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A collection of Jewish history and current Jewish events, in date format, updated daily in this Jewish history blog.

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    OCTOBER 28

    97: Emperor Nerva is forced by the Praetorian Guard, to adopt general Marcus Ulpius Trajanus as his heir and successor. Trajan would not become Emperor until Nerva died in January of the following year. Trajan will be remembered as the ruler who was on the throne during the revolt in the diaspora referred to as “The Revolt Against Trajan” that took place between 115 CE and 117 CE.  It was the second of three Jewish revolts against Rome – the first being the Great Revolt that ended with the destruction of the Second Temple and the third being Bar Kochba’s revolt.

    1216: At Gloucester, the first coronation of Henry III who “exacted” from Elias of London also known as Elijah ben Moses “no less a sum than £10,000, besides £100 a year for a period of four years.”

    312: Roman emperor Constantine, 32, defeated the army of Maxentius, a contender to the throne, at Milvian Bridge, after trusting in a vision he had seen of the cross, inscribed with the words, "In this sign conquer." Constantine was converted soon after and became the first Roman emperor to embrace the Christian faith.  This was the turning point for Christianity in Europe.  With the support of the imperial government, Christianity was able to establish itself THE religion in Europe.  It marked a downhill slide for the Jews of Europe.

    1348: As the Black Death made its way across France, the authorities began arresting “the Jews of the bailiwick of Amont (Haute-Saôte)” and confiscating their property. to arrest the Jews of the bailiwick of Amont (Haute-Saôte) 

    1516: Turkish forces under the Grand Vizier Sinan Pasha defeat the Mameluks near Gaza at the Battle of Yaunis Khan. Jews fared poorly under the rule of the Mameluks. Without going into details about the conflicts within Islam in general, and the role of the Mameluks in particular, suffice it to say that what was “bad news for them” was “good for the Jews.

    1600: James Roberts the copyright he had obtained for “The Merchant of Venice” (also known as The Jew of Venice) to stationer Thomas Hayes “who published the first quarto before the end of” 1600.

    1636: Harvard University is established in colonial Massachusetts. Harvard certainly has had it share of Jewish students, graduates and faculty members.  But the Jewish relationship with Harvard has had its darker moments. “During and after World War I, American Jewry became the target of anti-Semitism by a variety of social groups, including the Ku Klux Klan and various immigration restriction advocates. Ivy League universities were no exception, and several of these venerable schools moved to restrict Jewish enrollment during the 1920s. Some Jewish students at Harvard, the bellwether in American education, did not take admission restrictions lying down. Nativism and intolerance among segments of the white Protestant population were aimed at both Eastern European Jews and Southern European Catholics. In higher education, Jews were particularly resented. By 1919, about 80% of the students at New York's Hunter and City colleges were Jews and 40% at Columbia. Jews at Harvard tripled to 21% of the freshman class in 1922 from about 7% in 1900. Ivy League Jews won a disproportionate share of academic prizes and election to Phi Beta Kappa but were widely regarded as competitive, eager to excel academically and less interested in extra-curricular activities such as organized sports. Non-Jews accused them of being clannish, socially unskilled and either unwilling or unable to “fit in.” In 1922, Harvard's president, A. Lawrence Lowell, proposed a quota on the number of Jews gaining admission to the university. Lowell was convinced that Harvard could only survive if the majority of its students came from old American stock. Lowell argued that cutting the number of Jews at Harvard to a maximum of 15% would be good for the Jews.  He contended that limits would prevent further anti-Semitism. Lowell reasoned, “The anti-Semitic feeling among the students is increasing, and it grows in proportion to the increase in the number of Jews. If their number should become 40% of the student body, the race feeling would become intense.” The fight against Jewish quotas at Harvard was led by Harry Starr, an undergraduate and the son of a Russian immigrant who established the first kosher butcher shop in Gloversville, New York. As president of the Menorah Society, Harvard's major Jewish student organization, Starr organized a series of meetings between Jewish and non-Jewish students, faculty and administrators to discuss Lowell's proposed quota. The meetings were frequently heated and painful. As Starr recalled in an account published in 1985, which can be found at the American Jewish Historical Society, “We learned that it was numbers that mattered; bad or good, too many Jews were not liked. Rich or poor, brilliant or dull, polished or crude - [the problem was] too many Jews.” Starr insisted that there could be no “Jewish problem” at Harvard or in America. Starr observed, “The Jew cannot look on himself as a problem.... Born or naturalized in this country, he is a full American.” If admitting all qualified Jews to Harvard meant a change in the traditional social composition of the student body, so be it. Starr refused to hear any hokum about 'pure' American stock as a way to limit Jewish admissions to Harvard. “Tolerance,” he wrote in the Menorah Journal, “is not to be administered like castor oil, with eyes closed and jaws clenched.” Lowell received a great deal of public criticism, particularly in the Boston press. Harvard's overseers appointed a 13-member committee, which included three Jews, to study the university's “Jewish problem.” The committee rejected a Jewish quota but agreed that “geographic diversity” in the student body was desirable. Harvard had been using a competitive exam to determine who was admitted, and urban Jewish students were scoring highly on the exam. Urban public schools such as Boston Latin Academy intensely prepared their students, many of whom were Jewish, to pass Harvard's admissions test. The special committee recommended that the competitive exam be replaced by an admissions policy that accepted top-ranking students from around the nation, regardless of exam scores. By 1931, because students from urban states were replaced by students from Wyoming and North Dakota who ranked in the top of their high school classes, Harvard's Jewish ranks were cut back to 15% of the student body. In the late 1930s, James Bryant Conant, Lowell's successor as president, eased the geographic distribution requirements, and Jewish students were once again admitted primarily on the basis of merit. Harry Starr, who lived until 1992, became a national Jewish communal leader, including a term of service as a trustee of the American Jewish Historical Society. Professionally, he became the director of the Lucius N. Littauer Foundation, which was established by a Jewish congressman from Gloversville and which over the years has given many generous gifts to Harvard. Harry Starr held no grudges against the university which in 1922 he lovingly battled on behalf of his fellow Jews.

    1700: In the same year that he published his second tract which he hoped would cause Jews to convert to Christianity, Cotton Mather wrote in his diary today about the conversion of Shalom Ben Shalomoh who had joined a Congregational Church in London. Cotton Mather differed from other Christian leaders.  He believed that the Jews practice a theological incorrect religion which is why sought to convince them to convert.  But reason rather than the lash or the burning stake was his method.  "As a humanitarian...he demanded that Jews should be free from religious persecution."


    1704: John Locke, the English political theorist who in 1689 “Letter Concerning Toleration” wrote that “Neither Pagan, nor Jew, ought to be excluded from the civil rights of the commonwealth because of his religion” passed away today.


    1718: Alexander Felix (David Penso), Jacob Do Porto, and David Machado Do Sequeira, on behalf of the Ashkenazim, leased from Captain Chichester Phillips of Drumcondra Castle (an MP in the Irish Parliament) a plot of land on which the Ballybough Cemetery, Dublin’s oldest Jewish burial ground, was subsequently built.

    1778: Rabbi Chaim Joseph David Azulai ben Isaac Zerachia, the Jerusalem native married his second wife, Rachel while studying in Pisa.  His first wife, Sarah had died five years earlier.

    1784:  Birthdate of Sir Moses Montefiore. Born in Leghorn (Italy) Montefiore was raised in London where he became a successful merchant and married into the House of Rothschild.  In 1824, he "retired" from business and devoted his life to public office and philanthropy.  He was the first to hold numerous political and civic positions in Great Britain.  He was a leader of the Jewish Community in England and throughout Europe.  He was an early supporter of Jewish settlement in Eretz Israel.  Montefiore’s Windmill is a famous landmark in Jerusalem.  His 100th birthday was celebrated as a holiday in Jewish communities in the British Isles and the Continent.  He passed away in 1885.

    1805: Birthdate of dramatist and lawyer, Jonas B. Phillips.  The son of Benjamin J. Phillips, this native of Philadelphia, PA produced plays including “Cold Stricken,” “Camillus,” and “The Evil Eye.”  After studying law, he became the assistant district attorney for New York County.

    1829: Birthdate of Emanuel Oscar Menahem Deutsch, the native of Silesia who worked on Semitic studies at the British Museum where his writings on the Talmud kindled interest among English Christians and who “acted as special correspondent to The Times during the Ecumenical Council which met at the Vatican in 1869 and 1870.

    1836: In Ireland, John Chapel and his wife gave birth to Monsignor Thomas John Capel, the controversial Catholic cleric who in a show of ecumenism that was unusual in the 19th century addressed the Young Men’s Hebrew Association at Chickering Hall on November 12, 1884.

    1840: Sir Moses Montefiore had an audience with the Sultan. Among the topics discussed were the blood libel accusations on the island of Rhodes and in Damascus. The Sultan later issued a public firman exonerating Jews from anything to do with ritual murder accusations.  

    1844: Birthdate of Moses Jacob Ezekiel, the native of Richmond, VA who was the first Jew to attend Virginia Military Institute.  After serving with the Confederate Army, he became renowned sculptor

    1853: An article published today entitled “Russia.; Delivered before the Hebrew Young Men's Literary Association” described Rabbi Raphall’s appearance before the Hebrew Young Men's Literary Association at Academy Hall, No. 663 Broadway, at which time he delivered a lecture enititled “Russia” The speaker was introduced by Isaac Seligman, the who was serving as chairman. Raphall described the gains in power that Russia has made in the last 150 years and the territorial aspirations of the current rulers.  He also described the history and the plight of the Jews living in that land.  Mr. Mosely Lyon followed Rabbi Raphall to the lectern where he delivered an address on the purpose of the Hebrew Young Men’s Literary Association.

    1857: An article published today entitled "Defaulting Farmers" takes issue with the notion that the farmer is not only possessed of "sturdy virtues that enoble humanity" but also the backbone of the national economy. In fact, the "western farmer has no more nobleness of soul than a Wall Street stock gambler or a Chatham street Jew." The term "Chatham street Jew" was extremely derisive.  It referred to the fact that the lucrative trade in used clothes on Chatham Street on the Lower East was dominated by Jews where Christians were sure that they were being victimized by the sharp business practices of "the Tribe of Judah."

    1858 RH Macy & Co opened its first store on Sixth Avenue in New York City. Gross receipts for the day totaled $11.06.  The Straus family, which had been leasing space in Macy's to operate a chinaware department, the store's most profitable section, acquired the Macy’s in 1896 and turned it into one of the country’s leading department stores.  One sign of the change came in when they relocated the store to its Herald square location at 34th Street and Broadway in New York.

    1858: At a thousand people attended tonight’s banquet and ball which was a fundraiser for the Jew’s Hospital.Benjamin Nathan, the President of Hospital Board provided over the event which was attended by Mayor Tilman.  Rabbi J.J. Lyon recited the blessings before the meal began and Rabbi Kramer chanted the Grace After Meal. Mr. Nathan told the attendees that the hospital had treated 747 patients since its opening, all but 73 at no charge and that the treasury was now empty. Lionel Goldberg read the list of donations which totaled $12,000.

    1860: Samuel Isaac Joseph Schereschewsky who had converted in 1855 “was ordained to the priesthood by Bishop Boone in the mission school chapel, later known as the Church of our Savior in Hongkew”

    1864:The Council of the Academy decided to award Russian-Jewish sculptor  Mark Antokolski with the Small Silver Medal for the "Tailor" also known as “The Jewish Tailor.”

    1867:Maimonides College “the first Jewish theological seminary in America” opened today in Philadelphia, PA.  Isaac Lesser, Sabato Morais, Marcus Jastrow, Aaron S. Bettelheim, L. Buttenwieser and William H. Williams were the members of the faculty with Lesser doubling as the school’s provost. The school closed in December of 1873, reportedly due to lack of financial support which may be explained by the economic hard times that the country was suffering a the time.

    1870: President Jacob Pisa presided over tonight’s meeting of the Young Democratic Jews’ Association of the Second Assembly District in New York.  During the meeting which was held on Mott Street, the Jewish political organization endorsed the local and state candidates supported by “the Young Democracy, but did not make any endorsement of Congressional candidates.

    1873(7th of Cheshvan, 5634): Immanuel Oscar Menahem Deutsch, a German oriental scholar, passed away today.  Born in 1829 at Neisse, Prussian Silesia (now Nysa, Poland) he studied theology and Talmud at the University of Berlin. “In 1855 Deutsch was appointed assistant in the library of the British Museum. He worked intensely on the Talmud and contributed no less than 190 papers to Chambers' Encyclopaedia, in addition to essays in Kittos and Smiths' Biblical Dictionaries, and articles in periodicals. In October 1867 his article on The Talmud, published in the Quarterly Review, made him known. It was translated into French, German, Russian, Swedish, Dutch and Danish. He died at Alexandria on 12 May 1873.His Literary Remains, edited by Lady Strangford, were published in 1874, consisting of nineteen papers on such subjects as The Talmud, Islam, Semitic Culture, Egypt, Ancient and Modern, Semitic Languages, The Targums, The Samaritan Pentateuch, and Arabic Poetry

    1874: Rabbi Benjamin Artom officiated at the wedding of Mr. Isaac Abecassis of Lisbon and Miss Helena Ben Saude of the Azores.  Among the many guests were J.O. Bradford, Paymaster General of the U.S. Navy and his wife.

    1877: “Early Christian Greek Story” published today provide a summary of Abraham the Jew and the Merchant Theodore printed by Combefisius  from a manuscript, copies of which are in the National Library at Paris and the library in Turin.

    1881: It was reported today that “the question of Jewish emigration to America is still a subject of concern to the Russian government.” To that end the government will make another attempt “to turn the Jews into peasant farms and settle them in the provinces of Kherson and Ekaterinoslav.”

    1881: John A. Goldberg appeared in Essex Market Court where he denied the charges of Mrs. Amelia Goldberg that she was his wife and that he had deserted her.  He presented evidence that he had obtained a divorce from her from a Rabbi while they were living in England because she had been unfaithful.  He also produced evidence that he had provided her with financial assistance when she came to the United States even though he was under no obligation to do so.

    1882: Harris Udovitch is out on bail after having been arrested for assaulting Mrs. Louis Cohen during his thwarted attempt to buy Louis Cohen’s “credit with heaven” for $150.

    1883: The 9th annual meeting of the Board of Relief of the United Hebrew Charities was held this morning at a house on St. Mark’s Place.

    1884: It was reported today  that a reception was held at Ramsgate yesterday to honor Sir Moses Montefiore on his 100th birthday; “an anniversary that was celebrated throughout Europe.”

    1885: It was reported today that Jonas Loeb, a prominent Jewish merchant in Georgia is insolvent since he has liabilities of $64,000 and assets of $10,000.  Litigation has already been threatened by his creditors.

    1886: The Statue of Liberty, a gift from the people of France, was dedicated in New York Harbor by President Cleveland. The Jewish poetess Emma Lazarus wrote "The New Colossus" in 1883 for an art auction "In Aid of the Bartholdi Pedestal Fund." While France had provided the statue itself, American fundraising efforts like these paid for the Statue of Liberty's pedestal. In 1903, sixteen years after her death, Lazarus' sonnet was engraved on a plaque and placed in the pedestal as a memorial.

              “The New Colossus”

     Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame,

    With conquering limbs astride from land to land;

    Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand

    A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame

    Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name

    Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand

    Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command

    The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame.

    "Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!" cries she

    With silent lips. "Give me your tired, your poor,

    Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,

    The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.

    Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed to me,

    I lift my lamp beside the golden door!"

    1886: Social reformer and future Presidential candidate addressed the United Hebrew George Club.

    1888: Joseph Navon  the driving force behind the Jaffa-Jerusalem  railway “received a 71-year concession from the Ottoman authorities that also gave him permission to extend the line to Gaza and Nablus

    1888: Rabbi Leon Harrison delivered an address entitled “Is it a Misfortune to be a Jew?” at Temple Israel on Greene Avenue in Brooklyn.

    1888: The New York Times reviewed Life of Lord Beaconsfield by T.E. Kebble.

    1888: “The Jewish-Americans” published today cites information that originally appeared in the Jewish Messenger to question why New York City has not produced a “distinctly American-Jewish congregation.  The city has all manner of synagogues for Hungarian, Polish, Portuguese, Russian, etc. Jews but none that is uniquely American.

    1889: The United Hebrew Charities held its 15thannual meeting at Temple Emanu-El in New York City.

    1889: Edwin Booth, the great Shakespearian actor played Shylock and Helena Modjeska played his daughter Portia in tonight’s performance of “The Merchant of Venice” at the Broadway Theatre.

    1890: Dr. Robert Collyer, Dr. Maurice H. Harris, Oscar Straus, Joseph Blumenthal and Seth Low, the President of Columbia are scheduled to address those attending the a meeting of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association at Chickering Hall.

    1894: “No Man Controls The Hebrew Vote” published today provides the view of Dr. Joseph Silverman the rabbi at Temple Emanu-El that the “Hebrew vote” does not exist and that it is the “child of the politician’s active brain.  Jews do as they please in politics.”  The Jew “is a Jew in the synagogue but elsewhere he is an American citizen, and most of all at the ballot box.”(Silverman was decrying the trivializing of the electoral process with politicians seeking to divide voters by ethnic and religious lines)

    1896: The funeral of Moses Kind is scheduled to be held at his home at 49 West 96th Street in Manhattan this morning.

     1897: Birthdate of Edith Claire Posener, the daughter of Max Posener and Anna E. Levy, the Searchlight, Nevada who would gain fame as award winning fashion designer Edith Heath. During her long career in Hollywood, Head’s costumes won her 35 Oscar nominations.  She won 8 of the bronze statuettes.  She died in October of 1981.

    1898:Kaiser William II (Prussia) visited pre-state Israel and met with Herzl. At this time Eretz Israel was part of the Ottoman Empire.  The Kaiser was trying to gain the Turks as an ally.  He also sought to make himself the European protector of Jerusalem.  Herzl was disappointed by the lack of commitment on the part of the Kaiser. Much of this was due to the opposition of German Liberal Jews, bankers, and his foreign minister Bernhard von Bulow to the Zionist movement.

    1898: “At today’s session of the Court of Cassation in the Palace of Justice, Alphonse Bard concluded his report of the Dreyfus case” and “said that the Court should make every investigation necessary to enlighten its members and place the whole truth in evidence.”

    1902:Opening of theZionist Annual Conference at which The Anglo-Palestine Company is sanctioned. It will begin operations in summer 1903.

    1903: The engagement of Israel Zangwill to Edith Aryton was made public.  Edith Aryton’s father is one of the best known electrical engineers in England. Her mother is a noted scientist in her own right and the daughter of Levi and Alice Marks, a Jewish family from Portsea.

    1912:  As the election campaign of 1912 comes to an end, Oscar Straus sends a telegram denying that he had ever been connected with R. H. Macy or Abraham and Straus.

    1913: Mendel Beilis was acquitted. The Beilis Trial (Russia) took place after a Christian boy was found dead near a brick factory in which Mendel Beilis worked. On June 22, 1911 he was accused of ritual murder by the government. The only evidence was the word of a drunken couple who claimed they saw a man with a black beard walking with the child. The Russian government actively took up the case after the assassination of Stolypin by a Jewish revolutionist. Professor Sikowsky, a neurologist, "proved" that Jews use Christian blood for ritual purposes. Beilis's lawyers, Margolin and Grusenberg, fought the government for two years until diplomatic pressure forced the Russians to drop the charges. Beilis then settled in the United States, where he died after a long illness in 1934.

    1914: In New York City, Daniel and Dora (Press) Salk gave birth to the first son, Dr. Jonas Edward Salk, the American medical researcher who developed the first vaccine against polio.  In one of those ironic twists of fate, both the first and the second polio vaccines were developed by Jewish Doctors.

    1914: “Governor Names Mercy Committee” published today provided a list of those named by Martin Glyn to take the lead in providing aid to those who have been made destitute by the war including Adolph S. Ochs, Samuel Lewisohn and Oscar S. Straus.

    1914:Ileana Schapira, the daughter of Mihail Schapira, a prominent Jewish industrialist was born in Bucharest, Romania.  As Ileana Sonnabend, she became a legendary gallery owner who had an eye for the art that nobody else wanted.  She died in 2007 at the age of 92.

    1914: In New York City, with Governor Martin Glynn at his side Jacob H. Schiff delivered a speech at the National Theatre in support of the Governor’s re-election

    1914: In New York, Mayor Mitchell expressed his displeasure with the recommendation that Charities Department should be placed under a board whose members would be nominated by the Jewish, Protestant and Catholic charitable institutions that receive some $5,000,000 from the city through this very department.

    1916: In the Bronx, Louis and Libby Galenson gave birth to Dr. Eleanor Galenson, “a psychoanalyst whose research demonstrated that children are aware of sexual identity in infancy, even earlier than Freud had propounded…” (As reported by Dennis Hevesi)

    1917: During the New York City Mayoral election in which Morris Hillquit was a candidate, the New York Timespublished a “sarcastically title” article “Rich Mr. Hillquit, Poor Man’s Candidate” “tried to play up ‘the capitalistic corporation lawyer living in luxury’; point out that the rent for Hillquit’s apartment was two thousand dollars a year; that he owned a big seven passenger automobile.”

    1918(22ndof Cheshvan, 5679): During the Post-World War Influenza Pandemic, fifty-nine year old Leopold S. Kahn, the “dwarf performer known as Admiral Dot when he was with P.T. Barnum, passed away. Before he would marry Lottie Naomi Swartwood, a fellow performer, she had to convert to Judaism so that they marriage could be performed by a rabbi.

    1918:  Czechoslovakia gains its independence. There were almost four hundred thousand Jews living in the part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire that became Czechoslovakia.  This meant Jews were about 2.5% of the new republics population.  The Jewish population in that part of Czechoslovakia known as Bohemia traced its roots back to the tenth century.  Most of the Jews of the Central European nation would perish in the Holocaust

    1919: The Congress voted to override President Wilson’s of the Volstead Act, the law which would give the United States “Prohibition.”  One of the families to profit from this was the Bronfmans, the Canadian liquor barons

    1922:  Birthdate of Gershon Kingsley a Jewish German-American composer, most famous for composing the early electronic pop song Popcorn. He led the First Moog Quartet and was the first person to use the Moog synthesizer in live performance.

    1922: March on Rome Italian fascists led by Benito Mussolini march on Rome and take over the Italian government with the assistance of the Catholic Church; pope Pius XI declares that "Mussolini is a man sent by divine providence." According to Michele Sarfatti’s new book, The Jews in Mussolini’s Italy as reviewed in The ForwardsJews were so well integrated into Italian society that by 1922 when Mussolini took power, they were in every branch of government, including the military, and were represented all across the political spectrum. There were Jews who at first adhered enthusiastically to Mussolini’s program, others were among the first to organize antifascist activities, as well as many who hoped to remain neutral. The range of activities of Italian Jews extended from academics and professionals all the way to shop keepers and panhandlers. What emerges is a heterogeneous population that professed varying degrees of religious identity and many different levels of assimilation. But anti-Semitic sentiment in Italy, as Sarfatti shows, can be traced far back. As he argues, the leftovers of the medieval Catholic anti-Judaism provided fertile grounds for anti-Jewish nationalism, which in turn fed Fascist anti-Semitism. In 1934, Benito Mussolini famously declared that “there has never been anti-Semitism in Italy.” A mere four years later, after abandoning his Jewish mistress of 27 years, he passed his infamous racial laws. The rise of an anti-Semitic ideology escalated with Italy’s colonial war in Abyssinia of 1935. The Fascists first developed the concept of “Difesa della razza” (“defense of the race”) in dominating the black population of the African colony. At this early stage, this doctrine had parallels only in Nazi Germany and was completely absent in the rhetoric of Fascist movements, from Spain to Hungry, Romania and Poland. Based on newly discovered documents and an abundance of statistical data, the book demonstrates that, contrary to popular belief, Mussolini’s policies toward the Jews were independently conceived and implemented, and not — as some have argued — a late concession to Hitler’s war against the Jews. Despite Il Duce’s alliance with Hitler, “only” about 7,000 Italian Jews (16.3% of the Jewish population) died in Nazi death camps. Moreover, documented instances of Italians risking their lives to save Jews abound—a fact that reinforced the perception of Italians as “brava gente” (“good people,” the kind who helped preserve Jewish lives). Sarfatti maintains that the seeds of anti-Semitism were present in the Fascist regime since its inception, though anti-Semitism was not yet official policy. With a multitude of documented examples, the book follows the anti-Semitic crescendo in both official political discourse and practice. As early as 1934, the office of the Interior Ministry pressed for the replacement of Ferrara’s mayor: “It has been brought to our attention that the local citizenry feels displeasure to have a mayor of the Israelite religion at the head of the city’s administration. Therefore, it is desirable that he be replaced with a Catholic mayor.” In 1938, the Italian dictator passed and enforced the racial laws, in many respects even more restrictive than anti-Jewish legislation in Nazi Germany, and Italy became an officially anti-Semitic country. Sarfatti stresses that Mussolini was never pressured by Hitler regarding racial policies. Italians on the whole did not protest the laws until their lethal consequences became clear. By 1943, the Fascists began confiscating Jewish property and rounding up Jews for deportation, and abruptly many of those who had not protested against anti-Jewish laws rushed to save Jews.

    1928(14th of Cheshvan, 5689): “Theodore Rieanch, famous French Jewish lawyer, historian and archaeologist, one of the foremost authorities on comparative religion and Hellenic literature” died at today in Paris at the age of 68. “He was a brother of Solomon Reinach, President of the Alliance Israelite Universelle. Among his many literary works were “a history of the Jews from the Dispersion to our times,” Short History of Christianity and a French translation of the works of the Josephus, the Jewish first century Jewish historian.

    1936(12th of Cheshvan, 5697): Ninety-year old Moses Hirsch Landau, the father of Jacob Landaun, the founder and managing director of the Jewish Telegraphic Agency, passed away today in New York. (As reported by JTA)

    1937, The Palestine Post reported that some 50,000 out of the 400,000 trees in the Balfour Forest were burnt by Arab arsonists who used cotton-waste bombs, soaked in paraffin.  From a historic point of view, this was no mere act of arson.  By the end of the 19th centuries vast swaths of Eretz Israel were treeless waste or swamps.  The JNF made reforestation a major part of its plan.  In burning these trees, the terrorists were not just starting a forest fire.  They were showing a determination to reject improvement and modernization

    1937:  The Palestine Post reported that the two chief rabbis, Dr. Isaac Herzog and Rabbi Jacob Meir, issued a manifesto asking for a national moderation and discipline on the part of Jews in responding to the intensified Arab terror campaign.  The manifesto was issued in response to reports of Jews attacking Arabs during this attempted “reign of terror.”

    1937: As Arab violence continued, 12 shots were fired a police patrol car in Lydda shattering the windshield wounding three Arab policemen.

    1938: Germany expels “some 18,000” Jews with Polish citizenship to the Polish border. Poles refuse to admit them; Germans refuse to allow them back into Germany. Seventeen thousand are stranded in the frontier town of Zbaszyn, Poland.

    1938: “All male Polish Jews living in Karlsruhe were deported to Poland.”

    1940: Mussolini’s Italian army crosses Albania and invades Greece. The Greek army included 12,000 Greek Jews which fought fiercely and stopped the Italian advance. Between 510 and 615 Greek Jewish soldiers from Salonica were killed

    1940: German occupiers in Belgium pass anti-Semitic legislation.

    1941: In Kovno, Lithuania, 27,000 Jews who were assembled in Democracy Square must pass before an SS officer named Rauca, who signals life or death for each. 9200 of the Jews - 4300 of them children - are sent to their deaths at pits at the nearby Ninth Fort. (Friedlander, in The Years of Extermination puts the number at 10,000)

    1941: Eichmann noted "in view of the approaching final solution of the European Jewry problem, one has to prevent the immigration of Jews into the unoccupied area of France."

    1942: Two thousand elderly and sick Jews were deported from Plonsk to Auschwitz. Three more transports, each carrying 2,000 Jews, left from Plonsk for Auschwitz in the next six weeks


    1942: Jewish Warsaw Ghetto leaders ask Jan Karski, a Polish Catholic working for the underground, to tell the Polish and Allied governments: "We are helpless in the face of the German criminals....The Germans are not trying to enslave us as they have other people; we are being systematically murdered....Our entire people will be destroyed...."

    1942: The SS issues a secret directive that mittens and stockings confiscated from Jewish children at death camps be gathered and sent to SS families.

    1942: The Nazis deported 2,000 children and 6,000 adults from Cracow for shipment to Belzec.

    1942: SS directive orders all children's mittens and stockings to be sent from the death camps to the SS families.

    1942: Sixteen thousand Jews are murdered at Pinsk, Poland.

    1942: Mieczyslaw Gruber, a Jewish former soldier in the Polish Army, escapes with 17 others from a Nazi POW camp on Lipowa Street in Lublin. The group will later establish a partisan group in the forest northwest of the city.

    1944: An article entitled “Hippopotamus: Profile of a Great Custodian by Nathan Ausubel described as “the true story” of the late Abraham Solomon Freidus, “the man who built up the Jewish Room of the New York Public Library” was published in today’s Morning Freiheit Magazine Section.

    1944: The last transport train from Theresienstadt arrived at Birkenau with 2,038 Jews. Of them 1,589 would find their fates in the gas chambers. Also 164 Jews from Bolzano arrived at the same time and 137 of them would be gassed immediately.

    1944(11th of Cheshvan, 5705): A train from Bolzano, Italy, reaches Auschwitz with 301 prisoners. Of these, 137 are immediately gassed.

    1944: Hannah Senesh, a member of the British Army was tried for treason in Budapest today by her Facist captors in direct violation of the Geneva Convention.

    1944:  Birthdate of actor Dennis Franz, known best for his role as Detective Sipowicz on NYPD Blues.

    1945:  Birthdate of Sandy Berger, National Security Advisor to President Clinton

    1945: With only eight days left before voters go to the polls to elect the Mayor of New York, Judge Johna H. Goldstein, the Republican-Liberal-Fusion nominee trails the favored candidate, William F. O’Dwyer. Goldstein had been a lifelong Democrat and according to some, his candidacy was based on the belief that he could draw Jewish votes away from O’Dwyer, the Democrat Party candidate and thus improve the chances of the third candidate, Newbold Morris. (Hey it can’t all be Talmud and Torah)

    1946: More than two thirds of the 300,000 eligible voters participated in today’s election in Palestine for the 79 delegates to the 22nd World Zionist Congress scheduled to open on December 9 in Basle, Switzerland.

    1947: During an interview in New York, Moshe Pomrok, a member of the Palestine Maritime League, described the steps taken to establish a maritime industry in Palestine in the eleven years since the Arabs closed the harbor of Jaffa as part of their “down to the sea” movement.  Accomplishments have included the building of a harbor at Tel Aviv, establishment of a maritime training school at Haifa, and attempts to develop interest among Jewish youth in being part of the fishing industry.  The league is now trying to gain support for a New York to Haifa shipping line based on a potential annual booking of 50,000 to 80,000 passenger a year plus a large import trade

    1947: Dalton Trumbo, who write the screenplay for “Exodus” was held in contempt by the HUAC

    1948: Dr. David De Sola Pool, the rabbi at the Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue and Dr. Louis Finkelstein, the President of JTS will officiate at the funeral for Rabbi Judah Magnes

    1948: In the evening, Operation Hiram, which was designed to secure the Upper Galilee began. Named after the biblical King Hiram of Tyre, the goal was to secure the Upper Galilee as far as the northern boundary of the Palestine Mandate.   The IDF is facing a Palestinian military force that does not consider itself bound UN Truce Agreements as well as regular Arab troops including units of the Syrian Army. The sixty hour operation was successful in securing part of Israel’s border

    1948: Israeli forces clear the Egyptians from the Mediterranean coastal plain to an area south of Yad Mordechai. 

    1948: The flag of Israel was adopted by the government, five months after the country’s establishment. However, the flag, which depicts a blue Star of David on a white background between two horizontal blue stripes, first appeared some 50 years before becoming a national symbol.,At the core of the flag is the Star of David, which can be traced back to the medieval era where it was used for decorations, ornaments and protective amulets. Not until the 17th century did the hexagram begin to represent the Jewish community as a whole. In fact, the Jewish quarter of Vienna was formally distinguished from the rest of the city by a boundary stone having the Star of David on one side and the Christian cross on the other.,In the 18th century, the Star of David represented the Jewish people in both religious and political contexts. It was only a century later that it became an international symbol when in 1891, the Zionist Movement used the Star of David to create a flag almost identical to the one we are familiar with today. During the first Zionist congress in 1897, which discussed the establishment a homeland for Jews in Palestine, several flags were considered to represent the Jewish people internationally. One of them was Theodor Herzl’s design which had seven gold stars and represented the 7-hour work quota. Another design was put forward by Morris Harris, a member of the Zionist group Hovevei Zion, who used his awning shop to design a suitable banner and decorations for the reception. His mother Lena Harris sewed the flag. It was made with two blue stripes and a large blue Star of David in the center. Ultimately, Herzl’s design failed to garner support and the latter was adopted instead as the official Zionist flag during the second international Zionist congress in 1898. Regarding the design of the flag, at the time, the Star of David seemed to be the obvious choice. However, the blue stripes were inspired by those of the Talit, the Jewish prayer shawl. Some controversy has surrounded the meaning of these stripes with certain people arguing that they secretly represent the Nile and the Euphrates rivers, the borders of the Promised Land as described in the Bible. However, all relevant sources indicate that the Talit was the sole inspiration behind the “stripes.” In a turn of events, the flag with the symbol that was once used to identify Jews during the Nazi era at its core, has recently become the largest national symbol in the world.  In 2007, a flag measuring 660 by 100 meters and weighing 5.2 tons, was unfurled near the ancient Jewish fortress of Masada, breaking the world record for the largest flag. (As reported by Daniel Bensadolin)

    1950: The Jack Benny Show starring Jack Benny aired for the first time on television.   The show ran for 15 years which is an exceptionally long run in the world of television.  Thus the Jewish comedian Jack Benny proved to be a star in all entertainment medium – radio, film and t.v.

    1952: The Jerusalem Post reported that John Blandford of UNRWA admitted that 881,600 Palestine refugees were eating out of the relief money planned for development and there was little progress in resettlement. The US, Britain, France and Turkey asked the UN for additional funds to be added to the sums already allocated. The Arab states worked diligently to create the “Arab Refugee” problem.  While Israel was busy absorbing refugees from all over the world (including Arab states), the Arabs kept the brethren penned up in camps in Gaza and other border areas.

    1952: The Jerusalem Post reported that a well with a capacity of 88,800 gallons of water per hour was discovered near Beersheba. This is the same Beersheba where wells were dug in Biblical times.  The discovery of an additional water source in the Negev was big news.

    1953: Anna Malin conveyed title to the Temple Israel property in Leadville, CO, to Steve J. and Anna Malin

    1954: “Justice Douglas Compares Israel and U.S. Immigrant Absorption” published today described a speech in which the Supreme Court Justice  “linked Israel’s problem in absorbing immigrants from many lands with the traditional “melting pot” role of the United States in assimilating people of many races and cultures.” (As reported by JTA)

    1955: “After a border incident with Egypt around the Auja al-Hafir demilitarized zone, Golani was tasked with leading Operation Volcano, an attack on the Egyptian army in the area and the largest military operation at the time since the 1948 war”

    1955: In response to a raid by Egyptian forces on “a small Israeli outpost at Be’erotayim” two-hundred paratroopers commanded by Ariel Sharon attacked the Kuntilla outpost.

    1956: The University of Miami Orchestra performedNew England Triptych” a symphonic composition by William Schuman for the first time.

    1956: Having exhausted all other options, the Israeli Cabinet agrees that IDF forces will cross the Egyptian border and attack in the Sinai Peninsula.

    1956: Units of the 202ndParatroopers Brigade moved “in a long column to the Israeli-Egyptian border.”

    1957(3rd of Cheshvan, 5718):Ernst Gräfenberg a German-born physician and scientist who is known for developing the intrauterine device (IUD), and for his studies of the role of the woman's urethra in orgasm, passed away today in New York City.  Born in 1881 at Adelebsen, Germany, he studied medicine at Göttingen and Munich. “He began working as a doctor of ophthalmology at the university of Würzburg, but then moved to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at the University of Kiel, where he published papers on cancer metastasis (the "Gräfenberg theory"), and the physiology of egg implantation. In 1910 Gräfenberg worked as a gynaecologist in Berlin, and by 1920 was most successful, with an office on the Kurfurstendamm. He was chief gynecologist of a municipal hospital in Britz, a working class Berlin district, and was beginning scientific studies of the physiology of human reproduction at Berlin University. During the First World War, he was a medical officer, and continued publishing papers, mostly on human female physiology. In 1929 he published his studies of the "Gräfenberg ring", the first IUD for which there are usage records. When Nazism assumed power in Germany, Gräfenberg, a Jew, was forced in 1933 to resign as head of the department of gynaecology and obstetrics in the Berlin-Britz municipal hospital. In 1934, Hans Lehfeldt attempted to persuade him to leave Nazi Germany; he refused, believing that since his practice included wives of high Nazi officials, he would be safe. He was wrong, and was arrested in 1937 for having smuggled out a valuable stamp from Germany. Margaret Sanger ransomed him from Nazi prison, and he was finally allowed to leave in 1940, whereupon he went to the US and opened a practice in New York City.

    1958: Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli becomes Pope and takes the name Pope John XXIII. John XXIII had worked to save Jews during the Holocaust.  As Pope he worked to improve relations with the Jewish People. 

    1961: After 795 performances on Broadway the curtain came down on “Fiorello!” the Pulitzer Prize musical with lyrics by Sheldon Harnick, music by Jerry Bock and a book co-authored by Jerome Weidman.

    1964: Over 10,000 people attend a rally in New York’s Madison Square Garden, the earliest large scale public demonstration for Soviet Jews.

    1965: Birthdate of Jami Gertz who plays Muff on Square Pegs.

    1965: Nostra Aetate, the "Declaration on the Relation of the Church with Non-Christian Religions" of the Second Vatican Council, was promulgated by Pope Paul VI; it absolves the Jews of the alleged killing of Jesus, reversing Innocent III’s declaration from 760 years ago. In short, Pope Paul VI announces that ecumenical council has decided that Jews are not collectively responsible for the killing of Christ.

    1973: During the Yom Kippur War “most of the heavy fighting ended” today although intermittent fighting on a small scale would continue into January of the following year.

    1973: Rabbi Max Hausen officiated at the wedding of Rachela Lea Subel and Joseph Saul Solomon at the Main Line Reform Temple

    1974: In San Juan, Puerto Rico, John Lee Bottom “a lapsed Catholic” and his wife Arlyn the daughter of Jewish immigrants from Russia and Hungary gave birth to actor Joaquin Phoenix

    1974: In Detroit, MI,Meg (née Goldman), a writer, and writer-director Lawrence Kasdan gave birth to director Jacob "Jake" Kasdan, the brother of Jon Kasdan and the husband of Inara George.

    1977: The Jerusalem Post reported that the US had bluntly told the Arab States that Israel had demonstrated significant flexibility on procedures for the reconvening of the Geneva Peace Conference that it is now up to the Arabs to respond in kind.

    1981: “A front-page article in the Washington Post falsely reported that  Leon Bass “liberated Buchenwald with an all-black unit.”

    1982: In  “Operetta: ‘Shulamth’ by Goldfaden” published today the author notes that “it is just 100 years ago this year that Yiddish theater opened in America, according to its historians, and that the one Yiddish theater that is celebrating it is doing so most appropriately with a performance of Abraham Goldfaden's operetta ''Shulamith,'' first performed here in 1882, with Boris Thomashevsky.

    1987: Today, the Russian government of Mikhail Gorachev exonerated poet and essayist Osip Mandelstam of charges made in the 1930’s that he was guilty of “counter-revolutionary activities”; a charge that led to his imprisonment and mysterious death in the Gulag in 1938.

    1991(20thof Cheshvan, 5752): Seventy-eight year old Sylvia Fine, the widow of Danny Kaye and a noted producer, lyricist and composer in her own right, passed away today. (As reported by William Grimes)

    1995: During an opposition rally in Jerusalem’s Zion Square, a photographic montage was circulated showing Rabin in a Nazi uniform.

    1998(8thof Cheshvan, 5759): Seventy-one  year old James Goldman the screenwriter and playwright whose most noted work may have been “The Lion in Winter” and who was the brother of William Goldman, passed away today in New York.

    2000: The Battered Immigrant Women Protection Act introduced by Illinois Congresswoman Jan Schakowsky became law.

    2001:The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or on topics of special Jewish interesting including The Death of Comedyby Erich Segal and The Brother:The Untold Story of Atomic Spy David Greenglass and How He Sent His Sister, Ethel Rosenberg, to the Electric Chairby Sam Roberts.

    2001(11th of Cheshvan, 5762):St.-Sgt. Yaniv Levy, 22, of Zichron Yaakov was killed by Palestinian terrorists in a drive-by machine-gun ambush near Kibbutz Metzer in northern Israel. The Tanzim wing of Arafat's Fatah faction claimed responsibility for the murder.

    2001(11th of Cheshvan, 5762):Ayala Levy, 39, of Elyachin; Smadar Levy, 23, of Hadera; Lydia Marko, 63, of Givat Ada; and Sima Menahem, 30, of Zichron Yaakov were killed when two Palestinian terrorists, members of the Palestinian police, armed with assault rifles and expanding bullets, opened fire from a vehicle on Israeli pedestrians at a crowded bus-stop in downtown Hadera. About 40 were wounded, three critically. The Islamic Jihad claimed responsiblity for the attack.

    2001(11th of Cheshvan, 5762):Listening to the horror unfold over his cellphone, Asher Kilgor heard the staccato fire of Palestinian gunmen cutting down his fiancée, Sima Menachem, on her way home from work today. In an interview with the Jerusalem Post following the terrorist attack, Kilgor said “he was waiting at a bus stop here for her return from her job as a secretary in a law office in the nearby city of Hadera. Ms. Menachem's 8-year-old daughter was waiting with him at the bus stop. ''She always took the 1:55 p.m. bus from Hadera,'' Mr. Kilgor said. ''At 2:30, I called her and she told me that the bus was late, then she called back to say that she would take a taxi.''''Two minutes later, I got another call, and all I heard was shots and screams,'' Mr. Kilgor continued. ''I think she called to tell me something was happening. I heard bursts of gunfire. I shouted into the phone until the call was disconnected. I called back, but the phone was not in service. I called the police station, and they said there had been an attack in Hadera.'' Ms. Menachem was one of four Israeli women killed when two Palestinian gunmen in a sport utility vehicle opened fire with M-16 rifles near a bus stop on Hadera's main street, riddling dozens of commuters and pedestrians with bullets. The gunmen, from the militant group Islamic Holy War, were killed by the police. More than 30 people were injured in the attack. Ms. Menachem, 30, had met Mr. Kilgor, 33, a police officer, four years ago. They moved in together, raising two daughters from her first marriage and a third of their own in this picturesque hill town overlooking the Mediterranean. They had planned to marry in a month, but instead Mr. Kilgor stood grief-stricken today at Ms. Menachem's wreath-covered grave. Surrounded by her wailing sisters and mother, Ms. Menachem was buried here today. They remembered her as a dynamic woman with an easy laugh who liked to dress well, and most of all loved to be at home with her children. ''You were a victim of the terrible price in blood exacted by life here,'' a sister said in her farewell. The other victims were also killed on their daily rounds. Lidya Marko, 63, was heading home from a dental appointment. Smadar Levy, 23, a medical secretary, was on her way to work. Ayala Levy, 39, was returning from her job as an assistant kindergarten teacher. The seats at the bus stop where they died were covered with memorial candles and flowers today. Bullet holes still scarred the bus shelter, but pockmarks left by the bullets in a nearby library building had already been filled in an effort to erase traces of the attack and get back to normal as quickly as possible. Across the street, Oz Zahavian, 24, sat in his health and beauty aids shop. He had seen it all from his seat, he said, and it was hard to go back to business as usual. ''I keep seeing the pictures in my head,'' he said. ''Teenage girls hit in the legs and chest, a girl whose leg was shattered, and someone crying: 'I want to walk. I don't want to be a cripple.''The shock waves of the attack emptied downtown Hadera today.” There were few people on the sidewalks, and traffic was light. ''It's impossible to get back to normal the next day, if at all,'' Mr. Zahavian said.

    2003: At the “Visas For Life” Reception at the U.S. State Department, Colin Powell met with Abigail Endicott and Robert Kim Bingham to honor their father Hiram Bingham IV who as U.S. Vice Consul defied government orders and saved a large number of refugees from the Nazis and the Holocuast.

    2003: Illinois attorney Stuart Levine is the guest of honor at a lavish reception hosted by the “Friends of Israel Defense Force.”  In 2008, Levine will plead guilty to a variety of charges and became a key witness in a major political bribery trial.

    2003:The incumbent mayors of most cities and towns were voted back into office in today's municipal elections, but the Likud lost control of several important cities, including Bat Yam, Rosh Ha'ayin, Dimona, Hod Hasharon, Eilat and Kiryat Malachi.  The Labor Party lost control of Beit She'an, where Likud-backed Jacky Levy, son of Likud MK David Levy, won 60 percent of the votes - defeating incumbent mayor Pini Kabalo, who is identified with Labor.

    2003:The BBC Reports that an organization in Israel has gained rabbinical approval to train pigs to guard Jewish settlements in the West Bank. Until now, Jewish settlements have been guarded by men with guns and also by guard dogs. But a new idea - guard pigs - has been thought up by an organization called The Hebrew Battalion.

    2004:The World Jewish Film Festival, the first of its kind in Israel and the Jewish world opens in Tel Aviv.

    2005: Newspapers reported that the response to Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's call for Israel to be "wiped off the map" has been uniformly negative.  The Secretary General of the United Nations, the European Union, the British Prime Minister, an Austrian Catholic action organization and many more have come to Israel’s defense. 

    2005: As part of the Plame Affair Lewis Libby vice president Dick Cheney’s chief of staff, is indicted by federal prosecutors. Libby resigns later that day. Valerie Palme and Lewis Libby are both Jewish.

    2006: An exhibition in Abbot Hall Art Gallery in England, “David Bomberg: Spirit in Mass” came to an end.

    2006: Bettye Ackerman who played Dr. Maggie Graham in the medical television series “Ben Casey” and who was the wide of Sam Jaffe suffered a stroke today.

    2006(6th of Cheshvan, 5767): Red Auerbach, the man many believe was the greatest professional basketball coach of all times, passed away. (As reported by Matt Schudel)

    2007:Premiere performance of Jay "Bluejay" Greenberg's Violin Concerto at Carnegie Hall.

    2007: New York’s Erez Safar celebrates the launch of his new website called Shemspeed ( with a gala event in Los Angeles.

    2007: The Sunday New York Times features reviews of the following books by Jewish authors and/or that featured Jewish topics including The Rest Is Noise: Listening to the Twentieth Century by Alex Ross, Musicophilia: Tales of Music and the Brainby Oliver Sacks who was dubbed "the poet laureate of medicine" by the New York Times,  a biography of Ervin Nyiregyhazi entitled Lost Genius:The Curious and Tragic Story of an Extraordinary Musical Prodigy by Kevin Bazzana, Gentlemen of the Road by Michael Chabon author of The Yiddish Policemen’s Union  one of the dumbest books ever written at least by a Jewish author on a Jewish topic.

    2007: The Washington Post features reviews of the following books by Jewish authors and/or that featured Jewish topics including Musicophilia: Tales of Music and the Brainby Dr. Oliver Sacks, The Museum of Dr. Moses by Joyce Carol Oates, In Among the Righteous: Lost Stories From the Holocaust's Long Reach Into Arab Lands, Robert Satloff’s search throughout the Middle East for evidence that Arabs helped Jews during World War II. "Satloff's efforts to tell the story of Arab behavior -- both complicity and heroism -- during the Holocaust are important."

    2007: The Chicago Tribune reports on the controversy surrounding the introduction of Mishkan T’filah, the new prayer book for the Reform Movement in an article entitled “Prayer book ignites debate” featuring an interview with Rabbi Peter Knobel , the Evanston, Illinois rabbi who heads the rabbinical group that publishes the movement’s liturgy.

    2007: In NewOrleans sees resurgence of Jewish life in Hurricane Katrina Aftermath,” published today Anshel Pfeffer describes conditions in the Crescent City two years after if endured the worst aquatic disaster since the days of Noah:


    2008: In Little Rock, Arkansas, Bat Mitzvah of Rochel, daughter of Rabbi Pinchus and Estie Ciment.  The Lamplighters provide yet another spark – Mazel Tov.

    2008: Rabbi Yehuda Amital retired as Rosh Yeshiva of Yeshivat Har Etzion

    2008: Rabbi Mosheh Lichtenstein, the son of Rabbi Aharon Lichtenstein officially assumed the position as Co-Rosh Yeshiva at Yeshivat Har Etzion

    2009: Morris Dickstein discusses and signs Dancing in the Dark: A Cultural History of the Great Depression at Politics and Prose Bookstore in Washington, D.C.

    2009:The Hyman S. & Freda Bernstein Jewish Literary Festival comes to a close on, with the presentation of the annual Gerald L. Bernstein Memorial Lecture, "Current Israeli Myths and Realities: The Way to Peace," by Howard M. Sachar, author of A History of Jews in the Modern World.

    2009:Astronomers said today that a race halfway across the universe had ended in a virtual tie. And so the champion is still Albert Einstein — for now. The race was between gamma rays of differing energies and wavelengths spit in a burst from an exploding star when the universe was half its present age.

    2009(10th of Cheshvan, 5770): Just months before celebrating his 100th birthday British epidemiologist Jeremy N. Morris passed away today. (As reported by Dennis Hevesi)


    2010(20th of Cheshvan, 5771): Seventy six year old Ehud Netzer, “one of Israel’s best-known archeologists who unearthed King Herod’s tomb near Bethlehem three years ago, died today after being injured in a fall at the site.(As reported by Ethan Bronner)

    2010(20th of Cheshvan, 5771): Eighty-seven year old actor Robert “Bob” Ellenstein the son of two-time Mayor of Newark Meyer Ellenstein, passed away today in Los Angeles.


    2010:The Center for Jewish History and Leo Baeck Institute is scheduled to present: Chamber Music of Mozart, Brahms and Schubert that will include a web-based essay on the lives of Jews in Germany in the 18th and 19th centuries with material drawn from the archives of the Leo Baeck Institute.

    2010:Jonathan D. Sarna is scheduled to deliver an address entitled "Ulysses S. Grant and the Jews: A New Look" at Tulane University sponsored by the Jewish Studies Program under the direction of Dr. Brian Horowitz.

    2010:A team from The Israel Forum for International Humanitarian Aid (IsraAID) will leave Israel today to assess the progress of IsraAID's programs in Haiti, as well as present its work in an exhibit using the IDF hospital tent in the upcoming Jewish Federation General Assembly in New Orleans.  The team is going despite the current cholera outbreak.

    2010: Debbie Rosenbloom and her husband David Levin are among those taking part in the first Israeli version of the Susan G. Koman Walk for the Cure.

    2011(30th of Tishrei, 5772): Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan

    2011:Wendy Perron, the Editor in Chief of Dance Magazine, is scheduled to lead a panel delving into the Diaspora of Israeli Dance as part of Fall for Dance DanceTalk, a free pre-performance panel discussion series.

    2011: Louis B. James is scheduled to present “Poison,” Deville Cohen’s first solo exhibition in New York City.

    2011:Israel prepared to send emergency aid to Thailand today, in response to violent flooding that has killed 377 since July.

    2011:Hundreds of Palestinians clashed with the IDF and security forces in a number of locations in the West Bank.

    2012: The Yeshiva University Museum is scheduled to sponsor a symposium titled “The Mystery and History of the Eruv.”

    2012(12th of Cheshvan 5773): Fifty-nine year old Larry Bloch “who built the Wetlands Preserve in TriBeCa into an influential rock club and a hub of environmental activism” passed away today. (As reported by James C. McKinley, Jr)


    2012: The JCC of Northern Virginia is scheduled to host The Ruth Spector Memorial Mah Jongg Tournament.

    20212 “Forty Years on the Bimah,” a retreat organized by Leah Novick “the oldest woman rabbi” opened today at Mount Madonna Center.

    2012:The Kobi Arad Band is scheduled to present “a jazz tribute show as part of the City Winery's 'Klezmer Brunch' series to the legendary Jewish-Moroccan mystic Baba Sali.”

    2012: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including the recently released paperback edition of Louis D. Brandeis: A Life by Melvin I. Urofsky

    2012: The Jewish Endowment Foundation of Louisiana is scheduled to present The Tzedakah Award to the Bart Family at a brunch in New Orleans, LA.

    2012: Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu called the murder of Yitzhak Rabin “one of the worst crimes of the new age,” during his opening remarks to the weekly Cabinet meeting today.

    2012: The government unanimously approved a plan to bolster fortifications for all Israeli localities between 4.5 km and 7 km of the Gaza Strip, according to Israel Radio, as ongoing rocket fire from the Hamas-run enclave once again forced southern residents into bomb shelters.

    2012: In anticipation of superstorm Sandy the 14thStreet Y closed today at 4 pm.

    2012:Egyptian authorities confiscated some 1.7 million documents reportedly proving Jewish ownership of land and assets in Cairo.

    2013: In the UK, The Wiener Library an evening with Thomas Harding, author of Hans and Rudolf: The German Jews and the Hunt for the Kommandant of Auschwitz.

    2013: The Jewish National Fund National Conference being held in Denver, CO, is scheduled to come to an end.

    2013: Israeli violinist Vadim Gluzman is among those scheduled to perform at Good Shepherd Church in NYC.

    2013:The “Red Alert” siren was heard early this morning in the Hof Ashkelon Regional Council and in communities in the Gaza belt. Residents reported hearing several explosions, as the Iron Dome anti-missile system intercepted at least two rockets that were fired by Gaza terrorists towards southern Israel.

    2013: Gaza-based terrorists fired four rockets at southern Israel early this morning. The Iron Dome anti-missile system intercepted one of the rockets, and the other three exploded in open areas. There were no physical injuries or damages.

    2013: Women of the Wall presented a list of 16 conditions today under which it would move its monthly prayer service to a third, egalitarian section of the Western Wall’s plaza

    2014: The “core exhibition of the POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews” is scheduled to open today.

    2014: The reconstructed ceiling of the destroyed wooden Gwozdziec Synagogue is scheduled to be unveiled today.

    2014: The Hyman S. & Freda Bernstein Jewish Literary Festival is scheduled to host The Bernard Wexler Lecture on Jewish History featuring Martin Goldsmith, author of Alex’s Wake: A Voyage of Betrayal and a Journey of Remembrance


    2014: The University of Connecticut is scheduled to host the Louis J. Kuriansky Annual Conference: The Dangerous Neighborhood of the Middle East, with Dr. Bruce Hoffman and Dr. Michael Rubin

    2014: Jeffrey Burds, associate professor of history at Northeastern University is scheduled to deliver The Joseph and Rebecca Meyerhoff Annual Lecture speaking on “Communist Collaborators and German Occupation in the Soviet Union during the Holocaust, 1941-43.”


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    OCTOBER 29

    539 BCE:  On the secular calendar, Babylonfell to Cyrus the Great of Persia.  This is a significant date because it marked the start of the return of the exiles to Eretz Israelwhere the SecondTemple would be built.

    969: Byzantine troops occupy Antioch which was then part of Syria but would become part of Turkey in the 20th century. Antioch is one of the oldest cities in the world having been founded in the 4th century BCE by one of Alexander the Great’s generals.  Over the centuries, control of the city changed hands many times. The Arabs had conquered the city during the 7th century and held it until the Byzantine returned in the 10th century. At one time, Antioch would appear to have had a thriving Jewish community.  However, Emperor Pochas tried to force the Jews to convert to Christianity in the first decade of the 7th century and when the Jews resisted most of them were either killed or forced into exile. Little is heard about them until the latter part of the 12th century when Benjamin of Tudela reported that there were approximately ten Jewish families living in the city, most of whom were engaged in the glass making industry.

    1422: Charles VII of France becomes king in succession to his father Charles VI of France, the monarch who had banished the Jews from France.

    1462: Jews were expelled from Mainz, Germany.

    1486:Obadiah ben Abraham of Bertinoro, who had served as the rabbi in Bertinoro and Castello, left Italy and began the journey that would lead him to Jerusalem two years later.  He was a student of Joseph Colon Trabotto and authored a commentary on the Mishnah.

    1741: Handel completed the third and final act of his oratorio “Samson” which was based on the tale told in chapter 16 of the Book of Judges.

    1831: Birthdate of Leopold Sonnemann the “publisher and editor of the Frankfurter Zeitung” and founding member of the German People’s Party.

    1833: All Jews except for peddlers and petty traders were granted civic equality in the Germanic domain called Hesse-Cassel. The remainder of Germany took nearly forty years to follow suit.

    1843(5th of Cheshvan, 5604): Sixty-nine year old Nathan Rubino, the son of Minkel and Ruben Moses Rubino passed away.

    1844: In Vienna Charlotte and Anselm von Rothschild gave birth to the youngest child Albert Salomon von Rothschild nicknamed “Salbert.”

    1845: Israel Beer Josafat, a native of Kassel, Germany, “moved to London, where he called himself Joseph Josephat.”  By the end of the next month he would be known as Paul Julius Reuter, the founder of Reuters News Agency.

    1850: In Dubrouna, Alexander Sender Frumkin and his wife gave birth to Israel Dov Frumkin who moved to Jerusalem at the age of 9 where he became a Hebrew author and journalist.

    1851(3rdof Cheshvan, 5611): Rebbe Yisrael of Ruzhin passed away. He was the leader of the Sadigur Chassidus.

    1854: Birthdate of Samuel Sale, the native of Louisville, KY who served as the rabbi for Congregation Shaare Emeth in St. Louis for 32 years.

    1862: The New York Times reported that at Harper's Ferry Provost-Marshal Howe has “seized a gang of counterfeiters and one hundred and thirty gallons of whisky, and turned out fifty-eight Jew traders during the last week.”

    1857: Birthdate of Konrad Haebler the German born linguist and librarian whose works included studies on early Hebrew printers and Hebrew books.

    1863: When the Superior Court heard the case of Richard Escott vs. John J. Crane et al a civil suit involving an opera company and whether it had performed at the level expected “a gentleman of the Hebrew persuasion, experienced in music and old clothes, enlightened the jurors in regard to the value of the wardrobe and voices of the members of the troupe, all of which he pronounced to be second class. While Jews could be maligned as “Chatham Street peddlers,” they also could be called as “expert witnesses” in breach of contract litigation.

    1863:  The New Jewish Orphan Asylum published today described the efforts to build a new Jewish Orphan Asylum in New York which “has been constructed under the auspices of the Hebrew Benevolent Society, into which the German Hebrew Benevolent Society was merged in 1859.” Construction of the asylum, which is almost completed, began in August of 1862 and the cornerstone was laid on September 30 of that year.  The building is located on 77thStreet and can accommodate 200 orphans.  The fifty thousand dollars required to construct the asylum was raised by the Building Committee whose membership included Messrs. M. Rossman, Philip Frankenheimer, Samuel Hackes, Jacob Goldsmith, Henry Lewis, H.B. Herts, Jr., S.M. Cohen, M. Cooper, W. Heller and Seligman Adler. The pride felt by the Jewish community can be seen when looks above the doorway and sees  an arched slab bearing the inscription, "Hebrew Orphan Asylum;" and in the centers of each of the projecting gables is a Mogen David, or David's shield, of double triangles, with the date "1862"

    1863: During the Civil War, the 15th Kentucky Cavalry that had been formed a year ago under the command Lt. Col. Gabriel Netter, a Jewish supporter of the Union, was mustered out of service.

    1864(29th of Tishrei, 5625): Sixty-three year old Simcha Pinkser the orientalist who deciphered the Karaite Manuscripts belonging to Abraham Firkowitz  and who was the father of Judah Leib Pinsker passed away today in Odessa, Russa.

    1872: In Brussels, a meeting is scheduled to be held today in local synagogue that will discuss ways of dealing with the plight of the oppressed Jews of Romania.  The Israelite Alliance in Berlin had called for such a meeting which has attracted delegated from Belgium, Great Britain, German, Holland, France and Austria.  Among those attending are Sir Moses Montefiore and Adolphe Crémieux. Among the proposed solutions would be support for wholesale immigration of Romanian Jews to “civilized countries.”

    1875: It was reported that John Morrisey, the anti-Tammany Hall candidate for the New York State Senate had addressed a crowd of more than 400 people “at the head-quarters of the Hebrew Ant-Tammany Club of the Fourth Senatorial District.”  [In the rough and tumble world of New York City politics, Jews could be found supporting the Tammany Democratic Party Machine and opposing it.  Some like Morrisey who was Irish, began as Tammany supporters and then switched to other side. The important thing is that Jews were involved in all aspects of the political process which is one of the things that separates the American Jewish Experience from the earlier history of the Wandering Jews.]

    1879: In New York City, the Commissioners of Emigration received a letter from the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society offering to provide for the Curriak children, the offspring of Polish Jew who has already arrived in the United States.  While the oldest boy is now with his father, the other children are so covered with sore that the medical authorities at Castle Garden said it will take two months to cure them. [This was one of the first public acts by the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society which had been formed in September of 1879.  The officers and workers were all Jewish women; most of whom might be called Uptown Jews.  The Society had been formed to protect the poor Jewish children of the city, many of whose parents could not provide them with the basics of life.]

    1879:  Birthdate of Leon Trotsky. Born Lev Davidovich, Trotsky would turn his back on his Jewish background and became the number two man in the Communist Revolution.  As the father of the Red Army he saved the Communists from defeat by invading armies as well as the Whites who supported the Czar.  Trostky would lose out in to Stalin for the role as Lenin’s successor.  He would be forced to flee the Soviet Union ending up in Mexico where Stalin would have him murdered in 1940.

    1880: Birthdate of Soviet physicist Abram Ioffe.

    1881: Justice Flammer is scheduled to hear more evidence in the case of Mrs. Amelia Goldberg who claims that she is the wife of John A. Goldberg.  The destitute Mrs. Goldberg was found wandering the streets. John Goldberg, a successful businessman from England said he had been married to her but that he had received a divorce decree from a rabbinic court in UK based on charges of adultery

    1881: It was reported today that “no Conservative or Anti-Semitic candidate received enough votes” in the first round of voting for members of the Reichstag to advance to the second ballot.  Herr Ernst “Henrici, the notorious Jew-baiter, only received 800 votes out of a possible 40,000 votes.

    1882: “Wished To Buy Heavenly Bliss” published today recounts the case of Harris Udovitch and Louis Cohen, two Jews living in Troy, NY.  Udovitch has been jailed on charges having struck Cohen’s wife during a dispute stemming from “Cohen’s refusal to sell his credit with heaven to Udovitch for $150.”  The term “credit with heaven” is normally interpreted to mean “Good deeds that buy the future world.”  There are some “ignorant orthodox Jews” who believe they can “buy the benefits of another man’s good deeds.”

    1883: It was reported today that in the last 17 months the Board of Relief of the United Hebrew Charities have provided assistance to 12,000 individuals.  The organization has helped 1.047 settle in other parts of the United States at a cost of $8,247.26 and spent $3,413.13 to bury 450 individuals.

    1883: “Cohen and Aaron” published today described recent events in a London courtroom where Lewis Cohen convinced a judge to excuse him from serving on a Coroner’s Jury because “he was a lineal descendant of the original Aaron, the great high priest of the Jews. While the Judge offered no explanation as to why he believed the claim, concern has been expressed that Jews in England and the United States will invoke this claim as a way to avoid all forms of public service.

    1884:  Birthdate of Fred Lazarus, Jr. The grandson of a rabbi who began a small retail establishment in pre-Civil War Cincinnati, Lazarus parlayed his family’s commercial ventures into the retail giant known as Federated Department Stores.  The only Jew who had a greater impact on the celebration of Christmas in the United Statesthan Fred Lazarus, Jr. would have been Jesus himself. During the Great Depression, he convinced President Franklin Roosevelt that changing the Thanksgiving holiday from the last Thursday of November to the fourth Thursday, extending the Christmas shopping season, would be good for the nation's business. A 1941 Act of Congress perpetuated the arrangement. No other Jew besides Jesus may have had as big an impact on the celebration of Christmas as did Lazarus may have had the biggest impact on the Christmas  This American merchandiser and philanthropist passed away in May, 1973.

    1885: The annual meeting of the United Hebrew Charities of the City of New York took place tonight at 58 St. Mark’s Place.

    1886: It was reported today that Henry George, the social reformer and author of a “single tax plan” delivered a lecture on “Moses” to a group of Jewish supporters.

    1888: The meeting of the United Hebrew Charities of New York was held at Temple Emanu-El tonight.
    1888: “The Glory of the Jew” published today described a lecture by Rabbi Leon Harrison at Temple Israel where his subject was “Is It A Misfortune to be a Jew?” --- which he answers in the negative since “according to Disraeli” the Jew is “the true conqueror of the world.”

    1889: “A Splendid Exhibit” published today included a summary of the work of the United Hebrew Charities which disbursed $35,000 in relief in 1879 but was able to disburse $72,000 in relief in 1889.

    1889: George B. Herzig presided over a meeting of the Alumni Association of Ahavath Chesed, located at 55th Street and Lexington Avenue.

    1889: Sir Julian Goldsmid, the prominent Anglo-Jewish leader, was the center of attention at a dinner held in his honor at Delmonico’s in New York City.

    1889: “The Broadway Theatre” published today provided a review of new production of “The Merchant of Venice” starring Edwin Booth as Shylock.  “Booth’s Shylock is a well-known performance of the character and the best that this generation has seen or is likely to seek.” Shylock’s most famous scene centers around his encounter with Venetians and “here Booth depicts the conflicting passions of the Jew with greater force and mare variety of expression…than any other actor of our time.”

    1890: It was reported today that given the “anti-Semtic feeling of the government and the public the existing regulations” aimed at the Jews “will be applied with the utmost vigor” while the nation awaits further anti-Semitic laws.

    1891: At Temple Beth-El in New York, President Henry Rice, who is also Chairman of the Executive Committee, presided over the seventeenth annual meeting of the United Hebrew Charities which opened with him reading “the reports showing the work of the various departments of relief in 1891.”

    1891: As of today, the Russian Refugee Fund has grown from $28,000 to $58,000 of which $5,000 has been spent on bringing needy Russian Jews to the United States for whom the United Hebrew Charities has secured jobs.

    1891: Hungarian Jewish immigrant Rose Stern and Charles Borach, New York saloon owners gave birth to their third child Fania Borach who gained fame as “Fanny Brice.” In 1908, she dropped out of school to work in a burlesque review. She is best known for her association with Florenz Ziegfeld, and headlined his Ziegfield Follies starting in 1910 and continuing into the 1930s. During the late 1930s, she had her own radio show which featured her as a bratty toddler known as "Baby Snooks".  The multitalented entertainer passed away in May of 1951.

    1892: Abram L. Levy of the Hebrew World was elected vice president of Metropolitan Press Club which was formed by 14 young editors who gathered for the first time at parlor 22 of the New York Hotel.

    1893: “The First Woman Rabbi” published today provided a portrait of Miss Rachel or Miss Ray Frank, the California native who is studying at Hebrew Union College who plans on “becoming the first woman rabbi in the world.”

    1893: “Biblical Romance” published today provides a brief review of The Son of A Prophetin which George Anson Jackson develops a story that revolves around Eleazar Ben Shammah which portrays love as it was displayed “in the age of Solomon.”

    1893: “A Memorial For Rebecca Gratz” published today described $100,000 bequest from the late Hyman Gratz to Congregation Mikve Israel in Philadelphia that is to be used “for the establishment and support for a college” to be operated by the Sephardic congregation in memory of his sister Rebecca Gratz.

    1893: It was reported today that Charles Frohman, the Jewish impresario, has canceled any further performances of “The Younger Son” which opened last week.

    1893: Richard Mansfield’s portrayal of Shylock in the Merchant of Venice appearing at Hermman’s in New York is described by reviewers as “one of his most artistic efforts” and “assuredly” one of his most “popular.”  (The role of Shylock became one of Mansfield’s signature Shakesperian character portrayals.)

    1894: The anti-Semitic newspaper La Libre Parole appeared with the headline: “Arrest of the Jewish Officer A. Dreyfus.  The editor of the paper, Edouard Drumont, would fill subsequent editions of the paper with lurid “facts” detailing the “confirmed evidence against the Jewish traitor.” 

    1894: Rabbi Kaufmann Kohler opened tonight’s meeting of the United Hebrew Charities with a prayer followed by an address by Henry Rice, the president of the organization which was celebrating its 20th anniversary. The high point of the evening was an address by Seth Low, the President of Columbia who would eventually be elected Mayor of New York City.

    1894: The first “open meeting” of the Monte Relief Society, an organization designed to aid poor Jews was held tonight at the Terrace Garden.

    1894: Major Mercier du Paty de Clam showed “the entire text of the bordereau to Dreyfus, and then he made him copy it” which the accused to deny that the document was a product of his handwriting.”

    1896(22nd of Cheshvan, 5657): Twenty year old Abraham L. Fox who like his mother Ernestine Fox suffered from consumption passed away today at his home on Madison Avenue in Manhattan.

    1898:The Zionist Delegation sets out for Jerusalem.

    1898: “More Help For Dreyfus” published described the public response to Alphonse Bard’s “report to the Court of Cassation” with some saying the report “clearly set forth the truth and proved the innocence of Dreyfus” while others insist that the report was merely a pleading in favor of the prisoner.”

    1898: “Outside a small Rothschild funded Jewish agricultural settlement, Herzl publicly awaited the Kaiser on his way to Jerusalem. The Kaiser’s and his cortege stopped to speak briefly with Herzl. It was the first public acknowledgement of Herzl as the leader of the world Zionist movement by a major European power.”

    1902: Herzl's health deteriorates. After the Annual Conference, Herzl finds himself in a state of collapse, incapable of writing a single line. He reports himself sick to the office of the Neue Freie Presse and goes for a rest cure to Edlach a little village at the foot of the Rax Alpes, south of Vienna.


    1903: Birthdate of Alexander Steiner the Hungarian Jewish grain merchant who was the husband of Klara Fejer and the father of Agnes Leah Steiner who survived the Holocaust and made Aliyah in 1949.

    1903: Three one-act plays by Arthur Schnitzler – “the Last Masks,” “At the Sign of the Green Parrot” and “Literature” – were performed tonight at the German theatre in Irving Place (NYC).

    1903(8th of Cheshvan, 5664):Hillel Noah Maggid, “a Russian-Jewish genealogist and historian who was the author of a biography of David Oppenheim, the rabbi of Prague,” passed away today.

    1906: In Lüdenscheid, Germany Hermann Süskind and Frieda Kessler gave birth to Walter Süskind, “a German Jew of Dutch parents who helped about 600 Jewish children escape the Holocaust.”

    1909: AllianceIsraelite Universelle makes representation to the French legislation over the hardships suffered by the Jews of Fez. 

    1910: Ten men and two women established Degania Alef, the first Kibbutz on the shore of the Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee).

    1911: Joseph Pulitzer passes away. The life of this Hungarian born Jew who served in the Union Cavalry during the Civil War, reminds one of a colorful novel more than the life of an American newspaperman who built what we would call today a media empire.  After his death in Charleston, SC, his estate funded the Pulitzer Prizes which honor excellence in journalism and other field of culture and art.

    1912:  Oscar Straus who is running for governor of New York on the Bull Moose Ticket (the party of Teddy Roosevelt) announced that he will spend the last four days campaigning on New York’s East Side and Brooklyn.

    1913:Birthdate of Oliver Louis Zangwill, an influential British neuropsychologist who was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1977.

    1914: “Austria Feeling War’s Disasters” published today described the reverses suffered by the Austro-Hungarians which, among other things, has resulted a wave of refugees arriving in Vienna including a large contingent of Jews from Galicia which “further complicates the life of the city.”

    1914: “Addressing the members of the United Charities at their annual at Temple EmanupEl tonight, Jacob H. Schiff asserted that thousands and thousands of Jews in New York were ‘dodging’ their duty’ toward the poor and suffering in this city while contributing liberally to funds for the relief of war sufferers in Europe.”

    1915: Birthdate of Dr. William Berenberg, an American physician, Harvard professor, and pioneer in the treatment and rehabilitation of and cerebral palsy.  He was a member of the Board Of Advisors of New England Sinai Hospital Center when he passed away in 1995.

    1916(2nd of Cheshvan, 5677): Sixty-six year old Maurice Ephrussi the French banker and Thoroughbred breeder passed away today.

    1918: Birthdate of Bernard Gordon, an American writer and producer who was a victim of Hollywood’s blacklist.

    1919: Birthdate of Dorothy Dorfman, eldest daughter of Vera and Nathan Dorfman, a proud graduate of the University of Chicago who become Deborah Levin, wife of Joseph Levin.

    1920: Premiere of “The Golem: How He Came Into the World” a silent movie filmed by cinematographer Karl Freund that “begins with Rabbi Loew” in the Jewish ghetto of Prague.

    1920: Birthdate of “Dr. Baruj Benacerraf, an immunologist who received a Nobel Prize for his groundbreaking work in exploring why diseases like multiple sclerosis affect some people but not others…”  Born in Caracas, Venezuela, he was the son of Sephardic Jews. His father, born in Morocco, was a textile importer; his mother, born in Algeria, was a homemaker. (As reported by Denise Gellene)

    1922:Isa Kremer made her United States debut at Carnegie Hall in NYC.

    1925: In Poland,“Issachar Feiner, a chocolate salesman, and Rivka Herzberg, a housewife” gave birth to Haim Feiner who would gain fame Israeli songwriter, poet and author Haim Hefer.

    1925: Birthdate of Klaus Roth German-born British mathematician who was awarded the Fields Medal in 1958. His major work has been in number theory, particularly the analytic theory of numbers. He solved in the famous Thue-Siegel problem (1955) concerning the approximation to algebraic numbers by rational numbers (for which he won the medal). Roth also proved in 1952 that a sequence with no three numbers in arithmetic progression has zero density (a conjecture of Erdös and Turán of 1935).

    1926: Dr. Chaim Weismann, President of the World Zionist Organization arrived in New York tonight from England on the Cunard line Berengaria. His was on a mission to gain support from American Jews for the creation of a Jewish Home in Palestine

    1927(3rd of Cheshvan, 5688): Forty-five year old German mathematician and philosopher who was a co-founder of The Internationaler Sozialistischer Kampfbund ("International Socialist Militant League") passed away today.

    1928: Lord Melchett, who was a Jewish businessman named Alfred Moritz Mond appeared on the cover of today’s Time magazine.

    1929: Major Alan Saunders, the man who had served as acting commandant of police at the times of riots spent six hours on the witness stand answering question before the British Commission of Inquiry investigating the riots at the Western Wall.  He was questioned about the lack of preparation by the police and the decision to disarm British-Jewish constables in the face of threatening behavior by the Arab population.

    1929:  On "Black Tuesday," the New York Stock Market crashed, triggering the "Great Depression."  Like millions of their countrymen, the Jews suffered great financial hardships.  Many newly arrived immigrants who were just beginning to make progress up the economic ladder found themselves on relief.  As the economy soured, social unrest increased and there was a rise in various forms of anti-Semitism.  The coming of the New Deal would prove a boon to many Jews.  Besides providing relief through a variety of federal programs, the New Deal opened up career opportunities for many newly educated first-generation American Jews.  For example, many young lawyers and accountants who found themselves locked out of the Christian only banks and law firms got their first jobs and gained valuable career experience working for the myriad of new federal agencies.  These men (yes most of them were men) went to become part of a core of dedicated civil servants who really served the public good. 

    1929: Jewish financier Felix Warburg and Lord Melchett, each donated five hundred thousand dollars to start a financial concern aimed at helping development in Palestine.
    1932: Birthdate of Charlotte Knoblock, president of Germany’s Jewish community and one of only about 100 surviving Munich residents who returned to the city after World War II.

    1932: In a letter to Louis Strauss, President Herbert Hoover reaffirms support for the Balfour Declaration on the 15th anniversary of the issuance of this seminal document in Jewish History.

    On the occasion of your celebration of the 15th Anniversary of the Balfour Declaration, which received the unanimous approval of both Houses of Congress by the adoption of the Lodge-Fish resolution in 1922, I wish to express the hope that the ideal of the establishment of the National Jewish Home in Palestine, as embodied in that Declaration, will continue to prosper for the good of all the people inhabiting the Holy Land. I have watched with genuine admiration the steady and unmistakable Progress made in the rehabilitation of Palestine which, desolate for centuries, is now renewing its youth and vitality through the enthusiasm, hard work and self-sacrifice of the Jewish pioneers who toil there in a spirit of peace and social justice. It is very gratifying to note that many American Jews, Zionists as well as non-Zionists, have rendered such splendid service to this cause which merits the sympathy and moral encouragement of everyone.

    1933(9thof Cheshvan, 5694): Seventy nine year old Lativan-American mathematician Lipman Bers passed away in New Rochelle, America.

    1937: The Palestine Post reported that the High Commissioner, General Sir Arthur Wauchope, announced his wish to retire from office.  

    1937: The Times of London claimed that the present Arab disturbances were inspired by secret societies in Syria. The newspaper endorsed the appeal of the former Prime Minister, David Lloyd George, who asked Britainto carry on the good work of historic justice in Palestine and to keep the Mandate.

    1937: Two Arab gun men fired on Jewish drainage workers who had been working at Herod’s Gate and were getting on a truck to go home.  One Jew was seriously wounded by the gunman who had climbed on to the truck.

    1937 (24th of Cheshvan, 5698): Erev Shabbat, Aaron Alkabat, a 32 year old Jew from Morocco was shot to death and two other Jews were seriously wounded this evening when they were fired on as they returned from praying at the Western Wall.

    1938: “You Can't Take It with You,” a comedic play in three acts by George S. Kaufman and Moss Hart which had premiered at the Booth Theatre in 1936 was performed for the last time at the Imperial Theatre before continuing its Broadway run at the Ambassador Theatre.

    1939: Birthdate of Australian barrister Aaron Ronald “Ron Castan” whose human rights advocacy resulted in the creation of The Castan Centre for Human Rights Law at Monash University which named in honor of Sir John Monash the Jewish engineer who was the country’s leading soldier in WW I.

    1939: Birthdate of Ralph Bakshi. Born in Haifa, Bakshi is a director of animation and occasionally live-action films. As the American animation industry fell into decline during the 1960’s and 1970’s Bakshi tried to bring change to the industry by creating and directing a number of animated feature films that were aimed at adults instead of children. His most famous effort centered Fritz the Cat, the first animated feature film to get an X- Rating.  Bakshi is also reported to be the inspiration for the Comic Book Guy, a character in the weekly cartoon program, The Simpsons.

    1941(8th of Cheshvan, 5702): The SS and Lithuanian police carried out the brutal massacre of those Kovno Jews who were not "selected" the prior day for work. In groups of a hundred, Jews were stripped naked, marched to the edge of ditches, and then fired upon. Most were killed instantly. Many were left to die slowly of their wounds. Einsatskommando reported the killing of 2,008 men, 2,920 women and 4,257 children.

    1942(18th of Cheshvan, 5703: Eliyahu Rozanski of the Jewish Fighting Organization assassinates Jakub Lejkin, the new commander of the Jewish police in the Warsaw ghetto. Soon after an additional 13 Jewish police who were very involved with the Warsawactions of the summer were also killed.  The Jewish resistance movements and many others in the ghettos viewed the ghetto police as loathsome collaborators.  From their point of view, the police were doing the work of the Nazis.  They were herding others off to the death camps in a deluded belief that somehow they and their loved ones could avoid the same fate.  While the idea of one Jew killing another Jew may seem troublesome from the distance of six decades, those who were not there have no right to judge those who were in hell we cannot even begin to imagine.

    1942: Written comments by Winston Churchill excoriating Germany for the systematic extermination of European Jews are read at a London protest meeting chaired by the archbishop of Canterbury.

    1942(18th of Cheshvan, 5703: The Nazis murdered 3230 thousand Jews from Sandomierz, Poland at the Belzec extermination camp.

    1942(18th of Cheshvan, 5703: The Nazis killed 16,000 Jews in Pinsk, Russia.

    1942: Leading clergymen, including the Archbishop of Canterbury, and political figures held a public meeting to register outrage over Nazi Germany's persecution of Jews.  This expression of outrage did not include a meaningful demand that the British government lift the ban on Jewish immigration to Eretz Israel.  This would have meant that Jews who escaped from Nazi control would have a place of refuge.

    1944: The Big Red One, the U.S. Army’s fabled First Infantry Division, took an added distinction.  One of its GI’s, Private Max Fuchs who had been fighting since he hit the beaches of Normandy on D-Day, served as the volunteer cantor for a brief service held at Aachen, Germany.  The service which was broadcast live by NBC radio, was billed as the first public Jewish service to be held on German soil since the rise of Hitler. Captain Sydney Lefkowitz, a Chaplain who had also been fighting since landing on Omaha Bulge, served as the Rabbi.

    1944: Agnes Steiner, who had been living in “a Jewish safe house in Budapest was sent by her grandfather to live at the Red Cross Children’s home in Buda on Orso Utca because he feared for her safety.

    1945: The first ballpoint pen went on sale at that Jewish emporium, New York’s Gimbels Department Store.

    1945: Anna Rosenberg became the first woman to receive the Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian award offered by the United States. In 1947 she would be the first woman to be awarded the United States Medal for Merit. In 1950 she was appointed Assistant Secretary of Defense, the highest position ever held up until that time by a woman in the United States military establishment. Her main task as Assistant Secretary of Defense was to coordinate the Defense Department's manpower, which had been divided among many different agencies. In the 1930s Rosenberg served in the New Deal administration as a regional director for the National Recovery Administration (1935) and on the Social Security Board (1936-1943), becoming a trusted advisor to both Franklin Roosevelt and Harry Truman. She also advised and coordinated several Democratic congressional campaigns. Before being appointed Assistant Secretary of Defense, she was President Roosevelt's personal assistant in Europe. She has been acclaimed for her talents as a labor mediator, diplomat, adviser, troubleshooter, and administrator. She was also involved in many Jewish causes, including serving as the director of the Women's Division of the Joint Distribution Committee and the Federation of Jewish Philanthropies.

    1946: “Jameal el Husseini, acting head of the Arab Executive Committee of Palestine…denied reports that the committee intended to demand that King Ibn Saud…cancel American oil rights in his kingdom as a result of President Truman’s reiterated support for substantial Jewish immigration to Palestine”

    1946: British authorities held “Zionist extremists” responsible for destruction of an Army jeep that was blown up by an electrically detonated land mine in the Plain of Sharon north of Tel Aviv. Two soldiers were wounded as a result of the attack.

    1947: Birthdate of actor Richard Dreyfuss.  Dreyfuss has enjoyed a long and successful career playing everything from college bound students, to police undercover agents to music teachers.

    1947: While giving a speech in Tel Aviv tonight, “David Ben-Gurion, chairman of the Jewish Agency for Palestine said …that he had asked Sir Alan G. Cunningham, the British High Commissioner, for some preliminary arrangements to help the inhabitants of Palestine to carry on the administration prior to the British withdrawal but that the suggestion had been turned down as ‘premature.’”  In the same speech, the future Prime Minister of Israel said that he welcomed what he described as a recent statement of peace by King Abdullah of Trans-Jordan. [This speech was given exactly one month before the UN was to vote the issue of partition.  The British government was opposed to the creation of a Jewish state and they would provide aide to the Arab Palestinians but not to the Jewish Palestinians. Ben-Gurion’s comments about the King of Jordan were either disingenuous or wishful thinking.  Abdullah wanted Palestine and especially Jerusalem for his kingdom.  He offered the Jews protected status if they would just give up their notion of an independent state.]


    1947: At a ceremony held on MountScopus that marks the opening of the academic year, Dr. Judah Magnes speaks out against the growing divisions in the society, and against the terrorism that had begun to divide Jew from Jew.

    1948: Prior to the launch of Operation Hiram, tonight, Israeli aircraft flew 13 missions, dropping 21 tons on the villages whose capture was part of the goal of an operation intended to ensure that the upper Galilee would be in Jewish hands when the next UN ceasefire began.

    1948: As part of Operation Hiram, the Israeli Seventh occupied Qaddita, Meirun, Safsaf and Jish.  The village of Safsaf was defended by the Arab Liberation Army's Second Yarmuk Battalion. The battle lasted through the night with both sides suffering serious casualties.

    1948: Operation Hiram continues with a pitched battle at the strong of Jish which is the same place as Gush Halav where the Jews had fought the Romans 2000 years ago.  The difference is that this time the Jews are the victors.

    1952: The Jerusalem Post’s editorial commented on the recent unrest of new immigrants in ma’abarot. While it was a pity that the current, mostly Communist agitation in camps turned the immigrants’ mind aside from the achievements of the government and the Jewish Agency in absorbing the massive immigration under difficult conditions, it was high time that the conscience of the entire Israeli people to be aroused to a nationwide effort to integrate the ma'abarot residents into the life of the country by a practical and abiding personal interest in their problems.  Ma'abarot was the name given to the large, temporary camps constructed for newcomers to Israel.  The first one was built in 1949 and hundreds more would be built to take care of the influx of immigrants.  They were obviously not a perfect solution but they were the best the struggling state could do under the circumstances.  Today there is a company that markets a variety of agricultural products including baby food and pet food under the name Macabre Products.

    1955: Operated Egged, an attack on the Egyptian military post at Kuntilla in the Sinai  came to an end.

    1956: The Sinai Campaign known in Hebrew as the Mivtza Kadesh began. It lasted 8 days; it was coordinated with both France and England. The reasons for the war were twofold: The increased attacks on civilians by the Egyptian backed Fedayeen from Gazahad caused 1300 casualties in Israel. The second was the blockade of the Gulf of Aqabawhich denied the Red Sea shipping routes to Israeli ships or the ships of other nations that would be bring goods to Israel.   This meant that Israeli shipping was limited to Mediterranean ports which meant that Israeli’s economy was “breathing on one lunge.” The French and English on the other hand were concerned with Egypt’s decision to nationalize the Suez Canal. While Israel attacked Gaza and pushed into half of Sinai, the French and English secured the canal itself. On the Israeli side 171 people were killed with several hundred wounded. Under massive United Statesand Soviet pressure Israelwas forced to withdraw from the Sinai.  The campaign began with an audacious paratroop drop by Israeli forces at the Straits of Tiran which opened the Gulf of Aqabato Israeli shipping.  As Chief of Staff, Moshe Dayan masterminded the lightning campaign that swept across the Sinai Peninsula.  The man with eye patch became an international symbol for the “new Jew,” a resourceful fighter, the citizen soldier building and defending the ancient Jewish state.  The Suez Campaign actually lasted for about 100 hours.  The lightning quick victory gave rise to a number of jokes among comedians in the United States.  “Why did the fighting only take 100 hours?  The equipment was rented and the Jews had to get it back in time or they would lose their deposit.” 

    1956: Four Israeli propeller-driven P-51 fighters cross into the Sinai.  Flying at 12 feet above the ground, they use their propellers to cut the telephone lines connecting the Egyptian air force and army communication centers. The Egyptians have the larger force.  It is well supplied by the Soviets with the latest in equipment.  But the Israelis have the “advantages” of audacity and desperation.  This was followed by a drop of less than 400 hundred paratroopers at the eastern end of the MitlaPass.The MitlaPass was the key to the Israeli advance across the Sinai.  Fortunately for the Israelis, the Egyptians were confused as to what was happening.  If they had moved aggressively at this moment, these future four hundred war heroes would have been POW or casualties and the Sinai Campaign would have been over before it started.  

    1956: Border Police platoon shot and killed 48 unarmed Arab civilians in the village of Kafr Kasim east of Petah Tikvah because the residents were unknowingly in violation of a curfew imposed on the village due to the onset of the Sinai Campaign. The subsequent trial and conviction of the border policemen created a legal precedent that determined that certain military orders - such as those to shoot unarmed curfew violators - are so manifestly illegal that they must be disobeyed. The President of Israel apologizes publicly for this episode in a speech on December 21, 2007.

    1956: “A regiment of paratroopers under the command of Rafael Eitan (Raful), lands near the eastern entrance of the Mitla Pass. The rest of the brigade forces move through the Sinai desert, capturing on their way several Egyptian strongholds after swift battles. Rafael Eitan's regiment deploys near the dropping zone and waits for the rest of the brigade to join.

    1957(4th of Cheshvan, 5718): The MGM producer and movie mogul Louis B. Mayer died at the age of 71. More than one person claimed to have attended Mayer’s funeral just to make sure he was dead.

    1957: A blast from a hand grenade or a bomb in the Knesset wounded David Ben Gurion and four cabinet ministers. Moshe Carmel suffered a broken arm as a result of the attack.

    1958: Birthdate of David Remnick, Pulitzer Prize winning writer and editor of the New Yorker Magazine.

    1960: “Wildcat,” the Cy Coleman (born Seymour Kaufman) opened in Philadelphia for a pre-Broadway run that earned it a “glowing review in Variety.”

    1963: Supreme Court Justice Arthur J. Goldberg, Senator Abraham Ribicoff and Senator Jacob Javits, met with Soviet Ambassador Anatoly Dobrynin but failed to effect any policy changes after “challenge him regarding Moscow’s treatment of Jews.”.

    1964: The town of Carmiel in the Galil is established.  Carmiel is “twinned” with Baltimore, MD.

    1970: The life of the great English sleuth is brought to the screen by two Jews as “The Private Life of Sherlock Holmes,” a creation of I.A.L. Diamond and Billy Wilder which premiered in the United States.

    1971: In Olmstead County, Minnesota, Cynthia Palmer and Michael Horowitz gave birth to Winona Laura Horowitz who gained fame as actress Winona Ryder “who has described herself as Jewish.”

    1972: “Nearly 8 weeks after the Munich Massacre, a Lufthansa jet was hijacked by two Black September members, who demanded the release of the three” surviving terrorists.

    1972: Jamal Al-Gashey, Adnan Al-Gashey, and Mohammed Safady the 3 surviving Munich terrorists twere released in exchange for the hostages onboard hijacked Lufthansa Flight 615 and travelled to Libya, where they went into hiding.

    1974: Shlomo Hillel completed his Internal Affairs Minister of Israel.

    1974: Yosef Burg began serving as Israel’s Internal Affairs Minister.

    1982: In Monmouth County, NJ, Rabbi Jerome Malino, the immediate past president of the Central Conference of American Rabbis, was the guest speaker at the formal dedication of the new sanctuary which was named in memory of Rabbi Aaron Lefkowitz.

    1987(6thof Cheshvan, 5748): World War I Veteran and Medal of Honor Winner Phillip Carl Katz passed away.

    1993(14th of Cheshvan, 5754):Chaim Mizrahi, resident of Beit-El, was kidnapped by three terrorists from a poultry farm near Ramallah. He was murdered and his body burned. Three Fatah members were later convicted of the murder

    1998:Hurricane Mitch the most powerful hurricane of the 1998 Atlantic hurricane season makes landfall in Honduras.  (If you know the name of the guy who does this, you will understand how this storm rates a mention in a Jewish history blog.)

    2000: The New York Times book section features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or on topics of special Jewish interesting includingGhost Light: A Memoir by Frank Rich and Susan Sontag:The Making of an Icon by Carl Rollyson and Lisa Paddock.

    2002: Random House published David Blaine's Mysterious Stranger: A Book of Magic

    2004:In Toronto, Avi Lewis and Naomi Klein release a big screen documentary entitled “The Take.”

    2004: At the Municipal Building in New York Nobel Prize winning economist Joseph E. Stiglitz married Anya Schiffrin of Columbia University.

    2004:  Newspapers and sports programs continued to sing the praises of Theo Epstein, the young, Jewish, General Manager who played a key role in Boston Red Sox’s first World Series victory since 1918.

    2006:Benjamin "Ben" Weider announced his retirement as President of the International Federation of BodyBuilders

    2006: As the investigation into allegations of sexual harassment continued, Moshe Katsav was advised to step down from his position of President of Israel.

    2006: The seventh International Poetry Festival opens at Jerusalem's Mishkenot Sha'ananim. with a reading of "Kol Koreh," accompanied by students from the Rimon School of Jazz.

    2006: The Washington Post book section features Haim Watzman’s review of Prisoners: A Muslim and a Jew Across the Middle East Divide by Jeffrey Goldberg.

    2006: The New York Times book section features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or on topics of special Jewish interesting includingJourney to a Revolution: A Personal Memoir and History of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 by Michael Korda and the paperback version Wickett’s Remedy by Myla Goldberg.

    2007: The Bank Leumi hosts a West End Gala as part of the UK Jewish Film Festival sponsoring a showing of the The Band's Visit.

    2007:Jon Entinediscusses his new book, Abraham's Children: Race, Identity, and the DNAof the Chosen People, as part of a book forum at the American Enterprise Institute in Washington, D.C.

    2007(17th of Cheshvan, 5768): St.-Sgt. Maj. (res.) Ehud Efrati, a 34-year-old father of three and the IDF's third casualty in Gazathis year, was killed in clashes with Palestinian gunmen near the Sufa Crossing in southern Gaza.

    2007(17thof Cheshvan, 5768): Sixty-six year old Israeli comedian and actor Yisrael "Poli" Poliakov who was a member of  “HaGashash HaHiver” passed away today

    2007:Prime Minister Ehud Olmert announced he has been diagnosed with prostate cancer.

    2007(17th of Cheshvan, 5768): Israel “Poli” Poliakov, actor, singer and member of the legendary comedy trio Hagashash Hahiver (The Pale Scout) died of cancer at Petah Tivkva’s Rabin Medical-Beilinson Campus at the age of 66.

    2008: In Montreal, the demolition of Bens De Lux Delicatessen & Restaurant continued as the “vertical red Bens sign, that was visible for several blocks, was taken down.”

    2008:The "Nextbook" series and the D.C. Jewish Community Center present a reading and discussion with Israeli writer David Grossman, author of The Yellow Wind, the novel Someone to Run Withand the newly-published Writing in the Dark: Essays on Literature and Politics, at AmericanUniversity, in Washington, D.C.

    2008: “The First Basket,” a documentary about Jews and basketball opens in New York

    2008: The Twenty-Third Israel Film Festival opens in New York with a gala event at the Ziegfeld Theater featuring the US premiere of the film "Lost Islands” the biggest Box Office Success in Israel in 2008.

    2008(30th of Tishrei, 5769): Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan

    2008: The 2008 Chicago Festival of Israeli Film opens tonight with the debut screening of "Waves Of Freedom." 


    2008:Plans for a Jerusalem museum dedicated to tolerance and coexistence got the final go-ahead to from Israel's Supreme Court, which rejected an appeal by Muslims who complained the site covers part of an ancient Muslim cemetery.


    2009: David Sax comes to Manny’s Deli in Chicago to discuss the fate of Jewish delicatessen and promote his new book Save the Deli: In Search of Perfect Pastrami, Crusty Rye, and the Heart of Jewish Delicatessen.  One question that might come up is can a Jewish delicatessen really be Jewish if it is not Kosher?

    2009:The Greater Washington Council of NA'AMAT USA is hosting its Annual Book and Author Luncheon at Temple Emanuel in Kensington Md., featuring journalist Naftali Bendavid, author of "The Thumpin': How Rahm Emanuel and the Democrats Learned to Be Ruthless and Ended the Republican Revolution," Barbara Graham, editor of "Eye of My Heart: 27 Writers Reveal the Hidden Pleasures and Perils of Being a Grandmother" and Washington Postwriter Steve Luxenberg, author of the memoir "Annie's Ghosts: A Journey Into a Family Secret."

    2009: In Houston, TX, Heroes & Legacies presents a Kinky Friedman Cigar Event, featuring a visit by Texas’ greatest living Jewish iconoclast, Kinky Friedman.

    2009: The New York Times featured a review of Eating:A Memoir by Jason Epstein

    2010:Tamar Eisenman is scheduled to perform at the BAMcafe in Brooklyn NY

    2010:Two packages addressed to Chicago-area synagogues containing explosive devices that were shipped from Yemen were intercepted today.  Officials have not yet identified the synagogues but they have said that “ neither was addressed to the synagogue across the street from President Obama's Hyde Park home, where he is expected to spend part of the weekend while in Chicago.”

    2010:The Jewish Museum in New York is opening a new exhibition, “Houdini: Art and Magic,” today and curator Brooke Kamin Rapaport says the entrance gallery will feature a replica stage projecting a life-size image of the great Jewish magician performing his water torture act.


    2010: Dwight Garner reviewed “Must You Go? My Life With Harold Pinter” Antonia Fraser’s fond and affecting new memoir of the late playwright with whom she spent the last decades of his life.

    2011(1st of Cheshvan): Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan

    2011: Nathan Abramoff is scheduled to be called to the Torah as a Bar Mitzvah at Agudas Achim in Iowa City, Iowa.

    2011: The Best of Chamber Music – Woodwinds Fest featuring Esti Hfafa (flute) Tibi Zeiger (clarinet), Miki Zohar (oboe), Alon Reuven (horn) and Mauricio Paez (bassioon) is scheduled to take place at the Tamir Music Center, Ein Kerem-Jerusalem

    2011: The Hyman S & Freda Bernstein Jewish Literary Festival is scheduled to present an evening with Ursula Hegi, whose newest novel “Children and Fire “is set in the fictional town of Burgdorf, Germany in the early days of the Third Reich”

    2011: 55th anniversary of the Sinai Campaign, Israel’s first successful major military operation against an Arab state dedicated to her destruction.

    2011: 67th anniversary of the broadcast of a Jewish service at Aachen, Germany which was described as the first Jewish service to be held publicly on German soil since the rise of Hitler. 

    2011: The IAF struck an Islamic Jihad training camp today in southern Gaza Strip, killing a commander of the Palestinian faction and four of its munitions experts, officials on both sides said.

    2011: Some 20 rockets and mortar shells were fired from Gaza into southern Israel today, killing one man and wounding four others.

    2011:Some 20,000 people gathered tonight for a social protest at Rabin Square in Tel Aviv, almost two months after the largest protest in Israel's history took place.


    2012: Swedish Ambassador Hans Magnusson is scheduled to deliver a lecture entitled “Raoul Wallenberg, 100 years: will the riddle ever be solved?” at the Wiener Library in London.

    2012: As Hurricane Sandy made its way up the East Coast of the United States the Jewish Federation of Greater Washington and area day schools were closed today as were the offices of the Jewish Federation of Greater Philadelphia.

    2012(13th of Cheshvan, 5773):Jessie Streich-Kest, 24, who worked as a high school teacher in New York City, and Jacob Vogelman, a student at Brooklyn College were killed tonight “in Brooklyn by a falling tree during superstorm Sandy. (As reported by March Oster)
    2012:U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff Chairman Martin Dempsey was in Israel today to discuss a joint missile defense drill that began a week ago.

    2012: Twenty Kassam rockets were fired into southern Israel early this morning, shortly after the Israeli Air Force struck terrorist targets in the Gaza Strip.

    2013: The 25th annual Kosherfest is scheduled to open in Secaucus, NJ.

    2013: The Arava Insitute Hazon Israel Bicycle Ride is scheduled to begin at Jerusalem.

    2013: J.J. Abrams is scheduled to release S, a novel by Doug Dorst.

    2013: Members of the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra and conductor/violinist Julian Rachlin are scheduled to return to New York for a jubilant one-night benefit engagement at Alice Tully Hall.

    2013: At Temple Solel, Naomi Ragen is scheduled to discuss her latest novel, The Sisters Weiss.

    2013: Signs purporting to be from the Israeli government were placed on dozens of military graves at the Mount Hertzl cemetery in Jerusalem today, in protest of the impending release of 26 Palestinian prisoners later today. (As reported by Gavriel Fiske)

    2013: As Israel prepares to release 26 more terrorist prisoners as a "gesture" to the Palestinian Authority, Arutz Sheva presents a partial list of those slated for freedom.

    2014: “Gett, the Trial of Vivian Amsalem” is scheduled to be shown at the Sydney Opening Night of the Jewish International Film Festival.

    2014: The opening reception for “L’Chaim – To Life!” is scheduled to take place today in Portland, Oregon.

    2014: The Twin Cities Jewish Film Festival is scheduled to host “Jewish Food For Thought” “featuring animated shorts and graphic novels by Hanan Harchol.

    2014: The Center For Jewish History is scheduled to host “The Lost Jewish Music of Belarus.”

    2014: The Wiener Library for the Study of the Holocaust & Genocide is scheduled to host the launch event for “The 1984 Anti-Sikh Pogroms Remembered.”

    2014: The Tulane University Jewish Studies Department under the leadership of Dr. Brian Horowitz is schedule to host a “Panel on the Jewish Life in the Mississippi Delta” with Michael Cohen, Carol Mills and Anny Bloch-Raymon.

    2014: In Washington, DC, the annual Hyman S. & Freda Bernstein Jewish Literary Festival is scheduled to come to an end.
    2014: 85th Anniversary of the Stock Market Crash that trigged the Great Depression

    0 0

    OCTOBER 30

    1270: Eighth Crusade comes to an ignominious end.  The crusade started under the banner of France’s anti-Semitic King Louis IX. But he died of stomach ailment in August.  Effective leadership devolved to Charles, King of Naples.  The crusaders got no further than Tunis.  The crusaders agreed to lift their siege of the Arab capital in exchange for commercial advantages.  The crusaders went home having failed to accomplish any of their own noble aims.  Considering the miseries that the Crusaders heaped on the Jews, they were just as glad to finally glad to see them come to an end after almost two centuries.

    1340: At the Battle of Río Salado King Afonso IV of Portugal and King Alfonso XI of Castile defeated Muslim ruler Abu al-Hasan 'Ali of Marinid dynasty and Nasrid ruler Yusuf I.  A Marinid victory would not have been a good thing for the Jews.  In fact, Alfonso was greeted by crowds of cheering Jews when he returned to his capital.  The victory was doubly important to the Jews of Spain and Portugal because the successors to both of these monarchs followed policies that were favorable to the Jewish people in their realms.

    1348: After two days, the authorities of Amont, in France, had finished arresting all of the local Jews and taking their possession.  The arrest of the Jews was tied to the belief that they were responsible for the Black Plague which was working its way across France.  The Jews of Amont were lucky to have been just arrested and robs since in most towns the Jews were expelled without their possessions or murdered.

    1485: King Henry VII of England is crowned. Henry was quite willing to continue the policy of keeping England free of Jews; a policy that dated back to 1290. When Henry VII was arranging for the marriage of his son to Catherine of Aragon, the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella “he promised never to allow Jews into his domain.  Isabella had made it quite clear, if he refused the oath, the marriage was off.

    1491: Gershon Soncino printed the first copy of “Immanuel Romi, Mahberot” (The Notebook of Imamanuel Romi) at Brescia, Italy.  (Heinrich Graetz described him as a “Jewish Dante)

    1682: Pope Innocent XI issued an edict by which all the money-lending activities carried out by the Roman Jews were to cease. However ultimately convinced that such a measure would cause much misery in destroying livelihoods, the enforcement of the edict was twice delayed

    1708: Abraham ben Saul Broda entered into a contract with Jewish community of Metz to serve as its rabbi.

    1735: Birthdate of John Adams, Founding Father and Second President of the United States.The correspondence of John Adams reflects the complexity with which Jews and Judaism were viewed in early national America.  Most "enlightened" American Christians such as Adams saw Jews as an ancient people who, by enunciating monotheism, laid the groundwork for Christianity. He also saw them as individuals who deserved rights and protection under the law. Like many of his peers, Adams venerated ancient Jews and thought contemporary Jews worthy of respect, but found Judaism, the religion of the Jewish people, an anachronism and the Jewish people candidates for conversion to Christianity. In an 1808 letter criticizing the depiction of Jews by the French Enlightenment philosopher Voltaire, Adams expressed his respect for ancient Jewry. Adams wrote of Voltaire, "How is it possible [that he] should represent the Hebrews in such a contemptible light? They are the most glorious nation that ever inhabited this Earth. The Romans and their Empire were but a Bauble in comparison of the Jews. They have given religion to three quarters of the Globe and have influenced the affairs of Mankind more, and more happily, than any other Nation ancient or modern." Aware of Adams' benign view of Jews, American Jewish newspaper editor, politician, diplomat and playwright Mordecai Manuel Noah (1785-1851) maintained a correspondence with the former president. In 1818, Noah delivered a speech consecrating the new building erected by his own Congregation Shearith Israel, the Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue in New York. Noah's "Discourse," a copy of which resides in the archives of the American Jewish Historical Society, focused on the universal history of Jewish persecution at the hands of non-democratic governments and their peoples. An early Zionist, Noah believed that only when the Jewish people were reestablished in their own home, with self-governance, could they live free of oppression. Noah sent a copy of his "Discourse" to Adams. Adams responded encouragingly to Noah, although the former president was evasive regarding Jewish self-governance. Adams expressed to Noah his personal wish that "your Nation may be admitted to all Privileges of Citizens in every Country of the World." Adams continued, This Country has done much. I wish it may do more, and annul every narrow idea in Religion, Government and Commerce. … It has please the Providence of the 'first Cause,' the Universal Cause [phrases by which Adams' defined G-d], that Abraham should give Religion, not only to the Hebrews but to Christians and Mahomitans, the greatest Part of the Modern civilized World." For Adams, Jews had earned their rights by virtue of their historic contributions and by virtue of their citizenship, but he did not respond to the idea of a Jewish homeland. Remarkably, a year later, Adams made the first pro-Zionist declaration by an American head of state, active or retired. In 1819, Noah sent Adams a copy of his recently published travel book, Travels in England, France Spain and the Barbary States. In his letter acknowledging the gift, Adams praised Noah's tome as "a magazine of ancient and modern learning of judicious observations & ingenious reflections." Adams expressed regret that Noah had not extended his travels to "Syria, Judea and Jerusalem" as Adams would have attended "more to [his] remarks than to those of any traveller I have yet read." Adams continued, "Farther I could find it in my heart to wish that you had been at the head of a hundred thousand Israelites . . . & marching with them into Judea & making a conquest of that country & restoring your nation to the dominion of it. For I really wish the Jews were again in Judea an independent nation." What was the source of Adams's Zionist sympathies? What moved him to make his extraordinary statement? A clue can be found in the next sentence of his letter: I believe [that] . . . once restored to an independent government & no longer persecuted they [the Jews] would soon wear away some of the asperities and peculiarities of their character & possibly in time become liberal Unitarian Christians for your Jeh-vah is our Jeh-vah & your G-d of Abraham Isaac and Jacob is our G-d.  Alexis de Tocqueville observed, "The Americans combine notions of Christianity and of liberty so intimately in their minds, that it is impossible to conceive the one without the other." Adams was clearly confident that freedom would lead the Jewish people to enlightenment and that enlightenment would lead them to Christianity. For Adams, Jewish self-governance in the Holy Land was a step toward their elevation. Today, our understanding of democracy includes respect for diversity and support for the retention of one's religious faith.

    1786: A deadly fire in the Jewish Ghetto of Verona occurred causing a great loss of life.

    1821: Birthdate of Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky. The author of such major works as The Brothers Karamazov and Crime and Punishmentwas an anti-Semite.  As he grew older he became convinced that Jews were the cause of all social ills and he was phobic on the idea of letting Jews live outside of the Pale of Settlement.

    1856: William Cullen Bryant delivered a speech tonight in favor of the abolition of slavery. He recounted the story of the Israelite encounter with the Amalekites when Moses arms grew weary and Aaron and Hur contrived to keep Moses hands raised until victory was achieved.  He urged the attendees to lend their support to the leaders of the fight against slavery so that when their arms grew weary like Moses, the people would lend their hands in support of abolition.

    1856: During an anti-Slavery rally held at the Academy of Music in New York the speakers, who were Christian ministers, took issue with the idea that the Bible supported the institution of slavery as practiced in the United States. They contended that "there was no such idea of property in a servant existing among the ancient Jews." [For once somebody had actually read and understood the text of "The Old Testament."]

    1860:The biennial banquet and ball in aid of the Jew’s Hospital, well known charitable Institution took place at the City Assembly Rooms this evening. As on former occasions of the same kind, the attendance was large, and the contributions in aid of the Institution were most liberal. Not less than 600 ladies and gentlemen of the Jewish faith sat down to the banquet, and subsequently joined in the dance. Mr. Benjamin Nathan the President of the Hospital, presided at the banquet, and on his right and left, at the head of the tables, sat Rabbi Lyons of the Nineteenth-street Synagogue , Rabbi Isaacs of the Wooster-street Synagogue, Rabbi Cramer, of the Greene-street Synagogue, and other prominent clergymen and laymen of the Jewish faith. The "grace before meal" was said in Hebrew by Rabbi Lyons, and the "grace after" was sung in the same language by Rev. Mr. Cramer. Following the latter, the President of the Institution addressed the audience, giving a brief sketch of the "Jews' Hospital in New-York," and welcoming his hearers to the entertainments of the evening. He said that the Jews' Hospital, since its foundation, in 1855, had accommodated 1,225 inmates, of whom 1,127 had been treated gratuitously. The benefits of the Institution were not confined to any creed or sect, but the sick and unfortunate of all creeds and nations had partaken of its blessings. At the same time it had neither asked nor received any aid from the State or Municipal Governments, but had depended entirely upon the voluntary contributions of its friends for support. In the intervals between the toasts, the Secretary read off a list of the donations received from those present, as well as by letter from absent donors. Among the latter was a letter from Gov. Morgan, speaking in the highest terms of the Jews' Hospital, and inclosing a check for $100. The total amount of donations announced last evening reached the liberal sum of $14,000. At the conclusion of the toasts the party retired to the ball-room adjoining, when the, dancing commenced, and was continued till a late hour of the night.

    1864:Helena, Montana's capital, founded.  Jews were involved with the Helena from its earliest days. According to local legend Russian born Julius Basinsky arrived in Helena in 1866 with one thousand cigars and not enough pocket change to buy lunch in on of the town’s saloons. Louis Kaufman came to Helena and worked in mining until 1872.  He and Louis Stadler formed Stadler and Kaufman Meat Company in 1872.  Charles M. Russell, one of America’s premier Western artists managed their ranch for several years. From the 1870’s on banks owned completely or partially be Jews were launched in towns and cities all over the Far West including Lewish Herschfield’s Merchants National Banking Company in Helena. 

    1872: A two day meeting at Brussels that had been called so that leading European Jews could discuss measures that could be taken to relieve the suffering of their co-religionist in Romania was scheduled to come to an end.

    1875: As the debate over the use of public tax dollars to support religious education it was reported that in New York the Catholic Schools receive almost $1,400,000 or 91% of the amount spent while the Jewish schools receive less than $26,000.

    1877: Birthdate of Salman Schocken, the German born publisher who became an ardent Zionist. Among other things, he founded Schocken Publishing House and published Haaretz.  His life is too rich and textured for this blog and you are urged to study from the many resources that tell his fascinating story.

    1879: In New York, the Young Men’s Hebrew Association is scheduled to present its first “down-town entertainment of the season” at the Pythagoras Hall.

    1880: Billee Taylor or The Reward of Virtue "a nautical comedy opera" by Edward Solomon, the Anglo-Jewish composer and conductor was first produced today at the Imperial Theatre in London

    1881: Dr. Kaufmann Kohler gave his first Sunday lecture this morning at Temple Beth-El in New York.  This is a reform championed by the Rabbi which will replace traditional Saturday morning services with an observance on Sunday since the realities of the American business world prevents people from attending services on the traditional day.

    1882: “Church Contributions” published today provided a breakdown of charitable efforts by denomination including the fact that there are 2,937 Jews in New York who have contributed $100,000 for “benevolent purposes” that there are 12,516 Jews throughout the United States who contributed $300,000 “for benevolent purposes.”

    1883: “Mr. Henry Irving In ‘The Bells’” published today gives a full-scale review of English actor Henry Irving’s performance in the American premiere of “The Bells.”  “The Bells” by Anglo-Jewish playwright Leopold Davis Lewis is based on “The Polish Jew” by the French team of Erckmann and Chatrian.

    1884(11th of Cheshvan, 5645): Isaac Honig, a native of Mayence who came to the United States in 1859 where he became a leading real estate dealer as well as a patron of the Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum Society and Mount Sinai Hospital passed away today.

    1885: The newly elected officers of the United Hebrew Charities are: Henry Rice, President; Henry S. Allen and Morris Tuska, Vice Presidents; J.H. Hoffman, Treasurer; and I.S. Isaacs, Secretary.

    1887: Mrs. Philip J. Joachimsen, President of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society reported that currently the society is providing “a home” to 543 children, 384 of whom range in age from 2 to 5 years.  The facility which is on Washington Heights is the only facility in the city that provides shelter for “orphans, half-orphans or deserted children.”

    1887: “The Oldest Jewish Gravestone” published today relied on information first published in the Times of London to the latest discovery about the history of the Jews of Europe.  Up until now, a headstone on a grave in a cemetery at Worms dated 4660 (or 900 CE) has been thought to be the oldest of its kind.  But now a headstone has been found at “Zahlbach, a small village close to Mayence” that bears the date 4560 (806 BC).  After having been verified by Rabbi Lehman of Mayence, the stone was placed in the town’s museum.

    1888: It was reported today that in the last year the United Hebrew Charities of New York assisted 16,953 in the past year.  The society provided help to 29,602 immigrants who arrived at Castle Garden.  Approximately 2,600 people were “provided with employment” and 600 poor Jews were provided with free burial.  The society collected over $73,000.00 and spent all but $4,000 in providing assistance.

    1889: “He Talks To Hebrews” published today described a well-received address Colonel Elliot F. Shepard a prominent lawyer and civic leader gave at Avhavth Chesed in New York City.

    1889: Professor Morris Jastrow of the University of Pennsylvania presented a paper on “The Text Books of the Assyrians and Babylonians” at today’s meeting of the American Oriental Society.

    1889: David Harfeld, a Richmond pawnbroker and the brother of Rabbi Eugene Harfeld went on trial for bigamy today in New York City

    1889: “His Race Proud of Him” published today reported that Jesse Seligman presided over the dinner held in honor of Sir Julian Goldmid, Seligman praised the visiting Englishman as “one of the champions of Hebrew emancipation throughout the world” who “had made this voice heard in the halls of Parliament in behalf of civil and religious liberty and the removal of political disabilities from Jewish citizens of all nations.”

    1890: According to reports in  Figaro and the New York Times, the key to Baron Hirsch’s close relationship with the Prince of Wales is a combination of his great wealth and, more importantly, his good manners.  The Baron is considered remarkable for his philanthropy and his love of England.

    1891: As Russia reels from a series of social and economic problems that have been exacerbated by a famine it was reported today that “the suffering Russian peasantry has…avenged their sufferings upon the Jews who are already under an official as well as popular ban and this direction of their energies is entirely pleasing to the Russian Government.”

    1892: Twenty women and sixty-three men, all of whom are Polish and Russian Jews were arrested today at the cloakmaking fir of S.M. Levi & Co on charges that they had violated the laws banning working on Sunday.

    1892: V. Henry Rothschild, Lyman G. Bloomingadle, Isaac Eppinger, Sigmund Neustadt, Isidor Straus, Louis Gans, Samuel H. Eckman and Henry S. Hermnaa were elected directors of the Montefiore Home for Chronic Invalids when the patrons and managers held their annual meeting today.

    1892: “Felix Adler’s New Book” published today provides a detailed review The Moral Instruction of Children by Felix Adler.

    1893: “Koh-i-Noor” a one act operetta authored by Oscar Hammerstein opened tonight at Koster and Bial’s Music Hall.

    1894(30th of Tishrei, 5655): Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan

    1894: The Board of Estimate and Apportionment is scheduled to meet today to consider requests for 1895 including $80,000 by the Hebrew Orphan Asylum, $85,000 for the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society of New York Orphan Asylum and $5,000 for the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children

    1894: Superintendent Stump of the Bureau of Immigration has received a letter from Baron Hirsh, stating that the Jewish Colonization Society, of which Baron Hirsch is the head, is engaged in diverting Jewish immigration from the United States to Argentina; a county that is more open to accepting the Jewish immigrants.

    1895: President Henry Rice and General Manager Nathaniel S. Rouseau presented the annual reports at the annual meeting of the United Hebrew Charities which was held at Temple Emanu-El today.

    1896(23rd of Cheshvan, 5657): Samuel Corn, a native of Prussia who came to the United States in 1825 at the age of 22 where he became a successful businessman in the cap and furrier business as well as a patron of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum Society and the Montefiore Home passed away today.

    1898: Birthdate of Lothar Kreyssig the German judge who defied the Nazis by trying to stop their euthanasia program and who hid two Jews on his farm.

    1899: In Saratov, Russia, Yakov Arkad'evich Khazin and Vera Yakovlevna Khazina Nadezhda Yakovlevna Mandelstam the author and educatior who was the wife of poet Osip Mandelstam.


    1899:Major Karri Davies was among the Jewish soldiers who fought during the Siege of Ladysmith which began today during the Second Boer War.

    1903: During the debate over accepting Uganda as a Jewish homeland, even on a temporary basis, the newspaperDie Welt publishes Menachem Ussishkin's letter and Herzl's answer. Menachem Ussishkin opposed an expedition to Uganda.

    1904: Cypriotes in Athens, Greece adopt a resolution, which they plan to send to England to protest against the increasing immigration of Jews to Cyprus.

    1905: After a nation-wide strike, Russia’s Czar Nicholas II issued a manifesto granting a constitution and a Duma (parliament) in which the Constitutional Democrats (Cadets) and Social Democrats would participate. These revolutionaries many of whom were Jews, were known as the "Octoberists." The reforms did not work.  Conditions worsened, in part because the Czar was a weak ruler and not committed to reform.  Seventeen years later, Russia would explode in a revolution that would bring the Communists to power.

    1910: A review of three plays by Arthur Schnitzler published today decries the fact that there is no English theatre equivalent to the German theatre as represented by Schnitzler’s work.  That Schnitzler was actually an Austrian born Jew did not keep the critic from identifying the noted playwright as being “German.”  Of course large numbers of the Jews in Austria and Germany would see themselves in the same way until the they had their rude awakening in the 1930’s.

    1910: During a pogrom known as the Shiraz Blood Libel, 12 Jews were killed, 50 more were injured and 6,000 were robbed of all their possession by a mob seeking vengeance for the baseless charge that the Jews had ritually murdered a Muslim girl.

    1912: The first phase of the State of New York v Charles Becker came to an end.  Becker was a police officer who had been charged with having a group of Jewish gangsters from the Lower East Side murder Herman Rosenthal, a well known New York gambler.

    1912: When the Bulgarians captured the Greek city of Didymoteikhon, the economic conditions of the Jews deteriorated when a great deal of their property including Jewish owned stores were damaged or destroy.

    1914: The Ottoman Empire enters the Great War as an ally of Germany and Austro-Hungary.  

    1914: During the election campaign Nathan Strauss spoke at Niblo’s Gardens where he “struck down the charges of religious prejudice” that had been unfairly lodged against Governor Glynn.

    1914: Dr. Bernard Drachman, the rabbi of Congregation Oham Zedek spoke out against the injection of religious prejudice in the current gubernatorial campaign.

    1915: Birthdate of Fred Friendly. Ferdinand Friendly Wachenheimer the son of Samuel Wachenheimer, a jewelry manufacturer, and Theresa Friendly Wachenheimer began using the name Fred Friendly when he went into radio broadcasting.  He gained fame as the courageous, creative producer who worked with Edward Morrow on See It Now.  There most famous broadcast was the one exposing Senator McCarthy.  George Clooney played the role of Friendly in Good Night and Good Luck which captured the courage of Friendly and Morrow as well as the hostile environment in which they lived.

    1915: It was decided today to award the Nobel Prize in Medicine to Dr. Robert Barany of Vienna University for his work in the physiology and pathology of the ear.

    1918: Sándor Wekerle, who had supported “a bill providing for equal religious rights for Jews and Christians” completed his second term as Prime Minister of Hungary.

    1918: The Ottoman Empire signed an armistice signifying the end of hostilities for World War I.  The news was greeted with great joy by the Jews of Palestine who believed that a benign British military government would allow them to live under the terms of the Balfour Declaration.

    1922: Benito Mussolini became Premier of Italy. Mussolini was no anti-Semite.  Several Jews supported him and he had a Jewish mistress.  Mussolini would turn on the Jews during the 1930’s.  How much of this was a matter of his own doing and how much was merely in response to curry favor with Hitler has become a matter of debate.  Any diminution of suffering enjoyed by the Italian Jews was a credit to the people of Italy and not to Mussolini.

    1927: With more than 1,000 representatives of American Zionism to hear his challenge at a conference in Cleveland, Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, of New York, today called upon Zionist leaders attending the national conference on Palestine to hold Britain to its pledge to carry out the obligations of the Balfour Declaration of 1917 to facilitate the establishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine.

    1928:  Birthdate of Daniel Nathans. Nathans was the son of Russian Jewish immigrants.  Despite the fact that his father lost his business during the Great Depression, Nathans took advantage of the American education system graduating from Washington University in St. Louis.  A microbiologist, he spent at least some of his time at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovoth. Nathans won the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1978. He won the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1978.   He passed away in 1999.

    1930: Austrian born bacteriologist and pathologist Dr. Karl Landsteiner won the Nobel Prize for Medicine today.  Since 1922, Landsteiner has been doing his research at New York City’s Rockefeller Institute ofr Medical Research.

    1932:The Jack Benny Program is broadcast for the first time on CBS Radio.

    1933: Irma Lindheim, a wealthy American-born Jewish woman who became President of Hadassah in 1926  joined Kibbutz Mishmar Haemek today

    1935: In New York, Cele (née Mendelow) and Benjamin Caro gave birth to  author Robert Caro, best known for his multi-volume biography of Lyndon Johnson

    1935:As reported in today’s Baltimore Sun, “Long owned by the Dukes of Brunswick, the treasure was purchased by a consortium of art dealers and sold to the government of Prussia.”  “The treasure” refers to 82 pieces of the Guelph treasure which  four Jewish art dealers, Zachary Max Hackenbroch, Julius Falk Goldschmidt, Isaac Rosenbaum and nephew Saemy Rosenberg bought from the Duke of Brunswick for 7.5 million reichsmarks in1929” and “the government of Prussia” refers to Hermann Goering.


    1936: In London Hester and Siegfried Sassoon gave birth to their only child George Sassoon whose father described his expectations for his son to Max Beerbohm when he wrote "Will he, I wonder, become Prime Minister, Poet Laureate, Archbishop of Canterbury, or merely Editor of The Times Literary Supplement? Or Master of The Quorn? Or merely Squire of Heytesbury?"

    1938: In an article entitled “A Poignant Record of Palestine,” T.R. Ybarra reviews Going Homeby Ernst Harthern. Harthern is German newspaper correspondent who has been working in Scandinavia which means he has been spared much direct contact with Hitler and his Nazis.  In fact Hitler is not mentioned in this book which described Harthern’s first visit to Palestine in which he has the sensation of a true homecoming.  As he says at one point, “Almost anywhere on earth ther are more modern buses with better springs, but they are not Jewish buses.”

    1938: In an article dateline Haifa, entitled “Fear Colors All Life In The Stricken Holy Land” Madeleine Miller describes the toll that Arab violence which she descriges as a “civil war” has taken on Jews and Arabs.

    1938: Mitch Miller was playing oboe with the CBS Symphony tonight during the broadcast of “The War of the Worlds” based on a script co-authored by Howard Koch.

    1938(5thof Cheshvan, 5699): Fifty-two year old Baruch Nachman Charney (Baruch Charney Vladeck), the American Jewish labor leader who was the manager of the Jewish Daily Forward passed away today.


    1939: Heinrich Himmler head of the S.S. was instructed to have about a million people transported from the Generalgouverenment. Half are to be Jews and half are to be Poles.

    1939: SS chief Heinrich Himmler designates the next three months as the period during which all Jews must be cleared from the rural areas of western Poland. Hundreds of communities will be affected, and thousands of Jews will be expelled with nothing but what they can carry with them.

    1941(9th of Cheshvan, 5702): Four thousand Jews are murdered at Nesvizh, Belorussia.

    1941: A 12-year-old boy who escapes the Ninth Fort massacre of October 28 returns to the Kovno Ghetto and reveals what happened.

    1942; The New York Times features a review of On Native Grounds: An Interpretation of Modern American Prose Literatureby the Jewish author Alfred Kazin.

    1943(1stof Cheshvan, 5704): Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan

    1943(1stof Cheshvan, 5704): Max Reinhardt, the Austrian-born American who was a director in both live theatre and film passed away today in New York at the age of 70.  If you read the New York Times obituary of this (for his time) titan of the theatre and cinema you will find no mention of the fact that he was in New York because after the Anschlusshe could not remain in Austria.

    1943: Dr. Zelik Levinbok, a Jewish doctor interned at the Koldichevo camp in Belorussia, escapes with his wife and eight-year-old son.

    1944: Rudolf Kastner “travelled to St. Gallen, accompanied by Kurt Becher and Dr. Wilhem Billitz, director of the Manfred Weiss Works.

    1944: The Martha Graham ballet ''Appalachian Spring,'' with music by Aaron Copland, premiered at the Library of Congress, with Graham in a leading role. Aaron Copland is another example of an American Jew who helped create a uniquely American culture.

    1944: The final deportation train from Theresienstadt, Czechoslovakia, to Auschwitz arrives at the camp. Of the 2038 prisoners on board, 1689 are immediately gassed.

    1944: Edith Frank was separated from her daughters today when she was selected for the gas chambers; a fate she avoided when with a friend “she escaped to another section of the camp.”

    1944: The Nazis deported Margot and Anne Frank from Auschwitz to Bergen Belsen, where they both died five months later.

    1945: Birthdate of actor and director Henry Winkler.  For a whole generation of television viewers, Winkler will always be The Fonz of the sitcom Happy Days.

    1946:  Birthdate of NBC newscaster Andrea Mitchell. When asked if her Judaism has ever been an issue, positive or negative, in the course of her career she responded as follows.  “It's certainly not been a negative issue. I think when I was watching the signing of the Camp David Accords in 1979, after the Camp David Summit in 1978; I certainly felt a tremendous emotional connection to the issue and to the chances of a breakthrough between the Israelis and the Arabs. Seeing Sadat and Begin was a very emotional experience. Similarly, in 1993 I was one of many people on the South Lawn who were very excited about prospects for peace, when we finally saw Rabin and Arafat shake hands under the guidance of Bill Clinton. Perhaps it made me more eager to go the West Bank and interview people and learn more about the Palestinian perspective. So I think it's less a religious issue than a cultural connection to the Middle East. One other experience that was important was the controversy over President Reagan's visit to the cemetery in Bitburg where S.S. soldiers were buried. I remember when Elie Weisel came to appeal to the president not to go. That was a very powerful experience for me. I spent a lot of time covering that issue, then we ended up going and visiting Bergen-Belsen with the president. Certainly all of my childhood experiences and my parents' stories about the Holocaust are part of my personal and intellectual history. Our family was not Holocaust survivors, but it was a very important part of the way we were raised. My mother and father talked about it all the time.”

    1946: British authorities held groups described as “Zionist extremists” responsible for the death of two British soldiers and one British police sergeant who were killed in separate land mine explosions today.

    1947: “A Haganah sourced said today that a number of” its leading members “had been attacked and would by members of…Irgun Zvai Leumi in the Tel Aviv region last night.”

    1948: During the War For Independence, Egyptian planes drop supplies to their troops trapped in the Faluja pocket.

    1948: During Operation Hiram, the Carmeli Brigade successfully fulfilled it mission of thwarting counter attacks from Syria and Lebanon when it crossed into Lebanon and surged all the way to the Litani River.

    1950: During the Korean War, Chinese forces attacked Tibor Rubin’s unit (Company I, 8th Cavalry Regiment, 1st Cavalry Division) at Unsan, North Korea during a massive nighttime assault.” Tibor manned a 30 caliber machine gun at the south end of the unit's line which would mark the start of one-man holding operation that lasted for more than twenty four hours. (Based on Tibor’s Medal of Honor Citation)

    1952,The Jerusalem Post reported that the Jewish National Fund had been granted a six million dollar loan by the Bank of America to further settlement activities in draining the Hula region, and for land reclamation and acquisition.

    1952:  The Jerusalem Post reported that work began on the 165-meter westward extension of Haifa Port's main quay to make it accessible to the largest ship in the Mediterranean.  Building a new state took many forms including immigrant absorption, irrigating the Negev and expanding port facilities for future export trade.

    1953(21stof Cheshvan, 5714): Sixty-nine year old classical pianist Leonid Kreutzer passed away today in Tokyo.

    1956: During the Sinai Campaign Israel captured the Egyptian military post at El-Thamad 

    1956: Soldiers in Rafael Eitan’s regiment spot an Egyptian armored column and call for an airstrike which destroys the vehicles, that unbeknownst to the Israelis, are empty because the Egyptian soldiers were already in position in the Mitla Pass.

    1956: During the Sinai Campaign Israeli paratroops dug in to hold the Mitla Pass and await what would be the successful linkup with IDF armor moving overland.  Egyptian aircraft attacked the Israelis for the first time, but the IDF was able to hold its own despite long odds.

    1956: President Eisenhower assured Ben-Gurion that the United States would not censure Israel as long as the Sinai attack was not a grab for additional territory.  Ben-Gurion responded that all Israel wanted was the end of Egyptian support for the fedayeen (the name for Arab terrorists), the end of Arab economic warfare against Israel and the opening of the Straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping.  Ben-Gurion would stick to his goals.  Eisenhower would betray his promise. 

    1958: Birthdate of Kevin Pollak, host of Celebrity Poker.

    1959: U.S. Premiere of “The Wasp Woman” with music by Fred Katz.

    1961:Birthdate of Emmanuel Finkiel, the French-born producer/director of Voyages, considered by some to be the best Jewish film of 2000)

    1962: Yosefi Almogi began serving as Minister of Housing and Construction

    1963: U.S. premiere of “A New Kind of Love” a romantic comedy directed, produced and written by Melville Shavelson and co-starring Paul Newman.

    1968: Israeli helicopter-borne Sayeret Matkal commandos carry out Operation Helem (Shock), destroying an Egyptian electric transformator station, two dams along the Nile River and a bridge.[29] The blackout causes Nasser to cease hostilities for a few months while fortifications around hundreds of important targets are built. Simultaneously, Israel reinforces its position on the east bank of the Suez Canal by construction of the Bar Lev Line

    1968: U.S. Premier of “The Lion in Winter” the movie version of James Goldman’s play produced by Joseph E. Levine.

    1974: The National Religious Party joined the governing coalition led by Yitzhak Rabin who had replaced Golda Meir as Prime Minister.

    1976: The second season of “Fat Albert and the Cosby Kids” with Lou Scheimer as the voice of “Dumb” Donald came to an end.

    1976: Clarence Chamberlin, the second man to fly the Atlantic and the first to do so with a passenger, passed away.  The passenger was a Jewish businessman from Massachusetts, Charles Albert Levine who had been dabbling in the new field of commercial aviation.

    1977:  The settlement of Mevo Dotan was founded on the West Bank by secular settlers.

    1982: In Monmouth County, Temple Beth Miriam “hosted a gala Dinner-Dance in Jacobson Hall.”

    1984: Seventy-one year old Charles “Charlie” Thompson Winters, the American businessman who was imprisoned for his role in helping to smuggle three B-17’s to Israel during the War for Independence passed away today.

    1984(4thof Cheshvan, 5735): Eighty-four year old German actor and director Wolfgang Heinz, born David Hrisch, who “President of the Academy of the Arts in Berlin between 1968 and 1974” passed away today.

    1988: NBC broadcast the first episode of “Family Ties,”  a sitcom created by Gary David Goldberg in what would be its seventh and final season.

    1991:  Mid East peace conference began in Madrid, Spain.

    1995: In a case of Jew versus Jews Ben Kamin, Senior Rabbi, Temple-Tifereth Israel Beachwood, Ohio, wrote the following letter-to-the editor in response to a column by Thomas L. Friedman.

    Thomas L. Friedman's Oct. 29 column on Israel's emerging and opulent culture says a great deal about postmodern Israel, but it ultimately oversimplifies. Israel is a lot more than a cell phone, and Jewish identity has to do with a lot more than a new shopping mall in Kfar Saba. I was born in Kfar Saba, and I share some of Mr. Friedman's amazement at the transition. It's true that the orchards of my childhood are giving way to shopping plazas, condominiums and automatic teller machines. But a lot of the fear and concern that was part of those years has given way to a certain contentment with life that was not part of things a generation ago. Contrary to Mr. Friedman's assertion, a Jew who can have a pizza delivered via a cellular phone is not a Jew with a lost identity. That is a Jew who is free. I remember Kfar Saba very vividly. The dusty, underdeveloped hamlet was a prototype of early Israel. My birth village, tucked next to the Samarian mountains, sat on a tense border with what was then the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. A mile from my grandmother's house, where we lived, the Arab town of Qalqilya brooded with hostility and occasional mortar fire. When I sat with my grandmother on her back porch and recited the words of the Prophets, we could see the minarets of Qalqilya to the east. The Mediterranean Sea was just a few miles to the west. We were living the post-Holocaust predicament of national Jewish life in a land still fighting for its life. There was indeed a strong pioneering spirit in Kfar Saba and throughout the fledgling country. Our teachers came from many other lands and many difficult experiences. They often wept while leading us in Hebrew folk songs and exhorting us to love the Bible. The mailman came on a tall horse. His sinewy arms betrayed the tattoos of Auschwitz. There was something to be learned from every conversation with people who either valued or feared life. The orange groves of the valley sent us a fragrance that none of us shall ever forget. It was the smell of rebirth. Somehow we knew that we were the free children of a dream that the world had disparaged and that even Qalqilya next door was determined to destroy. Now, many groves are gone and the delicious smell is no more. Yes, my birth village of donkeys and orange trees is a successful hub of sports cars and video stores. It's so easy for all who no longer live there, who are not taking the risks of peace, to criticize and lament. How ironic to dispatch a report about the creeping technological dexterity of Israel via electronic mail. All Israel is doing is becoming more like us. This is what we hoped for a generation ago. None of us would begrudge an Israeli youngster the right not to be killed in battle, not to fear the future or not to call his or her mother via a cell phone from any army base in Lebanon. None of us who lived in quaint Kfar Saba back then wanted anything for our descendants but the chance to be free or prosperous enough to draw cash out of a machine or to enjoy a fashionable coffee outdoors in the very same century as Hitler and Eichmann.

    1999: Britain's emeritus chief rabbi, Lord Immanuel Jakobovits attended Shabbat services for the last time.  He suffered a cerebral hemorrhage and passed away on the following day.

    2001: Lawsuits are filed seeking the removal Alabama Chief Justice Roy Moore’s Ten Commandments monument.  (Moore’s disregard for the Constitution is not a unique phenomenon in Alabama as anybody who remembers George Wallace and his ilk will know)

    2003: In Miami, The IsraFest Foundation proudly presents Don BrowneCOO of Telemundo Communications Group, with the 19th Israel Film Festival 2003 Lifetime Achievement Award; Community Activist and Philanthropist Marcy Lefton with the 2003 IFF Humanitarian Award and Innovative Artist Ilana Lilienthal and Human Potential Researcher Alexander Brodt with the 2003 IFF Visionary Award.

    2003: Broadway premiere of the Stephen Schwartz musical “Wicked: The Untold Story of the Witches of Oz.”

    2004: The exhibition “David Bomberg en Ronda: at the Museo Joaquin Peinado in Ronda in Andalusia which showed work by Bomberg in the city and environment which he had celebrated in paintings and drawings in 1934-35 and 1954-47 came to an end.

    2005: Idina Menzel appeared off-Broadway in the Public Theater's production of “See What I Wanna See, “which premiered today and for which she received Drama Desk Award and Drama League Award nominations.

    2005: An Islamic Jihad fugitive was shot and killed by Israeli security forces in a gun battle that erupted outside a house in Kabatiyah near Jenin.  The man who died, rather than surrender to the Israelis, was being sought in connection with the part he played in the suicide attack on Hadera.  The murder killed five Israelis and wounded at least fifty people in the peaceful coastal town of 80,000.

    2005:The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or on topics of special Jewish interesting including Ahmad’s War, Ahmad’s Peace: Surviving Under Saddam, Dying in the New Iraqby Michael Goldfarb, Women’s Letters: America from the Revolutionary War to the Present, edited by Lisa Grunwald and Stephen J. Adler and Faith for Beginnersby Aaron Hamburger

    2006Israeli-born scholar Prof. Jehezkel Shoshani published an article in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science identifying the remains of a 27-million-year-old creature unearthed in Eritrea as those of an ancestor of the modern elephant.

    2006: Efraim Sneh begins serving as Deputy Minister of Defense.

    2007: Columnist Michael J. Gerson, a former speechwriter for President Bush, discusses and signs Heroic Conservatism: Why Republicans Need to Embrace America's Ideals (And Why They Deserve to Fail If They Don't)in Reston, Virginia

    2007: Haaretz reports that a new memorial center opens at Bergen-Belsen camp.

    2007: The state prosecution told the High Court of Justice that it had changed its mind about the indictment of Moshe Katsav on the basis of evidence from the two key complainants.

    2007(18th of Cheshvan, 5768): Sixty-six year old Israeli comedian and actor died of cancer at the Rabin Medical Center-Beilinson Campus Petah Tikva  after which there was a public memorial service at the Cameri Theatre followed by a burial at Kibbutz Einat.


    2008: Dor Chadash presents the exclusive New York premiere of “The Debt.”  “Twenty years after WWII has ended, three Mossad agents kidnap the infamous "Surgeon of Birkenau" in Berlin. As they await their return to Israel with this monstrous Nazi war criminal, a psychological duel commences between the Nazi and the young Mossad agents.”

    2008(1st of Cheshvan, 5769): Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan, 5769

    2008: Haaretz reported that an Israeli archaeologist digging at a hilltop south of Jerusalem believes a ceramic shard found in the ruins of an ancient town bears the oldest Hebrew inscription ever discovered, a find that could provide an important glimpse into the culture and language of the Holy Land at the time of the Bible. The five lines of faded characters written 3,000 years ago, and the ruins of the fortified settlement where they were found, are indications that a powerful Israelite kingdom existed at the time of the Old Testament's King David, says Yossi Garfinkel, the Hebrew University archaeologist in charge of the new dig at Hirbet Qeiyafa.

    2008:The "gutter," or water system mentioned in the Bible as the way King David's men conquered Jerusalem may have been found. Dr. Eilat Mazar, an archaeologist excavating the City of David, the most ancient part of Jerusalem, believes it has, and is to present her findings this evening at a seminar at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

    2009:Hundreds of exhibits supporting a scathing report on the Securities and Exchange Commission’s past investigations of Bernard L. Madoff were released today by the author of the report, the agency’s inspector general, H. David Kotz.The exhibits include a full account of an interview with Mr. Madoff, who confessed in March to running the largest Ponzi scheme in history, a fraud whose victims number in the thousands and whose cash losses are now put at more than $21 billion.

    2009(12th of Cheshvan, 5770)Claude Lévi-Strauss the "father of modern anthropology" passed away.(As reported by Edward Rothstein)

    2009:The Tower of David Museum presents: "Peace Making in Jerusalem--a Concert at the Tower of David Museum:"

    2009:Opening of "Synergy,” the new exhibit on display in Beit Tzarfat, at Hebrew University's Givat Ram campus. The group exhibit displays the drawing, sculpture, and photography of artists Ann Rakover, Gila Robinson, Datia Landau, Yitzhak Shalhevet and Sasson Tiram.

    2009: The Los Angeles Times featured a review of Ariel Sabar’s memoir “My Father's Paradise: A Son's Search for His Family's Past," which won a 2009 National Book Critics Circle Award and has just been reissued in paperback.

    2010:Mark Zuckerberg received  a "Medal of Fear" at the Rally to Restore Sanity and/or Fear

    2010: The 16th Annual R' Shlomo Carlebach Memorial Concert sponsored by The R' Shlomo Carlebach Foundation is scheduled to take place in Jerusalem.

    2010: The 15th Memorial Day Rally commemorating the assassination of Yitzhak Rabin is scheduled to be held at 7:30pm in Rabin Square in Tel Aviv.

    2010: Brazilian-born violist Myrna Herzog performed this evening at the Blumenthal Center in Tel Aviv.

    2011: Sam Kringlen, Temple Judah’s young violin virtuos is scheduled to perform at The Hadassah Donor Dinner in Cedar Rapids, Iowa.

    2011:The Spertus Institute of Jewish Studies in Chicago, Illinois, is scheduled to show Legado (Legacy) a documentary that tells the story of the Jewish colonization in Argentina.  .

    2011:Acclaimed up-and-coming novelists David Bezmozgis, author of The Free World and one of The New Yorker’s “2010 top 20 fiction writers under the age of 40;” Nadia Kalman, author of The Cosmopolitans; and Haley Tanner, author of Vaclav & Lena are scheduled to explore the modern Russian immigrant experience with moderator Faye Moskowitz, author and professor of English and creative writing at George Washington University at the Hyman S & Freda Bernstein Jewish Literary Festival.

    2011: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Jerusalem: The Biography the 650 page epic tale by Simon Sebag Montefiore whose great-great uncle was Sir Moses Montefiore a giant of 19thcentury Jewry whom some only remember because of the windmill in Jerusalem that bears his name – Montefiore’s Windmill.

    2011:Israel was hit with another volley of rockets launched by Gaza militants, despite reports that Egypt was working to secure a truce between Israel and the Islamic Jihad that would halt all rocket attacks from the Gaza Strip effective at 10 P.M.

    2011:  The Tel Aviv District Court sentenced Anat Kamm a former soldier to four and a half years in prison this morning   for gathering and possessing secret military documents and passing them to "Haaretz" reporter Uri Blau. 

    2011:Minister Binyamin Netanyahu reiterated the Israeli government's policy of strict retaliation against those that harm Israelis, warning both Islamic Jihad and Hamas not to test Israel. His comments came the day after an Israeli man was killed by shrapnel when a Grad rocket hit Ashdod.
    2012: The Israeli Philharmonic Orchestra is scheduled to perform at the Walt Disney Concert Hall in Los Angeles under the baton of Zubin Mehta.

    2012: “Forty Years on the Bimah” a retreat organized by 80 year old Leah Novick the oldest woman rabbi within the Reconstructionist, Reform, and Renewal movements came to an end today.

    2012: In Bloomfield Hills, MI, Temple Beth El is scheduled to present Jan Durecki speaking on “Behind the Wheel” part of the Rabbi Leo M. Franklin Archives Jewish History Detectives Lecture series.

    2012:Iran's foreign ministry spokesman said today that Tehran was ready to discuss the 1994 terrorist bombing of a Buenos Aires Jewish community center.

    2012:More than 120 major decision makers, scholars and leaders from around the Jewish world will attend a conference in Jerusalem today to discuss strategic issues facing the Jewish people and the State of Israel in the future.

    2013: Les Ballets Jazz de Montreal is scheduled to perform a new work by American-born Israeli choreographer Barak Marshal.

    2013: French Film Director Ilan Duran Cohen is scheduled to attend the opening of The UK Jewish Film Festival

    2013: The 25th annual Kosherfest is scheduled to come to an end today.

    2013: The Israel Philharmonic Orchestra under the direction of conductor/violinist Julian Rachlin is scheduled to perform tonight at The Beverly Hills Hotel.

    2013:Today the Israel Antiquities Authority released the discovery of a 1,700 year old curse found at the City of David archaeological site in Jerusalem.

    2013: Teva Pharmaceutical Industries announced today that its president and CEO for the past two years, Jeremy Levin, has agreed to step down. Trading in shares of Teva were halted following the announcement of Levin's departure, and once trading resumed, the stock plummeted by 8 percent.

    2014: The Skirball Center is scheduled to present Jerry Rabow lecturing on “The Lost Matriarch: Finding Leah in the Bible and Midrash.”

    2014: Louis Black is scheduled to perform at the Hull Center in Eugene, Ohio

    2014:“Rescue, Relief, and Renewal: 100 Years of ’the Joint’ in Poland” is scheduled to open at the Galicia Jewish Museum in Krakow today.

    2014: YIVO and the Museum of the City of New York are scheduled to present “Creating History: Can We Tell the Past?”

    2014: The Thaler Holocaust Memorial Fund Planning Committee under the direction of Dr. Bob Silber is scheduled to meet in Cedar Rapids, IA.


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    OCTOBER 31

    445 BCE: In Jerusalem Ezra, the Scribe reads the Scroll of the Law, the Torah, to the Jews of Judea as described in Nehemiah 9:1. 

    475: Twenty five years after the redaction of the Jerusalem Talmud, Orestes refused to “wear the Purple” and named his son Romulus Augustus as Western Roman Emperor.  Romulus Augustus  would be the last person to hold this job and when he was deposed in 476 it marked the end of the Roman Empire, at least in the West.  This period of chaos combined with the rise of Christianity as the state religion in Europe was not conducive to the well-being of the Jews who had settled in what once had been the Roman Empire.

    1345: Birthdate King Fernando I of Portugal.  During his reign Jews not only enjoyed a certain amount of self-government through the position of a Chief Rabbi or Ar-Rabbi Mor.  The King trusted Jews so much that Don Judah served as his chief treasurer and Don David Negro served as “his confidant and counselor.”

    1391: Birthdate of King Duarte of Portugal who during his reign enacted laws prohibiting Jews from employing Christians.

    1497: Last date given by King Manuel for Jews to leave Portugal. Four years after the expulsion of Jews from Spain, he had ordered them expelled from Portugal. As his real desire was not to see the Jews leave for financial reasons, he only opened one port forcing most of them to remain behind after the designated date then baptizing them against their will.

    1517: Luther posted 95 theses on Wittenbergchurch starting the Protestant Reformation.  From the point of view of Jewish history it is ironic that Luther took his action on Halloween, the holiday known for trick or treat.  In his battle with the Pope, Luther sought to gain the support of the Jews.  He publicly admitted that Christians had ill-treated the Jews and it was time to change.  He believed that once the Jews experienced Christian love, Jews would embrace his version of Christianity en masse.  When the Jews refused to convert, Luther turned on them and became a virulent anti-Semite.  At the same time, the Jews would become the unwitting victims as the Protestants and Catholics engaged in a variety of religious wars that would consume Europe for the next one hundred years.

    1655: As the week long Tishrei festivals come to an end, Manassah Ben Israel prepared to make his voyage where is to meet with Oliver Cromwell whom he hopes will allow the Jews to return to the British Isles.

    1655: A “humble address” is sent from Manasseh ben Israel to Oliver Cromwell, The Lord Protector. A fortnight later on 13 November he submitted a petition for the readmission of Jews to England.

    1705: Birthdate of Clement XIV, the Pope who declared the Jews “innocent of the slanderous blood accusation” and who moved the Jews from the jurisdiction of the Inquisition to the “Viciariato di Roma.” (The Vicar of Rome who is the Pope)

    1759(10th of Cheshvan, 5520): An earthquake killed several hundred Jews in Safed.  Safed is the town most people connect with Jewish mystics and the famous Shabbat Eve hymn, Lecha Dodi.  Prior to the earthquake, Safed had been a thriving city.  The first printing presses in the Middle Eastwere set up in Safed and the first Hebrew book published in Eretz Israel was produced in Safed in the year before the earthquake.  The quake was one of a series of disasters including plagues and Arab attacks that would turn the town into a comparative backwater until the creation of the modern state of Israel.

    1784(16th of Cheshvan, 5545): Couronna, the wife of Lion Acher ou Shaagat Arie and the mother of Asser, Juda and Wolf Lion passed away today in Metz, Lorraine, France.

    1817: Birthdate of Tzvi Hirsch Graetz who gained fame as historian Heinrich Graetz.

    1824: Birthdate of Galician author Fabius Mieses whose works including “a history of modern philosophy from Kant to his own time” published in 1887.

    1826: Birthdate of Agnes (nee Lewin) Byk, the native of Pinsk who was the wife of Samuel Alexander Byk.

    1834: Samuel Landau, the chief dayan of Prague who was the son of Rabbi Yechezkel ben Yehuda Landau passed away today.

    1835: Birthdate of Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer, known as Adolph von Baeyer, the first Jew to ever receive the Nobel Prize. A native of Berlin, this German chemist was acknowledged in 1905 for synthesizing dye indigo and was awarded the Davie Medal by the Royal Society of London in 1881, for his work with indigo. He passed away in 1917.

    1841: In the first Jewish marriage in New Zealand, David Nathan wed Rosetta Aarons in Kororareka.

    1842(27th of Cheshvan, 5603):Eighty year old Rabbi Solomon Hirschell passed away. Born in 1761, he was the Chief Rabbi of Great Britain, from 1802 until his death.  He is best remembered for his unsuccessful attempt to stop the spread of Reform Judaism in Britain by excommunicating its leaders. His father was a Polish Jew from Galicia Hirschel Levin, Chief Rabbi of London and Berlin and a friend of Moses Mendelssohn. His older brother was Talmudist Saul Berlin.

    1849; Mordecai Manuel Noah wrote to Daniel Webster today inviting him to attend the Hebrew Benevolent and German Hebrew Benevolent Society banquet to be held in New York on November 13.  In the letter, Noah informs Webster that there are 13,000 Jews living in New York City and that number is continuing to rise daily.

    1851: “Hebrew Customs – Interesting Case” published today described a case being heard in the Court of Common Pleas in Philadelphia where P.S. Rowland, a Jewish plaintiff has filed suit against the widow of his brother and her new husband contesting the distribution of the will based on the Biblical concept of the Levirate Marriage .

    1856: Birthdate of Julia Raphael the mother of Dorothy Elizabeth Levitt a pioneer female automobile and motor boat racer

    1864:  Nevada is admitted as the 36th U.S. state.  It was a series of silver strikes, the most famous of which was the Comstock Lode that attracted large numbers of early settlers to Nevada including Jews as well as Gentiles.  For example, when Eureka, Nevada experienced its silver strike the town’s population reached four thousand including more than one hundred Jews.  Among these Jews was Ben C. Levy a native of France who became superintendent of two mines and who, along with his wife, was a leader of the Jewish community.  David H. Cohen was typical of these early Jewish settlers.  He began as a “49er” in California, moved on to Virginia City, Nevada before “striking it reach” with a liquor business in Austin, Nevada.  Adoph Sutro left the most lasting monument to the intrepid Jewish population of Nevada’s early days.  This placer panner turned entrepreneur raised the money for the construction of the four mile long Sutro Tunnel designed to drain water from the mines thus making them safer and more protective. The man who made the modern Nevada was Jewish gangster Bugsy Siegel, the man behind Las Vegas.  As of 2000, there were an estimated 77,100 Jews living in Nevada, representing an increase of 277% from 1990.

    1857: In a letter to the editor published in today's New York Times, "Grace, a farmer's wife" expresses her indignation of having the farmer classed with "the Wall-street gamblers or Chatham-street Jews."  In New York, Chatham Street was the center of the second-hand clothing business, an industry dominated by immigrant Jews who allegedly took advantage of their Christian costumers.

    1860: The News of the Day Column published today reported that “a ball and banquet in aid of the ‘Jews Hospital in New-York’ was given at the City Assembly Rooms last evening, which was largely attended by members of the Jewish faith and others. Donations in aid of the Hospital were received from those present, and from absent persons, by letter, amounting to $14,000. Among the donors was Gov. Morgan, who sent a complimentary letter in closing $100.”

    1861: The General News column published today reported that “A murder of a most atrocious nature has been committed in New-Jersey, on the body of a German Jew named Sigismund Felluer. Deceased had only been in this country a few days, and had property in jewels and diamonds to the amount of $50,000. A man with whom Felluer left the Prescott House, and a Jewess in whose company Felluer was seen, are suspected, and the police are diligently searching for them. A reward of $500 for the discovery of the murderer or murderers has been offered by the friends of Felluer.

    1875: It was reported today that  “eight Jews and Jewesses were recently baptized in London."

    1875: It was reported today that in England, a revision of the Book of Isaiah has been completed and work on a revision of the translation of the Book of Jeremiah has reach the midpoint of that book of the Bible.

    1875: It was reported today that the Jewish messenger said of Moody and Sankey, “We give the two enterprising gentlemen the credit of being honest in their intentions, earnest in their work and as the past has proved, disinterested in the pecuniary results of their vast undertakings.  Would that we could say the same of all our Deacons and Trustees, Pastors and Rabbis”  [ Moody is Dwight Moody, the famous evangelist.  Sankey is Ira David Sankey, “The Sweet Singer of Methodism” who was known for his composition and singing of gospel music. During a trip to the United Kingdom, the two raised tens of thousands of dollars for the use of missionaries.

    1875: Birthdate of Eugene Meyer.  A Yale graduate, Meyer established his own very successful banking firm.  Starting with World War I, he served actively on numerous government boards and committees.  He gained lasting fame when he bought the bankrupt Washington Post at public auction.  As published of the Post until 1946 and then as chairman of the board of the Washington Post & Times Herald,Meyer was instrumentally in making the Post a leading American newspaper and creating a media empire that included the Washington outlet of CBS and Newsweek Magazine. He passed away in 1959.  His daughter, Katherine Graham would continue his work and take the Post to levels of which he only dreamed.

    1879: According to reports published today from Berlin, Romania is seeking to gain formal recognition of her independence in light of her government’s recent action concerning the emancipation of the Jews.

    1880: Simon Sterne was among those who attended a reception this evening for President and Mrs. Grant at Parlor No. 81 in New York City.

    1880: Reverend J.P. Newman delivered a sermon this morning at New York’s Central Methodist Church on “The Impending Danger to Our Public Schools  in which he contended “that the public schools were sectarian” because all children including Jewish children “meet there on an equal footing…without undergoing sectarian instruction.” (This benign view of the public schools was one that many Jews showed they favored by sending their children to them.  This was especially true among the Russian and Polish Jews who saw the schools as the pathway to “Americanization.’)

    1881: It was reported today that “the Turkish Governor of Jerusalem has recently received orders from Sultan Abdul Hamid to resume the work” on “restoration of Solomon’s Temple” that had stopped five years ago.  The first order of business is to remove “all the rubbish and …vegetation” that has filled the area. The original restoration work had begun “at the instance of” Franz Joseph and the Austrian imperial family.

    1881: It was reported today a fair being held in Cincinnati, Ohio, will raise $50,000 for the Jewish Orphan Asylum in Cleveland, Ohio.

    1881: “Reformed Judaism” published today described the change in Jewish observance that took place at Temple Beth-El where Dr. Kaufmann Kohler delivered a lecture entitled “Our Religious and Social State” as part of a Sunday morning service that will now replace the traditional Saturday Sabbath observance.

    1884: “The Clergymen and Mr. Blaine” published today took “Rabbi Brown” task for the manner in which he expressed his support for the Republican candidate for President.

    1885: Rabbi de Sola Mendes responded approvingly today to plans to create a prayer book with selections in Hebrew and English “for the home use of women and children” Rabbi Mendes said there is nothing new about such tomes but that for some reason those that exist are all written in German.

    1886: It was reported today that, in a rare display of 19th ecumenical harmony, English Jews and Protestants joined with Catholics in celebrating the 50thanniversary of the ordination of János Cardinal Simor

    1885: It was reported today that the Hebrew Journal has endorsed Walter Howe to serve in the New York State representing the 10thDistrict.  Howe was active in the protesting the treatment of Russian Jews and has worked to have the penal code changed so that Jews who observed Shabbat can work on Sunday.

    1887: The annual meeting of the United Hebrew Charities was held this evening at Temple Emanu-El where the following officers were elected: President – Henry Rice, Vice President – Morris Tuska, Treasurer – James H Hoffman, Secretary – J.S. Isaacs

    1887(13thof Cheshvan, 5648): Two weeks before his 77th birthday, “educator and author” Jacob Auerbach author of “Lessing and Mendelssohn” and a “History of the Jewish Community of Vienna from 1784” passed away today.

    1888: Based on information supplied by Mrs. Philip J. Joachimsen, the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society has taken 1,339 Jewish children since it began providing service.  Currently there are 585 children living in the institution 278 of whom are girls and 307 are boys.  207 of the children were born in the Austro-Hungarian Empire and 242 came from Russia or Poland.

    1889: Mr. Rosenthal, the leader of the Republicans in the Fourth District and the head of the Hebrew-American Republic Party sent a letter to the leader of the district today stating that he is leaving the party because of its “ingratitude” and “disregard for sacred promises.”

    1889: Elise Hausch and Major General Erwin Von Heimerdinger gave birth to Gertrud von Heimerdingerwho was employed in the German Foreign Office as assistant Chief of the Diplomatic Courier Section but as an anti-Nazi, secretly arranged for special passes to enable diplomat Fritz Kolbe (the main Allied source of intelligence) to make frequent trips to Switzerland to pass on information to Allen Dulles, head of American O.S.S. (Jewish Virtual Library)

    1889: “Lore of the East” published today described the recent meeting of the American Oriental Society during which Professor Isaac Hall read from “The Colloquy of Moses on Mount Sinai, the Martyrdom of St. Geroge and the Story of the Letters which Fell from Heaven”  and attendees examined “a scroll of the Law in Hebrew which” had been found “in China.

    1889: “Marriage or Betrothal” published today described events surrounding claims that David Harfeld is a serial bigamist.  Miss Julia Harlan testified that after nine years of marriage, Harfield had disappeared without a trace. Last year she heard that that Harfeld had been wed to Sarah Marx in a traditional Jewish ceremony.  The defendant’s brother, who is a rabbi, testified that it was a betrothal ceremony, a claim that Miss Marx repeated on the stand.  However, Rabbi DeSola Mendes testified that the ceremony described was a wedding ceremony.  However, Mendes is a Sephardic Jew and the contract submitted by the defense was identified as what Polish Jews consider a betrothal contract. The confused Judge has not rendered a verdict.

    1892: The eighty-six Russian and Polish workers arrested yesterday at the cloakmaking firm of S.M. Levi & Co on charges that they were violating the “Sunday law” claimed that they did not work on Saturday which meant that they could work on Sunday according to the law.  Labor leader Joseph Barondess claimed that this was not so and that they along with thousands of other cloakmakers in the city worked seven days a week.  The Judge released them with a warning that if they were ever brought before him on these charges again “he would fine them heavily.”

    1893: “Mr. Hammerstein’s Work” published today described a speech given by Oscar Hammerstein at the premiere of “Koh-i-Noor” in which he said he had made “a bet of $100” with himself “that he could write an operetta, words and music, design the scenery and costumes, engage the company and get 300 columns of advance notices in the newspaper, all in forty-eight hours” and that he was pleased to say he had won the bet.

    1894: Governor Roswell P. Flower delivered speeches today at Niagara Falls and Suspension in which he warned of an alliance between the Republicans and the American Protective Association (A.P.A.) a secret Protestant organization that promotes “hostility to Jews and Catholics” and would keep “men from employment and pubic office on account of their religious belief.” (Compare this to the anti-immigrant stance taken in the 21st century)

    1894: Major Du Paty de Clam “finished his inquiry, and handed in his report, which accused Dreyfus but left it to the minister to decide what further steps should be taken.”

    1894: Jacob H. Schiff chaired this evening’s meeting at Cooper Union where “German-American Citizen” enthusiastically endorsed the anti-Tammany ticket.  Among those on the platform were Aaron Levy, Hy Hyman, Magnus Levy and Dr. Felix Adler.

    1894: A summary of the annual report for the United Hebrew Charities in New York published today showed that the organization had responded to 37,097 applications for relief. The new applications for relief included 623 from people over sixty and 1,107 widows. In responding to all requests for assistance, the society spent $225, 063.73 while bringing in $227, 244.82 from all sources.

    1895: “Annie Silverman of 105 Allen Street was arrested” today “on a warrant sworn out by Max Sanftman, an agent for the Hebrew Anti-Vice Society, charging her with being a disorderly woman.”

    1896(24th of Cheshvan, 5657): Sixty year old Ernestine Fox died from consumption 2 days after her son Abraham passed away from the same cause.

    1896: Joseph Jacobs, “the distinguished Jewish scholar” arrived in New York from London aboard the SS St. Louis.  The President of the British Folklore Association, some of Jacobs best known works are Jews of Angevin England, Sources of Spanish History and the recently published Jewish Year Book.

    1898: Detective Connelly arrested Leopold Lederer and Abraham Zucker on charges of arson in the first and second degrees.  Zucker is the brother of Isaac Zucker who is serving 36 years in prison for burning down his own store.

    1898: Solomon Loeb was elected honorary vice president at tonight’s annual meeting of the Society of United Hebrew Charities which was held at Temple Emanu-El

    1898: Their Majesties, the Emperor and Empress of Germany attended the consecration of the Church of the Redeemer in Jerusalem, which is part of the trip where the Herzl will meet with the Kaiser to promote his Zionist dream.

    1905(2nd of Cheshvan, 5666): Three hundred Jews were killed in a Pogrom in Odessa, Russia.

    1905: Rabbi Moses and Tamara Shorr were married at Königsberg

    1907: The apartment building at 67 Riverside Drive in Riverdale, designed by architect George F. Pelham who also designed the synagogue for Beth Jacob Anshe Sholom in Brooklyn, opened today.

    1911(9th of Cheshvan, 5672): At Constantinople Daoud Effendi Molho, a member of the Ottoman Diplomatic Staff, passed away at the age of 67.

    1912: Birthdate of Oscar Dystel  “who combined sharp editorial judgments, shrewd marketing and attention-grabbing covers to propel Bantam Books from the brink of collapse to pre-eminence in paperback publishing after World War II.” (As reported by Douglas Martin)

    1912: In Lancaster, PA, Laurence B. Myers and Edith Hirsh Myers gave birth to Robert Julius Myersthe actuary who helped to create the Social Security program and to set America’s official retirement age at 65

    1914: As charges of bigotry come to dominate the New York gubernatorial race, former President Theodore Roosevelt, the leader of the Progressive Party delivered a speech tonight in which said that his party treats “with absolute equality all me, whether they are Catholics, Protestants or Jews.”

    1914: Charles H. Sherrill, the former American Minister to Argentina, reported on “the patriotism of Russian Jews” who are “rallying to the Russian flag in the present war.”

    1917:  During World War I, the “last successful cavalry charge in history” took place at the Battle of Beersheba.  The Battle of Beersheba was part of the British campaign against the Ottoman Turks. In an era dominated by machine guns, barged wire and massed heavy artillery, the Australian 4thLight Horse Brigade charged four miles of Turkish trenches, overran them and captured the wells at Beersheba. The British needed to take Beershebabecause its wells would provide the water needed for a successful campaign.  On October 30, 2004, the day before the anniversary of this event Jews around the world would read an account from the book of Bereshit of contest between Abraham and Abimelech over the wells at Beersheba.  Surely some Rabbi in Sydney or Melbourne would include mention of this battle in his d'var torah on the sedrah. The capture of Beersheba leads to the seizure of Gaza by British troops including the Jewish Soldiers of the 39th Battalion of Royal Fusiliers.

    1917: In Great Britain, “the cabinet overrode the opposition of two cabinet members and authorized the Foreign Secretary to issue a much-diluted version of the assurance of support that Weizmann had requested.”  This “statement of support” would soon be known as The Balfour Declaration.

    1918: Following the armistice with Turkey today, the 38th Battalion under the command of Colonel John Henry Patterson (the Jewish Legion) was sent to Rafa

    1919: An article entitled “The Crucifixion of Jews Must Stop!” written by Marin Henry Glynn, the former of governor of New York appeared in today’s issue of The American Hebrew. Glynn lamented the poor conditions for European Jews after World War I. He “referred to these conditions as a potential ‘holocaust’ and asserted that ‘six million Jewish men and women are starving across the seas’. Because of these coincidences, the article has been exploited by Holocaust-denial groups. Others, while in no way intending to deny the Holocaust, nonetheless acknowledge that the commonly-quoted figure of six million deaths is an estimate, that the actual number may have been less, that not all of the victims were Jewish, and that there is a wide margin of error.”

    1920: In Berlin Klara "Claire" (née Marquis) and Max Neustädter, a button factory owner gave birth to photographer Helmut Newton.

    1924: Birthdate of Yehuda Klien who as Yehuda Amital would become an Orthodox rabbi, the Rosh Yeshiva of Yeshivat Har Etzion and a member of the Israeli cabinet

    1925(13th of Cheshvan, 5686): Max Linder, French actor, director and screenwriter, passed away.

    1926(23rd of Cheshvan, 5687): Erich Weiss better known as magician Harry Houdini, died in Detroit of gangrene and peritonitis resulting from a ruptured appendix thought to have been brought on by interaction at an earlier performance.

    1926: Following his recent arrival in the United States Dr. Chaim Weismann, President of the ZOA announced that “he had come to work with his friends on behalf of the Jewish National Home in Palestine. He said that he feld confident that this time, as on earlier occasions, his pleading would find a sympathetic response among the great Jewish Community of America.

    1927: In New York, Witia (née Haskell), an actress and teacher, and Abraham W. Rosenthal, a realtor and educator gave birth to their only child Lyova Haskell Rosenthal who gained fame as actress Lee Grant

    1929: In New York, Mr. and Mrs. William Zeckendorf, Sr. gave birth to William Zeckendorf, Jr. who “transformed New York City by making big bets on big projects that helped refashion neighborhoods from the Upper West Side to Union Square.” (As reported by Douglas Martin)

    1930: Dr. Karl Landsteiner, who was just named as the recipient of the Nobel Prize in Medicine talked today “of his researches that led to the discovery of a serum for infantile paralysis; of his studies of human blood groups, which have opened a new field in the establishment of the paternity of children…and of his work in immunology…” His work in the classification of blood into thirty subdivisions has improved the selection of blood donors transforming transfusions from a “dangerous operation” to “a safe and frequently used procedure.”

    1930: Tonight approximately eight thousand “Jews gathered in Tel Aviv to celebrate the fiftieth birthday of Vladimir Jabotinsky”   and to protest against the White Paper on the British Policy in Palestine.

    1931: U.S. premiere of “Platinum Blonde,” a romantic comedy produced Harry Cohn and a script by Robert Riskin and future Tony Award winner Jo Swerling.

    1931: Professor Otto Warburg’s explanation of “how respiration takes place in the cell” and proof that “a living cell can breathe only in the presence of the iron carried by a specific enzyme” was published today.  This is the work for which Warburg won this year’s Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine. Warburg explained that his conclusion had differed from Dr. Heinrich Wieland’s because he had used living cells and Wieland, who had won the Nobel Prize in 1928, used dead cell material.

    1933: “The new port of Haifa, the first modern port in Palestine” which had been chosen by the Mandatory government “because of its natural harbor and its proximity to important shipping lanes, to rail transport to the rest of Palestine and Egypt, and to the Hejaz railway to Jordan and Syria” was opened today.

    1934: U.S. premiere of “Broadway Bill,” a comedy with a script by Mark Hellinger and Robert Riskin.

    1935: Under orders from the German government, SS Albert Balin was re-named the SS Hansa because Ballin was Jewish.

    1936:  Birthdate of actor and director Michael Landon. Born Eugene Orowitz, Landon first gained fame playing the part of Little Joe on the hit western Bonanza.  Pa Cartwright was played by Jewish actor Lorene Greene.  Later he played the father on another television hit, Little House on the Prairie.  Once again Jewish artists helped to create the cultural American myth.  He died of cancer in 1991.

    1938: As of this date the Polish government would no long allow Jews of Polish origins “whom it no longer considered to be Polish citizens” to enter the country.

    1938: “You Can’t Take It With You” written by Moss Hart and George S. Kaufman and directed by Kaufman continued its Broadway run with it opened at the Ambassador Theatre.

    1939:  Psychologist Otto Rank passed away.  Born Otto Rosenfeld in Vienna in 1884, Rank was one of Freud’s closest aides and colleagues.  He later split with Freud and became one his critics.  He extended psychoanalytic theory to the study of legend, myth, art, and other works of creativity. Instead of the Freudian Oedipus-Complex he took the trauma of birth to be more profound.  He was living in New York Citywhen he passed away.

    1939: In New York, Miriam and Herman Rifkin gave birth to the first of their three children Saul M. Rifkin who gained fame as actor Ron Rifkin.

    1939:In what is now central Israel, Kfar Warburg or Warburg Village was founded by members of the "Menachem" organization. It was named after Felix M. Warburg, one of the leaders of the Jewish community in the United States and a founder of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee

    1940: The French authorities in Moroccotried to impose the Vichyracial laws on its own Jewish population of over 150,000.

    1940:  During World War II, the Nazi air attacks against the British Isles known as the Battle of Britain ended.  The good news was that the victory of the RAF (Royal Air Force) meant there would be no invasion of England.  The British would live on to fight another day.  The bad news was that the end of the Battle of Britain meant that Hitler was working to put his plan to invade the Soviet Union into effect.  The invasion of the Soviet Union would lead to the murder of millions of Jews.

    1940: “Władysław Szpilman and his family, along with all other Jews living in Warsaw, were forced to move into the Warsaw Ghetto.

    1941(10th of Cheshvan, 5702): The Nazis murdered 200 Jews in Kleck (Byelorussia) when its council members tried to make contact with non-Jews from outside the ghetto.  Jews had lived in Kleck since 1529.  At the start of the war, there were more than 4000 Jews living in the town.  After putting most of the Jews in a ghetto, the ghetto was set on fire and most of the Jews perished.  The community was not rebuilt after the war.

    1941(10thof Cheshvan, 5702): Sixty-two year old Herwarth Walden died in Stalin’s Gulag.


    1942: Local peasants betray six members of the Jewish Fighting Organization near Kraków, Poland, alerting German troops to the Jews' presence.

    1942: Three thousand Jews readied for deportation from eastern Poland to the Belzec death camp are stripped naked to prevent resistance.

    1943(2nd of Cheshvan, 5704: Max Reinhardt passed while living in New York. Born Max Goldman, Reinhardt was an influential Austrian actor and director.

    1944: Birthdate of Kinky Friedman, musician and candidate for governor of the state of Texas in 2006.

    1944: By the end of October, the Jewish brigade under the command of Brigadier General Ernest F. Benjamin had been shipped to Italy where it joined the British Eighth Army.

    1944: The gas chambers at Birkenau were silenced and ceased operating. The Germans began to dismantle them in a futile attempt to hide their evil deeds.

    1945: Birthdate of Iraqi born Israeli historian Avi Shalim who is “emeritus professor of International Relations at the University of Oxford” and author of several works including The Cold War and the Middle East.

    1945: In the wake of the British government’s decision to continue enforcing the White Paper of 1939, “Palmach sank three British patrol boats, 2 in Haifa and one in Jaffa, and were involved in 153 bomb attacks on bridges and culverts of the railway system.”

    1946: Two bombs exploded at a Jerusalem railway station killing a British constable.  Meir Feinstein, a British army veteran, Daniel Azulai, Massoud Bouton and Moshe Horowitz were captured afterwards and charged with the bombing.

    1947: Following a request by Major Leon B. Poullada, Milton Crook joined the lawyers defending the accused during the Dora-Mittelbau War Crimes Trial.

    1948: The United Nations observers in Jerusalemreported that “Last night the cannons thundered again in most part parts of the city.  There have been 108 instances of Arab firing at Jewish positions in the city during the last week.”

    1948:  Despite their lack of modern equipment, Israeli forces liberated the Galilee panhandle and actually took the land all the way to the Litani River in Lebanon at the end of Operation Hiram.

    1948: During the Israel War of Independence a ceasefire was scheduled to go into effect today at eleven o’clock

    1948: As October came to an end, “the Egyptian paper, El-Ahram, estimated that as a result of arrests, trials and sequestation of property, the Iraqi treasury collected some 20 million dinars or the equivalent of 80 million U.S. dollars.”

    1950: During the Korean War, Tibor Rubinmanned a .30 caliber machine gun at the south end of the unit's line after three previous gunners became casualties. He continued to man his machine gun until his ammunition was exhausted. His determined stand slowed the pace of the enemy advance in his sector, permitting the remnants of his unit to retreat southward.” (From his Medal of Honor citation)


    1954: The Algerian Revolution against the French begins.  The French were sure that President of Nasser was a driving force behind the Arab uprising in Algeria.  They would join with Israel and Britain in an ill-fated attempt to unseat him in what became known as the Suez Campaign in 1956.  Much to the dismay of France, President Eisenhower would join with the Soviets to keep Nasserin power.

    1956:Britain and France begin to bomb Egyptairfields during the Suez Crisis.  According the scenario, the bombing was supposed to be part of European intervention designed to save the canal. It would be a week before the Anglo-French military force would show up in Egypt. This meant that the dirty work of the infantry fell to the Israelis.  In point of fact the Israelis had moved quicker than planned and the Egyptians had folded like a cheap suit leaving the Anglo-French forces with no fig-leaf to cover their mission.

    1956: An Egyptian frigate began shelling Haifaat in the morning.  A French destroyer, later joined by two Israeli ships, drove off the attacker.  As dawn broke, the ship that bombarded Haifa with more than two hundred rounds was attacked by two Israeli warplanes.  The damage to the vessel forced the captain to run up the white flag.  Later that morning that captured vessel was ignominiously towed into the harbor at Haifa.

    1956: The rest of the paratroop brigade joins Rafael Eitan’s regiment and completed its missional

    1956:  In what would be part of a pattern for his career, Sharondisobeyed orders and launched an unnecessary attack into the MitlaPass.  The force was ambushed by the Egyptians and suffered a total loss of 158 killed and wounded.  The Pass was taken, but the price was unnecessarily high. 

    1956:  The Egyptians put up a stubborn defense at Abu Agelia.  This would be the start of a two day battle for this key piece of real estate that Israel need to protect and supply its forces on the way to the Suez Canal.  Anybody who thinks that Arabs cannot fight need only go to Abu Agelia. 

    1963: Birthdate of comedic actor Rob Schneider.

    1964: Birthdate of Yoram Marciano, the native of Lod who is Labor MK.

    1965: Arthur Gelb, the managing editor of the New York Times phoned McCandlish Phillips to tell him that that Ku Klux Klan Grand Dragon Daniel Burros whose Jewish origins he had exposed had shot himself to which Phillips replied, “What I think we’ve seen here, Arthur is the God of Israel acting in judgment.” (As reported by Margalit Fox)

    1966: Birthdate of entertainer Adam Keefe Horovitz, a.k.a. King Ad-Rock.

    1967: Birthdate of Adam Schlesinger, Jewish-American composer, musician, and producer. He has performed on bass guitar in the indie pop band Ivy and the power pop band Fountains of Wayne. In 1997 he also earned an Academy Award nomination for best original song for the title song to That Thing You Do!

    1964:  Barbra Streisand's album "People," began a five week stint at the top of music charts.

    1978: The West End production of Bar Mitzvah Boy, a musical by Jule Styne, Don Black and Jack Rosenthal opened at Her Majesty’s Theater. 

    1980: The dedication of the Altheimer Laboratory Agricultural Experiment State, named in honor of Ben J. Altheimer, took place at the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville.

    1982: A revival performance of Abraham Goldfaden’s “Shulamith” takes place at the Norman Thomas Theater in New York City.

    1982: In Monmouth County, NH, Temple Beth Miriam “a ceremony was held for the Religious School in which a Time Capsule designed by Joseph Bergman was filled with items made by the children and deposited at the entrance of the Temple.”

    1984:The Mapleton Park Hebrew Institute, which houses a synagogue and a yeshiva, at
    2022 66th Street
    , Brooklyn, was virtually destroyed in an arson fire.

    1985: Richard Schifter, an American lawyer who was one of the Ritchie Boys, began serving as Assistant Secretary of State for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs

    1988(20thof Cheshvan, 5749): Eighty-six year old actor and producer John Houseman whose mother was a English Christian and whose father was an Alsatian born Jew passed away today.

    1991(23rd of Cheshvan, 5752): Joseph Papp, American theatrical producer, passed away.

    1991: Geula Cohen completed her service as Deputy Minister of Science and Technology.

    1993:Galgalatz an Israeli radio station operated by Israel Defense Forces Radio began broadcasting this morning

    1995(7th of Cheshvan, 5756): Austrian born violinist, Erika Morini passed away in New York at the age of 91. She had retired in 1976, and passed away soon after the theft of her Stradivari violin.

    1995: Doctors Jennifer and Todd Burstain give birth to their second son Jonathan, who like his Biblical namesake, is fine and virtuous young man.

    1996(18th of Cheshvan, 5757):Ninety-three year old businessman, philanthropist and founder of the UJA, William Rosenwald, passed away today. (As reported by Lawrence Van Gelder)

    1999:The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or on topics of special Jewish interesting including Rebellionby Joseph Roth, translated by Michael Hofmann,Ice Fire Water: A Leib Goldkorn Cocktail byLeslie Epstein and A Flame of Pure Fire:Jack Dempsey and the Roaring '20sby Roger Kahn.

    1999 (21st of Cheshvan, 5760): Seventy-eight year old Lord Immanuel Jakobovits, Britain's emeritus chief rabbi,  died unexpectedly early this morning at his London home after suffering a cerebral hemorrhage.

    2002: As the scandal surrounding Enron continues to grow Andrew “Fastow was indicted by a federal grand jury in Houston, Texas on 78 counts including fraud, money laundering, and conspiracy.”

    2003: As part of the government’s ongoing battle with Mikhail Borisovich Khodorkovsky u Vladimir Putin froze shares of Yukos, his petroleum company, because of tax charges

    2003: In Tel Aviv, the first ever AzrieliCircularTowerrun-up competition (with 1144 stairs to the top) takes place.  Winners of the contest get to participate in the following year's EmpireStateBuildingrun-up competition.

    2003: “Mazel Tov Y'all! The South as a Melting Pot,” Pam Kingsbury’s interview with Roy Hoffman, author of Chicken Dreaming Corn was published today.

    2004:The New York Timesfeatures a review of The Story of a Lifeby Aharon Appelfeld. Translated by Aloma Halter

    2004: TheFounders and Builders and Charter Members of the Jewish Historical Society were honored at the Double Chai (36th) anniversary banquet held at Etz Chaim Synagogue.

    2005:  There are numerous signs today that Israel is breaking out of its diplomatic and cultural isolation.  First, the UN has scheduled a vote on the establishment of an international Holocaust remembrance day. The proposal, which was submitted by Foreign Minister Silvan Shalom, enjoys a solid majority, with at least 100 out of a total of 190 UN members promising to approve it.The motion - which marks the first time Israel has submitted a resolution to the GA - calls for January 27, the anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz, to be recognized as an international day of Holocaust remembrance. As part of the proposal, all member states will be called upon to develop an educational curriculum meant to instill the memory of the Holocaust in future generations to prevent genocide from occurring again. UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan has expressed his support for the measure. The draft resolution reads, in part: "The Holocaust constituted a systematic and barbarous attempt to annihilate an entire people, in a manner and magnitude that have no parallel in human history. Six million Jews, a full third of the Jewish people, together with countless other minorities, were murdered. And yet, while the Holocaust was a unique tragedy forthe Jewish people, its lessons are universal. "The United Nations, an organization founded on the ashes of the Holocaust and committed to `save succeeding generations from thescourge of war' and to uphold and protect the `dignity and worth of human beings,' bears a special responsibility to ensure that the Holocaust and its lessons are never forgotten and that this tragedy will forever serve as a warning to all people of the dangers of hatred, bigotry, racism and prejudice." Second, the Jordaninans have agreed to end an anti-Semitic television series based on the Protocols of the Elders of Zion.  Third, Italian notables plan on taking part in public demonstration later this week protesting Iran’s call for the destruction of the state of Israel.

    2006: For the first time ever, one of the largest and most prestigious music festivals in New York, the “Cmj Music Marathon” dedicates an entire evening to Israeli artists who sing in English.

    2007: The Jerusalem Symphony Orchestra performs Gershwin’s American in Paris, Hindemith’s Kammermusik No. 6 and Sibelius’s Symphony No. 1 at the Jerusalem Theater in Jerusalem.

    2007: At the IsraelMuseumin Jerusalem an exhibition entitled “Beliefs and Believers: Ancient Art from the IsraelMuseum” comes to an end.
    2007:The seventh Alex Rider novel, Snakehead by Anglo-Jewish author Anthony Horowitz was released today.

    2007: Halloween - Should Jews participate in holiday celebrations.  See, Rabbi Michael Broyde’s “Collecting Candy on Halloween: Harmless Pastime or Halachic Prohibition?” for one view on this topic.

    2008: At the Lincoln Plaza Cinemas, premier of “One Day You’ll Understand.” A meditation on loss, memory, identity and family legacy, directed by acclaimed Israeli director Amos Gitai, “One Day You’ll Understand” takes place in Parisduring the Klaus Barbie trial of 1987.

    2008: Suits were violated today relating to allegations that Deep Marine Technology (DMT) had illegally funneled campaign contributions to Norm Coleman through Hays Companies the employer of his wife Laurie.

    2008(2nd of Cheshvan, 5769):Studs Terkel, 96, the preeminent oral historian of 20th-century America who described the major events of his time through the experiences and observations of the ordinary men and women who lived them, died today at his home in Chicago after a fall. (As reported by William Grimes)

    2009:In Jerusalem the Camery Theater presents "Amadeus," with Itzhak Hezkiah, Itai Tiran, Chani Firstenberg, Ezra Daggan, Eran Mor, Ori Ravitz, Ohad Shahar/Moti Katz/Amir Kriaf, Eran Sarel, and ten dancers.

    2010:Theodore C. Sorensen, who was a close adviser and counselor to John F. Kennedy for 11 years, writing words and giving voice to ideas that shaped the president’s image and legacy, passed away today at the age of 82. The Nebraska native was the daughter Annis Chaikin, a Russian Jew.  However he was raised as a Unitarian. In reality, he was best known as Kennedy’s Ghost Writer and the real author of “Profiles in Courage.” (As reported by Tim Weiner)

    2010: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Finishing the Hat by Stephen Sondheim and Adam and Eve by Sena Jeter Naslund. 

    2010:The Ruth Spector Memorial Mah Jongg Tournament is scheduled to take place at the JCC of Northern Virginia

    2010:The Israeli film, Intimate Grammar, won the Tokyo Sakura Grand Prize Film Award at the 23rd Tokyo International Film Festival today. The film directed by Nir Bergman and starring actress Orly Zibershatz, was based on a novel by Israeli author David Grossman.

    2010: Susan Jacoby reviewed Simon Wiesenthal: The Life and Legendsby Tom Segev.

    2011: The Hyman S. & Freda Bernstein Jewish Literary Festival is scheduled to present a program based on “Precious Objects: A Story of Diamonds, Family, and a Way of Life” by Alicia Oltuski.

    2011: An exhibition on the Mamilla Mall in Jerusalem featuring sculptures of stone, bronze and other materials, depicting Biblical scenes and characters,which were created by some of Israel’s top artists is scheduled to come to an end today.

    2011: The David Posnack Jewish Day Schoolin south Florida's Broward County, known as “the Rams” is scheduled to begin its Basketball Season today.

    2011: IAF targeted the squad responsible for launching the rockets early this morning.

    2011:  Finance Minister Yuval Steinitz said he’s “very worried” about Israel’s economy in 2012 at a Knesset Finance Committee meeting today. “Our economic ship did not sink like most of the West’s ships did,” he explained, “but black storm clouds are gathering around us, and we have yet to steer the ship to shore safely

    2011:  Defense Minister Ehud Barak said the IDF does not pay attention to empty calls for cease fires from various terrorist groups, in an interview today with Army Radio. If they want a cease fire, Islamic Jihad and Hamas will need to actually stop their attacks, he explained.

    2012: In “Holocaust survivor tailors an American success story” published today Ned Martel tells the story of Buchenwald inmate Martin Greenfield.

    2012: Before the arrival of Hurricane Sandy, the Center for Jewish History had been scheduled to present “The Circumcision Debates, Then and Now: Religious Ritual in Historic Perspective.”

    2012: Labor Party chairwoman Shelly Yachimovich said today that Israel should take more concrete steps to accommodate non-Orthodox


    2012:Interior Minister Eli Yishai called on the public to boycott Israel’s largest supermarket chain after it announced it would be raising prices today. The Shufersal chain announced earlier today it will bump up the prices of thousands of products by 4 percent on average, the latest in a wave of unpopular price hikes.

    2012: Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu won pledges from France’s president to push harder for new sanctions against Iran to keep it from developing nuclear weapons — but no empathy for any possible Israeli military strike against Iran.

    2013: The Israel Philharmonic Orchestra String Quarter is scheduled to perform in Sonoma County, marking the first time the quartet has performed in this California County.

    2013: “The Jewish Film Festival of Sonoma County is scheduled to present a special screening of ‘Orchestra of Exiles’ at the Rialto Cinemas in Sebastopol, CA.” “Orchestra of Exiles is the suspenseful chronicle of how one man helped save Europe’s premiere Jewish musicians from obliteration by the Nazis during WWII!”

    2013: Halloween – See below for the Jewish Connection to the American Candy Orgy centered on good-natured ghosts and ghouls!

    2013: The European Union’s foreign policy chief today condemned Israel’s announcement of expansion plans in East Jerusalem neighborhoods, calling on the government to desist even from construction intended to accommodate “natural growth.” (As reported by Raphael Ahren)

    2013: While Israel has remained tight-lipped over an alleged strike in Syria, an Obama administration official confirmed today that Israeli warplanes had in fact attacked an airbase in Latakia yesterday. (As reported by Yifa Yaakov, Lazar Berman and Ilan Ben Zion)

    2013: “Former Yale Standout Breslow, Boston Red Sox Win World Series” published today described the role of Craig Breslow in defeating the St. Louis Cardinals.

    2014: The Eden-Tamir Music Center is scheduled to host a piano recital by Dana Vakhustinsky as part of their Future Generation Series.

    2014: Lewis Black is scheduled to appear at the Arlene Schnitzer Hall in Portland, OR.

    2014: Before Shabbat, “Theodore Bikel: In the Shoes of Sholom Aleichem is scheduled to be shown at the Jewish International Film Festival in Sydney, Australia.

    2014: The site called the Temple Mount by Jews and the Noble Sanctuary by Muslims which had been closed following a wave of Arab violence is scheduled to be re-opened today.

    2014: As children are scheduled to participate in Halloween, Rabbi Regina Sandle-Phillips shares her views on whether Jews should participate in “Zombies, Vampires, and Things That Come Back to Life: A Rabbi’s Take on Halloween and Beyond.”

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    November 1

    1179: Philip II is crowned King of France. In 1180, Phillip would order the arrest of all Jews living in his realm based on charges of ritual murder. It should come as no surprise that two years later, in 1182 Phillip confiscated all of the property belonging to the Jews as he banished them from his kingdom. The Jews would seek refuge in Champagne which was not a part of France at this time.

    1210:  King John, brother of Richard the Lionhearted, began imprisoning the Jews of England.  As the conditions worsened in England, many Jews sought to flee the kingdom.  King John had no intention of losing this exploitable economic commodity. So he jailed his Jews rather than lose them.  By the end of the century, the English monarchs would have stripped the Jews of their wealth and would send them packing.   

    1223: Louis VIII of France issued an ordinance that prohibited his officials from recording debts owed to Jews, thus reversing the policies set by his father Philip II Augustus. Usury (lending money with interest) was illegal for Christians to practice. According to Church law it was seen as a vice in which people profited from others' misfortune (like gambling), and was punishable by excommunication, a severe punishment. However since Jews were not Christian, they could not be excommunicated, and thus fell in to a legal grey area which secular rulers would sometimes exploit by allowing (or requesting) Jews to provide usury services, often for personal gain to the secular ruler, and to the discontent of the Church. Louis VIII's prohibition was one attempt at resolving this legal problem which was a constant source of friction in Church and State courts.Twenty-six barons accepted, but Theobald IV (1201–53), the powerful Count of Champagne, did not, since he had an agreement with the Jews that guaranteed him extra income through taxation. Theobald IV would become a major opposition force to Capetian dominance, and his hostility was manifest during the reign of Louis VIII. For example, during the siege of Avignon, he performed only the minimum service of 40 days, and left home amid charges of treachery.

    1290: Final expulsion of the Jews from England.  On July 18, 1290, Edward I (England)pressured by his barons, the Church, and possibly his mother, announced the expulsion of all the Jews. By November approximately 4000 had fled. The Jews had to pay their own passage, mostly to France. They were allowed to take movables (i.e. clothing). A number of Jews were robbed and cast overboard during the voyage by the ship captains. The Jews did not return to England until 1659. This was the first national expulsion of the Jews. England was one of the only centralized and national monarchies of that time.

    1348: The Jews are caught in power struggle among contending Christian factions in Spain when the anti-royalist Union of Valencia attacks the Jews of Murviedro because they are serfs of the King of Valencia and thus "royalists".

    1349: Duke of Brabant ordered the execution of all Jews in Brussels. He accused them of poisoning the wells.

    1478: The Holy See issued a Papal Bull empowering Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain “to appoint three bishops…with complete jurisdiction over heretics and their accomplices.”  This simple statement marked the start of the infamous Spanish Inquisition.

    1503: Start of the papacy of Julius II who in 1512 refused to sell a copy of the Hebrew Bible belonging to the Vatican for an amount valued in the 19th century at £20,784.  Why Julius turned down the offer when he needed the money in his fight with King Louis XII of France is not known.

    1504:The most important and unfortunate decree was that made by King Vladislav today: “ …and we grant to the citizens the favour that neither we nor future kings of Bohemia will bring more Jews into this city, as the Jews have been given to your city by our forefathers for your benefit. We therefore confirm in writing and with our royal powers in Bohemia that your city and its citizens have the right to expel the Jews from your city whenever you like without any hindrance from our side or from future kings of Bohemia.” In 1504, the citizens of Pilsen took this ‘glorious privilege’ literally and expelled all Jews from the city without taking account of the income they would lose from the Jewish taxes.

    1706(24th of Cheshvan): Rabbi Chaim ben Benjamin Asael of Salonika, author of Sam Hayyai, passed away

    1768: Maksym Zaliznyak, the Ukrainian leader who was responsible for the Jews at Uman earlier in the year was deported to Bilhorod for leading a rebellion (not for killing Jews).

    1784: Birthdate of Rabbi Gotthold Salomon “the first Jew to translate the TaNaCh into High German.”

    1793(26 of Cheshvan, 5554): Forty-two year old Lord George Gordon the Scottish noble and MP who converted to Judaism passed away today.

    1813: Benjamin D’Israeli, the grandfather of Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli, signed his last will and testament.

    1817: Birthdate of Marseilles journalist Joseph Cohen who wrote about the Jews of Algeria and who was one of the editors of the first French Jewish weekly, "La Vérité Israélite," in which he published his famous work, "Les Déicides," an investigation into the life of Jesus, in which he attacks the originality of the moral teaching of the Gospels, and defends the Pharisees.”

    1832: Michael Alexander, the Prussian born Jew who moved to England and eventually became an Anglican was ordained today as a priest in the Church of England.

    1839: In Soulzmatt, Rabbi Seligman Loeb and his wife gave birth to  Isidore Loeb the French born scholar and historian who was the editor of Revue des Études Juives, the main literary product of Société des Etudes Juives

    1851: Birthdate of Parisian composer Andre Alphonse Wormers who was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1875.

    1861: General George B McClellan made general in chief of Union armies.  McClellan would actually serve two terms as commanding General of the Army of the Potomac.  A great organizer, he seemed to have had an aversion to actually waging war.  His failure to win victories and his over-inflated sense of self-worth brought him on a collision course with President Lincoln who fired him in 1862.  Eventually, McClellan, who was a popular figure made his way to New York where he worked August Belmont, the Jewish financier.  Belmont would provide the financial backing that led to McClellan’s nomination for President on the Democrat Party ticket in 1864.

    1864: John Hay, President Lincoln’s private secretary wrote a letter to Myer Isaacs that was a response to his letter of October 26 in which he warned the President that a group of New York Jews with whom he met were not leaders of the Jewish community and could not deliver the Jewish vote. In his letter, Hay assured Isaacs that when Lincoln met with “certain gentlemen of the Hebrew faith” they did not promise to deliver the Jewish vote nor did the President offer them any inducement to do so.  In other words, Isaacs was either misinformed or worrying without cause.

    1870(7thof Cheshvan, 5631):Eighty-one year old German mathematician Ephraim Salomon Unger who was a Professor at the University of Erfut passed away today.

    1872:”A General Conference of the Jews” is taking place in Brussels.  A delegation of Romanian Jews has described the conditions under which they are living.  The delegation reported that the Romanian Jews had abandoned their idea of moving en masse to the United States and instead were planning on petitioning the Romanian government to grant them full civil and political rights.

    1873: A report published today describing the changing state of affairs in the newly united Kingdom of Italy. The Jews have been among the most ardent supporters of the new government which has removed the onerous restrictions under which they been living.  For example Jews can now own real estate in areas that were formally under Papal Control.  This was a right the Catholic Church had denied them despite repeated petitions for change.  Several of the editors of the leading publications are Jewish and they lend their support to the new government.  According to some, “the Jews…have grown rich in Italy” because they have not hesitated to take advantage of their new opportunities.

    1878: A lease was obtained for a building today and provisions were made to convert it into the Brooklyn Hebrew Orphan Asylum.

    1879: Acting on behalf of the Board of Delegates of American Israelites, Simon Wolf has presented the Secretary of State with a memorandum urging the United States to withhold recognition of Romania’s independence until that country grants the Jews full civil and religious and civil liberty as provided for by The Treat of Berlin.

    1879: Birthdate of Oskar Barnack who invented the Leica 35 mm camera which was than mass produced by Ernst Leitz.  Letiz would take advantage of the economic power and world-wide reach of his company that was based on Barnack’s invention to mount the rescue effort of German Jews known as the Leica Freedom Train.

    1880:  Birthdate of novelist and playwright Sholem Asch (pronounced shō'lum ăsh).  Born in Poland Asch first wrote in Hebrew but switched to Yiddish.  His writings were well received and he was quite popular.  He moved to the United States before World War I and his popularity continued to grow.  He became a citizen in the 1920’s.  However, during the late 1930’s and 1940’s he wrote a trilogy of novels that dealt with Christianity.  The works were well received by the general public, but the Yiddish world rejected the works because of the subject matter.  The Forward refused to publish any more of his writings. In the 1950's, Asch settled in a suburb of Tel Aviv.  After his death in 1957, his home in Israel was turned into a Sholem Asch museum.  The following quotes are a sample of his wit and insights into the human condition.“To dream of the person you would like to be is to waste the person you are."“Writing comes more easily if you have something to say.” “The lash may force men to physical labor; it cannot force them to spiritual creativity."“The sword conquered for a while, but the spirit conquers forever!”

    1880: It was reported today that in his most recent sermon Dr. J.P Newman of New York’s Central Methodist Church spoke on the “Impending Danger to Our Public Schools.”  He praised the current public schools as places where “the children of the Christina, Jews and infidel meet…on an equal footing without undergoing sectarian instruction.”  The teaching of religious doctrine should be left to parochial schools paid for by the churches.  (The public school system, free from religious indoctrination would prove to be a boon to the waves of Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe that would soon be washing up on America’s shores.)

    1885: “An English Hebrew Prayer Book” published today described the recent decision of the rabbis who had been meeting in Baltimore to create a prayer book that included a mixture of prayers in English and Hebrew, some of which are traditional and some of which are original.  There are numerous text like this in German, but “only one or two in English.”

    1886: “Caught in a Corner,” a play featuring a performance by “Mr. Curtis whose forte is to caricature” modern Germans, is scheduled to open an 8 week run at the Fourteenth Street Theatre in Manhattan.

    1886: Birthdate of author Hermann Broch, writer and refugee from the Nazis.  Born in Austria, Broch was imprisoned in a concentration camp by the Nazis in 1938.  While in the camp he began writing one of his greatest works The Death of Virgil.  The book would be published in 1945.  Several prominent authors including James Joyce intervened on Broch’s behalf and he was released by the Nazis.  He came to the United States where he continued writing until his death in 1951.

    1887: It was reported today that of the 25,788 Jewish “immigrants who land at Castle Garden during the year, 18,197 remained” in New York and “16 were returned” to Europe “as paupers by the Commissioners of Emigration. 

    1887: It was reported today that the United Hebrew Charities, under the presidency of Henry Rice, had provided assistance to 17,385 Jews living in New York City

    1888: It was reported today that Rabbi A.S. Isaacs and Joseph Arthur Levy addressed those who attended the consecration of new synagogue and school at 186 West 80th Street in NYC.  The school will offer instruction for Hebrew for students of all ages at no charge.

    1889(7th of Cheshvan, 5650): Sixty-five year old August Henry Edinger, the well-known wine merchant who came to United States in 1849 from his native Worms-on-the-Rhine and was a patron of Mount Sinai Hospital, the Montefiore Home and the Hebrew Orphan Asylum, passed away today.

    1889: The following notice appeared in the New York papers today: “Siegelstein – Bubis – At Mayor’s office, Oct. 13, 1888 and at the church, June 9, 188.  Pierre Siegelstein to Mary Bubis.  Pierre Siegelstein is now studying medicine.” (Read tomorrows TDIJ for details)

    1890: Jacob H. Schiff expressed his support for the anti-Tammany forces in the upcoming municipal elections when he said that “he was heart and soul for Mr. Francis M. Scott and the rest of the Municipal League Ticket” because he thought that Scott was “just the kind of Mayor the people of New York needed.”

    1890: As New Yorkers prepared to vote for Mayor, Jesse Seligman expressed his support for Francis M. Scott saying that “I consider the Tammany Hall organization rotten to the core and I see no reason why…Tammany Hall should not be overthrown.”

    1890: As of this date another 1,982 Russian immigrants had arrived in Philadelphia, PA, which was an increase from 694 during the same period last year.

    1890: “MR. FROUDE ON LORD BEACONSFIELD'S RELIGION” published today provided the view James Anthony Froude, the author of a biography on Disraeli, feels that the former British Prime Minister had on this subject.

    1891: As of today, 62,574 Jews came to New York this year in Steerage, 54,194 of whom were from Russia.

    1891: It was reported today that of the 239,000 Jews who came to the United States in the last six years, 90% came to New York and 70% of them have remained in the city.

    1894: Czar Alexander III who implemented the anti-Semitic May Laws of 1882 and sought to deal with the Jews through his one-third, one-third, one-third policy died today.

    1894: Nicholas II becomes Czar after the death of Alexander III.  Nicholas was the last Czar.  He was an incompetent reactionary.  He was also an anti-Semite.

    1894: Having been finally given permission to speak out, Louise Dreyfus told her brother-in-law Mathieu about the charges leveled against her husband which led to Mathieu Dreyfus becoming the leading architect of the Dreyfus Defense.

    1894: The French Army high command announced that it would proceed with a formal court-martial with Dreyfus as the defendant.

    1895: According to a summary published today, the United Hebrew Charities collected $144,539.90 from all sources and spent $138,895.11 to provide services

    1895: It was reported today that 27,065 Jewish immigrants had arrived in New York City this year as compared with 16, 381 who come in 1894. 

    1895: As of today there are 300,000 Jews living in New York City

    1895: The City Magistrate of Essex Market Police Court “dismissed the charges of extortion brought against Max Sanftman, an agent for the Hebrew Branch of the Anti-Vice Society, Barney Silverman” a restaurant owner whose wife had been arrested based on information provided by Sanftman.

    1895:Ludovic Trarieux, a Dreyfusard who was the founding president of the League of Human and Civil Rights completed his term as Minister of Justice.

    1896: Joseph Jacobs, the editor of Macmillan’s Jewish Library is reported to be in the United States so that he can deliver a series of lectures during the upcoming meeting of the National Council of Jewish Women.

    1898: Professor Richard Gotheil, a Professor of Oriental Languages at Columbia addressed a meeting of the West Side Zion Society where he spoke about events at the Zionist Conference which he attended at Basel last August.

    1898: Based on reports published today, the heat has taken its toll on the Kaiser and his wife during their visit to Palestine.  They have cancelled their trip to Jericho and will be returning to Germany sooner than expected. Since nearly 40 horses have died from the heat, the Kaiser has decided to return to Haifa from Jaffa by sea.

    1898: Twenty-five year old Kate Hart, “a devout Roman Catholic” who fell in love Charles Mundag, “a devout Jew” and married him five years ago despite the opposition of her family burned herself to death after her family made overtures of reconciliation.

    1898: According to a summary of the report of the United Hebrew Charities published today, the society raised $133,107.12 and spent $120,540 on providing services to the city’s needy Jews.

    1898: Leopold Lederer is being held in the Tombs charged with having burned down his home in August, 1894 and Abraham Zucker is being held in the Tombs on charges of setting fire to his dry goods store on the Corner of 41stStreet and 9th Avenue.

    1899(28th of Cheshvan, 5660): Moses Bruhl, who has been in the jewelry business for 46 years, passed away today.  He came to the United States in 1854 at the age of 18 and became a noted philanthropist as well as a successful businessman.

    1899: J. Charles Wechsler and Dr. M.J. Burstain presented plans for the proposed Emanuel Hospital and Dispensary which will serve Jews from Galicia, Austria and Hungary living on the East Side to the State Board of Charities today.

    1899: As of today, the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society is providing direct care for “876 children ranging in age from three to sixteen years” of whom 534 are boys.

    1899: Isaac Stern, Chairman of the Executive Board of Mount Sinai Hospital and President Isaac Wallach of Mount Sinai Hospital expressed their opposition to the construction of a new hospital for which, according to them, there is no real support.

    1903: Eighty-five year old Pulitzer Prize winning author and historian Theodor Mommsen “who strongly opposed anti-Semitism” and wrote a pamphlet in which he opposed the views of Heinrich von Treitschke “who popularized the phrase "Die Juden sind unser Unglück!" ("The Jews are our misfortune!"), which was adopted as a motto by the Nazi publication Der Stürmer several decades later.

    1904:Max "Kid Twist" Zwerbach, a Jewish gangster, met with Richie Fitzpatick in an attempt to decide which one of them would lead Monk Eastman Gang. During the meeting, Firzpatrick was shot to death by one of Kid Twist’s henchmen.

    1907: Birthdate of Elimelekh-Shimon Rimalt, the native of Galicia who served in the Knesset and as the Minister of Postal Services.

    1914(12th of Cheshvan, 5675): During WW I, 15 year old “Midshipman Vivian George Edward S. Schreiber, HMS Monmouth, RN, died today.”

    1914: Birthdate of Rabbi Moshe (Moses) Teitelbaum  Chasidic Rebbe and the world leader of the Satmar Hasidim, which is believed to be the largest Chasidic community in the world, with some 100,000 followers.

    1914: Birthdate of Sofia Cosma, the native of Latvia “who defied long odds to rebuild her career after seven years in Soviet prison camps.”

    1914: “Immigration” published today provides the views of Edward A. Ross on how the World War will affect population movement including a prediction that “the possible alleviation of the status of the Jew in Russia” will lead to a decrease in their “outflow” from western Asia.

    1914: Today’s “City Brevities” column includes a description of an upcoming meeting of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society.

    1914: “Finds Russian Jews Aflame As Patriots” published today described the study by Charles H. Sherrill of the patriotism of Russian Jews who are rallying to the Russian flag in the present war” and its impact on Jews living in the United States.

    1916:Arnold Schönberg “completes the Four Songs for Voice and Orchestra, op. 22.”

    1916: The Ottoman Jewish Union was founded with aim of fostering friendly relations between Jews of different countries and the Ottomans, as well as closer association of the Ottoman Jews with the other nationalities in Turkey.

    1917: W.T. Massey, British correspondent with the British army fighting in Palestine transmitted a dispatch headlined “Beersheba Taken In Night Charge.” According to him Australasian Cavalrymen dismounted to storm defenses held by Germans and Turks. The infantry cleared the way, tearing down wire entanglements with their bare hands.  At the same time, over four hundred Turkish soldiers were captured in fighting at Gaza.

    1918:  Responding to demands for an end to the monarchy, the Kaiser tells an emissary from Prince Max, ‘I wouldn’t dream of abandoning the throne because of a few hundred Jews and a thousand workers.”  The German monarch’s anti-Semitism trumped the reality of the thousands of Jews who had fought and died for the fatherland from 1914 until 1918.

    1919: “The Federation of Hungarian Jews in America was organized” today.

    1921: Congregation Beth El located in Camden, NJ, was official incorporated by the state of New Jersey.

    1921: Hadoar, the first Hebrew daily Hebrew paper published in the United States appeared for the first time.

    1922: The last sultan of the Ottoman Empire, Mehmed VI, abdicates. The Sultan and the empire would be replaced by a secular Turkish Republic led by Attaturk Kemal.  Large numbers of Jews fled Turkey during this period as a result of the Greco-Turkish war which was fought at this time.  Jews of the new republic also suffered a loss international protection under the terms of the Treaty of Locarno under pressure from the new regime. 

    1923: Birthdate of Menachem Fetter, who made in Aliyah in 1935 and became the note Israeli jurist Menachem Elon who became Deputy President of the Supreme Court of Israel.

    1924: U.S. premiere of “White Man” the silent film produced by B.P. Schulberg that marked the cinematic debut of Clark Gable.  (Gable was not Jewish but it is still worth noting)

    1924: Birthdate of Aharon Uzan, the Tunisian born Israeli political leader who held the positions Minister of Immigrant Absorption and Minister of Labor and Social Welfare after Abuhatzira resigned from both posts following his conviction for larceny, breach of trust and fraud from 1982 until 1984.

    1930: A new cooperative housing project, spearheaded by Lieutenant Governor Herbert Lehman and Aaron Rabinowitz opened on the site of the old Hoe & Co Printing Plant on Delancey Street.  An editorial writer for the New York Times referred to this effort as “the first step toward the rejuvenation of the Lower East Side.

    1930: A demonstration was held in Jerusalem to protest the White Paper on British Policy in Palestine.

    1930: The British government is making preparations to prevent any demonstrations tomorrow (the anniversary of the Balfour Declaration) by Jews who have been protesting against the White Paper on the British Policy in Palestine.

    1931: The New York Times reports the Yasha Heifitz will go to Palestine next Spring to present a series of five concerts.  The Times reported approvingly of the growth of the appreciation in Palestine for “good Occidental music” in a land where until only recently “companies of wandering Egyptian musicians were the only artists heard.”

    1933: The first issue of Ristow's anti-Semitic Blick in die Zeit (A Look at the Times)is published in Germany.

    1935: “Members of the religious agricultural training in Telz, Lithuania” were photographed today.


    1935: The first edition of The American Hebrew, which was the successor to the American Hebrew and Jewish Tribune appeared today.

    1935: Birthdate of Robert Andrzej Krauthammer the native of Warsaw, who, after he was smuggled out of the Warsaw Ghetto was given the name of Andre Tchaikowskyunder which he became a famous composer whose extra claim to fame is the fact that Royal Shakespeare Company uses his skull as prop, per the terms of his will.

    1935: An addition to the Reich Citizenship Law disqualifies Jews from German citizenship.

    1936: An exhibition of water-color landscapes of Palestine opened this afternoon at the Jewish Club in New York City.  The paintings “are the work of Elias Newman, an American artist who has lived in Palestine for eight year and is affiliated with the Tel Aviv Museum.”

    1936:  "Palestine Arabs Turn to Boycott" published today reported that "As was excepted immediately after the Arab general strike was called off through Palestine, an anti-Jewish boycott movement has taken root."  If it continues, it can have a disastrous effect on all those living in Palestine - Arab and Jew alike

    1937: ThePalestine Post reports the death of Rabbi Henry Pereira Mendes of the Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue of New York City. Born in Birmingham, England in 1852, he was one of the two founders in 1886 of the Jewish Theological Seminary. Mendes was rabbi emeritus of Shearith Israel since retiring after 43 years in 1920.

    1937: The Palestine Post reported that Raphael Ben-Israel Namda was severely wounded and Ahmed Moussa el-Masri, a Persian, was killed by an Arab terrorist at the corner of Nahlat Shiva and Jaffa Road, in the center of Jerusalem. A day earlier, Jacob Weiss, the manager of the German Bank, was stabbed by an Arab assailant, but was out of danger. Shots were fired at Palestine Quarries workers near Motza. 

    1938: A British Mandate police report noted that although the Arabs of Palestine had not yedclared 'a complete Jihad,' yet Jihad had been preached in many village mosques in Palestine, Syria and Iraq.   If the British government were to announce a poicy 'which is adverse to Arab interest,' the report warned, 'a complete Jihad will be declared by the more prominent religious leaders of Islam.'

    1938: Father Bernhard Lichtenberg, a Roman Catholic priest in Berlin, condemns the German assault on Jews. One of the few German Catholics to denounce the immoral behavior of the government, Father Lichtenberg sermonizes: "Outside the synagogue is burning, and that also is a house of God."

    1939: Hans Frank, governor-general of Occupied Poland, sets up the first "self-governing" Jewish council (Judenrat) within Jewish ghettos. The council leaders must obey the demands of the Nazis.

    1939: Birthdate of French politician and physician Bernard Kouchner whose father was Jewish and who is the co-founder of Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) and Médecins du Monde

    1942: The Nazis completed the murder of the Jews of Pinsk, Russia, begun on October 29.  As of this date there are reportedly no more Jews left alive in the city.

    1942: More than 170,000 Jews are killed within one week at the Belzec, Auschwitz, and Treblinka death camps.

    1942: Birthdate of Paul L. Dickstein, the Bronx native who was Mayor Koch’s third and longest serving Budget Director. (As reported by Douglas Martin)

    1943: In Algiers, Simon Attali, the owner of a perfume shop gave birth to twins Bernard Attali and Jacques Attali the French economist who was “first president of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.

    1943: Joseph Stalin, Franklin Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill sign the Moscow Declaration. Because of British suspicions that the Jews and Poles are exaggerating German atrocities, the declaration omits references to gas chambers. Also, while promising postwar justice for murderers, the declaration does not mention Jews.

    1943: When Francis Osborne D’Arcy, the British envoy to the Vatican, had an hour-long private audience with Pope Pious XII, the Pontiff insisted that he had no complaints about the Nazi occupation of Rome.  This is a recurring theme that reinforces the view that Pious was either totally insensitive, at best, or really an anti-Semite.

    1944: Since The Russian army had driven the Germans from eastern Poland and from most of Hungary Jews began to emerge from their hiding places.

    1945: In response to the British decision to continue enforce the White Paper of 1939, units of the Palmach and the Irgun conducted a series of coordinated attacks on the British run railway system and sunk “three…guard boats” in Haifa and Jaffa.

    1946: In the opening game of the fledgling Basketball Association of America (BAA), Ossie Schectman scored the opening basket for the New York Knickerbockers against the Toronto Huskies. Schectman and his teammates Sonny Hertzberg, Stan Stutz, Hank Rosenstein, Ralph Kaplowitz, Jake Weber, and Leo "Ace" Gottlieb went on to win the opening game 68 – 66 and finish the season with a 33 – 27 record. In 1949, the BAA became the National Basketball Association (NBA), and Schectman’s shot is considered the first basket in the NBA.

    1950: Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion formed his second government today with a political coalition that included the United Religious Front.

    1950(21st of Cheshvan, 5711): Eighty-four year old Colonel Hebert Jessel passed away today.  A member of the distinguished Jessel family, he was known as Sir Herbert.  A graduate of Oxford, he served in the House of Commons before being elevated to a peerage.

    1950: Private First Class Tibor Rubin, a Hungarian born survivor of the Holocaust, was taken captive in North Korea by the Chinese enemy. With an injured left hand and shrapnel lodged in his chest, he was forced to march the long distance to the Prisoner of War camp. There, for many long months, Rubin stood out among his comrades as a hero, stealing out of the camp each night to obtain food, just as he had done five years earlier, as a Hungarian child in a Nazi concentration camp. For over half a century, the United States Army failed to recognize Rubin’s valor, in part, as one of his fellow GI’s said, because of anit-Semitism.  In 2005, President Bush announced that he was bestowing upon this great patriot our nation's highest award for bravery, the Medal of Honor."

    1954: After dissolving the “Left Faction, Rostam Bastuni rejoined Mapam today.

    1955: Birthdate of Michael “Mike” David Mendoza, the controversial sports radio talk show host who is a cousin of Peter Sellers and a descendant of the legendary boxer Daniel Mendoza.

    1956: During the Sinai Campaign, Israeli forces fought a bitter battle with Egyptians in order to take control of Rafa at the entrance to the Gaza Strip which was a base for fedayeen, the name given to the Arab terrorists of the period.

    1956(27th of Cheshvan, 5717): A car in which members of Kibbutz Erez were travelling hit a mine laid by fedayeen killing three of the passengers.

    1957: Starting today and continuing for almost three weeks, 486 Egyptian Jews were arrested under 'Military Proclamation No. 4.'

    1959(30th of Tishrei, 5720): Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan

    1959(30th of Tishrei, 5720): Gershon Agron mayor of Jerusalem passed away at the age of 66.  Born Gershon Agronksy in the Ukraine in 1894, Agron immigrated to the United States with his parents.  During World War I he served with the Jewish Legion in Palestine.  In 1932, he started an English language newspaper called the Palestine Post.  In 1950, for obvious reasons, he changed the name of the paper to the Jerusalem Post.  By publishing in English, Agron provided a voice that could be understood by the British occupiers and the nascent American Zionist movement.  His brother was Martin Agronsky, a distinguished American broadcast journalist.

    1961: Women Strike For Peace (WSP) was inaugurated with a day-long strike by an estimated 50,000 women in 60 cities, all pressing for nuclear disarmament. Bella Abzug helped form and run the group, and she became the chairperson of WSP's legislative committee. Abzug remained active in WSP until she was elected to Congress in 1970. (As reported by Jewish Women’s Archive)

    1961: Birthdate of Peggy Orenstein, the author of the New York Times best-selling memoir, “Waiting for Daisy: A Tale of Two Continents, Three Religions, Five Infertility Doctors, An Oscar, an Atomic Bomb, A Romantic Night, and One Woman's Quest to Become a Mother.”

    1962: It was reported today that Robert St. John has written two more books about Israel that are due to be published in the near future – “They Came From Everywhere: Twelve Who Helped Mold Modern Israel” and “The Man Who Played God.”

    1965: Over 85% of the Israeli electorate participated in today’s election to choose member for the 6thKnesset.

    1972:“The Israeli ambassador to Bonn was called back to Jerusalem for consultations which many interpreted as the government’s ways of showing displeasure” with the German government’s “speedy” release of the surviving members of the terror squad  that killed the Israeli athletes at the Munich Olympics. (As reported by Yael Greenfeter and Matti Golan)

    1976: Asher Yadlin was scheduled to succeed Moshe Sanbar as governor of the Bank of Israel.

    1978: President Jimmy Carter established the President’s Commission on the Holocaust. The purpose of the Commission was to make recommendations on establishing and funding an appropriate memorial to victims of the Holocaust. The Commission suggested the following:

    • that a living memorial be established to honor the victims and survivors of the Holocaust and which would ensure that the lessons of the Holocaust be taught in perpetuity;

    • that an educational foundation be established to stimulate and support research in the teaching of the Holocaust;

    • that a Committee on Conscience be established that would collect information on and alert the national conscience regarding reports of actual or potential outbreaks of genocide throughout the world; and

    • that a national Day of Remembrance of victims of the Holocaust be established in perpetuity and be held annually.

    1981: In an article entitled “Kvetching About the Human Condition” Wallace Markfield reviewed A Bintel Brief Volume II. Letters to the Jewish Daily Forward 1950-80. Compiled and Edited by Isaac Metzker. (Translated by Bella S. Metzker and Diana Shalet Levy, Under the Supervision of Isaac Metzker)   For more than eighty years the Jewish Daily Forward's legendary advice column, "A Bintel Brief" ("a bundle of letters") dispensed shrewd, practical, and fair-minded advice to its readers. Created in 1906 to help bewildered Eastern European immigrants learn about their new country, the column also gave them a forum for seeking advice and support in the face of problems ranging from wrenching spiritual dilemmas to petty family squabbles to the sometimes hilarious predicaments that result when Old World meets New. Issac Metzker, who began writing for the paper in the 1920’s created this compilation column

    1984(6th of Cheshvan, 5745): Seventy-four year old Norman Krasna an American screenwriter, playwright, and film director passed away.  He is best known for penning screwball comedies, melodrama, and early films noir. Krasna also directed three films during a forty-year career in Hollywood. He garnered four Academy Award screenwriting nominations, winning once for 1943's Princess O'Rourke, a film he also directed. Later in his career, he also wrote plays, including Time for Elizabeth (1948) cowritten with Groucho Marx, and the popular Kind Sir which he adapted into the movie Indiscreet (1958). He married Al Jolson's widow Erle in 1951, and they remained married until Krasna's death.

    1985(17th of Cheshvan, 5746): Famed funny man Phil “Silvers passed away.  Born Phillip Silversmith in 1911 in Brooklyn, Silvers was the son of Russian Jewish immigrants.  He began his career at the age of 11.  He would sing in “movie theatres” when the film would stop due to a broken projector – a common problem in the early days of film.  His most famous role came in the 1950’s when he played Sergeant Ernie Bilko on the Phil Silvers Show.  The fast talking Bilko was the comedic con artist par excellence always looking for a way to outsmart the military establishment and his dim witted Colonel.

    1987: Because Jonathan Pollard committed his crimes prior to this date “he is eligible for parole” possibly in November, 2015.

    1988:Actor Jeff Goldblum and actress Geena Davis wed in Las Vegas

    1988:  Over 79 per cent of the eligible Israelis (2.3 million voters) turned out to participate in the elections for the 12thKnesset. 

    1990(13th of Cheshvan, 5751): Eighty-three year old Sir Alan Abraham Mocatta passed away.  A graduate of Oxford who served in WW II, he a leading English jurist and a leader of the British Sephardic community

    1991(24th of Cheshvan, 5752): Eighty-eight year old civic leader Frank Binswanger passed away today.


    1993: Yosef Harish left the post of Attorney General and was replaced by Michael Ben-Yair.

    1995: When he met with Yehuda Avner, his long-time English speechwriter and friend today Yitzhak Rabin provided some of the rationale for his negotiations with Yassir Arafat. He said that he considered the likelihood of reaching a peaceful resolution of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict with Yasser Arafat to be only “a long shot.” But he attempted it, reluctantly, via the Oslo process, because he recognized that Muslim fundamentalists were gradually winning over the hearts and minds of the Palestinians of the West Bank and Gaza, and that their domination would mean “the certainty of no settlement at all.” “It is either the PLO or nothing,” Rabin said. [This conversation took place three days before Rabin was murdered on November 4.}

    1996: Premiere in Israel of “Saint Clara” a film directed by Ari Folman and Ori Sivan based on the novel The Ideas of Saint Clara by Pavel Kohout.

    1997: “Titanic” co-produced by Jon Landau was screened at the Tokyo International Film Festival.

    1998: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or about topics of Jewish interest including Shakespeare: The Invention of the Human by Harold Bloom, Anne Frank: The Biography by Melissa Müller; Translated by Rita Kimber and Robert Kimber, Principles For A Free Society: Reconciling Individual Liberty With the Common Good
    by Richard A. Epstein. and Israel and the Bomb by Avner Cohen  

    2004: Before returning from injury, Matt Bloom was released from his WWE contract

    2005: The U.S. Senate enters a rare closed session to discuss the Plame affair and intelligence in the Iraq disarmament crisis. The Plame in the Plame Affair is Valerie Plame an American CIAagent who discovered her Jewish ancestry as an adult.

    2005:  In a resolution co-sponsored by 104 Member States, the General Assembly today designated 27 January as Holocaust Remembrance Day, drawing immediate praise from Secretary-General Kofi Annan, who said the United Nations would do its part to keep the memory alive in a bid to prevent future acts of genocide.

    2006 Yuli Tamire replaces Ophir Pines Paz as Science and Technology Minister

    2006: Former Conservative Party MP Nigel “Lawson's lecture to the Centre for Policy Studies think-tank, published today] criticizes the Stern Review and proposed what is described as a rational approach, advocating adaptation to changes in global climate, rather than attempting mitigation, i.e., reducing greenhouse gas emissions.”

    2006: At the United Nations Building in New York, Haaretz.comsenior editor Bradley Burston received an Eliav -Sartawi Award for Middle East Journalism, an annual prize for Arab, Israeli and international journalists. The winning article was entitled “Let their people go.” Israeli musician David Broza and Palestinian musicians Wisam Murad and Said Murad won an award for their song “In My Heart,” which describes the bond that Israelis and Palestinians share for the same land.

    2007: In Washington, D.C., Architect Allan Greenberg presents a lecture, "American Architecture and the Legacy of the Revolution," drawn from his book Architecture of Democracy (his illustrated musing on the link between America's political ideals and architectural traditions), at the Ethics and Public Policy Center.

    2007: An exhibition opens at Yad Vashem designed to showcase Muslims who saved Jews from Nazis during the Holocaust. The exhibition focuses on more than a dozen of the scores of Muslim Albanians previously recognized as "Righteous Among the Nations" - the Holocaust center's highest honor - for risking their lives to save Jews during World War II. The exhibit, titled "BESA: A Code of Honor - Muslim Albanians Who Rescued Jews During the Holocaust," is a collection of photographs by the American photographer Norman Gershman of the Albanian Righteous and their families, accompanied by short texts.

    2007:Aaron Kintu Moses, director of the Abayudaya Jewish community of Uganda, visited Agudas Achim in Iowa City, IA.  The Abayudaya is a group of native Ugandans who have been practicing Judaism since 1919 when their local leader studied the Hebrew Bible and adopted the observances of all of Moses’ commandments including circumcision.

    2007: “Sub on Wheels”, the first glatt-kosher food truck which provides a variety of items including hamburger, hot dogs and a variety of other fleshig sandwiches offers its Williamsburg customers a unique item for Thursday – Cholent which can be set aside and served for Shabbat.

    2007: The Ant-Defamation League released recent survey results which it says show 15 percent of American adults hold “unquestionably anti-Semitic” views.

    2008: In Cedar Rapids, Iowa Temple Judah offers a Saturday Double Header:

    ·        In the Morning, Balfour Shabbat Shacharit Services

    ·        In the Evening, Dinner, a Havdalah Service and Musical Concert with Doug Cotler

    2009: Opening of the 31st Annual St. Louis Jewish Book Festival which claims to be the largest Jewish book festival in the United States.


    2009: Elisa New discusses and signs her new memoir, "Jacob's Cane: A Jewish Family's Journey from the Four Lands of Lithuania to the Ports of London and Baltimore," at Politics and Prose Bookstore in Washington, D.C.

    2009: After only 9 performances, Neil Simon’s “Brighton Beach Memoirs” closed today.

    2009: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or on topics special interest to Jewish readers including Ayn Rand and the World She Made by Anne C. Heller, Look At the Birdie: Unpublished Short Fiction by Kurt Vonnegut and Enemies of the People My Family’s Journey to America by Kati Marton

    2009: The Los Angeles Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or on topics special interest to Jewish readers including The Humbling by Phillip Roth.

    2009: “Lionel Perez was elected in the Darlington district of the Côte des Neiges-Notre-Dame-de-Grâce borough in today’s election as a member of Mayor Gérald Tremblay’s Union Montréal team, taking the seat held by Saulie Zajdel.”

    2009: Seventy-five year old George Hirsch, the founding published of New York Magazine and the man who helped Fred Lewbow plan the first five boorugh NYC Marathon in 1976 is scheduled to be at the starting line  of the NYC Marathon  today when the runners set off from the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge.

    2009: “A rare rift in George and Ira Gershwin's harmony” published today


    2010:  The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Finishing the Hat: Collected Lyrics (1954-1981) With Attendant Comments, Principles, Heresies, Grudges, Whines and Anecdotes by Stephen Sondheim and Adam and Eve by Sena Jeter Naslund


    2010: YIVO Institute for Jewish Research is scheduled to present a lecture by Dr. Maros Borský who launched the Slovak Jewish Heritage Route. A network linking 24 prominent Jewish heritage sites around Slovakia, it includes synagogue buildings, branches of the Museum of Jewish Culture, and three historic Jewish cemeteries.

    2010: “Polish wartime hero accused of being Nazi collaborator” published today

     2010: Holocaust Education Week Begins


    2010: Beate Auguste Künzel Klarsfeldvisited the Shoah Memorial Mural installed inside the Evangelische Vaterunser Kirche in Berlin. Her host was Pastor Annemarie Werner, the head of the congregation.

    2010: The Atlantic Monthly cited Diane Ravitch as a “Brave Thinker” for her changing views on the types of educational reform needed in the United States.


    2011: Today marks the return of Marc Chagall's America Windows to the Art Institute of Chicago.

    2011: in commemoration of the 25th anniversary of first  broadcast of Pee-wee’s Playhouse starring Paul Ruebens, a book by Caseen Gaines called Inside “Pee-wee's Playhouse: The Untold, Unauthorized, and Unpredictable Story of a Pop Phenomenon,” is  scheduled to be released by ECW Press

    2011:The 31st Annual Holocaust Education Week begins

    2011:Professor Avner Cohen, author of “The Worst-Kept Secret: Israel’s Bargain with the Bomb,” and journalist Ron Rosenbaum, author of “How the End Begins: The Road to a Nuclear World War III,” are scheduled to sit down with distinguished journalist and former network correspondent Marvin Kalb to discuss the history and risks of Israel’s nuclear ambiguity and worst-case-scenarios in an age of atomic anxiety at the Jewish Literary Festival in Washington, D.C.

    2011:Judge Richard Goldstone, who led the UN investigative commission into Israel and Hamas’ conduct during Israel’s Operation Cast Lead, defended Israel against charges of being an “apartheid state” in a New York Times op-ed published today

    2011:Israel delayed a military operation in the Gaza Strip to stem Palestinian rocket fire due to an Egyptian request to give an additional 24 hours to cease-fire efforts, The Jerusalem Post learned today.

    2012: In Minneapolis, MN, The Sabes Jewish Community Center is scheduled to present “To the Ladies of the Cool,” a concert featuring Kathy Kosins.

    2012: Unless disrupted by the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy, the 7th Annual JCCNV Jewish Book Festival is scheduled to open in Fairfax. VA

    2012: Despite the advent of Hurricane Sandy, Andras Schiff is still scheduled to perform Book 2 of “Well-Tempered Clavier” at the 92nd Street Y.

    2012: Indonesian premier of “The Act of Killing” directed by Joshua Oppenheimer.

    2012: The 16th UK Jewish Film Festival is scheduled to begin today.

    2012: Former Penn State President Graham Spanier is charged in the Jerry Sandusky child molestation case.


    2012: Cartoons in major newspapers across the Arab world are portraying President Barack Obama and his Republican challenger Mitt Romney as being in the pocket of Jews and Israel, the Anti-Defamation League said today
    2012: Israel’s political arena was rife with rumors today that retiring Communications Minister Moshe Kahlon, arguably the most popular minister in the outgoing government, is considering launching a breakaway party to rival his own Likud, possibly because of disagreements with the prime minister.

    2013: The ceremony dedicating the South Campus of the Jewish Primary Day School of the Nation’s Capital Kay and Robert Schattner Center is scheduled to take place this morning in Washington, DC.

    2013: In Rockville, MD, Congregation Tikvat Israel is scheduled to host the opening session of “Chocolate & Jewish Values: A Fair Trade Experience.

    2013: Chassida Shmella - Ethiopian Jewish Community scheduled to host a Shabbat Dinner and Sigd Celebration this evening in New York City.

    2013: In Iowa City, Rabbi Gershom Sizomu, leader of the Abayudaya Jewish community of eastern Uganda is scheduled to present the unusual musical synthesis vital to the spiritual practice of this century old native African community

    2013:Rabbi Gershom Sizomu, leader of the Abayudaya Jewish community of eastern Uganda is scheduled to lead a Kabbalat Shabbat service in Iowa City.

    2013: One soldier was seriously wounded and another was in moderate condition today after an IDF operation last night to destroy part of a tunnel, east of Khan Younis just inside the Gaza Strip, was targeted by Hamas. (As reported by Yoel Goldman and Ricky Ben-David)

    2013: Based on reports broadcast by Channel 2 and Channel 10 in Israel “Israel is fuming with the White House” for its announcement that the IAF “had struck a military base near the Syrian port city of Latakia…hitting weaponry that was set to be transferred to Hesbollah.”

    2014: Pierre Moscovici is scheduled to begin serving as European Commissioner for Economic and Financial Affairs, Taxation and Customs

    2014: The Eden-Tamir Music Center is scheduled to host a piano recital by Tatyana Rubina.

    2014: PuppetCinema with Zvi Sahar is scheduled to perform for the last time.

    2014: In Oregon, “Portland Jewish Book Month” is scheduled to begin.

    2014: “The Last Mensch” is scheduled to be shown in Sydney at Jewish International Film Festiva.

    2014: “My German Friend” is scheduled to be shown at the Twin Cities Jewish Film Festival.

    2014: Shabbat Lech Lecha




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    November 2

    1285: King Peter III of Aragon passed away.  According to the Jewish Encyclopedia, Pedro III “protected the Jews from the hatred of the clergy, who destroyed their vineyards and disturbed their graves, and though he took especially severe measures against the Bishop of Castellnou, who favored these outrages yet he did this more in his own interest than from any humanitarian motive. He was one of the kings of Aragon who placed the Jews under contribution and exacted enormous taxes from them. They supported him in his wars against Africa, Sicily, and France with voluntary subsidies. When, in 1283, he was threatened with invasion by France, he made the Jews of Faca and Gerona and their districts bear half the expense of improving the towers and fortifications; and a year later the Jews of his state had to raise 130,000 sueldos in taxes at the shortest notice. When he wished to marry his daughter to King Diniz of Portugal, he found that the sum of 185,000 sueldos of the promised dowry was lacking; thereupon he imposed a tax for that amount on the Jews. As soon as he did not require money from the Jews he ceased to be gracious to them. In 1278 he threatened them with the loss of all their privileges if these were not submitted to him for confirmation within a month. When, in 1283, the Jews of Catalonia asked the Cortes of Barcelona for recognition as vassals of the barons in whose cities or territories they lived or had acquired property, Pedro opposed this request. He even declared that in the future no Jew might come to court or act as "bayle" or tax-collector or hold any office whatsoever entailing any jurisdiction over Christians. An oath was to be taken by them in a specially prescribed form; and they were not to be permitted to slaughter in the public slaughter-houses or within the cities they inhabited.”

    1327: King James II of Aragon, who employed a Jew as his secretary and interpreter, passed away. James levied a special tax on the Jews to support his war against Sicily but for some reason he exempted the Jews of Monzon from the tax.  James followed in the footsteps of his predecessors and allowed the Jews of Montpelier to practice medicine with “the proviso that the Jewish physicians must pass the regular examinations before exercising their profession.”

    1389: In what would prove to be a good thing for the Jews, Boniface IX began his papacy today. During his reign he gave the Jews of Rome “legal right to observe their Shabbat, protection from local oppressive officials, and a reduction of taxes as well as giving “to treat Jews as full-fledged Roman citizens.”

    1603: Birthdate of Adam Boreel, the Dutch theologian and Hebrew Scholar who was a friend of Baruch Spinoza who provided him with a home after he was expelled from the Amsterdam Jewish community.

    1648: Twelve thousand Jews were massacred by Chmielnicki's forces. The revolt of the Ukrainians against their Polish masters was a disaster for the Jews of Poland.  When the slaughter ended, the Jewish community had lost the position and prosperity it had gained over the previous three centuries.  As Poland, which had been a haven for Jews fleeing persecution in Germany and Spain, descended into chaos Jews would seek refuge in the Messianic phenomenon of Sabbatai Z’ Vie and the Chassidism of the Baal Shem Tov.

    1712: Elkan Frankel “was pilloried, scourged and sent to the Wurzburg for life imprisonment” today.

    1780: A court of inquiry met at West Point, NY and exonerated Colonel David Franks of any involvement in Benedict Arnold’s plot to betray the United States and surrender West Point to the British

    1781: During the reign of King Joseph II of Austria an ordinance was adopted that Jews were to be "considered 'fellow-men' and all excesses against them were to be avoided. 

    1793: Birthdate of Louis Jacques Begin the native of Liege who served as a surgeon in Napoleon’s campaigns against Germany and Russia.

    1820: In London, Lydia,( nee’ Lyons) the widow of Sampson Samuel gave birth to Sir Saul Samuel the Australian merchant and member of Parliament who was born after his father had passed away.

    1830: Birthdate of French composer Jules Emile David Cohen who “composed new music for the choruses of two biblically based operas – “Athalie” and “Esther.”

    1831:The formal establishment of the congregation that came to be called The Great Synagogue (known in Hebrew as Beth Yisrael - "House of Israel") took place today in Sydney, Australia.

    1831: Birthdate of Julius Stettenheim, the Hamburg born son an art dealer, who gained fame as humor writer.


    1833: In Philadelphia, PA, abolitionist Annis Pulling Furness and abolitionist William Henry Furness gave birth to Horace Howard Furness who worked with Professor Paul Haupt “on a new translation of Hebrew Bible” in the last decade of the 19th century.

    1840: Birthdate of Mark Antokolski, the Wilno native who gained famed as a sculptor.  Among his early works were "Jewish Tailor", "Nathan The Wise", "Inquisition's Attack against Jews" and  "The Talmudic Debate".


    1843:Lazarus Morgenthau, “the legendary patriarch of one of the great Jewish American” families married Babette Guggenheim.”

    1844:  Birthdate of Mehmed V, the Sultan who was on the throne when the Ottoman Empire entered World War I on the side of the Central Powers, Germany and Austria. The Sultan was really a figurehead and real power rested in the hands of the “Three Pashas.” Therefore, he cannot be held responsible for the hostile treatment of the Jews living in Palestine. At the same, during his reign, Jews served in responsible positions in the government and in the military.

    1856: As reported in The News of the World, in Italy the Pope "commands” people to turn in known heretics-including Jews. He desires them to denounce family, friends, and associates if appropriate to the "Holy Inquisition." The Pope requests the "names of every one of whom they know."

    1864(3rd of Cheshvan, 5625): Antony Mayer de Worms passed away in London.

    1865: Birthdate of Warren G. Harding, 29th President of the United States.  During his presidency, Harding signed into law an extremely restrictive immigration bill that had previously been vetoed by Woodrow Wilson that used a quota system that all but put an end to the immigration of Jews from Eastern Europe. On the other hand, he signed a Joint Resolution passed by Congress that spoke of “favoring the establishment in Palestine of a National Home for the Jewish people.”

    1872: It was reported in New York today that the Jews of Romania will not be immigrating en masse to the United States. Such a plan had been considered by some as a way of relieving the miserable conditions under which these people live.

    1876: Birthdate of Daniel Joseph Jaffé, the younger son of Martin Jaffé.  A civil engineer, he constructed waterworks in China and Jaffe Road in Hong Kong was named in his honor.

    1876: Birthdate of Charles Joseph Singer, the son of Simeon Singer.  The London native was a physician by training who gained fame as medical historian. Simeon Singer, a native of Hungary, served as a rabbi at several English synagogues and is best known for his Authorized Daily Prayer Book first published in 1890.

    1877: Birthdate of Aga Khan III whom Doctor Waldemar Haffkine “approached” in 1898 “with an offer…to settle Jews in Palestine” on land that would be purchased from” Ottoman Sultan’s subjects.

    1879: It was reported today that some Romans still do not like Jews.  When a Jewish funeral procession passed a saloon, some of the patrons jeered and then assaulted the mourners.  The police had to be called so that the procession could continue.  When the mourners were returning, they were again attacked and the police had to be called out to prevent a riot.

    1879(16th of Cheshvan, 5640): David Einhorn, the German born rabbi who became one of the first leaders of the Reform Movement in the United States pass away today just eight days before his 70th birthday.

    1881: “The specifications for a building to occupied by the Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum were filed in the Bureau of Inspection of Buildings” in New York City today.

    1881: Rabbis in Washington, DC has joined with ministers of other denominations in soliciting funds to building a hospital in memory of President James Garfield

    1881: It was reported today that in Germany, the “Jews…have instituted proceedings against Dr. Adolf Stoecker” for his role “in stirring up the people against the Jews.

    1881: It was reported today that the Public Prosecutor in Berlin has instituted legal proceedings against Ernst Henrici, “the notorious ‘Jew baiter’”.

    1882: “The Jews and Cromwell” published today recounts the efforts of Oliver Cromwell to convince the Council of State to readmit Jews to the British Isles. Although he failed to win over the Council, The Protector found a way to open the realm to a trickle of Jews who became the cornerstone of the modern Anglo-Jewish community.

    1883: Five Jews from Neustettin went on trial today in Koslin, Hungary on charges that they intentionally burned down a synagogue to collect the insurance money.

    1883: Based on the date on the manuscript, today is when Emma Lazarus’ famous sonnet, "The New Colossus," was either completed or presented to others. She wrote the poem for an art auction "In Aid of the Bartholdi Pedestal Fund." The Statue of Liberty, designed by sculptor Frederic Auguste Bartholdi, was erected on October 28, 1886. It was given to the people of the United States by France in recognition of the friendship between the two nations established during the American Revolution. While France provided the statue itself, American fundraising efforts paid for the pedestal. In 1903, sixteen years after Lazarus's death, "The New Colossus" was engraved on a plaque and placed in the pedestal as a memorial. In the 1880s when anti-Semitism was sweeping through Eastern Europe and pogroms were a common occurrence, there was a massive Jewish flight to America. During this time, Lazarus, already a well-known poet, visited Russian refugees and helped at the Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society. She became a spokesperson and advocate for the Jewish community and responded with some of her most powerful works. Lazarus's famous lines in "The New Colossus,""Give me your tired, your poor,/ Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free," caught the national imagination and continue to inspire the way Americans think about freedom and exile. The poem captures what the Statue of Liberty came to mean to the millions of people who migrated to the United States seeking freedom, and to those who continue to come to this day. Cited frequently, including at the 2004 Republican National Convention, the "The New Colossus" continues to symbolize America's promise of opportunity and freedom to the "huddled masses" of every land

    1884: Fifty-six year old Isaac Honig, was buried in Salem Fields Cemetery on Long Island following a funeral that had been held at the home of brother Henry Honig.  A native of Mayence, he came to the United States in 1850 and became a successful realtor.  He was an active supporter of the Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum Society and Mount Sinai Hospital.

    1884: It was reported today that the Russians have found a new way to torment its Jewish population. In Pultowa, it has been proposed to change the designation of every place in which there is no town hall into villages” since, under the law, Jews can be expelled from villages but not from towns.

    1884: It was reported that the French Minister to Morocco has threatened to take action if attacks on Jewish citizens of France living in the North African country do not come to half.  French Jews in Fez “have been scourged for refusing to walk barefooted in the streets.

    1886: Isidor Rayner was elected to the House of Representatives from Maryland’s Fourth Congressional District.

    1886: “Fourteenth-Street Theatre” published today reviewed the “Caught in a Corner” by W. J. Shaw which centers around “Isaac Greenwald” a Jewish broker “who bets, matches coins, plays tennis makes love and upsets the plans of villainous speculators with equal facility.” H.B. Curtis, who is known for playing Jewish comedic roles, stars in the role of Greenwald.

    1886: It was reported today that the Jews, who usually vote Republican had voted for Abraham Hewitt, the Democratic candidate for Mayor of New York instead of Teddy Roosevelt, the Republican candidate.  Roosevelt actually placed third, with second place going to Henry George, the reform candidate who had established his own following among working class and immigrant Jews.

    1887: “The Senatorial Fight” published today examines the qualifications of the candidates seeking to be elected to the New York State Senate. Assemblyman Jacob A. Cantor is the Democratic candidate for the Tenth Senatorial District, a district that contains one fifth of the voters of New York City. Cantor, who is Jewish, is described as an effective reformer whose election would serve the city well.

    1888: It was reported from Odessa, that “foreign Jewish farmers have ordered to leave Poland within a month” and that “foreign Jews in southern Russia expect to be expelled.”

    1889: North and South Dakota are admitted as the 39th and 40th U.S. states. Jews came to the Dakotas before the territories were divided into what would become two states. Nathan Dorfman, the grandfather of the editor of “This Day… in Jewish History” moved from Chicago and tried his hand at homesteading in the Dakotas.  He lasted for one winter before returning to the windy city.  According to family lore, Nathan and his brother Jake survived on a large supply of soda crackers.  Nathan left the land with Jake who supposedly enjoyed a small financial success when oil was found on the land.  “Many of the Jews who came to North Dakota were lured by the promise of free land. Baron Maurice de Hirsch, a banker and philanthropist, believed that Jewish immigrants entering the United States should leave East Coast cities for the vast interior, where they would disperse and assimilate into American society. He set up a fund to encourage such migration.” Free land, wouldn't that have sounded like the American dream?" asked Dianne Siegel, whose great-grandfather ventured to North Dakota thanks to the de Hirsch fund. Other Jews came as merchants or peddlers, sensing opportunity in the territory, which gained statehood in 1889. "There was a Jewish merchant in just about every town along the railroad," recalled Myer Shark, who grew up in Devils Lake, N.D. Shark's father came to North Dakota in 1909 and opened a men's clothing store. But Jews who settled the Great Plains didn't have an easy road. Hal Ettinger, an architect in Lawrence, Kan., said his great-grandparents, Simon and Sophie Ettinger, arrived in North Dakota via Chicago and St. Paul, Minn., where Simon had been a peddler. With six children in tow, the family moved into a 12-by-14-foot shack where they homesteaded a 170-acre property with livestock and crops. Simon died a year after being issued his land permit, and Sophie moved to Chicago with the children, selling the property for $10. "Why a German or Russian immigrant coming to the U.S. could possibly think they could make it in North Dakota or the Dakota territories is unbelievable," Ettinger said. "I guess it's some indication of how bad they had it" in the Old World. The Jews who arrived on the plains had little inkling of what lay ahead. Jews had not been allowed to own land in Russia, and had little knowledge of how to farm. Crop failures, harsh winters and prairie fires made harvesting difficult, and life on the frontier did not include modern conveniences like plumbing and heating systems. Additionally, accounts show that Jews weren't always greeted hospitably. In 1885, 25 North Dakota farmers petitioned to have a Jewish colony removed from a village called New Jerusalem. Shark felt the prejudice. "Early in my childhood I learned I was different than the other kids," he said. Shark said that a man in the community once tried to block his mother from moving into his neighborhood, saying, "I don't like the idea of a Jew building a home in that area." Still, Jews lived -- and lived Jewishly -- in North Dakota. Siegel said that her family kept kosher, and that the state's lone rabbi would come to town for major ceremonies. Shark recalled that "the district judge would not set a term of court until he checked with one of the Jewish residents to find out when High Holidays were" -- even though the judge wasn't Jewish himself.”

    1890: Reports that Jews are supporting the entire Tammany ticket were refuted by large number of Jewish leaders who claim that they are supporting the People’s Municipal League and “denounced as an insult the bid for the Jewish vote by Tammany” saying that the Jewish has never been a “class vote” and all that the Jews want is “honest and efficient government.”

    1890: George M. Bersick announced that he has received the endorsement of Harmonia, Fiedelo and other leading Jewish clubs in his bid to be elected to the Assembly from the 21st District.

    1891(1st of Cheshvan, 5652): Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan

    1891(1st of Cheshvan, 5652): Julia (Lewenthal) Cantor, the wife of American lawyer and political leader, Jacob Aaron Cantor, passed away.

    1892: The opinion was published today that in light of the three day demonstration in London by unemployed Jews, English Jews seem “to be less philanthropic than American Jews” because unemployed Jews in the United States “have not been permitted to become a public charge…because they have been taken care of by their co-religionists.”

    1892: “Slighted by Gladstone” published today expressed surprise at the decision of the Prime Minister and other leaders to boycott the inaugural banquet of Lord Mayor-elect Stuart Knill because he is Catholic since Polydore De Keyser who is also Catholic has held the job and his successor was Henry Aaron Isaacs who was Jewish.

    1894: At the start of the Dreyfus affair when some Frenchmen were really trying to find the spy in their midst, the Italian military attache Colonel Panizzardi  telegraphed in cipher to his government "If Captain Dreyfus has had no intercourse with you, it would be to the purpose to let the ambassador publish an official denial, in order to forestall comments by the press." This telegram, written in cipher, and of course copied at the post-office, was sent to the Foreign Office to be deciphered. The first attempt left the last words uncertain; they were thus translated: "our secret agent is warned."This version, communicated to Colonel Sandherr, the chief of French counter-intelligence, seemed to him a new proof against Dreyfus.

    1894: A letter was sent to the Committee of Seventy today signed by several prominent Jewish leaders including Simon Sterne, Jacob Schiff and Max J. Lissauer refuting the “unjust accusations” that  William L. Strong, the Republican candidate for Mayor of New York City, had opposed the election of Theodore Seligman to the Union League Club.

    1895: Miss Julia Richamn, a public school principle and “who is also an active worker at the Hebrew Institute and the Hebrew Free Schools addressed a meeting at Arlington Hall where she expressed her pleasure at seeing the that “first organization of the boys and girls to assist in keeping the east-side streets clean was formed at the Hebrew Institute.”

    1895: Birthdate of Judith Epstein, the Worcester, MA born Hadassah leader.

    1896 Family physician Dr. J. C. Lewinsky and long-time family friend Solomon Kuntz spoke today at the simple funeral services of 28 year old Abraham Fox and his mother, 60 year old Christine Fox who died within two days of each other.

    1896: The funeral for Samuel Corn, who enjoyed a successful career in the cap and furrier trade before entering the field of real, is scheduled to take place at 9:30 this morning at Temple Israel on the corner of 125thStreet and 5th Avenue.

    1898:”Sacrificed Herself By Fire” published today describe the death of Kate Hart, “a devout Roman Catholic” who had fallen in love with Charles Mundag, “a devout Jew” whom she married despite parental opposition.

    1898: Theodore Herzl was part of a delegation of Jews who met with Kaiser Wilhelm II in Jerusalem.  Herzl’s meeting with the Kaiser was part of his plan to rebuild the Jewish national home by gaining the support of leading political leaders.  The Kaiser had his own agenda in the East.  A settlement of German Jews in the Middle East would have provided him with leverage in dealing with the English in Egypt.  But the Kaiser was afraid to give Herzl too much support lest he offend the Turks who ruled the ancient Jewish homeland.  In the end, Herzl accomplished much less with this meeting than he thought he had.

    1898: In an action that would presage the famed reforesting project of the JNF complete with Tree Certificates, Zionist leaders Herzl and Wolffsohn plant trees in Motza near Jerusalem. One is a cedar and the other is a date-palm.

    1899: Isaac Stern Chairman of the Executive Board of the Mount Sinai Hospital voiced his opposition to plans for building the Emanuel Hospital and Dispensary saying “that he had not heard of any real support of the new hospital except from twelve or fifteen physicians” and Isaac Wallach said he is opposed to the plan because it will be a duplicate of effort that will deplete Jewish resources.

    1899: “Oppose Emanuel Hospital” published today described the opposition of Isaac Stern and Isaac Wallach of Mount Sinai Hospital to the construction of a new hospital that would be supported by donors from the Jewish community.

    1899: The Boers begin their 118 day siege of British held Ladysmith during the Second Boer War. According to the Jewish Encyclopedia, “Jews fought on both sides during the Second Anglo-Boer War (1899–1902). Some of the most notable fights during the three years' Boer war — such as the Gun Hill incident before the Siege of Ladysmith — involved Jewish soldiers like Major Karri Davies. Nearly 2,800 Jews fought on the British side and the London Spectator counted that 125 were killed. Around 300 Jews served among the Boers during the second Boer War and were known as Boerjode: those who had citizenship rights were conscripted along with other burghers ("citizens"), but there were also a number of volunteers. Jews fought under the Boers' Vierkleur ("four colored") flag in many of the major battles and engagements and during the guerilla phase of the war, and a dozen are known to have died. Around 80 were captured and held in British POW camps in South Africa. Some were sent as far afield as St. Helena, Bermuda, and Ceylon to where they had been exiled by the British. Some Jews were among the Bittereinders ("Bitter Enders") who fought on long after the Boer cause was clearly lost.”

    1902: Birthdate of Isaak Semyonovich Brook, Russian pioneer in the field of computer technology. In 1939, the  37-year old Doctor of Technical Sciences, presented a paper at a session of the Presidium of the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union, in which he described a mechanical integrator capable of solving differential equations up to the sixth order. The integrator was built under Brook's supervision at the Electric Systems Laboratory of the Academy of Sciences Power Engineering Institute. Brook's report aroused great interest because there were no other such machines in the Soviet Union at that time. Only the US and Great Britain had one model each.

    1904(24th of Cheshvan, 5656): Sixty-five year old Giuseppe Ottolenghi  who began his military career in 1859 and rose to the rank of brigadier-general in 1888 and who, after holding a series of successively more important position was named commandant of the Italian army’s first corps in 1903, passed away today.

    1911: Russian Premier Kokovtzoff has heeded the appeal of the 1,500 Jews who have settled in Ekaterinoslaff since 1882 to modify the original order of expulsion.  Under the revised order issued by the provincial governor today, only those Jews who have settled in the province since 1906 will be expelled.

    1914: Russia declares war on the Ottoman Empire. With this declaration of war, the Ottomans regarded the Jews of Palestine, a large number of whom were from Russia, as an enemies of the state and treated them accordingly.

    1914: A protest was held in Sophia, Bulgaria by the Jewish community, against ritual murder accusations in a case associated with memorial services for soldiers who fell in war.

    1915: Michael Sidney Luft, a minor movie producer who would gain fame as the husband of Judy Garland, was born to Jewish parents who had immigrated from Germany and Russia.

    1915(25th of Cheshvan, 5676): Sixty-five year old Isaac Leopold Rice, the Bavarian born American chess patron and inventor who build 85 submarines and 722 sub chasers for the U.S. Navy  I passed away today

    1916: Turkish military leader Djemal Pasha orders barricades erected to prevent Jews from praying at the Western Wall in Jerusalem.

    1916: Klemens Wilhelm von Klemperer author of German Resistance Against Hitler: The Search for Allies Abroad, 1938-1945 was born in Berlin today into what had been a Jewish family until his grandfather, Gustav, the director of one of Germany’s largest banks, converted to Protestantism. (As reported by Dennis Hevesi)

    1916: Dr. Henry W. (Pinchas HaLevi) Schneeberger, the Rabbi at Chizuk Amuno Congregation in Baltimore, MD passed away.  On the afternoon of his death The Baltimore newspapers that afternoon ran a photograph of Dr. Schneeberger with a caption above it saying, ‘Grand Old Man’ Dies after Long Illness, Beloved Rabbi Dead.’”

    1917: Arthur Balfour, British Secretary for Foreign Affairs, sent Lord Rothschild a letter declaring the government's sympathy and support for the Zionist cause. Known as the Balfour Declaration, this document helped to supply the legal and international political underpinnings for the nascent Zionist movement.  Almost thirty years to the day of the sending of this letter, the UN would vote to create a Jewish state in Palestine.

    Foreign Office

    November 2nd, 1917

    Dear Lord Rothschild:

    I have much pleasure in conveying to youon behalf of His Majesty's Government, the following declaration of sympathy with Jewish Zionist aspirations which has been submitted to, and approved by, the Cabinet:

    His Majesty's Government views with favor the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavors to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country.

    I should be grateful if you would bring this declaration to the knowledge of the Zionist Federation.

    Arthur James Balfour

    1917: Winston Churchill who was Minister of Munitions wrote Sir Frederic Nathan the Jewish explosives expert asking why his ministry was collecting 25,000 tons of horse chestnuts.  Nathan explained to Churchill that the horse chestnuts were part of Dr. Chaim Weitzman’s experiments to create large quantities of acetone which was need to make cordite the smokeless powder used as the propellant in making ammunition.

    1920: Birthdate of Morris Mazer, the son of Brooklyn kosher poultry worker, who as Bill Mazer became a “fixture” in the world of those who covered sports in the New York area. (As reported by Richard Goldstein)

    1920: Warren G Harding elected President on his 55th birthday. Warren Harding was the first President to sign a Joint Congressional Resolution endorsing the Balfour Declaration and the Palestine Mandate supporting the establishment in Palestine of a national Jewish home for the Jewish people. The resolution was signed September 22, 1922.

    1921: The Arabs rioted in Jerusalem on the fourth anniversary of the Balfour Declaration.  Four Jews were killed and 20 were injured. 

    1921: Graduation ceremonies for the first class of nurses to complete the three year program at the Hadassah nursing school are postponed due to Arab riots.

    1922: Founding of the moshav Balfouriyyah on the fifth anniversary of the Balfour Declaration.

    1924(5th of Cheshvan, 5685): Zionist leader Dr. Menachem Mandel Scheinkin was killed today in a street car district in Chicago.  Dr. Scheinkin was born in Balta Bessarabia 54 years ago.  He was a rabbi in the small town before moving to Palestine thirty years ago.  He worked to development the Jewish settlements founded by the late Baron Rothschild and was one of the founders of Tel Aviv.

    1927: In the Bronx, Emanuel and Anna Frank Cohen give birth to Morris Leo Cohen, a “book lover who shunned the practice of law because it was too contentious and became one of the nation’s most influential legal librarians, bringing both the Harvard and Yale law libraries into the digital age.”

    1929:  Birthdate of Harold Faberman, founder and Artistic Director of the Conductors Institute at Bard College. Harold Farberman was born on New York City's Lower East Side. Coming from a family of musicians (his father was the drummer in a famous 1920s klezmer band led by Schleomke Beckerman; his brother was also a drummer), it was inevitable that he would pursue music as a career. After graduating from the Juilliard School of Music on scholarship in 1951, Farberman became the youngest member of the Boston Symphony Orchestra (BSO) when he joined its percussion section.

    1930: In an article entitled “Fair Play to the Jews”, Churchill attacked the Passfield White Paper that contended Britain’s’ obligations to the Jews and Arabs under the Mandate were equal.  Churchill contended that the British owed a debt to the Jewish people as embodied in the words and spirit of the Balfour Declaration.  To say otherwise was a betrayal of British honor.

    1932: Birthdate of Nobel Prize winning physicist Melvin Schwartz.

    1934(24th of Cheshvan, 5695): Eighty-nine year old Baron Edmond Benjamin James de Rothschild a member of the French line of the House of Rothschild  whose early support of Zionism included the establishment of the Palestine Jewish Colonization Association, passed away today.


    1936: It was reported today that most of the newspapers in Vienna have expressed “great satisfaction” that Otto Lowei, a professor at Austria’s Graz University was a co-winner of the Nobel Prize in Medicine.  The clerical newspapers are the exception to the rule, which may be because Lowei is Jewish.  The Clerical Reichspost gave the story four and a half lines and the Weltblatt hid the story in the Personal News Column.

    1936:  Italian dictator Benito Mussolini proclaims the Rome-Berlin Axis, establishing the alliance of the Axis Powers.

    1937: Republican Stanley M. Isaacs was elected Manhattan Borough President.

    1937:” I'd Rather Be Right,” a musical with a book by Moss Hart and George S. Kaufman, lyrics by Lorenz Hart, and music by Richard Rodgers premiered on Broadway at the Alvin Theatre The story produced by this Jewish quartet, is a Depression-era political satire set in New York City, about Washington politics and political figures, such as President Franklin Roosevelt. The plot centers on Peggy Jones and her boyfriend, who needs a raise in order for them to get married. The President steps in and solves their dilemma. It starred George M. Cohan as Franklin Roosevelt. (Some people mistakenly thought that Cohan’s name was a form of the name Cohen and that he was Jewish.)

    1933: On the 16th anniversary of the Balfour Declaration, “the Syrian newspaper al-Ayyam expressed support for the measures being implemented by the French authorities to protect the Jews Quarter of Damascus from Muslim attacks.” 

    1938:Abraham Liessin, well-known Yiddish poet and editor of Zukunft, the literary and political monthly collapsed Wednesday while reading a poem at the funeral services for his friend and associate, B. Charney Vladeck. (As reported by JTA)

    1938:  Birthdate of musician Jay Black of “Jay and the Americans.”

    1938: Krystyna Skarbek the future British espionage agent whose father was a Polish Catholic noble and whose mother was Jewish married Jerzy Giżycki in Warsaw.

    1941(12th of Cheshvan, 5702): Seventy-three old John Simon Guggenheim, businessman, philanthropist and former U.S. Senator from Colorado passed away today in New York City.

    1941: The Nazis deported more than 15,000 Serbian Jews to a concentration camp at Sajmiste, Yugoslavia. They are later killed in mobile gassing units disguised as Red Cross vans.

    1941: The Germans begin the construction of an extermination center at Belzec, Poland.

    1941 A Jewish ghetto at Grodno, Belorussia, is established.

    1941 A Nazi-sanctioned concentration camp opens at Hadjerat-M'Guil, North Africa.

    1942: On the 25th anniversary of the Balfour Declaration, Churchill sent a telegram to Weizmann and a message to the Jewish Chronicle recognizing the special suffering being endured by the Jewish people and reiterating his continued support of Zionism

    1942(22nd of Cheshvan, 5703):The Nazis begin deportations in the Bialystok region. Reportedly, 3,000 to 6,000 Jews were deported from Siemiatzycze. Hundreds were shot while trying to revolt against the round up. The resistance was led by Herschl Shabbes. Hundreds of Jews managed to escape from the actions. Some Poles helped the Jews hide while others didn't. Those who were caught assisting a Jew were shot. When the train of Siemiatzycze Jews reached the Treblinka station, one car was heard singing "Hatikvah'. Some of the people were stripped naked in near freezing temperatures, taken to the fields and shot dead. All the rest but 152 of the 3,200 were gassed.  As part of the Action in the Bialystok region, hundreds of small towns would be raided, their Jews rounded up for deportation. The total of captured Jews was estimated to be above 100,000. There were too many to be processed immediately. Interim camps were then set up. Eventually most of them would be transported to Treblinka over the next several weeks and months.

    1942(22nd of Cheshvan, 5703):In the Lithuanian town of Marcinkance, 370 Jews who refuse to board trains for deportation bolt for the ghetto boundaries. In the mêlée that follows, 360 Jews and many guards are killed. Between deaths and successful escapes, not one Jew is left to board the trains

    1942(22nd of Cheshvan, 5703): In Zolochev, Ukraine, the chairman of the Jewish Council is murdered by Germans after refusing to sign a paper saying that the liquidation of the ghetto was necessitated by the spread of a typhus epidemic. The poet S. J. Imber, the nephew of the author of Hatikvah is among the 2500 Zolochev Jews deported to Belzec.

    1942: More than 100,000 Jews remaining in the towns and villages in the Bialystok region of Poland are arrested and deported to holding camps at Zambrów, Volkovysk, Kelbasin, and Bogusze before being sent to the Auschwitz and Treblinka death camps.

    1942: Wolfram Sievers, head of Germany's Ancestral Heritage Society, requests skeletons of 150 Jews. SS chief Heinrich Himmler approves a plan to establish a collection of Jewish skeletons and skulls at the Strasbourg Anatomical Institute in France, near the Natzweiler-Struthof concentration camp.

    1942: The Nazis shipped the Jews of Rujenoy were shipped to Treblinka.  Among them was the family of Yitzhak Shamir, who according to the future Prime Minister of Israel, were not able to leave for Palestine when that opportunity was still a possibility “because they could not afford the £1,000 fee demanded by the British.”

    1943: Nazis liquidated Riga ghetto sending the remaining 1,000 Jews from the Riga Ghetto to Birkenau.

    1943(4th of Cheshvan, 5704): The Germans commenced operation "Harvest Festival" - the destruction of the survivors of the Warsaw ghetto uprising who were held captive since April. Within a few days 50,000 Jews would be shot in ditches at Majdanek. At Trawniki, all the Jews were machine-gunned down. Of the 500,000 Warsaw Jews driven away from the ghetto and placed in camps between July 1942 and May 1943 only about three hundred survived.  Some of the survivors would form a Kibbutz in Israel memorializing the brave stand of their fallen comrades.

    1943: Stanley Isaacs, a political ally of Mayor Fiorello La Guardia, was elected to the New York City Council.

    1943: In Genoa, “the hunt for Jews began…when two German police agents entered the office of the Jewish community and forced the custodians, Linda and Bino Polacco, to turn over membership lists and summon members to a meeting at the synagogue the following morning. (As reported by the Jewish Virtual Library)

    1944: Orders were sent from Berlin to suspend killing of Jews at Auschwitz.  This was not a humanitarian act.  

    1945: Anti-Jewish riots broke out in Egypt.

    1945: While responding to parliamentary questions, British Foreign Minister Bevin of the newly installed Labor Government made the observation that “if the Jews, with all their suffering, want to get too much at the head of the queue, you have the danger of another anti-Semitic reaction through it all.” While Britain has had its Philo-Semites, anti-Semitism is a common currency whether it be the genteel kind of the Conservatives or the more uncouth variety found among some members of Labor at this time.  Bevin’s statement was an indication that he and Prime Minister Attlee were about to turn against the promises of the Balfour Declaration and continue o enforce the White Paper adopted as British policy in 1939.

    1948: President Harry S. Truman surprised the experts, narrowly winning re-election over Republican challenger Thomas E. Dewey.  Truman’s upset victory was due in part to heavy support among Jewish voters in critical states with large electoral votes such as New York.  Truman’s liberal social policies such as support for federal school lunches and health insurance for the elderly were popular among Jewish voters.  Most Jews will remember and revere Truman as the man who supported the creation of the state of Israel.  Despite opposition from most of the leaders in his administration, including George C. Marshall whom Truman revered, the man from Missouri ensured the United States was the first nation to recognize the re-born Jewish state.

    1948: On the anniversary of the Balfour Declaration, the Israeli military cancelled the blackout in West Jerusalem.  “’The city blazed with lights and its citizens crowded the streets and cafes to taste the future they had fought for.’”

    1948: Marcus Sieff sends a letter to Winston Churchill stating that “many Israeli leaders were anxious to see ties with Britain renewed, but that British policy in the United Nations Assembly with regard to Israel and the Arab States prevents any such rapprochement.”

    1949: Weizmann Institute of Science dedicated in Rehovot.

    1951(3rd of Cheshvan, 5712): Ninety year old Martha Bernays, the widow of Sigmund Freud, passed away today.

    1953: Major General (Ret) Kenneth Nichols became General Manager of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) which enable him to initiate the AEC Personnel Security Board hearing on the loyalty and trustworthiness of atomic scientist J. Robert Oppenheimer

    1955: “‘Hill 24 Doesn't Answer,’ an Israeli-made feature had its première tonight at the World Theatre.”

    1955: Birthdate of Bob Tufts, the major league pitcher who went to Princeton before going into professional baseball and got an MBA at Columbia after he left the game.

    1955: Hadassah, the Women's Zionist Organization of America, has been designated by the Government as the central agency for the distribution of surplus American food in Israel.

    1955: A force of paratroops from the 890th Battalion augmented by a Nahal company attacked the Egyptian emplacements at Sachba while units from the Golani Brigade's 12th Battalion attacked Egyptian emplacements at Ras-Siram this evening in the start of Operation Volcano.

    1956: Israel captured Gaza, Sheham and El Arish (the Egyptian capital of the northern Sinai) during the war with Egypt.

    1956: Much to everybody’s surprise Israeli tanks came to within ten miles of the Suez Canal. The IDF captured sixty armored cars and forty modern tanks from the retreating Egyptians.  These weapons were part of the large mass of modern weapons that the Soviets had supplied Nasser in exchange for Arab support and much of the future Egyptian cotton crop.  The weapons were much better than anything the IDF had and would be incorporated into the arsenal of the Israeli military forces.

    1956: During the Sinai Campaign, the specter of a wider war opened when the Syrian embassy in Washington informed the United States government that Syria had ‘decided to implement immediately’ the joint Egyptian-Syrian defense pact.

    1956: The governors of Gaza City and the Gaza strip surrender to the Israelis.

    1956: U.N. Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld informed Israel that the General Assembly had passed a cease fire resolution.

    1959(1st of Cheshvan, 5720): Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan

    1959: “The Dock Brief” and “What Shall We Tell Caroline?” produced by David Susskind  were broadcast on “The Play of the Week.”

    1959: During the Congressional investigations of the “Quiz Show Scandals,” Charles Van Dorn admits that he had received answers in advance when he appeared on the hit quiz show, “Twenty-One.”  Van Dorn was part of a famous family of WASP intellectuals.  “Twenty-One” was the creation of two Jews named Jack Berry and Dan Enright.  Herbert Stempl, a Jew from Brooklyn, was the contestant who “took a dive” so that Van Dorn could win.

    1961: “The fifth Knesset started with David Ben-Gurion’s Mapai part forming the tenth government” today.

    1961: Eliyahu Sasson began serving as the Minister of Postal Services in Israel.

    1961: Dr Giora Yoseftal began serving as Israel’s first Minister of Housing and Construction.

    1961: Elections confirm the predominance of the Labor movement. Mapia remained the largest party with forty-two seats.  But this was still 19 short of the sixty one seats needed for a majority which meant that Ben Gurion would have to form another coalition government.

    1961: Birthdate of Nancy Morris, the Montreal native “a Reform rabbi, who was appointed to Glasgow Reform Synagogue, formerly known as Glasgow New Synagogue, in October 2003, making her the first female rabbi in Scotland.”

    1963: In UK, June Flewett and Sir Clement Freud, the grandson of Sigmund Freud gave birth to Matthew Freud, the head of Freud Communications.

    1964: King Saud of Saudi Arabia is deposed by a family coup, and replaced by his half-brother King Faisal. Saud was on the throne during the 1956 Suez war and stopped exporting oil to Britain and France due to the Suez Crisis.  At the same time, he was an opponent of Nasser’s imperial dreams and provided aide to the royalist forces in Yemen. As king, Faisal continued the close alliance with the United States begun by his father, and relied on the U.S. heavily for arming and training his armed forces. Faisal was also anti-Communist. He refused any political ties with the Soviet Union and other Communist bloc countries, professing to see a complete incompatibility between Communism and Islam, and associating Communism with Zionism, which he also criticized sharply. He also engaged in a propaganda and media war with Egypt's pan-Arabist president, Gamal Abdel Nasser, and engaged in a proxy war with Egypt in Yemen that lasted until 1967 (see Yemeni Civil War). Faisal never explicitly repudiated pan-Arabism, however, and continued to call for inter-Arab solidarity in broad terms. During the 1973 Arab-Israeli War, launched by Faisal withdrew Saudi oil from world markets, in protest over Western support for Israel during the conflict. This action quadrupled the price of oil and was the primary force behind the 1973 energy crisis. It was to be the defining act of Faisal's career, and gained him lasting prestige among many Arabs and Muslims worldwide. The new oil revenue allowed Faisal to greatly increase the aid and subsidies begun following the 1967 Arab-Israeli to Egypt, Syria, and the Palestine Liberation Organization.

    1966:  Birthdate of actor David Schwimmer best known for his role as Ross on the television hit Friends.  Schwimmer demonstrated the fact that he does have some range as an actor when he played a miss-fit officer in the World War II series, Band of Brothers.

    1970: Bella Abzug was elected to the United States House of Representatives on a proudly feminist, anti-war, environmentalist platform.

    1973: "Barbra Streisand ...and Other Musical Instruments" airs on CBS TV

    1975:The impact of the publication of Against Our Will: Men, Women and Rape was reflected in four different articles published in the Washington Post

    1976: Jimmy Carter elected President of the United States.  Carter will be remembered as the man who brokered the peace treaty between Egypt and Israel as well as the ex-President who voiced increasingly anti-Israeli opinions as the 20th century gave way to the 21st century.

    1976: In Israel, founding of the Democratic Movement for Change known as DASH.

    1983(26th of Cheshvan, 5744): Seventy-five year old Leonard Bertram Naman Schapiro the native of Glasgow who spent part of his childhood in Russia and who is the author of The Origins of the Communist Autocracy and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union passed away.

    1984: A Brooklyn synagogue two blocks from one that was virtually destroyed in an arson fire two days agi was the target of an arson attempt this evening. The latest fire was set in the doorway of Congregation and Talmud Torah Tifereth Israel, at 2025 64th Street in the Bensonhurst section. A passer-by spotted the small fire at 6:35 P.M. and put out the flames, the police said. The Fire Department said that a flammable liquid had apparently been splashed on the door. The fire caused little damage. The earlier fire occurred at the Mapleton Park Hebrew Institute, which houses a synagogue and a yeshiva, at 2022 66th Street.

    1988:  Yitzchak Shamir led Likud to victory in the Israeli election.

    1988(22nd of Cheshvan, 5749): Screenwriter Lukas Heller, the native of Kiel whose film credits including “Hush…Hush, Sweet Charlotte” and who is the father of British writers Bruno and Zoe Heller, passed away today.

    1991(25th of Cheshvan, 5752): Movie Producer Irwin Allen, best known for The Poseidon Adventure, passed away.

    1991(25th of Cheshvan, 5752): Eighty-one year old Yosef Aharon Almogi passed away in Haifa.  Born in the Polish part of the Russian Empire, he made Aliyah in 1930 and served in the British Army during World War II.  During his political career he served in the Knesset and held various cabinet posts.

    1993: Ehud Olmert defeats Teddy Kollek, ending Kollek’s twenty-eight tenure as Jerusalem’s mayor.

    1994: The Hobcaw Barony, which consisted of over 15,000 acres in South Carolina acquired by Bernard Baruch which became a nature preserve and eventually came to be owned by The Belle W. Baruch Foundation “was named to the National Register of Historic Places”

    1997: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or about topics of Jewish interest including The World of Benjamin Cardozo: Personal Values and the Judicial Process by Richard Polenberg, Paris in the Fifties by Stanley Karnow,Where She Came From: A Daughter's Search for Her Mother's Historyby Helen Epstein, Strangers to the Tribe: Portraits of Interfaith Marriage by Gabrielle Glaser, Roadkill by Kinky Freeman, My Vast Fortune by Andrew Tobias, The Autobiography of Foudini M. Cat by Susan Fromberg and Memoirs by Sir George Solti.

    2000: Ayelet Shahar Levy, 28, and Hanan Levy, 33, were killed in a car bomb explosion near the Mahane Yehuda market in Jerusalem. 10 people were injured in the blast. The Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility for the attack.

    2001(16th of Cheshvan, 5762):  Elazar Menachem Man Shach passed away.  Born and educated in Lithuania, he was a leading Haredi Rabbi in Bnei Baraik

    2001(16th of Cheshvan, 5762): Shoshana Ben Ishai, 16, of Betar Illit and Menashe (Meni) Regev, 14, of Jerusalem were killed when a Palestinian terrorist opened fire with a sub-machine gun shortly before 16:00 at a No. 25 Egged bus at the French Hill junction in northern Jerusalem. 45 people were injured in the attack.

    2001(16th of Cheshvan, 5762):  Rabbi Morton M. Applebaum passed away at age 90 in Boca Raton. He was Rabbi of Temple Israel from 1953 to 1979, and continued as Rabbi Emeritus of Temple Israel until his death.

    2001: Radio Liberty reported that fifty gravestones in a Jewish cemetery were desecrated in Baku, Azerbaijan.

    2002: Matan Vilnai completed his term Minister of Culture and Sport.

    2002: Binyamin Fuad Ben-Eliezer completed his term as Minister of Defense.

    2003: The New York Timesbook section features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or on topics of special Jewish interest including Family Circle: The Boudins and the Aristocracy of the Left by Susan Braudy, Autumn of the Moguls: My Misadventures With the Titans, Poseurs, and Money Guys Who Mastered and Messed Up Big Mediaby Michael Wolff and George Gershwin: A New Biography by William G. Hyland

    2005: German Foreign Minister Joschka Fischer praised the decision of The United Nations General Assembly to unanimously approve the proposal to set January 27 as the "International Day of Commemoration in Memory of the Victims of the Holocaust."

    2005: As further evidence of the changing face of Conservative Judaism in Israel  three new female rabbis and one male who were ordained on at the Masorati/Conservative movement's Schechter Rabbinical Seminary, with religious backgrounds ranging from Orthodox to secular and a variety of cultural heritages, including Moroccan and French.

    2006: The Helicon Association's Sha'ar Poetry Festival opens at the Hebrew-Arabic Theater Complex in Jaffa.
    2007: Richard Pratt, the Polish born  Jewish Australian businessman  and the Visy group received a $36 million fine, representing both the largest fine in Australian history and an estimated 0.75% of the Pratt fortune]
    2007: Physician Oliver Sacks discusses and signs Musicophilia: Tales of Music and the Brain at Politics and Prose Bookstore in Washington, D.C.

    2007: This evening, four mortar shells were fired at an Israeli community north of Gaza. All landed in open territory, and no wounded or damage were reported. This was the second such attack from Gaza in the least two days.
    2008: Saul Steinberg: Illuminations, a travelling exhibition, which displays original Steinberg works came to a close at Kunsthaus Zürich
    2008: James Galway, “the man with the golden flute," gives a concert at Tel Aviv's Performing Arts Center.

    2008: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or about topics of Jewish interest including The Road To Rescue: The Untold Story of Schindler’s Listby Mietek Pemper with Viktoria Hertling, assisted by Marie Elisabeth Müller; translated by David Dollenmayer and Searching for Schindler: A Memoir by Thomas Keneally

    2008: The Washington Post book section reviewed Chagall: A Biographyby Jackie Wullschlager and featured the work of Jewish poet Brenda Hillman including a poem entitled “Partita for Sparrows,"

    2009:Mitch Albom, author of the bestselling Tuesdays with Morrie, reads from and signs his new inspirational book, Have a Little Faith: A True Story, at the Sixth & I Historic Synagogue in Washington, D.C.

    2009: At the St. Louis Jewish Book Festival, Thomas M. Bloch leads a presentation entitled: “Stand for the Best” during which he discusses “What I Learned After Leaving My Job as CEO of H&R Block to Become a Teacher and Founder of an Inner-City Charter School

    2009(15th of Cheshvan, 5770): Sixty-one year old Shabati Kalmanovich “a KGB spy, who later became known in Russia as a successful businessman, concert promoter and basketball sponsor” was killed today.

    2009 (15 Cheshvan, 5770): Seventy-three year old Lord Leonard Steinberg, a much loved leader and philanthropist who passed away today.


    2009 (15 Cheshvan, 5770):Sixty-eight year old Amir Pnueli, “who turned a philosopher’s explorations of time, logic and free will into a critical technique for verifying the reliability of computers, passed away today.”  (As reported by Kenneth Change)

    2010(25th of Cheshvan, 5771): Eighty-eight year old Sarah Doron passed away.  A native of Lithuania she made Aliyah in 1933 and pursued a political career that led to her being elected to the Knesset as a member of Likud.

    2010: Proposition 19 which would have legalized marijuana in the State of California, a cause to which George Soros had contributed a million dollars, failed to pass in today’s election.

    2010: The New York Times reviewed two books by Jewish authors: Cleopatra: A Life by Stacy Schiff and Frank:The Voice by James Kaplan

    2010:Cedar Lake is scheduled to present the New York Premier of Israeli born Hofesh Shecter’s “The Fools” at the Joyce.

    2010: Eric Cantor, the only Republican Jewish member of the House of Representatives, is among those standing for office in the U.S. elections which are scheduled to be held today.

    2010:Today's US midterm elections propose to present a disproportionately large number of Jewish candidates for high office, some of them in quite unexpected places. Several already well-known political names in important races are California Senator Barbara Boxer (D), running for re-election in a close race with former Hewlett Packard executive Carly Fiorina, and former Connecticut state attorney-general Richard Blumenthal who has maintained a slight lead against Linda McMahon of WWE wrestling fame for the state's open Senate seat. Blumenthal has managed to maintain a single-digit lead, despite a minor scandal over exaggerated claims of Vietnam War service, in no small part due to Connecticut women's discomfort with McMahon's close ties with a sport known for violence and a significant element of misogyny

    2011: The Center for Jewish History is scheduled to a present a lecture entitled “Glikl’s Legacy: Jewish Women in France before the Revolution” by Professor Jay Berkowitz, the Center’s inaugural National Endowment for the Humanities Senior Scholar Fellowship,

    2011: Hyman S. & Freda Bernstein Jewish Literary Festival is scheduled to come to a close tonight in Washington, D.C.

    2011:Israel test-fired a ballistic missile today, at the Palmahim Israel Defense Forces base in central Israel. The test was part of an examination of a new missile currently being developed by the defense establishment.

    2012: U.S. premiere of “A Late Quartet” a must see “little cinematic gem” produced and directed by Yaron Zilberman who co-authored the script along with Seth Grossman.

    2012: As part of the Turkish-Jewish Festival, Tikvat Israel in Rockville, MD is scheduled to follow Kabbalat Shabbat with “an authentic vegetarian Turkish dinner prepared by Beyhan Cagri Trock author of The Ottoman Turk and the Pretty Jewish Girl – Real Turkish Cooking.

    2012:Beth El, Shir Tikvah, Temple Israel, Kol Ami, & Emanu-El are scheduled to host the WRJ Central District Convention.

    2012: Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas denounced the firing of rockets from Gaza into Israel in an interview with Channel 2 that aired in its entirety tonight.

    2012:The comments by Defense Ministry security and diplomacy chief Amos Gilad do not reflect the positions of the security establishment nor do they reflect the positions of Gilad, the Defense Ministry said in a statement today. The statement follows comments made by Gilad earlier in the day at the IDC Herzliya's "Strategic Fridays" event, in which he said that "There is no talking going on between (Israel's) and Egypt's political echelons and I don't think there will be."

    2012: The Ritual Committee of Temple Judah is scheduled to host a Spaghetti Dinner as part of the Friday night Shabbat celebration.

    2012: In “The Lox Sherpa of Russ & Daughters” Corey Klignannon described the role of Chhappte Sherpa “saving the salmon” at the “popular lox purveyor” as Hurricane Sandy struck New York.

    2012: “Orchestra of Exiles” is scheduled to open in Los Angeles.

    2012: Ninety-fifth anniversary of the Balfour Declaration

    2013: In Jerusalem, the Eden-Tamir Music Center is scheduled to host a chamber music concert, “From Mozart to Kleizmer.”

    2013: The 19th annual San Diego Jewish Book Store is scheduled to begin this evening.

    2013:The Oshman Family JCC in Palo Alto, California, is scheduled to host a screening of “Orchestra of Exiles” and a performance of by the string quartet from the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra.

    2013:IDF Spokesperson's Unit reported that IDF fired at two Syrians who approached the border fence from the Syrian side in the southern Golan Heights while trying to steal mines. (As reported by Maor Buchnik, Yoav Zitun)

    2013:  German Chancellor Angela Merkel today cautioned her countrymen against the dangers of anti-Semitism, a week ahead of the 75th anniversary of Kristallnacht, a series of pogroms carried out against German Jews in 1938.

    2013: Tom Maayan “started at point guard in Seton Hall’s first of the season” today.

    2013: “Oregon or Bust” is scheduled to come to an end at the Oregon Jewish Museum.

    2014: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Nazis Next Door: How America Became a Safe Haven for Hitler’s Men by Eric Lichtblau and  Lincoln and the Power of the Press: The War for Public Opinion by Harold Holzer

    2014: Under the leadership of Amy Barnum, Hadassah is scheduled to hold its annual Donor Dinner in Cedar Rapids, Iowa.

    2014: Artist Shirley Gittlesohn is scheduled to host “an informal tour of her exhibit ‘L’Chaim—To Life! At the Oregon Jewish Museum and Center for Holocuast Education

    2014: A Day of Jewish Learning, an “annual adult education conference featuring seventy sessions” is scheduled to take place at American University in Washington, DC.

    2014: The Twin Cities Jewish Film Festival is scheduled to come an end today.

    2014: “Holocaust Education Week” is scheduled to begin today.

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    November 3

    166 BCE (15th of Cheshvan, 3595): Mattathais ben Yochanan passed away.

    361: Roman Emperor Constantius II died. Constantius II enhanced the anti-Jewish policies begun by his father. Under his rule, converting to Judaism became a combination of trip down the road to economic ruin and a capital offense. He prohibited Jews from marrying Christian women and from converting Christian women to Judaism.  Christian slaves owned by Jews were freed and it was a capital offense for Jews to circumcise slaves in their household. He decreed that Christians who converted to Judaism would forfeit their property to the state. 

    1394: Enforcement of an order expelling all Jews from France that had Charles the VI had signed on Yom Kippur.  The pretext for issuing the order on September 17, 1394, was a report that a Parisian named Denis Machuit who had converted to Christianity had returned to Judaism.

    1534: Pope Paul III decided that the bulls of his predecessor, Pope Clement that favored the Marranos and expressed opposition to the Inquisition should not be issued.

    1604: Birthdate of Osman II, a Sultan who reigned during the 17thcentury which was a period of decline for the Ottoman Empire and its Jewish subjects.  Unlike many of his predecessors, it appears that Osman did not employ an Jews as court physicians or close advisors.

    1643(21st of Cheshvan): Rabbi ben Mordecai Azulai, author of Or ha-Hamahpassed away

    1654: David Abrabanel Dormido, presented a petition calling for the re-admission of the Jews to England Oliver Cromwell, the English Lord Protector. Dormido, was a leading Amsterdam Jew, who had been entrusted by Manasseh ben Israel to handle negotiations aimed at gaining the re-admittance of the Jews into England. Cromwell recommended that the Council accept the petition, but the matter stalled and Cromwell was forced to find another way to reach his goal.

    1766: Twenty-seven year old German mathematician Thomas Abbt who befriend Moses Mendelsohn before he became famous, passed away today.

    1783: At the end of the American Revolution, The American Continental Army was disbanded. The majority of the small Jewish community in the United States supported the Revolution.  Among those who fought for the cause were: Francis Salvador of South Carolina who literally lost his scalp while fighting for the American cause, Mordecai Sheftall of Georgia who served as Commissary-General for the state’s troops, David Franks who had the mis-fortune of serving as aide-de-camp to Benedict Arnold, Isaac Franks who was captured at the Battle of Long Island but escaped to fight another day and Solomon Bush who rose to the rank of Lt. Colonel, possibly making him the highest ranking Jew to serve in the Continental Army.

    1787: Seventy-six year old Robert Loth, a Bishop of the Church of England who was awarded a Doctorate in Divinity by Oxford University, for his treatise on Hebrew poetry entitled Praelectiones Academicae de Sacra Poesi Hebraeorum (On the Sacred Poetry of the Hebrews) in 1754 and whose translation of Isaiah would be rated as the best English version by scholars in the 19th century passed away today.

    1810: Birthdate of German Reform rabbi Leopold Stein who “composed for the Reform ritual the song "Tag des Herrn," to be sung to the music of "Kol Nidre" on the eve of the Day of Atonement.”

    1810: In Zagare, Lithuania, Rabbi Zev Wolf and his wife Leah gave birth to Rabbi Yisroel ben Ze'ev Wolf Lipkin, also known as "Yisroel Salanter" or "Israel Salanter" the father of the Musar movement in Orthodox Judaism

    1826: The French version “Margherita d'Anjou,” an operatic melodramma semiseria in two acts by Giacomo Meyerbeer premiered at Theatre Odéon in Paris

    1835: Birthdate of Charles Louis Fleischmann who, along with his brother Maximilian created America’s first commercially produced yeast, which revolutionized baking in a way that made today’s mass production and consumption of bread possible.  Yes, Fleischmann’s yeast is Kosher.

    1837: Birthdate of German actor Ludwig Chronegk, the native of Brandenburg-on-the-Havel who “was the stage-manager and "Intendanzrath" of the famous Meininger troupe established at Weimar by Duke George of Meiningen.”

    1839: Issuance of The Hatt-ı Şerif of Gülhane a proclamation that “launched a period of reforms” in the Ottoman Empire which held to improve the situation of Turkish Jews.

    1846(14th of Cheshvan, 5607): Rabbi Abraham Auerbach, nephew of Joseph David Sinzheim who survived the Reign of Terror in France and whose seven sons included Rabbi Benjamin Hirsch Auerbach, passed away today in Bonn, Germany

    1847: Kehillat Anshe Ma'arab, the first Jewish congregation in Chicago, was established today, when a constitution was adopted and signed by fourteen members. Morris L. Leopold, a young man of twenty-six, born in Laubheim, Württemberg, was elected president(As reported by the Jewish Encyclopedia)

    1860: The first neighborhood outside the old city wall of Jerusalem was dedicated. The site was purchased by Sir Moses Montefiore five years earlier and known as Mishkenot Sha'ananim. Although there was initial resistance to leaving the "security" of the old city walls, it soon led to the establishment of dozens of new neighborhoods.

    1868: U.S. Grant won the Presidential election defeating Horatio Seymour. Grant was the first President to attend a synagogue service while in office. In 1876 Adas Israel Congregation in Washington D.C. was dedicated and Grant was in attendance. At the time, Adas Israel was an Orthodox Congregation.  Today it is one of two Conservative congregations still in the District of Columbia.

    1869: The Philadelphia Conference of Reform Rabbi opened today  p46

    1873: George de Worms, 2nd Baron de Worms and Louisa de Samuel gave birth to Percy de Worms the grandson of Solomon Benedict de Worms and Henrietta Samuel and the great-great-grandson of Mayer Amschel Rothschild.

    1877: As conflict continues to swirl through the Balkans, it was reported today, that several Polish dissidents who may  have been the intended recipient of arms being shipped secretly from Vienna have been arrested based on information provided by an un-named Jew from Gratz “who has turned state’s evidence for a consideration. [Editor’s note – the veracity of this report is open to question.  It could have represented an attempt to stir up enmity between Poles and Jews; the image of the Jew selling out for money is as old as the calumny about Judas Iscariot]

    1878: First settlers moved to Petach Tikva.  Petach Tikva is Hebrew for Gateway of Hope.  A group of Jews from Jerusalem bought land from a Greek landowner on the coastal plain.  The initial settlement failed because of malaria and crop failure.  Petach Tikva would rise again and a youthful David Ben Gurion would be one of the settlers.

    1879: The Board of Trustees of Temple Beth-El met this evening to plan the funeral for the Rabbi David Einhorn, of blessed memory. Mrs. Einhorn, who had wanted the funeral to be a private affair agreed to allow for a more public event which will be conducted by Rabbi Kauffman Kohler, her son-in-law and the man who had succeeded Rabbi Einhorn when he retired as the spiritual leader of Temple Beth-El

    1879: It was reported today that France has successfully reasserted herself in the field of foreign affairs.  Among the areas where the French appear to be on the verge of accomplishing their goals is Romania where she has worked to convince the government of the need to fully emancipate her Jewish population.  This is reported as a self-less act since the French have no national interest in accomplishing this.

    1881: It was reported today that the Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum is planning on building a new facility that will house 600 children.  Located between 136thand 138th street,  the new structure will cost $250,000 which does not include the cost of the land.

    1884: “Tried For Burning A Synagogue” published today draws on information that first appeared in the London Standard  describes a trial In Hungary where five  Jews have been charged with arson for their role in burning down a synagogue five years ago.  The trial is expected to last two weeks since testimony is to be heard from 90 witnesses.

    1884: Based on information that first appeared in the London Truth, it was reported today that the Duke of Westminster has declined to renew Sir Moses Montefiore’s lease on the house in Park Lane that has been his home for several decades on the terms requested.  Instead he has said that he will “accept the worthy old gentleman as a yearly tenant”

    1885(25th of Cheshvan, 5646): Milton Silverman, the son of shoemaker Julius Silverman died as a result of a blow struck by Julius Rubiner, a Jew from Poland who owned a grocery store on Hester Street.

    1888: In St. Petersburg, the police “have given notice that Jews will not be allowed to change their names or to reside in the capital without a permit.”

    1889: Professor Felix Adler is scheduled to speak at the funeral of August Henry Edinger, the patron of several Jewish charities which is to be held this morning at 9:30 a.m.

    1889: It was reported today that 30% of the students at the four inns of court in England “who passed examinations qualifying them to be called barristers” have “names that are Jewish.”

    1890(20th of Cheshvan, 5651): Sixty four year old Manuel Joël, the Jewish philosopher who wrote essays on Ibn Gabriol and Maimonides and succeeded Abraham Geiger as the rabbi in Breslau, passed away today.

    1894: At Memorial Hall in Boston, 2,000 Jews attended “a mock funeral service” in which they rejoiced over the death of Czar Alexander III.

    1894: George T. Selikovitsch, the former editor of the Jewish Eagle declined an invitation to speak at the “mock funeral” for Czar Alexander III saying that “he disliked the Czar but was unwilling to trample on the grave.”

    1894: As European government’s mourned the death of Czar Alexander III, the Vienna correspondent for the London Standard reported that “some time ago a deputation petitioned the Czarevitch to intervene” on behalf of the Russian Jews.  The heir to the Russian throne replied, “I despise and condemn the expulsion of your countrymen, but my hands are tied.”  (The Czarevith, Nicholas II, proved to be as anti-Semitic as his late father)


    1895: The second annual concert of the Halevy Singing Society took place this evening at the Hebrew Institute Hall at East Broadway and Jefferson Street.

    1895: It was reported today that in Paris, the anti-Semitic Libre Parole is making an effort “to elevate personal hatred of the Jews to the height of a great principle

    1895(16th of Cheshvan, 5656): Forty year old Morris Deschner, forty-five Isaac Pensen and fifty-five old Jacob Shapiro, all Jewish tailors from Russia died today in a fire this morning at 7 Pelham Street which is “in the heart of the sweat-shop district.”

    1895: The monthly visiting day at the Hebrew Sheltering Arms was not held because the place has been placed under quarantine because of the measles epidemic.

    1895: “Youngsters In Politics” published today described a meeting co-hosted by the Hebrew Institute Street Cleaning League in which Mayor Strong addressed the Jewish boys and girls who have voluntarily joined together to keep the streets of the Lower East Side free from trash and garbage.

    1896: William McKinley defeated William Jennings Bryan in the race of the Presidency.  Like many populists of the day, Bryan dabbled in anti-Semitism.  The image of the international Jewish bankers denying the “free silver” to American farmers and workers was a favorite of the time. (You have to know American history to follow this one.)  Tom Watson of Georgia ran on the ticket with Bryan as the candidate for Vice President.  Watson’s anti-Semitism was cruder and more blatant than many other of his contemporaries.  Watson was a supporter of the Klan.  In 1913, he was a leader in whipping up anti-Semitic sentiment against Leo Frank. Watson may not have actually been at Frank’s lynching, but he certainly played a major role in making it possible to put the noose around the innocent Frank’s neck.

    1896: “Mother and Son Buried” published today described the joint funeral services that were held for Abraham Fox and his mother Ernestine Fox who had died two days from the effects of consumption, the same illness that claimed Abraham’s life.

    1898:The Zionist Delegation leaves Jerusalem and goes back to Yaffe. Herzl wants to leave the country immediately and they board the English orange freighter "Dundee" for Alexandria, Egypt.

    1899(1st of Kislev, 5660): Rosh Chodesh Kislev

    1899(1st of Kislev, 5660): Belgian engraver Jacques Wiener who designed the first Belgian postage stamps and whose talent led to him being “decorated with the Order of the Knights of Leopold and the Prussian Eagle” passed away today.

    1902(3rd of Cheshvan, 5663): Eighty-five year old philanthropist Ferdinand Reichenheim passed away in Berlin.

    1903: Panama proclaimed its independence from Colombia.  The first Jews who arrived in Panama in the early 16th century were Conversos, secret Jews.  The Jews formed their first community in 1876.  Within a decade after the revolution that created the independent Panama, there were approximately 500 Jews living in Panama.  Two of the families living in Panama at that time were the Henriques and the Sassos.  Vera Sasso, the daughter of a Sephardic merchant made her way to the United States where she became Vera Sasso Levy.  She is the great-great-great- grandmother of Jacob and Rachel Levin.

    1903(13th of Cheshvan, 5664:) Mena Roos, wife of Aaron Roos passed away.  Born in Bavaria in 1826, she was buried in Natchez, Mississippi, which at one time was home to a thriving Jewish community.  

    1905: Czar Nicholas II of Russia signs a document of amnesty for political prisoners.

    1908:William Howard Taft was elected 27th President. Taftwas the first President to attend a Seder while in office. In 1912, when he visited Providence, RI, he participated in the family Seder of Colonel Harry Cutler, first president of the National Jewish Welfare Board. This was probably a political fence-mending gesture designed to recapture some of the Jewish political support Taft lost when he failed to support efforts to halt anti-Semitic policies of the Czar aimed at American Jews.

    1908: Morris Hillquite received 21.23% of the vote in today’s election where he was running for the House seat in the 9thCongressional District.

    1911: Hundreds of Jews were left destitute by floods at Serres, Salonica.

    1911: The New York Timesreports that the Russian Premier has “heeded to the plea of the Jews” and modified the order to expel the Jews from the province of Ekaterinoslaff.

    1911(12th of Cheshvan, 5672): Seventy-five year old Rabbi Solomon Mosche passed away.

    1912: A Jewish teacher in a government school for girls in Volo, Greece, was dismissed as not being qualified to instruct Christian children.


    1913: In Pittsburgh, PA, Harry and Mary Levine gave birth to Milton Martin Levine, who “With his brother-in-law,…devised what was eventually named Uncle Milton's Ant Farm, which was an instant hit in the fad-crazy 1950s.”

    1913: The New York Timesreports on a study conducted by Abram Lipsky and published in the American Hebrew that examines the question of whether or not there is among the Jews of New York City a "Jewish vote" that can be depended upon for political purposes.

    1914: Meyer London defeated his Tammany Hall backed opponent in his bid for election to the House of Representatives.  This made him the second member of the Socialist Party to be elected to Congress.

    1914: Russia declared war on the Ottoman Empire

    1914: Mary Phelps Jacob won a patent for the first modern brassiere.  Mary Phelps Jacob was not Jewish.  But the woman who took the bra to its next level was “During the flat-chested Flapper era in the 1920’s, a Russian immigrant named Ida Rosenthal noticed that a bra that fit one woman did not fit another woman of the same bra size. With the help of her husband William, they founded Maidenform. Ida was responsible for grouping women into bust size categories (cup sizes) and developed bras for every stage of life from puberty to maturity.” (And you thought this was all about Talmud, Torah and Nobel Prizes.)

    1917:  As the Russian Revolution moves to its climax, which means Russia, will drop out of the war leaving the Germans to turn the full weight of the arms against the Allies on the Western Front, plans are made to send three leading Zionists, including Vladimir Jabotinsky, to Petrograd to rally Russian Jewry to the Allied cause.  One British official, Lord Hardinge, summed up the British expectations by writing, “With skillful management of the Jews of Russia the situation may still be restored by spring.”  Alas, the Allies were a day late and a dollar short.  They underestimated the power of the Bolsheviks and they overestimated the power of the Zionists and believed too much, like philo-Semites and anti-Semites, in the mythic power of “the Jews.”

    1918:  Poland proclaims independence from Russia after WW I.  There were about three million Jews living in Poland.  Many Jews were active in the movement for Polish Independence.  From 1918 until 1921, Poland was wracked by a series of wars and internecine conflicts that included several Pogroms.  There was enough concern among the Western Powers about Polish anti-Semitism that there was a series of explicit clauses in the Paris Peace Conference protecting the rights of minorities in Poland. In 1921 the March Constitution gave the Jews the same legal rights as other citizens and guaranteed them religious tolerance.  Unfortunately, the Polish government did not always honor these guarantees.

    1921: In his diary, Zionist leader Arthur Rupin describes how he convinced Montague David Eder that the four victims of Arab rioting should not be buried in quietly in the evening but should be interred following a dignified public funeral

    1924: Josiah Wegwood, the English political leader who would opposed the appeasement of Hitler and the British anti-Zionist policies in the 1930’s relinquished the role of Chancellor of the Duchy Lancaster.

    1928: Arnold Rothstein was shot and mortally wounded while conducting some business affairs at Manhattan's Park Central Hotel. He died the next day at the Stuyvesant Polyclinic Hospital in Manhattan. The shooting was allegedly linked to a gambling event that Rothstein had participated in the previous month with several associates and acquaintances

    1928: Premiere of B.P. Schulberg’s “Abie’s Irish Rose,” a film based on a play of the same name with a script co-authored by Herman Mankiewicz, that “tells the story of a Jewish boy, Abie Levy, who falls in love with and secretly marries Rosemary Murphy, an Irish Catholic girl, but lies to his family, saying that she's Jewish.”

    1932: German industrial leaders petitioned President Hindenburg to appoint Hitler as Chancellor, thus putting the lie to the later claim that they had not been early supporters of the Nazis.

    1938: In Hanover, Rabbi Emil Schorsch and his wife gave birth to Ismar Schorsch , the sixth Chancellor of The Jewish Theological Seminary.

    1936: President Roosevelt was re-elected in a landslide over Republican Alfred "Alf" Landon. During this second term, FDR would appoint Felix Frankfurter as a Supreme Court Justice.

    1936: Birthdate of Manford Levy the most ardent Longhorn fan on the face of the earth and one of the nicest people to grace the face of the earth.

    1938:Dr. Simon Ginzburg of Tel Aviv announced the formation of an American campaign committee to help raise $50,000 for the Palestine Hebrew Culture Fund. He had come to the United States to promote the interests of the fund. “Dr. Ginsburg is the chairman of the Hebrew Writers Association of Palestine and honorary secretary of the Hebrew Pen Club of Palestine.”  Plans are also in the works to “call a world conference of Hebrew writers, educators and laymen in connection with the World’s Fair in New York during May or June, 1939.”

    1938: In Paris, Herschel Grynszpan received a post card from his sister Berta that described how his family had been forced to leave Germany and then were stranded on  the Polish border because the Poles would not admit them.

    1939: In Los Angeles, CA, Arthur and Zelda Wolpe gave birth to Howard Eliot Wolpe, the “congressman who played a crucial role in passing legislation that imposed economic sanctions on South Africa in the 1980s, helping to bring an end to apartheid while overcoming two vetoes by President Ronald Reagan. (As reported by Dennis Hevesi)

    1941: Einsatzgruppe B reported 80,000 Jews have been killed in the Ukraine up to this point

    1942: During World War II the Second Battle of El Alamein ended in Egypt with the British defeating the German and Italian forces under Erwin Rommel. This defeat was one of the turning points of the war because it ended the threat of Axis conquest of the Suez Canal which would have severed the British lifeline to India and Australia.  It also ended the threat of genocide for the Jews of Palestine.  The same killing units that had joined the German Army when it swept across Eastern Europe were posted to the Rommel’s forces.  The threat was so real that the Jews had made plans for fighting a Nazi invasion in an attempt to ameliorate the impending slaughter.

    1942: Nathan Goldstein was elected for the first time as New York State Attorney General on the Republican ticket.

    1942: Forty-four year old Saul Adler of Ouachita Parish married Doshie Katherine Medaries of Lincoln Parish.

    1942(23rd of Cheshvan, 5703) Jewish communities of Bilgoraj, Poland, and Ostryna, Belorussia, are destroyed at the Belzec and Auschwitz death camps, respectively.

    1943(5th of Cheshvan, 5704): At Majdanek, 17,000 Jewish prisoners were mowed down by machine-gun fire.

    1943(5th of Cheshvan, 5704): Kalonymus Kalman Shapira, the Grand Rabbi of Piaseczno, Poland, whose works included Esh Kodesh, “a compilation of weekly sermons that contend with complex questions of faith in the face of the mounting suffering of the Jews in the ghetto” was among those murdered by the Nazis – a fate made all the more tragic by the fact that this sage had survived the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.

    1943(5th of Cheshvan, 5704): The Nazis murdered 43,000 in Aktion Erntefest (Operation Harvest Festival)

    1943: Three hundred Jews at Borki, Poland, near Chelm, are put to work exhuming 30,000 corpses, mostly of Red Army POWs taken prisoner and murderedlate in 1941. The bodies are burned on massive pyres.

    1943: The Germans undertake Erntefest(Harvest Festival), a planned massacre of Jews of three camps in the area around Lublin, Poland. About 18,000 are murdered at Majdanek, 10,000 at Trawniki, and 15,000 at Poniatowa. At Poniatowa, Jews who resist are burned alive in a barrack.

    1943: Jacob Katz, a Jewish cleaner at the Budzyn, Poland, concentration camp, rescues seven elderly Jews by hiding them beneath mattresses.

    1943: Riccardo Pacifici, rabbi of Genoa, Italy, is deported to Auschwitz along with 200 members of his congregation and 100 Jewish refugees from Northern Europe. The community in Genoa traced its roots to 511 C.E.

    1943:  Birthdate of pitcher Ken Holtzman.  Holtzman was often compared to that other Jewish southpaw, Sandy Koufax.  Holtzman’s rookie season coincided with Koufax’s last in the majors.  In his final game, Koufax pitched against Holtzman.  At the end of a pitcher’s duel, youth was served and Ken beat Sandy.

    1944: A trainload of Jews from the labor camp at Sered, Slovakia, arrives at Auschwitz. Because the camp's gas chambers are being dismantled, the 990 Jews on board are sent to work or to barracks rather than to their deaths.

    1945: Anti-Jewish riots continued for a second day in Egypt.

    1952:Mordechai Nurock became Israel’s first Minister of Postal Services which later became the Ministry of Communications.

    1952: In Salt Lake City, Utah, Helen (née Davis), a bookkeeper and cashier, and Jerome Hershel "Jerry" Barr, gave birth to the first child Roseanne Cherrie Barr who gained fame as the star of the hit sitcom “Roseanne.”

    1953: In Fort Worth, TX, Edwin Leon Nail and his wife Beverly Sue gave birth to Kathleen Sue Nail who gained fame as actress Kate Capshaw and the wife of Stephen Spielberg whom married after converting to Judaism.

    1953: Stanley M. Isaacs garnered 65.14% of the election for New York City Council.

    1955: “ ‘Israeli 'Hill 24 Doesn't Answer' at World” published today provides a review of one the earliest and what would prove to be one of Israel’s most enduring cinematic efforts.

    1955: The third Knesset started with David Ben-Gurion forming the seventh government of Israel today

    1955:Israel Bar-Yehuda replaced Haim-Moshe Shapira as Internal Affairs Minister in Israel.

    1955: Operation Volcano was completed this morning when units from the Golan Brigade’s 12 Battalion destroyed all of “the targeted Egyptian emplacements” at Sachba capturing “22 military vehicles of various types, anti-aircraft and anti-tank guns, heavy machine guns, mortars, light arms and communications equipment’ while killing and/or capturing 136 of the enemy.

    1956: During the Suez Crisis, British bombers attacked Egyptian ammunition dumps, airfields and military barracks.

    1956: During the Sinai Campaign, Israel informed Dag Hammarskjold that she accepted the cease fire and that her forces had already halted 15 kilometers east of the Suez Canal.

    1956: Among the large quantities of Egyptian military stores captured, Israeli soldiers found that captured Egyptian officers carried Arabic translations of Mein Kampf.

    1957: William Reich passed away.  Reich was born in Austria and trained under Freud. In 1933, he published The Mass Psychology of Fascism. When the text was banned by the Nazis Reich came to the United States.  His work with orgone got him in trouble with the FDA and he ended up in prison.  He passed away before he could gain parole.

    1959:Elections for the fourth Knesset were held in Israel today. Voter turnout was 81.5%

    1961: Eliyahu Sasson began serving as Minister of Communications.

    1962: Birthdate of Phil Katz, the programmer who created PZIP.

    1964:  President Lyndon B. Johnson soundly defeated Arizona Republican Senator Barry Goldwater to win a White House term on his own right.  Senator Goldwater’s father was Jewish, but Goldwater was raised as an Episcopalian.  Goldwater’s running mate was Congressman Miller who happened to be Catholic.  Bigots characterized the ticket as the Arizona Israelite and his fellow traveler from the Vatican.  During this second term Johnson would support Israel during the Six Day War in 1967.  Among other things, when the Soviets threatened Israel when the war went against their Arab clients, Johnson sent the Sixth Fleet into the eastern Mediterranean to let the Russians know that their interference would not be tolerated.

    1964(28th of Cheshvan, 5725): Bank manager Shimon Shalom, the father of Silvan Shalom, was murdered today during a bank robbery

    1968: The New York Times includes a review of Mosby’s Memoirs and Other Stories, Saul Bellow’s first work since the publication of Herzog.

    1968: During what became known as the War of Attrition,  IAF jets rise up to meet Egyptian MiG-17s attacking positions held by the IDF.

    1970: U. S. Premiere of “The Owl and the Pussycat” co-starring Barbra Streisand and George Segal.

    1970: Salvador Allende, an avowed Marxist, was elected President of Child.  “He immediately set about nationalizing the banks and larger industries.  The development was as alarming to the Jews as it was to the rest of the nation’s middle class citizens.  At least 6,000 of Chile’s 30,000 Jews departed for Israel or the United States within months of his election.

    1971: U.S. premiere of Fiddler on the Roof the movie version of the famous Broadway musical starring Chaim Topol

    1973(8th of Cheshvan, 5734):Gustave "Gus" Levy a senior partner of Goldman Sachs since 1969 when he succeeded the legendary Sidney Weinberg passed away. Levy was born in 1910 in New Orleans, one of three children of Sigmund and Bella Levy. Levy briefly attended Tulane University before dropping out, moving to New York City, working various job in the financial sector, and then joining Goldman Sachs in 1933 to head the then one-man trading department for a salary of $27.50 a week. He remained at Goldman Sachs for rest of his career and rose to senior partner in 1969. Levy was known for his tremendous energy, short temper, intelligence, and generosity.

    1978(3rd of Cheshvan, 5739): Fifty-six year old Marian Winters passed away while appearing on Broadway in “Deathtrap.”

    1981: David Levy began serving as Deputy Prime Minister of Israel.

    1988: Soviet Union agreed to allow the teaching of Hebrew

    1992: Jerry Nadler completes his service as a member of the New York State Assembly from the 67th District.

    1992: Jerry Nadler was elected to House of Representative for New York’s 17th district.

    1992: Dianne Feinstein and Barbara Boxer were elected to the U.S. Senate, becoming the first Jewish women senators, the first female senators from California, and the first two women to ever represent any state at the same time. An advocate and advisor on prison reform to California Governor Edmund (Pat) Brown; Feinstein became the first woman president of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors in 1969. In 1979, she won election as the first female mayor of San Francisco after the brutal assassination of Mayor George Moscone and Supervisor Harvey Milk. In 1992, she won a special Senate election to replace Pete Wilson who had left his seat to become governor of California. She was re-elected in the 1994 and 2000 elections. Feinstein became the first female member of the Senate Judiciary Committee. Inspired to run for Senate by the Anita Hill-Clarence Thomas hearings, Barbara Boxer became a Senator after 10 years of service in the House of Representatives. She was elected to a second six-year term in 1998. The Senate's leading defender of a woman's right to choose, Senator Boxer authored the Family Planning and Choice Protection Act and helped lead the floor fight for passage of the Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act.

    1992: Bill Clinton defeats George Bush and Ross Perot to become President of the United States.  During Clinton’s presidency, Jordan and Israel signed a peace treaty.  He also played a key role in brokering the peace accords between the Israelis and the PLO.  When Rabin and Arafat shook hands in the presence of a beaming Clinton most people thought a new day had dawned in the Middle East.  Unfortunately Arafat would never be able to make the leap from photo op to being the next “Anwar Sadat.”  Of course, another Jew, Monica Lewinsky played a prominent part in another aspect of the Clinton presidency as did Mark Rich the man who was mysteriously pardoned by Bill as he literally walked out of the White Office.

    1994: “Market Place; Big Winners, Big Losers in Snapple’s Life Story published today provides Floyd Norris’ view of the beverage company originally founded by Arnold Greenberg and Hyman Goldman.

    1998: Brian Schatz was elected to the Hawaii House of Representatives from the 24thDistrict.

    1998(14th of Cheshvan, 5759): Bob Kane, the creator of Batman, passed away.  Born Robert Kahn, you might say was the high priest of the World of Action Heroes.

    1998: In “A Holocaust Memoir in Doubt,” Doreen Carvajal discusses the controversy swirling around Fragments by Binjamin Wilkomirski.

    2001: Sir Ernst Gombrich passed away.  Born in Austria in in 1909 to a Jewish family that converted to a form of mystical Protestantism, Gombrich was left Austria in 1936 and moved to England where he became a renowned art historian.  Although he never reversed his family’s conversion Gombrich had a strong Jewish identity.  After the Nazis came to power he was always insistent on describing himself as an Austrian Jew.

    2002: In an article entitled “Norman Podhoretz's Old-Time Religion” Judith Shulevitz reviews The Prophets: Who They Were, What They Are and provides a vivid description of how Podhoretz manipulates the ancient text to fit his modern political agenda.

    2002(28th of Cheshvan, 5763): Actor Jonathan Harris passed away.  He was best known for his portrayal of Dr. Smith on Lost in Space.

    2002: Brian Schatz was elected to the Hawaii House of Representatives from the 25th District.

    2003: The U.S. Supreme Court declined to hear Alabama Chief Justice Roy Moore’s appeal of a lower court order to remove his Ten Commandments Monument from the rotunda in Montgomery, Alabama.

    2004: The World Jewish Film Festival, the first of its kind in Israel and the Jewish world comes to a close in Tel Aviv.

    2004: NPR features Kevin Rudd, foreign policy spokesman, in a segment on the Australian Labour Party and its policy toward Israel and the Jewish people in which he defends the party against charges of anti-Semitism and hypocrisy by Barry Cohen.

    2005: In a major shift of public sentiment Israeli newspapers reported that Pro-Israel rallies were being held front of Iran embassies across Europe.

    2005: A Broadway revival of StephenSondheim’s “Sweeny Todd” opened at the Eugene O’Neil Theatre.

    2005: Officials in a Slovak town have apologized to local Jews for a pogrom that took place shortly after the end of World War II. "We express deep regret of the tragic event, which has no equivalent in our modern history in terms of its evil and inhuman character," said the statement by Topolcany municipal officials presented to representatives of the Federation of Jewish Communities

    2007: In the early morning hours, one Hamas terrorist was killed and two others wounded when an IAF helicopter attacked a Hamas outpost in the southern Gaza Strip.  The Israelis were responding to mortar attacks launched against from Gaza against southern Israel. 

    2007: The Kibbutz Chamber Orchestra under Doron Salomon presents its Balkan music program at the Givataim Theatre at the Tel Aviv Museum featuring Theodosii Spassov the greatest player of a unique type of flute called the kaval

    2007: U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice is scheduled to arrive in the evening for her eighth trip to Israel in 2007.  The reported purpose of the trip is to bring pressure on Israel to ensure that the upcoming meeting between Arabs and Israelis in Annapolis is a success.

    2007: The Cedar Rapids Gazette reports that seven out of ten of the 265 Kibbutzim in Israel are now at least partially privatized operations.

    2008:Centro Primo Levi presents a lecture by David Ruderman, the Director of the Center for Advanced Judaic Studies at the University of Pennsylvania and renowned expert in the history of ideas that shaped the identity and culture of Italian Jewry, entitled “Beyond the Dialectic of Ghetto Versus Integration: Towards a New Vision of Jewish Cultural History in Italy.”

    2008: Time magazine includes a notice in its Milestones section about the recent death of Frank “Lefty” Rosenthal who ran four Las Vegas casinos in the 1970s and was the inspiration for Robert De Niro’s character in Martin Scorese’s film “Casino” as well as a review of Philip Roth’s newest novel, Indignation which begins with the reviewer writing “The first thing to say about Roth’s Indignation is that it’s a terrible book.”

    2008: The National Religious Party “announced a merger with the National Union, Tkuma and Moledet to form a new right-wing party, later named The Jewish Home.”

    2009: Janice Lieberman, author of How To Shop for a Husband: A Consumer Guide to Getting A Great Buy on a Guy appears at the 31st Annual St. Louis Jewish Book Festival.

    2010: Centro Primo Levi, CDEC, Milan, NYU Skirball Department for Hebrew and Judaic Studies, and Casa Italiana Zerilli Marimò are scheduled to present a symposium entitled “Racial Policies in Fascist Italy: New Documents and Perspectives.”

    2010: The San Diego Jewish Book fair is scheduled to open this evening with a presentation by Mosab Hassan Yousef, author of Son of Hamas: A Gripping Account of Terror, Betrayal, Political Intrigue and Unthinkable Choices

    2010:The IDF, working with the Israel Security Agency (ISA), killed a senior Al-Qaeda terrorist in Gaza today. The terrorist was identified as 27-year-old Mohammed Jamal a-Nahmnam who was plotting attacks against Israel and American targets in Sinai, Egypt, in coordination with Hamas.

    2010:About 500 Jewish agencies joined a 75-minute conference call today focusing on security. The call was organized after the thwarted mail-bomb threat against two Jewish institutions in Chicago.

    2010(26th of Cheshvan, 5770): Eighty-one year old Jerry Bock who composed the scores for such hits as “Fiddler on the Roof” and “Fiorello” passed away today.  (As reported by Robert Bervist)

    2011:In New York City, Israeli historian and journalist Gershom Gorenberg is scheduled to discuss the policies that threaten Israel's democracy, the little known history behind them, and the new direction that Israel needs to take to remain a democratic and Jewish state.

    2011:Dr. Judith Hauptman, the E. Billi Ivry Professor of Talmud and Rabbinic Culture at the Jewish Theological Seminary is scheduled to deliver a lecture entitled “Did Women Study Torah in the Talmudic Period?”  at Temple Shalom in Chevy Chase, MD

    2011:President Obama called for keeping up international pressure on Iran amid news reports that Israel may be preparing for war with the Islamic Republic.

    2011: Palestinian terrorists fired at Israeli security forces near Gaza today

    2011:Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu decided today to freeze funding to UNESCO after it had granted the Palestinians membership. Israel transfers some $2 million to the UN cultural body yearly.

    2012: Director Eytan Fox’s “Yossi” is scheduled to be shown at the UK Jewish Film Festival.

    2012: In Springfield, VA, Adat Reyim is scheduled to sponsor a fundraiser “Casino Royim.”

    2012: In Cedar Rapids, Iowa, the traditional minyan is scheduled to observe Jewish Book Month Shabbat celebrating two Living Literary Legends – Sir Martin Gilbert and Herman Wouk.

    2012:Jewish and Arab protesters squared off in Jerusalem tonight, a day after a Jewish man was non-fatally stabbed in the predominately Arab neighborhood of Ras al-Amoud.

    2012: In the wake of Hurricane Sandy, the 14th Street Y gets it power back today and announces that it will be open for business tomorrow.

    2013: SIGD Celebration 2013 sponsored by the Ethiopian Jewish Community is scheduled to end today.

    2013: Former Wall Street Journal editor Naomi Schaefer Riley is scheduled to talk about interfaith marriage at the San Diego Jewish Book Fair.

    2013: At Tikvat Israel in Rockville, MD, “Chocolate & Jewish Values: A Fair Experience” – a program which is designed to “promote overseas fair trade in the context of Jewish values – is scheduled to come to a close.

    2013: Jeremie Bracka's hilarious one-man Israeli comedy "Arafat in Therapy" satirizes the Middle-East peace process through farce, mockumentary and autobiographical monologue is scheduled to have its final performance at the United Solo Theatre.

    2013: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Social: Why Our Brains Are Wired to Connect by Matthew D. Lieberman, Dogfight: How Apple and Google Went to War and Started a Revolution by Fred Vogelstein and DOT Complicated: Untangling Our Wired Lives by Randi Zuckerberg

    2013: One of the largest, if not the largest picture of Chabad Rabbis is scheduled to be taken this morning at the Annual International Shluchim Convention (Kinus Hashluchim)  in Brooklyn, NY

    2013: Brad Ausmus was named the 37th manager in the history of the Detroit Tigers,

    2013:Chief of Staff Benny Gantz visited the soldiers who had been wounded in last Thursday's tunnel explosion on the Gaza Strip border. At the same time doctors are fighting to save the eyesight of Ahiya Klein, one of the soldiers wounded in the attack. (As reported by Maayana Miskin)


    2013: “A pregnant Syrian woman gave birth at Safed’s Ziv Medical Center this morning. Her son is the first baby from a mother fleeing Syria’s civil war to be born in Israel. When the mother realized there was no one in Syria who could deliver her, she asked to be taken to the border, where she hoped Israeli soldiers would pick her up and send her to an Israeli medical center, she said. (As reported by Judy Siegel-Itzkovich)

    2014: “A Letter to Mother,” the 1939 film which one of the last Yiddish movies made in Poland before the Nazi invasion is scheduled to be shown at the Center for Jewish History today.

    2014: JTA Washington Bureau Chief Ron Kampeas, Israel Correspondent Ben Sales and Senior Correspondent Uriel Heilman are scheduled to participate in a telephone discussion on the state of U.S. – Israeli relations.

    2014: In Sydney, “Gett, the Trial of Vivian Amsalem” and “The Outrageous Sophie Tucker” are among the films scheduled to be shown at the Jewish International Film Festival.

    2014: In London, The Wiener Library for the Study of the Holocaust & Genocide is scheduled to host “The Normality of Terror: the Heinrich and Margarete Himmler Correspondence.”

    2014(10thof Cheshvan):On this date 1656 from Creation, Noah and family entered the Ark. (Aish)

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    November 4

    1310: King Jaime II issued a royal decree exempting Judah Bonseynor from all taxes to which the Aljama of Barcelona was usually required to pay.  “The king also ordered that neither Bonsenyor nor his children should be molested on account of unpaid taxes, and that he should be at liberty to enter or leave the "Juderia," or Jewish quarter, at will.” Bonseynor severed Alfonso II and his son Jaime as Notary General of Aragon. He was the official who provided the authoritative translation of documents from Arabic into Spanish.  Considering the makeup of the Iberian Peninsula at this time, this was a position of great importance. (As reported by Richard Gottehil and Meyer Kayserling


    1482: In Spain by this date, nearly 298 persons had been burned at the hand of the Inquisition, while 98 had been imprisoned in Inquisitional prisons.

    1501: Catherine of Aragon, the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella (the Spanish monarchs who expelled the Jews from Spain) meets Arthur Tudor, the oldest son of English monarch Henry VII, for the first time.  One of the conditions of marriage between the two royal offspring is requirement by the Spanish monarchs that Henry VIIpromise that Jews would be forever banned from his kingdom.  

    1650: Birthdate of William III who was supported by Solomon de Medina who serve as an “army contractor  when the monarch  went to England to lead the Glorious Revelation   

    1677: The future Mary II of England marries William, Prince of Orange. They would later be known as William and Mary who took the English throne after the Glorious Revolution.  According to the historian Cecil Roth, the Glorious Revolution was financed, in part, by a Dutch Jew who lent the would-be monarchs an interest free loan of two million crowns and that “prayers were uttered in Dutch synagogues” for their success.

    1762(18th of Cheshvan, 5523): Moses Levi Ulff, the son of Levi Ulff, passed away today. In 1714 Levi Ulff “had moved his ribbon factory from Wesel to Charlottenberg” and the “king appointed him as his Court Jew ordering the royal regiments to secure their ribbons from his factory. In 1720, when Moses took over from his father “the order was renewed” and Crown Prince Frederick required the younger Ulff “to supply all the royal regiments with the necessary braid.”

    1722: Birthdate of Raphael Cohen, the native of Lithuania who became Chief Rabbi of Altona-Hamburg-Wandsbek.

    1787: Birthdate of English actor Edmund Kean who first  played Shylock in 1814 and whose subsequent portrayals Shakespeare’s famous Jewish character “could not be surpassed” and who gives him the form not of a figure from Genesis but from Venice in the Middle Ages.

    1806: M.J. Bing, one of Rothschild’s clients in Frankfurt wrote to Nathan Rothschild, head of the House of Rothschild in Great Britain, urging him to exercise caution in circumventing Napoleon’s ban on goods being shipped from England to Europe.

    1841: In Warsaw, pianist and composer Aloys Tausig and his wife gave birth to pianist, arranger and composer Carl Tausig.

    1843: In St. Louis, the United Hebrew Congregation assumed full ownership of the first Jewish cemetery which had been created in 1840. The cemetery was used until 1868. In 1867, the City of St. Louis prohibited further use of the grounds as a burial place. United Hebrew acquired land out in the county, which later became University City with the streets known as North and South Rd. and Canton Ave. Formal dedication of the new cemetery, called Mount Olive occurred in 1880. In 1880, the bodies in the original cemetery, as well as some of the stones were transferred to Mount Olive. In 1960, the name of the cemetery was changed from Mount Olive to United Hebrew.

    1847: German composer Felix Mendelssohn passed away. Born in 1809, Felix was the grandson of Moses Mendelssohn, one of the leaders who provided the basis for what became the Reform Movement.  Felix’s father wanted his children to be able to fully participate in German life, so he had them Baptized in 1816. Despite the trip to the Baptismal font and Felix’s brilliance, he lost out on at least one major appointment because he was Jewish.  Also, such musical luminaries as Wagner did not accept him.  They used his works as examples of misguided attempts to Judacize (and weaken) German culture in general and German music in particular.

    1852: Count Cavour became Prime Minister of Piedmont. Along with Mazzini and Garibaldi, Cavour made up the trinity who unified the states of the Italian peninsula and created the modern nation of Italy. Jews were among the most active supporters of the creation of Italian nationalism. Despite Cavour’s complaints the tough banking practices of Baron James Rothschild, Rothschild supplied Cavour with financial backing for the impending war with Austria.  Parts of Italy were in the Austrian Empire.  The two disguised the expenditures as being funds for a tunnel through the Alps.  Cavour appointed Jews to several top posts in his government, something hitherto unheard.  Isaac Arton served as his confidential secretary and “faithful lieutenant.”

    1861: The University of Washington opened in Seattle, Washington as the Territorial University.. Today Washington has 2,000 Jewish undergrads and 1, 000 grad students out of student population of 31,000 undergraduates and 12,000 grad students.  Washington offers approximately 20 Jewish studies courses with both a major and a minor in Jewish studies.  The university also offers year-round study programs in Israel.

    1863: Birthdate of Joseph Mendes da Costa, a Dutch born Sephardi sculptor.

    1871: Mr. R. J. de Cordova, famed Jewish raconteur and humorist delivered an address tonight entitled "Our First Baby" to packed house at the Association Hall in New York City.

    1876: “New Publications” includes a review of The Conquests of the Saracens by Howard A Freeman “which meets a general demand on the part of the reading public for information on the history of religion (most notably Islam) and politics in the East. “In answer to Lord Derby’s remark that in past times Jews…have been worse treated in Western Europe than Christians are now treated” in the part of Europe controlled by the Ottomans, “Mr. Freeman says that while the condition of the Jews has been getting better and better, that of the Christians under Turkish rule has been getting worse and worse.” (Derby’s comment on the treatment of Jews in Christian Europe comes, considering when it was uttered, as a real eye-opener.)

    1877: It was reported today that The Alliance Israélite Universelle or Universal Israelite Alliance “has become a very active and useful association.  Among its many goals, the Alliances provides instruction for the children of destitute Jews living in “the East” with training in the Hebrew language and religious customs.  According to the Jewish Messenger, the Association is supported by a wide range of Jews including Reform minded Germans, the Anglo-Jewish Associations, the growing American Jewish community and, of course, the French Jewish community.
    1878: “The Bible in the Schools” published today described the controversy in New Haven, CT concerning the reading of the sacred text in the public schools.  Opposition and concern comes from many quarters including Roman Catholics, Protestants and German immigrants but not from the Jews who were apparently of no concern to Christian board members.

    1878: It was reported today the Industrial School of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum has printed copies of a pamphlet by Dr. Isaac Schwab entitled “Can Jews be Patriots.”  The pamphlet was written as a refutation of Professor Goldwin Smith’s depiction of Jews as being unpatriotic. Goldwin Smith was a British-born Canadian college professor who was a notorious anit-Semite.

    1879:Justice of the Peace, Nathan Colman who was also the lay religious leader for the Jewish community, officiated at the first Jewish wedding in the Black Hills, when Rebecca Reubens married David Holzman today.

    1879:  It was reported today that Rabbi David Einhorn’s funeral will take place at 9 o’clock on November 6. Services will be led by two of Einhorn’s sons-in-law – Rabbi Kaufman Kohler of Temple Beth-El and Rabbi Emil Hirsch of Louisville – and Dr. Samuel Hirsch of Philadelphia who was one of Rabbi Einhorn’s closest friends.

    1879:  Birthdate of humorist, social commentator and vaudeville star, Will Rogers.  Rogers owed his early fame and fortune to Flo Ziegfeld.  Ziegfeld put Rogers in his famous Follies, leting Rogers stand on stage as a he twirled his lariat and came up with political zingers that would have made John Stewart smile. In 1924, the KKK was reaching the height of its power and was planning a large parade in New York.  Using his wit to try and deflate the Klan, Rogers pointed out that the Klan’s anti-Semitism was misguided if not downright anti-American.  As Rogers explained it, the Christians were beholden to the Jews for a successful Christmas.  After all, it was the Jews (remember this is the days of Gimbals’ and Macys) who sold the Christians all of the presents which were critical to the holiday celebration. 

    1882: It was reported today that “drunken rioters have plundered” the shops owned by the Jews of Presburg, Hungary. The renewal of anti-Jewish violence has resulted in the death of at least one Jewess. Apparently the sentencing of those involved in the September riots to three months in prison has not brought matters under control.

    1883: It was reported today that the Jews in New York “are solid” in their support for ex-Sheriff James O’Brien, the anti-Tammany Hall candidate for the position of Register.

    1884: Grover Cleveland was elected to first of two terms as President of the United States.  He is the only President to be defeated in his bid for re-election and then to come back and win the office on his “third try.”  During his first term, Cleveland appointed Oscar Solomon Straus, the leading American Jew of his time, as envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to Turkey.  Cleveland intended the appointment “as an indirect rebuke to the government of Austria Hungary, which had refused to accept an appointee as United States ministers because the minister’s wife was Jewish.  In his second term, Cleveland vetoed immigration bill aimed at keeping Jews, among others, from entering the United States.  After he had left the White House, Cleveland continued to show support for Jewish causes by appearing at protest rallies against Russia’s treatment of her Jewish citizens.

    1884: James Rubiner, a Polish Jew who owns a grocery store on Hester Street is still in jail today facing charges of having killed a youngster named Julius Silverman.  Silverman was part of a gang that started a bonfire in front Rubiner’s store as part of their election-night hijinks.

    1884: The New York Times reprints an article from the London Timesentitled “Montifore and the Jews” describes the Italian town in which the great philanthropists family had its roots an describes the growth and generosity of Moses Montifore.

    1887: It was reported today that Michael Simon has been elected as a magistrate in Glasgow. “He is the first Jew elected to that office in Scotland.”

    1888(30th of Cheshvan, 5649): Rosh Chodesh Kislev

    1888: Dr. Gustav Gottheil delivered a lecture at Temple Emanu-El this morning entitled “Government by the People and what it Owes to Judaism.

    1889: Mr. Rosenthal, the leading Republican in the Fourth District and the leader of the Hebrew American Republican League who has left the Republican Party plans to endorse the Tammany ticket at a mass meeting tonight.

    1892: Former Chancellor Bismarck was quoted today as saying “that only newspapers, Poles and Jews desired war between the Russians and the Germans.” (The Jew as warmonger would gain transaction as can be seen Lindbergh’s and Patrick Buchanan’s invocation of the image in the 20th and 21stcenturies)

    1893: Six Polish Jews were arrested in Hudson, NY for illegal registration.

    1894: “Boston Hebrews Rejoice” published today described “a mock funeral” held in Boston in which a large audience that included 2,000 Jews held in response to the death of the autocratic, anti-Semitic Czar Alexander III.

    1894: A cross section of editorial opinion from Jewish newspapers following the death of Czar Alexander III published today included: The Jewish Herald– “We are glad to announce that the tyrannic heart of Alexander II beats no more”; The Volksadvocat – “Hurrah for the Angel of Death!” and The Abendblatt – “The Czar is dead.  Long live the social revolution!”

    1894: Rabbi Joseph delivered a sermon today at Temple Emanu-El on “Civil and Religious Liberty in 1894”

    1894: “Russia’s Puerile Autocrat” published today provides a portrait of Russia new Czar, Nicholas II including  a report circulating in London that Mlle. Kischeneffski, “the beautiful Jewess” has been the mistress of Nicholas for the last three years and that she “has two Romanoff children.

    1895: It was revealed today that Samuel Levy owned the tenement on Pelham that burned down yesterday living four Jewish dead also owned the building on Cherry Street which was destroyed by fire last year.

    1895: Chancellor von Caprivi who is an opponent of the anti-Semitic parties had an audience with the Emperor today.

    1895: The will of the late Julius Lipman was filed in the Surrogate’s office today.

    1895: “The Halevy Singing Society” published today described a concert sponsored by the Jewish musical organization under the direction of Leon Kramer that featured soprano Catherine Hilke, baritone Karl Dufft, tenor Charles A. Kaiser and violinist Sam Franko.

    1895: The quarantine at the Hebrew Sheltering Arms ordered by Superintendent Henry Bernstein beause of the outbreak of measles continued in effect today.

    1897: In his address at the Teacher’s College at Morningside Heights, William T. Harris, the National Commissioner of Education said that among the threads of education is “the Hebrew thread…the religious one which we recognize in the celebration of worship one day each week and in the various holy days” which “we acknowledge” as “the most essential thread of our civilization.

    1898: Dr. Maurice Harris delivered an address tonight at Temple Israel  in which he replied Israel Zangwill’s criticism of Reformed Judaism.

    1898: Abram Nelson has filed a petition on behalf of his client Jacob H. Bibo in Surrogate’s court that will finally settle the estate of Jacob Bibo, his nephew who disappeared mysteriously in the 1860’s and his brother Isaac for whose estate he is the executor.

    1904(26th of Cheshvan, 5665): Willy Bambus passed away.  Bambus Willy Bambus was born in Berlin in 1862. Not much is known of his family and youth. Apparently he came from a modest background, had only a limited formal education and was to a large extent self-taught. Already in the mid-1880s Bambus was attracted to Zionist ideas and supported the idea of reclaiming the Land of Israel by the establishment of Jewish agricultural settlements in Palestine. He became a leading member of Verein Esra, a society founded in 1884 for the advancement of Jewish agricultural settlement in Palestine and Syria. To further their ideas and to disseminate them Bambus, with other members of Verein Esra, established the journal Serubabel in 1886. Their aim was "to raise Jewish national consciousness and assist the Yishuv in Erez Israel". Bambus edited Serubabel in the period 1887-1888. In 1891 he became the general secretary of the Komitee zur Abwehr antisemitischer Angriffe, an organization established by his life-long friend and patron Paul Nathan. At about the same time he became general secretary of Verein Esra as well, which changed its name to Esra, Verein zuer Unterstuetzung ackerbautreibender Juden in Palaestina und Syrien. In addition, in 1892 together with Heinrich Loewe he established Jung Israel, juedisch-nationaler Verein) (a pre-Herzlian Zionist organization). The first contact between Max Bodenheimer and Bambus was made in 1892. Their relationship outlasted Bambus' later rift with Herzl and his estrangement from the Zionist movement, until Bambus' death in 1904. In 1894 together with Hirsch Hildesheimer, Emile Meyerson, and Isaak Turoff, Bambus initiated the establishment of the Central Committee of Hovevei Zion in Paris. The Committee initiated the establishment of the colony Beer Tuvia in 1896. Bambus was involved in the establishment and development of a great number of Jewish associations in Berlin, some of which were quite successful, among others, the Verein fur juedische Geschichte und Literatur and the Juedische Lesehalle. He also published brochures and pamphlets, among others "Antisemitismus und Zionismus", "Palaestina in der Gegenwart - Kurzgefasster Abriss der politischen und physischen Geographie des heiligen Landes", and the article "Die Juedische Ackerbaukolonisation in Palaestina und ihre Geschichte". He also published articles in the Jewish press on Jewish and Zionist subjects. In March 1897 he participated in the conference convened by Herzl in Vienna to prepare the First Zionist Congress. Although he antagonized Herzl, he nonetheless attended the First (1897) and the Second (1898) Zionist Congress, during which he disputed some of Herzl's policies, especially Herzl's categorical rejection of small-scale settlement in Palestine. He expressed his ideas in the periodical Zion, which he edited from 1896. When Herzl dispatched Leo Motzkin to Palestine on behalf of the Zionist Organisation to investigate the state of the Jewish colonies, Bambus was deeply offended. In reaction to Motzkin's report at the Second Zionist Congress in 1898, he published a brochure entitled "Herr Motzkin und die Wahrheit ueber die Kolonisation Palaestinas" in which he sharply criticized the report. In view of the weakening of his position among the Zionists in Berlin and his refusal to accept Herzl's notion according to which settlement activities in Palestine should be delayed until legal political guarantees were obtained, he withdrew from the Zionist Organization sometime after the Second Zionist Congress. Bambus visited Palestine in 1895, 1899 and 1904. In 1896 he initiated and organized an exhibition of products from Palestine in several cities in Germany. In 1898 he established Eliada, a wholesale outlet marketing wines from Palestine in Hamburg, and in 1900 he exhibited wines and other agricultural products from Palestine at the World Fair in Paris. Even though he withdrew from the Zionist Organization, he continued until his death to advocate and assist Jewish settlement activities in Palestine and the development of manufacturing and industry. In 1900 he wrote a brochure entitled "Industrielle Kolonisation in Palaestina". In 1901, upon the creation of the Hilfsverein der deutschen Juden, he became its first general secretary. His works include Palaestina, Land und Leute (1898), Die Kriminalitaet der Juden (1896), Die Juden als Soldaten (1897), and publications on Jewish settlement in Palestine mentioned above.

    1905: “The Earl and the Girl” with additional music and lyrics by Jerome Kern opened at the Casino Theatre in New York.

    1908: Birthdate of nuclear physicist and anti-nuclear activist Joseph Rotblat.

    1910: Attack made on the Jewish bank in Sophia, Bulgaria.

    1911: Birthdate of Jack Rose the native of Warsaw who became an American gag writer and screen playwright.

    1912: Birthdate of singer Frances Faye, who died on November 8, 1991.

    1913: Jacob Aaron Cantor began his first term a member of the U.S. House of Representatives.

    1913: Benjamin Cardozo was elected Justice of State Supreme Court of New York. In February of the following year he was made a judge on the Court of Appeals

    1918: The German Revolution began when forty-thousand sailors took over the port in Kiel.  During the revolt, the Communist Party which included “Jewish members” would try and seize power much as their counterparts in Russia had done a year earlier.  The revolt would fail and eventually the Weimar Republic which also had Jewish leaders would come to power in the 1920’s.  Hitler would use the German fear of disorder and the presence of Jews in both of these movements to whip anti-Semitism and justify the Final Solution.

    1918: In Germany, Bavaria became the first (state to become a socialist “republic” under the leadership of moderate, non-Bolshevik Jew named Kurt Eisner

    1919:  Birthdate of Martin Balsam one of the finest and most prolific television and movie character actors of the 20thcentury.  From a juror in Twelve Angry Men, to Admiral Kimmel in Tora, Tora, Tora, to an officer in the wacky comedy Catch 22, Balsam played them all with skill and aplomb. He passed away in 1996.

    1921: Hadassah nurses and their teachers join the funeral procession which ends with the burial of the four victims of Arab violence at the Jewish Cemetery on the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem.

    1923: Rabbi Samuel Schulman at Temple Beth-el and Rabbi Stephen S. Wise at the Free Synagogue defended Israel Zangwill's recent address at Carnegie Hall in which the Jewish publicist declared that political Zionism was dead.

    1924: Republican candidate Jesse H. Metcalf was elected to the United States by the citizens of Rhode Island. In June of 1933, during a Senate debate on the treatment of Jews in Germany, Metcalf would join those who condemned the Nazi government. “We as a national can only declare the existence of racial or religious prejudice to be untenable as a national ideal.”

    1924: Republican candidate Albert Ottinger was elected Attorney General for the State of New York.

    1926: Birthdate of Laurence Rosenthal, the Detroit native who gained fame as a composer, arranger and conductor creating the scores for  “Raisin in the Sun” and “Becket”

    1926: Rabbi Bernard Drachman and Rabbi B.A. Tinter are scheduled to officiate at the funeral of Harry Houdini which will take place at the Machpelah Cemetery in the borough of Queens.

    1927: Rabbi David Cohen and Sarah Elkin gave birth to She’ar Yashuv Cohen, the Ashkenazi Chief Rabbi of Haifa.

    1928(21st of Cheshvan, 5689): Arnold Rothstein passed away.  Rothstein was one of New York City's most notorious gamblers.  He was a crook and a mobster; certainly not a credit to the Jewish people.  He was rumored to have been the brains behind the fixing of the 1919 World Series also known as the Black Sox Scandal.  He was shot to death over a poker game or gambling debts.

    1932(5th of Cheshvan, 5693): Seventy Four year old Salomon Reinach, the distinguished French archaeologist passed away. The brother of author and politician Jospeh Reinach and archaeologist Theodore Reinach, he was an active member of the Jewish community serving as vice president of the Alliance Israélite Universelle  

    1932:  Birthdate of actor and director Noam Pitlik.  Pitlik appeared in a variety of sit-coms including the Bob Newhart Show.  His directorial work included several episodes of the detective comedy series, Barney Miller.  He passed away in 1999.

    1936 Cardinal Michael von Faulhaber, the Archbishop of Munic travelled to Hitler's mountain retreat near Berchtesgaden

    1937:, Isaac Kaplan, who was the first member of his family to go to college, and  Bessie Zwirn Kaplan gave birth to  Fred Kaplan who  grew up in the lower-middle-class environment of third-generation Jewish Ashkenazic immigrant culture, first in the Bronx and then in Brooklyn, where his family moved when he was ten. He was one of four sons, the other three of whom became lawyers. His avid reading of novels and other books at home, in the public library, in the public schools of Brooklyn, and at Brooklyn College, where he majored in classics and philosophy (B.A., 1959), led to his partial assimilation into Anglo-American culture; he then earned an M.A. Fred Kaplan's biographies of Thomas Carlyle and Charles Dickens are part of a projected biographical quartet charting the sweep of Anglo-American culture from the Romantic to the modern era. Kaplan is committed to biography as a literary form and draws upon the techniques of narrative art; he aspires to combine the power and dramatic resources of narrative prose and the rigorous intellectual requirements of historical literary scholarship and cultural analysis.

    1937: The Palestine Post reported the British government’s announcement that there would be no retraction of the measures taken against members of the Arab Higher Committee and that the recent restrictions on Jewish immigration were only temporary. (The British must have had their fingers crossed on this last part of the statement since not only wouldn’t the restrictions be lifted they would actually be tightened.) It was decided, however, not to put pressure on the French authorities in Lebanon for the extradition of the mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin el-Husseini, from Beirut to Jerusalem (even though he was the architect of much of the Arab terrorism).

    1941: Stanley M. Isaacs won a seat on the New York City Council as an At-Large representative from Manhattan.

    1941: Franklin Mott Gunther, the U.S. minister to Romania “described in detail the massacres committed in Bessarabia and in Bukovina and the cruelties that were committed during the deportations to Transnistria.”

    1941: Last of a twenty train convoy made its way from Germany to the Lodz ghetto. In all, 19,837 Jews were taken. Banishment became official as the Reich Treasury issued directives that "Jews not employed in businesses of importance to the people's economy will be banished to one of the cities in the East. The property of the Jews who are to be banished will be confiscated

    1942: Regina Jonas, the Berlin native who “became the first woman to be ordained as rabbi” was forced by the Nazis “to fill out a declaration form that listed her property, including her books.”

    1942: During World War II, Axis forces retreated from El Alamein in North Africa in a major victory for British forces commanded by Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery.  This would mark the end of the Axis threat to the Jewish community in Eretz Israel.  Reluctantly, the British had turned to the leaders of the Yishuv to help prepare for the defense of the Middle East if Rommel had broken through at El Alamein and seized Egypt and the Suez Canal.  Many Egyptians were prepared to welcome what they would be a victorious German army and there wee reports of Nazi flags being flown in parts of Cairo.  The defeat of the Axis at El Alamein, along with the battles at Midway and Stalingrad, was considered a major turning point in the war.  The Allied victory in the spring of 1943 would free the Jews of North Africa from the threat of the Nazis and the Vichy French. 

    1943: In Poland, 3,898 Jews were deported from the Szebnie labor camp to Birkenau

    1943: The Jews of Florence, Italy were rounded up and deported,  

    1943: The Germans put down an inmate revolt at the slave-labor camp at Szebnie, Poland. The camp is liquidated; about 3000 Jews are deported to Auschwitz.

    1944: The ‘Death March' from Bor, Hungary, makes its way to Gyor, Hungary after a six week journey. Here hundreds of survivors were beaten or shot to death. The bodies were thrown into massive graves that the prisoners had dug just before their extermination. Five thousand people would start the march and only nine would survive to the end of the war. Many other similar marches would follow. After being forced to dig their own graves, hundreds of Jews from the copper-mine labor camp at Bor, Hungary, are shot or beaten to death at Györ, Hungary. Among the victims is a noted poet named Miklós Radnóti, age 35.

    1944: Weizmann and Churchill met to discuss the future of Palestine.

    1944 (18th of Cheshvan, 5705): Hannah Szenes, Hungarian born Palestinian who parachuted into occupied Europe as a British soldier with a mission to help anti-Nazi partisans is executed in Budapest after extensive torture.

    1945: Reports of of anti-Semitic “demonstrations in Syria, Lebanon and Egypt published today in Tarabaulus el Gharb, a Libyan newspaper helped “to fan the flames of existing anti-Jewish feeling” that led to an outbreak of anti-Semitic riots.

    1945: Anti-Jewish riots broke out in seven cities in Libya, including Tripoli. The riots would last for four days during which ten synagogues were burned an looted and Jewish homes and businesses were broken into and looted.

    1945: Drastic measures including imposing an extended curfew upon a wide strategic area southward and northward of the central harbor town of Haifa were announced by Maj. Gen. C.F. Loewen, British military commander of Northern Palestine.

    1946: Nathaniel Lawrence Goldstein is re-elected New York State Attorney General, make it two wins a row for Republican leader and lawyer.

    1948: The United Nations Security Council called for the withdrawal of all forces to the positions they had held on October 14, 1948.  It also called for negotiations to be conducted between the combatants.  The Israelis rejected the first part.  They were going to hold on to their gains in the Negev.  The Arabs refused to negotiate with the Israelis since they claimed that to do so would provide legitimacy to “the Zionist entity.”

    1948: Birthdate of Shaul Mofaz, the native of Tehran who became the IDF’s 16th Chief of the General Staff in 1998.

    1949: Elyahu Elath, the Israeli Ambassador to the United States asked George McGhee, the United States Assistant Secretary of the State for Near Eastern, South Asian and African Affairs if the United States would raise the question of the plight of Iraqi Jewry aat the United Nations, McGhee replied that  he ‘strongly’ recommended not raising the issue, because ‘a debate in the Gerneral Assemly would stir up feelings and do Iraq’s Jews more harm than good.”

    1950: Billboard reported today that Arnold Eidus, a prominent radio and concert musician is one of the founders of Stradivari Record which is production chamber music featuring performance by this famed violinist.

    1952: Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower was elected president, defeating Democrat Adlai Stevenson.  At the end of his first term, President Eisenhower would turn against the Israelis during the Suez Crisis.  He would side with the Soviets and save Nasser. 

    1952 (16th of Cheshvan, 5713):Aaron Nusbaumpassed away.  The Elgin, Illinois native was a vice president of Sears Roebuck & Co. and brother in law of Julius Rosenwald.  A noted philanthropist, he played a key role in the creation of the Adler Planetarium.

    1955: U.S. premiere of “The Tender Trap” the movie version of Max Shulman’s play for which he co-authored the screenplay Julius Epstein and which was produced by Lawrence Weingarten.

    1956: It was reported today that an Egyptian communique claimed Egyptian forces “had sunk four Biriths naval vessels and captured three troop landing craft at Suez.

    1956: During the Suez Crisis, it was reported that the British and French paratroopers would drop into the Canal Zone within the next 48 hours now that the British had neutralized the Egyptian air force.

    1956:  During the Sinai Campaign, a.k.a. The Hundred Hours War, Israeli forces reached the Suez Canal.

    1956:An IDF force of 180 vehicles successfully made the trek through the Sinai wilderness and took Sharm es Sheikh from the Egyptians.  After six hours of fighting, the IDF prevailed and opened the Straits of Tiran.

    1956: Soviet Army units unleashed a massive attack on Budapest as part of their move to suppress the Hungarian Revolution.  Jewish students had been prominent participants in the uprising.  Seeing that the revolt had failed and fearing a Stalinist style reprisal approximately 40,000 Jews joined the 170,000 Hungarians who fled to Austria.

    1960: Marilyn Monroe finishes her last film, The Misfits.

    1964: Commedian Lenny Bruch and club owner Howard Solomon were both found guilty of obscenity

    1970: U.S. premiere of “A.k.a. Cassius Clay” which was filmed by cinematographer Isidore Mankofsky.

    1974: New Yorker Richard Ottinger was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives.

    1977: The Vatican appealed to Israel to release Greek Catholic Archbishop Hilarion Capucci, who had just completed three years of his 12-year prison sentence for smuggling arms for Arab terrorists from Beirut to Jerusalem. An undertaking was given that Capucci, if released, would no longer engage in any anti-Israeli activity and would be posted to a monastery outside the Middle East.(The statement speaks for itself in terms of analyzing Vatican-Israeli relations).

    1979: A group of Iranian “students” stormed the U.S. Embassy in Teheran and seized 52 Americans whom they held hostage for 444 days.  The prolonged crisis was instrumental in Regan’s defeat of Carter which marked a fundamental change in the American political landscape.  It is also part of the Mosaic of Moslem attacks on Western Civilization of which the demand for the destruction of the state of Israel is another part.

    1980(25th of Cheshvan, 5741): A suicide operation carried out by the Shiite Muslims and supported by Syria killed thirty six Israeli soldiers in Lebanon. The attack came after both sides had agreed to a cease-fire.

    1987(12th of Cheshvan, 5748): Eighty-seven year old American painter, Raphael Soyer whose brother Moses and Isaac were also painters passed away today in New York. For more see Raphael Soyer and the Search for Modern Jewish Art by Samantha Baskind


    1989: “As the Communist regime in East Germany began to topple, Stefan Heym joined other prominent would-be reformers at Marx Engels Square in the center of East Berlin where he spoke to a crowd of 100,000, saying that ''socialism, the right kind, not the Stalinist kind, is what we want to build for our benefit and the benefit of all Germany.'' (As reported by David Binder)

    1990(16th of Cheshvan, 5751): Shalom-Avraham Shaki passed away.  Born in Yemen in 1906, he made Aliyah in 1914.  He worked as teacher before pursuing a career in politics that included service in the Knesset from 1962 until 1965.

    1991: Mid East peace conference ends in Madrid Spain

    1993(20th of Cheshvan, 5754): Seventh-three year old Peabody award winning producer Ely A. Landau passed away. (As reported by Eric Pace)

    1994: Unveiling of a sculpture of Fred Lebow created by Jesus Ygnacio Dominguez designed to honor the Holocaust survivor who founded the NYC Marathon. The sculpture depicts Lebow timing runners with his watch. In 2001, the statue was moved to its permanent location on the East Side Central Park Drive at 90th Street.  Every year, however, the statue is moved to a spot in view of the finish line of the Marathon

    1995: Aviv Geffen was scheduled to perform at tonight’s peace rally where chose to sing “Cry for You” (Livkot Lekha)

    1995 (11th of Cheshvan, 5756): Yitzchak Rabin, Prime Minster of Israel, was assassinated by a right wing fanatic who was opposed to Rabin’s efforts to bring peace to Israel and its Arab neighbors.  Rabin was born in Jerusalem in 1922, making him Israel’s first sabra Prime Minister.  Rabin’s distinguished career in the IDF included serving as Chief of Staff during the Six Day in 1967.  Rabin’s first stint as Prime Minister during the during the 1970’s ended with him being forced to leave office do to a personal financial scandal.  His defeat opened the way for Begin and the Likud to come to power for the first time in Israel.  Rabin did not have any illusions about the PLO and Arafat.  We will never know if Rabin’s vision would have borne fruit.  Instead a killer took it upon himself to end the life of man who had spent his life risking his life in defense of Israel and the Jewish people.

    1995: Shimon Peres began serving as Minister of Defense in Israel.

    1996: In article entitled “A Man Who Makes Us Worry” published in The Information Bulletin of the Library of Congress, Harry Katz reports on the decision by Jules Feiffer to donate his papers to the library and describes the importance of the collection.

    2001: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or about topics of Jewish interest including Old Men At by Chaim Potok and Where The Stress Falls by Susan Sontag

    2001(18th of Cheshvan, 5762): Shoshana Ben Ishai, 16, of Betar Illit and Menashe (Meni) Regev, 14, of Jerusalem were killed when a Palestinian terrorist opened fire with a sub-machine gun shortly before 16:00 at a No. 25 Egged bus at the French Hill junction in northern Jerusalem. 45 people were injured in the attack.

    2002: On his 54th birthday, Shaul Mofaz began serving as Israel’s Minister of Defense

    2002(29th of Cheshvan, 5763): Security guard Julio Pedro Magram, 51, of Kfar Sava, and Gastón Perpiñal, 15, of Ra'anana, both recent immigrants from Argentina, were killed and about 70 people were wounded in a suicide bombing at a shopping mall in Kfar Sava. The Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility for the attack.

    2003:  A ketubbah (Jewish marriage contract) printed in Utica, New York in 1863, is showcased as a "Second Guest of Honor" at the Louis Marshall Award Dinner at the Pierre Hotel. The "Second Guest of Honor" program is another effort to further expose the treasures of The JTS Library that the Board instituted in which a rare piece from The Library's collection will appear at an event outside JTS.

    2005(2nd of Cheshvan, 5766): Earl Leslie Krugel the West Coast coordinator of the Jewish Defense League was murdered by a fellow inmate, who struck him in the head with a block of concrete.

    2005: The Center for Tel Aviv History organized a special tour to mark the anniversary of the assassination of late Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin.

    2005: In Cedar Rapids, the National Czech & Slovak Museum & Library (NCSML) began hosting "The Tragedy of Slovak Jews," a special, temporary exhibition from the Museum of the National Uprising in Banska Bystrica, Slovak Republic. The exhibition addresses the tragic demise of the Jewish communities in Slovakia. Prior to World War II, Jews held an important and significant position in Slovak culture. The exhibit focuses on Slovak society and the solution of the Jewish question in the years 1938 – 1945, the first wave of deportations (March – October 1942), the origination of working and prison camps, the second wave of deportations in 1944, and the fascist reprisals in Slovakia.

    2005: As further proof of the changing face of Reform Judaism in Israel, the four new Reform rabbis ordained at Jerusalem’s Hebrew Union College half are women and include three native Israelis and one of Iraqi heritage.

    2006: Opening of the 10thAnnual UK Jewish Film Festival

    2007: Publication of Flotsam, by David Wiesner.

    2007: Author E.L. Doctorow, the son of parents “of Russian-Jewish origin,” receives the Chicago Tribune Literary Prize.

    2007: The Sunday New York Times features reviews of the following books by Jewish authors and/or that featured Jewish topics including The World in a City: Traveling the Globe Through the Neighborhoods of the New New York by Joseph Berger and Proust Was a Neuroscientist in which author Jonah Lehrerthe son of former Los Angeles ADL chief David Lehrer argues that artists predict the scientific future.

    2007: The Sunday Washington Post features reviews of the following books by Jewish authors and/or that featured Jewish topics including Gentlemen of the Road by Michael Chabon and Young Stalin by Simon Sebag Montefiore.

    2007: At the Jewish Community Center of Greater Washington 38th annual Book Festival, Pulitzer Prize winning David Vise discusses The Google Story: Inside the Hottest Business, Media and Technology Success.

    2007: In a festive ceremony at the Weizmann Institute of Science, 11 young women scientists, who had completed their PhD studies with honors at several Israeli universities and academic institutions, each received an award of about $20,000 per year for two years.

    2007: The New York city Marathon Minyan celebrates its 25th year of enabling runners to a join a minyan, lay tefillin and shout out the blessing ‘hanoten layaef koakh – He who gives strength to the weary’ prior to setting out on the 26.2 mile course through the city’s five boroughs. 

    2007: National Jewish Book Month begins.

    2008: America chooses between John McCain and Barack Obama in the U.S. Presidential election.  Regardless of the outcome, Obama is the first major presidential candidate whose closest political advisor – David Axelrod – is Jewish and who has a rabbi - Capers Funnye – as a family member.

    2008:   Agriprocessors filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection

    2008: A record number of Jews were elected to Congress. The next session of Congress will include 45 Jewish lawmakers, a new record, after Democrats Alan Grayson of Florida and John Adler of New Jersey took two House seats from the Republican column. Jared Polis, also a Democrat, was widely expected to win his Colorado House seat to match the previous record, set in the 2006 elections. The House will have 32 Jewish members. Only the class of 1990 had more Jewish members - 34 - but there were fewer Jewish senators at the time. The next Senate will have 13 Jewish members, the same as the previous session, despite a toss-up race in Minnesota, where both Republican incumbent Norm Coleman and his Democratic challenger, comedian Al Franken, are Jewish.


    The following is a list of the 45 Jewish members —13 senators and 32 representatives — who will serve in the 111th U.S. Congress that convenes in January:


    Barbara Boxer (D-Calif.)

    Benjamin Cardin (D-Md.)

    Norm Coleman (R-Minn.)**

    Russ Feingold (D-Wisc.)

    Dianne Feinstein (D-Calif.)

    Herb Kohl (D-Wisc.)

    Frank Lautenberg (D-N.J.)**

    Joseph Lieberman (I-Conn.)

    Carl Levin (D-Mich.)**

    Bernard Sanders (I-Vt.)

    Charles Schumer (D-N.Y.)

    Arlen Specter (R-Pa.)

    Ron Wyden (D-Ore.)


    Gary Ackerman (D-N.Y.)

    John Adler (D-N.J.)*

    Shelley Berkley (D-Nev.)

    Howard Berman (D-Calif.)

    Eric Cantor (R-Va.)

    Stephen Cohen (D-Tenn.)

    Susan Davis (D-Calif.)

    Rahm Emanuel (D-Ill.)

    Eliot Engel (D-N.Y.)

    Bob Filner (D-Calif.)

    Barney Frank (D-Mass.)

    Gabrielle Giffords (D-Ariz.)

    Alan Grayson (D-Fla.)

    Jane Harman (D-Calif.)

    Paul Hodes (D-N.H.)

    Steve Israel (D-N.Y.)

    Steve Kagen (D-Wisc.)

    Ron Klein (D-Fla.)

    Sander Levin (D-Mich.)

    Nita Lowey (D-N.Y.)

    Jerrold Nadler (D-N.Y.)

    Jared Polis (D-Colo.)*

    Steve Rothman (D-N.J.)

    Jan Schakowsky (D-Ill.)

    Allyson Schwartz (D-Pa.)

    Adam Schiff (D-Calif.)

    Brad Sherman (D-Calif.)

    Debbie Wasserman Schultz (D-Fla.)

    Henry Waxman (D-Calif.)

    Anthony Weiner (D-N.Y.)

    Robert Wexler (D-Fla.)

    John Yarmuth (D-Ky.)

    * Elected to Congress for the first time

    ** Senators who were re-elected (Coleman defeated Democratic challenger Al Franken in Minnesota by fewer than 700 votes, triggering a state-mandated recount. Franken also is Jewish, leaving 13 Jewish senators regardless of who emerges as the winner.)

    2009: Opening session of Union for Reform Judaism's 70th Biennial Convention in Toronto, Canada.

    2009: Nancy Lieberman broke yet another barrier when she became the first woman head coach of the Dallas Mavericks’ D-League affiliate team, a male professional basketball team.

    2009: Israeli navy commandos seized the M.V. Francop a cargo ship early today in the Mediterranean Sea that was carrying rockets and ammunition bound for militants from Hezbollah in what was known as Operation Four Species.

    2009: French premiere of “Le Concert” directed by Romanian born French (Jewish) Radu Mihăileanu

    2010: Jeffrey Rosen, Professor of Constitutional Law at The George Washington University, is scheduled to speak on Religious Freedom and the Right to Worship, Freedom of Speech, Press, Assembly, and how the Supreme Court impacted the First Amendment of the Constitution, at Northern Virginia Hebrew Congregation, in Reston, VA.

    2010: The Center for Jewish History, Centro Primo Levi and PEN World Voices Festival in collaboration with the Consulate General of Slovenia are scheduled to present: “Boris Pahor's Necropolis: A Slovenian Story of Culture, Conflict, and Persecution on the Northeastern Border of Italy.”

    2010:Germany's burgeoning Jewish community ordained its first female rabbi since the Holocaust today, a major step for a religious group that until recently imported its leaders from abroad - most of them men. The ordination of Alina Treiger, a Ukrainian-born 31-year-old, is a sign of the growing diversity of Germany's largely conservative Jewish community, observers say, though some warned she will face an uphill battle among worshippers used to being led by male rabbis.

    2011: George Schindler,the dean of the Society of American Magicians, other magicians and members of the general public are scheduled to visit Harry Houdini’s grave at the Machpelah Cemetery in the Queens borough of New York City on the 85thanniversary of his funeral. The visit used to take place on Halloween, Houdini’s Yahrtzeit

    2011: The Phoenix Ensemble is scheduled to perform at Studio Hecht in Haifa.

    2011: The “Excellence Concert Series” is scheduled to present “Young Piano Masters” at the Aldwell Institute of the Jerusalem Conservatory of Music and Dance

    2011: This afternoon the Israel Navy intercepted two boats that approached the coast of the Gaza Strip with the intent to violate Israel's naval blockade of the territory. After the boats failed to heed calls to turn around or dock in Egypt or Israel, Israel Defense Forces Chief of Staff Benny Gantz ordered naval forces to board the ships.

    2011:Immediately following his return from Cyprus today, President Shimon Peres joined the children, grandchildren and great grandchildren of Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin at the monument erected on the site of Rabin's assassination. Peres, who had been at a huge peace rally in Tel Aviv with Rabin on the fateful night of November 4, 1995, laid a wreath at the monument, as did Tel Aviv Mayor Ron Huldai.

    2012: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including the recently released paperback editions of  The Puppy Diaries by Jill Abramson and The Convert by Deborah Baker.

    2012: A day after three Syrian tanks entered the demilitarized zone on the Golan Heights to attack Syrian rebels, IDF Chief of Staff Lt.-Gen. Benny Gantz visited the border region today, and warned army forces that “the Syrian affair could turn into our affair.” Gantz instructed the IDF to be on alert in the area, and to prevent any spillover of the Syrian conflict onto Israeli territory.

    2012: The Jerusalem Foundation honors Sir Winston Churchill today.


    2012:“Letters of Light” New Works by Anna Gil, “a solo show of new works inspired by Jewish Mysticism” is scheduled to open at the Gallery Orange on Royal Street in the famous French Quarter of New Orleans.

    2012: In Cedar Rapids, Iowa, The Hadassah Donor Dinner celebrating 100 years of Hadassah is scheduled to take place at Temple Judah.

    2012: As part of its Turkish-Jewish Festival, in Rockville, MD, Tikvat Israel is scheduled to sponsor a performance by “renowned Sephardic musician Flory Jagoda.

    2012: “A Kid For Two Farthings” is scheduled to be shown at the UK Jewish Film Festival.

    2013: The Annual International Shluchim Convention (Kinus Hashluchim)  in Brooklyn, NY is scheduled to come to an end.

    2013: B’nai Jeshurun is scheduled to host a Yitzhak Rabin Memorial Service this evening co-sponsored by the Israeli Consulate and Hashomer Hatzair Youth Movement

    2013: Jonathan Kirsch is scheduled to deliver a talk on “the truth behind Kristallnacht” in which he examines “the tragic life…of Herschel Grynszpagn” at the San Diego Jewish Book Fair.

    2013: As we mark the centenary of the trial of Melvin Beilis, the Center for Jewish History is scheduled to present a roundtable discussion “Reflecting on the Beilis Trial.”

    2013: The Knesset raised the legal marriage age from 17 to 18 today. The bill, initiated by a group of Knesset members from across the political spectrum, was meant to fight the early betrothal customary in certain sectors, where minors are wed under familiar and community pressures. (As reported by Moran Azulay)

    2013:"Women of the Wall held a peaceful prayer service under police protection at the Western Wall to mark the group’s 25th anniversary."

    2013(1st of Kislev, 5774): Ninety-one year Eleanor Mlotek, “the Queen of Yiddish Musicology” passed away today. (As reported by Joseph Berger)

    2014: In Sydney, “Zero Motivation” and “The Farewell Party” are scheduled to be shown at the Jewish International Film Festival.

    2014: The Tulane Jewish Studies Department under the leadership of Dr. Brian Horowitz is scheduled to present a lecture by Michael Stanislawski entitled “The Jewish and Muslim Enlightenments in Imperial Russia: A Comparison.”

    2014: Elfriede Starer, a Kindertransportee, is scheduled to tell her story at the Wiener Library in London.

    2014: “Jewish Voices,” a reading by prominent Jewish poets and writers is scheduled to take place for the fifteenth year at the Oregon Jewish Museum and Center for Holocaust Education.

    2014: The Five Boroughs Food Talk is scheduled to feature “Jewish Food”


    2014(11th of Cheshvan): Yarhrzeit of Rachel who passed away while giving birth to her second son Benjamin, the 12thson of Jacob and his 13th child.

    2014: As Americans go to the polls Republicans Adam Kwasman, Lee Zeldin,Bruce Blakeman,Elon Carr, and Micah Edmond each of whom are running for Congress hope to fill the shoes left empty by the defeat of Eric Cantor who was the only Jewish Republican serving in the House of Representatives. 

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    November 5

    1370: King Casimir IIIof Polandpassed away.  Born in 1310, he came to the throne in 1333.  From the Jewish point of Casimir III was seen as a cut above the average ruler. He was favorably disposed toward Jews. On October 9, 1344 he confirmed the privileges granted to Jewish Poles in 1264 by Boleslaus V. Under penalty of death he prohibited the kidnapping of Jewish children for the purpose of forcible Christian baptism. He inflicted heavy punishment for the desecration of Jewish cemeteries. Although Jews were living in Poland earlier, Casimir allowed them to settle in Poland in great numbers and protected them as king's people.

    1605: The Gunpowder Plot, an attempt to blow up the House of Lords which would be the first move in putting a Catholic on throne, was thwarted today.  This event which is tied in the popular mind to Guy Fawkes could have had a negative impact on the small, concealed Jewish population of the British Isles since a Catholic on the throne at this time might have tied the kingdom to Spain the home of the Inquisition.

    1615: Birthdate of Ibrahim I, another of the Sultans who reigned during the seventeenth century, a period of decline for the Ottoman Empire.  He did employ at least one Jew in close capacity, Doctor Moshe Raphael Abravanel who changed his name to Hayati Zade.

    1655: In New Amsterdam, the government refused to allow Jews to stand guard, requiring them to pay a tax instead. In effect, this made Jews “second class citizens.”  Jacob Barsimon and Asser Levy refused to pay the tax petitioned to stand guard.  At first they were met with resistance, but Asser Levy performed the guard duties anyway just like any other burgher of the town. He would later be granted full citizenship rights in New Amsterdam, the first for a Jew in North America.

    1685: Congregation Bracha V'Shalom of Surinam was dedicated. It was one of the oldest congregations in the Americas.

    1688: William of Orange lands at Brixham marking the start of the Glorious Revolution which was financed, in part, “by the Jewish banker Francisco Lopes Suasso who lent two million guilder and when asked what security he desired, Suasso answered: ‘If you are victorious, you will surely repay me; if not, the loss is mine.’”As King William III he would be the English monarch who knighted a Jew - Solomon de Medina,

    1735: In Mantua, a town in the Italian province of Lombardy, a pact between the Jewish community and the local high school was mediated by the Secretary of State. In return for the Jewish community providing liquor, and other gifts to the school on St. Catherine's day, the students would not press their right to throw objects at any Jew who passes the school.

    1785:the council of Pennsylvania, under the presidency of Benjamin Franklin, ordered that a pension be paid to Colonel Solomon Bush, the brother of fellow solider Jonas Bush, for his meritorious services during the American Revolution.

    1785: Birthdate of Dutch teacher and author Moses Leman whose works included Spirit of Talmudic Lord and Test of Talmudic Mathematics.


    1779(26th of Cheshvan, 5540):Isaac Simon Cohen Kats-Shamash who had been born at Amsterdam in 1701 passed away today in his native city.

    1816: Birthdate of historian Siegfried Hirsch who “published an award winning essay on King Henry I” but who died before he could finish “his treatise on Holy Roman Emperor Henry II.”


    1826(5th of Cheshvan, 5587): Élie Halévy, a French Hebrew poet and author who was the father of Fromental and Léon Halévy passed away. Born in 1760 at Fürth in Bavaria, Halévy moved to Paris, where he became cantor and secretary to the Jewish Consistoire of Paris. His knowledge of the Talmud and his poetical talent earned him the esteem of many French scholars, particularly the well-known Orientalist Sylvestre de Sacy. His first poem was "Ha-Shalom", a hymn composed on the occasion of the treaty of Amiens; it was sung in the synagogue of Paris, in both Hebrew and French, on the 17th Brumaire (8 November) 1801. The poem was praised in Latin verses by Protestant pastor Marron. In 1808 Halévy composed a prayer to be recited on the anniversary of the battle of Wagram; in 1817, with the help of some of his co-religionists, he founded the French weekly "L'Israélite Français", which, however, expired within two years. To this periodical he contributed a remarkable dialogue entitled "Socrate et Spinosa" (ii. 73). His "Limmude Dat u-Musar" (Metz, 1820) is a text-book of religious instruction compiled from the Bible, with notes, a French translation, and the decisions of the Sanhedrin instituted by Napoleon. Halévy left two unpublished works, a Hebrew-French dictionary and an essay on Æsop's fables. He attributes the fables to Solomon (comp. I Kings v. 12-13 [A. V. iv. 32-33]), and thinks the name "Æsop" to be a form of "Asaph".

    1828(28th of Cheshvan, 5589):Berr Isaac Beer a French manufacture passed away. Born at Nancy in 1744, he came from “a rich and estimable family; received an excellent education, especially in Hebrew and rabbinical literature—in the latter from Jacob Perle, chief rabbi of Nancy. Inheriting the title of syndic of the Jewish community of Nancy, bestowed upon his father in 1753 by King Stanislaus, he took an active part in the direction of the affairs of the community. In 1789 he was elected by the Jews of Alsace deputy to the States-General, where he was admitted to plead for Jewish emancipation before the Assembly. At about that time he published a pamphlet in which he refuted the anti-Jewish discourse delivered by De la Farre, bishop of Nancy. Berr was appointed successively member of the Assembly of Notables and member of the Sanhedrin; and he cooperated effectively in the organization of Jewish worship in France and in Italy. In his old age he retired, pensioned by the king, to one of his estates called "Turique"—the name of which he added to his own with the royal permission.”

    1834: At Angenrod in the grand duchy of Hesse- Darmstadt, Mayer Bamberger and his wife gave birth to Isaac Bamberger, the German Rabbi who made a great effort to aid the Russian Jews who took refuge in Germany after 1882 when the Czar’s anti-Jewish laws began to have their most pernicious effect.

    1835: Birthdate of Moritz Szeps, the Galician born journalist who was editor-in-chief of the Vienna Morgenpost and a friend of Crown Prince Rudolf

    1849(20th of Cheshvan): Rabbi Elijah ben Jacob Raoler of Kalisz, author of Yad Eliyahu passed away today

    1852: The New York Times correspondent sent a report to from Constantionple ten years ago Smyrna had had a population of 130,000 which included 13,000 Jews.  Today the population has grown to 160,000 with percentage of Jews remaining about the same.

    1852: The New York Times reported that “the Senate of Frankfort, supported by a resolution of the German Diet, has cancelled the article of the law of 1849 securing equality of political rights to citizens of all persuasions, thus excluding Jews from all share in the elections.  New elections will take place immediately,” at which time only Christians will be allowed to vote.

    1853: In a column entitled "Australia" published today reported on the wonders of the land down under including a description of Melbourne, a town with streets that were broader than those of New York and filled with a strange medley of people that including Jews, among others.

    1853: Birthdate of Marcus Samuel founder of the company which eventually become known as Royal Dutch Shell.

    1855: Birthdate of Eugene V. Debs, labor activist, reformer and Socialist Candidate for President of the United States.  From the Civil War until the Great Depression a majority of Jews tended to vote for Republican Presidential candidates.  Debs helped to break that trend.  His Socialist views found support among the immigrants from eastern Europe, many of whom were working in the garment industry.  When Debs ran for President against the Republican Harding and Democrat Davis he gained 38% of the Jewish vote.  This almost matched Harding’s 43% and far exceeded Davis’ 19%.  The real shift in Jewish voting patterns would be seen in the election of 1928 when Al Smith was the Democratic standard bearer.

    1860(20th of Cheshvan, 5621): Birthdate of Sholom Dovber Schneersohn, the fifth Lubavitcher Rebbe. There is no way this blog can do justice to this Rebbe who provided leadership through the difficult days of the May Laws and World War I.

    1863: In New York, the Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum under the leadership of President Benjamin I. Hart and Superintendent Herman Baar “dedicated its orphan asylum on East 77th Street.

    1871: It was reported today that the Jewish Messenger has expressed its opposition to the attempt by some Jews to stop observing the Hebrew Sabbath and shift to observing the Christian Sunday. The Messenger takes issue with those who claim that change is allowed since the observance of the Sabbath was intended for a specific place (ancient Israel) and/or that it was to political measure intended to curry favor with the laborers of ancient time. The Messenger claims that there is no basis in fact for these claims.  It quotes the commandment to prove its point that the Jewish Sabbath is a blessing to be observed on the seventh day.”The children of Israel shall observe the Sabbath, to keep it throughout their generations for a permanent covenant; it is a sign between me and the children of Israel forever.”

    1873: An article published today described the origins and current status of the various religious groups found in New York City. The unnamed author reported that the while the exact date of the arrival of the first Jews is not known, the date usually used is 1660 which is four years before the English took control of the city from the Dutch. Regardless of the exact date, the  Jews were here before the Roman Catholics or the Episcopalians.  The early Jews had to deal with various forms of “persecution” but are now successful members of the community who build not only beautiful houses of worship but have established numerous institutions for the care of the sick, the aged and the helpless. There are approximately 40,000 Jews living in New York, most of whom who have come in the last 25 years. The city has 26 synagogues valued at $2,500,000. The average salary for a Rabbi is $2,200.  The lowest paid makes $500 and the highest paid makes $6,000. For a point reference Unitarians earn an average of $5,000 and Lutherans earn an average of $1,800.

    1875: Based on information that had first appeared in the Times of London, it was reported today that Czar has given a young Jew named Frehmann a commission in the Russian Army.  If so, this would make him the first Jew to ever serve as an officer in the forces of the Czar. [This would seem to contradict claims that Joseph Tumpeldor was the first Jewish officer in the Russian Army.]

    1877: It was reported today that supporters of Thomas C.E. Ecclesine, a candidate for the New York State Senate have taken advantage of his German sounding name to pass him off as being Jewish in those part of the district that have a large Jewish vote. However, they have also claimed that he is an Irish Catholic in an attempt to garner that segment of the vote. (Since he was married at St. Ann’s Church by Father William Jackson, it is fair to say that his attempt to gain the Jewish vote was not based on fact. The ruse attests to the growing importance of the Jewish Vote.)

    1881: It was reported today that the Deutsch Tagblatt, an anti-Semitic newspaper has announced that the Conservative Committee has sent a telegram to Bismarck declaring their continued opposition to the Progressives in the Reichstag.

    1881: Based on information that first appeared in the National Zeitung, it was reported today that Chancellor Bismarck has declared that he “would never entertain a proposal to curtail the rights of Jews.”

    1881: In response to a request by a an interdenominational committee, rabbis throughout the United States are expected to address their congregations during Shabbat services about the creation of James Garfield Hospital in Washington, DC and solicit their financial support for the creation of this memorial to the late U.S. President.  Christian ministers will address their congregations on the subject tomorrow.

    1882: “Not Prejudiced Against Jews” published today contains a list of prominent citizens including Dr. Abraham Jacobi, Felix Adler and the Seligmans attesting to the fact that ex-Governor Edward Salomon “does not entertain any prejudices against the Jewish race.”  (Salomon is not to be confused with Edward Selig Salomon who was a German Jewish immigrant and who also served as a governor)

    1883: It was reported today that the preparations for celebrating the centennial of Moses Montefiore which will take place next year have the added proof of putting to rest doubts among some Englishman that any person has attained the age of 100.

    1885(27th of Cheshvan, 5646): Jonas Strauss, the head of the dry goods firm of J. Strauss, Brother & Company passed away today in New York.  He was also a partner in Levi Strauss & Co. in San Francisco.  The San Francisco company was a started in 1851 by Jonas, Louis and Levi Strauss (the man who gave us Levi jeans).  Twenty-one year old Jonas Strauss stayed in New York and shipped material “around the Horn” to his brothers in California.  His prosperity could be measured by his generous contributions to various Jewish charities and not by his life-style which was so simple that he refused to purchase his own horse and carriage.

    1885: Birthdate of famed historian Will Durant.  Unlike other historians of world civilization like Arnold Toynbee he did not view the Jews in a negative manner.  In his volume of The Story of Civilization – The Reformation, Durant wrote, "So prominent was the Jewish role in the foreign commerce of Europe that those nations that received the Jews gained and the countries that excluded them lost in the volume of international trade."

    1887: It was reported today that the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society for Children will be hosting a benefit performance next week.

    1887: Birthdate of Paul Wittgenstein “an Austrian-born concert pianist, who became known for his ability to play with just his left hand, after he lost his right arm during the First World War. He devised novel techniques, including pedal and hand-movement combinations that allowed him to play chords previously regarded as impossible for a five-fingered pianist.The Wittgenstein family had converted to Christianity three generations before his birth on the paternal side and two generations before on the maternal side; nonetheless they were of mainly Jewish descent, and under the Nuremberg laws they were classed as Jews. Following the rise of the Nazi Party and the annexation of Austria, Paul tried to persuade his sisters Helene and Hermine to leave Vienna, but they demurred: they were attached to their homes there, and could not believe such a distinguished family as theirs was in real danger. Ludwig had already been living in England for some years, and Margaret (Gretl) was married to an American. Paul himself, who was no longer permitted to perform in public concerts under the Nazis, departed for the United States in 1938. From there he and Gretl…managed to use family finances (mostly held abroad) and legal connections to attain non-Jewish status for their sisters. The family finances supposedly consisted of the voluntary surrender of all properties and assets in Germany and occupied lands with a total value of about US$6 billion at the time, which may have been the largest private fortune in Europe. Essentially all family assets were surrendered to the Nazis in return for protection afforded the two sisters under exceptional interpretations of racial law, allowing them to continue to live in their family palace in Vienna.” He died in New York City in 1961

    1888(1st of Kislev, 5649): Rosh Chodesh Kislev

    1888(1st of Kislev, 5649): Seventy-nine year old orientalist Louis Lowe who traveled to Palestine where he studied the practices of the Samaritans and the works of the Karaites and who headed two different Jewish schools in England passed away today.

    1888: It was reported today that among the books now available in New York are Idylls of Israel and Other Poems by D. J. Donahue and The Wandering Jew, a three volume work by Eugene Sue.

    1888: “Government By The People” published today summarized a lecture by Dr. Gustav Gottheil in which he contended that the concept of popular government has its origins in Biblical Judaism.  According to the rabbi, “The whole idea of popular government pervaded the law of god and the sentiments of the Jews.”

    1893: “Candidates of the Parties” published today provided profiles of those running on Democratic State ticket in New York including Simon W. Rosendale, native of Albany who is running for Attorney General and who a trustee of Congregation Anshe-Emeth, President of the Jewish Home Society and a leader of B’nai B’rith

    1893: Tammany Hall closed the campaign tonight with three mass meetings including one at the Hebrew Institute.

    1893: “Work of the Reichstag” published today described activities at the current session of the German parliament including the introduction of bills designed to “counteract the dismemberment of the large estates and to regulate interest on loans and mortgages” which are both said to have an “anti-Semitic flavor” because the landed gentry who borrow from Jewish bankers pay off their debts by selling portions of their landed holdings.

    1893: According to the annual report delivered by Morris Goodhart, President of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian a summary of which was published today, the society is caring for 2,339 children, 974 of whom were born in the United States, 521 of whom were born in Poland, 367 of whom were born in the Austro-Hungarian Empire with balance coming from places as disparate as Britain, Germany, France, Holland, Spain, Sweden and Jerusalem.

    1893: Five Polish Jews continued to be held in jail at Hudson, NY as they await Grand Jury action on charges of “illegal registration”

    1894: The speeches at the rally for Congressman Timothy J. Campbell were delivered in a variety of foreign languages including Russian and Hebrew which would provide some indication as to the importance of the Jewish immigrant vote in the upcoming election.

    1895: A list of the bequests left by the late Julius Lipman published today including $500 to be given to each of the following: Mount Sinai Hospital, the Montefiore Home, the United Hebrew Charities and Congregation B’nai Jeshurun.

    1895: At 8 o’clock this evening Isaac Klein and M.D. Rothschild were the only two leaders of Confederated Good Government Clubs to be found at its headquarters on Broadway where reports of a Tammany victory were being received with the expected dismay and disappointment.

    1895: In the response of Dr. Maurice H. Harris to Israel Zangwill’s views on Reform Judaism published today the rabbi at Temple Israel said, “It may be easy for critics to formulate a rational Judaism, or a poetic Judaism, a Judaism conservative or a Judaism radical.  It is not a better Judaism that we want but better Jews.”

    1896(29th of Cheshvan, 5657): Eighty-year old Rachel, Countess d’Avigdor  second daughter of Sir Isaac Lyon and Isabel Goldsmid and wife of  Count Salamon Henri d'Avigdor who “was at one time president of the Ladies' Committee of the Jews' Deaf and Dumb Home, and honorary secretary of the West End Charity; also a member of the committees of the Jewish Convalescent Home, of the workhouse committee of the Jewish Board of Guardians, and of the West End Sabbath School” passed away today.

    1898: “Books and Authors” published today included a review of several works translated by Dr. Samuel A. Binion the native of Suwalki who was educated in both Hebrew and the Talmud before he moved to England in the 1860’s where he converted to Christianity.  He also exposed a manuscript reputed to have been written by Maimonides which had been purchased by Adolph Sutro, the first Jewish mayor of San Francisco as being a forgery.

    1899: The twentieth annual meeting of the Directors of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society was held today. Samuel D. Levy, President of the Board of Trustees, read his annual report, which included the report of the Treasurer for the fiscal year just ended. The income from bequests and membership fees was $102,911.19, and the disbursements $102,725.52.
    1899: Rabbi Samuel Schulman delivered a talk today entitled “Zangwill’s Children of the Ghetto, an Incomplete Picture of Jews and Judaism.”

    1902: Herzl's London representative, Leopold Greenberg, met Lord Cromer, British Counsel-General in Egypt, and Egyptian prime minister Boutros Ghali Pasha. He succeeded in winning them over to the Zionist cause.

    1909: The Turkish Ministry of Interior asked the Council of State to accelerate the passage of immigration laws. On the same day several hundred Jewish recruits presented themselves for enrollment in the Turkish Army.

    1910: It was reported today that Alfred M. Heinsheimer has donated one million dollars to the New York Foundation, a non-sectarian organization he founded “to promote charitable, educational and philanthropic enterprises.  The one million dollars had been a bequest from the late Louis A. Heinsheimer, which, according to his will, was supposed to be left to 6 existing Jewish charities if they could come together and form one common federation within two years.  When they failed to do so, under the terms of the will, the money then went to Alfred.  Alfred was so intent on fulfilling his brother’s wish of creating a Jewish Federation, that he said he would waive his claim to the money if five of the charities would come together.  They failed to do so and Alfred acted in a manner consistent with his brother’s generosity.

    1911: After declaring war on the Ottoman Empire on September 29, 1911, Italy annexed Tripoli and Cyrenaica marking the end of 350 years of Ottoman rule. There were approximately 20,000 Jews living there at the time.  Over the next twenty years, the Jewish population would increase as Italian Jews made their way to this area which is known as Libya.  While one source describes this “as a golden age for Libya’s Jews” others note the clashes that took place between the native population and their co-religionists who came with the Italian conquerors.

    1912: Woodrow Wilson was elected President, defeating Progressive Republican Theodore Roosevelt and incumbent Republican William Howard Taft.  Wilsonappointed Louis Brandeis to the Supreme Court.  Brandeis was the first Jew appointed to the high court.

    1912: Maxim Birnkraut was elected to the New York State Legislature.

    1912: Maurice Caro of Boston, MA was elected to the State Legislature.

    1912: P.C. Cohn of Sacramento, CA was elected to the State Legislature

    1912: In Pittsburgh, PA. Adolph Edlis was re-elected Treasure of the School Board.

    1912: Mark Eisner of New York City was elected to the State Assemly.

    1912: Henry Elgart of Colchester, CT was elected to the State Legislature.

    1912: In Rhode Island, Jacob A. Eaton was elected to the State Legislature.

    1912: Sam B. Bradner of Benson, AZ was elected as member of the State Constitutional Convention and the State Legislature.

    1914: Great Britain declared war on the Ottoman Empire -- a move which would lead, ultimately to the creation of the state of Israel.

    1914: Birthdate of Alexander Abramovich the native of Moscow who gained fame as Israeli composer Alexander “Sasha” Argov.

    1914: Publication of The Daybegan in New York City.

    1914: Birthdate of Salomon Gluck, the Swiss born French physician who served in the Resistance and who was murdered by the Nazis along with the other victims aboard the infamous Convoy 73.

    1915: Birthdate of Martin Dannenberg the native of Baltimore, MD who served as chairman of the Sun Life Insurance Company and who, while serving with Patton’s Third Army who“discovered an original copy of the Nuremberg Laws signed by Adolf Hitler.”

    1912: Reverend George Blyth, the Anglican Bishop of Jerusalem who shifted his attempts at conversion from fellow Christians to Jews and Muslims passed away today.

    1917: In Buchanan v. Warley,The Supreme Court unanimously agreed to strike down as unconstitutional a LouisvilleKYordinance that made it unlawful for any white or black person to move into and occupy as a residence any house upon any block upon which a greater number of houses were occupied by persons of the opposite color. A white property owner challenged the statute on the ground that it impaired his ability to sell his house, which was situated in an exclusively white neighborhood, to a prospective black buyer. The court held that the statute deprived the white homeowner of his right to dispose of his property without due process of law. The Court reasoned that he should be able to dispose of his property to any prospective purchaser, regardless of race.This was the first race case in which the newly-appointed Justice Brandeis participated and it was perceived by the public at the time to represent a fairly dramatic victory for the cause of Civil Right.  While African Americans and their supporters were pleased with the outcome, it drew the ire of many whites

    1923: Following the collapse of the German mark, several thousand impoverished German descended upon Berlin’s Scheunenviertel district, inhabited principally by Ostjudent (Eastern Jews) and for two days beat hundreds of Jews and ransacked nearly a thousand Jewish shops before police managed to put an end to the violence.

    1924: Jesse H. Metcalf who as early as June of 1933 would join in the attack on the Nazi treatment of the Jews when he declared “We as a nation can only declare the existence of racial or religious prejudice to be untenable as a national ideal” was elected to the United States from Rhode Island,  a position he would hold until 1937.

    1931: In the Flatbush section of Brooklyn, former Ann Seidlitz and William Herzenberg gave birth to Leonard Arthur Herzenberg, the Nobel Prize winning immunologist. (As reported by Douglas Martin)


    1933:Dr. Judah L. Magnes, Chancellor of the HebrewUniversity in Jerusalem announced a program of expansion which will provide fourteen posts for former German scholars including Professors Torczyner, Guttman, Koebner, Lewy and Fraenkel

    1937: The Palestine Post reported that an Egged bus driver and two his passengers were wounded when their vehicle was fired on, at the infamous Kilometer 5 of the Jerusalem-Jaffa road. A lone Jewish lorry driver was shot there and wounded. The Egged Bus Company was founded in 1933.  The Hebrew word Egged means “union.” The company was so named because it was formed from the merger of four smaller bus companies.  Today, the Egged Bus Company is the second largest transportation company in the world.

    1937: The Palestine Postreported that the Arab terror continued when the Iraqi petroleum pipeline was punctured and set on fire. Shots were fired and a bomb was thrown at the Beisan police station

    1937: Hitler chairs a secret conference in which he informs the High Command and others of his racial, geopolitical, and military plans to dominate Europe. The conference is recorded by Colonel Friedrich Hossbach and called after him. Hitler lays out the core of his policy to his military leaders. "The aim of the German policy was to make secure and to preserve the racial community and to enlarge it. It was a question of SPACE.""Germany had the right to greater living space...and its future was whole conditional upon the solving of the need for space." Two countries stood in Germany's way: Britain and France. Hitler details a broad plan for war and preparedness against France, Britain, Italy, and Russia, and analysis each country's military and political position. Note that Italy, which would become a willing ally of Hitler, was considered as a possible enemy only two years prior to the start of WW II.  On the one hand Hitler thought that he could gain most of his goals by bluffing the weak, decadent western powers. At the same time, he knew that he would have to defeat Englandand Franceso that he could then fight the ultimate war against the Soviets without fear of a two front war.

    1938(11th of Cheshvan): Yiddish poet Abraham Liessin passed away.


    1940(4th of Cheshvan, 5701): During World War II, as the Greeks fought against the invading Italians Haham Raphael Joseph Antzelou was killed in the Battle of Kalpaki on the Albanian front. Many Jews of Ioannina, a city in northwest Greece, fought on the Albanian front. The chief of staff of the Greek forces said of them, "The Greek Jews fulfilled their duty in full measure."

    1941: Birthdate of Kay Leipzig, an ayshis chayel in the truest sense of the word.

    1941: Birthdate of singer and songwriter Art Garfunkel.

    1941(15th of Cheshvan, 5702): Seventeen thousand Jews are killed outside Rovno, Ukraine.

    1942(25th of Cheshvan, 5703): The Nazis deported the last 1,800 Jews from Ciechanow, Poland.  Jews had lived in the town since the middle of the sixteenth century. During the deportation an SS man politely asks a Jewish woman to hand him her baby. When she complies, the trooper smashes the baby to the street headfirst, killing it. Some of the deportees took part in the uprising at Auschwitz.  Approximately 100 people from the town survived the war but they did not try to restore their community.

    1942: Jewish men from Stopnica, Poland, are sent to a slave-labor camp at Skarzysko-Kamienna, while 400 old people and children are shot in the town cemetery. Three thousand others are put on a forced march; many are shot along the way, and survivors are sent to Treblinka.

    1942: Peasants in Siedliszcze, Poland, gather scythes in anticipation of the day's roundup of Jews, for which they'll be paid for each Jew caught.

    1942: Six hundred Jews from Borislav, Poland, are deported naked to prevent resistance.

    1942: In France, 745 Jews, including 35 residents of the Rothschild Old Age Home, are deported from Paris to Auschwitz. After arrival, Jews awaiting entry into the gas chamber spy a truck loaded with corpses but continue on to their deaths

    1942: Over the next six days, 1060 Greece-born Jews in and around Paris are seized and deported to Auschwitz Bernhard Lichtenberg, the anti-Nazi priest whom among other things  prayed daily from his pulpit in the St Hedwig Cathedral for the both Jews and Jewish Christians as well as other victims of the regime.

    1942: The Gestapo arrested Regina Jonas, the first woman ordained as a rabbi and deported her to Theresienstadt

    1942: Birthdate of Richie ScheinblumBronx-born outfielder for the Kansas City Royals. Scheinblum became the only Jewish switch-hitter (and 7th switch-hitter total) to bat .300 during a full season.

    1943: While waiting to be deported to Dachau, 67 year old Bernhard Lichtenberg, the anti-Nazi priest whom among other things prayed daily from his pulpit in the St Hedwig Cathedral for the both Jews and Jewish Christians as well as other victims of the regime died today.

    1943: Gertrude Luckner, a Christian social worker involved in the German resistance to Nazism, was arrested by the Gestapo before she could transfer funds destined for the last Jews of Berlin and imprisoned at Ravensbruck concentration camp.

    1943(7th of Cheshvan, 5704):Operation "Harvest Festival" continued at Poniatowa as 15,000 Jews were killed in one day.   The children of the Siaulia Ghetto in Lithuaniawere deported to Birkenau and perished. The Nazis murdered 17,000 prisoners at Majdanek.

    1945: This evening, following a second of anti-Jewish rioting in several Libyan cities, “the British authorities, who had been in control of Libya since the defeat of the German-Italian forces there in 1943, imposed a curfew.”  The curfew failed to halt the violence which would continue unabated for at least two more days.

    1948: “Ben Gurion reported his cabinet: Jerusalem has as yet hardly enjoyed one night of quiet.’”

    1948: Israeli forces retake Yad Mordecai from the Egyptians.

    1948: The Provisional State Council, the body that temporarily governed Israel until January of 1949, decided that the Constituent Assembly (later called the Knesset) would have 120 members.

    1948: In Béni Saf, French Algeria, millionaire businessman André Lévy and his wife gave birth to Bernard-Henri Levy author of Who Killed Daniel Pearl?

    1950: Chaya and Yehezkel Bornstien, have found refuge in the Rosh Pina ma'abara immigrant transit camp. Both are natives of Lodz, Poland; both escaped to the Soviet Union before the Nazis entered their hometown, and managed to survive the Holocaust. Now they are on a quest to find their daughter Lusia whom they had sent the Zionist Coordination for the Redemption of Jewish Children when they were still living in post-war Poland because of economic duress and the outbreak of anti-Semitic violence as typified by the pogrom at Kielce.

    1953: Armed Jordanians murdered a guard in a nighttime attack upon a post along the railway track north of Hadera in the coastal plain.

    1953 U.S. premiere of “How To Marry A Millionaire,” a comedy co-starring Lauren Bacall, a cousin of Shimon Peres and future convert to Judaism Marilyn Monroe featuring a score conducted by Alfred Newman.

    1956:  During the Sinai Campaign, British and French troops land at the Suez Canal and move south under the pretext of protecting the canal from the warring Egyptians and Israelis.  The Anglo-French force meets a political defeat when the Eisenhower Administration immediately pressures its two NATO allies to promise to remove the troops without delay.  At the same time, the Soviets remind the Israelis that they have missiles capable of hitting the Jewish state with nuclear warheads.  In trying to evaluate the situation Ben Gurion dispatches Golda Meir and Shimon Peres to see if the French will stand by the Israelis if the Soviets move to intervene.  This is another example of Jewish history being played out against a much larger tapestry of world events; in this case the Cold War between the East and the West and the conflict between third world nationalism and European colonialism.

    1967: The last of Aden's Jews arrived in Israel marking the end of this ancient Jewish community.

    1968: Republican Richard M. Nixon won the presidency, defeating Vice President Hubert H. Humphrey and third-party candidate George C. Wallace.  From the perspective of Jewish history, Nixon’s shining moment came when he ordered the re-supply of Israeli forces during the Yom Kippur War in 1973.  According to some experts, without this, the Israelis well might have been defeated and the state of Israeldestroyed. Of course, it was the Nixon Administration that had told the Israelis they could not mount a pre-emptive strike or mobilize their forces when intelligence reports provided unquestionable evidence that the Egyptians were on the verge of attack.  The massive re-supply effort would not have been needed because the Egyptians would have been crushed before the crossing the Canal and the Syrians would never have acted on their own. On the other hand, Nixon had made begun his rise to political power as part of the right wing of the Republican Party which hid a streak of anti-Semitism behind its domestic Red Hunting policies.  Also, Nixon’s voice as captured on his White House tapes portrayed a man haunted by anti-Semitism and a belief in Jewish conspiracies.

    1974: Richard Stone was elected to the U.S. Senate from Florida

    1975(1st of Kislev, 5736): Rosh Chodesh Kislev

    1975(1st of Kislev, 5736): American author and critic Lionel Trilling passed away at the age of 70.


    1979(15th of Cheshvan, 5740): Al Capp the cartoonist who created the comic strip Lil' Abner passed away at the age of 70.  The eastern Jew created the imaginary hillbilly community of Dog Patch complete with Ma and Pa Yokum, Daisy Mae, Marryin’ Sam, and the ever popular Schmoos (rhymes with Schmooze and reminds one of the descriptions of manna in the Bible).


    1984(10th of Cheshvan, 5745):The Hon. Ivor Goldsmid Samuel Montagu (23 April 1904, London, a British filmmaker, screenwriter, producer, film critic, writer, table tennis player and apparent Soviet spy passed away.

    1987(13th of Cheshvan, 5748): Elimelekh Rimalt passed away. A native of Galicia, he was an ordained Rabbi who earned a PhD in psychology.  He made Aliyah in 13.  A member of the Knesset fro Likud, he served as Minister of the Postal Services in 1969 and 1970.

    1989 (7th of Cheshvan, 5750):  Pianist Vladimir Horowitz passed away at the age of 85. (As reported by Bernard Holland)

    1989:In  “The Legends of Kibbutz Country,” published today Mathew Nevisky describes the role that the JezreelValley has played in Jewish History and the efforts that have been made to preserve the history of this unique part of ancient and modern Israel.  The article reads in part, “Overseen by the brooding heights of MountTabor and MountGilboa, the JezreelValley resonates with memories of ancient Israelite kings and warrior-judges. In modern times, the same area was the scene of the Zionist movement's pioneering efforts in land reclamation, agriculture and self-defense. To Israelis these achievements, and the people of the Jezreel, like Moshe Dayan, have almost mythic significance. Accordingly, the Jezreel is dotted with almost as many museums devoted to the founding of modern Israelas it is with archeological sites revealing the biblical past. To the foreign visitor, who too often is shunted around the valley to the flashier tourist sites in Galilee or along the coast, the Jezreel heartland offers insight into another aspect of Israel.”

    1990 (17th of Cheshvan, 5751): Meir Kahane was murdered by an Arab terrorist.

    1991(28th of Cheshvan, 5752): Robert Maxwell passed away at the age of 68. Born Ján Ludvík Hoch in pre-war Czechoslovakia, Maxwell became a British media magnate.

    1993: The family Hannah Szenes living in Israel was informed today that a Hungarian military court convened after the fall of the Communist regime had officially exonerated her.

    1995: President Clinton is scheduled to leave today for Jerusalem where he will attend the funeral of Prime Minister Rabin.

    1995: “Assassination In Israel” published today described the reaction of American leaders including President Clinton and former Secretary of State Warren Christopher to the murder of Prime Minister Rabin.

    1996: United States President Bill Clinton defeats Republican challenger Robert J. Dole and Reform party candidate H. Ross Perot to become the first democratic president since Franklin Roosevelt to win a second term in office. Three of the major events of Clinton’s second term centered around Jews.  The first was the Monica Lewinsky Scandal.  The second was the Camp David Peace initiative that Clinton mounted in 2000.  The meetings between Ehud Barak and Yassar Arafat failed to produce a peace treaty; a failure for which Clinton blamed Arafat.  The third was the pardon of Marc Rich issued on Clinton’s last day in office.  In one of those ironies of life, Rich was represented by Lewis “Scooter” Libby.  Libby, who was Jewish would end up being denied a pardon by President Bush for his role in the case of Valier Plame; a denial that would cause a public split between Bush and Dick Cheney.

    1996: The Coming Street Cemetery, the Charleston South Carolina burial site that is one of the oldest in the United States having been founded in 1762 was listed on the National Register of Historic Places today.

    1997(5th of Cheshvan, 5758):  Isaiah Berlin passed away at the age of 88(As reported by Marilyn Berger)

    1999: A.M. Rosenthal wrote the last of his twice-weekly “On My Mind” columns today entitle “Please Read This Column” which was the name of the first of these columns written in 1987.

    2000:The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or about topics of Jewish interest including The Bialy Eaters: The Story of a Bread and a Lost World by Mimi Sheraton

    2002: After over 20 years in elected public life, Linda Lingle was elected as Hawaii’s first female and first Jewish governor on. Lingle and former Vermont Governor Madeleine Kunin are the only Jewish women governors in U.S. history. Lingle, a St. Louisnative, moved to Hawaiiafter graduating from CaliforniaStateUniversityat Northridge. She began working as the public information officer for the Hawai'i Teamsters and Hotel Workers Union in Honolulu. In 1976, she founded and became publisher of the Moloka'i Free Press, intended to serve Moloka'i's 6,000 residents. In 1980 Lingle was elected to the Maui County Council where she served for ten years. In 1990 she was elected Maui County Mayor, the youngest person and first woman to ever hold that role. Lingle first ran for governor in 1998 but lost by less than 1 percent of the vote. In 2002 Lingle, a Republican won the election by more than 4 percent. As governor, Lingle has worked to balance the state budget and promote tourism, while improving the quality of life by fighting crime and drug abuse and increasing accessibility to quality health care. In May 2004, Lingle signed a Memorandum of Understanding between the state of Hawaiiand the government of Israelto encourage cooperation concerning agriculture and aquaculture research and development. "[Being Jewish has] helped my political career in Hawaii," says Lingle, "because it has given me a better understanding of diversity, which in turn helps me to connect with citizens of varying religious and ethnic backgrounds."

    2003: At a Jewish forum in New York City, George Soros “partially attributed a resurgence in anti-Semitism to the policies of the Bush administration and the Sharon administration” as well as the perception that “Jews rule the world” based on his role in affairs.

    2005:  Haaretz and The Jerusalem Post reported that the Secretary General of the United Nations had canceled his upcoming trip to Iran.  The canceled trip was another manifestation of the international community’s disgust with Iran’s call for the destruction of the state of Israel.  How long this expression of goodwill towards the Jewish state will last is unknown.  But for now, at least, Israelbashing is not a “cool” thing to do.

    2006: The New York TimesSunday book section features a review of David Mamet’s, The Wicked Son: Anti-Semitism, Self-Hatred, and the Jews.

    2006: Under the title “His devils made him do it,” Jeffrey Meyers reviewed Isaac B. Singer: A Life by Florence Noiville, translated from the French by Catherine Temerson.

    2006: Under the title “The Altered States,” The Times of Londonreviewed American Vertigo: On the Road from Newport to Guantanamo by Bernard-Henri Levy, the biographer of Daniel Pearl.

    2006:  Opening of the 10th Annual DaytonJewish Book Fair.

    2006: Yuli Tamir named acting Science and Technology Minister.

    2007:Jerome Groopman, a physician at HarvardMedicalSchool, discusses How Doctors Thinkat the Sixth & I Historic Synagogue (formerly Adas Israel Synagogue) in Washington, D.C.

    2007: In a Time magazine article entitled “The Genius Who Wanted to Be a Hack” Lev Grossman reviews Gentlemen of the Road by Michael Chabon.

    2007: In Canada, the Quebec Human Rights Tribunal decided that a Jewish hospital must pay $15,000 to female workers denied shifts. Officials at the Jewish General Hospital in Montreal said they haven't decided whether to appeal a human rights tribunal ruling that orders the institution to pay damages for denying full-time work to female employees because of a gender policy.The hospital has to pay $15,000 to Mary Smith and Jennifer Bennett, two female workers who complained they were deprived of employment opportunities because of their sex.The hospital, which describes itself as non-denominational, said it endeavors to offer an environment that is respectful of Jewish values. About a third of patients at the hospital are Jewish, but only a minority of them is Orthodox and follows Talmudic laws prescribed in the Torah, which forbids any physical contact between a man and a woman who are not married. The only exception is for medical care from a doctor.

    2008: New York premier of “The Little Traitor.”  “Based on Panther in the Basement by world-renowned novelist, Amos Oz, this beautiful story of an implausible friendship between an amiable British soldier and a spirited, 11-year-old Israeli militant who wants the occupying imperialists off his land takes place just a few months before Israel achieves independent statehood.

    2008: Following a successful run on Broadway, Jake Ehrenreich’s “A Jew Grows in Brooklyn has its Chicagoland” premier at the North Shore Center for the Performing Arts.

    2008: The New Republicmagazine includes reviews of The Life and Thought of Hans Jonas: Jewish Dimensions by Christian Wiese and Memoirs by Hans Jonas; edited by Christian Wiese and translated by Krishna Winston.

    2009: “Ambassadors and diplomats from 44 countries, military attaches from 27 armies in the world, and the international media were invited by the IDF and the Foreign Ministry to show them the weapons and munitions seized from the Francop ship.”

    2009: The 40th Annual Book Festival sponsored by the JCC of Greater Washington opens with presentations by Steve Roberts, author of From Every End of This Earth and Peter Yarrow author of Day is Done.

    2010:A Free Tour of Herodian in Honor/Memory of Ehud Netzer z"l the famous archeologist who passed away on October 28 is scheduled to take place in Jerusalem