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A collection of Jewish history and current Jewish events, in date format, updated daily in this Jewish history blog.

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    August 29

    1255: The body of little boy who had disappeared was found in a well at Lincoln.  The boy would become known as Little Saint Hugh of Lincoln (England) was the subject of an infamous ritual murder libel. It was alleged that Jews enticed the boy and while starving him, invited Jews of Lincoln to murder him ritually. (Jews did come to Lincoln at that time to attend a wedding.) His body was cast into a well and a month later, "miracles" followed the discovery of his corpse. On the basis of the alleged "confession" by Jopin (Jacob), the secular authorities (for the first time) and the Church sent 91 Jews to the Tower of London. Eighteen were executed before Richard and the friars stopped the killings. This incident provided Chaucer with the idea for his Prioress Tale and the hero of the popular ballad, "Little Sir Hugh."

    1261: Urban IV, who reaffirmed Sicut Judaeis the papal bull first issued by Calixtus II which “was intended to protect the Jews” during the Crusade, began his papacy today.

    1263: King Jaime of Spain gave the Jews three weeks to remove all blasphemy from their books (Talmud).

    1288: Pope Nicholas IV “wrote to Emperor Rudolph “requesting the release of Meir b. Baruch of Rothenburg from prison

    1435: Paul of Burgos passed away. Born in Burgos, he was a Spanish Jew who converted to Christianity, and became an archbishop, Lord Chancellor, and exegete. He was also known as Pablo de Santa Maria or Paul de Santa Maria. His original name was Solomon ha-Levi. Like many converts of his time he took a leading role in the persecution of his former co-religionists.

    1477: T'hilimwith Kimchi's commentary was published for the first time in Bologna, Italy by Hayyim Mordecai and Hezekiah de Ventura.  T’hilim is the Book of Psalms.  Kimchi is David Kimchi also known as RaDAK.  He was the third in a line of grammarians, lexicographers and Biblical commentators.  RaDAK’s more accurate renderings of the ancient texts helped to fuel the Protestant Reformation.

    1484:  Pope Innocent VIII, a staunch supporter of the Spanish Inquisition, is elected Pope.  The significance to Jewish history of this event is self-evident.

    1526:An Ottoman army defeated the Hungarians at the Battle of Mohács following which the Turks pillaged the city. The Christians nobles and the handful of wealthy Jews fled in fear of the Ottomans.  While Jews had lived in Hungary since the third century C.E., many of them had fallen on hard times during the 15th and 16th centuries as they dealt with accusations’ of Blood Libels and decrees designed to avoid repayment of just debts.  The Ottomans left but returned to stay in 1541 when much of central Hungary became part of the Ottoman Empire and a refuge for Sephardic Jews moving eastward to avoid the clutches of the Inquisition.

    1541: The Ottoman Turks capture Buda, the capital of the Hungarian Kingdom. On the anniversary of the battle of Mohács, Sultan Suleiman I again took Buda by a ruse. This event marks the beginning of Turkish rule in many parts of Hungary, which lasted down to the end of the 17th century. The Jews living in these parts were treated far better than those living under the Habsburgs. During this period, beginning with the second half of the sixteenth century, the community of Ofen (Buda) flourished more than at any time before or after. While the Turks held sway in Hungary, the Jews of Transylvania (at that time an independent principality) also fared well. At the instance of Abraham Sassa, a Jewish physician of Constantinople, Prince Gabriel Bethlen of Transylvania granted a letter of privileges (June 18, 1623) to the Spanish Jews from Turkey.

    1596: Coronation of Christian IV, the King of Denmark and Norway who lifted the restrictions that had been placed on Sephardic Jews when he took control of the town of Altona.

    1632: Birthdate of English philosopher John Locke. Locke influenced the Founding Fathers of the United States.  In 1689 he wrote his “Letter Concerning Toleration” in which he stated “Neither Pagan, nor Jew, ought to be excluded from the civil rights of the commonwealth because of his religion.”  Locke was asked to right a constitution for the new colony of South Carolina.  At the time, Christian merchants were complaining about the active involvement of Jews in the trade between South Carolina and the English Colony of Barbados.  Locke saw the problem as bigotry, not “swarming Jewish merchants.”  He inserted a line in the colonial charter that called for the protection of “Jews, heathens and other dissenters.”

    1643: The oldest existing ketubbah written in the Western Hemisphere was executed in Surinam at the marriage of Yehudit to Hakaham Yizhak Meatob. The Jewish community in Surinam began with the arrival of a party Sephardic Jews in 1630. By the second half of the 17th century, there were at least Sephardic Jewish communities in the colony, numbering several hundred families.  As you can see from the attached, this item has been challenged

    1655: Warsaw falls without resistance to a small force under the command of Charles X Gustav of Sweden during The Deluge. The Deluge is a general expression for a series of misfortunes that befell the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth starting with the uprising of the Cossacks and including an invasion by the Swedes. When it was all over, Poland was a much diminished entity and much less tolerant of its Jewish population.  This defeat was part of the long road that would lead to the partition of Poland in the late 18thcentury, which, among other things, would give Russia its large and unwanted Jewish population. 

    1703: Following the death of Samuel Oppenheimer Emperor Leopold I named Samson Wertheimer to serve as his successor as “court factor” while extending “ for twenty years his privileges of free religious worship, denizenship, and immunity from taxation

    1756: Frederick the Great attacks Saxony, beginning the Seven Years' War. The Seven Years War was one of what seems to be a long list of interminable wars in Europe.  Americans know the Seven Years War as the French-Indian War; a fight that led directly to the American Revolution and the creation of the United States, and all that that means for the Jews of the world.  Frederick’s mistreatment of his Jewish subjects is too big a subject for this brief entry.  After visiting Frederick’s Berlin, the French statesman Mirabeau described the Prussian monarch’s decrees concerning Jews as “worthy of a cannibal.” Frederick characterized Jews “usurious vermin;”  “wretches who “multiply infamously.”  Saxony was the site of Martin Luther’s famous fight with the Roman Catholic Church.  He had the Jews expelled from Saxony in 1537. It would be centuries before they were readmitted and they would not gain full rights of citizenship until the second half of the 19th century.

    1770: Twenty-five year old  A.M. Rothschild married seventeen year old Guttle Schanpper,
    1776(14thof Elul, 5536): Jose Pereira supplied a flotilla which General Washington used to move his army across the East River and escape destruction at the hand of the British.  Unfortunately the young Sephard lost his life as helped to provide covering fire for the army as it crossed to temporary safety.


    1799: Papacy of Pius VI, who issued the anti-Semitic “Editto sopra gli ebrei” came to an end today.

    1826: Birthdate of French portrait painter Emile Levy who passed away in 1890.

    1834: In Bavaria, Jacob and Jeanette Bettmann gave birth to Bernhard Bettman who would become a successful businessman and leader of the Cincinnati, Ohio, Jewish community.

    1842: Jews began arriving in Hong Kong after it was ceded to Great Britain by China today. The first synagogue would not come into use until 1870 when a house on Hollywood Street was rented for that purpose.

    1843(3rdof Elul, 5603): Sixty year old Ludwig Lewin Jacobson the Danish surgeon who developed several surgical instruments including “the lithoclast for the crushing of stones in the bladder.”

    1848: Birthdate of Henry Schneeberger, the "first American-born, ordained rabbi who was the spiritual leader of Chizuk Amuno in Baltimore, MD.

    1851: The U.S.S. Mississippi, under the command of Captain Uriah P. Levy, the highest ranking Jewish officer in the U.S. Navy, arrived today in Constantinople.  The American warship had been sent to the Ottoman captial for the purpose of providing Louis Kossuth, the exiled Hungarian political leader, with safe passage to France. 

    1853:  Birthdate of Solomon Bibo. Born in Prussia, Bibo would come to the United States where, in the 1880’s he became the first non-Indian governor of the pueblo of Acamo in New Mexico Territory.

    1854: Birthdate of Joseph Jacobs an Australian literary and Jewish historian, who was a writer for the Jewish Encyclopedia.

    1855(15th of Elul, 5615):Isaac Samuel Reggio passed away at the age of 71. Born in 1784 at Goriza, he was an Austro-Italian scholar and rabbi born at Gorizia. Reggio studied Hebrew and Talmud with his father, Abraham Vita, the Rabbi at Gorizia. At the same time he attended the gymnasium where he acquired knowledge of secular science and languages. Reggio's father, one of the liberal rabbis who supported Hartwig Wessely, paid special attention to the religious instruction of his son, who displayed unusual aptitude in Hebrew, and at the age of fourteen wrote a metrical dirge on the death of Moses Ḥefeẓ, who has served as the Rabbi of Gorizia.

    1855:The New York Times reported that  "a child of Mr. Louis Levinson of Providence, and of scriptural age, 'eight days old' was circumcised according to the ancient Jewish method at the house of his father...The ceremony was performed by Mr. Wolf of this city."

    1858: Birthdate of French archaeologist Salomon Reinach whose “first published work was a translation of Arthur Schopenhauer’s “Essay on Free Will.”

    1858:Dr. Joseph Bondi was installed as Rabbi of Anshi Chesed, the synagogue on Norfolk Street between Stanton and Houston Streets.

    1859: The Tory (NY) Times reported that there was a quarrel taking place in the Jewish community over the ownership of a Bible. The Hebrew Bible which mysteriously disappeared, and was found only after a search warrant had been issued by a member of the local judiciary.

    1863:The five deserters in the Fifth corps, reprieved on Wednesday, will positively be shot to-day, at 3 o'clock, in presence of the corps. Two of them are Catholics, two Protestants, and one a Jew. Spiritual advisers have been with them to-day, a Jewish Rabbi having come expressly at the request of the one of that persuasion. The unfortunate men have finally made up their minds that they must die, though they have made several efforts to have their sentences commuted to hard labor for life. But the President, to his credit be it said, telegraphed yesterday that he could not interfere with the sentence, and the men will die. Their death is necessary to save hundreds of other lives, and to put a stop to the desertion of this class of men. Thirty more are on trial for the same offence in the first corps, and they will probably meet with a like fate.

    1864: Democrats nominated Union General George B. McClellan to run against Abraham Lincoln who enjoyed a significant amount of support among the Jewish community in the upcoming Presidential campaign.

    1865: In Pomerania, Hedwig and Isaak Lachmann gave birth to poet and translator Hedwig Lachmann. (As reported by Hanna Delf von Wolzogen)

    1865:The New York Times reported from Washington D.C. that the court-martial an Army Paymaster named Webb has come to an end.  Webb was accused of playing a key role in swindling hundreds of soldiers out a total $400,000.  According to the report “a Jew who was dismissed the service for defrauding the government at the beginning of the war” played a key role in the swindle.  This unnamed Jew testified against Webb during the trial confessing his own role in the scheme. [Editor’ note – the religion of no other person involved in the scheme was mentioned in the article.

    1865(7th of Elul, 5625): Dr. Robert Remak, Polish born German physician, neurologist and embryologist passed away at the age of fifty. While in medical practice, he researched unpaid at university. As a Jew, he was barred from teaching. In 1847 he became the first Jew to officially teach a university and was later promoted to the position of assistant professor. He discovered the fibers of Remak, nonmedullated nerve fibers and named the three germ layers he discovered of the early embryo: the ectoderm, the mesoderm, and the endoderm. In 1844 he discovered the nerve cells in the heart now called Remak's ganglia and provided the first illustration of the 6-layered cortex. He was a pioneer in the use of electrotherapy for the treatment of nervous diseases.

    1870(2ndof Elu, 5630): Forty-one year old Lazarus Geiger, the brother of Rabbi Abraham Geiger and the nephew of Rabbi Abraham Geiger, who was “intrigued” by the psychology of color passed away today.

    1871: “Sketch of the Prison Rosenzweig, Alias Archer” published today described the activities of a German or Russian Jew named Rosenzweig who has been jailed for posing as medical doctor named Archer – a position for which he lacks both training and credentials.

    1872: Among the 400 passengers arriving in New York on board the Packet-ship Charles H. Marshall was a German Jew named Meyer Velt

    1873: This morning’s New York newspapers published a copy of a telegram from San Francisco that contains the confession of John T. Irving who claims to have murdered wealthy businessman Benjamin Nathan.

    1873: “The Nathan Murder” published today described the confession of John T. Irving to the murder of Benjamin Nathan which included a claim that his son Washington Nathan was the mastermind of the crime. (Nobody would be convicted of this lurid crime which was the first "celebrity murder" involving the Jewish community.  With all of the elements, this is the kind of mystery worthy of Faye Kellerman)

    1875: As the Shooting Season opens in France, Baron Hirsch entertains several of the “leading shots” on the land he leases in the forests around Saint-Germaine.

    1878: After being attacked by a political opponent because of his religion, Raphael J. Moses, a prominent resident of Columbus, GA, responded in the local newspaper by asserting his Jewish pride in an article that was reprinted around the country: “I feel it an honor to be of a race whom persecution cannot crush, whom prejudice has in vain endeavored to subdue.” When he ran for congress, Moses explained, “I wanted to go to congress as a Jew and because I would have liked in a public position to confront and do my part towards breaking down the prejudice.”

    1878(30th of Av, 5638): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1878: It was reported today that there are four Jews serving on the newly created 18 man Communal Council at Sarajevo.

    1878: It was reported today that a Communal Council has been formed in Sarajevo. The Council, which represents a cross section of Sarajevo’s religious communities, includes four Jews, five Muslims, three Catholics and six Orthodox (Greek or Russian, not Jewish).

    1886: A party of forty Russian Jews landed at Castle Garden today and was detained by authorities.

    1886: Gretchen Kauffmann Born, the first wife of Gustav Jacob Born and the mother of Nobel Prize winner Max Born, passed away.

    1888: Today marks the tenth free excursion of this season sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children. As of this date, the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children the ten excursions have provided relief from the summer heat for 6,127 babies, 3,812 children and 3,678 mothers.

    1888: “Bloody Days In Morocco” published today described the violence in the North African country that has included Arab leaders calling for a Holy War. This has prompted at least one newspaper in Tangiers to call for the European powers to send ships to protect the Christians and the Jews.

    1889(2ndof Elul, 5649): Eighty-one year old Gustav Weil who switched from studying to be a rabbi to become a leading Orientalist and whose Mohammed der Prophet served as resource for Washington Irving when he wrote the Life of Mohammed passed away today.

    1891: “Russian Jewish Refugees” published today described the “considerable complaints” being made by people in Detroit because “the Canadian authorities send all the penniless Jews who get into that country” here to be taken care of.

    1891: Recorder Albert Hessberg of Albany was among those who greeted Senator Jacob A. Cantor of the Tenth Senatorial District and his wife when they returned from Europe today aboard the Hamburg steamer Columbia today.

    1892: “No Way To Stop Immigration” published today discussed the challenges of protecting the United States from the European cholera outbreak including the comment that once the danger from cholera is out of the way, “it is plain that the United States would be better off if ignorant Russian Jews…were denied a refuge here.”

    1897: The First Zionist Congress (Basle, Switzerland) was convened by Theodore Herzl. It was represented by one hundred and ninety-seven delegates. This was one of the most important yet unexpected convocation in modern Jewish History.  Against all odds, Herzl had Jews from twenty-four different states as varied Palestine, the United States and an array from across Europe.  The Congress adopted a document known as the Basile Program that declared, "The task of Zionism is to secure for the Jewish people in a Palestine in a publicly recognized legally secure homeland."  The Congress also announced that it would dedicate itself to strengthening Jewish consciousness and national feeling."  Writing in his diary on September 3 of the same year Herzl stated,” At Basle I founded the Jewish state.  If I said this out loud today, I would be answered by universal laughter.  Perhaps in five years, and certainly in fifty, everyone will know it."  In 1947, just a few months beyond those fifty years, the UN approved the partition of Palestine that gave birth to the Jewish state.

    1897: In Jersey City, NJ, Rabbi Jacob Boer led members of the Society of Teferith Israel in the ceremonies which converted a structure that had housed the German Evangelical Church into a synagogue. Rabbi Moses Wechsler, Rabbi Jacob Goodman and the Mayor of Jersey City were among the dignitaries who addressed the congregation.

    1897: “The Snake in the Bible” published today described two appearances of the serpent in the Torah – the first in the Garden of Eden and the second when God calls on Moses to go before Pharaoh – each of which shows a different aspect of Biblical philosophy.

    1898: The Zionist Conference chaired by Dr. Herzl continues for a second day in Basel, Switzerland.

    1898: It was reported today that at age 22, Abram Herschberger is youngest Rabbi to lead a congregation in Chicago, Illinois and he may be the youngest clergy of any denomination serving in the Windy City.

    1899: When the court martial of Captain Dreyfus resumed today Colonel Cordier, the Deputy Chief of the Intelligence Department was the first witness to take the stand and he testified based on his examination of the documents in question “he was now convinced Dreyfus was innocent.”

    1899:Nouri Bey receives 10,000 Francs to arrange an audience for Herzl with the Sultan.

    1900(4thof Elul, 5660): Seventy-nine year old Sir Saul Samuel, 1st Baronet, the Australian merchant, government official and leader of the Jewish community passed away today.

    1903: Die Welt publishes the declaration of the British Government on the allocation of a "Jewish territory" in East Africa. Die Welt was the name of publication started by Herzl in 1897 to further the Zionist cause.  It should not be confused with the modern German publication of the same name.

    1911: In Great Britain the Tredegar District Council adopted a resolution protesting against “disgraceful rioting and looting” attacks against Jews in New South Wales.  The riots, which had begun on August 19 following the end of strike, were the worst outbreak of anti-Semitic violence in the British Isles in modern times.

    1913: Birthdate of Sylvia Fine, the Brooklyn native who was an “American lyricist, composer, producer and the wife of the comedian Danny Kaye.”

    1916: During World War I, Paul von Hindenburg became Chief of the German General Staff. Hindenburg’s supposed brilliance was really the work of his loyal lieutenant Erich Ludendorff. Among other things, Hindenburg helped provide ammunition for the myth that that German Army was stabbed in the back (by the Jews) and actually brought Hitler to power as Chancellor.

    1918:Samuel Gompers, President of the American Federation of Labor, who arrived in Great Britain yesterday from the United States at the head of a labor delegation, visited his birthplace in Spitalfields.

    1918: “Bennett Charges Forgery” published described complaints of voting irregularities that had been lodged by Ex-Senator William Bennett who was seeking the Republican nomination for Lt. Gov. of New York with Samuel S. Koenig, the chairman of the county Republican Committee – charges which the Jewish political leader dismissed as being groundless.
    1919:Sendel and Riva Grynszpan gave birth to Mordechai Grynszpan, the brother of Herschel Grynszpan the man who assassinated Ernst vom Rath which was the excuse for Kristallnacht

    1923: Jewish gangsters Samuel "Sammy" Weiss,Jacob "Little Augie" Orgen and Samuel Gepson were arraigned at Essex Market Courthouse today on charges of having violated New York’s Sullivan Law..

    1929:The day began with an Arab attempt to massacre the Jewish population of Safed, one of the sacred cities of Palestine and the center of study of the Kaballah. Initially nine Jews were killed and thirty wounded. As day turned into night the attack continued with the Arabs killing twenty-two Jews, wounding scores more and burning the whole town except the government buildings. Fighting proceeded for eight hours before British troops arrived from Tiberias.  At least one American was found among the wounded.  According to reports circulating in the ancient Jewish settlement 3,000 have been left homeless and some of the wounded were tortured by the Arab raiders.

    1929: After six days of Arab attacks, 133 Jews had been killed throughout Palestine.  The casualties would have been higher if had not been for the work of the Haganah.  Established nine years earlier, members of the Haganah worked to defend settlements through Palestine.  At Hulda, twenty-three Haganah members held off more than 1,000 Arab attackers.  The success came at a cost - Ephraim Chizik, commander of the unit and one of the earliest members of the Jewish defense force was killed during the action.

    1929: After a week of Arab riots that started on August 23, as of today, 113 Jews had been killed and 339 wounded. As a result of the riots, Sir Walter Shaw headed a commission which urged the banning of Jewish immigration and absolved the Arabs and the Mufti of guilt. Another commission led by Sir John Simpson declared that the entire Zionist operation was unsound and undesirable. Both of these commissions were under the auspices of Lord Passfield, the British Colonial Secretary.

    1929: In a letter to The Times of London, British Zionist Harry Sacher refuted Arab claims that the Wailing Wall was part of the Mosque of Omar and that the Jews had no right to be there.  The Mufti had claimed that the Arab Riots were provoked by Jews marching to the Wailing Wall and violating the law by hosting a Zionist flag. (Please note the similarity of this claim to the one that would be made at the end of the century to justify the violence known as the Second Intifada.)

    1931:Robert Szold said in a statement issued on behalf of the administration of the Zionist Organization of America that the great majority of the American delegation to the recent World Zionist Congress at Basle applied itself to averting continued internal dissension in the organization and accomplished that goal.

    1933: “The New York Times runs a story about the existence of 65 concentration camps in Germany where at least 45,000 people are being held in inhuman conditions. Most of the prisoners in these camps are political: communists, socialists, and liberals of various sorts.”(As reported by Austin Cline)

    1933: In Canada, A spokesman of the Immigration Department publicly announces that the Government does not intend to amend the present restrictive immigration policy, thus responding to the objections of anti-Jewish groups and a section of the press to the proposed admission of German-Jewish refugees.

    1933:The conflict within the World Zionist Congress, caused by the presentation during the week-end of charges that the Palestine labor leader, Dr. Chaim Arlosoroff, had been murdered by Zionist Revisionists, overshadowed today’s discussions when the congress met today.

    1933: Dr. Chaim Weizmann definitely declines to accept the presidency of the World Zionist Organization, though he agrees to head the campaign for funds to settle German Jews in Palestine.

    1935:The delegates to the World Zionist Congress were saddened by the death of Queen Astrid of the Belgians. This was reflected by the decision of the delegates to limit their activities today the holding a series of quiet sectional conferences.

    1936: Pravda, the official newspaper of the Soviet Union, “warns that Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party are planning a massive war that will lead to slaughter across Europe.”

    1937(22nd of Elul, 5697): In the ongoing violent uprising against the Jews and in an attempt to silence Arab opposition, Abraham Berkowsky, aged 45, a Tel Aviv tailor, was killed on an Egged bus by a terrorist firing from an ambush just above Motza.

    1937: At Oxford, Prof. Dr. Herbert Danby, who translated the Mishna into English, severely criticized Alfred Rosenberg, the Nazi scholar and the head of the German Foreign Affairs section, who had just published his book The Immorality of the Talmud. Danby said that the book, published by Friends of Europe, was full of malice and misquotations

    1938:  Birthdate of Robert Rubin, former United States Secretary of the Treasury.

    1938:  Birthdate of actor Elliott Gould. Born Elliott Goldstein, Gould was one of the most prominent American film actors  in the early '70s, best known for playing Trapper John in the satirical 1970 film M*A*S*H. Time magazine put him on its cover in 1970, when he was at the brief height of his long career, calling him a "star for an uptight age

    1938: According to the London Daily Mail, a group of Arabs attacked Jerusalem tonight.  The same report included a description of an attack on Mothea, a kibbutz known for its dairy, during which the barns were burned and “a number of the pedigreed cattle” were deliberately burned alive.

    1939: On the eve of World War II, Chaim Weizmann informed the prime minister of England that the Jews of Eretz Israel would stand by Great Britain and fight on the side of the democracies.

    1939:  Birthdate of director William Friedkin.  He is best known for his work with The Exorcist and the French Connection for which he won an Oscar.

    1939:  Birthdate of movie director Joel Schumacher.

    1941: The remainder of 11,000 displaced Hungarian Jews (forced laborers), now living in Kamenets Podolsk and whom Hungary did not want to take back were taken out of town to a pit and machine gunned down.

    194(16th of Elul, 5702):Rabbi Simcha Oberbaum, Aleksanderer Chassid; a central figure in the Lodz Jewish community; born in Warsaw in 1852, died in the Lodz ghetto.

    1942: As can be seen from the attached photograph, more Jews were deported today from Wiesbaden Germany to Auschwitz.

    1942: It was reported today that Dominican President Rafael L. Trujillo’s offer to provide a haven for 3,500 Jewish refugee children living in Vichy was been forward, Marshal Petain, the head of the French government. A few years earlier, Trujillo had provided land at Sousa for a Jewish refugee colony.

    1942:Twelve Jewish American women were included among the first graduating class of WAAC officers at Fort Des Moines, Iowa. They were Ruth Ginns, Beatrice Berg, Carolyne Casper and Jean Korn from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Kathryne Goldfluss, Rose Ross and Joan Strongin from New York, New York; Bee Rosenberg and Ruth Spivak from Chicago, Illinois; Rita Fink and Isabel Bayley of Buffalo, New York; and Elizabeth Morgenstern of Seattle, Washington.

    1942: The Jewish community from Olesko, Ukraine, is deported to the Belzec death camp

    1942: Occupation officials in the East inform Berlin that the "Jewish problem" has been "totally solved" in Serbia. Since German occupation, 14,500 of Serbia's 16,000 Jews have been murdered.

    1943: The American Jewish Conference “opened at the Waldorf-Astoria hotel in New York City.  More than five hundred delegates were present representing sixty-five different national organizations.”  Rabbi Abba Hillel Silver gave an “electrifying speech” in which he “convinced his audience to support the Biltmore Declaration.”
    1943: After almost 8 years, the New Deal agency known as The Federal Art Project (FAP) whose artists included Leon Bibel, Adolph Gottlieb, Harry Gottlieb, Isaac Soyer, Moses Soyer. Raphael Soyer and Lee Krasner came to an end

    1943: Six hundred prisoners were sent from Larissa  to Athens so they could be held Haidari, a concentration camp that was really a stopping point for the ultimate trip to Auschwitz.  

    1943: In Denmark, the official chief rabbi, Dr. Max Friediger is detained as a "hostage" of along with some 100 prominent Danes, including a dozen Jews, in a camp near Copenhagen.

    1944: More than 800 Jews earmarked for forced labor are transported from Auschwitz to the labor camp at Sachsenhausen, Germany, for assignment to nearby factories. Elsewhere in Germany, about 72 ill or pregnant Jews are taken from a labor camp near Leipzig and transported to gas chambers at Auschwitz.

    1944: The last transport left the Lodz Ghetto after two months of final liquidation of the Jewish population. Only 600 Jews remained from 76,000 who were still alive there on June 15, 1944.

    1944: Father Giuseppe Girotti was arrested today when he was “caught in the middle of transferring a wounded Jewish partisan” to a safe house –a deed that earned him a one-way ticket to Dachau where he was murdered on Easter Day. (As reported by JTA)

    1945: Lt. Colonel Judah Nadich entered the Feldafing D.P. camp.  Nadich was a rabbi serving as the senior Jewish chaplain in Europe.  Nadich was repelled by the barbaric conditions under which the Jews were living; especially by the fact that they were confined behind barbed wire just as had been the case in the Concentration Camps while “The conquered Germans had complete freedom.”

    1945:Lt. Col. Louis Geffen, who had served as a judge advocate in the US Army since January, 1941, set sail from Oakland, CA for Japan.

    1951: In Chicago, Edward H. Levi the former President of the University of Chicago and Attorney General and his wife gave birth to David F. Levi who served a federal judge before becoming Dean of the Duke University School of Law.

    1955: Birthdate of Jacob “Jack” Lew, whom President Obama chose to serve as the 25thWhite House Chief of Staff.

    1957: Premiere of The Pajama Game featuring a score by Richard Adler and Jerry Ross, two more of the Jews who created and nurtured the “Broadway Musical,” one of America’s unique contributions to the world of entertainment.

    1958: United States Air Force Academy opens in Colorado Springs, Colorado. According to the latest figures available, there are approximately fifty Jewish cadets attending the Academy. 

    1960(6thof Elul, 5720): Fifty-two year old Hedwig “Vicki” Baum whose 1929 novel Menschen im Hotel would be made into the Academy Award winning “Grand Hotel” passed away today.

    1961: “Bear Meat,” a short story by Primo Levi, was published for the first time in Il Mondo.

    1968: In Chicago, the National Democratic Convention which has been held against a backdrop of demonstrations led in part by Lee Weiner, Abbie Hoffman and Jerry Rubin, comes to an end.

    1963: At the New York Shakespeare Festival, final performance of “Electra” featuring David Hurst in the role of “Paedagogus”

    1969: A deranged Australian tourist who was a Christian fundamentalist set fire to the Al Aksa Mosque claiming that it was “Satan’s Temple.”

    1969: Two Palestinians hijacked a TWA plane after it had left Los Angeles and forced it to land at Damascus where 6 Israeli passengers were detained.

    1970: Plans for Israel's forthcoming appeal to the world's Jews for $1-billion next year for nondefense needs of the country were outlined at a meeting of the newly reorganized Jewish Agency

    1972(19th of Elul, 5732):René Leibowitz, Polish born French composer, conductor, music theorist and teacher passed away.

    1974: Just days before his 65th birthday, Biblical scholar and archeologist George Ernest Wright who directed the Drew-McCormick Archaeological Expedition to Shechem and the Hebrew Union College Biblical and Archaeological School Expedition at Tell Gezer passed away today.

    1976:  The first Conference on Alternatives in Jewish Education began at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island.

    1977: Prime Minister Menachem Begin and Romanian President Nicolae Ceausescu cruised peacefully on Lake Snagov, discussing peace prospects and bilateral relations. They reaffirmed Israeli-Rumanian friendship, but haggled over the wording of the final joint announcement.

    1977: In Jerusalem Mayor Teddy Kollek asked whether the ³equalized services² promised for the West Bank and Gaza by the new Likud government would be extended to east Jerusalem, as well as to the new Jewish neighborhoods, deprived so far of adequate religious, educational and communal facilities.

    1979: Birthdate of Ehud “Udi” Tenenbaum the native of Ramat HaSharon who was arrested for hacking into a wide variety of computer systems including those at NASA, MIT and the Knesset.

    1982:Rabbi Barry Greene of Livingston, N.J., officiated at the marriage of Dr. Sari Lynn Kramer, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Julian S. Kramer of South Orange, N.J.,  to Samuel L. Margulies, son of Mrs. Emmanuel Margulies of New York and the late Mr. Margulies.

    1984(1stof Elul, 5744): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1986:In an essay entitled "Encumbered Remembrance: The Controversy about the Incomparability of National-Socialist Mass Crimes" first published in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung today, Joachim Clemens Fest claimed that Ernst Nolte's argument that Nazi crimes were not "singular" was correct.”

    1986: Birthdate of Canadian actress, Lauren Collins.

    1996: The Democratic National Convention comes to an end having nominated Bill Clinton for President comes to an end.  His second administration will include Monica Lewinsky, a failed attempt to force a peace agreement at Camp David and the pardon of Marc Rich.

    1997(26thof Av, 5757): Seventy-three year old Ilya Gazarkh, a resident of Pisgat Ze’ev who had survived the combat of WW II, died of the wounds he sustained during a terrorist bombing at the Mahane Yehuda Market in July.

    1999: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Urban Exodus: Why the Jews Left Boston and the Catholics Stayedby Gerald Gamm, The Sextants of Beijing: Global Currents in Chinese Historyby Joanna Waley-Cohen daughter of Sir Bernard Nathaniel Waley-Cohen, the Jewish businessman who became Lord Mayor of London, Kosovo Crossing by David Fromkin and The Birth of Shylock and the Death of Zero Mostelby Arnold Wesker.

    2000(28th of Av, 5760): Ninety-seven year old Gertrude H. Schaefler, the widow of the late Leon Schaefler passed away today.

    2003(1st of Elul, 5763): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    2003: Eric Edelman began serving as United States Ambassador to Turkey.

    2003: Pulitzer-Prize Winning Poet Louise Glück (pronounced “Glick”) was named poet laureate of the United States.

    2004: In the following article entitled “In New York Try and Find A Genuine New York Bagel,” Molly O’Neill decries the downward spiral of the genuine bagel while providing a list of places where the aficionado can find this unique hunk of boiled dough.

    Beware the billowy bagel. It bears no resemblance to its small, gnarly forebears. The traditional bagel was as tough as New Yorkers imagine themselves to be. It was a workout: the carb count of a handmade bagel was net zero once the chewing was done. This bagel was one of the reasons that the typical New Yorker found it difficult to wake up elsewhere and one reason people came here. Today the typical New York City bagel is no different from the ones served in malls nationwide. The traditional bagel, born of Eastern European shtetls, was made of yeast, malt, flour, water and salt. It was rolled by hand, first boiled and then baked. Today's version is made from yeast and sugar, flour, water and salt, extruded through machines and baked. The result is a big, fat, soft pillow suitable only for naps. Had we not been focused on other issues in recent years, New Yorkers would have taken swift and certain action against the airy and flaccid interlopers that dare to call themselves bagels. Rather than a daily entitlement, the authentic bagel has become a special event. We generally find them behind well-steamed windows -- the secret is in the malt, the baker and the boiling -- in places like these:

    BAGEL HOLE -- 400 Seventh Avenue, Brooklyn, (718) 646-2210

    BAGEL OASIS -- 183-12 Horace Harding Expressway, Queens, (718) 359-9245

    BAGELWORKS INC. -- 1229 First Avenue, (212) 744-6444.

    ESS-A-BAGEL -- 359 First Avenue, (212) 260-2252; 831 Third Avenue, (212) 980-1010.

    MURRAY'S BAGELS -- 242 Eighth Avenue at 23rd Street; (646) 638-1335

     NEPTUNE BAGELS -- 371 Neptune Avenue, Brooklyn; (718) 462-2830

    ROCCO'S PASTRY SHOP AND ESPRESSO CAFE -- 243 Bleecker Street between Avenue of the Americas and Seventh Avenue, (212) 242-6031

    2004: The Sunday New York Times book section includes a review of Blackbird House by Jewish novelist Alice Hoffman.

    2004: The New York Mets held their annual “Jewish Heritage Day” game by playing the Los Angeles Dodgers who roster includes Shawn Green, the 21st century version of Sandy Koufax.

    2005: Hurricane Katrina strikes New Orleans causing untold suffering among the Jewish community as well as the secular community. In the coming days, the world will be treated to Tzizth wearing rabbis rescuing Torah Scrolls from flooded buildings as the Crescent City suffers one of the worst disasters in American history.

    2005: The issue of Sports Illustrated Magazine of this date contained an article entitled “Stars Of David” about the two Arab Israelis named Abbas Suan and Walid Badir.  They are stars on Israel’s World Cup soccer team.  They each scored a critical goal in two games that have left Israel undefeated in seven qualifying games and on the verge of reaching its first World Cup in 36 years.

    2005: In Little Rock, AR, Rabbi Pinchas Ciment and his wife Estie Ciment announce the arrival of their new son.

    2006: In San Franciscoa SUV struck two people in front of the Jewish Community Center of San Francisco on California Street, a few blocks from where the hit and run rampage ended. Blood covered the sidewalk in front of the center’s gift store entrance, and 50 feet farther down the sidewalk lay a mangled bicycle. Security cameras in front of the center captured images of the incident, which happened at 1:12 p.m., according to Aaron Rosenthal, spokesman for the community center

    2007: In Eilat, second night of the Red Sea Jazz Festival.

    2007:In response to the Larry Craig scandal Al Goldstein declared in his blog that he was bisexual, and said he'll be "the first presidential candidate to admit to sucking cock and the first to turn fully gay mid-campaign."

    2007: Boaz Mauda won Kochav Nolad 2007 with 50% of the votes.

    2008: The Red Sea Jazz Festival comes to an end.

    2008: TheAvishai Cohen Trio performs at the Blue Note in New York City.

    2009: Ceremonies commemorating the 65th Anniversary of the Liquidation of the Litzmannstadt Ghetto by German authorities comes to an end.

    2009:Palestinian militants fired a Qassam rocket into the western Negev early today.

    2009:In the evening, The Cedar Rapids Jewish community gathers for the first Shiva minyan honoring Peggy McHugh beloved mother of Sabrina Thalblum and the mother-in-law of Rabbi Todd Thalblum.

    2010:Annual dinner to support Magan David Adom in Israel is scheduled to take place at Adat Shalom Synagogue in Farmington Hills, Michigan 

    2010: The Stern Senior Art Show is scheduled to come to an end at Yeshiva University Museum.

    2010: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Freedomby Jonathan Franzen

    2010: With Mideast peace talks due to restart in Washington this week, Defense Minister Ehud Barak met with Jordan' King Abdallah today to offer assurances that Israel is committed to a lasting peace with the Palestinians. "Peace is a strategic objective for Israel," Barak told the king. "We expect the Palestinians to come to the peace talks with openness."

    2010: It was reported from Jerusalem today that “recent discoveries of large natural gas reserves off Israel's coast have set in motion a battle between investors and the government over how to divide up the profits. The initial euphoria over the prospect of energy independence for Israel is being overshadowed by the dispute between Israeli officials who want to increase the state's share of the profits and U.S. and Israeli investors who say the government's stance threatens Israel's status as a safe place to invest. Some have estimated the value of recent finds by a consortium led by Texas-based Noble Energy at $300 billion. They could represent only a fraction of the natural gas lying beneath the seafloor in the eastern Mediterranean, which, according to the U.S. Geological Survey, might contain one of the world's largest untapped gas reservoirs.


    2011: “Ushpizin” is scheduled to be shown at Movies Under the Stars at the Chabad Community Campus in Fairfax, VA.

    2011:Seven people were injured in south Tel Aviv early this morning, when a terrorist from the West Bank carjacked a taxi and rammed it into a police road block protecting a Tel Aviv nightclub, before going on a stabbing spree.Police said the terrorist, a 20-year-old Nablus resident, entered a taxi near the beginning of Salameh Street, and carjacked the driver, stabbing him in the hand. He then drove for approximately a kilometer down Salameh Street towards the Haoman 17 nightclub, which was filled with high school children at an end-of-summer party.

    2011:Top Israeli singer and TV personality Margalit "Margol" Tzan'ani and convicted criminal Michael Hazan were indicted this morning on charges of extortion, and conspiracy to commit a crime.


    2012: “Advanced Kashrut Seminar for Women” is scheduled to take place at the OU Headquarters in New York City.

    2012: A 25 person Israeli team is set to compete at the Paralympic Games which are scheduled to open today in London (As reported by Aaron Kalman)

    2012: One hundred fifteenth anniversary of the opening of the First Zionist Congress in Basle.

    2012:The office of Rabbi Yitshak Ehrenberg, who has been serving the Berlin Jewish community since 1997, confirmed today in an email that criminal charges had been filed against him. Ehrenberg has received a letter from the prosecutor’s office because of comments he made on a nationwide broadcast television show, an aide confirmed. At this point it is not known who filed the complaint and what exactly the letter states.

    2012: In “Peeking through the highrises: famed Jerusalem street's old architectural glories” published today Moshe Gilad provides cultural history of the Jewish state disguised as a tour of Jerusalem's Hanevi'im (Prophets) Street

    2013: The Sydney Jewish Writers’ Festival presents “In Conversation with Laurent Binet” whose award winning first novel HHhh “recounts the assassination of Nazi leader Reinhard Heydrich in 1942.”

    2013: Denis Kozhutkin is scheduled to play Hindemith’s Piano Sonata no.3 in B flat major at The Jerusalem International Chamber Music Festival.

    2013:Félix Lajkó and his band are scheduled to perform at the Dohany Street Synagogue in Budapest.

    2013: "Praying for peace is not enough when God’s children are being gassed,” a leading British rabbi, Dr. Jonathan Romain, said in an expression of support for military intervention in Syria, British media reported today.”

    2013: “Thousands of Israelis lined up outside gas mask distribution centers today, despite efforts by authorities to calm fears of being on the receiving end of a threatened Syrian retaliation should the US take military action against the Assad regime.” (As reported by Rettig Gurg and Stuart Winer

    2014: Valerie Sassyfras is scheduled to perform “a vocal set of original songs” at the Banks Street Bar in New Orleans.

    2014: The Tel Aviv International Synagogue is scheduled to host a Carelbach Kabbalat Shabbat Service followed by a Champagne Kiddush.

    0 0

    August 30

    70: According to Josephus, the day one which the Second Temple was set aflame

    500: Having conquered Italy, Ostrogoth King Theodoric gave the Jews freedom to worship.

    526 Death of Theodoric the Great, king of the Ostrogoths (the eastern Goths) who controlled the Italian Peninsula and area adjacent to it. Theodoric had a reputation for religious toleration which he extended to the Jewish people.  He encouraged them to settle in his kingdom reportedly because he saw them as a source of economic benefit.   

    1179: As the Crusaders and the Moslems jockey for control over Palestine, soldiers under the command of Saladin had sacked the castle at Jacob’s Ford, the critical passage way across the Jordan River.  The crossing takes its name from the Biblical patriarch and would be a seen of fighting in 1948 and 1967.

    1181: The papacy of Alexander III comes to an end. He was “the author of the oldest extant version of the bull “Sicut Judaeis” (As the Jews) first promulgated in 1120 by Calixtus II.

    1334: Birthdate of King Peter who reigned over Castile and Leon from 1350 to 1369. “Peter's rival Henry of Trastámara continuously depicted Peter as "King of the Jews", and had some success in taking advantage of popular Castilian resentment towards the Jews. Henry of Trastámara instigated pogroms beginning a period of anti-Jewish riots and forced conversions in Castile that lasted approximately from 1370 to 1390. Peter took forceful measures against this, including the execution of at least five anti-Jewish leaders of a riot.”

    1563: The Jewish community of Neutitschlin, Moravia was expelled.

    1803: Twenty-two year old Leo Wolf and Johanna Wolf gave birth to Dr. Moritz (Morris) Wolf

    1808: The Magistrate of Frankfurt (a puppet of the French Government) summoned Rothschild to give an account of his business dealings with the Landgrave.

    1835: Founding of Melbourne, Australia.  The first synagogue opened in Melbourne in 1847. Melbourne provided the first native born Australian to serve as Governor-General – a lawyer named Isaac Isaacs. King George V was reportedly reluctant to appoint Isaacs to the post because he was Jewish. Prime Minister James Scullin assured the reluctant monarch that Australians took a more liberal view than most Englishmen did in such matters.  They were not bothered by the matter of religion and therefore, the appointment was made without further complications

    1836: The city of Houston is founded by Augustus Chapman Allen and John Kirby Allen. Within twenty years after the founding of the city there were enough Jews living in Houston to form a burial society. In 1859, Congregation Beth Israel, the first chartered Jewish congregation in Texas was founded as an Orthodox Synagogue but switched to the Reform movement fifteen years later. In 1906, Houston saw the publication of The Jewish Herald Voice, the first journal of its kind to appear in the state. A list of early Houston Hebrew businessmen would include Joseph Weingarten, Simon Sakowitz and Tobias Sakowitz. Houston established its Jewish Community Council in 1936 under the presidency of Max Nathan and enhanced its Jewish Family Service under Ruth Fred.

    1843: Mary and Philip William Flower gave birth to Cyril Flower, the 1st Baron of Battersea who married Sir Anthony de Rothschild’s daughter Constance in 1877.  The couple were the last of their line since they had not children.

    1848(1stof Elul, 5608): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1851: Birthdate of Abram S. Isaacs, the New York native who served as the Rabbi for Barnett Memorial Temple in Paterson, NJ and served as the first Professor of Hebrew at New York University.

    1855: James Finn, the British Counsel in Jerusalem reported to the British Ambassador in Constantinople that Sir Moses Montefiore had been given permission by the Ottoman government to purchase land in Jerusalem on which he would be allowed to build a hospital and where he could employ poor Jews in gardening.  Montefiore was only the second European who had been allowed to purchase land.  Finn had been the first.

    1860: Birthdate of Isaac Levitan, famed Russian landscape painter.

    1862(4thof Elul, 5622): As the Union Army suffers a crushing blow thanks to the stupidity of General Pope, thirty-three year old Captain Jacob A. Cohen, Company A, 10th Louisiana, was killed today fighting for the Confederacy.

    1865:On Broadway, Mr. Edmund Kean is scheduled to play "the Jew" in tonight's performance of the Merchant of Venice.

    1865: Judah P. Benjamin arrived at Southampton, Britain marking the final stop on his flight from America when the Confederacy was finally defeated.

    1867: The Washington Avenue Synagogue, also known as Temple Beth El, was dedicated today in Detroit, Michigan.

    1867: Prince Charles, the future King Charles (a.k.a. King Carlos I) wrote a letter to Sir Moses Montifore, expressing his pleasure at the Anglo-Jewish leader’s recent visit to Romania and his support for better treatment of the Jews living in Romania.

    1872: It was reported today that Sir Moses Montefiore has completed his trip to St. Petersburg, Russia and returned to his home at Ramsgate.  Sir Moses had gone to Russia at the behest of the Board of Deputies to intercede with the Czar’s government on behalf of the Jews of Russia.

    1873: In the United Kingdom, Sir George Jessel begins serving as the Keeper or Master of the Rolls and Records of the Chancery of England, known as the Master of the Rolls. For the two years prior to accepting this position, he had served as Solicitor General.

    1875: The New York Times published an account of Sir Moses Montefiore’s trip to Palestine including his visit to Jerusalem.

    1875: It was reported today that Abraham H. Guedalla has provided The Jewish World with some of the correspondence between him and Sir Moses Montefiore that provided details of his visit to Palestine during July of 1875.

    1876:Henry Schneeberger wassent a letter inviting him to become the first rabbi of Chizuk Amuno in Baltimore, MD.

    1878(1st of Elul, 5638): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1878: In New York, Judge Van Rant, granted a writ of habeas corpus directing Thomas F. Fallon to bring Caroline Cohen to court.  Caroline was the 15 year old daughter of Loewenthal Cohen, a Jewish clothing dealer.  Fallon was a Roman Catholic who allegedly had eloped with young Caroline. The judge had granted the write in response to Cohen’s petition claiming that his daughter was being held against her will having been enticed away from her home “under the pretext that he wanted to marry her.”

    1879: In New York, 12 year old Henry O’Brien decided to find out if it was true that Jews did not eat pork. He thrust a piece of pork down the throat of Harris Goldstein, a Polish Jew.  Goldstein chased after O’Brien who hit Goldstein with a shovel when the Jewish boy caught up to him. O’Brien hit him in the face and broke his nose.  At the end of the melee, both of the boys were arrested by Officer McCarthy of the Tenth Precinct.

    1881: It was reported today that authorities have denied “Jew-baiter” Ernst Henrici the right to address a public meeting in Hamburg, Germany. [His speeches had been connected to riots in Berlin and the burning of the synagogue in Neustettin.]

    1883: It was reported today that martial law has been declared at Eglerszeg, Hungary after an outbreak of anti-Jewish riots.  All of the shops remain closed and many of the Jewish families have fled from the city.

    1885: Rabbis Mendes and Morais are scheduled to speak at the service being held at the 19thStreet Synagogue in memory of the late Sir Moses Montefiore.

    1885: “New Antiquities” published today described the career of Moses Shapira, “the converted Jew” whose discovery of a “so-called Moabitish manuscript of Deuteronomy…and a Moabitish dictionary” which he offered to sell to the British Museum for $5,000,000 has been declared to be “a clumsy forgergy” by experts from Germany.  This, and other forgeries tied to Mr. Shapira, is attributed to the fact that he left the faith of his birth.

    1886: Thirty-one of the forty Russian Jewish immigrants who arrived in the U.S. yesterday left Castle Garden with friends who had promised to provide support for them. 

    1890: The boy’s band from the Hebrew Orphan Asylum will perform at the Summernight’s festival sponsored by District No. 1 of the Independent Order of B’nai B’rith which is being held at Sulzer’s Harlem River Park.

    1891: The tenth free excursion sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children will begin with a boat ride up the East River starting at 9 a.m.

    1891: “Famine Face in Russia” published today described how the government’s anti-Jewish laws have exacerbated the situation since, in the past, Jewish money lenders have provided funds for the peasants when their crops have failed.  Such is not the case which makes the agricultural crisis all the worst and the government refuses to alter the laws.

    1891: State Senator Jacob A. Cantor is preparing for the upcoming election following his return from Europe yesterday.

    1892(7thof Elul, 5652): Four year old Ida Samyan, the daughter of a Russian Jewish couple who had just arrived from Hamburg passed away today.  Much to the relief of authorities “a post-mortem examination showed that her death was not due to cholera.”

    1892: Max Strassburger, a representative of the United Hebrew Society arrived at Ziontown, NJ to investigate the claims that the Jewish settlers had been brought their under false pretenses and were now facing the prospect of starvation. 

    1892: In Elizabeth, NJ, the city Board of Health met this evening and adopted measures to deal with the threat of cholera including measures to improve the sanitary conditions in the First War which is home to “a large number of Russian and Polish Jews.”

    1895(10thof Elul, 5655): Mrs. Rebecca Kastor who left legacies of $100 each to several Jewish institutions including Mount Sinai Hospital and the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society, passed away today.

    1896:Herzl received a "Shana Tova" from Jerusalem signed by Ephraim Cohn, director of the Lämel School, David Yellin, Eliezer ben Yehuda and Wilhelm Gross.

    1897: The funeral for David J. Seligman who passed away in his 48th year and was the son of the late Joseph Seligman will take place at his home on East 55thStreet in Manhattan.

    1897: At today’s session of the Zionist Congress being held in Basel, Switzerland, “the delegates…unanimously adopted, with great enthusiasm, the program for re-establishing” the Jews “in Palestine, with publicly recognized rights.”  “A dispatch was sent to the Sultan of Turkey thanking his Majesty for the privileges enjoyed by “the Jews “in his empire.”

    1898: During the Dreyfus Affair, Major Henry, one of those who had helped to frame the French officer, was arrested. Following his arrest, Henry confessed to his role in the matter.

    1898(12thof Elul, 5658): In Chicago Sixty-four year old Rabbi Louis Rosenbloom was kicked to death by seventeen year old John Schlechta when he tried to the teenager from attacking various members of the Levi family.

    1898: The second annual Zionist Congress at Basel Switzerland, where the American delegation was led by Dr. Richard J.H. Gottheil, Professor of Rabbinical Literature and Semitic Languages at Columbia University was scheduled to come to and today.

    1899: On this date Herzl wrote in his diary “While riding out to Währing today on a jolting bus the title for my Zion novel occurred to me:Alt-Neuland [Old-Newland].

    1899: Three handwriting experts, including Paul Meyer, Director of the of the School of Ancient Manuscripts all testified today at the court martial of Captain Dreyfus that Estherhazy and not Dreyfus had written the bordereau that was at the heart of the claim that Dreyfus had betrayed France to the Germans.

    1902: Birthdate of Paul Massing the German sociologist who wrote “Rehearsal for Destruction: A Study Of Political Anti-Semitism in Imperial Germany.”

    1902: Birthdate of Gisela Kohn Dollinger the native of Baden-be-Wien, a Vienna suburb, who survived the Holocaust and lived to be 111. (As resulted by Julie Wiener)

    1906: Native Muslim soldiers attack the Hara (Jewish Quarter) of Tunis.  

    1906(9th of Elul, 5666):Edward Rosewater passed away. Born in Bohemia in 1841, he came to the United States in 1854. He became the publisher and editor of the Omaha (Neb) Bee. “Rosewater had a reputation for always being ‘aggressive and controversial’, and was influential in Nebraska politics as one of the leaders of the state Republican Party.”

    1908:First Conference for the Yiddish Language opens in Czernowitz

    1909 (13th of Elul, 5669 ):Yosef Chaim (a leading Hakham (Sephardic Rabbi), authority on Jewish law (Halakha) and Master Kabbalist passed away two days before his 71stbirthday. He is best known as author of the work on Halakha Ben Ish Chai ("Son of Man (who) Lives"), by which title he is also known.

    1909(13thof Elul, 5669): Chaim Jossel Eidelsohn passed away today.

    1909(13thof Elul, 5669): A young girl named Scheitel Lewin passed away today.

    1913: The Manchester Guardian and the New York Times, report that Max Nordeau will not be giving the opening address at the upcoming Eleventh Zionist Congress.  This is first time Nordeau will not have given the opening address since the Zionists began their meetings.  It is further evidence of a shift to the program of the practical Zionists as opposed to those Zionists who had looked to a combination of European nations acting in concert to create a Jewish Homeland.

    1914: During World War I, the Battle of Tannenberg came to an end. At the urging of the French, the Russian Army had begun advancing before it was fully mobilized and ready for battle.  The Russian Army advanced into East Prussia which caused panic in Berlin.  The Germans transferred troops from the Western Front to meet the Russian advance.  This shift of troops weakened the forcing attacking the French, undermined the German grand strategic design and enabled the French to finally halt the advance. This would lead to the four year stalemate known as World War I.  The strengthened German forces in Prussia blocked the Russians and hurled them back.  The fighting in the East would be a see-saw affair that would bleed Russia until the Revolutions of 1917 and 1918.  The Jews living in the Pale of Settlement which was in the path of this clash between the Kaiser and the Czar suffered great privations.  The irony was that the Germans could probably have won the battle without the additional troops and World War I might have been a rather brief affair where the troops were home by Christmas and Europe (including the Jews) would have been the upheavals that led to World War II and the Holocaust.

    1915: Birthdate of composer Robert Strassburg whose works would span both the secular and religious worlds as can be seen by his work on such Broadway shows as “The Rose Tattoo” and such compositions as “Torah Sonata” and the opera “Chelm.”

    1915: Birthdate of Shifra Lerer, “who was discovered at age 5 in Argentina by the great Yiddish actor Boris Thomashefsky and went on to become a winsome and wide-ranging trouper of the Yiddish theater for the next 90 years.”

    1918:Samuel Gompers and the American Labor Mission were entertained by the British Government today at luncheon, where the visitors were welcomed by Lloyd George, G.H. Roberts and Lord Reading. The British Prime Minister lauded Gompers saying that “no man has done more to convince civilization must fight to victory.

    1918: The Jews of Salonica who were originally Ottoman subjects are exempted from alien restrictions, under which they had previously lived. 

    1918: Fanya Kaplan a disillusioned revolutionary shoots and seriously injures Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin. This, along with the assassination of Bolshevik senior official Moisei Uritsky days earlier, prompts the decree for what is known as the Red Terror.

    1919: Samuel Gompers announces support for the Versailles Treaty and denounces Republican leaders for opposing a document, which among other things, contains provisions beneficial to labor and workers.

    1919: The Jewish Commissariat Yevsektsiya of Russia proclaimed Hebrew a "reactionary language." As such the teaching of Hebrew was prohibited in all educational institutions and books in Hebrew removed from libraries.

    1920” The reign of Mohammed Alim Kahn, the last Emir of Bukhara whom Levi Babakhan served as court vocalist came to an end. Babakhanov was part of dynasty of Jewish musicians that included his son Moshe and grandson Ari.

    1922: Birthdate of famed mezzo-soprano Regina Resnik.

    1923: Today the United Jewish People's Bank, Ltd., was  registered in London by the cirectorium of the United Jewish Emigration Committee. The bank which, according to its articles of incorporation, will seek to promote the development of handicraft industries and agriculture among Jews starts with a capital of £500,000. It will aim to foster in particular all kinds of cooperative undertakings and assist in the emigration and immigration of Jews throughout the world. While its ultimate objects are of a social nature the institution is authorized to conduct a regular banking business. Among the subscribers are Latzki-Bertholdi, Advocate Sliosberg, Leo Motzkin, Dr. L. Branson, Vladimir Tiomkin, Rabbi Jochelman, and Dr. Brutzkus. The directors of the bank have not yet been appointed. (As reported by JTA)

    1924(30thof Av, 5684): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1927:The Fifteenth Zionist Congress, the legislative body of the International Zionist movement, went into session at Basel, Switzerland, today with 280 delegates representing Zionist societies from all parts of the world present. Forty of the delegates are from the United States and chooses Sokolow at President

    1927: According to reports published today, the Palestine Economic Corporation which had been organized in February, 1925, has increased its investments in Palestine by $575,000 during its first year of operation.  The corporation was organized by the Non-Partisan Palestine Conference under the Chairmanship of Louis Marshall, with investments of $620,000. Substantial funding has gone to support the citrus growing industry.

    1929: “A telegram from Reuters news agency was sent to all its subscribers: ‘Jerusalem has now been a city of death for eight days during which work has ceased and people are starving.  Hundreds are receiving bread rations.  Everywhere it is deadly quiet, and everyone is very nervous.’”

    1929:With relative quiet restored to central Palestine today, people and officials looked anxiously to the north, where a force of Syrian Arabs has crossed the border to march on Jerusalem. British planes are searching for them. The incursion of large forces of Arabs over the Syrian frontier is causing considerable uneasiness in London tonight.

    1933: In a bid for the support of the Laborite faction in the forthcoming election of the administration of the World Zionist Organization, Nahum Sokolow, 72-year-old president of the organization, addressing the World Zionist Congress tonight, defined his views on the position of labor in the building of a Jewish national home in Palestine.

    1933: William Dodd began serving as U.S. Ambassador to Germany.  He was the first Roosevelt appointee to deal with the Hitler government.  Unfortunately, the professionals in the State Department would not listen to the warnings offered by this American college professor.

    1933: The Hessische Volkswacht publishes a list of 30 concerns in Hessen that have been represented by Jews in court actions.

    1933: In a published declaration the Union of German National Jews protests against the resolution adopted by the Zionist Congress against Nazi Germany, and blames Zionism for the present situation of German Jewry.

    1933: In Worms, the police announce that "a large number of Jews" have been arrested and taken to a concentration camp because of their provocative attitude and degrading remarks against the Nazi regime.

    1937: In what was described as “a new political murder against Jews in Palestine” heats up.  “A bomb was thrown in a Tel Aviv thoroughfare severely wounding at least one Jew while two Jewish workers – Daniel Swanitsky and Isar Pankus – were murdered early this morning. 

    1937: The Arab Higher Committee decided that the Arab General Strike, begun on April 19, would continue. The problem of Jewish refugees from Jaffa and the surrounding area had been finally solved after every family was furnished with a home, comprising a large room with a balcony, kitchen, lavatory and a shower at the cost of 90 pounds, paid back in form of rent at the rate of half a pound a month over a period of 15 years. One British soldier was severely wounded at Lydda and more British troops arrived from Malta

    1938: Several cases of Arab arson attacks are reported to authorities throughout Palestine and Haifa police shot and killed a fleeing Arab terrorist.

    1938: Birthdate of Owen Jacob Laster, the son of immigrants from the Ukraine and Russia, who became one of the most powerful literary agents of his generation, running William Morris’s worldwide literary operations that had a long list of best-selling writers including James A. Michener and Gore Vidal (As reported by William Grimes)

    1938(3rd of Elul, 5698):  Max Factor, Sr. passed away. Born Max Firestein, this Russian Jewish immigrant had reportedly been a makeup artist for Russian nobility.  He made his debut as Max Factor, Sr. at the 1904 St. Louis World’s Fair to launch what would become a cosmetics empire with a special relationship with the stars of the Hollywood film industry.

    1940: Registration of all Jewish property became mandatory in Slovakia.

    1940: Much to the initial pleasure of the Jews, the Nazis returned Kolozsvar to Hungarian control. The Jews did not realize how much influence the Nazis had over the Hungarians or the depth of anti-Semitism that existed among some of their non-Jewish neighbors. Kolozsvar was the home of Rudolf Kastner who at this time was thirty-six years old and writing for the Jewish newspaper Új Kelet

    1941: The SS at Chelmo work camp ordered fifty Jewish workers to dig trenches. Five were shot at a time, as five would dig a new trench, until all but the last five were killed.

    1942: Members of the Jewish community at Rabka, Poland, are murdered.

    1942: French Bishop Pierre-Marie Théas reminds his parishes that all human beings are created by the same God, Christians and Jews alike, and that "all men regardless of race or religion deserve respect from individuals and governments."

    1943: A statement by the American Council for Judaism stating its opposition to “the creation of a Jewish national state” was made public today in Philadelphia.

    1943: The American Council for Judaism, Inc “appealed to the United Nations for the earliest possible repatriation or resettlement under the best possible conditions of all peoples uprooted from their homes by the Axis Powers” while expressing its “hope for the ultimate establishment of a democratic autonomous government in Palestine where Jews, Moslems and Christians shall be justly represented.”

    1943: The Jews of Denmark began their first day of living without the protection of the Danish government which had resigned meaning the country was now under the direct control of the Nazis.

    1944: The SS St. Louis, which had been the centerpiece of the famous 1939 voyage “was heavily damaged” today during an Allied bombing attack at Kiel.

    1944:  After visiting Majdanek and seeing firsthand what the Germans had done, W.H. Lawrence wrote in the New York Times, “I am now prepared to believe any story of German atrocities no matter how savage, cruel and depraved.”

    1944:Sir Harold Alfred MacMichael completes his term as British High Commissioner of Palestine.

    1948:  In Silver Spring, MD, Jeannette and Sam Black gave birth to comedian and social commentator Lewis Black.

    1948(25th of Av, 5708):  “A Jewish worker was shot dead by sniper fire from the Old City walls while crossing a street on the Israeli side of the city.”  This threat of death would only finally end when the Israelis reunited the city in 1967.

    1948:Alice Salomon passed away in New York City.  She was a pioneer German social worker who fled the Nazis after being arrested and interrogated.  She was not Jewish, but her Jewish origins put her at risk given the Nazi racial laws.

    1951:The twenty-third World Zionist Congress, which closed early this morning, unanimously adopted a resolution asking the Israeli Government to give the world Zionist organization legal status.

    1954: This evening, start of Operation Binyamin 2 under the command of Ariel Sharon.

    1954: Birthdate of Shlomi Shabat, the native of Yehud who has become a popular singer and musician.

    1956: In Israel, the eight day nation-wide bus strike ended today.  The strikers were from the Egged Bus Company which serves Haifa and provided interurban services and the Dan Company that serves the Tel Aviv metropolitan area.  These companies are owner-operator co-ops.

    1968: Birthdate of Scottish author and broadcaster Muriel Gray who creating a documentary entitle “The Wandering Jew” in 1996 which traced the Jewish roots of her mother’s which stretched back to Moldova.

    1962(30thof Av, 5722): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1964:Five hundred Orthodox rabbis issued a proclamation calling on religious Jews to join the Religious Zionists of America

    1965: The album ''Highway 61 Revisited'' by Bob Dylan was released.

    1966: The first Knesset building was dedicated in Jerusalem. This was one of several artistic ventures that marked 1966.  Two others were the opening of the America-Culture House in New York which displayed Israeli arts and crafts while providing scholarships for Israeli artists to study in the United States and the naming of Israeli author Shai Agnon as the winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature

    1976: An Israeli patrol killed two terrorists who infiltrated through a security fence from Lebanon.

    1976: London's Spectator weekly claimed that the PLO was making millions out of terror and had some £50 million invested in Britain. For those of you who think terror began on September 11, think again.  .

    1976: Pravda, the Soviet Communist Party's major newspaper, described the US proposal to send American monitoring personnel to Sinai as a "questionable development." This should serve as a reminder that the conflict in the Middle East was fueled, in part, by the needs of Soviet imperialism.

    1976(4th of Elul, 5736): Dr. Paul Lazarsfeld, a Columbia University sociologist whose studies of American voting patterns and the influences of the printed and electronic press on society are classics in his field, died of cancer at New York Hospital today at the age of 75.

    1981(30th of Av, 5741): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1983: “A tired and depressed Prime Minister Meachem Begin turned to his colleagues and said with a sigh, ‘I cannot go on any longer.’”  [Begin would leave office a few days and return to his Jerusalem apartment at 1 Semach Street where he would lead a life of almost total isolation.]

    1984: Judith Resnik begins her first space flight  aboard the Discovery which was making its maiden voyage.

    1989: A federal jury in New York found ''hotel queen'' Leona Helmsley guilty of income tax evasion but acquitted her of extortion.

    1989(29th of Av, 5749): Dorothy Schiff owner and publisher of the New York Postfor nearly 40 years passed away. She was a granddaughter of German born Jewish financier Jacob H. Schiff and the daughter of Mortimer Schiff and Adele Neustadt Schiff.

    1989(29th of Av, 5749): Author, essayist and editor Seymour Krim passed away. According to at least one critic, “some of the Jewish themes that obsessed him were post-Holocaust anger, the lack of a nourishing Jewish culture, assimilation and emasculation, and the ugliness of self-hatred.”

    1992(1st of Elul, 5752): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1998: The New York Times book section features reviews of two works by Jewish authors: Theatre on the Edge by Mel Gussow and Capital Dilemma by Michael Z. Wise.

    1998: In article entitled “First, the People Moved East. Now, So Are the Cemeteries,” John Rather describes the changes in the New York cemetery scene including four Jewish cemeteries on Cemetery Row including Mount Ararat, New Montefiore, Beth Moses and Wellwood .  The Jewish community faces its own unique set of challenges.''Very often what Jews do is arrange for family plots, which means there may be people who pass away in Florida who want to return to New York to be buried,'' said Rabbi Bruce Ginsburg, president of the Long Island Board of Rabbis. Some Long Island funeral homes have affiliates in Florida to speed the return home.

    2005(25th of Av, 5765): Eighty-five year old James H. Scheuer who served 13 terms in the U.S. House of Representatives passed away today. (As reported by Jennifer Lee)

    2005: “A Scrappy Congressman, Ready for His Next Risk” published today examined the career of Congressman Anthony D. Weiner and his chances to become Mayor of New York City. (The more things change, the more they stay the same)

    2005:  The Bedouin guard who subdued a suicide bomber in Beersheba was hailed as a hero of the state of Israel in headlines of the Jerusalem Post.

    2006:America gets ready for new Jewish-themed cable network. “First there was the Kinky Friedman documentary Shalom Y'All, and now there's Rabbi Mark S. Golub's Shalom TV. Golub is launching America's first national television channel dedicated to celebrating Jewish life and culture.
    2006: The Bank Leumi announced that leak concerning the stock transactions of Lt. Gen. Dan Haulutz that took place before fighting broke out Hezbollah did not come from anybody working that institution.

    2007: An exhibit at the Land of Israel Museum in Tel Aviv featuring hundreds of works by cartoonist Kariel Gardosh, who became famous under his pen name “Dosh” comes to an end. Dosh was the first Israeli cartoonist to have his work published in a daily newspaper.

    2007:An article entitled “Faith and Civic Pride Clash Over Parade on Yom Kippur” published today describes the conflict between Yom Kippur and a civic celebration in Herkimer, NY.

     2007: Ant-Zionists Max Blumenthal and Norton Mezvinksy, were joined by Tehran Professor Kaveh Afrasiabion WBEZ”s “Worldview” which features discussions on the conflict between Israel and the Palestinians.

    2007: A national tour of Stephen Sondheim’s “Sweeny Todd” which would last until November, 2007 began today.

    2007: The Red Sea Jazz Festival comes to an end at Eilat.

    2008: The Eleventh Jerusalem International Chamber Music Festival opens today.

    2008:Today, Democratic Congressman Robert Wexler of Florida lashed out at John McCain's choice of Alaska Governor Sarah Palin as his running mate, accusing her of supporting "Nazi sympathizer" Pat Buchanan, and branding the move an "affront to all Jewish Americans.""John McCain's decision to select a vice presidential running mate that endorsed Pat Buchanan for president in 2000 is a direct affront to all Jewish Americans," said a statement by Wexler. "Pat Buchanan is a Nazi sympathizer with a uniquely atrocious record on Israel, even going as far as to denounce bringing former Nazi soldiers to justice and praising Adolf Hitler for his 'great courage'".Wexler went on to accuse McCain of having "failed his first test of leadership."
    "At a time when standing up for Israel's right to self-defense has never been more critical, John McCain has failed his first test of leadership and judgment by selecting a running mate who has aligned herself with a leading anti-Israel voice in American politics. It is frightening that John McCain would select someone one heartbeat away from the presidency who supported a man who embodies vitriolic anti-Israel sentiments." The National Jewish Democratic Council also issued a statement saying that McCain's judgment appears "lacking" in choosing Palin. "Prior to today's selection, Palin apparently has never spoken publicly about Israel," said a statement by the group's Executive Director Ira N. Forman. "Moreover, on a broad range of issues - most strikingly on the issue of women's reproductive freedom - she is totally out of step with Jewish public opinion. The Republican Jewish Coalition, however, welcomed Palin's nomination. "As governor of Alaska, Palin has enjoyed a strong working relationship with Alaska's Jewish community. She has demonstrated sensitivity to the concerns of the community and has been accessible and responsive," said coalition Executive Director Matt Brooks.

    2009: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including A Village Life by Louise Glück and I’m So Happy For You by Lucinda Rosenfeld.

    2009: Today’s announcement by Africa Israel Investments which is owned by Lev Leviev “that it could not repay billions of dollars in debt…caused shares to drop 25.5 percent on the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange.” (As reported by JTA)

    2009: The Washington Post features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Too Good To Be True: The Rise and Fall of Bernie Madoff by Erin Arvedlund, Betrayal: The Life and Lies of Bernie Madoff by Andrew Kirtzman, Madoff With The Money by Jerry Oppenheimer, Israel is Real by Rich Cohen and The Secret Life of Marilyn Monroe by J. Randy Taraborrelli

    2009: The Los Angeles Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Homer & Langley by E.L. Doctorow and A Village Life: Poems by Louise Gluck

    2009:Israel Air Force planes struck a tunnel in the northern Gaza Strip early today in response to a Qassam rocket fired by Palestinian militants into the western Negev early yesterday. Also today Army Radio said an IDF unit patrolling Gaza's northern border reported it went under fire.

    2009: In Little Rock, the Jewish community gathers at the Chabad House to celebrate the completion of the first sefer torah to ever be written for the Jewish community of Arkansas. The project is one more example of the great works done by Rabbi Pinchas Ciment, a mensch in the truest sense of the word who is the epitome of the Rebbe’s concept of “the Lamplighter.

    2009:Former Prime Minister Ehud Olmert was indicted today in three corruption affairs, concluding months of investigations into cases allegedly conducted during his tenure as Jerusalem mayor and trade minister.

    2009 Israeli singer Roni Dalumi was the final of Kochav Nolad 7.

    2010: Release of “Box of Secrets,” featuring “Let Me Back,” “Box of Secrets” and “Over which was the debut album of Zarif Davidson, better known as Zarif the daughter of an Iranian Jewish mother.

    2010:Bernice K. Weiss, author of Converting to Judaism - Choosing to be Chosen: Personal Stories  is scheduled to lead a course entitled “Basic Judaism for Jews and Non-Jews Alike”that provides an overview of the Bible, Shabbat ritual and observances, how to observe kashrut and the Jewish laws of death and mourning.

    2010(20 Elul): Yahrzeit of Dr. Jacob  Levin, of blessed memory, beloved husband of Betty, loving father of Michael (Gigi Cohen) Levin, Stephen (Dian Garton) Levin, Sharon (Philip) Wein and Lawrence (Sandra Morrison) Levin and proud Zaide to a whole tribe of grandchildren.   To his brother Joe, he was the incomparable “Yaenkel” and to me his was my wonderful Uncle Jack – living proof that good guys finish first.

    2010:Israeli archeologists unveiled a 2,000 year old semi-precious cameo bearing the image of Cupid today, which the Israel Antiquities Authorities (IAA) said was among several items located in the City of David archeological area in Jerusalem's Old City in the last 12 months. The cameo, which will be displayed at the 11th Annual City of David Archaeology Conference scheduled to take place later this week, is 1 cm in length and 0.7 mm in width, and was discovered in the Givati Parking Lot Excavation, a part of the Jerusalem Walls National Park.
    2011: An exhibition of charcoal drawings by artist Jean Barry that interpret the Book of Job is scheduled to come to a close at the Charles Sumner School Museum and Archives in Washington, DC.

    2011(30thof Av, 5771):Rosh Chodesh Elul

    2011:Israel has been warned that a terrorist cell linked to the Islamic Jihad and based in the Sinai Peninsula may try to carry out a series of attacks over the coming days, Home Front Minister Matan Vilnai said today. The cell, which Vilnai said comprises at least 10 militants, has been preparing for such attacks for some time and may exploit the Eid al-Fitr holiday as "the right time" to carry out their plot. .

    2011:  Iran is planning to send its 15th fleet, comprised of a submarine and a warship, to the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea, semi-official news agency Press TV quoted Iranian naval commander Admiral Habibollah Sayyari as saying today The announcement came after the IDF modified the operational doctrine of the Navy Command Center in Eilat which is responsible for protecting southern Israel from threats originating in the Red Sea. Yesterday, two large Navy corvettes were seen docked in Eilat, likely for anti-terror and smuggling operations in the Red Sea

    2011:Labor Party leadership candidate Erel Margalit demanded today that the upcoming primary be delayed, because the list of party members eligible to vote has yet to be published. If the Labor Party’s administration does

    2011(29th of Av, 5771): Ninety-nine year old Ayala Zacks Abramov, the Israeli-born art collectior passed away today.

    2012: Yemen Blues is scheduled to appear at The Montreal Jewish Music Festival

    2012: In Berkeley, Urban Adamah and Wilderness are scheduled to sponsor “Mother-Daughter Full Moon of Elul Circle,” an event that will “include harvesting wheat, grinding it into flour with a new grain mill and then baking it into pita over an open fire.”

    2012:Without naming Iran, United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon denounced his hosts in Tehran today for threatening to destroy Israel and for denying the Holocaust.

    2012: The Egyptian army began withdrawing tanks from the Sinai Peninsula today, pan-Arab daily newspaper Asharq Al-Awsat reported. The report comes just a day after Egypt's army said it would broaden its offensive against militants in the Sinai Peninsula, a campaign that has raised concerns in Israel about the movement of heavy armor into the area near its border.

    2013: “Fill The Void” is scheduled to open at the Ridgeway Quarter in Memphis, TN

    2013: Rabbi Shira Stutman is scheduled to lead Shabbat eve services which will be a celebration of “Labor on the Bimah,” an initiative of Jews United for Justice that “weaves together labor issues, social justice and Judaism, in an effort to bring meaning and reflection back into Labor Day.”

    2013: Michael Barenboim and Alexander Melnikov are scheduled to perform Mozart’s Sonata for Piano and Violin in D Major at the Jerusalem International Chamber Music Festival.

    2013: “IDF Chief of Staff Lt.-Gen. Benny Gantz visited Artillery Corps units stationed on the Golan Heights this morning, and received a briefing by commanders on the state of readiness of the military forces on the northern border.”  (As reported by Yaakov Lappin)

    2013: “US President Barack Obama said today the chemical weapons attack in Syria threatened US allies Israel and Jordan and said his preference would have been for the international community to move forward on a response.” (As reported by Michael Wilner)

    2013: As his legal woes mounted, San Diego Mayor Bob Filner “signed a letter of resignation that became effective at 5 pm PDT.”

    2014: Chani Nachmias and Friends are scheduled to sing in Tel Aviv as part of the Performing Arts Center August Concert Series.

    2014: Ashkelon’s annual pop music festival Briza is scheduled to come to an end today. (As reported by Simone Somekh)

    0 0

    August 31

    12 CE: Birthdate of Gaius Caligula, Roman Emperor.  Caligula was crowned in 37 and murdered in 41.  Life for Jews during his reign was part of the downward spiral that would result in three rebellions by the Jews over the next one hundred years.  Caligula was crazy.  Unfortunately his insanity had additional negative impact on the Jews.  Caligula thought he was divine and insisted on his statue being placed in the Temple at Jerusalem.  His efforts were twice thwarted and his untimely death prevented him from taking vengeance against his Jewish subjects.

    38 CE: Riots broke out in Alexandria, Egypt after the Jews spurned an order by the Roman Prefect Flaccus to place a statue of Emperor Caligula in the local synagogue. This was an outgrowth of antagonism between the Jews of Alexandria and some of their pagan neighbors.  The pagans were angered by the Jews celebrating Caligula’s decision to restore Agrippa, a descendant of the Hasmoneans to the Jewish kingship in Palestine.  They knew that the Jews could not worship a statue so by forcing a statue of Caligula into the synagogue, Apion, the pagan leader knew he was asking for trouble. The violence ended and Flaccus was recalled to Rome.  But this was not the end of the trouble much of which was rooted in the fact that some pagans begrudged the Jews their commercial success and wished to do away with them as competitors.  This would not be the last time that those who sought to oust the Jews from commercial ventures did so under the guise of religion.

    161; Birthdate of Commodus, the Roman Emperor who reigned while Judah ha-Nasi was compiling and editing the Mishna

    1056: Byzantine Empress Theodora becomes ill, dying suddenly a few days later, without children to succeed the throne ending the Macedonian dynasty. This was a period of relative calm for the Jews of the Byzantine Empire.  The last official persecution had taken place at the end of the 10th century.  Conditions would not seriously deteriorate until the arrival of the waves of Crusaders that began at the end of the 11thcentury.

    1481: Coronation of John II, the Portuguese monarch who employed Abraham Zacuto whose accomplishment included the development of a new type of astrolabe as Royal Astronomer and Historian.

    1506: The first printed edition of Lashon Limudim, a Hebrew grammar by David ben Yahya was published today in Constantinople.

    1694:A difference between the Jewish and Christian relations with the slave population in the Antilles is evidenced in an act passed today by the Dutch Leeward Council and Assembly. “The act was specifically directed at the Jews and states that it is: 'An Act against Jews ingrossing Commodities imported in the Leeward Islands, and trading with the slaves belonging to the inhabitants of the same.’”

    1801: Birthdate of Pierre Soule,a United States politician and diplomat from Louisiana during the mid-19th century. He is best known for his role in writing the Ostend Manifesto, which was written in 1854 as part of an attempt to annex Cuba to the United States. The Manifesto was roundly denounced, especially by anti-slavery elements, and Soulé himself came under severe attack.  According to an article published in the New York Times, Soule was Jewish.

    1834: Birthdate of Simon Kayserling, a German educator and writer; who was the principal teacher and inspector of the M. M. David'sche Freischule from 1861, and taught for several years in the Jewish teachers' seminary in Hanover.

    1842: Birthdate of Adolf Pinner, the German chemist who began his schooling at the Jewish Theological Seminary at Breslau before attending the University of Berlin where he earned a doctorate in Chemistry in 1867.

    1842: In London, George Palmer Putnam and Victorine Haven Palmer gave birth to Mary Corinna who became Mary Corinna Jacobi when, in 1873, she married Dr. Abraham Jacobi, the Jewish physician known as the “father of American pediatrics”

    1862:This afternoon the Congregation Baith Israel dedicated their new synagogue to public worship. The synagogue, which is a very handsome brick structure, stands upon the lot at the corner of State and Boerum streets, Brooklyn, and cost in the neighborhood of $10,000. Rabbis Raphael and Isaacs entered the sanctuary which was packed with congregants leading a procession that carried the synagogues “sacred scrolls.”  They were greeted by Baith Israel’s spritiual leader, Rabbi Joel Alexander who said or rather intoned the sacred welcome "Boruch habo" -- when the choir, which was composed of several beautiful black-eyed Hebrew maidens led by Felix Sanger, and accompanied by Sanger's brass band, sang with strange effect one of their quaint and sacred songs. The procession then marched around the room seven times, the Rabbis successively chanting an appropriate song to which the choir responded with the proper chorus. The eternal fire was lighted, the sacred rolls were deposited behind the altar, the Synagogue was irrevocably dedicated to the worship of God, the Father; and after other songs were given, Rabbi Raphael delivered the consecration sermon. [Editor’s Note - Baith Israel was also known as Baith Israel Anshei Emes and is now known as the Kane Street Synagogue,, the oldest continually running synagogue in Brooklyn. Among the congregations Bar Mitzvah “boys” was Aaron Copland.]

    1864:The New York Times reviews a new translation of the Book of Job by J.M. Rodwell, “an eminent Oriental scholar who has lately published the first readable English version of The Koran, in which the chapters are chronologically arranged, and the poetical portions rendered metrically.” His translation of the Book of Job, “the most sublime of the Hebrews scriptures” follows the same pattern. Instead of following the normal pattern of chapters and verses, Rodwell’s translation “divides the book according to the stages of the narrative, arranging the text in couplets of measured prose, that represent the simple energy of the original. "

    1864(29th of Av, 5624): Thirty nine year old Ferdinand Lassalle died of wounds he sustained while fighting a duel two days ago that had been precipitated by a star-crossed love affair.

    1864: The Union Army under General William T. Sherman began the final assault on Atlanta. Among those leading the way was Frederick Knefler, an immigrant from Hungary who rose to the rank of Major General in the Army of the Cumberland.

    1865: A writer who simply signs his letter to the editor of the New York Times“A Subscriber” took issue with Max Maretzee’s description of his dispute with the New York Herald. In defending The Tribune, the unnamed letter writer accuses Max of using “all the cunning of his Jewish origin.”  Max Maretzee probably refers to the German born composer and impresario Max Maretzek

    1867: The Detroit Free Press published a description Temple Beth El at Washington Avenue and Clifford Street.

    1868: In Pilsen, Elise Herz, neé Edle von Lämmel, contributed 40,000 florins to establish a foundation that would help “respectable craftsman” to set up their own business regardless of their religious affiliation – a caveat that should not come as a surprise since the benefactor came from a prominent Jewish family.

    1875: The New York Times published a detailed description of Sir Moses Montefiore’s visit to Jerusalem in the last weeks of July, 1875.

    1876:After only three months on the throne, Ottoman sultan Murat V is deposed and succeeded by his brother Abd-ul-Hamid II. During his reign, the Jews celebrate the four hundredth anniversary of their arrival from Spain.  Abd-ul-Hamid II is the first Sultan to meet with Herzl. Unfortunately, this meeting does not result in approval for Herzl’s plan to create a Jewish homeland in Palestine as part of the Ottoman Empire.

    1877: The recently re-built synagogue of Washington Hebrew Congregation was dedicated this evening.  President Rutherford B. Hayes who was supposed to attend the service sent a message expressing his regret that official business kept him from fulfilling his obligation.  Rabbi Benjamin Szold of Baltimore’s Temple Oheb Shalom preached the sermon at the service. [Rabbi Szold was the father of Henrietta Szold.]

    1877: “The Life of Midhat Pasha” published today described the rise to power of the leader of “Young Turkey,” the party of reform in the Ottoman Empire.  Pasha, who was born in 1822, is the son of a Bulgarian Jew “who embraced Islam in order to make his fortune.” (Sounds almost like a Turkish Disraeli)

    1878: In New York, Judge Van Brunt rejected Lowenthal Cohen’s attempt to use a writ of Habeas Corpus to regain “possession” of his daughter Rebecca who had married Thomas F. Fallon.  The young couple had eloped and the Judge found the marriage to be perfectly legal.  Cohen’s real objection to the marriage may have stemmed from the fact that Fallon was not Jewish.

    1878: As the Yellow Fever Epidemic continues in the Deep South, The Young Men’s Hebrew Association of New York City has received an appeal for aid from those living in New Orleans   Contributions can be sent to the offices on West 42nd Street.

    1878:  It was reported today that the world’s population includes 8 million Jews.  Other reports have placed this number anywhere from 3,500,000 to 15,000,000.  The claim that there are only 73,000 Jews living in the United is thought to be low since it commonly assumed that the U.S. Jewish population is approximately 150,000.  The European portion of the Russian Empire has the largest Jewish population (2,610,179) followed by Austria with 1,600,000.  Surprisingly, Asia, not counting Turkey is reported to have a total Jewish population in excess of 2,000,000 while Canada has one of the smallest number of Jews ranging anywhere between 1,500 and 7,000.  Spain and Scotland are reported to have the fewest number of Jews of all the places surveyed.

    1878: Albert Chapsky who died of Yellow Fever in St. Bernard Parish was buried today in the Hebrew Cemetery in New Orleans, LA. [In Louisiana, the term Parish as used here refers to a county and is not a religious designation.]

    1879:  Birthdate of Alma Mahler. She passed away in 1969.

    1879: William Price died in a freak accident while driving a wagon filled with the bodies of three children who were to be interred in the Hebrew Cemetery at Cypress Hills.

    1879: It was reported today that Mme. Caroline Bertrand, the daughter of Samson Bertrand has written a placed called “Le Noveau Juif Errant” or in English, “The New Wandering Jew.”

    1879: In New York, Judge Van Brunt was satisfied that Rebecca Cohen, a 15 year Jewish girl, was legally married to Thomas Fallon, a Roman Catholic and vacated the write of habeas corpus that he had previously issued.  The writ had been granted when the girl’s father, Lowenthal Cohen, came before the court and claimed that his daughter had been taken against her will or had been deceived into going off with Fallon.

    1879: At the Essex Market Police Court, Justice Smith decided that Henry O’Brien was justified in hitting Harris Goldstein in the face with a shovel and breaking his nose. O’Brien had tricked Goldstein into eating a piece of pork and then tried to escape from him by taking refuge in his apartment.  The judge felt Goldstein had earned his punishment for letting his temper get the better of him and for breaking into O’Brien’s apartment.  The judge sent both of the boys on their way.

    1883: In a letter to the Times, Herman Strack, a Christian theologian who was an expert on rabbinic literature and a supporter of the Jews against the rising tide of anti-Semitism in Germany, provided his evaluation of the recently discovered scroll of the book of Deuteronomy which he feels is a forgery.

    1884(10th of Elul, 5644): Daniel Weinberger, a German Jewish peddler was found dead in his room on South Halsted Street in Chicago, Illinois.

    1885: A fight took place today in Montreal, Canada during the annual meeting at the German and Polish Synagogue.

    1886(30th of Av, 5646): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1886: It was reported today that the 9 Russian Jews who arrived in the United States two days ago and have not found sponsors will probably be sent back to Europe.

    1886: An earthquake kills 100 in Charleston, South Carolina. The earthquake occurred in the same year that members of Sheartih Israel reunited with members of Congregation Beth Elohim, Charleston’s (and the nations) oldest continually functioning Reform Temple.

    1887: The expenses for today’s excursion under the auspices of the Board of Managers of the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children will be defrayed by the widow and children of the late Edward J. King are doing this to honor his memory.

    1887: Birthdate of Austrian born, British scientist Friedrich Adolf Paneth.  Paneth was a Protestant but his parents were Jewish.  Knowing what he did of Hitler’s racial rules and being opposed to his politics, Paneth did not return from a speaking tour during the 1930’s and remained in Britain where he studied and worked.

    1888(24th of Elul, 5648): In New Jersey, two Jewish men from New York were killed when they were struck by Pennsylvania Railroad express train.  Louis Greenburg suffered internal injuries and Israel Cohen was killed instantly.

    1883: It was reported today anti-Jewish riots are continuing at Egerszeg, Hungary despite the declaration of martial law.  After having burned the homes of Jews and destroyed their crops, the peasants are now threatening to attack their gentile landlords.

    1890: Rabbi Taubenhaus is scheduled to deliver his inaugural sermon at Mount Sinai Temple on East 72nd Street.

    1892: It was reported from the Hague today that the man who was identified as a cholera victim last night was a Jew from Vilna who had arrived here from Hamburg.

    1894(29th of Av, 5654): In his 62ndyear, Jacob F. Bamburger the husband of Pauline Bamburger passed away today at his home on West 56th Street.

    1895: During a meeting at the Hebrew Institute, the Street Cleaning League adopted a resolution dealing with the “pushcart nuisance.

    1897: A meeting of the Old Fifth Street School Association will take place today in the office of Maurice B. Blumenthal who is the secretary of the organization.

    1897: In Basel, “Dr. Theodor Herzl…presided at the morning” session of The Zionist Congress. The delegates discussed” a plan “to centralize the Zionist Movement” with the formation of Central Committee that would be headquartered in Vienna.”  The committee would “consist of twenty-three members representing” all of the major Jewish  “natural groups” who would be expected to contribute to a central operating fund.

    1898: Major Hubert- Joseph Henry, one of those who was arrested yesterday on charges of having forged the evidence used against Alfred Dreyfus was found dead in his cell.  The assumption was that he had committed suicide.

    1898:”Boy Kills A Rabbi” published today described the murder of Rabbi Rosenbloom who was kicked to death by a mob of a half a dozen “young men” led by seventeen year old John Schlechta  who had been terrorizing the Levi family.

    1899: “It was learned” today “that as soon as the State Board of Charities” approves “the plans of incorporation for the Emanuel Hospital and Dispensary of New York, Dr. Maurice J. Burstein will select a site” and begin erect a building.

    1899: As a result of his role in creating forgeries during the Dreyfus Case, the Minister of War struck Major Esterhazy from the army lists.

    1899: “The Degenerates” which premiered in London tonight includes a series of “well drawn characters” including “the rich Jew who sneers at his own race.”

    1899: Today’s session of the court martial of Captain Dreyfus “opened behind closed doors” so that General Deloye and Majors Hartmann and Ducros could testify about the secret artillery information contained in the documents that had been given to the Germans.

    1900(6th of Elul, 5660): Eighty-year old Ferdinand Falkson, the German physician and doctor possibly best known for his three battle to have his marriage recognized passed away today.

    1903: Herzl's last meeting with German nobleman Grossherzog Friedrich of Baden on the island of Mainau. Herzl presents his difficult dilemma between East Africa and Palestine. "We would be glad to renounce the good land of East Africafor the poor land of Palestine. I in particular would see an honorable rescue for our poor Jews if this exchange could be made."

    1902: Mrs. Adoph Landenburg introduces the split skirt for riding horseback.

    1905(30th of Av, 5665): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1905:  Birthdate of Dore Schary, American screenwriter, playwright, producer and director. The son of immigrant Russian parents, Schary’s first name came from shortening the original which was Isadore.  Shary provided the Oscar winning script for the film “Boys Town.”  He also produced another all-American film, “Lassie come Home.”  Shary was part of that gaggle of first generation American Jews who created the cinematic version of the American Myth.   Shary’s greatest success came late in his career when he wrote the script for “Sunrise At Campobello” the popular play and film that focused on FDR’s fight with polio.  Shary was active in numerous Jewish organization including the Anti- Defamation League.  He passed away in 1980.

    1905: Birthdate of Sanford Meisner, American actor, teacher and creator of the Meisner Technique

    1906(10th of Elul, 5666): Edward Rosewater, the founder of the Omaha Bee and unsuccessful candidate for the U.S. Senate from Nebraska passed away.  His son Victor took over leadership of the paper

    1907: In Chicago, Illinois, Benjamin T. and Anna (née Bransky) Chon gave birth to William Shawn the editor of The New Yorker magazine.

    1909(14th of Elul, 5669: Joseph Goldberg passed away.

    1909: Nobel laureate Paul Ehrlich began the first chemotherapy when with his assistant Sahachiro Hato, a rabbit infected with syphilis was injected with "Preparation 606." This number marked the 606th chemical devised and tested by Ehrlich's team at his Frankfort laboratory. The compound was so successful that the sores on the rabbit promptly healed. The term "chemotherapy" was coined by Erhlich.

    1914: In response to an appeal by the Yishuv’s leaders and his own knowledge of the desperate condition of the thousands of Jews living in Palestine Henry Morgenthau, Sr., the U.S. Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire sent a cable to Jacob Schiff that read, in part, “PALESTINIAN JEWS FACING TERRIBLE CRISIS … BELLIGERENT COUNTRIES STOPPING THEIR ASSISTANCE … SERIOUS DESTRUCTION THREATENS THRIVING COLONIES … FIFTY THOUSAND DOLLARS NEEDED.” Within a month the appeal produced $50, 000 (the equivalent of 1 million dollars in the 21st century)

    1916: Birthdate of broadcast journalist Daniel Schorr.  To the current generation, Schorr is the wild old political voice on NPR.  To an earlier generation, he is one of the journalists who made Richard Nixon’s infamous “Enemies List.”  To an even older generation, Schorr was the voice of CBS news from Moscow during the coldest days of the Cold War in the 1950’s.  The Soviets finally go disgusted with Schorr that they expelled.  This gave Schorr the singular distinction of antagonizing the Communist Russians and the ant-Communist Nixon.

    1917: Birthdate of Henrik, the native of Budapest who gained fame as communist politician György Aczél

    1918: For the past 7 months, ending today, Lt. Hugo Gutman, a Jewish officer serving with Kaiser’s army commanded Adolph Hitler who received the Iron Cross First Class thanks to Gutman’s efforts.

    1918:The Australian Corps under the command of Sir John Monash crossed the Somme River tonight of and broke the German lines at the Battle of Mont St. Quentin and the Battle of Péronne.

    1918: Birthdate of Alan Jay Lerner, American librettist and lyricist for stage and screen.  Lerner was yet another of a myriad of Jews who created and refined that most original American art form – the Broadway musical.  One of his most famous contributions was “My Fair Lady.” He passed away in 1986

    1919: Thirty five members of the Jewish Defense Organization were disarmed and shot after the Ukrainian National Army recaptured Kiev from the Bolsheviks. As an organized unit, the Jews had played an important role in the defense of Kiev. This was part of massacre of the Jews at Kiev.

    1921: Birthdate of Madeline Rochelle Barotz who as Madeline Rochelle Amgott was a pioneer in the early days of broadcast television news – a role made all the more difficult because was the first and only member of her sex to do this in the 50’s and early 60’s.

    1924(1st of Elul, 5684): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1924:  Birthdate of actor and comedian Buddy Hackett.

    1926: Robert and Lillian Mulwitz gave birth to their daughter Ruth at Port Chester New York.  The family changed their name to Roberts and it was as Ruth Roberts that she gained fame as the “songwriter best known for her cheerful and durable baseball anthem ‘Meet the Mets.’”

    1927:Dr. Leon Motzkin presided over today's session of the Fifteenth Zionist Congress in Basel.

    1929: Bedouins attacked nearly a dozen Jewish settlements in the northern Galilee pillaging the houses and burning the crops.”  According to at least one report, at least 22 Jews were wounded in the attacks.  “In Jerusalem, houses of Georgian Jews located near the Damascus Gat which were reportedly left open by police during their unsuccessful search for weapons were looted by Arab marauders.

    1929:A party of thirty-seven Jewish settlers left for Palestine today on the steamer Carnaro bound for Jaffa. Dr. A. Kligler of the Hebrew University on Mount Scopus, Professor Roth, the Palestine labor leader Ben Gurion, Dr. Benzion Mossensohn, director of the Hebrew High School at Tel Aviv, and other Palestinian Jewish leaders sailed on the same steamer

    1932(29th of Av, 5692):Moyshe-Leyb Halperndied of a heart attack in New York City.  Born in 1886, he was a Yiddish-language modernist poet raised in a traditional Jewish household in Zlotshev, Galicia and brought to Vienna at the age of 12 in 1898 to study commercial art. Halpern began writing modernist poetry n German while living in Vienna. Upon returning to his hometown in 1907, he switched to writing in Yiddish. In 1908, Halpern emigrated to New York City in order to avoid the military draft. There he became associated with a group of Yiddish poets called Di Yunge (The Young Ones). He published his first book of poetry in 1919, In nyu york (In New York). That same year, he married. He had a son in 1923. His second book, Di goldene pave (The GoldenPeacock), was published in 1924. Halpern also wrote for satirical magazines and Frayhayt (Freedom), a communist Yiddish newspaper.

    1933: Rabbi Joseph Zvi Dushinsky becomes the Chief Rabbi of the Agudath Israel in Jerusalem.

    1933: The Jiidische Rundschau is permitted to reappear.  The popular Jewish weekly, which had been published since 1902, had been forced to suspend publication for producing editorials that had challenged Nazi charges against the Zionists. The magazine would be forced to close in 1938

    1933:The eighteenth World Zionist Congress adopted a resolution providing for sending a commission to Palestine to investigate charges of terrorism in connection with the murder of Dr. Chaim Arlosoroff, the Zionist leader who had been killed in Tel Aviv.

    1933:Professor Selig Brodetsky told members of the World Zionist Congress that Zionist organization has inaugurated conversations with Arab leaders of Syria and other neighboring lands for the extension of Jewish colonization.

    1933: The Council of the Warsaw Jewish Community sends a protest to the Zionist Congress against agreements for exchange of goods between Nazi Germany and Palestine.

    1933(9th of Elul, 5693):Nazi agents murdered Theodore Lessing in Marienbad, Czechoslovakia. Lessing was an anti-Nazi Jewish philosopher and Zionist who had taught at Hanover Technical High School.  He had moved to Czechoslovakia because he feared for his safety.

    1935(2nd of Elul, 5695): Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook known as Rav Kook passed away. Rabbi Kook was the first Chief Rabbi Ashkenazic of Palestine, serving from 1921 until his death in 1935.  Born in Russia in 1865, Kook was a child prodigy and star student at the famed yeshiva in Volozhin He served as a Rabbi in several communities in Europe before moving to Eretz Israel in 1904 where he served as a rabbi in Jaffa as well as for the new Zionist settlements.  "Kook was the outstanding leader and thinker of the religious Zionist movement at a time when the great majority opposed of Orthodox Jewry Zionism. He endeared himself to the nonreligious elements in Israel by sympathy and support for the secular sector, particularly in the agricultural settlements."  He regarded all who made Alyiah, "regardless of their beliefs to be inspired by holy sparks "since they were laying the foundation for the ultimate messianic redemption."

    1935(2nd of Elul, 5695):Herman Bernstein an American journalist, writer, translator, and diplomat, passed away. Herman Bernstein was born in 1876, at Vladislavov which was on the Russo-German border to David and Marie Bernstein. In 1893, he emigrated to the United States, where he completed his education and married Sophie Friedman on December 31, 1901. “His first stories were published in 1900. He contributed to the New York Evening Post, The Nation, The Independent, and Ainslee's Magazine. He was the founder and editor of The New London Day and an editor of the Jewish Tribune and of the Jewish Daily Bulletin. As a correspondent of the New York Times, Bernstein regularly travelled to Europe. In 1915, he went to Europe to document the situation of Jews in the war zones. He documented the Russian Revolution in 1917 for the New York Herald, which led him to both Siberia and Japan with the American Expeditionary Forces. He also covered the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 for the same newspaper. In 1921 Bernstein published a book History of a Lie, an account of the notorious forgery The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. According to GPU agent Pavlovsky (Yakshin), arrested in Germany in 1929, Bernstein worked for both GPU and Comintern, arranging pro-Soviet coverage in American press. One of his main goals was to describe White army and White emigres as anti-Semitic instigators of pogroms and suppress coverage of pogroms by units of the Red Army and other forces allied to Bolsheviks during the Russian civil war. GPU supplied Bernstein with forged documents for publication. In 1921 Bernstein received 17 000 gold rubles for his services.

    1936: Dr. Alexander Rosenfeld, vice president of the Tel Aviv Sports Organization received a cable today saying that the Maccabees Palestine Soccer team is scheduled to arrive in New York on September 14.

    1937: The violence orchestrated by Arab leaders that was designed to end Jewish immigration and land purchases continued with seven Arab attacks on Jews in Jerusalem, Tel Aviv and Karkur. Three Jews and four Arabs were killed and there were many wounded. Moshe Goldenberg, the mukhtar (village elder) of Beit Alfa, had a narrow escape when shot at in Beit Shean.   (Yes, this is the same Beit Shean where the bodies of Saul and his sons were taken as described in the Book of Samuel.)  Jewish and Arab leaders were summoned by district commissioners who appealed for the restoration of law and order.

    1938: Moslem terrorists sought to extend their power by killing other Arabs.  “Tewfik Shantin an Arab broker was shot dead in the waiting room of an Arab doctor in Jaffa” while an unnamed Arab village chieftain was shot to death while walking with a friend in the Old City of Jerusalem.

    1938(4th of Elul, 5698): Mordecai Leznick, a Jewish policeman riding on an Arab owned bus traveling between Lydda and Jaffa was shot to death by an Arab passenger.

    1938(4th of Elul, 5698): In Tel Aviv Schmuel Weiner died from wounds sustained when he was stoned last Friday while riding through Ramleh.

    1939: The last day of peace in Europe before the outbreak of World War II.  Every one waited to see if the Poles would cave into German demands.  Every one waited to see if the British would betray the Poles as they had the Czechs in 1938.  What the world did not know was that Hitler issued Directive no.1, 1939 ordering the attack on Poland to begin at dawn the following day. Already, 1,500,000 German troops were poised to enact Case White, the invasion of Poland,  The plan to create a fake attack by Polish troops on a German transmitter was about to be enacted.  By the next “Polish casualties” (actually the corpses of concentration camp inmates) would provide Hitler’s proof of Polish perfidy and the Blitz of Poland would be on its way.

    1939: Nazi Germany mounts a staged attack on Gleiwitz radio station giving them an excuse to attack Poland the following day, starting World War II.

    1940: From July 9 through today, Chiune Sugihara, the Vice Counsel for the Empire of Japan in Lithuania issued over 2,000 visas to Polish Jews so that they could escape from the Nazis.  This does not count the three to five thousand visas issued to Lithuanian Jews without his government’s approval that enabled them to escape as well.

    1941: Churchill received 17 reports of the shooting of Jews and Russians in numbers ranging between 61 and 4,200.  These reports covered the two month period beginning with June, 1941 when the Nazis invaded the Soviet Union and the special Killing Squads began their work.

    1941: In response to a Jewish reprisal raid on a German patrol, all Jews were confined to their homes. That evening the "action" commenced. The entire Jewish section of Vilna was raided.  As a result 2,019 women, 864 men, and 817 children were taken away to pits in Ponar forests and all shot dead. This event is notable for two reasons. First it is unusual because it includes the report of Jewish resistance. Second it is unusual because the Nazis supplied a specific reason for killing Jews other than their usual anti-Semitic drivel.

    1942: A story headlined "Jewish Children Interned by Vichy" appeared in today’s Chicago Sun.

    1942: By the end of August SS officer Kurt Gerstein has failed in his attempt to publicize his knowledge of the mass gassings of Jews. He is rebuffed in his approach to the German papal nuncio, Cesare Orsenigo

    1942: In Ternopil, western Ukraine, at 4.30 am, German SS organize the first deportation of Jews from Ternopil ghetto to death camp in Belzec, about 5,000 Jews were deported to face death in Belzec. When the Germans captured Ternopil, about 18,000 Jews lived in the city.

    1943(30thof Av, 5703): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1943:The Swedish ambassador in Copenhagen was given clearance by the Chief Legal Officer Gösta Engzell to issue Swedish passports in order to "rescue Danish Jews and bringing them here".

    1943: The USS Drum, an American submarine, with Maurice Rindskopf serving as Executive Officer sank a Japanese cargo ship while patrolling off New Georgia

    1943: During its meeting at the Waldorf-Astoria the “American Jewish Conference adopted a resolution accusing the American Council for Judaism of an ‘attempt to sabotage the collective Jewish will to achieve a unified program’ by its statement made public” yesterday “in Philadelphia opposing the creation of a Jewish state.”

    1943: By the end of August, 47 Jewish women and 50 Jewish men are executed after being discovered in the "Aryan" section of Warsaw.

    1943: “Vice Chancellor John O. Bigelow ordered an audit of the first accounting of the estate of Abraham Wolff of Morristown, NJ who was a partner in Kuhn, Loeb & Co.

    1943: In Toronto, the Group on Racial Relations presented a report today in which “Christians were called up to accept Jews a members of the community on a basis of complete equality and to take drastic action in opposing discrimination” in both the personal and social interactions.

    1943: “Zionists in England have exceeded the £250,000 goal set for this year’s Palestine Foundation Fund campaign, Mrs. Archibald Silverman reported today at a luncheon in her honor held at the Belmont Plaza Hotel by the Palestine Fund and the Jewish National Fund.”

    1943: In “Army Show Opens Here” published today the Halifax Mail described the “enthusiastic reception given to a an entertaining program staring the comedy team of Frank Shuster and Johnny Wayne who came to be known simply as Wayne & Shuster.

    1944: Jews liberated from the Novaki labor camp joined the battle for Banska Bystrica. Four weeks later Eichmann exacted revenge for the Slovak Uprising by deporting 8,975 Slovak Jews to Birkenau where most met their deaths.

    1944: Over the next four days Jews formerly interned at the Nováky labor camp fight in a Slovakian uprising against the Germans. In all, more than 1500 Jews join 16,000 Slovak soldiers and partisans. One partisan battalion commander, a Jewish woman named Edita Katz, covers the retreat of her men with a machine gun and hand grenades until she is killed by Germans and the Hlinka Guard. Another Jewish partisan, Tibor Cifea, is shot by Germans and left hanging for three days.

    1944: A photograph was taken of a small group of survivors from the Kovno, a town in Lithuania that had been liberated on August 1.  At the start of the war there were approximately 40,000 Jews living there. There were only 2,000 still alive at when the Soviets liberated the city.

    1945: The Liberal Party of Australia is founded by Robert Menzies. During the Parliamentary elections in August, 2010, The Liberal Party sought the support of the Jewish community by picturing itself as being a better friend of Israel than the Labor Party.

    1945: President Truman endorsed a proposal for 100,000 Jews to be immediately admitted to Palestine and so informed the British Prime Minister.  Mr. Atlee was, to say the least, not pleased.

    1945: Birthdate of Itzhak Perlman. Born in Tel Aviv, Perlman was stricken with polio. He triumphed over the adversity to become one of the world’s greatest violinists.

    1945: Lt. Col. Louis Geffen, a judge advocate in the US Army who was sailing across the Pacific to his new duty station was allowed to use an area on the bow of the ship for Kabbalat Shabbat services.

    1947: UNSCOP, the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine, published its report.  Under the plan, Palestine was to be partitioned into two states, one Jewish and one Arab.  Jerusalem was to be a demilitarized, neutral city governed as an international trusteeship under the United Nations.

    1948: Birthdate of screenwriter Lowell Ganz

    1948: Birthdate of Steve Soboroff, successful businessman, Republican political leader and executive for the Los Angeles Dodgers.

    1950: Business leaders, Cabinets members and leading representatives from the Knesset held an all day session to discuss Israel’s worsening economic coniditons.  “The economic troubles stem mainly from the fact that the expansion of production is unable to keep up with the growth of the population, which increased in 27 months from 655,000 to 1,125,000.” 

    1951(29thof Av, 5711): Ninety-one year old Abraham Cahan the socialist newspaper editor whose name is synonymous with the Jewish Daily Forward passed away today.

    1952: IN Monmouth County, Sidney Goldman, Justice of the Superior Court of New Jersey was the principle speaker at the cornerstone laying for Temple Beth Miriam’s new facility.

    1952: The final draft of the Reparations Agreement signed at The Hague was sent to Bonn. It was still waiting for the West German government's formal approval. The UN submitted to Bonn for special consideration a list of more than 380 survivors of the Nazi scientific experiments conducted in concentration camps. More than 200 such victims were still living in Germany.

    1954: Operation Binyamin 2 led by Ariel Sharon and Meir Har-Zion came to an end with the capture of 3 Jordanian soldiers.

    1959: Premiere of “Middle of the Night” a drama featuring a May to December romance deftly told in a script by Paddy Chayefsky.

    1961: Those “sons of Moses,” the Sherry brothers, combined their efforts to give the Dodgers a 5 to 2 victory over the Cubs. Norm Sherry hit a two-run homer for the Los Angeles Dodgers today and Larry Sherry pitched well enough in relief to get credit for the “save.”

    1962(1st of Elul, 5722): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1962:  Trinidad and Tobago become independent. The Jewish community dates back to the 18th century.  At the time of independence there were approximately 700 Jews living in the two islands.

    1967(25th of Av, 5727): Ilya Ehrenberg, Soviet author, journalist, apologist and political survivor par excellence, passed away.

    1977: US Undersecretary of State Philip Habib assured Israeli Ambassador Simcha Dinitz that the US would block any Arab attempt to change UN Security Council Resolution 242.  This UN Resolution included a guaranteed of the right of Israel to exist and was part of the diplomatic efforts surrounding the Six Day War.  Various Arab leaders have erroneously claimed that this resolution required Israel to return to the truce lines that existed in June, 1967. 

    1981(1st of Elul, 5741): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1981(1st of Elul, 5741): Eighty-five year old  Prof. Elias J. Bickerman, a historian and authority on the influence of the Greeks in the Middle East at the time of Jesus and before, died today in Tel Aviv, where he was on vacation.

    1990: Rabbi Bonnie Koppell, the first female Jewish chaplain in the U.S. military, was profiled in the Omaha"Jewish Press"

    1994(24th of Elul, 5754): Harry Rosenblatt, one of the last survivors of the Jewish Legion of World War I, which fought with the British against the Turks in Palestine, passed away.  He was 101 years old. A native of Rovno, Ukraine, he came to New York at the age of 17.  He joined the British Army after hearing a speech in
    Union Square
    by Vladimir Jabotinsky in 1916 in which the Zionist leader called for volunteers to join in the fight to help the British wrest control of the Palestine from the Ottoman Empire.  “Mr. Rosenblatt was among the troops entering the city, and his picture and biography are on display in the Museum of the Israeli Defense Forces.”  After the war, “he returned to New York, became a U.S. citizen and opened a tailor shop which he kept open until he turned 90.”

    1995: Ninety-four year old Gertrude Luckner, a Christian social worker who resisted the Nazis and provided food and assistance to Jews during the Shoah passed for which was named as a righteous among the nations by Yad Vashem passed away today.

    1997: The New York Times featured a review ofPrivate Matters: In Defense of the Personal Life by Janna Malamud Smith the daughter of Bernard Malamud.

    2000: Graveside services for Gertrude Schaefler, the widow of the later Leon Schaefler.

    2000(30th of Av, 5760): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    2001: Adel Mughrabi purchased the MV Karine A  so that  the Palestinian Authority  could use it to smuggle a large shipment of arms to terrorists

    2001: An exhibition entitled “Moritz Daniel Oppenheim: Jewish Identity in 19th-Century Art” comes to a close at YeshivaUniversityMuseumin Manhattan.  Oppenheim was one of the first Jewish artists to become successful in the 19th century.  His “chief claim to fame was as a portraitist to the Rothschild family.  He was called ‘the painter of the Rothschilds, and the Rothschild of painters.’” In the following article entitled “Out of the Jewish Ghetto and Into the Mainstream,” Grace Glueck reviews the exhibition while providing an interesting portrait of this Jewish artist.

    For complex reasons, you can count on the fingers of one hand the number of Jewish artists who made it in Europe in the early 19th century. One of the first was Moritz Daniel Oppenheim (1800-82), whose chief claim to fame was as a portraitist to the Rothschild family. (He was called ''the painter of Rothschilds, and the Rothschild of painters.'') He was also known for his biblical paintings and narrative scenes of 19th-century Jewish life. Born in the ghetto of Hanau, Germany, Oppenheim studied in Munich, Paris and Rome as a youth. In 1825 he settled permanently in Frankfurt, where he built a thriving career and became a pillar of the city's artistic and intellectual community. What was unusual about his path was that from the Middle Ages Jewish artists had been confined to the ghetto, kept from studying in professional art schools or with prominent artists. They could work only in their own Jewish communities. Thanks in part to the gradual liberalization of German ethnic laws (although Oppenheim could not become a citizen of Frankfurt until 1852), and also to his own skills at painting and politicking, Oppenheim was the first Jewish artist to be in touch with mainstream currents of his own era. Born a generation earlier than the better-known Dutch Jewish artist Josef Israéls, Oppenheim is said to have been the first Jewish painter to receive major academic training, and the first to make his Jewishness a subject of his work. Although his name has largely been forgotten in Germany, in recent years his hometown museum in Hanau has begun to build up a substantial Oppenheim collection. And to celebrate the 200th anniversary of his birth, it collaborated with the Jewish Museum of Frankfurt last year to mount an Oppenheim retrospective in Frankfurt. A rich slice of that show, unlyrically titled ''Moritz Daniel Oppenheim: Jewish Identity in 19th-Century Art,'' is now on view at the Yeshiva University Museum (which moved last June from the campus of Yeshiva University to handsome new quarters at the Center for Jewish History on 16th Street). The exhibition includes more than 90 paintings and 14 works on paper, many of them confiscated by the Nazis but recovered after World War II. A talented painter with solid grounding in technical skills, Oppenheim was by no means an innovator. More important to him than style was the content of his work, and artistic movements and trends passed him by. He identified with the upper classes, wanting to assert himself on several fronts: as an artist, a citizen and a Jew. Much of his work depicted representatives of the up-and-coming Jewish bourgeoisie: intellectuals, politicians, businessmen and artists. Rooted in Jewish tradition but challenged by political emancipation, they claimed their right to full participation in German society. One of Oppenheim's first self-portraits, done at the age of 16, shows a self-confident youth in elegant clothes with a kerchief around his neck, holding a palette in one hand and a mahlstick in the other. Two years later, at the Munich Academy, he asserted his Jewishness by doing a powerful life-size portrait of Moses in a toga, holding the Tablets of the Law, his first ''invented'' painting aside from portraiture. Later, studying in Rome, Oppenheim gravitated, oddly, to the Nazarenes, a brotherhood of Austrian and German artists centered in Italy whose goal was to restore meaning and vitality to Christian art. He admired their color-drenched Pre-Raphaelite romanticism. But although he also did New Testament subjects like ''The Virgin and St. Anne in the Garden'' (1821-22), he concentrated on Jewish themes, among them ''Abraham and His Family'' (1821-22; shown in this exhibition as an oil sketch because of the loss of the original painting). By 1825, Oppenheim had established himself as a freelance painter in Frankfurt and was beginning to turn out portraits, genre scenes and landscapes for the well-heeled families of the city. One of his major early efforts on view is ''Mary Stuart and Elizabeth'' (1829), a dramatically painted episode from a popular play by Schiller, in which Queen Elizabeth arrogantly rejects her cousin, the Scottish queen, who kneels at her feet in a plea for reconciliation. The painting was probably commissioned by the du Fays, a prominent merchant family in Frankfurt. Considered lost, it came to light when its current owners attended the Frankfurt retrospective last year and told curators of its existence. Oppenheim's efforts to obtain portrait commissions from the Rothschild family, rooted in Frankfurt, began early; in 1821 he succeeded in painting a portrait of James de Rothschild in Paris. During his stay in Italy, three of his religious tableaux were bought by Carl Mayer von Rothschild, who directed the family banking operation in Naples. Von Rothschild's commissioning of a fourth painting, ''Susanna and the Elders,'' gave a real boost to the artist's reputation. His success at portraiture in Frankfurt (his sitters included the poet Heinrich Heine, for whom he had unflattering words) brought more Rothschild commissions. His likenesses of the five sons of the banking fortune's founder, Mayer Amschel Rothschild, done from 1836 on, helped create a public image for the family bank. Of the number of works on view here of the sons and their sons, the most engaging is that of Nathan Mayer (1836), founder of the London branch. In a black suit and proper white cravat, his bald head gleaming, he wears a knowing, slightly amused smile, befitting a man owed by the crowned heads of Europe. In 1836 Oppenheim also painted a pair of elegant but warm portraits of a Rothschild bridal couple: Lionel Nathan de Rothschild, who was the son of Nathan Mayer and also the first Jewish member of the British Parliament, and his cousin Charlotte, whom he married when she was 17. Each is seated in a lavish fantasy landscape. During World War II, the paintings were taken by the Gestapo from a home for the elderly in Frankfurt that Rothschilds founded and were not reclaimed until after the war. Although his subjects were by no means restricted to Jewish life, Oppenheim repeatedly returned to the theme as his career developed, producing works like ''The Return of the Volunteer'' (1833-34). It depicts a young soldier in the Wars of Liberation against Napoleon who has defied Sabbath travel prohibitions to visit his family. Showing the emancipated son as he clasps the hand of his tradition-observing father, Oppenheim touches on the conflict between the demands of religion versus new responsibilities of Jews as citizens. Oppenheim's most popular work, begun in his later years, was a lithograph cycle of scenes from traditional Jewish life. Probably suggested to the artist by a book publisher or a rabbi, they were modeled on the well-loved genre scenes of other ethnic groups then current in Europe. Because color reproduction was not yet technically available, Oppenheim painted the works in grisaille (gray and white). The first edition of six was received enthusiastically when it appeared in 1866, and it sparked additional works and further editions. In 1882, ''Scenes From Traditional Jewish Family Life'' was issued as a bound volume with 20 plates, a number of which are shown here. Depicting such rites and occasions as Passover, a wedding, a Purim celebration, Sabbath observances and so on, they are schmaltzy souvenirs through which an increasingly emancipated Jewish public could hang on to the good old days.

    2002:The Israeli Defense Minister, Binyamin Ben-Eliezer, issued a statement expressing "regret" over "harming" civilians in Tubas when an Israeli helicopter fire four missiles at a car in which the local leader of the al-Aqsa brigade was thought to be riding but which actually contained five civilians and one teenager accused of being part of the terrorist organization

    2003: Luis Sandoval and two unidentified co-conspirators went to Cafe Bazel, a chic restaurant popular with expatriate Israeli artists in the Encino area, and fatally shot a man suspected of stealing 76 kilograms of Ecstasy tablets from Moshe Malul and Itzhik Abergil.

    2003: The Sunday New York Times book section includes a review of Off With Their Heads:
    Traitors, Crooks and Obstructionists in American Politics, Media and Business
    by Jewish political consultant Dick Morris.

    2004(14th of Elul, 5764):Hamas suicide bombers blew up two buses in Beersheba, Israel, killing 16 passengers and wounding 100’s more.  The dead included Shoshana Amos, 64; Aviel Atash, 3; Vitaly Brodsky, 52; Tamara Dibrashvilli, 70; Raisa Forer, 55; Larisa Gomanenko, 48; Denise Hadad, 50; Tatiana Kortchenko, 49; Rosita Lehman, 45;  Karine Malka, 23;  Nargiz Ostrovsky, 54;  Maria Sokolov, 57; Roman Sokolovsky, 53; Tiroayent Takala, 33; Eliyahu Uzan, 58 and Emmanuel Yosef (Yosefov), 28 all from Beersheba.

    2004: The Philadelphia Inquirer featured a review of a biography of Jewish born violinist Efrem Zimbalist entitled Efrem Zimbalist: A Life by Roy Malan.

    2005(26th of Av, 5765):  Sir Joseph Rotblat passed away at the age of 96.  The physicist was the only scientist who quit working on the development of the atomic bomb for “moral reasons.”  The Polish born scientist awarded the Nobel Peace Prize to him and the Pugwash conferences in 1995 for their work in trying to limit and ultimately eliminate nuclear weapons.

    2005:Mikhail Khodorkovsky, Russian born Jewish oligarch and businessnman, announced that he would run for parliament

    2006: A mass rally calling for the release of the three kidnapped IDF soldiers, Gilad Shalit, Eldad Regev and Ehud Goldwasser attracted thousands to Tel Aviv Rabin's Square.

    2006(7th of Elul, 5766): Bernard J. Wohl passed away at the age of 76. An advocate for New York’s poor and homeless; he served as Executive Director of the GoddardRiversideCommunity Center for 26 years.

    2007: In Jerusalem, clarinetist Karl-Heinz Steffens joinsmembers of the Jazz Faculty of the Israel Conservatory of Music for a Jazz Concert.

    2007: The ZF conference entitled “Israel at 60” opens in London.

    2007: In an address given at the annual meeting of the Islamic Society of North America Rabbi Eric Yoffee, president of the Union for Reform Judaism “pleaded with American Muslims to transcend the differences that have their people for decades and Join Jews to confront the extremist factions and prejudice that plague both religious traditions.”

    2007: Today,Rabbi Israel Rubin took his students on an unusual field trip. They went to Barn 70 on the backside of Saratoga Race Course on Friday morning to see a trainer about a horse. The trainer was Bob Baffert, and the horse, Maimonides, was a fast one, who just may capture the Kentucky Derby next May. Maimonides cost $4.6 million at last year’s Keeneland September Sale, and last month he appeared as if he was worth every penny when he won his debut by 11 ½ lengths. He is one of the favorites Monday to win the Grade I $250,000 Hopeful Stakes, a seven-furlong sprint for 2-year-olds. None of that, however, interested Rubin or his charges. He does not attend horse races or gamble. In fact, upon hearing about the colt, Rubin thought long and hard before arranging to take his students here. “Some may think this is sacrilegious,” he said. Ultimately, however, the rabbi and his students were drawn here from the MaimonidesHebrewDay School in Albanyfor what is in a name. The school and the colt are named for Moses Maimonides, who lived more than 800 years ago and is considered among the greatest Jewish philosophers. He was the chief rabbi of Cairoand the physician to the sultan of Egypt.  “He blended religious study and intellect with worldly manners to heal the sick and guide the healthy,” Rubin said.  “He was respected and honored by both Jews and Arabs. This is especially relevant now in our life and times.” Maimonides is owned and was named by Ahmed Zayat, an Egyptian now living in New Jersey. He did not know about Rubin’s visit, and, indeed, was flying back from San Diego and DelMar on Friday morning. When told of the smiles of the youngsters petting the nose of his expensive colt, however, Zayat was beyond gratified. He is a Muslim who grew up in a suburb of Cairoand had put much time and effort into bestowing the name Maimonides on his prize purchase.“ He was a very special man who was highly regarded by all people, regardless of faith,” Zayat said of Maimonides. “What has happened with Sept. 11, Iraq, and what’s going on in the region is contrary to the way I grew up. If this horse was going to be a superstar, I wanted an appropriate name. I wanted to say something with the tool I had, which was a horse. I wanted it to be pro-peace, and about loving your neighbor.” When Zayat tried to register the name Maimonides with the Jockey Club, however, he discovered that it had been reserved for more than nine years by Earle I. Mack, a New York real estate investor and a former ambassador to Finland. In 1997, Mack, then the chairman of the board for the Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law at YeshivaUniversity, was instrumental in bringing King Juan Carlos I of Spain to New York to accept the school’s Democracy Award. Mack had been moved by the king’s remarks about how much Spain’s culture had lost when the country expelled its Jews in 1492 as part of the Inquisition. The king mentioned Maimonides, who was born in Córdoba, Spain, in 1135, and who, with his family, was forced out of the country while Spain was ruled by Muslims. “I was just waiting for a horse good enough to deserve the name,” Mack said. He has owned and bred horses for more than 40 years, and knew that Zayat’s colt, a son of Vindication, was bred to be special. Each also understood the other’s good intentions. Zayat donated $100,000 to Cardozo to commemorate the king’s visit there, and to promote tolerance. Mack released his claim to the name Maimonides. “He had the right horse, and the right motives,” Mack said. “We are all after the same thing: to touch people across cultures.” Zayat and Mack know that horse racing is an unpredictable business, and a thoughtfully named horse hardly guarantees future fame and fortune. When Eli O’Brien, 14, patted Maimonides between the ears and promised to say some prayers for him, Baffert nodded enthusiastically. “We’ll take anything you can give us,” Baffert said.

    2008: The Sunday New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including g Still Alive! A Temporary Condition: A Memoirby Herbert Gold and two books by Adam Krisch; Invasions and The Modern Element: Essays on Contemporary Poetry.

    2008: The Washington Post featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Man in the Dark by Paul Auster, Dough: A Memoir by Mort Zachter, issued in paperbackand Norman Mailer's Miami and the Siege of Chicago, now reissued for the 40th anniversary of those groundbreaking 1968 presidential conventions.

    2008: At Yeshiva University Museum, an exhibition entitled “The Six Day War Series: Painting by Ira Moskowitz” comes to an end. “Eight oil paintings gifted to the Museum Collection by the family of Ira and Ann Moskowitz in celebration of the 40th anniversary of the reunification of Jerusalem. This series depicts emotionally powerful scenes after the Six-Day War in June 1967. Artist Ira Moskowitz (1912-2001) employs vivid color and expressive brushwork to convey the euphoria of this victorious moment in Israel's history. Born in Polandand educated in Prague, Moskowitz studied at the Art Students League and spent extended periods in Israel.”

    2008: Dr. Andrew G. Bostom, author of The Legacy of Islamic Antisemitism: From Sacred Texts to Solemn History a book that describes what it was like living as Jew under Moslem rule, was interviewed on Israel National Radio's Tamar Yonah Show. During the interview he “shared the dramatic account of a young Moroccan Jewess in her teens who lived in the 1800's, named Sol Hachuel.  Falsely accused on charges of "apostasy" from Islam, she was offered riches and special rights if she embraced Islam - or prison, torture and death if she did not.  Sol Hachuel chose to be imprisoned, starved, tortured and then decapitated in the town square rather than give up her Judaism.  "I was born a Jew, and I shall die a Jew," she boldly stated to the Islamic court, according to Bostom's accounts.  On the show, Bostom read her historic speech that inspired the Fez Jewish community to remain committed to their Judaism despite the hardships of constant false charges, unfair heavy taxes, violence and murder.”

    2009: Opening night of the Jerusalem International Chamber Music Festival.

    2009The Education Ministry announced this evening that an agreement to enroll Ethiopian students initially banned from some of the city's schools had been reached following a meeting between Petah Tikva Mayor Yitzhak Ohayon, Education Minister Gideon Sa'ar (Likud) and other Education Ministry officials.

    2009: The stock of Africa Israel investments, a real estate firm owned by Lev Leviev “fell another 13.7 percent today as the firm floated the idea of renegotiating the terms of its debts with bond holders and banks.” (As reported by Marcy Oster)

    2010: An exhibition, The Works of Mordechai Rosenstein, on display at the Fine Family Art Gallery and the Katz Family Mainstreet Gallery of the MJCCA is scheduled to come a close today in Atlanta, GA.

    2010:Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu and his negotiating team took off for Washington on this morning, ahead of the relaunch of peace talks with the Palestinians.

    2010(21stof Elul, 5770): Sixty-five year old Gail Koff a partner in Jacoby & Meyers, passed away. (As reported by Dennis Hevesi)

    2010(21stof Elul, 5770): Four Israelis were shot dead in their car today near the West Bank settlement of Kiryat Arba less than a day before Israeli and Palestinian leaders meet in Washington for a summit to announce the resumption of direct peace talks. The attack, for which Hamas has claimed responsibility, shattered years of relative calm in the West Bank. The victims are a couple from the settlement of Beit Hagai and two residents of Kiryat Arba. One of the dead was a woman believed to have been pregnant. The Beit Hagai couple has been identified as Yitzhak and Tali Ames, 45 and 47. They are survived by six children, the oldest 24 and the youngest 5. Just six months ago, the Ames couple celebrated the birth of their first granddaughter. Tali worked as an account manager in various offices in the area and Yitzhak was a tour guide who accompanied groups to the Temple Mount area. A Hamas spokesman in Gaza, Sami Abu Zuhri, said the Islamist group praises the attack and considers it a natural response to "the crimes of occupation."
    2011(1stof Elul, 5771): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    2011: Rami Feinstein, “a widely popular Israeli artist who has developed a diverse and devoted following over the last seven years” is scheduled to perform at the Bitter End in New York City

    2011:Today, the head of the government-appointed committee on socioeconomic change in Israel, Prof. Manuel Trajtenberg, defended the recent criticism cast upon the leaders of the social protest, and explained they were simply "inexperienced."

    2011:Summer rainfall took Israelis by surprise today when slight showers were felt in Hadera, Netanya, and even Tel Aviv. A day before children were headed back to school, Israelis got a taste of fall with unusually low temperatures last night and this  morning in the Sharon region.

    2011: The Israel Air Force deployed a third battery of the Iron Dome rocket defense system outside the southern city of Ashdod today in the face of continued rocket fire from the Gaza Strip.Ashdod Mayor Yehiel Lasri issued a statement thanking the defense establishment for deploying the system outside of his city. Ashdod has been bombarded by rockets in recent weeks during the current escalation of violence in the South in which over 160 rockets were fired into Israel from Gaza. Earlier this year, the Obama Administration gave Israel $205 million to purchase four more Iron Dome batteries. Each battery consists of three launchers equipped with 20 Tamir interceptors and is reportedly capable of protecting an urban area of approximately 150-square kilometers.

    2011:Over 20,000 are expected to attend the 7th Annual Jerusalem Beer Festival tonight and tomorrow night at the Old Train Station in Jerusalem.

    2012: Israel responded bitterly today to comments by the chairman of the US Joint Chiefs of Staff, Gen. Martin Dempsey, who said yesterday that he did not want “to be complicit” if Israel were to strike at Iran’s nuclear facilities.

    2012:The White House today dismissed statements made by Republican presidential candidate Mitt Romney yesterday that the Obama administration had “thrown allies like Israel under the bus” regarding Iran’s nuclear weapons program. “Cooperation with Israel between our military and intelligence communities has never been closer” under the Obama administration, White House Press Secretary Jay Carney told reporters.

    2012: The Fifteenth Jerusalem Chamber Music Festival is scheduled to open today.

    2012:  In Leesburg, VA, Congregation Sha'are Shalom is scheduled to greet the Sabbath Queen with a Musical Shabbat and Ice Cream Social

    2012: “Labor on the Bimah” is scheduled to begin Erev Shabbat.

    2013: An exhibit celebrating the 100th anniversary of the Columbus (Ohio) Jewish Center which was developed by the Columbus Jewish Historical Society is scheduled to come to an end today.

    2013: The Tel Aviv Woodwind Quintet is scheduled to play Ligeti’s “6 Bagatelles For Wind Quintet” at the Jerusalem International Chamber Music Festival.

    2013: In Cedar Rapids, Iowa Temple Judah marks Selichot with a study session, services and the Changing of the Torah Covers ceremony.

    2013: “Ivri Lider, one of the most successful Israeli musicians of his generation” is scheduled to perform at the Budapest Music Center.

    2013: Israeli communications company Spacecom has successfully launched a state of the art satellite to space tonight from the Zenit launching pad in Baikonur, Kazakhstan.

    2013: Labor MK Omer Bar-Lev today criticized Knesset Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee chairman Avigdor Liberman for refusing to call a meeting of the committee to discuss a possible US strike on Syria and its implications on Israel.

    2014: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Suspicious Minds: How Culture Shapes Madness by Joel Gold and Ian Gold and a Q & A with Rick Pearlstein whose most recent work is The Invisible Bridge: The Fall Nixon and the Rise of Reagan.

    2014: Dr. Judith Rosenbaum is scheduled to succeed Dr. Gail Reimer as Executive Director of the Jewish Women’s Archives.



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    September 1

    September is an auspicious month in terms of Jewish History.  Like most things in the world of Jews, it is a mixed bag-- a combination of the bitter and the sweet. 

    Today we mark the anniversary of the start of World War II.  By the end of the war, the world of European Jewry would lie in ruins.  After two thousand years of growth and contribution, that civilization would cease to exist as we had known it.

    September also marks the anniversary of the beginning of the Jewish community in the United States.  From twenty-three stormed tossed refugees has come one of the most dynamic civilizations in Jewish history. 


    992: In Limoges, France, "a Jewish apostate named Sechog ben Ester planted a wax figure in the ark of the local synagogue and then accused the local Jews of using it to curse the local Lord by devil magic."
    1312 BCE (10th of Tishrei): According to the Bible, the day on which Moses came down from Mt. Sinai with the second set of Tablets on which the Ten Commandments were inscribed.

    1199(8th of Tishri): Maimonides wrote to Samuel Ibn-Tibbon, who as translating the "Guide to the Perplexed from Arabic into Hebrew.  The letter included advice on how to do this as well as plea that Ibn-Tibbon not undertake his planned trip from France to Egypt to visit him.  The distance was too great and he would be too busy since to see him for more than an hour since each day except Shabbat he must travel from Fostat to Cairo where he spends half a day ministering to the Sultan and his court.  Then he travels back to Fostat where he is besieged by Jews, Moslems, et al all seeking his medical skill and advice.

    1267:  Ramban (Moses Nachmanides or Moses ben Nachman) arrived in Jerusalem. Born in 1194, Nachmanides was a famed commentator on the Torah and Talmud and a major communal leader in Spain.  He also was the court physician to King James of Aragon(a part of Spain).  King James forced him to defend Judaism in a public debate with Pablo Christiani, a Jew who had converted to Catholicism.  To make a long story short, Nachmanides vigorous defense angered the Dominican friars and Nahcmanides was forced to flee.  He gave life to a Jewish community in Jerusalemthat had fallen on such hard times that it had trouble gathering a minyan.  Among other things he built a synagogue in Jerusalem that was the sole such building for several centuries to come.  Nachmanides moved to Acrein 1268 where he led that community until 1270.

    1271: Gregory X, the pontiff who will issue “Sicut Judaeis” in 1272 which absolved the Jews of “using Christian blood for ritual purposes” begins his papacy.
    1577: Pope Gregory XIII, reconfirming the Bull off Pope Nicholas III, decreed that one hundred and fifty Jews must hear conversion sermons in Rome every week. He reissued a similar Bull a few years later in 1584.

    1584: Pope Gregory XIII issued Sancta Mater Ecclesia, a Papal Bull concerning the obligatory preaching of Christian sermons to Jews.  The Bull required that 100 men and 50 women be sent every Saturday to listen to conversion sermons delivered in a church near the ghetto.


    1592: Archbishop Salikowski ordered the Jews to build a church in Lvov Poland marking a period of increasing persecution.


    1614: Vincent Fettmich expelled the Jews from Frankfurt-on-Main, Germany.


    1715: King Louis XIV of France dies after a reign of 72 years.  The Sun King’s record in dealing with the Jewish people was never good, but it got really awful just before his death.  Seized with the deathbed religious fervor the debauched, he came fully to accept the position of the Church and the Jesuits when he banned all Jews from Marseilles Toulon and the rest of Provence in 1710. “The Jews were ordered, in his words, ‘to leave the kingdom without any belongs’ and local officials were told to take any and all means to expel the Jews ‘because that is our wish.’”


    1749: “The delegates of the Hungarian Jews, except those from Szatmár County, assembled at Pressburg and met a royal commission, which informed them that they would be expelled from the country if they did not pay the ‘toleration-tax’ that had been imposed on them during the reign of Queen Maria Theresa the daughter of Charles III  The commission wanted 50,000 gulden; the queen wanted 30,000 gulden and the Jews ended up paying 20,000 gulden a year for an agreement that allowed them to stay in their homes for five years (Ant-Semitism is a money maker)


    1752: The Liberty Bell arrived in Philadelphia. The Bell is inscribed with words from the 25th chapter of Leviticus, "Proclaim liberty throughout all the land unto all the inhabitants thereof. It is but one of many examples of how Jewish culture and values had an impact on Western civilization in general and, in this case, early American culture specifically. 


    1761: Birthdate of German theologian Heinrcih Paulus, author of the “The Jewish National Separation: Its Origin, Consequences and the Means of its Correction” a pamphlet in which he “argued that "Jews were a nation apart, and would remain so as long as they were committed to their religion, whose basic intent and purpose were to preserve them in that condition. In a country that was not their own, therefore, Jews could not claim more than the bare protection of their lives and possessions. They might certainly not claim political equality."


    1763: Catherine II of Russiaendorses Ivan Betskoy’s plans for a Foundling Home in Moscow. Betskoy was an educational reformer and accepting his plan was in keeping with Catherine’s self-image of being “a child of the Enlightenment.” This happened a year after Catherine came to the throne in a period when her hold on the office was still shaky due to the way she had gained her crown.  At this time, Catherine was also gingerly working her way around the anti-Jewish laws of her late mother-in-law “quietly” allowing “useful” Jews such as doctors, contractors and businessman to work in St. Petersburg. Catherine’s accepting view of her Jewish subjects would change during the last years of her reign, when the limitations she place on them began the creation of what would become the Pale of Settlement.


    1795: Birthdate of James Gordon Bennett, Sr., the found of the New York Herald. When he died in 1872, he would be memorialized as “an honest supporter and true friend” of the Jewish people whose newspaper “always gave firm and true support to” the Jewish people.

    1805:During the dispute sparked by the publication of ‘Emeḳ ha-Shaweh (Vale of the Plain), Rabbi Moses Münz summoned two rabbis to come to Óbuda to form with him a tribunal before which would hear the case against the author, Rabbi Aron Chorin.


    1820: Former President Thomas Jefferson wrote to Dr. Jacob De La Motta of Savannah, GA.  Jefferson repeated his belief in religious freedom and his happiness at “restoration of the Jews” especially as regards “their social rights.”  He looks forward to the day when they will take “their seats on the benches of science” as preparation to “their doing the same at the board of government.”  (As reported by the Jewish Virtual Library)


    1822: Brazil declared its independence from Portugal. Soon after this declaration of independence many Spanish Jews from Morocco migrated to the area. By 1879 Sephardim had settled all the way down to the Amazon rain forest area.


    1835: Birthdate of Yosef Chaim, the Baghdad native who is also known as Ben Ish Chai which is the name of his seminal work on halachah.  Ben Ish Chai is Hebrew for “son of man who lives,” a term that harkens back to Ezekiel and the Valley of the Dry Bones (Son of Man, can these bones live?).
    1836 Reconstruction begins on the “Synagogue of Rabbi Judah Hasid” in Jerusalem.


    1853: The New York Times reported that civil unrest continues to rock Venezuela.  “At Barcelona, the government of General Monagas has published a ‘warning”” aimed at foreigners in general and Jews in particular accusing them of being the instigators of the unrest.  After a delegation of Jews and other foreigners sought help from the Dutch Consul at Caracas, a Dutch man-of-war sailed to Barcelona where it could offer protection to those who have been threatened.


    1855:Mademoiselle Rachel, the great French Tragedienne, is scheduled to make her New York debut today. Mademoiselle Rachel is Elizabeth Rachel Felix, the daughter of a German-Swiss Jew named Felix and his wife Esther Haya.


    1857: Banker Henri Louis Bischoffsheim and his wife gave birth to Ellen Odette Cuffe, Countess of Desart, née Bischoffsheim, the wife of William Cuffe, the 4th Earl of Desart “who has been called ‘the most important Jewish woman in Irish history.’”


    1857:The New York Times reported that a decision has been made to carry the question of admitting Jews to Parliament has been carried over to the next session much to the relief of Lord Russell.


    1858: The New York Timespublished a report today that Pierre Soule has arrived in Washington.  Mr. Soule was described as “a man of power” who “possesses undoubted influence over public affairs.” The article also reported that if Soule decided to run for the Senate he could defeat John Slidell. Furthermore, the article reported that like Judah P. Benjamin, the Senator from Louisiana, “Mr. Soule is a Jew, and the Hebrew element is a rising one in the aggregate intellect of the country.”  [Editor’s note – If Soule were in fact Jewish, the author is saying that Louisiana would be the first state in the Union to be represented in the U.S. by two Jews.]


    1861: Thomas Jordan General Beauregard’s Assistant Adjutant-General sent a letter on behalf of the Confederate Commander to Rabbi M.I. Mechelbacker of Richmond denying his request to grant furloughs to Jewish Soldiers starting on September 2nd and lasting through September 15th so that might attend services for Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur.  The Confederate generals are sure that Jews in and out of the army will understand given the military situation which finds Southern forces “bivouacked in full view of the capitol of the late United States.”  Jordan assured the Rabbi that the God who “released your people from Egypt bondage” will understand.  (Like many Southerners, Jordan did not see the irony of the side that was fighting to preserve slavery invoking the liberation from Egyptian bondage.)


    1867(1st of Elul, 5627): Rosh Chodesh Elul


    1873: A Jewish peddler named Samuel Bendtersar was arrested this morning in Flushing on charges of having assaulted Johanna Fatsner.


    1874: Birthdate of Ismar Elbogen the German born rabbi and historian whose work included Jewish Liturgy: A Comprehensive History published in 1913 and translated into English by Raymond P. Scheindlin in 1993.


    1876:Sir Julius Vogel completed his services as Prime Minister of New Zealand.  Vogel was the first Jew to hold this position.


    1877: “Notes from the Capital” published today described the recent dedication of Washington Hebrew Congregation during which Rabbi Szold of Baltimore delivered the sermon.  President Rutherford B. Hayes, who had promised to attend, “sent a message expressing his regret at being unable to fulfill his promise.”


    1878: It was reported today that 200 delegates attended the opening session of the Pan-Jewish Conference in Paris.  Adolph Cremieux presided over the meeting at which it was reported that the organization had 24,000 members and had collected 111,000 francs in the past year.  The delegates sought ways to improve the moral, intellectual and political conditions of the Jews living in various parts of the world. 


    1878: It was reported today that there were those in England who claimed Disraeli would play the ultimate joke when he died by renouncing his youthful conversion to Christianity and being buried next to his Jewish father.  Others claimed that Disraeli would do no such thing, choosing to be buried next to his wife.

    1878: It was reported today that among the donations made to help those suffering from the Yellow Fever Epidemic in the Deep South was $100 from the Hebrews of the St. Joseph Mission earmarked for the Howard Association in Memphis, Tenn.


    1879: “Henry O’Brien’s Experiment” published today described the 12 year old Irish boy’s attempt to find out how a Jew, in this case Harris Goldstein, would react when tricked into eating pork. (It must have been a slow news day in New York)

    1882: In Fifth District Civil Court in New York City, Civil Justice Alfred Steckler heard Freund versus Selig in which the plaintiff sought to force the defendant Louis Selig to repay what he claimed was a ten dollar loan.  Selig, a well-known Jewish police officer claimed that the ten dollars in questions was not a loan but a gift made on his behalf as a political contribution.


    1882: It was reported today that large numbers of unemployed Jewish refugees “continue to besiege” the Hebrew Aid Society on State Street in search of financial assistance.


    1882: Theobold Michael, President of the Synagogue and Talmud Torah at 622 Fifth Street, appeared at the Essex Market Police Court where he filed a complaint against Charles A. Leopold claiming that the defendant “annoyed the congregation” during services “by swearing at them, using insulting language” and throwing mud into the synagogue.  Leopold denied the allegations and claimed that the Jewish prayers disturbed his invalid wife.  The Judge let Leopold go after telling him that he not “disturb the congregation.”


    1883: The military fired on a mob of two thousand peasants today who “had invaded” the town of “Krapina…for the purposed of attacking the Jews.


    1883: It was reported today that Herr von Tisza, the President of the Hungarian Council has instituted news measures to protect Jews from any more attacks.  From now on, any rioter who attacks a Jew and is condemned to death under a decree of martial law will be put to death within three hours after being sentencing.

    1884: It was reported today that fifty-five year old Daniel Weinberger whose body was discovered yesterday in his room on South Halstead Street left a note for his landlord Winter Meyer asking that his remains “be taken in a Jewish hearse to a Jewish burying ground” where he would be buried by a Jewish burial society. 

    1885: “A Fight In A Synagogue” published today described a dispute between Sol Goldstone and Abraham Jacobs that turned violent during the annual meeting of a Jewish congregation in Montreal, Canada.

    1886: Coroner Levy, the President of the Jewish Immigrants’ Protective Association sought an interview with Immigration Superintendent Jackson to protest the treatment of Mr. and Mrs. Manheim and their 5 year old child who were being denied entrance to the United States.


    1887: The San Diego Union noted that congregants at Beth Israel were talking of building a synagogue estimated to cost $20,000.


    1888: Sixty immigrants, most of whom were Russian Jews, were detained at Castle Garden before being sent to Blackwell’s Island.  They were treated in this manner because they had been identified as “paupers.”


    1889: The formal dedication of the new Sephardic synagogue to be used by the Moses Montefiore Congregation was scheduled to take place today.

    1889: It was reported today that the only hotel in Tétouan, Morocco is “kept by a native Jew” which is unusual in area dominated by Berbers and Arabs.


    1889: “The History of the Jews” published today provided a review of History of the People of Israel from the Reign of David up to the Capture of Samaria by Ernest Renan.

    1890: In the Essex Market Police Court Justice Hogan Jacob Rohnewitch accuses Israel Simovitch of stealing $90 worth of jewelry from him on August 8. Simovitch denied the charge and claimed that the charges were trumped up so that he would pay out the $40 he had saved to “bring his wife from Russia.”


    1890: In Scranton, “the extensive alterations” at the synagogue are scheduled to be completed today which will mean the congregation can stop holding services in the local Y.M.H.A.


    1891: In Borispol Golda and Joseph Ya’acvo gave birth to Joseph Zaritsky, Israeli painter who was one of the founders of “Ofakim Hadshim” (New Horizons) art movement


    1891: It was reported today that “the Argentine Republic frowns upon the wholesale immigration of the” Jews expelled from Russia.


    1892: Leo M. Franklin began serving as the Rabbi for Temple Israel in Omaha, Nebraska.


    1892: In Elizabeth, NJ, the city Board of Health plans on asking the City Council “for an appropriation of at least $20,000 to help deal with the sanitation problems including the installation of sewers in the First Ward which is inhabited primarily by Russian and Polish Jews


    1893: “The Reverend Dr. Christian Adolf Stoecker, ex-Chaplain of the Court of Berlin…who is one of the founders of Christian Socialism and a vigorous anti-Semite” arrived in New York aboard the SS Augusta Victoria.


    1893: Max Feldman of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum was among the ten boys listed today as winners of the scholarships “offered by Joseph Pulitzer to boys desirous of preparing for an taking a college course.”


    1894(30th of Av, 5654): Rosh Chodesh Elul


    1894: In Duluth, MN, 43 Jewesses formed Council No. 10 of the National Council of Jewish Women


    1894: Eight hundred “finishers of clothing” who are Jewish are going on strike today to demand a increase in wages.


    1894: Harry White and Meyer Schoenfeld will address a mass meeting of cloakmakers at New Irving Hall where they will discuss the “advisability of going out on strike.”


    1895: As New York Police enforce the Sunday Saloon Closing laws an unidentified Russian Jewish who operates a saloon on Clinton Street told authorities that one of his neighbors was “selling openly” and offered to take the police to correct address.


    1896: The attorney for the jewelry firm of Julius M. Lyon went to police headquarters tonight to meet with Julius Stein to find out when Stein stole the thousands of diamonds from Lyon and the value of the stolen jewels.  The self-confessed thief refused to make any comment.


    1897: It was reported today that  at the concluding session of the Zionist Congress delegates heard reports “that the colonies in Palestine were flourishing,” appointed a commission to report on the feasibility of creating a university at Jerusalem and voted to hold the 1898 meeting in Jerusalem.


    1898: The first meeting of the International Congress of History began today in The Hague.


    1898: As part of the on-going cover-up to protect the French General Staff and keep Captain Dreyfus in prison Major Ferdinand Esterhazy who had already been put on pension shaved off his mustache and fled to England where he lived for another 25 years contenting himself with writing anti-Semitic articles.


    1899: All the newspaper comment published today in London, Berlin, Vienna and other cities “regards” the reversal of Dreyfus conviction as “inevitable.”


    1899: “Cardinal Richard, Archbishop of Paris paid a visit to Premier Waldeck-Rousseau on behalf of Jules Guerin, the anti-Semite agitator and his companions now besieged in the headquarters of the Anti-Semite League on the Rue de Chabrol.”


    1899: Rabbi Emil G. Hirsch of Sinai Congregation, who returned to Chicago today from Europe, said “Capt. Dreyfus will again be convicted of treason” because “the French people are bound to have Dreyfus found guilty” and “the whole of Paris echoes and re-echoes… with the ravings of the anti-Semitic forces…”

    1899: The Biblical World published “The Return of the Jews from Exile” by William Rainey Harper”


    1899: “Emanuel Hospital Plans” published today described plans for the new facility “which will be used principally as a lying-in asylum” and will receive support from the United Hebrew Charities Society.

    1899: Israel Zangwill addressed fears that the dramatization of his novel The Children of the Ghetto “will present the Jews from a standpoint undesirable to them” by saying that “it will found that Jew has actually received his first and truthful and considerate attention when my play is produced.”


    1900: Mose Levi the Hahambashi of Turkey presented an address to Sultan Abdul Hamid on the occasion of his 25th anniversary of his accession to the throne. The term Hahambashi means Head of Rabbis and is the appellation for the Grand Rabbi of Turkey.  The Hebrew term for "wise man"Chachamhas been adopted in Turkish to mean "Rabbi." This is to avoid the use of the word "Rabbi" since in Arabic the word "Rab" is one of the names of God and may not be applied to a human.


    1903(9th of Elul, 5663): Thirty eight year old author and Jewish activists Bernard Lazare (Lazare Marcus Manasse Bernard) who was an early vocal supporter of Dreyfus and who attended the First Zionist Congress passed away today.


    1905: Albertabecame the eighth province of Canada. Two brothers, Jacob and William Diamond were among the first Jewish people to settle in Alberta, in 1888 and 1892, respectively. They made the long journey from their home in Lithuania. The Diamond brothers went on to be successful merchants in Alberta, and, perhaps, more notable, they organized for a High Holy Day service attended by other Jewish Albertans who had arrived. Unlike the Diamond brothers, early Jewish immigrants came to Alberta to establish farm colonies, settling in central and southern Alberta, near places such as PineLake, Trochu, Medicine Hatand Lethbridge. This first attempt at farming was not overly successful. Many of those who came were city-dwellers who had grown up in the cities of Europe. A Jewish relief agency in LondonEnglandraised $400 to distribute the destitute Jewish pioneers. Because of the difficult conditions in Albertaand the Jewish people’s inexperience in farming, many of the immigrants left Alberta soon after, some going to the United States. By 1906, the community had largely reestablished itself in Calgary.


    1905: Saskatchewanbecame the ninth province of Canada. Six Jewish farming communities were formed in Saskatchewanbetween 1886 and 1906. The first of these colonies was a novelty and evoked considerable curiosity in the district. Locals dubbed the colony "The New Jerusalem." Due to inadequate winter shelter against sub-zero temperatures, wind, driving snow, drought, etc., this settlement lasted only six years. Another colony, Hirsch, Saskatchewan was founded in 1892. Landau enlisted the assistance of the French financier-philanthropist Baron Maurice de Hirsch. Hirsch regarded the creation of a Jewish state as a fantasy; however, he took a great interest in Jewish agricultural colonization. Baron de Hirsch established the Jewish Colonization Association to facilitate mass emigration of Jews from Russiaand the establishment of agricultural colonies in North and South America. Hirsch was the only Jewish farm colony in Canada that was directly organized and funded by the Jewish Colonization Association. Hirsch favored colonization of Argentinarather than Canada. Edenbridge was founded in 1906. It no longer exists, but some of the members of the founding families live in the area. The Beth Israel Synagogue, built by the settlers in 1908, still stands today. It is a wooden structure similar to many Russian churches of that period. The synagogue served as a place of worship until 1964. Today it is a Saskatchewanhistoric site. The Saskatchewan Wildlife Association maintains the synagogue building, the adjacent cemetery, and the 40 - 100 acres of wooded lands.

    The settlers of Edenbridge were Lithuanian Jewish refugees who had temporarily settled in South Africa. They were lured to Canada by a federal government promise of 160 acres of farmland for only $10. Charles Vickar, whose father settled Edenbridge in 1906, stated that owning land was everything to the Lithuanian Jews. When the refugees were assured that they could freely practice their religion they jumped at the opportunity. They had no knowledge of farming. They did not know how to use a plough or an axe. They were Talmudic students and petty tradesman.

    These Lithuanian Jews took the Canadian Railroad as far west as it went at the time. When they arrived at the end of the line, the Jewish pioneers opted to go north where they heard there was more wood and water. The farther north you go in Saskatchewanthe more woods there are. Instead of joining some of the established farming communities in the level open country, they picked a spot by the CarrotRiver. The name, Edenbridge, means Jew's bridge. The settlers devised the town name in 1907, when a bridge was constructed over the CarrotRiver.

    The Jewish farm population in Canada reached a peak of 2,568 by 1921. Sixty-nine percent of Jewish farmers lived in Western Canada with the majority residing in Saskatchewan. By 1939, it was estimated that one out of every 16 Jews who were working on the Canadian prairies made his livelihood on the farm. Most of the Jewish farming colonies lasted to the mid-point of this century. Jewish farm colonies disappeared as a result of the great drought and depression.


    1911: The headquarters of the Zionist Movement was transferred from Cologne to Berlin


    1911: Herr Wolfsthal was appointed Attorney-General at Frankenthal, making him the first Jew to hold such a position in Bavaria.


    1911: As part of the celebration of its 500thAnniversary, the University of St. Andres conferred an honorary degree on Dr. Georg Brandes, the Danish born Jew who served as Professor of Literature at the University of Copenhagen and Professor Raphael Meldola, the British chemist and entomologist.


    1915: In New York, a new law went into effect requiring that meat sold as kosher must “bear the imprint of the supervising rabbi at the slaughter house.”

    1919: Rabbi Abraham I. Kook arrived in Palestine today to assume his role as Chief Rabbi.


    1920: In Germany, premiere of “Sumurun” (One Arabian Night) a silent film directed by Ernst Lubtsch who also played “Yeggar, the Hunchback Beggar.”


    1921:With delegates and visitors from every part of the world in attendance, the International Zionist Congress opened its sessions in the ancient drill hall at Carlsbad, Czechoslovakia.


    1923: The Great Earthquake struck Honshu the main island of Japan. Forty Jewish families living at Yokohama cabled the Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society pleading for aid.  “Help us or we perish.”  (As reported by JTA)


    1926: Birthdate of Eugene Jules Colan “a towering figure among comic-book artists, whose depictions of some of the best-known characters in the genre were lauded for their realism, expressiveness and painterly qualities.”  According to Margalit Fox, the family’s name had been Cohen before changing it to Colan.


    1927:The Weizmann Administration, the Palestine Government and the British Government as the mandatory power were severely criticized on the second day of the Fifteenth Zionist Congress which is in session here. Criticism came from several sources including Isaac Greenbaum, a member of the Polish Parliament and Dr. Stephen S. Wise, leader of the American Zionists.


    1929: Amir el-Hussein, Grand Mufti and President of the Supreme Moslem Council warned of “a grave national revolt” by 60 million Muslims if Great Britain persists in enforcing the Balfour Declaration.


    1929: A crowd numbering more than 15,000 attending a meeting at London’s Albert Hall protested against Arab violence and urged the British government to restore order, punish the guilty while making reparations for the loss of Jewish life and property.


    1929:  The British High Commissioner said that he would enforce the Jewish right of access to the Western Wall despite violent Arab opposition.


    1931: Birthdate of Frank Magid.Frank Newton Magid was born in Chicago and served in the Army during the Korean War. He graduated from the University of Iowa and received a master's degree there in 1956 in the fields of social psychology and statistics. After teaching at Iowa's Coe College and the University of Iowa, Mr. Magid launched his company in 1956. His first client was a bank; his fourth was WMT-TV, now KGAN-TV, in Cedar Rapids. By creating careful surveys and polling random samples of a population, Mr. Magid and his employees were able to provide highly accurate data that gave television its first serious consumer research. The work paid off for the Iowa station, and the station's manager recommended Mr. Magid for a job at Time-Life's newly acquired KOGO-TV in San Diego. That, too, was successful, and it led to a contract for all the Time-Life stations. "And that really was our launching pad because they were very kind to us and began to do some considerable amount of advertising to the trades, talking about how they were listening to the public through this rather new, and at that time quite unique, kind of research,'' Mr. Magid told Electronic Media. His firm, from which he retired in 2002, also advised AM radio stations to get into the FM field, and urged broadcasters to invested in cable TV. He helped identify viability of direct broadcast satellite television and did the first research that determined the viability of digital video recorders. Now based in Minneapolis, the privately-held company has about 200 employees and advises all kinds of media, including The Washington Post, through its MORI Research division.


    1931: As the fight for control of Cutters Union 4 of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America came to a head, Sydney Hillman addressed a meeting of 1,000 workers at Webster Hall where he denounced the ousted officers Philip Orlofsky and Isidor Machlin


    1931: Birthdate of Michael Oser Rabin “an Israeli computer scientist and a recipient of the Turning Award.”


    1933: The Reichsvertretung der deutschen Juden, the central representative body of German Jews emphasizing education, is established; it is led by Otto Hirsch and Rabbi Leo Baeck. It is the only organization officially allowed to represent German Jews.


    1934: In Denmark, a collaborationist SS organization, National Socialistike Ungdom (National Socialist Youth), is established.


    1935(3rd of Elul, 5695): Rabbi Avraham Yitzchak HaCohen Kook passed away today at the age of 69. His distinguished career was capped off by his appointment as Chief Rabbi of Palestine in 1919.


    1935:The problem of who is to be president of the World Zionist Organization was dramatically settled in Lucerne, Switzerland, early today when Dr. Chaim Weizmann, noted scientist and internationally famous Zionist leader, announced his readiness to assume the full leadership of the Zionist movement.


    1935: “A world conference of Jewish doctors opened in Lucerne tonight to discuss Jewish health problems and to consider the advisability of convoking a world Jewish medical conference in Tel Aviv.”


    1935: Currently Jerusalem, Jaffa and Tel Aviv have ordinances in effect similar to those in several European cities that limit and/or ban the honking of horns in the late night hours.  Police in Palestine have adopted the slogan of “Don’t use your horn.  Use your brains.”


    1936(14th of Elul, 5696): Dr. Isaac Max Rubinow passed away.  Rubinow really had two careers.  He was a medical doctor, who among other things played a key role in developing health services in Palestine immediately after World War I. He went back to school and earned a Ph.D. in Economics which provided him with a platform to deal with the issues of health care and its finances.  He was a co-founder and the first president of the organization now known as Casualty Actuarial Society. In 1934, he published the Quest for Security which pre-dated and greatly influence the creation of the New Deal social net including Social Security.


    1937: Four Arab villagers were shot and killed by unknown persons, apparently Jews, near Hadera. The authorities suspected that Jewish extremists were involved and carried out many arrests. The National Committee for Palestine Jewry (Val'ad Leumi) issued an appeal for national discipline.


    1938: On the Island of Rhodes, newspapers carried the announcement of anti-Jewish laws.  Ritual slaughter was banned and all Jews who had come to Rhodes after 1919 were told they had to leave.


    1938: A concentration camp is established at Neuengamme, Germany.


    1938: Mussolini canceled civil rights of Italian Jews and expelled all foreign-born Jews.


    1939: Leading Jewish-German jurist Gerhard Leibholz, stripped of his position at the University of Göttingenin 1936, escapes to Switzerlandwith his wife and two daughters


    1939: This date marked the beginning of World War II with the German attack on Poland. German forces overrun western Poland, instigating World War II. Three thousand Jewish civilians die in the bombing of Warsaw. German troops enter Danzig, trapping more than 5000 Jews. Throughout Germanyand Austria, Jews may not be outside after in the winter and in the summer Out of the 3,351,000 Jews in Poland, 2,042,000 came under Nazi rule while 1,309,000 came under Soviet rule. Remember, the Soviets invaded Polandfrom the west after the Nazis had begun their blitz from the West.  Within two days the British and French declared war on Germany. During the war a million and a half Jews fought on the side of allied forces: 555,000 for the USA; 500,000 for the Soviet Union; 116,000 for Great Britain(26,000 from Palestineand 90,000 from the British Commonwealth); and another 243,000 for other European nations.


    1939: With the outbreak of World War II and the closure of German borders the “Leica Freedom Train” came to an end.


    1939: Mrs. Max Lowenstein, the widow of Nuremberg chazzan Max Lowenstein and the adopted mother of Heinz Bernard planned to leave Germany today to join her son whom she had sent on ahead to England which was to be “a way-station” on their trip to the United States.  Her plans were thwarted by today’s invasion of Poland.


    1939: As of this date, there were “185,000 Jews in ‘integral’ German, together with 70,000 in Austriaand 190,000 in Czechoslovakia.”


    1939: Arnold Bernstein who had served in the German Army in World War and who had survived German prisons arrived in New York having been stripped of his shipping company and all other possessions by the Nazis who knew that anti-Semitism was a good business.


    1939: From September 1 to October 25, 1939 Operation Tannenberg, carried out by SS Einsatzgruppen (mobile kill squads), leads to the murders of Polish Jews and Catholic intellectuals and to the burnings of synagogues in Poland.


    1939: General George C. Marshall is named Chief of Staff of the United States Army.  Marshall is the unsung hero of World War II.  He was a critical force in convincing a reluctant Congress to accept peace time conscription in 1940 so that Americawas not completely unprepared for war when it came to America at Pearl Harbor.  He was the architect who managed a war that raged across the entire globe in day before the e-mail, the internet and computers.  He won the Nobel Prize for Peace for the Marshall Plan.  It is most unusual for a top military leader to have this award.  The only chink in Marshall’s armor was his opposition to the creation of the state of Israel.  He feared that American support of the Jewish state would destroy American stature among the Arabs and open the way to Soviet domination of the Middle East.  He also did not believe that the Israelis could defeat the Arabs and feared the slaughter that would follow.  There is no record of how his views may have changed once the Israelis proved they could survive without the need of American military support. 


    1939: Premiere of “The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes” with a script by Edwin H. Blum


    1940: Polish underground officer Witold Pilecki penetrates the main camp at Auschwitzwith the intention of organizing secret resistance groups inside the camp.


    1940: Soviet authorities order Japanese Consul Sempo Sugihara to leave Kovno, Lithuania, where he has issued 3500 exit visas to Jews


    1941: Birthdate of Tzvi Gal-Chen a sabra who would gain fame for his work in retrieval of wind and thermodynamic variables from a single Doppler radar.


    1941: In Hungary, Einsatzkommandos, with the help of some Hungarian militia, murdered 11,000 Jews. In August, Hungaryhad pushed 17,000 stateless Jews across the border to Kamenets-Podolski in the Ukraine. The German army protested that the large number of refugees interfered with the war effort and Hungarytook a few thousand back as slave laborers, leaving the rest in the hands of the Germans. There were no survivors.


    1941: Wearing the yellow star became obligatory for all Jews in the Reich. 


    1941: The Ukrainian newspaper Volhyncarried the following - "The element that settled our cities (Jews). . . must disappear completely from our cities. The Jewish problem is already in the process of being solved.”


    1941: Birthdate of Tzvi Gal-Chen father of author Rikva Galchen. Tzvi grew up as an Israeli Sabra on a collective farm. He served in the Israeli Army. He earned a B. Sc. and M. Sc. in 1967 and 1970, both from Tel Aviv University, with specialization in applied math and physics which he used in his studies of wind and thermodynamic variables.


    1942: As Daniel Schwarzwald jumped from the window in the Lvov Ghetto he was shot by the Germans.


    1942: Moshe Skoczylas and Michael Majtek formed Jewish partisan units at Dzialoszyce, Poland.


    1942: Fourteen thousand Jews are taken to gravel pits at Piatydni, Ukraine, and machine-gunned.


    1942: German troops reach the Caucasus and begin exterminations of indigenous Jews.


    1942: SS chief Heinrich Himmler suggests that camp inmates be put to work in on-site arms factories. Armaments chief Albert Speer objects, offering a compromise accepted by Hitler: Himmler's inmates will be made available to Speer for labor in conventional arms factories.


    1942: New York Congressman Emanuel Celler submits legislation to allow French Jews about to be deported to their deaths in Eastern Europe to immigrate to the United States. The bill is killed by the House Committee on Immigration.


    1942: As Jews are being deported from Franceto their deaths in the Third Reich, the Vichy Ministry of Information urges the press to remember "the true teaching of Saint Thomas and the Popes...the general and traditional teaching of the Catholic Church about the Jewish problem."


    1942(19th of Elul, 5702): An SS guard on a deportation train headed for the Belzec death camp shoots and kills Jadzia Beer, a Polish girl from Jaworów, after her skirt becomes caught in a railcar window and she dangles helplessly from the window.


    1942: Thousands of Jews from Stry, Ukraine, are murdered at the Belzec death camp.


    1942: A German shepherd that licks the face of a Jewish baby at the Treblinka extermination camp is savagely beaten by its SS master before the guard tramples the baby to death


    1942: Security forces raid five hospitals in the Lódz (Poland) Ghetto, evacuating and slaughtering patients. Babies are thrown out of an upper-story windows, some bayoneted before they hit the ground.


    1942:  In the town Wlodzimierz Wolynski, the Germans asked the Jewish Council to gather 7,000 Jews for transport. Jocob Kogen a member of the council committed suicide because he did not want to bear the responsibility of sending people to their death. Wlodzimierz Wolynski was in eastern Poland at the start of World War II.  This was the part of Polandthat Hitler had ceded to Stalin as part of the price for their infamous Non-Aggression Pact.  In 1941, the Germans seized the town as they moved forward with the plan to conquer the Soviet Union.  Some Poles rationalized the slaughter of the Jews by claiming that they had collaborated with the Soviets during their occupation of the town. These same sources also said the Jews had earned their death because they had lived so much better than the Poles before the war.  To understand the success of the Holocaust, one must understand the pervasiveness of anti-Semitism in European society.


    1943(1st of Elul, 5703): Rosh Chodesh Elul


    1943(1st of Elul, 5703): Eighty-eight year old retired banker Edward S. Rothchild passed away tonight at the City Hospital “an hour after” being struck “by taxicab at Fifth Avenue and 47th Street..”


    1943(1st of Elul, 5703): Sixty-nine year old Albert Klein the founder and President of the American Food Company until his retirement twelve years ago passed away today in Newark, NJ.  A native of Czechoslovakia, he moved to Newark at the age of 17.  He is survived by his widow Kamilla Cohn Klein.


    1943: The Belgian news agency reported “that armed Belgian patriots had intercept a train on which 1,500 Jews were being taken from Malines, Belgium to Poland.” The Belgians “fought a gun battle with the German guards and relased part of the captives from the cattle cars in which they were being transported.”
    (For more on this see The Twentieth Train by Marion Schreiber)


    1943: Germans send a Polish labor battalion into the ruins of the Warsaw Ghetto to flatten any walls and other structures still standing following the German assault of the previous spring. Most survivors of the April-May "liquidation" die during this demolition.


    1943: The American Council for Judaism declares that Jewishness exists in a religious sense only, and that attempts to establish a Jewish homeland would be disloyal to the homeland nations of individual Jews.


    1943: “Palestine Goal Passed” published today described a fundraising luncheon where the attendees heard from Dr. Israel Goldstein, president of the JNF and Bernard A. Rosenblatt, president of the Palestine Foundation Fund.


    1943: Jews at the Sobibór death camp attack SS guards with stones and bottles. All attackers are killed.


    1943: Jewish women and children, as well as the elderly and the sick, left on the island of Rabafter deportation from Dalmatia, Serbia, are transferred to a concentration camp at Zemun, Yugoslavia, and killed. Others remain on the island and are protected by partisans.


    1943: Hundreds of Jews escape from Vilna, Lithuania, and head east toward the Soviet front line.


    1943: Vilna-based partisan Vitka Kempner blows up an electrical transformer located in the city. A day later, she enters the labor camp at Keilis, near Vilna, and smuggles several dozen prisoners to safety. Still later, she travels with five other partisans to Olkiniki, Poland, where she helps torch a turpentine factory.


    1943: In Paris, three Jewish partisans ambush and assassinate Karl Ritter, aide to Nazi slave-labor Chief Fritz Sauckel.


    1943: After refusing for months, the Hungarian government accedes to German demands for Jews to be used as slave labor at copper mines at Bor, Yugoslavia.


    1943: There was an uprising in Vilna, Lithuania. After the disaster of July and the death of Yitzhak Wittenberg, many of those in the underground decided to flee the city. The German entry into the ghetto was a surprise and there was no time to organize. Forty fighters led by Yechiel Scheinbaum fought until they were all killed. Approximately 200 more left the ghetto and joined the partisans. A second Aktion on September 23 marked the end of the ghetto

    1944:  Birthdate of orchestra conductor Leonard Slatkin.


    1944: Five thousand women and 500 men are evacuated from Auschwitz north to Stutthof, Germany. Three thousand interned women are evacuated from Auschwitznorthwest to Neuengamme, Germany.


    1944: Following American bomber hits on factories at Auschwitz, the SS gives wounded inmates excellent medical attention as well as flowers and chocolate--a propaganda ploy for the benefit of German media. Once recovered, the inmates are exterminated.


    1944: The Gestapo and SS men in Przemysl, Poland, execute eight members of a non-Jewish Polish family and a little Jewish girl after discovering the group playing together in a courtyard.


    1944: Despite the objections of Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden, Prime Winston Churchill finally ordered the creation of a Jewish Brigade of Palestinian Jews in the British Army. Churchill had long supported the creation of such a unit.


    1944: Birthdate of Margaret H. Marshall, the wife of Jewish columnist Anthony Lewis, who became the 24th Chief Just of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court.


    1944: Aufbau,“a journal targeted at German-speaking Jews” begun by members of the German-Jewish Club of New York began printing lists of Jewish Holocuast survivors as well as lists of the victims.

    1945: As his ship sailed west across the Pacific Lt. Col. Louis Geffen, a judge advocate in the US Army who was trying to organize Rosh Hashanah found ”his Baal Koreh. This gentleman had no Torah to read from but he would use the Humash - Hebrew five books of Moses.”


     1945: Ichud (Unity), a Jewish political organization, is established by the leadership of the Landsberg displaced-persons (DP) camp. It initially acts as an intermediary between DPs and the United States Army in negotiations for DP immigration to Palestine.


    1945(23rd of Elul, 5705): Yaakov Waldman, a survivor of a 1942 death march, is murdered by Poles in Turek


    1946: Birthdate of Adrienne Cooper, an American-born singer, teacher and curator of Yiddish music(As reported by Joseph Berger)


    1946: Birthdate of Shalom Hanoch, the native of Kibbutz Mishmarot  and rock star who founded two bands – The Churchills and Tamouz


    1947: Date on which UNSCOP is scheduled to provide its findings to the U.N. General Assembly


    1950: Today, Israel charged Jordan with “’full and absolute responsibility for continual acts of aggression’.  A government spokesman said Jordon condoned murder and sabotage by allowing infiltrators and criminals to cross the border into Israel and by taking no action to discourage or punish these criminals.


    1951: Birthdate of singer-songwriter Steven D. Grossman.


    1951: The Yugoslav representative in the U.N. Security Council voted in favor of a resolution guaranteeing all nations the right to use the Suez Canal.  The resolution was considered a victory since it was designed to overcome the Arab closure of the international waterway to ships that had docked in Israel or that sailed under an Israeli flag.  The issue of canal usage would be part of the reasons for going to war in 1956.


    1951:The Union of American Hebrew Congregations, parent body of Reform Judaism in the United States and Canada, moved into its new $1,000,000 headquarters at Fifth Avenue and Sixty-Fifth Street


    1952: The Israeli government announced that extra rations for meat and poultry would be available for the High Holy Days.  Those people who only know of then comparatively affluent society of present day Israel should remember that life during the early years of the Jewish state were quite grim.  Between the austerity of the land, the in-gathering of the exiles and the attacks from surrounding Arab states, life in Israelwas more akin to living on the American frontier than a modern Western state.


    1952: Zev Zahavy was appointed to serve as rabbi of East Park Synagouge.


    1953: "Human Ornithosis in Israel" by Dr. Aaron Valero appeared in today’s issue of, Harefuah, a medical journal published by the Israel Medical Association. Dr. Aaron Valero was a an Israeli physician born in 1913 “who helped establish hospitals and medical schools, authored medical publications and contributed greatly to the advancement of medical education in Israel in the latter half of the 20th century.” He passed away in 2000.


    1954: In Perth Amboy, NJ, Robert N. Wilentz and Jacqueline Malino Wilentz gave birth to award winning author, journalist and professor of English Amy Wilentz who is married to Nicholas Goldberg of the Los Angeles Times.


    1955: Birthdate of Efraim Gur, the native of Georgia SSR who made Aliyah in 1972 and eventually became an MIK and cabinet minister


    1955(14th of Elul, 5715): Actor Philip Loeb passed away. Loeb played the role of Jake in the early television sitcom “The Goldbergs.”  The show starred actress Molly Goldberg and revolved around the life of an obviously Jewish family living in Brooklyn.  Loeb was 61 at the time of his death.


    1964:Rabbi Martin Riesenburger delivered the sermon and Canotrs Werner Sander, Estrongo Nachama and Leo Roth provided the music during today celebration of the 30h anniversary of the Rykestrasse Synagogue in Berlin.


    1965: Outfielder Richie Scheinblum made his major league début with the Cleveland Indians.


    1962:Jack Benny’s latest contract with CBS takes effect. Benny is 68 and the contract is for two years which means the famedtightwad will have a source of income until he is 70.


    1967: British poet and author Siegfried Sassoon passed away.  His father was  Alfred Sassoon, a member of the wealth and distinguished Indian –Jewish Sassoon family.  His mother was an Anglo Catholic.  The family disinherited the elder Sassoon when he married her and Sassoon was not raised as a Jew. 


    1969: Pitcher Lloyd Allen made his major league début with the California Angels.


    1969: Twenty-seven year old Muammar Qaddafi staged a successful coup and replaced King Idris as head of Libya. By the time that Qaddafi came to power the Libyan Jewish community which was 2,500 years old had been reduced to a couple of hundred souls. He exacerbated their plight, as well as that of the Jewish exiles, by confiscating all property owned by Jews and by canceling all debts owed to those Libyan Jews whose property had already been seized or destroyed. He also attempted to make himself a leader in the fight to destroy Israel by giving untold millions to the PLO.


    1970: Shimon Peres begins serving as Communications Minister of Israel.


    1970: Yosef Burg replaced Golda Meir Minister of the Interior


    1970: Palestinian terrorists attack King Hussein of Jordan’s motorcade in a failed attempt to assassinate him and bring an end to the Hashemite Kingdom.  Hussein was a complex figure whose whole kingship was influenced by the assassination of his grandfather by fanatics who thought he was going to make peace with Israel.  In the end, Hussein’s vision overcame his fears and he signed a peace treaty with Israel.


    1971(11th of Elul, 5731):Mordechai Ofer passed away at the age of 47.  An Israeli politician, he served as a member of the Knesset for the Alignment and Labor Party from 1965 until his death. Born in Kraków in Poland in 1924, Ofer made aliyah to Mandate Palestine the following year. He joined the Mandate-era Jewish Police force, and served in the IDF during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. After being demobilized in 1950 with the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, he began working for Egged. He became a member of the co-operative's board, and from 1961 until his death, served as director of its Finances department. In 1965 he was elected to the Knesset on the Alignment list. He was re-elected in 1969, but died in office while still in office.


    1971: Moshe Shahal took his seat in the Knesset as a replacement for the deceased Mordechai Ofer.


    1976:As part of a mass demonstration, Uri Geller’s photograph appeared on the cover of the magazine ESP with the caption "On Sept. 1, 1976 at 11pm E.D.T. THIS COVER CAN BEND YOUR KEYS."


    1977: The Prime Minister Menachem Begin won a flat “No” on the subject of the recognition of what he described as ‘the murder organization called the PLO.’ The Knesset vote was 92 to four.


    1977: Birthdate of actress Shoshana Elise Bean.


    1982:  Washingtonannounces the “Reagan Plan” that included the principle of self-government for the Palestinians of Gaza and the West Banks in association with Jordan.  The Americans saw it as the next step after the Camp David Accords.  The Begin government would reject the plan because it was not prepared to give up control of what it called Judaea and Samaria. 


    1983: Henry "Scoop" Jackson Democratic Senator from Washingtonpassed away at the age of 71. Jacksonwas an outspoken supporter of Israeland the Jews in the Soviet Union.  In 1974, Jackson co-sponsored the Jackson-Vanik amendment with Charles Vanik, which denied normal trade relations to certain countries with non-market economies that restricted the freedom of emigration. The amendment was intended to allow refugees, particularly religious minorities, specifically Jews, to escape from the Soviet Bloc. Jackson and his assistant, Richard Perle also lobbied personally for some people, who were affected by this law — among them Natan Sharansky.


    1989: In Warsaw, Leonard Bernstein conducted concert commemorating outbreak of World War II.


    1990: In “Roots of Muslim Rage” published today Bernard Lewis explains “why so many Muslim deeply resent the West and why their bitterness will not be easily mollified.”


    1990: After 622 performances at the Plymouth Theatre the curtain comes down on Wendy Wasserstein’s Pulitzer Prizing winning drama “The Heidi  Chronicles


    1991: Uzbekistan  declares independence from the Soviet Union.  Depending upon which version of history you believe Jews have been living in what is now Uzbekistan since the period following the destruction of the first Temple or the period of Persian domination of Judea.  At the time of the declaration there were approximately 15,000 Jews living in the country centered in four major population centers.


    1991: Rabbi Sir Jonathan Henry Sacks was appointed Chief Rabbi of the United Kingdom and Commonwealth


    1995: Graham B. Spanier who would become a major player in the Jerry Sandusky- Penn St. child abuse scandal assumed his duties as President of Penn State University.


    2002: The New York Timesincluded reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or about topics of Jewish interest including The Book of Illusionsby Paul Auster.


    2003: Publication of Who Killed Daniel Pearl? by Bernhard-Henri Levy.


    2004: “Palestinians celebrate deadly Israeli bus bombings” published today described how “thousands of joyful Hamas supporters took to Gaza's street , throwing sweets in the air and singing songs to celebrate a twin suicide bombing that killed 16 people on Israeli buses.”


    2005: In Israel approximately 1,700,000 pupils begin the new school year.


    2005: At the Vienna International Film Festival, premiere of “Good Night, and Good Luck,” one of the most significant films of the decade produced by Grant Heslov


    2005: In Hong Kong, Nancy Ann Kissel was found guilty of murdering her husband Robert Kissel, a senior banker with Merrill Lynch. First she gave him a milkshake laced with sleeping medications and crushed his skull.  Then she wrapped his body in a carpet and stuffed into a moving box.  The jury did not believe that Mrs. Kissel had acted in self-defense.  The scandalous murder trial sent shock waves through the financial communities in Hong Kong and New York as well as the Jewish community in Hong Kong.  It included everything from Mrs. Kissel’s extramarital affair to a multi-million dollar New Yorkreal estate fraud involving the descendant’s brother Andrews Kissel.  Who says Jews are only good for stories about Talmud and Accounting?  


    2006: In a strange twist of fate, two Moslem countries are making plans to send troops to serve as part of the UN peacekeeping force designed to maintain peace along Israel’s border with Lebanon. Turkey's government submitted a resolution to parliament to send peacekeepers to Lebanon despite public opposition to the deployment. Israel has dropped its objections to Indonesiajoining the UN peacekeeping force in south Lebanon, and discussions are underway as to when Jakartawould send a planned contingent of 1,000 troops


    2006:An Orthodox Jewish man was removed from an Air Canada Jazz flight in Montreal for praying.


    2007: In Jerusalem,Larry Fogel and Moni Arnon perform "Simon and Garfunkel" music. The duo provides an authentic rendition of the famed Americans’ acousitc harmonies in their performance at the BibleLandsMuseum tent.


    2007: In Cedar Rapids, Iowa, on Saturday of Labor Day Weekend, the traditional Shabbat morning service at Temple Judah (a reform congregation with just over 100 families as members) attracted sixteen congregants confounding critics who are always predicting the demise of the American Jewish Community while The Cedar Rapids Gazette featured an article entitled “Kosher gardening shows Jewish law in practice.”


    2007: (Elul 18) Birthdates of the Baal Shem Tov and Rabbi Schneur Zalman Liadi, founder of Chabad-Lubavitch.


    2007: A Des Moines rabbi who was named  in online media reports as planning to marry two gay men said he didn't know of the plan. Rabbi David Kaufman of Temple B'nai Jeshurun in Des Moines said today that he couldn't have married Sean Fritz and Tim McQuillan because neither man was Jewish.


    2008: A busy day in Israel on a variety of fronts as 1.4 millions pupils ended their summer vacation and began the 2008/09 school year


    2008: Athletic mogul Arkadi Gaybamak sacked the entire Betar management team


    2008:The WUJS Arad program relocates from the southern desert town to the Central region. The program moves to Jerusalemand Tel Aviv for the fall session, which is expected to draw 50 participants from overseas. The five-month program will be extended by a month for that term.


    2008(1st of Elul, 5768): Rosh Chodesh Elul Rosh; Begin blowing the Shofar at Shacharit


    2008: Deadline for submitting entries to the D.C. Jewish Community Center's third annual writing contest entries for which must come from residents of the Washington Metro area and must consist  short essays or stories that illuminate how humor has been helpful in difficult times -- is looking for entries.


    2008 (1 Elul, 5768):  Eighty-five year old comedy writer Sheldon Keller passed away today. (As reported by Margalit Fox)



    2008 (1 Elul, 5768):  Forty-six year old Oded Schramm, who melded ideas from two branches of mathematics into an equation that applies to a multitude of physics problems from the percolation of water through rocks to the tangling of polymers, died in a fall at Guye Peak near Snoqualmie Pass in Washington State. (As reported by Kenneth Chang)


    2008:The fifth AICE Israeli Film Festival opened on today at the Palace Como, South Yarra. More than 400 people attended the Opening Night of the Festival, officially launched by The Ambassador of Israel, H.E. Yuval Rotem.


    2009: During a breakfast reception at the Jewish Community Center of Northern Virginia, Governor Tim Kaine provides a briefing on his recent trip to Israel highlighting visits with top elected officials and business leaders. The Virginia Israel Advisory Board hosted Governor Kaine's Israel mission with support from the JCRC. 


    2009: In Israel, the start of the 2009-2010 school year


    2009: At Tel Aviv’s Hayarkon Park, Madonna appears at the first of two concerts that are the last stop on her “Sticky and Sweet” tour. She first appeared at Hayarkon Park 16 years ago as part of her Girlie Tour, and also visited Israel in 2006 during the Jewish High Holidays along with 2,000 other students of Kabbalah.


    2009: Jewish Agency Chairman Natan Sharansky told Jewish students at the Lipman Jewish Day School in Moscow today how much has changed in their country since he fought for the rights of Jews in the Soviet Union and spent nine years as a political prisoner.


    2009, A special "Winton train" set off from the Prague Main railway station. The train, consisting of an original locomotive and carriages used in the 1930s, headed to London via the original Kindertransport route. On board the train were several surviving "Winton children" and their descendants, who were to be welcomed by Nicholas Winton in London. Sir Nicholas George Winton organized the rescue of 669 mostly Jewish children from German-occupied Czechoslovakia on the eve of the Second World War in an operation later known as the Czech Kindertransport. Winton found homes for them and arranged for their safe passage to Britain


    2009: An investor group including Andreessen Horowitz (Ben Horowitz) announced it had acquired a majority stake in Skype for $2.75 billion


    2010: Meiron Reuven is scheduled to begin serving as Israel’s new ambassador to the UN.


    2010:President Barack Obama is scheduled to host a dinner attended by Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas and former British Prime Minister Tony Balir this evening prior to the start of peace talks which are scheduled to begin tomorrow.


    2010(22ndof Elul): 25th Yahrzeit of Joseph B. Levin, of blessed memory; Husband of Deborah, father of Judy Rosenstein of blessed memory, David Levin and Mitchell Levin.  You wouldn’t be reading this if it hadn’t been for him and that statement is true in more ways than one!


    2010: TodayDefense Minister Ehud Barak spoke about yesterday’s fatal terror attack in Kiryat Arba, promising that "the IDF will do everything possible to quickly bring the perpetrators to justice, to prevent the possibility of a wave of terror attacks from developing, to prevent other terror missions from disrupting the fabric of relationships and relative quiet which has been created in the area in recent years and even the intent to harm the coming peace talks." 



    2010:Kol Shira performed at a Taste of the Market- Iowa City's Farmers Market


    2010:President Obama today began the arduous process of coaxing and pressing the main Middle East participants to define and embrace a comprehensive peace settlement, declaring that “the status quo is unsustainable.”  In a statement this afternoon in the Rose Garden, he said that the goal of the direct negotiations between the core participants, the first in 20 months, is “the emergence of an independent, democratic and viable Palestinian state, living side by side in peace and security with a Jewish state of Israel and its other neighbors.”  


    2010:Archaeologists in Jordan have unearthed a 3,000-year-old Iron Age temple with a trove of figurines of ancient deities and circular clay vessels used for religious rituals, officials said today. The head of the Jordanian Antiquities Department, Ziad al-Saad, said the sanctuary dates to the eighth century B.C. and was discovered at Khirbat 'Ataroz near the town of Mabada, some 20 miles (32 kilometers) southwest of the capital Amman. The Moabites, whose kingdom ran along present-day Jordan's mountainous eastern shore of the Dead Sea, were closely related to the Israelites, although the two were in frequent conflict. The Babylonians eventually conquered the Moabites in 582 B.C.


    2011:The Ohr Chadash Academy, a new Modern Orthodox day school is scheduled to open at Park Heights Jewish Community Center in Baltimore, Maryland.


    2011; The family of Nahum Itzkovich, Jerusalem district psychologist of the Israel Employment Service and husband of The Jerusalem Post’s veteran health and science reporter Judy Siegel-Itzkovich, sits shivah for the last time today.


    2011: The school year is scheduled to begin today in Israel.


    2011: Between the Lines a novel written by Marv Levy is scheduled to be published today by Ascend Books.


    2011: The 7th Annual Jerusalem Beer Festival is scheduled to come to an end tonight.


    2011:The Tel Aviv District Court is a ruling today releasing singer and Kohav Nolad (A Star is Born) judge Margalit Tsanani to house arrest.Tsanani is being charged with extorting a previous agent.The decision came after the prosecution had asked the court to remand her in custody for the duration of the trial because they alleged she posed a threat to the public because of her connections with underworld figures.


    2011:Vandals destroyed a monument to victims of a World War Two pogrom against Jews in Poland, covering it with racist inscriptions and swastikas in green paint, police said today.


    2011:Approximately 300 Israelis of Ethiopian descent, including students and their parents, demonstrated this morning outside the Nir Etzion School in Petah Tikva. They were upset that despite city provisions, the school, which they considered an "Ethiopian ghetto" because the student population was made up of nearly only Ethiopian children, was not closed and the children not integrated throughout other schools in the area.
    2011: “BBC Radio pulled its coverage of the Israeli Philharmonic Orchestra at the Royal Albert Hall in London this evening as a small number of anti-Israel protestors disrupted the concert by shouting anti-Israel slogans at the orchestra, which was performing as part of the prestigious annual BBC Proms classic music festival.”


    2011: The New York Mets baseball team announced that it broken off negotiations to sell a minority interest to hedge fund manager David Einhorn.  The Mets are owned and /or run by Fred Wilpon, Sault Katz and Jeff Wilpon.


    2011(2nd of Elul, 5771): Ninety-two year old jurist and legal scholar Sidney H. Asch, passed away today. (As reported by Paul Vitello)


    2012: The 15th annual Jerusalem International Chamber Music is scheduled to open today.


    2012: Temple Judah is scheduled to host the Labor Day Shabbat traditional/egalitarian minyan.


    2012(14thof Elul, 5772): Ninety-one year old lyricist Hal David passed away today in Los Angeles (As reported by Rob Hoerburger)


    2012: Eighty-six year old Sy J. Schulman who helped create Riverbank State Park passed away today at White Plains, NY. (As reported by Leslie Kaufman)


    2012: “An Israeli military strike has been granted increased legitimacy due to the events of the past week, former minister Tzachi Hanegbi said today at a cultural event in Kiryat Motzkin. The airstrikes came after several rockets were fired at Israel over the past week, one of which struck and damaged a home in Sderot early yesterday morning.” (As reported by JPost staff)

    2012: IAF aircraft struck two centers of terrorist activity in the Gaza Strip overnight in response to rockets fired from the coastal territory into southern Israel, according to the IDF Spokesman's Office.

    2012:Three people were injured during a rock-throwing fracas in Jerusalem this afternoon. “The incident began when a group of haredim started throwing stones at the Arab neighborhood of Shuafat in the capital’s northeast. Police arrested three haredim, two minors and an adult, for throwing rocks.” (As reported by Melanie Lidman)

    2013: Jeremy Jones is scheduled to moderate “Appeasing Hitler – Nazi Supporters Down Under as part of Sydney Jewish Writer’s Festive being held at the Eric Caspary Learning Centre, Shalom College, University of New South Wales

    2013: András Schiff and the Erlenbusch Quartet are scheduled to perform Brahms’ Piano Quintet in F minor, op. 34 at The Jerusalem International Chamber Music Festival

    2013: Ephraim Mirvis  took office as Chief Rabbi of the United Hebrew Congregations of the Commonwealth replacing the retiring Lord Sacks.

    2013: The New York Times book section included two features: “Jonathan Lethem: By the Book” and “Articles of Faith” by Dara Horn that explores her belief that “a number of contemporary Jewish writers are engaging with religious belief in their works”

    2013: “Security forces led by the Shin Bet announced t0day that they had foiled a bomb attack plotted by Hamas in the West Bank and east Jerusalem, timed for the High Holy Days.” As reported by Yaakov Lappin and Yonah Jeremy Bob)


    2013(26thof Elul, 5773): Seventy-four year magazine editor Judith Daniels passed away today. (As reported by Margalit Fox)


    2014: According to Forbes, “Sheldon Adelson has returned to the top 10 richest in the world for the first time since 2007 after making an average of $32 million a day over the last year, third-most of anyone on the planet’ meaning the eighty-one year old Chairman and CEO of Las Vegas sands is worth approximately $33.2 billion.


    2014: “After a summer dominated by Code Red sirens and few days of real vacation, 2,105,394 students are scheduled to return to school in some 2,100 new classrooms and 495 preschools that were built to meet demand in the new school year.” (As reported by Shahar Hay)

    2014: Peter Schaefer, “a German academic who had previously led Princeton University‘s Judaic studies program,” is scheduled to replace W. Michael Blumenthal as Director of the Jewish Museum Berlin. (As reported by JTA)


    0 0

    September 2

    44 BCE: Cicero delivers the first of his fourteen Philippics (oratorical attacks) on Mark Antony. He will make 14 of them over the next several months. From a Jewish perspective it might be proper to say “a pox on both of your houses.”  Cicero was anti-Semite.  Once when addressing the Senate he was reported to have told his colleagues that he must whisper lest the Jews hear him.  He described Judaism as “’a barbarous superstition’” and derided the Jews as “a race born in slavery.” When defending a Roman official against charges that he had stolen a large sum of gold bound for Jerusalem, the famous orator used “all the anti-Jewish canards” of the day to defend his client.  Antony was no prize either.  After he and Octavius had triumphed at the Battle Of Philippi, Marc Antony went to Asia Minor, an area under his control.  Antony violently rejected several groups of Jews who sought to meet with him concerning the need to replace Herod.  While Herod had made the mistake of siding against Antony before the Battle of Philippi, the vile monarch kept his throne.  Why did Antony favor him over Antigonus?  Given the greed and the debauchery of the man, a bribe seems a likely explanation.  Also, Antigonus was a reformer and Herod along with his new ally the High Priest Hyrcanus, could be counted on to keep peace in the Jewish kingdom.

    31 BCE:  Octavian defeated Marc Antony and Cleopatra in the naval Battle of Actium off the coast of Greece. The outcome of the battle can be viewed as a positive event for the Jews of that time. The defeat sealed Antony’s fate and ensured that Octavian would succeed his great-uncle Julius Caser as head of the Roman government.  Antony was not popular with the Jews living in Judea since he had given Cleopatra the area around Jerichofor her own kingdom.  Octavian, who ruled Augustus, continued the relatively benevolent policies toward the Jews practiced by Julius Caesar.  He exempted the Jews from emperor worship, banned the Roman Eagle from Jerusalem and forbade pagan altars being in the Jewish capital.  He allowed Diaspora Jews to send contributions to the Templein Jerusalem, exempted them from court appearances on Shabbat and ensured that their holy books were not disturbed. 

    1192: The Third Crusade ends as English king Richard the Lion-Heart and Islamic sultan Saladin sign a peace treaty that allows Christian pilgrims access to Muslim held Jerusalem. Saladin is remembered as the ruler who readmitted the Jews to Jerusalem in 1190 (4950) as ecstatically recounted by the Jewish poet Al-harzi.

    1492: Jews are expelled from Spain by King Ferdinand & Queen Isabella

    1504: In Pilsen, “the councilors and aldermen” decreed “that all Jews both local and visiting must wear Jewish coats so they can be distinguished from other people, and that Jewish women must wear a veil with a broad yellow and white ribbon. If Jews were found without such clothing, the penalty would be five coppers for each offence. It was emphasized that Jews must not manufacture veils or undertake any other gentile business.”

    1649: In Italy, the Jews of Castro found refuge in Pitigliano when forces supporting Pope Innocent X at the end of the Wars of Castro.  The Jews had nothing to do with the fighting and their flight is what we would call today “collateral damage.”

    1666: The Great Fire of London breaks out and burns for three days, destroying 10,000 buildings. While Jews had already returned to London we can assume that none of the buildings that burned were synagogues.  In 1656, the Jews had been denied the right to build a synagogue or buy land for a cemetery.  The famed Bevis Marks synagogue was not built until 1701.

    1686: When imperial troops recaptured Buda, most Jewish residents were massacred, while a “lucky few” were captured and later released for ransom.

    1728: An edict issued today allowed the Jews “to attend the fairs of Little Russia, provided they carried on wholesale business only.” (As reported by Herman Rosenthal)

    1731: In response to an application by Danil Pavlovich Apostl, who was Hetman of the Cossacks, Jews were permitted “attend the fairs of Little Russia, provided they” only engaged in wholesale business activities.

    1735: Lewis Gomez, a Jewish merchant in New York sold 25 loads of lime to the city for £6 pounds, 5 shillings. Gomez advertised his "lime" in the newspaper as "good stone-lime."

    1752: England and its American colonies use the Julian calendar for the last time, dropping it in favor of the Gregorian one.  Eleven days (September 3 – 13 inclusively) vanish as the calendar was adjusted forward so that September 14 followed September 2.  This does not directly affect Jewish history, but it is worth noting since it accounts for some of the seeming discrepancies in providing dates for events.

    1763: Moses Lindo, the Surveyor and Inspector-General of Indigo, Drugs and Dyes wrote a letter from Charleston, South Carolina to Emanuel Mendez da Costa containing “an account of a New die from the Berries of a Weed in south Carolina.

    1777(30th of Av, 5537): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1778: Birthdate of Louis Napoléon Bonaparte, the youngest brother of Emperor Napoleon, who thanks to his brother ruled Holland from 1806 to 1810.  During his short reign he sought to improve the condition of the Jews with such steps as moving market day from Saturday, abolishing the “Oath More Judaico” and allowing Jews to serve in the military for the first time by creating two battalions with Jewish enlisted men and officers.

    1796: The Jews of Holland were emancipated as the Dutch state became the BatavianRepublic.

    1789: Founding the United States Department of the Treasury.  Although there is some anecdotal evidence that the first Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton, was Jewish, Henry Morgenthau, Jr. is listed as the first Jewish Secretary of the Treasury.  He was appointed by FDR and served from 1934 until 1945.  Morgenthau was chosen because he was country squire neighbor of FDR and not for financial acumen. 

    1825: Mordecai Manuel Noah led a large group of Christians and some Jews to St Paul’s Episcopal Church in Buffalo, NY where they participated in a dedicatory ceremony marking the founding of Ararat, which was to be a Jewish colony on an island in the Niagara River.

    1831: Thirty-seven year old Daniel Lessmann, a veteran of the Battle Lutzen who converted in 1824, possibly to advance his career as a poet and history

    1833: Oberlin College is founded by John Shepherd and Philo P. Stewart. Today Oberlin has about 800 Jewish students out of a student body of 3,000. It offers ten courses in Jewish Studies as well as both a Major and a Minor in Jewish Studies.

    1839: Birthdate of Elias Solomon, an Australian politician. Born in London, England, he migrated to Australia as a child. He had no formal education, but in 1868 became a clerk and auctioneer in Fremantle in Western Australia. In 1877 he was elected to the Fremantle City Council. In 1892, he was elected to the Western Australian Legislative Assembly as the member for South Fremantle, where he remained until 1901. In that year, he transferred to federal politics, winning the Australian House of Representatives seat of Fremantle for the Free Trade Party. He was defeated by Labor's William Carpenter in 1903. Solomon died in 1909.


    1852: Birthdate of Paul Charles Joseph Bourget one of several French authors including Maurice Barres, Charles Maurra and Leon Daudet who engaged in “literary anti-Semitism” that “portrayed  Jews as cosmopolitan financiers, rapacious parasites, unscrupulous parvenus, intruders and strangers, very different from ‘ordinary’ Frenchman.” (Alan Corcos)

    1856: The "Foreign Correspondence” column published today reported that when the subscription books opened to buy shares in the Zurich Credit Mobilier, Bavarian Jews with with millions in their bags, were reportedly seen in the crowd of purchasers.

    1861: Birthdate of Felix Albert Bettelheim, the son of Rabbi Aaron Siegfried Bettelheim, who became a successful doctor in the United States.

    1864: The 79th Indiana Infantry Regiment under the command of Colonel Knefler fought the Rebels  in Georgia at the Battle of Lovejoy’s State

    1864: General Sherman and his Union soldiers capture Atlanta.

    1877: A large group of Jews from New York and Brooklyn attended today’s dedication of the Salem Fields Cemetery which is adjacent to Cypress Hills.  The cemetery is the property of Temple Emanu-El on New York’s Fifth Avenue.  Several lots have been sold to other Jewish congregations and benevolent societies. Louis May, President of Temple Emanu-El and Rabbi Gottheil officiated during the event.

    1878: The “Israelites” of Vicksburg, MS, have made an appeal to their co-religionists throughout the United States to provide aid for “their sick and destitute brethren” who are trying to survive the current Yellow Fever Epidemic.  Money should be sent to Alexander Kuhn Treasure of the Hebrew Relief Society of Vicksburg, Mississippi.

    1881: Based on information that first appeared in the Daily News, it was reported today that an Anglo-Jew named Lewishon who has the support of Lord Granville has been given permission by the Russian Government to visit Novgorod. The British government intends to pursue the central issue – the right of citizens, including Jews to reside and conduct business in Russia under the terms of the treaty signed by the two countries.

    1881: In Chicago, Moses Jacobs, a Polish Jew who was attacked by Thomas Kennedy at Clark and Taylor Streets is in critical condition.

    1882: It was reported today that that Ignace Eprhussi & Co a Jewish banking house in Odessa was ceasing operations in Russia because of the persecution of Jews in the land of the Czars. Founded by Charles Joachim a Russian grain trader, the firm moved its operations to Vienna

    1883: American labor leader Daniel De Leon and his wife gave birth to Solon De Leon, who followed in his father’s footsteps and who created The American Labor Who's Who which is a registry or directory of people involved in the American Labor Movement.

    1883(30th of Av, 5643): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1883(30thof Av, 5643): Eighty-one year old Léon Halévy a French dramatist and historian who was the son of cantor Elie Halevy, the brother of composer and Jacques Halevy and the father of Ludovic Halevy passed away today.

    1883: “The Hungarian Riots” published today described that renewed attempts by the military to stop the attacks on the Jews in Zala.

    1885: Nine-year old Samuel Neuman was sent to the Riverside Hospital because he suffering from smallpox which he caught in Hamburg or while sailing to America on board the SS Firsa.

    1886: It was reported today Jacob H. Schiff, Jess Seligman and the banking firm of Kuhn, Loeb & Co are among those who have contributed to a fund that will allow The Hebrew Technical Institute to move into new, enlarged quarters.  Founded in 1884 to provide instruction in the mechanical arts to poor Jewish boys, the institute now is serving 100 youngsters. 

    1886: It was reported today that Mr. and Mrs. Harris Manheim and their five year old son have been sent back to England before Coroner Levy of the Jewish Immigrants’ Protective Association could meet with them.  It was alleged that the Manheims were indigent when in fact that they “had a valuable Jewish parchment which…could have easily sold for $200 or $300.

    1889: The New York Times reviewed The Jew In English Fiction by Rabbi David Philipson.

    1890: “Jews Ordered To Go” published today described the issuance of an by the Governor of the Transcaspian Territories of the Russian Empire expelling the Jews of that region.

    1891: In the United States District Court in Brooklyn, Judge Benedict heard the case of 19 Russian Jews who were seeking to reverse the order of the Immigration Commissioner that would not let them remain in this country “because they had no visible means of support.”

    1892: In New York, the Eldridge Street police, at the request of Justice Hogan, are looking for “some information” that will help him decide whether or not Israel Simovitch did or did not steal $90 of jewelry from his fellow Russian Jew Jacob Rohnewitch.

    1892: As Europe deals with concerns about an outbreak of Cholera, it was reported today that “hundreds of Russian Jews” arriving at Stettin “by sea from Memel or by rail from Eidtkuhnen” are kept in quarantine until they board steamers headed for America.

    1892: “Duels and French Duels” published today described the acquittal of Marquis de Mores on charges of having murder Captain Mayer, a Jewish officer in the French Army, because the killing took place during a duel and regardless of the letter of the law, the jury rendered a verdict “that is exactly what might expect from a jury in Mississippi or South Carolina.”

    1892: A supply of flour arrived today at Zionsville, the Russian Jewish Colony in Gloucester County, NJ and was quickly turned in to bread to feed the “famished” Jewish “families.

    1892: A “carload of Russian Jews arrived at Port Huron, Michigan tonight from Liverpool by way of Montreal. 

    1892: In the UK, the Jewish Chronicle described the arrival of a group of Polish Jews at the Isle of Jersey and their desire to hold services if they can obtain a Sefer Torah.

    1892: Gottlieb Deininger, a member of the Haifa Templer Colony passed away today leaving his widow Mary and their children an estate valued at 50,488 Piasters including stone house, a two and half acre vineyard and 243 gallons of “new Carmel wine.”  (The Zionists were not the only Europeans who were settling in this part of the Ottoman Empire prior to WW I)

    1893: It was reported today that the Jews of Camden, NJ, have formed “The Hebrew Protective Club” to protect “the members from robbery, insult, assault and murder” and will be retaining a lawyer “who will be permanently engaged to look after their interests.”

    1893: Dr. Christian Adolf Stoecker the former Chaplain of the Court of Berlin and leading anti-Semite who arrived in New York yesterday left from Philadelphia where he had stayed with the house surgeon of the German Hospital today for Chicago. Stoecker joined the anti-Semitic movement in 1888 “because he believed that the Hebrews in several cities and districts in Germany were persecuting and oppressing the Christians.” (This is four decades before the rise of Hitler)

    1893: In what may be the first round of a general strike in the clothing industry, the finishers went on strike. Eighty per-cent of the 25,000 workers in the clothing in New York’s clothing industry are Jewish, most of whom are immigrants from Russia and Poland.

    1894(1st of Elul, 5654): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1894: “Man’s Oldest Civilization” published today provided a lengthy review of New Light on the Bible and the Holy Land: Recent Discoveries in the East by Basil T. Evetts.

    1894: Approximately 600 employees decided to go on strike at Julius Stein & Co in New York City.

    1894:  Birthdate of Austrian author Joseph Roth best known for his family saga, The Radetzky Marchand for his novel of Jewish life Job.

    1895: The tailors, most of whom are Jewish, “will celebrate their victory over the contractors today, Labor Day, with a big mass meeting and parade.”

    1896: “Stein’s Heavy Stealings” published today described how the jewelry firm of Julius M. Lyon was forced to close its doors do the embezzlement orchestrated by 26 year old Julius Stein, his most trusted employee, that cost the firm  over $200,000.

    1897: Dr. Julius Wasserman conducted the funeral services for Lazarus Morgenthau at the residence of is son J.C. Morgenthau which were followed by burial “in the family vault at Salem Fields, Cypress Hills Cemetery.”

    1897: Writing in the American Israelite, Reform Rabbi Isaac M. Wise expressed his belief in the impossibility of the Zionist dream due in part to Herzl’s ignorance about Judaism and the inevitable clash between him and Orthodox Jewry.

    1898: The “wealthy Jews” living at Hempstead, Long Island and surrounding villages are considering a plan to build a synagogue.

    1898: During the Dreyfus affair,the presidential decision that ratified the board of inquiry’s decision to discharge Estherhazy “for habitual misbehavior” was made today, three days after Colonel Henry’s sucide.

    1898: Herzl leaves Basel and sets out for the Bodensee island of Mainau, for an audience with the Grossherzog Friederich of Baden. The main topic of the audience is Kaiser Wilhelm's journey to Palestine.

    1899: “Notes and News,” a compilation of information from various publishing houses reported today that the September issue of Century contains a “timely article” entitle “An American Forerunner of Dreyfus” that tells the story of a gallant naval officer who early in the present century was persecuted throughout his career because he was a Jew.”  (Editor’s note – this must be a reference to Commodore Uriah P. Levy)

    1902(30thof Av, 5662): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1905: A disastrous fire in Adrianople, Turkey destroys 1500 Jewish homes and 13 synagogues. 10,000 Jews were rendered homeless along with the 40,000 who already were.

    1906(12thof Elul, 5666): Rabbi Elias Epstein passed away

    1907: Sir Matthew Nathan, the son of Jewish Paddington businessman Jonah Nathan became the 7thGovernor of Natal.

    1911: Alderman Henry E.  Davis was re-elected May of Gravesend in Great Britain.

    1912: Birthdate of David Daiches, the Scottish literary critic and writer whose memoir was entitled “Two Worlds: An Edinburgh Jewish Childhood.”

    1913(30thof Av, 5673): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1913: Birthdate of Israel Gelfand, the prize-winning Soviet mathematician.

    1913: The 11thWorld Zionist Congress met today in Vienna where it approved a resolution “to establish a Hebrew University in Palestine.”

    1915: Two weeks after the lynching of Leo Frank, Tom Watson equated the hanging with an act of God as he wrote in The Jeffersonian, “the voice of the people is the voice of God.” 

    1915: The circulation of Tom Watson’s The Jeffersonian reached 87,000 today, triple the number of issues sold before Watson began writing articles condemning Leo Frank as the murder of Mary Phagan.

    1923: Universal Pictures released the Irving Thalberg production of “The Hunchback of Notre Dame.”

    1924: In Wolomin, Poland, Izaak Krasucki and his wife gave birth to French trade unionist Henri Krasucki.

    1926: Birthdate of department store mogul, political activist and philanthropist Betsy Bloomingdale.

    1926:The opinion that there is unity in American Jewry and the only real division is on the question of Jewish nationalism and Zionism is voiced by today’s  "American Israel" Referring to the various rabbinical seminaries that have been established in American Jewry, the paper continues thus: "These widely varying institutions are typical of the divisions in American Jewry. We have the strictly orthodox, the moderately orthodox, the middle of the road, the moderately reform, the ultra-reform and the Yom Kippur, Rosh Hashana and Kaddish Jew, each holding firmly to his own views. "In a number of instances these differences of opinion have resulted in the useless duplication of philanthropic institutions, especially hospitals, homes for indigent aged and infirm and orphans homes. "Here the main dividing factor is the matter of 'Kashruth,' not only according to the commands of Mosaic Law, but also the requirements added after the Scriptural era by the Rabbis and other Talmudic authorities. "Yet all these divisions in American Jewry, irremediable as they apparently appear are, after all, not so wide, not so important as they seem. "Whenever persecution becomes violent, as it is at present in Europe, and misfortune in its direct forms comes upon our brethren anywhere, the truth of the old maxim. 'All Israel are brethren' is sure to be again verified and help is given unstintedly by all Jews, regardless of the particular kind of Judaism they may profess. This has been splendidly exemplified during the last few years in which brief-period American Jewry, in addition to private benefactions, has contributed not less, probably more than one hundred million dollars for the alleviation of the misery brought upon suffering coreligionists through the fanaticism and barbarism of their Christian countrymen. "After all, there is more or less unity in American Jewry. If there is any real division today it is on the question of Zionism and that, except as it refers to Nationalism, is of no vital importance."

    1931: New York state Supreme Court justice Alfred Frankenthaler will hear a motion this morning seeking “to restrain the national officers” of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America “from interfering with the activities of the local Cutters Union 4.

    1932: Birthdate of Arnold Shepard Greenberg, the Brooklyn native who founded beverage giant “Snapple” with his brother-in-law.

    1932: In Hamburg, Germany, George Mengers and Ruth Levy gave birth to “Sue Mengers, a powerful agent who represented stars like Barbra Streisand and Steve McQueen and helped shape Hollywood’s vibrant revival in the 1970s” (As reported by Michael Cieply)

    1934: Dr. Joseph H. Hertz, Chief Rabbi of the United Kingdom officiates at consecration of the Wembly United Synagogue

    1935: Hundreds of mourners attended the funeral for Herman Bernstein in New York City. During the eulogy, Rabbi Clifton Harby Levy said that “Herman Berstein was a fine exemplar of the Jewish American who chooses the United States for his home for what he can give, not for what he can get…He was an American Jew, faithful to America an faithful to Judaism. A native of Russia, Bernstein was educated in the United States where he wrote for several publications including the New York Evening Post, The Nation and the New York Times.  In 1921, he wrote History of a Lie, which exposed the Protocols of Zion as being “a notorious forgery. His diplomatic career included a stint as Ambassador to Albania. Burial was in the Montefiore Cemetery.

    1935: The funeral for Rabbi Avraham Rabbi Avraham Yitzchak HaCohen Kook is scheduled to take place today at l p.m.  All cafes, theatres and places of amusement throughout Palestine will remain closed until after the funeral is over.

    1936:  Birthdate of Andy Grove, who served as CEO of Intel from 1987 until 1998.

    1939: Premiere of “The General Died At Dawn” directed by Lewis Milestone (Leib Milstein) with a script co-authored by Clifford Odets.

    1937: The Mandatory administration and police took summary action in connection with the recent wave of Jewish-Arab violence. In Hadera 15 Jews, mostly Revisionists, were arrested and summarily sentenced, under the prevention of crime ordinance, to one year's imprisonment. In Jerusalem, Tel Aviv and Hadera many Jews were held for interrogation.  The Mandatory administration was usually much effective at arresting Jews than Arabs.

     1937: An Arab constable was shot and killed by Arab terrorists at the high commissioner's summer residence at Atlit.

    1937: Birthdate of Sophie Turner-Zaretsky. Born Selma Schwarzwald in Lvov (Lwow, L'viv), Poland, she would gain fame for her stuffed bear named “Refugee” a replica of which would be taken into outer space by Space Shuttle Discovery Commander Mark Polansky in December of 2006.

    1939: The Germans established, a camp for "civilian prisoners of war" at Stutthof, Poland

    1939: As 1400 Jews escaping from Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, and Czechoslovakia land on a Tel Aviv beach. British soldiers shoot and kill two refugees.

    1939: In Mirecourt, Vosges, France. Roger Lang and Marie-Luce Bouchet gave birth to French political leader Jack Mathieu Émile Lang 

    1940: German occupation authorities in Luxembourg introduced the Nuremberg Laws. All Jewish businesses were seized and handed to "Aryans."

    1940: Bishop Theophil Wurm, head of the provincial LutheranChurchat Württemberg, Germany, sends a second letter to German Interior Minister Wilhelm Frick expressing his objections to "euthanasia" killings.

    1941: The Germans open an exposition in Paris called "The Jew and France." Visitors see sculptures and paintings of hideous mythical Jews, Jews allegedly cursed to wander the world forever because of their supposed attack on Jesus Christ, and Jews allegedly out to control the world. Other exhibits portray the Jew as a repulsive monster destroying France. In the first few days, more than 100,000 Parisians visit the exhibit

    1941: Romanians and Germans force nearly 150,000 Jews into death marches to internment camps in Bessarabia, Ukraine. Many die of beatings, random shootings, fatigue, hunger, thirst, exposure, and disease.

    1941: Chemists and mechanics at the RSHA (Reich Security Main Office) Criminal Technical Institute develop an execution van with engine exhaust directed to the sealed rear-cargo area.

    1941: Jews in Slovakia, Bohemia, and Moravia are ordered to wear Yellow Stars, effective September 19, and to suspend all business activity.

    1941 Ukrainian nationalist Ulas Samchuk, editor of the newspaper Volhyn, writes that Jews and Poles "must disappear completely from our cities."

    1942: Over the next three days, 6,000 more Jews from Wlodzimierz would join the 7,000 Jews gathered the previous day for transport to the death camps. Babies were dropped to their death from hospital windows. One enterprising German began catching them with his bayonet.

    1942: The Nazis liquidated the Mir ghetto

    1942: Ten thousand Jews in Dzialoszyce, Polandwere gathered. Two thousand were killed in a bloody purge during the day. Eight thousand were deported to Belzec.

    1942 In Oslo, Norway, Julius Samuel, the chief rabbi of Norway, refuses to go into hiding or to flee the country. He is arrested and interned in a camp at Berg, south of Oslo

    1942: At Lachva (aka Lachwa) in Belorussia, which at that time was part of the Soviet UnionGerman troops, together with Belorussian police, surrounded the ghetto which still contained 2,000 people. Dov Lopatin head of the Judenrat refused the German request to line up for deportation. Although many of the town’s elders were against taking any initiative, Lopatin and the youth leaders decided to resist even without weapons. As the Germans entered, most of the town attacked them even though they were only “armed” with axes, sticks, and Molotov cocktails. Between 600 and 700 Jews were killed fighting, and a further 600 succeeded in reaching the forests after killing or wounding about 100 Nazis. The rest were shot by the Germans. Many of those who reached the forests were killed by local police units. Approximately 90 people survived. The resistance ended on the following day.

    1942: Birthdate of attorney Robert Shapiro, part of O.J. Simpson’s Dream Team who cofounded LegalZoom.

    1943: “Proposals for the immediate rescue of as many Jews as possible from the Nazi-controlled countries of Europe, for the post-war rehabilitation of Jewish life in those lands and for an international bill of rights to safeguard their political status in the future were approved” today “by the American Jewish Conference as it brought to a close its five day meeting at the Hotel Waldorf-Astoria.”

    1943: One thousand Jews are deported from Paris to Auschwitz

    1943: Ten thousand Jews from Tarnów, Poland, are deported to Auschwitz and the Plaszów slave-labor camp.

    1943(2nd of Elul, 5703): Fifty-one year old Joseph Diamond, a World War I veteran, former vaudevillian and clothing manufacture passed away today Rochester, NY. He was a Republican and a member of Temple B’rith Kodesh

    1943: During the next 48 hours, 3,500 Jews are deported from Przemysl, Poland, to Auschwitz.

    1943: At Treblinka the Jews who were left behind to clean out the recently closed camp revolted against their guards. Wearing a guard's uniform, Seweryn Klajnman led his fellow 12 inmates out of the camp to their freedom. The remaining Jews would be sent to Sobribor after the final dismantling of Treblinka. Treblinka was plowed over and turned into a farm.

    1944(14th of Elul, 5704): Bella Chagall passes away.    

    1944: Walter Suskind, who had been released from Westerbork transit camp, finds out that his family is about to be shipped to Theresienstadt and joins them for what will be a trip that leads to their death at Auschwitz-Birkenau.

    1944: Approximately 2000 Jews deported from Plaszów, Poland, are gassed to death at Auschwitz.

    1944: Diarist Anne Frank and her family were placed on the last transport train from Westerbork to Auschwitz. They would arrive at their destination three days later.

    1945: World War II officially ended as Japan signed the terms of surrender on the deck of the battleship USS Missouri.

    1945: Among those attending the surrender of Japan was Bernard Schwartz who was serving aboard the submarine tender U.S.S. Proteus. Years later actor Tony Curtis would say, “That was one of the greatest moments of my life.

    1946:  Ayn Rand begins writing Atlas Shrugged.

    1950: In Dushanbe, Tajikistan, Yashuva Kolontarov and Tamara Khanimova Kolontarova gave birth to Tajik-American dance Malika Kolontarova, known as the “Queen of Tajik & Eastern Dance.”

    1951: In the wake of the assassination of Jordan’s King Abdullah, Israel has informed the Big Three (U.S., Great Britain and France) that it will not stand idly by if there is a change in the Middle East that would result in Jordan’s union with Syria or Iraq.  Israel will take act to protect its self if Syrian or Iraqi troops take up positions on the east bank of the Jordan River. 

    1952: Yosef Opatoshu, the 65-year-old Polish-born Yiddish writer, arrived aboard the SS Kedma, as a guest of the Histadrut Executive.  Optashua was famous in his own right but he is also known as the father of American character actor David Opatoshu.  One of David Opatoshu's most famous roles was that of the Zionist leader Arik in the movie “Exodus.”  The character was loosely based on Menachem Begin.

    1954(4th of Elul, 5714):Franz Leopold Neumann a German-Jewish political activist and labor lawyer, who became a political scientist in exile and is best-known for his theoretical analyses of National Socialism passed away today at the age of 54.  He studied in Germany and the United Kingdom, and spent the last phase of his career in the United States. Together with Ernst Fraenkel and Arnold Bergstraesser, Neumann is considered to be among the founders of modern political science in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    1965: Rabbi Amram Blau, the legendary leader of the extremist, ultra-Orthodox group Neturei Karta married Ruth Ben-David in a Bnei Brak yeshiva.

    1969: The last episode of the original “Star Trek” television series is broadcast.  Most people did not know that the actors playing the Captain and his loyal first officer were played by Jewish actors

    1978: Italian premiere of “Dawn of the Dead” co-starring Gaylen Ross as “Francine Parker.”

    1987: The Holocaust themed film, ''Flames in the Ashes,''  opens at Film Forum 1 asking the question, ‘Who is more heroic, one who goes in the woods to fight with a gun or one who decides to go that last road and die with his family?

    1989: A revival of the musical “Shenandoah” with lyrics and story co-authored by Phillip Rose closed today.

    1991: Jerry Lewis' 26th Muscular Dystrophy telethon raised $45 Million.

    1997(30th of Av, 5757): Viktor Frankl, author of Man’s Search for Meaning passed away. There is no way to justice to the man or his writings in this brief space.  If you have not read Man’s Search for Meaning, you should.  If you have read it, you should read it again.“Don’t aim at success - the more you aim at it and make it a target, the more you are going to miss it. For success, like happiness, cannot be pursued; it must ensue, and it only does so as the unintended side effect of one's personal dedication to a cause greater than oneself or as the byproduct of one's surrender to a person other than oneself. Happiness must happen, and the same holds for success: you have to let it happen by not caring about it. I want you to listen to what your conscience commands you to do and go on to carry it out to the best of your knowledge. Then you will live to see that in the long run - in the long run, I say! - success will follow you precisely because you had forgotten to think of it." - Man's Search for Meaning

    2001: The New York Times included reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or about topics of Jewish interest includingThe Marble Quilt: Stories by David Leavitt.

    2003: The appointment of 49 year old Jill Abramson as the managing editor for news gathering at the New York Times takes effect today.

    2003: The Boeing Company named David Ivry who had served as commander of the IAF and Israel’s Ambassador to the United States, as President of Boeing Israel.

    2004(16th of Elul, 5764): In Honolulu Marilyn M. Lichton, co-founder of the Hadassah-Hawaii chapter and secretary of Temple Emanu-El passed away at the age of 74.

    2005: Funeral services in Cedar Rapids for Leo Handler, father of Mark Handler and Barbara Feller.  Mr. Handler passed away on September 1 at the age of 85.

    2005: Funeral services were held in Brookfield, Wisconsin for Ruth Swider Gelbart (Ruchl bat Szaja Pesach v'Rivka Laiya), mother of Marsha Fensin, former Cantor at Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids.  Mrs. Gelbart was a survivor of the Warsaw Ghetto.  She made her way to Palestine while it was still under the control of the British before moving to the United States after the untimely death of her husband.  

    2006:Security forces said they had arrested two Palestinian militants suspected of trying to launch rockets from the West Bank into central Israel with the backing of Hezbollah. At the same time, Italian troops started arriving in Lebanon as part of the UN peacekeeping force that will enable Israeli forces to withdraw under the terms of the UN brokered cease fire with the same Hezbollah organization.

    2007:As part of European Day of Jewish Culture and Heritage the Manchester Jewish Museum is fully playing its part on this day when important Jewish buildings throughout Europe are freely open to the public. The theme of the day is “Testimonies”. Visitors hear testimonies from the extensive collection of interviews with Manchester Jews about their lives as newcomers to Manchester in which they described the joys and sorrows of growing up in Manchester in the late nineteenth and early 20thcenturies. At well known raconteur Stanley Hyman entertains and amuse with his vivid recollections of ManchesterJewish life.

    2007: The Sunday New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Marc Chagall by Jonathan Wilson, Jews and Power by Ruth R. Wisse, The World Without Us by Alan Weisman and Away by Amy Bloom.

    2007: The Sunday Washington Post book section featured a review of Interventionsby Jewish gadfly Noam Chomsky.

    2007: In London, the ZF conference, entitled “Israelat 60” comes to an end.

    2007: In Glenn Kessler’s recently released The Confidante: Condoleezza Rice and the Creation of the Bush Legacy Rice is described as thinking that Chairman Mahmoud Abbas was a weak disappointment and that President Bush’s signature Mideast peace program was unworkable.

    2007: On the eve of the Labour Day classic Canadian Football League game which he was to host, Canadian sport journalist Elliotte Friedman shaved his head bald in secret without telling many family members or friends. This was in recognition of a young boy he met at a shopping mall whose parents informed him their child was a big fan of his and watched all his broadcasts. Unfortunately, the boy was afraid to greet Elliotte due to the fact that he was bald as a side effect of his chemotherapy. As a result, Elliotte shaved his head in secret in order to show the young man that there is nothing wrong with being bald.

    2008: A new 120mm mortal shell with a built-in guidance system that allows operators to direct the shell to its target with a laser-honing device was unveiled at a press conference held at Israel Military Industries (IMI) headquarters in Ramat Hasaharon.

    2008: In a story entitled “Entrepreneurs Find Ways to Make Technology Work with Jewish Sabbath,” Dan Levin describes how “the rabbis, scientists and engineers of the Zomet Institute are trying to solve the problems that arise when technology and the Torah collide.

    2009: Just before the start of the High Holidays, The Jerusalem Theater presents a festive concert of classic pieces from the cantorial repertoire, including "Mamale” and Rosenblatt's "All of Israel are Brothers."

    2009: Archaeologists digging in Jerusalem have uncovered a 3,700-year-old wall that is the oldest example of massive fortifications ever found in the city, the Israel Antiquities Authority said today.The 26-foot-high wall is believed to have been part of a protected passage built by ancient Canaanites from a hilltop fortress to a nearby spring that was the city's only water source and vulnerable to marauders. The discovery marks the first time archaeologists have found such massive construction from before the time of Herod, the ruler behind numerous monumental projects in the city 2,000 years ago, and shows that Jerusalem of the Middle Bronze Age had a powerful population capable of complex building projects, said Ronny Reich, director of the excavation and an archaeology professor at the University of Haifa. The wall dates to the 17th century BC, when Jerusalem was a small, fortified enclave controlled by the Canaanites, one of the peoples the Bible says lived in the Holy Land before the Hebrew conquest. The kingdom thought to have been ruled from Jerusalem by the biblical King David is usually dated to at least seven centuries later. A small section of the wall was first discovered in 1909, but diggers have now exposed a 79-foot portion, and Reich believes it stretches much further. Reich said budget constraints related to the global financial crisis put an end to the excavation, at least for now.


    2009: At Tel Aviv’s Hayarkon Park, Madonna appears at the second and last of two concerts that are the final stop on her “Sticky and Sweet” tour. She first appeared at Hayarkon Park 16 years ago as part of her Girlie Tour, and also visited Israel in 2006 during the Jewish High Holidays along with 2,000 other students of Kabbalah.  

    2010:Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas met today in Washington, DC as peace talks resume under the auspice of President Obama and Secretary of State Clinton.

    2010: Today, a Hamas spokesman said the group was responsible for another attack in which two settlers were shot and wounded just as Mr. Obama began his White House meetings. Reuters quoted a Hamas spokesman in Gaza, Sami Abu Zuhri, as saying “operations of resistance will continue” and neither Israel nor the Palestinian Authority would be able to thwart them.

    2010: Yula and The Extended Family, featuring Tel Aviv native Yula Beeri, are scheduled to perform at the Highline Ballroom in New York. 

    2010(23rd of Elul, 5770):Ninety-one  year old deputy police inspector Seymour Pine who led the raid on the Stonewall Inn passed away today. (As reported by Dennis Hevesi)

    2011: Madelyn Kent, an award-winning theater artist and published writer with an MFA from New York University, is scheduled to teach the first session of a four week long Jerusalem Memoir Workshop.

    2011:In Washington, DC, at the Historic Sixth & I Synagogue, Rabbi Shira Stutman is scheduled to lead an egalitarian, chavurah-style service and celebrate “Labor on the Bimah,” an initiative of Jews United for Justice. Labor on the Bimah weaves together labor issues, social justice and Judaism, in an effort to bring meaning and reflection back into Labor Day.

    2011:Germany's Foreign Ministry announced today that it will not take part in the UN-sponsored Durban III anti-racism conference on September 22, because of the possibility that the event can be turned into a forum for anti-Semitic statements.

    2011: Turkey said today it will seek to prosecute all Israelis responsible for the deaths of nine Turkish activists during an IDF raid on a ship bound for the Gaza Strip in May 2010.

    2012: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including When We Argued All Night by Alice Mattison, “a book about the trajectories of 20th-century Jewish life” and the recently released paperback edition of Trials of the Diaspora: A History of Anti-Semitism in Englandby Anthony Julius

    2012:Jewish Homegrown History: Immigration, Identity and Intermarriage” is scheduled to have its final showing at the Skirball Cultural Center

    2012: In the wake of Hurricane Isaac, Congregation Beth Israel is scheduled to dedicate its new facility in Metairie.  The original building was destroyed during Hurricane Katrina in 2005.

    2012:All 50 families living in the Migron outpost evacuated their homes today in advance of a court-imposed military evacuation set for September 4th.

    2012:A long-lost poem by Hannah Szenes, titled “Hora to an exiled girl,” was revealed on Army Radio this morning, 68 years after the its Jewish paratrooper author was executed by a Nazi firing squad


    2013: James Franco is scheduled to be roasted on Comedy Central

    2013: “Fill the Void” is scheduled to open at Kimball Theatre in Williamsburg, VA.

    2013:Mihaela Martin, Latica Honda-Rosenberg, Ori Kam, Madeleine Carruzzo and Julian Steckel are scheduled to perform Mozart’s String Quintet in C Major, K515 at The Jerusalem International Chamber Music Festival.

    2013: In Budapest, the Jewish Summer Festival is scheduled to come to an end.

    2013: Today, “Pope Francis assigned a senior church official to investigate the current ban on Jewish and Muslim religious slaughter in Poland, where such practices have been illegal since January…The Pope also reiterated a statement he made earlier this year that “a Christian cannot be an anti-Semite” (As reported by Sam Sokol)

    2013: A 92-year-old who served in the Waffen-SS, Adolf Hitler's elite Nazi troops, goes on trial today in the western city of Hagen on charges of having shot in the back and killed a Dutch resistance fighter at the end of World War II.

    2014: Dr. Efraim Lev and Dr. Moshse Lavee are scheduled to begin a week-long visited to the Center for Judaic Studies and Contemporary Jewish Life at the University of Connecticut.

    2014: At Temple Judah, choir rehearsal begins in preparation for the High Holidays.





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    September 3

    141 BCE (18th of Elul, 3619): The fight begun by Matthias and Judah came to a successful conclusion when Simon was elected High Priest and was recognized as the governing authority of an independent Jewish state.

    301: San Marino, one of the smallest nations in the world and the world's oldest republic still in existence, is founded by Saint Marinus. During World War II the 15,000 people of San Marino provided a refuge for 100,000 fleeing the fascists, including a large number of Jews.

    590: Gregory I, known to history as St. Gregory and/or Gregory the Great became Pope at the age of 50.  At first blush, Gregory seems to be a classic anti-Semite.  He regarded Judaism as “depravity” and Jewish interpretation of the Bible as “perverse.”  For all intents and purposes he banned conversion to Judaism.  He banned Christians from working for Jews.  He also limited opportunities by ordering Christians not to use Jewish doctors and forbidding the clergy from employing Jewish clerks.  Following the precedent of Justinian, he barred Jews from holding public office, forbade the building of new synagogues and urged the rescuing of Jews from “their false” doctrines i.e. conversion to Christianity.  At the same time, Gregory opposed forced conversion, calling on church officials to use “gentleness and kindness to make the Jews desire to change their way of life.”  For Jews who did not wish to convert he said, We will not have the Hebrews oppressed and afflicted unreasonably.”  On more than one occasion Gregory intervened on behalf of the Jews when they were attacked even by mobs led by officials of the Church. When synagogues were invaded, Gregory ordered the buildings to be restored to the Jews and repairs made to any damaged items.  When a converted Jew entered a synagogue and tried to make it into a church, Gregory responded with the following admonition, “Just as the law forbids he Jews the building of new synagogues, it also guarantees them preservation of the old ones.”  Gregory strongly opposed Judaism, but compared to his contemporaries and successors, he “did not lack scruples.”

    1189: Many Jews living in London were killed in riots during the coronation of Richard I. One of the victims was Rabbi Jacob of Orleans a student of the famous Rabbenu Tam.  Richard the Lionhearted was not an anti-Semite.  In fact he moved to stop the riots.  Unfortunately Richard was so busy with the third Crusade and fighting to hold his lands in France that he had no time to protect the Jews.

    1260: The Mamluks defeat the Mongols at the Battle of Ain Jalut in Palestine, marking their first decisive defeat and the point of maximum expansion of the Mongol Empire. The battle was fought in the Jezreel Valley in the Galilee.  It seems a little strange to those who connect this geography with David and Goliath to think of the Mongols of the Kahns fighting to control Eretz Israel. The Mamluks were Moslems.  Their immediate connection with the Jewish people can be traced to one of the founders of the Egyptian Caliphate, Saladin who allowed the Jews to return to Jerusalem.  After 1260, inland Jewish communities such as Safed grew replacing coastal communities such as Acre in importance. The battle was the high water mark for Mongol attempts to conquer the land that came to be known as the Ottoman Empire.

    1658: Oliver Cromwell the Lord Protector of England, died at the age of 59. Cromwell gets high marks in terms of Jewish history.  He was responsible for bringing openly practicing Jews back to Englandafter a three and one half century absence.  Even with Cromwell championing their cause, the road to readmission was not smooth.  However by 1657, a year before the Lord Protector’s death, the Jews of London felt secure enough in their position to purchase a building to serve as a synagogue.

    1758(30th of Av, 5518): Rosh Chodesh Elul            

    1777(1stof Elul, 5537): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1783: The American Revolutionary War ends with the signing of the Treaty of Paris. The majority of Jews in the Colonies had supported the American cause.  The treaty ensured them and their progeny a life in “the last best hope of man.”

    1814: In London, English  merchant  Abraham Joseph and his wife gave birth to James Joseph who gained famed as mathematician James Joseph Sylvester.

    1834:Birthdate of German rabbi, Hermann Tietz.

    1836 (21st of Elul, 5596):Daniel Mendoza who was boxing champion of England from 1792 to 1795 and is called “the father of scientific boxing” passed away.

    1845: In Besançon, France, Adelaide (née Friedmann) and Leopold Herz, gave birth to Cornelius Herz a pioneer in the field of electricity who “was the founder, along with Alphonse de Rothschild, of the American Syndicate of Electricity.”

    1852:  Anti-Jewish riots broke out in Stockholm.

    1855: Birthdate of Heinrich Conreid, the Silesian native who became director of the Metropolitan Opera in New York City.

    1859: Birthdate of French socialist leader Jean Jaurès who was an early and energetic defender of Alfred Dreyfus.

    1860: Birthdate of Edward Albert Filene,Boston merchant.  Born in Salem, Massachusetts, Filene was one of long list of American Jews who gained wealth and power as “merchant princes.”  As president of the Boston firm of William Filene's Sons he pioneered in scientific and ingenious methods of retail distribution: the "bargain basement" was one of his innovations. He planned and helped organize the Boston Chamber of Commerce and the Chamber of Commerce of the United States and served in World War I as chairman of the War Shipping Committee. He was active in civic reform movements and was the founder (1919) of the Cooperative League, which became the Twentieth Century Fund. He wrote several books on business methods and on economics. His liberal economic and political views made him a controversial figure.

    1862” Birthdate of Moses Hyamson, the Russian born Rabbi who served as Chief Dayan (Judge) of the London Beth Din and acting Chief Rabbi of the British Empire.

    1864: The Varieties Theatre which would eventually become "a Jewish theatre" opened today at 37 Bowery.

    1864: Birthdate of Francis Crawford Burkitt, the British scholar and divinity professor at Cambridge whom Solomon Schechter trusted to go through many of the Greek language manuscripts that had been found in the Cairo Geniza.  (For about this see “Sacred Trash” by Hoffman and Cole).

    1872(30th of Av, 5632): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1872: “John H. Morton, boatswain of the Packetship Charles H. Marshall of the Black Ball line appeared before U.S. Commissioner of Emigration Osborne on charges of having inhumanly treated Meyer Velt, a German Jew who was a passenger on board the ship.”  Velt claimed that he had been tied up by Morton and the “repeatedly cuffed, kicked and beaten.”  Credence was added to his charges by the fact that several others on the ship complained of “bad treatment” and because similar charges had been brought against the Charles H. Marshall before.  The Commissioner sent Morton back to Castle Garden expressing regret that the law did not allow him to punish the boatswain but suggested that he be sent to Police Court to answer for his crimes.

    1875: Birthdate of Albert von Breitenbach, the native of Cologne, Germany who gained fame as American songwriter Fred Fisher whose works including “Come Josephine In My Flying Machine” and “Peg O’ My Heart.”

    1879:It was reported today that Vasile Boerescu , the Romanian Foreign Minister, has been visiting governments in Europe in an attempt to gain modifications of those parts of Treaty of Berlin which committed his government to emancipating its Jewish population.  Boerescu justified Romania’s treatment of the Jews by comparing it to the plight of Chinese in the United States.

    1880(27thof Elul, 5640): Fifty-six year old Charles Steckler, a leading merchant in Jackson, CA passed away today, apparently having taken his own life.

    1881: It was reported that the Board of Estimate and Apportionment has made the distributions to several New York charities including $1,957.14 to the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society.

    1882: “Cairo, A Mountain Town” published today provides a description of this Catskill mountain village which provides a summer retreat for a variety of visitors “a good many” of whom “are Jews who “don’t care anything about…Sunday” and “want to play croquet, play the piano and go out riding.” According to the locals the Jews “are just like anybody else.  There’s nice Jews and there’s them that aint nice.”

    1883(1stof Elul, 5643): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1883:  G.D.  Ginsburg wrote to his daughter that he had spent a month to make sure that the recently discovered scroll of Deuteronomy presented by Moses Shipra was a fake because the forger had shown “extraordinary cleverness” and skill and his diligence would make it impossible “for this clever band of rogues to” traffic in any more take antiquities.:

    1885: In New York City the apartment belonging to the family of Samuel Neuman and the adjacent schhol for Jewish children are scheduled to be fumigated today as the Health Department continues its fight against small-pox.  Neuman, the son of a Jewish tailor, was found to infected with the disease and is being treated at Riverside Hospital.

    1890: Coroner Levy went to Bellevue Hospital and had Lemuel Jaynes arrested after he ascertained that the nurse had mistakenly administered a lethal dose of carbolic acid to a typhus patient.
    1891(30th of Av, 5651): Rosh Chodesh Elul
    1891: A special inquiry is to be made into the fitness of Hirsch Birchanski to remain in the United States. The Russia Jew contends that contrary to the contention of Immigration Commissioner, he does have the ability to support himself and tis therefore eligible to enter the United States.
    1892: Birthdate of Brigadier General Henning Linden led a group of reporters including Marguerite Higgins and a detachment of the 42nd (Rainbow) Infantry Division as the soldiers received the surrender of the camp commander, generating international headlines by freeing more than 30,000 Jews and political prisoners
    1892: As concerns of a cholera outbreak worsened, members of the Peekskill, NY, Board of Health began inspecting the streets and houses in neighborhood populated primarily by Hebrews, Hungarians and Italians. (The immigrant population was thought to be the primary carry of the disease which had broken out in Europe.)
    1892: It is reported that a group of Russian Jews who had been “expelled from Odessa and traveled to Paris by way of Constantinople” under the sponsorship of the Israelite Alliance have left for Dieppe where they will set sail for Canada.  Many of the Jews sailing for Canada really want to settle in the United States and doing this to avoid the cholera quarantine at several U.S ports.
    1892: “Suffering at Ziontown” published today described the desperate condition of the fifty Russian Jews at the settlement in New Jersey who are so poor that they “have been subsisting on berries and fruit picked by the wayside.”
    1892: Based on reports published today, Baron de Mohrenheim, the Russian Ambassador to France believes that the Parisian press is “in the hands of the Jews” and “that the Rothschilds had opposed the Russian loan…in order to promote” a financial “collapse.”
    1892: It was reported today that any plans by England, the United States and “Continental countries” to shut off the flow of immigrants from Russia because of the threat of cholera might be part of plan to stop the flow of Jews from that country, which is a problem in and of itself for these same countries.
    1892: As Europe and the United States contend with a possible cholera epidemic, “officials of Jewish relief societies confirm” that no Russian Jews are entering the Thames, the gateway to London.
    1893: “Dramatic Debut…In The House” published today described the maiden speech of Coningsby Disraeli the son of Ralph Disraeli and the nephew of Benjamin Disraeli in the House of Commons.

    1893: “Sketches of Business Men in New York City” published today provided a detailed descr of the life of Oscar S. Straus.

    1893: “Individual Wealth” published today traced the history of wealth distribution back to Biblical times when “The Old Testament indicates that the trade of the Jews with the East was in the hands of Solomon and that is profits enriched the King and not the people.” In modern times “the colossal fortunes of Hirsh or Rothschild…are really insignificant when contrasted with the wealth of a nation” but they attract attention like the point of a pyramid while no one looks at the base where the real wealth is.
    1894: “Renan’s Final Volume” published today provides as detailed review of Histoire Du Peuple D’Israel by Ernest Rean, the fifth volume of the French Jewish authors History of Israel.

    1894: Members of the boards of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum and United Hebrew Charities will attend the funeral of Jacob Bamberger which begins at ten thirty this morning at Temple Emanu-El

    1894: About 400 clothing cutters, most of whom are Jewish held a meeting at Metropolitan Sienger Hall today and voted to go out on strike.
    1896: Based on information that first appeared in The Menorah Monthly “Jules Simon” published today reiterated the fact that the late French Prime Minister was not a Jew although he was often attacked for being one by his anti-Semitic detractors.  He was a member of the Israelite Universal Alliance and was a close friend of Aoldphe Cremieux, the French leader who was Jewish.
    1897: Nathan Straus decided to stop the sale of raw milk following the arrest of one of the employee’s at the milk booth at the Hebrew Institute “on charges of selling milk below the required standard.” Straus had begun the sale of milk in 1893 as part of his campaign to improve the health of the immigrant and poor populations.
    1898: In Hempstead, Long Island, Rabbi Cohen of Manhattan was among those attended a meeting at the home of Dr. A.D. Rosenthal where plans were discussed for holding High Holiday services which led to a discussion for the need for a permanent place of worship.

    1898: It was reported today that according to the Irish author Edward Dowden, the tale of Shylock wanting a pound of flesh is actually a variant on a Persian tale in which the “Jew is not impelled to cruelty because the money is not returned to him but for the reason that he is in love with debtor’s wife and” he wants to get the husband out of the way.
    1899: “Prodded the Prince of Wales” published today described a park-bench encounter at Marienbad between the Prince of Wales and an un-named Polish Jew who carried on a conversation with the future British monarch without knowing his identity that ended with him “digging his Royal Highness in the ribs and telling him he looked too healthy to need the water cure.”
    1899: In the Hague, the first meeting The International Congress of History, of which Oscar S. Straus is a member of the American Section, came to a close.
    1899: “Hebrew New Year Cards” published today described the growth in the sale of these “fancy affairs, ornamented with lace and flower and each with a motto or greeting in English and Hebrew” which “have been sold for some time in the Jewish stores” but a now being sold in the large department stores.
    1899: It was reported today that “throughout Austria, the Radicals and Socialists are now practically united in demanding their Constitutional rights” and “complete equality for the Jews.”
    1899: “The Jews” published today provide Mark Twain’s current view on these people

    1901: Pitcher Bill Cristall made his major league debut with the Cleveland Blues.

    1902(1stof Elul, 5662): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1902: Two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the Spanish and Portuguese Congregation Beth Israel at Hamburg. There were no celebrations.

    1903: Fire destroys a synagogue at Travnik, Bosnia.

    1905: Birthdate of Arthur Koestler, author of Darkness at Noon.

    1908: In Czernowitz, theFirst Conference for the Yiddish Language comes to a close.

    1913(1st of Elul, 5673): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1914: Giacomo Paolo Giovanni Battista della Chiesa was elected Pope serving as Benedict XV who dealt with issues related to the suffering European Jewry during WW I and the early days of the implementation of the Balfour Declaration under the British mandate.

    1915(24th of Elul, 5675): Ernst Nathan, the former Collector of Revenue under President Benjamin Harrison and prominent Brooklyn Republican passed away in his 74th year. A native or Prussia, Nathan had served as President of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum, Temple Beth Elohim and the Jewish Federation of Brooklyn Charities.

    1917: The British cabinet formally discusses the document that will be known as the Balfour Declaration.  While most ministers favored the declaration, Edwin Montagu a Jewish member of the cabinet spoke out against the declaration.  He feared that the declaration of Palestineas the Jewish National Home would undermine the progress that British Jews had made on the road to full acceptance in their English homeland. As secretary of state to India, Montagu claimed that the pro-Zionist statement would inflame the Moslem population of India. 

    1922: Birthdate of Alexander Petrovich Kazhdan, the Soviet born American expert in Byzantine studies.

    1924:  Pitcher Happy Foreman made his major league debut with the Chicago White Sox.

    1925: In Tajik, Sivyo Davydova and Rubin Mullodzhanov gave birth Shoista Mullojonova, the Bukharian Jewish singer.

    1926: In Oklahoma City, OK, Theodore and Esther Greenberg gave birth to Alan Greenberg the future leader of Bears Stearns.

    1926:A heated debate marked today's session of the Council of the League of Nations when it came to consider the report of the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations on the situation in Palestine.” (As reported by JTA)

    1926: A fight broke out today between a group of Bedouins and the residents of  Avodath Israel after the Jews refusing the shepherds’ request to their sheep graze on land belonging to the settlement.  The Jews refused because they it would be a violation of the government quarantine imposed in response to the current cattle plague.  (As reported by JTA)

    1926: The “Philadelphia Jewish Times” expressed its agreement with the statement made by Louis Marshall  “that the rights guaranteed by the national minority treaties are essentially the same as those guaranteed to citizens by the United States Constitution and therefore the Turkish Jews had no right to renounce their minority rights.” (The Turkish Jews were responding to the reform movement in Turkey where the leaders were trying to create a secular state.)

    1929: British forces repulsed an Arab raiding party this evening at El Mesha, a village east of Mount Tabor.  The Arabs suffered 26 casualties to one wounded British private. Fourteen Arabs were killed when they attacked Yesod Ha’Maalah and two others were killed when they attacked Nishmar Ha’Yarden.

    1931: Elmer Berger, a Reform Rabbi who would emerge as a lead of the anti-Zionist movement, married Seville Schwartz today.

    1933: Birthdate of Dr. Charles Joseph Epstein, the geneticist who survived an attack by the Unabomber.

    1934: The United Singers Society of Newark sponsored a Labor Day program at Union Singers Park featuring band music, fireworks and folk dancers dressed in authentic German costumes.  The program was attended by 4,000 people.  While the park was decorated with a variety of banners and flags emblematic of the German groups participating in the event, there were Nazi decorations or pictures of Hitler.  The Singers Society was a conservative organization that had distanced itself from the pro-Hitler elements in the United States.

    1938:The Italian newspaper Tevere,which has been publishing harshly anti-Semitic material for several years, praises the Mussolini decree rescinding the citizenship of all Jews who entered Italy after 1919.

    1939: Britain and France declared war on Germany. The response of Britainand Francewas a bit on the puzzling side to say the least.  The two allies had waited forty-eight hours to declare war.  The two western Allies were so inactive after the Germans took Poland that the following period was known as the Phony War.  For the Jews of Poland the war was not phony as they fell under the Nazi boot.

    1939(19th of Elul, 5699): The SS executed 26 Jews in the Polish frontier town, Wieruszow. The victims included Israel Lewi, Abraham Lefkowitz, Moseh Mozes and Usiel Baumatz.  Their fate presaged the fate of all the Jews of Poland.

    1939: At a meeting of the Jewish Agency Executive, an organization informally recognized as the ad hoc Jewish government of Palestine, David Ben-Gurion vows that Jews will fight Hitler. A total of a million and a half Jews will fight in the armed forces of nations opposing Germany: 555,000 Jewish servicemen and women in the American Armed Forces; 500,000 for the Soviet Union; 116,000 for Great Britain (26,000 from Palestine and 90,000 from the British Commonwealth); and 243,000 Jews for other European nations.

    1939:German troops invaded the home in Bielsko, Poland 15 year old Gerda Weissmann, the future American author and human rights activist.

    1939: Franny Krongold and Jacob Silberman, the parent of Rosie Silberman Canada’s first Jewish woman judge, were married today in Poland

    1939: The last Kindertransport, did not begin its scheduled trip because of the outbreak of World War II.

    1941: The Germans hung three Jewish brothers in Dubossary. Dubossary was in Moldaviawhich was part of the Soviet at this time.  Six hundred elderly Jews of Dubossary were thrown out of their homes, brought into eight synagogues, where each house of worship was then burned to the ground.Six Jews who refuse to serve on the Jewish Council at Dubossary, Ukraine, are publicly hanged. Later, 600 elderly Jews are driven into Dubossary's eight synagogues and burned alive when the synagogues are set ablaze.

    1941: The Germans test Cyclon B for effectiveness at Auschwitz.  The tests were declared a success as all of the “subjects” were killed.  Cyclon B will be the extermination weapon of choice for the Final Solution. Six hundred Soviet prisoners of war and 300 Jews are "euthanized" at Auschwitz.

    1942: At Lachva, Belorussia, more than 800 Jews battle Nazis in a revolt led by Dov Lopatyn. Most of the rebels are killed

    1942 The Geneva-based World Jewish Congress learns of deportations of French Jews.

    1942: The Germans informed Dov Lopatyn, the head of the Judenrat in Łachwa, Poland was to be liquidated today.  Lopatyn rejected the Nazi offer to spare his life if he would cooperate when he led the uprising that day claimed the life of approximately 1,100 Jews but enabled another 1,000 to escape. Yitzhak Rochzyn, one of the leaders of the uprising was killed by the Germans but Lopatyn escaped, joined a partisan unit with whom he fought until he was killed in 1944. “Either we all live or we all die” is a statement attributed to Lopatyn which Jews of the 21st century might do well to remember.

    1942: Josef Kaplan, a leader of the ZOB (Jewish Fighting Organization), is arrested in Warsaw, joining another leader, Yisrael Zeltzer, in detention. When another ZOB leader, Shmuel Braslav, is stopped in the street by German troops, he is shot dead after trying to pull a knife. Another ZOB leader, Reginka Justman, is shot after being stopped while carrying the ZOB's arms cache to a new hiding place; the arms are seized.

    1942: The Times of London began running articles describing the deportations of French Jews. The articles ran until September 14.

    1943: The New York Times published an article entitled “50,000 Jews Dying In Nazi Fortress.”

    1943: During World War II, the Allies invaded mainland Italy.  The Nazis moved south bringing with them their racial laws and exposing the Italian Jews to the reality of the Holocaust.  The Nazis would fail to dislodge the Allies, but thanks to the ineptitude of allied commanders, the fight up the Italians peninsula would waste lives and fail to shorten the war. 

    1943: “Rothchild Rites Planned” published today summarized the accomplishments of the late Edward S. Rothchild the banker who “is believed to have built the first sizable office building in San Francisco after the San Francisco Fire and Earthquake.”

    1943: Judge Louis E. Levinthal, President of the Zionist Organization of America was reported today to have issued a statement “hailing the resolution” adopted by the American Jewish Conference “calling for the right of Jewish refugees who can reach Palestine to establish permanent homes” as “an impressive manifestation of the overwhelming and enthusiastic support of American Jewry for the reconstruction of Palestine as a Jewish Commonwealth.”

    1943: In Dordogne, France, David Feuerwerker and of Antoinette Feuerwerker gave birth to historian Atara Marmor.

    1944:Bloeme Evers-Emden was placed on the last transport from the Netherlands bound for Auschwitz.

    1944: The day after famous painter Felix Nussbaum arrived at Auschwitz, his brother was sent to the Nazi death camp.

    1944: The Allies begin air evacuations of Jews from partisan-held regions of Yugoslavia to Allied-occupied Italy.

    1944: A senior Italian police officer named Giovanni Palatucci was arrested in the German-held Yugoslavian city of Fiume for aiding Jews, is sent to the concentration camp at Dachau, Germany, where he would die.

    1944: The Frank family, including sisters Margot and Anne, were put on the first of the three final trains at Westerbork concentration camp that shipped its human cargo to Auschwitz.

    1946: Those charged with war crimes and the evidence against them was returned to Dachau when the Soviets failed to arrive at the border zone and take possession of them

    1946(7th of Elul, 5706): Eighty-three year old pianist and composer Moriz Rosenthal who studied with Franz Liszt passed away today.

    1949: Birthdate of Raik Haj Yahia, an Israeli Arab who served in the Knesset in 1998 and 1999 as a member of the Labor Party.

    1950: Dr. Pinchas Churgin, President of the Mizrachi Organization of America announced today that a tract of land has been set aside in Tel Aviv for the construction of new college of arts and sciences patterned after American undergraduate colleges.  The plan is for the new school to begin accepting applicants within the next three years.

    1951: President Harry Truman sent a message to Alexander Kahn, general manager of the Forward expressing his sorrow over the death of Abraham Cahan whom he described "as a teacher and guide to generations of Jewish immigrants" (As reported by JTA)

    1951: According to published reports Israel is facing the worse food crisis that has confronted the Jewish state since its birth three years ago.  Except on the black market, fruits and vegetables have been all but unavailable on the local market.  The meat ration has been canceled for the last three weeks and there was no sugar ration available during August.  The cause of the shortage is the continued flow of new immigrants to the country which means that the food supply is always outstripped by the ever-increasing demand.

    1954: The German U-Boat U-505 begins its move from a specially constructed dock to its final site at Chicago's Museum of Science and Industry. Ironically, this captured Nazi ship would be a must-see stop each time a certain Jewish family visited Chicago during the summers of the 1950’s

    1969: In Brooklyn Georgia Brown and Jonathan Baumbach gave birth to screenwriter and director Jonathan Baumbach

    1974(16thof Elul, 5734): Seventy –four year old Russian born American painter Moses Soyer passed away today.

    1984(6th of Elul, 5744): Songwriter Arthur Schwartz passed away after suffering a stroke. He was 83. Born in Brooklynin 1900, Schwartz supported himself as a piano player while going to NYULawSchool.  After graduating, Schwartz decided to follow his artistic bent and became a highly successful song writer for vaudeville, Broadway and Hollywood. Unfortunately, most of his hits were of the popular mode and have not stood the test of time.

    1999: The Times of London reviewed The Rich and the Poor: Jewish philanthropy and social control in nineteenth-century London by Mordechai Rozin.


    The nature of the relationship between rich and poor, which is the subject of Mordechai Rozin's book on Jewish philanthropy in nineteenth-century London, is a contentious one. Since the collapse of socialism in 1989, students of British philanthropy have moved on from analyses based on a theory of class conflict to a more benign view of the charitable. Today, social historians, captivated by those buzzwords "community" and "civil society", are prone to see charities as valuable intermediary institutions acting as buffers between the individual and the State. In the past, they were more likely to treat those societies as devices by which the rich created a subservient class of Mr Pooters while maintaining the status quo. It is thus surprising to read a book published at the end of the 1990s which has all the hallmarks of the 70s. Nothing dates a history book more than a fashionable concept, and the term "social control" in The Rich and the Poor: Jewish philanthropy and social control in nineteenth-century London is redolent of an earlier way of thinking. Of course, many philanthropists wished to keep the poor in their place, particularly at times of social unrest, and used charitable work to confirm their status or climb the social ladder. Concentrating on the philanthropy of a small band of wealthy Jews, Rozin makes a case for this line of argument, but he does so by ignoring a great deal else, not least the religious and psychological pressures which so often lay behind charitable endeavor. By defining the function of philanthropy "as collective action . . . for the sake of the combined interests of the elite as a group, regardless of personal contributions of its individual members", he sidesteps the risk of having to deal with expressions of personal service. The successive waves of Jewish immigrants to London would have tested any system of relief. It certainly tested the Jewish Board of Guardians, established in 1859 to co-ordinate Jewish charity. The Board is central to Rozin's thesis, and he concludes that the rich and powerful who ran it were self-serving despots hostile to the basic needs of the Jewish poor, paternalists who put class interest ahead of ethnic solidarity. The Board's treatment of new immigrants was insensitive, but difficult decisions had to be made when charitable funds were limited. Rozin, somewhat surprisingly, believes that Jewish plutocrats had the financial resources to deal with sick and destitute Jews. A more usual refrain among historians is that nineteenth-century charitable resources were woefully inadequate, so much so that government intervention became a necessity. As an advocate of state welfare, Rozin must take added pleasure in accusing his plutocrats of stinginess. By concentrating on the Board of Guardians, Rozin ignores the enormous contribution made by wealthy Jews to non-Jewish charities such as the Prince of Wales's Hospital Fund for London (King's Fund). The financiers Baron Hirsch and Sir Ernest Cassel, who gave vast sums in aid of the London poor, are not even mentioned. Innovative Jewish charities in the East End, for example mothers' meetings and nursing societies, are likewise neglected. Still, the most valuable sections of the book touch on the variety of Jewish philanthropy. Like Engels, Rozin believes that the working classes were more charitable than the rich, and the pages on good works beyond the elite are particularly welcome. Institutions established by the poor themselves offered an alternative source of relief to the Board of Guardians. Their very existence, in Rozin's view, was evidence that the Board had failed in its duty by the harshness of its policies. They are also evidence of its failure to "control" the poor. As Rozin confirms, leading Jewish institutions shared the same social philosophy that marked English philanthropy, with its emphasis on casework, dislike of indiscriminate doles, and incentives to work. Yet, in practice, the charity of wealthy Jews, like that of their Christian counterparts, was more compassionate than such a doctrine suggests. In the case of the Jewish poor, who were known to be frugal and industrious, distinctions between deserving and undeserving claimants were often inappropriate. To those on the doorstep, not least Jewish lady visitors, the destitution and disease could be so overwhelming that abstract debate about the causes of poverty was meaningless; they were not to be reasoned out of their humanity by doctrinaire guidelines, or, dare one say it, even by self-interest. There may be something to be said for this study as a corrective to former glowing accounts of Jewish philanthropy, but charitable enterprise was more complex than is suggested here, where indulgence in social theory masks, and distorts, the lived experience.

    2000:The New York Times included reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or about topics of Jewish interest includingIt Didn’t Happen Here: Why Socialism Failed in the United States by Seymour Martin Lipset and Gary Marks, Stella in Heaven: Almost a Novelby Art Buchwald and JEW VS. JEW  The Struggle for the Soul of American Jewryby Samuel G. Freedman which is reviewed by Stephen J. Whitfield the smartest person I ever met at Tulane University. He now teaches at Brandeis University.

    2000: A ceremony was held at the site where the Struma was sunk to commemorate the tragedy. It was attended by 60 relatives of Struma victims, representatives of the Jewish community of Turkey, the Israeli ambassador and prime minister's envoy, as well as British and American delegates. There were no delegates from the former Soviet Union

    2000: The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) expressed concern at the Vatican’s beatification of Pope Pius IX, who was responsible for the 1858 abduction of a six-year old Jewish child through the following statement issued by Abraham H. Foxman, ADL National Director.“The beatification of Pius IX is troubling for the Jewish community. Pius was responsible for the case of Edgardo Mortara, who at the age of six was abducted from his family in Bologna and taken to the Vatican by Papal police after it was reported that the Jewish child has been secretly baptized. Many European heads of state protested the 1858 kidnapping, as did Jewish leadership. As a result, Pius blamed Rome’s Jews for what he believed was a widespread Protestant conspiracy to defeat the papacy and levied medieval restrictions on the community. While ADL respects the beatification process as a matter for the Catholic Church alone, we find the selection of Pius IX as inappropriate based on policies he pursued as the head of the Church. It is in the context of the many years of positive progress in Catholic-Jewish relations, including the historic visit of Pope John Paul II to Israel and his asking for the forgiveness of the Jewish people, that the beatification of Pius IX, whose role in denying Edgardo Mortara his family and his right to be who he was, is most unfortunate."

    2001: The nations of Israel and Georgia “jointly issued postage stamps to honor Shota Rustaveli. Designed by Yitzhak Granot, the Israeli stamp (3.40 NIS) showed the author with Hebrew text in the background.” A fresco depicting the Georgian poet can found at the Monastery of the Holy Cross in Jerusalem. (This serves as another reminder of the multi-national and multi-religious affiliations that have been part of the history of the Israeli capital for centuries.)

    2001(15th of Elul, 5761): Eighty-two year old film critic Pauline Kael, passed away today. (As reported by Lawrence Van Gelder)

    2001: In Jerusalem, three people were injured during a series of car bombings.

    2002: Pitcher Justin Wayne made his major league debut with the Florida Marlins.

    2004:The Seventh Jerusalem International Chamber Music Festival, under the musical direction of pianist Elena Bashkirova, opens in Jerusalem.

    2004: Jonathan David Leibowitz was sworn as a member of the Federal Trade Commission.

    2004: Governor Vilsack proclaimed this as Celebrate 350 Day in Iowa. The proclamation marked the start of various community activities in Iowamarking the birth of the American Jewish Community

    2005: The end of the summer holidays proclaims the start of the performing arts season and it begins with Dan Ettinger on the podium at the Rishon Performing Arts Center.

    2005: The Jerusalem Post reported that Palestinian leaders were “upset” with Pakistani officials for meeting with Israeli government officials in Turkey.  The high level meeting was viewed by the Palestinians as a reward for Israel’s withdrawal from Gaza; a reward which they felt was unwarranted.

    2005: As evidence of the vitality of the century old Cedar Rapids Jewish Community,Natalee Birchansky celebrated her Bat Mitzvah at TempleJudah.

    2005:Mike Bloom married a woman named Farah at Caleo Resort & Spa in Scottsdale, Arizona

    2006: The New York Times featured a review of Janna Levin’s A Madman Dreams of Turing Machinesa historical novel featuring Kurt Gödel and Alan Turing as characters.

    2006: The Washington Post featured reviews of Richard Grant’s Another World, a novel about an “unlikely hero who goes behind Germany's front line to retrieve evidence of the Nazis' Final Solution and A.B. Yehoshua’s A Woman In Jerusalem“a dreamlike novel by an Israeli master” in which a Jewish human resource manager is sent on an odd quest. [Speaking from experience, there is more fact than fiction to this since Jewish human resources professionals spend a lot of time dealing with odd requests.]

    2007: Maimonides finishes third in the Hopeful Stakes at Saratoga.  Maimonides is named for the Jewish sage and is owned by Ahmed Zayat, an Egyptian living in New Jersey.

    2007: In Jerusalem, the weeklong festival known as Jewish Music Days begins with a grand opening concert at Beit Shmuel, featuring Frank London and the AndraLaMoussia Ensemble. “Londonis an internationally acclaimed musical artist and a founder of the Klezmatics who will create unique encounters with the Jerusalem-based ensemble, a mosaic of traditions and originality.”

    2007: On Labor Day a statue of labor leader Samuel Gompers was unveiled in Chicago’s Gomper’s Park. Up until now, the park, named in honor of the longtime President of the American Federation of Labor had no monument to the man who led the fight for the eight hour day. 

    2007(20th of Elul, 5767): Dr. Jacob Levin passed away in Highland Park, Illinois.  There is not enough space to record the virtue of this man.  Suffice it to say that he was a mensch par excellence. 

    2007:Rabbi Aaron Sherman, of Temple Judah said he supports same-sex marriage in Iowa. "I don't find that two people of the same sex getting married in any way diminish the sanctity of marriage," he said.

    2008: In Washington, D.C., Daniel Mendelsohn, author of the award-winning family memoir The Lost: A Search for Six of Six Million,discusses and signs his new book of essays, How Beautiful It Is and How Easily It Can Be Broken, at Politics and Prose Bookstore.

    2008: The Budapest Short Film Festival opens featuring “Mother Economy” as an official selection. The nineteen minute film is artist Maya Zack’s powerfully imaginative meditation on Holocaust remembrance and on the myth of the Jewish mother.

    2008:Brad Meltzer reads from and signs his new thriller, The Book of Lies, at Barnes & Noble, in Bethesda, Maryland.

    2008: A critically acclaimed fully staged off-Broadway production of Joseph Stein’s “Enter Laughing: The Musica”l opened at the York Theatre. Stein is the son of Charles and Emma (Rosenblum) Stein, two Jewish immigrants from Poland.

    2009:Agi Mish'ol launches his new book Bikkur Bayit (House Call) at Mishkenot Sha'ananim in Jerusalem. “


    2009:Beit Avi Chai presents Part 4 of a workshop for people interested in Rambam (Maimonides), his unique philosophy, and its significance today.  

    2009: The Antiquities Authority said a 3,700-year-old wall that is the oldest example of massive fortifications ever found Jerusalem will be opened to the public beginning today.

    2009: The Washington Postfeatures a review of Homer & Langley by E.L. Doctorow  

    2010:In Washington, DC, Adas Israel is scheduled to kick-off the Labor Day Weekend and Erev Shabbat observance with L'Dor VaDor - The Back to Shul BBQ  

    2010: The New York Timespublished a review of Simon Wiesenthal: The Life and Legends by Tom Segev. In the book, the author reports for the first time that Wiesenthal received financial support from Mossad and that he played a key role in the capture of Adolph Eichmann.

    2010(24 Elul, 5770):Sixty-year old standup comic Robert Schimmel, a frequent guest on Howard Stern's radio show, has died after suffering serious injuries in a car accident.

    2011: The 14th Jerusalem International Chamber Music Festival is scheduled to open.

    2011; Matisyahu is scheduled to perform in Lowell, MA.

    2011: Kandi Abelson is scheduled to perform at the Off The Wall Comedy Basement in Jerusalem.

    2011:An estimated 460,000 people gathered across the country this evening to protest for social change as part of the "March of the Million," Channel 10 news reported.

    2011:An estimated 400,000 Israelis are marching across the country as part of the 'March of the Million,' a rally which organizers hope will grow to be the biggest social protest in Israel's history. According to initial estimates over 300,000 people have amassed in Tel Aviv's Kikar Hamedina square, where the central event is currently taking place.

    2011:Egypt's military has begun an operation to close a network of smuggling tunnels under the Egypt-Gaza border following tension with Israel, security officials said today. Hundreds of tunnels snake under the 9-mile (14-kilometer) border, where smugglers bring Gaza supplies and fuel limited by an Israeli blockade. Israel charges Gaza's Hamas rulers get weapons, ammunition and rockets through the tunnels and smuggle militants out.

    2012: “Labor on the Bimah,” a three-day social justice activity that “focused on the importance of workers' rights and organized labor and the challenges workers face” is scheduled to come to an end.

    2012: The French Israeli singer Françoise is scheduled to perform her Paris-Jazz show at Avram’s Bar in Jerusalem.

    2012: Retired Justice of the Supreme Court of Israel Ayala Procaccia is scheduled to deliver a lecture entitled “Israel as a Jewish and Democratic State: Freedom of Religion and Freedom from Religion.” This event is in memory of Sir Zelman Cowen, a leading legal mind who served as 19th Governor General of Australia.

    2012:A member of the Jewish community of Alexandria today denied reports that Egyptian authorities had canceled Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur prayers in the city – citing security concerns – saying he would personally lead the services during the High Holidays. Youssef Gaon, the caretaker of the Eliyahu Hanavi synagogue, was quoted by a Jewish official as saying prayers will be held at the 180-year-old house of worship this year, albeit without an ordained rabbi or cantor.

    2012:A new public elementary school named after a Holocaust survivor opened in Silver Spring, Md. The Flora M. Singer Elementary School, whose name was unanimously approved by the Montgomery County Board of Education on May 8, opened its doors to students today.

    2012: On Labor Day, American Jews can reflect on their role in the American Labor Movement:

    2013: “Fill the Void” is scheduled to open at the Biltmore Grande Stadium 15 in Asheville, NC

    2013: “Under the Skin” directed by Jonathan Glazer is scheduled to debut at the Venice Film Festival.

    2013: Elisabeth Leonskaja and Jerusalem Quartet are scheduled to perform Dvořák’s Piano Quintet no. 2 in A major, op. 81 at The Jerusalem International Chamber Music Festival.

    2013:“Two Palestinians in a speeding truck penetrated the first security barrier at Ben Gurion International Airport overnight today, prompting the initiation of emergency protocol and shutting down the airport for an hour.” (As reported by Yoel Goldman

    2013: Russia raised a brief alarm in the Middle East today after apparently detecting a joint Israel and US missile launch test in the Mediterranean (As reported by Joshua Davidovich and Mitch Ginsburg)

    2014: Dr. Moshe Lavee of University of Haifa, Israel, is scheduled to lecture on  "The Egyptian Midwives: Gender and Identity in Lost Aggadic Traditions from the Genizah" at the University of Connecticut.

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  • September 4

    476:The German general Odoacer defeated Orestes and deposed the child emperor Romulus Augustus marking the “official end of the Roman Empire.”  Actually this was the end of the Empire in the West. The Eastern Empire continued to rule. Although this is the official date, the imperial system had already effectively ended in the West.  The anarchy that immediately preceded and followed the so-called “Fall of the Roman Empire” was not good for any segment of the population. – Jew and gentile alike. But as is so often the case the effects of anarchy and lawlessness fell heavier on the Jews than on their neighbors.  The last decades of the Roman Empire were a period of unrest and uncertainty for the Jewish people living in Palestine and Europe.  The adoption of Christianity as the religion of the empire led to a variety of discriminatory practices aimed at the Jews.  On the other hand, the Jerusalem Talmud was completed in the first half of the fifth century.  The real of seat of learning and Jewish culture had moved to Babylonia where scholars and sages would continue to develop traditions and commentaries including the Babylonian Talmud. 

    1320: Pope John XXII issues a bull against the Talmud. Calling it "the damned initiatives of the perfidious Jews," he orders that "the plague and deadly diseased weed [of Judaism] must be pulled out by its roots." (As reported by Austin Cline)

    1554(27thof Elul, 5314): Cornelio da Montalcino - a Franciscan Friar who converted to Judaism - was burned alive in Rome, Italy.

    1609(5thof Elul, 5369):  Rabbi Judah Loew Ben Bezalel, the Maharal of Prague, passed away.  Born in 1525, he spent most of his life in Prague where he gained fame for his philosophic works and his commentaries including one on Rashi's Commentaries.  He was an advocate of reforming Jewish education, drawing on the words of Pirke Avot for his inspiration.  His fame was not limited to the Jewish community and the Emperor Rudolph was counted among his admirers.  For many the Marhal's greatest claim to fame was tied to a fictional creation called the Legend of the Golem.  That legend is a medieval version of the story of Frankenstein, according to which the Maharal breathed life into a human-like figure by sticking a slip of paper with the Tetragrammaton to his forehead.  This gigantic figure would be called forth to protect the Jews whenever they were in danger. Such was his popularity that there is a statue of him near the old city hall - a singular honor for Jew from the Middle Ages.   The term Maharal comes from the first Hebrew letters of the phrase (Moreinu ha-Rav Loew, "Our Teacher and Rabbi Loew").  According to some Orthodox Jews, the Mahral is a descendant of King David.  In more recent times, there are those who claim that the family of John Kerry be descended from the Maharal.  Now if that is true, and Kerry had won the election, that would mean that a descendant of King David was living at
    Sixteen Hundred Pennsylvania Avenue

    1654: “"23 souls, big as well as little," arrive in North America”

    1758(1st of Elul, 5518): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1781: Los Angeles, California, is founded as El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora La Reina de los Ángeles de Porciúncula (the City of Our Lady, the Queen of the Angels of the Little Portion) by 44 Spanish settlers.  Los Angeles would become part of Mexico and eventually part of the United States following the Mexican-American War.  Given the realities of Spanish life, any Jews who might have settled in the city in its earliest days would have been conversos, Marranos or some other variant of “secret Jew.”  One of the first known Jews to have settled in Los Angeles was a tailor named Jacob Frankfort who came to the city in 1841 after fleeing from New Mexico. While the records appear to be a little sketchy, more Jews arrived in 1849 and the Sephardic Community traces its roots back to the 1850’s. To put things in proper perspective the Jewish community was still so small that when the UAHCconducted the first national Jewish census between 1876 and 1878 Los Angeles community was so small that it did not appear in the count. It is estimated that there were approximately 400 Jews living in California based on U.S. Census records of 1880.  From such humble beginnings has come one of the largest and most vibrant Jewish communities in the United States!

    1827(12thof Elul, 5587): Rabbi Simcha Bunim Bonhart of Peshischa, a leader of the Chasidic movement passed away today.

    One of the more famous oral teachings attributed to Rabbi Simcha Bunim of Peschischa goes as follows:

    Everyone must have two pockets, with a note in each pocket, so that he or she can reach into the one or the other, depending on the need. When feeling lowly and depressed, discouraged or disconsolate, one should reach into the right pocket, and, there, find the words: "For my sake was the world created."
    But when feeling high and mighty one should reach into the left pocket, and find the words: "I am but dust and ashes."[

    1851: In New York, the first interment to place today at the Salem Fields Cemetery.. By September of 1877, over 7,000 burials had taken place at this Jewish burial ground adjacent to Cypress Hills.

    1858: In Laeken, Belgium, Jacques Errera and his wife gave birth to botanist Leo Abram Errera.

    1860:In New York a Jewish man and women were locked in a custody battle.Today an application for the Custody of a Child was made before Justice Ingrahamat theChambers of the Supreme Court. “The application was made to obtain the custody of a female child, five years of age, and claimed to be of illegitimate birth. The complainant “claimed that the father of the child, Louis Ephraim, was an improper person to have the care of it, and that he treated it in a cruel manner. These charges were denied by Ephraim, who averred that the child was born in wedlock. Both of the parties in the case ‘were married some years since, being subsequently divorced, and each again marrying. The Compliant “now claims that the first marriage was solemnized by a person not authorized to perform the ceremony, and that, for that reason, it was void, and the child illegitimate. On the other hand, it was claimed that the divorce was illegally obtained, and that the marriage was lawful and binding.”

    1860: An article published today entitled “The Political Horizon; Anti-Slavery Excitement in the South” reported that in Montgomery County, Texas, two German Jew peddlers named Friederman and Rotensburg  have been arrested and examined by the Rusk Vigilance Committee. Friederman was released because there was not enough evidence to hold him. Based on evidence provided by “several Negros” Rotenbeurg was accused of “inciting them to insurrection. His case was finally submitted to a jury of fifty men, from various parts of the County, and the accused was allowed counsel. After a patient examination of the evidence, a vote was taken on the question of hanging him, and it stood eighteen for and thirty-two against -- the latter believing him guilty of very improper conduct towards the negroes, but that the evidence did not warrant a death punishment. The jury was unanimous in ordering the accused to leave the County within forty-eight hours and the State in four days. Rotenberg's family resided in New-York.”

    1860: An article published today entitled “Jobson Convicted of Libel” described the trial of David Wemyss Jobson in Great Britain. Because of the nature of the case, several prominent Englishmen were called as witnesses including Benjamin Disraeli. When sworn in as a witness, Disraeli identified himself as a “member for Buckinghamshire.” The first question asked by the Defense on cross-examination was “Are you a Jew now or not?” to which Disraeli replied “I am what I always was -- a Christian.” When the Defense tried to ask several other offensive and irrelevant questions of Mr. Disraeli, the presiding official cut him off saying he “would not allow a Court of Justice to be made the medium of insulting any one.”  When Mr. Disraeli said that he had always been a Christian, one must wonder if he had forgotten the fact that he was born a Jew, something that was common knowledge at the time.

    1861(29th of Elul, 5621): As the Army of the Potomac and the Army of Northern Virginia look across the battle lines outside of Washington, D.C. Jews in the North and the South prepare to observe Rosh Hashanah; Erev Rosh Hashanah

    1862: During the Civil War, August “Belmont wrote President Lincoln to share negative correspondence from Europe and to urge the reinstatement of General George B. McClellan as head of the army: "The people are ready to bring every sacrifice for the restoration of the Union, but right or wrong they have lost confidence in the head of the War department. They have seen the fearful results of the intermeddling of civilians in military affairs & they want to see an experienced soldier at the helm.” Belmont was Jewish; McClellan and Lincoln were not.
    1862: Jacob Cohen, a private serving with the 27th Ohio Infantry wrote today to the Jewish Messenger describing his units march from Camp Clear Creek to Iuka, Mississippi.

    1863: During a riot of Confederate soldiers' wives in Mobile, Alabama, a Jewish merchant struck one of the women as they were breaking into local stores.  The policemen, who had ignored the rioters who were carrying banners inscribed "Bread or Blood,""Bread or Peace," and other similar inscriptions, arrested the Jew and beat him severely

    1869: In Tucson, Arizona, William Zeckendorf, a prominent Jewish merchant, caught burglars in his store and “firing his pistol put them in flight.”

    1869: Dr. Kaufmann Kohler who was the sixth person to serve as Rabbi of Beth El Congregation in Detroit, Michigan, delivered his first sermon (in German) – “The Qualities of a God-called Leader in Israel.” He would leave for Chicago’s Temple Sinai two years later but his impact on the community could be seen by the formation The Gentlemen’s Hebrew Relief Society.

    1870: Two months into the Franco-Prussian war, it was reported today that there are over 30,000 Jews serving in the German armies.

    1870: The Third Republic was proclaimed in France. The ThirdRepublicis bracketed by French defeats at the hands of the Germans.  It came into being after the disastrous Franco – Prussian War. It came to an end in 1941 when the Germans defeated the French in World War II.  The French Jewish community started this period at a disadvantage since the French lost control of Alsaceand Lorrainewith its large Jewish population to the Germans in 1870.  At the same time, the ThirdRepublicnever had the total support of the French people.  The anti-Republic forces used anti-Semitism to advance its cause as can be seen in the Dreyfus Case.  At the same time the French Jews played an active part in a variety of fields.  The French House of Rothschild became the financial patron of the early Jewish settlements in Palestine.  Leon Blum would break new ground by becoming the first Jew to serve as Prime Minister of France.  Artists such as Chagall and Modigliani settled in Paris, while Camille Pissarro helped to found the movement known as French Impressionism.  Of course all the creativity of the ThirdRepublic came to naught as anti-Semitism triumphed in Vichyand in the zone of occupation where the French turned on their fellow citizens who happened to be Jewish.

    1870: Adolphe Cremieux was chosen to serve as a member of the government of national defense.

    1870: Leo Frankel, who had been arrested in Paris “for his political activity” was liberated in the aftermath of today’s revolution.

    1871:Décret Crémieux (named for Adolphe Cremieux) conferred French citizenship on all Jews living in Algeria, which had been a department of France. Arabs and Berbers were not made French citizens which meant that there was a reversal in the centuries old relationship between Moslems and Jews.

    1872(1st of Elul, 5632): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1872: At Castle Garden, the Commissioners of Emigration began an investigation of the treatment of passengers aboard the SS Charles H. Marshall.  Most of the 11 passengers called to testify as to the crew’s mistreatment were Russian Jews immigrating to the United States.  After hearing evidence of physical abuse and the lack of food, the commissioners decided to continue the investigation tomorrow.

    1877: It was reported today that a Jew from Eski-Saghra, Bulgaria, had his coat, in which he had hidden his money, stolen by a Circassian in Adrianople.

    1879: In Detroit, founding of Congregation Beth Jacob.

    1880: “A Sad Affair” published today described the life and death of Charles Steckler on the “oldest…most respected and prosperous merchants” in Amador, CA.

    1880: It was reported today that at the end of its last fiscal year (May 1,1880) the United Hebrew Charities had collected $58,268. 21 and spent $46, 988.06 on everything from almost 1,500 tons of coal to a variety of clothing items including “70 cloaks.” All told, the charities had provided services to almost 28,000 people.

    1881: “End of the Stern Divorce Suit” published today described the Judge’s decision to have Otto Stern pay his wife 6,000 francs immediately and 4,000 francs for the next 18 months while his wife is getting a divorce in America.  Stern was born Edward Moses Stern but changed his name to Otto when he became a Lutheran.

    1881: It was reported today that the “Sultan favors the scheme” of a group of “Germans and Englishman interested in the welfare of the Jews.” They are working on a plan to “obtain a grant of land in Syria” from the Ottomans that can be settled by Jews who are seeking to flee from countries “where they are not subject to persecution. 

    1882: It was reported today that there were 2,525 Jews enrolled in Sunday Schools in New York and 493 Jews enrolled in Sunday Schools in Brooklyn.

    1884: “The Commissioners of Emigration received a copy of a dispatch from J.H. Baily, United States Consul at Hamburg” claiming that “28 paupers” who had been returned to Germany on SS Westphalia were going to be sent back to the United States “by a Hebrew benevolent society.

    1884: “Love Letters in Court” published today described the divorce proceedings between Carrie and Simon Uhlman which has been going on for the last eight months.

    1887: “The Euphrates Railway’ published today described the so-far unsuccessful attempt to gain approval for the construction of railroad from Constantinople to Baghdad including the role played by “Mr. James Alexander, a Caledonian Hebrew” who represented the interested British businessman at the Ottoman capital. (Caledonia is another name for Scotland)

    1888: “Anonymous Enemies” published today describes what Telemaqua T. Timaneynis claims was the Jewish reaction to his two anti-Semitic books, The Original M. Jacobs and The American Jew. (The story’s report of Jewish boycotts and threats of violence have been published elsewhere without mentioning the fact that they were Timaneynis’ unsubstantiated claims.)

    1889: The court of Common Pleas in New York was the site of dueling legal Jews when the judge was asked to decide Alexander S. Rosenthal’s claim that when S.D. Levy ate breakfast with him in the morning and then served him with papers in the evening, he was guilty of a breach of ethics.

    1890: In New York, “a local paper published a meagre account of” the allegations of misconduct “toward several young girls” at the Hebrew Orphan Asylum in Brooklyn by Adolph Eisner the Superintendent who mysteriously disappeared last week.

    1891(1st of Elul, 5651): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1891: A meeting was held tonight at Cooper Union where the speakers denounced the Free Employment Bureau operated by the United Hebrew Charities under the management of Arthur Reichen.  They claim that the Bureau has established a trade school where newly Russian Jewish immigrants are trained in the clothing trade creating a glut of workers which has depressed the wages from $18 a week to $10 a week.

    1893: The Jewish Women's Congress opened as part of the World Parliament of Religion at the Chicago Columbian Exposition. Press accounts of the Congress reported that "women elbowed, trod on each other’s toes, and did everything else they could without violating the proprieties" to find a place in the overcrowded hall. Over four days, they heard twenty-five women from all over the United States, many of whom had never spoken publicly before, address questions of Jewish women's roles in religion, history, and philanthropy.

    1893: When Jewish depositors threatened to break down the doors of the offices of banker, broker and steamship agent Bernhard Weinberger after they found out that they had been closed all day.  They were told that they were closed because it was Labor Day, but the offices had been closed by orders of the manager Moses Hirschodorder.

    1893(23rdof Elul, 5653): Ninety-year old Joseph Barrow Montefiore the London born son of Eliezer Montefiore who moved to Australia where he became a successful banker and leader of the Jewish community.  In the latter role he purchased land for the first Jewish cemetery in 1832 and organized a society that would eventually become the Sydney Hebrew Congregation. After retiring, Barrow returned to the city of his birth.

    1893: “The Jew in Hard Times” published today provided a detailed review of a novel by Edward King entitled Joseph Zalmonah

    1893: “A Jewish View of Christ’s Coming” published today provided a detailed review of History of the Jews Volume II, From the Reign of Hyrcanus to the Completion of the Babylonian Talmud by Heinrich Graetz.

    1893: “Earliest of American Jews” published today provided a detailed review of The Settlement of the Jews in North America by Charles P. Daly.

    1894:  Approximately 12,000 tailors in New York City went on strike to protest the existence of sweatshops.  The vast majority of workers in the "needle trades" were Jewish immigrants.  This would not be their last strike. Six years later, these workers would launch two unions - The International Ladies Garment Workers Union (women's apparel) and the Amalgamated Clothing Workers Of America (men's apparel).  These two Jewish dominated unions would work to improve the working conditions first for those in the garment industry and later for workers regardless of where they toiled.  Ironically, some of the owners of the sweatshops were German Jews.  Thus the schism between German and eastern European Jews was based on economics as well as religious conditions.

    1894: Birthdate of Sholom Secunda a Jewish composer, born in Ukraine and educated in the United States. Along with Abraham Ellstein, Joseph Rumshinsky, and Alexander Olshanetsky, he was one of the "big four" composers of his era in New York City's Second Avenue Yiddish theatre scene. He wrote the melody for the popular song "Bei Mir Bist Du Schoen" in 1932. Together with Aaron Zeitlin he wrote the famous Yiddish song "Dos kelbl (The Calf)" (also known as "Donna Donna") which was covered by many musicians, including Donovan and Joan Baez. He passed away in 1974 at the age of 79.

    1895: John Reilly and Patrick Finn stole pears from Cohen Friedman, an “aged” Jewish peddler and then attacked him when he asked to be paid for his fruit.

    1896: In Hoboken, two policemen arrested Peter Brume after they learned he had falsely promised to help 12 Jews from Poland get passage on ship returning to Europe.

    1897: After closing five free milk booths yesterday, the sixth and last booth located at City Hall Park was closed today by Nathan Strauss after Board of Health Inspectors charged one of his employees with selling “below the required standards” – a charge which Straus vehemently denies in what he views as part of conspiracy to return the milk business the hands “to the crooked men in the milk business” who have lost money due to his efforts.

    1898: “New Synagogue Projected” published today described plans of wealthy Jews living in and Hempstead, Long Island, to begin building a permanent place of worship that will replace the temporary location in which they will hold high holiday services this year

    1898: The Comte de Bejon who has been an observer at the court martial of Captain Dreyfus and wants to share his views with others on the subject registered at the Brevoort House today.

    1898: It was reported today that the police have not found the 17 year old  who beat sixty year old Louis Rosenbloom to death even though they know that John Schlecta was the bully who murdered the “venerable scholar”

    1899(29thof Elul, 5659): Erev Rosh Hashanah

    1899: “The fifth week of the second trial by court-martial of Captain Alfred Dreyfus of the artillery charged with treason in communicating secret papers to a foreign Government began today with largest attendance yet seen in the Lycee.”

    1899: This evening, at Temple Rodolph Sholom Rabbi Rudolph Grossman sermon will be “Where Is the Lamb for the Offering.

    1899: This evening, at Temple Beth-El Rabbi Kauman Kohler will deliver a sermon entitled “Life’s Ministry and Life’s Mastery.”

    1899: In Harlem, those attending services at Temple Israel will hear a sermon entitled “A Greeting of Peace.”

    1899: This evening at B’nai Jeshurun, Rabbi S.S. Wise will deliver a sermon entitled “Behind and Before.”

    1899: Over two thousand Jews attended Rosh Hashanah Eve services led by Cantor Weingart at Tammany Hall which was “decorated with palms and evergreens” for this event – the first of its kind in the history of the storied building.

    1902: During a conference of Russian Zionists, Ahad Ha’Am stressed the links between Zionism as a movement for national revival, and the cultural needs of the Jewish people.

    1904: In Berlin the Rykestrasse Synagogue was inaugurated with Handel's prelude in D major and the Ma Tovu prayer led by cantor David Stabinski ,  Rabbi Josef Eschelbacher  illuminating the ner tamid and Rabbi Adolf Rosenzweig delivering the sermon.

    1904(24thof Elul, 5664): Seventy-eight year old Dr. Hermann Barr who had served as Superintendent of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum in New York for the past 23 years passed away today.  A native Stadthagen, Germany he worked at the Jacobson Schule before moving to Liverpool where he worked for a Jewish congregation for 10 years. He moved to the United States in 1867 where he lived in Washington and New Orleans before moving to New York, where in addition to his other work he wrote for The American Hebrew and wrote a three volume Bible history for children

    1908:  Birthdate of Edward Dmytryk.  An American film director and one of the "Hollywood Ten, he passed away in 1999 at the age of 90.  Dmytryk was not Jewish but he directed "Crossfire" in 1947, one of the first films to deal with anti-Semitism. He directed "The Young Lions” which is listed by some as one the Top Fifty Jewish Movies of the 20th Century.  And he directed "The Cain Mutiny" which was written by Herman Wouk.  Because of his foreign sounding name, his association with Communists and these and other films, he is erroneously listed by several anti-Semitic websites as being Jewish or part of the Jewish Conspiracy

    1912:  Birthdate of film composer David Raksin. The Philadelphia native graduated from Penn and played with Benny Goodman before settling down to writing scores for films  Two of his early and famous works were for Hitchcock’s Life Boat and Otto Preminger’s Laura.

    1913: In Brooklyn, NY, Fanny Cohen and her husband gave birth to mobster Mickey Cohen.

    1914: Following the outbreak of World War I, L.J. Greenberg’s Jewish Chronicle showed its support for Great Britain and its Russian ally by stating "From the Russian people Jews have never experienced anything but the deepest sympathy, and with the Russian people they have ever felt on mutually agreeable terms." Before the outbreak of hostilities the Jewish Chronicle had been a vocal critic of Russia and its treatment of her Jewish citizens.  Once Germany violated Belgium’s neutrality, the event that brought the UK into the war, Greenberg was determined to show his and Jewish support for the country that had proved to be such a hospitable homeland.

    1915:  Birthdate of pianist Irving Fields nightclub entertainer and practitioner of a Latin/Hebrew hybrid style of music.

    1917:Eugenio Pacelli, the future Pope Pius XII and current Apostolic Nuncio to Germany, writes to Cardinal Pietro Gasparri, Vatican Secretary of State, about a request from German Jews to have a shipment of palm fronds from Italy released. He advised him to refuse the request for these items that are necessary for the observance of Sukkoth.

    1918: During World War I, the Battle of Mont St. Quentin comes to an end.  The British commanding general described the spear-head advance of the Australian Corps under Sir John Monash as “the greatest military achievement of the war.”  Monash was the Australian born son of two Jewish immigrants from Germany.

    1918: The Zionist Organization of America received a cable today stating that the American Zionist medical unit which had left the United States in June had arrived in Eretz Israel. The unit established its main headquarters in Tel Aviv and set up branch offices in Jerusalem and Jaffa.

    1919: Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, gathered a congress in Sivas to take decisions of the future of Anatolia and Thrace. Atatürk, the general who played a key role in thwarting the Allies at Gallipoli was the secular leader who created the modern state of Turkey.  This congress was one of the steps on the road to that creation.  There are unproven reports that he had Jewish ancestors.  Regardless of that, he created a state that recognized the rights of Jews. When the Nazis came to power in 1933, Attaturk sought to convince German Jewish scholars that they should move to Turkey. Turkey was neutral during the war, but unlike neutral Switzerland, Turkey followed the example set by the now deceased Attaturk and did what it could to provide a haven for Jews fleeing from Hitler’s Europe.

    1919:  Birthdate of Howard “Howie” Morris who gained fame as the “third banana” on the 1950’s hit Sid Caesar’s “Your Show of Shows” with Carl Reiner as the “second banana.”  Morris passed away in 2005.

    1921: In Berlin Rabbi Ezekiel Landau and Helen (Grynberg) Landau gave birth to conductor and composer Siegfried Landau, one of those fortunate to escape Nazi Germany and settle in the United States.

    1926: It was reported today that Sir Austin Chamberlain, British Foreign Secretary, and Aristide Briand, French Foreign Minister have accused the Permanent Mandates Commission  of overstepping its authority and threatening to undermine their authority in Palestine and Syria, respectively. (Once again, we are reminded that trouble in the Middle East is not always connected to the Jews or the Zionists. In fact, blaming them as the sole cause of unrest in the region has actually made matters worse.)

    1926(25thof Elul, 5686): Aspiring Hungarian artist Emerich Loewi committed suicide today after having been denied admittance to the Hungarian Art College under the terms of a numerous clausus law that limited the number of Jews would attend education institution's. (JTA)

    1937: Eliezer Gerstein was badly wounded by a young Arab while returning from prayers at the Western Wall.  For those of you who thought that Arabs only ge=ot mad when Sharon goes to the Western Wall guess again.

    1939: Seventy-seven Jewish children ranging in age from 15 through 17, who are refugees from Germany and hold certificates for entrance into Palestine, were put on a board an Italian steam ship at Trieste by representatives of Youth Aliyah.  It is unknown if the ship will dock at Haifa or Tel Aviv.

    1939:Captain Archibald Henry Maule Ramsay, a Scottish Unionist Member of Parliament and vicious anti-Semite wrote a poem that would “later…be printed and distributed by the Right Club” that began “

    Land of dope and Jewry

     Land that once was free

    All the Jew boys praise thee

     Whilst they plunder thee

    1939: In air raid by the Luftwaffe on the Polish town of Sulejow, over a thousand Jews were listed among the dead. The entire Goldblum family was wiped out. From the outset of the war, the German air force conducted bombing attacks on urban population without regard to civilians.  In other words, there was no attempt to limit attacks to military targets. Recent books by revisionist historians have complained about the suffering of the German population at the hands of Allied air men.  These writers make little or no mention of attacks like those at Sulejow or even worse ones to follow at Warsaw.

    1939: Germany occupied Kalisz, Poland which has a Jewish population of 30,000.

    1939: Warsaw is cut off by the German Army.

    1939(20th of Elul, 5699): The invading Nazis shot 180 Jews in the city of Czestochowa. When the Jews refused to burn the Torah, the Germans burned the rabbi, Abraham Mordechai

    1939: “The Germans occupied Bendzin, and just a few days later, they burned down the synagogue and damaged some 50 adjacent houses, while their Jewish inhabitants were inside.”  (Yad Vashem)

    1940: Chiune Sugihara the Japanese Vice-Consul had to stop issuing visas to Jewish refugees when he was forced to close his office in Lithuania.

    1940: Eva Schott Berek celebrated her 19th birthday a week after she and her parents, who had fled the terror of Nazi Germany, arrived Angel Island Immigration Station

    1941: J.D. Salinger who had been corresponding with Marjorie Sheard, a Toronto woman about his own age provided her with literary advice when he wrote today, “Seems to me you have the instincts to avoid the usual Vassar-girl tripe” and then suggested the names of some smaller publications “where she could submit her work” even though “You can’t go around buying Cadillacs on what the small mags pay,” he wrote, “but that doesn’t really matter, does it?”

    1941: Jewish Resistance members based in Dubossary, Ukraine, and led by Yakov Guzanyatskii assassinate a German commander named Kraft. Another group blows up a large store of German arms.

    1942: In the Squirrel Hill section of Pittsburg, Sarah and Joseph Filner gave birth to Bob Filner future California congressman and Mayor San Diego.

    1942: Jews in Macedonia are required to wear the Yellow Star.

    1942: Lódz (Poland) Ghetto's Jewish Council leader, Chaim Rumkowski, acquiesces to Nazi demands for deportation of the community's children and adults who are over the age of 65. During the action which will last until September 14, Germans fire randomly into crowds, execute individual Jews, and invade Jewish hospitals. They deport approximately 15,000 people.

    1942: Young Jews take on the Gestapo in act of desperate resistance in Lachwa, Poland.  One thousand Jews died on this day while 600 escaped into the surrounding woods.  Of these an estimated one hundred survived the war

    1942: Premiere of wartime spy thriller “Across the Pacific directed by Vincent Sherman who stepped into the job after John Huston joined the U.S. Army Signal Corps.

    1943 Six months after the overthrow of Mussolini, prisoners at Ferramonti, the largest Italian concentration camp for Jews were released.

    1943: A private funeral will be held today for Edward S. Rothchild who died after being struck by a cab. The 88 year old former banker is survived by his widow Stella M. Rothchild and his son Lewis H. Rothchild.

    1944: The British 11th Armoured Division liberates the Belgian city of Antwerp. The Jewish population of the city had been reduced from 35,000 to 15,000 as a result of Nazi attacks and those from their Flemish supporters.

    1944: At Lugos, Hungary, hundreds of Jews are massacred by Hungarian Fascists

    1945: Ruben Fine won 4 simultaneous rapid chess games blindfolded.  Fine is one of a long line of great Jewish chess players.  In addition to his chess playing skills, Fine spent part of World War II calculating the probability of German submarines surfacing at certain points in the Atlantic Ocean.

    1945: Birthdate of David Monsonego who is now known as David Magen an Israeli politician who served as a Minister without Portfolio and Minister of Economics and Planning in the 1990s. “Born in Fes in Morocco, Magen made aliyah to Israel in 1949, where he attended high school in Jerusalem. Between 1976 and 1986 he served as mayor of Kiryat Gat. In 1981 he was elected to the Knesset on the Likud list, and was re-elected in 1984 and 1988, becoming chairman of the party's local authorities elections headquarters in 1989. In March 1990 he was made a Minister without Portfolio by Yitzhak Shamir, becoming Minister of Economics and Planning in June that year. Although he retained his seat in the 1992 elections, Likud lost power and Magen lost his ministerial position. He returned to the cabinet after Binyamin Netanyahu's victory in the 1996 elections, and was reappointed Minister without Portfolio. However, he left the cabinet in May 1997. In February 1999 he was amongst the Likud MKs to break away from the party and establish Israel in the Center (later renamed the Centre Party). Magen lost his seat in the 1999 elections, but returned to the Knesset in March 2001 as a replacement for Amnon Lipkin-Shahak. He lost his seat again in the 2003 elections.”

    1946: “A Flag Is Born,”a play promoting the creation of a Jewish State in the ancient land of Israel opened on Broadway on today. The cast included Paul Muni, Celia Adler and Marlon Brando. Hollywood’s most successful screenwriter, Ben Hecht was the playwright; it was directed by Luther Adler with music by Kurt Weill. It was produced by the American League for a Free Palestine, an organization headed by Hillel Kook, known in America by the anglicized name Peter Bergson.

    1946(8th of Elul, 5706): Sixty-five year old Reform Rabbi Isaac Landman whose accomplishments included editing the Universal Jewish Encyclopedia but who was an ardent ant-Zionist passed away today.

    1948: Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands abdicated for health reasons. In 1939, when the government had proposed building a refugee camp for German Jews fleeing from the Nazi regime, Wilhelmina complained about the planned location because it was “too close” to her summer residence. The camp was finally erected about 10 km from the village of Westerbork.  This is the camp from which the Anne Frank would be shipped to Auschwitz.

    1948: Warner Brothers released “Two Guys from Texas,” a musical comedy co-authored by I.A.L. Diamond and produced by Alex Gottlieb.

    1950: “A new immigrant village named Kfar Trujman in honor of the American President was established near Lydda Airport.  Eighty families from Poland, Rumania and Jungary comprise the first settlers.  A scroll lauding President Truman for his assistance to Israel was read at a dedication ceremony attended by fifty American Jewish leaders.”

    1951: After meeting with David Ben Gurion, Mr. Warburg, General Chairman of the United Jewish Appeal announced that the UJA would work to rasie 35 million dollars to pay the cost of moving   60,000 Jews from Eastern Europe and Moslem countries to Israel by the end of the year.

    1955: Birthdate of David Broza, a multi-platinum Israeli singer-songwriter and guitarist.

    1961: Pitcher Joe Holen made his major league debut with the Chicago White Sox.

    1964: Ken Harrleson “created” the prototype of the modern batting glove when he wore a golf glove to protect his blistered hand in a game between the K.C. Athletics and the N.Y. Yankees. But it would Irving Franklin, working with Phillies’ 3rdbaseman to actual make the first true batting glove which was adopted as the official standard by Major League Baseball in the 1980’s. (As reported by Douglas Martin)

    1964: Birthdate of Anthony Weiner, New York political leader and former member of the U.S. House of Representatives.

    1965: Pitcher Ken Holtzman made his major league debut with the Chicago Cubs.

    1972: This evening, at the Munich Olympics, Israeli athletes watched Shmuel Rodensky the role of Tevya during a performance of Fiddler On the Roof.

    1972:  Mark Spitz won a record seventh gold medal by with a victory in the 400-meter relay at the Munich Summer Olympics.  Spitz victories would prove to be bitter-sweet.  The medal winning triumph would be followed by the slaughter of Israeli athletes by the Arab terrorists.  Spitz was spirited out of Munich to make sure that as a Jew he would not meet the same fate.

    1977: Moshe Dayan flew to Morocco, where, in a secret meeting with King Hassan, he asked the King to help expedite a meeting between Begin and Sadat.

    1978: Talks begin at Camp David between Menachem Begin and Anwar Sadat.

    1986(30th of Av, 5746): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1986(30th of Av, 5746): Hank Greenberg passed away.  Greenberg was a slugger for the Detroit Tigers.  He was the first Jew who was a national hero in what was at that time, the national pastime.  He endured his share of anti-Semitic catcalls and abuse.  He would later provide aide and comfort to another more famous baseball pioneer – Jackie Robinson.  One of the great debates that swirled around Greenberg was whether or not to play ball on the Jewish High Holidays.

    1987: ''World of Yesterday: Jews in England 1870-1920,'' an exhibition that is part of the Jewish East End Celebration is scheduled to come to an end

    1993: Catcher Eric Helfand made his major league debut with the Oakland Athletics.

    1994(28th of Elul, 5754): Twenty-four year old Sergeant Victor Shichman was gunned down at the Morag junction while on patrol.

    1995(9th of Elul, 5755): Attorney and activist William Kunstler passed away at the age of 76. (As reported by David Stout)

    1997(2nd of Elul, 5757): In Jerusalem three Hamas suicide bombers simultaneously blew themselves up on the pedestrian mall, killing four Israelis.

    2001: Hamas took credit for today’s bombing on Hanevi’im Street in Jerusalem which injured 20 innocent civilians.

    2005: The New York Times included reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or about topics of Jewish interest includingA History of the Jews in the Modern World by Howard M. Sachar.

    2005: Haaretz reported that Israel's World Cup qualifying match against Switzerland ended in a 1-1 draw.  Unfortunately, the sporting event was marred by pro-Palestinian demonstrators who ran across the field during the match.  Hopefully the Palestinian protestors will remain non-violent and not follow the path of the terrorists who murdered Jewish athletes at the Munich Olympics.

    2005(30th of Av, 5765): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    2005:  In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina the Israeli government has offered everything from a field hospital, to specially trained disaster forensic teams, to organized prayer in an attempt to help the United States cope with this disaster.  In addition to sending words of official condolences, Israeli government officials conceded that this would not be a good time to go to Washington asking for additional aid for those who have left Gaza. 

    2006: Jerry Lewis host’s the annual Muscular Dystrophy Telethon.  Tikun Olam comes in many forms.

    2007:  In Jerusalem, the weeklong festival known as Jewish Music Days continues with a second concert at Beit Shmuel, featuring the HaYona Ensemble in its own blend of traditional Jewish "piyut" music with Sufi music.

    2007: In New York, Prof. Joanna Tokarska-Bakir is named this year’s recipient of the Jan Karski and Pola Nirenska Prize. Endowed by Professor Jan Karski at YIVO in 1992, the $5,000 prize goes to authors of published works documenting Polish-Jewish relations and Jewish contributions to Polish culture.

    2007:The New York Board of Rabbis unveiled its official Jewish New York History and Heritage Map today at an event attended by Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg. The illustrated map, poster and guide lists scores of noteworthy sites throughout the city, spanning Jewish history since 1654, when Jewish settlers arrived in New Amsterdam from Recife, Brazil, founding what is now Congregation Sheartih Israel, the Spanish and Portuguese synagogue on Central Park West.

    The sites include historic and cultural landmarks, to be sure, but also a hodgepodge of places of interest to those who closely follow popular culture. A sampling, by borough, follows.


    ·        Baith Israel-Anshei Emeth (Kane Street Synagogue),
    236 Kane Street
    , where Aaron Copland had his bar mitzvah.

    ·        The BrooklynHeightshomes of Arthur Miller (
    31 Grace Court
    ) and Norman Mailer (142 Columbia Heights).

    ·        The Midwood homes where Woody Allen spent his teenage years (
    1144 East 15th Street
    ) and Justice Ruth Bader Ginsberg of the Supreme Court spent her childhood (
    1584 East Ninth Street


    ·        The childhood home (663 Crotona Park North) of Hank Greenberg, the Jewish baseball star.

    ·        The childhood homes of Ralph Lauren, formerly Lifshitz (
    3220 Steuben Avenue
    ) and Calvin Klein (
    3191 Rochambeau Avenue
    ), who grew up two blocks apart in Norwoodin the early 1950s but apparently never met.

    ·        The Sholom Aleichem Houses (
    Sedgwick Avenue
    Giles Place
    ), named after a Yiddish writer, and the childhood home of Bess Myerson, who became the first Jewish Miss America.


    ·        QueensCollege, the alma mater of the comedian and actor Jerry Seinfeld.

    ·        The childhood homes of Paul Simon (
    137-62 70th Road
    ) and Art Garfunkel (
    136-58 72nd Avenue
    ), the songwriting duo who grew up blocks apart in Kew Gardens Hills.

    The Jewish deli which has been a bit of an obsession for some readers (and writers) on this blog, is not a focus of the map, which lists just two Lower East Side eateries:

    ·        Guss’ Pickles (
    35 Essex Street
    ), which, as this blog has noted, is the
    subject of a dispute over who truly has the right to call themselves by that name.

    ·        Kossar’s Bialys (
    367 Grand Street
    , near
    Essex Street

    Staten Island

    RichmondCounty is not known for having a rich Jewish history, but the map includes this site:

    ·        BaronHirschCemetery(
    1126 Richmond Avenue
    ), in Willowbrook, which opened in 1899 and includes the tomb of what the map calls “Staten Island’s most famous Jewish resident,” the publisher Samuel I. Newhouse.

    The map was produced with city funds and includes statements by Mayor Bloomberg and the City Council speaker, Christine C. Quinn, welcoming visitors to the city. The back of the map also states, “The map is inclusive and includes those who identify themselves as Jewish and are seen as such by certain segments of the Jewish community.” Although copies of the map were made available to journalists at a news conference yesterday, the map is not publicly available yet, and we were not given permission to share it here. The New York Board of Rabbis intends to put a copy on its Web site after the High Holy Days this month. The map is the result of a two-year effort by a committee that included several scholars and writers, including Ilana Abramowitz, Gerald Chatanow, Joseph Dorinson, Mark Gordon, Oscar Israelowitz and Deborah Dash Moore. Ron Schweiger, the Brooklynborough historian, and Lloyd Ultan, the Bronxborough historian, were also on the panel. “I think it’s important when we do a map that people realize that the community has many components,” Rabbi Joseph Potasnik, the executive vice president of the Board of Rabbis and the honorary chairman of the map project, said in a phone interview. “We live in a time when it’s easy to exclude the other. The real spirit of this map is that it is embracing. There is room for everyone on the map and I would hope that’s a paradigm for living today.

    2008: Haaretz reported that leaders in the US Reform Movement said they hope the privately run Aliyah organization Nefesh B'Nefesh will support programs developed with the Jewish Agency to attract liberal Jews who want to split their time between Israel and their existing homes in North America. Nefesh B'Nefesh, which under an agreement announced on August 31 will take over North American aliya operations for the Jewish Agency, has largely attracted Orthodox Jews aboard its planes, in part through an early partnership with the Orthodox Union, though it has also recently reached out to the Reform and Conservative movements.

    2009: Performance of “Zero Hour.” Written and performed by Jim Brochu “Zero Hour” channels Zero Mostel’s wild moods, crazy humor and righteous anger. James Brochu reintroduces us to this funny, fantastically contrary man whose penchant for truth-telling has been sorely missed. Among other questions raised during the performance are “Will Mostel overcome his bitterness about being blacklisted and go back to work with the legendary director who named names before Congress?”

    2009:It took 70 years for this reunion, but when the vintage steam train pulled into London today with a group of elderly Holocaust survivors, the emotions started to flow. Under the sprawling canopy of the Liverpool Street Station, the survivors were reunited today with the man who as a fearless young stockbroker saved every one of them from the Nazis. Nicholas Winton, now at 100 frail and leaning on a stick, greeted some of the hundreds of Jewish children that he worked so hard to evacuate from Nazi-occupied Czechoslovakia on the eve of World War II. "It's wonderful to see you all after 70 years," he said, shaking hands with former evacuees as they stepped off the train. "Don't leave it quite so long until we meet here again." The three-day trip from Prague - by rail and ferry - recreated the fateful journey the survivors made as children, part of the "kindertransports" organized by Winton that carried 669 mostly Jewish children to safety in England. Winton, as a 29-year-old visiting what was then Czechoslovakia, had become alarmed by the flood of Jewish refugees fleeing the Nazis and was determined to save as many children as he could. The train today carried about two dozen survivors, along with members of their families, 170 people in all. Some survivors gave Winton flowers, while others posed for photographs as a band played festive music. "I am very glad he had the strength and energy to meet us. It is emotionally very important," said 80-year-old Joseph Ginat, who was 10 when he traveled to England in August 1939 with his brother and two sisters. His mother died in the Auschwitz concentration camp. "For me, he is like a father," Ginat said. "He gave us life." Some of the survivors were meeting Winton for the first time. The passengers traveled from Prague to The Netherlands in vintage German and Hungarian railway coaches pulled by 1930s steam locomotives. After crossing the North Sea by ferry, they completed the journey in a refurbished British steam train. Other survivors of the transports who did not make the anniversary journey from Prague gathered at the station to meet the train."It's amazing. It happened so many years ago, yet I remember it so vividly," said Otto Deutsch, 81, who lives in Southend, southern England. "I never saw my parents again or my sister. My parents were shot and what they did with my sister I really don't want to know." In late 1938, Winton, a 29-year-old clerk at the London Stock Exchange, traveled to what was then Czechoslovakia at the invitation of a friend working at the British Embassy. Alarmed by the influx of refugees from the Sudetenland region recently annexed by Germany, Winton immediately began organizing a way to get Jewish children out of the country. He feared, correctly, that Czechoslovakia soon would be invaded by the Nazis and Jewish residents would be sent to concentration camps. Winton persuaded British officials to accept the children - who agreed as long as foster homes were found and a 50-pound guarantee provided for each one. He then set about fundraising and organizing the trip, arranging eight trains to carry children through Germany to Britain in the months before the outbreak of war. The youngsters were sent to foster homes in England, and a few to Sweden. Few saw their parents again. The largest evacuation was scheduled for Sept. 3, 1939, the day Britain declared war on Germany. That ninth train never left Prague, and almost none of the 250 children trying to flee that day survived the war. Winton's story did not emerge until 1988, when his wife found correspondence referring to the prewar events. "My wife didn't know about it for 40 years after our marriage, but there are all kinds of things you don't talk about even with your family," Winton said in 1999. "Everything that happened before the war actually didn't feel important in the light of the war itself." Winton's wife persuaded him to have his story officially documented. A film about Winton's heroism won an International Emmy Award in 2002, and then-Prime Minister Tony Blair praised him as "Britain's Schindler," after the German businessman Oskar Schindler, who also saved Jewish lives during the war. Winton rejected the comparison, and the description of himself as a hero. Unlike Schindler, he said, his life had never been in danger. But for many of those he saved, he is unambiguously a hero. It is estimated there are 5,000 people around the world who owe their lives to Winton - the children he saved and their descendants. The children saved by Winton include the late film director Karel Reisz; Joe Schlesinger, a one-time Associated Press translator who became one of the Canada's most prominent TV journalists; and British lawmaker and peer Alfred Dubs. "He doesn't think that what he did was a big deal," said Marianne Wolfson, 85, who traveled from her home in Chicago to take the train journey from Prague. "But we got our life back."

    2010: At Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, IA, Bentlee Birchansky, son Dr. Lee and Cyndie Birchansky, was called to the Torah as a Bar Mitzvah

    2010 (5770): This evening, Rabbi Todd Thalblum is scheduled to conduct his second Selichot service as the leader of Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, Iowa.

    2010: A Kassam rocket launched from Gaza exploded in the southern Israel Negev area on Saturday morning. There were no reported injuries.

    2010:IDF bombed smuggling tunnels in the Gaza Strip tonight. The army said it struck two tunnels leading to Egypt, and one that led to Israel, and was used by Hamas terrorists planning to kidnap and commit terror acts against Israeli soldiers and civilians.

    2010:Yael Rapaport Schoenbaum enjoyed her first Shabbat. She was born today in Bethesda, MD much to the joy of her parents Michael Schoenbaum and Elisa Rapaport and her grandparents Dr. David and Mrs. Schoenbaum of Iowa City, IA.

    2011: Anita, a film about a young Jewish woman with Down syndrome, is scheduled to be shown at the Ninth Annual Jewish Film Series sponsored by The Jewish Federation of the Quad Cities.

    2011: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Sleeping with the EnemyCoco Chanel’s Secret War by Hal Vaughan which says that Chanel’s “anti-Semitism was vociferous and well-documented,” The Emperor of Lies, a novel by Steve Sem-Sandberg that paints a picture of the Lodz Ghetto including the role of Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski and Except When I Write: Reflections of a Recovering Critic by Arthur Krystal

    2011: The Los Angeles Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Wendy and the Lost Boys: The Uncommon Life of Wendy Wasserstein by Julie Salamon and The Astonishing Secret of Awesome Man: A Picture Book by Michael Chabon, with illustrations by Jake Parker

    2011:The National Union of Israeli Students began folding up its campsite on Tel Aviv’s Rothschild Boulevard this afternoon, the day after more than 400,000 Israelis hit the streets in a series of social justice protests across the country.

    2011:Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Defense Minister Ehud Barak ordered Israel's top security bodies to keep mum about intelligence information gathered prior to the terror attacks in the south two weeks ago, it emerged today. Military Intelligence chief Major General Aviv Kochavi appeared before the Intelligence and Secret Services today and was asked to brief its members on the series of terror attacks in Israel's south two weeks ago and the way the IDF dealt with the intelligence warnings received beforehand.

    2011(5thof Elul, 5772): Seventy-nine year old Eliyahu Naim died today “in a Jerusalem hospital, two weeks after hitting his head while running for shelter in Ashkelon” during a “massive rocket barrage on southern Israel” that took place two weeks ago. His death brings the toll from that attack to three.  Sixty-two year old Varda Nachimas and 38 year old Yossi Shushan died earlier.

    2012(17thof Elul, 5772): Eighty-three year old Abraham Avidgdorov who was received the Hero of Israel Award (the forerunner of the Medal Valor) “for destroying two Bren machine gun positions on March 17, 1948 passed away today.  (As reported by Boaz Flyer)

    2012(17thof Elul, 5772): Eighty-seven year old Tony Award winning director Albert Marre passed away today. (As reported by Dennis Hevesi)

    2012: Shir Hadash is scheduled to offer training in how to blow a ram’s horn at its Shofar Workshop and a course in Jewish ethics and values – A Taste of Judaism.

    2012: The YIVO Institute for Jewish Research is scheduled to present a lecture by Marc Caplan and Beatrice Lang Caplan entitled “Watch the Throne: Spectacle and Specters in the Stories of Reb Nakhmen and Der Nister.”

    2012: The Israeli Opera is scheduled to present a performance of “The Magic Flute.”

    2012: A new film series sponsored by the Library of Congress and the Embassy of the Czech Republic titled “Doc in Salute” which focuses “on interesting personalities who have been touched by Jewish themes” is scheduled to open today with a showing of “What Doesn’t Kill You.”

    2012: "Cyprus hopes to begin importing liquefied natural gas from Israel by early 2015, Cypriot Commerce, Industry and Tourism Minister Neoklis Sylkiotis was quoted as saying by Famagusta Gazette Online today. Israel is in favor of supplying Cyprus with between 0.5-0.7 billion cubic meters of natural gas for electricity production, he reportedly said. The island country is planning to import natural gas in the short-term."

    2012: The New York Times featured a review of Telegraph Avenue by Michael Chabon

    2013: “Rock Hashana: 10 Stars of the New Jewish Music” published today provides a look at what is no longer “your bubbe’s Jewish music”

    2013: Latica Honda-Rosenberg and Yaron Kohlberg are scheduled to perform Hindemith’s Violin Sonata in E flat major, op. 11/1 at The Jerusalem International Chamber Music Festival.

    2013: “Fifteen Palestinians were arrested Wednesday morning, including seven youths ahead of the Jewish New Year after they threw stones and clashed with police on the Temple.” (As reported by the Times of Israel Staff)

    2013: In an interview published in Yedioth Ahronoth today acting Bank of Israel Governor Karnit Flug said her gender may have something to do with Prime Minister Netanyahu’s decision to overlook her for the top post at the central bank.(As reported by the Times of Israel Staff)

    2013(29thof Elul, 5773): Erev Rosh Hashanah

    2014: “The solo Exhibition ‘Lotus Eaters’ presenting paintings by Canadian-Israeli artist Melani Daniel is scheduled to open at the Asya Geisberg Gallery

    0 0

    September 5.

    394: Battle of Frigidus between Emperor Theodosius who ruled the eastern Roman Empire and Eugenius, ruler of the western part of the empire. Theodosius’ victory brought the two halves of the empire back under on ruler for one last time. This is viewed as battle between Christianity (Theodosius) and a resurgence of pagan worship (Eugenius). The victory did ensure Christianity’s hold on the Roman Empire, much to the detriment of the Jewish people. But Theodosius was not anti-Semitic or particularly opposed to the Jewish people. For example, in 388 when a Christian mob burned a synagogue in a town on the banks of the Euphrates River. Since the local bishop had had a hand in the arson, the governor was afraid to act and turned to Theodosius for help. The Emperor “reprimanded” the governor and ordered the official “to demand that the bishop build a new synagogue.” By now, though, the Church had gained so much power that Ambrose, the bishop of Milan, “forced the emperor to publicly withdraw his orders.”

    1187: Birthdate of Louis VIII of France whose attempts to exploit the Jews for his personal gain brought him into a major conflict with Theobald IV the powerful Count of Champagne, who had his plans for extorting money from his Jewish subjects.

    1236: Pope Gregory IX “issued orders to several archbishops and bishops of southwestern and western France to compel the crusaders to make good the losses the Jews had suffered at their hands.” (Jewish Virtual Library)

    1236: Pope Gregory IX sent a  "Request to Louis IX, king of France, to punish the crusaders, murderers and despoilers of the Jews, and to compel them to make restitution."

    1288: Nicolas IV issued “Turbato corde,” a papal bull that dealt with the conversion of Christians to Judaism. Any Jew thought to be involved in such an action could be held by the authorities who could confiscate their property, among other penalties.

    1319: Birthdate of Peter IV of Aragon during whose reign the “Ordinance of the Jews of the Crown of Aragon” was adopted.

    1566: Suleiman the Magnificent passed away.

    1638: Birthdate of the Sun King, Louis XIV of France. During his long reign the French monarch’s towards the Jews vacillated based primarily on economic need. But in the end, the real Louis shone through when “he ordered the Jews ‘to leave the kingdom without any belongs,’ and told the local officials to take any and all means to expel Jews ‘because that is our wish.’”

    1654: Twenty-three Sephardic Jews, seeking sanctuary from the Spanish Inquisition, arrive in New Amsterdam [New York], from Pernambuco, Brazil. They had arrived at their final destination on the ship St. Catherine (also referred to in the literature as the St. Charles).

    1725: King Louis XV of France married Maria Leszczyńska. Jews may well have taken part of the wedding celebrations since Louis XV had publicly guaranteed the rights of the Jews living in southern France when he came to throne in 1723. This change in policy from his father Louis IV may have been the result of 110,000 livres payment made in honor of “the joyous event of his Majesty’s coronation.”

    1736: Many leading Jews of Posen, Poland were imprisoned and tortured a following blood libel.

    1764: In Berlin, Esther and Benjamin de Lemos gave birth to Henriette Herz née De Lemos, the emancipated Jewess who converted after the death of her husband

    1781: During the American Revolution, General George Washington rode into Chester, a town on Chesapeake Bay where he found out that French Admiral de Grasse had arrived with his fleet; a decisive event in defeating Cornwallis made possible because Admiral Sir George Rodney had opted to continue looting St. Eustatius where he displayed an anti-Semitic animus toward the Jewish merchants instead of intercepting the French Fleet as he had been ordered to do.

    1785(1stof Tishrei, 5564) Rosh Hashanah

    1791: Birthdate of Giacomo Meyerbeer. Born Jacob Liebmann Beer, Meyebeer was a successful German- born composer for opera. Unlike some of his contemporaries, Meyerbeer saw no need to give up his Judaism to gain artistic success. He passed away in 1864.

    1800: Malta is conquered by Great Britain. According to legend the Jewish community on Malta began over 3,000 years ago when members of the tribes of Zebulon and Asher arrived on the island with the Phoenicians. The Jewish community of Malta had its ups and downs over the centuries. The British conquest found the community at an “up point.” In 1789, Napoleon had conquered Malta on his way to Egypt and Palestine bringing the French laws abolishing slavery and establishing liberty and equality for all to the citizens of Malta including the Jewish population.

    1816: Louis XVIII has to dissolve the Chambre introuvable ("Unobtainable Chamber"). Jews remember Louis XVIII as the French monarch who would not renew the rights the Jewish people had won under the Republic and Napoleon thus forcing them to revert to the status they “enjoyed” prior to the French Revolution.

    1818(4th of Elul, 5578): Joseph Haltern “who wrote ‘Esther,’ a Hebrew adaptation of Racine’s drama of the same name” passed away today in Berlin.

    1842(1stof Tishrei, 5603): Rosh Hashanah

    1848: The Jews of Hanover, Germany, were granted equality.

    1853: Sixty-nine year old Georges Bernard Depping, the author of Les Juifs dans le moyen âge, essai historique sur leur état civil, commercial et littéraire (History of the Jews during the Middle Ages) which was written in an attempt to win a prize offered by the French Royal Academy “for a work describing the condition of the Jews in France during the medieval period” passed away today

    1859: An article published today entitled “Quarrel Over a Jewish Bible” described a dispute over ownership of a Bible by the Jews of Troy, NY. On one side is led by a tailor named Herman Levy, a Jewish tailor, Julius Lawrence, his son-in-law. Levy claimed to have bought the Bible for $34 in 1858. His opponents claim that they paid $80 for it eleven years ago. The disputants came to blows and Levy was twice imprisoned - first on charges of assault; second on charges of perjury for having lied about his claim to the sacred text.

    1861(1st of Tishrei, 5622): Rosh Hashanah finds Jews wearing Blue and Gray facing each other across the battle lines of the Civil War.

    1865: In New York City, Betty Loeb and Salomon gave birth to their daughter Guta who married Isaac Seligman making her Guta Seligamn

    1865: It was reported today the Mr. R. J. De Cordova, the humorist and author, has lately received a legacy from a deceased relative in England, amounting to quite a fortune. It is to be presumed, therefore, that Mr. C. will have no further occasion to be amusing. [The presumption was in error since Mr. De Cordova, who was Jewish remained humorous and popular.]

    1870: It was reported today that a group of German Jews in Philadelphia have just finished building a new synagogue.

    1872: The investigation of the mistreatment of the passengers aboard the SS Charles H. Marshall, which included numerous Jewish immigrants from Russia, was scheduled to continue today at Castle Garden, NY.

    1878: It was reported that Thomas Fallon, a Roman Catholic, and his wife, a 15 year old Jewess named Rachel Cohen have gone to live in their home on Baxter Street, after a judge had dismissed the complaint by the bride’s father, Lowenthal Cohen that the girl had been kidnapped and not married.

    1879: It was reported today that the Skuptschina, the National Assembly of Serbia, which was supposed to settle the issue of Jewish emancipation will not be meeting as scheduled. This has led to speculation that the so-called great powers of Europe will bring pressure on the Serbian cabinet to resolve the issue.

    1880: “The Passion Play at Ober-Ammergau” published today gives a detail description of the performance the anti-Semitic drama.

    1880: It was reported today Baron Sunzburg is the President of the “society for the diffusion of Jewish knowledge among the Jews of Russia.”  The society supported 25 schools and supplied “various…libraries, societies, and writers” with a variety of Jewish literature.

    1881: Alfred Marks, alias Charles Sarridge, a handsome well-dressed Jewish “flim flam” man whose con involves getting merchants to change his larger bills for smaller ones was arrested in New York City today.

    1881: “State Affairs In Europe” published includes a description of conditions in Russia where the anti-Jewish riots are seen as “the prelude to other disorders.  The attacks on the Jews of Kiev and Tchernigoff  are “chronic” and the authorities “do not even attempt” to bring them to an end.  Eventually, “the nineteenth century will witness a return to the ages of barbarism in Russia.”

    1882: The first United States Labor Day parade is held in New York City. While Jews have been active in the American labor movement for more than a century, Labor Day has taken on a new meaning for at least some Jews. Labor Day weekend is the now the time when the The Ball – “biggest Jewish singles event of the year” – takes place.

    1882: In New York, the Board of Health heard a report from its inspectors the building occupied by the female department of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum which is home to 125 children is not connected to a sewer system.  After hearing Mr. Myer Stern’s statement that the Asylum has not had any response from the Department of Public Works to its application for sewer connection, the board adopted a resolution asking the Department of Public Works to cooperate with the Jewish organization in this matter.

    1884: It was reported today that at Coventry the fundraising effort to restore St. Michael’s Church has been an ecumenical affair with Jewish citizens having contributed to the $130,000 raised so far.

    1884: “Paupers Coming Back” published today described plans to send 3,000 Jewish immigrants from Romania to the United States that are being organized by Edward A. David on behalf of Romanian bankers.

    1885: It was reported today that a figure of Sir Moses Montefiore will be added to the large collection at Eden Musee.

    1886: As New York experiences a series of strikes amongst various trade groups, 700 Jewish tailors are schedule to go on strike today which is Sunday, the first day of their workweek.

    1889: In New York Judge Van Hoesen was scheduled to rule on motions related to a squabble between S.D. Levy and Alexander S. Rosenthal, the lawyers involved in the divorce proceedings between Simon and Anne Weinstein which have lasted for more than 5 months. (All of the parties are Jewish except the Judge.)

    1889(1stof Tishrei, 5660): Rosh Hashanah

    1890: As of today, Adolph Eisner who has been Superintendent of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum for the past six years has been missing for over a week amidst allegations about his “conduct toward several young girls in his charge.”  However, a committee has investigated the charges and said that at worse he “had been very indiscreet in his language to some of the older girls.”

    1891: Mr. Bauman who runs a training school for people working the garment industry financed by the Baron Hirsch Fund and managed by the United Hebrew Charities denied charges that his trainees were taking jobs away from experienced workers.  He said that if the immigrants were not trained they would become peddlers or go out without work.  He said that his trainees could not compete with experienced workers because the latter were not as skilled and the school did everything it could to send its graduates to work in cities outside of New York.

    1892: Birthdate of Hungarian born violinist Joseph Szigeti

    1892: “Rabbi Sonnenschein’s Problems” published today described the marital problems of prominent St. Louis Rabbi Solomon H. Sonnenschein who is seeking a divorce from his wife Rosa who is currently in Chicago and has announced her attention to cross file.  (While may not know their names today, they were a Jewish Power Couple and she would go to found The American Jewess.)

    1892: The body of an unidentified Jewish peddler thought to be a cousin of Harris Glckman  was found in New Utrecht

    1893: It was reported today that Herr Paasch the “notorious anti-Semite” who persistently attacks government officials for “showing a leaning toward the Jews” “has been pronounced a dangerous lunatic and has been sent to an asylum.”

    1893: A hearse containing the body of a Jewish infant under the care of undertake Solomon Goodman and driven by Moses Bernstein and David Rich was struck by a trolley in Brooklyn on its way to the Hebrew Cemetery at Flatbush.

    1894: Wolf Siegel petitioned Judge McAdam to issue a writ of mandamus ordering the “Society Chevia Gwat Aushi Poland” reinstate him as a member. Siegel claimed he had been dismissed from the organization because he trimmed his beard, a claim denied by the Society.

    1894: “Kaybles War On Jews” published today described the attacks by this tribe of Berbers on Jews living in several communities in Morocco where the synaogues have been looted, men tortured and killed and the children “outraged and sold into slavery.”

    1895: John Reilly and Patrick Finn were arrested and jailed today for having attacked Cohen Friedman

    1897: The Hebrew Free School Association sponsored a free entertainment for 500 children at the Education Alliance Building at East Broadway and Jefferson Street.

    1897(8thof Elul, 5657): Thirty year old Abraham Moss fell from his bicycle in Brooklyn today and died.

    1897: “A Jewish State in Palestine an Impossibility” based on information that originally appeared the American Israelite provided Rabbi Isaac M. Wise’s reasons why the conflict between religion and rationalism would doom Dr. Herzl’s dream of creating a Jewish state Palestine.

    1898: Comte de Bejon de Larouziere who just arrived in New York from France where he has watched events concerning the Dreyfus Affair first hand said that it did not matter if Colonel admitted that the letter used against Dreyfus was a forgery, there would never be a rehearing of the case because “the aristrocratic element and great masses of Frenchmen would be opposed to it;” that there would be a revolution if a new trial were granted while no revolution will take place if a new trial is not granted and that the leaders of the French military are against a new trial.

    1898: A despondent Polish Jew who had been swindled by Peter Brume is hospitalized at St. Mary’s Hospital after having tried to drown himself by jumping off the bow of a ferry boat.

    1899(1stof Tishrei, 5660): Rosh Hashanah is observed for the last time in the 19thcentury.

    1899: Dr. Rudolph Grossman will deliver a Rosh Hashanah sermon entitled “What Does It Mean to Be a Jew?”

    1899: Congregants at Temple Beth-El will hear a sermon entitled “The Kingdom of God.”

    1899: At B’nai Jeshurun, Rabbi S.S. Wise will deliver a sermon entitled “New Year Thoughts and New Year Hopes.”

    1899: In Rennes, during the second Dreyfus trial, the court did not hear testimony from a Serbian expatriate testifying for the Prosecution because it spent most of the day reviewing an “espionage dossier” in a secret session. (Yes the trial of the Jewish officer continued on Rosh Hashanah

    1902: Eighty year old award winning German scientist Rudolf Carl Virchow who “attempted to provide a rationale for the sense of Jewish acculturation” (in Germany) but who “still assumed that Jews were a separate and distinct racial category” passed away today.

    1902: In a letter to Wenzel von Plehve Herzl reports on the just completed meeting of the Zionist Congress

    1902: Birthdate of Darryl F Zanuck Hollywood producer and motion picture executive. Zanuck was not Jewish. He was of Greek ancestry. But he made the Academy Award winning film Gentlemen's Agreement. Filmed in 1947, this controversial movie dealt with the subject of anti-Semitism in the United States; not the goose-stepping, brown-shirted variety of the Nazis, but the culturally accepted American variety of quotas and "the unwritten, gentlemen's agreement" that Jews should be excluded from certain clubs, hotels, business opportunities, law firms, etc. Jewish film makers at Warner Brothers and MGM did not want Zanuck to make this movie. They knew how real certain forms of anti-Semitism were and they feared a backlash. They also cautioned Zanuck that in the unsettled political environment of the late 1940's, such a film might be detrimental to his career. Their fears proved to be unfounded as Gregory Peck gave one his signature performances and helped the film win three Oscars.

    1905: The Russo-Japanese War comes to an end with the signing of the Treaty of Portsmouth. President Theodore Roosevelt won the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to end the fighting. In additional to the Medal, there was a cash award four thousand dollars some of which TR donated to the Jewish Welfare Board.   Today’s Japanese victory was due, in part of the efforts of loans made by Jewish financers to Japan which made it possible for the Empire of the Rising Sun to buy the munitions needed for victory. As a result of the loan that Jacob Schiff procured for Japan through Kuhn, Loeb & Co, the Jewish financier received the Japanese Order of the Sacred Treasure and the Order of the Rising Sun, Gold and Silver Star which he received from Emperor Meiji in the Imperial Palace.  One can only wonder if Schiff’s efforts were driven, in part, by the vicious anti-Semitism of the Czarist regime.  On the other hands, Joseph Trumpeldor, who would become one of the early heroes of the Zionist movement, was a highly decorated soldier serving in the Russian Army who lost his arm during the ill-fated fight at Port Arthur.  (Jewish history is never a simple affair)

    1905: In Budapest, Henrik Koestler and Adela Jeiteles Koestler gave birth to Arthur Koestler.  Koestler was a journalist and author who wrote about everything from Communism to the origins of European Jewry to Yoga and Zen Buddhism. His life is so richly textured that it reads like a character out of a piece of fiction. Two of his most famous works are Darkness at Noon and The God That Failed, which deal with his disillusionment with Communism, a doctrine he had embraced before World War II. He wrote at least three books dealing with Jewish topics. Thieves in the Night was based on his experiences living on Kibbutz before the war. Promise and Fulfillmentis a history of Palestine from the Balfour Declaration to the founding of the state of Israel. Thirteenth Tribe is based on the Khazars and Koestler's belief that most European Jews are descended from them. Koestler suffered from Leukemia and Parkinson's Disease and passed away under tragic circumstances in 1983.

    1909: Birthdate of Old Testament scholar and biblical archaeologist George Wright who led digs at Shechem and Tell Gezer.

    1911: In London, George W. Seligman married Mrs. R.C.W. Wadsworth a widow who was the daughter of James Benedict of New York City.

    1914: During World War I, “on the Eastern Front, the first award of the Cross of St George, the equivalent of the Victoria Cross in Britain,” went to Leo Osnas, a Jewish soldier, “for exceptional bravery on the field of battle.”

    1915: Leon Trotsky attends an International Socialist conference in Zimmerwald, Switzerland that issues a manifesto demanding immediate peace and civil war between the classes throughout Europe.

    1916: Birthdate of Canadian comedian Frank Shuster, the Shuster in the team of “Wayne and Shuster” who was the cousin of Jos Shuster, one of the creators “Superman.”

    1925: Birthdate of Justin Kaplan the Pulitzer Prize winning biographer whose subjects included Mark Twain, Walt Whiteman and Lincoln Steffers.+

    1926: Rabbi David de Sola Pool, the spiritual leader of the Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue, reported on his recently completed trip to Palestine. He said that one of the things that impressed him the most was the “complete public security in Palestine and Transjordan.” He reported that he and his family traveled between the two entities with the same sense of security one would have in traveling from New York to Montreal. He was also impressed with the economic growth in the region which was exemplified by the newly completed public works project in Jerusalem that will bring “copious” amounts of water to the City David; a change that will benefit Jews, Moslems and Christians.

    1927(8th of Elul, 5687): Fifty-seven year old movie mogul Marcus Loew who formed MGM and Loews Theatre Chain passed away.

    1927: Three quarters of the houses in the town Kotsk  or  Kock in Eastern Poland were destroyed by a fire which broke out tonight. The town was the home of Menachem Mendel Morgensztern of Kotzk, better known as the Kotzker Rebbe.

    1928: A group of Jews from Wembley, in the London Borough of Brent, held their first meeting at which it was decided to form the Wembley Hebrew Congregation and Mr. H Hooberman was appointed Chairman of the Congregation.

    1929: As Arab violence abated, a large number of Arab leaders met in Jerusalem under the auspices of the Arab Executive.

    1929: In Haifa, Jewish shops remained closed while casualties from the fighting at Safed , where the British repulsed invading Bedouin forces, arrived in the northern port city.

    1929: A committee of leading physicians of Jerusalem today issued a strong denial of a government official statement that there were no mutilations of the bodies of Jews massacred at Hebron. The physicians emphatically asserted that among the fifty-nine slain Jews buried at Hebron a great number of unspeakable mutilations were disclosed. The committee demands the exhumation of these victims in the presence of European doctors and the Consular Corps for the purpose of proving their contention. The committee also states that many Jews are being treated in Jerusalem hospitals for mutilations and that these are still available for inspection.

    1931: Birthdate of Moshe Mizrahi the Egyptian born, award winning Israeli film director.

    1931: Birthdate of Amnon Rubinstein, the native of Tel Aviv who became a legal scholar, politician, columnist and member of the Knesset serving from 1977 through 2002.

    1933: First baseman Phil Weintraub made his major league debut with the New York Giants.

    1934(24th of Av, 5694): Baevski Myer passed away. Born Simcha Myer Baevski in Russia, in 1878, the Australian businessman and philanthropist, best known for creating Myer, Australia's largest chain of department stores.

    1936: During the Spanish Civil War, Robert Capa photographs “The Falling Soldier.”

    1938: The Racial Laws were passed today in Italy which excluded all those of Jewish background from universities, schools, academies and other institutions.

    1939: As the Nazis continued their sweep through Poland, the Germans tried to set fire to the predominantly Jewish section of Sulejow, Poland. Six Jews died in the flames while five were shot as they fled.

    1939: Germany asked Russia to invade Poland from the east in accord with the pact that Hitler and Stalin had signed in August of 1939. Molotov, the Soviet Foreign Minister replied that they would "at a suitable time."

    1940: Assistant Secretary of State, Breckinridge Long, a proponent of curbing Jewish immigration, sent a memo to his consulates that stated in part: "The list of Rabbis has been closed and now it remains for the President's Committee to be curbed." Long's attitude was typical of many officials in the US State Department and helps explain why so little was done to help the Jews escape Nazi persecution both before and during the war. His "genteel band of anti-Semitism" was but another form of the "gentlemen's agreement" only this time with deadly consequences

    1941: After having been shown for the first time in New York City in May, today marks the
    U.S. Premiere of Citizen Kane with music by Bernard Hermann and which earned Herman Mankiewicz earned an Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay.

    1942: Eight hundred women were gassed at Birkenau.

    1943(5th of Elul, 5703): Seventy-seven year old Julian W. Mack who served a judge on the United States Court of Appeals for 38 years and whose leadership of the Jewish community included serving as President of the Zionist Organization of America passed away today.

    1943: An old shoe warehouse in the Lódz (Poland) Ghetto takes delivery of 12 freight cars filled with shoes stolen from murdered Jews

    1944: The SS closes the concentration camp at Hertogenbosch in the Netherlands.

    1947:Rusztem Vámbéry, the son of famed orientalist Armin Vambery began serving as Hungarian ambassador to the United States.

    1948(1stof Elul, 5708): Rosh Chodesh Elul – the Shofar is sounded for the first time In a Jewish state since 70 CE.

    1948: Leon Blum completed his term as Vice-Premier in the cabinet of Andre Marie.

    1948: Betty and Jacob Levin are married in Chicago, starting a fifty-nine year life-time partnership that was a blessing and inspiration to all who came to know them.

    1951: Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion greeted the delegates of the 12th annual conference of The Women’s International Zionist Organization at its opening meeting in Jerusalem. The organization has 180,000 members in fifty-one countries. The organization which focuses on social work activities does not have branches in the United States, since Hadassah already fills that niche.

    1951: At the end of four days of war games in the Negev watched by representatives of the U.S. and U.K., Major General Yigal Yadin, the IDF’s Chief of Staff expressed unbounded confidence in the ability of his troops to repel attacks by an aggressors.

    1951: As America is gripped by a right-wing witch hunt, former Communist Karl Wittfogel told the House Un-American Activities Committee that Rutgers University professor Moses Finkelstein was a communist.  This accusation would touch off a series of events that would lead to Finkelstein losing his position, moving to England  where his career led to a knighthood.

    1951:The funeral for Abraham Cahan the retired editor of the Forward will take place today.

    1958: Boris Pasternak's Doctor Zhivago was published in the US. Born in 1904, Pasternak became something of a hero during the 1930's when he refused to write in a manner consistent with the rules laid down by Stalin. He actually began writing Doctor Zhivago during the 1930's. Pasternak won the Nobel Prize for Literature but was forced to reject the award. If he had accepted, he would have been exiled.

    1961 Milk and Honey, “a musical story centers on a busload of lonely American widows hoping to catch husbands while touring Israel and is set against the background of the country's fight for recognition as an independent nation” began a pre-Broadway run at the Colonial Theatre in Boston, MA.

    1972: Palestinian guerrillas attacked the Israeli delegation at the Munich Olympic Games; 11 Israelis, five guerrillas and a police officer were killed in the siege. The group who carried out this outrage was called "Black September." Their name had nothing to do with Jews or Israelis. Rather, their named commemorated the violent expulsion of the PLO from Jordan at the hands of the Jordanian government. The hostage crisis moved from the Olympic Village to the Fürstenbruck airport near Munich. That is where the Israeli Olympic sportsmen were killed by eight Arab gunmen. Israel never forgot Yosef Gottfreud, Ze¹ev Friedman, Ya¹acov Springer, Moshe Weinberg, Eliezer Halfin, Mark Slavin, Kehat Shorr, Andre Spitzer and Amihud Shapira. The Israeli government promised that it would pursue and punish the murderers and those who aided them. How did the world respond to this first act of terror in what is now called the War on Terror? The Olympic Games continued at Munich. The UN would condemn Zionism as a form of racism. The General Assembly would applaud wildly as Yassar Arafat, the father of this terror, stood with pistol on his hip addressing the international body dedicated to peace.

    1972(26th of Elul, 5732): Yossef Romano, a Libyan-born, Jewish Israeli weightlifter with the Israeli team that went to the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, Germany, was the second of eleven Israeli team members murdered in the Munich massacre by Black September terrorists during that Olympics today. He was the Israeli weight-lifting champion in the light and middle-weight divisions for nine years. Romano competed in the middleweight weightlifting division in the 1972 Olympics, but was unable to complete one of his lifts due to a ruptured knee tendon. He was due to fly home to Israel on September 6, 1972 to have an operation on the injured knee.

    1972: Israeli race-walker Shaul Paul Ladany was awakened by wrestling coach Yoseef Gutfreund enabaling him to escape from the terrorists and sound the alarm to officials that the attack was underway.

    1976: The cabinet decided to appoint Aldin Yadlin, former head of the Histadrut's economic enterprises, governor of the Bank of Israel to succeed Moshe Sanbar

    1977: In order to qualify as the 22nd member of the Arab League, Djibouti barred all Israeli shipping from its port.

    1977: Kibbutz Kfar Etzion celebrated the 10th anniversary of its re-establishment.

    1978: Sadat, Begin and Carter began the peace conference at Camp David, Maryland. These talks would produce the first peace treaty between Israel and one of its Arab neighbors. The treaty has lasted. The peace may be "cold" but there have been no "hot" wars.

    1987: An exhibition entitled ''Boris: The Studio Photographer 1900-1985,'' documenting the life and work of the portrait photographer Boris Bennett, which is part of the Jewish East End Celebration is scheduled to come to an end.

    1988: Jerry Lewis' 23rd Labor Day telethon raises record $41,132,113

    1992(7th of Elul, 5752): Author Fritz Leiber passed away. He was best known for his science fiction works several of which won Hugo Awards.

    1997(3rd of Elul, 5757): Hungarian born conductor Sir George Solti passed away.

    1997(3rd of Elul, 5757): Twelve Israeli naval commandos were killed in an attack against a Hezbollah installation.

    1998: Premiere of Radu Mihăileanu’s Train of Life (Train de Vie) one of the most off-beat movies ever made about the Holocuast.

    1999(24th of Elul, 5759): Alan Funt, creator of Candid Camera, the original television reality show passed away.

    1999: A Hamas bombing at Egged bus 960 at Tiberias failed to murder anybody.

    1999: A Hamas bombing at the Haifa Central Bus Station failed to murder anybody.

    The New York Times
    included reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or about topics of Jewish interest including The Last Survivor: In Search of Martin Zaidenstadt by Timothy W. Ryback, Jafsie and John Henry: Essays by David Mamet, Modern Girls, Shining Stars, The Skies of Tokyo: Five Japanese Women by Phyllis Birnbaum and American Odyssey: Letters and Journals, 1940-1947 by Wilhelm Reich.

    2003: David “Blaine began his 44-day endurance stunt sealed inside a transparent Plexiglas case suspended 9 metres (30 ft) in the air next to Potters Fields Park on the south bank of the River Thames, the area between City Hall and Tower Bridge in London. The case, measuring 3 feet (0.9 m) by 7 feet (2.1 m) by 7 feet (2.1 m), had a webcam installed so that viewers could observe his progress. During the 44-day period, Blaine went without any food or nutrients and survived on just 4.5 litres of water per day.”

    2003(8th of Elul, 5763): Twenty-seven year old Mordechai Laufter of Netanya died today of wounds suffered during a bus bombing in the Shmuel HaNavi Quarter of Jerusalem.

    2004: The New York Timesincluded reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or about topics of Jewish interest including Heir to the Glimmering World by Cynthia Ozick andSecrets of the Soul: A Social and Cultural History of Psychoanalysis by Eli Zaretsky
    2004: “Focus on the Soul: The Photographs of Lotte Jacobi” closes after three months of being on displayed at the National Museum of Women in the Arts in Washington, DC.

    2005: In Little Rock, AR, the bris of Rabbi and Estie Ciment newborn son.

    20051st of Elul, 5765): Rosh Chodesh Elul; the Shofar will be sounded at the end of all morning services except on Shabbat until the penultimate day of the month. Psalm 27 is recited daily from this date until Shemini Atzeres.

    Haaretz reported that the opening of the Israeli diplomatic mission in Dubai several weeks ago was the culmination of a series of elaborate contacts Israel has been developing with the United Arab Emirates for years. By using secret diplomacy, the Foreign Ministry has succeeded in adding the Emirates to the list of Arab countries that have diplomatic ties with Israel.

    2006: In its first-ever public recruiting drive, the Shin Bet security service is calling on high-tech geeks to join the anti-terror battle. "


    2006: The BBC reported that Randy Lerner now owned 85.5% of the  Aston Villa football club.

    2006: Sixty years after the Holocaust, Kielce opened its doors to 16 Israeli defense industries exhibiting their wares at the 14th MSPO International Defense Industry Exhibition taking place in the city. Located in southeastern Poland, Kielce was once home to 24,000 Jews who were all - except two - killed during the Holocaust. In 1941, a ghetto was built in the city, and most of the Jews were moved there before being transferred to Nazi concentration camps. In July 1946, local Poles murdered 46 Jews who had returned to the city after the war to rebuild the destroyed Jewish community.

    2007: On the Jewish Calendar Elul 22, the Yahrzeit of Joseph B. Levin; still remembered and still missed after 22 years.

    2007: Norman Finkelstein announced his resignation from DePaul after coming to a settlement with the university on generally undisclosed terms.

    2007(22nd of Elul): In Highland Park, Illinois, the funeral of Dr. Jacob Levin; more could be said but there would never be enough room to say it all! He is loved and missed. Ironically, Jacob Levin is buried on the same day as the Yahrzeit of his brother Joseph is observed.

    2008: NBC aired a segment on “Dateline” convicted hedge fund manager Samuel Israel III.

    2008: “A Secret” (a Holocaust themed film) opens in New York. Claude Miller’s haunting new movie, called “A Secret” (“Un Secret”) opens in New York. The Holocaust themed film is based on a novel by Philippe Grimbert.

    2009: In Cedar Rapids, Iowa, Temple Judah hosts its annual Hebrew Labor Day Traditional Shabbat Service featuring Hebrew prayers and Hebrew National Hot Dogs at a “Completely Kosher Kiddush.”

    2009: NiCad, an international rock band featuring Israeli vocalist and drummer Gilad Woltsovitch appears at Talking Head Club in Baltimore, MD.

    2009: At the Jerusalem Theatre a performance of "Yerid Hamizrach" a collection of songs that is a polished, dramatic mix of the personal biography of the poet Haim Guri and his Israeli experiences, from Jerusalem to Tel Aviv and Yaffo, and onwards.

    2010: BuckUSY a United Synagogue Youth (USY) Chapter, based out of Congregation Tifereth Israel in Columbus, Ohio is scheduled to begin its road trip to Sandusky, Ohio.

    2010: The Los Angeles Timesfeatured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Sonderberg Case by Elie Wiesel.

    2010: The New York Timesfeatured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Wherever You Go, Joan Leegant’s “first novel, in which three American Jews suffering from various shades of misguidedness visit Israel in search of meaning (or closure or salvation or . . . you get the picture) and their lives collide in (what else?) an act of terror.”

    2010: The Washington Postfeatured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Bob Dylan In America by Sean Wilentz.

    2010: At the U.S. Open, third-seeded Venus Williams defeated Israeli Shahar Peer, who was 16th-seeded, 7-6 (3), 6-3 on the second straight windy day in Arthur Ashe Stadium

    2010: Last Night at Chateau Marmont by Lauren Weisberg, the “debuted today at No. 9 on the New York Times Bestseller List.

    2010: Yona Metzger, great-rabbi of Israel and Zsolt Semjen, Hungarian vice-prime minister, attended the rededication of Óbuda Synagogue in Obuda, Hungary. Jews had been living in the area since the early decades of the 18th century. The synagogue was originally built in 1820.

    2011: "Hansel and Gretel: The End of the Fairy Tale" is scheduled to be performed by Florence Fisch-Hacham at Bet Avi Chai in Jerusalem.

    2011: The Yad Elie Benefit Concert is scheduled to take place at Waimann’s house in Jerusalem.

    2011: The Brit of Rabbi and Estie Ciment’s son is scheduled to take place at the Chabad Jewish Center in Little Rock, AR. The “tribe” of a true Tzaddik continues to increase.

    2011: On Labor Day in the USA, The DC Beit Midrah is scheduled to sponsor a “Labor on the Bimah” event at the DC Jewish Community Center.

    2011: The civil administration with the help of hundreds of border police destroyed three homes at the Migron outpost in the West Bank. In so doing they made good on a pledge by the state to the High Court of Justice that the three would be taken down in September 

    2012: The Alexandria Kleztet is scheduled to perform at the Peabody Institute in Baltimore, MD.

    2012: 40thAnniversary of the Munich Massacre

    2012: Rabbi David Wolpe of Sinai Temple in Los Angeles is scheduled to deliver the invocation at the Democratic National Convention in Charlotte, NC today.

    2012: The Jewish Community Relations Council (JCRC) of Greater Washington
    and The Embassy of Israel is scheduled to sponsor a tribute and commemoration on the 40th anniversary of the 1972 Olympics massacre –“ A Memorial: Remembering the Munich 11.” 2013

    2012:Democrats amended the party platform this afternoon to include language supporting Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. The last-minute change came in the wake of mounting criticism from Democratic members of Congress incensed that the 2008 platform's declaration backing Jerusalem as the capital of Israel had been removed from the 2012 text. Sources close to the platform drafting process said US President Barack Obama personally intervened on reinstating the Jerusalem language. (Jerusalem Post

    2012: Relatives of the Israeli Olympians slain by Palestinian gunmen during the 1972 Games in Munich today marked the 40th anniversary of the attack with Israeli and German officials at the air base where most of the 12 victims died.

    2012:The Air Force struck a terror cell that was about to launch rockets into Israel, the IDF said tonight. The cell had been involved in past rocket fire on southern Israel, the IDF added.

    2013: A clash between commerce and Kavanah takes place with the opening of New York City’s Fashion week on the first day of Rosh Hashanah (As reported by Eliora Katz)

    2013:Anthony Weiner, the disgraced former congressman who has seen his mayoral prospects dwindle in light of embarrassing revelations regarding his behavior on Twitter, once again made headlines early today, this time over controversial remarks directed at him by a prospective Jewish voter in Brooklyn

    2013: Sixty-six year old Stephen Chron passed away today.

    2013(1stof Tishrei, 5774): Rosh Hashanah

    2014: Two members of the University of Haifa faculty, Dr. Efraim Lev and Dr. Moshe Lavee, complete a week-long series of meetings and presentation at The Center for Judaic Studies at the University of Connecticut.

    2014: Comedian Lewis Black is scheduled to appear at the Music Hall in Portsmouth, NH.

    0 0

    September 6

    3761 B.C.E.: The first day of the Hebrew Calendar. "The epoch of the modern Hebrew calendar is Monday, October 7, 3761 BCE, being the tabular date (same daylight period) in the proleptic Julian calendar corresponding to 1 Tishri AM 1 (AM = Anno Mundi = in the year of the world). This date is about one year before the traditional Jewish date of Creation on 25 Elul AM 1! A minority place Creation on 25 Adar AM 1, about six months after the modern epoch. Thus adding 3761 to a Gregorian year number will yield the Hebrew year number beginning in autumn (add 3760 for that ending in autumn). This holds until the Gregorian year 1 BCE. After that (due to the lack of year 0), adding 3760 to the Gregorian year yields the Hebrew year beginning in autumn (3759 for that ending in autumn). Because the Hebrew year drifts relative to the Gregorian year, this actually only works until the year 22,203, but it's a fairly good rule of thumb."  IF this makes any sense to any of you, you are a better at this than I am.  I included it because I found it, not because I understand it.

    394: The Christian Roman Emperor Theodosius I defeats and kills the pagan usurper Eugenius on the second day of the Battle of the Frigidus. This marked the final triumph of Christendom in the Roman Empire.  The pagans, including those found among the Roman nobility could and did convert.  For the Jews, it was a different matter.  In one of those strange twists of fate, the victory actually helped to weaken the Empire and led to a further of the split between the Western and Eastern empires.

    1556: The reign of Suleiman the Magnificent came to an end. Suleiman provided a welcoming Oriental home to the Jews as could be seen by arrival and rise to power of Dona Garcia and Joseph Nassi, the settlement of thousands of Jews on the shores of Lake Kinnerth and the rebuilding of the walls of Jerusalem.  He was willing to protect Jews against all-comers including the powerful Pope Paul IV who had wanted to subject the Jews of Ancona to his Inquistion.

    1628: The Puritans settle Salem which will be incorporated into the Massachusetts Bay Colony which was also controlled by the Puritans.  The Puritans were heavily influenced by what they called “The Old Testament.”  They saw themselves as “modern Israelites.”  The name of the town “Salem” is a form of the Hebrew word Shalom.  Oliver Cromwell, the most famous leader of the English Puritans, was a key player in the return of the Jewish people to the British Isles.  English Puritans were part of the early Christian Zionist movement which championed the return of the Jewish people to Palestine hundred years before Herzl held his first congress in Switzerland.  While the American branch of the Puritans was influenced by Jewish tradition in the form of the Old Testament, the Puritans had no use for Jews (or anybody else) who did not conform to their stringent form of Christianity. 

    1666: Birthdate of Czar Ivan V.  During his reign his elder sister Sophia supported a program of persecution aimed at Jews and pagans.

    1683:  Jean-Baptiste Colbert passed away.  He was Finance Minister to Louis XIV at the time of his death.  Colbert’s drive to improve the economic condition of France under the Sun King led to him champion the cause of the Jewish people.  In 1671, Colbert convinced Louis XIV “to issue a charter of liberty for Jews under royal authority.  Marseilles merchants, upset over the king’s declaration of their port as an open harbor where Jews could freely trade, complained” to Louis.  Colbert wrote the official reply for Louis which was striking in its candor.  “Commercial envy will always impel the Christian merchants to persecute Jews.”  But before they complained too much Christians merchants should “ take into consideration the benefits the government derives from the industrial activity of the Jews, which comprises all parts of the world, thanks to their association with their coreligionists.”  

    1705: On this day an auto-de-fe took place in Lisbon. An 1846 review of a work called The Inquisition and Judaism appearing in TheOccident and American Jewish Advocate provided the following description of the event.   "In the public square of Lisbon there were led out to the stake a number of hapless victims, declared criminal by the tribunal of the Inquisition, for being suspected and afterwards convicted of Judaism, a crime than which that abominable institution knew none greater."

    1729: Birthdate of German Jewish philosopher Moses Mendelssohn. Regardless of how one views his work, he was an important Jewish figure of the 18th century. To some he was the third Moses (the other two being the Biblical lawgiver and Moses Maimonides) with whom a new era opens in the history of the Jewish people. To others, he was a step into the beginning of assimilation and loss of identity for Jews and the dilution of traditional Judaism.  He passed away in 1786.  None of his grandchildren were Jewish.

    1784(20th of Elul, 5544): Thirty three year old Bible scholar Nathan Wolf Ben Abraham author Pesher Dabar, a commentary on the Book of Job that was praised by Moses Mendelssohn and Naphtali Wessely passed away today at Dessau.

    1785(2ndof Tishrei, 5546): As Jews observe the 2nd day of Rosh Hashanah, they can ponder the view of God presented in Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi’s controversial tome -  Letters on the Teachings of Spinoza which was published this year.

    1794: Gabriel and Lucy Freeman were married in Wilkes County, GA.  Gabriel’s father was a Jew from England.  In an all too common occurrence on the American frontier, he married a Methodist woman.  

    1812(29thof Elull, 5572): In the first  year of what Americans call the War of 1812, Erev Rosh Hashanah

    1826: Birthdate of German newspaper publisher Leopold Ullstein who founded the published house of Ulletein-Veglag.

    1840: Mehemet Ali released the surviving Jewish prisoners bringing an end to the infamous Damascus Affair.

    1842(2ndof Tishrei, 5603): Second Day of Rosh Hashanah

    1847: Henry David Thoreau leaves Walden Pond and moves in with Ralph Waldo Emerson and his family in Concord, Massachusetts. Emerson supported the efforts of many unconventional literary figures including the Jewish poetess Emma Lazarus. Their first meeting when she was seventeen led to a mentor-mentee relationship that included a correspondence that lasted until his death.

    1854: Birthdate of Georges Picquart, the French Army Major who first discovered the evidence that the documents that were used to convict Dreyfus were a forgery.  He risked his career to save Dreyfus.

    1860: According to an article published today predicting how the people of Baltimore will vote in this fall's election states that  " those interested in lager-bier concerns, tobacco establishments, including Hebrews and others, not scrupulous of working and making money on Sundays, may go against reformers, who now rigidly enforce the Sunday law, causing all such concerns to be peremptorily closed during the Sabbath."  The author of the article failed to make the connection between Jewish opposition to the reformers and the fact that they were being led by a former "Know-Nothing," a now defunct political party that was anti-immigrant.
    1861(2nd of Tishrei, 5622): In the first year of the American Civil War, Jews on both sides observe the second day of Rosh Hashanah.

    1861: During the Civil War, Union forces under General Grant take control of Paducah, KY, helping to keep that state from falling into Rebel hands.  A year later, the Jews of Paducah would be victims of one of the most overt act of anti-Semitism in U.S. history when they are expelled from their homes by the same General Grant.  President Lincoln would rescind the order showing that the American Jewish experience was indeed different.  Grant never explained the order but the Jews apparently did not hold it against him.  They supported him when he ran for President.  And Grant was no anti-Semite as can be seen by his support for Washington’s traditional congregation, Adas Israel.

    1865: According to a Ketubah that would be later be used in evidence for the first time in an English Court hearing a suit for divorce, Benjamin Isaacs, the son of Elias Isaacs married Deborah Levy, the daughter of Hyman Levy in New York City.

    1867: The Israelite published a “concise account of the dedication of Temple Beth El in Detroit which had taken place on August 30.

    1869(1stof Tishrei, 5630): Rosh Hashanah

    1869. Birthdate of author Felix Salten author of the children’s classic Bambi. Born Siegmund Salzmann in Budapest, Hungary he moved to Vienna as a toddler because the Jews had been granted full citizenship in the Austrian capital. Salten was inspired to write Bambi after a trip to the Alps, in 1923. In 1933, he sold the rights, and he did not make any money from the Disney movie based on Bambi released in 1942.  He moved to Switzerland to escape the Nazis.  He died there in 1945.

    1879: In Étretat, France, playwright Ludovic Halévy and his wife gave birth to historian Élie Halévy

    1872: Sculptor Mark Antokolski married Jelena Apatovas, the daughter of Vilnius merchant Judelis Giršovičius Apatovas.

    1872: In St. Louis, MO, Progress Lodge No. 53 of the Independent Order of Free Sons of Israel was founded today.

    1879: The Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society opened today in New York City.

    1879(18th of Elul, 5639):Leonard Montefiore, son of Nathaniel Montefiore, of London, England, grand-nephew of Sir Moses Montefiore, and nephew of the late Sir Anthony Rothschild, died this morning of acute rheumatism, at the Ocean House, Newport. He was only 27 years of age.

    1879: A large crowd gathered today at New York’s Temple Beth-el to hear Rabbi Kaufmann Kohler’s inaugural address which was given in German.

    1879: “The Religious Condition of Germany” published today Jews make up 1.2% of the nation’s population, 9.9% of the students in the gymnasia, 8.4% in the commercial schools and 5% of the students in “the higher grammar schools.”

    1880(1st of Tishrei, 5641): Rosh Hashanah

    1880(1st of Tishrei, 5641): Forty-nine year old German architect Edwin Oppler passed away today.

    1880: The Memphis Avalanche Appeal printed a notice today stating that “‘Jewish ladies’ like Hattie Schwarzenberg, Birdies Hiesse and Mattie Goldsmith will tomorrow receive at their home the country boys who came to the city for the high holy days.”

    1883: In Chicago, the house detective at the Grand Pacific Hotel arrested a man who was supposed to Max Guggenheim, the New York hotel thief but who claimed he was Theodore Katz.

    1888(1st of Tishrei, 5649): Rosh Hashanah

    1889(10th of Elul, 5649): German author and scholar Raphael Kircheim who was critical of the way funds for Palestine were distributed under the administration of Dutch community leader Hirsch Lehren and who criticized the work of Samson Raphael Hirsch passed away today.

    1891: “Russia’s War On The Jews” published today relied on an eyewitness who wrote “that we are only at the beginning of the Jewish persecution…The situation of the Jews in Russia” is “far more terrible than the outside world imagines and that its miseries now literally defy adequate description.” (Reports like this explain the rising tide of desperate immigrants in Poland and Russia flooding the United States)

    1891: “The Antiquity of Civilization” published today described the impact of recent discoveries that demonstrate the existence of “walled towns, chariots” and items fashioned from gold, silver, bronze and iron among the Egyptians, Acadians and Phoenicians at a time before “the pastoral Hebrew patriarchs found their way along the Euphrates, through Syria to Egypt.

    1891: The reviewer of A Girl in the Carpathians points out that the author, Menie Muriel Dowie relies on the writings of the Jewish author Karl Emil Franzos for much of her information about life in Galicia.

    1892: The 125 Russian Jews who arrived in Boston aboard the steamship Michigan were transferred by tugboat to the disinfecting rooms at Gallop’s Island outside of Boston.

    1892: “Jewish Colonization Experiment” published today described a plan of Jews in Kalamazoo, Michigan, to purchase a farm near here which will be worked by three or four immigrant families.  If the experiment works, the community will appeal to the Baron Hirsch Fund for assistance.

    1893: Moses Bernstein who was driving a hearse carrying a Jewish infant that was struck by a trolley car “went to the office of the Brooklyn City Railroad Company to make a complaint against the motorman.”

    1893: This afternoon a deputy sheriff seized the old Eagle Distillery owned by Bernard Weinberger where “kosher whisky drank principally during Jewish holidays” is made to satisfy a series of claims made by creditors including George Shapiro and M.O. Moses.

    1895: A committee consisting of 13 year old Harry Bernstein, 15 year old Charles Glusker and 14 year old Isidior Krember from the Institute Street Cleaning League met with Mayor Strong gain his support for resolutions concerning pushcarts that had been adopted when the group met at the Hebrew Institute.

    1896: John Zynoski, a Jewish pack peddler who was found bound to a tree in the woods between Kingston, N.H. and Brentwood tonight claimed that he had been robbed of ten dollars by two tramps.

    1897: Mandolin player Fred Barris and Dave Edison were among the entertainers who were reported to have provided entertainment free of charge for a group of children at the Hebrew Institute.

    1898: “No Chance For Dreyfus” published today included the claim that even that even if Colonel Henry “did admit to forging the letter naming Dreyfus…there is not the remotest chance of Dreyfus getting a new trial” because “the aristocratic element and great masses of French would be opposed to it” and “there would certainly be a revolution if a new trial were ordered.”

    1899(2nd of Tishrei, 5660): Rosh Hashanah Second day

    1899: It was reported today that the value of the late Clara Baroness von Hirsh estate in England has been assessed at (£)51, 277 3s while the total value of her estate was so great that her will “appears to have disposed of over (£)5, 350,000.

    1899: With the release of the last will and testament of Clara, Baroness, von Hirsch, widow of the late Baron Moritz von Hirsch, The Times of London and The New York Times published a list of the bequests and legacies which includes $600,000 to a home for Jewish working girls in New York.

    1899: Birthdate of composer and showman Billy Rose.  Born William Samuel Rosenberg in New York City, Rose first gained fame as the fastest stenographer in America.  He began his show business career as a lyricist before going on to become a Broadway producer and nightclub owner.  He produced Billy Rose's Aquacade at the 1939 World's Fair.  He gained additional notoriety for his marriage to and then his divorce from Jewish funny lady, Fanny Brice.  Rose made theatrical history in 1943 with his Broadway production of Carmen Jones. An adaptation of George Bizet's opera Carmen, the story was transplanted to World War II America by lyricist and librettist Oscar Hammerstein II and featured had an all-black cast.  It was later made into a movie for which Dorothy Dandridge received an Academy Award nomination as Best Actress.  This was the first such nomination for a African-American female actress Thus the play and the movie provided numerous African-Americans a showcase for their talents that might otherwise have not existed. Rose also founded the BillyRoseSculptureGardenin Jerusalem.  He passed away in 1966.

    1901: President William McKinley was assassinated by Leon Czologosz in Buffalo, NY.  You may be surprised that McKinley supported a Jewish homeland in Palestine.  In 1891, he was one of many notables that signed petition that was presented to President Harrison which said, in part, “Why not give Palestine back to them again? According to God's distribution of nations, it is their home - an inalienable possession from which they were expelled by force." “They” and “them” refers to the Jewish people.  McKinley’s assassination fanned the flamed of those who wanted to end immigration and who were opposed to anybody living in Americawho was from eastern and southern Europe, including the mass of Jewish immigrants which had been coming from those parts of the world since the 1880’s.

    1902: “The Jewish World published a detailed balance sheet of the accounts of the Jewish Colonization Association the trust created by the late Baron de Hirsch with a donation of $50,000 for the purpose of helping persecuted Russian Jews.” The Association was best known for establishing colonies of European Jews in Argentina. Israel Zangwill had recently challenged he administrators to produce a public accounting of the Association’s here-to-for secret financial dealings.  

    1904: The funeral for Dr. Hermann Baar, who had been Superintendent of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum for 23 years will be held this morning at that institution

    1904:  Birthdate of "Slapsie" Maxie Rosenbloom light heavyweight boxing champ from 1930 to 1934.   Born in Harlem, Rosenbloom gained his nickname because sometimes he seemed to slap his opponents instead of punching them.  Rosenbloom fought during a period when Jewish fighters dominated several of boxing various divisions.  Rosenbloom enjoyed success in Hollywood when he finished fighting.  He passed away in 1976.

    1911: As the Melvin Bellis Affair raged, Dimitri Bogrov, a young Jewish terrorist tried to shoot Czar Nicholas II while he attended the Kiev Opera.  He missed and ended up killing Pytor Stolypin, the powerful minister of the interior. Bogrov was summarily hung for his crime.

    1911: Following the outbreak of anti-Semitic riots at Tredegar, Wales, the Monmouthsire Welsh Baptist Association, meeting at Blackwood refused to pass a motion expressing sympathy for the plight of the Jews.  “One delegate argued that ‘resolutions did more harm than good and they encouraged the Jews.  There were about 100 Jews at Tredegar now, and if they had many more resolutions they would have 500 there.’”

    1912(24thof Elul, 5672): Twelve year old Markusch Wassermann passed away today.

    1913: Rabbi Henry Pereira Mendes, President of the Union of Orthodox Congregations wrote a letter to the New York Timesin which he described the emerging doctrine of Zionism which had included a political variant, a practical variant and now contains a “spiritual” variant championed by such intellectuals as Achad Ha’am.

    1914: While the French were fighting desperately at the Battle of Marne, units of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF)  leisurely marched passed the country home of “Jimmy” Rothschild “where they longed to be able to stop and get some” of the pheasants running about the place.

    1914: The English gamekeeper on the French estate of James Rothschild found an English private from the Royal West Kents hiding in a shed wearing civilian clothes during the Battle of the Marne.  (He would be shot as a deserter two days later)

    1916: Birthdate of Montague Ullman “a psychiatrist, psychoanalyst and parapsychologist who founded the Dream Laboratory at the Maimonides Medical Center in Brooklyn, New York” and was a faculty member at Yeshiva University.

    1918(29thof Elul, 5678): Erev of Rosh Hashanah

    1923:in a letter replying to the Jewish Telegraphic Agency's recent inquiry in regard to the introduction of Jewish immigrants to Australia, the Australian Government stated that it is not in a position at present to offer any special encouragement to Jews at present resident in southern European countries to migrate to Australia"."The Australian assisted immigration activities of the Commonwealth are for the present being confined mainly to the introduction of farmers, farm workers and female domestic servants from Great Britain, and the British government is cooperating with the Commonwealth Government in facilitating such immigration", states the official Secretary to the N.Y. Commissioner for the Commonwealth of Australia.

    1923: JTA reported today that “Max Warburg, the well-known Jewish banker of Hamburg, has announced that he will file a suit for libel against the anti-Semitic organ "Der Hammer".The Paper which is the organ of the so-called "Aryan faction" charged that Warburg's banking firm had profited greatly by the war. The "Hammer" further charges that Warburg had been very intimately connected with the German military and official headquarters and had exploited the knowledge gained from these sources for his own profit. Warburg brands both of these charges as absolute lies declaring that his banking firm far from making money through the war, had actually suffered a considerable loss as a result of it. Mr. Warburg is a brother of the New York banker and social worker, Felix Warburg, of whom the "Hammer" spoke as the leader of the "banking world in America". This assertion, too, Herr Max Warburg characterizes as false.”

    1923: JTA reported today that  “The Hungarian government has promised to legalize Zionist activity in Hungarian government has promised to legalize Zionist activity in Hungary.The change of attitude on the part of this government was announced by Israel Cohen, General Secretary of the British Zionist Organization, following his conference with the Hungarian officials.”

    1923: JTA reported today that “Dr. Leo Motzkin, engineer Tiomkin and Rabbi Jochelman of London will compose the delegation of the Jewish World Relief Conference which will visit the United States on behalf of the organization. A delegation will also be sent to South America and northern Europe with a view to awakening the public sentiment of the various countries to the need of continuing the relief work in Europe.”

    1923: JTA reported today that “officials of the Belgian government attended the funeral of Rabbi Armand Bloch, the Belgian chief Rabbi since 1891. As a tribute to the exceptional patriotism displayed by the late rabbi during the war and the German occupation, the funeral was marked by military honors.”

    1923: JTA reported today that Reuter's news service has declared “that the report of the anti-Zionist London "Daily Express" that 400 employees of the Palestine Administration were slated for dismissal in the interests of retrenchment of expenses is unfounded.”  According to Reuters it was decided some time ago “to start a gradual reduction of the number of employees, but it was never contemplated to make it as sweeping as the Express report indicated. Moreover, instead of the Palestine natives losing their jobs, as the Express story stated, natives are gradually replacing the British officials.”

    1924(7th of Elul, 5684): Fifty-six year old Nachman Syrkin passed away.  Born in Russia, he was a founding member of the labor Zionist movement who is created with being the first to promote the use of collective settlements in Palestine.  He died in New York before he could make Aliyah and it would take until 1951 for his remains to be re-interred at Kibbutz Kinneret  
    1924: “Aaron Benjamin, a delegate of the Immigration Aid Society to the Jewish World Relief Conference in Carlsbad, sailed today aboard the SS Aquitania, for New York. It is understood here, that he will make definite proposals to the Hias concerning the co-operation between this body and the Jewish World Relief Conference in the aiding of Jewish immigrants.”

    1924: JTA reported today that “The Government of the French Republic has conferred the Order of the Legion of Honor on Rabbi Mosche Sitruk, Chief Rabbi of Tunis, on the recommendation of the Resident General of Tunis.” [Rabbi Sitruk served in this position from 1921 until 1927. Rabbi Israel Zeitoun was his predecessor and Rabbi Nissim Yarhi was his successor.]

    1927:Dr. Lee K. Franked a member of the Jewish Agency Commission, who returned today on the Isle be France from an extended visit to Palestine on behalf of the Commission declined to make any statement as a result of his study. "I cannot make any statement until the Jewish Agency Commission meets." Dr. Frankel told the representative of the Jewish Daily Bulletin on his arrival. (As reported by JTA)

    1929:According to a preliminary estimate of the rioting, made by the Zionist Executive, Jewish damages amount to several million dollars and 1,000 families, homeless and reduced to destitution, need $1,000 each for rehabilitation.” More than 1,500 refugees from areas under attack including Gaza and Hebron are staying in school houses in Tel A