died when they jumped to their deaths from the burning building on Montgomery Street where they were working in various tailor’s shops. Among the injured were Israel Amberg, Meyers Mymans, Morris Nathanson, Alice Nathanson and Morris Siegel.

    1893: In New York, Deputy Coroner Conway performed an autopsy an unidentified Jewish man who was found floating in the river with his hands tied together with a piece of twine.

    1893: “Commissioner Senner’s Story” published today described Immigration Commissioner Joseph H. Senner’s response to an expose published in the American Israelite that claims he “is masquerading under an assumed name” and that he deserted his wife in Germany. The commissioner said this is the fourth time these charges have been made and he has been exonerated each time.  He admits to Americanizing his name when he came to this country and insists that his wife who came with him still lives with him in New York.  He feels that his decision “to renounce his Jewish faith” is what caused Rabbi Wise to publish these falsehoods in his newspaper.

    1894(9th of Sivan, 5654): Fifty five year old Moses Levy, a native of Alsace-Lorraine who came to the United States 25 years ago passed away. The owner of a successful flour and feed business in Brooklyn, he was a member of Temple Beth Elohim and a supporter of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum.

    1894: At the Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum, the band and drum corps under the command of Colonel Martin Cohen entertained visiting officials from the New York State Constitutional Convention

    1897: The annual confirmation exercises of the Hebrew Free Schools were held at the Hebrew Institute this afternoon.

    1897: “The Zionist Movement” published today described the two meetings held by the New York Board of Jewish Ministers to prepare for the Zionist meeting which will be held next August in Munich.  According to them, the Zionist movement has two main objectives.  “Frist to rescue the unfortunate Hebrews who are suffering under denial of civil and social rights and to encourage them to leave their poverty and misery for agriculture in Palestine and secondly to foster” the idea of “Jewish nationality.”

    1897: “The Brooklyn Board of Education” published today presented the biographies of the members including Ira Leo Bamberger, a lawyer and a Republican who is the son-in-law of Moses May, “the most influential Jew in Brooklyn.”

    1898: Emile Zola published his open letter (J'accuse) in defense of Captain Alfred Dreyfus in Paris. This was part of the famous Dreyfus Affair that rocked French society for the better part of a decade at the turn of the last century and that gave rise to the Zionism of Theodore Herzl.

    1898: The Yukon Territory is formed, with Dawson chosen as its capital. In 1902, when Dawson’s Jewish population reached its high point of 200, Solomon Packer was one of its leading merchants.

    1898: It was reported today that Nanette M Beekman received a gold medal for general excellence, Eva Heyman received a gold medal for excellence in Hebrew and Florence Robison received a silver medal for best in Hebrew at the Rodloph Sholom Religious School closing exercises.

    1899: Wilson W. Dunlop came before Mayor Van Wyck on charges of having caused riots on the East Side by his efforts to convert Jews to Christianity with his preaching on the corners of Orchard and Rivington Streets. The Mayor told Dunlop, “you have been using the streets for a crusade against the Jewish religion.  This is a free country and you can make a fight against any religion you choose, but you can’t do it in the streets.  If you want to conduct a crusade against the Jews go and hire a hall.”

    1899: “The Jewish Colonial Trust” published today described the involvement of the Jews of Chicago in this Zionist venture.  So far, Jews in Chicago have subscribed for two thousand shares in the Trust at a par value of five dollars.  The Union National Bank of Chicago represents the Jewish Colonial Trust in the United States.

    1904(30thof Sivan, 5664): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1906: The rector of the University of Göttingen announced that Max Born had won ” the prestigious annual Philosophy Faculty Prize” today a month before “he was awarded his PhD in Mathematics, magna cum laude.

    1910(6thof Sivan, 5670) Shavuot

    1912:Orville and Katherine Wright arrived at the home of Arthur L. Welsh's in-laws, Mr. and Mrs. Paul Harmel two days after his fatal accident.

    1912: Funeral services were held for Arthur L. Welsh at Adas Israel in Washington D.C.  Joseph Gulshak, the congregation’s cantor delivered the eulogy as the congregants looked at his tallit draped casket. His pallbearers included Orville Wright, one of the famous Wright Brothers, and Lt. Henry H. Arnold.  Arnold would gain as “Hap” Arnold the five star general who led the U.S. Army Air Forces during World War II. “Arnold wrote in his autobiography years later about Arthur Welsh, ‘He taught me everything I know, but he knew much more.’”

    1912: Portuguese government continues to favor a plan which is reported to be prepared to give Jews extensive concessions.

    1913 Birthdate of Yitzhak Fundik the native of Krakow who made Aliyah in 1933 and as Yitzhak Pundak, rose to the rank of Major General in the IDF

    1917: Birthdate of Israel Kugler, a leader of teachers’ and Jewish labor organizations. Born in Brooklyn, to Eastern European immigrant parent, he served in the Navy during World War II and was educated at City College and at New York University. In addition to his work as an organizer, he was a professor of social science in the CUNY system and author of the book “From Ladies to Women: The Organized Struggle for Women’s Rights in the Reconstruction Era.”Kugler’s parents were involved in the Workmen’s Circle/Arbeter Ring, which is the national Jewish labor organization, and Kugler’s own children were sent to Workmen’s Circle shules (part-time Yiddish schools). After he retired from teaching and organizing in 1980, Kugler was elected president of the Workmen’s Circle. He held the office for two terms, until 1984. Kugler was also active in other progressive Jewish organizations, serving as an officer of the Jewish Labor Committee and of the Forward Association, the not-for-profit holding company of this newspaper. Philip Kugler followed in his father’s footsteps, becoming a vice president of the American Federation of Teachers. He passed away in October of 2007 at the age of 90.

    1917: Fourteen German bombers attacked London dropping more than one hundred bombs killing over 162 civilians.  Some of the bombs landed on school where fifteen students were killed and another 27 maimed for life prompting some parents to send their children out the British capital.  Among those sent out were Lev Winogradsky, the future media mogul who became Lord Grade and his brother Boruch Winogradsky, the famed theatrical impresario who became Lord Delfont

    1918: Fire in a synagogue results in the total destruction of the famous Hebrew library in Belgrade. The collection contained many rare manuscripts.

    1918: During WW I, Lester Bergman a Private serving with the 5th Regiment of the U.S. Marine Corps which was part of the AEF, attacked a German machine gun nest in fighting in the Bois de Belleau. This conspicuous bravery would lead to him being award the Silver Star.

    1920: The Ahdut Ha'Avoda Party convenes in Kinneret. It decides to establish the Haganah organization for a countrywide Jewish self-defense.

    1920: Birthdate of Joseph Gurwich, who as Joseph Gurwin, became a wealthy businessman and philanthropist. Unfortunately, he was also a victim of the great swindler, Bernard Maddoff

    1921(7thof Sivan, 5682): Second Day of Shavuot

    1924: Bnei Brak founded on the coastal plain east of Tel Aviv. The Bnei Brak of today was established by charedi Jews from Poland, and is famed for its many yeshivas and Chassidic communities. Judah Moses Tiehberg, the grandson of the Aleksandrow Rebbe who was murdered at Treblinka re-established the dynasty at Bnei Brak in 1953. In Biblical times Bnei Brak was located in the land of the tribe of Dan. Its most lasting fame comes from the story in the Haggadah about Rabbi Akiva and his colleagues.

    1925: In Manhattan Louis and Ralphina Steinhardt Lowenstein gave birth to Louis Lowenstein, founding partner of Kramer Levin and “an influential business law professor and former corporate executive who for nearly three decades dissected the excesses of Wall Street and warned of the dangers of short-term investing”  (As reported by Dennis Hevesi)

    1926(1stof Tammuz, 5686): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1926: It was reported today that Rabbi Max Drob, President of the Rabbinical Assembly of JTS will be one of the speakers to address the upcoming annual convention of the Rabbinical Assembly of the Jewish Theological Seminary

    1925:Birthdate of Louis Lowenstein, an influential business law professor and former corporate executive who for nearly three decades dissected the excesses of Wall Street and warned of the dangers of short-term investing

    1928: Florenz Ziegfield signs a contract with MGMto produce movie musicals.

    1929: Western hero Wyatt Earp passed away. Earp was not Jewish, but his last wife was. She arranged for him to be buried in a Jewish cemetery.

    1931: Shortstop Louis Brower made his major league debut with the Detroit Tigers.

    1931: Birthdate of Dr. Irvin David Yalom Emeritus Professor of Psychiatry at Stanford University and recipient of the American Psychiatric Association’s Oscar Pfister Prize (for important contributions to religion and psychiatry) in 2000.

    1933: In Berne, anti-Semitic pamphlets were distributed at meeting of the "Bund Nationalsozialistischer Eidgenossen" (BNSE) which was addressed by Emil Sonderegger, a former leading general in the Swiss Army.

    1934(30th of Sivan, 5694): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1934: Hitler and Mussolini met for the first time.

    1935: James J. Braddock defeated Max Baer to become heavyweight champion of the world.  Baer had only been Heavy Weight Champion for a year.  There was always a question as to whether or not Baer was really Jewish.  He had been born in Nebraska and there were those who claimed his father had been Dutch or German and not Jewish.  Regardless, Baer adopted a Jewish persona in the ring and won the hearts of the Jewish world when he defeated the German boxer Max Schmeling. 

    1936:According to an article published in the New York Times, “a factor in the current Palestine disorders that is little known to the general public is a long-standing political feud between the two leading Arab families, for which the Jews happen to be convenient scapegoats.” Much of the violence stems from a conflict between the Husseini family, which has filled the posts of Grand Mufti and President of the Supreme Council, and the more moderate Nashashibis who are led by the former Mayor of Jerusalem.

    1938: Birthdate of Morton H. Halperin “an American expert on foreign policy and civil liberties. He served in the Johnson, Nixon and Clinton administrations and in a number of roles with think tanks, universities and other organizations such as the Council on Foreign Relations and Harvard University.” “The NATO doctrine is that we will fight with conventional forces until we are losing, then we will fight with tactical weapons until we are losing, and then we will blow up the world.” (Morton Halperin)

    1939:Five Arab villagers were slain early today in Baled Es-Sheikh, near Haifa. An armed gang, dressed in European clothes, dragged the five men from their homes and shot them. A sixth villager was reported to have been abducted. The Arabs claimed that the attackers were Jews. 

    1939: In what appears to be an outbreak of inter-Jewish strife between Revisionists and Laborites, “seventy persons carrying clubs studded with nails” attacked the Revisionists headquarters in Tel Aviv injuring one severely and five slightly.”

    1939: “Eddie Cantor and his wife are guest of the 18,000 members of the Greater New York Chapter of Hadassah at a luncheon in the Café Tl Aviv in the Jewish Palestine Pavillion at the World’s Fair”  at the same time that they are celebrating their 25th wedding anniversary.

    1940: Walter Benjamin and his sister fled Paris and sought refuge in Lourdes before the Gestapo could arrest him.

    1941: Birthdate of Esther Ofarim, a sabra who became a popular Israeli entertainer and singer.

    1941: The Petain Government, also known as the Vichy Government, ingratiates itself with the Nazis by announcing that 12,000 Jews have been sent to concentration camps for hindering Franco-German cooperation.

    1941: Premiere of “Tom, Dick and Harry” directed by Garson Kanin.

    1941: Birthdate of Esther Zaied, the native of Safed who gained fame as singer/songwriter. Esther Ofarim (she married Abi Ofarim in 1959). She actually played a role in the 1961 film “Exodus” the film adaption of Leon Uris’ novel making her one of the few Jews to appear in this pro-Zionist film.

    1942: Nine Jews were hanged in Warta, 2 in Lask, and 2 in Lodz Ghetto as a tool to scare Jews from resisting deportation.

    1942: Three thousand Jews are deported from the Theresienstadt, Czechoslovakia, camp/ghetto to their deaths.

    1942: British Ambassador to the Vatican Francis d'Arcy Osborne observes about Pope Pius XII that his "moral leadership is not assured by the unapplied recital of the Commandments." British comments must be taken with a grain of salt.  After all, they were the ones who had written the White Paper locking the Jews out of the only place that would accept them.

    1943:MarkRothko, together with Adolph Gottlieb and Barnet Newman published the following brief manifesto in the New York Times:

    "1. To us art is an adventure into an unknown world, which can be explored only by those willing to take the risks.

    "2. This world of imagination is fancy-free and violently opposed to common sense.

    "3. It is our function as artists to make the spectator see the world our way not his way.

    "4. We favor the simple expression of the complex thought. We are for the large shape because it has the impact of the unequivocal. We wish to reassert the picture plane. We are for flat forms because they destroy illusion and reveal truth.

    "5. It is a widely accepted notion among painters that it does not matter what one paints as long as it is well painted."

    [Rothko said "this is the essence of academicism".]

    "There is no such thing as a good painting about nothing.

    "We assert that the subject is crucial and only that subject matter is valid which is tragic and timeless. That is why we profess spiritual kinship with primitive and archaic art."

    1945: Chaim Weizmann decried Churchill’s letter rejecting the request for an end to restrictions on Jewish immigration into Palestine as an insult to our intelligence. A bitter Weizmann declared, “If Churchill had wanted to settle things, he would have done so.”  “For Ben-Gurion, Churchill’s letter was ‘the greatest blow they (the Zionists) had received.’

    1947: Birthdate of New York Congressman Jerrod Lewis “Jerry” Nadler.

    1947: Birthdate of Elyakim Rubinstein the native of Jerusalem who served Attorney General of Israel before coming a Judge on the Supreme Court of Israel.

    1948(6th of Sivan, 5708): Shavuot

    1948(6th of Sivan): Rabbi Abraham Mordecai Alter, the Gur rebbe, passed away

    1948: Shear Yashuv Cohen, the future chief rabbi of Haifa arrived at a Jordanian prison camp after having fought in the failed defense of the Old City of Jerusalem.

    1948: Rumaniaand Finlandrecognize Israel

    1949: Birthdate of Brandon Tartikoff television executive with ABC and NBC. He was involved in the creation of such groundbreaking hits as “The Cosby Show” and “Hill Street Blues.” He passed away in 1997.

    1950: “An air transport agreement granting equal rights in Israel and the United States for airlines designated y the two governments was signed in Teel Aviv today by Foreign Minister Moshe Sharett and United States Ambassador James G. McDonald.  This is the first air agreement between Israel and a foreign country and the first agreement with the United States on any subject.”

    1950: An airplane bearing Jordanian markings which belonged to Arab Airways was forced to land after it attempted to fly over the southern Negev. The pilot, who was an American, cooperated with the intercepting Israeli aircraft and the landing took place without incident.  The Israelis have made repeated requests to the international community to avoid such over-flights due to the state of war that still exists in the region.

    1950: Eddie Cantor completed his day of touring immigrant camps by having lunch at the immigrant transit camp at Natahnya. While the Jewish entertainer who has raised millions for Jewish causes since the 1930 ate, he was eyed with great interest and curiosity by the six hundred orphans living at the camp.

    1951: The Jerusalem Postreported that Israelvigorously protested against the decision made by Lieut.-Gen. William Riley, UN Chief of Staff, who supported the Egyptian arguments against the opening of the Suez Canal to Israeli shipping. Migdal Gad, a new immigrant town of 10,000, held its first municipal elections. There were 1,950 eligible voters. No ice for home supply was distributed in Haifa after the authorities discovered that many distributors used false weights to cheat their customers.

    1951: Nine Jewish Kremlin physicians were "exposed" as British/US agents. This became known as the Doctors' Plot. It was part of Stalin’s last push to get rid of the Jews of the Soviet Union. Only his death averted what could have been a worse mass murder than the Holocaust.

    1953(30thof Sivan, 5713): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1954: Cornerstone laid for Albert Einstein College of Medicine (AECOM).

    1954: The New York Times features a review of “The Spark and the Exodus,” in which Benedict and Nancy Freedman “have tried to recreate one of the tragic periods of Jewish history: the Czarist oppression, the pogroms that fired the Zionist dream of establishing a home land in Palestine.”

    1959(7thof Sivan, 5719): Second Day of Shavuot

    1965(13th of Sivan, 5725):  Philosopher, author and intellectual Martin Buber passes away. There is no way to do write just a few words about Buber.  His impact was too great in too many spheres.  The best way to honor his memory is to take try and read a little bit of Buber.  Whether it is something as complicated as I and Thou or as relatively simple as a collection of Chasidic tales, there is something for all of us.

    1966: Birthdate of mathematician Grigori Perelman.  True confession – I do not have a clue as to what his work is all about but the experts say the Russian born genius is best known for his work in comparison geometry.  He has also published papers purporting to prove Thurston's Geometrization Conjecture and Poincare’s Conjecture.  So far, nobody has found the flaw in his work

    1966: Birthdate of Ben Horowitz, the native of London who was raised in the United States where he became a “high tech entrepreneur and investor.”

    1970: Sixteen people led by Sylva Zalmanson and Eduard Kuznetzov “attempted to hijack a plane from the USSR…in an desperate attempt” to make the world aware of the plight of Russian Jews who wanted to move to Israel

    1971: The New York Times “published the first of a series of articles on The Pentagon Papers today. “Gerald Gold, an editor for The New York Times had supervised the herculean task of combing through a secret 2.5-million-word Defense Department history of the Vietnam War” prior to publication.

    1972(1stof Tammuz, 5732): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1973: General Benjamin “Benny” Peled, the head of the Israeli Air Force, told Defense Minister Moshe Dayan that in the event of another war with the Arabs, a pre-emptive air strike would be critical to Israeli success.  Dayan assured him that if the government thought that the Arabs were about to attack, the air force would be given the same operational latitude that it had in 1967. [Editor’s note: One wonders if Dayan remembered this conversation in October of 1973 at the outbreak of the Yom Kippur War.]

    1974: A Gallup poll on religious worship showed that fewer Protestants and Roman Catholics were attending weekly services than ten years earlier, but that attendance at Jewish worship services had increased over the same period.

    1974: Seventy-nine year old Sholom Secunda the Ukrainian born American composer who wrote the melody for "Bay mir bistu sheyn" which the Andrews Sisters turned to a surprising hit song passed away today.

    1976:The Jerusalem Postreported that the former Air Force chief Mordechai Hod was granted a draft agreement allowing him to set up a separate air-freight company in Israel. In New York an estimated 75,000 marchers paraded up
    Fifth Avenue
    in the 12th annual Salute to Israel. Over 400 cars a month were reported stolen in Tel Aviv every month. In 1975 20,566 cars were stolen in Israel, an increase of 23 per cent over 1974. Gary Davis, who declared himself to be the "First Citizen of the World," was turned away by the Ben-GurionAirport police.

    1978: The IDF withdraws from Lebanonafter entering the country to root out PLO terrorists operating from this safe haven.

    1986 (6th of Sivan, 5746): First Day of Shavuot

    1986 (6th of Sivan, 5746): Musical great Benny Goodman passed away.  The clarinet was his instrument of choice.  In the Big Band Era, he was known as "The King of Swing."  He gave jazz, or at least his style of it, a certain touch of panache when he played Carnegie Hall, which in those days was the High Temple of High Culture.

    1988: While serving as Lord Mayor of Dublin, Ben Briscoe declared today “Molly Malone Day” following the unveiling of the Molly Malone statute on Grafton Street.

    1988: Birthdate of Gabe Carimi, the offensive tackle for the Chicago Bears who played his college football at Wisconsin where he won the Outland Trophy in 2010.  Carimi’s nickname is “the Bear Jew.”

    1990: David Levy began serving as Israel’s Foreign Minister replacing Moshe Arens

    1991: The New York Review of Books featured a review of Wartime Lies, the first novel by Louis Begley.

    1999: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including “The Nanny and the Iceberg” by Ariel Dorfman and “Between Memory and Desire: The Middle East in a Troubled Age” by R. Stephen Humphreys.

    1999: Bruce Fleisher won the BellSouth Senior Classic at Opryland.

    2002: Prince Charles, heir to the British throne, saw landmarks of the revived Jewish quarter in the Kazimierz district

    2002: Publication of “Camp David and After” – Benny Morris’ interview with Ehud Barak.

    2003(13th of Sivan, 5763): Staff Sgt. Mordechai Sayada, 22, of Tirat Carmel, was shot to death in Jenin by a Palestinian sniper as his jeep patrol passed by. The Fatah al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades claimed responsibility for the attack. (Jewish Virtual Library)

    2004: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including the recently released paperback edition Heart,You Bully, You Punk by Leah Hager Cohen

    2004: The world takes note of what would have been Anne Frank’s 75thbirthday.

    2005(6th of Sivan, 5765): Composer David Leo Diamond passed away.


    2005(6th of Sivan, 5765): First Day of Shavuot.  Showing an uncanny knack for revitalization, this previously neglected festival has gained new life in the opening decade of the 21stcentury in America.  Ice cream bars and pizza (kosher of course) are now mainstays of the dairy menu and all night study sessions have increasingly become normative in many cities. 

    2006: On his first ever visit to China, the Sephardic Chief Rabbi of Israelcalled on the government to recognize Judaism as it has several other religions.  Official recognition would be beneficial to the Jews living in China.  For example, official recognition could lead to the Jews of Shanghai being able to use its former synagogue which is currently used as a government building

    2006: The New York Times reported that an international team of archaeologists has recorded radiocarbon dates that they say show the tribes of Edommay have indeed come together in a cohesive society as early as the 12th century B.C., certainly by the 10th. The evidence was found in the ruins of a large copper-processing center and fortress at Khirbat en-Nahas, in the lowlands of what was Edomand is now part of Jordan. Dr. Levy, an archaeologist at the University of California, San Diego, said the research had yielded not only the first high-precision dates in the region, but also such telling artifacts as scarabs, ceramics, metal arrowheads, hammers, grinding stones and slag heaps. Radiocarbon analysis of charred wood, grain and fruit in several sediment layers revealed two major phases of copper processing, first in the 12th and 11th centuries, later in the 10th and 9th.The findings, Dr. Levy and Dr. Najjar added, lend credence to biblical accounts of the rivalry between Edom and the Israelites in what was then known as Judah. By extension, they said, this supported the tradition that Judah itself had by the time of David and Solomon, in the early 10th century, emerged as a kingdom with ambition and the means of fighting off the Edomites.In the context, Dr. Levy and Dr. Najjar wrote, "the biblical references to the Edomites, especially their conflicts with David and subsequent Judahite kings, garner a new plausibility."

    2006: The Etty Hillesum Research Centre (EHOC)] which studies and promotes the research of Hillesum's World War II letters and diaries was officially opened as part of Ghent University with a celebration at Sint-Pietersplein 5.
    2006: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Mohr by Frederick Reuss and The Good Fight:Why Liberals — and Only Liberals — Can Win the War on Terror and Make America Great Againby Peter Beinart

    2006: The Yad Vashem Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority in Israel, an organization dedicated to preserving the memory of Holocaust victims, honored the Reverend Waitstill Sharp, and his wife, Martha Sharp, posthumously as ``Righteous Among the Nations'' for risking their lives to save Jews during the Holocaust;

    2007: The History Channel International presents two showings of “Great Spy Stories: Mossad.” ”Born in the crucible of Israel's war of independence and honed in the struggle for survival against hostile neighbors, the intelligence service gained a reputation for ruthlessness. Whether tracking down WWII war criminals like Adolf Eichmann or eliminating terrorists like Black September, the Mossad allowed nothing to stand in its way.”

    2007: Former Prime Minister Ehud Barak defeated Labor MK Ami Ayalon in the Labor Party primary.

    2007: Vice Premier Shimon Peres is elected President of Israel by the Knesset.

    2007: “The 350th anniversary of the readmission of Jews to the British Isles was commemorated by a service at Bevis Marks Synagogue in the presence of Chief Rabbi Sir Jonathan Sacks, the Lord Mayor, and Prime Minister Tony Blair. The synagogue is the only one in Europe which has had continuous services for over 300 years.”

    2008(10th of Sivan, 5768): Eighty-four year old Albert Ullman passed away in Savannah, GA

    2008: The New York Timesfeatured a review of Travel Pictures by Heinrich Heine and translated by Peter Wortsman. In this work, “religion captivates” the poet who was born Jewish, rejected and became “a Protestant convert out of convenience. Of the three religions that dominated Europe he writes, “Catholicism: “I see no pleasure in a religion in which our dear God, God help us, is dead, and it smells of incense just like at a funeral.” Protestantism: “A harmless religion, as clean as a glass of water, but it doesn’t do you any good either.” Judaism: “I wouldn’t wish it on my worst enemy. It gives you nothing but scorn and shame. I tell you, it’s no religion at all, just a lot of hard luck.”

    2008:In a landmark ruling today, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit held that Agudas Chasidei Chabad of United States (Chabad) may pursue its claims in a U.S. federal court against the Russian Federation, the Russian Ministry of Culture and Mass Communication, the Russian State Library, and the Russian State Military Archive to recover a collection of sacred religious books and archives.
    2008: The Third International Festival of New Jewish Liturgical Music began today in Milwaukee in partnership with The Wisconsin Society For Jewish Learning, Inc.

    2009:At Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids Iowa, Tessa Cohen, daughter of Brian and Terri Cohen, is called to the Torah as Bat Mitzvah.

    2009: Unknown assailants fired a Kassam rocket from Gaza tonight.

    2010:“Sondheim on Sondheim” is scheduled to have its final performance at Studio 54 in Manhattan.

    2010(1st of Tammuz, 5770): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    2010(1st of Tammuz, 5770: Eighty-five year old Ernest Martin Fleishman, a refugee from Hitler’s German who served as executive director of the Los Angeles Philharmonic for 30 years passed away today.

    2010: The New York Timesfeatured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Witz by Joshua Cohen and The Icarus Syndrome: A History of American Hubris by Peter Beinart.

    2010: The 30th Greater Chicago Jewish Festival is scheduled to take place at St. Paul Woods in Morton Grove, Il.

    2011: The funeral of Al Schwimmer, who smuggled planes to Israel during the War for Independence and was the founder of Israel’s Aircraft Industry, is scheduled to be held today.

    2011: The Skirball Center for Adult Jewish Learning in New York City is scheduled to host its annual Exhibition and Reception where it will present the works of The Artists Beit Hamidrash and The Writer’s Beit Hamidrash.

    2011:Sheri Blumberg is scheduled to facilitate a discussion of “Hillel: If Not Now, When?” by Joseph Telushkin at the Jewish Museum in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

    2011: Israel Police arrested three Yitzhar settlers today, charging them with incitement to racism and violating the Shin Bet Security Service laws for a website that calls for "price tag" attacks on Palestinians.
    2011: Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi offered to take personal steps to try to restart stalled peace talks between Israel and the Palestinians, telling Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu in Rome today that he would be willing to host negotiations in Sicily.

    2011:Lisa Pulver, the co-founder and director of the Muru Marri Indigenous Health Unit at the University of New South Wales, was appointed a Member of the Order of Australia in the annual Queen’s birthday honors list announced today. Pulver also is a professor of indigenous health at the university. Pulver is president of the Newtown Synagogue, in Sydney’s inner west, and a board member of the Lowitja Institute, Australia’s premier Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander-led health research body. (As reported by JTA)

    2011: Israel Police arrested three Yitzhar settlers today, charging them with incitement to racism and violating the Shin Bet Security Service laws for a website that calls for "price tag" attacks on Palestinians.

    2012: Cellist Elad Kabilio and pianist Reanana Gutman are scheduled to perform as part of MusicTalks which aims to break down the barriers between musicians and the chamber music audiences.

    2012: TheJewish Community Relations Council of Greater Washington’s 2012 Annual Gala is scheduled to take place this evening at Beth Sholom Congregation and Talmud Torah in Potomac, MD.

    2012: President Shimon Peres received the Presidential Medal of Freedom for his singular achievements leading Israel and working for peace tonight.


    2013: In San Diego, the annual used book sale to benefit the Samuel & Rebecca Astor Judaica Library is scheduled to continue today.

    2013: The week-long Lights Festival in the Old City is scheduled to come to an end in Jerusalem.

    2013: The exhibition connected with the first Formula One Race to be run in Jerusalem is scheduled to begin today at 4 pm.

    2013: In the 18th inning, Oakland A’s rookie Nate Freiman hit the game winning single against the start relief pitcher of the New York Yankees.

    2013: Alan Gross, who is currently imprisoned by the government of Cuba is one of the honorees at gala scheduled to be hosted this evening by the Jewish Community Relations Council of Greater Washington.

    2013:Russian President Vladimir Putin said today that a years-long spat with the United States over thousands of Jewish religious writings should end now that some are on display in Moscow's new Jewish museum. Russia has resisted calls to return the so-called Schneerson collection to the New York-based Hasidic Chabad-Lubavitch group, descendants of the last private owner of the writings, and Putin said they were part of Russia's cultural heritage.

    2014: In Springfield, VA, Adat Reyim is scheduled to host a special Kabbalat Shabbat service “geared toward families with young children.

    2014: “Policeman” the first feature film from writer-director Nadav Lapid is scheduled to be shown at Lincoln Center.

    2014: “Wonders” and “Lia” are scheduled to be shown at the Israel Film Center Festival hosted by the JCC of Manhattan.

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    JUNE 14

    1287:  Kublai Khan defeated the force of Nayan and other traditionalist Borjigin princes in East Mongolia and Manchuria.  It is quite possible that there were Jewish soldiers serving under the great Mongol warrior who became Emperor of China.  According to Marco Polo, Kubla Kahn celebrated the festivals of the Jews as well as those of the Muslims and Christians, indicating that a Jewish community existed that could make itself felt at the highest level of the Empire.

    1514: Azemmour, a city in Morocco, offered privileges to Jews fleeing from Portugal.

    1656: Directors of the Dutch West India Company sent a strong letter to Peter Stuyvesant in New Amsterdam ordering him to give "more respect" to the "Jews or Portuguese people" in his city. A principle shareholder in the company, a Jew named Joseph d'Acosta had assisted in obtaining this statement.

    1751 Pope Benedict XIV issued an encyclical “”On Jews and Christians Living in the Same Place” in which he bemoans the growing presence of Jews in Poland. (The Pope would seem to be a little late in dealing with this.  Jews had been living in Poland for centuries, having been encouraged to settle their by the monarchs who saw them as financial and commercial asset.  By the middle of the 18th centuries, the position of the Jews had deteriorated and in less than fifty years, Poland would disappear as an independent Kingdom. (Jewish Virtual Library)

    1796:  French forces attacked Frankfurt.  An artillery barrage aimed at the Austrian arsenal next to the ghetto struck the Judengasse instead.  The subsequent fired burned so much of the ghetto that 2,000 of its inhabitants were left homeless.  This forced the city’s senate to suspend the decree forbidding Jews from living elsewhere in the city.  The fire effectively marked the end of the Jewish Ghetto in Frankfurt.

    1798(30thof Sivan, 5558): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1799(11thof Sivan, 5569): The avoidance of massacre when the French forces withdrew gave rise to the annual observance of Purim Ubrino

    1804(5thof Tammuz, 5564): Forty-nine year old Isaac Abraham Euchel, the Copenhagen born Hebrew author and founder of the “Haskalah Movement” passed away in Berlin.

    1821(14thof Sivan, 5581):Seventy-two year oldChaim Volozhin (Chaim ben Yitzchok of Volozhin), author of Nefesh Ha-Chaimpassed away.  Born in 1749, he studied with the Vilna Gaon before establishing the Volozhin Yeshiva in 1803 in which he applied the methods of his famous master.  The Yesshiva outlived its creator, remaining open for 90 years. 

    1841: Colonel Charles Henry Churchill wrote to Sir Moses Montefiore expressing his support for the creation of Jewish state in Palestine and identifying the first steps that must be taken.  First, the Jews must “take up the matter universally and unanimously. Secondly, the European Powers” must aid them in their endeavor by taking Syria and Palestine “under their protection” and governing them “according to the spirit of European administration.” Churchill was a British soldier and diplomat who was among the first people, if not the first person, to propose a practical political plan for the creation of a Jewish state in what is now the state of Israel.

    1842(6thof Tammuz. 5602): Dr. Joel Hart passed away today.  Born in Philadelphia in 1874 he was trained in London where he married his wife Louisa Levien. He served as U.S. Counsel of Leith, Scotland from 1817 until 1832.  He was a charter member of the Medical Society of the County of New York.

    1858: Birthdate of the Marquis de Morès, an anti-Semitic French nobleman who attacked Jews in France and Algeria

    1868: Birthdate of Karl Landsteiner, the Austrian born American physician who received the Nobel Prize for Medicine for his work on differentiating the blood groups in 1930.

    1874: “The Mystery of Metz: An Old Cause Célèbre” an article published today described the blood libel which took place at that ancient German city in 1669.  According to the author, who described the even in great detail, this was an example of another groundless attack that Jews had to suffer during the Middle Ages.

    1880: Mortiz Hartman, an official of the Simon Benevolent Association went to the morgue in New York and asked for the body of a young Jewess named Kate Ungerleider who had died of whooping cough. Hartman and Louis Davis took the body of the child that had been given to them and brought it to the Bay Ridge Cemetery where they turned it over to the  wife of the cemetery caretaker so that she could wash it and prepare it for burial according to Jewish law.  The woman took the body into her house and immediately came back out telling the men that the body was that of a Christian boy.  They interred the remains in a temporary grave and returned to the morgue in search of Kate’s body.  When no action was taken, Hartman went to the Commissioner of Charities and Corrections who instituted a successful search for the body.  This was the third known instances of such errors in the last six weeks.  The officials returned to the Bay Ridge Cemetery and interred it there in accordance with Jewish law.

    1880(5th of Tammuz, 5640) A 32 year old tailor named Maurice Moses Heineltrop took his own life today after Seligman & May refused to pay him for a batch of waistcoats he had made for them.  Heineltrop’s sense of desperation stemmed from the fact that he employed 16 men and he would not be able to pay them for their work. 

    1880: It was reported today that Professor Grazidadio Ascoli, the chairman  of comparative philology at the Accademia Scientifico-Litteraria of Milan is scheduled “to publish his essay on the Hebrew inscriptions at Venosa, in Calabria.  These seem to be the earliest Hebrew inscriptions found in Europe…” [This may be reference to the inscriptions in Hebrew, Greek and Latin found in Jewish catacombs that date from the 4th and 5th centuries of the Common Era.

    1881: Based on a Reuter’s dispatch from St. Petersburg, it was reported today that peasants living in a village in the district of Kiev have paid 800 rubles to the Jews as compensation “for the sufferings they have undergone.

    1882: In New Orleans, Miss Jessie Green and Isaac Feitel.  Born an Episcopalian, she converted before her marriage.  The couple had previously been married in a civil ceremony.  Today’s wedding was performed by a local rabbi.

    1884: It was reported today that a half shekel coin from the time of Simon Maccabeus was sold for $10.25 at an auction conducted this week to dispose of rare coins held by Thomas Warner, a member of the American Numismatic Society.  The price compares favorably when you consider that the rarest coin in the collection sold for 25 dollars.  The half shekel had a chalice of manna with a Hebrew inscription on one side and a render of a triple lily or Aaron’s Rod on the other side.

    1885(1st of Tammuz, 5645): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1885: In a demonstration of the impact of Jewish culture on Western civilization Dr. A.P. Peabody chose the words from Nehemiah “Then I consulted with myself” as the text for the Baccalaureate sermon at Harvard.  “He could not, he said think of any more appropriate basis for his remarks than these words of the foremost figure in Hebrew history from the time of Moses to the time of Christ.”  [Yes, at Harvard, Jesus was apparently considered to be Jewish]

    1888: James H. Hoffman and H.M. Leipziger addressed the more than four hundred attendees at the fourth annual exhibition sponsored by the Hebrew Technical Institute located on Stuyvesant Street.  The exhibition gave the supporters of the school a chance to examine the projects and accomplishments of the 78 youngsters attending the school.

    1888(5thof Tammuz, 5648): Russian teacher and poet Wolf Ha-Kohen Kaplan, whose most famous work was "Ereẓ ha-Pela'ot" passed away today in Riga.

    1891: “Russia’s War On Jews” published today begins with an eyewitness account of the Czar’s plans for his Jewish subjects.  “Jews in bands of from 1,000 to 2,000 are being escorted to different points on the German frontier and put across the line into the latter country.  There can be no question as to the intention of the Russian Government to expel all the Jews from its domain.”

    1891: “Helping Sick Children” published today includes a summary of the annual report issued by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children.  Among other accomplishments, the society sponsored ten free excursions last year for 18,124 sick children and their mothers and is about to begin using the new facility at Rockaway that cost $20,225.

    1891: “Browning’s Story Told” published today provides a detail review of Life and Letters of Robert Browning by Mrs. Sutherland Orr. “Mrs. Orr begins this memoir of Robert Browning with a refutation of a story current in his lifetime and revived after his death, that Jewish blood coursed in his veins, active support of which was obtained from his known interest in the Hebrew language and literature and his friendship for many members of the London Jewish Community.”

    1893: “Caught In A Death Trap” published today provided details of the fatal fire at building on Montgomery Street that was the home to numerous tailoring operations.

    1893: While talking to reporters at the Victoria Hotel in New York City, Pierre Botkine, Secretary of the Russian Legation said that “The Russian laws enacted against the Jews which resulted in driving many of them out of the country are necessary to protect the Russians.  He went on to say that these laws were not a matter of religion but were a matter of economics.  “Jews are so much more clever than Russians…that they would capture everything if granted liberty.”

    1894: The annual commencement exercises of the Hebrew Technical Institute at Arlington Hall. Abraham Steinberg who worked in the second floor shop of Isidor Shlivek was one of the few who was able to escape down the stairway although he almost suffocated before reaching the street. Benjamin Signel, a Janitor at the Hebrew Free School said he saw two men standing at the third floor window who were afraid to jump. They tried the fire escape instead but one of the men still fell to his death.  (The Triangle Shirt Fire made headlines, but fires like this were all too common in the garment district for several decades.  It took the labor unions to create safe working conditions.  The description of this fire reminds one of those that take place in the 21st century in “third world garment factories” )

    1894: The Jewish Theological Seminary hosted its commencement exercises the Music Hall in New York City.

    1894: Leopold Minzesheimer continued to serve as the Superintendent of the Mount Sinai Hospital in New York.

    1894: Herman Baar continues to serve as the Superintendent of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum.  The officers are Emanuel Lehman, President and Henry Rice, Vice President.  The trustees are Morris Tuska, Nathan Necarsulmer, Julian Nathan, Myer Stern, H.S. Allen, Theodore Seligman and S. J. Bach.

    1894: It was reported that the daughter-in-law of Moses Levy, had obtained a judgment of $12,000 after suing him “for alienating the affections of her husband.

    1896: Based on information that first appeared in the London Chronicle it was reported today that fortune of the late Baron Hirsch will eventually be inherited by an unnamed “little Roman Catholic girl” who has been recognized of the heir of Lucien de Hirsch, the Baron’s son who predeceased his father.

    1896: Louis Michael filed a response in the Chancery Court at Paterson, NJ in which the Jewish husband is being sued for divorce by his Christian wife.

    1897(14thof Sivan, 5657):When the British steamship Scot arrived at the Island of Madeira off the west coast of Morocco, it was announced that Barney Barnato, the South African “diamond king” had committed suicide by jumping overboard. His body would be recovered and buried at Willesden Jewish Cemetery, London amidst protestation that he had not taken his own life.

    1897: A fire broke out at the immigrant processing center on Ellis Island which had been in use since January 1, 1892.

    1897(14thof Sivan, 5657)

    1897: “Hebrew Free Schools Confirmation” published today described the annual confirmation exercises at which Albert F. Hochstadter, President of the Hebrew Free School Association awarded the Freida Schiff Prize, The Linette Friedlander Prize, The Myer S. Isaacs Prize and the Clarence Korn Memorial each of which carried a fifty dollar prize.

    1898: The government has dispatched troops to Lemberg in response to anti-Semitic riots.

    1899: “Mr. Dunlop Before the Mayor” published today described a meeting between New York Mayor Van Wyck and Wilson W. Dunlop who is a missionary aggressively trying to convert Jews on the Lower East Side to Christianity. When Dunlop complained that he had been attacked while preaching in the street the Mayor said “You have been using the streets for a crusade against the Jewish religion and you musn’t do it anymore.  This is a free country and you can make a fight against any religion you choose but you can’t do it in the streets.  If you want to conduct a crusade against the Jews go and hire a hall.”

    1900: Hawaii was organized as a territory of the United States. There were approximately four hundred Jews living in Honoluluat this time.   A German Jew named Paul Neumann had served as an advisor to the last King of Hawaii.  In 1899, the first Jew born in Hawaii was married in Honolulu.  The first synagogue would be established in 1901.

    1901(27th of Sivan, 5661): Frederick Knefler passed away. A native of Hungary, Knefler settled in Indiana where he worked as a carpenter before becoming a lawyer.  When the Civil War broke out, Knefler enlisted in the 11th Indiana Infantry under the command of his friend Lew Wallace. He served with the Union Army in the west fighting in a series of battles including Stones River, Chickamauga, and Missionary Ridge.  He then played a leading role in Sherman’s Atlanta Campaign where he commanded a brigade.  His finest moment may have come at the Battle of Franklin where is bravery earned him the rank of Brevet Brigadier General making him one of the highest ranking Jewish officers to serve during the war. After the war, he returned to Indianapolis where he practiced law, worked for the government and devoted his spare time to veterans’ affairs.

    1903: Macedonians attacked the Jewish quarter of Sophia, Bulgaria.

    1904(1stof Tammuz, 5664): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1904: Birthdate of Margaret Bourke-White, whose father was from an Orthodox Jewish family and whose mother was Irish.  For those who grew up in a world of hand-held video cams, satellite communications and cable network news, it is hard to appreciate the important role played photographers and photo-journalists like Bourke-White.  Her photos filled the pages of such publications as Life Magazine, which brought the world of natural disasters, war and high fashion to Middle America

    1905: Sailors aboard the Russian Warship Potemkin mutiny.  These events will provide the material for Battleship Potyomkin, a 1925 silent film classic directed by Sergei Eisenstein

    1906: Start of three days of anti-Jewish violence known as the Bialystok Pogrom. The violence began when “two Christian processions took place; a Catholic one through the market square celebrating Corpus Christi and an Orthodox one through Białystok’s New Town celebrating the founding of a cathedral. The Orthodox procession was followed by a unit of soldiers. A bomb was thrown at the Catholic procession and shots were fired at the Orthodox procession. A watchman of a local school, Stanislaw Milyusski, and three women Anna Demidyuk, Aleksandra Minkovskaya and Maria Kommisaryuk, were wounded. These incidents constituted signals for the beginning of the pogrom. Witnesses reported that simultaneously with the shots someone shouted “Beat the Jews!” Once the shots were fired, the violence began immediately. Mobs of thugs, including members of the Black Hundreds, began looting Jewish owned stores and apartments on Nova-Linsk Street. Policemen and soldiers who had earlier followed the Orthodox procession either allowed the violence to happen or participated in it themselves. The first day of the pogrom was chaotic. While units of the Czarist army, brought to Białystok by Russian authorities, exchanged fire with Jewish paramilitary groups, thugs armed with knives and crowbars dispersed throughout the main areas of the city to continue the pogrom.[10] Some Jewish sections of the city were protected by self-defense units, usually organized by the labor parties, which moved against the thugs and looters. They were in turn fired upon by Czarist dragoons. Thanks to the Jewish self-defense units several working class sections of the city were spared the violence and thousands of lives were saved.” 

    1907: Jacob Weinberger married Blanche Solomon.  Blanche was the daughter of I.E. and Anna Solomon one of the earliest and most successful Jewish families to settle in the Arizona Territory

    1909: The Order of Brith Abraham held its Golden Jubilee dinner at the New Star Casino in New York.  The dinner was attended by 2,000 guests including several notables the most important of which was the District Attorney Jerome who was the featured speaker for the evening.

    1909: Rabbi Judah Magnes addressed the Zionist convention being held at the Terrace Garden. Pointing to the changes that had come about in the Ottoman Empire due to the recent Turkish revolution Magnes urged the Jews to “work for an autonomous state under Turkish suzerainty rather than an independent government.”

    1911:In Glasgow, Emanuel “Manny” Shinwell “played a prominent role in the six-week strike” by the National Sailors’ and Firemen’s Union which was part of nationwide strike.

    1912: Educator and advocate for social change, Julia Richman arrives in Francefollowing an ocean crossing on the Victoria Louise and is taken to the American hospital where she was immediately operated on for appendicitis.

    1916: Samuel Utermeyer attended the Democratic National Convention which opened today as a delegate from New York

    1919:  Birthdate of Gene Barry.  Born Eugene Klass in Brooklyn, New York, Barry went on to a long, commercially successful career in film and television.  He often played suave, sophisticated types whose voices never betrayed even a bit of Brooklyn.  Barry played a starring role in the 1950’s version of War of the Worlds.

    1920: Birthdate of Dr. Arnall Patzin an ophthalmologist whose research upset medical convention but ended up saving countless babies from blindness. He was born in rural Elberton, Ga., the youngest of seven children. His father, an immigrant from Lithuania, was a peddler who insisted on maintaining Jewish customs in Elberton, where his was the only Jewish family. He passed away in 2010 at the age of 89.

    1921:  During a speech in the House of Commons, Winston Churchill, who had just returned from a visit to the Middle East, praises the accomplishments of the Zionist settlers and describes how the Arabs have benefited from their efforts.  He denounced as “disgraceful” any action of the British government that would such progress to “fanatical attacks” by outsiders.

    1921:  During a debate on Palestine, Lord Winterton “warned Churchill that once you begin to buy land for the purpose of settling Jewish cultivators you will find yourself up against the hereditary antipathy which exists all over world to the Jewish race.” It would seem that from the earliest days, there was a direct connection between being anti-Zionist and anti-Semitic.

    1925: Birthdate of Serge Moscovici a Romanian born Jew who survived the Holocaust escaped from his native country following the Communist takeover and settled in France where, among other things he founded the “European Laboratory of Social Psychology.”

    1927: Flag Day celebrated today commemorates the 150thanniversary of the adoption of the design for the American flag by Congress.  On the previous Shabbat, in response to a resolution adopted by the Synagogue Council of America, rabbis devoted their sermons to this topic.

    1929: Birthdate of Seymour Kaufman who gained fame as Cy Coleman the Tony Award winning composer and pianist.

    1929(6th of Sivan, 5689): Shavuot

    1931: Deadline for submitting results of delegate election to the Executive of the Jewish Agency which is making plans for the Seventeenth Zionist Congress.

    1934(1st of Tammuz, 5694): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1934: A Nuremberg court sentenced a non-Jewish wife of a Jew to four months in prison as a ‘race-defiling female.'

    1934: Hitler met with Mussolini for the first time.  Hitler was the junior partner at this first meeting.  As the thirties progressed the roles would be reversed and Mussolini would shift his policies to satisfy the Nazi dictator.

    1934: With a Star of David on his boxing shorts, Max Baer KO'd Primo Carnera in 11rounds to win the World Heavyweight Championship. However, Baer’s Jewish persona was considered to be more of a box office thing than a religious reality. Born in 1909 in Nebraska, his mother was Scotch-Irish and his father was described as "only nominally Jewish." Baer himself married a Catholic and did not take part in Jewish activities.

    1935: In Paris, Jacques Schiffrin “a Russian Jew who had emigrated to France where he worked as publisher and his wife gave birth author/editor Andre Schiffrin the Yale University graduate whose life story can be found in his 2007 autobiography A Political Education: Coming of Age in Paris and New York.

    1936: Birthdate of Avraham Shochat, the Tel Aviv native, who helped found the city Arad and has served as an MK and held several cabinet posts.

    1936: The Palestine Post reported that once more the JezreelValley settlements of Kfar Yehezkel and Tel Yosef were singled out for concentrated Arab attacks. The settlement of Sejera in Lower Galilee suffered its stormiest night ‚ grain and cornfields were set on fire and over 250 old olive trees were cut down. After all Arab train passengers left a train at Kalkilya, a bomb thrown inside one of the coaches injured 18 Jews near Tulkarm.

    1936:In attacks in and around Jerusalem today Arabs wounded five Jewish truck and bus drivers as well as an additional number of and workers, two of whom are in a serious condition. Only recently, in the same vicinity, Jewish travelers were killed in similar attacks.

    1937: Chaim Weizmann wrote to Winston Churchill thanking him for the support he had given to Zionist cause by trying to convince Colonial Secretary William Ormsby-Gore that the Southern part of Palestineshould not be incorporated into any future Arab state that would be set up in Palestine.

    1938: All Jewish businesses that have not already been registered and marked must now comply with the Reich requirement

    1940: Auschwitz was opened. Approximately 2.5 million people were killed and another 500,000 died of starvation and disease there. The first inmates, included teachers, priests, and other non-Jewish Poles,

    1940:Artist Jan Komskiwas in the first group of about 750 prisoners assigned to Auschwitz, in southern Poland, on the day it opened. His number, 564, was tattooed on his forearm.

    1940: German Forces entered Paris. At the time France housed 300,000 Jews. Ernst Weiss, noted novelist and German-Jewish refugee who was living in Paris commits suicide.

    1940: In Paris, Gestapo officers went to the flat of Walter Benjamin with the intent of arresting the expatriate German intellectual.  They failed because Benjamin and his sister had already left Paris for Lurdes.

    1941: Etty Hillesum, a student at AmsterdamUniversity described the treatment of Dutch Jews by the Nazis.  “More arrests, more terror, concentration camps, the arbitrary dragging of fathers, sisters, brothers.  Everything seems so menacing and ominous, and always that feel of total impotence.”

    1941: As the Final Solution came into full fury, 400 Jews were deported from Estonia.

    1941: In the Netherlands, based on a decree by the German occupiers, today was the last day on which doctorate degrees could be issued to Jews.  Physicist Albert Pais, who had completed his doctoral work on June 9, was the last Jew to earn a doctorate in the Netherlands until World War II came to an end.

    1942:  Anne Frank begins to keep a diary

    1942: Two thousand Jews break out of Dzisna, Byelorussia

    1944: Two thousand Jews are deported from Corfu, Greece, to Auschwitz.

    1944(23rd of Sivan, 5704):  Leon Sakkis was killed by German machine-gun fire while aiding a wounded comrade in Thessaly, Greece. Sakkis was part of a group of Jewish resistance fighters, who along with other partisans were working to keep the Germans from enjoying the “fruits” of the harvest taking place in Greece.

    1945: In London, Randolph Churchill, Winston Churchill’s son, tells Chaim Weizman that he ‘had tried to save 115 Jews in Yugoslavia; he has save 112, but 3 had perished.’ In 1944 Randolph Churchill had parachuted behind German lines to worth Marshall Tito and his Yugoslav partisans in the fight against the Nazis.  As part of that mission, young Randolph worked to have Palestinian Jews parachuted into Europe to help the partisans and to try and rescue the Jews who had not gone to the Death Camps. 

    1946: Bernard Baruch - widely seen by many scientists and some members of Truman's administration as unqualified for the task - presented his Baruch Plan, a modified version of the Acheson-Lilienthal plan, to the UNAEC, which proposed international control of then-new atomic energy. The Soviet Union rejected Baruch's proposal as unfair given the fact that the U.S. already had nuclear weapons, instead proposing that the U.S. eliminate its nuclear weapons before a system of controls and inspections was implemented. A stalemate ensued.

    1948(7thof Sivan, 5708): Second Day of Shavuot

    1950: An Israeli army spokesman denied Jordanian charges that Arabs who had infiltrated Israel “had been mistreated while being returned across the frontier” to Jordan.  What the Jordanians have not explained is why the Hashemites allow their Kingdom to be used as base for those who want to enter Israel with the intention to attack the Jewish population.

    1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that Mapai won eight of 11 seats in Migdal Gad's first municipal council elections. Hapoel Hamizrahi won two and Mapam one. While there were 1,973 eligible voters, only 1,543 actually voted. Nine additional clothing points and 11 shoe points were released for the month of July. The Kaiser-Frazer plant in Haifa which was hailed as a model of American production efficiency assembled the first cars for sale in Israel.

    1951: In Albuquerque, NM, premiere of “Ace in the Hole” directed, produced and written by Billy Wilder.

    1952: Birthdate of Leon Wieseltier, editor of The New Republic and the author of “Kaddish” one of the finest books of its kind which Theodore Bikel did a marvelous job of recording.

    1952: The keel is laid for the nuclear submarine USS Nautilus.  This was a major milestone in the creation of America’s ace-in-the-hole in the Cold War – the fleet of nuclear attack submarines against which the Soviets never did develop an effective defense. Admiral Hyman Rickover, who suffered his share of anti-Semitism in the Navy, was the father of the nuclear Navy and the submarine fleet.

    1953(1stof Tammuz, 5713): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1953: Herbert Aptheker was listed as a Sponsor of The National Committee to Secure Justice for the Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell

    1953: One hundred and eight bachelor’s degrees were awarded during the commencement ceremony at Brandeis University.  It was the newly created school’s second commencement ceremony.  Rabbi Louis Ginzberg, Professor of Talmud and Rabbinics at JTS and George Alpert, Chairman of the Brandeis Board of Trustees received honorary degrees during the ceremony.

    1954:  U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs a bill into law that places the words “under God" to the United States’ Pledge of Allegiance.  Despite its apparent invocation of the divinity, this insertion did not evoke a storm of protest in the name of separation of church and state.  Everybody knew that this was a political statement, not a religious one.  At the height of the Cold War, it was a line in the stand between the West and the forces of “mindless, godless Communism.

    1954(13thof Sivan, 5714): In Shenandoah, VA, “education advocate, philanthropist, art collector, and college trustee Margaret Seligman Lewisohn passed away today.

    1956: U.S. released date for the “Catered Affair” directed by Richard Brooks, produced by Sam Zimbalist and based on Paddy Chayefsky television play.

    1958: Birthdate of Wafa Sultan a Syrian born American author and critic of Muslim society and Islam who trained as a psychiatrist in Syria. Following one of her critiques of Moslem culture in which she said "no Jew has blown himself up in a German restaurant" the American Jewish Congress invited her to visit Jerusalem.

    1959: David Joel Horowitz, the founder of the David Horowitz Freedom Center, married Elissa Krauthamer in a Yonkers, NY synagogue.

    1967(6th of Sivan, 5727): First Day of Shavuot

    1967(6th of Sivan, 5727): On the First Day of Shavuot an estimated 200,000 gathered in and around the Wall to celebrate the first major festival following the reunification of Jerusalem.  When Teddy Kollek appeared at the Wall he was hailed “as the first Mayor of Greater Jerusalem.”

    1967: A contingent of Mossad agents that had fanned out across the West Bank to meet with members of the Palestinian elite immediately following the Six Day War submitted their classified report to the head of Military Intelligence. It argued that an independent Palestinian state should be established as quickly as possible in the West Bankand Gaza Strip, "under the auspices" of the Israel Defense Forces and "in agreement with the Palestinian leadership." They suggested that the borders of the Palestinian state be based on the 1949 armistice lines that had served as the border until earlier that month, with some minor adjustments. "In order to enable an honorable agreement," the document continued, Israel should "take upon itself the initiative to solve the [refugee] problem once and for all" by organizing an international effort to resettle them in the new Palestinian state.

    1972: Martin Dies, former member of the House of Representatives from Texas passed away and Chairman of the House Un-American Activities Committee.  A man of considerable influence in his day, Dies was a red- baiting reactionary who, among other things, was an anti-Semite.

    1976: The Jerusalem Post reported that Ephraim Katzir became the first president of Israel to be entertained at the WindsorCastle by Queen Elizabeth of England. A British naval vessel arrived in Haifa to purchase provisions for the Royal Navy in the eastern Mediterranean. The British military attaché told the Post that "Haifa is a friendly port" and was therefore chosen. Such purchases have not been made in Haifa in the past.

    1982: Israeli tanks cut off Muslim West Beirut, trapping leaders of the PLO,

    1985: TWA Flight 847 is hijacked by Hezbollah.  Long before 9/11, Moslem fanatics were making war against the West.  Supported by Iran, Hezbollah splits its time between terrorist activities aimed at Israel, trying to control Lebanon and making war against Western civilization.

    1986(7th of Sivan, 5746): Sixty-seven year old composer Alan Jay Lerner passed away. In one of the many cultural ironies that are so much a part of the American scene, Lerner composed with fellow Jew to write “Camelot,” a musical about English king that became a Broadway and cinematic classic that was loved by JFK, the first American Catholic President. (As reported by Samuel G. Freedman)

    1986(7th of Sivan, 5746): Second Day of Shavuot

    1987:The annual International Israel Festival which began on May 18 is scheduled to come to an end today.

    1997(9thof Sivan, 5757):  Seventy-seven year old Jay Ziskin, the California psychologist and lawyer who was the father of movie producer Laura Ziskin passed away

    1998: The New York Timesfeatured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including “Ghost Country” by Sara Paretsky

    2005(7th of Sivan, 5765):  Second Day of Shavuot

    2004(25th of Sivan, 5764):Max J. Rosenberg, “an American film producer, whose film career stretched across six decades” passed away in Los Angeles at the age of 89.  “He was particularly noted for his horror or supernatural films, and found much of his success while working in England. Rosenberg was born in the Bronx, New York. In 1945 he entered the film business by becoming a foreign film distributor. Although he primarily produced horror or supernatural films, his first film Rock, Rock, Rock (1956) was a musical. His partner in this film was Milton Subotsky, and the two would start the British company Amicus Productions in 1964. During his career he produced more than 50 films, on some of which he was not credited. Among the horror and supernatural films he produced were such titles as Tales from the Crypt (1972), The Land That Time Forgot (1975), and its sequel, The People That Time Forgot (1977). In 1957 he produced the first horror film in color, The Curse of Frankenstein. Rosenberg also produced a children's film, Lad, a Dog (1962), a pair of films based on the Doctor Who series, and director Richard Lester's first film, It's Trad, Dad! (1962). He was particularly proud to have produced the 1968 film of Harold Pinter’s The Birthday Party, starring Robert Shaw and directed by William Friedkin. He worked well into his 80s; his final film credit was 1997's Perdita Durango aka Dance With the Devil.

    2006:Leaders of the largest Orthodox rabbinical organization in the U.S. have reached a compromise regarding overseas conversions with Chief Rabbi Shlomo Amar.

    2007(28thof Sivan, 5767):Shirlee Mages, whose father owned a thriving Roosevelt Road restaurant in the 1930s and '40s and whose husband put his name on a sporting goods chain, died today at the  age 88 “in her Gold Coast home of natural causes, said her daughter, Lili Ann Zisook. Mrs. Mages was the widow of Morrie Mages, a 1950s Chicago television staple who was often in the company of the late broadcaster Jack Brickhouse touting his sporting-goods stores through the sponsorship of a late-night movie called "Mages Playhouse." Morrie Mages and his family had a chain of 14 stores in the 1960s, but the business ran into hard times and was sold. That led Mrs. Mages to take a job managing the Pompian Shop, a ladies boutique on Michigan Avenue, her daughter said. "My mother was just a woman who did what she had to do," Zisook said. Morrie Mages subsequently rebounded with a smaller chain, anchored by a store at LaSalle and Ontario Streets. He died in 1988 at 72. Mrs. Mages, born Shirlee Gold, grew up in the Lawndale neighborhood. Her father, Meyer, owned Gold's Restaurant at 810 W. Roosevelt Rd. Gold's had a ballroom where many weddings were celebrated and future musical star Benny Goodman would sometimes play clarinet there, Zisook said. After her graduation from Marshall High School, Mrs. Mages attended Northwestern University before getting married in 1939. Always strong with numbers, she worked as a stock broker in the 1950s, her daughter said. In retirement, during which she wintered in Palm Springs, Calif., she was devoted to the mastery of canasta and mah jongg. Mrs. Mages survived bouts with breast and colon cancer and quadruple bypass surgery, her daughter said. "She was such a strong woman, not so much physically, but her mind," Zisook said. When her husband was alive, the couple organized the Morrie and Shirlee Mages Foundation, which provided sports equipment to needy youths. After his death, she led the charge to name a playground in Lincoln Park after her late husband.

    2007: An exhibition entitled The Other Promised Land: Vacationing, Identity, and the Jewish-American Dream opens at the Museum of Jewish Heritage in New York.

    2007: In a press release, HebrewUniversity announces that “the valuable and unique Nuremberg Mahzor of 1331 has been scanned and uploaded to the Internet site of the Jewish National and University Library of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. The Nuremberg Mahzor can be viewed at:

    2008: “State Renews Efforts to Bring Disputed Jewish Manuscripts From Russia published today described theefforts by the state of Israel to bring the Ginzburg Collection from Russia to a permanent home in the Jewish state.

    2009: Esther M. Sternberg, a doctor and the author of The Balance Within: The Science Connecting Health and Emotions, discusses and signs her new book Healing Spaces: The Science of Place and Well-Beingat Politics and Prose, in Washington, D.C.

    2009: The Washington Post featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including “Rosenfeld’s Lives: Fame, Oblivion, and the Furies of Writing” by Steven J. Zipperstein and “The American Future: A History” by Simon Schama.

    2009: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including 1948: A History of the First Arab-Israeli War by Benny Morris, Weimar Germany: Promise and Tragedy by Eric D. Weitz and Atmospheric Disturbances by Rivka Galchen.

    2009:A Kassam rocket fired by Gaza terrorists hit the Ashkelon Beach region this afternoon.
    2010: Shabtai Rosenne was appointed to the Israeli special independent public Turkel Commission of Inquiry into the Gaza flotilla raid

    2010: The long history and deep roots of Jews in the Tar Heel state are coming to life in an ambitious new multimedia project that is scheduled to begin today with an exhibit at the North Carolina Museum of History in Raleigh. “Down Home,” which encompasses a slickly produced documentary film and handsomely illustrated coffee-table book, celebrates Jewish contributions to North Carolina social, civic and commercial life. But the project also aims to capture a nearly vanished way of life for Jews in the state’s mill and market towns, according to Leonard Rogoff, an organizer of the project and historian at the Jewish Heritage Foundation of North Carolina, which is producing “Down Home.”  “Elderly Jews who lived the rural small-town experience are an endangered species,” said Rogoff, who also authored the companion book, “Down Home: Jewish Life in North Carolina” (University of North Carolina Press, 2010). “Synagogues have shuttered in cities like Tarboro and Lumberton. Smaller communities are expiring. We need to document them.” The project “tells an important part of our state’s story,” wrote Linda A. Carlisle, Secretary of the North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources, in an e-mail to the Forward. “Jewish culture has helped shape North Carolina in its rural areas as well as its urban centers for centuries.” North Carolina’s state legislature kicked in $350,000 toward the project’s $1.25 million budget, according to Rogoff; the rest came from foundation grants and individual donations. The investment has paid off with research that “contributes new insights into Jews in the South,” Rogoff said. “Histories typically focus on the pre-Civil War era and German-Reform Jews as normative southerners. We’ve emphasized the East European experience in the New South as well, and it’s updated to include the Sunbelt.” Rogoff’s team at JHFNC is also creating classroom material for 4th- and 8th-grade “People of North Carolina” courses in the state’s public schools with talks about expanding the lessons “across all grades and disciplines,” he said. According to Rogoff, the “Down Home” project tells stories of Jews from Joachim Gans, who arrived on Roanoke Island on Sir Walter Raleigh’s expedition in 1585, to Jacob Henry, who in 1809 delivered a speech in defense of religious freedom after his right to serve in the state legislature was challenged. And it spotlights civil-rights era heroes like Harry Golden, publisher of the esteemed The Carolina Israelite newspaper, “known nationally for his civil-rights advocacy, delivered in a Lower East Side accent,” Rogoff said. In a folksier vein, the book, film, and exhibit highlight experiences of prominent, prosperous families like the clan of Eli Evans, whose own history provides one narrative thread of the “Down Home” project. Evans’s paternal grandfather was an immigrant peddler, his mother’s father a shopowner; his businessman father, Emanuel, became a wildly popular six-term mayor of Durham in the 1950s, and his mother Sara served on Hadassah’s national board for 40 years. Now a New Yorker, Evans himself went on to write what many consider the definitive history of southern Jews, “The Provincials” (University of North Carolina Press, 1973), which has continuously been in print for nearly three decades. “The story of the Jews is the untold story of the South,” said Evans, a onetime speechwriter for President Lyndon Baines Johnson who went on to run several charitable endowments, including the Carnegie Foundation. “The region has whatever image it has from whatever violence there was. But that’s not the story of the Jews. Ours is the story of successful integration and good relationships.” The Jewish experience in North Carolina was unique in the South, Evans said, because North Carolina was unique in the South. “We didn’t have a strong Klan in our state. We had a commitment to public education, a more moderate political atmosphere, and enlightened political leaders,” he said. “I’m not saying no antisemitism existed. But there was a philo-Semitism that manifested itself in many ways.” The exhibit itself, which will travel across North Carolina over the next year, uses artifacts and photos to recreate a series of “environments”: A synagogue sanctuary, dry-goods store, family Sabbath table, and a study based on Harry Golden’s Charlotte home. The 81-minute “Down Home” DVD documentary, (available through the JHFNC’s website), complements the museum show with a somewhat academic mix of archival footage, insightful interviews and unfortunately costumed re-enactments. While the exhibit’s partly intended to educate North Carolinians about their own history, Rogoff said he hopes “Down Home” might reach other Jews — especially from the Northeast. “All native southern Jews have humorous stories about meeting New Yorkers who cannot believe that Jews actually live in the South,” he said. “They associate a New York accent, not a southern drawl, with being Jewish. That’s a very old cliché. New Yorkers especially can be terribly parochial, and the famous Saul Steinberg cartoon of a terra incognita beyond the Hudson aptly illustrates their provincialism.” While it spends a lot of time looking back, the “Down Home” project also suggests a Jewish southern future that looks increasingly suburban and metropolitan. “Jews are finding opportunities in the hospitals, universities, research laboratories, and financial centers that have typified the development of the state’s post-industrial economy,” said Rogoff. “North Carolina is especially inviting for two-career couples where both are professionals. Newcomers who explore the local Jewish communities generally report finding warm welcomes, contrasting the neighborliness with what they found up north. You get a heckuva lot more house for the money, and the climate is a whole lot better.” But one area where Rogoff admitted the North may have an edge is bagels. “There isn’t much aside from the ubiquitous Bruegger’s,” he said. “Cary [near Raleigh] and Chapel Hill have independent bagel makers, but a really good deli and Jewish-style bakery are opportunities waiting to happen. “

    2010: Israeli superstar David Broza is scheduled to perform at (Le) Poisson Rouge in New York.

    2010(2nd of Tammuz, 5770): One of the Israeli police officers, Yehushua "Shuki" Sofer, who was shot in a terror attack on a patrol car this morning in the Hebron Hills area has succumbed to his wounds. “

    2011:Rabbi Bernice K. Weiss, author of “Converting to Judaism - Choosing to be Chosen: Personal Stories” is scheduled to lead Basic Judaism for Jews and Non-Jews Alike” a “7-part series that provides an overview of the Bible, Shabbat ritual and observances, how to observe kashrut and the Jewish laws of death and mourning” at the Historic 6th and I Synagogue in Washington, DC.

    2011: The 8th Grade Graduation is scheduled to take place at the Hillel Day School of Metro Detroit.

    2011: Flag Day is celebrated in the United States to mark the anniversary of the Continental Congress’ adoption an official flag.  According to Dr. Gary Zola, the Stars and Stripes probably made their first appearance in American synagogues during the period surrounding the assassination of President Lincoln.  This coincided with the Union victory that marked the end of the Civil War and a feeling of patriotism was running at full flood.  Zola thinks, although he can offer no proof, that American flags appeared on the bima at Jewish houses of worship during the First World War, another period of patriotic fervor.  Dr. Jonathan Sarna believes that  the custom of displaying the flag in houses of worship – Jewish as well as Christian – dates back to the Spanish American War of 1898.  This also was a period of great patriotic fervor, marking a popular war that enabled those of the North & South to join together in common cause.  Regardless of when the flags first appeared, by the 1930’s they were a permanent ornamentation on the bimah, possibly as antidote to the simmering anti-Semitism that was part and parcel of the Great Depression.

    2011: National Infrastructure Minister Uzi Landau instructed Noble Energy to develop the Noa North gas reserve in the Noa license after concerns that the field spilled over into Palestinian territory.

    2011: Actress Natalie Portman has given birth to a baby boy fathered by a choreographer she met while she filmed her Oscar-winning role in Black Swan, People magazine reported today.

    2011:Today brought strange weather to both the northern and southern regions of Israel. Meteorologists confirmed that the ash cloud from an Eritrean volcano had indeed reached Eilat, but authorities insisted there was no health danger to civilians and also that flights at both Eilat Airport and Ben-Gurion International Airport were running on schedule.In the north of the country, residents of the Golan and Galilee regions were surprised this morning to awake to rain, an extremely rare occurrence during the summer months.

    2011:President Shimon Peres visited the Negev Beduin village of Hura today, praising the community as a prime example of Negev development. Peres received a warm welcome, and received the honorary title Sheikh Peres.

     2011:Deputy Mayor of Economic and Housing Development and Brick City Development Corporation Chair Stefan Pryor, Manischewitz Company Co-CEOs Alain Bankier and Paul Bensabat, Chief Rabbi of Israel Yona Metzger, and BCDC CEO Lyneir Richardson, will cut the ribbon to open the new Corporate Headquarters and Plant for The Manischewitz Company,today, at 11 a.m. The facility is located at 80 Avenue K in the East Ward.

    2012: “Gershwin Shows’ Tonys  Fuel Plans for a Musical” published today described plans by the trustees of George and Ira Gershwin’s estates to produce more musicals in light of the Tony won by “The Gershwins’ Porgy and Bess’ which won in the musical-revival category.

    2012: Anouk Markovits, author of I Am Forbidden is scheduled to have a reading at McNally-Jackson on Prince Street in NYC.

    2012: A Palestinian sniper in the southern Gaza Strip fired at an Israeli farmer working in a field near Kibbutz Nir Oz in the Eshkol Regional Council area today.

    2012: Mahler on the Couch is scheduled to complete it New York City theatrical run

    2012: The Jewish Museum of Australia is scheduled to host the media preview of its newest permanent exhibition, “Calling Australia Home"

    2012: “SERET 2012” – the first London Israeli Film & Television Festival opened in London.  Seret is the Hebrew word for “movie.”

    2013: “Man of Steel,” a blockbuster film that brings Superman back to the screen is scheduled to be released to the general public today in covnentail , 3D and IMAZ theatres.   Superman is creation of Jerru Siegel and Jose Shuster.  David S. Goyer wrote the screenplay and Israeli actress Auyelter Zurer plays the role of Superman’s mother.

    2013: “Fill the Void,” a film that “tells the story an Orthodox Chassidic family from Tel Aviv” is scheduled to open in several new venues including the Music Box Theatre in Chicago and the Ritz at The Bourse 5 in Philadelphia.

    2013: U.S. Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel is scheduled to meet with Defense Minister Moshe Yaalon in Washington, DC.

    2013: In the United States, observance of Flag Day, a holiday pioneered by Ben Altheimer, Sr. a Jewish businessman from Arkansas who convinced President Woodrow Wilson to adopt it as a national holiday in 1916.

    2013: According to a Lebanese report today, embattled Syrian President Bashar Assad plans to open a “resistance” front on the Golan Heights and thinks such a move could unify the various factions in Syria.

    2013:Representatives passed a defense authorization bill that would make it U.S. policy to take “all necessary steps” to ensure Israel is able to “remove existential threats,” among them nuclear facilities in Iran.  “It is the policy of the United States to take all necessary steps to ensure that Israel possesses and maintains an independent capability to remove existential threats to its security and defend its vital national interests,” said the amendment to the National Defense Authorization Act passed today. (As reported by JTA)

    2013: Donald Carr, the president of The Canadian Jewish News announced today that the board of director has confirmed that the print newspaper which has been publishing for the last 53 years will continue to publish canceling earlier plans to cancel the paper on June 20th.(JTA and JPOst)

    2013: “Judge Judy” starring Judith Sheindlin won its first Daytime Emmy for Outstanding Legal/Courtroom Program on its 15th nomination

    2013: A top commander of a Nazi SS-led unit accused of burning villages filled with women and children lied to American immigration officials to get into the United States and has been living in Minnesota since shortly after World War II, according to evidence uncovered by The Associated Press.

    2014: “Operation Sunflower” and “Hanna’s Journey” are scheduled to be shown at the Israel Film Center Festival be held at the JCC of Manhattan.

    2014: The ZviDance which has already given a special performance sponsored by Israel’s Office of Cultural Affairs is scheduled to perform for the last time in New York City.

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    JUNE 15

    1215:  King John of England puts his seal to the Magna Carta.  The Great Charter which is supposed to be one of the cornerstones of English and American rights contains the following reference to the Jews: “If anyone who borrowed from the Jews any amount, large or small, dies before the debt is repaid, it shall not carry interest as long s the heir is under age, of whomsoever he holds; and if that debt falls in our hands [i.e., the king’s hands, following the Jewish creditor’s own demise], we will take nothing except the principal sum specified in the bond.” King John and the Barons both saw the Jews as a source of revenue to be used and abused.

    1226: Twelve Jews of Cologne martyred

    1389: Murad I, the Ottoman Sultan whose reign began in 1362, allowed Jews fleeing from persecution in Hungary to settle in Thrace and Anatolia which were part of his empire. On the same day, the forces of Murad fought the Serbs in the Battle of Kosovo, a battle that would be a rallying point for Serbs in the Balkan battles of the 1990’s

    1520: Leo X issued the papal encyclical 'Exsurge Domine,' which condemned German Reformer Martin Luther as a heretic on 41 counts and branded him an enemy of the Roman Catholic Church.  This moved heightened the tensions between Romeand those whom they saw as rebels.  This event was one of the steps in the division of Europeinto Protestant and Roman Catholic states.  This conflict would lead to the Hundred Years War.  Too often, the Jews would be innocent bystanders in this Christian conflict that would turn them into victims.  Much of the treatment of the Jews in Christian Europe can only be understood if it is seen against the backdrop of this theocratic conflict.

    1567: Jews of Genoawere expelled. Jews had been living in Genoa since the 6thcentury.  They had been expelled from the city in 1515, readmitted in 1516 and expelled again in 1550.  This expulsion would be short-lived since “permission to engage in moneylending and to open shops” was again granted to the Jews in 1570. (As reported by the Jewish Virtual Library)

    1580: Phillip II of Spain declares William I, Prince of Orange, to be an outlaw. William led the Dutch revolt against the Spanish that started the Eighty Years War, which ended in 1648 with recognition of the independence of the United Provinces (aka The Netherlands). The Netherlands were Protestant and they provided a refuge for the Jews of Europe including those fleeing the Spanish Inquisition begun by Phillip’s predecessors and continued by his successors.

    1623: Cornelis de Witt was killed by an angry mob from the monarchist, Orangist-Calvinist faction. De Witt and his brother had admired the works of Spinoza.  News of his death was quite disturbing for Spinoza since it could presage the rise of a conservative faction that would not be tolerant of unconventional thinkers like himself.

    1798(1stof Tammuz, 5558): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1826: Sultan Mahmud II destroyed the Janissary soldiers as part of his reforms for his empire. This was said to be a "great boon" for the Jews, who were often harassed by these soldiers.

    1815: Birthdate of Rudolph Carl Hertzog, the father of Louis Rudolph Hertzog and the grandfather Rudolph Hertzog who in 1839 founded the famous Berlin department store that bore his name - Rudolph Hertzog

    1833: Birthdate of Theodor Hermann Meynert, the non-Jewish psychiatrist whose students included Josef Breuer and Sigmund Frued.

    1834: In what will be the first of three days of violence, “members of the local Arab population gathered to attack Tzfat’s Jewish community. Jewish property was plundered, as Jewish homes, businesses and synagogues were burnt to the ground. Jewish women were tortured and raped. Many Jews were murdered or maimed.”  Tzfat is the town in Israel famous for its connection with Jewish mystics.  It is "the home of Lecha Dodi" the hymn used to welcome the Sabbath Queen. [This was not an isolated episode. Ever since the 16th century the town which is also called Safed, became a major Jewish center it was subject to

    1835: Birthdate of Adah Isaacs Menken, American actress and poet. Adah Menken’s true religious origins are controversial. Born in Louisiana in 1835 to Auguste and Marie Theodore, some historians believe that she was raised a Catholic, an assertion that Menken herself denied. In response to a journalist who called her a convert, Menken replied, "I was born in [Judaism], and have adhered to it through all of my erratic career. Through that pure and simple religion I have found greatest comfort and blessing.” In 1857, Adah and Alexander, (the first of her four husbands) moved from New Orleans to Cincinnati, then the center of Reform Judaism in America. Adah learned to read Hebrew fluently and studied classical Jewish texts. It was at this time that Adah’s other artistic and intellectual talents emerged. An aspiring writer, she contributed poems and essays on Judaism to Isaac Mayer Wise’s weekly newspaper, The Israelite. Menken saw herself as a latter-day Deborah, advocating for Jewish communities around the world.  In the 1860’s, Menken earned world fame in an equestrian melodrama, "Mazeppa." She daringly appeared on stage playing the role of a man, wearing nothing but a flesh-colored body stocking, riding a horse on a ramp that extended into the audience. Menken’s costume scandalized "respectable" critics—even as it attracted huge and enthusiastic audiences that included such notables as Walt Whitman and the great Shakespearean actor, Edwin Booth. She died of t.b. at the age of 33 while living in Paris.  To give you an idea of how famous she was, Napoleon IIIsent his personal physician to care for her.  Yet today, she is a less than a footnote in history. She passed away at the age of 33 in 1868.

    1836: Arkansas is admitted as the 25th state to join the Union. There were only a handful of Jews living in the land of the Razorbacks.  Probably the first Jew to live in the state was Captain Abraham Block who moved there in the 1820’s with his family of seven and became a prominent merchant who proudly maintained his Jewish identity.  For more about the small, but vibrant Arkansas Jewish community see A Corner of the Tapestry: A History of the Jewish Experience in Arkansas, 1820s-1990s by Carolyn Gray LeMaster.

    1847:In a discussing the matter of Jewish emancipation Otto Von Bismarck said today that Prussia was indeed a Christian state and that Jews could not expect equality within it. They could only hold a subordinate position. That might not be perfectly Christian, but admitting the Jews into Prussia would not make Prussia itself more Christian. What the Jews most wanted, he said was to become military and civilian officers of the state and that was quite out of the question.

    1864: A portion of the lands surrounding the Custis-LeeMansionacross the Potomac River from Washington become ArlingtonNationalCemetery.  Over 2,000 Jewish veterans are buried at ArlingtonNationalCemetery.  Over six thousand Jews fought for the Union and about half that number fought on the side of the Confederacy.  Five Union Civil War Veterans are buried in Section Thirteen.  Two Rabbis who served as chaplains buried at Arlington are Captain Joshua Goldberg and Admiral Betram W. Korn.  Other famous Jews buried at Arlington are Arthur Goldberg, an Air Force Colonel better known for his service as Secretary of Labor, Associate Supreme Court Justice and U.N. Ambassador, The “Atomic Admiral”, Hyman Rickover, Astronaut Judith Resnick, Ambassadors Robert Guggenheim and Samuel D. Berger and Colonel Rae Landy, a veteran of both World Wars, who helped open Hadassah Hospital in 1913.  Orde Wingate, a British Major General who died in Burmaduring World War II is also buried at Arlington.  Wingate was not Jewish, but he played a significant role in Jewish history.  During the 1930’s, he was stationed in Palestine.  He was one of the few British officers who were sympathetic to the Zionist cause.  Among other things, he helped train the Jewish self-defense forces teaching them the arts of small unit combat and night fighting.  Two of his most famous students were Moshe Dayan and Yigal Allon.

    1870: It was reported today that the review of Disraeli’s latest novel Lothairthat appeared in Blackwood goes beyond the bounds of a literary critique and takes on the tone of polemic that attacks the British statesman personally taking special pains to mockingly refer to his Jewish origins.

    1870: Today's "European Mail News" column reported that a petition is being circulated in Paris asking that the Grand Rabbi Isidore should be nominated to serve as a Senator.  No Jew has ever held such a position.

    1871: While visiting “the Holy Land” former Secretary of State William Seward spent part of today at the Huvra Synagogue.

    1874: Seventy-two year old German Orientalist Emil Roediger who revised Wilhelm Gesenius’ Hebrew Grammar passed away today.

    1875: In Patterson New Jersey, James A. Morrissee married Rachel Blumenthal, the daughter of a Jewish merchant from Montreal.  Blumenthal left his bride and told her he was going to Chicago on business for his wife. (These facts would be revealed in a subsequent, messy divorce proceeding).

    1876:According to a report published today the United Hebrew Charities raised $72,115.60 and the Hebrew Orphan Society raised $70,115.35 during the 1875-76 fiscal year.
    1877: “To Jew” published today provides a summary of  Richard Grant White’s  wide-ranging linguistic history on the use of that term and concludes with the  wish that the Jews “who have outlived  the Pharaohs may outlive philology. Certainly they will lived down prejudice and obloquy of which this ver is evidence reproachful only of its users.

    1877: “Where Boccaccio Gave Offense” published today provide a critical summary of the third novel of the first day entitled “Melchisedech a Jew, by recounting a Tale of three Rings”

    1878: According to reports published today "The English, French, German and Eastern branches of the Israelite Alliance have sent a delegate to" the meeting of European leaders at Berlin (Congress of Berlin) to describe "the deplorable conditions" of the Jews living in Romania and Bulgaria with the hope of gaining some relief for their co-religionists.

    1878: As "The Season" opened today at Saratoga, The Grand Union Hotel announced that will continue its policy of refusing to accept Jews as guest at the hotel.

    1879: “Why clergyman should study Hebrew” published today stresses the necessity for Christian clergymen to learn this ancient Semitic tongue. “Without such knowledge they can neither understand the Old Testament, nor the new, nor explain the relationship of the two.”

    1879: An article published today entitled "Murder That Do Not Out" explores the history of unsolved New York City murders including that of Benjamin Nathan, a wealthy New York Jew who was killed in 1870. Nathan had had his skull crushed during what appeared to be a robbery at his home.  Despite a sizeable reward and the best efforts of the police department the crime remains unsolved.

    1880: It was reported that conditions in Palestine have greatly improved over the last few years.  In Jerusalem several houses have been restored or rebuilt.  The streets are now lit and, for an Oriental city, kept clean.  Water now flows to the city through the aqueduct connected to the Pools of Solomon.  The tanneries and slaughterhouses have been outside the city walls.  Bethlehem and Nazareth are emulating many of these improvements and windows are now being placed in many buildings in these cities. These and other improvements may lead to Europeans “wintering” here. [As we know, modern Israel has become a popular tourist destination for many Europeans seeking to escape the winter.]

    1880: It was reported that “there is a fixed resolution on the part of thousands in Prussia to make that country as hot as possible for Jews” and this might force a large number of German Jews to move to Palestine. [The rise of Jews in German society coincided with a rise in anti-Semitism. In one sense this report is a prophecy of what happened in the 1930’s when German Jews left for Palestine.]

    1880: It was reported today that while a conference in Madrid concerning conditions in Morocco was at an impasse, the British government was considering joint action by all the powers in favor of religious liberty in Morocco.  At the conference, the Austrian and American governments were ready to “energetically” plead the cause of the Jews but the French and the Moroccons halted deliberations before they could do so.

    1880:It was reported today the Maurice Heineltrop, left a note for his wife before taking his own life which was written in Hebrew and begged to take care of their four children and to pay off his workers.

    1882(28thof Sivan, 5642): Julius Porges, the Principal of Hebrew Free School Number 8 passed away today by his own hand.

    1883:In Dukora, a small village in Minsk Governorate, Zev Volf and Brokhe Tsharni (née Hurwitz) gave birth to Shmuel Ṭsharni who gained fame as Shmuel Niger as a leading Yiddish literary figure in Russia and then the United States.  

    1886: In a sign of an ecumenical spirit that was rare for this time in history it was reported that Dr. B.M. Palmer, a Presbyterian minister delivered the eulogy at the funeral of Rabbi James K. Gutheim of Temple Sinai.  Other signs of the esteem in which he was held by the non-Jewish community was a floral offering from Christ Episcopal Church and attendance at the funeral by several minister including the Father Hubert who was a Jesuit.

    1887: “Wanted by Two Wives” published today described a strange case of bigamy involving Abraham Bernstein who deserted his wife and family in Port Chester, NY and then married a woman in nearby Glenville, Conn.  The two women have become aware of the situation and have sworn out a warrant for his arrest.  The “husband” has disappeared. [It can’t all be about Nobel Prize winners and great scholars]

    1887: A fire swept through Botosani, Romania destroying over a thousand buildings most of which were occupied by Jews and leaving 8,000 people homeless and on the verge of starvation. Jews made up a large part of the population of this city in Northeast Romania.  By the first decade of the 20th century 72% of the city’s population would be Jewish, “the highest percentage of any large city in the world at that time.”

    1888:  Crown Prince Wilhelm becomes Kaiser Wilhelm II. Ten years after coming to the throne, the Kaiser would visit Jerusalem in 1898 where Herzl tried, and failed, to interest him creating a Jewish homeland in Palestine.

    1888: It was reported today that Newton Harrison was the top performing student in the First Class at the Hebrew Technical Institute while Samuel Schneider was the top student in the Second Class and Max Lowenthal was the top student in the third school.  The institute was created to provide free vocational training for young Jewish boys.

    1889: In Sudlekov (Zhidachov), Ukraine, Rose Schwartz and grain dealer Isaac Schwartz gave birth to Avram Moishe Schwartz who gained fame as Maurice Schwartz the theatre and film actor who founded the Yiddish Art Theatre at New York in 1918.

    1890: “Talmudic Quibbles” published today provides a commentary on the verse from Genesis “The Lord said, ‘Because the cry of Sodom and Gomorrah is great.’” (What makes this worth noting is that it was published in a leading American secular daily paper and not some obscure Yiddish or Hebrew language journal.)

    1890: The New York Times reviews “The Montefiores: Diaries of Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore” an illustrated two volume work edited by Dr. L. Lowe and his sons, based on the actual diaries of these two notables in which they recorded the events from 1812 through 1883.

    1890: “The closing exercises of the Sabbath school of Temple Ahawath Chesed took place this afternoon at the 55th Street and Lexington Avenue

    1891: Rabbi Gustav Gottheil presided over the opening session of the Jewish Ministers’ of America thirteenth convention which was being held at the Gates of Heaven Temple on 15th Street.

    1891: “Judge Andrews, in Supreme Court Chambers reserved his decision on a motion to have transferred to Montgomery County for trial a suit brought by Gustave A. Epstein against David Straus of Amsterdam, NY to recover $10,000 malicious prosecution.”  Epstein and Straus were Jewish businessman.  Andrews was not Jewish.

    1891 In Philadelphia, PA, hundreds of Jewish and Russian tailors went on strike this morning.

    1893: The Senatorial Committee chaired by Senator David B. Hill which has been looking into immigration practices at Ellis Island, including the treatment of Jewish immigrants will leave New York to continue its work in Oklahoma, Utah, New Mexico, Arizona and California.

    1893: In “Russians Fear the Jews” published today Colonel Weber, the former U.S. Immigration Commissioner takes issue with the claim by the Secretary of the Russian Legation that the laws limiting the rights of Jews are a matter of religion and are a matter of economic survival citing his observation that Jews who convert to the Orthodox religion are still discriminated against.

    1894: It was reported today that Joseph Herman Hertz who has a PhD from Columbia has been ordained by the Jewish Theological Seminary.  Henry M. Speaker and David Wittenberg have earned diplomas as teachers of Hebrew from JTS.

    1895: “The announcement that Mrs. Maud Craig Burke Davis is being held by police in San Francisco on charges of forgery has caused “a great sensation” among her friends and family in Rochester, NY.  Mrs. Davis comes from a prominent and wealthy family in Rochester.  Her recent marriage to J.C. Davis came as a surprise because her family was Catholic and Davis was Jewish.

    1896: Based on information that first appeared in The Fishing Gazette, it was reported today that “no one in New York except the Jews eat the buffalo carp, a fish found in the Illinois River “which does not feed on anything except vegetable matter” which is “exceedingly sweet to the taste.”  The carp was probably used by the Jews in the making of Gefilte Fish.

    1896: Herzl and Newlinski travel to Constantinople. Herzl succeeds in visiting a number of highly placed individuals, including the vizier

    1896: “Lauterbach Taunted As A Jew” published today described an episode at the Republican National Convention where Edward Lauterbach of New York was taunted by an opponent who “made a coarse remark when he coupled with an illusion to Mr. Lauterbach’s race.”

    1897: A fire of unknown origin which began last night, possibly caused by faulty wiring, turned the wooden structures on Ellis Island into ashes. No loss of life was reported, but most of the immigration records dating back to 1855 were destroyed. About 1.5 million immigrants had been processed at the first building during its five years of use. Plans were immediately made to build a new, fireproof immigration station on Ellis Island.

    1897: The Barge Office which had been the immigrant processing center from April 19, 1890 to December 31, 1891 began to fill that function again today due to the fire that had destroyed Ellis Island.

    1897: “Topics of the Times” published today included a summary of The Chicago Israelite’s opposition to plans to settle Jews in Palestine.  A Jewish return to the Palestine “without a Messiah or even the remote exception of one is an extremely odd conception.”  (The opposition to Zionism by the weekly paper should come as no surprise the editor was Leo Wise the son Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise.  But it is odd to have a pillar of Reform Judaism invoke the Messiah since Rabbi Wise and Reform Judaism had rejected the concept.)

    1897:  Starting today, the Barge Office was used as New York’s immigrant processing center as a result of the fire at Ellis Island.  This was the second time that the Barge Office was used in this capacity.

    1898: “Anti-Jew Riots in Austria” published today relies on information that first appeared in the Neue Freie Presse to described the outbreaks of anti-Semitic violence that has taken place throughout Galicia.

    1899: As of today the United Hebrew Charities has collected $80.50 following a special appeal to meeting the needs of destitute family consisting of husband and wife who have ruined their health working and their four children.  Donations have included one for $20 and one for fifty cents.

    1899: Captain Dreyfus is expected to disembark from the French cruiser Sfax at Brest which he had boarded at French Guiana on June 10.

    1900(18th of Sivan, 5660): Eighty year old. Samuel Kristeller the Polish born German physician who also was a leader of the Jewish community serving as an active member of the Deutsch-Israelitische Gemeindebund and the Society for Propagation of Handicrafts, passed away today in Berlin. (As reported by Isidor Singer and Frederick T. Haneman)

    1901: Birthdate of Sir Dove-Myer Robinson, who became Mayor of Auckland City, New Zealand.

    1902: Birthdate of Max Rudolf. Born inFrankfurt Germany he was conductor of the Gutenberg Symphony Orchestra.

    1906: Day 2 of the Bialystok Pogrom.

    1907: In his capacity as Minister of War, Major General Georges Picquarttold Dreyfus that it would be impossible to reconstitute his career, which led to Dreyfus's retirement.”  This must have been difficult for Picquart since he “became a Dreyfusard after having identified Esterhazy as the author of the bordereau.”

    1910:  Birthdate of David Rose.  The British-born American composer and conductor won four Emmys.  His compositions include The Stripper, Calypso Melody, and the themes for two television hits – Little House on the Prairie and Bonanza.

    1911: Tabulating Computing Recording Corporation (IBM) is incorporated. For the role of IBM during the Shoah see IBM and the Holocaust by Edwin Black. “IBMGermany, known in those days as Deutsche Hollerith Maschinen Gesellschaft, or Dehomag, did not simply sell the Reich machines and then walk away. IBM's subsidiary, with the knowledge of its New York headquarters, enthusiastically custom-designed the complex devices and specialized applications as an official corporate undertaking. Dehomag's top management was comprised of openly rabid Nazis who were arrested after the war for their Party affiliation. IBMNY always understood-from the outset in 1933 that it was courting and doing business with the upper echelon of the Nazi Party. The company leveraged its Nazi Party connections to continuously enhance its business relationship with Hitler's Reich, in Germanyand throughout Nazi-dominated Europe.”

    1913: In Baltimore, MD, the Jewish Educational Alliance dedicated the Michael S. Levy Memorial Building.

    1914: Hammerstein’s Roof Garden will host an amateur dance contest tonight in connection with “Dancing by Moonlight.”

    1914: Birthdate of cartoonist and illustrator Saul Steinberg. Born in Romania he moved to Italyto study and work. In 1940, the anti-Jewish racial laws in Fascist Italy forced him to flee to America. While in Santo Domingoin 1941 awaiting an entry visa, he started publishing regularly in The New Yorker. He was a major figure in the art world until his death in 1999.

    1915: Birthdate of Oscar Westreich, the native of Vienna who made Aliyah in 1933 and as Yehoshua Bar-Hillel became a note mathematician and linguist.

    1915: As of this date “approximately 600,000 Jews had been uprooted from the Pale of Settlement, by far the largest proportionate transplantation among the various populations of the Russian empire’s western provinces.

    1916: Birthdate of developer and businessman Lois Lesser.

    1917: Vilmos Vázsonyi began serving as Minister of Justice of Hungary.

    1917: President Woodrow Wilson signed the Espionage Act of 1917 into law. Among those who have been charged under the act are Victor Berger, Daniel Ellsberg, Jonathan Pollard and the Rosenbergs.

    1917: Birthdate of Lillian Violet Bassman, the Brooklyn born daughter of Russian Jews who became famous as “Lillian Bassman, a magazine art director and fashion photographer who achieved renown in the 1940s and ’50s with high-contrast, dreamy portraits of sylphlike models, then re-emerged in the ’90s as a fine-art photographer after a cache of lost negatives resurfaced…” (As reported by William Grimes)

    1917: “The Royal Navy yacht Managamreturned two Palestinian Jewish agents to Athlit after they had been trained in the use of explosives in Cyprus. Their task was to blow up a section of the Haifa to Damascus railway, between Afula and Dera’a.” 

    1920: The Haganah, the pre-Israel Self Defense Force was formed during a meeting of the Ahdut Avodah party. It was designed to take the place of the Ha-Shomer movement, and was dedicated to "havlagah" or pure self-defense. The Haganah was formed in response to a wave of Arab violence from which the British were unable or willing to protect the Jewish community.  The Haganah was forced to operate underground during the 1930's and 1940's as the British took an increasingly pro-Arab stance and the Arabs engaged in periodic waves of violence.  The Haganah also was active in bringing immigrants into the country despite the White Paper.

    1920: The operation to widen the Jaffa to Jerusalem Railway to “standard gauge” was completed today.

    1921: Birthdate of Gavril Abramovich Ilizarov, the “Soviet physician, known for inventing the Ilizarov apparatus for lengthening limb bones and for his eponymous surgery.”

    1923: The first financing by means of a bond issue for a city in Palestine was completed today when a loan 75,000 pounds was obtained for the city of Tel Aviv through the sale in New York of six and half percent municipal bonds.  Tel Aviv is described as atypical American city in point of construction and improvements planted in the heart of Asia Minor. 

    1925: Sir Herbert Samuel the first Jewish British High Commissioner in Palestine attended a farewell reception in his honor at Hebrew University on Mount Scopus. Colonel Fredrick H. Kish of the Zionist Executive in Jerusalem and Tel Aviv Mayor Meir Dizengoff expressed their regret over his departure.  They also expressed gratitude for the efforts of Lady Samuel’s efforts.

    1928: The Zionist Executive in Jerusalem intervened to prevent the deportation of four Jewish immigrants. Unfortunately, they were not able to keep the British from deporting their family members. The National Council of Palestine Jews sent a letter to Lord Plumer, the High Commissioner, protesting the deportations. The council reminded the High Commissioner that only 54 Jewish immigrants had been admitted into the country during all of April, 1928.

    1928: During an investigation of cemeteries and cemetery boards being conducted by the Attorney General for the State of New York, representatives of the Baron Hirsch Cemetery on Staten Island rebutted allegations of misconduct and abuse that had been previously presented by representatives of the Hebrew Religious Protective Association of Greater New York.

    1929(7thof Sivan, 5689): For the last time before The Great Depression, Jews observe Shavuot.

    1930(20thof Sivan, 5690): Sixty-two year old Louis-Lucien Koltz, the founder of Vie Franco-Russe, an illustrated paper and the French Minister of Finance at the end of World War I who negotiated the reparation payments from Germany following the war.

    1930: “Flag Day…” published today described the Jewish origin of this American holiday.

    1931(30th of Sivan, 5691): Rosh Chodesh Tamuz

    1933:Governor Herbert H. Lehman and Dr. John H. Finley received the first honorary degrees to be conferred by Yeshiva College. Each was made a Doctor of Humane Letters at the institution’s second commencement exercise.

    1936: As Arab violence escalated, The Palestine Post reported that heavy firing marked an Arab attack on Ekron. Since there were only four Jewish defenders they sent up rockets to ask for assistance, but ultimately repulsed the marauders. There were also Arab attacks on Migdal, Geshur, Kfar Saba, Gan Yavne, Kfar Azor, Tel Mond, Tzofit and Givat Ada, Over 500 three-year-old vines were uprooted at Rehovot and Givat Brenner. The Jewish National Fund planned to replace some 40,000 trees that have been burned so far. Marine insurance premiums went up and some insurance companies refused to cover riot risks. Five Jews were injured in separate attacks on Egged buses.

    1938: Throughout Germany, any Jew "previously convicted" of a crime (even a traffic offense) was arrested.

    1939:Malcolm MacDonald, British Colonial Secretary, today outlined before the League of Nations Mandates Commission the proposals for the future government of Palestine contained in the recent British White Paper.

    1939:At a meeting of the women's division of the American Jewish Congress in the Temple of Religion at the World's Fair Rabbi Louis I. Newman of Temple Rodeph Sholom called upon the Jews to stand forth courageously against counsels of defeat in a time of persecution. Rabbi Newman made his appeal for courage in the face of the tragedy of the liner St. Louis whose passengers had been turned away from Cuba and who would not find refuge in any western nation including the United States. 

    1939: A secret directive issued to the German High Command stated that deployment for "Operation White" (invasion of Poland) would be put into operation on August 20. Hitler invaded Polandin September, 1939.  The conventional wisdom is that the invasion was made possible by the signing of the non-aggression pact between the Nazis and the Soviets in the last week of August.  Apparently Hitler planned to invade Poland at a time when such an agreement was thought to be impossible.

    1940: Mordechai Rumkowski, Chairman of the Judenrat in Lodz, Poland, spoke to a large crowd today in the Lodz Ghetto.

    1942(30thof Sivan, 5702): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1942:Deportations of Jews from the Netherlands to Poland and Germany began today. Over the next 15 months, more than 100,000 Jews would be transported from Westerbork to the various death camps in the East.

    1942: Authorities in Riga, Latvia, request a second gassing van.

    1943: At the Janówska death pits at Lvov, Ukraine, hundreds of Jewish slave laborers are forced to exhume corpses of Jews, plunder them for jewelry and gold dental work, and then burn the corpses to destroy evidence of the killings.

    1943: Jaworzno concentration camp opens in the Auschwitz region. It contained two crematoriums.

    1944:  A photo was taken today of a group of Jews from Dunaszerdahely, Hungary, boarding the cattle car that will take them to Auschwitz

    1944: The 1,684 “exempted Jews” selected by Reszoe (Rudolf) Kasztner, head of the Aid and Rescue Committee known as Va’adah leave Hungry by a special train that takes them safely to Switzerland.

    1945: Weizmann writes to Churchill expressing his sense of shock and betrayal over the Prime Minister’s decision to continue to restrict Jewish entrance to Palestine based on the White Paper of 1939.  Weizmann expresses his sense of betrayal since he Churchill had always conveyed the impression that as soon as the war was over, he would abrogate the terms of the White Paper. 

    1950: In Jerusalem, Israel turned over the British pilot of a Jordanian airliner that had been forced down when it flew across the Negev to members of the Arab Legion.  Four Arab passengers from the plane that was flying from Amman to Cairo were also released.  Charles Clinton Cloud, Jr., an American passenger flew to Cyprus.

    1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that Food Control Commission took care of the sale and distribution of ice for domestic use in Jerusalem.

    1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that Israel had demanded that the UN Security Council should consider Egypt's refusal to allow ships engaged in trade with Israel to pass through the Suez Canal

    1951: The Israeli government announced today that an Israeli soldier had been killed when he encountered Jordanian forces that had crossed the border.

    1952: Today, the Israeli Foreign Ministry published the text of a note it addressed to the Czechoslovak Foreign Minister on June 11 concerning the arrest of Mordechai Oren, an Israeli citizen who is a leading member of the Mapam Party.  The Israelis demanded that a member of the Israeli Legations be allowed to visit Oren and be with him as he worked his way through the Czech justice system.  The Israelis believe that Oren was arrested as part of a plot to portray Rudolf Slansky, the former Deputy Premier, who is being held in prison as being a Zionist, something which was an anathema in Communist Czechoslovakia.

    1952: “The first housing project specifically for immigrants from the United States and Canada was launched today when ground was broken for ten houses a Kfar Haroeh, a village midway between Tel Aviv and Haifa…The village which is being built on land donated by the JNF is only twenty minutes, by car from Natanya and Hadera two towns where the immigrants can go for jobs and western style entertainment.

    1952(22nd of Sivan, 5712): Forty-four year old Christine Granville, the Polish born daughter of a Catholic Count and an assimilated Jewish mother who worked for the British Special Operations Executive (SOE) in occupied Poland and France passed away today.

    1953: It was reported today that Senator Paul Douglas, Democrat from Illinois who had taught at the University of Chicago before WW II, was the keynote speaker at the commencement exercises of Brandeis University in Waltham, MA.

    1954: Ruth Ann and Daniel Edelman gave birth to Richard Edelman who would become President and CEO of the public relations firm Edelman that was founded by his father.

    1960: “The Apartment” a Billy Wilder production that was co-written by I.A.L. Diamond was released for showing to the movie going public today.

    1961: Rabbi David J. Bleich married Professor Judith Ochs today.

    1961: In performances that were hailed as "good quality directed with great intelligence,""admirable for subtle expressiveness and intelligent composure," and "exceptional," the off-Broadway Living Theatre troupe made its European debut in Rome. By the time of the Living Theatre's European tour, co-directors Judith Malina and Julian Beck had been directing off-Broadway plays for over a decade.

    1967: Argentine born Israeli pianist and conductor Daniel Barenboim married British cellist Jacqueline du Pré who had converted to Judaism at a Western Wall ceremony. 

    1967: After “608 performances and 10 previews” the curtain came down on the original Broadway production of “Sweet Chairty,” with music by Cy Coleman, lyrics by Dorothy Fields and the book by Neil Simon.

    1968: After “220 performances and 19 previews” the curtain came down on the original Broadway production of “How Now Dow Jones” with music by Elmer Bernstein, lyrics by Carolyn Leigh and the book by Max Shulman.

    1970: Eleven Soviet citizens, nine of them Jews, tried to hijack a Soviet airplane so they could be flown out of the country.  The plot was foiled before the plane took off and two of the Jews were sentenced to death for their part in the attempt.  Due in no small part to protests from Jewish communities around the world, the sentences were commuted to 15 years at hard labor.  The hijacking focused attention on the plight of Soviet Jews seeking to escape from the U.S.S.R.  This was a major step forward in what became the campaign to “Free Soviet Jews.”

    1975(6th of Tammuz, 5735): At Kfar Yuval, “terrorists seize farmhouse, killing 1 person, injuring 6, and taking family hostage; Israeli soldiers storm farmhouse and kill all four terrorists plus 1 hostage.”

    1975(6th of Tammuz, 5735): Three were killed and another five were injured when terrorists fired three rockets into Nahariya.

    1976: The Jerusalem Post reported that in Washington the US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and Israeli Ambassador Simcha Dinitz concurred that Syria's growing military involvement in Lebanonposed no immediate threat to Israel. The Syrian forces in Lebanonwere seen as holding back instead of trying to crush the PLO and its leftist allies.

    1976: The Jerusalem Post reported that ore Lebanese had been given Israeli first aid at Metulla.

    1978: A Broadway revival of “Once in a Lifetime” the first play on which Moss Hartman and George S. Kaufman collaborated opened at the Circle Theatre.

    1987: An exhibition entitled ''Daughters of the Pale,'' documenting in words and photographs the experiences of daughters of Jewish immigrant opened in London.

    1987: An exhibition entitled ''East End Synagogues: From the Shtiebel to Duke's Place’’ opened at the Heritage Center in London.

    1992: The Fifth International Convention of Studies of “Italia Judaica” opened in Palermo.

    1994: Israeland the Vaticanestablished full diplomatic relations.

    1996: Judge Burkhardt Stein from Tübingen County Court ordered the confiscation and incineration of all books Grundlagen zur Zeitgeschichte and the destruction of all means for manufacturing them. The book was written by holocaust denier and anti-Semite Ernst Gauss.

    1997: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Puttermesser Papers by Cynthia Ozick, Steven Spielberg: A Biographyby Joseph McBride and Steven Spielberg: The Unauthorized Biography by John Baxter

    2006: Yakov Kreizberg made his “last appearance with the” London Symphony Orchestra “at the Barbican … when he performed Ludwig van Beethoven's Piano Concerto no. 5 with Stephen Hough, and Dmitri Shostakovich's Symphony no. 11

    2007: The Jewish Historical Museum in Amsterdam opens an exhibition on the life and work of famous French actress Sarah Bernhardt who was the first international superstar.

    2007: The 46th Hebrew Book Week comes to a close. 

    2007(29th of Sivan, 5767):Claudia Cohen, a high-profile gossip reporter for television and newspapers who was a frequent subject of the gossip columns herself, partly because of her marriage to, and remunerative divorce from, the billionaire businessman Ronald O. Perelman, died today in Manhattan. Claudia Lynn Cohen was born in Englewood, N.J. Her father, Robert, was president of the Hudson County News Company, a major distributor of newspapers and magazines. In 1985, with her marriage to Mr. Perelman, now the chairman of Revlon, Ms. Cohen became a boldface name herself.  The couple were frequent guests at glittering parties and charity events in New York and the Hamptons, and Ms. Cohen was considered a crucial person to know if anybody who was somebody wanted to become even more of a somebody. The public scrutiny of Ms. Cohen’s private life only intensified with her divorce from Mr. Perelman in 1994. As was widely reported, she received an out-of-court settlement of $80 million. After her divorce from Mr. Perelman, Ms. Cohen, a Democrat, was romantically involved for about a year with Senator Alfonse M. D’Amato, Republican of New York. (As reported by Margalit Fox.)

    2008: The Sunday New York Times book sections features reviews of Cecil B. DeMille: A Life in Artby Simon Louvish and Audition: A Memoir, the autobiography of Barbara Walters. How “Jewish” is the movie maker whose father is lay leader in the Episcopal Church and whose mother is a Sephardic Jew who converted?  How Jewish is a television personality whose parents were both Jewish but who observed no Jewish ritual growing up and loves having a Christmas tree in her home?

    2008: The Washington Post features books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including America Aged: How Pension Debts Ruined General Motors, Stopped the NYC Subways, Bankrupted San Diego, and Loom as the Next Financial Crisisby Roger Lowenstein

    2008:Stephan Grayek, one of the last survivors of the Warsaw Ghetto uprising who passed away at the age of 92 was buried at the Herzliya Cemetery today. He is survived by his daughter, Ora, his son, Yitzhak, grandchildren and a great granddaughter. During the Nazi era Grayek took advantage of his Aryan features to move with relative ease in and out of the ghetto, fighting against the Nazis with both Jews and Poles. Grayek's wartime exploits were recorded in his book, “Shelosha Yemin Krav” (“Three Days of Battle”).  Eli Zborowski, chairman of the American and International Societies for Yad Vashem and vice president of the World Federation of Polish Jews, wrote in a condolence notice in the Hebrew press that he had lost his mentor and close friend. He referred to Grayek as the "commander and hero of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, and worldwide leader of Holocaust survivors." Grayek, who was the founder of the World Organization of Partisans, Underground Fighters, Ghetto Rebels and CampInmates - the first body to focus public attention on the needs of Holocaust survivors - swore in 1943 to fight anti-Semitism for as long as he lived. He frequently led groups of Holocaust survivors accompanied by the children and grandchildren of survivors on journeys of memory in Poland. For many years he lobbied tirelessly for a Jewish museum pavilion in Auschwitz and against the establishment of a Catholic convent there. He declared in 1989 that no convent would go up in the largest Jewish graveyard in the world. In a Jerusalem Post interview 20 years ago, Grayek was asked why he had not experienced the trauma so common among many Holocaust survivors. He answered: "Perhaps, because like other people in the resistance, I fought back."

    2008: The Jewish Film Festival in Croatia comes to an end having screened more than 20 films for 2,500 attendees.

    2009: Defense Minister Ehud Barak reportedly told French officials in Paris today that the Israel has “a secret accord” with the United States to maintain “natural growth” of settlements in the West Bank.

    2009: Israeli artist Irit Zohar, whose work has been exhibited at the Tel-Aviv Museum (Meirovich section) and countless other galleries, debuts in America at the Historic Sixth and “I” Street Synagogue with Painting in Action, a series of large, powerful, energetic works deeply influenced by her spirituality.

    2010:Mark Russ Federman (Herring Maven Emeritus) is scheduled to his share herring tales at the Russ & Daughters Herring Pairing at New York’s Astor, an event designed to celebrate the New Catch Holland Herring and the wonders of many different herrings

    2010 “The Biennial Scholars' Conference on American Jewish History,” a meeting organized by the Academic Council of the American Jewish Historical Society, which will examine the notion of American Jewish "exceptionalism," or uniqueness, the  has shaped conceptions of American Jewish history from its beginning is scheduled to open in New York City.

    2011: The Leo Baeck Institute is scheduled to present a program entitled “Mahler & Radical Departures”, featuring the works of Mahler, Korngold and Schoenberg, three composers who are a representative of “German and Austrian musicians of Jewish descent who arrived in this country and transformed the American musical landscape.” The works of German-Jewish composer Mauricio Kagel are also scheduled to be performed.

    2011: THE BIG JEWCY, sponsored by, is scheduled to take place in Brooklyn, New York.

    2011: At the Jewish Museum of Milwaukee, archivist Jay Hyland is scheduled to present a program entitled ‘Archival Exploration: WWII Edition' that will provide a first hand look at artifacts and documents from the JMM's collection connected with WWII. This program is a 'teaser' for the 'WWII Historical Encampment Reenactment' scheduled to be later this month.

    2011: A Used Book Sale is scheduled to begin today in San Diego, CA,to benefit the Samuel & Rebecca Astor Judaica Library.

    2011:The new Israeli Ambassador to the United Nations, Ron Prosor, started work today, taking over for Meron Reuben, who had held the post on an interim basis since last year’s departure of Gabriella Shalev. Prosor will be the 16th Israeli Ambassador to the United Nations.

    2011: A rare total lunar eclipse will occur tonight in Israel's skies from a little after 8:00 p.m. local time until 2:00 a.m. early Thursday morning. Not only is this lunar blackout going to be one of the longest possible, but the astronomy blogger, Ira Machefsky, also known as the 'Starman of Mitzpe Ramon' told the Jerusalem Post additional surprises may be in store.

    2012: In Washington, DC, The Hadassah Attorney’s Council is scheduled to host a luncheon event where Judith Barnet “will speak with us about her decades of experience assisting companies to grow their business in the Middle Eastern and North African marketplace.”

    2012: Funeral services are scheduled to take place this morning for Rabbi Stanley Rabinowitz who was the spiritual leader of Adas Israel for over a quarter of a century.  While much has been written about his stature as a “Washington Rabbi” for us he was simply the Rabbi.  Rabbi Rabinowitz arrived in the summer of 1960.  My father had been on the search committee that brought him from Minneapolis.  My brother was his first Bar Mitzvah.  That Shabbat Nachamu service may have been Rabbi Rabinoiwtiz’s first Saturday morning service.  I was in the first newly instituted post-Confirmation class which he taught.  I remember him trying to explain to a group of adolescents what a Reconstructionist Jew was.  It wasn’t about ritual; he wanted us to see that it was about the poetry of the soul.  [Excuse the personal comments, but history is a story and even for the great and near-great it is still a story about individual persons.] 

    2012: Rabbi Ariel Stone the spiritual leader of Portland, Oregon’s Shir Tikvah, author of Because All Is One and the daughter-in-law of Cedar Rapids community leader Joan Thaler, is scheduled to deliver the sermon at Temple Judah this evening.

    2012: Uzi Arad, who served as the head of the National Security Council during the 2010 Mavi Marmara incident, slammed Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu and his government for carrying out "sloppy work" in preparation for the flotilla to Gaza.

    2012: In Los Angeles, Langer’s Deli began a celebration of its 65thanniversary by giving away its signature pastrami sandwich which normally sells for $15.20 for free.

    2013: The Jerusalem Piano Duo – Shir Semel and Dror Semel – is scheduled to perform at the Eden-Tamir Music Center.

    2013: In Coralville, Iowa, Agudas Achim is scheduled to honor outgoing religious school principal Kineret Zabnert with a special Kiddush Luncheon following Shabbat Moring Services led by Rabbi Jeff Portman.

    2013: “Ameer Got His Gun” and “Dr. Pomerantz” are among the films scheduled to be shown today at “Seret 2013” – The London Israeli Film & Television Festival.

    2013:Worshipers who came to a Bat Yam synagogue for Shabbat services this morning were stunned to see crosses spray-painted on the doors of the prayer house. Police were investigating the incident.

    2013:Unidentified assailants broke into an IDF base in northern Israel this morning, injuring a soldier and stealing his rifle. The assailants managed to enter the Naftali base, near Golani Junction, after tying up the soldier on guard duty. They then ran away with his rifle.”

    2013(7thof Tammuz, 5773): Eighty-seven year old Paul Soros, the brother of George Soros passed away today. (As reported by Robert D. Hershey, Jr)

    2014:Jean-François Copé is scheduled to complete his term of office as President of the Union for a Popular Movement (UMP)

    2014: The Center for Jewish History is scheduled to present “Centuries of Surnames: What Names Can Tell Us,” a presentation by Jeffrey S. Malka who is an authority on Sephardic last names.

    2014: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including A Replacement Life by Boris Fishman, The Impossible Exile:Stefan Zweig at the End of the World by George Prochnik and The Myth of the Spoiled Child: Challenging the Conventional Wisdom About Children and Parenting by Alfie Kohn



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    JUNE 16

    1221: Massacre of the Jews of Erfurt, Germany. At one time this was commemorated as a Fast Day on the 25th of Sivan.

     1385: Emperor Wenceslaus arrested Jews living in what was known as the Swabian League, (the league of free cities in South Germany) and confiscated their books. A hefty fine had to be paid for their return and the release of the prisoners.

    1591: Birthdate of Joseph Solomon Delmedigo, a native of Crete who moved to Italy where he gained fame as a rabbi, physician and author. “A member of this family, Mordechai Gorodinsky (later hebraized to Nachmani) was one of the founders of the Israeli city of Rehovot.”

    1612: Birthdate of Murad IV.  During his reign as Sultan, Murad executed Rabbi Yehuda Kovo over a dispute revolving around the quality of cloth being supplied by the Jews of Salonika for army uniforms and the amount of taxes to be paid.

    1660:The debate between Jacob Abendana, the “hakham of London from 1680 until his death in 1695” and Anton Hulsius, which was actually a series of letters written covering a ninth month period, over the meaning of a verse in the Book of Haggai, came to an end.

    1775: Birthdate of Judah Touro, the native of Newport, Rhode Island who was the son of Isaac Touro who moved to New Orleans where he became a successful businessman.  Touro fought in the Battle of New Orleans under Andrew Jackson and became one of the nation’s leading philanthropists contributing to a wide variety of secular and Jewish causes.

    1825(30th of Sivan, 5585): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1832: Anna Netti von Goldschmidt married 29 year old Mortiz Moses von Goldschmidt.

    1846: The Papal conclave of 1846 concluded. Pope Pius IX was chosen to lead the Catholic Church, beginning the longest reign in the history of the post-apostolic papacy. The papal reign of Pius IX was marked by a variety of reactionary policies as he sought to deal with the loss of the papal temporal power to the emerging united nation of Italy. The Pope returned those Jews under his control to the Ghetto. “Pius IX was the Pope who decided in 1867 to raise to sainthood one of sixteenth-century Spain's notorious grand inquisitors, Don Pedro Arbues de Epilae. He was considered a martyr (witness to the Catholic faith) after some of the family of his Jewish victims managed to assassinate him -- and then suffered grievously themselves.-- It was the conviction of the great liberal theologian of that time, Father Dollinger, that canonizing the inquisitor "served the pope's campaign of riding roughshod over liberal Catholics as well as Jews. The pope was celebrating a man who had sanctioned compulsory baptism of Jews, then inflicted judicial torture to make sure these conversions were sincere.” The most stinging example of the Pope’s anti-Jewish views and behavior is abduction of a Jewish child named Edgardo Mortara. When Pious IX was beatified in 2000, the ADL issued the following statement which summarizes the event. “The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) today expressed concern at the Vatican’s beatification of Pope Pius IX, who was responsible for the 1858 abduction of a six-year old Jewish child. Abraham H. Foxman, ADL National Director, issued the following statement: "The beatification of Pius IX is troubling for the Jewish community. Pius was responsible for the case of Edgardo Mortara, who at the age of six was abducted from his family in Bologna and taken to the Vatican by Papal police after it was reported that the Jewish child has been secretly baptized. Many European heads of state protested the 1858 kidnapping, as did Jewish leadership. As a result, Pius blamed Rome’s Jews for what he believed was a widespread Protestant conspiracy to defeat the papacy and levied medieval restrictions on the community. While ADL respects the beatification process as a matter for the Catholic Church alone, we find the selection of Pius IX as inappropriate based on policies he pursued as the head of the Church. It is in the context of the many years of positive progress in Catholic-Jewish relations, including the historic visit of Pope John Paul II to Israel and his asking for the forgiveness of the Jewish people, that the beatification of Pius IX, whose role in denying Edgardo Mortara his family and his right to be who he was, is most unfortunate."

    1849: Sixty nine year old German theologian and biblical scholar Wilhelm Martin Leberecht de Wette whom Julius Wellhausen described as "the epoch-making opener of the historical criticism of the Pentateuch” passed away today.

    1851: Adolf Jellinek, the spiritual leader of Vienna’s Jewish Community and his wife gave birth to legal theorist George Jellinek author of the 1895 essay “The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen.  He and his wife had six children, two of whom Walter and Dora were deported to Theresienstadt and a third, Otto who was murdered by the Gestapo in 1943.

    1854: An article entitled "The Position and Power of Prussia" published today includes the information that 200,000 of its inhabitants are Jewish.

    1862: Frederick C. Salomon who had served with units from Missouri and Wisconsin was promoted to the rank of Brigadier General in the Union Army.

    1865: Having completed its work – a survey of Jerusalem – the team led by Captain Charles W. Wilson left Jaffa for a return trip to England.

    1871: Former U.S. Secretary of State ate dinner with the American Counsel General in Jerusalem.

    1871: “An editorial in the Jewish Messenger criticized the New York Herald for lecturing Jews on the nedd for English-speaking rabbis and suggested that the problem be left to ‘rabbis and Jews.’ The editorial in the New York Herald was prompted by a resolution of Reform rabbis meeting at Cincinnati, to establish a rabbinical seminary.  The Herald applauded the resolution and blamed American Jewry for its failure to halt the decline of attendance at religious services.” (As reported by Abraham P. Bloch)

    1878: The New York Times published a review of “Philochristus: A Memoirs of a Disciple of the Lord” which is a work of historical fiction designed to reconstruct the life and times of Jesus.  Among the book’s many shortcomings is the author’s description of events immediately following the Crucifixion. On the one hand he explains the empty cave of the third day by insisting that the Jews stole the body of Jesus and then “disposed of it in some unknown manner” yet also insisting that the Resurrection was a reality. [Editor’s Note – The book serves a reminder that even in a world where authors were re-examining the stories of the New Testament, the Jew still is depicted as the villain.]

    1878: An article published today entitled "Three Golden Spheres" describes the history and current status of pawn-broking in the United States.  "It has long been generally supposed that the money-lending, and especially the pawn-brokering, business is monoplized by the Jews. This is far from being the truth, for in this city the pawnbrokers who belong to the Jewish faith hardly represent one third of the total number."  All religious groups are represented in the business.  Among national groups, the Irish make up the greatest number.”

    1879: According to reports published today, Sarah Bernhardt’s current performance at the Gaiety has been well received by audiences in London.  Unfortunately, Mme Bernhardt has not made good on her promise she was learning English and would be able to speak in that language when she appeared in the UK.  Nobody in the cast can speak English.  At the same time, her reputation for eccentric behavior continues to grow.  Photographs already exist proving that she dresses as a man when working on her sculpture and there is proof that she travels with her own coffin.  But now there are new rumors claiming that her next portrait will be in a Napoleonic Pose complete with a hat model after that worn by the Emperor.

    1879: The Commencement Ceremony of the Emanu-El Preparatory School of the Hebrew College took place at Temple Emanu-El this evening.  Rabbi Gottheil officiated at the ceremony which included addresses in German, Hebrews and English.

    1880: Louis Davis and Moritz Hartman of the Simon Benevolent Association went to the Coroner’s office in New York to tell him the story of how they were mistakenly given the body of a Christian boy over the weekend when they had come to claim the body of a young Jewess named Kate Ungerleider.  The mix-up was an example of official incompetence not anti-Semitism.

    1882: It was reported today that “serious obstacles have risen” to thwart Laurence Oliphant’s plan to “re-establish the Jews in Palestine.”  The Turkish government said that Russian Jews are welcome to settle in any part of the empire except in the land of their fathers.  While the Sultan did not give a reason for the ruling it is assumed that the Porte does not consider prudent to give the Jews a national center which might attract others of their faith.

    1882: It was reported today that Julius Porgas left two notes behind explaining that he had taken his own life because of financial difficulties that left him to embezzle funds left in his care.  In an example of being worth more dead than alive, he told his wife that he had life insurance policies with three entities including one for a thousand dollars with the Kesher Shel Barzel Society.

    1883: As he was about to board the elevated at the Bowery and Canal Street Station, a conductor pushed Louis Batist back saying “You are a Jew!  We don’t permit Jews on this train.”

    1885: In Charleston, SC, Rabbi Levy officiated at the wedding of Bertha V. Williams and Camden, SC resident Samuel Rosenberger

    1887: Four young girls and five young boys attending the public schools in New York’s 19th Ward competed tonight for the Hornthal Prizes for Elocution which were created by Louis M. Hornthal.

    1887:Maurice Arnold de Forest and his younger brother Raymond were adopted today “by the millionaire Baroness Clara de Hirsch, née Bischoffsheim, wife of Jewish banker and philanthropist Baron Maurice de Hirsch de Gereuth, and given the surname de Forest-Bischoffsheim

    1888: Birthdate of Alexander Alexandrovich Friedman, Russian born physicist and mathematician. “He discovered the expanding-universe solution to general relativity field equations in 1922, which was proven by Edwin Hubble’s observations in 1929.” He died of typhoid fever at the age of 37.

    1888: The staff of the Hebrew Journal is hosting a fundraiser tonight at the Lyric Hall proceeds of which will go to the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society. The society was established in 1879 to care for destitute children, including, but not limited to, orphans.  At its founding the society had an all-female board and its first president was a woman. In 1940, the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society merged with Hebrew Orphan Asylum, Fellowship House and the Jewish Children’s Clearing Bureau to form the New York Association for Jewish Children which became the Jewish Child Care Association.

    1888: At Temple Beth El in New York Rabbi Kaufmann Kohler “paid an eloquent tribute” to the late Kaiser Wilhelm I who passed away earlier this year. He praised the emperor for having “all the noble ideal qualities of the German without the rather coarse ways of the Prussian soldier.”  The rabbi also praised him for conferring the highest honors upon several Jews and for denouncing anti-Semitism; something his wife continued to do after his death.  Kohler believed that he had “transmitted his liberal ideas to Bismarck and his son and that so long as they are a power there is little fear of anti-Semitism.”

    1889: It was reported today that the Hebrew Benevolent Orphan Asylum was among the organizations awarded a banner as part of the centennial celebration in New York.

    1890: “Medals for Jewish Students” published today identified the outstanding scholars at New York’s Ahavath Chesed’s Sabbath School. Roderick Goetz was the Dr. Adolph Huebsch Medal for being the outstanding student. Louis Obermeyer actually was the best student, but since he had won the award last year it was decided to let another have the medal and Louis was given “a set of books to show that his scholarship was appreciated.  Margaret Kohut received the Rasker Medal and Lillie Ahrens received the Eisner Medal.

    1890: “A short, stout, red-whiskered Polish Jew” later identified as Marcus Goldstein, entered the office of Gill Engraving Company and asked a junior member of the firm, George M. Gill, “to make him a plate for reproducing tickets of the Hamburg Lottery Company of Germany. After Goldstein explained to Gill what he wanted and made arrangements to pick up the finished product he left the store.  Gill contacted the police because he thought Goldstein was part of a plan to print and sell counterfeit lottery tickets.  (More to come, so keep reading during the next few days)

    1891: It was reported that 600 to 700 tailors, most of whom are Jewish have gone on strike in Philadelphia in an attempt to get a more equitable distribution of work from the “ ‘sweaters’ who employ them.”

    1891: “Told By An Eyewitness” published today of the persecution of the Jews in Russia provided by Miss Adele M. Fielde a Baptist missionary who had been in Moscow this spring as she traveled across the country on her way to Russia.  “The sights that met her eye on every side in Moscow and other places along her journey were so frightful that she could not help sending a description of the Russian outrages to New York in the hope that it might attract notice and sympathy for the suffers.

    1892: The eighth annual exhibition and commencement exercises for the students of the Hebrew Technical Institute took place today.

    1892: In London, Sarah Bernhardt performed her new drama “Pauline Blanchard” which “was first seen in Australia” for the first time in the imperial capital.

    1892: In Baligrod, a small village in Galicia, Austria, Malka and Ashe Selig gave birth to Jennie Grossinger, the wife of Harry Grossinger who created Grossinger, the iconic Borscht Belt hostelry.

    1893: The ninth annual exhibition and commencement exercises of the Hebrew Technical Institute took place this afternoon at Arlington Hall on St. Mark’s Place.

    1895: It was reported today that Rothschild’s in Paris and London “refuse to touch the Russo-Chinese loan.” This was a loan that the Russians were guaranteeing so that the Chinese could pay money owed to the Japanese under the Shimonoseki Treaty.  (The complexity of international finance began long before the 21stcentury)

    1895: Louis Down-Town Sabbath and Daily School” published today described it as  “a magnificent example of what can be accomplished by noble-minded women among the young and old of their sex in the hearts of the slums. From that up-town section where the wealthiest of the community live a few of the philanthropic Jewish women have combined for the highly laudable purpose of elevating the children of the lowliest of the Jewish population in the thickly settled down-town districts.”

    1896: In St. Louis, MO, the opening prayer at the Republican National Convention was offered by a local rabbi “who is a Democrat” and who has brother who “are very active as Democrats in local political affairs.”

    1897: Birthdate of Elaine Hammerstein, “an American silent film and stage actress” who was the daughter of opera producer Arthur Hammerstein

    1897(16th of Sivan, 5657): Orange, NJ. banker, Jacob Seholle passed away today.

    1899: Twelve year old Julia Lichtner arrived in New York aboard the White Star liner Cymric from Liverpool today.  Her father, Herman Lichtner, a Hungarian-Jewish tailor died during the crossing. 

    1899: Oscar I.Lembergle, who has been working with Wilson Dunlap to convert Jews to Christianity wrote a letter to Mayor Van Wyck protesting the Mayor’s ruling that conversion attempts would not take place on public street corners and should be confined to private halls.

    1899: It was reported today in Brest, France, “posters announcing the Court of Cassation…have been torn down and defaced with inscriptions hostile to the Jews and Dreyfus. (The Dreyfus Affair would continue to embroil France for years to come, in part because it was a stalking horse used by the Right to inflame passions against liberals, modernity and the Jews)

    1900: Herzl meets Arminius Vámbéry a Hungarian Jewish Orientalist with connections to the Ottoman Empire who will write to the Sultan on Herzl's behalf.

    1904: Irish author James Joyce begins a relationship with Nora Barnacle, and subsequently uses the date to set the actions for his novel Ulysses. This date is referred to as “Bloomsay”; a reference to Leopold Bloom. Bloomsday has been celebrated since 1994 in the Hungarian town of Szombathely, the birthplace of Leopold Bloom's father, Virág Rudolf an emigrant Hungarian Jew.

    1906: After three days of violence, the Bialystok Pogrom came to an end. The death count varies; from a low of 80 to a high of 100.  Hundreds of Jewish owned shops were destroyed. A major textile manufacturing center and a hot bed or revolutionary activity, approximately three-fourths of the city’s population was Jewish.  This did not protect the Jews from violence instigated by the Russian authorities.
    “Russian authorities tried to blame the pogrom on the local Polish population in order to stir up the hatred between two ethnic groups (both of which generally opposed the Tsar). However Jewish survivors of the violence reported that the local Polish population had in fact sheltered many Jews during the pogrom and did not participate in it. Apolinary Hartglas, a Polish Jewish leader and later a member of the Polish Sejm, together with Ze'ev Jabotinsky, managed to obtain secret documents issued by Szeremietiev which showed that the pogrom had been organized well in advance by Russian authorities who had actually transported Russian railroad workers from deep within Russia to participate.”

    1907: Birthdate of actor Jack Albertson. Albertson appeared in numerous films but he may be rest remembered for his starring role in the television sit-com “Chico and the Man.”

    1911: Jews in Sfru (south of Fez) were attacked by rebellious Berbers.

    1912: Seventy-two year old Henri Jean Baptiste Anatole Leroy-Beaulieu, author of Les Juifs et l'Antisémitisme; Israël chez les Nations in 1893 and L’Antisémitisme  in 1897 passed away today.

    1912: Birthdate of Olga Ivinskaya , the Russian poet and writer who was the friend and lover of Boris Pasternak “and the inspiration for the character Lara in Doctor Zhivago.” (He was Jewish; she wasn’t)

    1912: Sir Charles Waldstein and his wife Florence (nee Einstein) gave birth to agricultural researcher and MP Henry David Leonard George Walston, the future Baron Walston.

    1913: Birthdate of Phillip M. Kaiser who would serve as a diplomat or political appointee under every Democratic President from Harry Truman to Jimmy Carter. He was the ninth of 10 children of Ukrainian Jewish immigrants from imperial Russia. He wrote in his 1992 memoir that "whatever political skills I may have, I attribute to the fact that I had to develop them early to cope with sibling rivalries." In his childhood home, his mother rarely spoke English, communicating with her children in Yiddish. But they spoke English to her. At a parochial school, the young Mr. Kaiser learned Hebrew, which, he later wrote, "established my credentials as a Jewish boy and enabled me to feel superior to Yiddish, which I considered a 'greenhorn's' jargon." He graduated from the University of Wisconsin, where he won a Rhodes scholarship. In September 1936 he arrived in England, which was his home base for three subsequent years of study and travel in the European continent as it was lurching toward World War II.

    1916: In St. Louis, MO, the National Democratic Convention which nominated Woodrow Wilson, the President who appointed the first Jewish justice to the Supreme Court, came to a close.

    1917: Birthdate of Katharine Graham, publisher of the Washington Post. Although Katherine Graham came from a distinguished Jewish background she was baptized at the age of ten. The only people who thought she was Jewish were the myriad of anti-Semites who loved to write about the "Jewish Controlled Media in America." Mrs. Graham died in 2001.

    1917: Birthdate of Irving Penn “an American photographer known for his portraiture and fashion photography.”

    1920: Birthdate of basketball player Henry “Hank” Rosenstein who played forward for the City College of New York.

    1922: Birthdate of William Korey the University of Chicago graduate who became Director of the Anti-Defamation League.

    1931(1st of Tammuz, 5691): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1931: Birthdate of American sociologist Donald Nathan Levine, one of the leading figures in the field of Ethiopian Studies.

    1933: According to a census on this date, the Jewish population of Berlin, Germany's capital city was about 160,000. Berlin's Jewish community was the largest in Germany, comprising more than 32 percent of all Jews in the country.

    1933(22nd of Sivan, 5693): Unknown assailants murder Zionist Labor leader Chaim Arlosoroff

    1933: President Roosevelt signed into law a series of bills that began the creation of what came to be called The New Deal. For Jews, like so many others, the legislation provided immediate economic assistance. More importantly, the New Deal opened up career opportunities for a whole generation of Jews especially those with degrees in law and accounting. The myriad of government agencies that resulted from the New Deal were a critical ingredient in the growth of the Jewish Middle Class especially for the children and grandchildren of those who had come to the United States from Eastern Europe starting in the 1880's.

    1934: “Mussolini and Hitler Agree That Austria Must Remain an Independent Government” published today in the Springfield (Mass) Union described the first meeting of the two European dictators.

    1937: Marx Brothers'"A Day At The Races" opens in LA

    1937: Birthdate of author Erich Segal.

    1938: Birthdate of Joyce Carol Oates. “Joyce Carol Oates’ paternal grandmother was Jewish, but fearing persecution, kept that fact hidden. Her grandmother died in 1970, and it wasn’t until afterwards, that Oates found out the truth about her family’s Jewish heritage. Her book, ‘The Gravedigger’s Daughter’ is dedicated to her paternal grandmother.”

    1939: In Oxford, England future famed diplomat Philip Kaiser married Hannah Greeley,

    1940: Birthdate of Neil Goldschmidt former Mayor of Portland and Governor of Oregon as well as member of the Cabinet under President Carter

    1940: French Premier Reynaud, whose government was in exile, resigned. Henri Petain replaced him. Petain earned a place of dishonor in Jewish and French history as head of the Nazi-collaborating government at Vichy.

    1942(1st of Tammuz, 5702): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1942: Most of the Jews of Łazy, Poland, were deported to Auschwitz. Jews from other nearby villages were also deported with them.

    1942: The American chargé d'affaires in the Vatican, Harold Tittmann, reports to the State Department that Pope Pius XII is adopting "an ostrich-like policy towards atrocities that were obvious to everyone."

    1943: SS chief Heinrich Himmler allows a transfer of Jewish prisoners from the Auschwitz-Birkenau death camp to the Sachsenhausen concentration camp located in Germany for medical experiments involving jaundice.

    1943(13th of Sivan, 5703): Dr. Niuta Jurezkaya, a physician who escaped from the Minsk (Belorussia) Ghetto to nearby forests, is recaptured, tortured, and shot.

    1943: Two hundred patients from Berlin are sent to Theresienstadt along with the remaining Jews of the Berlin community. The German capital was declared "judenrein" - Free of Jews. Ten years earlier the Berlin Jewish population was estimated around 186,000.

    1944 In Ness Ziona,  Moshe and Sarah Kahalani, immigrants from Yemen, gave birth to Brigadier General (and future political leader) Avigdor Kahalani.

    1944: Residents of the Jewish ghetto at Lódz, Poland, are notified of "voluntary registration for labor outside the ghetto." In truth, there is no work but only death at the Chelmno, Poland, extermination camp, where the Germans plan to murder 3000 Jews a week for three weeks.

    1944(25th of Sivan, 5704): In France, Jewish historian Marc Bloch, a leader of the resistance group Francs-Tireurs et Partisans, is executed by German troops.

    1946: Tonight, Operation Markolet or Night of the Bridges, a Haganah operation designed “to destroy eleven bridges linking Palestine with the neighboring countries of Lebanon, Syria, Jordan and Egypt began.

    1947(28th of Sivan, 5707): Bronislaw Huberman, famed violinist and founder of the Palestine Philharmonic Orchestra, passed away.

    1948: Lt. Col. Abdullah el-Tell commander of the Jordanian forces and Colonel David Shaltiel the commander of Israeli forces in West Jerusalem continued their discussions in the presence of UN observers which included the disposition of Abu Tor, “civilian access to retrieve personal belongings, "examination by Arabs of municipal records in the Jewish area", recovery of Torah scrolls from the Old City and the closing of the New Gate.

    1952: Alexander Marx, librarian of the Jewish Theological Seminary arrived in New York after  having spent ten weeks in Israel.

    1952: Brigadier General Mordechai Makleff, vice chief of staff of the IAF arrived in New York aboard the Cunard Line’s Queen Elizabeth to begin an unofficial tour of U.S. military installations.

    1952: "Anne Frank: Diary of Young Girl" is published in the United States

    1952: The New York Times reviews “Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl” translated from the Dutch by B.M. Mooyaart-Doubleday with an introduction by Eleanor Roosevelt

    1955: Publication of the first issue of Roll Call the highly influential publication created by Sid Yudain, the son of Russian Jewish immigrants.

    1956:Dr.Henry Cohen was raised to the peerage as Baron Cohen of Birkenhead, of Birkenhead in the County Palatine of Chester. This meant that the famous physician was now Henry Cohen, 1st Baron Cohen of Birkenhead. The Lord Cohen Medal, the highest award for services to gerontology in the United Kingdom and is named, is named for him.

    1958: Filming of “The Geisha Boy” produced by Jerry Lewis who was also one of the co-stars began today.

    1959: Release date for “John Paul Jones” a film about the American Revolutionary War naval hero produced by Samuel Bronston with a script co-authored by Jesse Lasky, Jr and music by Max Steiner.

    1961: Birthdate of Anne Elaine Heyman, the native of Pretoria who used her knowledge of Israel’s solution to its “orphan problem to create a system that helped to save the 1.2 million orphans created by the genocide in Rwanda.

    1961: Birthdate of Adisu Massala, the native of Ethiopia who made Aliyah in 1980 following a clandestine route and eventually became a member of the Knesset. 

    1963: David Ben-Gurion resigned for the second and last time as Prime Minister and Defense Minister. Levi Eshkol will be chosen as a compromise candidate to fill both positions. Eshkol, the Israeli politician most Westerners had never heard of will thus be the leader of the Jewish state when it faces it's greatest test in 1967 and enjoys its greatest triumph with the reunification of Jerusalem.

    1968:` Governor Nelson Rockefeller designated Jennie Grossinger Day in New York State, the first time this honor was bestowed on a living woman. Jennie Grossinger, who helped make the Catskills resort Grossinger's into the most famous retreat of its kind, was born in Austria on June 16, 1892. At age eight, she immigrated with her family to New York, where she struggled to learn English and succeed in school. At thirteen, she left school to work in a garment factory, providing her family with much-needed income. In 1914, her father bought a piece of land in the Catskills, intending to leave factory work and return to farming. It soon became clear that the rocky soil would never support a prosperous farm, and Jennie suggested that the family take in boarders. The first year, the family charged $9 a week and cleared a net profit of $81. From that modest beginning, Grossinger's was born. Although the initial farmhouse lacked heat, electricity, and indoor plumbing, its other amenities helped to make it a success. Jennie Grossinger's mother, Malka, was a good kosher cook, and Jennie's warm personality was credited with making guests feel at home. In addition, Jennie's husband Harry (a cousin with the same last name), who had stayed in New York, was able to send guests their way. By 1919, the family had made enough money to sell the original farmhouse and buy a nearby hotel. Grossinger's thrived in the 1920s, becoming an opulent resort with tennis courts, a children's camp, crystal chandeliers, and an auditorium that featured world-class entertainers. It was in this decade that Grossinger's became a destination of choice for upwardly mobile East Coast Jews. Although the decade of the Great Depression brought hard times, Grossinger's managed to stay open. One innovative development was the establishment of a training camp for boxers. The boxers provided much-needed income, while Grossinger's provided a Jewish atmosphere and facilities. In the years after the Second World War, Grossinger's fame spread from Jews to non-Jews. While maintaining its kosher kitchen, the resort began to attract a non-Jewish clientele. Part of this was due to the successful national distribution and marketing of "Grossinger's Rye," accompanied by Jennie Grossinger's image and signature. By 1970, non-Jews were estimated to make up one third of the 150,000 annual guests. In the post-war years, such prominent figures as Eleanor Roosevelt, Robert Kennedy, and Nelson Rockefeller visited the resort. (Jewish Women's Archive)

    1970(12th of Sivan, 5730):Elsa Yur'evna Triolet, a Russian born Jewish French author passed away.

    1974: In Rhode Island, Rabbis William Bradue and Herschel Shacter officiated at the wedding of Elizabeth Fain and Samuel Gerson, the son of Mr. and Mrs. Gerson of Natanya, Israel

    1975(7th of Tammuz 5735): One of the Israelis wounded in yesterday’s rocket attack yesterday at Nahariya passed away today.

    1977: Gerald Davis, “one of Ireland’s leading semi-abstract artists” and “a prominent member of the Jewish community in Ireland” launched an exhibition based on Ulysses called “Paintings for Bloomsday” in a gallery located on Howth Head, the setting of the soliloquy that ends the novel.


    1984(16th of Sivan, 5744):Rabbi Bernard Bergman, the nursing home mogul, passed away.

    1996(29th of Sivan, 5756): Sportscaster Mel Allen passed away. Yes, the man who was the Voice of the New York Yankees for so many years, the man with the smooth southern drawl, was Jewish. He grew up in rural Alabama as an observant Jew. He reluctantly changed his surname from Israel to further his career. His last name was considered "too Jewish." The Allen in Mel Allen was taken from his father's middle name i.e. Julius Allen Israel. In 1950, Allen served as chairman of Operations Sports for Israel which shipped over three tons of athletic and recreational gear to Israeli children.

    1998: Robert D. Sack, the son of Rabbi Eugene Sack of Beth Elohim, began serving as Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit.

    2000: Israel complies with UN Security Council Resolution 425 and completely withdraws from Lebanon.

    2002: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Fly Swatter by Nicholas Dawidoff and Six Days of War by Michael B. Oren.

    2002: Today Dominique Strauss-Kahn was reelected Member of Parliament in the 8th circonscription of the Val-d'Oise.

    2002: A former Miss Israel is among those whom plastic surgeon Pamela Lipkin has invited to a Botox Party, the latest rage in Manhattan social events.

    2004: Final day of a Birthright trip to Israel - Towards a Sustainable Future for Israel: An Environmental Leadership Seminar for Students and Young Professionals – focused on the environment sponsored as a joint project of COEJL, the Heschel Center for Environmental Leadership and Learning, the Jewish Agency for Israel, and Hillel.

    2005: What Sotheby's is calling the only known surviving autographed draft of the Balfour Declaration, the 1917 document that called for the establishment of a Jewish homeland in what was then Palestine, along with other documents from the archive of the Zionist Leader Leon Simon is to be auctioned in New York today. Besides two original drafts of the Declaration, the auction includes a signed letter from Chaim Weizmann, a Zionist and chemist who relocated from Germany to Britain after the start of World War I, asking his colleagues to review the draft. Sotheby's expects the archive to sell for $500,000 to $800,000.

    2006: The Presbyterian Church, USA (PCUSA) began debating the issue of divesting from companies doing business with Israel because of Israel's policy in the Palestinian territories.

    2006: Hebrew Book Week comes to an end.

    2007(30th of Sivan, 5767: Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    2007(30th of Sivan, 5767: Eighty-eight year old “Shirlee Mages, whose father owned a thriving Roosevelt Road restaurant in the 1930s and '40s and whose husband put his name on a sporting goods chain” passed away today in Chicago. Mrs. Mages was the widow of Morrie Mages, a 1950s Chicago television staple who was often in the company of the late broadcaster Jack Brickhouse touting his sporting-goods stores through the sponsorship of a late-night movie called "Mages Playhouse."

    2008: Time magazine features a profile on Foreign Minister Tzipi Livini who is favored to succeed Ehud Olmert entitled “Mrs. Clean.”,9171,1812071,00.html

    2008: In an article entitled “Grapes on the Golan,” Kevin Peraino profiles the growth Israel’s wine industry which is located on the Golan Heights and the effect peace talks between Damascus and Jerusalem might have on it.

    2008: In New York, the Center for Jewish History co-sponsors “’Bloom’ Comes Home.” This is a preview of "Bloom,” which is a documentary film homage to James Joyce's masterpiece, “Ulysses,” with filmmakers Alan Adelson and Kate Taverna. On Bloomsday, 2003, the Center for Jewish History and Jewish Heritage staged an exciting dramatic reading of scenes from Joyce's “Ulysses” featuring Kathleen Chalfant and a host of talented actors playing the Odysseus-like protagonist Leopold Bloom. The acclaimed performance has now become the centerpiece of a film which plays with notions as light as reading Joyce in bed and as serious as what kind of Jew Leopold Bloom really was. The film travels to Ireland to reveal how an anti-Semitic outbreak in Limerick in 1904 inspired Joyce to create Dublin's best known fictional Jew. The preview of this work in progress takes place in the very auditorium where it was first performed. The evening will include conversation with the filmmakers and special additional readings.

    2008: Despite intense lobbying by Egypt and the Palestinian Authority, the European Union - in a sign of vastly improved European-Israeli relations over the last few years - agreed to a significant upgrade of relations.

    2008: After a report in The Sun which exposed Nazi war criminal Milivoj Asner mingling with Euro 2008 football fans in Austria, the British daily interviewed the 95-year-old man at his Austrian home.

    The history books describe how Pozega's entire Jewish community was wiped out in World War II, sent to the Jasenovac concentration camp where 700,000 were exterminated.
    Asner is suspected to have overseen the deportation from Croatia of hundreds of Jews, Serbs and gypsies to concentration camps. According to The Sun, Asner denied any Jews were deported to death camps from his home town. Laughing again, he said: "I don't know of anyone deported from Pozega. Nobody was murdered. I never heard of one single family murdered in Pozega." Despite Austrian officials ruling out extradition on health grounds, Asner said he was well enough to face trial. He said: "I have a clear conscience, I can appear in front of any court."
    "I would welcome the chance to answer these accusations in a Croatian court. I don't have anything to do with it. I did not have enough responsibility to order deportation." According to The Sun, Austrian officials revealed they may order a new medical examination. On Monday, the Simon Wiesenthal Center said that Austrian authorities were "exposed as liars" after a "top Nazi war criminal" deemed unfit by the Austrians to stand trial due to his "failing health" was spotted sipping drinks in an Austrian cafe during one of the Euro 2008 soccer championship gatherings.
    Asner is number four on the Wiesenthal Center's list of "most wanted Nazis." Three years ago, Austria refused a Croatian extradition request on the grounds that Asner was "unfit" to stand trial or even be questioned for health reasons. "Austria has long had a reputation as a paradise for war criminals and now they've been caught in the act," said Dr. Ephraim Zuroff, the director of the Israel office of the Wiesenthal Center, and the organization's chief Nazi hunter. Zuroff said that the article "exposed the lie" that the Austrian authorities have been peddling for years, noting that the suspected Nazi war criminal is clearly enjoying a life that many hundreds of victims were denied when they were sent off to be murdered. "If this man is well enough to walk around town unaided and drink wine in bars, he's well enough to answer for his past," Zuroff said. Following the publication of the expose, which included video and photos, The Wiesenthal Center demanded that the Austrian Government immediately extradite the top wanted Nazi without further delay. "The photos, and video clips also made available to this office, make it abundantly clear that Asner is in good health, lucid and able to get around on his own, in contradiction to the finding of an Austrian court which ruled that he cannot be extradited to stand trial in Croatia due to ill health," Zuroff wrote in a Monday letter to Austrian Justice Minister Dr. Maria Berger.
    "Under these circumstances, there is absolutely no justification for the continued refusal to extradite this wanted Nazi war criminal to the country where he committed his nefarious crimes, so that he can finally be held accountable for the hundreds of Serbs, Jews and Gypsies whom he deported to concentration camps, where the majority were brutally murdered."

    2008: In Milwaukee, The Third International Festival of New Jewish Liturgical Music came to a close.

    2009: A reception is held at the National Museum of Women in the Arts in Washington, D.C. honoring Ann F. Lewis the recipient of the NJDC Belle Moskowitz Award.

    2009: In Cedar Rapids, Iowa, Laurie Silber, Search Committee Chairperson, announces that Temple Judah has officially hired Rabbi Todd Thalblum. Rabbi Tahlblum will begin on August 1, 2009.

    2009(24th of Sivan, 5769): Eighty-eighty year old Seymour “Sy” Broday author of Jewish Heroes of America  and its sequel, Jewish Heroes and Heroines of America  passed away today.


    2010: A screening of “Leon Blum: For All Mankind” and lecture by filmmaker, Jean Bodon, are scheduled to be held at noon today at the Library of Congress

    2011: “Fiddler on the Roof” is scheduled to be performed at the Marcus Center for the Performing Arts in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

    2011: Congregation Agudas Achim in Iowa City is scheduled to hold its annual meeting.

    2011: At the Historic 6th& I Synagogue in Washington, DC, Leah Koenig, author of “The Hadassah Everyday Cookbook: Daily Meals for the Contemporary Jewish Kitchen” and former editor-in-chief of the award winning food blog The Jew and the Carrot, is scheduled  to make eco-kosher Portobello mushroom burgers and basil two-bean salad as part of  “Jewish Cooking 101: Farmers' Market Meals”

    2011:Today, thousands will retrace the steps of Leopold Bloom, the Jewish protagonist of James Joyce’s masterpiece Ulysses on “Bloomsday,” an annual event celebrating the Irish author’s novel and his Jewish hero. “In Dublin there are lots of events and a few elsewhere in Ireland,” said Terrence Killeen, a research scholar at the James Joyce Center last week. “There’s a breakfast which starts Bloomsday, as it does in the novel. People then follow the events of the book around town as it continues, and recite passages. One happening is at Davy Byre’s Pub and there are lots of musical events. It’s not an academic event but a public one.” Over the years, Ireland’s small but remarkably vibrant Jewish community, population 2,000, has produced many prominent members including the late president of Israel, Chaim Herzog, and two-time Dublin mayor Robert Briscoe, to name a few. Still, the fictitious Bloom might be the country’s most famous Jew – never mind that in the novel he is a convert to Catholicism. “By 1904 he is nominally a Catholic having converted to marry his wife, so he’s a rationalist,” said Killeen, who gave a lecture on the Jewish world of Joyce at the Irish Jewish Museum last Monday. “He seems very much a part of the Jewish race but not of the Jewish faith. At the same time he is very conscious of distinct Jewish thinkers like Baruch Spinoza, Mendelsohn – the composer and philosopher – and Karl Marx.” Throughout the novel, Bloom’s Jewish identity is discussed repeatedly, sometimes despite his best efforts to avoid the subject. “The most prominent passage is in a pub where Bloom encounters the Citizen, who is strongly nationalist and strongly racist, and that is where he takes on the anti- Semitism of this man,” Killeen said. “In the first chapter he takes on a headmaster who is rather anti-Semitic. He tries to avoid initially an argument about Judaism and he talks about a race that is very much at this time persecuted. He strongly identifies with Jews Christ was a Jew like me, he says. That’s the most emphatically Jewish statement and near the end of the novel he remembers some verses of Jewish songs.” Even Zionism, in its infancy when Joyce wrote the novel between 1914 and 1921, makes a brief appearance. “Zionism does get into the book and there’s an identification between Ireland and the Jews because Ireland was colonized at the time,” Killeen said. “There’s a parallel there.” The origin of Bloom is still a debated topic. Joyce is said to have known several members of Ireland’s small Jewish community growing up in Dublin. Most scholars agree, however, that Joyce’s decision to make Bloom Jewish was intended as a literary device inspired by his encounter with Jews when he lived in Trieste. “Bloom’s Jewishness makes him different than his fellow citizens,” Killeen said. “He’s seen as different and strange. A much more rational person than they are. He is a scientific type. That’s the symbolism, his otherness.” So how does the Jewish community in Ireland feel about having the protagonist of the best known work of one the country’s most famed authors as an honorary member? One rabbi born and bred in Ireland politely declined to comment because he said he only learned about Bloomsday two years ago. Debbie Briscoe of the Irish Jewish Museum said that no discontent with Bloom has been registered by local Jews. “Nobody has ever complained about the fictitious character Leopold Bloom,” she wrote in an e-mail. “In fact everyone enjoys it. Jews everywhere have accepted it as a story. The whole thing is fiction so what is there to complain about?” One Irish Jew, the late painter Gerald Davis, had a special affection for Bloom, Briscoe said. Each year he would don a black bowler hat, dark suit and a mustache and play the role of his co-religionist on Bloomsday. On one occasion he was even invited to Australia to repeat his role there. It may be worth noting that Bloomsday has had at least one unexpected affect on the Jewish community. Each year it brings an unknown number of Jewish celebrants, temporarily boosting the number of Jews in the country significantly. “Many Jews come to Dublin from other countries specially for James Joyce week of festivities,” Briscoe said.

    2011:After two months of quiet in the South, a Kassam rocket was fired from the Gaza Strip into the Eshkol Regional Council on tonight. The projectile exploded in an open field and no injuries or property damage was reported. Near to 9:30 p.m., a siren was heard in Eshkol-area communities, followed seconds later by an explosion

    2011: Jewish Congressman Anthony Weiner announced his resignation today, following the revelation that he had sent a lewd photograph to young women online.

    2011:The Korean Embassy in Israel today held a special ceremony to mark the 61st anniversary of the outbreak of the Korean War. In honor of soldiers who fought to help South Korea stop the communist invasion, a seemingly unlikely group was also recognized: Jewish Korean War veterans living in Israel. According to an official statement released by the Embassy, some 4,000 Jewish soldiers fought alongside South Koreans and Allied Forces in the Korean War between 1950 and 1953. The Embassy has been awarding medals to Jewish soldiers since 2009. This year's ceremony was hosted by Korean Ambassador to Israel Ma Young-Sam at his home in Rishpon.

    2012: "The Queen Has No Crown" is scheduled to be shown at The London Israeli & Film Festival.

    2012: Rabbi Jonah Layman and Cantor Wendi Fried are scheduled to lead “A Taste of Shabbat” at Shaare Tefila in Olney, MD.

    2012: National Hebrew Book Week is scheduled to come to an end.

    2012: Second and final day of the great Pastrami Sandwich giveaway at Langer’s Deli in Los Angeles which is celebrating its 65th anniversary.

    2012:The IDF received a report this morning that a rocket shell had been found in southern Israel, following reports overnight that an explosion had been heard in the area. No injuries or damages were reported in the incident.

    2012(26th of Sivan, 5772): Eighty-two year old “Dan Dorfman, a highly visible financial journalist whose televised market reports could send a stock soaring — or plummeting — but whose career was tarnished by accusations of insider trading” passed away today. (As reported by Margalit Fox)

    2013(8th of Tammuz, 5773): Ninety year old Bernard Sahlins, a founder and former owner of the Second City, the Chicago nightclub which launched the career of many funny people including John Beulushi and Stephen Colbert  passed away today. (As reported by Bruce Weber)

    2013: In San Diego, CA, the Used Book Sale to benefit the Samuel & Rebecca Astor Judaica Library is scheduled to come to an end.

    2013: A show consisting of “more than 130 works by R.B. Kitaj which have been on display concurrently at Pallant House Gallery in Chichester and at London’s Jewish Museum is scheduled to come to an end.

    2013: Seret 2013, the London Israeli Film & Television Festival is scheduled to come to an end.

    2013:TheNew York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Riddle of the Labyrinth: The Quest to Crack an Ancient Codeby Margalit Fox, whose linguistic talents turn the obituary columns into a unique art form.

    2013: This evening  the Cabinet approved measures that will make it easier for authorities to prosecute against “price tag” attacks, while at the same time rejecting calls to have them labeled as acts of terror.

    2013: Today President Shimon Peres welcomed the election of Hasan Rowhani as Iranian president, saying the relatively moderate cleric could bring about a change in Iran’s nuclear policy while Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu warned on Sunday against being taken in by Iran’s election of the relatively moderate cleric Hasan Rowhani to the Iranian presidency.

    2014: Today is  the 110th anniversary of the day in 1904 on which Dublin's best-known fictional Jew (and cuckold), 38-year-old Leopold Bloom, wandered the city as a modern-day Odysseus and, after numerous adventures located more in his mind than on the street, circumnavigated his way home. (As reported by Jonathan Wilson)

    2014: The Jewish Community Relations Council of Greater Washington is scheduled to host its annual gala at Beth Shalom in Potomac, MD.

    2014: The International Consortium for Research on Antisemitism and Racism hosted by the Jewish Studies Program at Central European University is scheduled to begin in Budapest, Hungary.

    2014: Chet Orloff is scheduled to addressed the annual meeting of the Oregon Jewish Museum this evening.

    2014: 33rd Annual Bloomsday on Broadway, the creation of Isaiah Sheffer is scheduled to take place this evening.



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    JUNE 17

    397: Roman Emperors Arcadius and Honorius issue the following order "The governors must be informed that, upon receipt of this notice, all insults attacking the Jews shall be averted and that their synagogues shall remain unmolested." This protection for Synagogues was not a sign of Philo-Semitism.  Even with the rise of Christianity, the Emperors were concerned about maintain order in the Empire and allowing mobs to attack Jewish buildings would undermine their authority.

    397: Roman Emperors Arcadius and Honorius issued a decree saying, "If Jews are harassed by a criminal charge or by debts then pretend that want to be subject to Christian law in order to avoid the criminal charges or debts by taking refuge in the church, they must be driven away. They cannot be received as Christians until they pay off all their debts or have been cleared of criminal charges.”  As Christianity took on the trappings of a state-religion, some Jews sought to avoid paying debts by pretending to be Christians.  Again, in the name of public order, the imperial system could not tolerate such behavior.

    827: An invasion force of 10,000 Muslims invaded Sicily with the intention of taking control of the island; a goal when accomplished did not negatively impact the Jewish community which dates back to the first century of the Common Era when they probably arrived as slaves during the Rebellion against Rome.

    1025: Boleslaw I the Brave, first king of Poland, passed away. There were reports of Jews living in Poland during the time Mieszko I, Boleslaw’s father. Jews were reported to have been living in Gniezno, Poland’s first capital during the 10th and 11th century which included the reign of Boleslaw.

    1239:  Birthdate of King Edward I.  Known as “Longshanks” Edward is famed for the “Model Parliament.”  He is known to American filmgoers as the King who tortured and killed William Wallace.  In Jewish history, he is the monarch who expelled the Jews from his realm in 1290, having extracted every economic advantage from them that was possible.  Jews would not return as a community until the final days of the Tudors.

    1242: At the decree of Pope Gregory IX and King Louis, all copies of the Talmud were confiscated in Paris. Declaring that the reason for the stubbornness of the Jews was their study of the Talmud, the Pope called for an investigation of the Talmud that resulted in its condemnation and burning. Twenty-four cartloads of Hebrew manuscripts were publicly burned. Rabbi Meir was an eyewitness to the public burning of the twenty-four cartloads of Talmudic manuscripts (and he bewailed this tragedy in his celebrated "Kina"Shaali serufah (שאלי שרופה) which is still recited on Tisha B'Av.

    1244: According to one source the above captioned happened Erev Shabbat Chukath, 5004

    1462: Vlad III the Impaler attempted to assassinate Mehmed II forcing him to retreat from Wallachia. Fortunately for the Jewish people, the attempt on his life failed. When Mehmed conquered Constantinople he was warmly greeted by the city’s Jews.  Over the years, he welcomed Jews fleeing from Europe and urged them to settle in his domain.  The Jews were so grateful that they even formed a regiment called “The Sons of Moses” to fight under Mehmed’s banner.

    1501:John I Albert (or Olbracht in Polsih) passed away. In 1495 King Jan I Olbracht transferred Krakow Jews to the nearby royal city of Kazimierz, which gave rise to its once bustling Jewish quarter and a major European center of the Diaspora for the next three centuries. With time it turned into virtually separate and self-governed 34-acre Jewish Town, a model of every East European shtetl, within the limits of the gentile city of Kazimierz. As refugees from all over Europe kept coming to find the safe haven here, its population reached 4,500 by 1630.

    1590: In Lisbon, Estevainha Gomes of Faro was burned at the stake by the Inquistion. The first records of Jews living in Faro dates from the reign of Alfonso III in the 13th century. Descendants of the Faro Jewish community were among the first members of Bevis Marks Synagogue in London.

    1696: John III Sobieski, King of Poland, passed away.  John III Sobieski is best remembered as commander who defeated the Turks at Vienna.  According to tradition, the first bagels were baked by Jewish bakers in Vienna to commemorate the victorious charge by the Polish cavalry.  The bagel was shaped to look like a stirrup (key equipment for cavalrymen) and one of the first one baked was given to John III.  Modern day scholarship has challenged the legend, but the legend lives on.

    1731: At an auto-de-fe in Lisbon four men and eight women were condemned. A majority of the 12 were burnt at the stake. On this particular Sunday four men and eight women were present at the auto-de-fe of Lisbon. A majority of them were burned alive. A total of 71 other persons were sentenced at this event. Duarte Navarro, an 83 year old New Christian, was among those condemned for Judaizing.

    1761: In Nancy, France, 22 year old Jacob Alexandre was sentenced to be hanged for receiving communion.  Alexandre was Jewish and had violated the canon law that “bars non-Christians from receiving communion.” On appeal, Alexandre’s sentence was commuted to a lifetime in the galleys.  Apparently Alexandre was a near-do well who thought that as an apostate Jew he would be will taken care of by the Catholics.  While he took on their manners and customs, he tried to have the best of both worlds by not actually converting, a fact that caught up with him and proved to be his undoin.

    1768(2nd of Tammuz, 5528): During the Cossack Uprising, Jews and Poles fought alongside each other as the siege of Uman began; a siege that would end with the Jews being massacred following their betrayal by the Poles.

    1775:  The Battle of Bunker Hill (which actually took place at Breed’s Hill) fought on this date shows that American troops can stand against British professionals.Aaron Solomon was among the volunteers braving the British assaults.  In 1823, prominent Bostonians established a committee to build a monument to honor the American “moral” victory.  It would take twenty years to raise the funds and actually build the Bunker HillMonument.  Famed Jewish businessman, veteran of the Battle of New Orleans, and philanthropist, Judah Turo donated the amazing large sum (for the early 19th century) of ten thousand dollars to this effort.

    1802: Birthdate of Hermann Mayer Salomon Goldschmidt, the German born French astrononmer and painter who discovered “shadow bands in total solar eclipses” and received the “Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society” for having discovered a record number of asteroids.

    1807: M.J. Bing writes to Nathan Rothschild asking that Nathan deal directly with him and not through his father.

    1811: Mordechai Manuel Noah (a Sephardi) accepted the appointment as American Consul General at Tunis, "supported as I should with the wealth and influence of forty-thousand residents." Noah was the first Jew to be appointed to a diplomatic post by an U.S. President.  The President was James Madison.

    1816: In Kovno, Rabbi Tzemach Sachs and his wife gave birth to Russo-French Hebrew scholar Senior Sachs.

    1825(1st of Tammuz, 5585): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1829: Birthdate of German rabbi and historian. Meyer Kayserling. Born in Hanover, He was educated at Halberstadt, Nikolsburg (Moravia), Prague, Würzburg, and Berlin. He devoted himself to history and philosophy. Encouraged in historical researches by Leopold von Ranke, Kayserling turned his attention to the history and literature of the Jews of Iberia. n 1861 the Aargau government appointed him rabbi of the Swiss Jews, which office he held until 1870. During his residence in Switzerlandhe argued in favor of civil equality for his coreligionists, both then and later facing the charges brought against them. In 1870 he accepted a call as preacher and rabbi to the Jewish community of Budapest. Kayserling was a member of the RoyalAcademyin Madrid, of the Trinity Historical Society, and others. He died at Budapest in 1905.

    1832: Birthdate of Abraham Cohn, the native of Prussia who was an American Civil War Union Army Sergeant Major and recipient of the Congressional  Medal of Honor “for having distinguished himself at the Battle of the Wilderness, Virginia …and the Battle of the Crater, Petersburg, Virginia…”

    1834: After three days, a pogrom in Safed came to an end leaving much of the Jewish “homeless, distraught” and impoverished.

    1844: In Paris, Joseph Derenbourg and his wife gave birth to Orientalist Hartwig Derenbourg.

    1847:Grace Aguilar, her brother Emanuel and their mother Sara left to catch a steamer that would take them to Ostend where her brother had arranged for her to seek medical treatment for her depression and headaches.

    1852(30th of Sivan, 5612): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1856: An article entitled “Who are Jews?” explained that whenever the term Jew is used “in our police reports or elsewhere in the Times” it is not a reference to the religion of those described but “solely the designation of their nationality.”

    1856:  The Republican Party opens its 1st national convention in Philadelphia.  The Republican Party included a strong abolitionist strain; the party adopted a stance of opposing the expansion of slavery into the Western territories.  The party nominee was John C. Fremont and the party slogan was free soil, free men, Fremont.  Many Jews were drawn to the party because of its anti-slavery stance including Moritz Prinner who edited a German-language abolitionist paper in strife torn Kansas.  Prinner was joined at the 1860 Republican convention by other Jews including Lewis Naphtali Dembitz, uncle of future Supreme Court Justice Louis Dembitz Brandies who nominated Lincoln and Sigismund Kaufman of New York. Abraham Jonas of Illinois was another early member of the Republican Party and served as one of Lincoln’s campaign managers in 1860.

    1859: New York Rabbi Morris Jacob Rapall officiated at the consecration of the United Hebrew Congregation’s new building which was located on 6th Street between Locust and St. Charles streets.  Founded in 1837, historian Jonathan Sarna describes it as the oldest synagogue west of the Mississippi River.

    1873: In New York City, Lyman Bloomingdale and Hattie Collenberger gave birth to Samuel Joseph Bloomingdale.

    1877:The Jews in Turkey” published today, traces the history of the Jewish population in the Ottoman Empire from the days when they first came to Macedonia during the reign of Alexander the great. Today the Jewish element in the population of Turkey is strongly represented in Macedonia….because” in part  “it is the richest quarter of the empire;”  

    1878(16th of Sivan, 5638): Seventy-eight year old “physician, poet and writer Aaron Ludwig Joseph Jeitteles passed away today at Graz.

    1879: It was reported today that young Richard J.H. Gotthell read an essay at the commencement ceremony of the Temple Emanu-El Preparatory School of the Hebrew College that were being over-seen by his father, the rabbi, Dr. Gottheil.

    1881: “Fashionable” Parisians attended a concert to raise funds to aid Jews living in Russia.

    1882(30th of Sivan, 5642): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1882: Lewis and Rose Barnet were seriously injured when the fell down the equivalent of 3 stories when the fire escape in their tenement gave way.  The two Austrian born Jews lived on the 5th floor of a building that housed Kenneseth Israel, a congregation of Polish and Russian Jews.  Supposedly the building had been fully inspected and passed without any problems.  [Unfortunately, accidents like this were all too typical on the lower East Side and were the result of a combination of shoddy construction and graft.]

    1882: Josiah Cohen, a Jewish lawyer living in Pittsburgh, will probably be selected to be the Republican nominee for an at-large Congressional seat.

    1883: It was reported today that that the Czars coronation is being celebrated with balls and galas in St. Petersburg and Moscow. In Kiev and Rostov on the Don the celebrations have taken another form – serious disturbances including attacks on the Jews of the area.

    1884: In Leadville, CO, the Mr. and Mrs. Jacob Schloss, prominent Jewish leaders of the community hosted a soiree that including chess competition in which J.H. Zucketort played six opponents simultaneously. The visiting champion won three and lost three.

    1885: “The Statue of Liberty, a gift from the people of France, arrives in New York harbor aboard the she Isere.” “The Jewish American poet Emma Lazarus saw the statue as a beacon to the world. A poem she wrote to help raise money for the pedestal, and which is carved on that pedestal, captured what the statue came to mean to the millions who migrated to the United States seeking freedom, and who have continued to come unto this day.”

    1886: It was reported today that Levi P. Morton has been chosen as Chairman of the Republican County Committee despite his previous statement refusing to accept the position even if he were chosen to fill it. Friends of the Jewish community leader hope to be able to convince him to change his name.

    1887: It was reported today that Justice Rhinehart has reserved his decision in the suit brought by Samuel Colman against Charles Frank, a matrimonial agent who had promised to help him woo and win a young Jewess named Wolf and a counter-suit brought by Frank against Colman for money owed for providing him help in this matter. [Matchmaker, matchmaker, make me a match]

    1888: It was reported today that Mrs. Katie Levy, the wife of Albert Levy, has filed an alienation of affection suit against her mother-in-law, Mrs. Pauline Levy in which she is seeking $50,000 in damages.  The younger Mrs. Levy is a Roman Catholic who claims that her mother-in-law has interfered with her marriage because she wanted her son to marry a rich Jewish girl.

    1888: “A Hebrew Charity Ball” published today described the second annual fund raiser hosted by the staff of the Hebrew Journal for the benefit of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society.

    1888: it was reported today It was reported today that Rabbi Gottheil of Temple Emanu-El described the later Emperor Wilhelm of Germany as a “noble soul” who was “an ideal ruler…loved by all men.”  He saw him as a friend of the Jewish people since he said that “Germany has lost an Emperor…the oppressed a champion and Israel a true friend. [For those who grew equating Germany with Nazis and the Holocaust, this positive view of Germany and German leaders might come as a bit of a surprise.]

    1889: Among the items found inside a chest with a false-bottom that was being inspected by government agents as it was being unloaded from Hamburg American steamship Gellert were “23 fine seamless woolen shirts” like those worn by Orthodox Jews.”  (Who would have guessed there was such a market?)

    1889: In Albany, the Talmud Torah Benevolent Association of New York was incorporated today.

    1892: It was reported today that the highlight of annual exhibition of the Hebrew Technical Institute was  “the twenty-light Edison continuous dynamo that illuminates the laboratory” which was made by last year’s and this year’s graduates without any outside assistance.

    1893: It was reported today that Jacob A. Schiff and Joseph Bloomingdale are sending the top five students from the senior class of the Hebrew Technical Students – Martin Loewing, Max Goldstein, Louis Wohlgemuth, Albert Finkelstein, and Henry L. Rubovitz – and the two top students in the Junior Class – Samuel Druskin and Solomon Lurie – to the 1893 World’s Fair.

    1894: It was reported today the August Bebel gave a speech to the Social Democratic Party in which he called for Jewish members to play a less public role in public affairs.  This way the party would avoid suffering from the current wave of anti-Semitism. Jewish members including Emanuel Wurm and Paul Singer objected to his proposal saying that there must be a better way of dealing with “the Jew-baiters.”  The matter will be voted on at the next meeting of the next Social Democratic Congress.

    1895: In south Sweden, August and Mathilda Andersson gave birth to Ruben Andersson who would gain fame as Ruben Ruasing the founder of Tetra Pak.

    1896: The upcoming Commencement Exercises of the Hebrew Technical Institute and an outing for members of the Young Folks’ League of the Hebrew Infant Asylum were two of the items listed in today’s Coming Events Column.

    1896: “Incidents of the Day” included an explanation of why a Rabbi was chosen to give the opening prayer at the Republican National Convention.  The party is split between factions representing the American Protective Association, an anti-immigrant, anti-Catholic organization and delegates who are Catholics.  The managers for William McKinley who is the probable nominee chose a rabbi because the choide of Protestant minister or Catholic priest would have split the Convention.  To make matters worse the Rabbi is a Democrat and members of his family are active in the local Democratic Party. (Echoes of the APA can be heard in the 21st century as the United States debates the immigration issue.)

    1897: Herzl moves the Zionist Congress to Basel.

    1897(17th of Sivan, 5657): Fifty four year old Henry Gersoni, Ph.D., the Russian born, German educated teacher and author who went to Atlanta GA in 1874 to serve as rabbi before accepted a similar position at B’nai Sholem in Chicago passed away today.  He left the rabbinate to found the Jewish Advance which he published successfully before returning to New York where he worked as a teacher and journalist.

    1897: As of today, the Young Men’s Hebrew Association is reported to have 1,000 members.

    1897: Having already donated a brownstone at 861 Lexington Avenue valued at $20,000 to the Young Men’s Hebrew Association, Jacob Schiff has authorized YMHA President Percival S. Menken to spend an additional $30,000 to purchase property and equipment so it will have a facility that will include a meeting hall, gymnasium and reference library.

    1897: Tonight, the Fifth Avenue Presbyterian Church completed its investigation of charges of immorality and untruthfulness leveled against Herman Warszawiak and found him guilty.  Warszawiak was a convert who had been conducting a mission on Grand Street to convert other Jews.

    1898: Birthdate of German professor of crystallography Carl Hermann.  Hermann was a Quaker and a man of rare courage. “When the Nazi Party rose to power, he refused their political restrictions on academic positions, leaving to take a position as a physicist with industrial dye firm I.G. Farbenwerke at Ludwigshafen, where he continued his crystallographic research and studied symmetry in higher-dimensional spaces. During the war that followed, he and his wife Eva helped many Jews hide and escape persecution and death, for which he himself spent much time in prison and was sentenced to death. As he was an eminent scientist with influential friends, the sentence was never carried out, and he survived.

    1898(27th of Sivan, 5658): Seventy-seven year old Italian author and bible scholar Moses Isaac Tedeschi passed away today.  His autobiography was appended to Simhat ha-Regel a collection of homilies and glosses on the Targum to Proverbs

    1898: In Cincinnati, Ohio at the Mound Street Temple, Rabbi Isaac M. Wise will confer the degrees at the graduation exercises of the Hebrew Union College

    1898: In Austria, “gangs of peasants…attacked and plundered the Jewish shops at Frysztak near Rzeszow” wounding several Jews.

    1899(9th of Tammuz, 5659): Sixty three year old Josef Goldstein who had been chief cantor at the Leopoldstädter Tempel in Vienna, Austria since 1857 passed away today. Cantorial music runs in the family since his brother Moritz (Morris) Goldstein who was the cantor at K.K. Bene Israel Synagogue in Cincinnati, Ohio.

    1899: The United Hebrew Charities has told immigration authorities that no expense is to be spared in caring for Julia Lichtner, the 12 year old youngster, who became an orphan when her father jumped overboard while they were returning to New York aboard a White Star liner out of LIverpool.  If it can be proven that she really was born in the United States, she will be classified as a U.S. citizens “and place in a home where she can be taken care of with money given by passengers” of the ship.

    1900: Anti-Semitic riots broke out at Komarczyn.

    1901(30th of Sivan, 5661): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1903: Herzl writes to Lord Rothschild that there is a chance to get a good piece of land from the Sultan

    1905: Fire destroys 130 houses in Constantinopleinhabited by Jews. 400 families rendered homeless.

    1908:  Birthdate of Trude Weiss-Rosmarin who became a major commentator on the nature of American Jewish life.

    1914: Birthdate of author John Hersey. Hersey was not Jewish. In fact he was born in China, the son of missionaries. Jews should remember as the author of The Wall, which was a gripping account of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, and the events that led up to it. What makes this book even more of a standout was that Hersey wrote it in 1950 long before the Holocaust genre became an acceptable literary topic and motif for Jewish authors, let alone non-Jewish authors. Hersey passed away in 1993 after a long and distinguished career.

    1915: Birthdate of Dr. Bernard Lander, the Orthodox rabbi who was one of the founders of, and first president of Touro College

    1917:  In Great Britain, as the conflict between Zionists and anti-Zionist heated-up the Board of Deputes condemened the letter that David Lindo Alexander had sent to The Times of London specifying “grave objections” to the Zionist agenda. The vote of censure forced Alexander resign his Presidency of the Board of Deputies.

    1917: In Nevada, Jewish community leaders met and formed a committee to raise funds for the construction of Reno's first Synagogue.

    1920: Birthdate of Dr. Dr. François Jacob the native of Nancy whose combat wounds sustained while fighting in WW II “forced him to change his career paths from surgeon to scientist, a pursuit that led to a  Nobel Prize in 1965 for his role in discovering how genes are regulated.” (As reported by William Yardley)

    1925:Alexander Theodore Shulgin, who was known as Sasha to friends, was born in Berkeley, California today.

    1930: Police Captain F.M. Scott was stabbed in Jaffa during a clash with an Arab crowd following the execution of three Arabs at Acre.

    1930: During a recording session” today, “just after completing Chopin's E major Scherzo, pianist” Leopold Godowsky “suffered a severe stroke which left him partially paralyzed. Godowsky's remaining years were overshadowed by the event, leaving him deeply depressed.”

    1933: German Jews were shocked by news of the murder of Dr. Chaim Arlosoroff in Tel Aviv. During a recent trip to Berlin, Arlosoroff had outlined a plan for settling German Jews in Palestine; a plan that they feared would die with the Zionist leader.

    1935: Birthdate of Frederick Delano Newman who became an eccentric gadfly in the world of New York politics.

    1936: Himmler was put in charge of the S.S. as Chief of the German Police. This vicious little man was the architect of evil, the person who actually ran the killing machine that was known as the Holocaust. Several of the SS officers on the Eastern Front held Himmler in contempt. It seems that on the one visit he made to watch the Killing Squads at work, he could not stand the sight and vomited. He was also stupid enough to believe at the end of the war that he could negotiate a separate peace with the Western Allies and get them to join the Nazis sans-Hitler in a war against the Soviets.

    1936: As Arab violence intensified,The Palestine Post reported that Jacob Gerson, the lorry driver ambushed on the Kastel bends of the Jerusalem-Tel Aviv road, became the 32nd Jew to be killed by Arabs since April 19. Scores of Arab leaders and agitators were interned at Sarafand. The Yishuv launched a Relief and Consolidation Fund to assist all those who suffered through the disturbances. The government announced a new scheme for the opening and improving the Old City of Jaffa.

    1936(27th of Sivan, 5696): “Dr Julius Brodnitz, attorney and President of the Central Union of Jews in German passed away” today in Berlin at the age of 68.  Born in Posen, Dr. Brodnitz came to Berlin in 1894 where he pursued a successful legal career and become a leader in Jewish communal affairs.  Although he had not originally been a Zionist, his views changed after the Nazis came to power.  He visited Palestine in April and was no longer opposed to Jewish immigration to Eretz Israel.

    1936: Senator Royal Copeland, who spoke out against the Nazi regime as early as June, 1933, passed away today.

    1937: Marx Brothers'"A Day At The Races" opens in New York

    1938: Royal S. Copeland who served as Republican Senator from Michigan and then as a Democratic Senator from New York passed away.  In the spring of 1933, Copeland spoke out against the abuse of the Jews by the Nazis on the floor of the U.S. Senate. In 1936, during the Arab Uprising, he was part of delegation of U.S. Senators who went to Palestine to get a first-hand view of what was going on and how the British were administering the mandate. Upon his return, he introduced a resolution on the floor of the Senate condemning the British attempts to unilaterally modify the mandate especially as it pertained to attempts to limit Jewish immigration and purchase of land.

    1939: After being denied access to Cubaand the United States, the German refugee ship St. Louisdocks in Antwerp, Belgium. Belgium offers to take 214 passengers, the Netherlands181, Britain287, and France224. Ultimately, the Nazis will murder most of the passengers except for those accepted by Great Britain.

    1940: As the Nazis sweep through the Low Countries and France, Edmond Michelet distributed leaflets calling for a continuation of the war.  This was considered to be the first act of French Resistance during WW II coming one day before De Gaulle’s appeal to the French nation.

    1941: Reinhard Heydrich briefs Einsatzgruppen commanders on the implementation of the "Final Solution."

    1941: French priests in the Lyon diocese publicly protest the Vichy government's anti-Jewish policies.

    1941:The Japanese ocean liner Hikawa Maru whose passenger list included Zerach Warhaftig, a future signatory of Israel’s Declaration of Independence and his parents – Yerucham Warhaftig and Rivka Fainstein – docked at Vancouver, Canada and safety from the Holocaust thanks to the courage of the Japanese Vice-Consul in Kaunas, Lithuania, Chiune Sugihara who defied his government by issuing visas to Jewish refugees.

    1943: Sixty four of the remaining Jews in the German city of Wuerzburg were deported. 7 were sent to Theresienstadt and 57 were deported to Auschwitz

    1944: In Budapest, SS General Veesenmayer notified Berlinthat from April 29, 1944 until this date 340,000 Hungarian Jews had now been deported to the death camps. Among them was the family of Nobel Prize Winner Elie Wiesel.

    1944: For the next seven days, the Jews of Budapest, Hungary, are confined to specially marked "Jewish buildings."

    1946: Birthdate of Barry Manilow. Born Barry Alan Pincus, in Brooklyn, he was the son of Edna Manilow and Harold Pincus. Apparently somebody thought his mother’s less ethnic name would lead to greater fame. No less an arbiter of pop culture than Rolling Stones named him "Showman of the Generation."

    1946: Operaton Markolet, or Night of the Bridges, a Haganah operation meant to immobilize the transportation system by blowing up the bridges linking Palestine to the surrounding Arab states came to a successful close.

    1946: Lehi attack the railway operations at Haifa.

    1946: In an unusual turn of events Haganah completed attacks on railways and bridges in Eretz Israel.“Haganah united launched the most daring attack of their underground campaign by blowing up ten of the eleven bridges connecting Palestine with surrounding nations.”

    1947: Al Langer opened Langer’s Deli in Los Angeles.  The MacArthur Park eatery would stand the test of time.  Tragically, Mr. Langer passed away at the age of 94, a week after his signature deli celebrated its 60thanniversary. 

    1950: According to reports published today, peace talks resumed this week between Israel and King Abdullah of Jordan.  The talks centered on creating a corridor that will give Jordan access to the Mediterranean possibly at Gaza which is held by Egypt.  The Egyptians might agree to the deal, according to these same reports, if the Jordanians and Israelis would take responsibility for the quarter of million refugees in Gaza whom the Egyptians are controlling with a military garrison.

    1951: Central system of Israel's underground water supply was dedicated in Northern Negev. This was the start of a project dear to the heart of David Ben Gurion. He saw the Negev as vital to the growth of the new Jewish State. He was determined to bring water to this arid region and make the "Desert Bloom."

    1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that only 40 per cent of the electorate voted in the Zionist Congress elections. In Tel Aviv Mapai scored 45, Herut 20, and Mapam 16 percent of the vote; the rest was divided among small parties. In Jerusalem Mapai scored 54, Herut 17, Hapoel Hamizrahi 16, Mapam 8 and Progressives 4 percent of the vote, the rest being divided among small parties.

    1951:Left-wing labor leaders called a one-hour strike in Tel Aviv harbor today to block loading of a cargo of citrus juice concentrates which was a gift from the Republic of Korea, also known as South Korea which was engaged in a bitter war with communist North Korea.

    1952: “A home for 75 girls donated by the Goodwin Welfare League of Brooklyn was dedicated this afternoon as part of the Children’s City build around the Ponievez Talmudic College at B’nai Brak, a suburb of Tel Aviv.

    1953: Supreme Court Justice William O Douglas issued an order staying the executions for convicted spies Julius and Ethel Rosenberg which are scheduled for the next day.  TheRosenbergs were part of a plethora of Jews who were involved in both sides of this famous spy case.  However, the anti-Semites who sought to use the Rosenbergcase as proof of Jewish perfidy never talked about he Jews who prosecuted the case of the Jewish judge who imposed the death sentence.

    1956: Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion names Golda Meir to replace Moshe Sharett as Foreign Minister.

    1958: Birthdate of Jonathan David Leibowitz who served as Chairman of the Federal Trade Commission during the Obama administration.

    1961(3rd of Tammuz, 5721): Actor Jeff Chandler passes away at the age of 40 due to complications from surgery.  Born Ira Grossel in Brooklyn, New York, handsome matinee idol gained his greatest fame and Oscar nomination playing the role of the Apache Chief Cochise in “Broken Arrow,” a western depicting attempts to establish a truce between the Indians and the white settlers on the Arizona Frontier. 

    1963: The United States Supreme Court rule 7 to 2 in Sherbert v Werner that a an employee who refused to work on Saturday because it was the Sabbath and was terminated for that did not lose the right to collect unemployment benefits.  As is often the case, the sabbatarian was not Jewish. In this case she was a Seven Day Adventist.

    1963: The United States Supreme Court ruled 8 to 1 in Abington School District v. Schemppagainst allowing the reciting of Bible verses and the Lord's Prayer in public schools.  As is so often the case in litigation involving separation of church and state,, the plaintiffs were not Jewish.  In this case they were Unitarians.  The opinions of the Justices clearly state the importance of religion inAmerica, but they also are quite clear that it does not belong in public venues such as schools.

    1967: Moshe Dayan ordered the responsibility for the Haram, which had been under Israeli military control for a week, to be restored to the Muslims.  He also insisted that all Muslims, whether living in Israelor the West Bank be allowed to pray at the Haram.

    1967: Barbra Streisand performed “A Happening in Central Park.”

    1968(21st of Sivan, 5728):Sir Andrew Benjamin Cohen KCMG KCVO OBE, who served as Governor of Uganda from 1952 to 1957 passed away. Born in 1909, Sir Andrew was “a descendant of Levi Barent Cohen, the founder of the oldest Ashkenazi family in Britain.”

    1969: “Arthur Rubinstein – The Love of Life” (FL'Amour de la vie – Artur Rubinstein)  a 1969 documentary about pianist, Arthur Rubinstein which won the 1969 Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature was released to movie theatres today.

    1970: Birthdate of actor Michael Showalter

    1972: In Washington, DC, five men were arrested at the Watergate complex marking the start of the Watergate Scandal which would end the Presidency of Richard M. Nixon.  None of the principles in the burglary or the cover-up were Jewish.  According to some Henry Kissinger played a role in the creation of the Plumbers when he complained about the leaks to the press that were hampering his diplomatic negotiations.  In 1973, during the Yom Kippur, there were those who wondered if the politically wounded Nixon would come to the aide of the Israelis.  He did and the decision had no impact on what was going on in Washington.

    1976: The Jerusalem Post reported that the US Ambassador to Lebanon Francis Meloy, his Economic Counselor Robert Waving and their Lebanese driver were kidnapped and later found murdered in a Muslim area of Beirut.

    1976: The Jerusalem Post reported that King Hussein of Jordan, on the eve of his visit to the Soviet Union, said that he was ready to purchase Russian missiles even if it angered the U.S.

    1976: The Jerusalem Post reported that the citizens of Tel Aviv were promised a complete restoration of their beach-front promenade to its former glory.

    1984: In “God the Implausible Kinsman,” Arthur A. Cohen reviewed Responses to Catastrophe in Modern Jewish Culture. by David G. Roskies

    1987: In Tel Aviv, a program created by Sara Levi-Tanay is scheduled to open at the Inbal Yemenite Dance Theatre where she is the choreographer.

    1996(30th of Sivan, 5756): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1996(30th of Sivan, 5756): Thomas Samuel Kuhn, who wrote and taught about the history and philosophy science, passed away.  A Guggenheim Fellow, Kuhn won the George Stanton Medal for his work in the history of science.

    2001: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Does American Need A Foreign Policy? by Henry Kissinger and Borrowed Tides by Paul Levinson.

    2003(17th of Sivan, 5763): (Noam Leibowitz, 7, of Yemin Orde was killed and three members of her family wounded in a shooting attack near the Kibbutz Eyal junction on the Trans-Israel Highway. The terrorist fired from the outskirts of the West Bank city of Kalkilya. The Fatah al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - General Command claimed responsibility for the attack.

    2005:  Jean Perron, coach of the Israeli Men’s Hockey Team, and other Israeli hockey officials ran a one day tryout camp in Mississauga, Ontario for the senior and junior players.  Almost forty North American players, mostly from Canada, who had some kind of tie to Israel, took part in the tryouts.

    2005: Ken Feinberg, the man who served asSpecial Master of the U.S. government's September 11th Victim Compensation Fund and …the Special Master for TARP Executive Compensation,”  “was honored by his hometown of Brockton by having a road named after him: Attorney Ken Feinberg Way.”

    2006:  The Israeli national soccer team may not have made it to the World Cup Finals, but the Israeli flag did. John Pantsil, a Ghanadefender who plays professionally for Hapoel Tel Aviv, pulled a blue-and-white flag out from his sock following both of his team's goals against the CzechRepublicas the "Black Stars" pulled off the tournament's most significant upset.

    2006 Daniel Barenboim left his position of music director of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra.

    2007: Prime Minister Ehud Olmert is scheduled to meet United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon in New York today

    2007(1st of Tammuz, 5767): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    2007: The Sunday New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers The Gravedigger’s Daughter by Joyce Carol Oates whose main character is Rebecca Schwartz the daughter of Jacob and Anna Schwartz, German-Jewish refugees from Hitler’s Germany and Volume One of A Young People’s History of the United Sates: Columbus to the Spanish-American Warby Howard Zinn.

    2007: The Washington Post features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including 15 Stars: Eisenhower, MacArthur, Marshall by Stanley Weintraub, a book that examines three of the generals who played key roles in the winning of World War II.

    2007: The Jerusalem Post reported that “aid embargo on the Palestinian Authority is set to be lifted.”

    2008: Ryan Braun drove in his 152nd career RBI, in his 182nd game

    2008: The Jerusalem Post reported that “more US Jews today are "uncoupled" in two senses of the term -unmarried and unconnected to organized Jewry - according to the latest study by researchers Steven Cohen and Ari Kelman, who call this data "disturbing," though not for the reasons one might expect.

    2008: The New York Times reported that Michael R. Bloomberg, NYC’s Jewish mayor, remains as popular as ever despite “an overall sense the city headed down the wrong path according to the newspaper’s latest polling data.

    2009: At the DCJCC, Nextbook DC presents an evening with Lucette Lagnado author of “The Man in the White Sharkskin Suit: A Jewish Family's Exodus from Old Cairo to the New World.”


    2009:The Montreal International Yiddish Theater Festival opens at the Segal Centre for the Performing Arts.

    2009: The Museum of History of Polish Jews launched a bilingual Polish-English website called the Museum of the History of Polish Jews "Virtual Shtetl", listing 1,240 towns with maps, statistics and picture galleries

    2010:The Biennial Scholars' Conference on American Jewish History is scheduled to come to an end.

    2010: In Cedar Rapids, IA, Temple Judah is scheduled to hold its Annual Congregational Meeting.

    2010: The Museum of History of Polish Jews launched a bilingual Polish-English website called the Museum of the History of Polish Jews "Virtual Shtetl", listing 1,240 towns with maps, statistics and picture galleries.

    2010:After a day which brought weeks of tensions between Israel’s ultra-Orthodox community and the state to a climax, 35 fathers of students at the Emmanuel Beit Ya’acov girls school began two-week jail terms for contempt of court over discriminatory practices at the school, and their hassidic community hailed them as heroes for “choosing Torah” over the secular court system.

    2011: In New York, Sotheby’s is scheduled to auction Marc Chagall’s sketchbook.

    2011:An exhibition entitled “In the Footsteps of My Grandparents, A Photographic View of Israel” by Talya Arbisser is scheduled to come to a close at the Deutser Art Gallery

    2011:Defense Minister Ehud Barak thinks there is a 50-50 chance that Israel and the Palestinians will return to the negotiating table before September but that Israel cannot stop settlement construction, he told France 24 in an interview today.

    2011:A Holocaust exhibit has disappeared from a subway station in Romania for the second time in a week, its creators said today. Austrian journalist Emil Rennert and Israeli photographer Shani Bar-On said 12 out of 24 panels depicting Romania’s Jewish heritage and the Holocaust were missing from the Piata Unirii Station in Bucharest.

    2012: “I Shot My Love” is scheduled to shown at the London Israeli Film & Television Festival.

    2012: The Los Angeles Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Guy Delisle's Jerusalem: Chronicles from the Holy City

    2012: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including End This Depression Now! by Paul Krugman

    2012(27thof Sivan, 5772): Eighty-two year old “Anthony Schulte, a publishing executive who was an early proponent of audiobooks” passed away today. (As reported by Paul Vitello)

    2012: “Ours to Fight For: American Jews in the Second World” an exhibition that explores and celebrates the achievements of Jewish men and women who were part of the American war effort on and off of the battlefield is scheduled to have its final showing at the Illinois Holocaust Museum & Education Center

    2012:The IDF is concerned that rocket fire will increase from the Sinai Peninsula and into Israel over the coming days as Egyptian presidential elections come to a close a senior defense official said today.

    2012:The government approved the establishment of a ministerial committee headed by Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu this morning to deal with issues relating to settlement construction.

    2013: Dr. Nathan Shields is scheduled to begin teaching “Schoenberg: Music, God, and Catastrophe in Fin-de-siècle Vienna” which will examine the remarkable cultural ferment of fin-de-siècle Vienna through the lens of one of its principal protagonists, the composer Arnold Schoenberg.  

    2013:The Ir Yamim Mall in Netanya is scheduled to host a large employment fair dedicated to summer jobs for teenagers looking to work during their upcoming 10 weeks long summer vacation from school.

    2013: Former President Bill Clinton is being paid $500,000 to address a dinner at the Peres Academic Center in Rehovot which will be attended by the President of Israel and several top governmental officials.

    2013: “The Quebec government's anti-corruption unit, known as the Unité permanente anticorruption or simply UPAC, announced that” Saulie Zajdel who served as the director of the Jewish Rehabilitation Hospital had been arrested along with the city's interim mayor, Michael Applebaum. Zajdel himself was charged with five counts of fraud, corruption, breach of trust and payment of secret commissions, related to construction permits issued between 2006 and 2011 when he was a city councilor

    2013: Barbra Streisand is scheduled to receive an honorary doctorate from The Hebrew University in Jerusalem

    2013:A 16-year-old girl, Coral Vedder, who is suffering from a rare form of cancer, sang Barbara Streisand’s song “People” to the Jewish legend when the award winning singer met with a group of children today at the official Jerusalem residence of President Shimon Peres. (As reported by Tzvi Ben-Gedalyahu)

    2013:U.S. entertainer Barbra Streisand today took a swipe at Orthodox Jews in Israel who compel women to sit in the back of buses and assault them for following religious rituals traditionally reserved for men while speaking at Hebrew University.

    2014: The Center for Jewish History is scheduled to present “Dear Mendl, Dear Reyzl: Yiddish Letter Manuals from Russia and America”

    2014: “Wonders” and “The Lab” are scheduled to be shown at the JCC in Manhattan as part of the Israel Film Center Festival.

    2014: The Pixies, a rock band that had canceled plans to play in Israel 4 years ago in protest over the country’s policies is scheduled to perform at the Bloomfield Stadium in Jaffa.



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    JUNE 18

    1155: In Rome, the coronation of Frederick Barbarossa makes him the Holy Roman Emperor. Compared to other medieval monarchs, Frederick’s treatment of his Jewish subjects was comparatively benign. Frederick viewed the Jews as “his subjects” which meant he offered them special protection but at that same time they were a financial resource for his imperial use.  The former did not sit well with Catholic leaders and the latter did not sit well with some nobles who wanted to tax the Jews for their own benefit.  As can be seen by edict he issued concerning the Jews of Ratushon Frederick was willing to provide protection for his Jews as long as they filled his treasury.

    1291: King Alfonso III of Aragon passed away.  Alfonso was supposed to marry Princess Eleanor of England but he died before the marriage could take place. Eleanor was the daughter of Edward I, the King of England who had expelled the Jews from his realm.  One can only wonder if the marriage had been consummated, would the son-in-law have followed the example of the father-in-law and expelled the Jews from his domain which would have meant Jews would have been expelled two centuries earlier than it actually happened.

    1321 21 Sivan): In response to threats of expulsion from Rome instigated by Sangisa a sister of Pope John XXII, the Jews instituted a day of fasting a prayer. At a more practical level the Jews of Rome sent a messenger to Avignon to the papal court of King Robert of Naples, “the patron of the Jews” who interceded on their behalf.  The twenty thousand ducats given to the King may have helped to sway his sympathy as well.

    1492: A Sicilian version the Edict of Expulsion issued by the Spanish monarchs was published today in Palermo.

    1541(13thof Sivan, 5301): Jacob Pollak, the Rabbi who popularized the used of “pilpul” in Polish Talmudic academies passed away today in Lublin.  Pollak had begun his career in Prague but was forced to leave there when over a dispute about the laws of marriage.  After a thirty year career in Cracow, he moved to Palestine where he lived for ten years before returning to Poland.

    1750: Birthdate of Johann Jahn a German orientalist who was interested in Biblical archeology and who got into trouble with the Catholic Church “by asserting Job and Jonah” were really “didactic poems.”

    1768: The Haidamak Massacres (Ukraine) reached Uman. The peasant serfs and Cossacks rioted much in the same vein as Chemielnicki one hundred and twenty years earlier. At Uman the Poles and Jews defended the city together under the Polish commander Ivan Gonta. The next day, convinced by Zheleznyak the Polish revolutionary, that only the Jews would be attacked, Gonta allowed the fortified city to be entered without a fight. (This would not be the last time that the Poles sold out the Jews in an attempt to save their own skins. And it was not the last time that those who murdered the Jews would in turn slaughter them.) Approximately 8000 Jews were killed, many of them trying to defend themselves near the synagogue. As soon as the Jews were all massacred the Haidamaks (the paramilitary bands) began to kill the Poles. Although the Haidamaks began in the 1730's the main rioting was during the years 1734, 1750 and 1768 .It is estimated that during these years 20,000 Jews were killed. The Haidamaks became part of the Ukrainian national movement and are celebrated in folklore and literature.

    1778: During the American Revolutionary War, today’s departure of British troops from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania must have been met with mixed emotions by the Jewish community.  A minority, as represented by David Franks and his daughter Rebecca were Tories would miss their British patrons. The majority of the city’s Jews, including Colonel David Salisbury Franks, the nephew of David Franks, supported the Revolutionary cause and took heart at the departure of their British occupiers.

    1812: In Dusseldorf, textile merchant Samson Heine and Peira “Betty” nee van Geldern, the daughter of a physician gave birth to Gustav Heine von Geldern, the brother of Heinrich Heine and the father of “Maximillian Heine author of the libretto to the operetta ‘Mirolan.’”

    1812: Beginning of the War of 1812 between the United States and Great Britain. This conflict is referred the Second War For American Independence, since the victory in the War of 1812 meant that the United States would survive. If England had prevailed, the country that has provided so much opportunity for its Jewish population would have ceased to exist.  Despite their small number, Jews were active participants in the defense of the young Republic.  The most colorful was a privateer named John Ordronaux.  The French born Ordronaux captured several British prize ships during the war.  His most famous action came when his ship, the Prince de Neufchatel captured the British frigate Endymion.  In a scene that would do credit to a Russell Crowe naval epic, Ordronaux ordered his men to board the British fighting ship.  When his men appeared to be losing heart and prepared to retreat, Ordronaux grab a lighted match and threatened to blow up the magazine if his men did not return to the fight.  They took him at his word and turned the tide against the better armed and trained British seaman.  Uriah P. Levy, who as Commodore Levy would end the use of the lash for punishing sailors and would save Monticello for posterity, saw his first fighting as a member of the U.S. Navy during this war.  Last, but not least, Judah Turo fought in the Battle of New Orleans where he was wounded.  Turo would live for the next forty years with Rezon Davis Shephered.  He was the one who took the wounded Turo from the battlefield and saw to it that his wounds were treated.  Turo became a successful businessman whose philanthropy included everything from the Bunker Hill Monument to several New Orleans Jewish organizations and institutions.

    1815: Napoleon was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo. According to one account, fifty-two French Jews lost their lives in the battle. This defeat marked a return of the reactionaries to power in Europe. The laws of emancipation that had benefited the Jews of Europe were rolled back. It would take many decades for the Jews of Europe to win them back. On the other hand, Nathan Rothschild, head of the London branch if the famous family bank was, like all Englishman, pleased with the victory of his country.  According to some sources, he had actually provided the funds for the army of the Iron Duke.  There is an anti-Semitic legend that Nathan manipulated the Stock Exchange and by deception, made a fortune as a result of the victory.  At the Vienna Congress which was the peace conference intended to create a new order in Europe in the wake of two decades of almost non-stop war, the Jews sent a Christian attorney, Carl Buchortz, to act on their behalf. An agreement was reached whereby "Jews were given rights in proportion to accepting the duties of citizenship." This was the first time that Jewish rights became a European political issue.

    1831: Birthdate of Geheimer Baurat Edwin Oppler the German architect who designed the synagogues in Hannover and Mamel and whose legacy would be carried on by great-grandson Arnold Oppler, AIA>

    1836: Birthdate of Bavarian born French jurist and author Frederick Reitlinger, who studied Talmud with Abraham Geiger and was named an Officer of the Legion of Honor.

    1843: With Isaac Lesser serving as the Rabbi, Congregation Mikveh Israel in Philadelphia accepts the weekly sermon in English as part of its practices.

    1852(1stof Tammuz, 5612): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1863: During the American Civil War, ten companies of the 11th regient of the New York State Militia under the command of Colonel Joachim Maidhof left the state and began marching to Harrisburg, PA which was a possible target for the invading Rebel Army.

    1877: The friends of Joseph Seligman held an informal meeting to discuss recent events at Saratoga Springs, NY. The meeting was chaired by Edward Lauterbach, Mr. Seligman’s lawyer. Lauterbach provided a summary of the episode in which Mr. Seligman was informed that the Grand Union Hotel would no longer rent rooms to Jewish guest.  The decision had been made by the hotel owner, Judge Henry Hilton.  Lauterbach then read a letter that Seligman had written, but not sent, to Judge Hilton.  In the letter, Seligman described the insult that had been done to the Jewish people and wondered if Hilton would be sending a circular to Jews telling them not to shop at his Broadway stores. Those in attendance applauded when Lauterbach finished reading the letter.  Lauterbach said that the Jews of New York and the United States “could not afford to let the matter rest.”  At a time when laws prohibiting Jewish involvement in society were being removed in many other countries it would be wrong to let this happen here.  While there had been some anti-Jewish feeling expressed in the United States, it had been limited “to ignorant people –to the small vipers…but now the big snakes have attacked and it is time that” Jews “awaken and defend” themselves.  The attendees debated on how best to respond.  It was agreed that the letter should be released to the newspapers, if Seligman agreed.  It was also agreed that a “mass meeting of the Jewish citizens” of New York should be held to protest Hilton’s ban.  Furthermore, “leading citizens and clergyman should be invited to attend and express their support for the Jewish population.

    1877: Judge Henry Hilton offered a reporter a series of seemingly contradictory explanations for the refusal of the management of the Grand Union to rent rooms to Joseph Seligman.  At various points in the interview Judge Hilton said that Seligman was using the episode because he and other Jews were upset with the widow of the late Alexander Stewart because she had failed to make contributions to Jewish charities.  At another point, he said that Seligman was not a Hebrew because he had joined the Reform Movement and was instead a Jew.  Therefore Seligman had no right to complain about discrimination based on religion.  Judge Hilton also said that it was staying at the Grand Union was very expensive and that only a limited number of people could afford to do so.  Therefore he had to cater to their desires and it was these wealthy patrons who had complained about Jews staying at the hotel.  Hilton predicted that other fancy hotels would follow his lead in banning Jews; a ban which he earlier denied existed. 

    1881: It was reported today that 60,000 Jews are expected to immigrate to Spain following a decision by the Madrid government to allow entrance by Jews expelled from Russia.
    1881: It was reported that in light of decision by authorities to take a census of the Jews of Kiev, a large number of them have left the area.   

    1881: In Leadville, Colorado, Eva Schloss “recited at the closing exercise at the Spruce Street Schoolhouse.”

    1882(1st of Tammuz, 5642): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1882: In Tisza- Eszlar, Hungary, during a “blood-libel” frenzy, a gamekeeper recovers the body of a girl from the Nyiregyhaza River.  Although the body was probably not the body of the girl for whom the authorities were looking, they would decide that this corpse was really part of a Jewish conspiracy and would use it as an excuse to arrest three more Jews from whom confessions would be obtained by force.  

    1886: The Times of London reported today that Flinders Petrie, the noted English Egyptologist, has discovered the ancient ruins the Biblical “Tahpanhes” described in Chapter 43 in the Book of Jeremiah as the site where Jews fleeing the Babylonians found refuge in 586 BCE.  The Pharaoh welcomed them and distributed tracts of land for them to settle and develop. [This is another example of archeology supporting the stories in the Bible.  The Pharaoh’s generosity stands in sharp contrast to the Egyptians to fight with the Judeans against the Babylonians as they had promised.]

    1887: “The Hornthal Prize Contests” published today described the elocution competition funded by L.M. Hornthal.  Miss Una Westing won the girl’s prize for a recitation entitled “How the Station Clock Saw and Heard It. She is a student at Grammar School No. 77 where Julia Richman, who is a leading secular and Jewish educator, serves as principal.

    1889: A list of the trustees of the Talmud Torah Benevolent Association of New York published today included Chaim, Herschdorfer, Moses Moses, Jacob Saltpeler, Bernard Wienberger, Joseph Siegel, Leib Rubenstein and Chaim Fertig.

    1891: The Hebrew Technical Institute held its seventh annual commencement exercises this afternoon at Arlington Hall in St. Mark’s Place. The 18 boys in the graduating classed presented the director Dr. Henry M. Leipziger with a framed portrait created by one of their classmate Rudolph Shack.

    1891: Martin Engel, the Tammany leader in the Eighth Assembly District had his nose broken today when an assailant hit him with a beer keg. (Engel would later refuse to pay the surgeon who worked on his nose because “he was no longer recognized as a Jew” forcing the surgeon to sue to collect for services rendered.)

    1891: Birthdate of Edward “Eddie” Jacobson, American businessman and friend of Harry Truman who interceded with him to help gain his support for the creation of the modern state of Israel.

    1893(4thof Tammuz, 5653): After being treated by Dr. M.S. Kakeles this evening for the effects of nervous prostration, Samuel Adler, the proprietor of the Nineteenth Marble and Granite Works slipped away from the watchful eye of his son and took his own life this evening.

    1893: As competition heats up between different unions representing Jewish printers, today the Hebrew Typographical Union No.317 joined the Central Labor Union and the Hebrew-American Typographical Union joined the Central Labor Federation

    1893: “Passover Ceremonies” published today described the home observance of Pesach including the use of the Hagadah, “of which the first edition printed in London is dated 1709; the first edition with an English translation” is dated 1770.

    1896: The Hebrew Technical Institute is scheduled to hold its commencement exercises at Cooper Union beginning at 8 pm.

    1896: French newspapers announced the Marquise de Mores, a prominent anti-Semite, “had been murdered by some tribesman on the Tripolitan frontier” – a claim that would later be disputed by his widow.

    1896(7th of Tammuz, 5656): Twenty-five year old Simon Mischel an unmarried Jew living on Delancey Street was strangled at Clyde, near Buffalo, by “road agents” who threw his body into the river after robbing him of “a large amount of money.”

    1896: Rabbi Kaufmann Kohler delivered the opening prayer at the tenth annual commencement exercise of the Hebrew Technical Institute which took place this evening at Cooper Institute.

    1898: It was reported today the nine people have been killed in Austrian Galicia during an outbreak of anti-Semitic violence which has required the dispatch of troops to the area to quell the peasant mobs.

    1898: In Cincinnati, Ohio, actors Joseph and Bessie Jacobson gave birth to Irving Jacobson star of Yiddish and American theatre who played Sancho Panza  in the original Broadway run of “Man of La Mancha.”

    1899: “Firecrackers, eggs, watermelon rinds and stones were thrown” at Wilson W. Dunlap and his aids when “they attempted to hold services” on the lower east side designed to convert Jews to Christianity.

    1899: “Recent German Events” published today described the speeches given by Count Walter Puckler “a prominent Jew baiter” in a Silesian village “in which he incited his audience to violence against the Jews.”  Following attacks on the Jews, Puckler was prosecuted “for stirring up ‘hatred between the classes.’” The local tribunal dismissed the charges but the Public Prosecutor appealed the case to the Supreme Court which has yet to rule.

    1899: It was reported today that fines have been levied on two Berlin anti-Semitic papers, the Stasstsburger Zeitung and the Deutsche General-Anzeiger for publishing the speeches of Count Puckler.

    1899: During a six day meeting inParis. Herzl, Max Nordau and Alexander Marmorek meet Narcisse Leven who assures them that the Jewish Colonization Association will cooperate when it comes to practical colonization.

    1899: In Baltimore, MD, Dr. Richard Gottheil chaired the opening session of the second annual conference of the Federation of American Zionists.

    1899: A summary of the United Hebrew Charities report for May described the 2,021 applications for assistance that covered the needs of 6,737 individuals. The monthly cash receipts of $10, 816.08 went to cover the expenses that totaled $10,808.21.  These included everything from $2,514.12 for local relief to $282.00 to cover the burials for the indigent

    1901(1stof Tammuz, 5661): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1901, Gertrude Weil became the first North Carolina resident to graduate from Smith College,

    1904: Birthdate of French composer Manuel Rosenthal

    1911:  Sarah Berhnhardt finishes a thirty-five week theatrical tour of the U.S. and Canada

    1913: Birthdate of Sammy Cahn. Born Samuel Cohen, Cahn played both the violin and the piano. But his fame came as a musical composer. He passed away in 1993, one of a long of Jews who provided the tunes for Broadway and Hollywood.

    1914: Day school for adult Oriental Jews opened on the New York’s East Side.

    1915(6thof Tammuz, 5675): Eighty-one year old Bernhard Bettmann passed away today.  A native of Bavaria, he came to the United States in 1850 and settled in Cincinnati.  He became a successful businessman, bank president and leading member of the local Republican Party as well as a pillar of the Jewish community.

    1916: The Turkish military governor, Djemal Pasha, bans Jews from praying at the Kotel.  (In 1917, he reportedly offered to rescind the ban if he was paid 100,000 Francs)

    1917: During World War I, reports from London state that Zionist activity in Turkey has been prohibited by the government.

    1918: Birthdate of Jerome Karle, the Brooklyn native who shared the 1985 Nobel Prize in Chemistry (As reported by Kenneth Chang)

    1918: The Ziegfeld Follies of 1918 featuring songs by Eddie Cantor opened today.

    1918: Birthdate Franco Modigliani, Italian born American winner of the Nobel Prize for economics in 1985.

    1919:The publication of Haaretz, a Hebrew daily newspaper, begins in Jerusalem. It will move to Tel Aviv in 1923. It is independent and liberal in orientation. Its literary supplement features the best Hebrew writers and scholars both from Palestine and the Diaspora.

    1921:  Winston Churchill “informed his officials at the Colonial Office that he believed it was impossible for Britain to grant any form of representation to the Arabs that would give them the power to halt Jewish immigration.”

    1923:In Baltimore, a report read at tonight's session of the Zionist convention by Emanuel Newmann, General Secretary of the Palestine Foundation states that six million dollars has been raised In the past two years by Jewish organizations in the United States devoted to the rebuilding of Palestine, and of this sum $4,250,000, amounting to 70 per cent, of the total, has been raised by the Palestine Foundation Fund (Keren Hayesod).

    1923: Checker Cab puts its first taxi on the streets.  Originally a Checker Cab was a taxicab built by the Checker Cab Company.  The Checker Cab Company had been formed by Morris Markin a Russian Jewish immigrant.  Markin was so poor when he arrived in the United States that he had to borrow the $25 for the bond necessary for those entering the country from a porter working at Ellis Island.  Beginning as a tailor, Markin amassed enough of a fortune to own his own garment business and to bring the rest of his family from Russia to Chicago.  After starting the Checker Cab Company, he bought the Yellow Cab Company.  He passed away in 1970.

    1929: Jacob Goldman a former student at New York University living in Tel Aviv writes a letter on this date “telling of demonstrations by young Aras and the circulation of songs calling Moslems to ‘take up the sword’ against the foreign ruler and the Jews.’”

    1929: Birthdate of Tibor "Ted" Rubin “a Hungarian-born Holocaust survivor who immigrated to the United States in 1948 and received the Medal of Honor for his actions in the Korean War by President George W. Bush in 2005.”

    1930: A discharged Arab policeman has been arrested in Jaffa as a suspect in the attempted murder of Police Captain F.M. Scott of Tel Aviv.  “It is believed that the former policeman swore vengeance against Scott because he had dissmissed him from the force.

    1933:Dr. Chaim Arlosoroff, the 34 year old Zionist leader gunned down by two unknown assassinswas buried this afternoon. About 70,000 persons marched in the funeral procession, with delegations attending from all parts of the country. Beryl Katzenellenson, editor of Davar, Meir Dizengoff, Mayor of Tel Aviv and Menachem Ussishkin, head of the Jewish National Fund all delivered eulogies.

    1933:  Birthdate of Jerzy Kosiński, Polish-born American author.  During the Holocaust, Kosinski was hidden by a Polish family using a false Baptismal certificate.  After the war, he was reunited with his parents.  He came to the United States in 1957.  The Painted Bird and Being There are two of his most famous efforts.  He passed away in 1991.

    1936: The Palestine Post reported that a commission had been appointed by the government to replace the Haifa's Municipal Council which since the beginning of the Arab boycott was no longer able to discharge its duties. The government began to demolish the condemned buildings in the Old City of Jaffa. The quarter looked like a nightmare with furniture, bedding and odds and ends being dragged out of condemned houses.

    1936: In New York City Sidney and Frances Wimmer gave birth to Richard Samuel Wimmer who would finally achieve his goal of being a published author with the appearance of Irish Wine in 1989. (As reported by Dennis Hevesi)

    1936 (28th of Sivan, 5696): “Two more Jews died today as a result of Arab terrorism…Abraham Benyehuda died from wounds received in a recent ambush of a bus belonging to the Jewish colony of Ataroth, north of Jerusalem…Joseph Shefter, proprietor of the Leviathan tannery located on the outskirts of Tel Aviv, died as a result of an attack this afternoon on a bus which he and nine of his employees were returning to Tel Aviv. 

    1938: Winston Churchill wrote to Sir Alexander Maxwell, the Permanent Under-Secretary of State at the Home Office asking him for assistance in making Vic Oliver’s wish to become a naturalized British subject a reality.  Vic Oliver was an Austrian born Jewish actor, radio comedian and pianist who had married Churchill’s daughter Sarah.  Churchill had opposed the marriage at first because Oliver was sixteen years old than his daughter and twice-divorced.  Later, he came to “like and esteem him greatly.”

    1940:Members of the Etzel command who were imprisoned in the summer 1of 939 are released.

    1940: Charles De Gaulle issued L'Appel du 18 Juin (the Appeal of 18 June) over the BBC radio service in which he called upon the French to resist the Vichy regime and to fight on against the Nazis despite the signing of the armistice.  This is considered to the start of the French Resistance.  While many Frenchmen heeded his call, a large number actually supported Vichy and collaborated with the Nazis.  The Myth of the Resistance grew in proportion to Allied successes following Normandy.

    1944: Rabbi Philip Lipis, who was serving as a Chaplain in the United States Navy, spoke at the installation service at Congregation Beth El in Camden, NJ where Morris LIebman began his fourth term as President of the Congregation and Mrs. Max PIncus became Sisterhood President.  Lipis had taken leave from his position as the congregation’s rabbi to serve during World War II.

    1947: Ben-Gurion published a long memorandum addressed to the Haganah command.  He outlined a three-fold structure for the organization: an excellent attack force for special purposes; a driving force in the form of a regular army; and a territorial defense force.  The most urgent goal: training commanders up through the battalion level; establishing a high school for commanders to prepare battalion commanders and staff officers.  This was necessary because up until this time, the Haganah’s platoon commander’s course was the highest level of training.

    1947: John Henry Patterson, who attained the rank of Lieutenant Colonel in the Essex Yeomanry before retiring passed away today.  Many know Patterson as the British officer portrayed by Val Kilmer in “The Ghost and the Darkness,” a film based on Patterson’s building of a bridge in Kenya before WW I.  Jews remember him as the commander of the Zion Mule Corps and the 38th Battalion of the Royal Fusiliers which was popularly known as the Jewish Legion of the British Army.  Patterson sacrificed his own career to fight the anti-Semitism that was so rife among many British officers of that time.  He wrote two books about his experiences – With the Zionists at Gallipoli and With the Judeans in Palestine. Patterson’s close relationship with Zionist leaders can be seen in the fact that he was the Godfather of Benzion Netanyahu’s oldest son, Yonatan “Yoni” Netanyahu, the hero of Entebbe and the brother of the current Prime Minister of Israel.

    1947:  Ben-Gurion appointed Yaakov Dori as the chief of staff and Yisrael Galili as the new national command head as part of his plan to revamp the Yishuv’s military forces.

    1950:Foreign Minister Moshe Sharett asked Israeli newspaper editors today to go slow in attacking Eastern bloc Governments and particularly their representatives. His plea followed protests by diplomatic representatives to the Government against press attacks.

    1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that the Negev rejoiced when water spurted several meters high in the yellow wilderness when Avraham Hartzfeld, the gray-haired patron of the settlers, turned the tap of the new pipeline and pumping station.

    1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that Israel's first steel-pipe factory was opened south of Acre by the Middle East Tube Co. Ltd.

    1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that the new freighter Eilat called at Haifa with a cargo of 9,000 tons of wheat and 2,000 tons of machinery.

    1952: Eight days after the Israeli government imposed a forced loan of 10 percent on currency holdings and bank accounts, the deflationary effect has been so sharp “that Government officials are uncertain whether to be jubilant or worried.  Newspapers have experience an unexpected decline in revenue due to a loss of circulation at time when they had just negotiated a new labor contract increasing wages of workers.  A round trip ticket from Tel Aviv to Paris has jumped in the past year from 175 Israeli pounds to 500 Israeli pounds. Shops of all kind are doing less business and nightclubs report that their earnings on Saturday night (their busiest time) are less now than they were for an average week night a year ago.

    1954: Pierre Mendes-France became Premier of France. Born in 1907 in Paris, Mendes-France’s came from a family of Sephardic Jews. He was trained as a lawyer and fought with the Free French during World War II. After the war, Mendes-France served in numerous governments in the revolving door of the Fourth Republic. Mendes-France was an anti-colonialist. He served as Premier after the fall of Dien Bien Phu, and negotiated the end to the French Indo-China War. Several Catholic political leaders attacked him for this and the attack quickly became anti-Semitic. Mendes-France also began the negotiations that would lead to independence for the French colonies in North Africa. Mendes-France political signature was a glass of milk. After the war, some French leaders were concerned that French people were drinking too much wine and starting to drink at too early an age. When Mendes-France would appear in public, there invariably was a glass of milk on the lectern, which he made a point of sipping some time during the presentation. Mendes-France passed away in 1982.

    1956: Golda Meir replaced Moshe Sharett as Foreign Minister.  Sharett had held the position since the creation of the state, even when he was serving as Prime Minister.  Meir’s colorful career had already included clandestine negotiations with the King of Jordan and a stint as the first Ambassador to the Soviet Union.  Eventually she would rise to the position of Prime Minister.

    1959: A federal court overturned Arkansas state laws that allowed schools faced with integration to be closed.  Harry Ehrenberg, Sr., of blessed memory, was one of those unsung heroes who literally risked his as he carried a petition seeking support to keep the Little Rock schools open despite the race baiting efforts of Governor Faubus to defy school integration.

    1966(30th of Sivan, 5726): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1975(9thof Tammuz, 5735): Ninety-one year old award winning philosopher Samuel Hugo Bermann, the native of Prague who made Aliyah in 1920 where he founded the Brit Shalom movement with Martin Buber passed away today.

    1976: The Jerusalem Post reported that the Treasury and the Histadrut had jointly decided that Value Added Tax would be levied at 8 percent, as of July 1.

    1976: The Jerusalem Post reported that two Israeli missile boats sailed for the US to take part in the July 4 Bicentennial salute on the Hudson River.

    1984(18th of Sivan, 5744): Murder of Alan Berg, Denver-based radio talk show host. Berg was shot by Christian White Supremacists.

    1987:Daniel Barenboim began 9 days of conducting the IPO in a series of partially staged operas - ''Don Giovanni,''''The Marriage of Figaro'' and ''Cosi Fan Tutte''– that included performers from the Paris Opera.

    1992(17th of Sivan, 5752): Famed Israeli painter, Mordecai Ardon, passed away His works included an effort from 1944 entitled “Ein Karem.”  In English Ein Karem means “Spring of the Vineyard.”  It is located on the southwest edge of Jerusalem.

    1993: In Colorado, the District Court award title to Leadville’s Hebrew Cemetery to The Temple Israel Foundation.

    1996(1stof Tammuz, 5756): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1996(1stof Tammuz, 5756): Kesari Yisrael passed away.  Born in Yemen in 1933, he came to Palestine at the age of two.  After studying at Hebrew University and Tel Aviv University he became a leader of Histadrut before being elected to the Knesset and serving as a cabinet minister.

    1996: Limor Livnat succeeds Shulamit Aloni as Minister of Communications

    1996: Benny Begin begins serving as The Science and Technology Minister of Israel

    1996: Eli Suissa succeeds Haim Ramon as Internal Affairs Minister

    1996: Israel Kessar completes his term as Minister of Transport, National Infrastructure and Road Safety.

    1996: David Levy succeeds Ehud Barak as foreign minister.

    1996: Binyamin Ben-Eliezer completes his term as Minister of Housing and Construction

    1996:Binyamin Netanyahu succeeds Shimon Sheetrit as Minister of Religious Services

    1996: Gonen Segev completed his service as Minister of Energy and Water Resources.

    1996: Avigdor Kahalani replaced Moshe Shahal as Minister of Public Security

    1997(13th of Sivan, 5757):  Lev Kopelev passed away.  The Russian born Kopelev was an idealist and a committed Bolshevik.  Over time, he would become a dissident and ended up having to live out his days in Cologne, Germany.

    1999: The Times of London reviewed “Israel and the Bomb” by Avner Cohen.

    2000:The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Groucho:The Life and Times of Julius Henry Marx by Stefan Kanfer, Monkey Business:The Lives and Legends of the Marx Brothers: Groucho, Chico, Harpo, Zeppo With Added Gummo by Simon Louvish, The Essential Groucho:Writings by, for, and About Groucho Marx Edited by Stefan Kanfer, How to Read and Why by Harold Bloom, King David:A Biography by Steven L. McKenzie and The Jewish State: The Struggle for Israel's Soul by Yoram Hazony

    2002: In “Edelman Savors Nearly 50 Years of Independence,” Jim Kirk provides a snapshot of the career of Daniel Edelman the PR man who came to Chicago from New York and founded the agency that bears his name.

    2002(8th of Tammuz, 5762): Nineteen people, including two children, were killed and 74 were injured – six seriously – in a suicide bombing at the Patt junction in Egged bus #32A traveling from Gilo to the center of Jerusalem. The bus, which was completely destroyed, was carrying a number of students on their way to school. The victims: Boaz Aluf, 54, of Jerusalem; Shani Avi-Zedek, 15, of Jerusalem; Leah Baruch, 59, of Jerusalem; Mendel Bereson, 72, of Jerusalem; Rafael Berger, 28, of Jerusalem; Michal Biazi, 24, of Jerusalem; Tatiana Braslavsky, 41, of Jerusalem; Galila Bugala, 11, of Jerusalem; Raisa Dikstein, 67, of Jerusalem; Dr. Moshe Gottlieb, 70, of Jerusalem; Baruch Gruani, 60, of Jerusalem; Orit Hayla, 21, of Jerusalem; Helena Ivan, 63, of Jerusalem; Iman Kabha, 26, of Barta; Shiri Negari, 21, of Jerusalem; Gila Nakav, 55, of Jerusalem; Yelena Plagov, 42, of Jerusalem; Liat Yagen, 24 of Jerusalem; Rahamim Zidkiyahu, 51, of Jerusalem. Hamas claimed responsibility for the attack.

    2003(18th of Sivan, 5763):  A Palestinian terrorist  detonated a bomb on a bus in Jerusalem.

    2004: Bernard J. Wohl, Executive Director of the Goddard Riverside Community Center addresses the 20th annual conference of the “International Federation of Settlements and Neighborhood Centers” in Toronto. "You can’t just focus on your own agency. You need to work with other agencies to affect change because all the agencies are experiencing the same problems to different extents. When agencies get together, the city listens much more to them. Community is about doing things together."

    2005(11th of Sivan, 5765): Sixty-six year old Gerald Davis a prominent  artist and leader of the Irish Jewish community passed away.

    2006: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Betraying Spinozaby Rebecca Goldstein and recently released paperback editions of 109 East Palace: Robert Oppenheimer and the Secret City of Los Alamos by Jennet Coant, American Prometheus: The Triumph and Tragedy of J. Robert Oppenheimerby Kai Bird and Martin Sherman and The Boy Who Loved Anne Frank by Ellen Feldman

    2006: Student groups at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee rallied today calling for the prosecution of a local man who claims to be a former Waffen-SS officer and announced last week that he planned to set up a public shrine in his backyard to commemorate the life of Adolf Hitler.

    2006:Ronald S. Lauder purchased the painting Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I by Gustav Klimt for $135 million from Maria Altman

    2007: Funeral services were held at Am Shalom, in Glencoe, Illinois for Shirlee Mages, of blessed memory.

    2007: Newsweek magazine features an article by Robert W. Morgenthau and Frank Tuerkheimer entitled “From Midway to the Mideast: How a victory in the Pacific 65 years ago helped defeat Hitler and found Israel.” The article includes the information that “just after the fall of Tobruk, an SS killing squad…was created to operate behind Rommel’s front line…for the express purpose of killing Jews in occupied territory.”  Had Rommel been successful that occupied territory would have included Palestine and the Jews of the Yishuv.

    2007: In the “Verbatim” section Time magazinefeatured the following quote by Rutka Laskier, “'If only I could say, It's over, you only die once ... but I can't, because despite all these atrocities, I want to live, and wait for the following day.'” Rutka Laskier has been described as the Polish Anne Frank. Like Frank, she wrote a Holocaust-era diary, at the age of 14. Like Frank, Laskier perished during the Holocaust. Apparently, the Nazis killed her at Auschwitz.

    2007: Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz squares off in a friendly dispute with Michael Steinhardt at the annual dinner of the Aleph Society in New York City.

    2007: On the secular calendar, the fifteenth anniversary of the death of Mordecai Ardon.  It happens to fall on the 2ndof Tammuz which is appropriate since one of his works was called “Tammuz.”

    2008: As the waters recede from the 500 Year Flood of 2008, The Cedar Rapids Gazette reported that Smulekoff's, one of the oldest businesses in downtown Cedar Rapids, said it will be opening in temporary quarters and plans to rebuild its landmark store at 97 Third Ave. SE. Ann Lipsky, president of Smulekoff's Home Store, told managers that the 119-year-old business will be reopening in the near term at its warehouse, 411 Sixth Ave. SE. The warehouse received a small amount of water in the basement where no merchandise was stored. Smulekoff's has been in downtown Cedar Rapids since 1889 when it was established by Henry Smulekoff on May's Island. The store moved to the current location of Wells Fargo Bank on Third Avenue SW during the flood of 1929 and was located at 97 Third Ave. SE during the flood of 1993."In all that time, the devastation has never been as bad as the current situation," Lipsky said. "We will come back and continue to provide the area with fine home furnishings, floor coverings and more."

    2008: UNICEF met with officials of Adalah, a coalition of pro-Palestinian groups to inform them that the agency would no longer have any relationship with Lev Leviev, an Orthodox Jewish diamond mogul who has financed construction projects in the West Bank.

    2008: The Jewish Film Festival of Croatia host a first time one day event in Belgrade.

    2009: In Deal New Jersey, Avi Hoffman opens a three night run of "Too Jewish?", "Too Jewish, Too" and “Still Jewish After All These Years: A Life in the Theater” at the Axelrod Performing Arts Center.

    2009:David Adjmi makes his professional New York theater debut when his play “Stunning” opens at the Duke on 42nd Street today. “Stunning” is set in the Syrian-Jewish enclave where Mr. Adjmi grew up.

    2009:Espousing a dream of harmony that may stretch credibility among even the most fervent believers in dialogue among the great religions, clerics in Jerusalem launched a project today aimed at finding a way to share the city's holiest, and most fought over, site.
    2010: Simon Wolfson was created Baron Wolfson of Aspley Guise, of Aspley Guise in the County of Bedfordshire,

    2010: The Elvis and 50's Rock'n'Roll Concert is scheduled to take place at midrechov Ben Yehuda in Jerusalem.

    2010: Abbie Silber the lovely and multi-talented daughter of Dr. Bob and Laurie Silber provided a special musical interlude for Shabbat Services at Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, IA

    2010(5th of Tammuz, 5770): Eighty-one year old Holocaust survivor passed away today. (As reported by Keith Thursby)

    2011:Naama Shafir, an Israeli point guard and a player on the University of Toledo's women's basketball team who normally wears a T-shirt under her jersey for modesty reasons, will not be playing in a European basketball tournament scheduled to start today because FIBA Europe-- the Munich-based organization that governs basketball in Europe -- decided to stick with its usual policy: All players must wear the same uniform.

    2011:Erika Brooks Adickman is scheduled to host “Troop Beverly Hills: The Experience” at the Historic Sixth & I Synagogue in Washington, DC.

    2011: A wildfire raging in the Golan today was under control by late afternoon. The fire erupted this morning near Moshav Had Nes in the southern Golan Heights.

     2011(16th of Sivan, 5771): Morris Pollard, the 95 year old father of Jonathan Pollard, passed away today. Pollard was an internationally recognized prostate cancer researcher who was professor emeritus of biological sciences at Notre Dame University

    2011(16th of Sivan, 5771): Eighty-eight year old Elena Boner, the Soviet dissident and human-rights campaigner who endured banishment and exile along with her husband, the dissident nuclear physicist Andrei D. Sakharov, passed away today. Her father was an Armenia.  Her mother, Ruth Bonner was a Jewess born in Siberia who disappeared into the Gulag in 1938.(As reported by Alessandra Stanley and Michael Schwirtz)

     2012: The Partnership for Jewish Life and Learning is scheduled to have its annual meeting at Ohr Kodesh in Chevy Chase, MD. 

    2012: Israeli cellist Yoed Nir is scheduled to appear with Judy Collins at the Metropolitan Museum of Art-PBS Show.

    2012: On the Civil Calendar, 20thanniversary of the death of Michael Ardon.

    2012:An Israeli citizen and two terrorists were killed this morning during clashes between Israel Defense Forces soldiers and gunmen who infiltrated the southern border with Egypt.
    2012: “A group of 20 veterans, mostly-high ranking Jordanian and Israeli retired officers, met in Jerusalem today, and toured the sites of battles that pitted them against each other nearly half a century ago. (As reported by Elhanan Miller)

    2012: In a letter published today by“Nobel Peace Prize laureate Elie Wiesel  renounced a Hungarian state award he received in 2004 in protest against what he said was a "whitewashing" of the role of former Hungarian governments in the deportation of Jews during World War Two.

    2012(28th of Sivan, 5772): An Israeli citizen and two terrorists were killed this morning during clashes between Israel Defense Forces soldiers and gunmen who infiltrated the southern border with Egypt.

    2012(28thof Sivan, 5772): Ninety-year old “Judith S. Wallerstein, a psychologist who touched off a national debate about the consequences of divorce by reporting that it hurt children more than previously thought, with the pain continuing well into adulthood” passed away today. (As reported by Denise Grady)

    2013:Barbra Streisand is scheduled to perform in Israel today at the opening ceremony of Shimon Peres’s annual Presidential Conference, which will also honor his 90th birthday. (As reported by Gabe Fisher)

    2013: Russ & Daughter’s is scheduled to host its Herring Celebration where “the wonders of herring” will be explored. (An event to make a true Litvak drool)

    2013: The 92nd Street Y is scheduled to host “a conversation with creators Peter Gethers and Dan Okrent and cast members from off-Broadway’s “Old Jews Telling Jokes” in which they will explore the hit revue that pays tribute to classic jokes of the past and present

    2013: Today, Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu condemned last night's "price tag" attack in Abu Ghosh, saying that it is contradictory to the values and people of Israel and Judaism.

    2013: Hungarian prosecutors today charged Laszlo Csatary, 98, with war crimes committed during World War Two, saying he helped deport Jews to Auschwitz. "He is charged with the unlawful execution and torturing of people thus committing war crimes partly as a culprit, partly as an accomplice," Bettina Bagoly, a spokeswoman for the Budapest Chief Prosecutor's Office said. She said Csatary's case would go to trial within three months. (As reported by Reuters)

    2013: After have been arrested yesterday on charges of fraud, conspiracy, breach of trust and corruption, Michael Applebaum resigned as Mayor of Montreal while maintaining that he was innocent of all charges.

    2014: International Consortium for Research on Antisemitism and Racism, hosted by the Jewish Studies Program at Central European University is scheduled to come to an end in Budapest.

    2014: The Center for Jewish History is scheduled to host a panel discussion on “Ancestors from AllOver the World.”

    2014: “A Place in Heaven” is scheduled to be shown at the JCC in Manhattan as part of the Israel Film Center Festival.
    2014: In London, The Weiner Library for the Study of the Holocaust and Genocide is scheduled to host a special film festival and reception marking Refugee Week


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    JUNE 19

    325: Promulgation of the Nicene Creed. The creed dealt with various splits among the various Christian groups and only dealt in a tangential manner with matters pertaining to Jews. The creed altered the method for selecting the date of Easter.  The change did not ban Easter from ever falling on the first day of Passover.  This change would be centuries away from being adopted. But by adopting even this change, the early Christian leaders showed the need to work very hard at separating their religion from Judaism.

    1269: Louis IX (Saint Louis) of France, needing no urging from the Church, ordered all Jews found in public without a badge (yellow or red) to be fined ten livres of silver. The badge in Francewas usually a circle of red or yellow material and was known as a rouelle. The original badge was actually Moslem in origin (Caliph Omar II (717-20)) who decreed that both Jews and Christians wear a distinguishing mark. The "badge" took on different shapes colors and even dress (i.e. a hat or color of a dress) depending on the country.

    1286: Rabbi Meir of Rothenburg was imprisoned in a castle in Alsace, Lombardy.  At the time of his imprisonment, Reb Meir and his followers were trying to leave Germany following a new wave of persecution brought by Rudolph I.  “Tradition has it that a large ransom of 23,000 marks (approximately 15,144,900 U.S dollars today) was raised for him (by the ROSH), but Rabbi Meir refused it, for fear of encouraging the imprisonment of other rabbis. He died in prison after seven years. 14 years after his death a ransom was paid for his body by Alexander ben Shlomo (Susskind) Wimpen, who was subsequently laid to rest beside the Maharam.”  Reb Meir was also known by the term Maharam.  His erudition and piety earned him the appellation, ‘Light of the Exile.’ Meir was a leading commentator on Rashi’s explanations of the Talmud.  Such was his reputation that Ashkenazi communities in Italy, France and Germany looked to him for guidance when questions of law and/or custom arose.

    1320: John XXII issued “Cum sit absurdum” a Papal Bull that stated that “Converted Jews need not be despoiled.”

    1338: “In recognition of the good-will shown by the citizens of Vienna in time of distress, and in anticipation of its continuance, the Jews declared, in a document written in Hebrew and dated today in Vienna that they would lend to the citizens of Vienna, rich as well as poor, a pound of Vienna heller at a weekly interest of three heller.”

    1623: Birthdate of French mathematician and philosopher Blaise Pascal.  Of the Jewish people Pascal wrote, “It is certain that in certain parts of the world we can see a peculiar people, separated from the other peoples of the world and this is called the Jewish people…. This people is not only of remarkable antiquity but has also lasted for a singularly long time… For where as the people of Greece and Italy, of Sparta, Athens and Rome and others who came so much later have perished so long ago, these still exist, despite the efforts of so many powerful kings who have tried a hundred times to wipe them out, as their historians testify, and as can easily be judged by the natural order of things over such a long spell of years. They have always been preserved, however, and their preservation was foretold… My encounter with this people amazes me…."

    1747: Nāder Shāh Afshār, the founder of the Afsharid dynasty, passed away. During his reign he reversed the anti-Jewish policies and practices that had been put in place by the Safawid’s dynasty which had ruled during the previous century.

    1768: At Uman, the Haidamak Army under the command of Maksym Zalizniak slaughtered thousands of Jews in the Gonta Massacres.  The slaughter came at the end of the siege of Uman in which Ivan Gonta had betrayed the Polish garrison which led to its defeat.  The Polish commandment had tried to “buy the lives” of the Poles by giving up the Jews; a ploy that failed.  Led by Leib Shargorodoski and Moses Menaker, the Jews put up a valiant but futile defense.  The number of dead Jews which totaled more than 2,000 was inflated by the number of refugees who had sought refuge in the town.

    1772: Birthdate of Salomon Oppehneim Jr. the German Jewish banker from Bonn who at the age of 17 founded a “commissions and exchange house” that became Sal. Oppenheim company

    1790: The Gazette of the United States, a newspaper published in New York City provides an account of correspondence between the Hebrew Congregation of Savannah, Georgia and the newly elected President of the United States, George Washington.  Washington’s letter to the Georgia Jews ends with the following sentiments. “May the same wonder-working Deity, who long since delivered Hebrews from their Egyptian oppressors, planted them in a promised land, whose providential agency has lately been conspicuous in establishing these United States as an independent nation, still continue to water them with the dews of heaven and make the inhabitants of every denomination participated in the temporal and spiritual blessings of that people whose God is Jehovah.”

    1790(7th of Tammuz, 5550):Saul Lowenstam “a renowned Dutch rabbi and Talmudist” passed away.  Born at Rzeszów in 1717 he was the son of Rabbi Areyh Leib ben Saul, the son-in-law of Rabbi Abraham Kahana and the father of Rabbi Jacob Moses Lowenstam. His writings included Binyan Arieland a Torah Commentary, HeChatzer HaChadasha.

    1826: Birthdate of Charles Loring Brace, author of The Unknown God; Or Inspiration Among Pre-Christian Races in which the author is impressed by the fact that there that are “so few evidences of Egyptian influence are found in the Hebrew faith.”  The thinkers and teachers of the Jews were visited by those higher and purer inspirations which have made them the greatest benefactors of mankind in ancient history.

    1832: Birthdate of Frédéric Emile Baron d’Erlanger, the French banker whose family converted to Christianity.  Despite the family’s conversion, the Baron is often erroneously identified as being Jewish. Erlanger created one of the earliest “junk bonds” based on the cotton trade during the Civil War.  This has led to other incorrect reports that Jews were responsible for financing the Confederacy’s war effort.

    1843(21st of Sivan, 5603): Sixty-year old Austrian author and philosopher Ignaz Jeiteles who was working on a history of literature when he passed away today in Vienna.

    1854: Birthdate of Jonas Kuppenheimer.  A native of Terre Haute, Indiana, Kuppenheimer, his father Bernard and his brothers Louise and Albert moved to Chicago in 1870 where they established a clothing store that became one of the major men’s clothing brands in the United States.  He passed away in 1921.

    1857: The correspondent for the New York Times writes from London that the second reading of the Jew Bill has passed by an immense majority. Furthermore, the opposition seems to be waning and Rothschild is on his way to becoming “a Parliamentary saint” as opposed to an “unparliamentary martyr.”

    1867:Ruthless beat out DeCourcey by a head over the old Jerome Park Racetrack to win the inaugural running of the Belmont Stakes and financed by August Belmont, Sr. for whom the race was named financed the building of the track.  The Belmont Stakes would move to its current home, Belmont Park, in 1905.

    1871: In Nebraska, Edward Rosewater, a Jewish immigrant who supported abolition and served as a telegrapher in the Union Army published the first edition of the Omaha Bee

    1877: As word of Judge Hilton’s decision to bar Joseph Seligman from the Grand Union Hotel because he was Jewish spread across the United States, hotel proprietors in Philadelphia said that banning patrons because they were Jewish was wrong.  Looking at it from strictly a financial point of view, they all agree that the money of “an Israelite” is as good as that “of a full-fledged American.”  Both Mr. Kingsley of the Continental and Mr. Ward of St. George, leading Philadelphia hotels, have had Seligman as a guest and would gladly do so again. While Judge Hilton’s action might have been permissible in New York, in Pennsylvania it would have been illegal.  Under that state’s law, hotel owners have to obtain a license that allows them “keep a hotel, inn or tavern and under the provisions of that license he cannot turn away any person from his hotel, unless he knows that such persons will cause great loss to his house and then he holds himself liable to a fine of $300 and three months imprisonment” as well as a suit for damages from the people who were denied rooms.

    1877: At the popular resort of Long Branch, NJ, several hotel owners expressed their surprise that Joseph Seligman had been turned away from the Grand Union.  Even though he is Jewish, the hotel owners, some of whom had had him as a guest, said that he was a desirable guest.  However, many of them expressed the opinion that they did not want Jews staying at their hotels and were sympathetic with the stance taken by Judge Hilton.

    1877: According to Edward Lauterbach, the attorney for Joseph Seligman, as of today hundreds of Jews have closed their accounts at the two stores owned by A.T. Stewart & Co which are controlled by Judge Hilton. This is but one example of Jewish support for Seligman whom Lauterbach declared is the leading Jew in the United States and is proudly acknowledged as such by his co-religionists.  Lauterbach said that Seligman might also pursue a case under the Civil Rights Law which would leave Hilton open to fines and imprisonment.

    1877: The arrival of today’s New York Times at Saratoga Spring this afternoon has caused quite a stir with its report of the dispute between Judge Hilton and Joseph Seligman over the latter’s claim that he was not allowed to rent rooms at the Grand Union because he was Jewish.

    1878: Birthdate of Yakov Mikhaylovich Yurovsky, the Bolshevik leader that some credit with overseeing the execution of the Czar after the Russian Revolution.

    1879: The London News published an article describing the terms of the will of the late Baron Lionel de Rothschild.  The estate is valued to at 2,700,000 pounds. Sir Nathaniel de Rothschild and Mr. Alfred de Rothschild, the late Baron’s two sons, have been named as executors. 

    1880: It was reported today that Sarah Bernhardt has signed a contract to give 60 performances at Booth’s Theatre in New York next winter. The contract calls for her to be paid 3,000 francs a night, one-third of the gross receipts, traveling expenses for herself and three companions and 3,000 francs a month for her hotel bill.  According to the great actress, she has had more lucrative offers but she accepted this because the 200,000 francs has been deposited at the Banque de France as a security bond.

    1882: It was reported today that the United States manager for Sarah Bernhardt has signed a contract with Henry Irving the actor/owner of London’s Lyceum Company to perform their full repertoire during an American tour.  Among other things, American audiences will be treated to The Merchant of Venice featuring Ellen Terry in her famed portrayal of Portia and Irving’s unique portrayal of Shylock.  His dignified portrayal of Shakespeare’s most famous Jewish character is a departure from the norm of his time.

    1882: “The Polish Jewish Colony” published today provided a detailed sketch of life among the Jews living on New York’s lower east side.

    1883: The Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society was among the private institutions devoted to the care of children that received a grant of funds from the Board of Estimate and Apportionment in New York City. The society received $1,810 out of a total of $30,255 in grants.

    1884:Dr. Henry W. Schneeberger a Baltimore Rabbiwas one of four people who signed a letter today addressed “to Sir Moses Montefiore, thanking him for his aid to the Russian Jews who had found a refuge in Baltimore. The letter continued to advise Montefiore that the Russian Jewish immigrants had established a school in honor of their benefactor. Dr. Schneeberger was one of the teachers in this school - teaching the immigrants in the daytime and also at night. Dr. Schneeberger also became their mentor in advising the Russian Jewish immigrants to become good American citizens and he cautioned against the radicalism of some in their midst.”

    1884: After a rumor circulated through certain parts of the Russian city of Nizhny Novgorod that a Jew had kidnapped a Christian child and taken it to a synagogue, a mob attacked the synagogue. During the riot 9 Jews were killed, six houses were wrecked and an untold number were plundered.

    1886: Birthdate of Michael (Mihály) Fekete the Hungarian mathematician who made Aliyah in 1928 where he “was among the first instructors in the Institute of Mathematics at Hebrew University of Jersualem.

    1886: The Manchester Guardian reported that the Visiting Committee of the Hebrew Congregations of Manchester and Liverpool has affected a "closer union between the Sephardic and Ashkenazic sections of the Jewish community."

    1889: William E. Annin, the associate editor of the Omaha Bee wrote the following description today of Edward Rosewater, the Czech born Jew who was “the editor and publisher of the Omaha Bee.”

    "Mr. Rosewater was par excellence the all-around man of the [Bee] establishment. He seemed to have obtained the secret of two of the attributes of Deity, he was omnipresent and apparently omniscient. He wrote heavy editorials and pungent editorial paragraphs; contributed local political news to the city page, clipped selections for the news columns, selected items for those startling chestnuts dubbed 'Connubial Bliss,''Peppermint Drops' and 'Honey for the Ladies,' regulated the business office a dozen times a day, and took subscriptions on the streets and advertising contracts from the merchants. I used to think his only sorrow was that he had not in addition been born a steam engine so that he could run the presses. . . "In addition to his ordinary duties above named, he constantly developed strong interest in local politics, and always had a dozen fights and twice that number of ward politicians on his hands. On city or county election days, The Bee office was usually depopulated and every man, from editor down, after rushing in copy, early took a whirl at the polls. After a hard day's work on election day, followed by an all night session in collecting returns, the editor would bob up serenely at 9 o'clock the next morning with his arm full of exchanges and his mouth full of suggestions about the paper, . . ."His indomitable energy, his uncompromising persistency and his invincible pluck were at once the wonder and admiration of the office. . . . Overworked himself, he took his own high tension as the norm of work, and found it difficult to understand why all of his employees could not endure cheerfully the same racking. This made him often very unpleasant as an employer

    1890: Police officers Oram and English waited in vain for “a short, stout, red whiskered Polish Jew” named Marcus Goldstein to come to the Gill Engraving printing where he was supposed to retrieve plates for making lottery tickets that were thought to be part of counterfeiting scheme. (more tomorrow)

    1891: It was reported today that applications for the summer session The Hebrew Technical Institute under the direction of Henry Leipziger may be made now at its building on Stuyvesant Street.

    1891: The list of the graduates from Hebrew Technical Institute published today included Coleman Borwn, Jacob Brown, Joseph Elias, Morris Farkas, Joseph L. Gensler, Louis Gevertz, Arthur Gross, Philip Levenhal, Michale L. Levy, Marks Lisk, Joseph Mayer, Max Mayer, Mortimer L Newman, Hyman Rosensohn, Abraham Saruya, Rduolph Shack, August Schweitzer and Jacob Szabo.

    1892: “Austrian Jew Baiters Thrashed” published today described an episode at Vienna’s Prater Restaurant, witnessed by a correspondent from the London Daily News during which three “Jew baiters” were thrashed by “a beardless youth” after enduring their taunts in silence. It turned out the young man was not Jewish but was in fact an English jockey who had several races at Vienna.

    1892: It was reported today that Sarah “Bernhardt continues to play to big audiences in what is proving to be the most successful  of all her London seasons.

    1892: “Rejected at the Theatre Francais” published today includes a negative review of Le Prince d'Aurec, a satire on the nobility by Henri Lavedan that features a Jewish banker named de Horn as the villain.

    1893: Henry Gottgetreu, the attorney for the late Samuel Adler, spoke of behalf of himself and the family when he denied any knowledge of financial problems that Adler had been facing since they assumed that his “fortune” was “at least a quarter of a million dollars.” Mr. Adler had been active in a number of Jewish organizations including the Sons of Israel, the Sons of Benjamin and B’nai B’rith.

    1893: “Hebrew Printers at Odds” published today described conflict between Jews workers including a declaration by the Central Labor Federation that “the Hebrew Typographical Union was the only true Hebrew printing union in New York” and a denunciation of the “Hebrew Typographical Union No. 317 as shoemakers, tailors and cloakmakers organized to fight Socialism.” (This small item gives a window into the internecine conflict of the Jewish working class; a conflict that was even more intense than the one with the businesses many of which were owned by Jews)

    1893(5th of Tammuz, 5653): Fifty year old Adolph S. Jaeger, a prosperous cigar manufacturer who was, with his brother Morris S., co-owner of Jaeger Brothers, died today, apparently of a self-inflicted gunshot wound.

    1893: It was reported today that the brass band from the Hebrew Orphan Asylum played at the reception marking the opening of the Lebanon Hospital

    1895: “Literary Notes” published today described the upcoming publication by G.P. Putnam of Israel Among the Nations, “as study of the Jews and anti-Semitism by Anatole Leroy-Beaulieu which has been translated into English by Frances Hellman

    1896: “The Jews of Russia” published today describes the restrictive laws under which the Israelites have lived in the land of the Czars including the Ukase of 1727 that expelled the Jews from Russia, the Ukase of 1742 which did the same and the creation by Catherine II and Alexander I of special zone to which the Jews were to confine themselves.

    1897: “The Talmud Again” published today provides an in-depth review of the two-volume New Edition of the Babylonian Talmud formulated and punctuated by Michael L Rodkinson which includes the original text and an English translation reviewed by Dr. Isaac W. Wise. Born in 1845, Rodkinson was the grandson of Aaron ha-Levi ben Moses, the son of Alexander Sender Frumkin and the half-brother of Israel Dov Bar Frumkin

    1897: Among the gifts and contributions listed at the meeting of the Board of Directors of the Hebrew Technical Institute were $250 from Julius Goldschmidt for tools and physical instruments; a band saw from James Loeb; $500 from the late Bernard Cohen for lathes; $1,000 from the late Leopold Boscowitz for general supplies. (The nature of the contributions is consistent with vocational mission of the institute)

    1897: Mrs. Jennie Cohen who had been recently widowed and her four young children ranging in age from six years to four months arrived in New York from New Haven, CT and since they were destitute spent the night at the Hebrew Sheltering House Association at 210 Madison.

    1897:  Birthdate of comedian Moe Howard who gained fame as one of the Three Stooges

    1899: In Baltimore, MD, Dr. Richard Gottheil chaired the opening session of the second annual conference of the Federation of American Zionists.

    1899: As of today the Federation of American Zionists has 10,000 members divided into “125 societies” with a total of $415.92 in its treasurer.

    1899: This evening Rabbi Gustave Gottheil of New York’s Temple Emanu-El addressed a mass meeting in Baltimore in which “he delivered a bitter” indictment “against the injustice done Dreyfus.

    1899: In his recent announcement of his resignation as pastor of the Calvary Presbyterian Church on West 116th Street in Manhattan, Reverend James Chambers predicted that the congregation would soon disband because of the changing nature of the neighborhood where “well-to-do residents of the Jewish faith…have crowded out their Christian neighbors.”

    1900: Herzl and Wolffsohn settle their differences about the Trust's affairs. And Herzl asks his good dear "Daade" to address him by the familiar "Du" instead of the formal "Sie".

    1903: The British Foreign Office sends the first of two letters to Herzl rejecting his proposal to establish a Jewish colony in the Sinai.

    1903: In Halle Irmgard (nee Wust) and Fritz Litten, “a Jews who converted to Lutheranism in order to further his career as a law professor” gave birth to Hans Litten, a lawyer who represented opponents of the Nazis – a role that ended him in Dachau where he died.

    1906: In Berlin,Margarete (née Eisner) and Michael Chain gave birth to German born and educated British chemist, Sir Ernst Boris Chain.  Chain left Germany when the Nazis came to power.  As an English citizen this leading biochemist won the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1945 for his work on the effects of penicillin. 

    1910: Birthdate of Abe Fortas, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court. Fortas was a close friend and advisor to Lyndon Johnson. There are several stories about Fortas providing Johnson with what we would call a "reality check." Fortas was reluctant to give up his lucrative law practice and accept the position on the high court. He did tell Johnson that the Jewish community would not consider him as the "Jewish Justice" in the sense of a Brandies or Goldberg since he was not a part of that community. In the end Fortas gave into Lyndon’s famed arm-twisting and the rest is history. Fortas ended up resigning from the court in 1969 after questions were raised about some of his business dealings. Fortas passed away in 1982 at the age of 71.

    1913: Abram I. Elkus addressed the graduates at the City College commencement ceremony.

    1914:Louis D. Brandeis, special counsel to the Interstate Commerce Commission in the 5 per cent. advance rate case, to-day appeared before the Senate Committee on Interstate Commerce in opposition to the Rayburn Stock and Bond bill, which proposes to confer authority upon the commission to control and approve issues of securities by common carriers.

    1915: Birthdate of cartoonist Julius Schwartz

    1915: The Jews of Morocco suffer indignities under the French regime that were unknown while under the rule of the old sultans.

    1917: In Alexandria, Egypt, Nelly Grün and Leopold Percy Hobsbaum gave birth to “Eric J. Hobsbawm, whose three-volume economic history of the rise of industrial capitalism established him as Britain’s pre-eminent Marxist historian.” (As reported by William Grimes)

    1919:  Birthdate of movie critic Pauline Kael.  As movie critic for the New York Times, Kael was one of the most influential influences in the world of cinema criticism.  With her high quality of writing and edgy style, she was a trend setter in an era when women were too often consigned to the style section and gossip columns.

    1920: The first anti-Semitic article appeared in the Dearborn Independent, owned by Henry Ford who was a Jew hater part excellence.

    1925: In a cave at Tabgha, near Jerusalem, archaeologists discover a primitive human skull that bears a close resemblance to the Neanderthal man previously discovered in Europe.

    1928(1stof Tammuz, 5688): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1928(1stof Tammuz, 5688): Just weeks short of his 61st birthday labor leader Joseph Baroness known as “the King of the Cloakmakers” passed away today.

    1933: On a day when he received an honorary degree from Brown University Justice Benjamin N. Cardozo of the United States Supreme Court delivered an address to the alumni of that Rhode Island institution of higher education in which he declared, “The day is past when problems of public law can be solved by pulling down the law books and marking without other aids the "signposts on the road,"

    1933: Cardinal Pacelli issued a concordant known as the Hitler Concordant. Hitler described it as "unrestricted acceptance of National Socialism by the Vatican." Cardinal Pacelli later became Pope Pious XII.

    1935:In Palestine, the German consulate advises Jews not to travel to Germany, not even if they are citizens and not even for short trips. According to the consul, Jews entering Germany are likely to be apprehended by the Gestapo and placed in a concentration camp.

    1934: American author Nathaniel West, the son of Litvak immigrants to the United States, published A Cool Million, the second of the three novels he created during his career which was cut short by an untimely death in an automobile accident.

    1936: As Arab violence continues to sweep across Palestine, The Palestine Post reported that one Jew was killed and several deafened and injured by a primitive bomb which was thrown into a bus in Tel Aviv. Avraham Ben-Yehuda, one of the original founders of Atarot, died of injuries sustained when Arab snipers opened fire on a bus in Jerusalem. Trees were cut down and the aerodrome damaged at Lydda. The Jerusalem water pipe was damaged by a dynamite charge. Two Arabs injured themselves seriously while trying to blow up a road culvert near Nablus.

    1939:The Mizrachi Women's Organization opened its first independent meeting in Atlantic City. Although it was the group's fourteenth annual meeting, it was the first conducted separately from a men's organization. Now the largest religious Zionist organization in the United States (under the name AMIT), the organization owes its creation to Freda Resnikoff.

    1939:In Palestine, eighteen Arabs--nine men, six women and three children-- were killed and twenty-four wounded by the explosion of a time bomb. In replying to accusations by the British that Jews were responsible for the violence, “Jewish communal leaders condemned the ‘dastardly murder of innocent Arabs, women and children.’”

    1940(13th of Sivan, 5700):Zalman David Levontin passed away. Born in 1856, he was one of the first of the Hovevei Zion group and one of the founders of Rishon LeZion and Yesod Hamaaleh. In 1903, Levontin founded the Anglo Palestine Bank in Jaffaand acted as its manager until 1924.

    1942(4th of Tammuz, 5702): Jews revolt at Glebokie, Belorussia; 2500 are murdered in the Borek Forest.

    1942: The family of famed historian Moses Schorr including his wife, his daughter Felicia and his grandchildren were “interned at Warsaw’s Pawiak Prison as citizens of a neutral state.”

    1942: Birthdate of Jack Edward Oliver author of the “Swan Esther,” a 1982 musical based on the Megalith Esther.

    1943: Joseph Goebbels announces that Berlinis free of Jews.

    1944: Five hundred Jews were transferred from the death camp of Birkenau to the work camp at Dachau.

    1945: Judge Irving Lehman, the brother of former Governor Herman Lehman, delivered the address of welcome at New York City's reception honoring General Dwight D. Eisenhower, who has returned from leading the Allies to victory over the Nazis.

    1948: Panama and Costa Rica recognized Israel.

    1950:Israel apologized to the Swedish Government today for the assassination of Count Bernadotte, United Nations Mediator for Palestine, by terrorists on Sept. 17, 1948.

    1951: For the first time, a Soviet citizen (Jewish) was issued an immigrant visa to Israel. The hoped-for easing of the Russian policy of not letting its citizens out would not materialize for decades to come.

    1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that the Knesset passed the first reading of a bill empowering the government to sign an agreement with Bank Leumi Le'Israel, nominating the bank as the currency issue bank of Israel.

    1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that the secretary of the Iraqi Jewish Community Council, Dr. Habasi, was detained by police in Baghdad together with seven other Jews, on charges of hiding "huge quantities of arms." All of the detained previously renounced their Iraqi citizenship and were waiting for emigration to Israel.

    1952: The original version of “I've Got a Secret” created by Allan Sherman and produced by Mark Goodson and Bill Todman premiered tonight.

    1952:Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion expressed satisfaction today that the Zionist Organization of America at its convention in New York this week had cleared up the misunderstanding about the right of foreign Zionists to participate in the shaping of Israel's policies.

    1952: Birthdate of actress Carol Kane who played Simka on the television show Taxi.

    1953: Execution of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg who had been convicted of conspiracy to commit espionage, relating to passing information about the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union.

    1954: François Mitterrand, the future President of France, was named to serve as Minister of the Interior in the first government head by prime Minister Pierre Mendes France who served as his own Minister of Foreign Affairs.

    1953: Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were executed after having been convicted as spies.

    1957: Saul Rogovin pitched his last major league baseball game.

    1959: The U.S. Senate rejects Ike's appointment of Lewis Strauss for Secretary of Commerce.  At a time when most Jews were Democrats, Strauss was a Republican. He was part of the liberal, internationalist wing of the party.  He had worked with Herbert Hoover on war relief during World War I.  Strauss made special efforts to see to that aid from the Jewish Joint Distribution Committee got to the Jews of Europe who were in dire straits.  He served in the Navy during World War II and became involved in atomic energy.  He was rejected because of his role in dealing with Robert J. Oppenheimer. 

    1962:  In San Fernando, CA, Harry Abdul, a Syrian Jew raised in Brazel and the concert pianist Lorraine M. (née Rykiss), who grew up in one of the two Jewish families in Minnedosa, Manitoba in Canada gave birth to pop stat Paula Abdul.

    1964: The United States Senate passed The Civil Rights Bill that would eventually become the Civil Rights Act of 1964. This landmark legislation outlawed a variety of forms of discrimination including that based on religion. The bill, which was primarily aimed at ending racial segregation, had support from Jewish groups and Jewish legislators. In the House, the bill was managed by Congressman Cellar who helped bring it to victory in that body.

    1965: A novella entitled "Hapworth 16, 1924", the last published work of J.D. Salinger appeared today in The New Yorker magazine

    1966(1st of Tammuz, 5726): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1966(1st of Tammuz, 5726): Comedian Ed Wynn passed away. Born Isaiah Edwin Leopold in 1886 in Philadelphia, Wynn’s father was a successful milliner. He did not want his son to go into show business. When the son would not yield, his father asked him to at least change his name so as not to disgrace the family. He decided to split his first name "Edwin" into Ed Wynn. Wynn was a successful comic in vaudeville and the early days of show business. He had his own show, which won an Emmy. He would appear in baggy pants suits pedaling a tricycle fitted with a piano. When his brand of clown-like comedy lost its popular appeal, Wynn followed the advice of his son and turned to acting. He appeared in a wide variety of hits including Marjorie Morningstar, The Diary of Anne Frank and Mary Poppins attesting to his real skill as an actor.

    1967:Prime Minister Levi Eshkol announced that "as an interim stage, a military situation will remain in the West Bank."

    1967: “In a secret decision, the government of Levi Eshkol offered Syria‘full peace on the basis of the international border,’ with adjustments for Israeli security needs.”

    1974: Seventy-three year old American molecular biologist Alfred Mirsky passed away.

    1979: Birthdate of Daniel Jonathan Sieradski “a Jewish American writer and activist” who was “the founding publisher and editor-in-chief of Jewschool, a popular left-wing Jewish weblog, as well as the weblogs Radical Torah and Orthodox Anarchist. He is also the creator of the synagogue listings and reviews website ShulShopper.”

    1980: In Charleston, SC, the Greek Revival building housing Kahal Kadosh Beth Elohim Synagogue was designated as a National Historic Landmark. For those who think of American Jewry as being a New York or eastern creation, it comes as a surprise that this is the second oldest synagogue building in continuous operation in the United States.  Also, when this congregation adopted the Reform minhag in 1824 it became one of the founding forces of the Reform Movement in the United States – something most people connect with Cincinnati, Ohio

    1983(8th of Tammuz, 5743): Simcha Erlich, the native of Poland who made Aliyah in 1938 where he became a political ally of Menachem Begin under whom he served as Deputy Prime Minister passed away today.

    1984(19th of Sivan, 5744): Abstract expressionist Lee Krasner passed away.

    1987: Ben & Jerry Ice Cream founded by Ben Cohen and Jerry Greenfield announce a new ice cream flavor, “Cherry Garcia.”

    1989(16th of Sivan, 5749): Writer and social critic I(sidor) F(einstein) Stone passes away at the age of 81.

    1992: In Palermo, the Fifth International Convention of Studies of "Italia Judaica" came to a close.

    1993: Philosopher and movie star Bernard-Henri Levy married actress Arielle Bombasle.

    1993(30th of Tammuz, 5753): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

    1993(30th of Tammuz, 5753): Seventy-five year old philosopher Abraham Kaplan passed away in Haifa where he had been living since 1972.

    1994(10th of Tammuz, 5754):Sheina Chaya, the wife Rabbi Yosef Shalom Elyashiv and the daughter of Rabbi Aryeh Levin passed away.

    1994: The New York Timespublished a review of History of Resistance: The Warsaw Ghetto Uprisingby Israel Gutman. "They refused to surrender, preferring instead to fight to the death and thus preserve their honor," Israel Gutman writes in Resistance, his account of the band of starving Jews who fought the Nazis in Poland in April 1943. Mr. Gutman, a Holocaust survivor who teaches modern Jewish history at Hebrew University in Jerusalem and is the director of the research center at Israel's national Holocaust memorial, Yad Vashem, intelligently outlines the elements that weakened the Jewish resistance movement in Warsaw. These included not only Nazi air attacks and arson, food and water shortages and the neglect of the Polish underground resistance movement, but also the abandonment of the ghetto by its most prominent political leaders and arguments among the many rival Jewish organizations over a course of action. One wishes that Mr. Gutman had recorded events chronologically rather than switching back and forth in time. One longs for more information about heroes like Mordecai Anielewicz, the brave underground leader who escaped Warsawbut returned to command the uprising, and Yitzhak Zuckerman, the uprising's deputy commander, who survived to write about it. Still, Resistance, which is published in association with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, lucidly illustrates how a few hundred Jewish fighters with Molotov cocktails, homemade grenades and no military training twice forced the Germans to retreat from the ghetto and refused to go like lambs to the slaughter.

    1995:The cartoon strip Rhymes With Orange appeared in syndication for the first time. With its debut, twenty-five-year-old cartoonist Hilary Price became the youngest woman ever to have a nationally-syndicated cartoon strip.

    1995:David Libai begins his term as Minister of Internal Affairs.

    1995: Jean-François Copé began his first term as Mayor Meaux.

    1996(2nd of Tammuz, 5756): G. David Shine passed away. Roy Cohn, the Chief Counsel, named Shine as investigator for the McCarthy Committee, which was supposedly exposing the Communist Conspiracy during the 1950’s. Shine was drafted and McCarthy claimed the drafting of his investigator was part of the Communist Conspiracy to thwart his efforts. He attacked the U.S. Army for being involved in the Communist Conspiracy. These charges led to the famous Army-McCarthy Hearings, which led to his downfall.

    1996(2nd of Tammuz, 5756): Bessie Margolin the Russian born labor attorney who grew up at the Jewish Children’s Home in New Orleans before graduating from Sophie Newcomb College and Tulane Law School passed away today.

    1996: The Eldridge Street Synagogue was designated as a National Historic Landmark. Located at 12 Eldridge Street on New York’s lower east side, it was built in 1887 to meet the needs of the growing population of eastern European Jews. As demographics changed, the synagogue fell on hard times in the 1950’s.  In the 1980’s restoration projects began which reinvigorate and physically restore the synagogue.

    2001(28th of Sivan, 5761): Fifteen year old Yevgeniya Dorfman from Bat Yam died today from the injuries she suffered during the Dolphinarium discotheque suicide bombing in Tel Aviv.

    2001(28th of Sivan, 5761): Seventy-nine year old Rabbi Bernard Mandelbaum, president from 1966 to 1971 of the Jewish Theological Seminary, the academic and spiritual center of Conservative Judaism, passed away today (As reported by Ari L. Goldman)

    2002(9th of Tammuz, 5762): Seven people were killed and 50 injured, three of them critically, when a suicide bomber blew himself up at a crowded bus stop and hitchhiking post at the French Hill intersection in northern Jerusalem shortly after 7:00 P.M., as people were returning home from work. The Fatah Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades claimed responsibility for the attack. The victims: Noa Alon, 60, of Ofra; Gal Eisenman, 5, of Ma’ale Adumim; Michal Franklin, 22, of Jerusalem; Tatiana Igelski, 43, of Moldova; Hadassah Jungreis, 20, of Migdal Haemek; Gila Sara Kessler, 19, of Eli; and Shmuel Yerushalmi, 17, of Shilo

    2003: In New York, The Israel Fest Foundation proudly presented Academy Award winning director Milos Forman with the 19th Israel Film Festival 2003 Lifetime Achievement Award and Israeli director Dina Zvi Riklis with the 2003 IFF Cinematic Award. The Award Ceremony is followed by the premiere of the hit romantic comedy Wisdom of the Pretzel directed by Ilan Heitner, starring Guy Loel, Osnat Hakim& Yoram Sachs.

    2003: Rudy Giuliani led the U.S. delegation to the first Organization for Security and Cooperation conference on anti-Semitism being held in Vienna.  The conference came about, in part, because of the strong support from the Bush Administration.

    2003(19th of Sivan, 5763): Avner Mordechai, 58, of Moshav Sde Trumot, was killed when a suicide bomber blew up in his grocery on Sde Trumot, south of Beit Shean. The suicide bomber was killed. The Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility for the attack.

    2005: Eric Edelman completes his service as United States Ambassador to Trukey.

    2005: The Washington Post reported that meetings had been held over the weekend at Yifat, Israelin which Deputy Prime Minister Shimon Peres announced that he would seek the top spot in Israel’s government.  Despite the fact that he is now 81 and that he has failed to accomplish the goal in four previous attempts. Peres thinks that now is the time for him to finally reach his goal.

    2005: The Washington Post reported that Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice declared from Jerusalem, “that her meetings with Israeli and Palestinian leaders convinced her that both sides share a commitment to ensuring Israel’s withdrawal from Gaza takes place smoothly and peacefully.”  At the end of the same article the Post reported that “Coinciding with Rice’s visit Sunday, Palestinians…attacked Israelis…in the southern Gaza Strip killing one Israeli and wounding two others…The attack was the second major assault on Israeli targets in recent days.”  Islamic Jihad and a group affiliated with Mahmoud Abbas’ Fatah movement took credit for the attack.  As head of the PLA, Abbas is one of those Palestinian leaders whom Secretary Rice said was committed to a smooth and peaceful Israeli withdrawal from Gaza.

    2005:The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including the recently release paperback editions of Letters to a Young Lawyer by Alan Dershowitz and Sweet Land Stories by E.L. Doctorow.

    2006: Haaretz reported on the Sderot's municipal council decision to seal off the city's entrance for a 24-hour period in protest of continuing Qassam rocket attacks by Palestinians against the western Negev city.

    2006:  An article entitled Jerusalem Finding 'Oxygen' In Revival of Creative Arts,describes the renaissance of the arts taking place in Jerusalem.  The artistic renaissance covers a full spectrum of endeavors and is having a positive influence on the spiritual rejuvenation of the City of David.  [Editor’s Note - What is even more amazing, this is article is devoid of the usual “stuff” that permeates almost all reporting on Israel and Jewish culture in the Middle East.]

    2006:Israel's ambassador to Germany presented medals of honor on to relatives of five members of the first "European Union" - an anti-Nazi resistance group whose members hid and fed Jews during World War Two. This European Union, which had the same name but nothing to do with the modern 25-nation bloc of European countries, was an underground, Marxist-oriented group with around 50 to 60 German members, according to a protocol prepared by Yad Vashem Holocaust museum.

    2006: Carol Vogel described the history of Gustav Klimt’s Adele Bloch-Bauer I in “Lauder Pays $135 Million, a Record, for a Klimt Portrait.”

    2007(3rdof Tammuz, 5767):Seventy four year old Zeev Schiff, the dean of Israeli military correspondents, defense editor of the newspaper Haaretz and author of numerous books, died today in Tel Aviv.

    2007: The second annual Jerusalem Jazz Festival opens in Israel’s capital city.

    2007(3rdof Tammuz, 5767): Yahrzeit for the Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem M. Schneerson, of righteous memory.

    2007: Rachel Elizabeth Levin, daughter of Michelle and Michael Levin, sister of Jacob Levin, arrives in Lubbock, Texas. 

    2008: Hazak Week of Study comes to an end.

    2008: At Temple Chai in Long Grove, Illinois, Israeli author Eva Etzioni-Halevy speaks about her latest biblical novel, “The Triumph of Deborah.”

    2008:More than 100 Israeli political and cultural leaders from across the political spectrum have signed a petition to Yad Vashem that they present to Yad Vashem chairman Avner Shalev urging the Holocaust museum to add material about the Holocaust rescue activists known as the Bergson Group to its exhibits.

    2008:The agreement for a cease-fire between Israel and Hamas in the Gaza Strip is to go into effect at

    2008: The United Nations’ Children Fund (UNICEF) swore off any relationship with Israeli diamond mogul, Lev Leviev because of his construction of settlements on the West Bank.

    2009:Police officers, Holocaust survivors and employees of the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum gathered at the Ebenezer AME Church on Allentown Road in Fort Washington today for the funeral services for security officer Stephen T. Johns who was slain last week in an attack at the popular Washington museum.

    2009: The funeral for Seymour “Sy” Brody author of Jewish Heroes of America and Jewish Heroes and Heroines in America is scheduled to take place today at Morris Plains, NJ.

    2009: As her Bat Mitzvah weekend begins, Rachel Maikon helps to lead Friday evening services at Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, Iowa.

    2010: The Jewish National Fund is scheduled to host Shabbat in the Park at New York’s Central Park Zoo.

    2010:In a unique way to say farewell to Shabbat, a pre-camp Havdallah and swim party for campers and their families is scheduled to be held at the 14th Street Y in New York City.

    2011: “The People in the Picture” by Iris Rainer Dart has its final showing at the Round About Theatre.

    2011: In San Diego, CA, The Used Book Sale to benefit the Samuel & Rebecca Astor Judaica Library is scheduled to come to a close.

    2011: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish author and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including “The Secret Knowledge: On the Dismantling of American Culture” by David Mamet and “House of Exile: The Lives and Times of Heinrich Mann and Nelly Kroeger-Mann” by Evelyn Juers

    2011:Elbit, with headquarters in Haifa, announced that its subsidiary Elisra Electronic Systems Ltd. was awarded a contract valued at approximately 5 million pounds to supply hundreds of units of its AN/PRC-684 Personal Locator Beacon to the French Ministry of Defense, equipping the French Air Force, Army, Navy and DGA (Direction Générale de l'Armement).

    2011(17th of Sivan, 5771): Centenarian plus 2, Charlotte Bloomberg, the mother of New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg passed away.

    2011(17th of Sivan, 5771): Ninety year old Don Diamond passed away.  For those who watched television in the 1950’s and 1960’s, they saw him in many episodes of F-Troop and Zorro as well as later series as  “Newhart,” “L.A. Law,” “MacGyver,” “Dallas” and “Dynasty,” “Lou Grant,” “Chico and the Man” and “The Streets of San Francisco”

    2011(17th of Sivan, 5771): Ninety-year old Holocaust survivor Samuil Manski passed away. Manski credited his survival to a transit visa issued to him by a Japanese diplomat name Chiune Sughira who risked his career by acting against the orders of his country.  At the time of his death, Manski was working to Sughira recognized as a Righteous Gentile.

    2012: “When Israel Went Out,” a film that retraces the danger-filled route traveled by the Falasha during the 1980’s is scheduled to be shown at the JCC in Manhattan.

    2012: Dr Anthony Grenville, author of ‘Jewish Refugees from Germany and Austria in Britain’ and film director Dr. Bea Lewkowicz are scheduled to take part in a Q&A following a screening of “Double Exposure” at the Wiener Library in London. 

    2012: The National Endowment for the Arts announced that Andy Statman would be awarded a National Heritage Fellowship, the nation's highest honor in the folk and traditional arts

    2012:Hamas has launched a barrage of rockets toward southern Israel this afternoon, after months of "restraint" on behalf of the Gaza rulers.

    2012:Ta'al MK Ahmed Tibi condemned plans to name a new space center in his north-central Arab village Taybeh after Israel's first and only astronaut, the late Ilan Ramon. In a letter to the Science and Technology Ministy, Tibi said Ramon served in the IAF as a fighter pilot, which could offend the Arab community. Calling the decision "distasteful" and "unjustified," Tibi noted that during Ramon's military service, he attacked civilian targets in Lebanon and participated in the attack on Iraq's nuclear reactor. (JPost)

    2012(29th of Sivan, 5772): Eight-one year old futurist Anthony Weiner passed away today. (As reported by Douglas Martin)

    2013: In London, the Pears Institute for the study of Antisemitism scheduled to host the International Consortium for Research on Antisemitism and Racism.

    2013: Leo Baeck Institute and Chelsea Music Festival are scheduled to present “From Pompeii to Fingal's Cave - A Mendelssohn Perspective”

    2013: “The New Catch Herring Season” is scheduled to begin Russ & Daughters.

    2013: Ian Paul Livingston, Baron Livingston of Parkhead, “the fourth generation son of Polish-Lithuanian Jews who arrived in Scotland 120 years ago” “announced that he is leaving BT Group to become the Minister for Trade and Investment in the UK Government.

    2013: Friends and family of Rachel Levin celebrate the birthday of the world’s greatest granddaughter.

    2013: Four Jewish Israelis were arrested at the Temple Mount today after praying in the Jerusalem compound, considered Judaism’s holiest site.

    2013: This morning Palestinians fired a rocket from the Gaza strip toward southern Israel, setting off alarms in the coastal city of Ashkelon and its environs.

    2014: The Wiener Library for the Study of the Holocaust & Genocide is scheduled to host “a special creative writing workshop exploring the lives and contributions of refugees in their new country of residence led by facilitator Lynette Craig

    2014: “Luis Moses Gomez: Pioneer Merchant in Colonial America” is scheduled to open at the Center for Jewish History

    2014: “Magic Men” is scheduled to be shown at the JCC in Manhattan on the last night of the Israel Film Center Festival.

    2014: “Charlotte Salomon: Life? Or Theatre?” an exhibition of the works of the 23 year old Jewish from Berlin who ended up in Auschwitz is scheduled to open today at the Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center.

    2014: All eyes are on Columbus Ohio for the celebration of the birthday of the amazing Rachel Levin.


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    JUNE 20

    840: Louis the Pious, King of the Franks and the Holy Roman Emperor by virtue of being the son of Charlemagne. When it came to dealing with his Jewish subjects, Louis followed in the footsteps of his father. During his reign charters were issued giving “Jews permission ‘live according to their Law.’ They promised protection of body and property and permitted freedom of movement and trade including…the right to hire Christians to work in their homes.  Some Jews were also exempted from the laws of trial by ‘ordeal of fire and water.’”

    1214:  University of Oxford received its charter. Jews were not always welcome at Oxford.  The Oxford University Reform Act passed in 1854 allowed Jews to take degrees at Oxford. Today, Oxford offers degrees in both Hebrew and Jewish Studies.

    1239: Pope Gregory IX ordered all copies of the Talmud to Dominican and Franciscan friars who would review the text looking for disparaging references to Jesus and Mary.  Any copies that were found to contain such references were to be burned.  This is the same Pope who in 1234 had “invested the doctrine of perpetua servitus iudaeorum – perpetual servitude of the Jews – with the force of canonical law. According to this, the followers of the Talmud would have to remain in a condition of political servitude until Judgment Day.”

    1338:Duke Otto and Duke Albert issued their “Jews’ Decree.”

    1391 (17thof Tammuz): “The Christian population of Toledo rose against the large