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A collection of Jewish history and current Jewish events, in date format, updated daily in this Jewish history blog.

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    September 18

    825 BCE: The Jewish people began a 14-day celebration to dedicate the Holy Temple in Jerusalem. The Temple project was initiated by King David, and built by his son, King Solomon. Solomon's Temple was the spiritual center of Jewish life for 410 years, until its destruction by the Babylonians in 422 BCE (As reported by Aish)

    31: Sejanus, Roman head of Praetorian Guard was murdered in the periodic intrigue that wracked Roman government at the imperial level.  Born in 20 BCE, Sejanus was in the business of violently dispatching then enemies of the Emperor Tiberias.  Sejanus had a reputation as anti-Semite and his patron Tiberius was no friend of the Jews.

    53: Birthdate of Trajan who was Roman Emperor when the Jews in the Diaspora revolted in 115. The revolt ended in 117 but Trajan died before the Jews were vanquished.

    323: Constantine the Great decisively defeats Licinius in the Battle of Chrysopolis, establishing Constantine's sole control over the Roman Empire. This victory came between the Edict of Milan (313) which legalized Christianity and the Council of Nicea (325) which was designed to bring conformity to Christian doctrine and practice.  This victory by the first “Christian Emperor” would help in the drive to make Christianity the only acceptable religion throughout the Roman Empire.

    1180: King Louis VII of France died. His reign had not been a good period for the Jews since in 1144 he expelled all the Jews who had converted to Christianity and then returned to Judaism. Also, during his reign I the first Blood Libel in France took place in Blois in 1171.

    1180: Philip Augustus became king of France.Immediately after his coronation Philip Augustus ordered the Jews arrested on a Saturday, in all their synagogues, and despoiled of their money and their vestments. In the following April, 1182, he published an edict of expulsion, but according the Jews a delay of three months for the sale of their personal property. Immovable property, however, such as houses, fields, vines, barns, and wine-presses, he confiscated. The Jews attempted to win over the nobles to their side, but in vain. In July they were compelled to leave the royal domains of France (and not the whole kingdom); their synagogues were converted into churches. These successive measures were simply expedients to fill the royal coffers. The goods confiscated by the king were at once converted into cash.” Desperate for money, Phillip reversed his decisions and allowed the Jews to return in 1196.  The conditions were humiliating for the Jewish community and exposed the avaricious nature of the French monarch. The King established special accounts to keep track of the financial condition of the Jews to ensure that he collected the maximum amount of money from that that was possible.  At a time when serfdom was beginning to disappear, the Jews became the serfs of the King and his nobles.  Just as they could dispose of “my lands” in any manner they so fit, so could they treat “my Jews” in any way they chose.

    1380: The Cortes of Soria, Castile, denies the rights of Jews to judge their own criminal cases. The Cortes also reaffirmed King Enrique II's decree forbidding Jews from serving in the royal administration. These events help fuel the harangues of Ferran Martinez who lead the bloody anti-Jewish events of 1391.

    1573: During the Eighty Years War, Spain attacked the Dutch city of Alkmaar.  The Dutch forces would withstand the subsequent siege.  Their victory proved to be a turning point in the Eighty Years, which when it ended would guarantee that the Netherlands would be an independent nation free from Spanish control. This meant that Holland would continue to be a place of refuge for the Jews of Europe, especially those fleeing the Spanish Inquisition, and provide a place where a Jewish community could flourish.

    1612 (27 Elul): In Frankfurt, Vincent Fettmilch a former pastry cook and leader of the Guilds", calling himself the "new Haman of the Jews attacked the synagogue while the community was at prayer. Although many tried to organize a defense they were soon overpowered and many took shelter in the cemetery. He was beheaded four years later. His real crime was to turn against the ruling class of Frankfort.  It was for this for which he lost his head.

    1722: On “the eve of the New Year 5483” the Great Synagogue, which was later refered to as “Moses Hart’s Shul” was dedicated in London.

    1739: The Treaty of Belgrade was signed today ending one of the many wars between the Ottoman Empire and the Habsburgs. As a result of the treaty, Belgrade and northern parts of Serbia were ceded to the Ottoman Empire.  This was a positive event for the Jews of the region, many of whom were Sephardim whose progenitors had arrived after the Spanish Inquisition.  At this time living under the Ottomans was preferable to life under the Habsburgs.  Additionally, it made it easier for the Jews to engage in overseas trade.

    1758(15thof Elul, 5518): Rabbi Akiv Eger author of Mishnas De'Rebbi Akiva who was rabbi of Zülz, Silesia from 1749 and Pressburg from 1756 and the grandfather of Rabbi Akiva  Eger passed away today.

    1764(Elul, 5524):Jonathan Eybeschütz, the Dayan of Prague who served simultaneously as the Rabbi of Alton, Hamburg and Wandsbek, passed away today.

    1765: Birthdate of Pope Gregory XVI. In 1836 the Jewish community of Rome will send a petition to Pope Gregory XVI begging him to stop the annual Saturnalia abuse of the Jewish community. He will refuse the request saying that, “It is not opportune to make any innovation.”

    1773(1stof Tishrei, 5534): As the colonists try and figure out how to respond to the Tea Act of 1773 Jews observe Rosh Hashanah just 3 months before the Boston Tea Party.

    1810:  Under the leadership of Bernard O”Higgins, Chile declared her independence from Spain. It would take Chile 8 years of effort to finally gain that independence.  The new Chilean government would ban the Inquisition which would give Chile’s Convsersos a chance to begin practicing their faith in public.  O’Higgins enjoyed support among the Convserso Community.

    1818: During a period of reaction under King Frederick William III, the Jews of Prussia were no longer allowed to hold any academic positions.  This led some Jews, including Heine, to conclude that the only road to real advancement passed through the Baptismal font.

    1820(10th of Tishrei, 5581): As James Monroe seeks re-election in a Presidential election unique because he would win all but one of the votes in the Electoral College, Jews observe Yom Kippur

    1825: Birthdate of Alexander Abraham de Sola, a Canadian Rabbi, author, Orientalist, and scientist. Originating from a large renowned family of Rabbis and scholars, De Sola was part of family long known for its Rabbis and scholars. He was recognized as one of the most powerful leaders of Orthodox Judaism in the United States during the latter half of the nineteenth century. He passed away on June 5, 1882.

    1828(10thof Tishrei, 5589): As Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams square off in one of the nastiest Presidential campaigns of the young republic, Jews observe Yom Kippur

    1830(1stof Tishrei, 5591): Rosh Hashanah

    1830: Birthdate of Hungarian-born American Hebrew scholar and Rabbi, Adolph Huebsch

    1839(10th of Tishrei, 5600): Yom Kippur

    1851: The New-York Daily Times, which will become The New York Times,begins publishing.  Adolph Ochs would acquire the Times in 1896.  It is true that a Jewish family owns the New York Times.  But it has never been “a Jewish newspaper.”

    1854: A column styled “Items of German News” published today reported that two dozen Russian Jews have been detained at the Prussian city of Memel.  Apparently, “they had smuggled themselves across the border” with Russia and had bordered an English steamer that was about to leave the city when they were discovered.  They were detained because they did not have passports.  At this time, nobody knows what will be done with them.

    1858(10thof Tishrei, 5619): Yom Kippur

    1860(2ndof Tishrei, 5621): Second Day of Rosh Hashanah is observed for the last time during the Presidency of James Buchannan.

    1868(2nd of Tishrei, 5629): Second Day of Rosh Hashanah

    1862: President Abraham Lincoln signed the commission naming Rabbi Jacob Franklin as the Jewish Hospital Chaplain for Philadelphia, PA which “was becoming ‘a central depository for sick and wounded soldiers’” including many Jewish members of the Union Army.  A native of Bavaria, Germany, Frankel had been serving as the rabbi and cantor for Rodeph Shalom, before the Civil War.  His appointment made him the first rabbi to be named as a chaplain after the law was changed to make this possible.  Frankel served for three years while continuing to function as the leader of the Philadelphia congregation.

    1868: Sabato Morais received “a life-time contract from Mikveh Israel in Philadelphia, PA

    1868: On the second day of the Battle of Beecher’s Island Colonel George A. Forsyth’s Company of Scouts which included Sigmund Shlesinger continued their fight with a larger force led by Roman Nose and suffered so many casualties that Forsyth sent a runner to bring back reinforcements.  (Bet Shlesinger wished her was in synagogue even if the sermon was boring)

    1870: In Maryland, a lawsuit was filed in Circuit Court for Baltimore City by members of the Baltimore Hebrew Congregation known as the Lloyd City Synagogue, claiming that changes have been adopted in ritual in a manner that violates the articles of incorporation.

    1870: It was reported today that the Jews are about to established a Hebrew University in Berlin. The university is expected will adopt the best academic practices of any European university and will be open to Jews regardless of the place of origin.

    1878: Mayor Philips of New Orleans is scheduled to inform Mark Moses, the former Rabbi of the Jackson Street Synagogue who is now in Providence, Rhode Island, that his wife, two sons –Samuel aged 21 and Isaac aged 10 – and his 20 year old daughter Matilda have all passed away this week during the Yellow Fever Epidemic.  The only survivor is his 4 year old daughter.

    1879(1st of Tishrei, 5640): Rosh Hashanah

    1879(1stof Tishrei, 5640): Seventy-year old Meïr Leibush ben Yehiel Michel Weiser known as the Malbim passed away today.

    1879: An article published today that decried the quality of the butter available today traced the history of the dairy delight back to the days of “the ancient Hebrews’; a little known fact that will come to a surprise to those who think butter is a modern invention.

    1880: Religious freedom was granted to the Jews of Morocco.  The Moroccan Jewish community was an ancient one. The Rambam had lived at Fez after leaving in Spain.  A large part of the Moroccan Jewish community would leave for Israel after the creation of the state in 1948.

    1880: “Flying Men” published today includes the strange tale an 8thcentury Sicilian magician named Diodorous who converted from Christianity to Judaism.  He carved statues for a living including a an elephants made from lava that could still be seen at Catania in the second half of the 19th century.  According to legend, this “modern day” Icarus flew from Constantinople to Catina, a trick which led to him being burned at the stake by the local bishop.

    1880: It was reported today that based on studies of different religious denominations in Berlin 1 out of every 400 babies born to Jewish parents are deaf-mutes as compared to 1in 3,000 for Catholics and 1 in 2,000 for Protestants.  The disparity between the Jews is attributed to the fact that Jews “encourage intermarriage with blood relations” as compared to Catholics who forbid it and Protestants who tolerate it.

    1880 “Byron” published today provided a review of Byron a biography of the English poet  by John Nichol which includes mention of the little known “Hebrew Melodies written in 1814” which show “the author’s familiarity with the Old Testament .”

    1884(28thElul, 5644): Sixty-eight year old Abraham Stein passed away in Prague today where he had been serving as rabbi at the old Meisel Synagogue since 1864 when it changed “to a modern temple with a choir, organ and sermon.”

    1884: “A Bid For Hebrew Votes published today described the events surrounding the race for Governor of Connecticut.  The opponents of Henry B. Harrison have reminded voters of anti-Semitic language he used in a jury summation in 1857; language for which he has apparently never apologized.

    1887(29thof Elul, 5647): Erev Rosh Hashanah

    1887: “The Jewish New Year” published today reported that the Jewish New Year, 5648, will begin tomorrow, and that it is the most important holiday on the calendar with the exception of Yom Kippur.  (What makes this item exceptional is that it appeared in on the nation’s leading secular newspapers, not a Jewish publication.)

    1890: The Bowling Circle of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association held its first meeting this evening and elected offices.

    1890: Professor W.R. Harper, the Chairman of the Hebrew Languages and Literature Department at Yale University was chosen to serve at the President of the University of Chicago.

    1890(4th of Tishrei, 5651): Benjamin Franklin Peixotto, one of the most prominent Jewish leaders of the second half of the 19th century, died of consumption today at his home in New York City surrounded by members of his family including two children. His wife was not with him.  She has a fatal heart condition and is lying near death at Baden Baden, where she is in the company of the couples other children.   Peixotto’s father had come to New York from Amsterdam to serve as a rabbi.  Peixotto was born in New York in 1834.  When he was 13, his father died and he moved to Cleveland where eventually wrote for the Cleveland Plain Dealer and studied law. From his earliest days, Peixotto took an active interest in the affairs of the Jewish community serving as a Grand Master of the B’nai B’rith and a director of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum of Cleveland, an institution for which he had obtained the original charter from the Ohio State Legislature. He returned to New York in 1866 and then moved to San Francisco in 1867 where he practiced law.  President Grant appointed him Consul to Bucharest in 1870, at a time when the civilized world was expressing their disgust at the persecution of the Jews of Romania.  He held the position for five years where he effectively represented the interest of the United States while working to ameliorate the worsening condition of his co-religionist.  He returned to the United States where he took an active role the campaign to elect Ruther B. Hayes as President.  He turned down an offer to serve as U.S. Consul to St. Petersburg (Russia) in 1877 but accepted an appointment as U.S. Consul to Lyons, France, a position he held until 1885 when he returned to New York to resume he practice of law.  In 1886, he found Menorah, a monthly publication devoted to topics related to the B’nai B’rith, Jewish literature and the Jewish religion.

    1891: In Newark, NJ, Charles Lieberman, an active member of the synagogue on Bedford Street went to Justice Priesel and asked him to issue arrest warrants for six Polish Jews who “had entered the synagogue and held a bacchanalian orgy.

    1891: Almost three thousand members of Temple Beth-El took part “in the consecration of their new house of worship” at the corner of 76th Street and 5thAvenue.

    1892: In Seattle, Washington, Ohaveth Sholum Congregation opened their synagogue which had been designed by Herman Stenman.  It was the second synagogue to open in the state within a four day period.

    1892: “Cholera Has Spared The Jews” published today described the results of an investigation by Jewish communal officials that could find only 40 cases of the disease among the quarter of a million of the Jews living in Russia.  The study did not include Poland, but it would seem to disprove the contention that Russian Jews passing through Hamburg are responsiblefor the cholera epidemic

    1893(9thof Tishrei, 5654): Erev Yom Kippur

    1893: “The musical portions of the services” at Temple Emanu-El, Temple Beth-El and Temple Ahavath Chesed are expected to “be especially beautiful” this evening.

    1894: Members of Company D, 47th Regiment of the New York National Guard have been charged with vandalism in Tompkinsville including the destruction of the front fence of the town’s synagogue.

    1895: “Bavarian Enmity To Stern” published today described U.S. Ambassador Runyon’s effort to intervene on behalf of Louis Stern and Germany’s hostile reaction including attacks by Munich newspapers that claim “such efforts might be effective in Morocco but not in Germany.”

    1896:Lucie Hadamard Dreyfus “signed a petition to the Chamber of Deputies that denounced "the negation of any sort of justice" represented by the conviction "on a charge that the prosecution produced unbeknownst to him, and which thereafter could not be discussed either with him or with his lawyer."

    1897: “Will Support Seth Low” punlished today quotes The Hebrew Standard as, “As the leading Jewish papers in this city, The Hebrew Standard has always…been a staunch supporter of of Tammany Hall, but it now advocates Mr. Low because it proposes to be independent in this campaign and because such action voices the sentiment of the best element of the Jewish people of New York, who compose the bone and sinew of its commerce and trade…”

    1898(2ndof Tishrei, 5659): 2nd day of Rosh Hashanah

    1898: Charles Putzi who is thought to have been involved in the Dreyfus hung himself today aboard the SS La Gascogne a day after it had sailed from La Harve.

    1898: In Pittsburgh, PA, Morris and Gitel Adler gave birth to Saul Adler for whom the Saul Adler Community Center in Monroe, LA was named.

    1898: The first edition of Anti-Juif Stephanois was published today.

    1899: “The Children of the Ghetto” by Israel Zangwill will open today in Washington, DC for a week long run before moving to Baltimore for a week and Philadelphia for two weeks before finally opening in New York in October.

    1901: Birthdate of director and critic Harold Edgar Clurman whose first theatre experience came when as a child his parents took to him Yiddish productions on the Lower East Side of New York.

    1902(16th of Elul, 5662): i Dr. Isaac (Yitzhak) Rülf who served as a Rabbi in the Prussian city of Memel and who was a Jewish teacher, journalist and philosopher passed away.  Born in 1831, he became widely known for his aid work and as a prominent early Zionist – a role that set him apart from many of clerical brethren.

    1907(10th of Tishrei, 5668): Yom Kippur

    1907: Birthdate of Gerda Baier who survived Theresienstadt only to be murdered at Auschwitz.

    1907: Birthdate of actor Leon Askin, an Austrian actor. Born Leo Aschkenasyinto a Jewish family in Vienna, Askin already wanted to be an actor as a child. His dream came true, and in the 1930s he worked as a cabaret artist and director at the "ABCTheatre" in Vienna: in this position he also helped the career of the writer Jura Soyfer get off the ground in 1935. Persecuted by the Nazis, Askin escaped to the United States via France, arriving in New York in 1940 with no money and less than a basic knowledge of English. When the U.S. entered the Second World War Askin joined the U.S. Army. While serving in the military he learned that his parents had been killed at Treblinka extermination camp. After the war, Askin went to Hollywood, invariably portraying foreign characters who speak English with a strong accent. He gained wide popularity by appearing as Gen. Albert Burkhalter in the sitcom Hogan's Heroes in the late 1960s.As opposed to other exiled Austrians, Askin never refused to work again in his home country. In 1994 he permanently took up residence in Vienna, where he remained active until his death in cabaret, as well as the Volksoper and Festwochen. He was awarded Vienna's Gold Medal of Honor. Leon Askin died in 2005 at the age of 97.

    1910: In Germany,Ottilie and Rabbi Julius Grünthal gave birth to Josef Grünthal who gained fame as Israeli composer Josef Tal.

    1910(14thof Elul, 5671): Ninety year old Mrs. Malke Hesselsohn passed away.

    1913: When the trial of Governor William Sulzer came before the Impeachment Court in Albany today, his defense team was led by Louis Marshall. (Marshall was Jewish; Sulzer wasn’t)

    1915(10th of Tishrei, 5676): Thirty-one days after the lynching of Leo Frank, Jews observe Yom Kippur

    1917(2nd of Tishrei, 5678): Four days after the Provisional Government declared that Russia was a Republic, a move that filled many Russian Jews with hope for the future observance of the Second Day of Rosh Hashanah

    1918: British General Allenby renewed his offensive against the Turks after having sat idle for almost a year following the capture of Jerusalem.  Within a week the British will have driven the Turks from Nazareth and the Galilee. 

    1919: Pitcher Al Schacht made his major league debut with the Washington Senators.

    1920: Birthdate of Selma Jeanne Cohen, the Chicago native who sought to make dance scholarship a respected academic discipline

    1921: Amos Kidder Fiske, author of The Jewish Scriptures and The Great Epic of Israel passed away.


    1921: Amos K. Fiske, the former editorial writer for the New York Times and author of The Great Epic of Israel passed away today.

    1926(10th of Tishrei, 5687):  Yom Kippur

    1926: Thanks to an order from Director of Public Safety Brennan, the Jewish policemen and firemen of Newark, NJ, are excused from active duty today.

    1926: Birthdate of Joseph Kubert, “a titan among comic-book artists whose work stretched from the Golden Age of the superhero to the gritty realism of the graphic novel” (As reported by Margalit Fox)

    1926: Birthdate of Siegfried Wortman who began his career with Hakoah Vienna National team and scored Austria's second and game winning goal in its victory over Czechoslovakia.

    1926: Birthdate of Jonah J. Greenspan better known as Bud Greenspan whose cinematic activities have created a whole sub-culture in American sport.  Greenspan is the preeminent master of sport films. A four-time producer of official films of the Olympic Games, Greenspan produced the official motion pictures of the 1984 (Los Angeles), 1988 (Calgary), 1992 (Barcelona), and 1996 Olympic Centennial Games in Atlanta. He also produced the non-official two-hour TV special on the 1994 Lillehammer Winter Olympics. His "The Spirit of the Olympics", a multi-screen visual/musical tribute to the quadrennial games, is on permanent display at the Olympic Museum in Lausanne, Switzerland His book, 100 Greatest Moments in Olympic History, published in November, 1995, has had multiple printings. Greenspan has produced numerous other Olympic-related productions, among them: 16 Days of Glory, Los Angeles, Triumph and Tragedy: The 1972 Olympics, The Measure of Greatness, An Olympic Dream, the television series For the Honor of Their Country, and the two-hour docu-drama, Time Capsule: The 1936 Berlin Olympic Games. The TV series: The Olympiad, produced with his late wife, Cappy, has been seen in more than 80 countries around the world.He has earned numerous industry honors, including: The Directors Guild of America Lifetime Achievement Award in 1995, and TV Academy Emmy Awards for The Olympiad series, his Olympic vignettes, and both of the 16 Days of Glory films--Calgary (1988) and Lillehammer (1994) Greenspan was awarded the Olympic Order in 1985 by International Olympic Committee President Juan Antonio Samaranch--the 17th American to receive this honor.

    1927: Birthdate of Kurt Sauerquell, the native of Vienna, who would be known as Elliot Welles, a Holocaust survivor who spent the years after World War II as a tireless hunter of Nazis, which started with the man who murdered his mother. (As reported by Margalit Fox)

    1927: Columbia Broadcasting System goes on the air.  Williams S. Paley, a product of the Jewish neighborhood on Chicago's West Side and the Wharton School of Finance, was already a part owner of CBS.  In 1928, he would become its President and later Chairman of the Board.  While CBS may be have been "owned and run by a Jew" it was not a Jewish media outlet.  On a personal level, Paley was a friend of Chaim Weizmann and a major financial supporter of the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel.

    1929: Western Union announced tonight that normal cable service between Palestine and New York has been resumed.

    1929: In its commentary on the recent Arab attacks on the Jews of Palestine, “The Yiddish Communist daily Emes, continued its campaign against Zionism” today when it wrote, ‘Zionism was born on pogroms, existed on pogroms and has died on pogroms.’”

    1933: Birthdate of director Roman Polanski.  He is best known for such films asRosemary's Baby and Chinatown.  He gained notoriety as the husband of the cruelly murdered Sharon Tate and for his sexual dalliance with an underage girl.

    1934(9thof Tishrei, 5695): Kol Nidre

    1934: Pitcher Syd Cohen made his major league debut with the Washington Senators.(Since there were no night games in those days he made have made it to the synagogue)

    1936(2ndof Tishrei, 5697): 2nd day of Rosh Hashanah

    1938: Hank Greenberg hit his 52nd and 53rd home runs of the season putting him ahead of Ruth’s 1927 record setting season.  Greenberg still need 7 to tie and 8 to break the Bambino’s record.

    1940: Secretary of State Cordell Hull today indicated that the activities of Baron Edgar von Spiege, German Consul General in New Orleans, who has figured in a State Department warning against foreign agents' discussion of American affairs, are still under scrutiny. Hull was not an isolationist and he was certainly not blind to threat posed by Germany and Japan.  Possibly reflecting his background as veteran of the U.S. Congress who was not blind to the realities of American attitudes on race and religion, Hull was not supportive of measures designed to rescue the Jews from Hitler’s Europe.  He opposed allowing ships with cargoes of Jewish refugees to land in the United States.  He was successful in having those on board the SS St. Louis returned to Europe. However, Mrs. Roosevelt was able to thwart Hull’s desire to have the Jewish refugees on board the SS Quanza turned away from the shores of the United States.

    1941: The Nazis massacred the Jewish community of Shirvint, Lithuania.

    1942: Food rations are dramatically reduced for Jews throughout Greater Germany. 

    1942: Himmler stated in a letter to Autur Greiser that Hitler was demanding that the original Reich and the Protectorate be cleaned out from west to east and be rid of Jews as quickly as possible.'

    1942: Reich Minister of Justice Otto Thierack and SS chief Heinrich Himmler agree that Jews and selected other camp inmates will be transferred to SS custody for Vernichtung durch Arbeit (extermination through work); i.e., hard labor until death.

    1943: Two thousand Jews were deported to Sobibor where all but 12 die.

    1943: Two thousand Jews in Minsk, Belorussia, are deported to the Sobibór death camp; 80 are selected for forced labor and the rest are gassed.

    1943: The Nazis begin the deportation of the Jews of Lida, Belorussia to the Majdanek death camp

    1943: Hitler orders the deportation of Danish Jews.

    1944(1st of Tishrei, 5705): Rosh Hashanah

    1944: Five hundred Jews participated in Rosh Hashanah services at the Naval Air Station Keflavik in Iceland.  The sefer torah for the service had been flown from the United States.

    1944: Fourteen hundred Jewish boys at Auschwitz are taken from their barracks to the children's block and are later gassed.

    1944: Birthdate of Richard Danzig an American lawyer who served as the 71stSecretary of the Navy and was a political advisor to Barak Obama.

    1946: One portion of Emanuel Ringelblum's Warsaw Ghetto diary, which was secretly buried by Ringelblum, is discovered in a ruined house at 68 Nowolipki Street in Warsaw. Born in 1900, Ringelblum was a trained historian having received his doctorate in 1927.  He spent many years before the war working in Jewish communal activities especially with those Polish Jews who were exiled from Germany in the 1930’s.  After the Warsaw Ghetto had been built Ringelbaum was head of the cultural affairs section of the underground Jewish government.  He created an archive unit known as Oneg Shabbat which would turn out to be the most complete record of the life of Poland’s Jews under the Nazis.  Ringelblum hid his archival treasure trove including his diaries in three large metal containers. Ringelbaum took part in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising and later escaped from Trawniki labor camp.  Unfortunately, his hideout was discovered and he and his family were murdered on March 7, 1944.  According to some literary critics, Ringelblum was the inspiration for the main protagonist in John Hersey’s The Wall .

    1947: Hank Greenberg plays in his last major league baseball game.

    1948: Ralph J Bunche was confirmed as acting UN mediator in Palestine.  Bunche would win the Nobel Prize for Peace so successfully negotiating the armistice agreements between Israel and the Arab states that had attacked her.

    1950: A meeting of the Mixed Armistice commission is held in the Jerusalem No-Man’s Land along the Green Line.

    1950: In what appears to be a change of heart, a Jordanian spokesman denied reports that it would withdraw it complaint over what it considers the Israeli invasion of Jordanian territory above the confluence of the Yarmuk and the Jordan rivers.

    1950: The Village I Knew, choreographed by Sophie Maslow, was performed for the first time

    1952: The Jerusalem Post reported that a wide range of Israel-designed gowns, dresses, blouses, shirts and coats was flown to the US for a roving exhibition, arranged by the Bonds Drive, to promote Israeli exports.  In the early days of the state of Israel, products marked "made in Israel" were not always of the highest quality.  After all, it was a pioneer state.  In those days, American Jews made a point of buying things stamped "made in Israel" as a way of showing solidarity and support for the infant nation.

    1953: In Philadelphia, PA, Miriam and Ephraim Bloch, the owner of Perfect Fit Industries, gave birth to Lawrence “Larry” Clifford Bloch who built the Wetlands Preserve in TriBeCa into an influential rock club and a hub of environmental activism (As reported by James C McKinley, Jr.)

    1954: In Montreal, Roslyn and Harry Pinker gave birth to psychologist Steven Prinker who was named one of Time Magazine's 100 most influential people in the world in 2004

    1955(2ndof Tishrei, 5716): 2nd day of Rosh Hashanah

    1957: In Tel Aviv, as athletes began another day of competition in the Maccabiah Games, “the United States trailed Israel in the team score 106 to 73.” 

    1967: U.S. Premiere of Arthur Hiller’s “The Tiger Makes Out” the movie version of Murray Schisgal’s play co-starring Eli Wallach, featuring Dustin Hoffman and filmed by cinematographer Arthur J. Ornitz/

    1970: American music icon Jimi Hendrix who was managed by Shep Gordon the subject of the 2014 documentary “Supermensch: The Legend of Shep Gordon” passed away today.

    1970: The following story documents how Israel saved the Kingdom of Jordan from coming under the control of Syria, as President Assad pursued his goal of creating Greater Syria that would include Lebanon, Jordan and Israel.

    Today Syria, through the Palestine Liberation Army's (PLA) Syrian branch, whose headquarters were located in Damascus and which was controlled by the government, tried to intervene on behalf of the Palestinian guerrillas. The PLA sent in armored forces equivalent to a brigade, with tanks, some of them allegedly hastily rebranded from the regular Syrian army for the purpose. Other Syrian units were the 5th Infantry Division (with the 88th and 91st Tank Brigades and the 67th Mechanised Brigade with over 200 T-55 tanks) and Commandos. They were met by the 40th Armored Brigade of the Jordanian army. The Syrian air force, under orders of Defense Minister Hafez al-Assad, never entered the battle. This has been variously attributed to power struggles within the Syrian Baathist government (pitting Assad against Salah Jadid), and to the threat of Israeli military intervention. As King Hussein dealt with threats by both Palestinian refugees in his country and Syrian military forces crossing Jordan's border, the king asked "the United States and Great Britain to intervene in the war in Jordan, asking the United States, in fact, to attack Syria, and some transcripts of diplomatic communiques show that Hussein requested Israeli intervention against Syria." Timothy Naftali said. "Syria had invaded Jordan and the Jordanian king, facing what he felt was a military rout, said please help us in any way possible." A telegram indicates that Hussein himself called a U.S. official at 3 a.m. to ask for American or British help. "Situation deteriorating dangerously following Syrian massive invasion...," the document said. "I request immediate physical intervention both land and air... to safeguard sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence of Jordan. Immediate air strikes on invading forces from any quarter plus air cover are imperative."  Israel, which found the move undesirable, performed mock air strikes on the Syrian column at the Americans' request. Possibly alarmed at the prospect of an armed conflict with Israel, Syria's government ordered a hasty retreat. Its involvement at the time remained a subject for historical debate. Assad told his biographer, Patrick Seale, that Syria's intention in invading northern Jordan was only to protect the Palestinians from a massacre .Whatever the case, the swift Syrian withdrawal was a severe blow to Palestinian hopes. Jordanian armored forces steadily pounded their headquarters in Amman, and threatened to break them in other regions of the kingdom as well. The Palestinians agreed to a cease-fire. Hussein and Arafat attended the meeting of leaders of Arab countries in Cairo, where Arafat won a diplomatic victory. On September 27, Hussein was forced to sign an agreement which preserved the right of the Palestinian organizations to operate in Jordan. For Jordan, it was humiliating that the agreement treated both sides to the conflict as equals.

    1971: Birthdate of Jada Koren Pinkett Smith an American actress, producer, director, author, singer-songwriter, and businesswoman who is described as being of Portuguese-Jewish, African-American, West Indian and Creole ancestry. (Only in America)

    1972(10th of Tishrei, 5733): Yom Kippur

    1977: The Jerusalem Post reported from Washington that US President Jimmy Carter had once again denied that his country supported the concept of a separate Palestinian state. When you consider the general acceptance of this by Israelis today, this item seems like a tempest in a long-forgotten teapot.

    1977:  The Post reported that Foreign Minister Moshe Dayan who was originally scheduled to fly to the US returned unexpectedly from Brussels to Israel, giving rise to rumors that he had held secret important talks with Egypt.

    1977:  The Post reported that Moshe Shamir, Professor of Islamic History at the Hebrew University, was appointed Prime Minister Menachem Begin's adviser on Arab Affairs at a time when Israel's Good Fence aid to South Lebanon was well known and highly appreciated, according to Archbishop Maximos Saloum.

    1977: Meshulam Riklis, a 54 year old Israeli businessman, married 23 year old Pia Zadora.

    1978: Camp David Accords were signed between Egyptian president Anwar Sadat, Israeli Prime Minister, Menachem Begin and US President Jimmy Carter. The accords were based on the principal of total withdrawal for total peace including diplomatic ties, open borders, and trade relations. The agreement led to the formal peace treaty. In recent years there has been criticism of the accords and the treaty which after Sadat’s assassination became a "cold peace". Regardless of the criticism, the accords changed the equation in the Middle East.  Three decades of violence including three wars, have been replaced by a quarter of a century of peace along the border between the Sinai and the Negev.  Without Egyptian support, general war against Israel became unthinkable, even for those states that did not want to make peace.  No matter how cynical one might be, one should never forget the courage of Sadat for making the peace.  Nor should one forget that Begin took a big gamble.  What would have happened if he had given back the Sinai and then the Egypt's had reneged on the deal the way they had after the Sinai Campaign of 1956?

    1978: CBS begins the broadcast of the fourth season of “One Day At a Time”  starring Bonnie Franklin

    1980: Eighty-one year old Rose Vallard the French art historian and museum curator who protected art, much of it owned by Jews, from being stolen by the Nazis and then worked with the “Monument Men” including James Rorimer to retrieve the art passed away today.

    1982(1st of Tishrei, 5743): Rosh Hashanah

    1985(3rd of Tishrei, 5746): Tzom Gedaliah

    1985: The funeral of Julian Beck, founder of the Living Theatre, was scheduled to be held today in Manhattan

    1989: Birthdate of Daniel DeClue, a bright talented student and musician.  A proud, practicing Jew, he is a kind, caring, decent human being.

    1991(10thof Tishrei, 5752): Yom Kippur

    1992: “Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin's wife said today that a car rented for her use in Berlin had been replaced after vandals scratched a swastika on it. Leah Rabin, who fled Nazi Germany with her family in 1933 at the age of 5, said a rise in racism and anti-Semitism in Germany was evident on her three-day visit with her husband. She said she had not seen the swastika because the car was replaced immediately.”

    1993(3rd of Tishrei, 5754): Shabbat Shuva

    1996: The Drisha Institute for Jewish Education graduated its first class.

    1998: The Times of London reviews “Via Dolorosa” a new play about Israel by Sir David Hare.

    2001(1st of Tishrei, 5762): Rosh Hashanah

    2001(1stof Tishrei, 5762)Future Oakland A’s first baseman Nate Freiman attended services at Temple Beth Elohim, in Wellesley, MA, a  service of which he said, “It was packed---the most people I ever saw there.” (As reported by Hillel Kuttler)

    2002(12thof Tishrei, 5763): Palestinian Islamic Jihad claimed credit for today’s bombing at Umm al-Fahm, a city in the Haifa District which is predominately populated by Arab citizens of Israel.

    2002: Effi Eitam began serving as Minister of Energy and Water Resources.

    2002: In “A Quest for a People Who May No Longer Exist,” published today Richard Bernstein examines the possible existence of one of “the ten lost tribes.”

    2003 (21st of Elul, 5763):  Rabbi Emil Fackenheim passed away. He was born in Halle, Germany in 1916.  He graduated from Hochschule für die Wissenschaft des Judentums in 1939 and obtained Ph.D. from University of Toronto in 1945. He was interned at the Sachsenhausen concentration camp in 1938 and 1939.  After becoming a Rabbi, he left Germany for Great Britain, where he was interned as an enemy alien after World War II began. He was sent to Canada in 1940, where he was a rabbi (1943-48), then professor of philosophy (1948-84) at the University of Toronto. He subsequently moved to Israel, where he was associated with the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.  Fackenheim explored the problem of revelation and the relationship of the Jews with God, believing that the Holocaust must be understood as an imperative requiring Jews to carry on Jewish existence and that the existence of the state of Israel is a rebuke to those who view the Jewish people as obsolete or dying. Among his books are God's Presence in History (1972) and To Mend the World(1982). 2003: Emil Fackenheim, author of the 614th commandment - Thou shalt not hand Hitler posthumous victories. To despair of the God of Israel is to continue Hitler’s work for him."- passed away.

    2004 (3rd of Tishrei, 5765): Shabbat Shuvah

    2004 (3rd of Tishrei, 5765): Norman F, Cantor passed away. Born in Winnipeg, Canada in 1929, Cantor was a historian who specialized in the medieval period. His sound scholarship was embodied in an accessible style with narrative drive, which made his major textbook, The Civilization of the Middle Ages the most widely-read overview of medieval history. Cantor received his docorate from Princeton. He taught at several prestigious universities including Princeton, Columbia, Brandies, and NYU.

    2005: Agudath Achim, the Orthodox Congregation in Little Rock, Arkansas, celebrated its one hundredth anniversary with a gala dinner.

    2005: The Jerusalem Post reported that some 25 Torah scrolls in the New Orleans area, jeopardized by Hurricane Katrina, were rescued by a number of Jewish groups acting in concert. A makeshift coalition of representatives from the Jewish Federation of Greater New Orleans, national leadership from the Reform movement, rabbis from Baton Rouge and New Orleans and local law-enforcement officials were responsible for the effort. "Among the 25 we saved were also a few that were rescued from the Holocaust, and here they've survived a second horrific disaster," said Rabbi David Saperstein, the director of the Reform movement s Washington-based Religious Action Center. Chabad officials, working with both Jewish and non-Jewish volunteers, rescued at least 15 additional scrolls. "It is a bittersweet occasion," said Rabbi Zelig Rivkin, the executive director of Chabad Lubavitch of Louisiana. "Hurricane Katrina has destroyed our homes, synagogues and our city but has not destroyed our community." Among the sites that had Torahs rescued were Chabad of Louisiana's New Orleans headquarters, the Chabad Jewish Center in Metairie, the Touro Synagogue, Temple Sinai, and the Federation building, which had housed Torahs belonging to Shir Chadash Conservative Congregation and the New Orleans Jewish Day School. Rabbi Saperstein noted that the rescued Torahs were sent to cities like Houston, Baton Rouge and Memphis to be with their respective displaced congregations.
    Among the scrolls that remain in New Orleans are Torahs from Congregation Gates of Prayer, which, according to Rabbi Robert Lowey, were taken to a high-rise office building downtown before the evacuation.

    2005: The 2005 Lasker Awards for medical research are going to scientists who discovered stem cells, invented genetic fingerprinting and developed a powerful technology that played a crucial role in mapping the human genome. And a nonscientist, Nancy Brinker, is the winner of the Lasker Public Service Award for creating the Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation, which has helped transform a disease once rarely mentioned in polite conversation into an international issue. The awards, widely considered the United States' most prestigious medical prizes, are being announced today by the Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation. The two scientific awards each carry a $50,000 prize, split between the winners; the public service award has no monetary prize. Mary Lasker created the awards in 1946 as a birthday gift to her husband, Albert, the Jewish advertising man,  in hopes of curing cancer in 10 years.

    2005:  The Washington Post Book Section reviewed The Lost One: A life of Peter of Peter Lorre by Stephen D. Youngkin.  As the review points out Lorre was born Laszlo Loewenstein.  He emigrated from his native Hungary to Berlin from which he fled to Vienna in 1933 due to the rise in anti-Semitism.  If you can imagine, he was on the same train with the actor Oskar Homolka, director Josef von Sternberg and violinist Jascha Heifitz.  When things worsened in Austria, Loree was able to escape to England due to a strange quirk of fate.  He got a paid ticket to England to act in Alfred Hitchcock’s first version of the mystery film, The Man Who Knew Too Much.You might want to read the book to find how Lorre, who spoke know English, got the part.

    2005:A weekend of events marking the dedication of the Uriah P. Levy Jewish Center and Chapel at the U.S. Naval Academy comes to climactic close a new chapel and student center on Sunday named for the nation's first Jewish flag officer, Commodore Uriah P. Levy, a man who fought to serve his country while still observing his faith.

    2006: Media Matters for America hired Eric Alterman as a Senior Fellow and agreed to host Altercation, effective today.

    2006: Israel's Attorney General, Menachem Mazuz, stated that the likelihood of Moshe Katsav being the victim of a plot was "fairly slim."[

    2006 Congregation Beth El, of Missouri City, Texas participated in celebrating the High Holidays with Jewish residents from the Brenham State School and the Richmond State School.

    2006:The Winograd Commission - the committee appointed to investigate the management of the war in Lebanon - begins its proceedings.

    2006: At a debate in Tysons Corner between Republican Allen and Democrat Webb, WUSA-TV's Peggy Fox asked Allen, the tobacco-chewing, cowboy-boot-wearing son of a pro football coach, if his Tunisian-born mother has Jewish blood. The Forward, a Jewish newspaper, reported that the senator's mother, Etty, "comes from the august Sephardic Jewish Lumbroso family" and continued: "If both of Etty's parents were born Jewish -- which, given her age and background, is likely -- Senator Allen would be considered Jewish in the eyes of traditional rabbinic law, which traces Judaism through the mother." The Presbyterian Allen joins public figures Madeleine Albright and John Kerry in discovering his Jewish roots.

    2007: U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice arrives in Jerusalem for a round of talks in Israel and the Palestinian Authority to prepare for the Middle East peace summit scheduled for the second half of November. Rice is expected to meet separately with Prime Minister Ehud Olmert and PA Chairman Mahmoud Abbas, who will report on the progress made in their talks over the past few weeks.

    2007: The Tenth Annual Israeli Music Celebration continues with a concert at The Ben-Gurion University, Beersheba

    2007: In Bethesda, Maryland, Mitchell Bard holds a reading and autograph session to promote his new book, Will Israel Survive?

    2007(6th of Tishrei 5768): St.-Sgt. Ben-Zion Henman was shot to death during operations in Nablus.

    2008: Temple Judah’s Joshua Siegel plays Seymour in Little Shop of Horrors at Kennedy High School.

    2008: In Washington, D.C., a joint reading with local writer Peter Manseau, author of the debut novel Songs for the Butcher's Daughter,and poet Janet R. Kirchheimer, author of the collection How to Spot One of Us.

    2008:Dialects: Israeli Jazz & Klezmer”, featuring Omer Klein is the first of three concerts being held in celebration of Israel’s 60th anniversary.


    2008: “Pilobolus in Israel,” a photography exhibition by Robert Whitman of the dance troupe’s visit to Israel earlier this year, opens today at New York’s Chelsea Market.

    2008: On her first day as Kadima's new leader, Tzipi Livni received a startling blow: Shaul Mofaz, whom she ended up beating in Wednesday's party primary by only 431 votes, announced that he was "taking a break" from political life.

    2009: Israel plays Spain in the World Group, 2009 Semi-finals of the Davis Cup competition.

    2009: Stephanie Pritzker received the 2009 Samuel A. Goldsmith Award for Outstanding Young Professional in Jewish Communal Work.
    2009: 29th of Elul, 5769): Erev Rosh Hashanah

    2009: 29th of Elul, 5769): As Jews gather to mark the start of Rosh Hashanah at Ahavat Olam in Miami, a 131 year old Torah was to be read tonight as part of the congregation’s Rosh Hashanah observances. The sheepskin scroll was believed to have been completed in 1878, the date of the inscription on its wooden handle. The handle also bears the name of the couple who donated it to their congregation in Moravske Budejovice, in what is now the Czech Republic. It was kept in a warehouse with other Torahs and Judaica after Hitler came to power, coming under the Nazis' control. After the Nazis fell, the cache from the Central Jewish Museum in Prague was controlled by communists who eventually sold the scroll and 1,563 others to a London synagogue in 1963. The scroll came to Miami after Marmorstein placed the synagogue's name on a waiting list several years back. Like all the trust's scrolls, it remains the property of the London organization, on indefinite loan to the temple. Congregations are chosen, in part, based on their desire to incorporate the scroll into their worship. The scroll came to Miami after Rabbi Danny Marmorstein placed the synagogue's name on a waiting list several years back. Like all the trust's scrolls, it remains the property of the London organization, on indefinite loan to the temple. Congregations are chosen, in part, based on their desire to incorporate the scroll into their worship. Already, the history of the Torah has resonated with members. Bianca Lerner, 80, survived the Holocaust in part by being taken in by the parents of a Christian friend and then hiding in a Catholic orphanage. She remembers being forced with her parents from their home. Her father was killed in a Polish ghetto. Her mother died at the Treblinka extermination camp. "My parents just walked out of our apartment, which was beautifully furnished with antiques and Oriental rugs and we just walked out and that was it," she said. "Since then, I've thought material possessions don't mean anything." But a Torah, Lerner said, is different: It's not just the central symbol of her faith, but something used in actual prayer and worship. Irving Whitman, 88, says he was a young Army private from New Jersey when he helped liberate the Buchenwald concentration camp. Those memories are seared in his mind. And he sees the Torah as an extension of his wartime experience. "It's all part of the same story," he said. "It's all part of the same historical moment." Susan Boyer, the U.S. director of the trust, also heads the Czech Torah Network in Sherman Oaks, Calif., which has helped reunite Holocaust survivors with scrolls from their hometowns. When she thinks of the surviving Torahs, she wonders what happened to the people from its synagogue, the people who prayed with it. It is a sad story, she admits, but she says it is buffered by hope, because the faith has lived on. If the Nazis had prevailed, Jews would have faded away long before Ahavat Olam gained roots in South Florida five years ago. Hitler's army would have killed the men and women who bore its congregants. And the Torah never would have left SS hands. Marmorstein knew he wanted a Holocaust-surviving Torah since the congregation was born. He wanted to pay tribute to the Jews who died and could think of no better way than through the faith's most prized possession. The 54-year-old rabbi shows a black-and-white picture of 11 relatives, his great aunts and uncles, grandfather and great-grandparents. Only two in the photo survived the Holocaust: his father and an uncle who both were liberated from Auschwitz. When asked why getting the Torah was so important, his eyes well with tears. "It's in my blood, this whole history is in my family," he said. "It's easy for us to sit and talk about it. But when it was your own father, your own uncle, when your grandfather was killed, it’s different. That's why."

    2009: 29th of Elul, 5769): Eighty-one year old Dr. Lawrence B. Slobodkin, author of “The World is Green” and one of the founders of the modern ecology movement passed away today. (As reported by Carol Kaesuk Yoon)

    2010(10th of Tishrei, 5771): Yom Kippur

    2010: A Yom Kippur machzor which had been translated for the first time into Portuguese is scheduled to be used by the Jews in Brazil's Amazon. The prayer book includes the traditional Hebrew text of the Yom Kippur prayer services, together with a transliteration and translation into Portuguese. It incorporates the customs and prayers of the Moroccan Sephardim, which were brought to Brazil in the 19th century by Moroccan Jewish immigrants.


    2010(10thof Tishrei, 5771): Eighty-nine year old  Irving Ravetch, half of the husband wife screening team of Ravetch and Frank passed away today. (As reported by Bruce Weber)

    2010(10th of Tishrei, 5771): Seventy-four year old Chabad Chassid Rabbi Avraham Yitzchak HaKohen Tauber passed away Yom Kippur morning at Sheba Hospital in the Tel HaShomer Medical Center after a long illness.

    2010: In Israel 93 people were treated by emergency health workers for falling ill as a result of fasting over the course of the Jewish High Holiday of Yom Kippur .


    2010: The Twins’ Danny Valencia hit a game winning three run homer.

    2011: In New York, The Center for Jewish History the Leo Baeck Institute and the Skirball Department of Hebrew and Judaic Studies at NYU are scheduled to present “A Continuing Conversation: Moses Mendelssohn and the Legacy of the Enlightenment,” day of discussion and debate devoted to exploring the thought and legacy of Moses Mendelssohn, the 18th-century founder of modern Jewish thought.

    2011:"While Six Million Lived: America and the Jewish Refugee Crisis, 1933-1939," the ninth national conference of The David S. Wyman Institute for Holocaust Studies is scheduled to take place today at the Fordham University School of Law in New York City.

    2011: The Concert is scheduled to shown in Davenport, Iowa, as part of the Jewish Federation of the Quad Cities’ Ninth Annual Jewish Film Festival.

    2011: The New York Timesfeatured a review of “Wonderstruck,” a children’s book written  and illustrated by Brian Selznick, a cousin of Myron and David O. Selznick.

    2011: "Everything on It: Poems and Drawings" by the late Shel Silverstein is one of the books that the Los Angeles Times featured in an article about children’s books that will be published this fall.


    2011: David L. Ulin, Los Angeles Times Book Critic includes "Quite Enough of Calvin Trillin," in his Fall Book Preview.

    2011:The Tel Aviv District Court rejected a petition by social justice protesters today against the municipality, which intends to dismantle tent encampments in several parts of the city.

    2011:Norway will recognize a Palestinian state, Foreign Minister Jonas Gahr Store said today as Palestinians prepared to seek statehood recognition from the United Nations.


    2011: The funeral of Suzy Eban, the widow of the late Abba Eban is scheduled to take place today at the Kfar Shemariyahu cemetery.

    2012(2nd of Tishrei, 5773): Second Day of Rosh Hashanah

    2012:Chief Palestinian negotiator Saeb Erekat today referred to as "absolutely unacceptable," comments by US Republican presidential candidate Mitt Romney that the Palestinians are not seeking peace.

    2012(2nd of Tishrei, 5773):Poet, songwriter, filmmaker and playwright Haim Hefer, one of the icons of Israeli culture, died on the second day of Rosh Hashanah at Sourasky Medical Center in Tel Aviv, after a long illness

    2013: The Gesher Jewish Day School in Fairfax, VA, is scheduled to a song and story hour in the Sukkah.

    2013: In London, The Weiner Library is scheduled to host a screening of “The Children Who Cheated The Nazis” which “tells the story of how 10,000 children escaped the Holocaust.”

    2013: “Signs of Life” with music by Joel Derfner, lyrics by Len Schiff, book by Peter Ullian and directed by Lisa Portes “based on the true story of the Czech ghetto, Terezin, is scheduled to open in Chicago.

    2013: According to remarks published today  Major-Gernal Yair Golan, the IDF commander on the Syrian border said “Syrian President Bashar Assad could cling to power for years despite having lost overall control of his country.”

    2013: US Vice President Joe Biden will address the upcoming J Street annual conference, the organization revealed today

    2013(14thof Tishrei, 5774): Erev Sukkoth

    2014: The Phasa Morgana Festival is scheduled to open today in Timna Park.

    2014: UK Jewish Film is scheduled to host the final screening of “The Congress,” Ari Folman’s “indictment of the film business and Hollywood.”

    2014: Friends and family celebrate the natal day of Daniel DeClue, Missouri’s greatest band teacher and a mensch of the first order.

    2014: At the Weiner Library for the Study of the Holocaust and Genocide Dr. Alexander Watson is scheduled to speak on “Hell before the Holocaust: Jewish Communities in the Eastern War Zone, 1914-1918.”

    2014: Last week before the start of the Sabbatical Year.


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    September 19

    335: Dalmatius is raised to the rank of Caesar by his Uncle Constantine I who had turned the Roman Empire into a Christian entity.  Following the death of Constantine, his successor Constantius II reportedly had Dalmatius murdered along with other members of his family whom he considered a threat to his rule.  Constantinus consolidation of power was not a good thing for the Jewish people because he was responsible for a whole series of laws and regulations that were “explicitly anti-Jewish.” 

    1187:Saladin breaks Camp at Ascalon, and moves towards his ultimate goal of taking Jerusalem

    1356: The English decisively defeated the French, led by King John II at the Battle of Poitiers.  The English captured the French king and held him for ransom.  The Dauphine, the future King Charles V, served as regent during his father’s imprisonment.  He authorized the return of the Jews to France “in order to use the taxes to enable him to pay his father's ransom.”  When he assumed the throne, Charles V would continue to honor the promises he had made to the Jews during his regency. 

    1590(20thof Elul):Today three years before he passed away, Moshe Alshich granted smichah to Chaim ben Joseph Vital.  Alshcich was born in Turkey in 1508 but settled in Safed where he was a disciple of Rabbi Joseph Caro.

    1635(7thof Tishrei): Gitele Loew the wife of Rabbi Simon Brandeis and the mother of Rabbi Samuel Brandeis passed away today in Prague.

    1657: During the Swedish invasion of Poland, a period called the Deluge, the Polish king gives up his claims over Prussia in return for aid in fighting the forces of Charles X, the Swedish monarch. This was a period of great suffering for the Jews of Poland who treated badly by the invading Swedes and treated even worse by the various Polish military forces. 

    1659:Tobiah Bacharach and Israel ben Shalom were executed today on an accusation of ritual murder.

    1724(2nd of Tishrei, 5485): Gluckel of Hamelin passed away

    1759: Birthdate of French banker Olry Hayem Worms, whose first wife was Blumele Levi and whose second wife was Flore Zacharie.

    1777: During the American Revolution, the First Battle of Saratoga begins.  The victory at Saratoga was critical because it brought the French into the war on the side of the Americans. Colonel David Salisbury Franks, the highest ranking Jewish officer in the American Revolution distinguished himself during this pivotal battle in American history.

    1785(15thof Tishrei, 5546): Sukkoth

    1798(9th of Tishrei, 5559): As the naval forces of the Second Coalition assert their control over the Mediterranean in their on-going fight with Napoleon, Jews on both sides hear the chanting of Kol Nidre this evening. 

    1807: In Charleston, SC, Isaac Da Costa married Miss Jane Samuel.

    1812 (13th of Tishrei, 5573): A.M. Rothschild passed away.

    1827: Birthdate of Leo Herzberg-Frankel who worked as the chief clerk of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry in his native Brody for 40 years while he pursued his literary career.

    1838: Birthdate of General Charles Gones who “when confronted with overwhelming evidence that Ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy was guilty of the espionage that Alfred Dreyfus had wrongfully been convicted of, Gonse simply overlooked it and refused to recognize Dreyfus's innocence.”

    1841: In Cincinnati, Ohio, German Jewish immigrants organized Congregation B’nai Yeshurun

    1842(15thof Tishrei, 5603): Sukkoth

    1847(9th of Tishrei, 5608): Jews living in California hear Kol Nidre for the first time this evening as citizens of the United States as a result of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    1857(1stof Tishrei, 5618): Rosh Hashanah

    1857: The New York Times reports on the dedication of a “House of Israel,” a new synagogue in Baltimore, MD “where the ladies of the congregation established a free school for religious instruction.”

    1857:Hermann Mayer Salomon Goldschmidt discovered Asteroid 48 Doris.

    1857: Hermann Mayer Salomon Goldschmidt discovered Asteroid 49 Pales.

    1859:George Bush “an American biblical scholar, pastor, abolitionist and Christian Restorationist academic” passed away. Bush, who is reportedly related to the two Americans of that name “published a book entitled ‘The Valley of Vision; or, The Dry Bones of Israel Revived’” in 1844. “In it he denounced “the thralldom and oppression which has so long ground them (the Jews) to the dust,” and called for “elevating” the Jews “to a rank of honorable repute among the nations of the earth” by re-creating the Jewish State in the land of Israel. This, according to Bush, would benefit not only the Jews, but all of mankind, forming a “link of communication” between humanity and God. “It will blaze in notoriety...". “It will flash a splendid demonstration upon all kindreds and tongues of the truth.”

    1861(15th of Tishrei, 5622): Sukkoth (I can find no record of a Sukkah being built by either Union or Confederate troops.)

    1862:Federal forces under the command of Lt. Colonel Gabriel Netter clashed with a much larger force of Confederates near Owensboro.  Netter refused to surrender and was killed during the ensuring clash. Netter was one of the many Jews who served in the Union Army during the Civil War.

    1863:  During the Civil War, Unionand Rebel forces clash at the Battle of Chickamauga. Frederick Kneffler was cited for bravery at the battle of Chickamauga. This Jewish resident of Indianapolis, attained the rank of Major General while commanding the 79th Indiana

    1864: A citation awarding the Medal of Honor to Corporal Isaac Gause, was issued today for his valor on the battlefield on September 13. The citation was issued to the Jewish trooper serving with Company, 2nd Ohio Cavalry “Capture of the colors of the 8th South Carolina Infantry while engaged in a reconnaissance along the Berryville and Winchester Pike.”  This would have meant that Gause was serving in the Army of the Shenandoah under the command of General Philip Sheridan.  The campaign successfully drove the Rebels from the Shenandoah Valley which was a key source of supply for the Confederate Army.  Capturing another unit’s colors was the epitome of success and called for unusual bravery because in those days military units fought ferociously to avoid having their flags captured.

    1866(10thof Tishrei, 5626): Yom Kippur

    1866: “Yom Kippur” published today states thatYesterday at sunset began the most important of all Jewish” festivals “that of the ‘Yom Kippur,' or Day of Atonement--a feast which is more generally observed by the Hebrew race throughout the world than any other of their numerous festivals.”

    1868: When the Battle of Beecher Island came to an end Sigmund Shlesinger a native of Hungary serving with Forsyth’s Company of Scouts was among the survivors.

    1870: The Italian Army laid siege to Rome, the capital of the Papal States.  The one day siege would prove successful.  Rome would become the capital of a newly unified Italian nation.  And Italy would go from one of the worst places in Europe for Jews to live to one of the best.

    1875: “Whitewashing Shylock” published today provides a refreshingly different view of the famed character from the “Merchant of Venice.”  The real villains are Antonio, the Merchant of Venice who was “humbug and a tuft-hunter” who falsely portrayed himself as a man of wealth and Bassanio.  They sought to cheat Shylock and use the fact that he was a Jewish moneylender to their advantage. The only weapon left to Shylock was cunning which “he sharpened up for this occasion.

    1876(1st of Tishrei, 5637): As the United States celebrates its centennial, Jews observe Rosh Hashanah

    1879(2nd of Tishrei, 5640): Second Day of Rosh Hashanah

    1881: It was reported today a committee of Jews representing communities all over Russia has arrived in St. Petersburg with the hopes of meeting with the Minister of Interior. They plan to present him with a petition asking for “an official public declaration of liberty for all creeds and suspension…of the laws sanctioning the expulsion of Jews from certain localities.

    1881: President James Garfield dies from an assassin’s bullet. Garfield was shot by a disgruntled office seeker named Charles Guiteau.  This brought the long simmering battle over political patronage jobs in the federal government to a boil.  Garfield’s death provided the impetus for the passage of the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act.  The Pendleton Act created a system of federal service positions that were filled based on merit not political patronage.  This civil service system based on ability would provide career opportunities to future generation of Jewish professionals.

    1881: In Schenectady, NY “Isaac Levy, wholesale liquor dealer, and Lewis Behr, tailor, draped their shops in black for the fallen president”  James Garfield.  Jews had already expressed their sorrow by holding special prayer services at Gates of Heaven when the President had been shot. (As reported by the Schenectady County Historical Society)

    1884(29thof Elul, 5644): Erev Rosh Hashanah

    1884(29thof Elul, 5644): In Leadville, CO, Rabbi Sachs, a recent graduate of Hebrew Union College led the services dedicating the new building that would house Temple Israel.

    1884: One of the major wholesale houses in the clothing trade – Rindskopf Brothers & Co – failed today.  Simon Rindskopf, Morris Rindskopf, Raphael Buchman and Jacob Rosenthal, the company’s partner “filed an assignment in the County Clerk’s office for the benefit of their creditors.”

    1885(10th of Tishrei, 5646): Yom Kippur

    1885: Rabbi Gottheil will deliver the Yom Kippur sermon at Temple Emanu-El

    1885: Rabbi H. P. Mendes will deliver the Yom Kippur sermon at the 19thStreet Synagoue.

    1885: Rabbi De Sola Mendes will deliver the Yom Kippur sermon at Shaary Tefila

    1885: Rabbi Kohut will deliver the Yom Kippur sermon at Ahavas Chesed

    1885: Rabbi Henry S. Jacob will deliver the Yom Kippur sermon at the Madison Avenue Synagogue.

    1885: Rabbi I.C. Noot will deliver the Yom Kippur sermon at B’nai Israel on east 4th Street in New York City.

    1886: Three hundred Romanian Jews arrived in New York aboard the SS Egypt.

    1887(1stof Tishrei, 5648): Rosh Hashanah

    1887: Rabbi Gottheil is scheduled deliver the Rosh Hashanah sermon at Temple Emanu-El

    1887: Rabbi H. P. Mendes is scheduled to deliver the Rosh Hashanah sermon at the 19thStreet Synagogue

    1887: Rabbi De Sola Mendes is scheduled to deliver the Rosh Hashanah sermon at the 44thStreet Synagogue

    1887: Rabbi Henry S. Jacobs is scheduled to deliver the Rosh Hashanah sermon at the Madison Avenue Synagogue. The sermon will be based on the text “Not unto us, O Lord, not unto us, but unto Thy name give glory, for Thy mercy, and for thy truth’s sake.”

    1887: Rabbi Kohut scheduled to deliver the Rosh Hashanah sermon at Ahavas Chesed.

    1889: “A Library’s Record” published today provides a description of the success enjoyed by the Maimonides Library which was established by B’nai B’rith in New York.  In the past year, the library has acquired 2,781 volumes bringing its total collection to 32,326 books.  The percentage of books in circulation has increased from 32 per cent to 37 per cent.

    1890: Benston Fuerstenbaum, who had spent the last three months in jail on charges of breach of contract reluctantly, married Goldie Fromner in City Court which had been decked out with a Chupah under which a rabbi performed the ceremony.

    1890: In Brooklyn Police Commissioner Hayden promised a group of “prominent” Jews that he would “have a force of police on hand to keep anarchist Johann Most within bounds” during the protest he is planning on holding on Yom Kippur.

    1891: Aaron Jatkowski is being held on charges of having assaulted Charles Lieberman when the latter sought to stop a drunken party at the synagogue in Newark, NJ

    1891: Several Jewish families moved away from Milville, NJ, today as the strike called because Flint and Green Glass Works had hired 14 Jews worsened.

    1892: Alexander Berkman who was being tried for having attempted to assassinate Henry Clay Frick and who was serving as his own lawyer was brought to the courtroom where he discovered that the jury had already been empaneled thus depriving of him a chance to question those who would sit in judgment on him.

    1892:”The Leonard Wing” of the Republican party in New Orleans nominated attorney Morris Marks who has been head of the Hebrew Widows and Orphan’s Home to run againstCaptain Burr Wood, the handpicked candidate of former Governor Warmoth.

    1893(9th of Tishrei, 5654): Kol Nidre

    1893: “Rabbi Louis Lustig and a score of laymen” escaped to safety when a fire broke out on the second floor of a frame building at 180 Rivington Street where they had been conducting Yom Kippur services.

    1893: A group of Jewish anarchists calling themselves the “Gruppe Proletariat” began a 24 hour vigil at the Clarendon Ballroom where they spent much of their time giving speeches denouncing “religion in general and” Judaism in particular. 

    1894: Birthdate of Dov Hoz, the native of Orsha who made Aliyah in 1906 and who a leading labor Zionist, founder of the Haganah and the founder and CEO of "Aviron," a pioneer of aviation in Israel that trained pilot and established flight lines in Israel and outside.

    1895: According to a list published today, the following charities each received a bequest of 100 dollars from the late Mrs. Rebecca Kastor: Mount Sinai Hospital, Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum, Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews, Hebrew Free School Association, the Ladies Bekuscholm Society and the the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society.

    1895(1stof Tishrei, 5656) Rosh Hashanah

    1895: Approximately 200 Russian Jews arrived in Norwich, CT having traveled there from Liverpool via Quebec.

    1898: “Anti-Semitic Movement Threatening In Algeria” published today described the attempts undermine the well-being of the Jewish community there including the rising influence of Édouard Adolphe Drumont, the founder of the Anti­-Semitic League of France and the plans of the new Governor  “to suppress the Jewish Consistories in Algeria.”

    1899: L'Osservatore Romano, the Vatican's official newspaper, runs a story about a Christian boy found dead in Hungary, his blood drained out by Jews who wanted it for their ghastly, superstitious rituals

    1899(15thof Tishrei, 5660): Sukkoth

    1899: Sixty-six year old Auguste Scheurer-Kestner, the French Protestant political leader who became a staunch defender of Dreyfus passed away today.

    1899: Following a passionate campaign by his supporters, including leading artists and intellectuals like Émile Zola, Dreyfus was pardoned by President Émile Loubet and released from prison

    1899: “The mass meeting that is being organized by Maurice Blumenthal…’to protest against the action of the Dreyfus court-martial and to have the wrong right’” which will include speeches by Jews and non-Jews is scheduled to be held this evening at Cooper Union.

    1899: Eighty-two year old Charles Patrick Daly, author of The settlement of Jews in North America, passed away today.

    1901:  Birthdate of Hungarian born, American movie producer Joseph Pasternak. His more than ninety movies include Anchors Away and Date With Judy.

    1904(10th of Tishrei, 5665): Yom Kippur

    1904: Birthdate of Avot Yeshurun, a Ukrainian born “Israeli poet who wove Arabic and Yiddish idiom into a unique and influential form of Hebrew verse.”

    1905: In Zurich communist writer Erich Vallentin and his wife gave birth to Judith Vallentin who as Judith Auer would become a fighter against the Nazis – a stance for which she would be hung in 1944.

    1909: Birthdate of Richard Edward “Dick” Fishel, the star University of Syracuse football player who went to play for the Brooklyn Dodgers, a team in the NFL.

    1910: In New York City, Bessie Ida Ginsberg and movie producer Jesse Lasky, Sr. gave birth to author Jesse L. Lasky, Jr.

    1908: Birthdate of Victor Frederick Weisskopf an Austrian-born Jewish American theoretical physicist who worked on the Manhattan Project and then later worked to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons.

    1911: An agreement was reached that ended the strike of garment makers guaranteeing that high fashioned clothing will be available for the fall and winter seasons.  The employers were represented by Julius Henry Cohen and the workers were represented by Meyer London.  Men of the quality of Louis Brandeis and Louis Marshall will serve on the Board of Arbitration established by the settlement.

    1911: In London, England the Behtnal Green Board of Guardians reverses its previous decision to reject the bid of Jewish contractors, but the Jews decided not to accept the contract.

    1917(3rd of Tishrei, 5678): Tzom Gedaliah

    1917: Anti-Jewish riots in Tunis cause five Jews to be injured, and their shops pillaged and vandalized.

    1917: Furloughs granted to U.S. soldiers and sailors so that they could observe the Jewish New Year came to an end.

    1918: The British under General Allenby began the last major offensive against the Turks in that part of the Ottoman Empire that would later include the state of Israel.  The Jewish Brigade would play an active role in this campaign, which would include the conquest of the land east of the Jordanand all the way to Damascus.

    1918: Once again, another Battle of Megiddo begins – this time it is the Ottomans versus the British Imperial forces fighting on the biblical battlefield.

    1925(1stof Tishrei, 6586): Rosh Hashanah

    1929: New York attorney Jonah Goldstein and his wife arrived in Palestine aboard the SS Bremen.  Goldstein had been sent by Jewish organizations in the United States to assess the philanthropic needs of the community in Eretz Israel and to report on the real facts behind the Arab violence including the behavior of the British mandatory government.

    1929: According to the Jerusalem correspondent of the London Financial News, the total amount of damages from the recent Arab inspired violence in Palestine will exceed five million dollars.  Damages in Hebron are reported to be in excess of three quarters of a million dollars. 

    1929: In an article telegraphed tonight, “the Jerusalem correspondent of The Daily Mail reports that continuance of peace ‘hangs by a slender thread.’”  Furthermore the situation is so tense, that the only guarantee of security lies with the presence of a British military presence.

    1934(10thof Tishrei, 5695): Yom Kippur

    1934: Detroitoutfielder and slugger Hank Greenberg refuses to play on Yom Kippur.

    1934: Birthdate of Brian Epstein, manager of the Beatles.

    1936: Birthdate of Cyril Kitchener Harris, the Glasgow, Scotland native who served as Chief Rabbi of South Africa from 1987 to 2004.

    1936: Seventy-five year old Meier Dizengoff, the Mayor of Tel Aviv, is stricken with pneumonia. The illness will prove fatal.

    1937: The Palestine Post reported that Palestine Arabs welcomed the statement made by Egyptian Foreign Minister Butrus Ghali Pasha, expressing firm opposition to the country's partition. The Arabs declared that they might boycott the new League of Nations Commission which was expected to come to Palestinefor an ad-hoc inquiry on how to effect and determine details of such partition.

    1939: German forces occupied the Polish city of Lukowand began killing the local Jews.

    1940: Nazi decree forbidding non-Jews to work for Jews in their homes or businesses was promulgated.  This ban included forbidding gentile women from working in Jewish homes, which seems a little odd given the conditions under which the Jews were living by 1940.

    1941: Birthdate of Cass Elliot.  Born Ellen Naomi Cohen in Baltimore, Maryland, she changed her name to Cass Elliot and moved to New Yorkto seek fame and fortune on Broadway.  She would later gain fame as Mama Cass singing with the Mamas and the Pappas.

    1941: Germanycaptured Kiev. This military victory opened one of the darkest chapters of the Holocaust.

    1941(27th of Elul, 5701): Thousands of Jews are murdered at Zhitomir, Ukraine

    1941: As per the Nazi decree of September 1, 1941, the Jews of Slovakia, Bohemia, and Moraviaare required to wear identifying Yellow Stars.

    1942: Three thousand Jews of Tuczyn were ordered into a ghetto. Five days later Germans and Ukrainians raided the ghetto. As resistance is put up by a small band of Jews armed with axes and petrol resisted the attack. Two thousand Jews made their escape to the forests. One thousand of them were found and shot. Three hundred starving women and children came back to the ghetto. In all, only 15 would survive the war.

    1942: Today, as captured on film, the local police deported the Jews from Hollerich, Luxemburg.

    1944(2nd of Tishrei, 5705): Rosh Hashanah II

    1944(2nd of Tishrei, 5705): Almost the entire population of the Klooga Camp was killed in the German attempt to silence the witnesses. The number included 1,500 Jews and 800 Russian prisoners-of-war.

    1944(2ndof Tishrei, 5705): “A few days before the Soviet army liberated the Klooga slave labor camp in Estonia, the Germans and their Estonian collaborators murdered more than 2,000 Jews”

    1944: In Tel Aviv, Moshe Sneh, one of the leaders of the Haganah and his wife gave birth to Efriam Sneh who would have made any Jewish mother proud since he was both a doctor and a general in the IDF.

    1945: Birthdate of musician David Bromberg.Bromberg grew up in Tarrytown, New York. Inspired by the music of Pete Seeger and the Weavers, among others, he began studying the guitar at age 13. After graduating from TarrytownHigh School, he enrolled at ColumbiaUniversity intent on a career as a musicologist. According to one critic, the man who backed up Bob Dylan “fits no pigeonholes. He is part of everything contemporarily musical. He is a product of blues, country, jazz, folk, and classical music. From his early success as a guitar virtuoso, Mr. Bromberg has developed into a brilliant entertainer.”

    1948: Laurence Steinhardt completed his service as U.S. ambassador to Czechoslovakia.

    1950: CBS broadcast the first episode of “Danger” a drama anthology series  for which Sidney Lumet directed “hundreds of episodes.”

    1951: The Israeli Cabinet approved an submitting an offer to sign non-aggression pacts with her four Arab neighbors to the United Nations Palestine Conciliation Commission meeting in Paris.

    1951: The 37th annual convention of Hadassah comes to a close in Atlantic City, NJ.  During the convention, Mrs. Samuel W. Halprin, national president of Hadassah, presented “an analysis of the future role of the Zionist movement and the stand taken on various controversial issues that were discussed at the World Zionist Congress.”  Mrs. Halprin had led the 32 member Hadassah delegation to that recently held meeting.

    1951: According to a survey conducted by the government of Israel that was released today, ‘rationed and other available supplies constituting Israel’s austerity food basket in 1950 provided adequate nourishment…However, part of the public faced malnutrition because it could not afford buy all the supplies to which it is entitled or because it rejected part of the austerity diet because of food habits.”  The team used the consumption of 2,400 calories as the baseline and a quarter of those interviewed in the sample consumed 2,400 or fewer calories per day.  [Ed. Note: For those who have only known Israel as prosperous nation with a reasonably high standard of living, it may come as a shock that economic privation was the order of the day during much of state’s early years of existence.]

    1952: The Jerusalem Post announced that Dr. E.F. Shinnar, who led the Israeli delegation to the reparation talks at The Hague, was expected to accept the post of the head of the Israeli Reparations Purchasing Mission in Germany. He had just completed successful negotiations with British oil companies concerning regular oil deliveries to Israel from German sterling credits placed at Israel's disposal for the next two years.

    1952: The US bars Charlie Chaplin from reentering the country after a trip to England

    1952: Television debut of “The Adventures of Superman” – the small screen version of the legendary hero created by two Jewish boys, Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster in 1938.

    1954: “The seventh season of Philco Television Playhouse began” tonight with a performance of Paddy Chafefsky’s “Middle of the Night” which would open on Broadway in 1956 with Edward G. Robinson (born Emanuel Goldenberg) in the leading male role.

    1960(27thof Elul, 5720): Seventy-year old Gerald Rufus Isaacs, 2nd Marquess of Reading the British barrister who held several positions under Prime Ministers Churchill and Eden including Minister of State for Foreign Affairs and was the husband of Eva Violet Mond, the daughter of the 1st Baron Melchett passed away today leaving the way open for his son Michael to assume his titles.

    1963: The Dodgers' regular rotation called for Sandy Koufaxto work the last game. But Koufax refused because he does not pitch on the Jewish holidays.  

    1964: U.S. premiere of Michael Roemer’s “Nothing But a Man” co-starring Yaphet Kotto.+

    1968: U.S. Premiere of William Wyler’s “Funny Girl” a musical based on the life of Fanny Brice starring Barbra Streisand.

    1969: Time publishes “The War and the Woman”

    1971: William F. Albright passes away at the age of 80. This American Methodist archaeologist was Professor of Semitic languages at Johns Hopkins for nearly 30 years, he penned over 1,000 articles and books, and led several Near Eastern expeditions which excavated the biblical sites of Gibeah, Bethel and Petra. Albright was not Jewish, but his work has certainly had its impact on our understanding of how the ancient Israelites might have lived.

    1972(11th of Tishrei, 5733): A parcel bomb sent to Israeli Embassy in London kills one diplomat.

    1976(24th of Elul, 5736):Proving that some people never really retire, Rabbi Moses J. Shragowitz of Congregation Knesset Tifereth Israel in Port Chester, N.Y., passed away today in Glenville, Conn., while conducting a memorial service. He was 81 years old and had served the Port Chestercongregation since 1937.

    1977: The Jerusalem Post reported that fund-raisers abroad agreed to help Prime Minister Menachem Begin to finance housing for 45,000 Israeli families living in sub-standard flats. Begin asked the UJA contributors to double their efforts in honor of the state's 30th anniversary.

    1977: At a meeting between President Carter and Foreign Minister Dayan in Washington, Carter renewed his opposition to any more settlements on the West Bank.

    1981: Simon and Garfunkel reunited for a concert in New York City's Central Park.

    1982(2nd of Tishrei, 5743): Second Day of Rosh Hashanah

    1988: Israellaunched its first satellite for secret military reconnaissance.

    1993(4th of Tishrei, 5754): Since the 3rd of Tishrei fell on Shabbat Tzom Gedaliah is observed today.

    1999: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or about topics of Jewish interest including Waging Peace: Israel and the Arabs at the End of the Centuryby Itamar Rabinovich, The Schools Our Children Deserve: Moving Beyond Traditional Classrooms and Tougher Standards by Alfie Kohn and A Joyful Noise: Claiming the Songs of My Fathersby Deborah Weisgall. In this case the father was “her father, the modernist opera composer Hugo Weisgall, who was born in Bohemia but grew up largely in America; like so many European Jews, he lost family during World War II, but he also served as an American G.I. and bore specific scars from helping to liberate Terezin.”

    2002(12thof Tishrei, 5763):Shoshana (Rosanna) Siso, 63, of Gan Yavneh; Ofer Zinger, 29, of Moshav Petza'el; Solomon Hoenig, 79, of Tel Aviv; Yossi Mamistavlov, 39 of Or Yehuda; Yaffa Shemtov, 49, of Tel Aviv and Jonathan (Yoni) Jesner, 19, of Glasgow, Scotland were murdered and 70 more people were injured when a Palestinian terrorists set off a bomb aboard a bus on Allenby Street as passed in front of the Great Synagogue in Tel Aviv.

    2003: In a letter of this date, Kenneth Jacobson, Associate National Director Anti-Defamation League reported the acceptance of Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi’s apology for his comment that Benito Mussolini was a benign dictator and expressed regret for the pain it caused the Jewish community. 

    2004: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or about topics of Jewish interest including The Fallsby Joyce Carol Oates, My Old Manby Amy Sohn and an essay by Philip Roth entitled “The Story behind the Plot against America.”

    2005: Sixty years after the end of World War II, German elections took a strange twist.  In reporting on the elections held over the weekend, Haaretz quoted assurances by both of the major candidates that they would maintain positive relations with Israeland work to fight any outbreak of anti-Semitism in Europe. 

    2005:President Moshe Katsav laid the foundation stone for Estonia's first synagogue since the Holocaust when the Nazis boasted there was not a single Jew left in the Baltic nation.Katsav also laid a wreath at the site of the Klooga concentration camp deep in the Estonian forest. Klooga was closed in 1944 after the SS shot the last of its prisoners, who included Jews from Estonia and elsewhere in Europe. .

    2006: At a an official ceremony took place in Bordeaux’s Jewish cemetery, attended by senior dignitaries from the local Jewish community as well as Israeli representatives during which the bodies of Herzl’s children Hans and Pauline Herzl were removed from the cemetery and taken to Israel for reburial.
    2006: In a sad commentary on the 21st century, Yale University announced the creation of the first university based center in North America dedicated to the study of anti-Semitism.  Yale cited a growing number of anti-Semitic episodes around the world as the driving force behind this.  In the announcement Yale officials did not say whether they considered the admission of an official of the Talbian as a student at Yale one of these harbingers of a growth in anti-Semitism.

    2007: The Tenth Annual Israeli Music Celebration ends with a piano concerto by Paul Ben Haim, performed by Gila Goldstein and the Jerusalem Symphony at the Jerusalem Theater's Henry Crown Hall. ."

    2007: In New Yorkas part of the Jews & Justice Program, The Center for Jewish History & American and the Jewish Historical Society present“Jewish Lawyers in the Civil Rights Movement” which features a prestigious panel that explores the Jewish community's involvement in this important historical movement in the United States.

    2007: A bill protecting travelers from denial of life insurance simply because they travel to Israelcleared the U.S. House of Representatives in a 312-110 vote. The measure now needs to be approved by the Senate and signed by the president.

    2007:The secretary of the ministerial committee wrote to the lawyer representing Neta Shoshani, informing him that 10 days earlier the committee had extended the ban on publication of some of the documents and photos pertaining to Deir Yassin for five more years, until 2012.

    2007: After serving as acting chancellor for 14 months, George R. Blumenthal was named the 10th Chancellor of UC Santa Cruz.

    2008: At the Hyman S. & Freda Bernstein Jewish Literary Festival Georgetown University  Professor Jacques Berlinerblau discussesThumpin' It: The Use and Abuse of the Bible in

    Today's Presidential Politics

    2008: Today in a “radio interview with Aimee Allison and Philip Maldari on Pacifica Radio's KPFA 94.1 FM in Berkeley, California, Joseph Stiglitz implied that President Clinton and his economic advisors would not have backed the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) had they been aware of stealth provisions, inserted by lobbyists, that they overlooked.”

    2008:“After having performed at a college event with frequent collaborator Travis Barker, Adam Michael Goldstein was seriously injured when a Learjet in which he was traveling crashed on takeoff in Columbia, South Carolina. The crash killed both crew members and two other passengers, and critically injured Goldstein and Barker

    2009 (1 Tishrei, 5770): Rosh Hashanah – 5770 טובהלשׁנה

    2009 (1 Tishrei, 5770): Ninety four year old Milton Meltzer, noted historian and author, passed away today. (As reported by Dennis Hevesi)

    2009 (1 Tishrei, 5770):Eighty-four year old Stuart Hample, who brought laughter to people of all ages, passed away today. (As reported by Bruce Weber)

    2010: A screening of “Jaffa” is scheduled to take place at 14th Annual Jewish Film Festival of Dallas (TX).

    2010:Israel is ready to enter peace negotiations with Syria "right away," Shimon Peres told the United Nations General Assembly. In his address today in New York to the international body's annual meeting -- the Nation's Millennium Development Goals summit -- Peres also said he believed that a two-state solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is the only "peaceful alternative," adding, "and I believe that we shall succeed."

    2010: The Washington Post featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including “The Balfour Declaration: The Origins of the Arab-Israeli Conflict” by Jonathan Schneer

    2010: On the day after Yom Kippur, Ryan Braun of the Milwaukee Brewers “hit a two-run homer, accounting for all of Milwaukee’s runs in a 9-2 loss. Braun had played on Yom Kippur when he went 3 for five to help his team defeat the San Francisco Giants. (As reported by Ron Kaplan)

    2010: In a surprising turn of event, Prime Minister Netanyahu will fly to Washington, DC today.  The visit follows a meeting held at Sharm el-Sheikh with Palestinian Authority chairman Mahmoud Abbas where discussions were held concerning “core issues” a term that “refers to Israeli concessions, including the status of Jerusalem and the holy sites within it, as well as final borders and the Arab demand that descendants of Arab residents who fled decades ago be allowed into Israel.”

    2011(20thof Elul): Yahrzeit of Dr. Jacob  Levin, of blessed memory, beloved husband of Betty, loving father of Michael (Gigi Cohen) Levin, Stephen (Dian Garton) Levin, Sharon (Philip) Wein and Lawrence (Sandra Morrison) Levin and proud Zaide to a whole tribe of grandchildren.   To his brother Joe, he was the incomparable “Yaenkel” and to me his was my wonderful Uncle Jack – living proof that good guys finish first.

    2011: A Middle East Forum sponsored by The Jewish Community Relations Council of Greater Washington featuring Elliot Abrams, David Makovsky and Amos Yadlin is scheduled to take place tonight at the JCC of Northern Virginia.

    2011: The Amerigo Trio – Inbal Segev, cellist; Glen Dicterow, violinist; Karen Dreyfus, violist – is scheduled to perform at the 2011 New York Chamber Music Festival

    2011:Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu - who is scheduled to fly to the US tomorrow evening – said tonight that he would like to meet with Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas in New York. "I call on the PA chair to open direct negotiations in New York, that will continue in Jerusalem and Ramallah," Netanyahu said.

    2011:A 26-year-old man from the West Bank settlement of Eli was arrested on today on suspicion of being involved in a vandalism and sabotage attack on an IDF base earlier this month.
    2012(3rd of Tishrei, 5773): Fast of Gedaliah

    2012(3rdof Tishrei, 5773): Eighty-nine year old attorney and negotiations expert Gerard I. Nierenberg passed away. (As reported by William Yardley)

    2012: “In the Shadow of Memory: Legacies of Lidice” is scheduled to be shown in Washington, DC, as part of the film series “Docs in Salute” which focuses “on interesting personalities who have been touched by Jewish themes.

    2012:Team Israel is scheduled to play South Africa in the opening round of the World Baseball Classic (WBC)

    2012: The funeral of Haim Hefer who passed away yesterday is scheduled to take place today.

    2012: The IDF held a surprise large-scale drill on the Golan Heights today, as turmoil continued to rock Syria across the northern border

    2013: The Alexandria Kleztet is scheduled to perform in Towson, MD

    2013(15th of Tishrei, 5774): Sukkoth

    2013: “Palestinians in the Gaza Strip fired a rocket at southern Israel this morning. The projectile triggered an air raid siren in the Hof Ashkelon Regional Council area and landed in an open area near the security fence bordering Gaza.” (As reported by Yaakov Lappin)

    2014: “The results of a competition for a memorial” for the victims of the attack on the Israeli team at the 1972 Munich Games are scheduled to be announced today.(As reported by Times of Israel)

    2014: The Coe College Music is scheduled to host the Homecoming Showcase Concert under the direction of Musical Maven William S. Carson

    2014: The Israel Ballet is scheduled to perform at the Phasa Morgana Festival.

    2014: The Vengerov Festival, featuring violinist Maxim Vengerov is scheduled to open at the Charles Bronfman Auditorium.

    2014: Comedian and social commentator Lewis Black is scheduled to appear in Albuquerque, NM.




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    September 20

    357 B.C.E.: Birthdate of Alexander the Great.  Alexander's eastern conquests would bring the Jews in contact with Greek Culture.  The conflict between Greek and Jewish values would become a dominant motif in Jewish history over the next several centuries.  The Jewish view of Alexander was positive, if somewhat idealized.

    1187: Saladin begins the Siege of Jerusalem.  When the siege ended in October, the Moslems recaptured the city leading to the near collapse of Christian control in the Holy Land. Saladin allowed the Jews to return to the City of David from which they had been banned by the Christian Crusaders. (Did they realize that this meant Jesus would not have been able to live in Jerusalem?)  Saladin’s victory would lead to the Third Crusade.

    1540: The first auto da fe in Lisbonof those forcibly converted to Christianity (conversos) is held. The term auto da fe literally means act of faith.  In point of fact it was a public execution in the form of a burning at the stake.

    1590: French playwright and poet Robert Garnier, the author of Les Juives, passed away. “Les Juives is the moving story of the barbarous vengeance of Nebuchadnezzar on the Jewish king Zedekiah and his children. The Jewish women lamenting the fate of their children take a principal part in this tragedy, which, although almost entirely elegiac in conception, is singularly well designed, and gains unity by the personality of the prophet.”

    1701: In Great Britain, Bevis Marks Synagogue inaugurated.

    “Situated in the City of London, just off the ancient thoroughfare of Bevis Marks, the Synagogue is the oldest one still in use in Britain. The Bevis Marks Synagogue appears much as it did on its opening day in 1701.”

    1721: Thomas Dogget, the Anglo-Irish actor who played “the role” of Shylock “comically, even farcically” passed away today.  (Dogget was one of a whole host of actors who played the role of the Jew without ever knowing any of them)

    1725: In Moravia, a fine of 1,000 ducats “was imposed on anyone who allowed Jews to come into possession of real estate, particularly customhouses, mills, wool-shearing sheds, and breweries.” (As reported by Jewish Virtual Library)

    1741: Handel completed the first act of “Samson,” a work based on the Biblical figure described in the Book of Judges.

    1761: On the exact anniversary of the first auto-de-fe in Portugal, Gabriel Malagrida was burned alive on the Terreiro do Paço at Lisbon. He was to be the last victim burned in Portugalat any auto-de-fe.

    1779(10thof Tishrei, 5540): Yom Kippur

    1779: Birthdate of Karl Streckfuss, the Prussian privy council who in 1833 wrote a treatise, “On the Relation of the Jews to the Christian States” in which he expressed reluctance “to recommend a universal emancipation because of the alleged moral and deficiencies of the common type of Jew. (As reported by Jacob Katz)

    1789(29th of Elul, 5549): Erev Rosh Hashanah

    1798(10thof Tishrei, 5559): Yom Kippur

    1798: Birthdate of Philipp Freiherr von Schey Koromla, the native of Guns who became a successful businessman and was the first Hungarian born Jew to become a member of the Austrian nobility.

    1800(1stof Tishrei, 5561): Jews observed Rosh Hashanah for the last time with a member of the Federalist Party serving as President of the United States.

    1812: A.M. Rothschild is buried next to ancestor Iassk Elchanan who died in 1585.  Elchanan was the first one whose tombstone was marked with the emblem of a shield which gave rise to the Red Shield.

    1817(10thof Tishrei, 5578): Yom Kippur

    1819(1stof Tishrei, 5580): Rosh Hashanah

    1838(1stof Tishrei, 5599): Rosh Hashanah

    1838: Birthdate of Nathan Barnet, the native of Pozan who became mayor of Patterson, NJ and was a founder of the Miriam Barnet Hebrew Free School.

    1847(10th of Tishrei, 5608): Yom Kippur

    1848: Creation of The American Association for the Advancement of Science whose Jewish members have included Stephen Jay Gould, American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist and historian of science who served as the organizations president in 2000.

    1850:Emperor Franz Joseph the all of the Jews of Hungary should contribute toward a Jewish school-fund of 1,000,000 gulden; and this sum was raised by them within a few years.

    1851: Birthdate of British playwright, Henry Arthur Jones author of “Judah” in 1890 and “The Triumph of the Philistines” in 1895.

    1856:During the week ending today, of the 461 people who died in New York, only one of them died at The Jew's Hospital.

    1863: During the American Civil War, the 15th Regiment Kentucky Volunteer Cavalry, a Union unit that had been formed under the command of Lt. Col. Gabriel Netter left Paducah, Kentucky, and headed for McLemoresville, Tennessee. (Netter was one of several Jews to serve as ranking officer in the U.S. Army)

    1865(29th of Elul, 5625): Erev Rosh Hashanah

    1865: Today's “City News” column reported that “This evening the series of annual Jewish holidays commences. The first of these is known as Rosh Hashanah, (the New-Year.) It begins this evening and terminates on Friday night. The origin of the festival is given in Leviticus xxiii., 23, 24, 25. Though not one of the three great festivals on which the male population of Israel was to appear before the Lord, it is nevertheless considered as one of the first among the principal holidays, and as such has ever been celebrated by the Sons of Jacob. A peculiar rite of this festival is the blowing of trumpets, and this is not only observed, but the hearing of the same is obligatory on all Jews. With this festival begins an era called the ten days of repentance, which is terminated by the Yom Kippur, (Day of Atonement.) This festival of New-Year is observed very strictly by the Israelites of this city, no business being transacted, and the synagogues being thronged by hundreds of devout worshipers.”

    1869(15thof Tishrei, 5630): Sukkoth is observed for the first time during the Presidency of U.S. Grant.

    1870: During the fight for the unification of Italy, Victor Emanuel seized the Capitol city of Rome. This victory would lead to the end of Rome’s Ghetto which had stood for three centuries.

    1874: Vice President Jesse Seligman chaired today’s regular meeting of the Board of Trustees of the Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum Society of New York.  The trustees unanimously adopted a motion challenging the veracity of charges of mismanagement which had first appeared in the Era magazine and then were reprinted in the New York Times.  The motion referred to the charges as “false and malicious” stating that they were made out of “animosity and malice” aimed at the chief officer of the society.  The motion called for the establishment of an independent committee to investigate the charges and report on their “truth or falsity.”

    1874(9th of Tishrei, 5635): Erev of Yom Kippur

    1874: Dr. Solomon Adler, the senior rabbi and Dr. Gustav Gottheil, his assistant, will deliver sermons in German and English during the Kol Nidre Serve at Temple Emanu-el, the major Reform congregation in New York City.

    1876(2ndof Tishrei, 5636): As Hayes and Tilden square off in what will be one of the closest election in American history, Jews observe the second day of Rosh Hashanah

    1880(15thof Tishrei, 5649): Sukkoth

    1881: It was reported today that 116 Russian Jews have left Antwerp bound for New York.

    1881: Vice President Chester A. Arthur was sworn in as President following the death of President Garfield. In 1882, during Arthur’s single term as President, the United States finally ratified the Red Cross Treaty enabling the American Red Cross to join the international body.  President Arthur appointed Adolphus Simeon Solomons as one of three delegates to represent the country at the Geneva Congress, where he was elected vice-president. This was one of the earliest moves to give an American Jew a prominent position in public affairs. Solomons had been a driving force behind the creation of the American Red Cross.  It was at his home that a proposal was approved to form the Association of the American Red Cross and incorporate it in Washington, D.C.Solomons was born in New York where he began a printing business which he would later move to Washington, D.C. and expand into a full-scale publishing house. A Civil War veteran, Solomons worked to establish numerous institutions that would aide both the general population and the Jewish community.  He helped establish the first school for nurses in Washington and one of the first shelters for homeless men.  He helped to establish Mt.SinaiHospitaland the Russian Jews Immigrant Aid Society.

    1883: Birthdate of Albrecht Alt, the German theologian who wrote “Israel and Egypt” as part of his doctoral and who served as the Provost at the Evangelical Redeemer Church in Jerusalem.

    1884(1st of Tishrei, 5645): Rosh Hashanah

    1884: In Leadville, CO, Temple Israel celebrated the Jewish New Year for the first time in its brand new building.

    1884: “Forced Out Of Business” published today, described the demise of Rindskopf Brothers & Co.  The company, which began operating in Cincinnati in 1854 before moving to New York in1866 was forced into bankruptcy by its inability to obtain financing during the economic downturn as well as its failure to change its business practices. Morris Rindskopf, one of the principles of the company, is a well-known philanthropist  who is the treasurer of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum and the United Hebrew Charities neither of which are involved in or threatened by the bankruptcy.

    1885: “Dr. Pusey’s Daniel” published today provides a detailed review of Daniel the Prophet, a compilation of nine lectures delivered at Oxford by E. B. Pusey.

    1888(15th of Tishrei, 5649): Sukkoth

    1890: Birthdate of poet RachelBluwstein Sela, Zionist lyric poet known as “Rachel the Poet.” She died at the age of 41. Flowers of Perhaps: Selected Poems of Rachel is an English translation of some of her works.

    1890: In Vienna, a sub-Lieutenant started beating an old Jew before he was stopped by a Prussian officer who turned him over to a police officer.

    1890: Misses Ella and J.M. Drefyus were among the passengers who arrived in New York aboard the SS La Champagne.

    1890: “City and Suburban News” published today described plans that Anarchist Johann Most has announced for a mass meeting at the Labor Lyceum to be held on Yom Kippur designed to mock the Day of Atonement.

    1891: Rabbi H. P. Mendes delivered the sermon at the dedicatory services for the new synagogue on Staten Island in Richmond Turnpike, Tompkinsville which were attended by approximately 350 people.

    1891: In New York, the Addison Literary Society hosted a debatestyled “Resolved that the civilized nations of the world should enter a protest against Russia’s barbarous treatment of her Jewish subjects.”

    1891: In Milville, NJ, the lockout at the Flint and Green Glass Works of Whitall, Tatum & Co which came in response to a strike sparked by the employment 14 Jews entered its second day.

    1892: In Fort Worth, TX an unidentified Jewish merchant was accidently shot in the leg by Ollie Bowles who was trying to shoot the man who had just been acquitted of trying to murder him.

    1892: A unnamed Jewish resident of Chicago wrote a letter to former President Grover Cleveland who was running for President expressing his gratitude for the statements of support for the Jews of Russia  in the platform of the Democratic Party.

    1893(10th of Tishrei, 5654): Yom Kippur

    1893: The Hebrew Anarchist continued their tradition of mocking the observance of Yom by holdholding balls and enjoying other entertainments.  This year’s events were held at the Clarendon Hall where attendees paid fifteen cents to enjoy the speeches and merriment.

    1893: Rabbi Louis Lustig and his congregation will not be worshiping at their usual house of prayer at 180 Rivington Street because of a fire that broken out at eleven o’clock last night after Kol Nidre Services.

    1895(2nd of Tishrei, 5656): 2ndday Rosh Hashanah

    1895: The Russian Jews who arrived in Norwich, Ct yesterday from Quebec and are planning to take a steamer to New York City that they are following this “round-about route…to escape the rigid Custom House inspection” that greets immigrants who arrive in New York from Europe.

    1895: “Silver Dollar” Smith, a Jewish saloon owner and member of the Tammany machine went looking for William Smith in an attempt to get him to press charges against Martin Engel, a Tammany leader.

    1896: A new Charles Frohman melodrama is scheduled to open in Boston today which will eventually be brought to New York

    1898: Colonel Dreyfus was released from prison on Devil's Island. This is the famous Dreyfus of "The Dreyfus Fair" that rocked France and provided the impetus for Theodore Herzl to become the father of modern Zionism.

    1898:Herzl began a journey that would take him to Paris, The Hague and London on business of the Jewish Colonial Trust (Bank).

    1899: Birthdate of German-born American philosopher, Leo Strauss.

    1899: French President Emile Loubet pardoned Dreyfus.

    1899: In Kirchhain (Prussia), Hugo and Jennie Strauss gave birth to German-American political philosopher Leo Strauss

    1899: After hiding out in a villa with his anti-Semitic comrades, Max Regis, the former mayor of the city and “a notorious Jew baiter” went into Algiers “stirring up anti-Jewish demonstrations, during which the windows of several shops owned by Jews were smashed.

    1901: “New Jersey Honors President’s Memory” published today described services held in houses of worship all over the Garden State including the Camden’s Sons of Israel Synagogue attended by 500 Jews who heard speeches by Joseph Roterman , Frank Auerbach and Rabbi Leventhal from Philadelphia.

    1906(1st of Tishrei, 5667): Rosh Hashanah

    1908: In Houston, TX, members of Congregation Adath Heshurun dedicated their new synagogue.

    1917: Birthdate of Arnold "Red" Auerbach. This New York native earned as bachelors and masters degrees from GeorgeWashingtonUniversity.  Despite his father's initial lack of enthusiasm for his interest in athletics, Auberbach coached the Boston Celtics to nine straight NBA championships in the 1950's and 1960's.  However, sheer numbers do not do justice to the impact of this Hall of Fame coach.  During his career, the Celtics were the dominant force in professional basketball.  Auberach's Celtics were a force beyond the hardwood courts, as they provided a venue where African-American athletes could shine in a way not known before in American sport.

    1918(14th of Tishrei, 5679): Erev Sukkoth

    1918: M. Politis, Minister of Foreign Affairs, announces Greek governmental approval of the suggestion by Dr. Chaim Weizmann to the Greek representative in Egypt, that a volunteer military corps be developed for Palestine, from among the Jews of Salonica.

    1918: During WW I, General Allenby’s forces entered the Jezreel Valley and began two days of fighting that would lead to the capture of Afula (later known for its Pistachio nuts) and Megiddo, the site of the biblical battle of Armageddon. [One can only wonder what the Jewish forces serving with Allenby felt as they trod this land on the eve of the holiday simply known as “The Chag.”]

    1918: Birthdate of George Lachmann Mosse, the German born American cultural historian who co-founded “The Journal of Contemporary History.”

    1923(10th of Tishrei, 5684): Yom Kippur

    1924: In Manhattan, Alexander and Eugenia Moshinsky gave birth to Albert Eliot Moshinsky who gained fame as Albert Marre, the Tony Award-winning director. (As reported by Dennis Hevesi)

    1925(2ndof Tishrei, 5686): 2nd day of Rosh Hashanah

    1925: Birthdate of Eliezer Zborowski, the Polish born Holocaust survivor who started the American and International Societies for Yad Vashem (As reported by Douglas Martin)

    1927:  Birthdate of Henry Taub a founder of the payroll company that grew into the global giant Automatic Data Processing, also known as ADP.

    1928: Birthdate of Dr. Joyce Brothers who first gained national fame as a quiz show contestant on the "$64,000 Question."

    1936:  In a time when most Jews were supporting FDR, friends of Republican Presidential candidate Alf Landon, expressed their gratification over a statement by Felix M. Warburg, New York banker and philanthropist, announcing his support for Governor Landon.

    1937(15thof Tishrei, 5698): Sukkoth

    1937: The Palestine Post reported that Egypt, in an outspoken declaration made by its foreign minister, Butrus Ghali Pasha, officially objected to any planned partition of Palestine. Butrus Ghali explained that Jews and Arabs, "both descendants of Abraham," had lived together amicably for centuries and could continue to live so in our own time and day.

    1937:  The Post reported that Mr. K.W. Blackburne, assistant district commissioner for the North of Palestine, informed local mukhtars (village heads) that they would be held responsible for any terrorist activities which might take place within their territories. Whenever found guilty they would have to pay damages and defray the expenses of the special punitive police posts, established in their villages.  This tough talk was not backed up with action as the British government did little or nothing to put an end to Arab terror.

    1939: All radios owned by Jews in Greater Germany were confiscated.

    1941(28th of Elul, 5701): Several thousand Jews, mostly women and children from Kovno, Lithuania, are executed at the local synagogue after being held there for three days.

    1941: Policemen in Kiev, Ukraine, adopt armbands identifying the wearer as a member of the Nazi-sponsored Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists.

    1942(9th of Tishrei, 5703): In the evening Kol Nidre

    1942(9th of Tishrei, 5703): In Letychiv, Ukraine, the SS starts a two day murder spree that claims the lives of at least 3,000 Jews.

    1943(20th of Elul, 5703): One thousand Jewish inmates of the camp at Szebnie, Poland, are trucked to a nearby field, stripped naked and executed with machine guns. The bodies are burned and the bones thrown into the Jasiolka River. Those who had been ordered to pile the dead bodies onto a pyre were then shot to death as well.

    1943: Jacob Kapler, a Jew assigned to the body-burning detail at the Babi Yar, Ukraine, mass-murder site, finds a key that fits the padlock on a bunker in which he and other laborers are locked each night.

    1944(3rd of Tishrei, 5705) Tzom Gedaliah

    1944: The Jewish Brigade Group is formed by the British high command. After a long battle by Chaim Weizmann and Moshe Sharret, the British agreed to the establishment of a Jewish Army to fight alongside British troops. In all over 5000 people from pre-state Israelincluding many who had fled from Europeenlisted. Seven hundred of them lost their lives. After the war they formed the nucleus for those working to get Jews from Italy and the Balkans by legal or illegal efforts.

    1944:Joseph Ratzinger, the future Pope Benedict XVI, joins the Whermacht

    1945: The Jewish Agency for Palestine makes its first claim for restitution from Germanyfor crimes Nazis committed against Jews.

    1945: Eleanor Roosevelt and Mrs. Henry Morgenthau, Jr. visited the refugee camp at Fort Ontario where most of the population was Jewish.

    1946: In Haifa, Lilly and Eliyahu Goldenberg gave birth to David Goldenberg who gained fame as Israeli entertainer and television personality Dudu Topa

    1947: Mayor Fiorello La Guardia passed away.  New York's "Little Flower" had an Italian father and a Jewish mother.  La Guardia never "traded on his Jewish origins" for political purposes.  At the same time, he suffered numerous times because of them.  For example, his career in the Foreign Service ended before it began, despite his linguistic skills, when it was explained to him that a Jewish parent would prove detrimental to his future.  He was the victim of numerous anti-Semitic slurs from political opponents.  At one point the Democrats ran a Jewish candidate against him thinking it would be to their advantage.  However, La Guardia (a Republican) had the last laugh when he challenged his opponent to a debate so long as the language of the match was Yiddish.  The opponent demurred because his linguistic skills were less than La Guardia's who then went on to win the election.

    1950: Orchestra conductor Serge Koussevitzky left New York on an Air France aircrafts on his way to Israel where he will conduct the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra.  “He will give fifteen concerts in Tel Aviv, Jerusalem and Haifa.”

    1951: As the infant Jewish state copes with the economic challenges brought on by immigrant absorption and having to defend itself against a cordon of states dedicated to its destruction. David Horowitz presents Israel’s plans for dealing with the situation at the National Economic Conference at Washington, D.C.’ Shoreham Hotel.

    1951: Jewish Film Distributors, local film distributors for Carmel Film of Tel Aviv has announced through Nathan Axelrod, head of the company that “Rebirth of a Nation,” a 90 minute documentary and first of a new series of Israeli made features will have its American premier at the Stanley Theatre.

    1951: In a speech given at the Jerusalem Shoe Company marking the end of Industry Week Israel’s Finance Minister Eliezer Kaplan announced “a program to mobilize $300,000,000 for new industrial projects in the next three years.  In his speech Kaplan declared, “Some think Israel needs pity.  But I say we need assistance.  We are building at a tremendous tempo and Israel is surmounting its difficulties.

    1952(1stof Tishrei, 5713): Rosh Hashanah

    1952: Birthdate of Randy Grossman who played tight end for Temple (where else would a Jewish boy play) University before going on to a career with the Pittsburgh Steelers with whom he earned four Super Bowl rings.

    1953: The New York Times includes a review of Saul Bellow’s latest novel, “The Adventures of Augie March “about “a West-Side-Chicago Tom Jones…of depression years with a ‘weak sense of consequence.’”

    1955(4thof Tishrei, 5716): Fifty-eight year old Academy Award winning screenwriter and playwright Robert Riskin passed away today.

    1956(15thof Tishrei, 5717): Sukkoth

    1956: First appearance of The American Examiner which resulted from a merger of the Brooklyn Examiner and The American Hebrew

    1959: Beth Shalom Synagogue, in Elkins Park, PA,was inaugurated, a few months after the passing away of the architect who designed it, Frank Lloyd Wright. The synagogue is considered a Wright masterpiece.  The synagogue would later be placed on the list of National Historic Landmarks.

    1960: Pitcher Larry Sherry loses gives up two runs in the 9th as the Cards defeat the Dodgers 3 to 2.

    1961: Birthdate of Lisa Allred Bloom, the daughter of Gloria Allred who followed in her mother’s footsteps by becoming a lawyer and television personality.

    1967: 20th Century Foxreleased “Two for the Road” which was produced and directed by Stanley Doan, the son of Jewish parents from South Carolina.

    1970(19th of Elul, 5730): Sixty nine year old Arturo Rosenblueth, the Mexican doctor who was a pioneer in the field of cybernetics, passed away today.

    1971(1st of Tishrei, 5732): Rosh Hashanah

    1977: The Jerusalem Post reported from Washington that US President Jimmy Carter and Israeli Foreign Minister Moshe Dayan wound up their talks amid continuing differences between their governments on the question of the Palestinian representation at the reconvened Geneva Peace Conference and the establishment of new settlements in the administered areas. Israelannounced that it would not soften its stand against the proposal allowing Arabs to attend the Geneva Conference in a single, unified delegation which might include the Palestine Liberation Organization. Given the distance of time, the Likud (Begin then; Sharon now) has certainly changed its stance on this issue.

    1975(15thof Tishrei, 5736): Sukkoth

    1976(25thof Elul, 5736): Seventy-one year old Kermit Bloomgarden, the Broadway producer whose productions included “The Diary of Ann Frank” passed away today.

    1977: The Jerusalem Post reported that the military government destroyed a terrorist's house in Beit Hanina.

    1977: CBS broadcast the first episode of “Lou Grant” produced by Gary David Goldberg.

    1979: Assassination of Frenchleft-wing militant Pierre Goldman who had also been convicted of several robberies.  Goldman was the son of Alter Mojze Goldman, a Polish Jew who was active in the French Resistance during World War II.

    1980(10th of Tishrei, 5741): Yom Kippur

    1980: Avraham "Avi" Cohen, an Israeli playing football for Liverpool (UK) caused a stir when he played in today’s match with Southhampton which ended with a score of 2-2.  There were those who thought he should have followed in the footsteps of Hank Greenberg and Sandy Koufax and not played on Yom Kippur.

    1981: Final performance of Hanoch Levine's ''Ya'acobi and Leidental,'' a contemporary Israeli comedy running at the La Mama annex

    1990(1stof Tishrei, 5751): Rosh Hashanah

    1994(15thof Tishrei, 5755): Sukkoth

    1994(15thof Tishrei, 5755): Seventy-four year old Michael Dekel, the native of Pinsk who fought in the Red Army during WW II, before making Aliyah in 1949 passed away today.  An MK, he served in several different cabinet posts.

    1998: Outfielder Gabe Kapler made his major league debut with the Detroit Tigers.

    1998: The New York Times book section featured reviews by Jewish authors and/or about topics of Jewish interest including “The Brink of Peace: The Israeli-Syrian Negotiations”by Itamar Rabinovich.

    1998: In the following article entitled “The Lost Tribe of Natchez,” Jennifer Moses describes the fate of the Jewish community of Natchez, Mississippi.

    1999(10th of Tishrei, 5760): Yom Kippur

    1999:Speaking at a high school in Des Moines, Iowa, Republican presidential candidate Steve Forbes and editor of Forbes magazine tells the students that the Ten Commandments should be displayed in all schools because they are "the basis for this civilization."“The Ten Commandments gave us Judaism from which flowed Christianity.”

    2002: This afternoon, “the University of Tennessee will dedicate the newest addition to the Tennessee athletic complex, the Wolf-Kaplan Center” which “is named in honor of the two donors who made the lead donation to make the facility possible, Drs. Robert J. Kaplan and Rodney Y. Wolf, both of Memphis.”

    2002: Ninety-one year old Necdet Kent, the Turkish diplomat, who while serving as vice-counsel in Marseilles from 1941 to 1944 risked his life to save Jews, passed away.

    “When Kent heard that Turkish Jews who were living in France were rounded up by the Nazis, he personally went to the train station and demanded the release of all Jews who were Turkish citizens. According to Arnold Reisman, “When the guards refused to comply, he got into the wagon with them. A German officer ordered him to get off but Kent refused to leave unless they let his Turkish citizens off as well. Angrily, the officer said no, you can go with them and closed the door. After three hours of extreme cold and filth, the train arrived at the next station. Obviously realizing a possibly explosive international incident had to be quickly diffused, the German officer who opened the door to the wagon apologized profusely and allowed Kent to leave and take all the people in the wagon with him, never looking at papers, never checking to see if they were Turkish citizens or not.” He saved 80 Jewish lives.”

    2003(23rdof Elul, 5763):Eighty-nine year old Bernard Manischewitz, whose family name is synonymous with kosher food passed away today.(As reported by Douglas Martin)

     2005: Yedioth Ahronoth reported that that there is more ethnic diversity in the U.S. Jewish community than previously believed.New research finds 20% of Jewish America is ethnically and racially diverse; study shows increase in diverse Jews mirrors changing racial, religious character of America. New research debunks the commonly held view that America's Jews are a monolithic people of exclusively white European ancestry. In

    2005:Rabbi Miri Gold, of the Birkat Shalom congregation in the Gezer community, who is a Reform rabbi, petitioned the High Court of Justice demanding that she be appointed to the official position of chief rabbi of her community.


    2005 (16th of Elul, 5765): Nazi hunter Simon Wiesenthal passed away at the age of 96.

    2005: The Zionist Central Council of Greater Manchester presented the Herzl Award to Jonathan Hantman.

    2005: Jonathan Letham received a MacArthur Fellowship

    2005:IDF temporarily entered the northern Gaza Strip, constructing a buffer zone parallel to the border near Beit Hanoun before pulling out.[

    2006: During the “Cash for Honors” investigation, Lord Levy (Michael Levy) was questioned for a second time and then released on bail. It would take another 9 months before that no charges would be brought against.  The wheels of justice grind slowly.

    2006:Rabbi Sir Jonathan Sacks, the Chief Rabbi of the United Hebrew Congregations of the Commonwealth broadcasts his New Year messageIn A Strange Land on the BBC One

    2006: In accordance with Herzl’s last request, his children, Hans and Pauline Herzl, are interred beside him in Jerusalem’s Mt. Herzl Cemetery.

    2006: A bill introduced by Congressman Henry Waxman “that would lift the bank on federal money for subway tunneling in his district passed the House by a unanimous vote.

    2007: Israeli Daniel Sharon is arrested in Lebanon on suspicion of involvement in murder and spying. Further investigation will establish that he is a convert to Islam and a self-identified homosexual.  He will be released in mid-October, 2007.

    2007:An IDF Spokesperson's Unit video of St.-Sgt. Ben-Zion Henman, filmed only moments before the soldier was shot to death during operations in Nablus, was released.

    2007: The 107th annual meeting of the Jewish Federation of Metropolitan Chicago was held today at the Hyatt Regency. Daniel C. Kurtzer, the United States Ambassador to Israel from 2001 to 2005 and current Commissioner of the Israel Baseball League, was the guest speaker. Midge Perlman Shafton, who has been active in the Chicago Jewish community for more than 30 years, was honored with the 45th annual Julius Rosenwald Memorial Award, the highest honor bestowed by the Federation.

    2008: In Washington, D.C., journalist and philosopher Bernard Henri-Lévy presents the annual Gerald L. Bernstein Memorial Lecture drawn from his new book, “Left in Dark Times: A Stand Against the New Barbarism,” at the French Embassy.

    2008: Selichot observances begin at Temple Judah with a wine and cheese reception and a viewing of the Israeli film, Joy, followed by services.

    2008(20th of Elul, 5768): Eighty-five year old Russian history expert, Marc Raeff passed away today. (As reported by Bruce Weber)

    2008 (20 Elul): Yahrzeit of Jacob Levin; gone from this world, but not from our worlds and our hearts.

    2008 (20 Elul):In Manhattan, Joseph Shenker, who as the first president of La Guardia Community College in New York was a leader in having students combine on-the-job experience with their studies, passed away at the age of 68. For the last 13 years he was provost of the C. W. Post campus of Long IslandUniversity and lived near the campus in Brookville, N.Y.

    2009: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including “I Shudder:And Other Reactions to Life, Death, and New Jersey”by Paul Rudnickand the recently released paperback edition of “A Path Out of the Desert: A Grand Strategy for America in the Middle East” by Kenneth M. Pollack.

    2009: The Los Angeles Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including “The Possibility of Everything" by Hope Edelman

    2009: A memorial service was today to celebrate the life of the artist Julius Schulman whose last exhibition was at Craig Krull Gallery in Los Angeles.

    2009 (2 Tishrei, 5770): Second Day of Rosh Hashanah

    2009:IDF troops killed two Palestinian militants and wounded three in an incident along the Gaza border late this afternoon. The IDF said in a statement that a border patrol fired tank and artillery shells at a group of Palestinians seen planting a bomb at the Gaza border fence.

    2010:Center for Jewish History, Center for Traditional Music and Dance and World Music Institute is scheduled to present a program entitled “The Hidden Musical Treasures of Romania.”

    2010: Former President Jimmy Carter’s new book, White House Diary, which includes his criticisms of President Clinton’s and President Obama’s policies in Israel including the building of settlements on the West Bank is scheduled to go on sale today.

    2010:New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg announced in a ceremony on Monday that “Fractured Bubble” by Henry Grosman and Babak Bryan and “Shim Sukkah” by Tinder, Tinker had won New York’s first international succa design competition, winning the People’s Choice and jury prizes, respectively.

    2011:An international conference on anti-Semitism that coincides with the 70th anniversary of the murder of 33,771 Jews at Babi Yar later this month is scheduled to take place in the Kiev today. It is part of a series of memorial services and conferences will be held across Ukraine over the coming month remembering Jews slain by the Nazis in the aftermath of Operation Barbarossa 70 years ago.

    2011: “HaHov” (The Debt) is scheduled to be shown at the JCC in Manhattan. 

    2011: Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said today at a Likud party conference that he is aware he will come under heavy pressure as he prepared to leave for New York.

    2011:Ehud Barak has convinced Nigeria to not support the Palestinian statehood bid, a statement from the Defense Ministry reported today.

    2012: Mish Galprin, author of Reimagining Leadership in Jewish Organizations is scheduled to deliver a lecture titled “Ten Practical Lessons to Help You Implement Change and Achieve Your Goals” in Washington, DC

    2012: Iran deliberately provided false information about its nuclear program to Western investigators and the International Atomic Energy Agency, a senior Iranian official has confirmed.

    2012: Steve Feller is scheduled to deliver a lecture titled “Light Fantastic: A Forum on the Understanding of the Nature of Light” at Coe College in Cedar Rapids, Iowa

    2012: Sarah Silverman made a public service announcement (PSA) criticizing new voter identification laws that create obstacles to the ability of certain U.S. populations to vote in the November presidential election, i.e., young, old, poor, and minority citizens” that “was financed by the Jewish Council for Education and Research (JCER) and was co-produced by Mik Moore and Ari Wallach.”

    2012: Support for President Barack Obama among Jews in the state of Florida is down 7 percent on 2008, according to an American Jewish Committee (AJC) poll released today.

    2013: “Fill the Void” is scheduled to open in Boise, Idaho.

    2013(16thof Tishrei, 5774): Second Day of Sukkoth

    2013(16thof Tishrei, 5774): Tomer Hazan, a Sergeant in the Israeli Air Force was murdered tonight after being “lured to the village of Beit Amin by Nidal Amar.”

    2013: In London, Dr. Robert Friedman is scheduled to lecture on the story behind his latest work, 28 Letters: The Short Life Of Renée (Baba) Friedmann On Not So Calm Waters

    2014: Rabbi Ari Israel, the Executive Director of University of Maryland Hillel is scheduled to speak on “Israel and Judaism: forming Positive Jewish Identities at Any Age or Stage.”

    2014: Gidi Gov and Berry Sakharoff are scheduled to appear at the Phasa Morgana Festival.

    2014: The Vengerov Festival, featuring its namesake violinist Maxim Vengerov who came to Israel in 1990 at the age of 16, is scheduled to come to an end tonight.

    2014: In the evening, Selichot


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    September 21

    19 BCE: Virgil, the classical Roman poet passes away. Eclogue 4, the so-called Messianic Eclogue, is the best known of Virgil’s Eclogues or “Selected Poems also known as Bucolics or “Pastorals.. Written in 40 B.C., during the consulship of Pollio, Virgil's benefactor a year or two previously, it hails the birth of a baby boy who will usher in a golden age of peace and prosperity in which even nature herself will participate. The golden age is the new era of peace for which Augustus was responsible, and the child is thought to be the expected offspring of Augustus and Scribonia (the infant turned out to be a girl). The similarity of language in the poem to that of the Book of Isaiah gave rise to the idea, in the early Christian period, that the fourth Eclogue was indeed a prophecy of the birth of Christ. The similarity may be due to the fact that Jewish ideas spread over Italy in the second half of the first century B.C., and Virgil may have used his acquaintance with them to express the Roman equivalent of a Messianic expectation.

    1104: The first synagogue in Speyer was consecrated today, “eleven years after the pogrom of 1096.

    1348: The Jews of Switzerland were charged with perpetuation of the Black Death epidemic. There were riots in Bern Chilon and Zurich. Jews held at Chilion were tortured until they "confessed" to having poisoned wells in the area around Venice, Italy. Many Swiss Jews were burned to death during the riots while others were expelled from their respective cities after the violence had subsided. The Black Death was supposed to have been caused by poisoned wells and the Jews were the responsible for poisoning the wells. Of course the Black Death was really Bubonic Plague, but the ignorant found it convenient to blame the Jews for any inexplicable ill that befell them.

    1451: Jews of Arnhem were ordered to wear the Jew-badge by the Cardinal Nicholas of Cusa, the Cardinal for that part of Holland.

    1553: The Talmud was confiscated and publicly burned in Rome under the auspices of Cardinal Caraffa, later to be Pope Paul IV, a rabid counter-Reformationist. The Cardinal chose this day specifically because it was Rosh Hashanah so the Jews would feel the grief more strongly. Talmud burning would spread to other parts of Italy.

    1558: Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, passed. Charles wore two hats, or should we say two crowns. While he was the Holy Roman Emperor he was also King of Spain. As the Spanish monarch he continued to enforce the ban against Jews living in his realm. But as Holy Roman Emperor, his rule over German Jewry was such that they “regarded the emperor as their benefactor and protector against the Protestants.”

    1618(Tishrei, 5379): In Holland, Dona Ester, wife of Moses Peixotto passed away. Her tombstone provides us with one of the earliest records of the Peixottos, a prominent Sephardic family who came to the United States in the first decade of the 19thcentury.

    1645: The Jews of Mogilev, Russia were attacked during Tashlich.

    1676: Innocent XI begins his Papacy. “Innocent showed a degree of sensitivity in his dealings with the Jews within the Italian States. He compelled the city of Venice to release the Jewish prisoners taken by Francesco Morisini in 1685. He also discouraged compulsory baptisms which accordingly became less frequent under his pontificate; but he could not abolish the old practice altogether. More controversially he issued an edict by which all the money-lending activities carried out by the Roman Jews were to cease. Such a move would incidentally have financially benefitted his own brothers who played a dominant role in European money-lending. However ultimately convinced that such a measure would cause much misery in destroying livelihoods, the enforcement of the edict was twice delayed.

    1710(Elul, 5470): Hodel, daughter of Moshe Kikinish of Lemberg, died a martyr's death after falsely confessing to blood-ritual charges in order to save the lives of other Jews.

    1731: Jews were granted the right to attend fairs in Smolensk provided that they limit their transactions to wholesale business.

    1758: In Paris, Abraham Silvestre who was “of Jewish origin” and his wife gave birth to linguist and orientalist Silvestre de Sacy who prepared texts for the British and Foreign Bible Society.

    1768(10thof Tishrei, 5529): Yom Kippur

    1776(8thof Tishrei): Shabbat Shuvah

    1776: During the British occupation a fire broke out that destroyed approximately 25% of the city – a fire that the British claimed was started to disrupt their forces and that the Americans claimed the British  started so that they could loot the city, most of whose Jewish inhabitants had fled with the departure of American forces.

    1789(1st of Tishrei, 5550): Jews celebrate Rosh Hashanah for the first time during the Presidency of George Washington.

    1802: Anti-Jewish riots took place in Switzerland. Five centuries have passed since the black plague but the Swiss behavior remained unchanged.

    1812(15th of Tishrei, 5573): First Day of Sukkoth

    1836(10thof Tishrei, 5597): Yom Kippur

    1836: Joseph Samuels led services in the newly dedicated synagogue in Cincinnati, Ohio – the first such structure in the Queen City.

    1838: Privileges granted the Jews of Sweden were revoked by the Swedish government.

    1841: Hassocks Gate Railway Station which was designed by Anglo-Jewish architect David Mocatta opened today.

    1842: Birthdate of Ottoman Sultan Murad V. During his reign, Jews migrated to Turkey after the signing of the Berlin Treaty. Also, his Jewish subjects celebrated the 400th anniversary of their arrival from Spain. It took three tries, but Herzl finally got an audience with the Sultan in 1902 during which he makes his case for a Jewish Homeland under the protection of the Sultan.

    1842: Birthdate of John B. Weber, Civil War veteran and New York Congressman who was appointed the first Commissioner of Immigration at the Port of New York in 1890 which meant he had a major impact on the flood of Jewish immigrants from eastern Europe – deciding in some cases who could stay and who had to be returned. Weber joined Dr. Walter Kempster in visiting Russia and preparing an official report on the conditions of the Jews living in that country and the purposeful policy of deprivation and discrimination pursued by the Czar to impoverish the Jews and force them to immigrate to the United States.

    1846(1stof Tishrei, 5607): In the first year of the Mexican-American War, Jews observe Rosh Hashanah

    1847: Birthdate of Yitzhak Isaac Halevy Rabinowitz the “rabbi, Jewish historian, and founder of the Agudath Israel organization” who was raised by his grandfather Mordechai Eliezer Kovno, “after his father was killed by soldiers.”

    1850(15th of Tishrei, 5611): Sukkoth

    1853: An article published today entitled “Great Britain: London Trade-American Sewing Machines” reported “if the clothing firm of E. Moses and Son has not begun using the sewing machine in its tailoring operation, it soon will, since the firm is always looking for ways to be be more cost effective.” “London clothier Elias Moses was the first to pioneer a retail model of massive advertising and deep discounts to create a high-volume business in low-margin ready-to-wear clothing…The Moses & Son store even looked different, fitted with” the “ then unheard of plate-glass display windows out front and fixed prices on clothing inside. But after the father passed away, and the son retired, the store rather lost is heart. When the son of Moses and Son died in 1884, the Times of London  mourned, ‘The large premises at Aldgate and Oxford Street know the name of E. Moses and Son no more.’”

    1857: Bertha and Marcus Goldman gave birth to Henry Goldman who joined Goldman Sachs & Co in 1885 where he “helped list retail companies like Sears and Woolworth” and he refinanced Studebaker.  He left the company during World War I over his support for Germany an attitude that would change when he visited the country when the Nazis came to power and became a tireless worker to help German Jewish intellectuals and children escape to the United States.

    1859: Benjamin Szold arrived in the United States and began serving as the Rabbi for Oheb Shalom in Baltimore, Maryland. He would serve in that capacity until his death in 1902. Szold moved the congregation from Minhag America (Reform) to Minchag Ashekenaz (Traditional). For all of his own accomplishments, his greatest claim to fame may be that he was the father of Henrietta Szold.

    1863: At its meeting today the Board of Alderman referred to the Committee on Donations and Charities the Report of Committee on Finance, with resolution that the Comptroller be directed to dispose of the following ground, belonging to the Corporation, and located adjoining the Orphan Asylum of the Hebrew Benevolent Society, on Seventy-seventh-street, and extending from the westerly line or side of said Orphan Asylum to the easterly line or side of Lexington-avenue. being in extent one hundred and thirty-five feet front and rear, by one hundred feet deep to the said- Hebrew Benevolent Society, to be held by the said Society upon the same tenure or conditions as the twelve lots of ground heretofore granted to the Bifid Society; the grant hereby made to said Society to be sanctioned by the Legislature of the State at its next or any subsequent session, in order to perfect the title thereto in the aforesaid Society, and to obviate the prohibition contained in the forty-first section of the Amended Charter of one thousand eight hundred and fifty-seven, in respect to disposing of the property or franchises of the City.

    1865(1stof Tishrei, 5626): American Jews celebrate Rosh Hashanah for the first time during the Presidency of Andrew Johnson

    1867: Birthdate of American statesman, Henry Stimson. By the time he passed away in 1950, Stimson had amassed an incredible record of public service serving Presidents from Teddy Roosevelt to Harry Truman. Stimson served as Secretary of War from 1940 through 1945. This meant that he was the cabinet member who oversaw the Army and Army Air Force in the successful defeat of the Axis military. Towards the end of the war, there were some in the Roosevelt administration who were circulating a resolution opposing creation of a Jewish state in Palestine. Stimson came out against this move which helped to smother it at a time when American support for a Jewish state was a hotly debated issue in the halls of government.

    1870: According to the Teachers’ Reading Room and Exchange in Manhattan there are 7 Hebrew Schools below 59th Street with a total enrollment of 1,147 and 47 teachers.

    1871(6th of Tishrei, 5632): Sixty-four year old Rabbi Mendel Hess passed away. Born in 1807, at Lengsfeld (now Stadtlengsfeld), Saxe-Weimar he was a German rabbi.He was one of the 1st Jewish theologians to combine a university education with Talmudical training. From 1828 until his death he was chief rabbi of the grand duchy of Weimar, residing first at Lengsfeld and later at Eisenach. Although the measure had aroused great dissatisfaction among the Jews, he strictly enforced the decree of the government (June 20, 1823) ordaining that Jewish services should be conducted exclusively in the German language and that the reading in Hebrew of sections of the Bible should be followed by their translation into the vernacular. The position of rabbi as government official became very unpleasant, as he was required to inform against those who failed to attend the services, a requirement which even the progressive Jews, who approved of the ordinance, condemned. Intermarriages between Jews and Christians being allowed in the grand duchy, Hess officially consecrated such nuptials, notwithstanding the proviso that the off-spring should be brought up in the Christian faith. In the consecration of Jewish marriages he likewise ignored time-honored traditional rabbinical regulations, and it is said that in his disregard of Jewish sentiment he went so far as to attend a theater on the eve of the Day of Atonement ("Allg. Zeit. des Jud." 1845, p. 62). Hess was a member of the three rabbinical conferences which (1844-46) convened at Brunswick, Frankfort-on-the-Main, and Breslau, and as such was an advocate of uncompromising radicalism. After 1848 he felt the illiberality of enforced reforms, and petitioned the government to repeal the law which made attendance at the Reform services compulsory ("Allg. Zeit. des Jud." 1853, p. 474). He edited "Der Israelit des Neunzehnten Jahrhunderts" from 1839 to 1847, and, with Samuel Holdheim as coeditor, in 1847 and 1848. Hess also published two collections of sermons and addresses (Eisenach, 1839, 1843).

    1874(10th of Tishrei, 5635): Yom Kippur

    1874: Birthdate of Joe Levin, a founder of B'nai Abraham Synagogue in Brenham, Texas.

    1876(3rd of Tishrei): Tzom Gedaliah

    1876: Birthdate of Herman Bernstein, the Russian born American author and diplomat who wrote “History of a Lie,” a book which exposed the “Protocols of the Elders of Zion” as an anti-Semitic forgery.

    1878: As a Yellow Fever Epidemic gripped the Deep South, the officers of Hebrew Hospital Association in Memphis, Tennessee issued the following appeal: “Our funds having been entirely exhausted, and sickness still continuing with unabated fury in our midst, we appeal to our co-religionists through the United States for pecuniary aid. There are orphans to be cared for, in addition to relieving the wants of the sick and the distressed. And our good work must be discontinued unless aid is given us. All remittances should be addressed to David Eiseman, Treasurer of the Hebrew Hospital Association.”

    1878: Raphael D.C. Lewin delivered a lecture on the subject of “Life and Character of Moses Mendelssohn, the German-Jew Philosopher of the Eighteenth Century.” The proceeds of the lecture will go to aid those suffering from the Yellow Fever Epidemic.

    1878: The Chamber of Commerce Relief Committee dispersed funds to various organizations aiding victims of Yellow Fever including $1,000 to the Hebrew Benevolent Association of New Orleans, $500 to the Association for the Relief of Jewish Widows and Orphans of New Orleans and $500 to the Hebrew Benevolent Association of Memphis, TN.

    1879 (4th of Tishrei, 5640): Tzom Gedaliah

    1879 (4th of Tishrei, 5640): Rabbi Meir Leibush ben Yechiel Michel also known as the Malbin passed away. Born in 1809, he ultimately became the Chief Rabbi of Bucharest. He wrote a commentary on the Bible, showing the close relationship between the Oral and the Written Law. He fought strongly against many reformist movements which he likened to modern day Kararites. While not very popular with the "enlighteners," he apparently was quite popular with the common people of the various communities that he served.

    1880: It was reported today that the Jewish festival of Succoth or Feast of Booths "had commenced on Sunday evening and will continue until next Monday night"  The first and last days of the festival are only regarded as holy days, the intermediate days being of no special import.  His is the harvest of feast of the ancient Jews and is also commemorative of the Israelites dwelling in Succoth of booths during their weary journey through the wilderness.”

    1883: Birthdate of Robert Goldstein the producer of “The Spirit of ‘76” a film made before the United States entered WW I which portrayed the cruel treatment of Americans during the Revolution by British soldiers.  Unfortunately for Goldstein and he was prosecuted under Title XI of the Espionage Act, and received a ten-year sentence plus a fine of $5000. The sentence was commuted on appeal to three years.

    1883: It was reported today that while addressing a banquet being held in Grosswardein, the Hungarian Prime Minister said “Jew-baiting affected the honor of the Fatherland, and the Government was bound to protect the lives and property of all citizens regardless of class prejudice.”

    1884: Birthdate of Clarence Cleveland Dill, the United States Senator from the state of Washington who was so supportive of Herbert Hoover’s nomination of Benjamin Cardozo to serve on the Supreme Court that, on a radio broadcast he called it “the finest act of his career as President.”

    1884: “The English Peers” published today, using information that first appeared in the Fortnightly Review, described the obstructionist role played by the House of the Lords in the past sixty years including their repeated oppositions to bills passed by the House of Commons that would have relived Jews of their “civil disabilities.”

    1884: It was reported today that in London, this week’s edition of the Jewish Chronicle contained a letter from Henry Rice, the President of the United Hebrew Society of New York and I.S. Isaacs, the society’s secretary, describing the opposition of Jews in the United States “to the immigration of idle, weak people who expect to live on charity alone and urging that care be taken that none be sent save those able to earn a living.”  The Jewish leaders warned that the U.S. government would send back the former.  The Chronicle called “the letter harsh and unsympathetic.”

    1884: “Heine’s Memoirs” published today provides a detailed review of The Memoirs of Heinrich Heine which include “some newly discovered fragments of his writings” and “an introductory essay by Thomas W. Evans”

    1884: It was reported today that unnamed Jewish peddler has been arrested in New Haven on charges that he had split open the head of John Carroll after being teased by a group of boys last night.

    1884: The Society of United Hebrew Charities met at Wheatly Hall in Philadelphia to discuss the additional street being place on its limited resources to the huge influx of Russian immigrants.

    1884: “Honoring An Aged Philanthropist” published today described the “extensive preparations” being made by American Jews to celebrate the 100thbirthday of Sir Moses Montefiore on October 24.  At four o’clock in the afternoon on that date synagogues throughout the United States will hold services following the special liturgy first developed in the British Empire.” 

    1890: In Vienna, a sub-Lieutenant who had been arrested for attacking an old Jew appeared before the Police Commissioner today and explained his action by saying that “he had…quarreled with a Jew and hated all the race so much that he had sworn he would punish the first one he set eyes upon.”

    1890: Rabbis Pereira Mendes and M.H. Harris officiated at the funeral of Benjamin F. Peixotto  at Temple Israel of Harlem. Pall bearers include Julius Bien, Meyer S. Isaacs, Adolph Sanger, Daniel T. Hays, Michael H. Cardozo, Kiliaen Van Rensselaer, M.M. Davis and Adolphus Solomons of Washington, D.C.

    1890: “New Publications” published today included  a description of The Centurial: A Jewish Calendar for One Hundred Years, a Jewish calendar and almanac compiled by E. M. Myers.

    1891(18thof Elul, 5651): Henry Marks, a young Jew from Brooklyn  who had served with Troop E, Fifth Cavalry, US Army, shot himself “on the lake shore at Edgewater” outside of Chicago.

    1892(29thof Elul, 5652): Erev of Rosh Hashanah

    1892: Polish Jews being held in quarantine at Sandy Hook “have been sent kosher food from their friends in New York so they can begin their celebration of Rosh Hashanah.

    1892: “The Jewish New Year” published today provided a description of the upcoming holiday that includes “a peculiar observance, the blowing of the shofar or cornet…”

    1893: Solomon Breyer is at home with a scalp wound he suffered when the synagogue on Rivington Street he was praying at Erev Yom Kippur caught fire and burned.

    1893: According to reports published today, a concert will be held “to defray” the legal expenses of Jewish anarchist Emma Goldman.”

    1895: “Knows the Hebrew Bible by Heart” published today described the intellectual attainments of Professor Jacob Cooper, the Rutgers professor who claimed that he was so well versed in the Old Testament that “if all the Hebrew Bibles in the world were destroyed he could reproduce the text from memory and who was awarded an honorary LL.D. by Tulane for his work in ancient languages.

    1896: “Santa Maria,” a comic or light opera created by Oscar Hammerstein is scheduled to open at the Olympia Theatre in New York.

    1899: In Algiers, rioting that had been begun by Max Regis, the former mayor and notorious Jew baiter yesterday continued today with the police making at least six arrests.

    1900: Fire in Constantinople, left 2000 Jews without shelter. One synagogue was destroyed.

    1900: In n the town of Potoki, near Kremenchuk, Ukraine, Hoda (Hadassah) and Yehuda Leib Nissan Vilensky, a Zionist leader descended from a long line of rabbis gave birth to Miriam Vilensky who gained fame as Israeli writer and poet Miriam Yalan-Shteklis

    1901: Herzl is granted an interview with British Colonial Minister Joseph Chamberlain.

    1906(2nd of Tishrei, 5667): Second Day of Rosh Hashanah

    1909: Birthdate of Kwame Nkrumah, President of Ghana from 1958 until 1966. Nkrumah was President of Ghana when it gained its independence from Britain. Under Nkrumah, Ghana established strong economic and political ties with Israel. Like many other newly independent African states, Ghana saw Israel as a source for training in modern technology that would attempt to establish a pseudo-colonial relationship. Israel saw these joint efforts as a way of off-setting the petro-power of the Arab nations. Among other things, Ghana and Israel formed a joint ocean cargo and shipping line called Black Star. Unfortunately, Nkrumah lost his moral compass and was deposed in 1966l A year later, Israel’s African friends would turn on her and succumb to threats of an Arab led shut off of petroleum following the Six Days War.

    1910: “Ezrah,” the first Ashkenazi community organization is founded in Montevideo, Uruguay.

    1911: This evening Joseph H. Hertz is formally installed as Rabbi of Congregation Orach Chayim in Manhattan.

    1912)10thof Tishrei, 5673): Yom Kippur

    1914(1stof Tishrei, 5675): As Jews on all fronts of the Great War celebrate Rosh Hashanah, on the Western Front, German and Allied Forces plan their next move following the Battle of the Marne – the fight that saved France from crushing defeat in the first month of conflict.

    1916: Birthdate of Lea France Gourdji, the daughter of Turkish-Jewish parents who gained fame as Françoise Giroud, whose accomplishments included co-founding influential political weekly L’Express to advance the agenda of French-Jewish politician Pierre Mendès France.

    1918(15th of Tishrei, 5679): First Day of Sukkoth

    1918: During WW I, British cavalrymen under the command of General Allenby captured the 3,000 man Turkish garrison at Nazareth.

    1918: During WW I, as British forces fought to liberate Eretz Israel from Ottoman rule, the RAF and RAAF conducted “the most devastating aerial attack of the war” in which “fifty aircraft bombed and machine gunned the Turks” who were trying to escape from Nablus and cross the Jordan River where they mistakenly thought they would be safe from further attack.

    1921: Sir Ernest Joseph Cassel, German-born, British merchant and banker passed away. It was not until he died that most people discovered that Cassel had converted to Roman Catholicism at the behest of his wife.

    1922: U.S. President Harding signed a joint resolution of congress expressing approval of the establishment of a national home for the Jewish People in Eretz Yisrael. Passing resolutions was just about all of the support that the Jews would get when it came to support for a Jewish Homeland in Palestine. Another element that is often overlooked is the lack of strong support for a Jewish Homeland in Palestine. Large segments of Orthodox Jews opposed the Zionists because the movement ran contrary to waiting for the Messiah. And large numbers of Reform Jews opposed it because it ran contrary to their assimilation goals.

    1923: Chinka Chana Zaid and Yosef Yechiel Zaid, HaKohen gave birth to Yehuda and Israel Zaid.

    1926: Herman Bernstein, the Polish born American author and editor of The Jewish Tribune was inundated with telegrams and letters congratulating him on the celebration of his 50th birthday. The expression of best wishes came from a variety of Jewish and non-Jewish leaders including David Belasco, Colonel Edward M. House, Louis Marshall and Felix M. Warburg.

    1926: In Cleveland, Ohio, businessman William J. Glaser and his wife Lena gave birth to Donald Arthur Glaser an American physicist and neurobiologist who won the 1960 Nobel Prize in Physics "for the invention of the bubble chamber."

    1926(13thof Tishrei, 5687): Sixty-three year old Louis Grossman the Austrian born American Reform Rabbi who served the Plum Street Temple in Cincinnati, Ohio for thirty years passed away today.

    1928: Catcher Ike Danning made his major league debut with the St. Louis Brown.

    1929: “The Oxford sutdents who defended the Jews in the Arab attack in Jersualem arrived in London from Palestine today in charge of the Rev. Graham Brown principal of Wycliffe Hall. ..The father of one one of tgh students who met them at the ship said that the Jewish community of Tel Aviv presented each with a special memento…The sudents are all young men studying for the ministry…They were pleased at having enorlled in the poice force and at having aided in restoring order in Jerusalem.”

    1929: Birthdate of Elsa Rabinowitz, the native of Charleston, SC who gained fame as actress Elsa Raven who played “Ida Straus” in the blockbuster “Titanic.”

    1933(1st of Tishrei, 5694): American Jews observe a New Year living for the first time under The New Deal.

    1934: In the Westmount neighborhood of Montreal, Nathan Cohen and Marsha (Masha) Klonitsky, the daughter of Rabbi Solomon Klonitsky-Kline gave birth to singer/songwriter Leonard Cohen

    1935(23rd of Elul, 5695): After a long illness Henry Samuel Morais passed away today at the House of the Incurables in the Bronx, New York. Born in Philadelphia, PA in 1860, he was the son of Rabbi Sabato Morais, a well-known national Jewish leader, Rabbi of Congregation Mikveh Israel of Philadelphia, and founder of the Jewish Theological Seminary in New York. Morais attended different private and public schools for his secular education, while he received a traditional religious education from his father. After his schooling he taught for twelve years in the schools of the Hebrew Education Society and in the Hebrew Sabbath-Schools of Philadelphia.He was interested for a time in law but abandoned it to pursue a literary career. He contributed art icles on various subjects to secular and Jewish papers including current matters in Judaism, Jewish literary topics, and other general questions. He wrote for journals all over the United States, although, of course, most of his material was published along the east coast, especially in Philadelphia. In 1887 he was the principal founder of the Philadelphia Jewish Exponent, a weekly newspaper that represented a traditional religious point-of-view, and served as managing editor for its first two years. After leaving the Jewish Exponent he joined the special staff of the Philadelphia Public Ledger and became its editor in 1894. He was also the editor of two other journals in Philadelphia during this time: the Musical and Dramatic Standard and the Hebrew Watchword and Instructor. Along with his journalistic activities Morais took active part in the cultural and intellectual life of Philadelphia. He was the founder and president of Doreshe Da'ath Society, a Jewish literary and intellectual group, founder and executive director of the Philadelphia Musical and the Philadelphia Concert Company, and was also involved with the American Jewish Historical Society, along with his father, during its formative years in the late 1890s and early 1900s. Besides his journalistic efforts and the works which he published (see below for an annotated bibliography) Morais used his religious background and education along with his former teaching experience to enter the Rabbinate where he became known as an articulate speaker, as a Jewish educator to both adults and children, and as a communal leader. He was asked quite often by different synagogues to deliver guest sermons on special Sabbaths and the holidays. As a Rabbi, Morais was respected by and appealed to an American-born, English-speaking constituency committed to the ideals of traditional Judaism. Morais himself held strong views against the Reform movement in America and became embroiled in a number of controversies concerning statements which he made against Reform Judaism. Morais was nevertheless unable to find security in the Rabbinical profession and he held numerous pulpits. Morais' first position was in Philadelphia, where he became acting minister in Congregation Mikveh Israel, 1897-1898, upon his father's death. After a brief illness Morais left Philadelphia to accept a position in Congregation Adath Jeshurun, Syracuse, New York, where he served as Rabbi in 1899-1900, and 1902-1903. In 1900-1901 he served as Rabbi to Congregation Jeshuath Israel, Newport, Rhode Island. After leaving Syracuse he came to New York where he remained for the rest of his life. He founded and became Rabbi of Congregation Mikveh Israel in New York City. Successive pulpits for Morais included: Congregation Sons of Israel, Brooklyn, New York; Congregation Derech Emunah, Arverne, Long Island; Congregation Pincus Elijah, New York City, and the Congregation of Bensonhurst, Brooklyn, New York. Morais never married; he kept in close contact with his brother and sisters, and maintained a large group of friends with whom he corresponded -- indeed many of these people were major figures within the American Jewish community and their correspondence appears in this collection.

    1937: The Palestine Postreported that David Ben-Gurion, Moshe Shertok (Sharett), and Nahum Goldman were present at the opening meeting of the Sixth Committee of the League of Nations in Geneva. In his opening address M. Lange of Norway compared the Palestinian situation to 'the squaring of a circle,' but added that 'humanity owes a debt of gratitude to Jewry.' The Sixth Committee waited for the arrival of British Foreign Minister Anthony Eden to start the Palestine debate.

    1937: Catcher Harry Chozen made his major league début with the Cincinnati Reds.

    1939: Heydrich, the Chief of the Reich Central Security Office, held a conference in Berlin to discuss the long-term future of Polish Jewry. During the conference, Heydrich stated that there was an ultimate plan for dealing with the Jews, the first step of which called for the concentration. He orders chiefs of Einsatzgruppen to establish, in cooperation with German civil and military authorities, Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland. He decrees that all Jewish communities in Poland and Greater Germany with populations under 500 are to be dissolved, so that deportations of Jews to urban ghettos and concentration camps can be accelerated. Further, Heydrich orders the establishment of ghetto Judenräte (Jewish councils). The main goals of the ghettoization process are to isolate Jews, force them to manufacture items for Germany, and provide easy Nazi access for murder and deportation.

    1940: Birthdate of Paul Cowan, “a journalist of strong social passions whose book An Orphan in History influenced thousands of assimilated Jews like himself to recover their Jewish heritage.

    1941(29th of Elul, 5701): Erev Rosh Hashanah

    1942(10th of Tishrei, 5703): Yom Kippur

    1942(10th of Tishrei, 5703): Nazis sent over 1.000 Jews of Pidhaytsi (west Ukraine) to Belzec extermination camp.

    1942: On Yom Kippur the Germans ordered Konstantynów Jews (Poland) to permanently evacuate Konstantynów and move to the Ghetto - established in Biała Podlaska meant to hold Jews from nearby 7 towns including Konstantynów, Janów Podlaski, Rossosz and Terespol

    1942(10th of Tishrei, 5703): In Dunaivtsi, Ukraine, Nazis murder 2588 Jews.

    1942: Open-pit burning of bodies begins at Auschwitz in place of burial. The decision is made to dig up and burn those already buried (107,000 corpses) to prevent the fouling of ground water and to hide evidence of atrocities.

    1943: In Greece, Rabbi Barzilai was commanded to establish a Jewish Council and to take the necessary steps to carry out the deportation of all the Greek Jews.

    1945: Birthdate of Jerry Bruckheimer, movie and television producer. The CSI television series is one of his most famous “television franchises.”

    1948: "Texaco Star Theater" premieres with Milton Berle on NBC-TV. Uncle Miltie as he came to be called by his millions of fans was the son of Moses and Sadie Berlinger.

    1949(27th of Elul, 5709): Fifty-seven year old Elinor Morgentahau, the wife of Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau, Jr and close friend of Eleanor Roosevelt passed away today.

    1951: Reuben Shiloah, special adviser to Israel on Arab affairs arrived in Paris this morning bearing a copy of his government’s “offer to sign non-aggression pacts with each of her four Arab neighbors- Egypt, Syria, Lebanon and Jordan.”

    1951: Maurice Fischer, a minster with the Israeli government presented Israel’s offer to sign a non-aggression pact with her four Arab neighbors to the United Nations Palestine Conciliation Commission.

    1951: “Five Israel soldiers were wounded, three of them seriously, in ambush south of the Dead Sea” that was believed to have been conducted by Arab infiltrators from Jordan.

    1952: The Jerusalem Post  reported that according to the East German Minister of Agriculture, his country had so far done nothing about compensating Israel for the Nazi persecution, because Jews had made no concrete application. East Germany had 'no basic objection' to discuss an appropriate compensation. East Germany, the Communist side of Germany never did go through a de-Nazification program. Their contention was that by adopting Communism, they had atoned for any sins of the past. In addition to which, they contended that the West German government had all of the former Nazis and their regime was made up of those who had been anti-Nazis. As any honest reading of history would question many of these claims especially when you consider that it was a pact between Hitler and Stalin that gave Hitler the green light for the attack on Poland and the subsequent attacks on the nations of western Europe and England.

    1952: Jordan returned, two Israeli soldiers kidnapped in the Latrun area, after three months of captivity.

    1954: In Concord, MA, Marian (née Goodrich), a teacher, and Cass Richard Sunstein, a builder, gave birth to Cass Robert Sunstein, “a US legal scholar, particularly in the fields of constitutional law, administrative law, environmental law, and law and behavioural economics, who was the Administrator of the White House Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs in the Obama administration”

    1957: Birthdate of writer and producer Marta Kauffman who co-created the popular sitcom “Friends” and who is married to Michael Skloff who composed the show’s theme song.

    1957: Birthdate of film director Ethan Coen. He and his brother Joel are the film making duo known as the Coen Brothers.

    1957: In Queensland, Albert ("Bert") and Margaret (née DeVere) Rudd gave birth to “Australian prime minister Kevin Rudd who in 2008 told more than 1,000 people at a memorial service at the Yeshiva Center in New South Wales that Rabbi Gavriel Holtzberg and his wife, Rivkah, had “devoted their lives to acts of goodness and kindness and compassion for others ... but they lost their lives in a senseless act of hatred

    1959: Birthdate of Leonid Borisovich Nevzlin, a Russian-Israeli businessman

    1960(29th of Elul, 5720): Erev Rosh Hashanah

    1964: The island of Malta gains its independence from Great Britain. The Jewish presence in Malta probably dates back to when Israelites accompanied Phoenicians on trips across the Mediterranean. There is archeological evidence of Jewish presence dating from the Hellenistic period in the form of carvings of seven-branch candelabrums and inscription written in catacombs. By the time Malta gained its independence, the Jewish community was a shadow of its former self. Today the small community continues to exist observing the Shabbat and holding services led by lay people since there is no rabbi.

    1964: Steve Allen replaced Gary Moore as host of “I’ve Got a Secret” the popular game show produced by Mark Goodson, Bill Todman and Allan Sherman

    1969(9thof Tishrei): Erev Yom Kippur

    1969: In Camden, NJ, President Martin Odlen read Beth El’s Golden Jubilee Proclamation which began, "In the Beginning G-d created Beth El as a dream in the hearts of men".

    1970: Birthdate of Samantha Power, the wife of Cass Sunstein, who was the 28thUnited States Ambassador to the United Nations and whom Mike Abramowitz, Director of the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum's Center for the Prevention of Genocide described as part of “a small group of people that really care about genocide prevention and prevention of mass atrocities” and who is “a real champion for those issue at the highest levels of government.”

    1970: Monday Night Football premieres. Monday night football redefined American viewing and social habits for at least two decades. The surpising hit program featured three voices in the broadcast booth, the most unique of which was Howard Cossell. Once again, a Jew played a major role in creating a venue of American pop culture. While everybody thinks of Cossell as the quntessential “New York Jew” he actually was born in North Carolina.

    1973: The U.S. Senate confirmed Henry Kissinger as Secretary of State. Kissinger was the first Jewish person to hold the position.

    1973(24thof Elul, 5733): Eighty-five year old Oscar award winning composer and arranger Charles Previn who was the great-uncle of Andre Previn and Steve Previn passed away today

    1975: Warner Brothers released “Dog Day Afternoon” directed by Sidney Lumet and co-produced by Martin Bregman.

    1976: East Berlin registered Rykestraße Synagogue as a monument, so public subsidies flowed for the renovations in 1986/1987

    1977(9th of Tishrei, 5738): Erev Yom Kippur

    1977(9th of Tishrei, 5738): Ben-Zion Halfon an Israeli politician who served as a member of the Knesset for the Alignment between 1969 and 1977 passed away. “Born in Tripoli in Libya in 1930, Halfon was a member of a Zionist youth movement. In 1947 he attempted to make aliyah to Mandate Palestine via Italy, aboard the Aliyah Bet ship Medinat HeYehudit. However, he was detained by the British authorities and sent to an internment camp in Cyprus. The following year he reached Israel, and joined the Palmach's Yiftach Brigade, with whom he fought in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. He was involved in helping other Libyan Jews who had made aliyah, and in 1949 he was amongst the founders of moshav Hatzav. He became involved in the Southern branch of the Moshavim Movement, and became the movement's representative in the Labor Party. He served as national co-ordinator of the movement's purchasing organisation and on the board of the Agricultural Bank. In 1969 he was elected to the Knesset on the Alignment list (an alliance of the Labor Party and Mapam), and was appointed Deputy Minister of Agriculture on 22 December that year. He was re-elected in 1973 but lost his portfolio. He lost his seat in the May 1977 elections, and died in a traffic collision near Gedera junction a few months later aged 47. In 2006, the archaeological museum in Nitzana was named after him.

    1986: Jewish golfer Corey Pavin won the Greater Milwaukee Open

    1987: Three molecular biologists who have helped revolutionize understanding of one of the body's main immune defense systems and a psychiatrist whose research has had profound influence on the medical treatment of depression were named winners of the 1987 Albert Lasker Medical Research Awards . The winners are Dr. Susumu Tonegawa, a professor of biology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Dr. Philip Leder, chairman of the department of genetics at Harvard Medical School and Dr. Leroy Hood, chairman of the division of biology of California Institute of Technology and Dr. Mogens Schou, director of psychopharmacology research at Aarhus University Psychiatric Institute in Denmark. The awards were funded by Albert Lasker, the successful Jewish advertising executive.

    1988(10thof Tishrei, 5749): Yom Kippur

    1991: Birthdate of actress Zoe Weisenbaum.

    1991: Nadine Brozan described the new role played by Evelyn Lauder in the fight against breast cancer.

    1997: The New York Timesbook section featured reviews by Jewish authors and/or about topics of Jewish interest including Aryeh Lev Stollman's first novel, The Far Euphrates and the latest collection of short stories by Deborah Eisenberg entitled All Around Atlantis.

    2000: The Appellate Court of Fars Province announced their decision on the appeal by the imprisoned Iranian Jews convicted of spying for Israel. In the days leading up to the announcement there were strong indications that the appeals court would overturn the earlier decision or release a number of the defendants. Despite these reports, the court only reduced the sentences of the 10 Jewish prisoners but did not overturn the guilty verdicts or release any of the prisoners.

    2001: Jewish Women Watching published an advertisement in The New York Times asking Jewish women to hold their community accountable for sexism.

    2002(15thof Tishrei, 5763): Sukkoth

    2003: The New York Timesfeatured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or about topics of Jewish interest including Who Killed Daniel Pearl? by Bernard-Henri Levy; translated by James X. Mitchell, A Mighty Heart :The Brave Life and Death of My Husband, Danny Pearl by Mariane Pearl with Sarah Crichton, An Execution in the Family: One Son's Journey by Robert Meeropol and Sixty-Sixby Barry Levinson

    2005: The Jerusalem Post  reported that Simon Wiesenthal the famed Nazi hunter who died on Tuesday at the age of 96 will be buried in Jerusalem on Friday. During the 1950’s the non-Jewish world (some in the Jewish world as well) wanted to forget or ignore the Holocaust. Wiesenthal would not let the world forget what had happened. At times it seemed as if he were working almost single-handedly to bring those who had murdered six million Jews to Justice. When the world was ready to remember, Wiesenthal was there with the facts, figures and information.

    2006: As the case against Moshe Katsav expanded, the number of complaints filed against him rose to a total of eight today.

    2006: Today, “Alan Hevesi admitted that he used Nicholas Acquafredda as a state employee to drive and aid his ailing wife. Hevesi claims that in 2003 the State Ethics Commission decided that he would pay back the entire cost of driving around his wife unless it is for specific safety purposes. A spokesperson from the State Ethics Commission denies such a decision was made.”

    2007: The top ten billionaires on Forbes  magazine’s list of the 400 richest Americans includes five Jews holding down four of these coveted positions: at number 3, Casino mogul Sheldon Adelson; at number 4, Larry Ellison CEO of Oracle Corp; tied for fifth Sergey Brin co-founder of Google; tied for tenth, Oil barons Charles and David H. Koch.

    2007(9th of Tishrei, 5768): Erev Yom Kippur

    2008: Israel’s TV industry was a big winner, if only indirectly, when this year’s Emmy award winners were announced today at the annual red carpet event in Los Angeles. Dianne Wiest, already a two-time Oscar winner, added an additional statuette to her collection by winning the best supporting actress award for “In Treatment,” HBO’s largely faithful adaptation of the hit 2005 Israeli drama “BeTipul.” The American version of the show features Wiest as Gina Toll, a therapist originally named Gila Abulafia and played on Israeli TV by stage and film veteran Gila Almagor. Wiest’s victory, over nominees from ABC-TV’s “Grey’s Anatomy,” “Boston Legal” and “Brothers and Sisters,” marked the second Emmy for the Israeli-inspired series. The win followed “In Treatment” performer Glynn Turman’s victory in the guest actor category

    2008: In Washington, D.C., Darin Straus reads from his new novel, More Than It Hurts You.

    2008: The YIVO Institute for Jewish Research presents “Nusakh Vilne Yizker and Memorial Lecture,” a program marking the 55th anniversary of the founding of Nusakh Vilne, and the 65th anniversary of the liquidation of the Vilna ghetto.


    2008: The New York Times  featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or about topics of Jewish interest including Indignation by Phillip Roth, Left In Dark Times: A Stand Against the New Barbarism by Bernard-Henri Lévy; Translated by Benjamin Moser, Bumping Into Geniuses: My Life Inside the Rock and Roll Business by Danny Goldberg and Hitler’s Empire: How the Nazis Ruled Europe by Mark Mazower.


    2008: The Washington Post  featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or about topics of Jewish interest including Angler: The Cheney Vice Presidency by Barton Gellman and The Trouble Begins at 8: A Life of Mark Twain in the Wild, Wild West by Sid Fleischman.

    2008: Internationally-known performer DJ AM whose real name is Adam Michael Goldstein, is listed in critical condition, two days after he reportedly saved his life by jumping from a burning plane while it was skidding down a runway in South Carolina Friday.

    2008: Bernard Lewis came to Tulane University in New Orleans to speak about the dangers to the world of the present regime in Iran. He claimed that the unpopular regime there would use its nuclear arms because it does not fear “mutual assured destruction,” believing that we are already at the end of days. The 91 and a half year-old scholar amazed everyone with his analysis, wit, and erudition, although his message was frightening for the Big Satan—the USA-- and for Little Satan—Israel.

    2009 (3 Tishrei, 5770): Fast of Gedaliah

    2009: The Center for Jewish History and Center for Traditional Music and Dance present a lecture entitled "The Multi-Ethnic Music Cultures of Moldova" in which Walter Zev Feldman discusses the cultural history of this area of ethnic transformation and his recent expedition which discovered musicians of mixed ancestry still performing traditional Jewish music in his father's hometown of Edinets.

    2009: The DCJCC presents a screening of “Holy Land Hardball,” a film that tells “the story of an unlikely group of players and executives who attempted to create Israel’s first professional baseball league in the summer of 2007.

    2009: Israel's Davis Cup team returned home today with mixed emotions, but already focused on next years competition. Despite the disappointment of losing 4-1 to Spain in the semifinals of the competition, the players and captain felt they gave their all in Murcia and were proud of reaching the last four of the prestigious competition for the first time in Israeli history.

    2009:The Commission of Experts on Reforms of the International Monetary and Financial System chaired by Joseph Stiglitz issued its final report today.

    2010: The Center for Jewish History and Jewish Women's Archive are scheduled to present Remembering Grace Paley: A panel discussion, with excerpts from Lilly Rivlin's new film,

    "Grace Paley: Collected Shorts”

    2010: “Seven Minutes In Heaven” is scheduled to be shown at the 14th Annual Jewish Film Festival of Dallas (TX).

    2010: Hundreds gathered in the rain in Riga’s Old City today for a ceremony to mark the partial opening of the Riga Ghetto Museum, which will commemorate the thriving Jewish community that was wiped out in the Holocaust.

    2010(13thof Tishrei, 5771): Ninety-two year old Shabtai Rosenne, an eminent professor of international law and Israeli diplomat passed away today in Jerusalem

    2011: Elizabeth Flock reviews the first book in 30 years that has been written and illustrated by Maurice Sendak.


    2011: Former President George W. Bush is scheduled to speak at Beth El Synagogue today.


    2011: Jewish News One (JN1), the world’s first Jewish global 24hr news channel "that offers a new vision of current affairs," is scheduled to begin broadcasting today via satellite and will be available in Europe, America and the Middle East.

    2011(22nd of Elul): Yahrzeit of Joseph B. Levin – if it weren't for him, in more ways than one, none of this would exist proving that there is more than one way "to be inscribed in the book of life."

    2012: Team Israel is scheduled to play either France or Spain in its second game at the World Baseball Classic which “is considered to be the premier international baseball tournament”

    2012: Today Israel called on the international community in a special gathering at the United Nations to recognize the suffering of Jewish refugees from Arab countries and their material claims the same way it acknowledges the plight of displaced Palestinians


    2012(5th of Tishrei, 5773: A heavily armed terrorist cell from the Sinai Peninsula opened fire on IDF soldiers on the Israeli - Egyptian border today, killing one soldier and injuring a second, before the gunmen were killed in return fire. The IDF announced the name the 20-year-old victim, Netanel Yahalomi, and promoted him posthumously to the rank of corporal.

    2012:Israeli soldiers helped to save a Sudanese refugee today in the Sinai, near the site where a soldier was killed in an ambush by three men at the Israeli-Egyptian border.

    2012: Iranian military commanders today threatened the complete destruction of the State of Israel as the country unveiled a domestically manufactured air defense system as part of a military parade, various Iranian news agencies reported

    2013(17thof Tishrei, 5774): Shabbat Chol Hamoed Sukkoth

    2013: In the evening the 92nd Street Y is scheduled to sponsor an Israeli Folk Dance Marathon.

    2013: Residents of Tel Aviv and surrounding towns witnessed loud, low-flying maneuvers by Israel Air Force jets this morning when the planes scrambled to intercept what was initially believed to be an intrusion by enemy aircraft into Israel’s airspace but turned out to be a flock of birds.

    2013: Rain was reported along Israel's coast from Haifa in the north down to the Center area, including Tel Aviv today making it “first rain of the season.” (As reported by Amishai Gottlieb)

    2013: In Bat Yam, “Tzachi Meats” remained closed this evening as an angry crowd gathered around the restaurant that illegally employed Nidal Amar, the Arab who lured Tomer Hazan, a sergeant in the IAF and co-worker to his death last night. Amar had originally planned to trade the body for terrorists in Israeli custody but changed his mind and threw the body into the well.

    2014: “Charlotte Salomon: Life? Or Theater” an exhibition that includes 300 of the 1,300 “gouache paintings created by “a 23 year old Jewish artist from Berlin who fled to south of France where she painted for two years before being transported to Auschwitz where she was murdered” is scheduled to come to an end.

    2014: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Black Vodka: Ten Stories by Deborah Levy, Things I Don’t Want to Know on Writing by Deborah Levy, Quest, written and illustrated by Aaron Becker, Belzhar by Meg Wolitzer and Nest by Esther Ehrlich.

    2014: The “I Live. Send Help” exhibit which “walks through the century of JDC existence, giving a glimpse into the many ways the organizations has helped Jews and non-Jews around the world” will have its final showing at the New York Historical Society today. (As reported by Rebecca Borison)

    2014:The Jewish Museum’s exhibit “Mel Bochner: Strong Language” which “explores the meaning of words” is scheduled to have its final showing today. (As reported by Cathryn J. Prince)

    2014: “Murder” written by Hanoch Levin and directed by Yadin Goldman is scheduled to have its final performance at the American Theatre of Actors.



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    September 22

    384: Roman Emperors Gratian, Valentinian II, and Theodosius I forbid Jews from buying or owning Christian slaves. If any such slaves are found with Jews, they must be removed and sold to other Christians. If a Jewish master converts a Christian to Judaism, they will be severely punished.

    1499: Switzerland gained de factor independence from the Holy Roman Empire. Jews began settling in Switzerlandin the 13th century.  During the first half of the 14th Century, the Jewish community of Basel was on the largest in Europe.  However, during the last half of the 14th century and on 15thcentury, successive bans drove Jews from the homes in various cities and cantons. The bans were primarily caused charges of well poisoning tied the spread of the Black Death.   By the time Switzerlandgained her independence only a handful of Jews remained in this mountainous state.  The Jewish population would not begin to grow again until the end of the 18th century. 

    1521: Selim I, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire passed away.  Selim did away with the Law of No Return, the Roman ban on Jews living in Eretz Israel.  The ban was in force until the 16thcentury.  Limits on Jewish immigration would reappear with the British White Paper.  Like many other members of Ottoman royalty, Selim employed a Jewish physician.

    1526: Sultan Sueliman decreed that all the Jews seized at Buda and elsewhere, more than 2,000 in number, should be distributed among the cities of the Turkish Empire.

    1558: In Recanti, Italy, under the protection of Pope Paul IV, Joseph (Paul) Moro, a baptized Jew, entered a synagogue on the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur). Holding a crucifix, he tried to preach a conversion sermon. The congregation evicted him and a near massacre occurred. Eventually the entire Jewish population was expelled.

    1730: In Cento, Italy, Isaac Israeli and his wife gave birth to Benjamin D’Israeli, the grandfather of Benjamin Disreali, the British author and political leader also known as the Earl of Beeconsfield.

    1759(1stof Tishrei, 5520): Nine days after the British defeated the French at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham, Jews could openly observe Rosh Hashanah in Canada.  The French banned Jews from living in Canada.  The British took the opposite view.

    1761: Coronation of King George III who had his first conversation with a Jew when he spoke with prizefighter Daniel Mendoza

    1774: Pope Clement XIV passed away. In 1759, while still known as Cardinal Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio Ganganelli, he had issued a reported condemning blood libel accusation.In 1758, Pope Benedict XIV ordered an investigation into the matter and charged Lorenzo Ganganelli, councilor of the Holy Office of the Inquisition—and later Pope Clement XIV—to prepare a report on the commission’s work. Ganganelli’s report, presented to the congregation of the Inquisition in March 1758, reviewed the major accusations of Jewish ritual murder since the thirteenth century and concluded that the blood libel was indeed a calumny, of which Jews and Judaism were innocent.”

    1776(9thof Tishrei, 5537): Erev Yom Kippur – one has to wonder what was going through the mind of American Jews as they heard the words of Kol Nidre and its references to vows following the decision to break the vows of loyalty to the King of England as stated in the recently adopted Declaration of Independence.

    1776: George Washington wrote to John Hancock denying any knowledge as to the cause of the great fire  that burned over 25% of New York City – thus putting the lie to British claims that the Americans had started the blaze to thwart their occupation of the city.

    1778(1stof Tishrei, 5539): As the British tried to figure out what to do having lost the “first Battle of Saratoga’ Jews observed Rosh Hashanah

    1789(2ndof Tishrei, 5550): During the first year of the presidency of George Washington, Jews in the United States observe the second day of Rosh Hashanah.

    1806(10thof Tishrei, 5567): A day before Lewis and Clark arrive in St. Louis, thus competing their successful exploration that took them to the Pacific Ocean, Jews observed Yom Kippur

    1807(1stof Tishrei, 5569): Rosh Hashanah

    1812: In Glasgow, Scotland, a “hatter” (maker of hats) named Isaac Cohen was admitted as a burgess of the city.

    1817: Birthdate of Austrian dermatologist Hermann Edler von Zeissl.

    1825(10thof Tishrei, 5586):  Jews observe Yom Kippur in the first year of the Presidency of John Q. Adams, the only American President chosen by the House of Representatives.

    1831(15thof Tishrei, 5592): Sukkoth

    1842: Birthdate of  Abdulhamid II who issued a firman in 1889 stating “That there shall be no interference with the Jews' places of devotional visits and of pilgrimage, that are situated in the localities which are dependent on the Chief Rabbinate, nor with the practice of their ritual

    1850:  In Detroit, Michigan, twelve Jewish families came together at the Cozens's home to found the "Bet El Society" (a Michigan Historical Marker now commemorates this site). The congregation engaged the services of Rabbi Samuel Marcus of New York.

    1851: The city of Des Moines, Iowa is incorporated as Fort Des Moines.William Krause was one those instrumental in the incorporation effort. He and has his wife had arrived in the area in 1846 when it was known as Raccoon Forks, making them the first Jewish settlers.  The Krause family which had opened the towns first store in 1848 was joined by Joseph and Isaac Kuhn in 1849.  Krause was active in civic affairs and played a key role in having the state capital moved to Des Moines.  By 1870, there were enough Jews in Des Moines to form a congregation called B’nai Jeshurn which built a synagogue in 1878.

    1852: The New York Times reported that "The Kohinoor must be a rouser, to allow a company of Hebrew artists to cut away for months upon its sides, and yet be left the largest diamond out of the mines.”  The Kohinoor is one of the largest diamonds in the world.

    1855 (10th of Tishrei, 5616): Eleven days after the fall of Sevastopol during the Crimean War, Jews on both sides of the conflict observe Yom Kippur

    1855: Adam Mickiewicz arrived in Constantinople. He had journeyed to the capital of the Ottoman Empire from Paris so that he could organize a Jewish legion called the Hussars of Israel made up Jews from Russia and Palestine.  The legion was to part of the forces fighting against the Czar during the Crimean War.

    1855: The New York Times reported on the celebration by “the Israelites of the ceremonies marking the start of their New Year including a list of all the synagogues in the city that are holding services on what is described as ‘a fast day…a day of atonement.’”

    1857:Daniele Manin an Italian patriot and statesman from Venice who was a hero of Italian unification (Risorgimento) passed away. He was born Daniele Fonseca, the son of a Jew in Ramo Astori, Venice. His name was changed to Manin when he was converted to Catholicism as a child.

    1863(9th of Tishrei, 5624): Erev Yom Kippur

    1863: Lt. Colonel Samuel Tolles and nine men from the 5th Pennsylvania Cavalry captured a Jew names Falk Odenheimer near the Pasquotank River in North Carolina.  Odenheimer claimed he was a refugee from Goldsboro, NC.  He was carrying $12,000 in gold and “Southern State money” as well as a number of watches when he was captured.  He had spent the night in the woods looking for a place where he could cross into the Union lines without being detected.  Apparently Tolles did not know what to make of the story since he sent Odenheimer back to headquarters under armed guard.

    1867: In Lancaster, PA Congregation Shaarai Shomayim dedicated its new synagogue building.

    1873(1stof Tishrei, 5634): Rosh Hashanah

    1873: In New York City the commercial centers and Wall Street are seemingly depopulated because the city’s Jewish population are crowding their synagogues “to their utmost capacity” for services “that are of the most impressive and solemn nature.”

    1875: In Jersey, Esther Simon was married today at the home of her uncle.

    1876: “Pauline,” an opera in four acts with music by the Anglo- Jewish composer Frederic H. Cowen opened at the Lyceum Theatre in London.

    1877(15th of Tishrei, 5638): In the first year of the Presidency of Ruther B. Hayes, Jews observe Sukkoth

    1878(10thof Tishrei, 5548): Yom Kippur

    1878: It was reported today that Union of American Hebrew Congregations (Reform) are moving ahead with the plans adopted last year to reorganize.  According to information supplied by the Jewish Messenger, a newly created Board of Delegates on Civil and Religious Rights will replace the old Board of Delegates of American Israelites.

    1879: It was reported today that the police in New York do not believe the story of Meyer Friedman, a Polish Jewish shoemaker, and his wife that there home was broken into by thieves who made off with $90 and a gold watch.  The police base their disbelief on the fact that the glass where the break-in was supposed to have occurred was lying on the ground outside the dwelling and not inside on the flooring indicating that it was broken by somebody on the inside.  Nobody doubts the Friedman’s no longer have the money and nobody has commented on the fact that the alleged burglary took place on Rosh Hashanah

    1882(9thof Tishrei, 5643): Erev Yom Kippur

    1882: In one of the ironies of history, Wilhelm Keitel, a German Field Marshall and senior Nazi military leader who would be hung as war criminal at Nuremberg was born as Jews prepared to hear the haunting tones of Kol Nidre.

    1884: “The Connecticut Campaign” published today described the reaction of Dr. Lewis Kleeberg, the rabbi at Mishkahn Israel to the publication of anti-Semitic language used by the current Republican candidate for governor in a jury summation back in 1857.  Kleeberg said that words spoken in haste and hurry of a court room should not be taken as the speaker’s personal opinions.  Furthermore he dislikes “this mingling of religion and politics.  The effort to use the Jews of Connecticut as a sort of a club to wreak political revenge can do no harm to the man it is aimed at.
    1884: New York stock broker Henry C. Friedman eloped tonight with Sarah Scheuer, the daughter of million merchant Solomon Scheuer.

    1885:  Birthdate of Erich von Stroheim, actor, writer, director.
    1889: It was reported today that in their annual report, the managers of House of Refuge on Randall’s Island do not disclose figures on the religious affiliation of any of its inmates except for those who are Jewish.

    1889: It was reported today that the new Prince of Monaco has been “betrothed to the Dowager Duchess of Richelieu, a beautiful 31 year old widow who is the daughter of Michel Heine, an orthodox Jew who is a nephew of Heinrich Heine.

    1889: It was reported today that Amy Levy, the 23 year old Anglo-Jewish author who was thought to be a future “Emma Lazarus” was cremated today, per her own request.  The ashes were then placed in a small oak chest after which they were buried in a Jewish cemetery.

    1889: It was reported today that “a few men are taking the offered course in elementary Hebrew” being offered at Wesleyan University in Connecticut. Future U.S. President Woodrow Wilson’s course in American history was the most popular elective being offered during this same fall semester.

    1889: Rabbi Aaron Cohen delivered the sermon at today’s dedication of the new synagogue built by Congregation Beth Hamedrash Hagodol in New York.  Coroner Ferdinand Levy delivered an address after the endstone was laid at the building which had cost $44,000.

    1889: Rabbi Moses Guedalia led the services this afternoon that marked the consecration of the Congres of Moses Montefiore’s new synagogue on in New York City. He was assisted by several visiting clergymen including Rabbis A.H. Nieto and H. Pereira Mendes.

    1890: “Literary Notes” published today described “a Hebrew translation of Longfellow’s ‘Psalm of Life’” by Rabbi Isidore Meyers of Melbourne, Australia that has just been printed in Jerusalem

    1891: Russians claim that seven thousand Jews left Berdichefon for Argentina today.  This claim would be appear to be bogus since there is no railway facility at Berdichefon capable of handling such a large number of people at one time.

    1891: In Brooklyn  the only Isaac Marks listed in the city directory denied that the Henry Marks, the young who committed suicide yesterday in suburban Chicago , is his brother as claimed by the note found with the body that also contained a request that he be buried “according to Jewish rites”

    1892: Approximately two thirds of the 358 passengers who arrived in New York today aboard the Moravia were Russian Jews.

    1892: In Cleveland, Ohio, “the Erie Street congregation of Russian Jews” is scheduled to hold Rosh Hashanah services in an assembly room of the new Young Men’s Christian Association Building.

    1892(1stof Tishrei, 5653): As Grover Cleveland seeks to defeat Benjamin Harrison in the upcoming U.S. Presidential election, Jews celebrate Rosh Hashanah

    1893: Bernard Pachman and Carl Feldman were arrested tonight when police attempted to stop a group of “Hebrew Anarchists” from throwing cobblestones at the offices of Freie Arbeiter Stimme on Pike Street.

    1895(4thof Tishrei, 5656): Tzom Gedaliah observed since the 3rd was Shabbat

    1895(4thof Tishrei, 5656:) Prominent Jewish leader Abraham B. Wasser “dropped dead this afternoon while visiting at the home of a friend “in Elizabeth, NJ

    1895:  Birthdate of Academy Award winning actor, Paul Muni.  Muni got his start in the Yiddish theatre. Unlike other leading men of his day, Muni gained fame as a character actor playing figures as widely different as Mexican revolutionary, a Chinese peasant and a French publisher.

    1895: In Detroit, Temple Bethel adopted the use of the New Union Prayer Book for Sabbath services.

    1895: Birthdate of celebrated poet, novelist, critic, and editor, Babette Deutsch. While still a student at BarnardCollege, Deutsch had her first poems published in magazines, and her first volume of poetry, Banners, was published only two years after she graduated. Many more volumes of poetry followed, including 1928's Honey Out of A Rock, which touched on varied biblical and Jewish themes. Deutsch also wrote a number of novels, including A Brittle Heaven (1926), In Such a Night (1927), and The Mask of Silenus (1933). In addition to her work as a poet and novelist, Deutsch was also a noted critic, as well as a writer of fiction and biographies for children. In 1958 she was elected to the National Academy of Arts and Letters, and in 1969 served as the organization's secretary. Deutsch was on the advisory board of the National Book Committee, chancellor for the Academy of American Poets, and a consultant for the Library of Congress. Although Deutsch led a busy professional life, she also devoted much of her time to the Jewish community. Deutsch often worked with the Young Men's Hebrew Association, serving as a lecturer in their PoetryCenter. Much of her poetry reflected her Jewish heritage, and her last three books of poetry all dealt with her anger at the horrors of the Holocaust and her efforts to make sense of such great tragedy.

    1896: Birthdate of Uri Zvi Grinberg the Galacian born Israeli poet and author who uniquely wrote in both Yiddish and Hebrew

    1897: In Special Sessions Court, “Nathan Straus pleaded not guilty” this morning “in the case brought by the Board of Health charging him with selling “impure milk.”  Straus has been providing sterilized and modified milk products through conveniently located distribution centers to the primarily immigrant population of the Lower East Side; a program he subsidizes which has demonstrably lowered the infant and child mortality rate in New York.

    1899: “Max Regis, the former Mayor of Algiers and a notorious Jew baiter” fled from his villa which was just outside of town in which he and his fellow anti-Semites “had been barricaded for some days” because they feared arrest by the government.

    1901(9thof Tishrei, 5662): Eight days after Vice President Teddy Roosevelt was sworn in as President following the death of William McKinley, Jews prepare to hear Kol Nidre

    1901(9thof Tishrei, 5662): Sixty-two year old attorney and economist Simon Sterne passed away today in New York City.

    1902:  Birthdate of Academy award winning actor John Houseman.  Born Jacques Haussman in Bucharest to a Jewish father and English mother, Houseman was known to one generation as the law school professor Charles Kingsfield in “The Paper Chase.” But to an earlier generation he was the producer of Orson Well’s radio masterpiece, War of the Worlds.

    1902(20thof Elul, 5662): Eighty year Solomon Cohn who began served a rabbi in Berlin from 1876 to 1894 when he retired and moved to Breslau where he passed away today.

    1903(1st of Tishrei, 5664): Rosh Hashanah

    1905: The Jewish Chronicle reported that Aria College, in Portsmouth which had been founded Lewis Aria has closed for lack of funds.

    1906(3rd of Tishrei, 5667): Shabbat Shuvah; the fast is delayed 24 hours

    1909: Jews were forced to leave Arabia (Yemen) to avoid being forced to convert to Islam.

    1910: Announcement of the death of Lady Louisa de Rothschild widow of Sir Anthony de Rothschild upon whom a barony had been conferred by Sir Robert Peel in 1847. Sir Anthony passed away in 1876. Lady Louisa was known as “Lady Bountiful” because of her charitable works among the less fortunate Jews. Her fame as a gracious hostess is attested to by the fact that the Prince of Wales learned of the death of Napoleon III while visiting her summer home, Aston Clinton, in 1873.

    1911: In New South Wales, Bertram Jacobs is appointed lecturer on Law at UniversityCollege.

    1911: New laws drafted for the governing of the Jewish community of Frankfort include the innovate provision that “women who pay communal tax and the wives of tax-payers are eligible for election to the governing council.”

    1911: The German Emperor confers the Order of Red Eagle, Third Class on Dr. Albert Moses, the German legal scholar who helped draft Japan’s Meiji Constitution.

    1914(2ndof Tishrei, 5675): 2nd day of Rosh Hashanah

    1914: In Chicago, as World War stretches into its third month, “it is estimated that more than 100,000 Orthodox Jews gathered in synagogues today in observance of the second day of Rosh Hashanah” thousands of whom were praying “for relatives who are engaged in the battles now being waged.”

    1915: Birthdate of Professor Samuel Edward Finer, the son Romanian Jewish immigrants, who became one the United Kingdom’s leading historians and political scientist.

    1916: Rabbis in Palestinedeclare that all Jews should not fast on Yom Kippur, but eat due to the epidemics which were rampant.

    1916: The funeral of Adolf Deiches is scheduled to take place this morning at Temple Rodeph Shalom at 63rd and Lexington.

    1916: The funeral of Lena Gunther, the widow of Isaac Gunther, who was a member of Deborah Verein No.1 and Henrietta Verein, is scheduled to be held at Mt. Nebo Cemetery in Brooklyn.

    1916: A memoriam published today marked the 15th anniversary, on the English calendar of Simon Sterne “In reverent memory of Simon Sterne, passed away Sept. 22, 1901.  His engaging personality, dignity, great knowledge and modesty made contact with him a privilege.”

    1918: The Jewish Legion, which was part of the British Army under General Allenby, dislodged Turkish army units from their entrenched position at Umm esh-Shert Ford on the Jordan River.  This is the same ford where Joshua crossed with the Israelites in Biblical times.  As we said when we began our studies last year, Jewish History covers an unbelievably long span of time.  More importantly, when Jews tread the land of Israel they are truly treading on the land of their ancestors.

    1918: Birthdate of Henryk Szeryng, the Polish born Mexican violinist who served as a liaison officer and interpreter during WW II at the request of General Sikorksi, the Prime Minister of the Polish Government in Exile.

    1920(10thof Tishrei, 5681): Yom Kippur is observed for the last time during the Presidency of Woodrow Wilson

    1921: Birthdate of Wolf William Eisenberg who gained fame as cartoonist William Elder, one of those who helped created “Mad” magazine.

    1921:Gdud HaAvoda VeHaHaganah al shem Yosef Trumpeldor (the Joseph Trumpeldor Work and Defense Battalion) known simply Gdud HaAvod established kibbutz Ein Harod today.

    1922(29thof Elul, 5682): Erev Rosh Hashanah

    1922: In Brooklyn, Rebecca Schwartz and David Sive gave birth to David Sive who was one of the earliest practitioners of “Environmental Law.” (As reported by Margalit Fox)

    1922: In “Palestine Land of Promise,” published today  Maurice Harris, the Rabbi at Temple Israel in NYC, provides an eyewitness account of how the land and people of Palestine have benefited from Zionist programs based on his recent visit to Eretz Israel.

    1924: Birthdate of Gerald Schoenfeld who became chairman of the powerful Shubert Organization, the largest and most important theater owner on Broadway and in the United States.

    1924: In the Soviet Union, Chjekists (secret police) rounded up all known Zionists. Over thirty thousand were arrested and the Zionist organization was forced to move underground. This determined drive to destroy the Zionist was driven by a variety of motives.  One had to do with the Communists' fear of competing political groups and ideologies.  Another had to do with anti-Semitism some of which one might say was endemic to Russians and some of which was a manifestation of self-loathing on the part of Jews who had bought into the Communist ideology.

    1927(25thof Elul, 5687): Sixty year old Rudolph Grossman, who had served as associate Rabbi of Temple Beth-El until 1896 when he became rabbi at Rodef Sholom passed away today.

    1928: Today, in Massena, New York,  two days before Yom Kippur, four-year-old Barbara Griffiths went for a walk and did not come back home. After a long search by townspeople and state police, a rumor began to circulate that the girl had been kidnapped and killed by the town's Jews for a religious ritual associated with the impending holiday. This was the opening event in what would be called the Massena Blood Libel.

    1929: Today marks the thirtieth day since a group of Jews were killed in Jerusalem by Arabs.  The level of danger felt by the Jewish community is so great that the Jews have “abandoned their age old ritual for the dead” and not publicly taken note of the Shloshim.

    1929: In what can only be described as a unique form of British even-handedness, the Mandatory government informed “Jews who protested against the erection of a Moslem religious school at the Wailing Wall that a fully sanctioned permit had been granted to the Arabs by the government.” 

    1931: Birthdate of cinematographer Isidor Mankofsky, the son of Russian-Jewish immigrants who used the name “Bill Mann” while doing some of his filming for the Encyclopedia Britannica “on the advice of a producer who warned him of anti-Jewish bias.”

    1933(2nd of Tishrei, 5694): Second Day of Rosh Hashanah

    1933: German Jews are banned from the fields of journalism, art, literature, music, broadcasting, and theater.

    1939: Joint victory parade of Wehrmacht and Red Army in Brest-Litovsk at the end of the Invasion of Poland.

    1941(1st of Tishrei, 5702): Rosh Hashanah

    1941:  This day saw the beginning of a new intensity in the murder of the Jewish people. In Vinnitsa, Ukranian militia, trained by the SS, killed an estimated 23,000 Jews. Sweeping through town on horseback, soldiers wielded swords to chop down innocents. The Ukrainians were willing participants in the murder of the Jews.  The Holocaust was possible, in part, because of the willing participation of non-Germans in the Final Solution.  An additional 4,000 Jews in Ejszyszki were slaughtered.

    1941: Nearly 500 Jews escaped from Ejszyszki, Lithuania, after being alerted to an impending Nazi sweep

    1941: All Jews of Litin, Ukraine, are murdered.

    1941: Sculptor Louise Nevelson's first one-woman show opened at the Nierendorf Gallery

    1942: The Jewish ghetto in Czestochowa, Poland, is liquidated; 40,000 residents are transported to the Treblinka death camp and killed.

    1942: The leading French Protestant, Pastor Marc Boegner, publicly protests the Jewish deportations. He personally attempts to convince VichyFrancePremier Pierre Laval to end the roundups of Jewish children. After Boegner offers to have the children adopted, Lavaltells him that "not one of them must remain in France."

    1943: The Germans announce through their puppet Greek press that all Jews have only five days to register their names, or face a penalty of death. Christians were told if they hide Jews they would be shot.

    1943(22nd of Elul, 5703): Forty Jews hiding in forests near Koniecpol, Poland, are attacked by Poles. Many of the Jews are killed.

    1943: The Baltimore Sun reported Nazi “Slayings Near 250,000,"

    1943: Wilhelm Kube, the Generalkommissarof Belorussia, is assassinated by a bomb placed beneath his bed by a Soviet partisan who had been assigned to work as his maid.

    1944: During WW II the Red Army enters Tallinn, Estonia.  Before the war Tallin had been home to a vibrant Jewish community of about 2,300 people. The liberation of Estonia from the Nazis  by the Soviets meant an end to the Holocaust, it was not much of any improvement for the Jews since the Estonia became a puppet state of the U.S.S.R. implementing the anti-Jewish policies of larger neighbor to the east.

    1945(15th of Tishrei, 5706):  Sukkoth is observed for the first time during the Presidency of Harry S. Truman

    1945: U.S. premiere of “Rhapsody in Blue,” “a fictionalized biography of George Gershwin.

    1945(15th of Tishrei, 5706): Chief Judge Irving Lehman of the New York State Court of Appeals passed way early this morning at the age of 69.  . He had been a member of the State's judiciary for thirty-seven years. Lehman was the older brother of Herbert Lehman, former Governor of New York who is currently serving as the Director of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration. Judge Lehman was born in New York in 1876, the son of two transplanted Alabama Jews.  He earned a Bachelor’s degree from Columbia in 1896 where he also earned a Master Degree and a Law Degree. He was in private practice until 1908 when he was first elected to the State Supreme Court.  He was elected Chief Judge of the New York State Court of Appeals in 1939. He was respected for his ability to make the law “a living force subject to change and development” as well as his “ability to slash through legal verbiage and get to the heart of complex commercial and financial problems. A philanthropist, Lehman was actively involved with several Jewish organizations including the Young Men’s Hebrew Association an Temple Emanu-El both of which he led as President.

    1946(26th of Elul, 5706): One Jew was killed and both sides suffered other casualties when refugees on board the blockade runner Palmach battled a British naval boarding party off the northern coast of Palestine today. Off the coast of Haifa, the British boarding party used guns, gas and fire hoses to quell resistance from a boat load of Jewish “displaced persons” seeking to find a home in Eretz Israel.

    1946:Congregation Beth-El Synagogue was dedicated today at St. Johnsbury, Vermont

    1946: In Camden, NJ, Beth-El held a memorial service for Rabbi Amoff who was killed in an army truck accident following his discharge at Fort Kilmer.  During WW II, he served as a chaplain in the U.S. Army

    1947: Secretary of State George Marshall instructed the American U.N. delegation to refrain from supporting the UNSCOP majority report that included a recommendation for partition.

    1949: Birthdate of Larisa Bergen, the native of Kazakhstan who won silver medal in volleyball at the 1976 Olympics.

    1951: Reuven Shiloah, special Israeli Government counselor left Paris for Washington where he is scheduled discuss the latest peace proposal and other developments in the Middle East with representatives of the U.S. State Department.

    1951: Unidentified authorities at the highest level of the Israeli government reveal that Israel “is willing to compensate Arab refugees for property that they behind when fled, and in addition, is willing to make contributions for the resettlement of Arab refugees.” Until now, the Israeli government has refused to take responsibility for the plight of the refugees because the Arabs caused the problem when they invaded the Jewish state.  At the same time, Israel feels that consideration should be given for the expense born by Israel in re-settling Jewish refugees from Arab countries, especially the 100,000 who had left Iraq.  The Israelis want their bank accounts, which are valued at between 30,000,000 to 40,000,000 pounds, unblocked. 

    1952: Isser Harel named head of Mossad.

    1954: New York Premiere of the Billy Wilder hit comedy “Sabrina”

    1957:American author and screenwriter Robert Katz, the son of Sidney and Helen Katz, married Beverly Gerstel today. Katz wrote Death in Rome  in “which he blamed Pope Pius XII for the massacre of 335 Romans and 70 Jews at the Ardeatine Caves in 1944.”

    1960(1stof Tishrei, 5721): As the race between Nixon and Kennedy for the White House heats up, Jews observe the first day of Rosh Hashanah

    1960(1s of Tishrei, 5721): Seventy-eight year old psychoanalyst Melanie Klein passed away in London.

    1964: "Fiddler on the Roof" opened on Broadway.  It would run for 3,242 performances

    1969(10th of Tishrei, 5730): As the war in Viet Nam rages on, Jews observe Yom Kippur

    1977(10thof Tishrei, 5738): In the first year of Jimmy Carter’s presidency, Jews observe Yom Kippur

    1978: Aharon Barak began his service as a Justice on the Supreme Court of Israel

    1982: NBC broadcast the first episode of “Family Ties,” the sitcom created by Gary David Goldberg.

    1983(15thof Tishrei, 5744): Sukkoth

    1984: Israeli political leader Avraham Hirschson and his wife gave birth to their youngest son Barak.

    1989 (22nd of Elul, 5749): Composer Irving Berlin passed away at the age of 101. Berlin had composed a myriad of tunes that defined Americain its most optimistic, flag-waving form. Only in America could a Russian Jewish immigrant compose two of the most popular Christmas and Easter songs.


    1996(9th of Tishrei, 5757): Erev Yom Kippur

    1996: Robert Kraft, owner of the New England Patriots, had asked that the kickoff tonight’s game between the Patriots and the Jacksonville Jaguars be changed to avoid a conflict with Yom Kippur, which started at sundown that evening. Kraft requested the change so Jews, including himself and his family, could see the entire game before the start of Kol Nidre services that night.

    1997 (20th of Elul, 5757):Nedim Yahya, a committee member of the Quincentennial Foundation passed away. The Quincentennial Foundation was established in 1989 by a group of 113 Turkish citizens, Jews and Moslems alike. Founded  in Istanbul the Quincentennial Foundation planned a three-year (1990 - 1992) cultural and academic program both within Turkey and abroad mainly in the U.S, Canada and Mexico on the American continent; France, United Kingdom and Italy in Europe designed to celebratethe five hundredth anniversary of the most gracious welcome of Sephardim to Turkish lands” in 1492.

    1997: In “A Traveler in the realm of the Mind” published today, Jason Cowley provides a portrait of George Steiner.


    2001 (5th of Tishrei, 5762):  Violinist Isaac Stern passed away.  Born in 1920, Stern is part of a long list of Jewish violin greats.

    2002: Today Theatre Garden presented “Lady of Cooper”  a play written by Jonathan Goldstein and his sister Dana Leslie Goldstein that tells the story of the arrival of the Statute of Liberty in New York including the role of Emma Lazarus who wrote the famous poem at the statute’s base.

    2002:The New York Times included reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or about topics of Jewish interest including Blue Latitudes: Boldly Going Where Captain Cook Has Gone Beforeby Tony Horwitz, Sloan-Kettering: Poems by Abba Kovner; Translated by Eddie Levenston, The Ideas That Conquered The World: Peace, Democracy, and Free Markets in the Twenty-First Centuryby Michael Mandelbaum, Bad Boy Ballmer: The Man Who Rules Microsoft by Fredric Alan Maxwell and Description: !The Prints of Roy Lichtenstein: A Catalogue Raisonné 1948-1997by Mary Lee Corlett and Ruth E. Fine

    2004(7thof Tishrei, 5765): Terrorists from Al-Aqsa Brigades claimed responsibility for the bombing at French Hill, Jerusalem that claimed the lives of two people.

    2005:  At the same time when the world is mourning the death of Nazi-hunter Simon Wiesenthal, the world was given a graphic reminder of the Holocaust. The Jerusalem Post reported that workers at a US Army airfield near Stuttgart, Germanyhave uncovered a World War II-era grave believed to contain the bodies of Jewish slave laborers used by the Nazis. Authorities are now trying to determine the identities of the bodies and are looking for possible witnesses as they look into the case. The dead would have worked at Hailfingen. It was one of more than 50 sub-camps in the extensive subsystem of the Natzweiler-Struthof camp where Jewish prisoners were to repair the runway of the old Echterdingen airfield for German aircraft, which were flying night raids. According to information available now, there were approximately 600 Jewish inmates at Hailfingen.  Of these, as many as 400 were reported to have died there.  While the camp did contain a gas chamber, most of the prisoners died from lengthy exposure to the bitter winter as they were literally worked to death.

    2005:In a move that sets it apart from most, if not all Catholic colleges and universities, Boston College launched “a program that allows student to minor in Jewish Studies.”  Go Eagles!

    2005:  Kalman Feinberg won the Great Shofar Blast Off sponsored by the National Jewish Outreach Program.

    2005: The “IDF finished evacuating four settlement in the Northern West Bank

    2005:During a meeting in Jerusalem, Rabbi Bretton-Granatoor, along with other Jewish leaders, questioned Rev. Dr. Naim Ateek, Director of the Sabeel Ecumenical Liberation Theology Center, about his position on Israel's legitimate right to exist, citing quotations from his book, Justice and Only Justice: A Palestinian Theology of Liberation (1989), in which he wrote, "It has taken me years to accept the establishment of the state of Israel and its need – although not its right – to exist. ""We read to him several quotations from his sermons and writings that we believed denied the legitimate right of the Jewish people to live in their land, and echoed medieval anti-Semitic canards," Rabbi Bretton-Granatoor said.  "He affirmed that he continues to support the suggestion

    2006(29th of Elul, 5766): Erev Rosh Hashanah

    2006: As can be seen from Libby Copeland’s column in the Washington Post, entitled “For Sen. Allen, Questions of More Than Faith,” the issue of who is a Jew and who is not a Jew and how they respond to it is becoming a regular phenomena in American politics.  The issue is often not just whether but when a candidate discovered the Jewish connection.  John Kerry discovered Jewish grandparents.  Howard Dean is married to a Jew, something he always knew and never hid.  Dennis Kucinich and Hillary Clinton appeared to have stretched the envelope.  He is dating a Jew and she has discovered a Jewish step-grandfather. Wesley Clark discovered his Jewish lineage during his abortive 2004 quest for the Presidency and Madeline Albright, who is not running for anything discovered that her family was Jewish until it fled totalitarian Europe.  Post columnist Charles Krauthammer puts things in their proper, if tragic perspective.  These public figures were not told about their Jewish heritage because the family members wanted to spare them the pain and suffering that was all too often the reality of being Jewish whether it was Sen. Allen’s grandfather being imprisoned in Algeria or Madeline Albright’s family fleeing the Nazis. The question is not why did Sen. Allen react the way he did; the question is what kind of people made being Jewish such a fearful thing.

    2007(10th of Tishrei, 5768): Yom Kippur

    2007: Gabe Carmi, a standout offensive guard for the University of Wisconsin football team fasted today even though his Badgers were facing the University of Iowa in their first Big Ten game of the season. Carmi did not break his fast until an hour before the game began. The reward for doing a mitzvah is doing the mitzvah, but in this case it did not hurt the Wisconsin won the game and kept the Heartland Trophy in Madison.

    2007(10th of Tishrei, 5768): While in Atlanta for a concert with Elvis Costello and Amos Lee, Bob Dylan (born Robert Zimmerman) reportedly attend the Chabad-Lubavitch of Georgia’s Yom Kippur services where he was up to the Torah and recited the blessings in Hebrew.

    2007(10th of Tishrei, 5768): Marcel Marceau, the famous mime and Holocaust survivor passed away on Yom Kippur at the age of 84.

    2007: An exhibition honoring Yiddish theatre legend - and Milk and Honey star - Molly Picon being held in the Vincent Astor Gallery of the New York Library of Performing Arts comes to an end.

    2007: As a sign of worsening economic conditions, Gottschalks closed its store in Tacoma Highlands. This was part of the tragic end of a West Coast department store chain that had been started by German Jewish immigrant Emil Gottschalk in 1904.

    2008 (22 Elul): Yarthzeit of Joseph B. Levin, who among other accomplishments was a father who raised sons who not only knew how to recite the Kaddish, but whom he knew would rise to say Kaddish.  There is real irony that his Yarthzeit comes at the time when the American financial system is crashing in chaos.  As an attorney with the S.E.C., he spent two decades of his life enforcing the laws designed to prevent what we are experiencing today.

    2008: Han Drogt, a Dutch policeman who joined the resistance movement after being ordered to round up Jews posthumously receives Israel's highest honor for people who rescued Jews from the Holocaust. His bravery became known thanks to the efforts of an El Al pilot who heard the story from the hero's son. Drogt, who was executed by the Nazis in 1944, was already recognized as a hero by former U.S. president Dwight D. Eisenhower, Britain and the Netherlands for his role in rescuing Allied pilots who ejected over occupied Holland. But Israel had never acknowledged the circumstances in which Drogt joined the resistance. His son will receive the honor naming his father Righteous Among the Nations in a formal ceremony in Jerusalem at Yad Vashem, the Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes Remembrance Authority. Drogt, who was not Jewish, defected in 1943 with his rifle after receiving orders to arrest the remaining Jews in the Groningen area in northern Holland, where he served in the ranks of the Marechaussee, the military police. Some of his comrades who also refused the order were arrested, and later honored by Yad Vashem for their actions. Drogt's name was omitted from the list submitted to the Commission for the Designation of the Righteous, because he had managed to escape. It took another 20 years and the unexpected help of an El Al pilot to complete the picture. The pilot met the son, Henk Brink, a few years ago in South Africa. He also told Yad Vashem about it, but wasn’t sure they'd name him Righteous among the Nations. Drogt, 23 at the time of his arrest, was planning to marry his pregnant girlfriend. She gave birth to Brink, the son, one month after Drogt's arrest.

    2009: The Capitol Hill Village sponsors a reading and discussion with journalist Ariel Sabar, author of “My Father's Paradise: A Son's Search for His Jewish Past in Kurdish Iraq,” at the Southeast Neighborhood Library in Washington, D.C.

    2009: In Washington, D.C., the Hadassah Attorneys' Council hosts a Brown Bag Lunch Conversation with Rabbi Avis Miller about "Fortune, Family and Faith” during which Rabbi Miller explores the High Holiday liturgy to see what these sacred texts teach us about the work/life balance. 

    2009: While all three are in New York to attend sessions of the UN General Assembly Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu is scheduled to meet with President Barak Obama and Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas today in an attempt to re-open peace negotiations.

    2009(4thof Tishrei, 5770): Ninety-eight year old Rose Friedman, the wife and collaborator of Milton Friedman, who was a noted free-market economist in her own right, passed away today.  (As reported by Bruce Weber)

    2010(14th of Tishrei, 5771): Erev Sukkoth

    2010(14thof Tishrei, 5771): Crooner Eddie Fisher passed away at the age of 82.

    2010: it was reported today that Mark Zuckerberg had arranged to donate $100 million to Newark Public Schools, the public school system of Newark, New Jersey

    2011: A daylong conference, sponsored by the Hudson Institute and Touro College and titled “The Perils of Global Intolerance: the United Nations and Durban III” is scheduled to be held today. The conference which will feature a presentation by Nobel Peace Prize Laureate and Holocaust survivor Elie Wiesel, seeks to debunk a Durban process which critics say is riddled with hatred and intolerance.

    2011: New York was the scene of an anti-Semitic triple header - Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan took turns bashing Israel at the United Nations General Assembly while representatives of Iran, Cuba and Lebanon blasted Israel at the Durban Review Conference at the United Nations

    2012(6thof Tishrei, 5773): Shabbat Shuvah

    2012(6thof Tishrei, 5773): Ninety-nine year old Irving Adler, “a former New York City teacher who became a prolific writer of books on math and science for young people after being forced from the classroom during the Red Scare of the early 1950s” passed away today. (As reported by Dennis Hevesi)

    2012: The commander of Iran’s Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC), Gen. Mohammad Ali Jafari, said  that war with Israel will “eventually happen,” and that the Islamic Republic would “destroy the Jewish state.”

    2012: If Team Israel has won its first two games, it will be scheduled to play again today in the World Baseball Classic.

    2012: The 92nd Street Y is scheduled to “celebrate the sweetness of the New Year” with its annual Rosh Hashanah Dance Marathon.

    2012: Daylight Saving Time ended tonight, as dozens of Meretz activists protested in Tel Aviv’s Rabin Square and in front of Interior Minister Eli Yishai’s Jerusalem home.

    2013: “Pop” Lubin’s Silent Film Empire is scheduled to open today at the National Museum of American Jewish History.

    2013: Sally Oren is scheduled to address the open meeting of the Greater Washington Chapter of Hadassah.

    2013: The Wiener Library for the Study of the Holocaust & Genocide is schedule to host its annual Open House, in London, UK.

    2013: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors or of special interest to Jewish readers including The American Way of Poverty by Sasha Abramsky, Wilson by Scott Berg, and The Girl: A Life in the Shadow of Roman Polansky by Samantha Geimer, Lawrence Silver and Judith Newman

    2013: The semiannual mass priestly benediction service — or Birkat Kohanim -- took place this morning at the Western Wall. Tens of thousands of Jewish worshippers crowded the plaza to receive the blessing from the Kohanim, descendants of Aaron who make up the priestly caste. Both new chief rabbis, David Lau and Yitzhak Yosef, participated as well. (As reported by Lazar Berman)

    2013: Today, Israeli forces werehelping Kenyan officials end a deadly siege at the Westgate shopping mall in Nairobi, where al-Qaeda-linked terrorists have been holed up for a day with some 30 hostages. (As reported by Gavriel Fiske)
    2013(18th of Tishrei, 5774: Twenty year old Gabriel (Gal) Kobi, an IDF soldier from Tirat Hacarmel died of wounds he suffered when a sniper shot him in Hebron.

    2014: “Jewish student groups are planning protests against Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas at a speech” he is scheduled to give tonight in New York “hosted by Cooper Union in cooperation with Churches for Middle East Peace.” (As reported by Rachel Delia Benaim)

    2014: A photo exhibition, “Jewish Refugees in Cyprus En Route to Israel” is scheduled to open at the Same and Esther Minskoff Cultural Center in New York City.

    2014: Fiftieth anniversary of the Broadway premiere “Fiddler on the Roof.”


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    September 23

    484 BCE:  Birthdate of the very influential Greek playwright Euripides. Wherever Greek culture spread, writers attempted to create drama in the manner of Euripides.  During the time of Hellenization of the Jews, a Jewish playwright by the name of Ezekiel re-wrote Exodus as a Greek tragedy.  Written in Greek, it was in the style of Euripides and presents the story of Exodus slightly differently.  Here Moses not only was educated in the Jewish traditions, but had a wide range of knowledge of Egyptian spiritualist wisdom.  A central part of the Pagan Mysteries was a Pagan god-man, mortal yet immortal, god yet man.  One who died yet was resurrected, a figure that often came to save mankind and offered spiritual teachings.  If the Jews could Hellenize Exodus into a Greek tragedy, might a Hebrew version of Euripides'The Bacchae be far off?

    63 BCE: Birthdate of Octavian who would reign as Caesar Augustus from 27 BCE to 14 CE. Augustus continued to follow the comparatively benign policies of his great-uncle Julius Caesar in dealing with the Jews.  He allowed Herod to rule a Kingdom of Judea.  Augustus was not blind to Herod’s moral shortcomings.  Combining his knowledge of Jewish dietary laws with Herod’s murderous treatment of his family, Augustus was reported to say that he would rather have been Herod’s pig than Herod’s son.  When Herod died, Augustus turned Judea into a province but he instructed the governors not to do anything that would be offensive to the Jewish population such as parading the Roman Eagle through the streets of Jerusalem.  He also sought to protect the rights of Jews living throughout the Empire including offering imperial protection for synagogues and exempting Jews from court appearance on Shabbat. Considering the track record of his successors, Augustus would be looked upon as a “good Roman Emperor.”

    1122: Signing of the Concordat of Worms. It was an agreement between Pope Calixtus II and Holy Roman Emperor Henry V that brought to an end the first phase of the power struggle between the Papacy and the Holy Roman Emperors. The Jews of Worms may have had a special affection for Calixtus II. In 1120, he had issued Sicut Judaeis, a Papal Bull that reiterated the Church’s protection of the Jews in the wake of the persecutions of the first Crusade. The Jewish community of Worms had been wiped out by Crusaders traveling to the Holy Land during the First Crusade.  Unfortunately, Christians ignored the words of the bull since the community was again slaughtered during the Second Crusade.

    1529:Siege of Vienna begins as Suleiman II begins his attack on the city. The Siege of Vienna of 1529, as distinct from the Battle of Vienna in 1683, represented the farthest Westward advance into Central Europe of the Ottoman Empire, and of all the clashes between the armies of Christianity and Islam might be signaled as the battle that finally stemmed the previously-unstoppable Turkish forces (though they continued their conquest of the Austrian-controlled parts of Hungary afterwards).

    1658(2ndof Tishrei): Nathaniel, son of Benjamin, son of Azriel Trabotti who was born in 1576 passed away today in Modena.

    1672: The Cossacks captured Satanow, Poland, one of the few Polish towns to have escaped harm until this date.  The Jewish populations would suffer accordingly.

    1720: In New York, Jacob and Abigal Franks gave birth to their youngest son, David who would side with the British during the American Revolution.As a young man, he moved to Philadelphia, where he became a successful merchant, engaging in land speculation, shipping, and fur trading; he was also a member of the Congregation Mikveh Israel. He was elected a member of the provincial assembly in 1748. Franks, with his wife Margaret Evans a member of one of Philadelphia's Christian families, was socially prominent in the city. During the French and Indian War, he was engaged by the government to supply the army with provisions. In 1755, upon the defeat of General Braddock, he helped to raise a fund of £5,000 for the further defense of the colony. He signed the Non-Importation Resolution of 1765, but eventually his loyalist tendencies won over. During the revolution, he was the king's agent for Pennsylvania. Perceived as a threat to the security of the United States, he was jailed briefly in 1778 by order of Congress, and then imprisoned again in 1780. He for a time owned and inhabited Woodford, a mansion in Germantown, now a National Historic Landmark. His nephew, Col. David Salisbury Franks, a revolutionary who served as aide to Benedict Arnold, came under further suspicion because of his relationship with his loyalist uncle. He died in October, 1794 in the United Kingdom

    1726: The torture of António José da Silva “a Portuguese-Brazilian dramatist, known as "the Jew" (O Judeu)” intensified.  Eventually he confessed to having followed Jewish practices, a confession that saved his life.

    1776(10th of Tishrei, 5537): Yom Kippur – American Jews fast for the first time as citizens of the newly independent United States

    1786(1stof Tishrei, 5547): Rosh Hashanah

    1795(10thof Tishrei, 5556): As the Russians, Prussians and Austrians negotiate the treaty that will result in the third and final partition of Poland, Jews observe Yom Kippur

    1820(15thof Tishrei, 5581): For the first time during the reign of King George IV of the UK, Jews observe Sukkoth

    1828(15thof Tishrei, 5589): Sukkoth is observed for the last time during the Presidency of John Q. Adams.

    1837 (13 Tishrei, 5598): On the secular calendar Rabbi Akiva Eiger of Posen passed away.   Born in 1761, he was a renowned scholar and leading Talmudist.  He was also a leading opponent of the Reform movement sweeping across German, one of the leading Talmudists in the first half of the nineteenth century. His devotion to the sick during a cholera epidemic earned him the recognition of Frederick William III     Rabbi Akiva Eiger not only taught Torah, he lived it as well.  It was his custom to invite poor people to his Seder and treat them as honored guests and not mendicants.  According to one story, a guest once accidentally spilled a cup of wine on the new white Pesach tablecloth.  Seeing how embarrassed the poor man was, the Rabbi quickly knocked over his own cup and then announced, "It seems that the table is not very steady. He interpreted many parts of the liturgy and the Torah as warnings against false leaders - a topic of great importance to him given what was happening in Germanyduring his life time.

    1837: Birthdate of Russian Jew Joseph Rabinowitz.

    1839(15thof Tishrei, 5600): Sukkoth

    1842:Caroline A. Carvalho and Emanuel Nunes Carvalho gave birth to David Nunes Carvalho

    1844(10thof Tishrei, 5605); Yom Kippur is observed for the last time during the Presidency of John Tyler, the first Vice President to become President following the death of the President.

    1845: In New York, Abigail and Asher Kursheedt gave birth to Frederick Adolph Kursheedt.

    1854(1stof Tishrei, 5615): Rosh Hashanah

    1854: In Cleveland, Ohio, the Marshall arrested two men named Cohen and Freehart for stealing valuable silks from several stores.  Both of them have been identified as English Jews.

    1860(7thof Tishrei, 5621): Caroline Steckler, the second wife of California merchant Charles Steckler passed away today.

    1863(10th of Tishrei, 5624): Yom Kippur

    1863:  Rabbi Samuel M. Isaacs delivered the Yom Kippur sermon at the synagogue on Wooster Street in NYC.

    1863: Rabbi Jacob M. Raphall gave the Yom Kippur sermon at the Greene Street Synagogue in NYC

    1863: Rabbi Samuel Adler delivered the Yom Kippur Sermon at Temple Emanu-El on 12thstreet in NYC.

    1863: Rabbi J.J. Lyons delivered the Yom Kippur Sermon at the Nineteenth Street Synagouge.

    1863: An article styled "Local Intelligence...The Yom Kippur" published today reported that

    Last night commenced the most solemn festival known to the Jewish faith -- the Yom Kippur, or Day of Atonement. From the most ancient down to the present time, it has been religiously and strictly observed by them and the Solemn warrant for its celebration is found in Leviticus, xvi., 29, where Moses, by the express command of God, designates the formula the festival. The great fast of 24 hours duration, there prescribed, commenced last evening at sunset, and will continue until sundown to-day. This morning all the synagogues in the City will be thronged with worshippers. every orthodox Jew deeming it absolutely indispensable to go this day at least, if upon no other in the year, to the conventicle of his people, and with full confession, make solemn and earnest atonement for his sins during the past twelvemonth. This, too, is the only day on which, according to the ancient rite in Judea, even the high priest dared to enter the "holy of holies,'' the inner sanctuary of the temple.”

    1864:Hebrew congregation Shaaray Tefila, which for fourteen years past has occupied a house of worship in Wooster-street, dedicated a new synagogue this afternoon with the usual ceremonies of the Jewish ritual. The new edifice erected by this congregation is situated in Broadway, between Thirty-fifth and Thirty-sixth streets, and is in every way a suitable and comfortable building. The interior is fitted up with great taste and at considerable expense. The woodwork is grained in imitation oak. The altar, the ark and the veil are of beautiful workmanship, and elaborately ornamented with gold and silver bullion letters and embroidered. The service of dedication in the Hebrew church is very solemn and imposing. After the psalms had been chanted by an excellent German choir under direction of Mr. Woolf, and the prescribed passages of Scripture had been read, the priest and deacons carried the scrolls of the law, in procession, three times around the synagogue, finally depositing them in the ark. The services concluded with an impressive address by the Rev. S.M. Isaacs, minister of the congregation. The building was crowded by a large and attentive audience.”

    1865: An association dedicated to building the first Jewish hospital in Philadelphia, PA was incorporated today.

    1868:El Grito de Lares (The Cry of Lares), the first major revolt against Spanish rule and call for independence in Puerto Rico began today in Lares, Puerto Rico. Among the participants were Mathias Brugman and his son Hector who had formed a revolutionary committee code named: "Capa Prieto" (Black Cape). The revolt failed.  The Spanish executed the Jewish revolutionaries who had refused to surrender to the authorities. Mathias Brugman was the son Pierre Brugman and Isabel Duliebre, two Dutch Jews who met and married in New Orleans where they raised their son. The family moved to Puerto Rico as part of the Spanish government’s attempt to get non-Hispanics to settle on the island.  Brugman’s participation in the revolution was a product of his setbacks as a coffee grower and disgust with the abusive rule Spanish rule.

    1871: As France continues to wrestle with the aftermath of the Paris Commune, it was reported today that an unidentified Jew has been passing himself off as a destitute refugee when in fact he had several hundreds of thousands of francs in his possession.  This has led to speculation that he is working for the government as spy informing the authorities of the activities of the communists.

    1873(2nd of Tishrei, 5634): Second Day of Rosh Hashanah

    1875: Leyser Lazarus began serving as president of the Jewish Theological Seminary of Breslau. He succeeded the legendary Zacharias Frankel who had passed earlier in the year.

    1876:Birthdate of Moshe Zvi Segal

    1881(29th of Elul, 5641): Erev Rosh Hashahnah

    1881: “The Jewish New Year” published today described the upcoming Jewish holiday season that begins with the start of “Rosh Hashono” this evening.  Business will be almost entirely suspended among the Jewish community during these holidays; all will united in welcoming the new year in a becoming manner.”

    1881: “Mourning For The Dead” published today described various plans to honor the late President Garefield including the plans of the “Young Men’s Hebrew Association to hold a memorial meeting in honor of the late President.”

    1882(10th of Tishrei, 5643): Yom Kippur

    1882: “The Fast of Yom Kippur” published today describes the importance of what “is regarded as the holiest day in the year.”  While for most Jews “neither food nor drink of any kind is allowed to pass” their lips, “among Reformed Jews the fast is not so strictly kept.”

    1883: A Jew named Henry Stern was reported today to have “swindled several persons at Asbury, NJ” including the cashier at the National Banking Company of Freehold and the owner of Patterson’s Opera House whom he convinced to cash fraudulent checks, one for $100 and the other for $80.(Obviously there has been a change in the idea of what constitutes a newsworthy financial crime in the last 100 years.)

    1883: Mrs. P. J. Joachaimsen was elected today to serve as President of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society in New York City.

    1883: “The Late Leon Halevy” published today, relying on information that first appeared in the Paris American Register described the death and career of the Leon Halevy, the son of playwright and novelist Ludvoic Halevy.

    1884: In New York City, the family of Sarah Schuer received telegrams that had been sent the young bride and her new husband, Henry C. Friedman from Saratoga saying that they were on their way to Niagara Falls. The couple had eloped last night and had gone to Saratoga to solemnize their marriage.  The bride is the 19 year old daughter of millionaire merchant Solomon Scheuer.  The 28 year old groom is a member of the New York Mining stock and National Petroleum Exchange.

    1884(4th of Tishrei, 5645): Sixty-seven year old Hermann Edler von Zeissi, the Austrian dermatologist who became an authority on skin diseases and syphilis while work at the General Hospital in Vienna passed away today.

    1887: Birthdate of Max Drob the Polish-born Rabbi with a most distinguished lineage, who became one of the major leaders of the Conservative Movement, "making it a bridge between the excesses of Reform and the rigidity of Orthodoxy."

    1887: Justice White presided over an unusual child custody case to at the Harlem Police Court.  Mr. and Mrs. William Lee, an African American couple, and Mr. and Mrs. Hirsch Brodcki, a Jewish couple each claimed that a nine year old girl now known Annie is there daughter.  According to the Brodcki, their daughter disappeared three years ago.  According to the Whites the child was given them by an unwed African domestic whose father was a white. 

    1887(5th of Tishrei, 5648): Sixty-eight year old Samuel Rossin, a resident of New York who was head of S. Rossin & Sons, a tobacco importing firm passed away today while visiting his daughter in the Adirondack Mountains.  A native of Bavaria who began his business in Toronto, he was a Director of the Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews.

    1888: “Jerusalem As  A Trade Center” published today relies on information that first appeared in the London Times to provide a snapshot of conditions in Palestine.  During the past year that in the past year exports from Jerusalem have exceeded imports, due in part to the good harvest in the area.  Two thirds of the goods that pass through Jaffa go on to Jerusalem which has become a market center for the Bedouins and villages farther to the east.  There has been a significant increase in the export of religious related art most of which goes to the United States and Europe.  While Jewish immigration has been limited by new Turkish regulations, the price of land has increased significantly due to the arrival of so many Jews from abroad.

    1889: A United States Deputy Marshall brought a prisoner before Immigration Commissioner Hitchcock in New York who will probably be deported if he proves to Simon Baruch, the Jewish swindler who is charged by Austrian authorities with making off with the equivalent of $150,000.

    1889:  Birthdate of Walter Lippmann.  Born in New York City, Lippmann was raised in comfortable circumstances by German-Jewish parents. A graduate of Harvard, Lippman began his career as a journalist.  During World War I he was both a captain in the Army (military intelligence) and Assistant Secretary of War.  Although his name is meaningless to many today, from the days of Woodrow Wilson through Lyndon Johnson, Lippmann was one America's leading journalists and political columnists.  During his the various stages of his career, Lippmann's writings were variously described as socialist, liberal and finally neo-conservative.  They were never characterized as being pro-Jewish.  He passed away in 1974. 

    1890(9thof Tishrei, 5656): Erev Yom Kippur

    1890: Anarchist Johann Most is scheduled to hold a mass meeting this evening at the Labor Lyceum on Myrtle Avenue for the purpose of mocking Yom Kippur and the Jewish religion.

    1890: In Brooklyn, Captain Ennis of the 6th Precinct and 100 reserves to possession of the Labor Lyceum and locked the doors to prevent Anarchist Johann Most from delivering a speech attacking Yom Kippur using language that “very much shocked” Mayor Chapin

    1890: A rabbi from a South Brooklyn congregation represented by Joel Krone will appear as plaintiff in a proceeding before the New York Supreme court seeking an injunction that will prevent Johann Most from holding a mass meeting tonight.  Speaking on behalf of Orthodox Jews, he is basing the request on the part of the Penal Code making “it a misdemeanor for person to assemble in such a manner as is adapted to disturb the public peace” and another section that defines “a public nuisance any act which annoys, injures or endangers the comfort, repose, health or safety of any consider number of persons.”

    1890: Jews in New Rochelle, NY will close their stores today in preparation for the observance of Yom Kippur.

    1892(23rdof Tishrei, 5653): 2nd Day of Rosh Hashanah

    1892: Four women died and untold hundreds more were injured when a fire broke out today at 27 Ludlow Street, a tenement building meant to hold 200 hundred people but that was filled with over a thousand Jews who were worshipping with one of the five congregations that were using the building for Rosh Hashanah services.

    1892: For the second day in a row, the Erie Street congregation of Russian Jews held services in the assembly room of the new Young Men’s Christian Association building despite the fact that there were two crosses on the front of the building.

    1892: According to statements by his son who is a physician, Dr. Gustav Gottheil, the rabbi at New York’s Temple Emanu-El is very sick and may be suffering from typhoid fever.

    1892: A fire broke out on Ludlow Street that left so many Jewish victims Jacob H. Schiff and the United Hebrew Charities would take a leading role in collecting funds to aid them.

    1893: Three Hebrew Anarchists – Carol Feldman (editor of the Freie Arbiter Stimme), Bernard Packman and Arthur Press were arraigned in the Essex Market Police Court for their role in a small riot sparked by their Anti-Yom Kippur Demonstration.  Feldman was discharged but Press and Packman were each fined $10.

    1893: Miss Clara Perry Thomas and David Solomon were married this evening by the rector of the Holy Trinity Episcopal Church in Harlem after she had gained his release from the Bloomingdale Asylum over the objections of his family.  They had asked Rabbi Maurice Harris of Temple Israel in Harlem but he refused.

    1894: Birthdate of Benjamin V. Cohen, a member of the administrations of Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman, had a public service career that spanned from the early New Deal through and beyond the Vietnam War era.  He passed away 1983.

    1894: “In all the synagogues” in New York the prayers offered before “the ten penitential days” known as Selicoth were offered today.

    1895: In Paterson, NJ, a Russian Cossack riding the parade of Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show attacked an 18 year old Jewish spectator, Bernard Benes, “severely lashing him” before being forced to stop several spectators.

    1896: Clara, Baroness von Hirsch, widow of Baron Moritz von Hirsch, signs the first copy of her last will and testament.

    1898: The Hebrew Infant Asylum of the City of New York was reported today to have purchased “a new home at 161st Street and Eagle Avenue” which it will soon be dedicating.

    1899: Birthdate of Louise Nevelson, one of the most important American sculptors of the twentieth century

    1899: Max Regis, the former Mayor Algiers and a notorious anti-Semite boarded a ship bound for Spain as he tries to escape from French authorities in North Africa who have arrested eight of his fellow anti-Semites.

    1899: Three thousand Jews met tonight in Chicago where they heard Leon Zolotkoff who had been a delegate to the Congress at Basel, declare “Palestine will be secured to us and the Zionist will colonize it.  The movement is under way, and I believe it will be a success.”

    1899: “Mark Twain and the Jews” published today takes issue with the humorist’s paper on the Jews that was published in Harper’s Magazine in which he says that “Jews constitute but one per cent of the human race.”  Reportedly there are seven million Jews in the world, meaning “they constitute less than one-half of l per cent” of the population. “Making due allowance for the number of Jews who conceal their religion Mark Twain’s estimate is twice as large as it should be.”

    1901(10th of Tishrei, 5662): Yom Kippur takes on an extra solemnity as the nation mourns the recent death of President McKinley who died at the hands of an assassin.

    1903(2nd of Tishrei, 5664): Second Day of Rosh Hashanah

    1904: In Siauliai, Lithuania Nathan Menachem Schapiro and Fanny Adelman Schapiro gave birth to Meir Schapiro. When he came to the United States in 1907, a government worker at Ellis Island changed his name from Meir to Meyer. As Dr. Meyer Schapiro became a professor at Columbia University, a multi-disciplinary critic and historian, galvanic teacher, lifelong radical and a pre-eminent figure in the intellectual life of New York.

    1907(15thof Tishrei, 5668): As a wave of foreign bank runs continue which will lead to the Panic of 1907 in the United States, Jews observe Sukkoth

    1911(1st of Tishrei, 5672): Rosh Hashanah

    1911: Arabs attacked Jewish worshipers in Jerusalemat the Western Wall on Rosh Hashanah, the Jewish New Year. About 60 worshipers were injured.

    1912: Anti-Jewish demonstrations took place in Sophia, Bulgaria in response to statements by the Chief Rabbi. Police were instructed to repress further disorders.

    1914: In London, Baron Édouard Alphonse de Rothschild and his wife, the former Germaine Alice Halphen gave birth to Baroness Bethsabée de Rothschild

    1914: “Peace Prayers in Chicago” published today described the prayerful response on Rosh Hashanah of the Jews in Chicago to the war raging in Europe.

    1914: In Washington, “officials expressed the view that Russia’s reported modification of stringent regulations against the Jews because of their loyal to the Government in the present European war might pave the way for an understanding” that would lead to the signing of a new treaty of commerce and navigation between the two countries.”

    1915(15thof Tishrei, 5676): As the French prepare to try and retake Champagne for a second time and Sukkoth and the British are fighting the Turks in Mesopotamia, the Jews observe Sukkoth.

    1918: Five hundred British cavalrymen captured Haifaand then moved north and captured Acre, much to the joy of the Jews who must have sensed that each British victory brought the Balfour Declaration that much closer to implementation.

    1919: Birthdate of Dr. Maurice M. Rapport, “a biochemist who helped isolate and name the neurotransmitter serotonin, which plays a role in regulating mood and mental states, and who first described its molecular structure, a development that led to the creation of a wide variety of psychiatric and other drugs..” (As reported by William Grimes)

    1920: In Baghdad, Yaakov Ben and Gorgia Ovadia gave birth to Ovadia Yoset “the spiritual leader of the ultra-Orthodox Shas Party.” (As reported by Isabel Kershner)

    1922(1stof Tishrei, 5683): Rosh Hashanah is observed for the last time during the Presidency of Warren G. Harding.

    1926(15thof Tishrei, 5687): As Jews observe Sukkoth, Gene Tunney defeated Jack Dempsey to become world Heavyweight Champion

    1927: U.S. Premiere of “Two Arabian Knights” an Oscar winning comedy directed by Lewis Mileston (Leib Milstein) and co-starring Louis Wolheim.

    1928: An article entitled “Random Note on Summer Art Season in Paris,” describes the works of Ruben of Palestine whose works are on display at the Galerie Druet. His canvases capture secenes from Dan to Beersheba including paintings of the new towns (Tel Aviv) and old cities (Jerusalem, Safed and Jaffa.)

    1928(9th of Tishrei, 5689): Erev Yom Kippur

    1928: On the second day of the Massena (NY) Blood Libel, the state police questioned a Jew named Morris Goldberg about the disappearance of four year old Barbara Griffiths who had been reported missing yesterday.  Goldberg was lacking in any real knowledge about his religion and may have left the police with the impression “that there might be some truth to the rumors that Jews engage in ritual murder. The police then interrogated Berel Brennglass, the rabbi at Adath Israel Synagogue “When asked about the allegations of ritual murder, Brennglass told the police and the town's mayor, who was present, that they should be ashamed for asking such questions. He expressed outrage that people believed such lies in the United States in the 20th century.”  “Barbara Griffiths was found in the woods later that afternoon roughly a mile from her home. She told authorities she had become lost during her walk and slept in the forest. Nevertheless, some citizens of Massena continued to believe that Griffiths had been kidnapped by the Jews. They attributed her safe return to the discovery of the Jews' plot. The Massena blood libel drew national attention. Through the efforts of Rabbi Brennglass, the American Jewish Committee and the American Jewish Congress denounced the town's leaders, prompting apologies from the mayor and the state police to the rabbi, the town's Jews, and all Jews of the United States.In his apology, the mayor wrote:
    In light of the solemn protest of my Jewish neighbors, I feel I ought to express clearly and unequivocally ... my sincere regret that by any act of commission or omission, I should have seemed to lend countenance ... to what I should have known to be a cruel libel imputing human sacrifice as a practice now or at any time in the history of the Jewish people.

    1929: Judge William M. Lewis national chairman of the United Palestine Appeal, who has just returned from Palestine, addressed the Men’s Brotherhood of the First United Presbyterian Church in Philadelphia.  Judge Lewis expressed the belief that the turmoil was based in economics not religion. He told the attendees that “envy of Arab landowners” and not the Wailing Wall “is at the basis of the conflict between Arabs and Jews in Palestine…”  “’the real trouble in Palestine is with the Arab landowners who still work their ground under the old feudal system with primitive methods... The Jews have introduced modern machinery and working conditions with the result that the Arab workers have shown dissatisfaction with their lot.  Racial and religious hatred has been inflamed as a consequence.”

    1930(1stof Tishrei, 5691): As the economy continues to spiral downward, Jews observe first Rosh Hashanah of the Great Depression.

    1933(3rdof Tishrei, 5649): No fast since it is Shabbat Shuvah

    1934: Outfielder Fred Sington made his major league debut with the Washington Senators.

    1936 (7th of Tishrei, 5697) Meier Dizengoff, one of the founders of Tel Aviv and its first and only Mayor, passed away at the age of 75.  Born in a village in Bessarabia where he received a typical Cheder/Yeshiva based education, Dizengoff moved to Kishineff with his parents and it is there he further his secular education at State run school.  Dizengoff first went to Palestine in 1891 where he failed in an attempt to start a glass factory that was intended to provide bottles for wine grown in Eretz Israel. Dizengoff returned to Russia but left in 1905 when he made Aliyah.  Dizengoff was one of those seemingly mythic figures who stood on a stand dune in 1909 and turned it into a modern metropolis that numbered 100,000 citizens on the day he passed away.

    1936:  A concentration camp opens at Sachsenhausen, Germany.

    1937: The Palestine Post reported that Palestinian Arabs indicated that they would refuse to Commission on Palestine.

    1938: Synagogues are burned to the ground in Cheb and Marienbad, ethnic-German towns in the Sudeten region of Czechoslovakia.

    1938:Fritz Löhner-Beda was transferred to the Buchenwald concentration camp” where “together with his fellow prisoner Hermann Leopoldi, he composed the famous anthem of the concentration camp, Das Buchenwaldlied ("The Buchenwald Song"):

    1939(10th of Tishrei, 5700): Yom Kippur

    1939(10th of Tishrei, 5700): Sigmund Freud, the father of psychoanalysis, died at the age of 83.

    1939: On the Jewish Day of Atonement, Jews across Poland are publicly humiliated by SS troops: forced labor, coerced shavings of beards, destruction of property, beatings, and forced dancing. At Piotrków, Poland, Jews are compelled to relieve themselves in the local synagogue school, then use prayer shawls and holy books to clean up the mess.

    1939: As the Nazis completed their conquest of Poland, Jews began to feel the persecution that would eventually become the Final Solution.

    1939: Polskie Radio was bombed by the Nazis today “shortly after broadcast the last Chopin recital played by Władysław "Wladek" Szpilman.”

    1940: SS chief Heinrich Himmler authorizes a special SS Reichsbank account to hold gold (including gold extracted from teeth), silver, jewelry, and foreign currency stolen from interned Jews. The account is held by the fictitious "Max Heiliger."

    1941(2nd of Tishrei, 5702): Rosh Hashanah

    1941:Meir Binem (Beniek) Wrzonski arrived at the Lodz ghetto and found out that his father Noah Wrzonski had passed away earlier in the day.

    1941: Gassing tests are conducted at Auschwitz.

    1941: 3500 Jews unable to escape from Ejszyszki, Lithuania, are locked in a synagogue and then moved to a cattle market, where they are denied food and water;

    1942: Over 2,000 Jews were deported from the "show ghetto" at Theresienstadt to the extermination camp of Maly Trostenents in the Soviet Union. Approximately 200,000 to 500,000 were murdered at the camp.  There were no known survivors.

    1942: Three of Sigmund Freud’s siblings – Regine Debora, Maria and Pauline Regine – were deported to Treblinka

    1942(12th of Tishrei, 5703): Twenty-four year old Soviet poet Paul Davidovich Kagan was killed by the Germans while leading a reconnaissance mission.

    1942(12th of Tishrei, 5703): Hundreds of Jews from Slovakia and 641 from France are gassed at Auschwitz.

    1942(12th of Tishrei, 5703): At the Treblinka death camp, 10,000 Jews from Szydlowiec, Poland, are killed.

    1942: British Home Secretary and Minister of Home Security Herbert Morrison opposed any further admission of Jewish immigrants into Britain. He fears this would encourage the French Vichy government to "dump" Jewish children into Britain.

    1942:New Yorker cartoonist William Steig and Liza (Mead) Steig, head of the fine arts department at Lesley College gave birth to Jazz flutist Jeremy Steig.

    1943: The Nazis liquidated the Vilna Ghetto. Eight thousand of the remaining 10,000 Jews were beaten, robbed and gathered in Rosasquare. One thousand, six hundred were selected to go to the labor camps in Estonia. Another 5,000 were sent to Majdanek and its new gas chambers. Hundreds of the old and sick were sent to Ponar and shot.

    1943: Birthdate of Henk Brink son of Henk Drogt,a Dutch policeman who joined the resistance movement after being ordered to round up Jews. Drogt, who was executed by the Nazis in 1944, was already recognized as a hero by former U.S. president Dwight D. Eisenhower, Britainand the Netherlandsfor his role in rescuing Allied pilots who ejected over occupied Holland. In 2008, Brink attended ceremonies at Yad Vashem where his father was recognized as A Righteous Among the Nations.

    1943: Birthdate of Ariel Zilber, the native of Tel Aviv who gained famed as a singer and songwriter who composed “Yes Din ViYesh Dayan (there is a judge and there is judgment)

    1944: Warner Bros. released “Arsenic and Old Loss” a comedy with a screenplay by Julius and Philip Epstein with music by Max Stiener

    1947(9thof Tishrei, 5708): Erev Yom Kippur – Jews hear Kol Nidre as the U.N. prepares to decide on the fate Palestine in its upcoming vote on partition.

    1951: Shortstop Al Richter made his major league debut with the Boston Red Sox.

    1951: Tonight, acting Egyptian minister of war Abd el-Fatha Hassahn charged Israel with unspecified violations in the area of Gaza on September 19.  The minister would not specify the nature of the violation saying only that they “did not constitute ‘armed aggression.’”

    1951: Today Menachem Begin was granted a six’s months leave of absence from his position as chairman of the Herut Party Center so that he can complete his studies for the upcoming bar examinations and complete a book on his World War II experiences focusing on his time in the Soviet Union.

    1951(22nd of Elul, 5711): Eighty-four year old Mrs. Annie Nathan Meyer, chief founder and trustee of Barnard College, died today of a coronary thrombosis in her residence at the Hotel Croydon, 12 East Eighty-six Street.

    1952:Agudat Yisrael and Poalei Agudat Yisrael left the coalition today shortly after disagreements over the conscription of women into the IDF leaving the government with only 60 of the 120 seats in the Knesset

    1952: The Jerusalem Post reported that two Israeli soldiers were wounded by Jordanians. Infiltrators from Jordan stole animals and irrigation pipes in the Jerusalem Corridor during Yom Kippur.

    1956: Shimon Peres met with French Defense Minister Bourges-Manouy to discuss increased shipment of French arms to Israel to offset the increase of modern arms being sent to Egyptand Syriaby the Soviets.  The French also were seeking to involve the Israelis in Operation Musketeer,, a joint Franco-British plan to land in Egyptand seize the Suez Canal which had been nationalized by Egyptian President Nasser.

    1956(18th of Tishrei, 5717):  A Jordanian soldier at a border post north of Bethlehem opened fired on a group of a hundred Israeli archaeologists who were examining the ancient ruins excavated at Rmat Rahal, the southernmost point of Jewish Jerusalem.  Four of the archaeologists were killed. One of the four was the daughter in law of Golda Meir.

    1959: In Newark, NJ, Ruth Minnie (née Simon), a nurse and health care administrator, and Alexander B. Greenspan, an accounting manager gave birth to Jay Scott Greenspan who gained fame as Jason Alexander best known for his portrayal of “George” on Seinfeld.

    1960(2nd of Tishrei, 5721): In his first year in Washington, DC, Rabbi Stanley Rabinowitz delivered th sermon at Adas Israel on the Second Day of Rosh Hashanah

    1961: “Milk & Honey” finished its pre-Broadway run at the Colonial Theatre and headed for its opening in New York City.

    1962: Leonard Bernstein led the inaugural concert of the New York Philharmonic in Philharmonic Hall (later renamed Avery Fisher Hall), Lincoln Center, NYC.

    1964: The Paris Opera unveils a stunning new ceiling painted as a gift by artist Marc Chagall, who spent much of his life in France.


    1968(1st of Tishrei, 5729): Rosh Hashanah

    1968: Jewish students who notify the proper authorities at the University of Minnesota are excused from the opening day of classes which coincided with the Jewish New Year.

    1972(15thof Tishrei, 5733): As McGovern and Nixon enter the last six weeks of the Presidential campaign, Jews observe Sukkoth.

    1974: Birthdate of Oscar nominated director Joshua Lincoln Oppenheimer who “is a 2014 recipient of the MacArthur "Genius" Award”

    1974: A Broadway revival of Gypsy – a product of Jule Styne, Stephen Sondheim and Arthur Laurents – opened at the Winter Garden

    1978: American actor Jay Adler passed away today at the age of 81.  He was the oldest child of Jacob and Sara Adler, leading actors in the Yiddish theatre.  He was the brother the famous acting duo, Luther Adler and Stella Adler.

    1979: An article entitled “What’s Doing in Tel Aviv” describes the various events planned for celebrating the 70th anniversary of the establishment of Israel’s largest city. 

    1983: NBC begins to broadcast the second season “Family Ties,” the sitcom created by Gary David Goldberg.

    1987(29thof Elul, 5747): Erev Rosh Hashanah

    1987: In Berlin, Isaac Newman became rabbi of the Rykestrasse Synagogue,

    1990:  Saddam Hussein announced that he would destroy Israel.

    1991(15thof Tishrei, 5752): Sukkoth

    1996(10thof Tishrei, 5757): Yom Kippur

    2001: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or about topics of Jewish interest including The Popes Against the Jews: The Vatican's Role in the Rise of Modern Anti-Semitism by David I. Kertzer, Canaries in the Mineshaft: Essays on Politics and Media by Renata Adler and Total Recallby Sara Paretsky

    2003(26th of Elul, 5763): Simcha Dinitz, the Israeli ambassador to the United States during the 1973 Arab-Israeli war, who played a crucial but disputed role in arranging an airlift of American military supplies to Israel, passed away today in Jerusalem at the age of 74. (As reported by Paul Lewis)

    2005:Tibor "Ted" Rubin a Hungarian-born Holocaust survivor, who immigrated to the United States in 1948, received the Medal of Honor today for his actions in the Korean War.

    2005: Loretta Weinberg won another round in her court battle to have all the ballots counted in her race for a seat in the New Jersey State Senate when the Appellate Court ruled that the challenged votes should be counted.

    2005:  The Jerusalem Post reported that the price of lulavs may triple this year after Egypt, in an attempt to prevent damage to its date trees, prohibited the export of palm branches, causing a severe shortage.

    2006 (Tishrei I, 5767): Rosh Hashanah

    2006: Louisa.Schoenbuam, granddaughter of Dr. David and Tamara Schoenbaum makes her first appearance in the world. This is a real reason to sound the Shofar!

    2007: The Sunday New York Times book section featured the following reviews of books with Jewish authors or Jewish subject matter: The Coldest Winter:America and the Korean WarbyDavid Halberstam, The Israel Lobby and U.S Foreign Policy by John J. Mearsheimer and Stephen M. Walt and and a study of the lives Gertrude Stein and Alice B. Tolkas entitled Two Lives: Gertrude and Alice by Janet Malcolm.

    2007: The Sunday Washington Post book section section featured the following reviews of books with Jewish authors or Jewish subject matter: A Drive in the County by Michael J. Rosen, The Age of Turbulence: Adventures in a New World by Alan Greenspan and The Coldest WinterAmerica and the Korean War by David Halberstam.

    2007: Iran announced that Christine and Dan Levinson, the wife and oldest son of the imprisoned Robert Levinson would be allowed to visit the country – a trip they hope will help him gain his freedom.

    2008: In Washington, D.C., the Chaim Kempner Author Series hosts a discussion with journalist Ariel Sabarfor his new memoir My Father's Paradise: A Son's Search for His Jewish Past in Kurdish Iraq.

    2008: Thomas Friedman discusses and signs his new book, Hot, Flat, and Crowded: Why We Need a Green Revolution--And How It Can Renew America, at the Sixth & I Historic Synagogue, which is the original site of Adas Israel, the only Conservative Congregation in the Washington, D.C. city limits.

    2008: A voting body of 150 rabbis and public servants convenes to vote for the Chief Rabbinate's governing council (moetzet harabanut harashit), the final authority on issues such as criteria for kosher supervision, deciding who is a Jew for the purpose of marriage and the appointment of new rabbis and marriage registrars.

    2008:Russian archaeologists said they had found the long-lost capital of the Khazar kingdom in southern Russia, a breakthrough for research on the ancient Jewish state. "This is a hugely important discovery," expedition organizer Dmitry Vasilyev told AFP by telephone from Astrakhan State University after returning from excavations near the village of Samosdelka, just north of the Caspian Sea.

    2008(23rd of Elul, 5768):Eighty-three  year old Joel N. Bloom, “who in his 21 years as director of the science museum and planetarium at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia transformed a lackluster exhibition space into a bright and appealing one with hands-on experiments and walk-through exhibits, including a giant, pulsing human cell” passed away today. (As reported by Dennis Hevesi)

    2009: The Center for Jewish History presents a lecture entitled  “Lessons and Legacies in Holocaust Survivor Families: Innovations in the Investigation of Intergenerational Responses” in which Dr. Hannah Kliger, Pennsylvania State University, Abington College describes the findings from her research that show the contribution of new methodologies for studying communication about trauma within Holocaust survivor families.

    2009: Sara Paretsky reads from and signs her new V.I. Warshawski novel, “Hardball,” at Barnes & Noble in Bethesda, MD

    2009: The Virginia Tech Hillel sponsors a lecture entitled “Looking for Jessica: Picturing the Jewish Woman in English Medieval Art” during which Carlee Bradbury, Radford University art history professor  talks about how Jewish women were looked at by Christians during the Middle Ages.

    2009 Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu is scheduled to meet with Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon today in New York.

    2010(15th of Tishrei, 5771): Sukkoth I

    2010: The first Kleztival is scheduled to open today in Sao Paulo. The event will mark the inauguration of the Instituto da Música Judaica Brasil, or Brazilian Jewish Music Institute.

    2010: When They Come for Us, We'll Be Gone: The Epic Struggle to Save Soviet Jewry by Gal Beckerman was published today

    2011: The head of the Palestinian Authority presents its statehood bid to the Security Council and then addressed the General Assembly.

    2011: Cantor Larry Paul and Robyn Helzner are scheduled to lead a Carlebach-inspired service at the Historic 6th& I Synagogue in Washington, DC followed by a communal Shabbat dinner.

    2011:Jurors found 10 Muslim students guilty today of disrupting a lecture by the Israeli ambassador at a California university in a case that stoked a spirited debate about free speech. Jurors delivered the verdicts in Orange County Superior Court in the case involving a speech by Ambassador Michael Oren in February 2010 at the University of California, Irvine.
    2011: Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said today that the Palestinians must first make peace with Israel, and only after get their state, during his address to the UN General Assembly in New York.
    2011:The IDF announced that forces on the Israel-Egypt border had been placed on high alert after threats were received that Hamas was planning terror activity in the area, the IDF spokesman's office stated.

    2011: Israel responded positively today, and the Palestinians negatively, to a formula for restarting negotiations issued by the Quartet that would place a December 2012 deadline on reaching an agreement

    2012: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors or of special interest to Jewish Readers including All Gone: A Memoir of My Mother’s Dementia: With Refreshments by Alex Witchel and the recently released paperback edition of The Escape Artists: How Obama’s Team Fumbled the Recovery by Noam Scheiber.

    2012: The headstone unveiling for Sue Katz, of blessed memory, the wife of Bert Katz, an honored pillar of the Cedar Rapids Jewish community, is scheduled to take place this afternoon at Eben Israel Cemetery.

    2012:Rabbi Alana Suskin and Rabbi Moshe Faierstein are scheduled to lead a study session on Yom Kippur at Tikvat Israel in Rockville, MD

    2012: The YIVO Institute for Jewish Present is scheduled to commemorate the lost Jewish community of Vilna at the Nusakh Vilne Memorial Lecture and Concert

    2012: Hundreds of mourners arrived in Modi'in early this morning to participate in the funeral of IDF Corporal Netanel Yahalomi, who was killed along the Egyptian border the day before yesterday.
    The 20-year-old Artillery Corps soldier was shot in the head by terrorists as he and his unit was reportedly giving water to African migrants who had arrived on the border. A second soldier was wounded in the attack. (As reported by Yaakov Lappin)

    2012(14th of Tishrei, 5773): Erev Sukkoth

    2012: Jewish Musical Tradition Echoes Through Ages by Jon Kalish

    2012(14th of Tishrei, 5773): Eighty-nine year old gerontologist Dr. Reubin Andres passed away. (As reported by Leslie Kaufman)

    2013: In Washington, DC, the Historic Sixth & I Synagogue is scheduled to host Café Night which will including “Basics and Beyond or Crash Course in Hebrew Reading” and class on “Your Adult Bar or Bat Mitzvah”

    2013: Israeli pianist Roman Rabinovich and the Jupiter musicians are scheduled to perform work by several Czech composers at the Good Shepherd Church in NYC.

    2013: At the Haifa Military Cemetery hundreds of mournours including comrades from the Givati Brigade attened the funderal of Tirat Harcamel native Sgt. Gal Gabrial  who had been murdered yesterday by a Palestinian terrorists as he stood guard over a group of Jews who had gone to Hebron as part of their celebration of Sukkoth.

    2013: Today Lithuania marked 70 years since Nazi Germany wiped out the Vilnius ghetto, all but obliterating the vibrant Jewish culture of a capital once known as the "Jerusalem of the North". 

    2014: “The House of Rothschild,” “Gentleman’s Agreement,” “Crossfire” and “Focus” are scheduled to be shown this evening when TCM presents the fourth in its series “the Jewish Experience on Film.”

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    September 24

    416: “Roman emperors Honorius and Theodosius II order that any Jews who have joined the Christian church to avoid punishments for crimes must be allowed to return to Judaism because, in the long run, Christianity will be better off without them.”

    622: Prophet Muhammad completes his hijra from Mecca to Medina. According to at least one source, Muhammad had gone to Medina by some of the local clans who were looking for an outside arbiter to settle the conflicts between the Arabs and members of a Jewish tribe called the Banu Qurayza.

    768: Pippin the Short, King of the Franks passed way. Pippin allowed the Jews of Narbonne in the territory of Septimania (modern day southern France) to enjoy a measure of freedom and prosperity in return for their help in fighting the Moors.

    1038: Jews in Granada celebrate a special Purim commemoration after the capture of the Muslim leader Ibn Abbas who was brought to Granada, killed, and beheaded by a rival (and Jewish tolerant) Muslim faction.

    1659: As part of an attempt by Anton Hulsisu to convert Jacob Abendana to Christianity, the two began a debate via correspondence over the meaning of a verse in the Book of Haggai: "The latter splendor of this house shall be greater than the former" (2:9), which Hulsius attempted to prove was a reference to the Church.” Unlike similar debates that had taken place in Spain and France, this exchange was amicable and posed no threat to the well-being of the Jewish community.

    1664: The Dutch Republic surrenders New Amsterdam to England. The English re-name the city after the Duke of York and call it New York since there was already a York in England. If it had not been for the name change we would all be looking at New Amsterdam style delis.

    1665: One of the two dates given for the death of Jacob Lumbrozo who was the first Jewish person to settle in Maryland, arriving in the colony controlled by the Calverts in 1656.

    1683: The Jews were expelled from all French possessions in America. The Jews would return to Quebec in 1759 when the British were victorious in the French and Indian War.

    1758: After yet another blood libel in Poland, the Jewish community sent Jacob Zelig to Rome to seek relief from the Pope. He convinced Pope Benedict XIV to start an investigation. Cardinal Ganganelli (Clement XVI) wrote an unequivocal condemnation of the libels and asked the Holy See to intervene in Poland to stop the accusations.

    1761: Birthdate of Dutch journalist, translator and author Moses ben Zaddik Belifante

    1768: Birthdate of historian Sharon Turner, the friend of Isaac D’Israeli who advised him to have his children, including Benjamin, baptized during the elder D’Isreali’s dispute with Bevis Marks Synagogue. 

    1789: The office of U.S. Attorney General was established. Edward Levi, an appointee of Republican President Gerald Ford, was the first Jewish Attorney General. He served from 1975 to 1977. Judge Michael Mukasey has been nominated by George Bush for the position. If approved, he will be only the second Jew to be nation’s top lawyer.

    1805(1stof Tishrei, 5566): Rosh Hashanah

    1814(10thof Tishrei, 5575): As the British forces continue to their trip through the Atlantic Ocean headed to their historic date with destiny in New Orleans, Jews observe Yom Kippur

    1832(29thof Elul, 5592): Erev Rosh Hashanah

    1832:Jews living in Sydney, Australia, gathered in Mr. Rowell's shop on George Street which has been fitted out as a synagogue to begin the observance of Rosh Hashanah.

    1841(9thof Tishrei, 5602): Kol Nidre

    1841(9thof Tishrei, 5602): Forty-one year old poet and teacher Abraham Basch passed away today.

    1855: Sir Charles Wilson received his first commission in the Royal Engineers. Wilson would put his engineering skills to good used when he would conduct the survey of Jerusalem in 1864 and 1865. He published his findings in Notes on the Ordinance Survey of Jerusalem

    1862(29th of Elul, 5622): Erev Rosh Hashanah

    1862: As Jews prepare to greet the New Year, fourteen governors declare their support for Lincoln’s recently issued Emancipation Proclamation proving that the New Year will be a time of new beginnings for those held in the bondage of slavery.

    1866(15th of Tishrei, 5627): Sukkoth

    1868: The Very Reverend Henry Hart Milman, an English historian and ecclesiastic, passed away. In 1829, Milman published History of the Jews, “which is memorable as the first by an English clergyman which treated the Jews as an Oriental tribe, recognized sheikhs and amirs in the Old Testament, sifted and classified documentary evidence, and evaded or minimized the miraculous.” It is not known how the Jews reacted to this work, but his fellow Christians were upset enough to slow his climb up the ecclesiastical ladder.

    1869: Birthdate of Alexander Büchler, the son of Talmudist Phineas Büchler, who became a rabbi and teacher in the Hungarian Jewish community. He was murdered at Auschwitz in July of 1944.

    1871: It was reported today that violence had broken out in El-Kesar, a Moroccan town with 9,000 inhabitants, a sizable number of whom are Jewish. The clash was between members of the Shereef family that had come from Fez to celebrate a wedding and people living in the surrounding mountains who decided to “join” in the festivities. After presenting their wedding gifts, this band of 2,000 mostly young men attacked and robbed the custom house and the local market. Then they went to the Jewish Quarter, beat the inhabitants, fired their rifles into their homes wounding many of the inhabitants and then took as plunder whatever they wished. They then left for their mountain homes.

    1872(21st of Elul, 5632): Hannah Leo, the wife of Henry Leo, who was President of the Auxiliary Society of the Mount Sinai Hospital in New York, passed away

    1876: Based on information that first appeared in the London Jewish Herald, it was reported today that for the past four or five years Jews have been returning to Palestine in unprecedented numbers. The Jewish population of Jerusalem has doubled in the past ten years. Most of the immigrants have come from Russia.

    1876: The Jews of Austin, Texas met at the Odd Fellows Hall and organized Congregation Beth Israel.

    1876: The Austin Daily Statesman noted that all other Texas cities of similar size had synagogues so “we can see no reason why Austin should not keep company with them.”

    1878: As the Yellow Fever Epidemic continues to grip the Deep South, it was reported today that the children of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum of New York “have received a touching letter from Isaacson & Sims of New Orleans acknowledging the receipt of $10.84” which the Jewish orphans had raised in small sums to provide relief for the 200 infants living at St. Vincent’s. Disease does not recognize religious differences and neither does extending a helping hand.

    1879: It was reported today that the Romanian legislators have rejected a motion that would have the government ignore the provisions of the Treaty of Berlin that called for the emancipation of the Jews. The legislators also rejected that the emancipation process be applied only to individual Jews. This clears the way for the government to introduce a measure that will provide full citizenship for the Jews living in Romania.
    1881(1st of Tishrei, 5642): Rosh Hashanah
    1881: In New York City, Louis and Mary Strauss Frankenthaler gave birth to State Supreme Court Justice Alfred Frankenthaler.
    1881: It was reported today that a special meeting of the Board of Deputies has been called to prepare a condolence message for the widow of the late President Garfield.  The Board of Deputies is the major organization representing the Jewish community in the United Kingdom

    1882: “Judicial Torture In Hungary” published today described events surrounding the disappearance of Christian girl at Tisza Eszlar and the arrest of  a married couple named Schart following claims that the Jews had killed her and “disposed of her remains.” The couple’s attorney has addressed a petition to the Minister President “revealing a state of things in Hungary worthy only of the Middle Ages.”

    1882: It was reported today that 17,693,643 Catholics living in Austria make up 92% of the population.  There are 1,005,394 Jews living in the country

    1882: “Il Giudeo” published today recounts the life of Il Giudeo, the 16thcentury Jewish renegade, from Smyrna who made his fortune sailing the Mediterranean
    1883: The “New Books Received” list published today included The Laws of Marriage, “containing the Hebrew and Roman law concerning the impediments to marriage and the dissolution of the marriage bond” by John Fuller and Hannah: One of the Strong Women by Julia McNair Wright.
    1883 “Caring For Poor Hebrew Children" published toay reported today that the Hebrews Sheltering and Guardian Society has cared for 418 children between the ages of 2 and 15 since it was opened.  Currently the society is taking care of 175 children, an increase of 55 since last year. Besides providing programs for poor children that include several summer excursions, the society has provided 8, 392 meals to poor Jewish citizens.
    1884: “Hebrew Society Startled” published today described the refusal of Mr. and Mrs. Solomon Scheuer to comment on events surrounding the elopement their daughter Sarah.  Sarah Scheur the 19 year old Jewish heiress left New York to run away with Henry C. Friedman, a stock broker who is ten years her senior and “well known as a society man.”

    1885(15th of Tishrei, 5646 Sukkoth is observed for the first time during the Presidency of Grover Cleveland.

    1886: In New Haven, CN, Father John Maloney of St. Johns Roman Catholic Church officiated at the marriage of one his parishioners,Kittie Cannon and David Bretzfelder, a 28 year old Jewish letter carrier

    1887:In New York, Judge White is scheduled to render in a child custody case which pits an African American couple named Lee and a Jewish couple named Brodcki against each other over a 9 year old girl each claim is theirs.
    1889: “Man and Money Captured” described events leading up to the arrest of Simon Baruch in Hoboken, New Jersey. When originally confronted by the police, he denied being the Austrian swindler since he only had one dollar in his pockets.  However, when he took authorities to his hotel room, they found a safe filled with “a large amount securities and cash” which gave credence to the charges leveled against him.
    1890(10thof Tishrei, 5651): Yom Kippur
    1890: Johann Most is scheduled to deliver a speech this afternoon at two in which he will denounce Yom Kippur and Judaism; a speech the police have been ordered to prevent even if it means arresting the anarchist
    1890: In New York, “the public schools presented the appearance of partial desertion” because all of the Jewish children “were their parent in the synagogues.
    1890: Joseph Fredlander, the rabbi at the orthodox synagogue on 57th street will lead Yom Kippur services at Lambden’s Hall in New Rochelle.
    1891: It was reported today, that 7,000 Jews left Berdichef today bound for Argentina which would seem to be impossible because there are no railroad facilities there than could handle such a large number of people.
    1892: “Pandemonium” broke out between two and three this morning at Camp Low in Sandy Hook, NJ when Polish Jewish immigrants became ill after gorging themselves following the New Year’s observance during which they did not eat.
    1892: During the Cholera outbreak in New York a young Jew named Samuel Machinsky “was allowed to lied on the sidewalk at the corner of Bowery and Houston Streets for two hours” tonight “before an ambulance” came to take him to the hospital.

    1893: “New York Honors Heine” published today described the fountain that the Arion Society will erect in honor of the poet whom Germany would not honor because, even though he had converted, he was too Jewish for the Germans.

    1895: “A report was received at the Department of State from Minister Clifton R. Breckinridge” containing “a copy of the laws and regulations bearing upon the admission of foreign Jews into Russia.  The information was requested” because “of the refusal of the Russian Consul at New York to issue passports to American citizens” who are Jewish.

    1895: As of today, the Cossack riding in Will Bill’s Parade in Paterson, NJ who began beating a Jewish spectator who called out to him, has not been apprehended.

    1896: “Santa Maria,” a comic opera “invented, written and composed by Oscar Hammerstein” opened tonight at the Olympia Theatre.

    1896: Birthdate of novelist F. Scott Fitzgerald. Fitzgerald’s most famous novel was The Great Gatsby. In one memorable scene, Gatsby and Nick lunch with Meyer Wolfshiem, a Jewish gambler who "fixed the 1919 World Series." Apparently Gatsby owes his financial good fortune to the shadowy Jewish gangster. Wolfshiem is a thinly veiled reference to Arnold Rothstein the man who supposedly fixed the 1919 World Series. Popular American culture blamed the sinister Jew for corrupting the national pastime. Fitzgerald portrayed Wolfshiem as the corrupting influence on the eager but pure WASP, Jay Gatsby.

    1898: Herzl addresses a letter to the Prince of Eulenberg, a German diplomat, pleading for an audience with Kaiser Wilhelm II before he leaves for Palestine.

    1899: At the Madison Avenue Presbyterian Church, in response to a request, Dr. Howard Agnew Johnson preached “a sermon on the existing prejudice against the Jew.”

    1899: In New York, American Zionist welcomed the delegates returning from the 3rdZionist Congress at Basel with a public reception at Cooper Union

    1899: “Zionist Success Predicted” published today described the creation of the Jewish Colonial Trust of London which “has a capital of $10,000,000 with 2,000,000 shares  more than 100,000 of which have been purchased.”

    1899: “The annual pilgrimage to the National Farm School” near Doyelstown, PA, took place today.  The school, the only one of its kind is “sustained and controlled by Jews from all over the country, it is open to boys of all creeds and nationalities.”

    1899: In Chicago, a mass meeting co-sponsored by the Grand Lodge of the Western Star is scheduled to take place at the Central Music Hall where attendees can express their displeasure with the Dreyfus verdict.

    1900(1st of Tishrei, 5661): Rosh Hashanah

    1900: Toward the end of Rosh Hashanah services at Temple Beth El, Dr. Kaufmann Kohler, Rabbi Emeritus of the congregation, announced that he wished all members of the congregation who desired their deceased family member’s names be mentioned in the upcoming memorial services on the Day of Atonement should send a list of such names to him. After he sat down, Rabbi Samuel Schulman rose from his seat, walked to the front of the pulpit and “said that he was the one who would read the memorial services, and that the names of the deceased to be announced should sent to him at his residence…There was much whispering among the congregation, many of whom remained after the service and discussed the affair in small groups.”

    1904(15th of Tishrei, 5665): Sukkoth

    1905: Plans are announced for the marriage of Miss Racie Friedenwald to Dr. Cyrus Adler, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, President of the Jewish Theological Seminary and one of the editors of the Jewish Encyclopedia. The wedding is scheduled to take place in Philadelphia, PA at Mikvah Israel with Rabbi Leon H. Elmaleh officiating.

    1908: Birthdate of composer and arranger Gertrude Rittman who fled Nazi German and created a career in the United Sates that began with composing the score for “Palestine at War” made by the Palestine Labor Commission before pursuing a career that produced such hits as “Brigadoon” and “South Pacific.”

    1909(9thof Tishrei, 5670): Erev Yom Kippur – for the first time Kol Nidre is chanted during the Presidency of William H. Taft

    1911: Birthdate of Austrian born American architect Henry P. Glass whose work includes “The Henry P. Glass House…the first passive solar house in America”

    1914: “Russian Treaty Now A Possibility” published today described hopes that the Czar’s government will be able to negotiated a new trade agreement with the United States which will replace the one that “became inoperative” in 1913 “because it was interpreted by Russia as permitting the exclusion of American Jews from her dominions.”

    1914: According to a wireless sent by the government in Berlin, “the Russians have brutalized the Jewish inhabitants in all places which they have occupied in Galicia.” The Russians incite the Ruthenian peasants and “hand over the Jewish property” to them.  “This contrasts…with the Czars manifesto to ‘his beloved Jews.’”

    1914: The Austro-Hungarian Consulate General in New York made public the a communique from the “Israelitische Alliance of Vienna” to the American Jewish Committee of New York asking that money be sent through the embassy to aid the Jews who have fled Austrian territories seized by the Russians and expressing their belief that American Jews would support Austria in its war “to obtain human rights for” the oppressed Russian Jews.

    1918: The 4thCavalry Division and the Australian Mounted Division completed their four day long round up of the “demoralized and disorganized Turkish troops in the Jezreel Valley”

    1921: Birthdate of sportscaster Jim McKay, who is not Jewish. McKay was covering the 1972 Olympics for ABC. He provided moving coverage of the seizure of the Israeli Olympic Team by Palestinian terrorists.

    1922(2nd of Tishrei, 5683): Second Day of Rosh Hashanah

    1926(16thof Tishrei, 5687): Second day of Sukkoth

    1926: In Cincinnati, Ohio, Rabbi James Heller is scheduled to conduct the funeral services of Rabbi Louis Grossman whose body is supposed to arrive this morning from Detroit where he passed away.

    1928 (10th of Tishrei, 5689): Yom Kippur is observed for the last time during the Presidency of Calvin Coolidge.

    1928: On Yom Kippur the Jerusalem police interfered with the worshipers who resisted the removal of a screen separating the men and women. Jews at their Yom Kippur prayers at the Western Wall placed chairs and customary screens between the men and women present. Jerusalem commissioner Edward Keith-Roach, while visiting the Muslim religious court overlooking the prayer area, pointed out the screen, precipitating emotional protests and demands from the assembled sheiks that it be removed. Unless it was taken down, they said, they would not be responsible for what happened. This was described as violating the Ottoman status quo that forbade Jews from making any construction in the Western Wall area, though such screens had been put up from time to time. The British issued an ultimatum for its removal. When police officers in riot gear were then sent in, a scuffle took place with worshippers and the screen in question was destroyed. The intervention drew censure later from senior officials who judged that excessive force had been exercised without good reason. Haj Amin al Husseini, the Mufti of Jerusalem exploited the incident by distributing leaflets to Arabs in Palestine and throughout the Arab world which claimed that the Jews were planning to take over the al-Aqsa Mosque. One consequence was that Jewish worshippers frequently were subjected to beatings and stoning

    1928: On the Day of Atonement, the local rabbi of Massena, New York was called to police headquarters to answer charges of ritual murder after a four-year-old girl disappeared. This is part of the event known as the Massena Blood Libel.

    1930(2ndof Tishrei, 5691): 2nd day of Rosh Hashanah

    1930: “Once in a Lifetime” the first of 8 plays on which Moss Hart and George S. Kaufman collaborated opened at the Music Box Theatre in New York City.

    1932; Birthdate of Joanne Greenberg, author of 12 novels and four collections of short stories, including the bestselling I Never Promised You a Rose Garden

    1933(4th of Tishrei, 5694): Tzom Gedaliah

    1933: Dr. Ferdinand Blumenthal, a leading German oncologist, was forced to retire which forced him to move Vienna so he could continue his research.  (The doctor would have to move again when the Nazi’s annexed Austria which is why he was in Riga when died in 1941)

    1934(15thof Tishrei, 5695): Sukkoth

    1936: More than 120,000 Jews from all parts of Palestine paid a last tribute to Meier Dizengoff, Mayor of Tel-Aviv, as his funeral procession passed through the principal streets of the city this morning from the Tel-Aviv Museum where his body had lying in state, to the cemetery. Pall bearers included Tel Aviv’s vice mayors I. Rokach and Dov Hos. In honor of Dizengoff’s wishes there were no eulogies and children, whom he considered “flower of Palestinian Jewry,” escorted his remains to the grave. He was buried between the grave of his late wife and those of Max Nordau and Achad Haam.

    1937: “The ‘120 greatest living Jews’ were named today to a Jewish Hall of Fame selected in a world-wide poll by The Ivrim, the honor society of Chicago Jewish students. Their purpose was to hold up ‘living ideals’ to Jewish youth, and they required only that nominees must have been alive on Rosh Hashanah (Jewish New Year) of 5697 (Sept. 28, 1936). Albert Einstein, actor Paul Muni, Secretary of the Treasury Morgenthau and Supreme Court Justices Brandeis and Cardozo won election to the group.” Seven nominees had passed away including Adolph Ochs publisher of the New York Times, businessman Percy Selden Straus, pianist Ossip Ga-Crilowitsch, journalist Jacob de Haas, composer George Gershwin, psychiatrist Dr. Alfred Adler and the Mayor of Tel Aviv, Meier Dizengoff.

    1937: The Palestine Post reported that the Sixth Political Committee of the League of Nations concluded the Palestine debate with a statement by Lord Cranborne who assured the delegates, representing all interested countries, that their views would receive full consideration of the British government. He added that his government was open-minded and quite willing to carry out all suitable recommendations. The next step, it was agreed unanimously, was to wait for the report of a new British commission, a special body which was be sent to Palestine in order to recommend ways and means of implementing the country's partition. The Post published the full texts of Mr. Philly's and Lord Samuel's testimonies made for the benefit of the Royal (Peel) Commission on Palestine.

    1938: Hank Greenberg hits his 55th and 56th home runs of the year. In the remeaing 9 games of the season, Greenberg needs to hit 4 four-baggers to tie Ruth and 5 round trippers to supass Ruth’s record.

    1938(21st of Elul, 5698): Russian born mathematician Lev Schnirelmann passed away

    1939(11thof Tishrei, 5700): Seventy-two year old pioneer movie mogul Carl Laemmle who helped to found Universal Studios and who worked to save Jews from Nazi Germany, passed away today.

    1940: Director Veit Harlan's anti-Semitic film Jud Süss premieres in Berlin.

    1941(3rd of Tishrei, 5702):Tzom Gedaliah

    1941: In Scarsdale, NY “Leopold Vail Epstein (the son of Jewish immigrants who had changed his name to Lee Eastman) and Louise Lindner Eastman (daughter of the founder of the Lindner Company clothing store)” gave birth to Linda Eastman who married Paul McCartney in 1969.

    1941: Two thousand women and children were taken from the Wolkowysk Ghetto and murdered. Wolkowysk was located in southeastern Lithuania.

    1942: At the urging of von Ribbentrop, Martin Luther, of the German Foreign Ministry began plans to set up negotiations between the governments of Bulgaria, Hungary and Denmark with the object of starting the evacuation of the Jews of these countries. The evacuations meant trips to the death camps for the Jews. The fate of the Jewish communities in each of these countries is an interesting story in and of itself. Bulgarian Jews would enjoy the intervention of the Papal Nuncio who would later be a Pope. Raoul Wallenberg intervened in an attempt to save the Jews of Hungary. The Jews of Denmark were saved by the gutsy intervention of the crews of the Danish fishing fleet.

    1942: British Home Secretary and Minister of Home Security Herbert Morrison opposes any further admission of Jewish immigrants into Britain. He fears this would encourage the French Vichy government to "dump" Jewish children into Britain.

    1943: Himmler secretly ordered the Gestapo chief in Rome to arrest all of the Jews in the city.

    1944: The 45thInfantry Division, a unit that includes Raul Hilberg, took the French town of Epinal.

    1944: Having murdered 400,000 Jews over the summer at Birkenau, the gassings slowed down. A comparative few 200 Sonderkommando prisoners were to be gassed. Only 661 Sonderkommando were left at the camp to be party to the continuation of the German dirty work.

    1945: Five months after the Nazis had surrendered a pogrom took play at Topoľčany, Czechoslovakia, known as the Topoľčany Pogrom in which at least 48 Jewswere “injured.” “There were about 3,200 Jews living in Topoľčany before World War II, of which 550 survived the Holocaust and returned to the town after the war ended. Anti-Semitism was widespread at that time due to both Slovak state official policy and also the strong economic position of Jews, which contrasted with a lack of basic commodities among the majority population. According to the protocol of county police boss Zidor, rumors began to spread in the town two days before the pogrom that Jews are about to overtake a local church school. The school was run by Catholic nuns at that time. Also, there were rumors that Jews had already created a separate classroom for Jewish children, in which they desecrated a crucifix. Further, according to rumors, the Jews were said to had overtaken a school in the nearby village of Bojná, run by Catholic monks. Local women wanted to protest against the rumored actions, but local authorities refused them. A pack of people, mostly women, then entered the school. Coincidentally, a Jewish doctor was at the time vaccinating children against smallpox in one of the school's classrooms. Some of the vaccinated children cried, which gave base for a new rumor to spread among the angry crowd: a Jewish doctor poisons Slovak children! People then attacked and beat the doctor. As new rumors spread to the streets, many more Jews were beaten both in the streets and in their homes. Jewish property was plundered in the process.” [Jews who sought to return to their home towns after the war suffered similar greetings. The non-Jews who had moved into the homes of the Jews or taken over their businesses during the Holocaust did not want to give up their new found wealth.]

    1945: A private funeral service is scheduled to be held today for Judge Irving Lehman, the brother of former Governor Herman Lehman. Dr. Nathan A. Perilman, associate rabbi of Congregation Emanu-El will officiate with burial in the family plot in Cypress Hills Cemetery.

    1947(10thof Tishrei, 5708): Yom Kippur

    1947: Today, the House Un-American Committee (HUAC) grilled Hanns Eisler the Jewish composer who had fled Nazi Europe before World War II.

    1948: Operation Velvetta, a secret mission designed to deliver Supermarine Spitfires purchased from Czechoslovakia to Israel began today with a flight of 60 aircraft from Czechoslovakia to an abandoned Luftwaffe airbase at Nikšić , Yugolsavia.

    1949(1st of Tishrei, 5710): Rosh Hashanah

    1949: Israelis celebrate their first Rosh Hashanah in “peace” i.e. after the truce agreements had been signed with the Arab states that had attempted to destroy the Jewish state.

    1950: A series of meetings focused on the economy which the Israeli government had begun on September 1 came to an end without any official announcements or public policy changes. The meeting had focused on the failure of the program imposed in August that centered around rationing clothes and shoes. The three smaller parties making up the four-party coalition government were highly critical of Supply Minister Bernard Joseph who had overseen what they see as they failed rationing program. The Mapai Party, the largest member of the coalition seemed to clinging to it socialist policies and pedigree. No decision was made on proposals to move a little more towards a free-market economy; proposals that “included relaxation of controls for imports and trade in foreign exchange.”

    1950: During "Operation Magic Carpet", most of the Jews living in Yemen are transported to Israel

    1951: While the Israeli government said that it was studying the newly circulated peace proposals from the United Nations Palestine conciliation Commission, an Arab spokesman representing the views of Egypt, Lebanon, Syria and Jordan rejected the proposal as “unneeded,” unwanted” or “old stories” or that they covered matters beyond the scope of the Commission’s area of responsibility.

    1952: The Jerusalem Post reported that Barbara Propper, 22, a member of Sde Boker, was shot and killed while tending a herd of goats some 300 meters from the kibbutz. Infiltrators from Jordan fired at Jerusalem Corridor settlers in an attempt to steal irrigation pipes and cattle.

    1952: The Post reported that the Austrian government expressed its willingness to negotiate a global restitution settlement with the Jewish people, calculated in proportion to the reparation agreement agreed upon with West Germany. After World War II, Austrians liked to portray themselves as the first victims of Nazi aggression. The open arms with which the Austrians welcomed the Nazis belied that claim as does this attempt to make financial restitution.

    1957: The Brooklyn Dodgers defeat the Pittsburgh Pirates in their last game in Ebbets Field. The Dodgers would move to LA for the 1958 season. With Brooklyn’s large Jewish population, the Beloved Bums enjoyed a disproportionately large amount of support from Jewish fans. In New York, the split among Jews was not Ashkenazim versus Sephardim or Orthodox versus Reform; the real split was between Jews who rooted for the Yankees and the Jews who rooted for the Dodgers when they would face each other in those Subway Series.

    1957: President Dwight D. Eisenhower sends United States National Guard troops to Little Rock, Arkansas, to enforce the rulings of the federal court system which banned school segregation. When the segregationist forces led by Orville Faubus would attempt to close the Little Rock school system to maintain racial segregation, Harry Ehrenberg, Sr., a leading member of the Jewish community would seek signatures for petitions to keep the schools open. Harry Ehrenberg, Jr. has carried on the family tradition of active participation in the Jewish community and supporting the causes of “the widow, the orphan and the stranger in your midst.

    1958(10thof Tishrei, 5719): Yom Kippur

    1961: Birthdate of Christopher L. Eisgruber, the President of Princeton University, who “while helping his son with a school project…discovered his Berlin-born mother, who had arrived in New York as an eight-year-old refugee, was Jewish”, leading him to identify “as a nontheist Jews” and claim a reward from the Holocaust claims tribunal.

    1966(10thof Tishrei, 5726): Yom Kippur

    1966(10thof Tishrei, 5726): Eighty-five year old Vera Weizmann, the widow of the great Zionist leader Chiam Weizmann passed away.


    1968(2ndof Tishrei, 5729): Second day of Rosh Hashanah

    1968: The first “60 Minutes” was broadcast. Don Hewitt and Robert Chandler, two Jews, played a key role in creating America’s first and most successful television newsmagazine.

    1976(29thof Elul, 5736): Erev Rosh Hashanah

    1976(29thof Elul, 5736): Ninety-five year old  Sophie Lazarsfield an “Austrian-American therapist and writer” who was the wife of Robert Lazarsfeld, the mother of Paul Lazarsfeld and a student of Alfred Adler passed away today in New York City.

    1977: President Carter sent a letter to Prime Minister Begin strongly expressing his displeasure over the fact that Israeli forces had crossed into Lebanon to help Christian militias repel new attacks by PLO units under Yasser Arafat’s command. In that unique form of Carter even-handedness, no such expression of displeasure was sent to Arafat.

    1987(1stof Tishrei, 5748): Rosh Hashanah

    1987: The fourth season of “The Cosby Show” co-created by Ed Weinberger begins to air on NBC tonight.

    1989: The sixth season of “The Cosby Show” co-created by Ed Weinberger begins to air on NBC tonight.

    1993(9thof Tishrei, 5754): Erev Yom Kippur

    1993(9thof Tishrei, 5754):Yigal Vaknin was stabbed to death by terrorists in an orchard near the trailer home where he lived near the village of Basra. A squad of the Hamas' Iz a-Din al Kassam claimed responsibility for the attack.

    1994: Fifty-seven year old Muhammed Wattad an Arab Israeli who served in the Knesset between 1981 and 1988 passed away today.

    1994: Robert Badinter began serving as French Senator from Hauts-de-Seine.

    1995: Israel and the PLO agreed to sign a pact at the White House ending nearly three decades of Israeli occupation of West Bank cities.

    2000: The New York Timesfeatured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or about topics of Jewish interest including The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier & Clay by Michael Chabon, The Moral Obligation to be Intelligent: Selected Essays by Lionel Trilling; edited by Leon Wieseltier and Only Yesterday by S. Y. Agnon; translated by Barbara Harshav.

    2001: In a column in today’s edition of the New Yorker, following 9/11, Susan Sontag criticized U.S. public officials and media commentators for trying to convince the American public that "everything is O.K."

    2003: Norman Finkelstein “calls Professor Alan Dershowitz’s new book on Israel a ‘hoax’”

    2004(9th of Tishrei, 5765): Erev Yom Kippur

    2004: At sunset, as Yom Kippur begins traditional services will be held in Cedar Rapids, IA. Traditional High Holiday services have been held for more than a century in “The City of Five Seasons.” The services began at Beth Jacob, the Orthodox Synagogue founded in 1906 and have continued as the "downstairs minyan" at Temple Judah. It is a tribute to the resiliency and the cooperative nature of the Jewish Community in Cedar Rapids and at Temple Judah that this service has continued for over a century.

    2005: Haaretz reported that Raphael Izraelov, a 28-year-old Israeli, is being hailed as a hero for his work with victims of Hurricane Katrina. With Texas bracing for Hurricane Rita, the Red Cross has put Izraelov in charge of survivors with "special needs" - hundreds of people with various kinds of disabilities and mental illnesses, and solitary elderly people. Izraelov never imagined when he took a first aid course in the Israel Defense Forces - the only training he has in this area - that he would receive such a responsibility. Karen Dewitt, a volunteer from a local law firm, describes Izraelov as a local hero. "I feel he brought his experience from the Israeli army here," she said.

    2005: Lewis Black recorded “The Carnegie Hall Performance” which won the Grammy for Best Comedy Album.

    2006: 2nd of Tishrei, 5767): Second day of Rosh Hashanah

    2006: In one of the ironies of the world of calendars the first day of Ramadan falls on the second day of Rosh Hashanah.

    2006. The Sunday New York Timesfeatured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including How Bush Rules; Chronicles of a radical regimeby Sidney Blumenthal, Creationist: Selected Essays, 1993-2006 by E.L. Doctorow, Supermob: How Sidney Korshak and His Criminal Associates Became Americas Hidden Power Brokers by Gus Russo and The Lost: A Search for Six of Six Million by Daniel Mendelssohn.

    2006:The Washington Post featured a review of The Greatest Story Ever Told by Frank Rich.


    2006: The Chicago Tribune featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Creationist: Selected Essays, 1993-2006 by E.L. Doctorow, Friendship: An Expose, the latest work by Joseph Epstein, social commentator, author and Northwestern University emeritus professor of English and Supermob: How Sidney Korshak and His Criminal Associates Became Americas Hidden Power Brokers by Gus Russo. Russo’s book offers a detailed picture of the role played by Chicago based Jews in the growth of the underworld. Two of the more interesting revelations concern the role that the Supermob played in the building of the Pritzker’s family fortune (Hyatt Hotels) and the growth of Music Corporation of America (MCA) the giant talent agency headed by Jules Stein and Lew Wasserman.

    2007: The face of Alan Greenspan graces the cover of Newsweek magazine as the former chairman of the Federal Reserve Board provides the source for the magazine’s cover story, “The World According to Greenspan.” Greenspan, like his successor, is Jewish.

    2007: Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, a Holocaust denier who has called for the destruction of Israel, is slated to speak at Columbia University in New York City. Michael Bloomberg, the Jewish mayor of New York City, will be responsible for providing security protection for the visit.

    2007: Swastikas were discovered this evening at the tops of exterior staircases at two synagogues in Brooklyn Heights, and the police are actively investigating the vandalism as a possible bias crime. The two synagogues are Congregation B’Nai Avraham, an Orthodox synagogue at 117 Remsen Street, and the Brooklyn Heights Synagogue a Reform synagogue at 131 Remsen Street.


    2008: In Washington, The Hyman S. & Freda Bernstein Jewish Literary Festival comes to a close.

    2009: The Center for Jewish History is scheduled to present a lecture by Jan-Pieter Barbian, Director of the Duisburg Municipal Library entitled “After the Book Burning: Publishing in Hitler's Germany.”

    2009: As part of its Fall Colloquium and Film Series Tulane University's Jewish Studies department is scheduled to present Hanna Wise Heiting's lecture on "Rite de Sortie"

    2009 Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu is scheduled to address the United Nations General Assembly.

    2009: Mark A. Grey, Michele Devlin and Aaron Goldsmith are scheduled to discuss their new book “Postville, U.S.A.” at Barnes and Noble in Cedar Rapids, Iowa.

    2009: Former MK Avraham Hirschson appealed his conviction to the Supreme Court of Israel. Hirschson had been found guilty of charges that he had embezzled millions of shekels from the National Workers Labor Federation while serving as its chairman. He was sentenced to a prison term of five years and fined 450,000 shekels.

    2009(6th of Tishrei, 5770): Eighty-nine year old Joseph Gurwin, the Lithuanian born American businessman and philanthropist who was duped by Bernard Madoff, passed away today (As reported by Douglas Martin)

    2009: Leonard Cohen completed his concert tour by appearing at Rat Gan Stadium in Tel Aviv where “at the end of the show he blessed the crowd with the Priestly Benediction.”

    2010: The New York Film festival is scheduled to open with a showing “The Social Network,” a biting tale of the Silicon Valley giant Facebook and its founder Mark Zuckerberg.

    2010: “Ahead of Time” is scheduled to open in Los Angeles at the Laemmle Theaters

    2010(16th of Tishrei, 5771): Second Day of Sukkoth.

    2010: The New York Times reviews books by Jewish authors including Aftershock: The Next Economy and America’s Futureby Robert B. Reich.

    2010: Mark Zuckerberg, founder of Facebook and America’s youngest billionaire, announced his biggest expenditure to date: a $100 million grant aimed at improving public education in Newark, in partnership with Cory A. Booker, the city’s mayor, and Chris Christie, New Jersey’s governor.

    2010: Yossi Alfi will deliver a talk today entitled “The ten basic principles of the storyteller in the community” at an international conference which is part of the International Storytelling Festival in Givatayim.

    2010: The New York Film festival is scheduled to open with a showing “The Social Network,” a biting tale of the Silicon Valley giant Facebook and its founder Mark Zuckerberg.

    2010: Students from all three Bexley (Ohio) elementary schools spent this morning dropping eggs from the third floor of the Cassingham Complex. The egg-dropping exercise was part of the school district's STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) initiative. Jacob Levin's egg carrier worked fine when dropped from the first floor. The carrier had a door that opened when students dropped it from the third floor for a trial run. "When we dropped it from the third floor it opened and the egg bounced out," he said.His egg carrier was constructed of cardboard, plastic bags, toilet paper rolls, paper towels, and masking tape. He also had an issue with size. The first egg carrier had to be redesigned.


    2011: Chief Chazzan Chaim Adler is scheduled to officiate at Selchot at the Jerusalem Great Synagogue accompanied by The Jerusalem Great Synagogue Choir conducted by Elli Jaffe. Israel's Chief Rabbi, the Rishon L'Zion, Rabbi Shlomo Moshe Amar is scheduled to deliver the Davar Torah

    2011: The Selichot observance at Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids will include the Changing of the Torah Covers and a study session led by Rabbi Todd Talblum on the story of Hannah from the Haftarah for Rosh Hashanah as well as the penitential prayers for the evening.

    2011(25thof Elul, 5771): Ninety-six year old Anglo-Jewish poet Emanuel Litvinoff  known for his memoir Journey Through A Small Village and his poetry that exposed the anti-Semitism of T.S. Eliot, passed away today. (As reported by Margalit Fox)

    2012: Davey and Peter Rothbart are scheduled to appear at the Historic Sixth & I Synagogue where they will discuss Davey’s latest book, My Heart is an Idiot and Peter’s new album, “You Are What You Dream.”

    2012: “A family spokesman announced that Bonnie Franklin had pancreatic cancer and was undergoing treatment.”

    2012:"I Survived the Holocaust: Anna Brands's personal account of life between 1939-1945" by Mark Bernat is scheduled to be presented at the University of Iowa.

    2012: It was reported today that “an obscure militant group based in Egypt’s North Sinai region claimed responsibility over the weekend for a cross-border attack that killed an Israeli soldier last week. The claim called fresh attention to the uphill struggle the newly formed Egyptian government is facing to control the restive Sinai region.”

    2012: Defense Minister Ehud Barak called for a unilateral pullout from much of the West Bank in published comments today, saying Israel must take “practical steps” if peace efforts with the Palestinians remain stalled.

    2013: Yityish Aynaw, 21, the first Ethiopian-born woman to win the Israeli beauty pageant is scheduled to deliver a message about Jewish diversity at the JCC of Northern Virginia in Fairfax, VA

    2013: Mike Ross, the son of Holocaust survivor Stephen Ross, who first visited Israel at the age of 17, is one of the candidates running in today’s Mayoral Primary where the Democrats will choose their candidate of the upcoming Boston general election in November.

    2013: The Center for Jewish History is scheduled to host a panel discussion based on “the newly published Totally Unofficial: The Autobiography of Raphael Lemkin by Dona-Lee Frieze.

    2013: The San Diego Center for Jewish Culture is scheduled to sponsor an all-day event “Sukkot at the Ranch including Rabbi Gabi Arad’s examination of kabbalistic rites related to the festival.

    2013: Friends and family of Arnold Bucksbaum, a pillar of the Cedar Rapids Jewish Community, prepare to celebrate his 88th birthday.

    2013: According to a criminal complaint filed today, William E. Rapfogel the leader of the Metropolitan New York Council on Jewish Poverty and two accomplices stole over $5 million during the last twenty years.

    2013: Jerusalem police closed the Temple Mount to non-Muslim visitors this morning, citing security concerns — a surprise announcement that caused many holiday pilgrims and tourists to be turned away at the site. (Gavriel Fiske)

    2014: In Grand Forks, ND, B’nai Israel erev Rosh Hashanah services will be followed by a congregational oneg.

    2014: Friends and family of Arnold Bucksbaum, a pillar of the Cedar Rapids Jewish Community, prepare to celebrate his 89th birthday.

    2014(29thof Elul): Erev Rosh Hashanah

    שנה טובה, כתיבה וחתימה טובה.

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    September 25

    275: Marcus Claudius Tacitus appointed Roman emperor by the senate. By now the Roman Empire was in decline and Emperor’s served at the pleasure of the Army.  In the case of Tacitus, that meant a mere six months.  One of the Emperor’s greatest claims to fame was his relationship to the Tacitus, the famous first century Roman historian.  When it came to writing about the Jews, Tacitus (the historian) was not bothered by the facts.  He helped to propagate the claim that the ancient Israelites were a group of plague-infested Egyptians who were driven into the desert to die.  In his Histories sounded themes that would be the staple of anti-Semites for the next two thousand years.  Jewish customs were vile and disgusting.  The vileness of their customs were actually the source of their strength.  Jews were compassionate and honest when dealing within their own community, but have nothing but contempt for the rest of mankind.  He did not see them as a political threat, but saw them as a corrupting influence that would undermine the moral fiber of the empire.  For this reason he advocated that they become as far from the imperial capital as possible.

    1253: Innocent IV re-confirms “Sicut Judaeis Non” a Papal Bull first issued by Calixtus II in 1120 “designed to provide protection for Jews from assaults by Crusaders” as they crossed Europe on their way to the Holy Land. (I cannot determine if the bull applied to the Jews in Jerusalem who slaughtered by the Christian Noble Knights)

    1354: The Jewish communities of Catalonia and Valencia adopted statutes today that made “extermination of informers a public duty” in which “everyone was required to participate to the fullest measure. A similar statute was adopted by the Jews of Majorca. The informer of “moser” was constituted to be the lowest form of life among Jews, which, according to the Jewish Encyclopedia, the Talmud equated the serpent.

    1396: Ottoman Emperor Bayezid I defeats a Christian army at the Battle of Nicopolis. The Battle of Nicopolis is referred to as the Last Crusade.  The clash was between the Moslem Ottomans and a alliance of Hungarian and French knights.  This French connection is ironic considering other events taking place at that time. In 1394, two years before this climatic fight, “Sultan Yildirim Bayezid invited the French Jews who were molested by King Charles VI, to the Ottoman Empire. They were settled in Edirne and the Balkans. The French Kings had the habit of inviting the Jews to establish commerce and borrowing money from them. However often, when payment was due, they expelled them; only to re-invite them when they needed further financing.”

    1506: Charles V began his reign as Lord of the Netherlands. In 1522, Charles issued a proclamation against Christians who were suspected of being lax in the faith and against Jews who had not been baptized in Gelderland and Utrecht; and he repeated these edicts in 1545 and 1549.

    1534: Pope Clement VII passed away.  At the time of his death Pope Clement was attempting to free 1200 Marranos that he felt had been unjustly imprisoned by the Inquisitions in Portugal.  His unusual attempt to gain mercy for these people died with his death.

    1669: Events began today that would result in another blood libel in Germany.  In the village of Glatigny, near Metz, Whilhelmina, the wife of Giles Lemoine, lost track of her three year old son Didier while she was doing laundry at the fountain in the village square. A search by the villagers proved fruitless. Then Daniel Payer told the searchers he had seen “a Hebrew with a heavy bear mounted on a white horse hurrying toward Metz and carrying in his arms a child about three years old.” The searchers then headed to Metz where they were told by a man who lived near the city gate that he had seen a Hebrew enter the city but he did not have a child. It was finally deduced that the man in question was Raphael Levi, a Jew living in Boulai, a village near Metz.  A warrant was then sworn out for his arrest. [see tomorrow’s blog for the next installment of this unfolding tragedy]

    1694: Birthdate Henry Pelham who while serving as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom would oversee the passage of the Jew Act of 1753, which allowed Jews to become naturalized by application to Parliament.

    1739(22ndof Elul, 5499):Marcus Mordechai Mozes Drukker passed away in Amsterdam.

    1740: Nathan Levy who had applied for a plot of ground to be used as a place of burial for his family in 1738 obtained this grant today, and the plot was thenceforth known as the "Jews' burying-ground"; it was the first Jewish cemetery in the city, and was situated in Spruce street near Ninth street; it has been the property of the Congregation Mickvé Israel for more than a century.  Levy, who was born in 1704 and died in 1753, was one of the first Jews to live in Philadelphia.

    1775(1stof Tishrei, 5536): Rosh Hashanah is celebrated for the first time after the firing of "the shot heard 'round the world"

    1779(15thof Tishrei, 5540): Sukkoth

    1789: The establishment of religion on a national level was expressly prohibited in the U.S. with the adoption of the First Amendment, the opening words of which read: 'Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof.'  This line from the Bill of Rights gave de jure recognition to a concept that has made the American experience different for the Jews than anything else that they had encountered during their centuries of living in the Diaspora.  There would be examples of discrimination against Jews in the United States such as covenanted real estate, college quotas, and oaths invoking the Christian deity.  But these proved to be minor compared  to what had happened elsewhere in Europe, North Africa and the Middle East where Jews were second class citizens because there was always a state religion be it Islam or Christian. Final ratification of the First Amendment would come in 1791.

    1794(1st of Tishrei, 5555): As they observe Rosh Hashanah, French Jews can join their countrymen in a sense of a safety following the execution of Maximilien Robespierre and the end of the Reign of Terror

    1798(15th of Tishrei, 5559): As Jews begin the observance of Sukkoth, the festival of thanksgiving, English Jews are thankful; for the victory that Lord Nelson has given them at the Battle of the Nile, while French Jews are thankful for Napoleon’s victories in Egypt

    1812: Birthdate of Karl Biedermann, the liberal German politician who was an advocate for Jewish emancipation.

    1813(1st of Tishrei, 5574): As the American War with Britain grinds into a second year Jews on both sides observe Rosh Hashanah

    1817(15th of Tishrei, 5578): Sukkoth

    1820(17th of Tishrei, 5581): Sukkoth Chol Had Moed

    1820(17th of Tishrei, 5581):Bezalel ben Joel Ronsburg who served as a rabbi, dayan and rosh yeshiva in Prague who counted Zacharias Frankel as one of his pupils passed away today.

    1832(1st of Tishrei, 5593): As English Jews observe Rosh Hashanah most of them are pleased with the recent passage of the Reform Act which created a Parliament more reflective of the changes in British society, but saddened because it did not deal with the issue of Jewish Disabilities.

    1832:Jews living in Sydney, Australia gathered at Mr. Rowell's shop on George Street which had been fitted out as synagogue to hold Rosh Hashanah services.

    1841(10th of Tishrei, 5602): Yom Kippur

    1843(1st of Tishrei, 5604): Rosh Hashanah

    1847(15th of Tishrei, 5608): Sukkoth

    1860(9th of Tishrei, 5621): Erev Yom Kippur

    1860: Representatives of the Hebrew Benevolent were among those attending the meeting of the National Emigrant Benevolent Association which was held this afternoon at the rooms of the German Society. 

    1861(21st of Tishrei, 5622): Hoshana Rabah

    1861:At their meeting this evening, the Board of Alderman in New York adopted the report of the Finance Committee which included a recommendation that $30,000 should be given to the Hebrew Benevolent Society for the erection of a hospital.

    1862(1st of Tishrei, 5623): Rosh Hashanah

    1862: As the Jews of Louisville, KY, including members of the Brandeis and Dembitz families, observed the Jewish New Year, Union forces led by General Don Carlos Buell began moving into the city. They were part of an army that was moving to stop the advance of Confederate forces under Braxton Bragg. Ultimately Bragg’s “invasion” of Kentucky and Ohio would fail driving another nail in the Confederate’s coffin.

    1863: Birthdate of Dr. Moses Hyamson, Senior Dayan or Chief Judge of the Ecclesiastical Court of the United Synagogue of London who would become the rival candidate  for the office of Chief Rabbi of Great Britain to which Rabbi Joseph H. Hertz would be chosen.  After losing out to Hertz, Hyamson would be named Rabbi of Congregation Orach Chaim in New York, the position that Hertz vacated when he became Chief Rabbi of Great Britain.

    1864:The Jewish Synagogue erected for the congregation, Aderath Eb, was dedicated” this afternoon. “The edifice is situated in Twenty-ninth-street, between Lexington and Third-avenues, built of brick, and capable of accommodating about fire hundred people. The interior fittings are neat and handsome, without being gaudy. The services …were the customary dedication exercises, according to the Hebrew ritual. The sacred scrolls of the law were carried in procession three times around the Synagogue, and the perpetual lamp lighted in front of the arch while the Chazan and the choir chanted the Psalms of David.” Rabbi Morris Raphall and Rabbi Samuel M. Isaacs addressed the congregation.  Captain Burdick  “and a squad of the Twenty-first Precinct Police, rendered efficient aid in preserving order at the door and keeping out unbidden guests.”

    1864:According to an article published today entitled, The Last Copperhead Plot and How it Miscarried, one of the plotters was a Jew named Rosenthal who had settled as a clothing dealer in Sandusky, Ohio about two years ago. He claimed to have been driven out of Richmond for Union sentiments but he is known to be an outspoken Copperhead.

    1871(10th of Tishrei, 5632): Yom Kippur

    1871: It was reported today that a bill has been introduced in the French Parliament to take away the rights of citizenship granted to the Jews born in Algeria.  The proposal was made in response to Moslem uprising in Algeria. A Jewish delegation that included the Chief Rabbi, Albert Cohn and Joseph Cohen testified before the committee that is reviewing the proposal.

    1874: As the dispute over the management of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum escalated, Raphael Lewin, the editor of New Era wrote to the New York Times challenging the recently published resolution adopted by the Directors of that institution. The directors claimed that Lewin’s claims of mismanagement which were to appear in his magazine were false and brought with malicious intent.  Lewin responded that he stood ready to prove his charges “and the purity of” his “motives” in publishing them.

    1874(14th of Tishrei, 5635): Erev Sukkoth and Erev Shabbat are celebrated on the same evening.

    1874: Rabbi Isaacs led Sukkoth eve festivals at the 44thStreet Synagogue in New York City.

    1874: At Temple Emanuel the prominent Reform congregation on 5thAvenue, a larger than usual crowd attended services which were augmented by the singing of a Choir.

    1879: A fire destroyed the business on Main Street in Deadwood, SD including “the wooden huts and muddy streets where the first Jewish inhabitants conducted their business.” The Jewish population had grown to over a hundred during the gold rush that enveloped the area. Reportedly “about one-third of all the early buildings on Main Street were owned or occupied by Jewish merchants. These were mostly traditional Jewish enterprises such as dry goods or those related to clothing.” The fire was probably not a case of anti-Semitic arson. Although no report exists as to the origin of the fire, such outbreaks were a common occurrence in the United States (see Chicago Fire, San Francisco Fire) at a time when there were no building codes and most buildings were wooden. 

    1881(2nd of Tishrei, 5642): 2nd day of Rosh Hashanah

    1881: Samuel Greenbaum presided over tonight’s memorials service hosted by the Young Men’s Hebrew Association in honor of the late President Garfield.

    1881: “Echoes From Beyond the Sea” published today described events in Europe and Asia Minor including renewed application by English and German Jews made to the Turkish government for the purchase of land in Syria.  Jews  would then “emigrate from European countries where life is intolerable” helped along by the construction  of roads and railways financed by wealthy Jews living on the Continent and England.

    1884: In Philadelphia, David Longsdorf objected to the newspaper reports that treated the marriage of his friend Henry Friedman to Sarah Schuer in the same way as they did the elopement of Victoria Morsini. Friedman, whose father had helped form the Cameron Dragoons which fought with distinction during the Civil War and his bride had known each other for quite some time. The two Reform Jews did elope but were married under a Chupah by Dr. Silberman, an Orthodox rabbi in the presence of a minyan

    1885: Congregation B’Nai Jehsurun brought suit today in District Court against the estate of the late Joseph Levy for the amount of $100 - $75 for the religious services including the cost of “watchers” and $25.00 for the grave. Marcus Cohen, president of the congregation, testified that normally the charge is $300 but due to the circumstances of the death, the charges were reduced.

    1886: Vanity Fair published a “picture” of Sir John Simon, the Jamaican born Jewish Member of Parliament who spent the last twenty years of his life working to ameliorate the conditions of the Jews of Russia.

    1886: “Jew And Catholic” published today reported that the marriage of David Bretzfelder, a  28 year old Jewish letter carrier and Kittie Cannon, a young Roman Catholic has caused a great deal of discussion today in New Haven, Connecticut since it is “the first of its kind that ever took place in this city.”

    1886: According to a summary of the annual report of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society of New York published today, “four hundred and fifteen children are now cared for by the society, and its finances are in good condition, although further donations are need to meet the increasing demands of the institution.”

    1889(29th of Elul, 5649): Erev Rosh Hashana

    1889: In its appeal for funds published today, the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society of New York reported that since opening is doors it has cared for 1,428 children, 560 of whom are currently receiving services.

    1889: The Jews of San Diego, California, gathered at Second and Beech Street to greet the Jewish New Year of 5650 and pray in their own house of worship.

    1890: It was reported today that “during the last fifteen years” Broadway has become “the principal highway of Jewish mercantile enterprise in America” as can be seen by the fact that business signs have given way to primarily “Hebrew names.”

    1891: “Joseph Barondess, the ex-leader of the Cloak-makers’ Union disappeared today while out on bail during his appeal of a conviction for extorting money from the cloak manufacturers.

    1891: “The issue of the American Hebrew published today contained a letter from Baron de Hirsch…which shows that he has by no means abandoned the plan of colonizing Russian Jewish refugees in the Argentine.”

    1893(15TH of Tishrei, 5654): Sukkoth

    1893 During the outbreak of Cholera in Italy, the Chief Rabbi of Leghorn ordered the grand synagogue be closed as a precautionary measure.

    1893: It was reported today that “the anti-Semites represented by Dr. Forester and Rector Ahlwardt  have developed a parliamentary program” which will put an end to Jews immigrating to Germany.  They also seek to “prohibit Jews from owning land” and not to allow “Jews to enteral the medical, legal, editorial or military professions.

    1894: “Jews Persecuted In Morocco” published today described the five pound tax they must pay “for passing along the principals highways” and the beatings and plundering to which they are regularly subjected.

    1894: In Ireland, Lithuanian-Jewish immigrants Abraham William Briscoe and Ida Yoedicke gave birth to Robert "Bob" Briscoe who was a member of the IRA and Sinn Féin.

    1895: It was reported today that the Hebrew Mutual Benevolent Society has paid $2,000 in foreclosure to acquire the property on the west side of Hoffman Street, south of 187th Street.

    1895:In Lancaster, PA, Degel Israel an orthodox congregation was formed with about fifty members.

    1896: “Olympia Theater Opened” published today described the premiere of Oscar Hammerstein’s new operetta “Santa Maria” the performance of which the critic described as “excellent.”

    1897: Birthdate of American author William Faulkner.  Faulkner’s works were dotted with Jewish characters starting with a Jewish salesman in “Soldier’s Pay,” his first written novel published in 1926 to Barton Kohl, a Jewish pilot in “The Mansion,” published in 1959.  Faulkner’s treatment of Jewish characters changed over time. Alfred J. Kutzik reportedly published one of the definitive articles on anti-Semitism in Faulkner’s early works. For more on this topic, consult “Creative Awakening: The Jewish Presence in 20th Century American Literature” by Louis Harap.

    1897: Jacob Aaron Cantor, a successful lawyer and New York political leader, married Lydia Greenbaum.  His first wife had passed away 8 years earlier.  The couple had three children.

    1897: “The Essenes Still Exist” published today described a revelation made by Halevy at the Oriental Congress in which told the attendees about the existence of Abyssinian Jews where part of the same sect of Essenes who had lived at the time of Jews.  Numbering about 200,000 they are so strict in their observances that no water could be drawn on the Sabbath.

    1897: It was reported today that Dr. Isidore Singer is preparing the Encyclopedia of the History and of the Intellectual Development of the Jewish Race “which will present in alphabetical order the most important publications which have appeared in all times relative to the Jews” and will follow :the format of the Encyclopedia  Britannica.

    1898(9th of Tishrei, 5659): Erev Yom Kippur

    1898: As Jews prepared to observe Yom Kippur beginning this evening, Dr. Joseph Silverman of Temple Emanu-El said of fasting and attending worship services, “It is matter of individual feeling and conscience.”

    1898: Rabbi Kaufmann Kohler delivered a sermon to the congregants of Temple Beth El entitled “His Song Is With Me At Night” in which “he contended that religion was the song of God in the night of human selfishness and error.”

    1898: On the lower east side a mob of angry Jews gathered in front of Herrick Brothers, the restaurant that advertised it would be open for Yom Kippur in the Forwards in an attempt to shut it down because it was a desecration of the holiday.

    1898: “Primitive Christianity” published today provides W.S. Lilly’s view of the early Christians who “were not as yet manifested to world as a Church” but were “a Jewish sect, practicing all the requirements of the Jewish law and nourishing their religious life from the Jews sacred books.

    1899:In order to continue "Die Welt", a syndicate in the form of a joint-stock company is founded by the Actions Committee.

    1899: “What Anti-Semitism Has Cost France” published today described the negative impact that the Jew-baiters Regis, Drumont and their supports have had on the economy of Algiers.  In 1898 there were 83 bankruptcies which has risen to 105 so far this year while the wealthy English and Americans are no longer renting expensive villas.

    1900: In New York, members of Temple Beth El continued to be dismayed by the long simmering breach between Rabbis Kaufman Kohler and Samuel Schulman that bubbled to the service during Rosh Hashanah Services on the previous day. According to accounts in the press, the breach was a generational matter.  Kaufman, who appealed to the older members, preached in German, a language incomprehensible to the younger generations.  Schulman, who had been brought from the west preached in English and was the choice of younger members.  “Both of the rabbis declined to discuss the matter.  H.S. Herman, one of the TempleTrustees” publicly denied that there was any friction between the two rabbis.  This episode is not the first, nor the last, in generational conflicts that will arise in American congregations.

    1901: The funeral of Simon Sterne, the noted attorney and “authority on railroad and constitutional law” will take place this morning at 40 W. 59th Street followed by burial in the Salem Fields Cemetery.

    1903(4th of Tishrei, 5664): Sixty-nine year old Kilian von Steiner the German-Jewish  banker, industrialist and patron of the arts who was ennobled by King William of Wurttenberg passed away today.

    1903: Birthdate of Mark Rothko. Rothko was a painter who is often classified as an abstract expressionist, although he vociferously denied being an abstract painter. He was born Marcus Rothkowitz in Daugavpils (Dvinsk), Russia (now Latvia) and emigrated to the United States in 1916.His work concentrated on basic emotions, often filling the canvas with very few, but intense colors, using little immediately-apparent detail. In this respect, he can also be considered to presage the color field painters (see Helen Frankenthaler).Although respected by other artists, Rothko remained in relative obscurity until 1960, supporting himself by teaching art. In 1958, Rothko was commissioned by architect Philip Johnson to paint a series of murals for the Four Seasons restaurant in the Seagram Building in New York. This substantial project was completed in late 1959. Ultimately, Rothko was not happy having his paintings as the backdrop to gourmet dining so he gave a set of nine of the maroon and black works to the Tate Gallery, where they are on permanent display in an installation designed by Rothko. In 1967, Rothko again collaborated with Johnson on a church in Houston, Texas, contributing 14 related works in an installation setting. The church has subsequently become known as "The Rothko Chapel". Numerous other works are scattered in museums throughout the world. Rothko's work was secretly supported by the CIAwhich considered it "free enterprise painting".  After a long struggle with depression, Rothko committed suicide by cutting his wrists in his New York studio on February 25, 1970. After his death, his son edited and released Rothko's novel, An Artist's Reality, which was incomplete at the time of his death, despite decades of work. Following his death the settlement of the Rothko estate became the subject of a famous court case.

    1905: Birthdate of Professor Nahman Avigad Israeli archeologist famed for his work at Masada, on the Dead Sea Scrolls, and most important of all the excavation of the Old City starting in 1969. Among his discovries were the great menorah from the Second Temple and the Broad Wall mentioned in the Book of Nehemiah. He passed away in 1992.

    1905: Pitcher Moxie Manuel made his major league debut with the Washington Senators.

    1905: Fifty-two year old Jacques Marie Eugène Godefroy Cavaignac who while serving as Minister of War refused to join his colleagues in a move to overturn the conviction of Dreyfus even though he knew that the document used to convict him was a forgery, passed away today.

    1906:  In Philadelphia, a box containing an infernal machine addressed to Jacob H. Schiff, the New York financier, was stolen to-day from a Chestnut Hill mail box by a boy, who thereby unwittingly upset a plot against Mr. Schiff's life. The box, disguised as a Rosh Hashanah candy gift, contained enough explosives to blow up the entire house.

    1909(10thof Tishrei, 5670): Yom Kippur

    1909: Four new Jewish schools were reported to have opened in Turkey.

    1912:  ColumbiaUniversityGraduateSchoolof Journalism is founded in New York. The school and the Pulitzer Prizes which it awards were possible because of an endowment by publish Joseph Pulitzer.

    1913:  Charlie Chaplin signed his first movie contract for $175.  Within three years he would be making $10,000 a week at Amutual Studios.  The Little Tramp was no bum.

    1914: “Appeal to Jews for Aid” published today described the suffering of the Jews of Austria and their belief that Austro-Hungarian Empire was fighting to protect the rights and improve the lot of the Russian Jews suffering under the rule of the Czar.
    1915(17thof Tishrei, 5676): Chol Ha Moed Sukkoth

    1915(17thof Tishrei, 5676):2nd Lt Bernard Russell Abinger, the cousin of Midshipman Vivian George Edward S. Schreiber who had been killed while serving aboard HMS Monmouth lost his life while serving with His Majesty’s forces on the Western Front.

    1915: Opening of the Battle of Loos, the massive British assault on the Western Front.

    1917(9th of Tishrei, 5678): Erev Yom Kippur

    1917: At noon today, U.S. soldiers and sailors begin furloughs granted so that they can observe Yom Kippur.

    1918: In WW I, “Australian and New Zealand cavalrymen crossed the Jordan River and entered Amman.”  From the Mediterranean to the Jordan, Eretz Israel was now under the control of the British who had promised that this would be site of the Jewish home after the end of hostilities.

    1919(1stof Tishrei, 5680): Rosh Hashanah is celebrated for the first time after the end of Great War.

    1919: President Wilson suffers a stroke and collapses after a giving a speech calling for the ratification of the Treaty of Versailles. Wilsonhad returned from the Paris Peace Conference with a peace treaty designed not just to end the hostilities of World War I but to avoid future conflicts through the creation of the League of Nations.  Republicans led by Senator Lodge opposed the treaty and had the votes to block passage.  Wilsonbegan a cross-country campaign of public appearances designed to bring the weight of public opinion into the battle for ratification.  With the stroke, Wilson could no longer appear in public.  Lodge and the isolationists triumphed.  The treaty was rejected.  The United States did not join the League of Nations which rendered the international body virtually powerless even before it held its first meeting.  Wilsonpredicted that if the treaty and the League were rejected there would another world war within twenty years.  He would not live to see his tragic prophecy come true.  Would World War II have been avoided if the League had been the organization envisioned by Wilson?  Would the Holocaust have not happened if Wilson’s health had not failed?  We will never know. 

    1920 (13th of Tishrei, 5681):  On Shabbat, Jacob H. Schiff, banker and philanthropist passed away.

    1923(15th of Tishrei, 5684): Sukkoth

    1927: Stephen W. Wise is scheduled to officiate at the funeral services for Rabbi Rudolph Grossman being held at the West End Synagogue.

    1929: Birthdate of Irving Louis Horowitz, the Rutgers professor who was “an eminent sociologist and prolific author.” (As reported by Douglas Martin)

    1926: Birthdate of Mel Mermelstein a Hungarian-born Jew who was the sole-survivor of his family's extermination at Auschwitz. He defeated the I.H.R. in an American court and had the occurrence of gassings in Auschwitz during the Holocaust declared a legally incontestable fact.

    1928: Birthdate of Robert Zuckerkandle, who gained fame and fortune as Robert Chandler, the CBS executive who played a crucial role in creating the highly rated and critically acclaimed weekly newsmagazine “60 Minutes,”    

    1930:  Birthdate of humorist and author Shel Silverstein.  His works covered a broad range of topics and interests.  They ranged from the children's book The Giving Tree to the country hit "A Boy Named Sue."

    1931:  Birthdate of broadcaster Barbara Walters.

    1932: Birthdate of Canadian concert pianist, Glen Gould.  Russia, America, even Canada– a Jew, a piano and viola, a concert performer.

    1933: Rabbi Simcha Solovetchick, who studied under Rabbi Israel Meir HaCohen Kagan, the Chofetz Chaim, helped to lead the memorial services for his mentor which were held at Synagogue Tifereth Israel in Brooklyn.

    1936(10th of Tishrei, 5697): Yom Kippur

    1936: The Maccabee soccer team of Palestine has gone through its final drill at Yankee Stadium in preparation for its  match with the All Stars which will be played in the House that Ruth Built.

    1938(29thof Elul, 5698): Erev Rosh Hashanah

    1938: In the Boyle Heights neighborhood of Los Angeles, Abe Hoffman whose family lived behind their store at 2309 East Fourth Street was born at Lincoln Hospital

    1938: At seven o’clock in the morning Levi Yitzchok Bender “out to Rebbe Nachman's gravesite for a few minutes to recite the Tikkun HaKlali (the "General Remedy" which is customarily recited at the gravesite). He was spotted by another Jewish man known to be a government informer. Bender pleaded with the man not to report him, but as he walked back to his friend's house, he noticed the informer following him. Since he was familiar with all the back roads of Uman, he managed to shake him off his trail.

    1939(12th of Tishrei, 5700): Harold U. Hirsch who played football at the University of Georgia from 1900 to 1901, studied law at Columbia University and was the general counsel for The Coca-Cola Company for more than thirty years passed away today.  According to some Hirsch was instrumental in the development of the unique shape of the Coca-Cola bottle and the logo in 1913. In 1932, a new building was completed for the University Of Georgia School Of Law, a building named Harold Hirsch Hall in honor of Hirsch.

    1940(22ndof Elul, 5700): Forty-eight year old Walter Benjamin killed himself with “an overdose of morphine tablets” tonight as he awaited repatriation to France where he would be turned over to the Nazis.

    1941: In Kovno, the Germans gave the Jewish Council 5,000 work passes, placing upon them the burden of choosing who shall work and live, and who shall die.

    1942: While sailing from Newfoundland to the United Kingdom the SS President Warfield was attacked by a German submarine 800 miles west of Ireland.  The ship evaded the torpedoes and made it safely to port.  The SS SS President Warfield would gain fame in 1947 as the SS Exodus.

    1942(14th of Tishrei, 5703): Erev Sukkoth

    1942(14th of Tishrei, 5703): Four hundred eighty-one French Jews, including Rene' Blum, the brother of the former French Prime Minister were killed in Birkenau.

    1942: Despite growing resistance, 2,000 Jews from Kaluszyn were sent to be killed at Treblinka. Kaluszyn was a predominantly Jewish town in Poland about thirty miles from Warsaw.   The Jewish population grew as Jews from other areas sought refuge there.  Unfortunately most of them ended up at Treblinka. The Sefer Kalushin or Book of Kaluszyn describes the fate of the community in grim detail.

    1942: Two thousand more Jews were deported from the "show ghetto" at Theresienstadt.

    1942: Learning about the impending liquidation of their ghetto, some Jews of Korets, Ukraine sought refuge in the woods while others resist by setting the ghetto ablaze. Resistance is led by Moshe Gildenman.

    1942: Swiss police decree that race alone does not guarantee refugee status, thus preventing Jews from crossing the Swiss border to safety.

    1942: Seven hundred Romanian Jews, interned at Drancy, are deported to Auschwitz.

    1942(14th of Tishrei, 5703): Abraham Gamzu, chairman of the Jewish Council at Kaluszyn, Poland, is executed after refusing to deliver Jews for deportation. Six thousand of the town's residents are deported to the Treblinka death camp and later killed.

    1942: Lian Berkowitz, a member of the anti-Nazi Red Orchestra was arrested and formally charged today in Berlin.

    1942(14th of Tishrei, 5703): 475 French Jews are gassed at Auschwitz. One of the victims is ballet director René Blum, the brother of former French Prime Minister Léon Blum.

    1942:  The SS Warfield, an American coastal ship that had been “lent” to the British avoided being sunk  during a U-boat  torpedo attack as steamed  towards the British Isles.  The SS Warfield would enter historyfive years later as the SS Exodus.

    1943: The Chief Rabbi of Athens, Ilia Barzilai, escaped from the city disguised as a peasant. He reached Thessaly where he promoted the Greek partisans, saving some 600 Jews by smuggling them across the Aegeanto Turkey. The smuggled boats and money came from the Jewish Labor Federation in Palestine.

    1943: After two days of selections, only 2,000 out of 10,000 Jews remained in the Vilna Ghetto. They were placed in local labor camps.

    1944: BirthdateEugenia Zukerman, the multitalented flutist, author, and journalist.Zukerman was born in Cambridge, Massachusetts. She started to study English at Barnard, but later transferred to the JulliardSchool where she studied with flutist Julius Baker. Zukerman went on to win the Young Concert Artist Award in 1971, beginning her career with rave reviews and a warm welcome by the music world. During her career, Zukerman has performed with orchestras, in solo and duo recitals, and in chamber music ensembles in North America, Europe, and Asia. Since 1998, Zukerman has served as Artistic Director of the international Vail Valley Music Festival in Colorado's Rocky Mountains. Zukerman's talent and career cannot be condensed into one area, however. In addition to her musical achievements, Zukerman is an author of two novels and several screenplays, and is also a journalist, reporting as the arts correspondent for CBS Sunday Morning since 1980.

    1945: A parade was held at Bergen-Belsen in the British zone of occupied German marking the first Congress for Survivors.

    1948:As Dmitri Shostakovich celebrates his birthday today while awaiting arrest by the Soviet secret police, he listens to a performance of “From Jewish Folk Poetry,” a medley of tunes which he had written as sign of solidarity with the Jewish artists being persecuted by Stalin.

    1949(2ndof Tishrei, 5710): Second Day of Rosh Hashanah

    1951: New York’s Mayor Impellitteri left Rome today aboard an Israeli government plane which was flying him to Tel Aviv.

    1956: A Jordanian patrol crossed the border into Israel and opened fire on a group of women picking olives near the village of Aminadav killing Zohara Umri, an immigrant from Yemen.

    1956: The Israeli Cabinet discussed a reprisal mission for the terrorist attacks.  Ben-Gurion called for a “vigorous” response in the upcoming night time attack.

    1959: Shaaray Tefila dedicated its new sanctuary on the corner of East 79thStreet and Second Avenue.

    1959: A summit meeting between Eisenhower and Khrushchev during which the treatment of Soviet Jews is to be one of the topics opens today at Camp David, MD.

    1961: Premiere of “The Hustler,” the dark film starring Paul Newman, produced and directed by Robert Rossen for which Eugen Schüfftan won the 1962 Academy Award for Best Cinematography, Black-and-White.

    1965: After 220 performances “Do I Hear a Waltz?”  a musical with a book by Arthur Laurents, music by Richard Rodgers, and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim closed its initial Broadway run at the 46th Street Theatre.

    1967: Following the Six Days War, Kfar Etzion was reestablished by the children of the original settlers. The Kibbutz was destroyed and its defenders (including women) massacred after surrendering in May 1948 during the War for Independence.

    1967: Birthdate of Noreena Hertz, the daughter of “feminist activist Leah Hertz” and the “great-granddaughter Rabbi Joseph Hertz who The Observer dubbed as “one of the world’s leading young thinkers” and Vogue described as “one of the most inspiring women in the world.”

    1970: The PLFP released the Jewish and Israeli hostages it had been holding since the so-called Dawson Field Hijackings.  The PLFP had previously released the other hostages on September 11.

    1970 (24th of Elul, 5730): Ninety year old Estelle Liebling famed soprano and a member of a prominent Jewish musical family passed away today.

    1970 (24th of Elul, 5730): Erich Paul Remarkpassed away at the age of 72.  Using the pseudonym of Erich Maria Remarque he gained fame as the German author of “All Quiet on the Western Front.” Writing from his experiences as a German soldier in World War I, Remarque wrote a novel about the folly of war.  The novel was later turned into a Hollywood hit movie.  The Nazis disapproved of the book and banned and burned copies of it. For the Nazis it was not enough to brand Remarque, a Catholic, as a pacifist.  They created the myth that he was a Jew named Kramer and even worse, the Kramers had originally been French Jews.  What is worse than being a Jew?  Not being a Jew but being branded as one.

    1972:“A National Conference on Soviet Jewry National Assembly was convened at B’nai B’rith headquarters in Washington, DC.”

    1973: King Hussein of Jordan secretly flew to Tel Aviv to warn Prime Minister of an impending attack by the Syrians.  The king said he thought, but was not entirely sure, that the Syrians would not being contemplating this unless the Egyptians were going to attack as well.  Mrs. Meir and her advisors including the Defense minister ignored the warnings.

    1976(1stof Tishrei, 5737): Last observance of Rosh Hashanah under President Ford.

    1977: The Jerusalem Post reported that the cabinet was expected to accept a new American plan for the reconvening of the Geneva Peace Conference.

    1980(15thof Tishrei, 5741): Sukkoth is observed for the last time under President Carter.

    1980: Leonard Bernstein conducts the premiere performance of Divertimento for Orchestra.

    1980(15thof Tishrei, 5741): Ninety-year old  labor organizer and early champion for the rights of working women Rose Finkelstein Norwood passed away today.
    1982: “Peace Now held a mass protest in Tel Aviv in order to pressure the government to establish a national inquiry commission to investigate the massacres, as well as calling for the resignation of the Defense Minister Ariel Sharon.”

    1985(10th of Tishrei, 5746): Yom Kippur

    1985: PLO terrorists from Force 17 “hijacked an Israeli yacht off the coast of Larnaca, Cyprus” and murdered the three Israelis on board in cold blood.

    1986: Third season of “The Cosby Show” co-created by Ed Weinberger began tonight.

    1993(10thof Tishrei, 5754): Yom Kippur is observed for the first time under President Clinton.

    1995(1st of Tishrei, 5756): Rosh Hashanah

    1995:In Atlanta, GA,Dr. Stan Fineman, his head and shoulders draped with a traditional prayer shawl, will raise a shofar to his lips and join with millions of other Jews around the world today in carrying out a tradition that has been used to usher in the Jewish New Year since biblical days.

    1995: Barton Gellman reported today on an agreement that would “extend self-rule to more than 1 million Palestinians.

    1997:José Joaquín Bautista Arias, the Dominican born right handed pitcher with the Israeli wife, pitched his final major league baseball game for the St. Louis Cardinals.

    1997: NBC broadcast “Veronica’s Closet” a sitcom created by David Crane and Marta Kauffman for the first time.

    1998: In Cincinnati, Ohio, Sabrina and Todd Thalbum give birth to their daughter Gabriella Elizabeth (Gavriella Elisheva) Thalblum

    1999(15thof Tishrei, 5760): Sukkoth is celebrated for the last time in the 20thcentury.

    2003(28th of Elul, 5763):Franco Modigliani, winner of the 1985 Nobel Prize for Economics, passed away. In 1939, Modigliani was forced to flee from his native Italy because of his Jewish ancestry and anti-fascists views.  Active until the end, Modigliani enlisted fellow Nobel laureates Paul Samuelson  and Robert Solowin 2003 to write a letter published in The New York times chiding the Anti-Defamation League for honoring Italy's Prime Minister, Silvio Berlusconi. Berlusconi had recently defended Mussolini’s conduct toward Jews during World War II.

    2004(10thof Tishrei, 5765): Yom Kippur takes on a special solemnity as the thoughts of Jews turn to those fighting and dying in Afghanistan and Iraq

    2005: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or about topics of Jewish interest includingThe Marchby E. L. Doctorow and The Shame of the Nation: The Restoration of Apartheid Schooling in America by Jonathan Kozol.

    2005: The Jerusalem Post reported that a research grant of $5.6 million in the field of bio-defense has been awarded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the US National Institutes of Health (NIH), to a Hebrew University of Jerusalem researcher for the development of a broadly effective drug against a family of toxins called super antigens.

    2005 (21st of Elul, 5765): Jewish psychologist Urie Bronfenbrenner, founder of Head Start, passes away.

    2006(3rd of Tishrei, 5767):Tzom Gedaliah

    2007: In Washington, D.C., Bloomingdale’s under the leadership of CEO Michael Gould holds a private reception for “local officials and other bigwigs” prior to the public opening of its new store in the Friendship Heights neighborhood.  Of the store and its opening Gould said, “We have a lot of faith in this community.  This is our best foot forward in Washington.’” Gould serves on the Board of Trustees of Hebrew College in Boston is a sustaining Fellow of Harvard University’s Center for Jewish Studies and serves as Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the American Jewish Committee.

    2007: Yuval Baruch, an achaeologist with the Israeli Antiquities Authority, announced the discovery of a quarry compound which provided King Herod with the stones to renovate the second Temple. It houses the Temple Mount Coins, pottery and iron stake found proved the date of the quarrying to be about 19 BC. Archaeologist Ehud Netzer confirmed that the large outlines of the stone cuts is evidence that it was a massive public project worked on by hundreds of slaves.

    2007: Jerome “McDonnell hosted John Mearsheimer and Stephen Walt to discuss their controversial book The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy  on Chicago Public Radio station WBEZ (91.5

    2007: The Jewish Film Festival in Dallas, TX comes to a close.

    2007: Eighty-year old Brigadier General Felix Sparks “an American military commander who led the 3rd Battalion of the 157th Infantry Regiment of the 45th Infantry Division of the United States Army, the first Allied force to enter Dachau concentration camp and liberate its prisoners” passed away today.

    2008:  Yehuda Amital officially announced his retirement in the yeshiva, to take effect on the last day of the Jewish month of Tishrei, in the year 5769 (October 28, 2008). He also announced that Mosheh Lichtenstein, the son of his co-Rosh Yeshiva Aharon Lichtenstein, would assume the position as the fourth Rosh Yeshiva on that same day.

    2008: Ryan Braun hit his first grand slam home run.

    2008: In Montreal, demolition began on Bens De Luxe Delicatessen and Restaurant, a culinary institution opened by Ben and Fanny Kravitz in 1908.

    2008: Paul McCartney appears in concert in Tel Aviv “43 years after being banned by the Israeli government.”  At the time, Yaakov Sarid, the Education Ministry’s director was blamed for the cancellation.  According to Sarid’s son, the concert was cancelled because of a dispute between two Israeli concert promoters, Yaakov Uri and Giora Godik.

    2008: At Columbia University’sInstitute for Israel and Jewish Studies, The Sylvia and Joseph Radov Lectures present Amos Oz the renowned Israeli author, Agnon Professor of Hebrew Literature at Ben-Gurion University whose topic for the evening is entitled “Between Israel and Palestine “

    2008:Students and visitors at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem will be able to look at the stars through Albert Einstein's long lost telescope starting this evening. University officials said it had been completed renovated after being retrieved from a storage shed. The legendary physicist who theorized the famous relations among energy, speed and mass received the telescope in 1954, the year before he died.


    2008:Natural population growth in Israel that was partially canceled out by negative growth in the Diaspora resulted in a net increase in the past year of 70,000 Jews, according to data released today by the Jewish Agency ahead of Rosh Hashana. There are 13.3 million people around the world who define themselves as Jewish and who do not belong to any other faith.

    2009: In New Orleans, Touro Synagogue celebrates Shabbat Shuvah with services and a Friday night dinner.

    2009: In Jerusalem, Boris and Friends and the Klezmerim appear at the Alrov Mamilla Avenue amphitheater.

    2009: Mark Landler provides background about Michael Oren in “Israel Ambassador Draws on American Roots”

    2009: The Guggenheim presents “It Came from Brooklyn” a multi-dimensional cultural event that features cellist Yoed Nir and readings from Rivka Galchen.

    2009:An Israeli airstrike to night killed three members of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad movement who were on their way to fire rockets into Israel.


    2009:Ehud Olmert, the former prime minister of Israel, appeared in court today  for the opening of his trial on charges of corruption, a spectacle that could mark a new low in the annals of Israeli public life.

    2010:Ed Miliband and David Miliband are two of the Laborite MP’s who are awaiting today’s announcement as to who would be the party’s new leader.

    2010(17th of Tishrei, 5771): Shabbat Chol Ha-Moed Sukkoth.

    2010: This evening the DC young professional Jewish community is scheduled to lead a tour of DC’s finest sukkahs where they will visit three locations with unique themes: Etrogs & Eggrolls, Lulavs & Leis, and Starlight & Sweets with each location featuring unique food and drinks.

    2010:Former Cuban dictator Fidel Castro’s surprising words of support for Israel’s right to exist and empathy with the tragedies of Jewish history elicited warm words from Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu and a letter of thanks from President Shimon Peres. Castro, in a recent interview with The Atlantic’s Jeffrey Goldberg, said Israel “without a doubt” has the right to exist, and criticized Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad for his Holocaust denial, saying Iran should understand the consequences of theological anti-Semitism.

    2011(26thof Elul, 5771): One hundred-nine year old psychologist and broadcast personality Helen Faith Keane Reichert, passed away today.

    2011: Wolf “Blitzer was awarded an honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters by the University of Hartford.”

    2011:Israel Police confirmed today that the road accident that killed a man and his infant son near Kiryat Arba on Friday may have occurred after a rock was thrown at their vehicle. Police investigating the death of Asher, who was 25-years-old and his one-year-old son Yonatan Palmer, who were found in their car after it flipped over near the West Bank city, discovered a large rock with signs of blood on it.


    2011: Ukrainian police detained dozens of people today protesting against what they called an uncontrolled influx of Jewish pilgrims to the town of Uman, police and the Ukrainian nationalist party Svoboda said. The protest, attended by about 100 people, took place days before the 70th anniversary of the Babi Yar massacre, the mass killing of Jews by Nazis after the occupation of Kiev in 1941. Uman, a town of 90,000 in central Ukraine, is the site of an annual pilgrimage by tens of thousands of Hasidic Jews who visit the grave of a prominent Jewish cleric, Rebbe Nachman of Breslov. Svoboda held the protest rally in Uman to demand stricter legal and sanitary controls on pilgrims. Its activists say the pilgrim influx must be better regulated and presents a security and health risk. "We are not anti-Semites, we do not have anything against Jews," Tetyana Chornomaz, the head of the regional Svoboda unit, told Reuters by telephone from Uman. "(But) we have many questions regarding their (pilgrims') stay in Ukraine." Chornomaz said riot police detained about 20 people following brief scuffles after the rally but it was not clear if they faced any charges. Interfax news agency quoted the Interior Ministry as saying police had detained about 60 people.

    2011:The Taba Border Crossing was closed today to Israelis trying to enter Egypt, while anyone carrying a foreign passport was allowed to cross the border as usual. The decision came after the IDF announced that 2 days ago that forces on the Israel-Egypt border had been placed on high alert after threats were received that Hamas was planning terror activity in the area, the IDF spokesman's office stated..

    2011: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including “The Quest” by Daniel Yergin, “The Sibling Effect” by Jeffrey Kluger, “A Contest For Supremacy: China, America and the Struggle for Mastery in Asia” by Aaron L. Friedberg and the recently released paperback issued of “Great House” by Nicole Krauss.

    2011: The Los Angeles Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including “American Dreamers” How the Left Changed a Nation” by Michael Kazin, the son of Alfred Kazin and “The Quest” by Daniel Yergin.

    2011: An exhibition at the Jewish Museum in New York entitled “Collecting Matisse and Modern Masters: The Cone Sisters of Baltimore” is scheduled to end today.

    2012: As the family and friends of Gavi Thalublum prepare for Yom Kippur they share in the joy of her natal day.

    2012:Security and rescue forces were on high alert and deployed in large numbers in Jerusalem and throughout the West Bank for Yom Kippur, which begins this afternoon and ends tomorrow at dusk. Ahead of the holiday, IDF Chief of Staff Lt.-Gen. Benny Gantz ordered a 48-hour closure of West Bank and Gaza Strip border crossings beginning yesterday at 11:59pm and continuing until tomorrow at 11:59pm, the IDF Spokesman's Office said yesterday.

    2012:Several mortar shells fired from Syrian territory fell inside the Golan Heights today, marking the first time the ongoing violence in Syria has spilled inside Israel's borders.

    2012: The White Sox will play the Cleveland Indians in Chicago starting at 1:10 in instead of 7:10 p.m. thanks in part to calls from fans asking that the game be moved so as not to conflict with Yom Kippur.  The change also means that White Sox third baseman Kevin Youkilis will be able to play the game and still keep his record of having never played on Yom Kippur intact.

    2012(9thof Tishrei, 5773): Ninety year old Maurice S. Friedman, “Martin Buber’s biographer,” passed away today. (As reported by Paul Vitello)

    2012(9thof Tishrei, 5773): In the evening, for the 90th year in a row, members of Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, Iowa gather to begin their observance of Yom Kippur

    G'mar Chatimah Tovah

    2013: “Fill the Void” is scheduled to open in Tunkannock, PA

    2013: “The Wiener Library is scheduled to host the UK launch of a new book co-edited by Anny Dayan Rosenman and Fransiska Louwagie. Un ciel de sang et de cendres: Piotr Rawicz et la solitude du témoin (A sky of blood and ashes: Piotr Rawicz and the loneliness of the witness) is a study of Ukrainian-French Holocaust survivor Piotr Rawicz and his novel Le sang du ciel (translated as Blood from the Sky).

    2013(21stof Tishrei, 5774): Hoshanah Rabbah

    2013: “Larry Ellison's Oracle Team USA defeated Emirates Team New Zealand to win the 34th America's Cup in San Francisco Bay, California.”

    2013: A family from New York was the victim of a serious attack by rioting Arabs this afternoon, as they were making their way to pray on the Mount of Olives, east of Jerusalem's Old City. (As reported by Uzi Baruch and Ernie Singer)

    2013: “Iranian President Hasan Rouhani today condemned the Holocaust as a crime against humanity in a CNN interview with Christiane Amanpour”

    2013: Israeli forensics experts are helping the Kenyan government comb the site of the terrorist takeover of the Westgate Mall in Nairobi, Kenya’s cabinet secretary said on Twitter today. (As reported by Lazar Berman)

    2014(1stof Tishrei, 5775): Rosh Hashanah
    שנה טובה, כתיבה וחתימה טובה.



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    September 26

    1187: Saladin launches his attack on Jerusalem

    1348: Pope Clement VI issued a Bull contradicting the libel against the Jews stating that they were suffering just like the rest of Europe. Other rulers issued like denunciations but with little effect or no effect.

    1350:Coronation of King John II of France, The Jews had been banished from France so there were no Jews living in his kingdom when he took the throne.  Thanks to the King’s folly, the Jews would return during his reign.  During the Hundred Years War, King John II was captured the English after the defeat at Battle of Poitiers.  The English demanded a substantial ransom from the impoverished and impotent French Dauphin, the future Charles V.  To raise funds, Charles enticed the Jews to return to France with a liberal charter of rights.  He then levied heavy taxes on them which helped to free the king. A wiser monarch than King John might have avoided the crushing defeat at Poitiers which meant that the Jews would have continued to be exiled from a large portion of western Europe.  

    1629: Rabbi Yom-Tov Lipmann Heller returned to Prague after having finally been released from prison.  The terms of his release included payment of large fine and being deprived of the right to serve as a Rabbi any place in the Holy Roman Empire. He took to his bed, a broken man, for three months.  Friends succeeded in having the sentence reduced and helped him obtain a position in Russia.  The tragedies that befell this sage were not brought on by the gentiles. Rather, it was his fellow Jews in Bohemia, who felt that they had been, taxed unfairly who went to the civil authorities and lodged charges against him.  Then, and only then, did the Emperor become involved. 

    1669: Today marked a continuation of events that had begun on September 25, 1669 in what can only be described as another blood libel. After a warrant had been sworn out for the arrest of Raphael Levi in the matter of the disappearance of 3 year old Christian child, the Jews of Metz (Germany) convinced him to surrender to authorities.  The Jews were animated by what they sensed was a growing threat to their safety.  Levi was a fifty-six year old merchant of medium height with a long, black beard who had traveled to the Levant, Italy, Germany and Holland on personal and Jewish communal business.  Currently, he lived at Boulai, a village near Metz, where he was the leader of the synagogue. Levi told authorities that he come to Metz to buy a shofar for the upcoming holiday, oil, wine and fish.  He arrived in Metz at 10 in the morning, left the city about one in the afternoon and arrived at Boulai by four in the afternoon.  The prosecution decided that he must have seen the child around 1 p.m., grabbed him and taken him home. Of the eighteen witnesses called, five claimed to have seen a Hebrew enter the city but only one of them identified Levi as being the person they had seen.  One witness “declared that he did not think” Levi “was the man he had met. Regardless, the court found Levi guilty and sentenced him to death.  Levi appealed to a higher court which granted him the right to call his own witnesses.  In the mean time, Levi was held in jail awaiting the determination of his final fate. [More will follow on this sad, but all too typical tale of European anti-Semitism]

    1673:At a conference held in Wischaw, Moravia, today, between representatives of the government and of the Jews it was agreed that 250 Jewish families might return to Vienna and occupy fifty business places in the inner city on payment of 300,000 florins and the former yearly tax of 10,000 florins. In view of the hopelessly depleted treasury, the royal exchequer considered this offer a "remarkable piece of good fortune."

    1679: In Dresden, Samuel Benedict Carpzov and his wife gave birth German Old Testament Scholar whom the Jewish Encyclopedia says  “represents both an advance and a retrogression in Biblical science — an advance in fullness of material and clearness of arrangement (his Introduction is the first work that deserves the name), and a retrogression in critical analysis, for he held fast to the literal inspiration of the Hebrew text of the Old Testament and bitterly opposed the freer positions of Simon, Spinoza, and Clericus. His antiquarian writings are still interesting and useful.

    1699: Birthdate of Anglo-Irish actor Charles Macklin who revolutionized the portrayal of Shylock in The Merchant of Venice

    1762: Birthdate of Moses Schreiber, known to his own community and Jewish posterity as Moshe Sofer, also known by his main work Chasam Sofer, (trans. Seal of the Scribe and acronym for Chidushei Toras Moshe Sofer), (1762 - 1839), was one of the leading Orthodox rabbis of European Jewry in the first half of the nineteenth century. He was a teacher to thousands and a powerful opponent to the Reform movement, which was then making inroads into many Jewish communities in Austria-Hungary and beyond. As Rav of the city of Bratislava, he maintained a strong Orthodox Jewish perspective through communal life, first-class education, and uncompromising opposition to Reform and radical change.

    1768(15thof Tishrei, 5529): Sukkoth

    1794(2nd of Tishrei, 5555): Second Day of Rosh Hashanah

    1803(10thof Tishrei, 5564): Just two and a half months after the announcement of the Louisiana Purchas, Jews observe Yom Kippur in a much larger United States.

    1832(2nd of Tishrei, 5593): Second Day of Rosh Hashanah

    1832: In “The New Year’s Eve and Day of the Sons of Abraham,” published today the Sydney (Australia) Monitor reported that “the Jews of the colony assembled at the Jews' Synagogue held over Mr. Rowell's shop in George Street which is elegantly fitted out as such on Monday evening, being the last night of the year, according to the ancient chronology of the tribe of Judah, when prayers were said. On Tuesday morning and again in the evening, other meetings took place and worship was again performed.
    The congregation formulated detailed rules of conduct. A committee member not attired in decent and respectable manner was to be fined a guinea for each such offence. No person could officiate at a service without permission from the president. No conversation must take place during services; and "those Gentlemen being the junior branches of their families will take special care they behave themselves in a manner becoming a place of Divine Worship". The order of service and religious principles of the congregation were to be those laid down by the Chief Rabbi of London.

    1843(2ndof Tishrei, 5604): Rosh Hashanah

    1849(10thof Tishrei, 5610): Yom Kippur

    1849: Fifty Jews gathered in San Francisco for the first observance of Yom Kippur in that city.

    1854: "Jamaica” published today reported that sermons are still being preached on the island in an attempt to get additional funds to support the destitute Jews in Jerusalem and its environs.  Despite the depressed economic conditions on the island, almost four thousand dollars has been collected which will be forwarded to Sir Moses Montifiore.

    1860(10th of Tishrei, 5621): Yom Kippur

    1860: The Cattle Markets column published this evening attributes some of the sluggishness in sales at the cattle yards on 44th street to the fact that the Jewish buyers were not there to make purchases because they were observing the Fast of Yom Kippur.

    1860: Today's General News column included an item styled, “Yom Kippur – Day of Atonement’ that reported, “From sunset last evening until sunset to-day is observed by the Jews as the most solemn fast in their calendar. It is the "Day of Atonement," and during the time specified they abstain entirely from food and drink. According to Hebrew tradition, the Yom Kippur, even before the giving of the law, was a Day of Atonement and pardon. It is customary in the evening for parents to bestow their benediction on their children. If any quarrel or dispute exists between the Jews, it is obligatory on them to become reconciled. The moral influence of such a day, when all Jews, rich or poor, meet together in the synagogues and unite in the prayers, must necessarily be great... The origin of the fast is found in Leviticus, chapter xxiv., verse 26, which is as follows: "And the Lord spoke unto Moses, saying, speak unto the children of Israel, and say, also on the tenth day in the seventh month is the day of atonement: it shall be a holy convocation unto you. And ye shall afflict your souls, and offer a burn offering unto the Lord. And ye shall do no work in that same day, for it is a day of atonement to atone for you before the Lord your God. And every soul that shall not be afflicted on the same day, He will cut off from among His people. And every soul that does work on that same day, that soul will I destroy from among His people. Ye shall do no manner of work; this is a statute for ever unto all your generations, and throughout all your dwellings. It shall be unto you, the first among your Sabbaths, and ye shall afflict your souls, on the ninth day of the month at even; from even to even shall you celebrate your Sabbath."

    1861:(22ndof Tishrei, 5622): Shemini Atzeret

    1861:An article entitled “Benefit to the Jewish Hospital” reported that the will of Henry Hendricks has been admitted to probate and leaves $1,000 to the Jew’s Hospital and “$500 to Rev. J.J. Lyon, the Minister of the Congregation of the Shearith Israel.” Hendricks was the member of a prominent Sephardic family.  Hendricks is an anglicized form the Spanish name Henriques. 

    1861: Jews and Christians alike took part in a national day of “fasting, humiliation and prayer.” Jews filled their synagogues as the people of New York ceased from commercial activity in a manner not even seen on the Sabbath.

    1862(2ndof Tishrei, 5623): On the Second Day of Rosh Hashanah, Union Forces under the Command of Don Carlos Buell solidify  their position in Louisville, KY, thwarting the Rebel efforts to take the border state into the Confederacy.

    1870(1stof Tishrei, 5631): Rosh Hashanah

    1870: All of the 27 synagogues in New York City were filled with Jews celebrating their New Year.

    1870: Chatham Street, the Bowery “and the various other streets” where the Jews conduct their business were as devoid as empty as they would be on the weekly day of rest.

    1874(15th of Tishrei, 5635): Sukkoth

    1874: “Chag Hassakoth” published today described the observance that began yesterday evening of the “Jew Festival of ‘Succoth,’ more familiarly known as the Feast of Tabernacles.”  “The attendance at the synagogues and temples was not large, in consequence of the holiday following so close on the New Year.”
    1875:It was reported today that there are 19 Jewish congregations in New York

    1877: Founding of the Herxheimer Fund which provides financial assistance that ‘enables poor Jewish students to attend normal schools in Germany.

    1878: Several cases were heard in Part II of the Court of General Sessions (NYC) in which the defendants were charged with violating laws that banned keeping live fowl in dwellings.  The accused were all Jews who claimed that Jewish law required them to keep live fowl in their possession for three days before they could be killed. Since a religious defense was being used by the defendants, the prosecutor insisted that no Jews should serve on the jury.  After the jury had been seated, one of the jurors was excused because he looked like a Jew.  It turned out that the juror was the brother of a Christian minister.  The jury acquitted all of the accused.

    1879(9thof Tishrei, 5640): Erev Yom Kippur

    1879: “The Jewish Feast of Atonement” published today reported that “this evening the solemn fast of Yom Kippur or Day of Atonement, the most important observance in the Jewish ritual will commenced by the Jewish throughout the world.  The fast lasts from sundown on Friday evening until sunset on Saturday” a time during which “the devout Israelite does not permit either or drink of any kind to pass his lips.”  The article noted that Orthodox Jews observe the fast strictly while some Reform congregations in the United States have abolished the practice. “The services…consist chiefly of repeated confessions of the sins which have been committed during the past year and prayers for forgiveness.”

    1881: “A Hebrew Memorial Meeting” published today described how Mr. Samuel Greenbaum, President of the Young Men's Hebrew Association presided over the Association's memorial service honoring the late President Garfield.  Among the dignitaries who attended the service was Mr. R.J. de Cordova who gave an eloquent eloquent eulogy.  Congressman Einstein concluded his remarks by saying. "Garfield needs no granite shat to mark his grave; he will live forever in the hearts of his countrymen."

    1881: Birthdate of Ernst Gräfenberg, the German born American physician who developed the IUD. Gräfenberg literally owed his life to Margaret Sanger who ransomed him from a Nazi prison and brought him to the United States.

    1884: “Defending Mr. Friedman” published today gave David Longsdorf’s account of the events surrounding the elopement of Sarah Scheuer and his friend Henry Friedman.  Longsdorf contends that the two had known each other for almost a year; that contrary to the claims of the bride’s father, he had known the groom since the first of the year.  The two lived within a block of each other and the groom’s sister had helped the bride with preparations for a New Year’s party in 1884.  The real objection to Friedman stems from the fact that while he could provide Sarah with a comfortable life-style, her father opposed the marriage because Friedman could not provide her with the lavish lifestyle of her father.  (Yes, this is the stuff of which news was made long before Entertainment Tonight, etc.)

    1884: The Jews of New York City are scheduled to hold the first in a series of mass meetings to protest the refusal of the School Superintendent to allow children to be excused  from class for Yom Kippur.

    1885: Judgment has not been rendered in the suit brought by Congregation B’Nai Jeshurun which is attempting to recoup funeral expenses from the estate of the late Joseph Levy who had committed suicide in Patterson, NJ.

    1888:  Birthdate of the famed, influential poet, T.S. Eliot.  Was the author of “The Wasteland” and “The Love Song J. Alfred Prufrock” an anti-Semite as some have alleged?  For at least one answer read T. S. Eliot, Anti-Semitism, and Literary Form by Anthony Julius.


    1889: Birthdate of famed German intellectual, Martin Heidegger. Heidegger joined the Nazi Party on May 1, 1933, before being appointed the rector of the university in Freiburg. He resigned from the position in February 1934. During this time Heidegger's former teacher Husserl, who was Jewish, was denied the use of the university library at Freiburgbecause of the racial cleansing laws issued by the Nazi Party. Heidegger also removed the dedication to Husserl from Being and Time when it was reissued in 1941. Heidegger later claimed that this was due to pressure from his publisher, Max Niemeyer. Additionally, when Heidegger's Introduction to Metaphysics (originally published in 1935) was reissued after the war, he declined to remove a reference to the then current Nazi Party of Germany, choosing instead to add a parenthetical explanation about a confrontation between technology and man, stating the "inner truth and greatness of this movement [i.e., national socialism] (namely, the contact/opposition of planetary technology and modern man)" still existed. Many readers came to interpret this ambiguous remark as evidence of his continued belief in extreme right-wing political movements; although Heidegger himself refused to associate the comment with the former failed Nazi regime. The Nazi swastika symbol The National Socialist German Workers Party ( German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ...May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ...National socialism may refer to: Nazism, the political ideology of the German Nazi Party of the 1930s to 1940sCritics further cite Heidegger's affair with Hannah Arendt, when she was a doctoral student of his at the University of Marburg. This affair mostly went along in the 20s, sometime before Heidegger's involvement in Nazism, but it did not even end when she "fled" from him and moved to Heidelberg to continue with Karl Jaspers, and she later spoke on his behalf at his denazification hearings. Jaspers spoke against him at these same hearings, suggesting he would have a detrimental influence on young German students because of his powerful teaching presence. Arendt, who was Jewish, resumed their friendship, if extremely cautiously, after the war, despite or even because of the widespread contempt that Heidegger was held in for his political sympathies, and despite his being forbidden from teaching for a number of years.

    1889(1st of Tishrei, 5650): Rosh Hashanah

    1889: Possible birthdate of Rabbi Yisrael Abuhatzeira known as the Baba Sali or the "Praying a leading Moroccan rabbi and kabbalist who was renowned for his alleged ability to work miracles through his prayers. He was one of the leaders of the Aliyah of Moroccan Jewry to Israel, which saw the transfer of nearly the entire population of that community to the Holy Land. He passed away in 1894.  His burial place in Netivot, Israel has become a shrine for prayers and petitioners. The confusion about his birthdate comes from the fact that he was reportedly born on Rosh Hashanah 5650.  But he is also reported to have been born in 1890.  Rosh Hashanah in 1890 corresponds to 5651 on the secular calendar. 

    1891: The New York Times reports Kaiser Wilhelm II has reversed his policy of not providing financial help to Russia and has permitted to Jewish banking houses in Berlinto open subscriptions for a new Russian loan.

    1891: Solomon Hirsch, the United States Minister to Turkey sailed with his family on voyage that will take him back to America for a vacation that he hopes will last until December.

    1892: Health authorities announced that there were no cases of cholera in New York City. “The present epidemic reached Western Europe from Russia and was mainly if not wholly due to the migration of the Jews whose persecution has been driving from that country.”

    1893: In an unfolding conspiracy aimed at Jacob Bauman “who is connected with some of the wealthiest Hebrew families” in New York Max Kestenbaum and Ernest Sachs were arrested and immediately claimed that his wife, Mrs. Annie Baumann had paid them to lie during their divorce proceedings.

    1894: “A Most Successful Beggar” published described the fate of Charles Burkowitz, a blind Russian Jew whose successful begging over the last ten years netted $3,000 which his uncle stole and took with him to Boston.

    1895: The trial of Morris Schoenholz who is charged with arson in the first degree and is represented by Abraham Levy began today in Part I of the Court of General Sessions.

    1896: Sara and Jacob Adler give birth to their son Jay Adler, the American actor.  Adler’s parents were thespians as were their other two children Jacob and Sara Adler.

    1897(29thof Elul, 5657): Erev Rosh Hashanah

    1897: Orders were issued from Police Headquarters to ignore the Sunday closing laws and allow the Jewish businessmen on Hester, Orchard and Ludlow Streets to conduct business prior to being closed for two days due to the Jewish New Year.

    1897: Windows were unbarred and fire escapes were created in many of the buildings being temporarily used for High Holiday services on the Lower East Side following inspection visits by city building inspectors.

    1897: Birthdate of Max Schur, the native of Stanisławów who became a doctor and a friend of Sigmund Freud.

    1897: A report of Rowland Strong published today described the meeting of the Oriental Congress where a paper had been read describing a tribe of Abyssinian Jews who are strictly observant but are faithful to the king “and exhibit no desire join Herr Herzl in his trip to Palestine.”

    1898: The list of evening classes that will be offered by the YMHA starting in October published today included bookkeeping, stenography, typewriting, Spanish, German, Hebrew, Jewish History, literature, political economy, drawing and sketching.

    1898: A summary of the third annual report of the Hebrew Infant Asylum of which Mrs. Ester Wallenstein is President published today noted that there are currently 43 children under the age of five staying at the facility on Mott Street.  The asylum does not care for children over the age of five.

    1898(10th of Tishrei, 5659): Yom Kippur


    1898: Dr. Joseph Silverman of Temple Emanu-El is scheduled to give a sermon today entitled “A Pure World.”

    1898: “Yom Kippur Observance” published today reported that “At sundown yesterday Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement, the most solemn of all Jewish days of religious observance, began for Jews of both the orthodox and reform churches, to end at sundown to-day. These twenty-four hours are specially dedicated to fasting and prayer, and serve the purpose of reconciling the soul of the devout Jew to his God.”

    1933 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...1898: Birthdate of composer George Gershwin.  Born Jacob Gershowitz in Brooklyn to Russian Jewish immigrants, GershwinFreiburg city from Schlossberg Freiburg im Breisgau is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, in the Breisgau region, on the western edge of the southern Black Forest (German: Schwarzwald) with about 200,000 inhabitants. ... wrote most of his works together with his elder brother lyricist Ira Gershwin. Gershwin composed both for Broadway and for the classical concert hall. Some of his works included Rhapsody in Blue, An American in Paris and Porgy and Bess.

    1900: Birthdate of Gertrude Luckner the German social worker who was named as righteous among the Nations by Yad Vashem for assisting Jewish families in German and Poland; acts of heroism that resulted being imprisoned in Ravensbruck Concentration Camp.

    1902 (24th of Elul, 5662): Seventy-three year old Levi Strauss, the man who put America in Blue Jeans, passed away to day in San Francisco.
     1902: “Mercedes” was legally registered as a brand name for one of the automobiles manufactured by DMG.  The car was named for Mercedes, the daughter of Jewish businessman Emil Jellinek.

    1902: An item in the Jewish Chronicle of London focused on the consecration of a Sefer Torah and shofar in addition to several large barrels of apples and small containers of honey, all to be used by Jewish immigrants sailing shortly for South Africa. The short piece stressed that these items were needed since "the immigrants will be on the high seas during the ensuing festivals."

    1907: New Zealand gains dominion status in the British Empire. Jews first arrived in Zealand in the 1830’s.  By the turn of the century, the Jewish population had reached about 1,300 souls which was less than one per cent of the population. Most of the Jews lived in Auckland and Wellington, home of Beth El Synagogue.

    1908(1stTishrei, 5669): As the Jews celebrate Rosh Hashanah, William Howard Taft seeks to succeed T.R. as President of the United States.

    1912(15thof Tishrei, 5673): Sukkoth is celebrated for the last time during the Presidency of William Howard Taft.

    1913: Birthdate of Berthold Beitz, “the German steel industrialist who saves Jews” (As reported by Melissa Eddy)

    1917(10th of Tishrei, 5678): Yom Kippur 

    1917: During services at the B’Nai Israel in Bay Ridge, congregants contributed $10,000 to a fund for constructing a new synagogue.  Rabbi Solomon Goldman officiated at the service.

    1917: Congregants at Temple Emanu-El responded to the appeal of Louis Marshall contributing $20,000 and pledging another $30,000 to the fund that has been set up to provide financial assistance to the Jews trapped in the European war zone.

    1917: Congregants at Temple Beth-El, which is served by Rabbi Samuel Schulman contributed between $9,000 and $10,000 to the fund that has been set up to provide financial assistance to the Jews trapped in the European war zone.

    1917: Congregants as Ohav Zevek, the largest Orthodox synagogue in New York, contributed more than $17,000 to the fund that has been set up to provide financial assistance to the Jews trapped in the European war zone.

    1917: Congregants at the Pincus Elijah Synagogue in New York City pledged close to $15,000 to the fund that has been set up to provide financial assistance to the Jews trapped in the European war zone.

    1917: On Yom Kippur, Dr. Maurice H. Harris delivered a sermon at Temple Israel in New York entitled “Religion and Education.”

    1918: Near Eclisfontaine, France, U.S. Army Sergeant Phillip Katz voluntarily crossed “an area swept by heavy machinegun fire,” advancing “to where the wounded soldier lay and carried him to a place of safety."  This bravery earned him a Congressional Medal of Honor

    1919(2ndof Tishrei, 5680): Second Day of Rosh Hashanah

    1919: The Hahambashi of Turkey was granted an audience with the Shah of Persia, who paid tribute to the patriotism of Jews of Persia. The Shah attributed the progress of civilization to the Alliance Israelite Universelle schools.

    1919: In Manhattan, stockbroker Arthur Rosenthal and his wife Grace gave birth to Arthur Jesse Rosenthal, “a publisher of intellectual masterworks in an era of fast-buck publishing who led Basic Books in the 1950s and ’60s and created a model for universities nationwide by leading Harvard University Press to solvency in the ’70s and ’80s.”  (As reported by Paul Vitello)

    1920: Miss Irma Abramowicz May of Lemberg, Galicia, fiancé of the late Dr. Bernard Cantor, spoke in Carnegie Hall before the congregation of the Free Synagogue this morning at a memorial service in Cantor’s honor.  He was killed by Bolshevicks in the Ukraine in July while aiding the suffering Polish Jews caught in the Civil War racking the former Czarist empire.

    1920: In response to the death yesterday of Jacob Schiff “Personal tributes to his philanthropic instincts and the humanitarian work” poured in from a variety of sources including such Jewish leaders such as Rabbi Kaufmann Kohler, Dr. Cyrus Adler and Judge Mayer Sulzberger as well as leaders from the secular society including famed statesmen Elihu Root and George Baker of the Grover Cleveland Association.

    1925: Second baseman Buddy Myer made his major league debut with the Washington Senators.

    1927(29thof Elul, 5687): Erev Rosh Hashanah

    1928: Following the attempt by the police to remove the mechitza at the Wall on Yom Kippur, a delegation consisting of Colonel Frederick H. Kisch, Dr. Joshua Thon, Chief Rabbis A.H. Kook and Jacob A Meir, and Mssrs. Kalvarsisky and Meyuchased met with Acting High Commissioner H.C. Luke for two hours today to discuss the need to discipline those responsible for the action taken against the worshippers and a way in which problems at the Wall could be avoided in the future.  The police officials explained that they had removed the “screen” to avoid violence since the Moslems threatened to stone the Jews if the mechitzah remained in place.

    1934(17thof Tishrei, 5695): Chol Ha Moed Sukkoth

    1934(17thof Tishrei, 5695): Eighty-three year old Alexander Moszkowski, the German Jewish author and philosopher who was the first to write a book about his friend Albert Einstein passed away today.

    1935: Slugger Hank Greenberg declared that his Tigers were the best team in baseball; better even than the Chicago Cubs who think they will make it into the World Series.

    1936(10thof Tishrei, 5697): As Landon and FDR campaign for the Presidency of the United States, Jews observe Yom Kippur

    1937: The Palestine Post reported that another wealthy Christian landowner was murdered by Arab terrorists in the Maloul village, near Nazareth. [Editors Note: One of the unreported stories has been the departure of the Christian Arabs from PLO controlled territory.  Other ancient Christian communities have felt the pressure of Arab and/or Islamic groups including those in Iraq, the Sudan, Lebanon and Nigeria.]

    1937:  The Palestine Post reported that the Polish government published warning posters against disturbances of any kind and arrested large numbers of hooligans who took part in the recent anti-Jewish excesses. A Polish delegation which visited Madagascarreported that there were there large areas of potentially fertile lands for a possible Jewish settlement.

    1937: During the Arab Revolt, Lewis Andrews, the Acting Commissioner of the Galilee, Pirie-Gordon (the assistant district commissioner) and Andrews' bodyguard (a British police constable) were on their way from attending service at the Anglican Christ Church, Nazareth when they were gunned down by four Arabs.  Andrews died on the spot and the bodyguard died later at the hospital.

    1938(1stof Tishrei, 5699): Rosh Hashanah

    1938: Plans were made for Levi Yitzchok Bender and his wife to escape the clutches of Soviet authorities because he had visited the grave of Rebbe Nachman at Uman in defiance of the government’s ban on such religious observances.

    1940(23rd of Elul, 5700): Official date of death for Walter Benjamin, the German-Jewish intellect whose endeavors covered a myriad of fields.  Benjamin actually committed suicide the evening before after finding out that the Franco government was going to force him return to France where he faced certain imprisonment by the Nazis.

    1940: The Center of Jews (UHU) was founded in Slovakia to organize Jewish life. The UHU was a government apparatus to determine the fate of Jews in that country. UHU disbanded all 175 Jewish organizations in Slovakia.

    1941: Paramount Pictures released “Hold Back The Dawn co-authored by Billy Wilder and co-starring Paulette Goddard whose father “was the son of a prosperous Jewish cigar manufacturer from Salt Lake City.”

    1941(5th of Tishrei, 5702): The SS shot 412 men, 615 women and 581 children in Kovno. The Jews were described as sick people and carriers of epidemics.

    1941(5th of Tishrei, 5702): Jews of Swieciany, Lithuania, are massacred in the nearby Polygon Woods. Several hundred young Jewish men manage to escape

    1941: In Ejszyszki, Lithuania, the killing of Jews that had begun on Rosh Hashanah came to an end.  Almost four thousand Jews were killed.  About 300 Lithuanians voluntarily participated in the killing "actions" undertaken by Einsatzgruppe A in the Baltic region, which annihilated about 90 percent of the Jewish population. Only 30 Jews from Ejszyszki survived the war.

    1942(15thof Tishrei, 5703): Sukkoth

    1942: Instructions were issued to the Swiss Police stating, "Refugees on the grounds of race alone are not political refugees". This meant that thousands of Jews would now be sent back from the border.  Swiss behavior regarding the Nazis and the Jews paints a peculiar picture.  The supposedly neutral Swiss would be more or less or responsive to Nazi requests based on what was happening on the battlefields of Europe.  In 1942 the Germans were in control of Western Europe and were blitzing their way across Russia so a ruling like this is not surprising.  The Swiss would not surrender most the money deposited by Jewish refugees until a half century had gone by; and then only after litigation and political pressure.

    1942: SS Lieutenant General August Frank advises camp administrators that jewelry and other valuables seized from Jews should be sent to the German Reichsbank, and that razors and other practical items should be cleaned and delivered to front-line troops for sale to them. Proceeds will go to the Reich. Further, confiscated household items are to be distributed to ethnic Germans.

    1942: Brussels Jewish leader Edward Rotbel is deported to Auschwitz. Several hundred Dutch Jews are gassed there

    1942: German railway officials meet in Berlin for two days to plan track upgrades and additional trains in order to hasten deportations of Jews.

    1942: For three days search parties of German and Ukrainian police capture 1000 of 2000 Jews who escaped from the Tuchin (Ukraine) Ghetto on September 24. Some Jews would be taken to Tuchin's Jewish cemetery and shot, while most are killed where they are found in the forest.

    1943: Following the liquidation of the Vilna Ghetto, Abba Kovner led his resistance group on a dangerous trip through gutted buildings and dank swamps to the forests of Polandwhere they could continue the fight against the Nazis and their Estonian allies.

    1943: One day after official instructions arrived ordering the deportation of the Jews of Rome the Nazis demanded that Ugo Foa, president of the Union of Italian Jewish Communities, have the Jews hand over 110 pounds of gold within 36 hours or 200 Jews would be deported.

    1943: At the Novogrudok, Belorussia, labor camp, Jews complete secret work on a tunnel dug under the wire. Of the 220 Jews who use the tunnel to attempt escape, 120 are killed or captured.

    1943:Mayor Fiorello H. La Guardia warned the Jewish community in his regular Sunday broadcast that the price of whitefish, which will be in greater demand for the Jewish holidays beginning next Thursday, was likely to be increased to $1 or $1.25 a pound, according to trade information.

    1944(9thof Tishrei, 5705): Erev Yom Kippur

    1944:  Operation Market-Garden ends in failure.  Montgomeryadvocated this plan to slice through Hollandand seize the bridges over the RhineRiver.  The idea was folly and best and certainly was beyond Montgomery’s capability since it required rapid movement of his troops.  Implementing the plan drew supplies away from the rapidly advancing forces of George Patton.  Failure prolonged the war and increased the number of Jews who perished in the Holocaust.

    1944: Victor Kugler, one of the people who helped to hide the Frank family who had been captured by the Nazis was among the 1,100 men forced to start digging anti-tank trenches.

    1944: One thousand young boys are assembled at Auschwitz in the presence of Dr. Josef Mengele. Any boy whose head does not reach a board Mengele has nailed to a post is set aside for gassing.

    1944: Archibald Maule Ramsay, a former British Army officer and Member of Parliament who was an out-spoken anti-Semite was released from custody today. He had been arrested in 1940 under regulation 18B which allowed the government to detain Nazi sympathizers.  Following his release he returned to his seat in the Commons where he attempted to have the Statue of the Jewry, a piece of anti-Semitic law dating back to the time of Longshanks, reinstituted. 

    1946(1stof Tishrei, 5707): Rosh Hashanah

    1947: In Sdot Yam Israel, Hanne Ruth Warburg married Gershon Lasch.

    1948: Prime Minister Ben Gurion met with his cabinet to discuss plans for the Galilee if fighting should be renewed.

    1948: Birthdate of Ehud Yatom, the Netanya native who served  as an agent for Shin Bet before being elected to the Knesset.

    1949(3rdof Tishrei, 5710): Tzom Gedaliah

    1949: Having “purchased the rights to the name ‘Sazerac Bar’ form the Sazerac Company and renovated a store front on Baronne Street,” Seymour Weiss opened the new Sazerac Bar which drew a large number of female customers because Weiss abolished “the men only house rule” and allowed women to patronize the bar.

    1950: On the eve of the Maccabiah games which open tomorrow, five hundred Jewish athletes from twenty countries are living in the Maccabiah Village (a converted army camp) as they prepare to compete in the first “Jewish Olympics” held since 1935.  The games began in 1932 under the sponsorship of the Maccabee sport organization.  Among the competitors are two Olympic champions from the United States – Henry Wittenberg, light heavy-weight wrestler and Frank Spellman, middleweight weightlifter.

    1952: It was reported today Alex Traub, who has designed engines for tanks and automobiles in the United States  and Europe will be coming to Israel in January to act as an advisor on automobile engineering.

    1952: Eighty-eight year old philosopher George Santayana whose famous aphorism "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it" is inscribed on a plaque at the Auschwitz concentration passed away today.  For more on his relations with Jews and his anti-Semitism see

    1952: It was reported today that the new professors coming to work at the Institute of Technology in Israel include aeronautical experts Dr. Hirsch Cohen of PSU and  H. Jerome Shafter of Princeton as well as “ a specialist in the solvent extraction of petroleum, Dr. Jacob M. Geist.’ (MIT)

    1952: The Jerusalem Post reported that two Jews, a soldier and a farmer, were murdered by terrorist infiltrators near the Egyptian border.

    1952: The Jerusalem Post reported that a second group of urban workers who decided to return to the land, under the auspices of the town-to-the-village movement, settled in Upper Galilee, northwest of Ma¹ayan Baruch.

    1952:  The Jerusalem Post reported that after more than four months of protracted negotiations, Yitzhak Kariv, a local Mizrahi Bank manager, was elected mayor of Jerusalem by a right-wing coalition.

    1955(10thof Tishrei, 5716): Yom Kippur.

    1956: Moshe Dayan and Shimon Peres drove to the headquarters of Colonel Ariel Sharon the officer commanding the paratroops who had been instructed to carry out an attack in reprisal for Arab attacks including those of September 23 and September 25 that had cost five non-combatant deaths among the Israelis. 

    1956: The IDF reprisal raid commanded by Ariel Sharon successfully attacked the Jordanian outpost at Wadi Fukin.  The Jordanians lost 37 soldiers and two civilians at a cost of ten IDF dead.

    1957(1stof Tishrei, 5718): On the first day of Rosh Hashanah Mitchell Levin chants Samuel for the first time.

    1957: Leonard Bernstein's West Side Story opens on Broadway.  The Jewish musician takes Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet and converts into a musical set among the gang culture of mid-twentieth century New York City. 

    1958: Release date in the United States of the cinematic version of “Damn Yankees,” featuring lyrics and music by Richard Adler and Jerry Ross.

    1959: Eisenhower and Khrushchev conclude their two day summit meeting at Camp David where the President urged the Soviet leader “to resolve issues concerning the status of Jews in the USSR.  citing the “deep concern” expressed to him by Jewish groups.”

    1961:Bob Dylan, the musical voice of the counter-culturemakes his debut. Born Robert Allen Zimmerman, Dylan even made a bar mitzvah before assuming the role of musical rebel

    1963:According to reports published today, “Jack Benny, who left the National Broadcasting Company 15 years ago to pick up a quick $2,260,000 at the Columbia Broadcasting System, will return to N.B.C. next fall.”

    1963: Pitcher Larry Yellen made his major league debut with the Houston Colt .45’s.

    1968(4th of Tishrei, 5729: Israeli physician Ben Shlomo Lipman-Heilprin passed away.  Born in Bialystok in 1902, he studied medicine in Germany before making Aliyah in 1934.  His accomplishments were of such merit that he was the first recipient of the Israel Prize for medicine.

    1969: Opening of the trial of the Chicago Seven.  The accused leaders of the riots on the streets of Chicago during the 1968 Democratic Convention included the requisite number of Jews.  Ironically, the Judge in the case was also Jewish.  At one point it was Abbe Hoffman versus Judge Hoffman.  

    1972: A two day National Conference on Soviet Jewry during which Senator Henry Jackson of Washington “proposed legislation linking access to trade benefits for communist nations to liberalizing their emigration practices” comes to an end.

    1973(29thof Elul, 5733): Erev Rosh Hashanah

    1973: The first of two batches of reservists were called up by the Egyptian Army who were supposed to be participating in a training exercise but were, in reality, part of the invasion force that would strike Israel on Yom Kippur.

    1973: The Israeli 7th Brigade was ordered to move one battalion to the Golan Heights to strengthen the Barak Armored Brigade, under the command of Yitzhak Ben Shoham.

    1975: In Los Angeles, Bruce Paltrow and Blythe Danner gave birth to Jake Paltrow, the brother of Gwyneth Paltrow and cousin of Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords.

    1977: The Jerusalem Post reported that Prime Minister Menachem Begin warned Gush Emunim not to implement its plan for an immediate establishment of 11 new settlements in Judeaand Samaria, without the Ministerial Committee on Settlement¹s proper authorization. One of the on-going challenges for the Israelis over the last quarter of a century has been the willingness of some of the leader the "settlers' movement" to disobey or disregard the law.  This challenge transcends issues of Israeli security and goes to the heart of the nature of Jewish and not just Israeli values.

     1977:  The Jerusalem Post reported that Foreign Minister Moshe Dayan argued in Washingtonthat Israelhad agreed only to a 'symbolic' reconvening of the Geneva Middle East Peace Conference. Israel, Dayan said, would refuse to negotiate at any forum which might include the PLO.  A quarter of a century later, this whole issue has become meaningless in the sense that the Israelis have negotiated with the PLO since the days of the Oslo Accords.  This does serve to show that the Israelis have been willing to shift their stance and deal with the Palestinians In a political venue.  The fact of the matter is that the other side has still not matched this.

    1980: U.S. premiere of “Resurrection” produced by Howard Rosenman.

    1982(9thof Tishrei, 5743): Erev Yom Kippur

    1982: “One Day At A Time,” the ever popular sit-com starring Bonnie Franklin begins its 8th season.

    1985: Opening of “Bernstein: The Television Work” at the Museum of Broadcasting in New York City.

    1985: NBC began broadcasting the fourth season of “Family Ties” a sitcom created by Gary David Goldberg

    1985: NBC began broadcasting the second season of “The Cosby Show” co-created by Ed Weinberger.

    1988:15th of Tishrei, 5749): Sukkoth

    1988:15th of Tishrei, 5749): Forty-eight year old, journalist, author and ‘returning Jew’ Paul Cowan passed away today. (As reported by Joseph Berger)

    1995(2ndof Tishrei, 5756): Second Day of Rosh Hashanah

    1999: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or about topics of Jewish interest includingThe Trust: The Private and Powerful Family Behind The New York Timesby Susan E. Tifft and Alex S. Jones, Hitler’s Pope: The Secret History of Pius XIIby John Cornwell,The Spectator: Talk About Movies and Plays With the People Who Make Them by Studs Terkel and An Affair of State: The Investigation, Impeachment, and Trial of President Clintonby Richard A. Posner.

    2001(9th of Tishrei, 5762): In the evening, Kol Nidre is chanted for the first time during the Presidency of George Bush

    2002(20th of Tishrei, 5763): During Sukkoth, Rabbi Zerach Warfhaftig, the native of Volkovyski who made Aliyah in 1947 passed away.  During WW II, he worked with Japanese Vice-Consul in Kaunas Lithuania, Chiune Sugihara, the courageous diplomat who defied his government by issuing visas that saved the lives of thousands of Jews.  Warfhatig was one of the signatories of Israel’s Declaration of Independence and served in the first 9 Knessets.

    2003(29th of Elul, 5763): Erev Rosh Hashanah

    2003: It was reported today that Prime Minister had implied that Ariel will be included in the security barrier being constructed to protect Israelis from suicide bombers.

    2004: Izz El-Deen Sheikh Khalil, a senior member of Hamas' military wing, was killed in a car bombing in the al-Zahera district of southern Damascus, Syria for which the Israelis were blamed because of his involvement in the Beersheba bus bombing in August.

    2004: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or about topics of Jewish interest including Just Enough Liebling by the legendary New Yorker Writer by A. J. Liebling, The Divine Husbandby Francisco Goldman. Joy Comes in the MorningbyJonathan Rosen, Lying Together: My Russian Affair by Jennifer Beth Cohen, The Flawed Architect: Henry Kissinger and American Foreign Policy by Jussi Hanhimaki and an essay “Sex Books: The Elements of Sexual Style” by Amy Sohn.  

    2005:  Time Magazine of this date contains reviews of two books written by Jewish authors – E.L. Doctorow’s, The March and Myla Goldberg’s Wickett’s Company. Both novels center around historic events.  The March is a tale told about Sherman’s March during the Civil War. Wickett’s Company uses the flu epidemic at the end of World War I as its backdrop.  In the same issue, the movie review immediately following the book reviews reads “Guy Walks into a Shtetel” which is the opening gambit in a review of Everything Is Illuminated, a film about Holocaust survivors. These three items appearing in an icon of American culture help to sharpen one of the overarching questions being studied on Monday nights in Cedar Rapids– just what is Jewish culture?  Is it anything done by Jews or does it have to have a uniquely Jewish content or is it a little of both?

    2005: Richard H. Jones presented his credentials as U.S. Ambassador to Israel

    2005:Chief Rabbi Sir Jonathan and Lady Elaine Sacks were amongst those praising David Collins, 21, on his receiving the 2005 Herzl Award. The award was initiated in 2004 to commemorate the centenary of Herzl's passing, by the Department for Zionist Activities of the World Zionist Organization.

    2005(22nd of Elul : Yahrzeit of Joseph B. Levin, (Yosef Dov ben Avraham Elimelch) the man who taught me that Jewish education never stops unless the Jew chooses to stop his education.

    2006: Canadian actress Jessalyn Sarah Gilsig and producer Bobby Salomon gave birth to their daughter Penolope.

    2006: In Cedar Rapids, celebration of the birthday of Deb Levin, a true Ayshish Chayil or Woman of Valor.  Like Rashi’s daughters, she is a student in her own right.  Like Akiva’s wife, she challenges her husband to study and allows him the time to produce things like “This Day In Jewish History.”  Thanks to her effort and support, there is a traditional Saturday morning service in Cedar Rapids and Torah and Adult Education pages on the Temple Judah Website.  And if that is not enough, she makes one mean challah, creates kosher pizza from scratch and makes the best matzo balls in the world.  When Joe Lieberman was running for President and came though Cedar Rapids, he needed a kosher meal to go.  When he got on the plane, Deb was the one who provided him with myriad of dairy and parve homemade delights, all appropriately marked of course.

    2006: Alan Hevesi said he will pay the state more than $82,000 for having a public employee chauffeur his wife, after his Republican challenger, Christopher Callaghan, asked the Albany County District Attorney's office to investigate.

    2006: As a part of the commemorative events marking 65 years since the tragedy at Babi Yar this evening’s special exhibits will be displayed in the Ukrainian House Arts Palace.No Child’s Play,” organized by Yad Vashem, and “Forewarning the Future,” organized by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism of Ukraine, the Babi Yar Memory Foundation, and the Department of Culture of Kiev, will be opened by Ukrainian President Viktor Yushchenko.

    2007: Erev Sukkoth, 5769 in Cedar Rapidsbegins with a Sukkoth Potluck Dinner followed by evening services at TempleJudah.

    2007: Barrages of Kassam rockets and mortar shells continued to rain down on the western Negev as violence heated up in the Gaza strip.

    2007: Israeli spokesman Mark Regev and Doug Cassel, a defender of Mershiemer and Walt’s book on the power of the Jewish Lobby appeared on Worldview, Jerome McDonnell’s radio show on WBEZ in Chicago.

    2007: Judge Fidler declared a mistrial because of a hung jury in Phil Spector’s first murder trial in the death of Lana Clarkson.

    2008: Having survived a plane crash in Columbia, SC, DJ AM, (Adam Michael Goldstein) was released from the hospital today.

    2008:  Happy Birthday Deb: another year of making so much joy and happiness a reality including two blogs – This Day in Jewish History and Downhome Davar Torah. 

    2009 (8 Tishrei, 5770): The observance of Shabbat Shuvah or the Sabbath of the Return takes on an additional meaning as we “return” to where we were a year ago, celebrating the birthday of Deb Levin.

    2009: Israeli maestro Dan Ettinger makes his Met debut on the podium as Mozart's comic masterpiece, Le Nozze di Figaro, returns to the Met in New York City.

    2009:Director Roman Polanski was taken into custody in Switzerland today on a 31-year-old U.S. arrest warrant, organizers of the Zurich Film Festival said. Polanski had traveled to Switzerland to receive an award for his lifetime of work as a director. He was arrested in relation to a 1978 U.S. request, without specifying. Polanski fled the United States in 1978, a year after pleading guilty to unlawful sexual intercourse with a 13-year-old girl. The 76-year-old French-born director, who survived the Holocaust in Nazi-occupied Poland, won an Oscar for directing the 2002 Holocaust movie The Pianist.

    2010:  Rich Recht Concert & Sukkot Celebration are scheduled to take place at Temple B’nai Shalom in Fairfax Station, VA.

    2010: Family and friends join in celebrating the birthday of Deb Levin, an Ayish Chayel in the truest sense of the word.  Not only does she make the best Kosher pizza on either side of the Mississippi River she is also for all of the technology related to two blogs - This Day…In Jewish History and Weekly Torah Reading / Weekly Torah Portion.

    2010: The creator of This Day…In Jewish History is scheduled to be interviewed on the South African radio station Chaifm by Ronnie Mink starting at 6 pm Johannesburg time, 11 am Cedar Rapids time. The interview can be heard by streaming audio at

    2010: The New York Times featured books by Jewish writers and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including To the End of the Land by David Grossman and Aftershock: The Next Economy and America’s Future by Robert Reich.

    2010(18thof Tishrei, 5771):Eighty-four year old investment manager and philanthropist Stanely Cahis, whose reputation was besmirched as a result of the Bernard Madoff Scandal passed away today. (As reported by Barry Meier)

    2011: Na terapiji the Slovenian version of the Israeli hit television show BeTipul premiered on POP Brio today.

    2011: Memorial services sponsored by the Lo Tishkach Foundation are scheduled to be held in Brovary, Ukraine, to mark the 70th anniversary of the massacre of the Jews there during World War II.

    2011: Israeli violinist Misha Vitenson is scheduled to join pianist Michael Brown and the Jupiter musicians in a performance of chamber music at Good Shepherd Church in NYC.

    2011: Overcoming health challenges that would sideline a lesser individual, Deb Levin celebrates her birthday by preparing for the community celebration of Rosh Hashanah. In addition to all of her culinary skills, Deb is the creator of the architecture that makes possible This Day…In Jewish History and Weekly Torah Reading / Weekly Torah Portion.

    2011(27thof Elul, 5771): Eighty-one year old Academy Award nominated screenwriter David Zelag Goodman passed away today.  (As reported Daniel E. Slotnik)

    2011:President Shimon Peres said today that Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas is the best Palestinian leader Israel could work with toward the goal of resuming the peace process. 

    2011:An Israeli government committee established to respond to this summer's protests recommended expanding social welfare spending by $8 billion over five years.

    2012(10thof Tishrei, 5773): Yom Kippur

    2012(10thof Tishrei, 5773): Eighty three year old Sam Steiger, the New York native “who transformed himself into a Western rancher and served five terms in the House as a Republican from Arizona” passed away today. (As reported by William Yardley)

    2012: When Illan Kaplan leads the “Downstairs Minyan” at Temple Judah, it will mark the continuation a more than century old tradition that began with Beth Jacob, the original synagogue in Cedar Rapids, Iowa.

    2012:Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu left hours after the end of Yom Kippur tonight for New York to address the United Nations where he pledged to give a fitting response to Iran's desire to "sentence us to death."

    2012: “While most Israelis had the day off on Yom Kippur, Magen David Adom paramedics had a busy day, treating 2,334 people across the country for a variety of ailments.”

    2012:  Friends and family will have to wait until after sundown to eat cake as part of the celebration of the birthday of Deb Levin, the “women of valor” whose contributions include being the driving force behind the Traditional Shabbat Minyan and the techie responsible for This Day…In Jewish History and Weekly Torah Reading/Weekly Torah Portion

    "Tzom Kal" as well as "G'mar Hatimah Tovah"

    2013: Israeli video artist Tal Rosner is one of the collaborators helping to create “Fold Here” which is scheduled to open at Montclair University.

    2013: El Al is scheduled to cancel all its flight to Eilat starting today “due to a mandated change in flight route that the company says require additional tests for safety reasons.” (As reported by Sharon Udasin)

    2013(22ndof Tishrei, 5774): Shemini Atseret

    2013: This evening at the 6th& I Historic Synagogue Rabbi David Shneyer is scheduled to lead “Dancin’ in the Streets” A Simchat Torah Celebration

    2013: Seventy-nine year old Major League Baseball Commissioner Bud Selig issued a formal statement for the first time saying he will retire in January of 2015.

    2013: “Syria has deterrent weapons, more advanced than anything in its chemical arsenal, that could blindside Israel in mere moments, Syrian President Bashar Assad claimed today.”

    2014(2ndof Tishrei, 5775): Second day of Rosh Hashanah

    שנה טובה, כתיבה וחתימה טובה.

    2014:  HAPPY BIRTHDAY DEB!  Nothing would be possible without you!

    2014: This evening, Lewis Black is scheduled to appear at Westbury Theatre.

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    September 27

    0070 The walls of the upper city of Jerusalem were battered down by the Roman army

    1331: Polish forces under Wladyslaw and his son Casimir defeated the Germanic Knights at the Battle of Plowce.  From a military point of view the battle may have been a draw but it was a political victory for the Poles since it enabled them to assert their national identity. For the Jews, this has to be viewed as a positive event since when Casimir assumed the throne he treated the Jews in a favorable fashion and welcomed them as they fled Germany where they had been accused of causing the Black Plague.  

    1480: The Catholic Kings of Spain Ferdinand and his wife Queen Isabella ordered a tribunal in their kingdoms to study cases of heresy. This is the start of what would soon be known as the Spanish Inquisition.

    1481:In Medina del Campo.Miguel de Morillo and Juan de San Martín were named, as the first two inquisitors of the Spanish Inquisition.

    1540: TheSociety of Jesus known as The Jesuits was founded by Ignatius LoyolaThe first Jesuits were Spanish Christians who began their work at a time when the reconquest of Spain from the Moslems was but recently accomplished, and persons with Moorish or Jewish ancestry were under suspicion. It is accordingly much to their credit that the Jesuits were firmly opposed (particularly under Ignatius and his first three successors as Superior General of the Jesuits) to ecclesiastical anti-Semitism and to the Inquisition's persecution of suspected Jews. When Ignatius was accused of having partly Jewish ancestry, he replied, "If only I did! What could be more glorious than to be of the same blood as the Apostles, the Blessed Virgin, and our Lord Himself?"

    1601: Birthdate of King Louis XIII.  Louis was king of Francefor 33 of his 43 years.  He and his son Louis XIV were the two monarchs who ruled the dominate European power for almost the entire 17th century.  When Louis came of age and began ruling in his own right he reaffirmed the ban on Jews living in Francethat had been in effect since the fourteenth century, despite the fact that his mother had brought a practicing Jew to France to service as Louis’ doctor when he was a child.  On at least two occasions, Louis let economic necessity overcome the anti-Jewish policy.  When the French acquired the city of Metz, Louis allowed the Jews to stay in the city since they were an integral part of the city’s economic well-being.  The Jews of Martinique were left alone to help build this new outpost in France’s colonial empire.

    1773(10thof Tishrei, 5534): As the Americans living in the "13 colonies" try and figure out how to deal with new British taxes Jews on both sides of the Atlantic observe Yom Kippur

    1777: During the American Revolution, Lancaster, PA is capital of the United Statesfor one day. Lancasterwas approximately 60 miles west of Philadelphia.  “A Jewish burial plot had been set aside there as early as 1747.  Jewish religious services were conducted in the home of Joseph Simon.  Simon was the father-in-law of Michael Gratz, part of Pennsylvania’s most prominent Jewish family.   Simon was one of the leading traders on the frontier and supplied the Continental Army with large amounts of muskets, ammunition and other supplies. After the Revolution, the smaller Lancastercommunity was absorbed by the larger PhiladelphiaJewish community.  The Jewish community would reappear in Lancasterin the years preceding the Civil War as evidenced by the establishment of a synagogue in 1856.

    1783(1stof Tishrei, 5544): Just 24 days after Great Britain and the United States sign the Treaty of Paris marking the end of the American Revolutionary war Jews on both sides of the Atlantic observe a peaceful Rosh Hashanah

    1785(23rdof Tishrei, 5546): Simchat Torah

    1791: The National Assembly grants civil rights to the Jews of Alsac and Lorraine completing the process of emancipation for French Jews.

    1791: In France, Jews were granted full rights and declared citizens. Some sources contend that this was the first time that Jews were declared full citizens of any country since the Roman Empire. However, this contention is not wholly accurate.  Jewish in the United States were full citizens from the time of the country's birth.  This point was driven home by the Anti-Establishment clause of the First Amendment.  The Jews were never declared citizens because nobody was.  In fact the first time that such a declaration would take place would be at the time of the Civil War with the ratification of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments. Jewish women would share in the same disabilities as non-Jewish women and would not become fully participating citizens until they were guaranteed the right to vote by the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.

    1792: Birthdate of George Cruikshank the British caricaturist who illustrated Oliver Twist for Charles Dickens. His drawing of “Fagin in his cell” is an example of the work the did for this anti-Semitic novel. Cruikshank later claimed that he had created much of the plot for the novel, a claim that Dickens denied.

    1794(3rdof Tishrei, 5555): Shabbat Shuvah; fast is put off until Sunday.

    1797(9thof Tishrei, 5558): Erev Yom Kippur

    1797(9thof Tishrei, 5558): Uriah Hendricks passed away in New York City.

    1810: Rothschild and his elder sons drew up a new irrevocable partnership agree replacing the 1796 agreement.

    1821(1stof Tishrei): Rosh Hashanah

    1825(15thof Tishrei): Sukkoth

    1826: Birthdate of Julius Bien. Educated at the Academy of Fine Arts, Cassel, and at Städel's Institute, Frankfort-on-the-Main, he moved to New York where he established a lithographic business in 1850. He was president of the National Lithographers' Association from 1886 to 1896, and was a member of numerous scientific societies. Bien was twice president of the order B'nai B'rith.

    1830(10thof Tishrei, 5591): Yom Kippur

    1836: Birthdate of Isaiah Luzzato, the son of S.D. Luzzato, who practiced law in his native Padua, Italy.

    1839(19th of Tishrei, 5600): Fifth day of Sukkoth

    1839(19th of Tishrei, 5600): Manis (Morris) Jacobs passed away. Born in 1782 at Amsterdam, he moved to New Orleans, Louisiana, where he was a co-founder and president of Congregation Shangarai Chasset.  Jacobs served as the congregation’s first rabbi even though he had not been formally ordained.  This was not an unusual situation in the United States since there was no school for training clergy at this time and most European rabbis were reluctant to come to a place they consider hostile to Jewish way of life. In 1881 Shangarai Chasset would merge with Nefutzot Yehuda to form Touro Synagogue a Reform congregation located on St. Charles Avenue.

    1842(23rdof Tishrei, 5603): Simchat Torah

    1851(1stof Tishrei, 5612): Nine days after the founding of the New York Times, Jews observe Rosh Hashanah

    1854: Frederick Catherwood, an English artist and architect passed away.  Catherwood was not Jewish.  He was one of several artists who visited Palestine and provided the West with depictions of “the Holy Land.”  During his visit to Jerusalem in 1833, he may have been the first Westerner to survey the Temple Mount.

    1858: The New York Times reported that Samuel Morris, a thirty year old “Hebrew” has been arrested for stealing clothing from two of the boarding houses at which he has resided.  Mr. Morris has also been charged with being a bigamist having begun marrying a series of women starting in July, 1856 and acquiring a new wife at the various boarding houses he has inhabited in the last two years.

    1860: It was reported today that the cattle market in New York has been “sluggish” (low prices for sellers) because of the “superabundance of poor cattle” and the absence of the Jewish butchers from the market due to the celebration of their holidays.

    1860: It was reported that “Joseph and his Brethren” is playing at Barnum’s little theatre in New York.  The opening portion of the play is based on the biblical narrative but it then moves on to flights of fancy that include Babylonians and large numbers of Jews and Egyptians.

    1861(23rd of Tishrei, 5622): Simchat Torah is celebrated for the first time during the Presidency of Abraham Lincoln.

    1862(3rdof Tishrei, 5623): During the Civil War, as Jews observe Shabbat Shuvah “The Confederate Congress passes the Second Conscription Act, authorizing the President to draft men between the ages of 35 and 45” and “the first all-black regiment in United States history is formed in Union-controlled New Orleans from ‘free Negroes.’"

    1866: Only a few days after a group of Christian settlers had landed at Jaffa, a son was born to one of the families.

    1870(2ndof Tishrei, 5631): Second Day of Rosh Hashanah

    1870: It was reported today that there are 27 synagogues in New York City.

    1870: It was reported today that yesterday that Chatham Street, the Bowery and the other places “where the chosen people do business presented a Sunday appearance” because the Jews were in their houses of worship observing their New Year.  “Not a solitary store belonging to the Israelites was open…”

    1871: Birthdate of Martin Henry Glynn, the first Roman Catholic to serve as Governor of New York. In 1919 he wrote an article entitled “The Crucifixion of Jews Must Stop!” that described the conditions of the Jews living in post War Europe.  Considering the tenor of the times, it was a courageous act for a  man in the political arena.

    1872: The funeral of Mrs. Hannah H. Leo, the wife of Henry Leo was scheduled to take place today.  Mrs. Leo was active in many Jewish communal organizations including the “Auxiliary Society of the Mount Sinai Hospital of which she was President at the time of her death.

    1873: In Detroit, Michigan, Temple Beth El officially began its affiliation with the Union of American Hebrew Congregations.

    1874(16th of Tishrei, 5635): Second Day of Sukkoth

    1874(16th of Tishrei, 5635): Rabbi S. M. Isaacs delivered the sermon at Gates of Praise Synagogue on 44th Street, between Broadway and Sixth Avenue in NYC. He told the congregation that “the festival was meant to remind them that their ancestors had once dwelt in tabernacles and to teach them that, whether in adversity or prosperity, they should always with gratitude remember God.”

    1876(9thof Tishrei, 5637): Erev Yom Kippur

    1876: “Jewish Day of Atonement” published today provides a brief but accurate of “the celebration of the fast of Yom Kippur.”  It includes the fact that “in Orthodox synagogues the supplicants will wear shrouds to remind them of the grave.  Reformed Jews, though joining in the fasting and praying, discard the shrouds.”

    1878(15thof Tishrei, 5548): Sukkoth

    1878: The New York Times featured a review of “The Writer Heine Loved Most: Lessing” by James Sime.

    1879(10thof Tishrei, 5640): Yom Kippur

    1879: Birthdate Hans Hahn an Austrian mathematician who made contributions to functional analysis, topology, set theory, the calculus of variations, real analysis, and order theory

    1880: It was reported today that the last issued of the National Quarterly Review contains an article by David Ker entitled “The Political Future of the Jews.” He thinks that the probability of this “outlawed race” returning to Palestine, “the land of their fathers”  “rests upon more durable grounds that the visions of fanatical zeal or of patriotic enthusiasm

    1880: In Missouri, the town of Herdsville was re-named Seligman in honor of financer Joseph Seligman who had died the previous April.

    1881: The SS Egypt arrived today from Liverpool carrying 48 Jewish immigrants who were met at Castle Garden by the newly formed committee that will help will advise and aid them as they adjust to their surroundings.

    1881: Birthdate of Israel Zolli the chief rabbi in Rome from 1940 to 1945 who converted to Catholicism in 1945.

    1883: It was reported today that rioting in the Ukrainian town of Nowomoskowk has left 200 Jewish families homeless and that only one synagogue and three homes belonging to Jews “escaped demolition.  The riot began because Jews were blamed for the plundering of a Russian Church.

    1884: Abraham Jacobs and Jacob Jacobs (no relation) ended up being arrested after an altercation at the door way to the Covenant Hall on Orchard Street.  The two combatants actually went to the police station together to file complaints against each other.  When the desk sergeant was told that there were no witnesses he locked them both up until the matter was sorted out.

    1885: Birthdate of Gustav Schröder, Captain of the MS St. Louis.

    1889(2ndof Tishrei, 5650): 2nd day of Rosh Hashanah

    1889: Officer Gebhard of the Eldridge Street squad put out the lights in a synagogue Erev Shabbat at 91 Delancy Street because he claimed that the establishment doubled as a dance hall and it was the only way to stop a dispute between two groups, one of which wanted to pray and the other one of which wanted to dance.

    1890: “The Jews In Russia” published today described “the appointment: of “a special commission”… “to consider the position of the Jews in Russia.”

    1890: Albert B. Theime attributed the undercounting in his census figures to the fact that so much of his district was made up of Polish Jews he said “seemed to think that I had some sinister motive in asking questions. He deliberately did not count approximately count approximately 500 people living in two buildings on Orchard Street because it would have taken too much time.

    1891: The Brooklyn Eagle published "Judaism in Brooklyn: The Ancient Faith of Israel and Its Local Adherents."

    1891: The New York Times published reports from its foreign correspondents describing the desperate plight of the Jews of Russia. Two to three thousand Jews are attempting to leave the famine strapped Southern part of the empire, but this exodus “has no real effect on the hideous pressure of congested Jews inside the Pale.”

    1891: “New York State Churches” published today provided described the problems that the congregation in Poughkeepsie is having with their Rabbi Herman Faust who has been replaced by Rabbi Sandberg.

    1892: Starting today, 4 ambulances will be stationed at the Willard Parker Hospital after Charles Wilson, the President of the Board of Health determined that Samuel Machinsky, a young Jewish boy had “been allowed to lied on the sidewalk at the Bowery and Houston Street for two hours” before help arrived because there was a shortage of ambulances at the hospital due to the outbreak of Cholera.

    1892: The response of former President Grover Cleveland, who is running again this fall for the Presidency, to a letter from a Jewish voter expressing his appreciation for the Democratic Party’s plank about the treatment of Russian Jews was published today.  Cleveland assured him that he supported the plank but said the party was only acting “in accordance with humanity and the kindly feeling which ought to exist in the brotherhood of mankind.”

    1892: During today’s dedication of the Girl’s High School in Brooklyn, Joseph C. Hendrix, President of the Board of Education spoke to the crowd about the “swarms” of Polish and Russian Jews who “bring their moral diseases….with them.”  “The only quarantine that will avail against this is the school, erected and maintained by the tax and the bounty of the people.”

    1894: Mrs. Elke Rubenstein and her sister Basche Ragleski of Jerusalem arrived at Ellis Island.

    1895(9thof Tishrei, 5656): Erev of Yom Kippur

    1895: In New York, the Board of Health is refusing to issue special permits to allow for the sale of live poultry which means that the forty or fifty poultry dealers who had bought between 100,000 and 150,000 chickens which they had intended to sell to Jews so that they could perform their pre-Yom Kippur rituals are going to lose a lot of money.

    1895: In London, Barney Barnato “who made his fortune in South African diamond and gold mining” and Fanny Bees gave birth to their youngest son Joel Woolf Barnato.

    1895: Judge Fitzgerald agreed to postpone the trial of Morris Schoenholz which had begun yesterday because Yom Kippur was starting this evening and it would inconvenience the Jewish client and Abraham Levy, his Jewish lawyer.

    1897: It was reported today that the French Cabinet has instructed the Minister of Justice to take the matter known as the Dreyfus Case to the Court of Cassation which “will examine all the evidence in the case to whether the ex-artillery officer was unjustly condemned, either through perversion of justice or through inadequate or untrustworthy evidence or because evidence has been discovered since the trial raising the question of reasonable doubt as to the man’s guilt.”

    1897(1stof Tishrei, 5658): Jews celebrate Rosh Hashanah for the first time during the Presidency of William McKinley.

    1897: “The Jewish residents of Camden, NJ, celebrated Rosh Hashanah in Furery’s Hall.

    1897: Relying on sentiments that first appeared in the Jewish Messenger the following “text for the New Year was published today – “The Jews needs the world’s broadening impulse and world requires the ethical foundations of the Jew.”

    1899(23 of Tishrei, 5660): For the final time in the 19th century, Jews celebrated Simchat Torah

    1899: Birthdate of Rebecca Goodman who would marry author David Freedman and as Beatrice Freedman would have three sons and one daughter with him.

    1903(6thof Tishrei, 5664): Forty five year old Julius Plotke the native of Borek who became a successful lawyer and was a trustee of the Jewish Colonization Association passed away in Frankort.

    1904: The Miriam Barnert Hebrew Free School was dedicated today in Paterson, New Jersey by Nathan Barnert

    1905(28thof Elul, 5665): Famed theatrical manager Jacob Litt passed away today.

    1905: Albert Einstein published the paper "Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content?" in Annalen der Physik. This paper revealed the relationship between energy and mass. . [If you have any questions about his work, I suggest you consult Dr. Joe Rosen, the only person I know who understands this sort of thing.]

    1905: Third baseman Phil Cooney made his major league debut with the New York Highlanders (the modern day Yankees).

    1905: In Philadelphia, Dr. Cyrus Adler married Miss Racie Friedenwald at the home of Mrs. Jane Friedenwald, the bride’s mother in a ceremony conducted by Rabbi Leon H. Elmaleh of Congregation Mikvah Hisrael.  Dr. Adler was a native of Van Buren, a town in Crawford County, Arkansas.

    1911: Birthdate ofwriter and humanitarian Ruth Gruber. Gruber, who had earned bachelor's and master's degrees by age 19 and a Ph.D. by 20, dedicated her life to helping relieve the oppression suffered by Jews worldwide. At the age of 21, Gruber began her career as a journalist, reporting on global politics. In 1944, Gruber was asked by the USSecretary of Interior Harold Ickes to conduct a secret mission to escort 1000 Italian Jewish refugees to America. This brief break in the nation's otherwise restrictive immigration policy allowed the refugees to be "guests" of President Roosevelt throughout the war. Throughout the mission, Gruber was aggressively hunted as a foreign spy by Nazi seaplanes and U-boats. In her writing of the experience of the refugees that she accompanied, Gruber drew attention to the plight of European Jews. After World War II Gruber returned to journalism and began reporting on the Jewish migration to Palestine. Her reports helped advance the dissolution of Displaced Person camps in Africa, Europe, and the Middle East. Throughout the 1940s Gruber worked to ensure the success and growth of Israelthrough her work as an activist and by sparking global attention through her news reports. Gruber continues to advocate for Jews worldwide and, for many, is herself a symbol of Jews' rescue from oppression. Gruber has written thirteen books, seven of which focus on the subject of Israel and the Middle East from the end of World War II to the present. Her book, Destination Palestine: The Story of the Haganah Ship Exodus 1947, was used as source material for the movie and book Exodus. Gruber's memoir, Ahead of My Time: My Early Years as a Foreign Correspondent,was published in 1999, and her life was the subject of Haven, a 2001 CBS miniseries.

    1911(5th of Tishrei, 5672: Sixty-seven year old Auguste Michel –Lévy, the French geologist who became inspector of mines and director of the Geological Survey of France, passed away.
    1913: Birthdate of Albert Ellis.Born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania he is a psychologist whose Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), is the foundation of all cognitive and cognitive behavior therapies. REBT is a comprehensive theory of personality and psychotherapy which holds that one's personal beliefs, evaluations, and personal philosophy control one's feelings. Thus, it is not external events that causes emotional disturbance, rather it is a person's own beliefs about events or adversity that produce it. Ellis proposed that the way to improve well being is to change ones thoughts, beliefs, and behavior. It was this principle that he first formally expressed in the early 1950's that became the basis of all cognitive psychotherapies.

    1914: Henry S. Felter of New Brunswick “was re-elected President of the New Jersey Federation of Young Men’s and Young Women’s Hebrew Association today.

    1914: As both sides wooed the Ottoman Empire at the outset of WW I, the German commander of the Dardanelles fortifications ordered the major waterway closed, adding to the impression among the Allies  that the Ottomans had already decided to ally themselves with the Central Powers, setting in motion events that reverberate in the Middle East in the 21st century.

    1917: Birthdate of Rear Admiral Maurice H. Rindskopf who was the youngest submarine commander in World War II

    1917:“Jews Give $350,000 for War Suffers” published today reported that when Yom Kippur, the Jewish Day of Atonement, came to a close at sunset yesterday more than $350,000 had been contributed within twenty-four hours in all the synagogues and temples of the city to the $10,000,000 relief fund which is being raised for the relief of Jewish war suffers in Europe.”  The New York appeal was part of a nationwide movement designed to raise $10,000,000 for the Jews trapped in war-torn Europe and Palestine.

    1917: Jacob Billlikopf, Executive Director of the American Jewish Relief Committee, said that yesterday’s Yom Kippur for funds to help relieve the suffering Jews trapped in war-torn Europe was separate from the  Jacob Schiff’s campaign for funds that will begin on the first of December.

    1917: The furloughs granted to U.S. soldiers and sailors so that they could observe Yom Kippur came to an end today.

    1918(21st of Tishrei, 5679): Hoshanah Rabah

    1918:General Allenby’s victorious cavalry rode across the Golan Heights into Syria, heading for Damascus.

    1919:Emma Goldman was released from a two-year prison term, only to be immediately rearrested. (As reported by the Jewish Women’s Archives)

     1920(15thof Tishrei, 5681): Sukkoth is celebrated for the last time during the Presidency of Woodrow Wilson.

    1920: For the first time since 1492, the Spanish government formally recognized the Jewish community, according to it all privileges of other religious bodies.

    1920: Reports were published today that Nathaniel Cantor, the brother of Rabbi Bernard Cantor who was murdered by Bolsheviks, is the first recipient of the Bernard Cantor Fellowship created by the Free Synagogue for students at the Hebrew Union College.

    1922: In the U.K., probate was granted to Elsie, the sister of the late Dorothy Elizabeth Levi, better known as Dorothy Levitt the female pioneer in the field of motoring and power boat racing.

    1922: Birthdate of Arthur Hiller Penn, the American director and producer who was the younger brother of fashion photographer Arthur Penn.

    1922: Birthdate of Nat Shapiro who played a key role in the music industry and promotional director for Mercury Records and A&R director of Columbia Records.

    1928: Birthdate of Lester Donald Shubin, the Philadelphia native who was among the U.S. troops that liberated Dachau. While working for the Justice Department, he developed one of the most effective bullet proof vests of the 1970’s.

    1927(1st of Tishrei, 5688): Rosh Hashanah

    1929: Birthdate of Leonard Jerome Harris, the Bronx native who becamearts and theater critic for New York’s CBS television affiliate

    1930: When the Yiddish talking film “The Jewish Mother,” an American production was presented for the time tonight at the Mograbi Theatre in Tel Aviv a mob of several thousands of Jews gathered outside the theatre shouting ‘Down with Yiddish!  Hebrew is our language.  Several young men, members of the ‘Army for the Defense of the Hebrew Langue,’ broke into the theatre and threw tear bombs.  They also hurled ink bottles at the screen.  Policemen immediately were sent to the scene and found it almost impossible to force their way through the huge mob.  They finally succeeded in arresting about a dozen of the ringleaders and dispersing the mob.  The show was then continued, but soon afterwards an even larger mob again gathered and the authorities found it necessary to order that the show be discontinued.  Even then the crowd refused leave until all the lights in the theatre were out.”

    1933:Ludwig Müller, Hitler’s candidate and a dedicated Nazi was elected as the new Reichsbischof of the German Evangelical Church

    1935(29th of Elul, 5695): Erev Rosh Hashanah

    1936: The Maccabees of Tel Aviv, the soccer champions of Palestine are scheduled to play their first game against a team of the New York State Football Association at Yankee Stadium.

    1937: Birthdate of Sir Kurt George Matthew Mayer Alberti who has served as the President of the Royal College of Physicians and the National Clinical Director for Emergency Access in the United Kingdom.

    1938(2nd of Tishrei, 5699): On the second day of Rosh Hashanah Jews are barred from practicing law in Germany.

    1938: As Rosh Hashanah came to an end Reb Levi Yitchok Bender made their clandestine escape by train from Uman to Kiev where an informer turned him over to the local police.  After interrogation, he was released because he convinced them that he had been in Khrysthnivka and not Uman. The leader of the Breslov Chasidim would spend the war in Siberia before making Aliyah in 1949.  He died forty years later.

    1939: Berlin issues a command to establish Jewish ghettos in Poland on the same day that formal Polish military resistance collapses. 

    1940(24th of Elul, 5700): Walter Benjamin died by his own hands today. He was a German Jewish Marxist literary critic and philosopher. Benjamin committed suicide in Port Bou at the Spanish-French border, while attempting to escape from the Nazis, when it appeared that his party would be denied passage across the border to freedom. The rest of the group was allowed to cross the border the next day, possibly because their desperation was made clear by Benjamin's suicide. A completed manuscript which Benjamin had carried in his suitcase, possibly his "Arcades Project," disappeared after his death and has not been recovered.
    1940: Thirty-nine year old Helmut Neustadter, who would gain fame as Australian photographer Helmut Newton, who had been interred by British authorities while in Singapore escaping from Nazi Germany, arrived in Sydney aboard the Queen Mary and was shipped to the camp at Tatura under armed guard.

    1941(6thof Tishrei, 5702): Shabbat Shuvah

    1941(6th of Tishrei, 5702): The two day massacre of the Jews began at at Kamenets-Podolsk, in the Ukraine.

    1942(16th of Tishrei, 5703): Second Day of Sukkoth

    1942(16th of Tishrei, 5703): An additional 897 French Jews were killed at Berkenau

    1942(16th of Tishrei, 5703): Several hundred Belgian Jews were killed at Berkenau

    1942(16th of Tishrei, 5703):  Three hundred cold and hungry women and children, part of the 1000 Jews still at large following a September 24 escape from the ghetto at Tuchin, Ukraine, return to the city under German promises of safe repatriation. All 300 are shot. Of the 700 Tuchin Jews who remained at large, only about 20 will survive the war.

    1942: The ghetto at Parysow, Poland was liquidated when it 3,500 inhabitants were shipped to Treblinka.

    1943: Ugo Foa, head of the Jewish community in Romeapproached the Vaticanin hopes of getting a Papal loan for the fifty kilograms of gold the SS was demanding if the Jews were to avoid deportation to the death camps.  In a rare act designed to save Jews, Pius XII approved the request.  Funds were never released since the Jews, acting in desperation, raised the funds on their own.

    1944(10th of Tishrei, 5705): Yom Kippur

    1944: While leading Yom Kippur services in Rome, Rabbi Israel Zolli, experience a vision Jesus, which according to his autobiography led him to convert to Christianity.

    1944: Delivery date of the “Benjamin Peixotto", a Liberty ship named after the 19th century American Jew who was a served both his country and his co-religionists with distinction.

    1944: At Birkenau the Jews were reminded that the "Goebbels Calendar" still was in effect.  The Goebbels Calendar referred to the Nazi custom of emptying sick wards on Jewish holidays and shipping these people to the death chambers.  On this Yom Kippur, 2000 boys would be told that extra bread would be given to them on their Day of Atonement. Instead, 1000 would be chosen by Dr. Mengele to be sent to the gas chamber. In this instance the selection method was based on height. The shorter boys would be killed.  Elsewhere thousands of Jews would be sent to their deaths this day.

    1945:  Birthdate of pianist Misha Dichter.  Born in Shanghai, where his Polish parents had fled at the outbreak of World War II, Mr. Dichter came to Los Angeleswith his family at the age of two and began his piano studies a few years later.  While still a student at Juilliard, he launched his international career with a stunning triumph at the 1966 Tchaikovsky Competition in Moscow.  Interestingly enough, on the Dichter's website, he is identified as Polish and his wife as being Brazilian-Polish.  Dichter is part of a long line of Jewish Pianists including Arthur Rubenstein and Vladimir Horovitz.

    1945 Birthdate of Jack Goldstein, Canadian born American artist.

    1947: Today was the last day on which the Afabu, an American newspaper originally intended for “German speaking Jews around the world, published its list of Holocaust survivors marking the end of a project that had begun in September of 1944.

    1947: The House Un-American Committee (HUAC) subpoenaed 24 "friendly"...and 19 "unfriendly" witnesses (mostly Jewish) summoning them to Washington.

    1948: During Operation Velvetta five Spitfires flown by Israeli pilots began a 2,500 mile from Yugoslavia to Israel, much of which was over open water without modern navigational aids.  Two ran out of gas and were forced to land on the island of Rhodes.  The other three made it safely to Ramat David.

    1950: Premiere of “La Ronde” the film version of the Arthur Schnitzler play of the same name directed by Max Ophus.

    1950:The Third Maccabiah, Jewish equivalent of the Olympic Games, opened today at the new stadium in suburban Ramat Gan, where about 30,000 persons watched a parade of athletes from twenty countries…Today’s ceremonies, featuring 500 Jewish athletes, including a team of forty-three from United States, were the first of their kind to be held in Israel and were the most colorful this state has seen…The only sad note of another otherwise gay afternoon was the Yizkor ceremony, when the flag was lowered to half staff, and trumpets sounded notes of mourning for those who died since the last games in 1935.”

    1951: Second baseman Al Federoff made his major league debut with the Detroit Tigers.

    1951:Vincent Richard Impellitteri, Mayor of New York is made a citizen of Haifa.

    1951: The negative reaction of the Arab countries to the latest UN peace proposal is tantamount to rejection as can be seen in the statement that appeared today in Le Jour the Beirut newspaper which comes close to being the voice of the Lebanese Foreign Office. In referring to the proposal by the UN Conciliation Commission, the paper said, “Let us say at once this is a plan based on the demands of the Zionists and which does not take into serious account the demands of the Arabs.  What the representatives of the United Nations proposed is a solution in accord with the desires of Israel and with its interests.  The United Nations is only interested in bringing the Arabs to bow before Israel.”

    1952: During the Red Witch Hunt, Lewis Webster Jones, President of Rutgers, “announces his intention to appoint Trustee and Faculty committees to review the cases of professors involved in government inquiry” which include as targets Moses Finley who had appeared before the House Un-American Activities Committee.

    1959: NBC Sunday Showcase broadcast the first in a two part presentation of “What Makes Sammy Run” starring Larry Blyden and “Sammy Glick.”

    1962: In Canada, Herb Gray began serving as a Member of Parliament for Essex West.

    1962: The United Statessold Hawk anti-aircraft missiles to Israel.  As useful as the military equipment was, the sale of the missiles was even more important as a sign of the Kennedy Administration's commitment to the defense of the state of Israel.

    1964: U.S. premiere of “Lilith” directed, produced and written by Robert Rossen  and filmed by cinematographer Eugen Schufftan.

    1969(15thof Tishrei, 5730: Sukkoth is observed for the first time during the Presidency of Richard Nixon

    1970: Following a Syrian supported attack on Jordan that was thwarted by the threat of Israeli intervention, King Hussein was still forced to sign an agreement which preserved the right of the Palestinian organizations to operate in Jordan. For Jordan, it was humiliating that the agreement treated both sides to the conflict as equals. It also meant that Jordan would serve as a base of operation for Palestinian terrorists.

    1970: Birthdate of Canadian sports journalist Elliotte Friedman.

    1972: In Los Angeles, Bruce Paltrow and Blythe Danner gave birth to Gwyneth Paltrow.

    1973(1stof Tishrei, 5734): Rosh Hashanah

    1977(15thof Tishrei, 5738): Sukkoth

    1977: “One Day At A Time” starring Bonnie Franklin began its third season on CBS.

    1978: The Knesset approved the Camp David Accords with 84 affirmative voted, 19 opposed and 17 abstentions.

    1979: The President’s Commission on the Holocaust established by President Carter and chaired by Elie Wiesel submitted its report today in which it recommended the establishment of “a memorial with three main components:a national Holocaust memorial/museum; an educational foundation; and a Committee on Conscience.”

    1981:The official Yugoslav press agency Tanjug reported that a hijacked Yugoslav jetliner with 101 people aboard landed in Cyprus early today after Israel refused to let the plane land in Tel Aviv as the hijackers had demanded. The Israelis had no idea what the terrorists were planning to do once they landed.

    1982(10th of Tishrei, 5743): Yom Kippur

    1984(1stof Tishrei, 5745): Rosh Hashanah

    1986: Premiere of “Amen,” a sit-com created by Ed Weinberger, the son of a Jewish butcher from Philadelphia.

    1989:In an article entitledRosh Hashanah Journey To Hasidic Master's Tomb,” which is quoted in its entirety below, Ari L. Goldman describes the Rosh Hashanah pilgrimage of Bratslav Chassidim to the tomb of Rabbi Nachman of Bratslav.

    Shortly before his death in 1811, Rabbi Nachman of Bratslav, a Hasidic master known for his mystical teachings, asked his followers to come and pray at his grave each year on Rosh ha-Shanah, the Jewish New Year. The custom was carried on at his tomb in the Ukrainian city of Uman until the Russian Revolution in 1917. Since then only a few of his followers could make the pilgrimage. They are known as the ''Dead Hasidim'' because they follow a deceased leader rather than a living one. With the opening of the Soviet Union in the last year, however, the dream of many Bratslav Hasidim is being realized. One thousand are planning to make the trip to be in Uman for Rosh ha-Shanah, which begins at sundown Friday. About 100 Bratslav Hasidim left on a Pan American World Airways flight from Kennedy International Airport last night amid joy and expectation. 'Imagine the Anticipation'''It's like a person who hasn't seen his father in 40 years,'' said Noah Steinberg, a lawyer who lives in Brooklyn. ''Imagine the anticipation we feel.'' Accompanying Mr. Steinberg was his 6-year-old son, Nachman, who is named in honor of the movement's founder. The boy's mother and younger siblings stayed home; the trip was for males only. ''They call us 'the dead,' but we are alive and well,'' said Lieb Berger, executive director of the World Bratslav Organization. ''And with us lives Rav Nachman, whose writings and teachings we follow always.'' Mr. Berger said there are some 3,000 to 5,000 Bratslav Hasidim worldwide, most in Israel. About 300 live in the United States and Canada. They differ significantly from the dozens of other Hasidic groups, each of which is centered around a single living charismatic leader, known as the Rebbe. A Rebbe's followers, known as Hasidim, visit the leader for advice on both personal and religious matters and try to spend the major holidays with him. The leadership position of Rebbe is usually handed down from father to son or other male relative.

    Most Hasidic groups, which draw their names from towns in Europe where their ancestors settled, consider themselves disciples of the 17th-century founder of Hasidim, Rabbi Israel ben Eliezer, known as the Baal Shem Tov. He founded a Jewish revival movement that stressed joy in prayer and religious experience. Rabbi Nachman of Bratslav was the great-grandson of the Baal Shem Tov. Rabbi Nachman taught that God was inherent in everything in the world, including evil. Thus, he said, even the man steeped in evil could easily find the Creator and repent. Hope in Melody and Dance In his writings, he said the world was essentially a dangerous place where hope could be found in melody, dance, constant self-criticism and communication with the Rebbe, even in the grave. Rabbi Nachman died at the age of 38. His modern followers are among the most mystical and spiritual of Hasidim since they have no temporal leader. Among the followers are Jews who once experimented with the mysticism of Eastern religions. Mr. Berger, the director of the Bratslav organization, said the Soviets helped to arrange the trip, freely issuing visas and helping to insure that the travelers would arrive before the start of Rosh ha-Shanah. Most of the visitors will be sleeping on Soviet Army cots set up dormitory-style in an abandoned factory within walking distance of Rabbi Nachman's tomb. While some Hasidim brought their children, one, 35-year-old Aaron Pinter, brought his father. While the son was dressed in the black garb of the Hasidim and had a long red beard, the father was in a gray suit and was clean-shaven. The senior Mr. Pinter would not give his age, but said that he fled Poland as a young man and lived for eight years in Siberia before coming to the United States. ''I never thought I would be going back,'' he said. ''I am not a Hasid, but it took Rav Nachman to bring me back.''

    1992: The Jerusalem Post reported that Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin warned that peace with Syria would not be possible without ceding some territory on the Golan Heights. He added, however, that he and his government opposed a total withdrawal.

    1992:  The Jerusalem Post reported that President George Bush was expected to send his proposal for $10 billion in loan guarantees for Israel to Congress. The request was part of a package deal designed to move this request through the legislative process as soon as possible.

    1992:  The Jerusalem Post reported that remains of a large Roman sport stadium from the Herodian period were discovered at the site of the ancient town of Caesarea.  Caesarea is on the Mediterranean.  It was built in Roman times because the Romans could not stand the heat of Jerusalem.  Its famous amphitheater has survived to this day.  The modern town of Caesarea is fashionable seaside place complete with seaside restaurant.

    1995(3rd of Tishrei, 5756): Tzom Gedaliah

    1995: Peggy Charren received a Presidential Medal of Freedom acknowledging her almost 3 decades of advocacy. Frustrated with the educationally anemic cartoons filling her children's afternoons, education advocate and founder of Action for Children's Television (ACT), Peggy Charren began to push television stations and law makers to demand and develop more diverse and stimulating children's programming throughout the industry. Charren began her career in television as the director of the film department at station WPIX-TV in New York City, but she became concerned about the lack of educational children's programming after the birth of her two daughters. In 1968 Charren founded ACT as a non-profit organization devoted to encouraging the development of a more diverse range of children's educational programming. Responding to the efforts of ACT, Congress passed the Children's Television Act in 1990, which required each station to provide programs created specifically to educate children.

    1998: The New York Times book section featured reviews by Jewish authors and/or about topics of Jewish interest including Bridges Across Broken Time: Chinese and Jewish Cultural Memoryby Vera Schwarcz, Marc Chagall: 1887-1985by Jacob Baal-Teshuva and From the Ashes of the Old: American Labor and America's Futureby Stanley Aronowitz

    2000:John Patrick Kenneally (born Leslie Jackson) VC passed away today. Born in 1921, he was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.Soldier who deserted from the Gunners, joined the Irish Guards and won the Victoria Cross with them during the Tunisian campaign for repulsing an entire company of Panzer Grenadiers with a Bren gun. John Patrick Kenneally was an assumed name. He was the illegitimate son of a wealthy Jewish textile manufacturer in Manchester. His mother was an 18-year-old un-married daughter of a Birmingham pharmacist, who was disowned by her family. She changed her name to Jackson, and had her son christened Leslie.

    2001(10th of Tishrei, 5762): Yom Kippur

    2001:On Yom Kippur, Shawn Green sat out a game for the first time in 415 games, to honor the most significant holiday and donated his day's pay of $75,000 to a charity for survivors of the New York 9/11 terrorist attacks.

    2003(1stof Tishrei, 5764): Rosh Hashanah

    2003: In an article entitled “Temple Treasured Traditions: Jewish community has always been a part of Dubque” The Telegraph-Herald traces the history of the Jewish community in Dubuque which dates back to 1833 when Alexander Levi immigrated from France.  During the 1880’s Dubuque had as many as 150 Jewish families, today 26 families belong to Temple Beth El, a small but vibrant outpost of Judaism on the banks of the Mississippi River.

    2004: An article entitled “Chinese city embraces long-exiled Jewish community” by Mark Magnier published today described the return of the  Jews to Harbin after a half-century exile.  The city is so eager to have the Jews return that it is spending 3.2 million dollars to refurbish the city’s main synagogue.

    2004: In Tel Aviv as part of the annual, global City in Pink lighting campaign for the breast cancer struggle, the City Gat Ramat Gan was lit completely in bright pink light.