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A collection of Jewish history and current Jewish events, in date format, updated daily in this Jewish history blog.

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    March 22


    1144: This date marks the first ritual murder libel which took place in in Norwich, England. It set the pattern for subsequent accusations that would be made into the 20th century all across Europe.. A 12 year old boy, William, was found dead on Easter Eve, and the Jews were accused of killing him in a mock crucifixion. They were not, however, accused of using his blood for the making of matzos, although this would become a standard feature of later libels. It was later presumed by scholars that the boy died during a cataleptic fit or else he was killed by a sexual pervert. After Easter, a synod convened and summoned the Jews to the Church court. The Jews refused on the grounds that only the king had jurisdiction over them and they feared that they would be subjected to "trial by ordeal." William was regarded as a martyred saint and a shrine was erected in his memory. In spite of this episode, there was no immediate violence against the Jews. Over the years, despite denunciations by various popes, ritual murder libels continued. Possession of a saint's shrine bestowed great economic benefits on a town because sacred relics drew pilgrims who spent money on offerings, board, and lodging. For bones to be considered sacred relics they had to be killed by a heretic (i.e. a Jew). Such charges were used as an excuse to murder Jews as late as 1900.


    1190: In England, King Richard angered by the riots and the loss of crown property ( since the Jews belonged to the crown) renewed a general charter in favor of the Jews first issued by Henry II. His Chancellor Longchamp instituted heavy fines against the Pudsey and Percy families thus at the same time enriching the treasury and hurting his political opponents. Only three people who were also accused of destroying Christian property were executed


    1349: The townspeople of Fulda Germany massacred the Jews because they blamed them for the Black Death.


    1369: In France, Charles V sought to force Jews to attend church services by issuing an order that included a penalty for defiance. Unless they complied "the Jews might suffer great bodily harm".


    1457: The Gutenberg Bible became the first printed book. The printing revolution would soon reach the world of Jewish literature. Thanks to Gutenberg's remarkable invention, books would soon be much more readily available to the People of the Book.


    1503: After 8 years of exile, Jews are allowed to return to Lithuania


    1510: The Jews were expelled from Colmar Germany. Jews had been living in this town in Upper Alsac for at least three centuries prior to their expulsion for which no reason is given.


    1564: In Mantua, Italy, David Provensalo and his son Abraham asked the Jewish notables to help him create a Jewish College. The idea was to allow Jews to learn languages and science while also receiving a “Jewish education.” Although they did establish a Talmudic academy they were opposed by the local Church and did not succeed in opening the College.


    1609: In Mexico, “a bailiff of the Holy Office carried a statue of Jorge de Almeida in a procession and the bailiff tied the effigy to a stake” and publicly burned it.  Almeda was the wife of Donna Lenor “a Jewess” and escaped the Inquisition when he was charged with Judaizing so he was tried in absentia which meant that his effigy could not suffer auto de fe.


    1749: “Solomon,” an oratorio by George Handel based on the biblical stories about King Solomon had its final performance at the Theatre Royal in London.


    1797: Birthdate of German-Jewish jurist Eduard Gans.


    1797: Birthdate of Kaiser Wilhelm I German whose reign lasted from 1871 1888. The Prussian monarch became the first ruler over a united Germany. In 1869, the emancipation process for the Jews of Germany was completed. “All still existing limitations of the…civil rights which are rooted in differences of religious faith are hereby annulled.” Jews rose rapidly during his reign. Guided by Chancellor Bismarck, the German government actually became champion of the less fortunate Jews living to the East.


    1799(15th of Adar II, 5559): Shushan Purim



    1814: In Dresden, Naftali and Bertha Nachod gave birth to “German banker and philanthropist Jacob Nachod.


    1817: In Charleston, SC, David Nunes Carvalho and Sarah Carvalho gave birth to Emanuel Nunes Carvalho



    1827: Birthdate of William Lafayette Strong, the last Mayor of New York City elected prior to its modern consolidation. As befitted a Mayor of New York, Strong spoke positively of his Jewish constituents of whom he said, “The Jews take care their own.  They are taught to be self-supporting.” He expressed the view that while he had seen many applications for public assistance, he did not “one single application came from a Hebrew.”


    1818(14thof Adar II, 5578): Purim


    1832: German writer J W Goethe passed away at the age of 82. The creator of Fuast admitted to being ant-Semite from his earliest days. His attitude towards Jews changed when he came to realize that they were the same people who had authored the Bible, especially the Songs of Songs, a book for which he had a special affection. While Goethe could admire the Jews from an historic point of view he was an opponent of Jewish emancipation in the Fatherland. Goethe was not the first or the last intellectual who loved Jews, so long as they were dead Jews.


    1833(2ndof Nisan, 5593): Thirty-two year old poet Michael Beer, the brother of composer Giacomo Meyerbeer and astronomer Wilhelm Beer, passed away today.


    1845: Birthdate of Father Theodor Kohn whose appoint as Archbishop of Olomouc drew a great deal of opposition because his grandfather was born Jewish.


    1848: Birthdate of German historian Harry Breslau under whose chairmanship “the Historical Commission for the History of the Jews in Germany was founded by the Union of German-Jewish Congregations.”


    1853: Birthdate of Isidor Kaufman, the Hungarian born painter whose works include “Portrait of a Yeshiva Boy” and “Day of Atonement”


    1861: Jacob and Amalia Freud gave birth to Maria “Mitzi” Freud



    1862: During the American Civil War, as Union forces under the command of General McClellan moved up the peninsula in an attempt to take the Rebel capital of Richmond, an articled entitled "Clippings From Rebel Papers” Conditions of Richmond” published today reported that only soldiers returning to their regiments were being issued permits to leave the city. At the same time “The Jews have packed up their goods, and gold and silver ornaments, and are in great tribulation and ferment that their flight has been stopped.”


    1864: In Albany, NY, the Assembly passed a bill “authorizing the New-York City authorities to convey to the Hebrew Benevolent Society certain real estate.”


    1864(14th of Adar II, 5624): Purim


    1864: “The Jewish festival of Purim will be celebrated this evening, by a grand, fancy dress ball, at the Academy of Music. It is recognized as one of the most important of Jewish festivals, as it commemorates the deliverance of the Jews from the tyranny of Haman, who was prime minister to King Ahasuerus. The arrangements for the ball are very extensive, and the ornaments appropriate and beautiful. But one thousand tickets have been issued, and these only to be obtained by personal introduction to a member of the committee, the party introducing being held strictly accountable for the character and conduct of the persons introduced. With such strict rules and such liberal preparations, the ball cannot fail to be one of the best of the season.”


    1868: Birthdate of Vilmos Vázsonyi the Hungarian political leader who served as Minister of Justice and was beaten to death by “a notorious anti-Semite.”


    1873: It was reported today that of 11,859 people committed to New York’s public lunatic asylums since 1847, 402 of them were Jews.


    1874; The Young Men's Hebrew Association was founded in New York City. It was the first of several such organizations found in cities across the United States intended to provide for the “mental, moral, social, and physical improvement of Jewish young men.” In part the YMHA was a Jewish response to the YMCA.


    1875: Sixty-two year old Hezekiah Linthicum Bateman, the American theatrical manager known as H.L. Bateman passed away. Bateman was responsible for bringing Henry Irving so that he could star in The Bells, the play based on “Le Juif Polonias” (The Polish Jew)

    1875: Samuel Alexander, the famed Australian-born British philosopher who was the first Jewish fellow of an Oxbridge college “matriculated at the University of Melbourne where he entered an arts course.

    1875: It was reported today that the Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews in New York had raised $17,455.08 in the past year, spent $13,345.96 leaving a balance of $4,109.12.


    1877: Albert von Rothschild and Baroness Bettina Caroline de Rothschild gave birth to their first child, Georg Anselm Alphonse.


    1871: In Frankfurt Flora Goldschmidt married  Emil Schwarzschild the son of Emanuel Schwarzschild and Rahel Fraenkel


    1883(13th of Adar II, 5643): Fast of Esther


    1883: In New York City, Rudolph and Virginia (Kohlberg) Sampter gave birth to Jessie Ethel Sampter “poet, Zionist thinker and educator, social reformer, and pacifist” who “was a member of the inner circle of Henrietta Szold’s female friends in Palestine during the 1920s and 1930s.” (As reported by Baila R. Shargel)


    1885: Birthdate of Reb Aryeh Levin.


    1887: Birthdate Chico [Leonard] Marx, one of the famous Marx Brothers.



    1890: The will of Solomon Adler was filed for probate today.


    1890: Harold Nathan will deliver a lecture tonight on “The Use of a Library” at the downtown branch of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association. (The public libraries of the United States were “the poor man’s university, especially for the immigrant population that came to the United States at the turn of the century.)


    1890: Colonel Jacob E. Bloom, a New York attorney “is suing James M. Seymour and Francis J. Patton to establish an interest in Patten’s electrical inventions and to recover $200,000. (Bloom would serve as Superintendent of the Baron de Hirsch Industrial School)


    1891: It was reported today that the Jews were the first to feel the effects of the resurgence of “semi-savage orthodoxy throughout the Muscovite Empire” although they no longer have a monopoly “on the pains of persecution” since the Protestants are now under government surveillance.


    1891: It was reported today that “the proposal of Baron Hirsch to” settle 300,000 Russian Jews in Argentina, “which was at first very favorably received by the government” has now been rejected as a result of objections “stirred up in the press.”  The government of Uruguay has also rejected the proposal.


    1892: The creditors of the Jewish banker J.E. Guenzburg met in St. Petersburg today.


    1892: The New York City Health Department received information today that the SS Massilia, the ship that had brought a large number of Jewish immigrants infected with typhus on its last trip to New York was on its way back to the city with another load of immigrants.


    1893: Thousands of people gathered outside of the Reichstag waiting to hear the details of Hermann Ahlwardt’s proof that while Bismarck was Chancellor “fraudulent contracts” had been entered to with Jewish financiers resulting in “the loss of vast sums of money belonging to the State” Ahlwardt was a high school president, who ironically, had been extricated from his financial problems by Jewish friends before turning on them to pursue a career as an anti-Semitic agitator.


    1893: Dr. Louis Fischer will deliver a lecture “Cholera – What It Is and How To Cure It” at the Hebrew Institute.


    1893: Arabs attack Jews at Rehovot


    1893: Senda Berenson, the "Mother of Women's Basketball", officiated at the first women's basketball game at Smith College, in Northampton, Massachusetts. Born in Lithuania and raised in Boston, Berenson was weak and delicate as a child. An athletic career would have seemed unlikely for the woman whose poor health rendered her unable to complete her training at the Boston Conservatory of Music. But in 1890, she entered the Boston Normal School of Gymnastics, in a bid to improve her strength and health. There, she trained in anatomy, physiology, and hygiene, and was hired by Smith College upon her graduation in 1892. Berenson, the director of the physical education department at Smith, first heard about a new game called "Basket Ball" soon after her arrival in Northampton. Invented as a class exercise for boys, the game — like most team sports — was considered too strenuous for girls, who were instead encouraged to participate in individual sports like swimming, archery, and horseback riding. Berenson observed the game being played in Springfield, and met its inventor, Dr. James Naismith, who encouraged her to adopt the game as exercise for her female students. At the first basketball game on March 22, 1893 (some sources cite March 21), Smith freshmen were pitted against Smith sophomores, with no male spectators allowed. With rules intended to avoid the roughness of the men's game, the new game became a hit, and soon swept the country. By 1895, there were hundreds of women's basketball teams, and these teams helped open the door to other team sports programs for women. Berenson wrote the first official rulebook for women's college basketball, as well as a number of articles on the new sport. She continued to edit the rules until the 1916-17 season, and many of the rules she developed remained standard until the 1980s. Berenson died in 1954. Over thirty years later, in 1985, she was the first woman to be inducted into the Basketball Hall of Fame in Springfield, MA.


    1894(14thof Adar II, 5654): Purim


    1895: The will of the late Dr. Bernard Grunhut was filed for probate following the end of the challenge brought by the two children of the descendant. The judge’s ruling that enough evidence had been presented that their father’s marriage was valid, “even if he was not of sound mind” at the time of the ceremony.  This means that the Hebrew Benevolent Society an Mount Sinai Hospital will each receive bequests of $25,000 with the widow receiving the residual of the estate with the exception of $25,000 that had been bequeathed to a baby that reportedly died fifteen days after it was born.


    1896: An article entitled “Easter Cookery” published in the New York Times includes a description of Chad Gad Ya, “The Kid of Passover,” which it compares to “The House That Jack Built.”


    1896: Dr. Gustav Gottheil delivered the second in a series of sermons on “What Is a Christian Nation” at Temple Emanu-El in New York City.


    1896: In Vienna, Erna (née Weinstein) and stage (and later motion picture) actor Rudolph Schildkraut to American actor Joseph Schildkraut.


    1897: Rabbi Ignatz Grossman, who passed away two days ago in New York, will be buried in Detroit, Michigan where his son Dr. Louis Grossman serves as a rabbi.  Two of his other sons, Julius and Rudolph, are also rabbis while his fourth son Adolph is a businessman in Chicago.


    1897: “The Austrian Elections” published today described the various factions competing for seats in the Reichsrath that meets in Vienna including “the anti-Semites, the Jews baiters of Vienna and Lower Austria” who are “closely connected with the Clericals.”


    1897: Mr. and Mrs. Jacob Schiff were unable to attend the Purim Ball at the Montefiore Home for Chronic Invalids because they were in Frankfort-on-the-Main.  Schiff is President of the of the Montefiore Home and he sent a telegram from Germany expressing his regrets.


    1897: “Home For Aged Hebrews” published today included a history of the organization which “is an outgrowth of the B’nai Jeshurun Ladies’ Benevolent Society.” In 1870, a young men’s organization, the Benevolent, Dramatic and Musical Association, gave the women $3,500 as seed money and the home was incorporated in 1872. The home was designed to serve those over the age of sixty who are “entirely dependent on themselves for support and unable to support themselves.


    1897: Dr. S.N. Leo is the director of the pharmacy at the Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews in New York.


    1898: It was reported today that 300 children from the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society and the New York Orphan Asylum are going to attend the upcoming show at the Harlem Music Hall.


    1899: Rabbi Gottheil is among the speakers scheduled to address a meeting of workers at the Hebrew



    1899: The “liberal synagogue” was dedicated in Cologne.



    1903: Birthdate Levi Arthur Olan, the Ukranian native who served Rabbi of Temple Emanu-El of Dallas, Texas from 1949 to 1970.


    1904: Birthdate of Isaac Goldberg, the native of Poland, who gained fame as “Itche Goldberg, a champion of Yiddish who wrote and edited and taught his beloved language in the face of all those who said keeping Yiddish alive was a lost cause.” (As reported by Ari L. Goodman)



    1909: Birthdate of Brooklynite Nathan Rosen, the MIT graduate who gained fame as an American-Israeli physicist working with Albert Einstein.  Among other things he is known for the “The Einstein–Rosen Bridge, later named the wormhole, which was a theory of Nathan Rosen.”  The only person I know who understands any of this is Dr. Joe Rosen, the son of Nathan Rosen, a prominent physicist in his own right and a son of which his father would be proud.


    1912: Birthdate of Eliyanu Kitov the native of Poland who made Aliyah in 1936 and in 1954 established Aleph Institute Publications. His works include Is U’Veito which was translated into English as A Jew and his Home by Rabbi Nachman Bulman the New York born son of Rabbi Meir and Etil Bulman


    1912(4thof Nisan, 5672): Sixty-three year old Mark Arnheim, a “clothing merchant” in New York passed away today.


    1912: Dedication ceremonies for Anshe Chesed’s new temple on Euclid Avenue in Cleveland, Ohio began.


    1913: Louis-Lucien Klotz completed his service as Minister of Finance.


    1913: Louis-Lucien Klotz began serving as Minster of the Interior.


    1914: The United Synagogues of America, an organization of Conservative Congregations, held its second annual convention in New York City. During his address to the convention, Professor Solomon Schechter, President of the Jewish Theological Seminary, called for worship services to be conducted in Hebrew with English replacing Yiddish as the language in which the sermons were to be given. Schechter also refused to serve another term as President of the organization and Dr. Cyrus Adler of Dropsie College was elected to serve in his place. Among the other highlights of the convention was a presentation by Rabbi Mordechai Kaplan, Chairman of the Education Committee in which he outline an aggressive program to upgrade and modern the Jewish educational opportunities in a manner consistent with the challenges of modern day America.

    1915: It was reported today that Just Gustave Hartman of the Municipal Court, President of the Israel Orphan Asylum has expressed “some objections” to plans for building a second home for Jewish orphans in the Bronx sponsored by the Hebrew National Orphan Asylum.


    1915: It was reported today that “more than 7,000 persons come to the building housing the Educational Alliance daily” most of whom come to study and that the Alliance spends “upward of $110,000 annually” to support its educational work.


    1915(7th of Nisan, 5675): Fifty-five year old “Professor H.L. Sabsovich, General Agent of the Baron De Hirsh Fund and the first mayor of the Jewish Agricultural Colony at Woodbine, NJ” who was well known for his social work among the Jews passed away tonight in New York. A native of Russia, where he gained famed as a chemists and “manager of estates,” he organized the Committee of Safety during the Pogrom of 1881 and help found the Society of Am Olam. He came to the United States in 1888 and worked as an agricultural chemist for Colorado State before joining the Woodbine Colony and joing the Baron de Hirsch Fund.

    1915: The Army and Navy Young Men’s Hebrew Association issued an appeal to the New York Jewish community asking that its members open their homes to serviceman for the first Seder on March 29 and the second Seder on March 30. According to the Association, “there are 300” Jewish serviceman in the New York area “who have no friends or relatives here.” The Association will provide lodgings at a local hotel and the servicemen will attend services at the synagogue or temple of their choice. Those who cannot offer hospitality are urged to send a contribution to suppot the groups efforts toe Joseph S. Marcus, the association’s treasurer.


    1915: BritishLieutenant-Colonel John Henry Patterson backed byMajor-General Alexander Godley was appointed commander of the force he was to recruit, with Captain Trumpeldor as Second-in-Command after which they left Cairo for Alexandria where there was a large Jewish refugee community.


    1915: The majority of the Palestine Refugees' Committee under the encouragement of Joseph Trompledor and Vladimir Jabotinsky endorsed a resolution calling for the formation of a “Jewish Legion" and propose to England its utilization in Palestine. Within a few days about 500 enlisted.




    1916: During on World War I, on the Western Front, the first British tree observation post was put up today.  The camouflages for these posts was developed and produced by a unit under the command of Lt. Col. Solomon Joseph Solomon, the artist who had been hand-picked by the British General Staff to fill this role.


    1920: Birthdate of actor Werner Klemperer who played Colonel Klink on Hogan’s Heroes.


    1922: In Manhattan, “Morris Neuman and the former Ida Mitnistky gave birth to Charlotte Sandra Neuman who gained fame as “Charlotte Spiegel, a civic leader and Democratic politician from the Lower East Side who created New York’s pioneering and lifesaving window guard program in the 1970s.” (As reported by Sam Roberts)



    1923(5th of Nisan, 5683): Max Nordau, early Zionist leader, passed away at the age of 73. Born in 1849 in the city that would later be known as Budapest, Hungary (then part of the Austrian Empire), Nordau’s life followed a conventional pattern for many Jews of his time and social class. Raised with a traditional Jewish background, he drifted away from Judaism finding fame and fortune as a writer and physician. As the 19th century came to a close, Nordau was alarmed by the rise of anti-Semitism and became and early supporter of another Austrian Jew, Theodore Herzl. When Herzl died, Nordau was asked to take his place. He declined offering to serve as an advisor to David Wolffsohn. Nordau drifted away from the formal organization as Zionism changed from Herzl's grand political approach to a more practical approach. After World War I, Nordau advocated the immediate immigration of half a million Jews to Palestine. Nobody heeded his advice. He died in Paris, far from the limelight, an almost forgotten figure who had believed in the cause of the Jewish state when most said it was an impractical dream or the scheme of lunatics.


    1923: In Strasbourg, France “Ann Werzberg and Charles Mangel, a kosher butcher” gave birth to Marcel Mangel, who gained fame as mime Marcel Marceau. After having seen Charlie Chaplin, he became interested in acting. At 15, his Jewish family was forced to flee their home as France entered the Second World War. He later joined Charles De Gaulle’s Free French Forces and, because of his excellent English, worked as a liaison officer with General Patton's army. He began studying acting at the Sarah Bernhardt Theatre in Paris in 1946.



    1924: Birthdate of Al Neuharth, founder of USA Today.


    1928(1st of Nisan, 5688): Rosh Chodesh


    1929: The month long celebration of the 20th anniversary of the founding of Tel Aviv began with a Purim Carnival.


    1930: Birthdate of composer and lyricist Stephen Sondheim. Born in New York City, the son of a successful dress manufacturer, Sondheim's childhood was comfortably upper-middle class. He was a precocious child: he skipped kindergarten, began reading the New York Times in the first grade, and at ten began studying lyric writing with Oscar Hammerstein, who was a family friend. Sondheim went on to compose his own music and lyrics for A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum (1962), Follies (1971), Sweeney Todd (1979) and Sunday in the Park with George (1984)


    1931: Birthdate of actor William Shatner, Captain Kirk on Star Trek.


    1931: Moghannam Elias Moghannam, a member of the Palestine Arab Executive declared that “it was totally untrue that certain Arab politicians had met Jewish representatives I Palestine into to establish the preliminary basis of a peace parley.” The Arab leader was especially critical of any Arab who was willing to meet with Dr. Chaim Weizmann who had arrived in Tel Aviv in an attempt to reach a modus Vivendi that would restore peace to Palestine.


    1931: “Marshall Letter Won $500,000 Gift” tells the hitherto unknown story of how a letter from Louis Marshall to Julius Rosenwald resulted in the latter’s decision to make a major donation to the Jewish Theological Seminary.


    1932: In Germany, premiere of “Peter Voss, Thief of Millions” with a script co-authored by Bruno Frank and directed by Ewald André Dupont for whom this would his penultimate film in Germany before being forced to flee due to the rise of the Nazis even though he was not Jewish


    1933: “The Concentration Camp at Dachau was opened today with the arrival of about 200 prisoners from Stadelheim Prison in Munich and the Landsberg fortress.”  According to the official press statement (yes the Nazis issued a press release for this) on March 22, “Wednesday the first concentration camp is to be opened in Dachau with an accommodation for 5000 people. 'All Communists and—where necessary—Reichsbanner and Social Democratic functionaries who endanger state security are to be concentrated here, as in the long run it is not possible to keep individual functionaries in the state prisons without overburdening these prisons, and on the other hand these people cannot be released because attempts have shown that they persist in their efforts to agitate and organize as soon as they are released.”


    1935: In Camden, NJ, Rabbi Philip Lipis addressed Congregation Beth El during its search for a new spiritual leader.  In April, the congregation offered him the position which he accepted.


    1936: In article previewing the upcoming tourist and cruise season, the New York Times reports that a spring fair in Tel Aviv will attract large crowds “from overseas and Near Eastern cities.”


    1937(10th of Nisan, 5697): Dr. Henry J. Wolfe, a general practitioner who “had also done extensive work in neurology and psychiatry” passed away today at the age of 75. A graduate of City College, Wolf earned his M.D. at Heidelberg University in 1884. One of his daughter, Mrs. Prsscilla Litavsky has made Aliyah and lives in Tel Aviv.


    1937: The Palestine Post reported that Dov Zemel, a lorry driver, was shot at an ambush near Kfar Saba and was in critical condition.


    1937: The Palestine Post reported that British troops captured two terrorists in a battle with an Arab gang near Acre. There were sporadic shooting accidents in Jerusalem and Safed.


    1937: The Palestine Post reported that Six Arab prisoners sentenced to death had their sentences commuted to penal servitude for life by the High Commissioner, Sir Arthur Wauchope.


    1937: The Palestine Post reported that Two cooperative groups settled on the Jewish National Fund land, allocated by the Arlosoroff Memorial Fund in the Jordan Valley. Important archaeological finds were discovered near Afula.


    1938: “Following the annexation of Austria, journalist and author Heinrich Eduard Jacob was arrested today and eventually shipped to Dachau.


    1939: The German army occupied Memel and the region around the Lithuanian town. By that time about 21,000 people had left the city, most of them Lithuanians as well as a small number of Jews, the majority of the latter having left beforehand. The Nazis confiscated private and public Jewish property valued at tens of millions Litas. Jews had lived in Memel since the 14th century.


    1943: The first group of Macedonian Jews were shipped from Skopje to Treblinka.


    1943: The first of four new crematoriums at Auschwitz was ready for use and began operation.


    1943: Time magazine reported on speech by Henri Honoré Giraud in which the High Commissioner of North Africa disavowed the conditions of the German armistice and the subsequent decrees of Vichy ("promulgated without the participation of the French people, and directed against them"). He said that Vichy's anti-Jewish laws "no longer exist," promised to hold municipal elections in North Africa. He also revoked the Cremieux Decree of 1870, which granted French citizenship en bloc to Jews in Algeria, but excluded the Arabs. Henceforth, Moslems and Jews must complement each other economically, "the latter working in his shop, the former in the desert, without either having advantage over the other, France assuring both security and tranquility."


    1944: The Washington Post reported "Poles Report Nazis Slay 10,000 Daily." (Jewish Virtual Library)


    1944: Shlomo Venezia and his family who were living in Thessaloniki were deported to Athens, the first leg of a trip that would take them Auschwitz.


    1944: In Poland, at the Koldzyczewo Work Camp Shlomo Kushnir succeeded in leading almost all the Jewish inmates who were still alive out of the camp after killing ten Nazi guards. Kushnir committed suicide when he was caught with twenty-five others. The others joined the partisans in the forests.


    1945: The Arab League was formed today in Cairo. "The League's first resolutions included a restriction on Egyptian Muslim contact with those who were call 'supporters of Zionism,' that is, all Egyptian Jews."


    1946: Gotthil Wagner was killed by as yet unidentified gunmen today outside of Tel Aviv. Wagner was a German national who had been detained by the British as an enemy alien. The British were permitting Wagner to engage in his various business interests. Reportedly several younger Jews were not happy with Wagner and other Germans to return to a normal life in Palestine because they had openly sympathized with Nazi policies before the war “and openly voice anti-Jewish sentiments.”


    1947: For the first time in eight days, all 12 members of the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry on Palestine were at the hearing in Jerusalem where a variety of Christian leaders described their view (and needs) of the current conflict between Arabs and Jews. The Anglican Bishop in Jersualem described the conflict as one of “differing civilizations and different tempos of progress.”


    1947: Sigmund Menkes was award the Corcoran Gold Medal and the first W.A. Clark Prize for his entry “Day’s End, 1946” in the Twentieth Biennial Exhibition of Contemporary Painitings sponsored by the Corcoran Gallery of Art. Thirty-two year old Jack Levine of Boston won the Bronze Medal for his entry “Apteka” making him the youngest of the winners.


    1947: “Hagannah posted pamphlets in Tel Avi” today “accusing the Irgun…of being deserters from the Zionist struggle and of wasting their efforts in murder while Haganah strove to rescue Jews from Europe. As the principal organizer of illegal immigration Haganah charged the Irgun with neglecting that primary function.”


    1947: Dr. Nahum Goldman addressed the Tel Aviv Journalists Associate today telling them that “the historical alliance between Britian and Jewry is nearing its end. That alliance has existed since 1917 when the Balfour Declaration gave Zionists their first legal claim on Palestine as a national home. Its virtual dissolution obviously brings the Zionist movement to an hour of decision. It must ovtain a new international guarantee, another protector among the great powers.

    1948: In Augusburg, Germany, Holocaust survivors Cesia Blitzer (née Zylberfuden), a homemaker, and David Blitzer, a home builder gave birth to Wolf Blitzer the graduate of the University of Buffalo (NY) who is best known for his work on CNN.


    1949: Holocaust survivors Moryc Brajtbart (later Morris Breitbart) and Lucy Gliklich “married in the Rosenheim displaced persons camp today and immigrated to the United States the following December.”


    1950: According to New York Times correspondent C.L. Sulzberger, the future of Israel depends on its ability to make peace with the surrounding Arab nations and developing normal commercial relations with them while receiving continued political support from the the United Kingdom and the United States and getting additional American aid so that it can meet is “grandiose economic development plans.


    1951(14thof Adar II, 5711): Purim


    1952: Birthdate of sportscaster Bob Costas


    1953: Arthur Miller's "Crucible" premiered in New York City.


    1955: Release date of “Yellowneck,” film set in the Everglades of 1863 with music by Laurence Rosenthal.



    1957: Israeli forces withdrew from the Sinai Peninsula as part of the peace process following the Suez Crisis of 1956. Failure of the international community and United Nations to honor its guarantees will lead to further crisis that will boil over into the Six Day War of 1967.


    1958(1st of Nisan, 5718): Rosh Chodesh Nisan;Shabbat HaChodesh


    1958(1st of Nisan, 5718): Movie producer Michael Todd died in an airplane crash in New Mexico. Born Avrom Hirsch Goldbogen in 1909, Todd won an Academy Award for Best Picture in 1956 for producing Around the World in Eighty Days. At the time of his death he was married to Elizabeth Taylor who would later marry Jewish crooner, Eddie Fisher. Along the way, Ms. Taylor would convert to Judaism



    1960: Arthur Leonard Schawlow whose father was a Jewish immigrant from Latvia and Charles Hard Townes receives the first patent for a laser.


    1962: In another reminder of the depth of Jewish involvement in the world of the Broadway Musical “ I Can Get It For You Wholesale” premiered at the Schubert Theatre. It was based on the novel by Jerome Weidman who wrote the script, with music and lyrics by Harold Rome, directed by Arthur Laurens, starring Elliot Gould and introducing Barbra Streisand as “Miss Marmelstein.”


    1963(26thof Adar, 5723): Fifty-five year old composer Abraham “Abe” Ellstein passed away.



    1965: Yitzhak Rafael completed his service as Deputy Minister of Health.


    1965:More than 400 persons paid tribute tonight to Dr. David de Sola Pool, rabbi emeritus of Congregation Shearith Israel–the Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue–in honor of the rabbi’s 80th birthday. (JTA)



    1965: Bob Dylan "goes electric," releasing his first album featuring electric instruments, Bringing It All Back Home.


    1972: In an aritcle in the Jerusalem Post, Walter Eytan, who has served as Amabassador to France and Chairman of the Israel Broadcasting Authority, wrote that he was sure Israelis would vote overwhelmingly in a favor of a move to leave the West Bank if that departure would guarantee peace. He was equally sure that Israelis would reject a call for withdrawal just for the sake of withdrawal that was not part of a guaranteed peace.


    1973: Lyndon B Johnson President died at his Texas Ranch at the age of 64. As a young member of the U.S. House of Representatives in the 1930’s, Johnson intervened to help bring Jews from Hitler’s Europe to the United. In 1945, he visited concentration camps in Germany where he was visibility moved by the suffering inflicted on the Jewish people. At the time of the 1956 Suez Crisis, As a U.S. Senator in 1956 and 1957, Johnson opposed the Eisenhower Administration's pressure on Israel and supported her position. During the crisis that led to the Six Day War in 1967, President Johnson urged the Israelis to act with caution. Pre-occupied with the Vietnam War, Johnson attempted to organize an International Flotilla that would enter the Straits of Tiran and break the Egyptian Blockade of Elath. His attempts failed. Based on his intelligence reports, Johnson assured the Israelis that he knew they would emerge victorious. As the war came to a close, the Soviets attempted to repeat their 1956 diplomatic rescue of their Arab allies. The Soviets threatened military action unless the Israelis immediately withdrew. Unlike Eisenhower, Johnson did not cave into the threat. Instead he mobilized the Sixth Fleet and sent into the eastern Mediterranean. The Soviets got the message. After the war, Johnson saw to it that America filled the void left by France's new anti-Israel policy and the United States became the main arms supplier for the IDF. Thanks to Johnson’s efforts, the 1964 Civil Rights Act became law which, among other things, banned discrimination against religion. Last but not least, one of Johnson’s favorite lines was from Isaiah, “Come let us reason together;” a line when uttered was a sure sign that an opponent was about to get “The Treatment” intended to turn foe into political friend.


    1977: The second season of “One Day At A Time” starring Bonnie Franklin comes to an end.


    1977: The Jerusalem Post reported that the 4,500 employees of the country's three ports went on a general strike to back up their demands for an increase of IL 600 per month. Only passenger ships were exempted.


    1977: The Jerusalem Post reported that the Supreme Court set a precedent in declaring an Israeli citizen extraditable. An Israeli businessman who was wanted by the Swiss government on charges of defrauding a bank was declared extraditable in a precedent-setting ruling.


    1979: The Israeli Parliament approved the peace treaty with Egypt.


    1981(16th of Adar II, 5741): Shusan Purim


    1983: Chaim Herzog was elected President of Israel today by the Knesset defeating Menachem Elon.


    1987: The New York Times reviews "The Messiah of Stockholm" by Cynthia Ozick, a novel that is dedicated to Philip Roth.


    1993: The third round of talks comes to an end at Oslo, Norway.


    1995: Hilary Koprowski was awarded the title of Commander of the Order of the Lion of Finland by the President of the Republic of Finland. 1995: Hillary Koprowski was awarded the title of Commander of the Order of the Lion of Finland by the President of the Republic of Finland. A native of Poland, Koprowski is an American virologist and immunologist, and inventor of the world's first effective live polio vaccine. He was one of three Jews – the other two being Salk and Sabin – who played a leading role in developing a Polio Vaccine.


    1998: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or special interest to Jewish readers including Laughing Matters: On Writing ''M*A*S*H,''''Tootsie,''''Oh, God!,'' and a Few Other Funny Things by Larry Gelbart, A March to Madness: The View From the Floor in the Atlantic Coast Conference by John Feinstein and Spin Cyle: Inside the Clinton Propaganda Machine by Howard Kurtz.


    1999: Eliezer Sandberg left the Israel in the Centre party to establish HaTzeirim


    1999(5th of Nisan, 5759): Eighty-five year old British historian Max Beloff, passed away. In addition to his academic accomplishments, Beloff served as governor of the University of Haifa and as Baron Beloff served as an active member of the House of Lords. According to the Unbroken Chain, the Beloff’s family lineage traces back “to the House of David as descendants of Rabbi Meir Katzenellenbogen, the Maharam of Padua.” For about Beloff see his autobiography An Historian in the Twentieth Century.


    2000: In an article entitled “A Victim's Sang-Froid in Very Coldblooded Times,” Richard Bernstein not only reviews I Will Bear Witness: A Diary of the Nazi Years, 1942-1945 by Victor Klemperer; translated and with a preface by Martin Chalmers but provides a valuable picture of the privation faced by this hidden Jew.


    2004: Ahmed Yassin, co-founder and leader of Hamas, and his bodyguards are killed in the Gaza Strip when hit by Israeli Air Force AH-64 Apache fired Hellfire missiles.


    2005: The New-York Historical Society opened an exhibit entitled "First Ladies of New York and the Nation." Among the unusual items on display in the exhibit were four handbags created by Judith Lieber.”



    2006: Rabbi Joseph Telushkin delivers a speech on "A Code of Jewish Ethics", followed by a book signing at Barnes and Noble Bookstore in New York City.


    2006: In Seville, Spain, the Second World Congress of Imams and Rabbis for peace came to a close.


    2006: Haaretz reported that a string of anti-Semitic incidents in the aftermath of the torture and murder of a young Jewish vendor is fueling concerns that anti-Jewish feelings are spreading in France's black community. The incidents - three physical attacks allegedly committed by blacks of Muslim descent - occurred in recent days, following the extradition from Ivory Coast of Youssouf Fofana, the alleged leader of the gang that kidnapped and murdered 21-year-old Ilan Halimi. The alleged involvement of blacks has added a new twist to the wave of anti-Semitic incidents in recent years, which mostly were the work of young Muslims of North African descent responding to the Palestinian intifada. A judge charged Fofana for the premeditated murder of Halimi, with the aggravated circumstance that the crime was motivated by race, after evidence surfaced that the gang had targeted Halimi because they believed that Jews are rich and the community would pay a ransom. Fofana has told investigators that the plot was not motivated by ethnicity, but by money, and has denied that he killed Halimi. "This affair has transformed Fofana into a hero in the eyes of quite a few people," said Sammy Ghozlan, president of the National Office of Vigilance Against Anti-Semitism, a former police chief who has been criticized by some Jewish groups for what they say is his tendency to exaggerate the anti-Semitic threat. "The attitude of [black] people has changed in recent years." Patrick Klugman, vice-president of the anti-racism group SOS Racism, said that recent events "have reawakened the fears of Jews after a period of calm, and is creating tensions with the black community and this is very worrying." The attacks and their aftermath have prompted some virulent exchanges on the Internet. An e-mail allegedly sent by a small group of black radicals known as Tribu K.A to several Jewish and antiracist organizations warned against any effort to deny Fofana a fair trial. "We will take special care of your rabbis' sidelocks," the group threatened, adding, "Let the brother be judged fairly or you will pay." Black-Jewish tensions were virtually unheard of in France a few years ago, but they began to surface after well-known comedian Dieudonne Mbala Mbala started accusing Jews of controlling the world and enslaving blacks, prompting a flurry of defamation lawsuits by Jewish organizations. Dieudonne, who is of African origin and made his name a decade ago while partnering with a Jewish humorist, has made a series of statements about Jews and Israel in his shows and in the media. In addition to stating that Jews played a "central role" in the 15th-century slave trade, he most famously appeared in December 2003 on a popular French television program dressed as an Orthodox Jew and performed the Nazi salute while shouting "Isra Heil." All the defamation charges against him have so far been rejected by the courts. Dieudonne is also considering running in next year's presidential elections on a far-left platform. Late last month, Julien Dray, the spokesman for the main opposition socialist party, blamed the Halimi murder on the "Dieudonne effect." In response, the comic issued a statement calling Dray the "Zionist militant" and demanding that he apologize. Last weekend, three anti-Semitic attacks took place in the Parisian suburb of Sarcelles, where 20 percent of the city's 58,000 inhabitants are Jewish. On March 3, a local rabbi's 17-year-old son was attacked by two black men near their synagogue, suffering a broken nose. That same afternoon, an 18-year-old man was attacked by a group of five men, who insulted him and stole his cell phone. Four of them were black and the fifth was of Arab origin, according to the police. The next night, a 28-year-old wearing a yarmulke was verbally and physically abused by four men and suffered a dislocated shoulder, according to police sources. The culprits, four underage black men, have been arrested and charged. Interior Minister Nicolas Sarkozy announced at a meeting with families and local officials that police reinforcements would be deployed in Sarcelles, which is located in an area where several days of rioting by young Arab immigrants took place a few months ago. Other anti-Semitic incidents have occurred in the country's second-largest city, Lyons, and the nearby suburb of Villeurbanne, where a sizable Jewish community lives. According to a poll taken by the weekly news magazine Paris-Match after the Halimi murder but before the recent incidents, nearly two-thirds of the French believe anti-Semitism is currently rising. Ghozlan, who in 2000 founded the Antisemitism Vigilance Bureau to monitor anti-Jewish acts in France, has pointed out that at least two Jews - a doctor and a high-school student - had been beaten up by blacks of Muslim origin in the Paris area just before the grim ordeal of Halimi was revealed. According to police, Halimi, a cell phone vendor, was lured into a trap by a young girl. He was held for three weeks by a gang of youths of mixed origins, whose leaders made frantic and disjointed demands for ransom to his family. He was beaten and burned with cigarettes and acid. His body was dumped, half-naked, on rail tracks near Paris. He died on his way to the hospital. Despite the swift reaction from the authorities and the decision to prosecute the murder as a hate crime, the Halimi affair and other recent incidents have revived the heated discussions in some Jewish circles about the need to set up self-defense groups or leave the country. Such talk had waned after a sharp drop in the number of anti-Semitic incidents last year, but is starting to pick up again. In a statement issued last week titled "France in danger!", the Jewish umbrella organization CRIF warned the authorities that "this insurrectional situation risks creating uncontrollable self-defense reactions. We solemnly ask the president of the Republic to declare war on anti-Semitism and give back some confidence to all citizens. Let's make no mistake! The Jews are the sentinels of the Republic, and the violence directed against them today will tomorrow hit the rest of the population. The unity of the nation is in danger." An online petition addressed to the U.S. Congress and calling for Jews to seek asylum in the United States has gathered more than 5,200 signatures.


    2007: Ira Glass and company began airing a television version of This American Life as half-hour episodes on the Showtime network.


    2008: Shushan Purim, 5768


    2008: As part of the Israel at 60, the 92nd Street Y presents Danny Sanderson, Israeli lyricist and pop icon. Sanderson, a singer-songwriter legend whose album, Kongo Blues, was voted January 06 album of the month in Israel, performs some of Israel's best known and most beloved songs.


    2008: Publication of selected writings of Pfc. Daniel Agami, of blessed memory.



    2009: An exhibition featuring the works of Israeli born photographer Shai Kremer at the Metropolitan Museum comes to a close.


    2009: The YIVO Institute for Jewish Research presents a speech by Dr. David Fishman of the Jewish Theological Seminary on the topic "The Problem of Religion and Secularism among Secular Yiddishists in Eastern Europe.


    2009: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including the recently published paperback edition of “Now You See Him” by Eli Gotlieb.


    2009: At Temple Sinai in Los Angeles, New York Times columnist Roger Cohen “faced off against some 400 Iranian Jews and Bahais” who took exception to his recent columns describing the plight of Jews living in Iran.


    2010: The 14th Annual Hartford Jewish Film Festival is scheduled to present “Tribute: Observations on Survival and Spirit - Lessons from the Holocaust” featuring eight short films including “Holding Leah,” “Pigeon,” “Sarah and Hayah,” “The Next Harvest,” “The Wall,” “Torte Bluma,” “Toyland” and “Waiting for Dachau.”


    2010: Shots were fired at an Israeli army patrol this evening next to Aduraim in the southern Hevron Hills. No injuries or damage were reported. Additional troops were sent to search the scene.


    2010(7th of Nisan, 5760): Rabbi Zachary Heller, past president of the World Council of Masorti Synagogues and a congregational rabbi for nearly 30 years died today after a long battle with cancer. He was 71. He served as senior rabbi of Temple Emanu-El, a Conservative congregation in Bayonne, N.J., for 29 years, and was considered "a rabbi's rabbi," according to a death notice in The New York Times. Heller worked as the associate director of the National Center for Jewish Policy Studies for 12 years from 1997. As president of the World Council of Masorti Synagogues from 1989 to 1994, he lectured and taught in 22 countries and mentored rabbis in many communities. The Masorti movement in Israel is affiliated with Conservative Judaism.


    2011: Tony Kushner’s latest play, “The Intelligent Homosexual’s Guide to Capitalism and Socialism With a Key to the Scriptures,” is scheduled to open today.


    2011: Moshe Katsav was sentenced to seven years in prison and two years’ probation for rape, indecent acts, sexual harassment and obstruction of justice, becoming the first former President of Israel to be sentenced to prison. In addition, he was ordered to pay one of the women compensation totaling 100,000 NIS and another a sum of 25,000 NIS


    2011: “James’ Journey to Jerusalem” is scheduled to be shown in Iowa City as part of the Hillel Film Series.


    2011(16h of Adar II): On this date on the Hebrew Calendar the rebuilding of the walls of Jerusalem began under King Agrippa I.


    2011: The three major film schools in Manhattan-- Columbia University School of Arts, The School of Visual Arts Film School and NYU Tisch School of the Arts--,are scheduled to host the opening night of a three day salute to the achievements of the Sam Spiegel Film School. “Over the last decade The Sam Spiegel Film School played a pivotal role in the film renaissance of Israeli cinema by virtue of its distinctive focus on a personal and sensitive dialogue with the audience.”


    2011: Thirty-five congregations including shuls from cities as large as Phoenix and Las Vegas, and as small as Chesterfield, Mo. and Norfolk, VA have registered for the 3rd annual Emerging Communities Conference sponsored by the Orthodox Union which is scheduled to begin today.


    2011: Today, the Tel Aviv District Court sentenced former president Moshe Katsav to seven years in prison and two years’ probation for rape and sexual harassment, which he was convicted of in December. Judges George Karra, Judith Shevach and Miriam Sokolov also ruled that Katsav pay NIS 100,000 to victim "Aleph" from the Tourism Ministry.


    2011: Palestinians reported that four people were killed, including several children, and several others were injured when IDF shells hit a house east of Gaza City this afternoon.  The IDF Spokesman Unit overnight confirmed that IAF aircraft attacked two terror tunnels, two sites used for the manufacturing and storage of weapons and two further terrorist targets in the Gaza Strip. "Direct targets were identified and all planes returned safely to their base," a statement by the IDF read. "The attack was in response to recently conducted attacks on southern communities," the statement continued. "The IDF will not tolerate the continued attack of settlements close to Gaza," the IDF statement said.


    2011: Knesset Speaker Reuven Rivlin slammed the “dangerous” military conversion bill, while calling on the rabbinate to increase and enhance its conversion efforts as a countermeasure to the massive assimilation taking place in Israel. Speaking at a Knesset event marking 90 years to the Chief Rabbinate’s inception, Rivlin noted the wealth of religious bodies that supplement the religious services provided by the rabbinate, but warned of one service that can never be in the hands of a body that is not an official arm of the state. (As reported by Isaac Harari)


    2011: A Grad rocket fired from Gaza exploded south of Ashdod today after a day of escalation along the border.

    2011: The opening of the exhibition by artist Sharon Poliakine and painter Oren Eliav, takes place at The Tel Aviv Museum of Art


    2011: In “New edition out for Maxwell House Haggadah, part of Passover tradition for many American Jews” that “From the White House to the Schein house, Passover is good to the last drop thanks to the Maxwell House Haggadah, lovingly passed down through generations, red wine splotches and gravy smears marking nearly 80 years of service at American Seder tables.


    2012: Spokane Jewish Cultural Cultural Film Festival is scheduled to open in Spokane, Washington


    2012: The 16th Annual New York Sephardic Jewish Film Festival is scheduled to come to a close.


    2012: The Jewish Music Festival is scheduled to present the Bustan Quartet in Berkley, CA.


    2013: Julius Genachowski announced that he would be leaving the FCC which he had been chairing since June of 2009.


    2013: “The Gang’s All Here” which features Benny Goodman playing himself is scheduled to be shown as part of the Bernard and Irene Schwartz Classic Film Series.


    2013: Portugal’s national soccer team is scheduled to square off against its Israeli rivals at the national stadium in Ramat Gan this afternoon.


    2013: Political leaders flocked this morning to the bedside of Acre Mayor Shimon Lankri, who survived an assassination attempt in what doctors describe as a lucky escape

    2013: Barack Obama ended his first presidential visit to Israel and headed off to Jordan today, after another packed day.

    2013:President Barack Obama scored a diplomatic coup just before leaving Israel when Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu apologized to Turkey for a 2010 commando raid that killed nine activists on a Turkish vessel in a Gaza-bound flotilla.


    2014: The Jewish Children’s Regional Service (JCRS) which has done an outstanding job of serving Jewish families and youth since 1855, is scheduled to host a gala fundraiser “The Jewish Roots of Broadway.”


    2014: “The German Doctor” is scheduled to be shown at the Northern Virginia Jewish Film Festival.


    2014: “A Palestinian militants sent threatening text messages to a large number of Israelis this evening, calling on them to leave the country and warning them they would be “the next Gilad Shalit.”


    2014: “Hunting Elephants” and “The Attack” are scheduled to be shown at the Houston Jewish Film Festival.


    2014: “A joint IDF, Shin Bet and Border Police raid early today killed a wanted Hamas operative in the Jenin refugee camp in the northern West Bank who was reportedly plotting a major terrorist attack.”


    2014: Flexiblity Key to Survial” published today described the way that Lebo’s the 91 year old family owned footwear business founded by Sidney Levin has changed to meet the needs and challenges of its customers.



    2014: In Rockville, MD, The Magen David Sephardic Congregation is scheduled host its fundraiser “Casino Night”


    2015: “Disobedience - The Sousa Mendes Story” (Desobeir) is scheduled to be shown at the Northern Virginia Jewish Film Festival.


    2015: Ron Arons, author of "Jews of Sing Sing" and of "Mind Maps for Genealogy," is scheduled to introduce basic concepts of "family systems theory" at the Center for Jewish History.


    2015; In Cedar Rapids, Dan Bern, the son of Marianne Bern, is scheduled to perform as CSPC.


    2015:“Letters to Afar: Installation by Péter Forgács and The Klezmatics,” a new exhibit at the Museum of the City of New York is scheduled to closed today. (As reported by Cathryn J. Prince)



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    March 23


    1369: King Pedro of Castile who employed Abraham ibn Zaral as his physician was beheaded by his rival and brother, Henry of Trastamara marking the end of their civil war for control of the kingdom. . Henry “was as hostile to the Jews as Pedro had been friendly. His long-cherished hatred of his brother burst forth when a Jew named Jacob, an intimate of the king, praised the latter excessively to Henry. In his fury he stabbed the Jew with a dagger. Pedro would have revenged himself on Henry forthwith, but his courtiers restrained him by force. Henry saved himself by a hasty flight. This was the immediate cause of the civil war which brought untold suffering upon the Jews of the country. . He was as hostile to the Jews as Pedro had been friendly. His long-cherished hatred of his brother burst forth when a Jew named Jacob, an intimate of the king, praised the latter excessively to Henry. In his fury he stabbed the Jew with a dagger. Pedro would have revenged himself on Henry forthwith, but his courtiers restrained him by force. Henry saved himself by a hasty flight. This was the immediate cause of the civil war which brought untold suffering upon the Jews of the country. During their struggle for control, Henry continuously depicted Peter as "King of the Jews," and had some success in taking advantage of popular Castilian resentment towards the Jews. During his reign, “Henry of Trastamara instigated pogroms beginning a period of anti-Jewish riots and forced conversion] in Castile that lasted approximately from 1370 to 1390.”


    1475: Trent (Italy) was the scene of one of the more notorious ritual murder libels. A Franciscan monk, Bernardinus of Feltre, had recently arrived and began preaching Lent sermons against the Jews. A week before Easter a boy by the name of Simon drowned in the river Adige. The monk charged the Jews with using the body for its blood. The body washed up a few days later near the house of a Jew who brought it to the Bishop Honderbach. Seventeen Jews were tortured for over two weeks. Some confessed while being tortured and 6 Jews were burnt. Two more were strangled. A temporary hiatus was called by Pope Sixtus IV, but after five years the trial was reopened and 5 more Jews were executed. The papal inquest agreed with the trial, Simon was beatified, and all Jews were expelled for 300 years. The trial served as the basis for anti-Semitic writings for hundreds of years. Only in 1965 was Simon de –beatified


    1490: The first dated edition of Maimonides'“Mishneh Torah” was published. Maimonides was born in Cordova, Spain in 1135. His family fled as one group of Moslem rulers replaced another. Eventually he settled in Egypt where he was a distinguished physician for the ruling Moslems as well as head of the Egyptian community. According to one source he provided medical advice for both Saladin and Richard the Lionhearted. He died in 1204 and is buried in Tiberias in Israel. Simply put, the Mishneh Torah was "an orderly restructuring of the entire legal literature of the Talmud." The Mishneh Torah (Repetition of the Law) is "one of the most distinguished codes of Jewish law...”


    1555: Pope Julius III passed away. Despite opposition, Julius allowed Jewish refugees from Spain settle in Ancona in northeast Italy. He spoke out against the blood libel and opposed baptism of Jewish children without the approval of their parents. At the same time, he was unable to stand up to the power of the Inquisitor General from the Holy Office and he acquiesced in the burning of numerous copies of the Talmud and other Jewish books.


    1712(15th of Adar II): Rabbi Zevi Hirsch Koidonover author of Kav ha-Yashar passed away


    1714: Duke Ferdinand expelled the Jews from Courland


    1784: Reverend Gershom Mendes Seixas returned to New York City from Connecticut and took up his position as “Minister.” He returned while New York City was evacuated by the British, and most of the members of the Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue were in the safety of Connecticut and Philadelphia. Seixas was very patriotic, and was thanked by President George Washington at one time. Seixas instituted a recital of a prayer for the government in English, it having been always read in Spanish prior to this time.


    1801: Tsar Paul I of Russia is struck with a sword, then strangled, and finally trampled to death in his bedroom at St. Michael's Castle. Paul’s reign was a comparatively short one, starting in 1796 with the death of his mother Catherine the Great. The shortness of his time on the throne was a good thing for the Jews of Russia. In 1799, Paul sent one of his closest advisors, Gabriel Derhavin to Belorssia. Derhavin decided that the problems in that part of the realm, as well as the rest of Russia were caused by the Jews “who were irredeemably corrupt.” He was planning on urging the Czar to move most of the Jews to the “frontier territories or drive them from the empire altogether.” These and other harsh measures would have become the law of the land if Paul had not been killed and replaced by his comparatively more enlightened son, Alexander I.


    1807(13th of Adar II, 5567):Ta'anit Esther


    1831: Christian-Hebraist Giovanni Bernardo De Rossi passed away.



    1837: Birthdate of Joseph Wieniawski, Russian born pianist and composer.


    1846: In New York, Moses and Esther Lazarus gave birth to Josephine Lazarus.


    1848: In Manchester, UK, Charles Sydney Grundy and his wife gave birth to English dramatist Sydney Grundy who combined with Edward Solomon to produce two comic operas – “The Vicar of Bray” and “Pochoantas” - and produced “An Old Jew” at the Garrick in 1894, five years before Zangwill’s “Children of the Ghetto.


    1849(29thof Adar, 5609): Fifty-four year old Hananeel de Castro, the husband of Deborah de Jacob Mendes da Costa who was the President of the Board of Deputies of British Jews at the time of the Damascus Blood Libel in 1840 passed away today.


    1853: While delivering a speech welcoming Father Gavazzi, the celebrated Roman patriot and orator to the United States, Reverend Dowling pointed out a peculiarity of the American experience. “This government, alone of all others, never persecuted or endeavored to persecute Jews.”


    1861: “The Hebrew Son” is scheduled to be performed at the Winter Garden Theatre in NYC.


    1862: During the American Civil War, Judah P. Benjamin completed his short stint as “acting” Secretary War. Benjamin continued to serve as Secretary of State.


    1863: According to “The Books of the Week” column published today, Scribner’s has published "Lectures on the History of the Jewish Church, -- Part 1, Abraham to Samuel" by Arthur Penryn Stanley, D.D., Regius Professor of Ecclesiastical History in the University of Oxford, and Canon of Christ Church. According to this Stanley “the roots of the Jewish Church must be sought deep in the Patriarchal Age, its prelude commencing with the Call of Abraham, then from the time it takes determinate shape and recognized status with the Exodus, the first great period extends to the absorption of the ancient and primitive constitution in the new institutions of the Monarchy. This “period is generally called by the name of the Theocracy; its great characters are Abraham, Moses and Samuel. It embraces the first revelation of the Mosaic Religion, and the first foundation of the Jewish Church and polity." Two future volumes will continue to describe the history of the Jews up to Roman times. The second volume will describe the period of the Monarchy. The third will describe the period “from the Captivity to the destruction of the Jewish Capital and State by the Emperor Titus.”


    1864(15th of Adar II, 5624): Shushan Purim


    1864: “Purim: Our Jewish Citizens in Their Glory” published today reported that Purim Association has given their “third Grand Fancy Dress Ball, at the Academy of Music. The Association was formed in 1862 by nine young men of the Jewish faith, its first ball was given at Irving Hall in 1862, its second at the Academy of Music in 1863, and its third at the same hall last evening. The festival of Purim is one of the oldest and most important festivals recognized by the Jews, commemorating, as it does, one of the most important events in their history as a nation. It was instituted by Queen Esther and by Mordecai about the year 510 B.C., and commemorates the remarkable deliverance of the children of Israel from the tyranny and machinations of Haman, who was Prime Minister to King Ahasuerus, who reigned from India unto Ethiopia, over a hundred and twenty-seven provinces. Mordecai had been carried captive from Jerusalem, and with him the fair and beautiful maiden Hadassah or Esther, whom Mordecai, when her father and mother were dead, took for his own daughter. Esther being exceedingly beautiful and pleasing found favor in the eyes of King Ahasuerus, who married her and made her his Queen. About this time Haman was appointed to the high position of Prime Minister to the King, and he demanded and received homage from all except the Jew Mordecai, who not only refused to pay homage, but also refused to give any reason why he would not. Haman, highly incensed at the conduct of Mordecai, ordered made a gallows of extraordinary height, on which to hang him for the insult be had offered to one in high office and favored by the King. Queen Esther, hearing of this, informed the King of the relation which existed between her and Mordecai, and also of the great benefit Mordecai had done the King some time previous in informing of two men in his confidence, Bigthana and Teresh, who sought to lay violent hands upon the King and kill him. The King remembering all these things and the iniquity, or Haman, ordered him hanged upon the gallows erected for Mordecai, placed Mordecai in the position held by Haman, made him chief over the house of Haman, and released the children of Israel from bondage. This was celebrated by great rejoicing all over the land and, in every way the joy and happinees of the people was exhibited. From that to the present the festival of this deliverance of the Jews has been celebrated by the most extravagant expressions of happiness, calling upon each other at their houses, in every dress and guise which could possibly add merriment or joy to the occasion, and using every means they could devise for the utmost enjoyment and celebration of this great and happy event. Of late years their number has so increased that time would not allow them to visit all the friends they wished, nor would their houses hold all the friends they wished to entertain. To obviate this difficulty, nine young gentlemen on the Jewish faith, in the year 1862, organized the "Purim Association," the object of which was to collect all the parties together for the general enjoyment of the festival, and that all friends might meet. Thus far they have been particularly fortunate nothing has occurred to mar their pleasure, and they have also by this means been enabled to do a great deal of good. Last year they presented to the Orphan Asylum and other charitable institutions a handsome sum, and this year they intend, first, to present to the Sanitary Fair a good round sum, and then take care of the charitable institutions, as is their custom. The officers of the association, who have been and are working hard and steadily for the promotion of this society and its good influence, and to whom, in a great measure, the success of the ball is due, are as follows: M.H. Moses, President; Jos. A. Levy, Vice-President; A.H. Schutz, Treasurer. The hall was crowded with a most brilliant assemblage, who entered into the enjoyments of the occasion with a zest seldom equaled; the costumes were very rich and beautiful; the diamonds worn by the ladies magnificent and in brilliancy almost rivaled the bright eyes of their fail owners. Among the best of the characters represented were those of Mrs. Partington, Lucretia Borgia, Penobscot Squaw, Chippewa Chief, and Joan of Arc, several beauties of the Court of Charles H., the Duke of Buckingham, Faust, a Priest, and several Jewish maidens. Merriment reigned supreme within the hall. Wives, well-disguised, teased their liege lords almost to distraction; sweethearts by sly winks and actions, drove their devoted lovers almost frantic; husbands thinking they were not known or noticed, paid sweet compliments to fair maidens only to be rapped over the knuckles for not reserving them for their wives, and staid old bachelors and maidens entered into the spirit of the fun in a manner which fairly astonished themselves. Two Bands gave constant music, to which the feet of the merry dancers kept time. At twelve o'clock they unmasked and then what surprise was created. Husbands found they had been flirting all the evening with their own wives; lovers had been confidentially extolling the beauties of their sweethearts to their-sweethearts themselves; old maids had been telling old bachelors how disagreeable they thought that class of men to be, and old bachelors had been sympathizing, perhaps, with the old maids themselves, upon the unhappy condition of these unfortunate ladies. The mistakes, however, were speedily and amicably settled, and after the excellent supper prepared by the caterer, M.S. Cohen, had been fully enjoyed, were entirely forgotten.” New York Mayor Charles Gunther was among the dignitaries who attended the event.


    1866: James Disraeli who resided in Cromwell Place wrote his will today.


    1868(15th of Adar II, 5624): Shushan Purim


    1868: The University of California is founded in Oakland, California when the Organic Act is signed into law. Today the University of California at Berkley has approximately 3000 Jewish students out of a student population totaling approximately 24,000. The school offers ten Jewish studies courses and a Major in the field.


    1870: Jay Gould appeared before the New York State Senate Railroad Committee and that his opponents were being financed by “Jewish bankers” from London. (“Robber Baron” Jay Gould was attempting to use anti-British and anti-Jewish prejudice to deflect attacks on his unscrupulous business tactics when dealing with the Erie Railroad.)


    1871(1st of Nisan, 5631): Rosh Chodesh Nisan


    1872: In an article entitled “Persecution of Jews In Romania” the New York Times compares the attacks on the Jews with the suffering “in England in the days of Isaac of York” and calls upon the European Powers to intervene on behalf of the Jews if the government of Romania will not stop the attacks on its Jewish citizens.


    1872: This evening, as Jews celebrated Purim, synagogues in New York “were all crowded” as they listened to the unique musical narrative of the story of Esther. “In the…strictly Orthodox synagogues such as those on Chrystie and Allen Streets, the audience stamped their feet or struck the ground with the heavy sticks whenever the detested name of Haman was pronounced.”


    1876: The Young Men’s Hebrew Association will host its final “entertainment of the season” this evening at the Standard Hall in New York City.


    1878: Birthdate of Austrian composer and conductor Franz Schreker. Schreker was the oldest son of the Jewish court photographer Ignaz Schrecker and his wife Eleonore von Clossmann. He passed away on March 21, 1934.


    1879: It was reported today 800,000 Philadelphians are served by 564 houses of worship including 9 synagogues.


    1879: Dr. Henry S. Jacobs will deliver a lecture this evening at the Norfolk Street Synagogue sponsored by the Young Men’s Hebrew Union.


    1880: In Russia an editorial entitled “The Yid is Coming” is published in the anti-Semitic journal Novoe Vermie.


    1881: Anti-Jewish riots broke out in Lubny, Russia. This would not be the first or the last time that death would strike the Jews of Lubny which is actually located in the Ukraine, In 1648 during the horror known as the Chmielnicki Massacres, thousands of Jews died at Lubny and other nearby towns. In October of 1941, the Nazis massacred the Jewish population as the German armies swept across the Ukraine. The rioting in 1881 probably was a mini-pogrom sparked by the killing of Czar Alexander II "at the hand of revolutionary bomb throwers." They presaged a series of such riots that would sweep much of Russia during the Spring and Summer of 1881.


    1883(14th of Adar II, 5643): Purim


    1886: Secretary Taylor of the American Yacht Club called the members together in a special meeting this evening to listen to a lecture by the popular Sephardic raconteur Mr. R.J. de Cordova on "The New York Stock Exchange." Instead of of lecture, Mr. de Cordova amused the "twoscore members" of the club humorous rhyming story about a stock broker in search of a rich wife, the daughter of a Pennsylvania farmer made rich by the discovery of petroleum on his farm and "a rejected bucolic lover" who happily marries the maiden after she loses her fortune while pursuing an extravagant urban lifestyle.


    1887: Birthdate of Sidney Hillman. Sidney Hillman was a major figure in the American labor movement and became a leading advisor to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. He was President of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, one of the two major unions in the garment industry from 1915 until his death in 1946. An untiring champion of the working class and the underprivileged, Hillman was a founder of the Congress of Industrial Organization, the CIO. Unfortunately, with the passage of time, we have lost a sense of appreciation for the improvement in the American way of life wrought by Hillman and similar giants of the American labor movement, many of whom were Jewish.


    1887(27th of Adar): Rabbi Eliezer Landshuth, author of Amudei ha-Avodah passed away


    1890: “Art Notes” published today described the ten illustrations of “The Merchant of Venice” by Edwin Abbey that will appear in the April edition of Harper magazine.  They include “the figure of Portia exhorting the Jew” to show mercy and a “frontpiece” showing the Ducal Palace “with the Jew demonstrating why he does not love Christians.”


    1890: The late Solomon Adler bequeathed $500 to both the Hebrew Orphan Asylum and Mount Sinai Hospital and $250 to each of the following: Montefiore Home for Chronic Invalids, the Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews and the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society of New York.


    1891: Alice Goldmark marries Louis Brandeis at her parent’s home in New York City.


    1891: “The Baron de Hirsch Club” published today described the accomplishments of the newly formed social club.  Among the seventy-five charter members are Dr. Leon Sherurg, Elias Gluskin, Morton Britton, John W. Jacobus, William Bellamy, Louis Henderson and M.J. Rosinski


    1892: It was reported today that after the claim of Adolf Grube for 1,600,000 rubles has been satisfied J.E. Guenxburg will only have 14 million rubles in his accounts with which to satisfy the rest of his creditors.


    1893(6thof Nisan, 5653): Seventy-six year old Adolf Fischoff, the doctor turned Austrian political leader and author passed away today.


    1893: Max Judd of Missouri has been nominated to serve as Consul General at Vienna. Judd, a native of Austria, came to the United States as a child and has lived in St. Louis for the last twenty-five years.  A man of “well and fine education” “his appointment is the result of the almost universal request of the people of” St. Louis which speaks well of Judd and the regard in which the Jews of Missouri are held by the general population.


    1893: A case involving the seizure by police of liquor which members of Boston’s Adath Israel’s congregation claimed was intended for use on Passover began making its way through the court system. The Jews claim that the vice president of the congregation was holding the liquor for his co-religionists which he will be distributing during Passover. The police claim that this is a ruse and is merely a way for the Jews to get around local liquor ordinances.


    1893: Kosher slaughtering was prohibited in Saxony, which is in a part of Germany that Martin Luther had dominated during his rise to power. Some claim that the ban was part of the anti-cruelty to animal movement but this claim has a very hollow sound to it considering what else was going on in the society.


    1895: Edwin Einstein, a New York Republican, was appointed to serve as Dock Commissioner today by a Mayor who was a Democrat.


    1895: In Budapest, the House of Magnates rejected the clause of the Religious Freedom Bill that gave Jews equal rights with the Christians by a vote of 117 to 111.


    1896: Congregation B’nai Shalom was founded in Brookhaven, Mississippi.


    1896: “What Is A Christian Nation?” published today described the views of Dr. Gustav Gottheil who “claims that the so-called Christian nations are not so in fact and that the Jews are, from the ethical standpoint, the true Christian nation.”  A Christian nation would make the Sermon on the Mount the basis for its Constitution entailing “the returning of good for evil, the breathing of a blessing upon those who curse us, the rendering of good for evil.” (Editor’s note –This view should provide food for thought for those who claim the U.S. is a “Christian nation.”)


    1897: Mrs. Rebecca Kohut gave a talk today on “The Training of Children in Reverence in Jewish Homes” at the Manhattan Congregational Church.


    1897: Oscar S. Straus, the former U.S. Minister to Turkey who has just returned to the United States said that he had met with Baroness de Hirsch while in Europe but did not care to discuss the details of continued financial assistance for immigrants from Europe who will be settling in the Western Hemisphere.


    1899: Dr. Joseph Silverman delivered a lecture on the “Longevity of the Hebrews.”


    1899: It was reported today that during the month of February the United Hebrew Charities had received 2,815 applications for assistance which covered 9,377 individuals.  Jobs were found for 477 applicants while over 1,800 people were seen by either a doctor or a nurse.  The charity raised over $17,000 during February and spent almost $13,000 in providing aid to the needy.


    1900: Birthdate of Eric Fromm.


    1902(14th of Adar II, 5662): Purim


    1907: In New York this evening, enough poor Jews presented their tickets which could be exchanged for 10 pounds of Matzoth and 5 pounds of floor to the store on Attorney Street, that 20,000 pounds of matzoth and 10,000 pounds of Matzah floor were needed to meet the demand.


    1907: When “a small boy with red brick hair” presented his ticket entitling him to 10 pounds of Matzah and 5 pounds of Matzah flour, he was told that “these matzoth are only provided for person of true Hebraic faith.” The lad replied, “Me name is Mickey O’Brien, but sure me mother needs the matzoth. We’re most staring and if it’ll do any good I’ll be an Irish Hebrew.” The lad got his matzoth and flour. [It was not unusual for non-Jews to show up for when free food was passed out at Passover time. The Jews did not seem to mind apparently remembering the words of the Haggadah inviting the poor to come and join us in eating at the Seder.]


    1911(23rd of Adar, 5671): Daniel Abramovich Chwolson passed away.


    1912(5thof Nisan, 5672): Ninety-year old communal worker Hezekiah Kohn passed away today in New York.


    1913(14thof Adar II, 5673): Purim


    1914: The New York Times reports from St. Petersburg “that as …Passover approaches more blood ritual allegations are being circulated.” In Uman, in the Ukraine, reports are circulating “that a Christian boy, Anton Zummer, who was working in a bakery at a machine for making matzoth…had his hand thrust in the machinery by the Jewish boys and lost a large quantity of blood which went to the making of the bread…Another report speaks of the finding of an 8-year old boy’s body under a railway bridged at Kovel…with the head, neck and chest pierced with wounds.” [This is the same Uman that is the burial site of Rebbe Nachman of Breslov which Jews visit each year at Rosh Hashanah.]


    1915: The United Hebrew Community has sent out an appeal for more funds to so it can distributed matzoth and other food to the poor Jews of the Lower East Side before the beginning of Passover. Moses H. Phillips, President of the Hebrew Community said that the demand is greater this year than in years past and at least 90,000 pounds of food will be needed to feed the needy. The United Hebrew Community is only one of several Jewish organizations that will be distributing food at Passover time to their less fortunate co-religionists.


    1915: The fund of the American Jewish Relief Committee has collected $579,996. 53 as of today.


    1915: The Zion Mule Corps, consisting of Jewish volunteers from Palestine, was formed to serve with the British Army. This was the first Palestinian Jewish military unit attached to a regular army in the modern times. The unit was organized under the command of Joseph Trumpeldor, an early military hero of the future state of Israel and Vladimir Jabotinsky who would become leader of what was known as the Revisionist Movement, forerunner of today's Likud part. The united fought against the Turks who were allies of the British. The success of the Zion Mule Corps paved the way for the Jewish Legion which was formed in 1918.


    1915: Sixty-six year old “Judge Leonard S. Roan of the Court of Appeals of Georgia before whom Leo M. Franks was convicted and by whom he was sentenced to death on August 16, 1913 for the murder of…Mary Phagan” passed away today.


    1916: In Ireland foundation stone of the Greenville Hall Synagogue was laid. Coincidentally it took place on the same date as the Easter Rising, the Irish rebellion against English rule.


    1917: Birthdate of Yevgeny Khaldei the Soviet born Jewish World War II combat photographer whose work included  one of the most famous of that genre showing a Soviet soldier raising a flag over the Reichstag as the Red Army triumphed in  the Battle of Berlin.  According to some reports Khaldei patterned the picture after the one of the flag raising over Iowa Jima, another iconic WW II photo taken by a Jewish photographer.



    1919: Benito Mussolini founded his Fascist political movement in Milan, Italy. The ashes of the First World War were not even cool yet when the seeds for World War II and the Holocaust were being planted.


    1921: KH-UIA was registered as a British limited company, whose members, together with the Chairman of the Board of Directors, were chosen by the WZO's Executive Board. KH-UIA's founders included such luminaries as Chaim Weizmann, Aharon, and Isaac Naidich. The first Directors were Barth Berthold Feiwel, Georg Halpern, Vladimir Jabotinsky, Shlomo Kaplansky, Shemaryahu Levin, Issac Naidich, Israel M. Sieff (later Lord Sieff) and Hillel Zlatopolsky.


    1921: Accompanied by Sir Herbert Samuel and T.E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia) Winston Churchill left Egypt for Palestine to begin his projected four week long fact finding tour.


    1922: Birthdate of comedian Marty Allen.


    1923: “Louis Marshall was the guest of honor at a dinner given by the Brooklyn Federation of Jewish Charities at which campaign plans of the Charities were discussed.” (As reported by JTA)


    1924(17th of Adar II, 5684): Moses Cattaui Pashe, President of the Jewish Kehillah of Cairo, Egypt passed away.


    1928: Birthdate of Mortimier H. Rydell, the multi-talented New York known as Mark Rydell whose accomplishments including directing one of the greatest westerns ever made – The Cowboys in which John Wayne actually acts instead of just portraying John Wayne.


    1930: ““The Administrative Committee of the enlarged Jewish Agency is meeting in London” today.


    1932(15thof Adar II, 5692): Sixty-five year old Boris Schatz, the Lithuanian born sculptor who became known as the "father of Israeli art," founded the Bezalel School in Jerusalem passed away today.


    1933: Hitler “told the Reichstag today that Positive Christianity was the "unshakeable foundation of the moral and ethical life of our people", and promised not to threaten the churches or the institutions of the Republic if granted plenary powers.”


    1937: It was reported today that sixty-four year old Jacob de Haas one of the last surviving founding fathers of the Zionist movement had passed away


    1938: In New York, Rabbi Abba Hillel Silver of Cleveland delivered his first address as national chairman of the United Palestine Appeal. After being introduced by Louis Nizer, associate chairman of the division and chairman of the Film Board of Trade, Rabbi Silver asked a luncheon meeting of more than 100 theatrical and motion picture executives to support the drive to raise $4,500,000 to support Zionist activities. He gave a glowing account of the progress that had been in creating a Jewish Homeland. He spoke specifically about the challenges created by the worsening situation in Europe and the efforts that have been to settle refugees, especially those from Germany, in Eretz Israel. Silver equated the Zionist work in Palestine with the fight against the rise of totalitarianism.


    1938. Rabbi Abba Hillel Silver spoke to a meeting of the Long Island Conference for Palestine at the Jamaica Jewish Center this evening. The more than 1,000 attendees representing thirty-four communities in Queens, Nassau and Suffolk counties adopted a resolution agreeing to raise $75,000 for the United Palestine Appeal.


    1938: In Paris, Adam and Pauline Kaufman gave birth to Michael Kaufman a “foreign correspondent, reporter and columnist for The New York Times who chronicled despotic regimes in Europe and Africa, the fall of Communism and the changing American scene for four decades”


    1940: The All-India-Muslim League called for a Muslim homeland in the Indian sub-continent. The British response would be to partition India into a Hindu state of India and a Moslem state, Pakistan. The demands of the by the Muslims living in India were part of a wave of Muslim nationalism that had been sweeping the lands of North Africa and the Middle East since the start of the 20th century. The conflict in Palestine should be viewed within that context. The similarity of the British response in Palestine and India (Partition) is also worth noting.


    1940: David Samuel Margoliouth, the Oxford University Professor whose father Ezekiel had converted from Judaism to Anglicanism passed away today.


    1942: Of the approximately 4,000 remaining Jews in Lublin, Poland 2,500 were massacred and the rest of them were deported to Majdanek for extermination. At the start of the war, 40,000 of the 125,000 inhabitants of Lublin had been Jewish.


    1942: Birthdate of Yevhen Lapinsky who played on the Soviet Union Volleyball Team that won the Gold Medal at the Olympics in 1968.


    1943 (16th of Adar II, 5703): Twenty-nine Jewish orphans at La Rose Orphanage in Les Accates, France, as well as Alice Salomon, the guardian who refused to leave them two months before, were gassed at the Sobibor death camp. The Alice Salomon mentioned here is not to be confused with the famed German intellectual who fled Nazi Germany before World War II and passed away in New York in 1948. At the same time, one must wonder who says Kaddish for this otherwise unknown brave soul and the 29 youngsters who were in her care.


    1943: In France, 4000 Jews were deported from Marseilles, interned briefly at Drancy, France, and then deported to Sobibór


    1943: The Archbishop of Canterbury William Temple stood up in front of the House of Lords in London and pleaded with the British government to help the Jews of Europe. "We at this moment have upon us a tremendous responsibility," he said. "We stand at the bar of history, of humanity, and of God." Ever since news of Hitler's plan to annihilate the Jews of Europe reached the public in late 1942, British church leaders and members of Parliament had been agitating for something to be done. Temple's plea marked the culmination of the clamoring.


    1944: British Major-General Orde Wingate died in airplane crash while fighting the Japanese in Burma during World War II. ”Wingate was an unconventional person in many respects. Among his other unique qualities was that he was an officer in the British Army, who, while serving in Palestine during the 1930's supported the Jewish cause. Then Captain Wingate served in Israel from 1936 until 1939. Born in 1903 to a religious Christian family and a firm believer in the Bible, Orde Wingate passionately embraced the prophetic vision of Jewish redemption and the Jews' ultimate return to Eretz Yisrael. During his service in Eretz Yisrael, he worked to help realize that ideal. The son of a British officer, Wingate was born in India, received a military education, and was commissioned in 1923. He served in India and then in the Sudan, where he studied Arabic and Semitics, and acquired a familiarity with the Middle East. Wingate was recognized as a talented officer, and by 1936 he had earned the rank of captain. That same year he was transferred to Eretz Yisrael, and served there for the next three years. Wingate arrived in Eretz Yisrael as an intelligence officer at a time when small bands of Arab rioters were regularly attacking both the British and the Jews. To counter this offensive, Wingate organized and trained “Special Night Squads,” comprised primarily of Haganah fighters, which were successfully employed throughout the Yishuv. Their tactics were based on the strategic principles of surprise, mobility, and night attacks and they served effectively both as defensive and offensive units, successfully pre-empting and resisting Arab attacks. Wingate maintained good contacts with the heads of the Yishuv and the Haganah. He learned Hebrew, and he demonstrated his ardent belief that the Jews were entitled to their homeland in Eretz Yisrael. He also recognized the need for a working military force, and he dreamed of heading the army of the future Jewish state. Because of his efforts and support, he was called in the Yishuv “ha-yedid,” the friend. Wingate's intense support for the Zionist viewpoint, however, was controversial, and in 1939 the British succumbed to Arab pressure and transferred Wingate from Eretz Yisrael. His passport was stamped with the restriction that he not be allowed to re-enter the country. His personal involvement with the Zionist cause was thus curtailed, but many of those he trained became heads of the Palmach and, later, the Israel Defense Forces Wingate returned briefly to Great Britain, but, recognized for his military talent, he was transferred to further active duty. In 1941 he led the force in Ethiopia against the Italians and was a major figure in liberating the country. He then worked in Burma, organizing and training the Chindits, a special jungle unit that operated behind Japanese lines. Wingate was killed in an airplane crash in Burma in 1944, and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery in Virginia. Wingate's friendship for the Yishuv and his contributions to its defense has been recognized through the several places in Israel named for him, including the College of Physical Education near Netanya."


    1944: At Ioannina in Greece, 1,860 Jews were seized by the Nazis and deported to Auschwitz.


    1945: Forty-three year old Elisabeth de Rothschild, the Catholic wife of Baron Philippe de Rothschild was murdered today at Ravensbruck concentration camp.


    1947: The executive committee of the Jewish Agency for Palestine ended its deliberations today. The committee has been meeting in Jerusalem to plan tactics for the upcoming special session of the United Nations being held to deal with the issue of Palestine.


    1947: Birthdate of classical pianist Kaplinsky, the native of Tel Aviv who became a professor of music at Julliard.


    1948: David Ben-Gurion “cabled the United States State Department a warning that he and his colleagues would with all of their strength oppose any postponement of Jewish independence.” The U.S. State Department, the body that had done so much to keep Jews from getting to the United States during the Hitler period, was busy trying to sabotage President Truman’s support of partition and the creation of a Jewish state.


    1949: Israel and Lebanon signed an armistice agreement. Israeli troops withdrew from border towns they had occupied during the fighting. Lebanon would not become a major area of operations until decades later when the PLO was thrown out of Jordan and took refuge in Lebanon.


    1949: In an attempt to break the deadlock between Israel and Transjordan over the shape of the border between the two states, Yigael Yadin, Walter Eytan, Moshe Dayan and Yehoshafat Harkabi (future director of Israeli Military Intelligence) went to meet King Abdullah at his villa in Shuneh Yigal. Yadin’s flawless recitation of apoem in Arabic served as an icebreaker. Despite initial setbacks, the two sides would reach an understanding that night.


    1950: “The new Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, Msgr. Alberto Gori, paid his first official visit to Israel today. He met the diplomatic corps and senior officers of the Foreign Affairs, Interior and Religious Affairs Ministries at a reception in Jaffa.”


    1951(15th of Adar II, 5711): Michael H. Cardozo Jr. of 163 East Eighty-first Street, veteran attorney, passed away today in his office at 115 Broadway at the age 70. He was a cousin of the late Associate Justice Benjamin N. Cardozo of the United States Supreme Court.


    1957: The University of North Carolina led by Lennie Rosenbluth won the NCCA Men’s Division I Basketball Tournament in Kansas City, MO.


    1959(13thof Adar II, 5719): Sixty-seven Sam Born, the Russian born American “candyman” who founded Just Born Company, maker of such sweet treats as Peeps passed away today.



    1962: Abraham Ellstein’s only opera, “The Golem”  which he created with his wife Sylvia Regan premiered today at the New York City Opera a year and a day before he passed away under the baton of Julius Rudel who had fled his native Austria when the Nazis took over.


    1962: In its review of the Broadway musical “I Can Get It for You Wholesale,” The New York Timesproclaimed "The evening's find is Barbara Streisand, a girl with an oafish expression, a loud irascible voice and an arpeggiated laugh. Miss Streisand is a natural comedienne" By the time Streisand made her Broadway debut in “I Can Get It for You Wholesale,” she had already developed a loyal following as a singer. In performances at the Lion Club, one of New York City's premier gay clubs, and in other clubs around the country, the young Streisand developed her trademark outsider persona, impromptu one-liners, and theatrical delivery that brought audiences to their feet. Streisand's performance as Miss Marmelstein in I Can Get It for You Wholesale was so successful that the role was expanded for her, with new songs added. Despite national acclaim for her performance, she was considered too Jewish, too eccentric, too unattractive, and too marked by her Brooklyn upbringing for a record contract. When Columbia Records finally released The Barbra Streisand Album in 1964, however, it remained on the charts for eighteen months. Streisand's movie debut in Funny Girl four years later, in the Oscar-winning role of comedian Fanny Brice, cemented her place among the stars of American theatre and film.


    1963: Duke’s Art Heyman was named the outstanding player at the 1963 NCC Men’s Division I Basketball tournament which came to a close today


    1963: Rolf Hochhuth's "Der Stellvertreter" (The Deputy), premiered in Berlin. The Catholic Church was outraged at the portrayal of Pius XII as being complicit in the murder of the Jews of Europe.


    1964(10th of Nisan, 5724): Actor Peter Lorre passed away passed away at the age of 59. Born Ladislav (László) Löwenstein in what was then the Hungarian part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Lorre gained fame as a character actor with parts in such films as Casablanca and Arsenic and Old Lace. In the 1930’s he played the title character the Mr. Motto detective films.


    1972 (8th of Nisan, 5732): Rabbi Chaim Meir Hager, who had been revered as Vizhnitzer Rebbe for 35 years, passed away in Israel tonight.


    1978: The first UNIFIL troops arrived in Lebanon for peacekeeping mission along the Blue Line. The Blue Line was a demarcation between Israeli and PLO forces.


    1980: In “The Two Faces of Israel’s Masada: Glory and Tragedy,” Carmia Borek describes the varying view of this famous Jewish landmark.


    1980: Birthdate of Asaf Avidan an Israeli folk/rock musician known for his breakthrough debut album, "The Reckoning", which was created with a group of backup musicians under the name "Asaf Avidan and the Mojos". The album received positive critical reviews and earned Avidan a nomination for Best Israeli Artist at the upcoming MTV Europe Awards.


    1980: Release date in the United States for “Christ Stopped at Eboli” (Italian: Cristo si è fermato a Eboli), a 1979 film adaptation of the book of the same name by Carlo Levi.


    1981: Shimon Peres said in Tel Aviv today his party would make an effort to negotiate the future status of Jerusalem with Saudi Arabia and would look seriously at the possibility of peace with the Saudis.


    1983(9thof Nisan, 5743): Eighty-four year old Rabbi Saul Lieberman passed away.



    1985: Jewish singer Billy Joel wed supermodel Christie Brinkley


    1986(12th of Adar II, 5746): Rabbi Moshe Feinstein passed away.


    1988: In Wellington, NZ, Israel national football team defeated Chinese Taipei, nine to nothing.


    1987(22ndof Adar, 5747): Eighty-five year old Morton Minsky, the last of the Minsky brothers, passed away today.


    1989: Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann (who was a Jewish refugee from Nazi Europe) announced that they had unlocked the mystery of cold fusion at the University of Utah.


    1990: Release date of “Pretty Woman” the comedy filmed under executive produce Laura Ziskin and co-starring Jason Alexander (born Jay Scott Greenspan)


    1993: Judith Kaye began serving as Chief Judge of the New York Court of Appeals


    1993: A third revival of “3 Men On A Horse” a play co-authored by George Abbott with a cast that included Tony Randall, Jack Klugman and Jerry Stiller began previews at the Lyceum Theatre.


    1994(11th of Nisan, 5754): Victor Lashchiver, employed as a guard at the Income Tax offices in East Jerusalem, was shot and killed by terrorists near Damascus Gate on his way to work. The Popular Front claimed responsibility for the attack.


    1995(21st of Adar II, 5755): Author and screenwriter Irving Shulman passed away at the age of 81.



    1997(14th of Adar II, 5757): Purim


    1997: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including "The Vulnerable Observer Anthropology That Breaks Your Heart" by Ruth Behar and "The Journey Home Jewish Women and the American Century" by Joyce Antler. Among the more than 50 Jewish women chronicled in this tome are: Sonya Abuza, an overweight immigrant in Hartford who had been deserted by her husband, later became famous as a ''Gypsy of the footlights'' named Sophie Tucker. Henrietta Szold, the eldest of five daughters of a distinguished Baltimore rabbi, established Hadassah, the largest women's Zionist group in the world, in 1912. Ruth Gruber, who at 20 was declared the youngest person in the world to hold a doctorate, flew a secret mission for President Franklin D. Roosevelt during World War II to help 1,000 refugees find asylum in Oswego, N.Y. Goldie Mabovich Meyerson was born in Kiev, was raised and married in Milwaukee, then moved to Palestine in 1921, where, known as Golda Meir, she became Prime Minister of Israel. In this unique volume, Joyce Antler, who teaches American studies at Brandeis University, blends history, anecdote and biography to emphasize the achievement of these women, who attempted to satisfy family, God and their own dreams at the same time. The book illuminates their struggles for identity as well as the sexism and anti-Semitism they encountered.


    1999: Emanuel Zisman left The Third Way and continued serving as independent MK.


    2000: During his meeting with President Ezer Weizman, Pope John Paul II “blessed the state of Israel” after which he visited Yad Vashem.



    2003(19th of Adar II, 5763): Fritz Spiegl passed away. Born in 1926, Fritz Spiegl was an Austrian-born musician, journalist, broadcaster, humorist and collector. He fled to England in 1939 to escape the Nazis. He lived and worked there until his death.


    2003: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of interest to Jewish readers including Regarding "The Pain of Others" by Susan Sontag and "Ending the Vietnam War: A History of America's Involvement in and Extrication From the Vietnam War" by Henry Kissinger.


    2005: March Madness, the popular name for the national American collegiate basketball champion competition took on a Jewish twist. A sixteen year old feud was reignited by comments made by Deon Thomas a professional basketball player for Maccabi Tel Aviv about University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Coach Bruce Pearl, whose skill at bringing his unheralded hoopsters to the Sweet Sixteen may mark him as the next Red Auerbach.


    2005: The Ensemble for the Romantic Century presented Fanny Mendelssohn: Out of Her Brother’s Shadow, a theatrical concert featuring the music of Fanny Mendelssohn at the Jewish Museum in New York.


    2007(4th of Nisan, 5767: Paul J. Cohen, American mathematician, and winner of the Fields Medal, passed away.


    2007: Tal Friedman sang with “The Krayot” band in Tel Aiv today.


    2007: An international conference for Jewish theater professionals, artists, and aficionados hosted by The Association for Jewish Theatre in conjunction with the Jewish Theatre of Austria comes to an end.


    2008: An exhibition organized by guest curator Murray Zimiles entitled “Gilded Lions and Jeweled Horses: The Synagogue to the Carousel has its last showing at the American Folk Art Museum. From gilded lions to high-stepping horses, the sacred to the secular, and the Old World to the New, "Gilded Lions and Jeweled Horses: The Synagogue to the Carousel" traces the journey of Jewish woodcarvers and other artisans from Eastern and Central Europe to America and the unsung role they played in establishing a distinct Jewish culture in communities throughout the United States. The exuberant artworks stand as a testament to a history of survival and transformation and provide a surprising revelation of the link that was forged between the synagogue and the carousel as immigrant Jewish artists transferred symbolic visual elements into this vernacular American idiom. The first major study of this important aspect of the Jewish contribution to American folk art, the exhibition features approximately one hundred artworks and objects, including rare documentary photographs of Eastern European synagogue arks and carved gravestones, sacred carvings, papercuts, and carousel animals. The show is accompanied by a fully illustrated catalog co-published with Brandeis University Press, an imprint of the University Press of New England.


    2008: The Sunday New York Times book section featured a review of "Liberty Of Conscience: In Defense of America’s Tradition of Religious Equality" by Martha C. Nussbaum.


    2008: The Washington Post book section featured a review of Mark Evanier’s "Kirby: King of Comics" that describes the life and times of Jack Kirby, the son of Austrian Jewish immigrants who had such an impact on the comic book genre including the creation of The Fantastic Four, The Hulk and Captain America.


    2008: As pilots began undergoing tests for cancer, a team of technical personnel from the Israel Air Force flew to Fort Worth, Texas, for consultations with their American counterparts and Lockheed Martin concerning the recent discovery of carcinogenic material in an Israeli F-16I.


    2008(16th of Adar II, 5768): Rabbi Eli Teitelbaum, an ultra-Orthodox educator and innovator who created a series of dial-in phone lines with lectures on sacred texts, died today at the age of 68


    2009: At Rutgers University, Professor Martin Bunzl, director of the Program in Jewish Culture and Society, University of Illinois at Urbana delivers a lecture on Israel, Islamophobia, and the Right Wing in Europe entitled “The New Philo-Semitism.”


    2009: Sports Illustrated magazine reported on the recent death of 86 year old Bill Davidson who amassed a fortune in the glass business owner the Detroit Pistons for 35 years and free spending philanthropists. The magazine also noted that Davidson had run track at Michigan and “was a charter member of the Jewish Sports Hall of Fame.


    2009: The Aviv String Quartet, founded in Israel in 1997, performs at Cornell College in Mount Vernon, Iowa.


    2009: In the on-going sage of what was once the country’s leading kosher slaughtering operation four companies bid for the assets of Agriprocessors in an auction that began today. The bidding ended this evening night with offers reaching as high as $5.5 million.


    2010: The AIPAC Policy Conference comes to a close.


    2010: The New York Times Knowledge Network and the Israeli Consulate are scheduled to team up together to present the opening night of a weeklong event entitled The New Israeli Cuisine in which participants will take a tour through the fascinating evolution of Israel's culinary scene. A melting pot of more than 60 different ethnicities - from India to Morocco to Argentina - Israeli cuisine is one of the world's fastest emerging kitchens.


    2010: The Temple Mount Human Rights Group has scheduled a gathering for today in front of the Mashbir department store in Jerusalem.


    2010: The President of the United States and the Prime Minister of Israel met this evening in Washington, D.C.


    2010: The UK expelled an Israeli diplomat owing to claims that an embassy official from that country forged passports, and David Miliband gave a public warning against travel to Israel because of identity theft concerns


    2010: As German authorities pursue suspected Nazi war criminals to the last, a court in Aachen convicted an 88-year-old former SS soldier today on charges of killing three Dutch civilians in reprisal for attacks by Dutch resistance fighters in 1944.


    2010: The ex-convict who killed a Canadian Jewish leader in Barbados last year was sentenced to 10 years in prison. Curtis Joel Foster, 25, was sentenced today in a Barbados court for killing Terry Schwarzfeld, who had just started her term as president of Canadian Hadassah WIZO and was executive director of Ottawa's largest synagogue, Agudath Israel.


    2011: The 75-minute dramatic oratorio, “From the Fire,” is scheduled to be presented in New York City to mark the anniversary of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire and bring attention to contemporary examples of unsafe working conditions.


    2011: Kathryn Gleason, a professor of Archaeology and Landscape Architecture at Cornell, who has excavated at Herod's tomb and other sites in Israel is scheduled to deliver a lecture at the 92nd St Y entitled “Archaeology In Israel: Herod's World .”


    2011: Today a committee of the Knesset is scheduled to debate whether J Street is sufficiently "committed" to Israel to be called a pro-Israel organization.


    2011: “Two rockets exploded in Beersheba this morning, and ten mortar shells fell in the Sha'ar Hanegev and Eshkol Regional Councils.


    2011(17, Adar II, 5771): “One woman died and 50 were injured after an explosion took place at a bus station in central Jerusalem this afternoon. Police said that a bomb exploded outside Egged bus number 74 at a station opposite the Jerusalem Conference Center (Binyanei Ha'uma) in the center of town. Fifty people were injured in the attack. Three were injured seriously from the explosion itself, four moderately from shrapnel packed into the explosive device and the remainder were in moderate to light condition. The 50 injured were taken to Hadassah Ein Kerem, Hadassah Mount Scopus, Bikur Holim and Shaare Tzedek hospitals. All hospitals in the area were opened to receive casualties. One woman, aged 59, died from injuries sustained in the blast. Police said that this was the first terrorist attack in four years that involved an explosion. Police were looking for one specific person who left the bag that contained the bomb. There were reports that witnesses were able to identify the man who left the bag and police were searching for him. Police suspected that an explosive device inside a bag was left at the bus stop, which then exploded. Public Security Minister Yitzhak Aharonovitch said that the explosive device was between one and two kilograms and was packed with shrapnel. Authorities said that there was no connection between the attack and events in the Gaza Strip in recent days. However, they suspected a connection between this attack and one several weeks, in which an explosive device was left on the side of a main road near Gilo. Jerusalem Mayor Nir Barkat said his main concern is that this could happen anywhere. He called the incident a "cowardly terrorist attack." Barkat added that he believes in the police's capability to catch the perpetrator. He added that in 99 percent of cases, the terrorists are found. The mayor added that he will still participate in the Jerusalem Marathon scheduled to take place on Friday. Most importantly, he said, is to return to your normal lives so that the terrorists don't think they can win. Large numbers of police and ambulance forces were on the scene. Roads surrounding the scene were closed to traffic and authorities were searching the area for additional explosive devices and for a suspect. Police raised the alert level in the capital, following the explosion. Police were beginning to reopen Highway 1 following the attack.”


    2011: It was reported today that “The U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum is trying to identify more than 1,000 children in photos that date from when they were scattered across Europe at the end of World War II and taken in by relief agencies. The museum’s “Remember Me” project seeks the public’s help in identifying 1,100 children among tens of thousands who were uprooted by the war. The museum is posting the pictures, which are part of its collections, online and plans to publish many of the images in newspapers and online forums. Museum officials hope to learn who the children are, what happened to them and help reconnect them to relatives who may also have been scattered. The museum says the number of Holocaust survivors is dwindling with time.” (Associated Press)


    2011(17, Adar II, 5771): Famed defense attorney Leonard I. Weinglass passed away today at the age of 77. (As reported by Bruce Weber)


    2012: “Gripsholm,” a movie about Berlin cabaret life in the inter-war years featuring the life of a German-Jewish publisher as the leading character, is scheduled to be shown in Atlanta, GA.


    2012: “Remembrance and “Ahead of Time” are schedule to be shown at the NoVA International Jewish Film Festival in Fairfax, VA.


    2012: As a part of the movement started by National Day of Unplugging Jews will begin a weekend complying with the Sabbath Manifesto.


    2013: Barak Obama is scheduled to return to the United States after completing his first trip to Israel since being elected President.


    2013: Violinist Vadim Gluzman and pianist Agnela Yoffe are scheduled to perform at the High School of Fashion Industries.


    2013(12thof Nisan, 5773): Shabbat HaGadol


    2013(12thof Nisan, 5773): Ninety-three year old Canadian born American bodybuilder Joe Weider who along with his brother carved a special niche in the world competitive bodybuilding passed away today.


    2013: The worsening crisis in Syria necessitated restoring relations with Turkey, Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu wrote on his Facebook page this evening, explaining the reasoning to his apology to Ankara over the death of nine Turkish activists on board a Gaza-bound flotilla.


     2013: US Secretary of State John Kerry began nitty-gritty efforts at re-starting talks between Israel and the Palestinians with a late night meeting with Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu.


    2013: An IDF jeep on patrol near the Syrian border was hit by gunfire this evening. The IDF said the shots were fired from Syria, and that it was "checking the circumstances surrounding the incident."


    2014: Maestro Zubin Mehta and the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra are scheduled to return to Miami, for a concert featuring Bruckner’s Symphony No.8 in C minor which is being dedicated in memory of Dr. Shulamit Katzman, who was a devoted supporter of the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra.


    2014: A youth center in Jönköping in southern Sweden is vandalized with anti-Semitic slurs, including “Jewish pigs,” “you’ll burn in hell,” and swastikas.


    2014: Israeli violinist Vadim Gluzman is scheduled to perform his only New York recital at 8 p.m.


    2014: The Center for Jewish History is scheduled to host “Jewish Poetry Now: Celebrating the Bloomsbury Anthology of Contemporary Jewish American Poetry”


    2014: In New Orleans, the Jewish Children’s Regional Service (one of America’s premiere provider of social services for the Jewish community) is scheduled to hold its Annual Meeting this morning at the Uptown Jewish Community Center.


    2014: In Springfield,  VA, Congregation Adat Reyim is scheduled to host Robert H. Gillette, author of The Virginia Plan that described the plan of department store own William B. Thalhimer’s  plan to rescue the students of Gross Breesen Instiutute and create “a safe haven on Burkeville, VA  farm.


    2014: “The Jewish Cardinal” with “Moses on the Mesa” are scheduled to be shown at the Northern Virginia Jewish Film Festival.


    2014: “The Zigzag Kid” is scheduled to be the last picture shown at this year’s Houston Jewish Film Festival.


    2014: The Tulane University Jewish Studies Department under the Chair of Professor Brian Horowitz is scheduled to host a lecture “Tortosa” presented by David Goldstein


    2014: “The mystery of where Islamist hackers got phone numbers and email addresses to send threatening text and email messages grew today, when it emerged that a database belonging to the IsraelDefense magazine and web site had been hacked over the weekend.” (As reported by David Shamah)


    2014: “The Foreign Ministry’s Workers Union today declared a full-blown general strike, shutting down the ministry’s headquarters in Jerusalem and all Israeli embassies and consulates across the world.´(As reported by Raphael Ahren)


    2014: “Art Spiegelman’s Co-Mix: A Retrospective,” is scheduled to come to a close at The Jewish Museum in New York City


    2015: “Touchdown Israel – Tackle Football in the Holyland” is scheduled to be sown at the Northern Virginia Jewish Film Festival


    2015: Dr. Tom Barton is scheduled to deliver a lecture on the Battle Over Jews in Medieval Spain” in Carlsbad, CA.


    0 0

    March 24


    809: Harun al-Rashid (Aaron the Upright, Aaron the Just), fifth caliph of the Abbasid Empire who had issued a decree that Jews wear a yellow belt in 807, passed away.


    1244(18th of Nisan): Rabbi Meir Abulafya Ha-Levi (Ramah) an opponent of Maimonides and author of Yad Ramah passed away today.


    1267: The government of Barcelona gave the Jews permission to repair their synagogue.


    1488(13th of Nisan): Rabbi Obadiah Bertinoro, author of a popular Mishnah commentary arrived in Jerusalem


    1564: The Pope authorized the printing of the Talmud in Mantua on condition that the word Talmud would be omitted from the text. From the opening years of the sixteenth century, Mantua was a leading center of Jewish printing. A husband and wife duo, Abraham and Estellina Conat shared equally in printing and promoting Jewish texts. By the seventeenth century, the situation of the Jews of Mantua had worsened as they, like Italian Jews in many other cities, were forced to live behind Ghetto Walls.


    1564: The index of Pius IV. of Trent, which appeared today permitted the Jews to use Hebrew and even Talmudic books, provided they were printed without the word "Talmud," and were purged from vituperations against the Christian religion. The expurgation of Hebrew books, thus expressly declared admissible, was henceforth regularly undertaken before printing, either by the Jews themselves or by Christian correctors; and this accounts for the more or less mutilated state of reprints since the middle of the sixteenth century.


    1575(3rdof Nisan, 5335): Joseph Caro, author of the Shulchan Aruch, passed away today at Safed.


    1603: Queen Elizabeth I passed away at the age of 69, having ruled since 1558. Although Elizabethan England was supposedly Jew-free, there were several small Marrano communities in the British Isles. In 1588, Dr. Hector Nunes, one of these secret Jews provided the English leaders with the invaluable intelligence that the Spanish Armada had reached Lisbon which was its first stop as it headed north to attack England. On the other hand, Dr. Roerigo Lopez was Elizabeth’s physician in 1586 and he ended being accused of being part of a plot to kill the Queen. While the evidence was flimsy, it was thought better to execute him given the many threats against her life. The fate of Lopez gave rise to Marlowe’s The Jew of Malta. This in turn inspired Marlowe’s competitor, William Shakespeare to write The Merchant of Venice.


    1630(11th of Nisan, 5390): Isaiah Horowitz, Shelah ha-Kadosh (the holy Shelah) passed away in Tiberias.


    1648(27thof Adar, 5408): Leon of Modena passed away. Leon of Modena was a Jewish scholar, born in Venice in 1571, of a notable French family which had migrated to Italy after the expulsion of the Jews from France. He was a precocious child, but, as Graetz points out, his lack of stable character prevented his gifts from maturing. "He pursued all sorts of occupations to support himself, viz. those of preacher, teacher of Jews and Christians, reader of prayers, interpreter, writer, proof-reader, bookseller, broker, merchant, rabbi, musician, matchmaker and manufacturer of amulets." Though he failed to rise to real distinction he earned a place by his criticism of the Talmud among those who prepared the way for the new learning in Judaism. One of Leon's most effective works was his attack on the Kabbala, Ari Nohem, first published in 1840, for in it he demonstrated that the "Bible of the Kabbalists", the Zohar, was a modern composition by Moses de Leon. He became best known, however, as the interpreter of Judaism to the Christian world. At the instance of an English nobleman he prepared an account of the religious customs of the Synagogue, Riti Ebraici (1637). This book was widely read by Christians; it was rendered into various languages, and in 1650 was translated into English by Edward Chilmead. At the time the Jewish question was coming to the fore in London, and Leon of Modena's book did much to stimulate popular interest. He died at Venice.


    1656: After the outbreak of war between England and Spain, Jews living in England petitioned Cromwell to stay insisting that they were not Spaniards but rather Marranos. Although Cromwell chose not to officially reply to today’s request, he permitted the community to establish a Jewish Cemetery, and for protection during prayers. His unwritten agreement was conditioned on there being no public Jewish worship. This is considered by many to mark the official end of the expulsion of the Jews from England.


    1664: Roger Williams was granted a charter to colonize Rhode Island. Unlike Massachusetts, Rhode Island was not governed as a theocracy. Rhode Island helped create the atmosphere of toleration that would become the American model thus making the United States a unique place for Jews to live.


    1733: Birthdate of British theologian Joseph Priestly who 1786 published “Letter to the Jews” in which he urged them to convert that elicited a length answer from David Levin which led to the publication of his three volume Dissertation on the Prophecies of the Old Testament.


    1743(28th of Adar): Rabbi Raphael Immanuel Ricchi author of Mishnat Hasidim passed away


    1794: Start of the Kościuszko Uprising. Tadeusz Kościuszko, a veteran of the American Revolutionary War, announced the general uprising against the Russian occupiers and assumed the powers of the Commander in Chief of all of the Polish forces. Jews, in a Jewish regiment led by Berek Joselewicz, took part in the failed uprising which led to the third and final partition of Poland in 1795.


    1795: Birthdate of Zvi (Zwi) Hirsch Kalischer “an Orthodox rabbi and one of Zionism's early pioneers in Germany.”


    1801: Alexander I became Czar of the Russian Empire. He ruled until his death in 1825. His treated his Jewish subjects poorly at the beginning and at the end of his reign. In the middle years which were marked by the wars with Napoleon, Alexander was impressed by the loyalty of his Jewish subjects in the fight against the French. He received unexpected help from the head of the Chabad Chassidim. Like other Christian leaders, Alexander sought to convert the Jews which was the source of any beneficence he might have shown them. When “killing them with kindness” failed, he went back to killing them with starvation, misery and impoverishment.


    1807(14th of Adar II, 5567): Purim


    1813: In Argentina, the inquisition was officially abolished. Two months later the Assembly passes regulations allowing freedom of practicing religion if it is observed in ones home


    1818: American statesman Henry Clay wrote: 'All religions united with government are more or less inimical to liberty. All separated from government are compatible with liberty.' No, Henry Clay was not Jewish. But his statement on the relationship between government and organized religion provides a clue as to why Jews have flourished in America and how wrong some modern politicians are in their statements about separation of church and state.


    1820: Birthdate of Elizabeth Rachel Felix, who gained fame as Mademoiselle Rachel, the great French Tragedienne


    1820: First public performance of Marche Funebre et De Profundis en Hebreu, a funeral march composed by Jacques Fromenthal Halevy that had been commissioned by the Consistoire Israélite du Départment de la Seine, for a public service in memory of the Duke de Berry, in the Jewish community's temple. This liturgical composition which helped launch Halevy’s career was meant to be performed by a vocal trio and orchestra. On its engraved title page, Halevy was described as a member of the Royal Institute of Music and a recipient of the patronage of the King of France at the Academy of Rome. One of France's greatest composers, Jacques Fromenthal Halevy (1799-1862), was also the son of a cantor. His father, Elie Halfon Halevy was the secretary of the Jewish community of Paris and a Hebrew teacher and writer as well. Musically gifted, Jacques was accepted as a student by the Paris Conservatory at age ten and subsequently became a member of its faculty, rising to the rank of professor in 1833. His lasting fame was assured by his grand opera La Juive which premiered in 1835.


    1841: “Another important step for emancipation was the law adopted today, for Galicia, which promised certain improvements for the Jews of that province who should dress in European costume and acquire a knowledge of either German or Polish”


    1847: In London, Rabbi D.A. De Sola delivered a sermon at the Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue, Bevis Marks, on the subject of the Irish Potato Famine which began with the following statement, “"For devastation has gone forth through the land, Death stalks around, with disease in its train...."


    1853: In Jerusalem, English missionaries ended up fighting instead of praying on Good Friday. First, they “were turned out of the Church of the Holy Seplucher because they behaved in an unseemly manner when the Procession of the Host” passed by. Then “a missionary named Crawford preached a sermon outside the Synagogue while the service was going on…and indulged in invectives against the Talmud. One of the Children of Israel incensed at the this, hurled a dead cat” in his face. A fight then broke out between the Protestant missionaries and the Jews during which “it rained mud and rocks.”


    1859: In Savannah, GA,  Johanna Peyser became Johanna Wessolowsky when she married Charles Wessolowsky


    1860: In New York, the Supreme Court granted an “order of the payment of surplus in the case of Hebrew Mutual Benefit Society vs. Fitzpatrick.


    1860: An editorial published today that reviewed the current debate over the death penalty stated that the legislature should refrain from discussing “What the law of Moses says on the subject, or how far that law is binding on modern communities; questions which they are not competent to decide” and should stick to the question at hand – should life imprisonment replace hanging as a punishment for murder.


    1862: Judah P. Benjamin completed his service as Secretary of War for the CSA.


    1862: The Purim Association of the City of New York was organized for the purpose of arranging annual Purim balls. Meyer S. Isaacs, prominent New York Lawyer, civic leader and Jewish activist, was one of the founders of the Purim Association which lasted until 1906.


    1872(14th of Adar II, 5632): Purim


    1872: Hyman Israel, one of the wealthiest members of Beth Israel Bikur Cholim in New York City hosted a Purim Open house at his home on 25th Street. The party included a large number of masked young men and women including the host’s daughter, Miss Annie Israel.


    1873: Following a speech by Benjamin Disraeli, the government of Prime Minister Gladstone was defeated on the issue of the Irish University Bill. Disraeli, who was seen as a “Jew” and Gladstone alternated as leaders of British governments during the middle decades of the 19th century.


    1874: Birthdate of Harry Houdini. Born Eric Weiss, Houdini's father was a rabbi. Houdini showed promise as a contortionist and acrobat at an early age. He later took the name of Harry Houdini and gained fame as an escape artist. He died a tragic death on November 1, 1926. Many magicians, escape artists and people with similar interests gather to commemorate his passing each Halloween, October 31.


    1878: Proving that Jews can be found all over the world , it was reported today that Parva, a Brazilian city deep in the heart of the Amazon on the Equator has a population of 35,000 that “includes a few Jews.


    1878: The Young Men’s Hebrew Union hosted an evening of culture at the Norfolk Street Synagogue this evening that included a lecture by A. Oakly Hall on “The Great Pertersham Will Case” followed by a musical program that included a violin solo David Bimberg.


    1878: Birthdate of Moissaye Joseph Olgin “a Russian-born writer, journalist, and translator” who was active in the first three decades 20th century


    1887: President Grover Cleveland appointed Oscar Solomon Strauss ambassador to Turkey. Strauss was the first American Jew to serve as an ambassador. In 1906, President Theodore Roosevelt would appoint Strauss Secretary of Commerce and Labor, making him the first American Jew to hold a cabinet post in the government of the United States. The year 1887 was a busy one for the Strauss family. That was the year that Oscar's brothers, Nathan and Isidor bought Macy’s Department Store.

    1889: Meier Selig Goldschmidt Selma Cramer the daughter of Salomon Cramer and Therese (Röschen) Oppenheimer today


    1891(14th of Adar II, 5651): Purim


    1892(25thof Adar, 5652): Fifty-four year old Moses Mehrbach, a native of Bavaria and the husband of Carolyn Meyer passed away today in New York.


    1894: The Don Quixote Club will give a benefit performance tonight at the Manhattan Athletic Club Theatre to raise funds for the United Hebrew Charities.


    1894: “Rights of Foreign Jews in Russia” published today described an order issued by the Russian Minister of the Interior to the police that they are not to interfere with activities of foreign Jews who have “proper passports” in their possession. The order was issued in response to pressure from various governments whose Jewish citizens have complaint about ill-treatment and expulsion by the Czarist government.


    1894: The New York Times stated erroneously that on Friday, March 23, “with the setting of the sun the Hebrew Feast of the Passover began.” (The first Seder would not come until the evening of April 20, with the first day of the holiday falling on April 21.)


    1895(28th of Adar, 5655): Babet Karl, the aunt of wealthy real estate lawyer Abraham Stern passed away today in New York.


    1895: Professor Felix Adler delivered a lecture this morning at the Carnegie Music Hall entitled “The New View of Childhood and Its Effects on Education.”


    1895: Birthdate of Arthur Murray. Born Murray Teichman, he would become America’s Dance Teacher with his chain of Dance Studios and the television show, Arthur Murray's Dance Party.


    1897: It was reported today that during the month of February the United Hebrew Charities had received 3,306 applications for assistance on behalf of 11,020 people.  Jobs were found for 611 people and 466 people were seen by either doctors or nurses. The charity raised $19,253.40 during February and spent $11,736.53.


    1897: Birthdate of Wilhelm Reich a Jewish-Austrian psychiatrist, psychoanalyst, and author, who was trained in Vienna by Sigmund Freud. He passed away in 1957.


    1897: “Theatrical Notes” published today described Oscar Hammerstein’s decision revamp his production of “Greater New York.”


    1898: Hertig and Seamon have donated the use of the Harlem Music Hall to the Ladies’ Auxiliary of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society for tonight’s charity event that will benefit the Society and the Montefiore Home.


    1899: It was reported today that Rabbi Joseph Silverman attributes “the long life and freedom from epidemics enjoyed” by the Jews “to their Mosaic laws.  “To the Jew his religion is a philosophy of life” and the Jew “is the only real cosmopolitan” who “can live in any country and enjoy health in every climate.”


    1899: The Jewish Messenger reported that Congregation Orach Chaim opened its new sanctuary. "An ornament to Manhattan in general and to the inhabitants of E. 51st in particular, is the handsome new edifice of this synagogue. The only thing that mars the beauty of the structure is the $15,000 mortgage. It would be, indeed, permissible even for the most ultra-orthodox to learn from Roman Catholic neighbors not to dedicate a place of worship in the presence of a mortgage."


    1900(23rdof Adar II, 5660): Sixty-eight year old “Austrian scholar and author Solomon Joachim Chayim Halberstam, the son of Isaac Halbestram, passed away today.


    1902(15thof Adar II, 5662): Shushan Purim


    1902(15thof Adar II, 5662): Poet and author Salomon Mandelkern who was born at Mlynov, Volhynian Governorate in 1846 passed away today in Vienna. Mandelkern, whose son Israel lived in New York, had translated the works of several American writers including Henry W. Longfellow into English.


    1909(2ndof  Nisan, 5669): Fifty-five year old German architect Alfred Messel whose most famous work was the Wertheim Department store on Leipziger Platz and who became a Protestant in 1899 passed away today.


    1911: Reports reached the West of the massacre and looting of Moroccan Jews.


    1915: In Lynn, MA, Ann and Israel Sack gave birth to Albert Milton Sack the “prominent New York antiques dealer and the author of a guidebook to early American furniture that became the bible for a generation of weekend antiquers and a standard for professional collectors.”


    1915: Among those listed today as contributors to the fund of the American Jewish Relief Committee were the Calgary, Alberta, Jewish Relief Committee, Congregation House of Israel, Hot Springs, AR; the Sunday School of the Hebrew Bible Class Association, Newport News, VA and the Ladies Temple Sisterhood of B’nai Jeshurun, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.


    1917: Birthdate of Brooklynite Alex Steinweiss, the son of women’s shoe designer and a seamstress, who as “an art director and graphic designer…brought custom artwork to record album covers and invented the first packaging for long-playing records.” (As reported by Steven Heller)


    1918: In Chicago, Ida and Abe "Melech" Levin give birth to Joseph B. Levin.


    1919: Birthdate of Robert Heilbroner. He was an American economist. The author of some twenty books, Heilbroner was best known for The Worldly Philosophers published in 1953, a survey of the lives and contributions of famous economists, notably Adam Smith, Karl Marx, and John Maynard Keynes. He passed away in 2005.


    1920: Birthdate of Cracow native Mieczyslaw Pemper, the concentration camp inmate who actually compiled what came to be known as “Schindler’s List.” (As reported by Douglas Martin)


    1921: The Chief Rabbinate of Palestine was established under the British Mandate. The first Ashkenazic Chief Rabbi of Palestine was the scholar and sage, Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook was one of the leading intellectual and religious leaders during the Yishuv period.


    1921: Winston Churchill’s train arrives in Gaza, the first large town he would visit on his trip to Palestine.


    1922: In an attempt to calm Arab fears over Jewish immigration to Palestine, Churchill “approved a proposal from Sir Herbert Samuel that Jewish immigration would be limited by the ‘economic capacity’ of Palestine to absorb newcomers.” Of course, Churchill saw that Palestine would have a growing economic capacity given the improvements brought about the Jewish settlers.


    1924: Birthdate of actor Norman Fell whose most lasting role came as Mr. Rope in the television hit “3’s Company.”


    1933: “The Enabling Act (German: Ermächtigungsgesetz) an amendment to the Weimar Constitution that gave the German Cabinet – in effect, Chancellor Adolf Hitler – the power to enact laws without the involvement of the Reichsta passed in both the Reichstag and Reichsrat today and was signed by President Paul von Hindenburg later that day


    1936(1st of Nisan, 5696): Rosh Chodesh Nisan


    1936: The House of Commons discussed a proposal for setting up a Legislative Council in Palestine that would give the Arabs control over the future of Jewish immigration into Palestine i.e. the end of such immigration and the Zionist dream. Churchill delivered a stirring speech against the proposal.


    1937: The Palestine Post reported that in London the Secretary for the Colonies, Mr. Ormsby-Gore, was asked in the House of Commons what steps had been taken to prevent any future Arab disturbances and why Palestinian Jews were not allowed the same right of self-defense as enjoyed by the British people.


    1937: The Palestine Post reported that The High Commissioner, Sir Arthur Wauchope, visited the Jezreel Valley and discussed matters of security at Merhavia and Balfouria. An announcement was later made that over 700 supernumerary constables would be re-enlisted for service in the north of the country


    1940: An hour long production of “June Moon” co-authored by George S. Kaufman co-starring Jack Benny and Benny Rubin was presented today.


    1941: Birthdate of Michael William Masser, the Chicago born stockbroker turned popular music composer.


    1944(28th of Adar, 5704): In Markowa, a patrol of German police came to the house of Wiktoria and Józef Ulm, where they found 8 Jews, members of the Szall and Goldman families. First the Germans executed all the Jews. Then they shot down pregnant Wiktoria and her husband. When the 6 children began to scream at the scene of dead bodies of their parents, Jozef Kokott, a German policeman (killed them. Markowa was a Polish village near Lancut. During World War II many families hid their Jewish neighbors to help them survive the Holocaust. It is estimated that at least 17 Jews survived the war in Markowa. Seven members of Weltz family were hidden in a barn of Dorota and Antoni Szylar. Jakub Einhorn was hidden by Jan and Weronika Przybylak and the Jakub Lorbenfeld family was hidden by Michal Bar. Two girls from Reisenbach family were initially hidden by Stanislaw Kielar, before joining the rest of 5 members’ of the family in the house of Julia and Józef Bar. Righteous Gentiles came in all shapes and sizes. Some were industrialists called Oksar and others were simple peasants who showed real courage.


    1944: An unidentified Turkish Jew who was an eyewitness to the event, reported to the United States government that on this date the Germans had deported all the registered Jews of Athens.


    1944: Shlomo Venezia and his family were deported from Thessaloniki to Athens before being shipped to Auschwitz.


    1944: In occupied Rome, the Nazis executed more than 300 civilians in the Ardeantine Caves Massacre.


    1944: As the Nazis assert control over Hungary, President Roosevelt warns the Hungarians “to refrain from anti-Jewish measures.” (As reported by the Jewish Virtual Library)


    1944: Two British constables were killed in Tel Aviv and three others were killed in Haifa when a bomb exploded at the Criminal Investigation Department headquarters in Haifa. These and other attacks conducted tonight were believed to be the work of the Stern Gang and were condemned by The Tel Aviv Municipal Council and the Federation of Jewish Labor.


    1945: A train carrying 200 Jewish women, exhausted from a death march from Neusalz, Poland, arrived at Bergen-Belsen, Germany.


    1945: The Arabs held protest demonstrations at the same time that their leaders rejected a compromise that would have rotated the position of Mayor of Jerusalem among members of the Jewish, Arab and British communities. The Jews had agreed to the compromise even though 61 per cent of the city’s population was Jewish.


    1947: Dr. Nahum Goldman is scheduled to leave Palestine today for London and New York so that he can begin planning for the upcoming meeting of the special sessions of the United Nations that has been called to deal with the problem of Palestine.


    1950(6th of Nisan, 5710): Harold Joseph Laski an “English political theorist, economist, author, and lecturer, who served as the chairman of the Labour Party during 1945-1946” passed away.


    1950: An Israeli government official “said today that Jordan suddenly broke off negotiations on a five-year non-aggression pact” between the two countries which was close to completion. “Earlier today, a high diplomatic source in Beirut reported the break in negotiations had been forced by the resignation last week of Jordan’s Premier Tewfik Abul Huda.”


    1952: The Jerusalem Postreported that the atmosphere at the opening of the Hague reparations talks between world Jewry and West Germany was "official, cool and tense." The German delegation claimed that their willingness to make reparations was restricted by Allied legislation.


    1952: The Jerusalem Postreported that in Jerusalem a man who escaped from a mental home was shot and killed by an Arab Legion sentry near the Jaffa Gate. Infiltrators murdered Mordecai Harkabi, a watchman from Hadera.


    1955(1stof Nisan, 5715): Rosh Chodesh Nisan


    1955(1stof Nisan, 5615): Terrorists threw hand grenades and opened fire on a crowd at a wedding in the farming community of Patish, in the Negev, killing a young woman and wounding 18 others.


    1955: United States Customs officials seize copies of Allen Ginsberg's poem "Howl" because it was obscene.


    1956: In Brattleboro, VT, Kitty Prins Shmulin and “George J. Shumlin, a third generation American who was Jewish, and descended from Russian immigrants” gave birth to Peter Elliott Shumlin, the 81st Governor of Vermont.


    1956: Birthdate of Steve Ballmer, Vice President of Microsoft.


    1959(14thof Adar II, 5719) Purim


    1965: Shlomo-Yisrael Ben-Meir began serving as Deputy Minister of Health.


    1965: Rabbi Saul Leeman of Cranston and Rabbi William G. Braude were among those marching from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama.


    1968: This afternoon Suzie Burger, a 7 1/2-year-old artist, helped dedicate the new Henry Kaufmann Building at the 92d Street Young Men's-Young Women's Hebrew Association.


    1969(5thof Nisan, 5729): Seventy-eight year old Neville Laski, the British jurist who was the brother of Harold Laski passed away today.


    1970: “It Takes A Thief” which had co-starred Malachi Thorne in its first two seasons completed its run in prime time television.


    1972: An estimated 50,000 mourners accompanied Rabbi Chaim Meir Hager’s aron to its final resting place. He had been revered as Vizhnitzer Rebbe for 35 years.


    1973(20th of Adar II, 5733): Award winning Israeli novelist Haim Hazaz passed away. A native of the Ukraine, he made Aliyah in 1931. His only son, Nahum died during the War of Independence. Hazaz spent the last decade of his life in Talbiya.


    1975: Eliyahu Moyal replaced Jabr Muadi as Deputy Minister of Communications.


    1977: The Jerusalem Postreported that a Haifa Labor Court ordered the striking Haifa and Ashdod port workers to return to work, but they were still debating whether to respond to the court's orders.


    1977: The Jerusalem Post reported that five hundred and eleven out of 566 members of the Herat's Central Committee voted for Menachem Begin to head the party's list for the forthcoming Knesset elections.


    1977: The Jerusalem Post reported that leading Israeli scientists gathered at the Weizmann Institute in Rehovot to protest against the latest wave of Soviet persecution of Jews in the Soviet Union.


    1979(25thof Adar, 5739): Shabbat HaChodesh


    1979(25thof Adar, 5739): Eighty year old Sir Jacob Edward Cohen, founder of the Tesco supermarket chain passed away.


    1979: One person was killed and 13 people were injured, most of them lightly, when an explosive charge blew up in a trash can in Zion Square in Jerusalem.


    1981(18thof Adar II, 5741): Eighty-four year old Nathaniel Lawrence Goldstein who served as New York State Attorney General from 1943 to 1954 passed away.  A Republican, he teamed with Thomas E. Dewey to break the Democratic hold on Albany.


    1981: Today Saudi Arabia rejected a suggestion by the Israeli opposition leader Shimon Peres that he would try to explore the possibility of peace with the Saudis if his Labor Party wins the Israeli general elections on June 30.The official Saudi press agency quoted Information Minister Mohammed Abdo Yamani as saying the nation ''rejects allegations in the enemy's press to implicate the kingdom in positions contrary to its present and future policies.'' Mr. Abdo Yamani said the remarks were meant for local consumption in Israel during the campaign. ''The peace we want is not that which Peres and Begin want,'' he said, referring to Prime Minister Menachem Begin of Israel. ''The peace we support is based on rights, justice, international law and the resolutions of the United Nations.''


    1981: In “About Education; Nature vs. Nature: Psychologist Urges Active Intervention,” published today, Dr. Reuven Feuerstein the clinical psychologist serving as director of the Youth Aliyah Research Institute, professor of psychology at Tel Aviv University and adjunct professor at Vanderbilt University, explains his unique views on mental health including the concept of intelligence. “Heredity, shemeredity! You have to do something” is his answer to the endless argument over whether disadvantaged children do poorly in school because of inherited traits or because of their environment. The human organism is an open system, very plastic. It can be changed and modified. The question is whether educators have the will, the confidence to do something.”


    1984(20th of Adar II, 5744): Ninety-three year old Sam Jaffe who performed with Cary Grant in Gunga Din,  with Marilyn Monroe in Asphalt Jungle and Charlton Heston in Ben Hur (amongst other accomplishments) passed way.,7539643,3041652



    1986(13th of Adar II, 5746): Reb Moshe Feinstein, a leading expert on Halachah, passed away 21 days after celebrating his 91st birthday.


    1987: In New Haven, CT, Dr. Ira and Karen Zeid gave birth to major league pitcher Joshua Alexander ("Josh") Zeid who played college ball at Tulane University where majored in English.


    1989: A videotape version of the 1960 production of “Peter Pan” a musical by Mark "Moose" Charlap, with additional music by Jule Styne, and most of the lyrics written by Carolyn Leigh, with additional lyrics by Betty Comden and Adolph Green was broadcast today.


    1991: Rabi Laurence Kotok officiated at the wedding of Nancy Anne Stein and David Mark Woolf at the North Country Reform Temple.


    1991: Mr. and Mrs. Sam Witchel of Scarsdale N.Y. have announced the engagement of their daughter Alexandra Rachelle Witchel to Frank Hart Rich Jr.., a son of Mr. Rich and Mrs. Joel Fisher, both of Washington. A June wedding is planned. Ms. Witchel, 33 years old and known as Alex, is a reporter in the news department of The New York Times. She writes the "On Stage, and Off" column. Mr. Rich, 41, has been the chief drama critic of The Times since 1980.


    1992: “Jakes Women” written by Neil Simon and directed by Gene Saks opened at the Neil Simon Theatre.


    1993: Award winning author John Hersey passed away. While most of the world remembers the non-Jewish Hersey for his writings about Hiroshima, many Jews remember him for his epic novel, The Wall. It was one of the first and finest books to be written about events during the Holocaust. In this case, The Wall, portrayed the events leading up to the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.


    1993: Ezer Weizman was elected President of Israel. The nephew of Chaim Weizman enjoyed a distinguished military career before entering politics. He flew for the RAF during World War II and was one of the founders of what would become the Israeli Air Force. He played an instrumental role in developing it into one of the finest military units of its kind in the world.


    1994(12th of Nisan, 5754): Fast of the First Born observed since the 14th Nisan is on Shabbat


    1996: “The Jew Who Fought to Stay German” published today famed Israeli author Amos Elon uses the recent publication of Victor Klemperer’s "Diaries 1933-1945" to review this unique literary work and to examine the world in which this “disenfranchised German Jew” struggled to survive as he came to grips with the reality the “real” Germany despites his best efforts to deny that reality.


    2001: “Inherit The Wind” the controversial play co-authored by Jerome Lawrence is scheduled to have its final performance at the Sheffel Theatre of the Topeka (Kansas) Civic Theatre & Academy


    2002: The New York Times included a review of The Good, The Bad &The Difference: How to Tell Right from Wrong in Everyday Situations by Randy Cohn, a Jewish author born in Charleston, South Carolina.


    2005: Paula Abdul ” was fined US$900 and given 24 months of informal probation after pleading no contest to misdemeanor hit-and-run driving in Los Angeles.”


    2005: Broadcast of a re-union episode of Krovim Krovim an Israeli television sitcom.


    2006: The Japanese Foreign Ministry “issued a position paper” today “that there was no evidence the Ministry imposed disciplinary action on Chiune Sugihara, the Japanese diplomat who defied his government while serving in Lithuania by issuing thousands of transit visas to Jews enabling them to escape the Nazis.


    2006: Lily Elstein holds the first concert at the former Mivtahim Inn in Zichron Yaakov which she purchased January of 2006.


    2006: Hazel Josephine Cosgrove, Lady Cosgrove, completed her service as a Senator of the College of Justice.


    2008: Time features an article entitled “Israel’s Secret War” which describes the “invisible battle being waged in the West Bank as Israel uses a mailed fist and a network of Palestinian informers to stop suicide bombers before they can reach their targets.” As one IDF officer said, “Our people sleep comfortably because the IDF is putting in a huge effort in the West Bank to prevent terror.”


    2008: The 92nd Street Y presents “A Festival of Hebrew Literature,” with David Grossman, Etgar Keret, Meir Shalev and Zeruya Shalev.


    2008: Edmund “Levy was elected by the Supreme Court justices to serve on the Judicial Selection Committee in place of the court's Vice-President Eliezer Rivlin.”


    2009: The Princeton Program on Judaic Studies presents “A Celebration of Tel Aviv at 100” featuring talks by Todd Hasak-Lowy (University of Florida) on “Tel Aviv's Accelerated History,” and Alona Nitzan-Shiftan (Technion) on “Architecture from the Sand” and a ‘screening of the first two installments of the new Israeli documentary "Tel Aviv," with creators Modi Bar-On and Anat Zeltser.


    2009: In an event co-sponsored by the Embassy of Israel, Israeli writer and filmmaker Etgar Keret, author of the short story collections “The Nimrod Flipout” and “The Bus Driver Who Wanted To Be God &

    Other Stories,” as well as creator of the award-winning film "Malka Red-Heart," discusses the relationship between the short story and film as part of the Nextbook series at the D.C. Jewish Community Center.


    2009: An effort to auction off bankrupt Agriprocessors has been continued to next week after two days of bidding failed to yield an offer acceptable to the largest creditor.


    2009: Senior Labor minister Isaac Herzog announced his support for party leader Ehud Barak's bid to bring the center-left Labor into a coalition headed by Prime Minister-Designate Benjamin Netanyahu.


    2010: The Knesset's State Control Committee is scheduled to hold a special hearing today to discuss the cabinet's decision to delay proceeding on a rocket-resistant emergency room for Barzilai Hospital in Ashkelon while a new location is sought to avoid tampering with old graves.


    2010: The Center for Jewish History is scheduled to present “From Black Market to Dinner Table: International Clandestine Aid and Its Hungarian Jewish Recipients in the 1950s” as part of its graduate seminar program.


    2010: Israel will continue building in all of the Jerusalem municipality and a construction plan that raised questions during Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu's current trip to Washington is nothing new, Netanyahu's spokesman said in a statement today.


    2010: The Washington Post featured a review of a memoir entitled "Devotion" by Dani Shapiro.


    2010(9th of Nisan, 5770): Ninety-three year old pharmaceutical executive and patron of the arts Mortimer D. Sackler passed away today. (As reported by Bruce Weber)


    2011: Prof Mandy Merck, Royal Holloway, University of London is scheduled to deliver a talk entitled “Charlotte loves Harry – Ethnic stereotypes and Jewish jokes in Sex and the City” at the Wiener Library,in the UK.


    2011: Ely Levine is scheduled to give a lecture at Coe College in Cedar Rapids, Iowa entitled "Building in the Bible:From Babel to Bathsheba." Levine, a visiting professor at Luther College in Decorah, Iowa, "will discuss how the study of ancient architecture has shed light on biblical mysteries."


    2011: Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu did not leave for Russia today as planned due to the terrorist attack in Jerusalem yesterday.


    2011: YIVO Institute for Jewish Research and American Society for Jewish Music presented “The Most Musical Nation: Jews and Culture in the Late Russian Empire.”


    2011: The British Foreign Office confirmed today that a UK national, Mary Jane Gardner, died in yesterday's terrorist attack at a Jerusalem bus stop, the Associated Press reported. The 59-year-old woman was critically injured in the blast and succumbed to her wounds the same day at Haddasah-Ein Kerem Medical Center. Thirty-nine others were injured in the attack; two are still in serious condition.


    2011: The Israeli Air Force struck targets in the Gaza Strip in the early hours today, a day after Palestinian militants fired about a dozen rockets and mortars across the border.


    2012: Ricky Ullman’s final performance “as the character Alex in the New Group's production of "Russian Transport" Off-Broadway in New York.”


    2012: Shabbat of the “Sabbath Manifesto” is scheduled to end this evening.


    2012: “The Syrian Bride” is scheduled to be shown this evening at Tifereth Israel’s Israeli Movie Night in Washington, DC.


    2012: “The Flood” is scheduled to be shown at the 16TH Annual Hartford Jewish Film Festival


    2013: Join Beyhan Cagri Trock, author of The Ottoman Turk and the Pretty Jewish Girl: Real Turkish Cooking is scheduled to teach a class featuring “authentic, delicious Sephardic and Turkish family recipes” at the Lorinda "Annie" Hooks Demo Kitchen


    2013: The Trio Sefardi is scheduled to provide an afternoon of music that focuses on the traditions of Pesach at the Abraham Lincoln Hall.


    2013: Visitors to the Weiner Library in London will have the opportunity to view the exhibition Wit's End: The Satirical Cartoons of Stephen Roth', a compilation of the works of the “Czech Jewish artist whose cartoons lampooned fascist dictators and put a wry spin on political events during the Second World War.”


    2013: IDF soldiers fired a Tammuz missile at a Syrian army position in Tel Fares, from which shots were fired both that day and the previous day across the border into the Israeli-controlled Golan Heights.


    2013: Ben Zygier, the alleged Mossad agent also known as Prisoner X who committed suicide in Ayalon Prison in 2010, was arrested for passing sensitive information to Hezbollah that led to the arrests of two informants within the ranks of the Shi’ite organization, Der Spiegelreported on today.


    2014: Reform Rabbi Lawrence Hoffman, the Barbara and Stephen Friedman Professor of Liturgy, Worship and Ritual at the Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion in New York, is scheduled to be to speak on “Christianity and Judaism: God’s Double Helix Through Time” at Loyola University in New Orleans.


    2014: “Dancing in Jaffa” is scheduled to be shown at the Northern Virginia Jewish Film Festival.


    2014: Maestro Zubin Mehta and the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra are scheduled to present a benefit performance at the Kravis Center for the Performing Arts in Palm Beach.


    2014: Majn Alef Bejs, “a book on Yiddish published by a Polish Jewish group has won first prize in the non-fiction category of the Bologna Children’s Book Fair which is scheduled to open today.


    2014: “For the second time in as many weeks, Economy and Religious Affairs Minister Naftali Bennett came under fire today over an accusation that he has been using his position to funnel money to associates.”


    2014: The results of a new survey of anti-Semitic attidues presented at a news conference today organized by the Action and Protection Foundation headquarters “showed up to 40 percent of respondents accepted some anti-Semitic attitudes. (As reported by JTA)


    2015: In La Jolla, CA, the Lawrence Family JCC is scheduled to host “Turning Inward: Jews and American Life, 1965-Presentish.”


    2015: The 5thJ Street National Conference is scheduled to come to an end.


    2015: William Brumfield is scheduled to deliver at lecture on the “The Jewish Moment in Russia” at Tulane University.


    2015: The 16th Street Book Club is scheduled to discuss A Pigeon and a Boy by Meir Shalev, translated by Evan Fallenberg


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    March 25


    1271: King Jaime (Kings James I of Aragon) freed all the Jews in Murviedro, a city in Valencia of debts from Christians. It should be noted this came after the Christians burned down a synagogue, and then were forced to rebuild it themselves.

    1303(7th of Nisan): Massacre of the Jews of Weissensse, Germany

    1488:Obadiah ben Abraham of Bertinoro “a 15th-century Italian rabbi best known for his popular commentary on the Mishnah, commonly known as "The Bartenura" arrived in Jerusalem where he rejuvenated the moribund Jewish community.

    1303: The Jews of Weissensee, Germany, were massacred.

    1597(6thof Nisan, 5357): Rabbi Samuel Judah Katzenellenbogen, known as “Samuel Judah of Padua, the son of Rabbi Meir ben Isaac Katzenellenbogen and the father of Saul Wahl passed away today.

    1601(21stof Adar II, 5361): Doña Mariana was tried and put to death at an auto-da-fé held in Mexico City today. She was one of the two surviving daughters of Doña Francisca, who had been put to death earlier. The entire family had been found guilty of the same crime – relapsing from Catholicism to Judaism. Only the youngest daughter would escape death.

    1735: For the year beginning today, Jews accounted for 13 of the entries in the journal recording maritime trade for the port of New York.

    1748: “For the quarter beginning today there were seven Jewish entries”. “Jacob Rivera had three entries and Mordecai Gomez, Jacob Franks, Samuel Naphtali and Abraham Hart had one each.”

    1795: Birthdate of Zvi Hirsch Kalischer, a German born Orthodox Rabbi who supported the Zionist ideal before it officially became a movement.

    1801: In Padua, Baruch Hayyim Almanzi, a wealthy merchant and his wife gave birth to Joseph Almanzi “an Italian Jewish bibliophile and poet.”

    1807(15th of Adar II, 5567): Shushan Purim

    1817: Tsar Alexander I recommended formation of Society of Israeli Christians, whose primary function was to convert Jews to Christianity. It failed.

    1828: Shaare Chesed, which was re-named Touro Synagogue, the first congregation formed in New Orleans was incorporated today.

    1838: In Jamaica, Hannah and Isaac Kursheedt gave birth to Edwin Israel Kursheedt

    1840: During the Damascus Affair, Adophe Cremieux, vice president of the Central Consistorie of French Israelites, hears the appeals Jews from the Syrian community seeking relief for the Jews who have wrongly been imprisoned. A future member of the Chamber of Deputies, this Sephardic lawyer, takes up the cause of his co-religionists enlisting the support of no less than Adolphe Thiers, the French Prime Minister.

    1860: Austrian banker Jonas Freiherr von Königswarter was knighted today.

    1861(14thof Nisan, 5621): As the storm clouds of secession roll across America, Jews on both sides of the Mason-Dixon line sit down to the Seder tonight on the first night of Pesach.

    1861: Thirty-one year old Henry Straus, a native of Alsace living in Jackson, MS enlisted in the Confederate Army today.

    1863: Birthdate of Simon Flexner. Simon Flexner was a fighter against all diseases. He probed and pushed to find the causes and cures for human ailments. As a result of his work, he became the director of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research. Born in Louisville, Kentucky, Simon was the fourth of nine children of Esther and Morris Flexner. His brother Bernard became a famous lawyer and an ardent Zionist. Another brother, Abraham, was the first director at the Institute for the Advanced Study at Princeton. Simon went to the University of Louisville to study medicine, and received his M.D. in 1889. Finding that the laboratories at the school had very few supplies, he acquired a microscope and taught himself how to use it. He then went to Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore to study pathology. He soon began to publish papers on pathology and in 1892. He became an associate in pathology in the newly opened Johns Hopkins Medical School. He became involved with many epidemics, including one of cerebrospinal meningitis in western Maryland in 1893. In 1899, he was in Manila where he found the strain of dysentery bacillus that became known as the Flexner type. In 1901, the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research was created and he was chosen to be one of seven members on the board of scientific directors. He was asked to organize and direct the laboratories on medical research. This concept of research was new to America and it was financially secure through the Rockefellers' endorsements. In 1905, New York City was hit with a severe epidemic of cerebrospinal meningitis, which Flexner had encountered 12 years before. He experimented with monkeys until he found a serum to conquer the disease. In 1907, he found himself trying to fight an epidemic of poliomyelitis which had spread through the eastern states. He was able to isolate the infectious agent but he couldn't find a cure, since the disease was caused by a filterable virus rather than a bacterial organism. His discovery laid the basis for others to find polio vaccines some 40 Years later. Simon was the only editor of the Journal of Experimental Medicine for 19 years. During this time he wrote many articles on public health, research and education. In World War I, he was commissioned a lieutenant colonel in the Army Medical Corps and went to Europe to inspect and establish the medical facilities of the expeditionary forces. After the war, his role in the Rockefeller Institute became greater, and now included involvement in the animal pathology department at Princeton. Flexner was active in many organizations and became an officer of quite a few. He retired from the Rockefeller Institute in 1935 and a year after was appointed an Eastman Professor at Oxford University. He died in 1946, leaving behind a legacy in the field of pathology.

    1864: The Jewish Chronicle published the following description of the death of famed musician Isaac Nathan who had died in January of that year. Mr. Nathan was a passenger by No. 2 tramway car […] [he] alighted from the car at the southern end, but before he got clear of the rails the car moved onwards […] he was thus whirled round by the sudden motion of the carriage and his body was brought under the front wheel. “The horse-drawn tram was the first in Sydney: Nathan was Australia's (indeed the southern hemisphere's) first tram fatality.”

    1869(13th of Nisan, 5629):Ta'anit Bechorot

    1869: “The Jewish Passover” published today reported that “tomorrow evening at sundown the feast of the Passover will be commenced by Israelites everywhere, in commemoration of their ancestors having remained intact on the night when all of their oppressors, the Egyptians, were smitten by the angel of death.

    1869: The New York Times reports that “To-morrow evening at sundown, the feast of the Passover will be commenced by Israelites everywhere, in commemoration of their ancestors having remained intact, on the night when all the first-born in the families of their oppressors. the Egyptians, were smitten by the angel of death. The feat will continue eight days, during which but unleavened bread will be eaten…On the first and second evenings various commemorative rites will be indulged in in every household including the recital of Scriptural and legendary narratives, and familiar conversations on the subject of the deliverance. Appropriate psalms will also be chanted.”

    1870: It was reported today that the ladies of the B’nai Jeshrun Benevolent Society in New York have established an Industrial Home for impoverished Jewish Women.

    1871: in the Suwałki Governorate of Congress Poland, a part of the Russian Empire Duvvid Schubart and Katrina Helwitzin gave birth to Lee Shubert, the “American theatre owner/operator and producer and the eldest of seven siblings of the theatrical Shubert family.”

    1872(15th of Adar II, 5632): Shushan Purim

    1874: Birthdate of Russian born American chazzan Zevulun "Zavel" Kwartin

    1877: In Alpena, Michigan, the Hebrew Benevolent Society met today and decided that their meeting room would “be used for holding ‘prayer meeting on the following Holy Days despite the fact that a dispute had broken out over a “divergence” between Orthodox and Reform beliefs.

    1878: Rabbi Abram Isaacs will delivered a lecture tonight on “A Hero of the Synagogue” at the 34th Street Synagogue in New York City.

    1879(1st of Nisan, 5639): Rosh Chodesh Nisan

    1880: In an article explaining the origins of Easter Eggs, the New York Times reports that “the old Jews introduced eggs at the feast of Passover…”

    1880: Miss Emita Wolf and Mr. Lewis May were married this evening at the home of Mr. Charles Wolf, the prominent New York banker who is the brother of the bride. The groom is President of Temple Emanu-El and “the head of a large banking house at No. 33 Broad Street in New York City.

    1881: Among the winners of the Grave Prize Essays at Williams College was Austin B. Bassett of Albany, NY who wrote on “Ancient and Modern Jew.”

    1882: A fire broke out at nine o’clock tonight at a tenement house located at 159 Attorney Street in New York destroying a supply of Matzah which a baker named Louis Schoenthal had stored on the building’s first floor. Schoenthal claims that the Matzah which he had prepared for the upcoming holiday of Passover was worth $6,000. Fortunately, he has insurance which should cover the loss.


    1883(16th of Adar II, 5643): Shushan Purim observed since the 15th of Adar fell on Shabbat.

    1883(16th of Adar II): Rabbi Simeon Sofer of Galicia, founder of Mahazikei  ha-Dat passed away

    1888: In New York, Mrs. Mary Isaacs, the mother of six, was the first of over eight hundred poor Jews who received meat orders courtesy of funds raised by Mrs. M. Rosendorff. This was part of an annual project to provide food for the city’s poor Jews so that they can celebrate Passover.

    1890: Zadoc Kahn was inducted as Chief Rabbi of France, a position to which he had been elected in 1899 following the death of Chief Rabbi Isidor. Kahn “then entered upon a period of many-sided philanthropic activity. He organized the relief movement in behalf of the Jews expelled from Russia, and gave much of his time to the work of the Alliance Israélite Universelle, which elected him honorary president in recognition of his services. He aided in establishing many private charitable institutions, including the Refuge du Plessis-Piquet, near Paris, an agricultural school for abandoned children, and the Maison de Retraite at Neuilly-sur-Seine, for young girls. He was appointed Chevalier of the Legion of Honor in 1879 and Officer in 1901. He was also Officer of Public Instruction. He was one of the founders, the first vice-president, and, soon after, president, of the Société des Études Juives (1879). He was considered a brilliant orator, and one of his most noteworthy addresses was delivered on the centenary of the French Revolution — "La Révolution Française et le Judaïsme".

    1891: T. H. French and Frank Daniels have purchased tickets so that all of the children attending the Industrial School supported by the United Hebrew Charities can attend this afternoon’s performance of “Little Puck” at the Grand Opera House. (Frank Daniels was a stage actor who would pursue a film career in the early days of cinema.  He was not Jewish – just generous)

    1891: In the Court of Common Pleas, Joseph Abrahamson, a wealthy young Jew, changed his his name to Joseph Abraham Edison.

    1893: “Russian Hatred of Jews” published today described yet another manifestation of anti-Semitism in the Czar’s Empire where “grain speculators and merchants” are forming “a new produce exchange from which Jews will be excluded.”

    1894: As the United States copes with an economic depression, the Finance Committee of the 6-15-99 Club, a businessmen’s funded relief organization allocated $1,600 to various charities including $100 to the United Hebrew Charities.

    1896(14thof Adar, II, 5746): Purim

    1896: The Monte Relief Society which was started by former opera star Sofia Nueberger who is now known as Sofia Monte Loebinger and 16 women in 1893 now has 350 members. Mrs. Monte-Loebinger continues to serve as Prsident.  Other officers including Louise Simon – Vice President; Mollie Teschner  Recording Secretary; Emma Marx – Financial Secretary; Carrie Heyman – Treasurer.

    1898: “Vaudeville for Poor Children” published today described a vaudeville show performed by members of the Ladies’ Auxiliary of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society for the benefit youngsters under the care of the society and the Montefiore Home.

    1899 (14th of Nisan, 5659): This evening, as Jews begin the observance of Pesach, services are held at New York’s Temple Emanu-El conducted by Rabbi Joseph Silverman and Dr. Gustav Gottheil with Mr. Sparger serving as Cantor.

    1899: “The Hebrew Passover At Hand” published today described the observance of the holiday that “s the anniversary of the going of the Children of Israel out of Egypt and their freedom from bondage under Pharaoh.” “During the feast no leaven is eaten” but “with the more radical Jews the feast is not now closely observed and the unleavened bread is not eaten, but a quantity is kept at the table…”

    1901: Birthdate of British anthropologist Camillia Wedgwood, the daughter of Josiah Wegwood, the British leader who spoke out against appeasement and supported the settlement of Jews in Palestine in opposition to the White Paper.  “From 1937 she was secretary of the German Emergency Fellowship Committee, which included Max Lemberg and Sydney Morris. She pleaded the cause of Jewish and non-Aryan Christian victims of Nazi persecution before (Sir) John McEwen, minister for the interior. In close contact with her father, she raised money for refugee passages to Australia, but confided to her sister Helen that she felt like 'a mouse nibbling at a mountain'. She publicly protested against the treatment of the internees in the Dunera and the refugees in the Strouma which sank in the Black Sea.” (As reported by David Wetherell)

    1902: Herzl is informed that the Sultan studied his plan. Herzl is asked what plans he has for the regulation of the Turkish debts under more favorable conditions than those submitted by the French.


    1903: Herzl met Lord Cromer and Boutros Ghali in Cairo. The Zionist Commission returned to Suez.

    1903: The Jewish quarter of Port Said, Egypt was invaded and looted by Arabs in consequence of an earlier ritual murder charge that took place on September 17, 1902.

    1904: Anatole Leroy Beaulieu visited Hebrew Union College.

    1905: The New York Times reviews “Volume 9,” the newest volume of The Jewish Encyclopedia to be published. Eventually there will be a total of 12 volumes. “Volume Nine” opens “with a record of the Marawezyk family of Polish scholars that flourished during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and closes with the Philippson family, a family of German authors and scientists, who rose to fame in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.”

    1907: The East Side Business Men’s Protective Business Association continued their annual distribution Matzoth and Matzah flour to the poor Jews

    1910(14thof Adar II, 5670): Purim

    1910: Birthdate of Benzion Mileikowsky, the native of Warsaw who gained fame as Benzion Netanyahu, a leading Jewish historian whose Benjamin became Prime Minister of Israel. (As reported by Douglas Martin)

    1911: Birthdate of Jack Ruby, the man who killed Lee Harvey Oswald.

    1911: The discovery of the mutilated body of Andrei Yishinsky, near Kiev, Russia, led to the infamous trial of Mendel Beilis on ritual-murder charges

    1911(25thof Adar, 5671): In New York City, 146 garment workers died in the Triangle Shirtwaist Company Fire. Many of the victims were young immigrant Jewish girls working in the sweatshop environment of the garment industry. The first helped spur the formation of the International Ladies Garment Workers Union. Approximately 500 workers were sewing shirtwaists in the Triangle Shirtwaist Company's sweatshop near Washington Square in Manhattan when a fire broke out. The building lacked adequate fire escapes, firefighting equipment was unable to reach the top floors, and — most tragically — exit doors had been locked to prevent unauthorized breaks. Some women, unable to reach an exit, jumped from ninth- and tenth-floor windows in a vain effort to save themselves. The fire did its work within twenty minutes. In the end, 146 died and many more were injured. Most of the dead were recent immigrant Jewish and Italian women between the ages of sixteen and twenty-three. Just two years before, the Jewish owners of the Triangle Shirtwaist Company had been among the targets of the strike known as the uprising of the 20,000, which had sought union recognition through the International Ladies Garment Workers Union (ILGWU). Though the strike had forced some firms to settle with their workers, Triangle had fired union members there and remained an anti-union shop. In the wake of the fire, the Jewish community and leading women in the labor movement sprang into action. The Women's Trade Union League (WTUL), a cross-class coalition that worked as an ally of the ILGWU, organized a public meeting at the Metropolitan Opera House on April 2. There, Rose Schneiderman, the leader of the 1909 strike, called upon all working people to take action. Three days later, 500,000 people turned out for the funerals of seven unidentified victims of the fire. Under pressure from the ILGWU, the WTUL, and others, New York State established a Committee on Safety in the wake of the fire. In addition, the state legislature set up a Factory Investigating Committee, which drafted new legislation designed to protect workers. Their recommendations included automatic sprinkler systems and occupancy limits tied to the dimensions of exit staircases. Thirty-six labor and safety laws were passed in the three years after the fire, thanks to the agitation of working people.

    Even as these regulations went into effect, the site of the Triangle fire remained a rallying point for labor organizing. Some survivors, galvanized by their experience, went on to lifetimes of labor activism. Frances Perkins, who witnessed the fire, later became Secretary of Labor under Franklin Roosevelt. She said that the Triangle Fire was what motivated her to devote her career to helping workers. The last survivor of the fire, Rose Rosenfeld Freedman, died in 2001 at age 107.

    1911: Louis Waldman was a shocked member of the crowd on the street that witnessed the catastrophic Triangle Waist Company fire of 1911, an event which clearly always remained with him and served as one of the landmarks of his life. Waldman described the grim scene in his 1944 memoirs:

    "One Saturday afternoon in March of that year — March 25, to be precise — I was sitting at one of the reading tables in the old Astor Library... It was a raw, unpleasant day and the comfortable reading room seemed a delightful place to spend the remaining few hours until the library closed. I was deeply engrossed in my book when I became aware of fire engines racing past the building. By this time I was sufficiently Americanized to be fascinated by the sound of fire engines. Along with several others in the library, I ran out to see what was happening, and followed crowds of people to the scene of the fire.

    "A few blocks away, the Asch Building at the corner of Washington Place and Greene Street was ablaze. When we arrived at the scene, the police had thrown up a cordon around the area and the firemen were helplessly fighting the blaze. The eighth, ninth, and tenth stories of the building were now an enormous roaring cornice of flames."Word had spread through the East Side, by some magic of terror, that the plant of the Triangle Waist Company was on fire and that several hundred workers were trapped. Horrified and helpless, the crowds — I among them — looked up at the burning building, saw girl after girl appear at the reddened windows, pause for a terrified moment, and then leap to the pavement below, to land as mangled, bloody pulp. This went on for what seemed a ghastly eternity. Occasionally a girl who had hesitated too long was licked by pursuing flames and, screaming with clothing and hair ablaze, plunged like a living torch to the street. Life nets held by the firemen were torn by the impact of the falling bodies.

    "The emotions of the crowd were indescribable. Women were hysterical, scores fainted; men wept as, in paroxysms of frenzy, they hurled themselves against the police lines."

    1911(25thof Adar, 5671): Seventeen year old Tillie Kuperschmidt died in the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire. Along with many others, her tombstone is still standing at the Hebrew Free Burial Association's Mount Richmond Cemetery.

    1915: Professor H.L. Sabsovich, the General Agent of the Baron De Hirsch Fund and the First Mayor of the Jewish Colony at Woodbine, is scheduled to be buried today at Woodbine, NJ.

    1915: In Camden, NJ, Rabbis Brenner and Friedman of Philadelphia, PA officiated at the dedication of a new synagogue at 419 Arch Street.  The officers of this reform congregation included Barnard Levin, President; Jacob Tarter, Vice President; Louis Levin, Secretary and Max Greenberg, Treasurer.

    1915: As The Great War rages across Europe, Albert Einstein wrote from Berlin to the French writer and pacifist, Romain Rolland “When posterity recounts the achievements of Europe, shall we let men say that three centuries of painstaking cultural effort carried us no farther than from religious fanaticism to the insanity of nationalism? In both camps today even scholars behave as though eight months ago they suddenly lost their heads.”

    1915: As the Gallipoli Campaign gave rise to all kinds of flights of political fancy, “The British Colonial Secretary, Lewis Harcourt, sent the members of the War Council a memorandum headed ‘The Spoils’ in which he suggested that, on the defeat of Turkey, Britain…should offer the Holy Places (in Palestine) as mandate to the United States” (How different History might have been had the United States been an active participant in the settling of the Jewish homeland immediately after WW I.)

    1915: The largest segment of the civilian population of Prezemysl which has just been occupied by the Russians was composed of a few thousand Jews who had remained after the general evacuation of the town last October.

    1915: It was reported today that Europeans, Ottomans and the Jews are fleeing the Turkish capital because of fear of the Russians

    1918: Lucien Millevoye the French right-wing anti-Semitic politician who delivered numerous public attacks on Dreyfus during the 1890’s passed away today in Paris.

    1918: Birthdate of sportscaster Howard Cosell. While many think of Cosell as being the quintessential loudmouth New Yorker, he was actually born in Winston Salem, North Carolina.

    1919: The Committee of Jewish Delegations is formed during the Peace Conference at Versailles

    1921: Arab demonstrations begin in Haifa protesting Jewish immigration. Following police action designed to break up the gatherings, anti-Jewish riots broke out “during which ten Jews and five policeman were injured” by the rioters.

    1923: Sir Herbert Samuel, High Commissioner of Palestine denied the demands of the Arab Excuitve

    Sir Herbert Samuel, High Commissioner of Palestine,that those arrested in the demonstration of March 14th to celebrate the success of the Arab boycott of the Legislative Council elections be released and that the Jerusalem chief of police be placed on trial for causing their arrest.” (As reported by JTA)

    1923: Birthdate of Murray Klein, the driving force behind making Zabar’s Delicatessen into a New York institution.

    1925: On a visit to Palestine, Lord Balfour of Balfour Declaration Fame, who is still a supporter of the Zionist cause, drives from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem stopping to visit with Jewish settlers and Arab Sheiks, “who told him they lived quite happily in proximity with their Jewish neighbors.”

    1925: Dr. David de Sola Pool, rabbi of the Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue addressed a dinner of the Jewish Education Association at the Hotel Astor in New York City. He strongly supported the need “for Jewish religious education entirely free from the public schools. He voiced his support for the public schools remaining non-sectarian while calling for an improvement in the quality of Jewish education which will ensure the teaching of Jewish values, culture and character.

    1925: In a speech delivered at the City College of New York, Rabbi Stephen Wise called on Jews all over the world to contribute to the support of the newly created Hebrew University which will officially be inaugurated on April 1.

    1929: Montefiore Hospital for Chronic Diseases decided today to seek a fund of $1,200,000 to provide more modern facilities for wheel chair custodial cases. S.R. Guggenheim donates $50,000 and intends to given a similar sum when an additional $1,150,000 has been raised from other sources.

    1930: George J. Feldman, of Boston, for a number of years secretary to Senator David I. Walsh, of Massachusetts, has resigned to accept appointment as special attorney of the Federal Trade Commission, with the New York office of the Commission. (As reported by JTA)

    1934: Birthdate of feminist writer and activist Gloria Steinem creator of Ms Magazine. Born into a dysfunctional family in Toledo, Ohio, she loved to watch Shirley Temple movies, hoping to be rescued miraculously from poverty, just like the little girl on the screen. Her first book, Outrageous Acts and Everyday Rebellions (1983), wasn't published until she was almost fifty. Steinem said, "A woman without a man is like a fish without a bicycle."

    1934: Birthdate of Rabbi Berel Wein There is no way to do justice to this eminent, literate, Jewish scholar. For those interested in finding out more about him, you might begin at

    1935: Reynaldo Hahn's three act French opera “Le marchand de Venise” based on “The Merchant of Venice” was first performed at the Paris Opéra,

    1936: In the U.S. premiere of “Ever of “Everybody’s Woman,” the only Italian film directed by Max Ophuls.

    1937: The Palestine Post reported that Petah Tikva had become Palestine’s second purely Jewish town and had been granted municipal status. The newly formed municipal council was to consist of 15 councilors, of whom one was to be mayor and another deputy mayor.

    1937: The Palestine Post reported that Mr. Ormsby-Gore, the Colonial Secretary, told the House of Commons that many arrests had been made in Northern Palestine, but the security situation in the South was better. Meanwhile Rehovot police fought a short battle with Negev Bedouin, searched their encampments and made some arrests.

    1938: In Poland, after several attempts, the Seym outlawed the ritual slaughter of meat. The bill was never enforced because the Seym dissolved in September during the Czech crisis.

    1940: Birthdate of Susan Fromberg who became famous as Susan Fromberg Schaeffer, a novelist with a gift for evoking complex characters in the grip of extreme psychological stress and physical suffering, notably in “The Madness of a Seduced Woman” and the Vietnam War novel “Buffalo Afternoon.” (As reported by William Grimes)

    1941(27th of Adar, 5701): Dr. Froim Ephym Syrkin, the brother of the Zionist leader Nachum Syrkin (of blessed memory) passed away today at the age of 52. For the last five years, Dr. Syrkin has been serving as the superintendent of Beth Moses Hospital in Brooklyn. Born in Russia in 1889, Dr. Syrkin served with the Russian Army Medical Corps during World War I before starting a medical practice in post-war Warsaw where he also served as regional director for the American Joint Distribution Committee. Syrkin came to the United States in 1920 and worked at the Beth Abraham Home and Hospital for Incurables in the Bronx and the Bronxwood Sanitarium before going to work for Beth Moses in 1936. Syrkin was a bachelor who was survived by his mother and three sisters, two of whom are doctors.

    1942: The government of the Slovak Republic began to deport its Jewish citizens today. The Slovak Republic was one of the countries to agree to deport its Jews as part of the Nazi Final Solution. Originally, the Slovak government tried to make a deal with Germany in October 1941 to deport its Jews as a substitute for providing Slovak workers to help the war effort. After the Wannsee Conference, the Germans agreed to the Slovak proposal, and a deal was reached where the Slovak Republic would pay for each Jew deported, and, in return, Germany promised that the Jews would never return to the republic. The initial terms were for "20,000 young, strong Jews", but the Slovak government quickly agreed to a German proposal to deport the entire population for "evacuation to territories in the east". The willing deportation was only the latest in a series of anti-Semitic actions taken by the government. Soon after gaining its “independence,” the Slovak Republic began a series of measures aimed against the Jews in the country. The Hlinka's Guard began to attack Jews, and the "Jewish Code" was passed in September 1941. Resembling the Nuremberg Laws, the Code required that Jews wear a yellow armband, banned intermarriage and denied Jews the opportunity to hold a variety of jobs.

    1942: Seven hundred Jews from Polish Lvov-district reached Belzec Concentration camp

    1942: The second wave of deportations of the Jews of Laupheim took placed today when “a large number of them were transported to Poland.”

    1942: Lazar Kaganovich completed his second term as People’s Commissar for Transport.

    1943: Birthdate of William H. Ginsburg, the Philadelphia born California lawyer best known for representing Monica Lewinsky.

    1943: A second group of Macedonian Jews who had been imprisoned in tobacco warehouses in Skopje was shipped to the Treblinka Death Camp.

    1943: In a surprise move, 97% of all Dutch physicians went on strike against Nazi registration

    1943: One thousand Jews are deported from Marseilles, France, to the Sobibór death camp.

    1943(18th of Adar II, 5703): The Jewish community from Zólkiew, Poland, was marched to the Borek Forest and executed. [Ed. Note – Who says Kaddish for these people?]

    1943: An anonymous letter written by a non-Jewish German citizen, critical of Nazi ghetto-liquidation techniques, was forwarded to Hitler's Chancellery. There is no record of the author’s name or his/or her fate.

    1944: In the Ukraine, the Ghetto at Bar was liberated.

    1944: After weeks of political wrangling and German invasion, official word came that Hungary was ready to deal with its Jewish "problem".

    1944: In response to last night’s attacks by members of the Stern Gang, the government imposed a curfew on the Jewish sections of Jerusalem, Tel Aviv and Hadar Hacarmel in Haifa.

    1945: After 87 performances, the two-act musical composed by Arthur Gershwin “A Lad y Says Yes” closed at the Broadhurst Theatre.

    1946: The Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry heard testimony from twelve witnesses today in Jerusalem. Among those testifying were Golda Meyerson representing the General Federation of Jewish Labor in Palestine, Sami Taha representing the Arab Worker’s Society who “called Zionism a trick of British Imperialism” and E.A. Ghory who “said that Palestine Arabs were supported against Zionism by the entire Moslem world.”

    1946: “A shipload of illegal immigrant arrived” off the coast of Tel Aviv tonight. Several of the immigrants evaded capture by the British and reportedly “found shelter” in the homes of Jews living in Tel Aviv.

    1946: In the first outbreak of its kind since the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry arrived in Palestine, unidentified attackers stuck the Saronoa police camp.

    1947: Meir Feinstein, a British army veteran, Daniel Azulai, Massoud Bouton and Moshe Horowitz appeared before a three man military tribunal to answer charges that they were responsible for the bombing of a Jerusalem railway station last October resulting in the death of a British constable. The quartet will face the death penalty if they are found guilty

    1947: A bank in Tel Aviv was robbed today in broad daylight by a gang believed to belong to the Irgun.

    1947: In what appears to be another example of an on-going conflict among Arabs over the sale of land to Jews, gunmen attacked the home of Fakhri Eddine, a prominent Arab living in Beisan, seriously wounding five men and a girl.

    1948: Birthdate of Eliezer Kalina who lost his leg during the Yom Kippur War and went on to be a Gold Medal Winning Paralympic Champion.

    1948(14thof Adar II, 5708): Purim

    1949: The Scientific and Cultural Conference for World Peace arranged by a CPUSA front organization and sponsored by Herbert Aptheker opened today in New York City.

    1950: The United States, Great Britain and France issue a joint declaration promising to “take action against any aggression “designed to alter the frontiers in the Middle East.

    1952: The Jerusalem Post reported from The Hague that the Israeli delegation to the reparations talks feared that there was little hope of attaining early substantial grants and had asked for a detailed clarification of the opening statements made by the West German delegation. The atmosphere at the talks continued to be formal. In Israel the police and Histadrut pickets stood by while Herut was making final preparations for a huge mass demonstration against German reparations.


    1952: The Jerusalem Post reported that three Arab infiltrators were killed in the Sharon; a fourth escaped

    1953: Dedication of a new road leading to Sodom, Israel

    1957(22nd of Adar II, 5717): Max Ophuls passed away.

    1958: In Los Angeles, CA, Barbara and Anthony H. Pascall gave birth to American movie executive Amy Pascal.\

    1960: The head of the Jewish Labor Committee called on the State Department and other Federal agencies today to cease what he termed discrimination against potential employees of the Jewish faith.

    1963: At a surprise meeting with David Ben Gurion, Meir Amit was ordered to take over Mossad following the resignation of Isser Harel ("Little Isser"). Amit was forced to double as the director of military intelligence and head of Mossad. (As reported by the Telegraph of London)

    1965: Birthdate of actress Sarah Jessica Parker

    1965: The Bundestag voted to extend the statutory deadline on war crimes prosecutions.

    1974: Barbra Streisand recorded the album "Butterfly"

    1975: King Faisal of Saudi Arabia was shot at point-blank range and killed by his half-brother's son, Faisal bin Musa'id, who had just come back from the United States. It is a commonly-held, but so far unsubstantiated popular belief in Saudi Arabia and the Arab and Muslim world that Faisal's oil boycott was the real cause of his assassination, via a Western conspiracy. [For once Israel and the Jews were not blamed for something gone wrong in the Middle East. The event is a yet another reminder that Israeli is not the cause of murder and mayhem in that part of the world as the anti-Semites would have us believe.]

    1977: The Jerusalem Post reported that port workers returned slowly to work under Labor Court orders. But the workers of the Land Registry went on a wildcat strike unauthorized by the Histadrut.

    1977: The Jerusalem Post reported that a terrorist cell of 16 members, preparing a car bomb, was caught at Jenin. A number of dentists were put on trial for income tax evasion.

    1977: The Jerusalem Post reported Israeli scientists concluded that some of the trees of the Gethsemane area in Jerusalem were at least 1,600 years old.

    1978: During Operation Litani, the PLO ordered a ceasefire in its fight with the IDF.

    1979: Six year old Etan Patz, a Jewish child living in Manhattan, disappeared as he walked to the bus stop for the first time by himself.

    1981(19th of Adar II, 5741): Seventy-two year old Uriel Shelach, the Israeli poet who wrote under the pen name of Yonatan Ratosh passed away today.

    1981(19th of Adar II, 5741): Ninety-year old chess champion Edward Lasker passed away today. (As reported by Thomas W. Ennis)

    1982: Eighty-three year old Goodman Ace (born Goodman Aiskowitz) known as “Goody” the husband of Jane Ace an the creator of “Easy Aces” passed away today.

    1982: Rabbi Ronald Sobel officiated at the wedding of Joan Treble Sutton, a columnist for the Toronto Sun and Oscar S. Straus, a former career Foreign Service officer and the grandson of Oscar Straus who served under President Teddy Roosevelt, in his study at Temple Emanu-El

    1984: “Glengarry Glenn Ross,” a Pulitzer Prize winning play written by David Mamet, opened today on Broadway.

    1986: The ILGU will host a ceremony marking the 75th anniversary of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory.

    1986: The U.S. Supreme Court rules in Goldman v. Weinberg a “case in which a Jewish Air Forceofficer was denied the right to wear a yarmulke when in uniform on the grounds that the Free Exercise Clause applies less strictly to the military than to ordinary citizens.”



    1991: At a meeting with prominent Jews President Lech Walesa of Poland repeatedly made explicit statements denouncing anti-Semitism and vowed to fight bigotry in his country.

    1992(20thof Adar II, 5752): Seventy-nine year old Max I. Dimont, the native of Helsinki  who enjoyed a 35 year career in public relations with Edison Brothers and is best remembered for writing several books on the history of the Jews the best known of which was Jews, God and History, passed away today.

    1998(27thof Adar, 5758): Fifty-one year old Congressman Steve Schiff passed away.

    1998: U.S. premiere of “A Price Above Rubies,” directed and written by Boaz Yakin

    1999: Raik Haj Yahia, Amir Peretz and Adisu Massala broke away from the Labor Party to form One Nation.

    2001(1stof Nisan, 5761): Rosh Chodesh Nisan

    2001(1stof Nisan, 5761): Ninety-one year old “Canadian businessman and philanthropist” Jack Diamond passed away today.

    2001: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or special interest to Jewish readers including Perfection Salad: Women and Cooking at the Turn of the Century by Laura Shapiro and Faithless: Tales of Transgression by Joyce Carol Oates.

    2001: Dick Schapp is honored by The National Jewish Sports Hall of Fame and Museum.

    2003(21st of Adar II, 5763): Eighty-nine year old Eddie Jaffe, a legendary New York press agent, passed away today. (As reported by Ralph Blumenthal)

    2004: The Times of London reports that the chairman of Signature Restaurants, which owns celebrity eateries in London such as The Ivy and Belgo, is backing plans by the Giraffe’s owners, Jewish business people Russel and Juliette Joffe, to double the size of the business to 16 sites over the next two to three years.

    2005(14thof Adar II, 5765): Purim

    2006: Shabbat Hachodesh.

    2007: “International Jewish Artists of the Year Awards” begins at Christies Auctions House, in London, England (UK).

    2007: The YIVO Institute for Jewish Research is holding an academic symposium in commemoration of the fortieth anniversary of the death of Uriel Weinreich, an exploration of the legacy of this premier scholar of Yiddish linguistics in America.

    2008: The 92nd Street Y presents “The Secret U.S.-German Collaboration to End World War II” a lecture by Maria (Maki) Haberfeld and Sigrid MacRae who offer startling facts about the war with Hitler’s Germany and the way we might want to think about the resurgent anti-Semitism in Germany today. What were Roosevelt’s real responses to Hitler? How did the United States end up inadvertently strengthening the resistance of the Germans and the Swiss to a Holocaust?

    2008: Israeli artist Sigalit Landau opens a solo exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. 2008: Israel's UN ambassador, Dan Gillerman, slammed the "trend" of equating the "lawful actions" of a state defending its citizens with the "violence of terrorists," in a bitter exchange at the Security Council's monthly session on the Middle East.

     2008(18th of Adar II, 5768): Eighty-three year old Abby Mann, the American film writer and producer who wrote the screenplay for “Judgment at Nuremberg”, passed away, one day after Richard Widmark who starred in this epic died. (As reported by Douglas Martin)

    2009: At New Jersey’s Atlantic Cape Community College Janna Gur Israeli culinary delivers the second of four lectures on the cuisine of Israel and Tel Aviv in particular entitled “Celebrating the Food of Tel Aviv.”

    2009: The government of Israel hosts a public celebration marking the signing of the Israeli-Egyptian peace treaty 30 years ago.

    to bring people together. "I'm here to raise spirits," Younis said. "These are poor, old people."

    2010: The Annual Downtown Seder is scheduled to be celebrated tonight at the City Winery in New York.

    2010: The Jerusalem Municipality finance committee approved a plan for the construction of a new cinema complex in the Haleom parking lot opposite the Supreme Court, on condition that it closes during Shabbat, Israel Radio reported today.

    2010: “Monkey Business in a World of Evil” published today described the Curious George exhibition at the Jewish Museum.

    2011(19thof Adar II, 5771): Ninety-six year old “Irving J. Shulman, who founded the Daffy’s clothing store chain and brought discount fashion to Fifth Avenue through quirky marketing and a promise of “clothing bargains for millionaires,” passed away today. (As reported by Christine Hauser)

    2011(19thof Adar II, 5771): Eighty-one year old Thomas Eisner the “groundbreaking authority on insects whose research revealed the complex chemistry that they use to repel predators, attract mates and protect their young” passed away today. (As reported by Kenneth Chang)

    2011: “Last Folio” which has only been exhibited in Cambridge, England is scheduled for display at the Museum of Jewish Heritage in New York in 2011, starting today” a date which “marks the 68th anniversary of the first ever transport to Auschwitz — of young Jewish Slovak girls. As the first inmates there, they were responsible for establishing the routines that would keep them alive, and many became the dreaded and despised kapos, or prisoner-guards.”

    2011: In Albany, NY, The Reform Congregations of the Capital District are scheduled to begin the celebration of Founder Day’s.

    2011: A Netanya Conservative and Reform house of worship became the target of stone-throwing attacks during Shabbat evening prayers.

    2011(19th of Adar II, 5771): Ninety-one year old Dr. Thomas Eisner, “who cracked the chemistry of bugs” passed away today. (As reported by Kenneth Change)

    2011: The Jerusalem Marathon ended in some confusion as the three leading runners apparently took a wrong turn and arrived at the wrong finish line.

    2011: U.S. release date for “Peep World,” a comedy narrated by Lewis Black and co-starring Ron Rifkin, Ben Schwarts and Sarah Silverman among others.

    2012: “White Balance is scheduled to be shown tonight at the 16th Annual Hartford Jewish Film Festival.

    2012: As part of a month-long national conversation about Spinoza's impact and legacy, Theatre J in Washington, DC is scheduled to sponsor “Spinoza: A University Debate.”

    2012: “The Radical Camera: New York’s Photo League, 1936–1951” which has been on display at The Jewish Museum New York is scheduled to close today.

    2013: The Wiener Library is scheduled to host Compliant or Confrontational?: The Protestant Church and the Holocaust,”  a program that “will examine the role of the Protestant Church during the Second World War and the impact and legacy of the Holocaust upon the Protestant Church in post-war Germany.

    2013(14thof Nisan, 5773): Fast of the First Born; Erev Pesach

    2013(14thof Nisan): On the Jewish calendar today marks the seventieth anniversary of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.   Erev of Pesach 5703 (April 19, 1943), the German forces began their final drive to liquidate the Warsaw Ghetto. When the SS entered the ghetto they were met with armed resistance.  Much to everybody’s surprises a handful of fighters armed with a few pistols, rifles and Molotov Cocktails inflicted casualties on the tank led German troops. At the end of the day, the Jewish “fighters felt that the day was theirs. They had taken on heavily armed and trained units and inflicted losses.  They could not win or even hold out, but they would die avenging the silenced dead.”  It would take the Germans more than a month to subdue the Jewish fighters.  When you consider that the French surrendered to the Germans after only six weeks of fighting, the valor of the Jewish men and women is even more impressive.  There are several sites that are calling attention to this anniversary including and

    For those of you who would like to add a reading to your Seder to mark the moment you might want to consider the one below.  It is an eyewitness description of what the fighters saw as they set up a new position in a rabbi’s apartment at 4 Kuzia Street on the night of the first Seder.

    The apartment was in a state of chaos [a youth observed]. Bed linens were spread all around, chairs were turned upside down, various household items were strewn on the floor, and all the window panes were smashed into little bits. During the daytime, while the members of the family had sought shelter in the bunker, the house had become a mess; only the table in the middle of the room stood: festive, as if a thing apart from the other furniture. The redness of the wine in the glasses which were on the table was a reminder of the blood of the Jews who had perished on the eve of the holiday. The Hagada was recited while in the background incessant bursts of bombing and shooting, one after the other, pounded throughout the night. The scarlet reflection from the burning houses nearby illuminated the faces of those around the table in the darkened room. When the rabbi reached the passage, "Shofoch Chamatcha" ["Pour out Your wrath on the nations who have not wished to know You"], he and his family broke down and cried bitterly. I had the feeling that it was the weeping of people condemned to death, people who, outwardly, had re- signed themselves to the idea of their deaths, yet were terrified when the moment neared. The rabbi lamented those who had not lived to celebrate this Seder.  From The Holocaust by Nora Levin


    2013: This evening, President Barak Obama is scheduled to host his annual White House Seder.

    2013: Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu announced today that he would resume the routine transfer of tax revenues collected for the Palestinian Authority, ending a freeze that began in December 2012 following the Palestinian bid for upgraded status at the UN in late November.

    2013:Two leaders that have been in the limelight this month sent their thoughts to world Jewry today, as both Pope Francis and US President Barack Obama wished their respective communities a happy Passover.

    2013(14th of Nisan, 5773): Eighty-five year old two-time Pulitzer Prize winning New York Times columnist Anthony Lewis of whom “Nicholas B. Lemann, the dean of Columbia University School of Journalism, said: "At a liberal moment in American history, he was one of the defining liberal voices” passed away today.

    2014: “Two Sided Story” is scheduled to be shown at the Northern Virginia Jewish Film Festival.

    2014: “The Rolling Stones confirmed today that they will perform in Tel Aviv on June 4 as part of their “14 On Fire” world tour.”

    2014(23rd of Adar II, 5774): Eighty-eight year old sculptor Mon Levinson passed away today.

    2014(23rd of Adar II, 5774): Seventy year old journalist Robert Slater passed away today.

    2014:A strike by Israeli diplomats over salaries has foiled preparations in Nepal for what coordinators say is the world’s biggest celebration of the Jewish Passover holiday, organizers announced today.”

    2014: “The Beginning” and “Among Believers” the opening episodes of “The Story of the Jews” with Simon Schama are scheduled to be shown this evening.

    2015: Sol Levinson & Bros. Funeral Home and Jewish Community Services are scheduled to present “The Empty Place at the Table: Coping with Loss During the Holidays.”

    2015: The Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington is scheduled to host a “Workshop: Help Make a Museum” as part of the planning process to create “a new regional Jewish museum.”

    2015: National Museum of American Jewish History is scheduled to host the “3rd Annual Freedom Seder Revisited.”

    2015: The Hadassah Book Club is scheduled to meet in Cedar Rapids, Iowa

    2015: Thomas Barton is scheduled to deliver a lecture on “The Battle Over Jews in Medieval Spain” in Coronado, CA.


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    March 26

    1027: Coronation of Conrad II as Holy Roman Emperor, whose court was the site of religious disputation between Bishop Wazon “the overlord of” Liege and an unnamed Jewish physician. (As reported by the Jewish Virtual Library) 

    1147: Jews of Cologne, Germany, fasted to commemorate anti-Jewish violence.

    1481: “Seventeen Marranos perished at the stake on the Quemadero (place of burning) in Seville, Spain.

    1671(15th of Nisan 5431): In Amsterdam, the Great Synagogue was consecrated on the first day of Pesach (Passover).

    1692(9th of Nissan, 5452): The Jewish community of Carpentras, France escaped from a rioting mob causing this date to be celebrated as a Private Purim

    1780: Birthdate of Isaac Elias Itzig, who as Julius Eduard Hitzig served Prussia as a civil servant before gaining fame as a German author.

    1796: Carel Asser was among those who signed a petition to the States General seeking the emancipation of the Dutch Jews.

    1801(12th of Nissan, 5561): Fast of the First Born observed since the 14th falls on Shabbat.

    1808: Sephardic Jewish leader and MP Ralph Bernal and his wife Ann Elizabeth gave birth to Ralph Bernal Osborne

    1831: Rabbi David de Aaron de Sola preached the first sermon in English at Bevis Marks Synagogue in London. Born in Amsterdam in 1796, de Sola was the son of Aaron de Sola. He began serving at Bevis Marks in 1818. A prolific author he published his first work, The Blessings, in 1829 followed by his six volume translation The Forms of Prayer According to the Custom of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews in 1836. De Sola was also a musician whose accomplishments included musical rendition of Adon Olam which is still used in both Sephardi and Ashkenazi synagogues in the United Kingdom. He passed away in 1860.

    1832: Birthdate of Michel Jules Alfred Bréal, the native of Bavria who became a leading French philologist and “is identified as the father of modern semantics.

    1840: Birthdate of George Smith, the Englishman who provided some of the first and most meaningful investigation into the civilization of ancient Mesopotamia, with an emphasis on Assyria. His work provided historic context for, and proof of, the ancient Israelites including his discovery in 1866 of the date when Jehu, king of Israel, made a tribute payment to Assyrian King Shalmaneser III

    1851: Birthdate of “German art historian”Julius Langbehn who attacked “Jews as corrupters of German culture” saying that they “no place in Germany” – a position that would later be part of the Nazi movement.

    1852: It was reported today that an Imperial Ukase has been issued in Russia that classifies Jews into two categories, “those who have a fixed residence and a trade and those who have neither. The latter are to be employed in the public mines and fortresses.”

    1852: In a sign of the crumbling power of the Sultan and the commensurate growth of European power, in Palestine, it was reported today that the Ottomans had agreed to grant France the right to build a church in a suburb of Bethlehem and to allow Catholic priests the right to repair their church in Jerusalem.

    1852: The congregation of Ohabei Shalom dedicated its own synagogue building on Warren Street, the first synagogue in Boston and the second in New England.

    1853: Birthdate of Hugo Rheinhold the Prussian born businessman turned sculptor whose most famous work maybe “Ape with Skull.”

    1855: Nahum Steiner, a Jew who converted to Christianity, delivered a speech at the Knickerbocker Hall in New York entitled “Our Present Christianity Compared With Primitive Discipleship or Judaism Again.” During his presentation he attempted to answer questions regarding the destiny of the United States when compared to Jewish History.

    1859: In Hildesheim, Hanover, Elise Wertheimer and Salomon Hurwritz gave birth to mathematician Adolf Hurwitz.



    1860: The U.S. House of Representatives adopted a resolution offered by Ohio Congressman Clement Vallandigham “calling for the correspondence relative to the Swiss Treaty” including the limitations that this treaty placed “upon Hebrew citizens of the United States.” This is the same Congressman Vallandgiham who would be labeled as a Copperhead during the Civil War. The issue of the discriminatory nature of the Swiss treaty as it affected the Jews was one of the first times that the civil society moved to protect its Jewish citizens.

    1861(15thof Nisan, 5621): Pesach

    1861(15th of Nisan, 5621): The New York Times reported that “The Jewish Passover, a festival commemorative of the deliverance of the children of Israel from Egyptian bondage, commenced last evening, and will continue for eight days. The origin of the festival is given in the 12th Chapter of Exodus, and the Bible prediction that it should be forever observed by the Israelites throughout the world, has this far been strikingly fulfilled. The duties imposed upon the Jews during the Passover are, total abstinence from all kinds of leaven and leavened bread attendance of the males at the Tabernacle, and cessation of business on the first two and last two days of the festival. On the evenings of the first two days, the reading of the Seder takes place in every Jewish family, the members, meanwhile, sitting round a table, on which are placed the bone of a lamb, representing the sacrifice of the "paschal lamb," and some bitter herbs, symbolical of the bitterness of the Egyptian bondage. After the reading of the Seder, the family chants a service reciting their bondage and deliverance. Previous to the Passover, every Jewish household undergoes a thorough renovation, corresponding to the house-cleaning process customary among Christians.”

    1862(20th of Adar II, 5622): Uriah Phillips Levy, Commodore of the United States Navy, passed away in Philadelphia. Levy was a descendant of the original 23 Jews who settled in New Amsterdam in 1654. He was buried in the Cypress Hill Cemetery in the Congregation Shearith Israel portion. On his stone was written, "He was the father of the law for the abolition of the barbarous practice of corporal punishment in the United States Navy."

    1863: According to a report published today, during the month of February, there 7 Jewish children staying at the Howard Mission and Home for Little Wanderers in New York City.

    1868: The Orphans' Guardians or Familien Waisen Erziehungs Verein was organized in Philadelphia “chiefly through the efforts of R. Samuel Hirsch of the Congregation Keneseth Israel. Instead of keeping the children together in one institution, this society endeavored to find homes for them among respectable Jewish families.

    1869(14th of Nisan, 5629): Erev Pesach

    1870: Birthdate of Isaac Elias Itzig as Julius Eduard Hitzig worked as a civil servant and author in Germany.

    1871:Leó Frankel “was elected as a member of the Paris Commune.”

    1872: In New York, Hirsh Bernstein came to the D.A.’s office where he posted bail after having been indicted on charges of libeling Rabbi Ahrenson. The dispute revolves around a dispute about the sale of wine which may or not be considered “kosher.”

    1875: In Danzig,Moritz Abraham and Selma Moritzsohn gave birth to German physicist, Max Abraham

    1875: E.G. Holland delivered his lecture on “The Hebrew Race” this evening at a meeting of the Liberal Club in Plimpton Hall.

    1876(1st of Nisan, 5636): Rosh Chodesh Nisan

    1880(14th of Nissan, 5640): Ta’anit Bechorot

    1882(6thof Nisan, 5642): Seventy-nine year old German born dramatist Leopold Feldman passed away today in Vienna.

    1888(14th of Nisan, 5648): The New York Timesreported that “the Jewish feast of Pesach, or the Passover, will begin at sunset this evening, and continue for eight days. This feast was ordained to commemorate the departure of the Children of Israel from Egypt, under the leadership of Moses after they had been held in bondage for upward of 400 years…There is a peculiar observance connected with the first evening of the festival on which occasion the head of the household gathers about him at the table all the members of the family, including servants if they be Hebrews, and with ancient rites and ceremonies he recounts the story of the deliverance of his forefathers from the bondage under which they had been held by the Egyptian Pharaohs for so many years.”


    1891: It was reported today that Joseph Abrahamson had changed his name to Joseph Abraham Edson because he was getting ready to marry a young Christian girl “and that both…were desirous that his surname should have every semblance of a Jewish named removed.”

    1892: The Brooklyn Chess Club is scheduled to host Willliam Steinitz, the Prague born Jewish chess champion.

    1892: The Oratorio Society presented the Biblical opera “Samson and Delilah” under the direction of Walter Damrosch the German born conductor whose paternal grandfather was Jewish.

    1893: Arthur Reichow of New York notified Louis Hahn that a check for $800 would be sent to him to meet the needs of the Jews living in Chesterfield, Connecticut.

    1893: The Central Union of German Citizens of the Jewish Faith was organized today

    1893: “Suffers in Russia” published today described the worsening conditions of the Jews living in the Pale.  They cannot find work in the Pale and the government will not allow them to leave the Pale to find jobs.  Only the charity of English Jews has prevented a larger number of deaths.  The Minister of the Interior is waiting for a report from the Governor of the Pale on the possibility of further Jewish immigration.  (This is further evident of the infamous 1/3, 1/3, 1/3 Policy of the Czarist governments)

    1893: Members of the Fourth Avenue Presbyterian Church in New York heard a presentation by Reverand Hermann Warazawiak on the origins, customs and practices of Passover. Warazawiak spoke with an air of authority since he had been raised as an Orthodox Jew in Poland before converting in 1889.

    1894: “Of The Jews and Their State” published today provided a detailed review of The Jewish question and the Mission of the Jews, an anonymous work published by Harper & Brothers.

    1895: “Russia’s New Business Rules” published today described the additional restrictions placed on “Foreign commercial travelers of the Jewish persuasion” which do not apply to non-Jewish businessmen.

    1896(12th of Nisan, 5656): Fast of the First Born observed since the 14th of Nisan falls on Shabbat

    1896: The "Sion" society in Sofia adopts an enthusiastic resolution proclaiming Herzl as their leader.

    1896(12thof Nisan, 5656): Fifty-two year old Hungarian communist Leó Frankel passed away today in Paris.

    1896: Among the books on art sold by Bangs & Co in New York was The Gentile and the Jew, a two volume work by J.J. Dollinger published in London in 1862 that included 113 engravings by Bartolozzie which cost $10.

    1896: In “Persecution Under Nero” published today L.D. Burdick questions the reliability of the Roman historian Seutonius who incorrectly identified Chrestus, who had been crucified in Judea by Tiberius as the leader of rebellion by the Jews of Rome that took place later of who was a leader of the New Christians.

    1897: Birthdate of Polish-born, French movie director Jean Epstein

    1898: Isaac Blond went to the Barge Office to greet his wife Liebe and their four children who arrived today aboard the SS St. Paul but was told by authorities that he could not see them and that they would probably be sent back to Europe because “two of the children had a contagious disease and could not land.”

    1898: In Albany, New York, the Assembly passed a bill introduced by Senator Cantor that exempted the real estate of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association from assessments and water rates.

    1898: New York State Senator Jacob A. Cantor addressed a meeting organized by the Merchant’s Association of New York where he spoke against transferring the control of the canal system of the State to the Federal Government and in favor of a passage of the seven million dollar appropriation bill, known as the Cantor-Hill bill, which would preserve the states control over its canal properties which are estimated to exceed a hundred million dollars in value,

    1899(15th of Nisan, 5659): Last Pesach of the 19th century.

    1899: It was reported today that Ferdinand Blumenthal “recently described to the Academie des Sciences of Paris a process of making sugar from albumen which throw light on the obscure disease known as diabetes.”

    1899: The New York Times reported that “the Jewish Feast of the Passover began with sundown last evening. Services were held in all synagogues and also many private residences the festival will last one week, during which time services will be held daily.”

    1900(25th of Adar II, 5660): Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise passed away at the age of 80. The German born Wise is remembered as the father of Reform Judaism in the United States. He was instrumental in founding the three basic organization of the movement: Union of American Hebrew Congregations in 1873, Hebrew Union College in 1875 and the Central Conference of American Rabbis in1889.

    1902: Zalman Shapira and Rosa Krupnik gave birth to Israeli political leader Haim-Moshe Shapira

    1902: The Rumanian government prohibited Jews from engaging in handicrafts or trade.

    1902: “Mayor Low, Borough President Cantor and Jacob H. Schiff spoke” tonight” at the dedication exercises of the Luas A. Steinam School of Metal Working, at 225 East Ninth Street which has been erected for the Hebrew Technical Institute by Mr. and Mrs. Abraham Steinam in memory of their son Lucas.

    1904: Funk and Wagnalls published the sixth volume of the Jewish Encyclopedia, a compendium of knowledge that will eventually consist of twelve volumes. The volume includes articles ranging from “God” to “Istria.”

    1904: The New York Times featured a review of "The Seder Service" a new Haggadah by Lillie Goldsmith Cowen which was published by her husband Philip Cowen. This edition of the Haggadah contains the Hebrew text, a revised English translation and notes by Dr. Solomon Schechter, the President of the Jewish Theological Seminary. The Haggadah is decorated with reproduction of pages from older Haggadot some which were printed four hundred years ago.

    1905: Birthdate of Viktor E. Frankl, famed psychiatrist, Holocaust survivor and author of one of the greatest books ever written, Man’s Search For Meaning. What makes Frankl’s work and philosophy so powerful is that he took them with him into the camps and came out with his philosophy intact. There would be no better way to celebrate this centennial than read or re-read this slender tome. Viktor Frankl in his own words: “The best of us did not return.” “Life is like being at the dentist. You always think that the worst is still to come, and yet it is over already.” Quoting Nietzsche he wrote, “He who has a why to live for can bear with almost any how.” “Man, however is able to live and even to die for the sake of his ideals and values!” “Man needs something for the sake of which to live. The first goal of most people “was finding a purpose and meaning to their lives.” “Don’t aim at success – the more you aim at it and make it a target, the more you are going to miss it. For success, like happiness, cannot be pursued; it must ensue, and it only does so as the unintended side-effect of one’s personal dedication to a cause greater than oneself or as the by-product of one’s surrender to a person other than oneself. Happiness must happen, and the same holds for success; you have to let it happen by not caring about it…Success will follow you precisely because you had forgotten to think of it.”

    1907: Today marked the last day of this year’s distribution of free Matzoth and Matzah flour by the East Side Business Men’s Protective Business Association the poor Jews of the lower east side.

    1908: Birthdate of Samuel Bronshtein, the Bessarabian born nephew of Leon Trotsky who gained fame movie producer Samuel Bronston.

    1911: Birthdate of Sir Bernard Katz who shared in the 1970 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

    1911: In London, two actions are to be heard before Justice Darling in a libel suit "in which Baron de Forest, adopted son of the late Baron Hirsch and Lady Gerard are principals."

    1912: Osip Brik married Lila Kagan

    1913: Birthdate of mathematician Paul Erdos. “Never, mathematicians say, has there been an individual like Paul Erdös. He was one of the century's greatest mathematicians, who posed and solved thorny problems in number theory and other areas and founded the field of discrete mathematics, which is the foundation of computer science. He was also one of the most prolific mathematicians in history, with more than 1,500 papers to his name. And, his friends say, he was also one of the most unusual.” (I make no claim to understand anything about any of his work.

    1913: On the Lower East Side of Manhattan in New York City Nathan and Sophie Riesel gave birth to crusading journalist Victor Riesel.

    1914: The siege of Adrianople which had begun in October, 1913, came to an end. Both poor and middle class Jews were affected with three thousand seeking shelter in schools and 9,200 being left “completely helpless.”

    1915:  According to reports published today the Russian forces that have taken the town of Przemysl from the Austrians are calling up the “panic stricken Jews” who have fled the town to return and are reassuring the civilian population that remained, most of whom were Jews, that they have nothing to fear.



    1915: The Philadelphia Inquirer reported that the officers of Congregation Ahev Zedak in Camden, NJ were Bernard Levin, President; Jacob Tarter, Vice President; Louis Levin, Secretary and Max Greenberg, Treasurer.

    1915: Dr. Nathan Blaustein who delivered the infant of Mrs. Sadie Mager, a widow who died of a heart attack last December is now seeking a family to adopt the girl saying tonight “that the only thing he demanded was those who would adopt her would prove to him they were in a position to give her a good home and that they should be Jews.”

    1916: Birthdate of Christian Anfinsen winner of the 1972 Nobel Prize for Chemistry

    1916: In Johannesburg, Eva, née Kirkel and Israel Rabinowitz gave birth to composer and conductor Harry Rabinowitz whose most famous score may be the one he wrote for “Chariots of Fire.”

    1916: Birthdate of bandleader Vic Schoen. There is no evidence that Schoen was Jewish but he played a key role in the creation of the era of Yiddish Swing. Schoen was the bandleader whose featured singers were the Andrews Sisters. Lyricist Sammy Cahn gave the Yiddish song “Bei Mir Bist Du Schoen” English lyrics and turned it over to the singing sisters. Schoen had a notion of how to swing it. The Andrews Sisters' debut 78 rpm for the Decca label hit almost immediately. The era of Yiddish swing had begun.

    1916: Birthdate of Mort Abrahams. Abrahams gained famed as the producer of Dr. Doolittle and Planet of the Apes.

    1916: Organization of the American Jewish Congress

    1917: In World War I, British troops are halted after 17,000 Turks blocked their advance at the First Battle of Gaza. The setback would prove to be temporary and the British would later resume their drive to take Palestine from the Ottomans.

    1920: In Göttingen, Germany, mathematician Richard Courant and Nerina Runge Courant gave birth to American physicist Ernest Courant

    1920: Shabelsky-Bork, a “supporter” of the "Protocols of the Elders of Zion" tried to assassinate Pavel Milyukov (former leader of the Cadets, who fled Russia in 1918) at a meeting of Russian refugees. Instead, he killed Vladimir Nabokov and was sentenced to fourteen years in prison. After only staying in prison for a short time, he was released and befriended by Alfred Rosenberg, the "Nazi philosopher".

    1923(9th of Nisan, 5683): Actress Sarah Bernhardt passed away. She was born in Paris as Henriette Rosine Bernard, the eldest surviving illegitimate daughter of Judith van Hard, a Dutch Jewish courtesan known as "Youle."

    1925(1st of Nisan, 5685): Rosh Chodesh Nisan

    1925: Lord Balfour visited Rishon L”Zion where he said “he rejoiced at this opportunity to visit the oldest Jewish settlement in Palestine.

    1926: Birthdate of Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan

    1926: Premiere of “The Fiddler of Florence,” a German silent film directed and written by Paul Czinner.

    1929(14thof Adar II, 5689): Last Purim before the Great Depression

    1929: The dirigible Graf Zeppelin appeared over three cities in Palestine. At five in the afternoon it circled Jaffa where the large colony of German settlers waved flags of welcome. At six, the airship appeared over Tel Aviv where it became a welcome partner in the city’s Purim celebrations. As night descended the German craft circled Jerusalem for an hour before heading north towards Syria.

    1930 In London, Lord Melchett, Chaim Weizmann, Oscar Wasserman, Felix Warburg and Max Warburg will meet this afternoon in an “attempt to reach a settlement regarding the functions of the Administrative Committee and the Jewish Agency's Executive, the immediate raising of an internal loan of $5,000,000, and Lord Melchett's demand that before any larger colonization scheme be undertaken in Palestine, the 1,500 Chalutzim in Palestine for many years be settled on the land.” (As reported by JTA)

    1931: In Boston, MA, Dora (née Spinner) and Max Nimoy gave birth to Leonard Simon Nimony, Mr. Spock of Star Trek fame. Do you remember the hand gesture that went with the Vulcan credo - Live long and prosper? In case you missed it, it is the same gesture as that made by the High Priest when giving his benediction. And now you know why.

    1931: Arab leaders in Palestine urged Moslems not to participate in the celebration Maier Dizengoff’s seventieth birthday. Dizengooff is the Mayor of Tel Aviv.

    1934: Twenty-eight year old Nathan N. Rosen was officially installed as the Rabbi at Temple Petach Tikva in Brooklyn. (As reported by JTA)

    1934: Hitler agreed to a nationwide boycott of Jewish businessmen and professionals to be known as “Boycott Day” which would take place on April 1. The boycott is designed to last indefinitely or until the Jews have been completely eliminated from the German economy.

    1934: In Brooklyn Beatrice (Wortis) and David I. Arkin gave birth to actor Alan Arkin who has played a myriad of roles during his long career including the lead in the famed anti-establishment film “Catch-22.”

    1937: The Palestine Post reported that a Jewish Ghaffir (supernumerary policeman) was wounded, an Arab brigand killed and a number of Arabs taken prisoner during a battle with a terrorist gang which attacked Jewish settlers plowing their fields at the foot of Mount Tabor. Jewish settlers were assisted by police reinforcements which arrived from Afula and Nazareth.

    1940: Birthdate of James Langston Michael Caan. This son of refugees from Nazi Germany is known to American audiences as the movie and television actor James Caan

    1942(8thof Nisan, 5702): At Jungfernhof concentration camp, Rudolf Seck, the commander sent 1,840 to be “resettled” today which meant they were shot to death at the Bikernieki forest.

    1942(8thof Nisan, 5702): Fifty-nine year old Rabbi Joseph Hirsch Carlbach was murdered near Riga today.

    1942: Birthdate of Erica Jong, author of Fear of Flying

    1942: The first "Eichmann transport" began moving to the camps at Auschwitz and Birkenau

    1942: The first of 700 Jews from Polish Lvov-district reached the concentration camp at Belzec

    1942 The first Jewish transportation arrived at Auschwitz under the command of Rudolf Hoss, containing 1000 Jews from Slovakia and 1000 women from Ravensbruk. According to a conservative estimate from March 1942 until the liberation on January 27 1945 over 750,000 Jews were gassed within its gates. Hoss himself estimated it at 1,135,000

    1943: Wilfrid B. Israel, a German born Jew and ardent Zionist departed London for Lisbon. Once in Portugal he stayed in the Iberian Peninsula for two months, where he found over 1,500 stateless Jews in Spain. He issued 200 of them certificates to go live in Palestine, and did what he could to intervene on the other's behalf.

    1944: The twenty-third Beth El Ball was held this evening at the Walt Whitman Hotel in Camden, NJ. It was dedicated "to our fighting allies".

    1944: The New York Times includes a review of "Dangling Man" by Saul Bellow

    1945: General Patton sent 307 officers and men in tanks, half-tracks and support vehicles under the command of Captain Abraham J. Baum on a mission to liberate approximately 1,300 POWS being held at a camp near Hammelburg, Germany. The group of POWs included Patton’s son-in-law who had been captured during fighting in North Africa. In the words of historian Stanley Weintraub, “Nine GIs in Baum’s small column were killed and 31 others were wounded and captured – a hairy business for Baum as his dog tag identified him as Jewish.”

    1946(23rdof Adar II, 5706):“Phineas Horowitz, veteran Zionist leader, and vice-president of the British Zionist Federation, passed away today in London.” (As reported by JTA)

    1949: Birthdate of Helene Middleweek who as Valerie Hayman, Baroness Hayman, became the Lord Speaker of the House of Lords in the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

    1950: Lafayette College in Easton, PA announced that its round the world student tour this summer which is designed to increase their “intellectual, cultural and spiritual horizons” will include a stop in Tel Aviv.

    1950: It was reported today that the government of Israel is using the Israel Institute of Applied Social Research under the direction of Dr. Uriel G. Foa to deal with a variety of problems facing the infant Jewish state including assisting immigrants in adjusting to life in “their new homeland.”

    1951: Final broadcast of the ABC panel show “Can You Top This?” co-starring Harry Hershfield.

    1952: The Jerusalem Post reported that the anti-reparations demonstration in Tel Aviv, organized by the Herut political party, lasted two hours and passed off quietly after a week of general tension. At The Hague the Conference on Reparations started discussing the respective Jewish claims on Germany. The German delegation contested the Jewish claim for $500 million as "exaggerated," while the Jewish delegation claimed that the sum was "only a fraction" of the heirless property actually remaining in German hands.


    1952: The Jerusalem Post reported that The Knesset debated the final reading of the Nationality Bill and the principle of dual nationality, held by a number of Israeli citizens.

    1952: The Jerusalem Post reported that The Israeli-Jordanian Mixed Armistice Commission reaffirmed the Israel-Jordan demarcation line in the Kalkilya area. The line was marked by a deep ditch, dug by a tractor to prevent further infiltration and other incidents

    1956: In Sweden, premiere of “The Rose Tatoo” with a script adapted by Hal Kanter and directed by Daniel Mann.

    1960: Birthdate of actress Jennifer Gray, star of Dirty Dancing. She is the daughter of actor Joel Gray and the granddaughter of comedian and musician Mickey Katz.

    1960: Birthdate of Steve Feinberg the Princeton graduate who is the co-founder of Cerberus Capital Management.

    1961: Birthdate of Mitchell Simpson, who gained fame as Amanda Simpson.

    1964: Birthdate of comedian Todd Barry

    1964: "Funny Girl" with Barbra Streisand opens at Winter Garden Theater in New York City for the first of 1,348 performances

    1967(14thof Adar II, 5727): Purim

    1967(14th of Adar II, 5727): Joseph Jacobs, president and founder of Joseph Jacobs Organization, a merchandizing and advertising organization that specializes in the Jewish mark and “has been credited with being responsible for the wide currency of kosher symbols on food labels” passed away today at the age of 75. A 1911 graduate of City College, Mr. Jacobs taught school while doing graduate work at Columbia before going to work as an advertising salesman for the Daily Forward in 1919, the same year that he founded his own company. Mr. Jacobs’ most lasting contribution to American Jewry is the famous Maxwell House Hagaddah.

    1970: "Minnie's Boys" opened at the Imperial Theater. Minnie’s boys were better known as the Marx Brothers.

    1970: Seventy-seven year old artist Fritz Ascher passed away today.

    1971: NBC aired “Gideon,” a play by Paddy Chayefsky based on the Biblical Judge with Peter Ustinov in the title role.

    1971: Outbreak of the nine month long Bangladesh Liberation War. A Jewish military leader, Lieutenant General JFR (Jacob-Farj-Rafael) Jacob gained fame in his homeland when he headed the Indian armed forces that vanquished the Pakistani army in the war that broke out between the two countries over East Pakistan which after the war became the independent state of Bangladesh).

    1973: In East Lansing, Michigan Dr. Carl Page and Computer Professor Gloria Page, who was Jewish, gave birth to Lawrence “Larry” Page who along with Sergey Brin co-founded Google.

    1976: In Chicago, the Dearborn Station, which has been designed by Cyrus L.W. Eidlitz to the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) today.

    1979: Prime Minister Menachem Begin of Israel and President Anwar Sadat signed a peace treaty at the White House. This historic event ended three decades of fighting including three major wars. It took Sadat to break the “Gordian Knot” and come to Jerusalem. It took Begin to gamble that the Egyptians would keep their word and not turn the Sinai into a springboard for another war. And it took Carter's tenacity to keep the talks on track. All Arabs are not the same. Likud, right wingers, are willing to make peace. And American Presidents can provide the leverage for agreement. Critics say it has been a cold peace. But the border between the two has comparatively remained tranquil and the armed forces of the two nations have not clashed in a quarter of century. Hatikvah - hope.

    1984(22ndof Adar II, 5744): Seventy-one year old Bora Laskin passed away while serving as the 14th Chief Justice of the Supreme Court in Canada.

    1987: U.S. President Jimmy Carter visited Jerusalem. Former Prime Minister Begin who has been living in virtual seclusion for years declined Carter’s request for a meeting. Begin did visit with the President by phone.

    1991: David Wolfson who as knighted in 1984 was “created a life peer with the title Baron Wolfson of Sunningdale, of Trevose in the County of Cornwall” today.

    2000: U.S. President Bill Clinton meets with Syrian President Hafez Assad.

    2000: Pope John Paul II ended his trip to Israel by visiting the Western Wall and, in keeping with a centuries-old tradition left a message in one of its cracks.

    2000: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or special interest to Jewish readers including The Operator: David Geffen Builds, Buys, and Sells the New Hollywood by Tom King and The Genesis of Justice: Ten Stories of Biblical Injustice That Led to the Ten Commandments and Modern Lawby Alan M. Dershowitz

    2001: Dalia Rabin-Pelossof became the only member of New Way to remain in the Knesset when two other New Members resigned from the Israeli Parliament.

    2001(2ndof Nisan, 5761): Ten month old Shalevet Pass was murder this afternoon by a Palestinian sniper belong to the Tanzim terrorist group while sitting in his stroller.

    2002(12th of Nisan, 5762): Chaike Belchatowska Spiegel, one of the last surviving combatants of the 1943 Warsaw ghetto uprising against the Nazis, died in Montreal at the age of 81. She had been hospitalized for about two years, her family said. Probably no more than 10 other combatants from the uprising are still alive, said her son-in-law, Eugene Orenstein, who teaches modern Jewish history at McGill University in Montreal. In January 1943, Chaike Belchatowska joined the Jewish Fighting Organization, known by its Polish acronym ZOB, which had been formed the previous year to resist the deportation of Jews from the ghetto to the Treblinka extermination camp by the Nazi forces that had overrun Poland in 1939. On April 19, the first night of the Jewish feast of Passover on the secular calendar, a Nazi force, equipped with tanks and artillery and under the command of Col.Ferdinand von Sammern-Frankenegg, entered the ghetto to resume the deportations, which had been suspended in January after running into stiff resistance. This time the Nazis were repulsed from the ghetto altogether, suffering heavy losses at the hands of the ZOB and other resistance groups, all of them poorly armed with only a few smuggled guns, little ammunition and homemade gasoline bombs. Colonel Sammern-Frankenegg was relieved of his command and replaced by Gen. Jürgen Stroop, who attacked again. But the Nazi forces found themselves blocked once more by fierce Jewish resistance after several days of vicious street fighting. The Germans then changed tactics and, using flame throwers, began systematically burning down the houses of the ghetto. The ZOB headquarters fell on May 8, but sporadic resistance continued into June and July. Meanwhile, Ms. Belchatowska, together with her husband-to-be, Boruch Spiegel, the leader of a ZOB fighting unit, and some 50 other Jewish resistance fighters, managed to escape from the ghetto to the forests outside Warsaw; from there, they continued to harass the Germans until the end of the war. After the Germans were driven from Poland by Soviet troops, Ms. Belchatowska and Mr. Spiegel moved to Sweden, where they married and where their son Chil, or Julius, was born. In late 1948 they went to Montreal after failing to obtain a visa for the United States. Chaike Belchatowska Spiegel, who was often known in English as Helen, was born in Warsaw. Her parents separated shortly afterward, and she was raised by her mother, who was an active Jewish socialist. She inherited much of her mother's political philosophy, becoming a member of the Jewish Labor Bund, an organization founded in Czarist Russia to promote a brand of Marxist socialism that would provide cultural autonomy for Jews. After the first mass deportations from the Warsaw ghetto in the summer of 1942, she encouraged Jews to resist being moved by every means possible. She helped circulate a Yiddish-language paper warning that their real destination would be Treblinka and that the Nazis were lying when they encouraged volunteers by promising them more food and greater freedom. In November of that year, she herself was herded onto a train bound for Treblinka but managed to break out of a cattle car and escape back to the ghetto. After moving to Montreal, Mrs. Spiegel and her husband ran a business making purses and other leather goods. She is survived by her husband; their son, Julius, who is the Brooklyn parks commissioner, and their daughter, Mindy Spiegel of Montreal.

    2003: Rabbi Janet Marder was named president of the Reform Movement's Central Conference of American Rabbis. This meant that she had become the first woman to lead a major rabbinical organization.

    2005: Robert Iger reassigned Peter Murphy, the Disney’s chief strategic officer, and pledged to disband the company's strategic planning division. Iger also vowed to restore much of the decision-making authority that the division had assumed to the company's individual business units.

    2006: The Jerusalem Post reported that The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) strongly condemned the Mayor of London, Ken Livingstone, for remarks urging two leading Jewish property developers to "go back to Iran and try their luck with the ayatollahs, if they don't like the planning regime or my approach." The two property developers, brothers Simon and David Reuben, are of Iraqi Jewish origin and were born in India. Both are British citizens. Mr. Livingstone has refused calls for an apology. Instead, he stated: "I would offer a complete apology to the people of Iran to the suggestion that they may be linked in any way to the Reuben brothers. I wasn't meaning to be offensive to the people of Iran."

    2006: The New York Times featured a review of "My Father is a Book: A Memoir of Bernard Malamud" by Janna Malamud Smith.

    2008: In Jerusalem, The Bible Lands Museum English lecture series presents: "The Classical Islamic Attitude to Jerusalem," by Professor Moshe Sharon of Hebrew University

    2008: Haaretz reported that in a rare departure from government practice, Saudi Arabia's King Abdullah is planning to convene an interfaith conference for Muslims, Christians and Jews, according to the Saudi-owned Al-Sharq al-Awsat newspaper.

    2008: Two people were lightly wounded and nine were in shock after Palestinians fired a volley of Kassam rockets at Sderot. Six rockets were lobbed at Sderot, two of them landing inside the town.

    2008: The Israel Defense Forces captured a senior Hamas terrorist who helped mastermind the 2002 suicide bombing at a Passover Seder at Park Hotel in Netanya, in which 29 people were killed and nearly 150 others wounded. Omar Jabar, who headed Hamas' military wing in the West Bank city of Tul Karm, was among seven wanted Palestinians already detained by the IDF.

    2008: Students at Haifa University expressed their anger today after the university decided to schedule tests on the Holocaust Memorial Day, some during the siren that marks a moment of silence.

    2008:Double Sextet" a composition by Steve Reich was performed for the time in Richmond.

    2009: Israeli culinary writer Janna Gur gives a lecture on the Cuisine of Israel at the College of Technology in New York City accompanied by a cooking demonstration by students

    2009 (1st of Nisan 5769): Rosh Chodesh Nisan

    2010: Keren Ann Zeidel is scheduled to perform at The City Winery in New York City.

    2010: In Washington, D.C., Robyn Helzner, one of the leading interpreters of world Jewish music, and Cantor Larry Paul are scheduled to lead a Carlebach-inspired service at the Sixth & I Historic Synagogue.

    2010(11th of Nisan,5770): Major Eliraz Peretz 31, from Kiryat Arba, who was the deputy commander of the Golani battalion and Staff Sergeant Ilan Sviatkovsky, 21, from Rishon Letzion were killed during fighting on the Gaza border today. Peretz’s brother had been killed while fighting in Lebanon.

    2011: In Rockville, MD, Tikvat Israel Congregation is scheduled to sponsor an old fashioned Sock Hop.

    2011: “The Infidel” and “Vidal Sasoon: The Movie” are scheduled to be shown at the Westchester Jewish Film Festival.

    2011: “Berlin '36” is scheduled to be shown on opening night of the Hartford Jewish Film Festival.

    2011(20th of Adar II): Eighty-six year old “Stanley Bleifeld, a figurative sculptor whose bronzes adorn the National Baseball Hall of Fame, the Navy Memorial in Washington and museums including the Museum of the City of New York” passed away today.

    2011(20th of Adar II): Ninety-four year old internet pioneer Paul Baran passed away. (As reported by Katie Hafner)

    2012: The 16th Annual Hartford Jewish Film Festival is scheduled to host a “Book and Film” event commemorating the Kindertransport.

    2013(15thof Nisan, 5773): First Day of Pesach

    2013:: “At dawn this morning, a large group gathered on a mountain in the Negev desert to reenact the moments leading up to the Israelites exodus from Egypt.” (As reported by Andrew Esentein)

    2013:In the evening numerous congregations are scheduled to host community Seders including Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, Agudas Achim in Iowa City and Kol Ami in Arlington, VA

    2013: Bahrain’s lawmakers voted today to label the Lebanese militia Hezbollah a terrorist organization, the Lebanon-based news outlet Now Lebanon reported.

    2013: Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu’s telephone conversation with Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan was the start of the process of improving Israeli-Turkish ties, not the end of it, a government official said today.

    2014: In Fairfax, VA, Gesher Jewish Day School is scheduled to open its 6th annual Used Book Sale.

    2014: “Igor and the Cranes' Journey” is scheduled to be shown a the Northern Virginia Jewish Film Festival.

    2014: In Portland, the Oregon Jewish Museum is scheduled to host “Night of the Maggidim” when real life becomes a Chassidic Tale.

    2014: Bowing to pressure from Arab states UN Human Rights Council President Remigiusz Henczel rejected the candidacy of Georgetown Law lecturer Christina Cerna as the of UN special rapporteur on human rights in the Palestinian territories choosing instead Indonesian Makarim Wibisono, “an outspoken critic of Israel.” (As reported by Times of Israel)

    2014: The Israeli Navy fired on two Palestinian boats this morning and a third one tonight that were thought to be involved in smuggling operations between Egypt and Gaza.

    2015: Holocaust survivor Halina Peabody is scheduled to speak at the Unites States Holocaust Memorial Museum today as part of its “First Person Series.”

    2015: The Jewish Film Festival of Northern Virginia is scheduled to host a screening of “24 Days” which “offers a gripping and carefully-plotted thriller that tells the true story of the kidnapping of Ilan Halimi in a Paris suburb by The Gang of Barbarians, who expect a huge ransom as they assume that all Jews have money.”

    2015: In New York, Eléonore Biezunski is scheduled to deliver a lecture on Creating Songs in Boiberik: Singing Peace at "Felker Yontev" in which she “examines the structure of these pageants and how they continue to impact the music scene in Yiddish today.”



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    March 27

    538 BCE: Cyrus was crowned “King of Babylonia and King of All Lands.”  Cyrus was the King who made it possible for the Jews to return to Judea marking the end of the Babylonian exile.

    196 BCE: Ptolemy V ascends to the throne of Egypt. Ptolemy was one of the Graeco-Egyptian rulers who fought with Antiochus for the control of Judea.

    1188: Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, who was comparatively protective of his Jewish subject “took up the Cross” and joined what would become the Third CRusdae.

    1191: Pope Clement III died. Clement was one of the Popes locked in a power struggle with the Holy Roman Emperor, Henry IV. The Jews were pawns in this battle. Henry considered the Jews to be his subjects and beyond the control of the Church. During the First Crusade, the hordes going through Germany killed and robbed the Jews. At the same time, many Jews were forced to convert. Henry was in Italy and much to the dismay of the Pope, when he heard what was going on in Germany, the Emperor set about punishing those of the perpetrators who were still around including at least one archbishop. He also ordered that any Jew who had converted under duress should be allowed to return to the faith of their fathers. Clement over-ruled the Emperor on this one. He did not how people were brought to Jesus, but once they were there, there was no going back.

    1309: Pope Clement V, who in 1305 became the first pope to threaten Jews with an economic boycott in an attempt to force them to stop charging Christians interest on loans, excommunicated Venice and all its population.

    1378: Gregory XI, the last of the Avignon Popes, passed away. In 1375 Gregory had issued an order “to compel” Jews to hear sermons.  The order would later be vacated and replaced by the older formula allowing one to “exhort” the Jews to listen. (For more see Popes, Church and Jews in the Middle Ages by Kenneth Stow)

    1639: In Rome, a child is forcibly baptized after his father jokingly remarked that he would not mind it, on the condition that the Pope acted as godfather. The Jews rioted and were violently crushed. As a result, two of his children were taken, one a baby, and were carried in a ceremony by the Pope.

    1775(25th of Adar): Rabbi Chaim Ben David Abulafia, author of Nishmat Chaim passed away.

    1786(27th of Adar, 5546): Based on a tombstone found in the original Jewish cemetery in Ghent, date on which an unnamed Jew passed away. This unknown Jew or Jewess was the first Israelite to be legally buried in the city under the reign of Joseph II.

    1820: In Baghdad, David Sassoon and Hannah Joseph gave birth to businessman Elias David Sassoon.

    1827(28th of Adar): Rabbi Samuel ben Nathan Ha-Levi author of Mahat-zit ha Shekel passed away

    1827: Birthdate of Wolf Frankenburger, the native of Obbach who became a successful lawyer and represented the Constituency of Middle Franconia in the Reichstag.

    1836: In Kecskemét, Hungary, Maria (nee Hacker) and Samuel Goldstein gave birth to cantor and composer Josef Goldstein who “was chief cantor at the Leopoldstädter Tempel in Vienna, Austria from 1857 until his death” in 1899.

    1836: During the Texas Revolution, an untold number of Jews died when Antonio López de Santa Anna ordered the Mexican army to kill about 400 Texas POW's who had fought under James Fannin at Goliad, Texas.

    1839 (12th of Nisan, 5569): On March 27, 32 Jews living in Meshed, Persia were massacred and the remaining 100 families were forced to convert to Islam.

    1839(12thof Nisan): The Jews were forced to convert in Meshed, Iran. Influenced by other anti-Jewish riots under the Kajar Dynasty in Iran, the local community attacked the Jewish quarter. The Synagogue was destroyed, over 30 Jews killed and the rest of the community threatened with annihilation. Moslem leaders offered to prevent further riots on condition that the Jews convert, which they did. The Jews became known as Jadid al-Islam or New Moslems thus ending the presence of the Jewish community. They continued to practice their Judaism in secret and fled the city with their families whenever an opportunity for escape presented itself.

    1847: Birthdate of German born chemist Otto Wallach who won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1910.

    1850(14thof Nisan, 5610): Ta’anit Bechorot; Erev Pesach

    1850(14thof Nisan, 5610): Fifty three year old banker and astronomer Wilhelm Wolff Beer for whom the crater Beers on Mars is named and who is the brother of Giacomo Meybeer  passed away.

    1860: Birthdate of Eugene C. Kahn, one of the first, if not the first, Jewish child to be born in Morgan City, a port city on the Atchafalaya.

    1861: The New York Times reports a drop in the sale of livestock this week due to Lent and the observance of Passover.

    1862: Captain Nathan Davis Menken, a merchant from Cincinnati who was serving with Company A, 1st Ohio Cavalry in the Union Army served with distinction today at the Battle of Kernstown in Virginia.

    1863: In response to the “recommendation by the President of the Confederacy” that this be a Day of Prayer, Rabbi M. J. Michelbacher, of the German synagogue Bayth Ahabah in Richmond, Virginia, preached a sermon, "to which he added a prayer for the Confederate States of America "to crown our independence with lasting honor and prosperity," and for its president, Jefferson Davis, "grant speedy success to his endeavors to free our country from the presence of its foes." [On a personal note, it never ceases to amaze me that Jews could support slavery. How does one go to a Seder after reciting such a prayer?]

    1869: The New York Times reported that “At sundown last evening the Jewish Feast of Passover commenced. It was instituted in commemoration of the deliverance of God's chosen people from Egypt, in bondage, and the passing over by the destroying angel of those families the doors of whose dwellings were marked with the blood of the Paschal Lamb.”

    1869(15th of Nisan, 5629): First Day of Pesach; in the evening count the Omer for the first time.

    1869(15th of Nisan, 5629): In New York, Temple Emanuel and the Nineteenth-street synagogue were among the Jewish houses of worship holding services on the first day of Passover.

    1876: The Young Men’s Hebrew Association moved from its temporary quarters to the Harvard Rooms at Forty-Second Street and Sixth Avenue in New York City.

    1877: In New York City, Justice Murray dismissed charges filed against Henry Sollinger for having obtained money under false pretense from Mrs. Jane Ferguson. Sollinger was born Jewish but claimed to have converted to Christianity at which time he began using the alias Frederick E. Hall.

    1879: It was reported today that the Hebrew Free School Association has received $10, 840.60. The money was raised by the Purim Association at its dress ball that had been held on March 6th.

    1880(15th of Nisan, 5640): First Day of Pesach

    1880: It was reported today that Baron James de Rothschild is President of the newly formed society established in Paris to promote Jewish studies.

    1883: In Teplitz, Rabbi Adolf Aharon Rosenzweig and his wife gave birth to Rabbi Arthur Rosenzweig who passed in Prague in 1935.

    1884(1st of Nisan, 5644): Rosh Chodesh Nisan

    1887: “The first organized effort on the part of” Jews in Brooklyn “to tender a public tribute to the late Henry Ward Beecher too place” today” at the Kane Street Temple where…a large number of prominent Israelites met ‘in order to co-operate with other creeds and societies in raising a fund for a statue and free library to perpetuate the memory of the great friend of humanity and champion of religious liberty --- Henry Ward Beecher.’”

    1888(15thof Nisan, 5648): Pesach

    1890(6thof Nisan, 5650): Emanuel Berhnheimer a native of Germany who came to the United States in 1844 and formed a partnership with August Schmid that led to formation of Lion Brewery, passed away today. 

    1891: The Citation for First Sergeant Jacob Trautman Medal of Honor was issued today.

    1892: The Biennial Convention of the Jewish Theological Seminary Association was held at the Young Men’s Hebrew Association.

    1893: The Bowery Amphitheater “reopened as a Hebrew theatre under the management of Sigmund Magulesko, Isidore Lindeman and Joseph Levy.

    1893: Birthdate of sociologist Karl Mannheim, author of "Ideology and Utopia." Born in Hungary, he passed away in London in 1947.

    1893: “Jews and Intermarriage” published today contains a refutation by Rabbi Mendes of the Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue of previously published sermons that Jewish law does not prohibit intermarriage between a Jew and his earnest request that further discussion of this topic be limited to the Jewish press.

    1895: Professor Felix Adler delivered a lecture tonight at the Hebrew Institute on “The Influences of Organized Labor.”

    1898: “In Algeria the sixth paper devoted to anti-Semitism, L'Anti-Juif Algérien, appeared, with an illustrated supplement”

    1898: “Austro-Hungarian Polity” published today described the some of the cause of that have led to unrest in certain agrarian districts including “a marked contempt and dislike for commerce and trade” among Hungarians, “so that the industry of this country is to a large extent, in the hands of the Jews.”

    1899: New York Mayor Van Wyck met with six boys from the Hebrew Institute  at Jefferson and East Broadway.

    1900: Herzl had a meeting with Prime Minister Ernest von Koerber about sanctioning the Viennese electoral reform. He requests that the “Neue Freie Presse” should not oppose the reform too massively.

    1901: Anti-Jewish riots began in Smyrna, Turkey. The riots were triggered by the reports of the disappearance of a child who was said to have been slaughtered by the Jews for 'ritual murder.' Though the riots continued for four days, the child was eventually found and paraded through the streets to show he was indeed alive.

    1901(7thof Nisan, 5661): Seventy-seven year old “German manufacturer and philanthropist” Heinrich Blumenthal was “for a quarter of a century Blumenthal was a member of the city council, and for more than two decades the president of the Jewish community of Darmstadt” passed away today

    1902: It was reported today that President Theodore Roosevelt had sent a letter of regret expressing his disappointment at not being able to attend the dedication of the Lucas A. Steinam School of Metal Working which is new addition to the Hebrew Technical Institute in New York.

    1903: The Zionist Commission met Herzl in Cairo.

    1904(11thof Nisan, 5664): Colonel Albert Edward Goldsmid the distinguished British officer who founded the Jewish Lads’ Brigade and the Maccabaeans passed away.

    1906: At the insistence of the Chief Rabbi of Bulgaria, the Minister of the Interior of Bulgaria issues a circular to his governors to take every form of precaution against anti-Semitism over Easter.

    1906(1st of Nisan): First publication of Der Yiddisher Kemfer, a publication American Labor Zionism

    1909: Birthdate of historian Golo Mann. Golo Mann was the son of Thomas Mann. His mother was Jewish, which, according to Halachah, means the younger Mann was Jewish as well.

    1913: Birthdate of SS Captain Theodore Dannecker, one of Eichman’s underlings who was a “ruthless” participate in the Final Solution.

    1912: A Jew, for the first time, receives an appointment as an officer in the Ottoman Turkish Army upon graduation from the Imperial Military Academy.

    1914: Birthdate of Budd Schulberg, the novelist and screenwriter whose credits include “What Makes Sammy Run” and “On the Waterfront.”

    1915: Starting today, Dr. Nathan Blaustein will accept applications at his office from 3 to 6 pm for those who wish to adopt the three month old daughter of Sadie Mager who died while giving birth to the child.

    1915: Rabbi Joseph Silverman delivered a sermon at Temple Emanu-El this morning “choosing as his text ‘And Abraham bowed down to the people of the land’” in preparation of the celebration of the centenary of the birth of Dr. Isaac Meyer Wise, the found of Hebrew Union College and the driving force behind the Reform Movement in America.

    1915: As the celebration of Passover approaches, the American Jewish Relief Committee for the Suffers from the European War sent out a special appeal to American Jews.

    1917(4th of Nisan, 5677): Seventy-two year old Civil War veteran and sculpture Moses Jacob Ezekiel passed away in Rome, Italy

    1918: Henry Adams passed away. To many he was part of the last generation of the distinguished Adams family. For Jews he was that and a little more or should I say a little less. In 1894, Henry Adams organized the Immigration Restriction League to limit the admission to America of "unhealthy elements" -- Jews being first among these. In his famous book, The Education of Henry Adams, he wrote about those he was trying to keep out of America: "Not a Polish Jew fresh from Warsaw or Cracow - not a furtive Jacob or Isaac still reeking of the Ghetto, snarling a weird Yiddish to the officers of the customs..." He found many supporters for his cause, but he did not win

    1921: During his fact finding visit to Palestine, Winston Churchill went to the British Military Cemetery on the Mount of Olives to attend a service of dedication honoring the sacrifice of Allied soldiers who had fought against the Turks.

    1922: In San Francisco, Joseph and Lillian Kurzman gave birth to military historian Daniel Halperin Kurzman whose works included include Ben-Gurion: Prophet of Fire. (As reported by Daniel Slontnik)

    1923: Birthdate of British impresario Victor Hochhauser who, along with his wife, promoted numerous events including those for the Israeli Philharmonic Orchestra.

    1923: Lord Grey, who “had been the foreign secretary during the McMahon-Hussein negotiations”, addressed the House of Lords today.  During his speech, “he made it clear that he entertained serious doubts as to the validity of the British government's interpretation of the pledges which he, as foreign secretary, had caused to be given to Hussein in 1915.

    1923: Sidney and Helen Livingston Weinberg gave birth to Sidney J. Weinberg, Jr. who would become a senior director at Goldman-Sachs.

    1923: Birthdate of Prof. Nahum M. Sarna, z"l the father of Jonathan Sarna and a noted scholar in his own right.

    1927: In New York City, Kassel Lewis and Sylvia Surut gave birth to New York Times correspondent Anthony Lewis, the author of Gideon’s Triumph

    1928(6th of Nisan): Rabbi Meir Dan Plotzki, son of Rabbi Chaim Yitzchak Ber Plotzker of Kutno, the President of Kollel Polen and a prolific author whose works included Chemdas Yisrael on Sefer ha-Mitzvot passed away today. When Rabbi Meir Dan Plotzki visited America, he “pronounced Manischewtiz matzah to be thoroughly reliable – ‘there is none more faithful to be found’ – citing “constant supervision of one of the sages of Jerusalem,” Rabbi Mendel M. Hochstein.

    1930: Birthdate of actor David Janssen. Born David Meyer, Jansen gained fame playing the lead in the long running TV drama, “The Fugitive.”

    1930: “The meeting of the Administrative Committee of the Jewish Agency ended this morning after a short session with Felix M. Warburg, chairman, and Dr. Chaim Weizmann, president of the Agency, expressing their satisfaction with the work that had been accomplished. There was a general feeling among the participants that the meeting had been fruitful of practical results for Palestine, and there was particular gratification that the complete budget of three and a half million dollars was confirmed.” (As reported by JTA)

    1931: Charlie Chaplin received France's distinguished Legion of Honor

    1933: In “Germany: Scared To Death,” Time reported that “To say that most German statesmen & politicians outside the Government's charmed circle were scared to death last week, would be understatement. Panic made cowards of the bravest of brave German Socialists and Communists. Even Catholics trembled—except Dr. Hans Luther. It was accurately said that in less than two weeks Chancellor Hitler has reduced his opponents to a lower level of groveling fear than did Premier Mussolini in the two years after the March on Rome, Oct. 30, 1922.”,8816,745404,00.html

    1933: A gigantic anti-Nazi protest rally, organized by the American Jewish Congress, was held in New York City. 55,000 people attended and threatened to boycott German goods if the Germans carried out their planned permanent boycott of Jewish-owned stores and businesses.

    1935(22ndof Adar II, 5695): Sixty one year old Croatian architect Rudolf Lubiniski who designed the Croatian State Archives, passed away today in Zagreb.

    1937(15th of Nisan, 5697): First Day of Pesach.

    1937: In New York, at Shaarey Tefilah “two fires occurred simultaneously in the basement of the synagogue and caused minor damage. Later that same morning, at 10 o'clock, 700 persons assembled to celebrate the second Seder of the Passover. A few hours after the congregation had gone, a third fire was reported at 3:15 o'clock. This fire damaged the Ark of the Covenant and destroyed 18 hand-illuminated Torah kept in the Tabernacle. The $25,000 pipe organ was badly damaged and the entire south end of the synagogue was wrecked by flames, smoke and the axes of the firemen. After investigations by the Fire Marshall, it was discovered that the incendiary fires had been set by the synagogue's caretaker. The synagogue was reconstructed and remodeled to designs of S. Brian Baylinson, and a four-story synagogue house was added.

    1938 After meeting him while performing with the Phil Harris orchestra, Leah Ray married MCA executive and future Jets owner Sonny Werblin with whom she had three sons during their fifty year marriage.

    1938: Miss Henrietta Szold, 77-year-old founder of Hadassah, the Woman's Zionist Organization of America sent a cable from Jerusalem to Hadassah headquarters in New York describing her efforts to arrange for the transfer of Jewish children from Austria to Palestine. “The change is described as vital and as being the only hope for the youngsters to ever lead normal lives.”

    1940: Himmler ordered the building of Auschwitz concentration Camp in southern Poland

    1941: A Yugoslav government that was sympathetic to the Nazis “was toppled by an anti-German military coup” which lead to a Nazi invasion of Yugoslavia and Greece in April.  This would prove to be disastrous for the Jews of the Balkans since it would bring them into the grasp of the Final Solution.  Ironically, the long term effect of this would lead to the ultimate defeat of the Germans in WW II.  The invasion of the Balkans delayed the German invasion of Russia.  That delay meant the German army would be mired in the Russian Winter, which was a major factor in handing the Nazi war machine its first defeats on the eastern front.

    1942: On day after the start of the deportation of Slovokian Jews, Slovakia’s Chief Rabbi Micahel Weissmand and the Slovokian Zionist leader Gisi Fleischann sent a message of SS Captain Dieter Wisliceny offering him a bribe stop the shipment of the Jews to the death camps.

    1942: Goebbels described in his diary, Belzec and the cremation of the Jews, "The procedure is pretty barbaric, one not to be described here most definitely. Not much will remain of the Jews. . . fully deserved by them."

    1943: “Blue Ribbon Town” featuring Jewish comedian Groucho Marx was heard for the first time on CBS Radio

    1943: The CKC resistance movement including Jewish cellist Frieda Belinfante “organized and executed the bombing of the population registry in Amsterdam today, which destroyed thousands of files and hindered Nazi attempts to compare forged documents with documents in the registry.”

    1944: Several of the leaders of the Yishuv including executives of the Jewish Agency and General Council of Palestine Jews, Tel Aviv Mayor Israel Rokach and the municipal councilors of Tel Aviv and Mayor Joseph Saphir of Petak Tikvah met in Jerusalem this morning to deal with the latest outbreak violence by “the small terrorist group whose sabotage activities have led to a new and grave situation.” Among those calling for action to end the violence were chief Rabbis Isaac Herzog and Bension Uziel.

    1944: In A Children’s Aktion, the Nazis collected all of the Jewish children of Lovno.

    1944(3rd of Nisan, 5704): Forty Jewish policemen were shot by the Gestapo in the Riga Ghetto.

    1944(3rd of Nisan, 5704): Two thousand Jews were murdered in Kaunas Lithuania

    1944: One thousand Jews left the Drancy Concentration Camp in France for Auschwitz Concentration Camp

    1944(3rd of Nisan, 5704): Resistance fighter Abraham Geleman, born in Lodz was killed in Belgium.

    1944: As the Red Army approached Riga, Kovno and Vilna, Germany picked up the pace with actions against the surviving inhabitants of the ghettos. Children everywhere were being seized and driven off to their death. "The Children's Action" in Kovno resulted in the death of thousands of children under the age of 17. Most of them were shot. In order to spare their children from such horrors, some parents poisoned them. In Lodz, a mother killed her severely handicapped boy with a lead pipe across the head instead of allowing him to meet his fate with the Germans.

    1945: Task Force Baum, the unit under the command of Captain Abraham Baum that had been sent behind enemy lines to liberate camp OFLAG XIII-B, near Hammelburg whose POW’s included the son-in-law of General Patton broke through the bridgehead at Aschaffenburg and “arrived in sight of the camp” by the afternoon.

    1945(13th of Nisan, 5705): Jacob S. Kahn, the president of the Refrigeration Maintenance Company passed away today at the age of 62. Kahn had been a builder during the 1920’s, who erected the Hyde Park Hotel.

    1945(13th of Nisan, 5705): The Chief Rabbi of Tel Aviv, Moshe Avigdor Amiel, passed away today at the age of 65.

    1946:USCGC Northland (WPG-49), a cruising class of gunboat especially designed for Arctic operations that served in World War II was decommissioned today by the U.S. Coast Guard which would lead to its eventual acquisition by a Jewish group who would renamed it Jewish State and use it to transport refugees to Palestine.

    1947: A.H. Weaghorn, a British police sergeant who is an expert on Jewish political affairs was attacked by three men outside of Tel Aviv’s central police station. Two of the men opened fire and one threw a bomb. The sergeant, who was wounded, returned fire along with several of his comrades.

    1949(26th of Adar): Russian born Hebrew poetess Elisheva Bikhowsky passed away

    1949: The Scientific and Cultural Conference for World Peace, co-sponsored by Herbert Aptheker came to a close today.

    1950: After having been "rebuffed" by Levi Eshkol, the Treasurer of the Jewish Agency, Shlomo Hillel, "one of the Israeli organizers of the Iraqi Jewish emigration""went to see Israeli Prime Minister David Ben Gurion who was totally supportive of the mass emigration from Iraq.’Tell them to come quickly,' Ben-Gurion said to Hillel...'What if the Iraqis change their minds and rescind the law? go and bring them quickly.'" Hillel would return to Iraq and try to expedite matters but the Jewish Agency "held the purse strings" and insisted on slowing down the immigration movement to what it considered were more manageable numbers.

    1950: Dr. Serge Koussevitzky, the 75 year old conduct emeritus conductor of the Boston Symphony is scheduled to leave for Europe today after having conducted 16 concerts in Israel.

    1950: Anglo-Israeli financial negotiations on problems dating from the days of the mandate are scheduled to come to a successful conclusion today with the planned signing of an agreement in London.

    1950: The New York Times publishes a picture of Charlotte Johnson, The American Red Cross representative in Israel, watching as Jewish children who have arrived in Tel Aviv from Europe receive clothes made from textiles donated by the Brooklyn Chapter of the American Red Cross.

    1950: An adaptation of “The Man Who Came to Dinner” a comedy written by George S. Kaufman and Moss Hart was broadcast on the Lux Radio Theatre.

    1952(1st of Nisan, 5712: Rosh Chodesh Nisan

    1952: The Jerusalem Post reported that the Jewish Agency decided to send 100 disgruntled immigrants from India, who had been squatting outside the agency's offices in Tel Aviv, back to where they came from, announcing that this should not serve as a future precedent insofar as other immigrants were concerned.

    1952: The Jerusalem Post reported that The Ministry of Health had announced that every Israeli between the ages of four and 60 would be inoculated against typhoid.

    1952: The Jerusalem Post reported that at The Hague the German delegation to the Reparations Conference expressed surprise at the extent of the Jewish request of the sum of $500 million, to be paid within five years. They expected a smaller sum, but agreed to recognize all claims as "urgent" and had "shown willingness" to meet them. Jewish delegates pointed out that they didn’t want to wait until all the Nazi victims were dead, but intended to help the living.

    1952: The Jerusalem Post reported that the Israeli delegation in London held extensive talks on possible oil deliveries and economic cooperation.

    1952: New York premiere of “Singin’ in the Rain,” a musical comedy directed by Stanley Doenen written by Betty Comden and Adolph Green

    1959: Twenty-seven year old "Elizabeth Taylor took the Hebrew name Elisheba Rachel and converted to Judaism."

    1975(15thof Nisan, 5735): Pesach

    1977: In Allentown, PA, Donald and Melina Kohn gave birth to Sally Rebecca Kohn founder and chief education officer of the Movement Vision Lab, a contributor to Fox News and “a distinguished Vaid Fellow at the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force Policy Institute.”

    1977: The Jerusalem Post reported that the week-long port workers’ go-slow strike continued and ships were loaded at half the normal rate. Angry citrus farmers called on the government to allow them to load their fruit by themselves. The Bank Leumi strike ended and its 300 branches opened for business. The hospital doctors’ strike was called off at the last moment. But radio and TV broadcasts were halted for seven hours as the result of a strike by the Broadcasting Authority administrative staff.

    1977: The Jerusalem Post reported that in New York US Secretary of State Cyrus Vance promised Jewish leaders that during his forthcoming visit to Moscow he would discuss the problems of Soviet Jewry at the Kremlin.

    1986: Birthdate of Vania Heymann, the native of Jerusalem who creates novel video including commercials for PepsiMax.

    1991: Isaiah Berlin met with author Lewis M. Dabney, a professor of English at the University of Wyoming in London at the Athenaeum Club. Dabney was editing Edmund Wilson's last journal, ''The Sixties,'' and had begun a biography. Dabney wanted Berlin to fill out the account of Wilson he had begun in a short memoir published a few years earlier. In the course of their conversation, Berlin told Dabney two “funny stories” about Wilson’s visit to Israel. Wilson “went to Jordan and when he came back he had to pass through the Mandelbaum Gate. The Israeli passport officer looked at his passport, noticed it was Edmund Wilson, then said: ''I think your dating of the Dead Sea Scrolls is not quite right. I think it should have been 50 years before.'' And Edmund answered, and the chief officer said: ''Stamp Mr. Wilson's passport. You can't discuss the scrolls here, not on the Government's time.'' He talked to me about that afterward, saying, 'Only in Israel would I find a passport officer who wished to question the date of the scrolls.'’ That amused him. It pleased him. Then he went to see the man he most admired in Israel, who was a scholar called Flusser (David Flusser) in Jerusalem, who talked to him about the Bible and the scrolls. Edmund asked him what he thought of Israel. Flusser said: 'Israel est un tres petit pays. Et je ne suis pas patriote.’ He was delighted with that. Anybody who said he wasn't a patriot went straight to his heart.”

    1994(15th of Nisan, 5754): First Day of Pesach

    1996: The New York Times featured a review of Hitler’s Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust by Daniel Jonah Goldhagen

    1996: Final broadcast of the HBO sitcom created by Marta Kaufmann and David Crane.

    1998: After meeting with Israeli Defense Minister  Yitzhak Mordechai in the U.S. today U.S. Defense Secretary William Cohen indicated that Washington has agreed to expand the joint Arrow anti-missile project and provide $45 million in funding for a third battery of missiles for Israel.

    1998: The Times of London included a review of John Murray’s biography of Edmund de Rothschild entitled "A Gilt-Edged Life."

    2000: Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak urges Israel to return the annexed Golan Heights to Syria.

    2000: U.S. premiere of “The Audrey Hepburn Story?” in which “Emmy Rossum appears during early scenes of the film playing Hepburn in her early teens.”

    2000: Jack Lang began serving as Education Minister of France for a second time today.

    2001: Islamic Jihad took credit for a bombing in the Talipot industrial zone in which 7 people were injured.

    2001: Hamas too credit for the bombing an Egged bus at French Hill in which 28 were injured in Jerusalem.

    2002 (14th of Nisan, 5762): A suicide bomber killed 29 Israelis during a Passover Seder in Netanya, Israel. The stark statement speaks for itself.

    2002 (14th of Nisan, 5762): Milton Berle passed away. Born Mendel Berlinger on July 12, 1908, Berle's career began at the age of five when he modeled as Buster Brown. He starred in a variety of entertainment mediums. But he gained his greatest fame as Uncle Miltie, star of the Texaco Milton Berle Show. The show began airing in 1948. It was the first national television hit and became a must see every Tuesday night. Berle was also one of the first to learn that television was a devouring medium that used you up and spit you out. Although his career would last for another half century, he would never know the success he gained with his Tuesday night television triumph. Berle died at the age of 93, smoking cigars and stealing other people's material almost to his last day.

    2002(14th of Nisan, 5762): Director Billy Wilder passed away.

    2004: Eighty-one year old Dr. Sabina Zimering sat in the audience at the Great American History Theatre in Saint Paul, MN and watched the remarkable story of her own survival in Nazi Europe unfold on stage.

    2005: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of topics of special interest to Jewish readers including "Whose Bible Is It? A History of the Scriptures Through the Ages" by Jaroslav Pelikan and the recently released paperback edition of "Someone to Run With" by Israeli novelist David Grossman; translated by Vered Almog and Maya Gurantz.

    2006(27th of Adar, 5766): Eighty-one year old  Rudolf Vrba, who as a young man escaped from Auschwitz and provided the first eyewitness evidence not only of the magnitude of the tragedy unfolding at the death camp but also of the exact mechanics of Nazi mass extermination passed away at a hospital in Vancouver, British Columbia today. (As reported by Douglas Martin)

    2006: Ehud “Banai sang a duet with David D'Or on D'Or's CD, Kmo HaRuach ("Like the Wind"), which was released” today.

    2008: Sammy Ofer donated £20 million to London's National Maritime Museum at Greenwich, as part of a £35 million program of expansion.

    2008: The 92nd Street Y presents a lecture by Professor Robert Seltzer a professor of history at Hunter College and Director of the Hunter Interdisciplinary Program in Jewish Studies who answers the questions “Why was the State of Israel needed? What were the reasons behind its establishment by the Jewish Diaspora?”

    2008: Haaretz reported that two of its writers Shmuel Rosner and Or Kashti were recently named winners of the B'nai B'rith World Center Award for Journalism for 2007 on the basis of their work for the paper.

    2008: As President Georgi Parvanov of Bulgaria’s visit to Israel came to an end, Bulgaria accepted responsibility for the genocide of more than 11,000 Jews in its jurisdiction during World War II.

    2009: In Baltimore, Maryland B’nai Israel Synagogue presented a Friday night event featuring Philip J. Tulkoff, President, Tulkoff Food Products who delivered a talk entitled “Memories of Horseradish Lane and the Growth of Tulkoff Foods” in which he reminisced about “the good old days.” Thanks to the efforts of Lena and Harry Tulkoff that began in the 1920’s Tulkoff Horseradish Products Company became one of the nation's largest manufacturers of prepared horseradish products.

    2009(2 Nisan, 5769): Eighty-six year old Irving R. Levine whose ever-present bow tie was his unique visual signature while he covered business and the economy for NBC News passed away. Unlike the blowhards and blow dried talking heads who read this news beat today, Levine understood the subject matter and conveyed it a low keyed professional manner. (As reported by Bruce Weber)

    2010: Shabbat HaGadol

    2010: Sidney Ferris Rosenberg, the radio personality who is the cousin of former Minnesota Senator Norm Coleman “returned to WFAN hosting a show in Port St. Lucie before the New York Mets faced the Washington Nationals.”

    2010: the Jewish Ensemble Theatre is scheduled to present Wendy Kesselman’s newly adapted version of The Diary of Anne Frank by Frances Goodrich & Albert Hackett at the Ford Community and Performing Arts Center in Dearborn, MI

    2010: Opening of the “Legacy of the Shoah Film Festival” at John Jay College in New York City. The opening night features Forgotten Transports: Women’s Stories – Estonia, Children of the Night by Marion Wiesel and a discussion with the award-winning director Lukas Pribyl.

    2011 Dr. Jane Katz “was inducted into the National Jewish Sports Hall of Fame in Commack, New York for her pioneering athletic contributions to the field of aquatics”

    2011: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest including “Great Soul Mahatma Gandhi and His Struggle With India” by Joseph Lelyveld and the recently released paperback edition of” Marry Him: The Case for Settling for Mr. Good Enough” by Lori Gottlieb

    2011: YU Center for Israel Studies, Yeshiva University Museum, YU Bernard Revel Graduate School of Jewish Studies presented Talmuda de-Eretz Israel: Archaeology and the Rabbis in Late Antique Palestine.

    2011: “Norman Gorbaty: To Honor My People,” exhibition at the Walsh Art Gallery is scheduled to come to a close at Fairfield University, Fairfield, Conn.

    2011: “The Chosen” is scheduled to be performed at the Arena Stage in Washington, DC under the sponsorship of Theatre J.

    2011: The Harry Houdini Exhibition at the Jewish Museum in New York is scheduled to come to an end.

    2011: The second annual Limmud Conference is scheduled to take place in Chicago, Illinois.

    2011: The Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington is scheduled to sponsor A Walking Tour of Old Jewish Alexandria.

    2011: Jews and Baseball: An American Love Story and God & Co.are two of the films scheduled to be shown at the Hartford Jewish Film Festival.

    2011: “The Infidel” and “The Human Resources Manager” are scheduled to be shown at the Westchester Jewish Film Festival.

    2011: “The Whipping Man,” featuring a Seder on the first night of Pesach as its dramatic hook, is scheduled to have its last performance at the City Center State in New York.

    2011: Six gunmen in Sinai targeted the pipeline that carries natural gas from Egypt to Israel and Jordan today, overpowering a guard and planting an explosive device before fleeing, The Associated Press reported.

    2011: Bank Leumi and Hashava – The Company for Location and Restitution of Holocaust Victims’ Assets ended months of arbitration by signing an agreement in which the bank will pay the company NIS 130.8 million, the two sides announced today. The money will go to heirs of Holocaust victims and toward projects that help Israeli Holocaust survivors – more than a quarter of whom live under the poverty line, according to government estimates.

    2011(21st of Adar II, 5771): Ninety-five year old Bernard B. Roth; founder of South Gate-based World Oil Corporation passed away today.(As reported by Shan Li)

    2012: The 16th Annual Hartford Jewish Film Festival is scheduled to come to an end with a reception and a tango party.

    2012: The Andy Statman Trio is scheduled to perform klezmer music at the Charles Street Synagogue.

    2012: Peter Gruber became a minority owner of the Los Angeles Dodgers through his affiliation with Guggenheim Baseball Management LLC

    2013(16thof Nisan): Second Day of Pesach

    2013: “Jews of Egypt” a “controversial documentary on Egypt’s expulsion of its long-resident Jewish population opened” to at three movie theatres in Cairo and Alexandria “despite an initial effort by the Egyptian government to block its release.”

    2013: The 23rdannual Haifa International Children’s Theatre Festival is scheduled to open at the Haifa Municipal Festival Theatre Complex.

    2013: Bulgaria will provide more evidence that Hezbollah planned the airport bus bombing that killed five Israelis in Burgas last year, and to use that proof to pressure the European Union to formally label the Iran-backed Islamist group a terrorist organization, Reuters reported today

    2013: Some of Israel’s most sensitive computer information is stored on servers in a building above ground in the south of the country, acutely vulnerable to attack or natural disaster, a TV investigative report said today.

    2014: “Aftermath” is scheduled to be shown at the Northern Virginia Jewish Film Festival.

    2014: In Boston, attendees of the Keshet Cabaret are scheduled to have the opportunity to bid on a personal voicemail from Sarah Silverman.

    2014: “For the first time since 1993, the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra is scheduled to perform at Jones Hall in Houston.”

    2014: Leon Botstein , the president of Bard College and the music director and principal conductor of the American Symphony Orchestra for whom he is scheduled to conduct Max Bruch’s ‘Moses’ at Carnegie Hall

    2014: Pears Institute for the study of Anti-Semitism in partnership with the Department of History, Classics and Archaeology, Birkbeck, University of London and The Wiener Library for the Study of the Holocaust and Genocide is scheduled to host “No Stab in the Back!” Race, Labour and the National Socialist Regime under the Bombs, 1940-45”

    2014: “The Israel Anti-Fraud Unit said today that it is investigating former Prime Minister Ehud Olmert, who is suspected of obstructing justice and witness tampering.”

    2014:The IDF Northern Command announced today that it was changing its orders regarding opening fire in areas along the Golan border fence. Anyone from the Syrian side who comes near the fence should expect to be shot, the IDF said.

    2014: Pears Institute for the study of Anti-Semitism in partnership with the Department of History, Classics and Archaeology, Birkbeck, University of London and The Wiener Library for the Study of the Holocaust and Genocide is scheduled to host the opening session of “Labour and Race in Modern German History”

    2014: In commemoration of “the 70th anniversary of the beginning of the nationwide mass deportations in Hungary, the Center for Jewish History is scheduled to host a screen of “Free Fall” a documentary that “explores the unique circumstances of the Holocaust in southern Hungary.”

    2015: “The Outrageous Sophie Tucker” is scheduled to be shown at the Northern Virginia Jewish Film Festival.

    2015: “Cupcakes” a film “set in contemporary Tel Aviv” is scheduled to open at the Quad Cinema in NYC.

    2015: Lewis Black is scheduled to appear in Westhampton Beach, NY.



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    March 28

    364: Roman Emperor Valentinian I appoints his brother Flavius Valens co-emperor dividing the Roman Empire between two rulers. Valens, The Emperor of the East “was an Arian and had suffered too severely from the powerful Catholic party to be interplant himself. He protected the Jews and bestowed honors and distinction upon them. Valentinian, who was Emperor of the West, also “chose the policy of tolerance in the struggle between Catholics and Arians, and permitted the profession of either religion without political disadvantage…” He extended this level of toleration to his Jewish subjects as well.

    1038(20th of Nisan): Ravi Hai Gaon passed away

    1193: On his way back from the Crusades, King Richard I of England becomes the prisoner of Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor. When it came time to pay his ransom, the Jewish community was forced to contribute 5,000 marks to the total.  This was more than three times the amount contributed by the entire City of London.

    1285: Pope Martin IV passed away. “In 1281, Pope Martin IV” reminded “inquisitors that Jews should not be accused of encouraging converts to return to Judaism if all that was known that the Jews and converts had been engaged in conversations.” (For more see Between Christian and Jew by Paola Tartakoff)

    1482: Lucrezia Tornabuoni the wife of Piero di Cosimo de' Medici passed away.  She was doubly unusual for a woman of her time.  First because she wrote poetry that was published and second because one of the subjects of her sonnets was Jewish – the Biblical figure of Esther.

    1487: In Naples, Joseph Günzenhäuser printed “Psalms” with a commentary by Kimhi

    1515: In Spain, in an example of how the Jews were treated,  Alonso Sánchez de Cepeda whose father “Juanito de Hernandez, was a marrano (Jewish convert to Christianity) and was condemned by the Spanish Inquisition for allegedly returning to the Jewish faith” and his wife gave birth to Teresa de Cepeda y Ahumada the future St. Teresa of Ávila

    1537(16th of Nisan): King Sigismund I of Poland issued a decree granting a monopoly of importation and publication of Hebrew books to the Helitz brothers who had established the first Hebrew printing press in Poland. The Jews resisted the edit since the Helitz brothers had converted to Christianity.

    1592: Birthdate of Czech educational reformer John Comenius. Three hundred years later, the imperial government would thwart plans by Czech nationalists to celebrate his birth which would lead to mob violence that would eventually be directed against the Jewish quarter of Prague.

    1610(4th of Nisan): Rabbi Ben-Zion Zarfati of Venice passed away

    1737: Joseph Suess Openheimer (Jud Suess), former confidential adviser to Karl Alexander, duke of Wuerttemgerg, was interrogated for the first time by a judicial examiner preparing an indictment on charges of high treason, violation of the constitution, and oppression of religion.” Although the charges were totally bogus, he would be convicted and hung. He died a proud Jew reciting the Shema as he climbed the scaffold to his death. (As reported by Abraham P. Bloch)

    1795: As part of the Third Partition of Poland, the Polish Duchy of Courland ceased to exist when it became part of Imperial Russia. From 1772 until 1795 there were three successive partitions of the land that included Poland and Lithuania. The partitioning powers were Prussia, Austria and Hungary. Russia had gone to great lengths to limit its Jewish population. However, when it acquired its portion of Poland, it acquired a large Jewish population that it greeted with increasingly vicious anti-Semitism.

    1797(1st of Nisan): Rabbi Saul Shiskes of Vilna, author of Shevil ha-Yashar passed away

    1807: In London, Solomon and Sarah Polack gave birth to Joel Samuel Polack, the first Jew to settle in New Zealand (1830).

    1818: Birthdate of Wade Hampton III the Confederate General and governor of South Carolina with whom Edwin Warren Moise served during the war.  In 1876, Moise supported Hampton in his run for governor and ran successful for the position of adjutant general on Hampton’s ticket.

    1820: Birthdate of Italian author Moses Soave, the native of Venice who wrote biographies on 16th century Jewish poet Sara Copia Sullam, 16thcentury Portuguese physician Amatus Lusitanus, 16th century Italian physician Abraham de Balmes, 10th century Italian physician Shabbethai Donnolo and 16th century French born Italian scholar Leon de Modena.

    1824: In Nachod, Bohemia, Joseph and Sulamith Mautner gave birth to Isaac Mautner.

    1825(9th of Nisan): Rabbi Jacob Zevi Yales, author of Melo ha-Roim, passed away

    1826(19th of Adar II): Rabbi Jacob Kahana of Vilna, author of Ge’on Ya’akov passed away.

    1832(26th of Adar II, 5592): Sixty-nine year old mathematician Lazarus Bendavid passed away today in Berlin.,_Lazarus

    1832: In Mlečice (modern day Czech Republic) Marcus and Maria Lobl gave birth to Jacob Lobl.

    1840: Birthdate of Eduard Carl Oscar Theodor Schnitzer the German born Jewish doctor who converted to Islam and gain fame as Mehmed Emin Pasha, a prominent leader of the Ottoman Empire who served as governor of Egypt.  During his service, he would be captured by rebels and the international Emin Pasha Relief Expedition led by the famous explorer Henry Morton Stanley would come to his rescue.

    1849: Birthdate of French orientalist James Darmesteter

    1850(15thof Nisan, 5610): Pesach

    1851: In Neuilly-sur-Seine,Nathaniel de Rothschild and Charlotte de Rothschild (née de Rothschild) gave birth to Baron Arthur de Rothschild who bequeathed his artworks to the Louvre and “provided the prize money for the America’s Cup.”  (This date is provided by the Jewish Encyclopedia which conflicts with other sources.

    1854: Great Britain and France declared war on Russia marking the start of the Crimean War. The Paris Treaty of 1858, concluding the war, granted Jews and Christians the right to settle in Palestine, forced upon the Ottoman Turks by the British for their assistance in the war effort. This decision opened the doors for Jewish immigration to Palestine.

    1857: According to reports published today, the Jews Hospital in New York has enough beds to care for 170 patients. Currently, approximately 50 of those beds are in use.

    1858: Birthdate of Imar Boas, he native of Exin, Prussia, a specialist in abdominal medicine who also authored several works on the topic.

    1861: "The Hebrew Son" is scheduled to be performed at the Winter Garden in NYC, “for the special delectation of our Judaic brethren.”

    1863: During the U.S. Civil War, two Jews were arrested today on the Thomas A. Morgan while she was sailing from Fortress Monroe to Yorktown, on charges that they had a lot of contraband goods in their possession

    1864: In New York, the Assembly adopted a bill “authorizing the conveyance of property to the Hebrew Benevolent Society.”

    1865(1stof Nisan, 5625): Rosh Chodesh Nisan

    1865(1stof Nisan, 5625): Sixty-eight year old Leopold "Löbl Jünger" Strakosch the husband of Julia Strakosch passed away in Brno, Moravia.

    1867: A meeting was held today in Richmond, VA where the participants expressed their indignation at the decision by the insurance companies “to take no more ‘Jew Risks.’” Those in attendance, many of whom were Jews, adopted resolutions stating that they would not do business with any company that took such action. The Mayor of Richmond, Joseph C. Mayo, told the meeting that he had been in the insurance business for several years and had most of his dealings with Jews whom he described as upright and “honest in their conduct.” While serving as prosecuting attorney, he could only think of three Jews who had been brought before and while sitting with them while serving in the City Council “he had found them trustworthy.”

    1869(16th of Nisan, 5629): Second Day of Pesach; first day of the Omer.

    1873: After accusations of ritual murder surfaced in Turkey, letters were sent to the Christians leader in Marmara, Gallipoli, Bursa , Salonica, Smyrna, Manisa, Chios, Adrianople, Janina, Silistria and other cities to warn of this behavior. The letters were formulated by the Turkish Jewish leadership in conjunction with the Greek Patriarch.

    1875: It was reported today that Rabbi Brettenheim of Baltimore’s Howard Street Congregation recently officiated at the wedding of Rosa Stern, daughter of the later Bernhard Stern and Mr. Solomon Hochschild.

    1876(3rd of Nisan, 5636): Eighty-year old Hungarian born violinist Joseph Böhm “who was a member of the string quartet, which premiered Beethoven's 12th String Quartet” and “a director of the Vienna Conservatory” passed away today.

    1877(14th of Nisan, 5637): Fast of the First Born

    1878: Birthdate of Herbert Lehman, one of the founder of Lehman Brothers who went on to serve as New York Governor and U.S. Senator.

    1880(16th of Nisan, 5640): Second day of Pesach; 1st day of the Omer

    1880: Birthdate of Louis Wolheim the multi-lingual Cornell football player who was fluent in Yiddish who gained fame as an actor in silent films, Broadway and finally in talkies including “All Quiet on the Western Front.”

    1880: It was reported today that in Tula, Orel, and Kharkoff , the Russian government has “ruthlessly expelled” the Jews who have established businesses over the last several years.

    1880: It was reported today that instead of improving the conditions of his Jewish subjects, the Czar has begun treating them with “increased severity.” The Jews have been forced to claim that they are Protestants to avoid be expelled from St. Petersburg by the police.

    1880: It was reported today that an international conference is going to be held at Madrid aimed at adopting measures to protect the Jews of Morocco.

    1880: It was reported today that the Jewish Messengerhas expressed its gratitude for the influence the United States has exerted on behalf of the Jews of Morocco. The paper views the United States diplomat serving in Morocco as “the best and most powerful friend the Jews of that country have.”

    1882: A pogrom begins in the largely Jewish town of Balta, in Podolia, Russia.

    1883: Jennie E. Lyman, a young gentile girl from Cleveland, Ohio, married Max Rosenberg while studying in New York City unbeknownst to her parents.

    1890: Rabbi Gottheil will officiate at the funeral of Emanuel Bernheimer one of the oldest members of Temple Emanu-El and Rabbi Silverman will officiate at the graveside services when the deceased is interred in the Salem Field Cemetery.

    1892: The newly elected officers of the Jewish Theological Seminary Association are Joseph Blumenthal, President; M.I. Asch of Philadelphia, Vice President; Simon Heizig, Vice President; Daniel P. Hays and Jacob Singer of Philadelphia, Secretaries. 

    1892:L'Osservatore cattolico, reported that a leading German anti-Semite has thanked them and their extensive reporting on the crimes of the Jews "for having furnished him with such good scientific material" to him and his conservative political party.

    1893: Joseph H. Senner was appointed Commissioner of Immigration at New York which means he will be charge in Ellis Island, the entry point for tens of thousands of eastern European Jews – a position formerly filled by Colonel Weber.

    1895: The Monte Relief Society hosted a grand cakewalk at the Terrace Garden tonight.

    1896(14thof Nissan, 5656): Shabbat HaGadol; In the evening, the first Seder

    1896: Over 150 poor Jewish immigrants from a variety of European countries took part in a Seder at the Hebrew Sheltering House on Madison Avenue in Manhattan. There was no charge for the Seder. The Hebrew Sheltering House also provided meals throughout the holiday at no charge.

    1896: Rabbi Gustav Gottheil conducted Passover services this evening at Temple Emanu-El.

    1896: Herzl took part in the Seder of the Zionist student association "Unitas".

    1896: “Mll. Marsy’s Testimony” published today described the appearance of one of the key witnesses in the case brought by the state against ten conspirators including Armand Rosenthal to blackmail Max Lebaudy, the son of a wealthy sugar refiner.  Before his arrest, Rosenthal used the pen name Jacques Saint Cere in his role as correspondent for Le Figaro and The New York Herald.

    1897: M.S. Isaacs, the President of the Board of the Baron de Hirsch Fund presided over a meeting held at Temple Emanu El in New York which was also attended by Emanuel Lehman (Tea surer), Julius Goldman (Secretary), Henry Rich, James Hoffman, William B. Hackenberg and Judge Myer Sulzberger of Philadelphia.

    1897: “Mucha’s famous Sarah Bernhardt cartoon” is among the works that will be shown at the poster exhibit sponsored by the Albany Club that is opening today.

    1897: “The United Brothers,” a Jewish fraternal organization, celebrated its 50thanniversary “at the Grand Central Palace…with a reception this afternoon and a banquet followed by a ball this evening.”  Among the speakers were Marks Fishel, George Hahn, Judge Joseph E. Newburger and Jacob Marks.

    1899: “Boys Call On The Mayor” published today described an unscheduled visit six Jewish boys paid on the Mayor of New York. The boys were members of the City History Club of the Educational Alliance and they hold “his honor” that they were studying the history of the city and they thought they “would like to meet its ruler.” The mayor gave them each an autograph and then had a policeman give them an escorted tour of city hall.

    1900(29th of Adar II, 5660: Mendel Hirsch, the eldest son of Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch passed away. Born in 1833, he Bible teacher and commentator as well as a poet. After receiving his PhD in 1854, he taught at a school founded by his father. Several of his articles were published in the monthly magazine Jeshrun. His daughter Rachel Hirsch was the first woman to be appointed as a professor of Medicine in Prussia.

    1901(8th of Nisan, 5661): Eighty three year old German physician turned poet and dramatist Max Ring who “in 1856 married Elvira Heymann, the daughter of publisher Karl Heymann passed away today in Berlin.

    1901: Birthdate of Charles E. Smith, a Russian immigrant who became a successful real estate developer in Rockville, MD where he is philanthropies included the Charles E. Smith Jewish Day School

    1902: Birthdate of violinist Paul Godwin. Born Pinchas Goldfein in Poland, Godwin first gained fame playing under that name in his native country. He moved to the Netherlands where his career flourished under the name of Godwin. Godwin miraculously survived the Holocaust. A virtuoso in his day, his works are largely unknown to modern audiences.

    1903: As part of another meeting with the Commission, Herzl, Goldsmid and Stephens visit Lord Cromer. He states that the Zionists should now demand the concession from the Egyptian government. He recommends that they engage lawyer named Carton de Wiart, to assist in this endeavor.

    1903: Birthdate of Rudolf Serkin, Austrian-born American pianist and teacher.

    1905: In Pittsburgh, PA, Henry Berman who served as a general manager at Universal Pictures and his wife gave birth to producer Pandro Samuel Berman.

    1907: Jews on the Lower East Side sponsored a benefit performance in a Bowery theatre this evening with the funds to go to starving people in China. Local Chinese had raised thousands of dollars to relieve the suffering of Russian Jews and the Jews were responding in kind. The turnout was less than expected because many of the Jews were preparing for Passover which begins tomorrow night and since the performance was in Yiddish, Chinese patrons would not have been able to understand the performance.

    1907: As violence bordering on revolution continues in Romania, the peasants in Northern Moldavia are reportedly prepared to renew their plundering and pillaging at the start of Passover, if the government does not fulfill all of its promises. This does not give the government much time to act since Passover begins tomorrow evening, March 29, 1907.

    1908: Birthdate of Isaak Kikoin the physicist who won both the Stalin and Lenin prizes and who played a key role in the development of the Soviet atomic program. He was born at Žagarė the same town that was the birthplace of Rabbi Israel Salanter and American labor leader Sidney Hillman.

    1911: Max Florin’s black and white photo was printed in thumbnail size, along with a one-paragraph story” published today under the headline, “His Friends Think He Was Rescued.”

    1914: Birthdate of Oscar winning screen writer Edward Anhalt

    1915: During World War I, The Holland-America liner Maastendyk arrived in Amsterdam today from New York carrying ten pounds of Matzoth which were to be shipped to Rabbi Bernard Pressen in Berlin. As part of the laws adopted to conserve resources for the war effort, the German government had issued an order banning the use of wheat for making Matzah, so the Rabbi was depending on this shipment from the United States for his Seder. At this point in the war, both the Netherlands and the United States were neutral so no laws were being violated by sending goods to Germany.

    1915: Judge Nathaniel E. Harris, who will become Governor of Georgia on May 1stcommented on the Leo Frank case saying “the Supreme Court will not be through with the case until some days after I take office and it is quite possible that I may never be asked to pardon Frank.”

    1915: The American Jewish Relief Committee issued a special appeal for funds needed to alleviate the suffering of Jews caught in war-torn Europe. With Passover starting tomorrow evening, the committee invoked holiday motifs in its appeal. Responding to the appeal would be a fitting response to the words of the Haggadah, “let all who are hungry come and eat; let all al that are needy come and celebrate the Passover.”

    1915: In “Russia of Today and Tomorrow and Tomorrow” published today French author Jean Finot presents a portrait of a “civilized Russia” that has been erroneously portrayed as Cossack barbarians by Germans – a portrait that includes the statement that “Jews, Moslems and Christians live together in harmony” and that “Jews” among others “should feel convinced that their martyrdom will cease when normal life is resumed and Germany decisively defeated” – statements that stand at odds with those who know a different reality of the Russian Jewish experience.

    1917: As the British forces advanced in Palestine, the Jews of Tel Aviv and Jaffa were expelled by the Turks. The Turks were sure that the Jews were secret (and not so secret) allies of the British Army. Tel Aviv had been founded by Jews eight years earlier and was truly the only all Jewish city in existence at the time.

    1918(15thof Nisan, 5678): The last Pesach of World War I

    1919: Birthdate of composer Jacob Avshalomov. Born in Tsingtao China, Avshalomov, was the son of the famous Russian composer Aaron Avshalomov. Avshalomov moved to the United States in 1937 where he pursued his musical career. He also provided a haven in the United States for his more famous father after World War II.

    1921(18th of Adar II, 5681): Fifty-two year old Julia Wormser Seligman the former of wife of Jefferson Seligman from whom she had been divorced for several years, passed away today in New York City.

    1921: In Hanover, Germany, Sendel and Riva Grynszpan gave birth to Herschel Grynszpan the alleged assassin of Ernst vom Rath whose death was the pretext for Kristallnacht.

    1921: Birthdate of Jerzy Bielecki the Polish member of the resistance who was named a righteous gentile by Yad Vashem. (As reported Dennis Hevesi)

    1921: In Jerusalem, Churchill met with Abdullah ruler of Transjordan who sought to have an Arab Emir (himself) appointed to rule Palestine saying that this was the best way to avoid violence between Arabs and Jews. Churchill sought to reassure the Abdullah, that his fears were groundless. He told him that if Abdullah would not oppose Jewish settlement west of the Jordan, he would not have to worry about Jewish settlements east of the Jordan in Transjordan.

    1928: The Presidium of the General Executive Committee of the USSR passed the decree "On the attaching for Komzet of free territory near the Amur River in the Far East for settlement of the working Jews." The decree meant "a possibility of establishment of a Jewish administrative territorial unit on the territory of the called region.

    1928(6th of Nisan): Rabbi Dan Plotzki, author Kelei Hemdah, passed away

    1928: In Berlin, Johanna "Hanka" Grothendieck, Johanna "Hanka" Grothendieck, the Chassi turned anarchist gave birth to French mathematician Alexander Grothendieck.

    1930: Birthdate of Jerome Isaac Friedman, the physicist who co- discovered the quark and won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1990.

    1932: The first Maccabiah athletic games took place in Tel Aviv with representatives from 14 countries.

    1933: The German Bishops' Conference bestowed a new level of acceptance of Hitler and the Nazis when the church leaders “conditionally revised prohibition of Nazi Party membership.”]

    1934: Word of “Boycott Day” leaks out causing prices on the Berlin Stock Exchange to drop. Responding to economic reality Hitler decides that Boycott Day will go forward, but will last only for one day instead of serving as the kickoff day for an on-going boycott of Jewish businesses and professionals designed to destroy the economic well-being of Germany’s Jewish population.

    1934: Rogers and Effie D. Pinner sold their house at 39 Riggs Place in South Orange, NJ.

    1935: Mayor Fiorello La Guardia attended the formal opening of Reuben’s Restaurant and Delicatessen on East 58th Street in New York City.

    1937(16th of Nisan, 5697): Second Day of Pesach; 1st day of the Omer

    1938: Reuben's Restaurant and Delicatessen had a formal opening at 6 East 58th Street which was attended by Mayor Fiorello La Guardia in attendance. It stayed at this location for three more decades until it was sold in the mid-1960s, afterwards moving to a location at 38th Street and Madison Avenue.

    Arnold Reuben, a German immigrant, had first opened the restaurant in 1908 on Park Avenue Eight years later, the restaurant moved Broadway and in 1918 it moved again, this time Madison Avenue.

    1938: Birthdate of businessman Leonard Stern former owner of the Village Voice and head of Hartz Pet Supply

    1938: Bronislaw Huberman leaves The Hague as he prepares to move to Tel Aviv where he will conduct the newly formed Palestine Philharmonic Orchestra.

    1941: Jacques Masson, a French Mizrahi Sephardic Jew of Bukharian ancestry, and Diana (Dina) Zeiger the product of an Ashkenazi family gave birth to Jeffrey Masson, the author of The Assault on Truth, a controversial book about Freud and psychoanalysis.

    1942: The first transport of French Jews to Auschwitz began. This represented one of the first transports of Western Jews to the Death Camps. The Jews were from Paris and were rounded up with the help of the French Police. One of the popular myths of World War II was that the French people were united in the Resistance to the Nazi occupation. In truth, there plenty of collaborators both in Vichy and the German occupied zones. This had tragic consequences for the Jews of France as well as Jews from other parts of Europe who had sought refuge there before the outbreak of the war.

    1943: In San Francisco, Huntington Sanders Gruening, the son of Ernest Gruening, and his wife gave birth to Alaska politician Clark S. Gruening.

    1944(4th of Nisan, 5704): Rabbi Chayyim Most, Maggid of Kovono, was killed by the Nazis. Apparently Rabbi Most was a leader of outstanding character although there is little about him in the official records that I have found so far. He appears to have not been killed with most of the other Jews of Kovno; but met death at the same time that the remaining youngsters of the ghetto were slaughtered.

    1944: Anne Frank and her family hear Gerrit Bolkestein, Education Minister of the Dutch Government in exile; deliver a radio message from London urging his war-weary countrymen to collect "vast quantities of simple, everyday material" as part of the historical record of the Nazi occupation. "History cannot be written on the basis of official decisions and documents alone," he said. "If our descendants are to understand fully what we as a nation have had to endure and overcome during these years, then what we really need are ordinary documents -- a diary, letters."

    1944: The Irgun issued a statement today claiming credit for the attacks on police stations in Haifa, Jerusalem and Haifa. It also claimed that it had called ahead and left warnings about the impending attacks. The Irgun denied responsibility for shootings in Tel Aviv and blamed those on the Stern Gang.

    1945(14th of Nisan): Fast of the first born

    1945: After having sustained a nighttime attack by a superior German force, Captain Baum and the remnants of his ill-fated  task force suffered further losses as they tried and failed to make their towards American lines.

    1945: Birthdate of Israeli law professor Ruth Gaviszon.

    1945: Members of the Jewish Infantry Brigade of the British 8th Army celebrated a Seder in Faenza, Italy.

    1945: Members of the Jewish Brigade's First Camouflage (PAL) Royal Engineers celebrated Pesach in Libya using” a specially designed haggadah of their very own. The cover page of the soldiers' haggada bears their unit's emblem - a long-tailed wolf, outstretched in the center of a Magen David, the tail protruding between a couple of the star's corners. On either side of the insignia is written the unit's name, in English on one side and in Hebrew on the other, the letters sitting in what looks like fluttering ribbons.” (As reported by Lydia Aisenberg)

    1947: As Jerusalem prepared for its 17th night under a twelve-hour curfew, Haim Salomon and Dr. Jacob Thon, representing the Jewish Community Council, met with Brigadier General J.F. Bedford-Roberts in attempt to get him to lift the ban on Jewish movement and commerce.

    1947: An explosion and fire rocked the Iraq Oil Pipeline near its terminal in Haifa Bay today. Five youths dressed as Arabs whom authorities believe were really Jews are assumed to be responsible for the attack.

    1947: Lt. Gen Sir Alan G. Cunningham, High Commissioner for Palestine and LT. Gen. G.H. Macmillan, commander of the British troops in Palestine, left London for Palestine this morning after having conferred with Prime Minister Atlee on a new “get tough” policy for Palestine.

    1947: An announcement was made today that the United States has given its approval for a special session of the United Nations General Assembly to deal with the issue of Palestine. U.N. officials think that the session could take place sometime during the month of May.

    1948: In refugee camp at Prague, Samuel Freilich, a lawyer and rabbi from Munkács, in the Carpathian Ruthenia and Ella (Wieder) Freilich, who along with her husband had survived both Auschwitz and Dachau gave birth to Hadassah Freilich who gained fame as Hadassah Lieberman, the wife of Connecticut Senator Joe Lieberman who ran for Vice President on the ticket with Al Gore.

    1948: On his radio show, Jack Benny hits the laughter jackpot with the immortal “Your money or your life” bit.

    1949: James Grover McDonald, the first United States Ambassador to Israel presented his credentials today

    1956(16thof Nisan, 5716): Second Day of Pesach; 1st day of the Omer

    1956(16thof Nisan, 5716): Sixty-seven year old Tilly Newman, the wife of Joseph Newman passed away today and was buried in the Ella Street Cemetery.

    1960: Birthdate of Uri Orbach, the native of Petah Tikva who became an author and politician who served as Pensioner Affairs Minister.

    1966: Birthdate of James Douglas Bennet, an American journalist whose mother was Jewish and who became editor-in-chief of the Atlantic in 2006.

    1966(7thof Nisan, 5726): Sixty-four year old actress Helen Menken, the first wife of Humphrey Bogart, passed away today.

    1969(9th of Nisan, 5729): Rabbi Aryeh Levin passed away. Born in 1895, Reb Aryeh, was an Orthodox rabbi dubbed the "Father of Prisoners" for his visits to members of the Jewish underground imprisoned in the Central Prison of Jerusalem in the Russian Compound during the British Mandate. He was also known as the "Tzadik ("saint") of Jerusalem" for his work on behalf of the poor and the sick.”

    1969: President Dwight D Eisenhower died in Washington DC at the age of 78. Eisenhower was President during the Suez Crisis of October, 1956. In a rare of Cold War harmony, Ike sided with the Soviets. He allowed the Russians to threaten the British and the French with atomic attack if they did not withdraw from Suez in effect supporting the Nasser, the Egyptian dictator. After the fighting ended, he threatened the Israelis with economic destruction if they did not withdraw from the Sinai Peninsula and Gaza. Gaza was a base from which Egyptian supported terrorists attacked Israel. The Israelis wanted to trade withdrawal from the Sinai for and to the Egyptians illegally barring Israeli vessels or vessels that stopped at Israeli ports from using the Canal. None of this seemed to matter to Eisenhower. Instead he chose to take actions that bolstered Nasser who repaid Ike’s kindness with an even more virulent anti-Western, pro-Soviet policy. At the same time, it should be noted that Eisenhower was horrified by what American troops found when they liberated the concentration camps during World War II and insisted that all of it be filmed immediately so that nobody could ever denied what had happened.

    1969: In Miami Beach Marsha Pratts and Ronald Ratner gave birth to director Bret Ratner

    1970(20th of Adar II, 5730): Natan Alterman “an Israeli poet, playwright, journalist, and translator who - though never holding any elected office - was highly influential in Socialist Zionist politics, both before and after the formation of the state of Israel” passed away.

    1974(5th of Nisan, 5734): Sixty-eight year old Dorothy Fields “one of the great Broadway lyricists, who wrote popular songs for revues, films and shows for nearly 50 years” passed away  today.

    1975(16th of Nisan, 5735): Second day of Pesach; 1st day of the Omer.

    1975(16th of Nisan, 5735): German born political scientist Ernst Frankel passed away.

    1977: Birthdate of Lauren Weisberger, the native of Scranton, PA author of The Devil Wears Prada which was later made into a successful movie.  (A book about a Jewess in the clothing industry – how novel a novel)

    1978: The PLO leadership finally ordered a ceasefire today, after a meeting between UNIFIL commander General Emmanual Erskine and Yasser Arafat in Beirut

    1980: The Eldridge Street Synagogue was added to the U.S. National Register of Historic Places

    1980: U.S. premiere of “When Time Ran Out,” a disaster epic produced by Irwin Allen, with a script co-authored by Carl Foreman, with music by Lalo Schifrin and co-starring Paul Newman

    1985: Neil Simon's "Biloxi Blues" premiered in New York. The Jewish author wrote a hit play (and later successful movie) based on the clichéd collision between New York Jews and the U.S. Army during World War II.

    1985(6th of Nisan, 5745): Marc Chagall passed away. Born on July 7, 1887 in Vitebsk, Russia (now Belarus), Chagall studied in St. Petersburg and then moved to Paris before World War I. He returned to Russia where he served for a time during the 1920's as art director for the Moscow Jewish Theatre. He left the Soviet Union in 1923 and moved back to France. Distinguished for his surrealistic inventiveness, he is recognized as one of the most significant painters and graphic artists of the 20th century. Many of his paintings draw upon his life as a Jew and use Jewish themes of which the Praying Jew is one of the most famous. His twelve stained glass windows at the Hadassah Hospital-Hebrew University Medical Center are another example of Chagall's open identification with his Jewish heritage. There are numerous cites where you can find out more about him and view his works. I cannot do justice to him in this limited space.

    1986: 20thCentury Fox releases Lucas an “American teen tragicomedy film directed by David Seltzer and starring Corey Haim.”

    1988: In Northridge, Los Angeles, Steven and Eileen Plata Kalish gave birth to major league outfielder Ryan Michael Kalish.

    1994(16th of Nisan, 5754): Second Day of Pesach; 1st day of the Omer.

    1994(16th of Nisan, 5754): Russian born Playwright Eugene Ionesco passed away in Paris. Two of his more noted works were the Bald Soprano and The Rhinoceros.

    1996:The Shamgar commission, the official Commission of Inquiry set up to investigate the assassination of Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, submitted its findings today.

    1998: Arab Israeli politician, Haj Yahia entered the Knesset today as a replacement for Moshe Shahal. Upon taking his seat, he resigned his position as mayor of Tayibe.

    1999: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including recently released paperback editions of "Unfinished Journey: Twenty Years Later" by Yehudi Menuhin and "Barney Polan's Game: A Novel of the 1951 College Basketball Scandals" by Charley Rosen.

    2000: The police recommend filing corruption charges against former Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and his wife Sara

    2001: Canadian born Jazz musician and composer Moe Koffman passed away. He was accomplished on at least three woodwind instruments including flute, saxophone and clarinet.

    2001(4th of Nisan, 5761): Itzhak Mr. Yaakov, known as the father of the Israeli technology industry, was quietly taken into custody by a special security division of the Defense Ministry

    2001(4thof Nisan, 5761): Fifteen year old Eliran Rosenberg-Zayat and 13 year old Naftali Lanskorn were murdered by Hamas during a bombing at Mifgash HaShalom.

    2002(15thof Nisan, 5762): Pesach

    2002(15thof Nisan, 5762): “Rachel and David Gavish, 50, their son Avraham Gavish, 20, and Rachel's father Yitzhak Kanner, 83, were killed when a terrorist infiltrated the community of Elon Moreh in Samaria, entered their home and opened fire on its inhabitants. Hamas claimed responsibility for the attack.”

    2004: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of interest to Jewish readers including "Bobby Fischer Goes To War: How the Soviets Lost the Most Extraordinary Chess Match of All Time" by David Edmonds and "John Eidinow and Hirschfeld’s Harlem with Illustrations" by Al Hirschfeld.

    2005:“The Knesset again rejected a bill to delay the implementation of the disengagement plan by a vote of 72 to 39. The bill was introduced by a group of Likud MKs who wanted to force a referendum on the issue.”

    2006: Delta Airlines launched a route from Ben-Gurion International Airport to Atlanta and is also competing on the Tel Aviv-Newark route with El Al and Continental Airlines.

    2007: Shai Agassi resigned his position as President of the Products and Technology Group (PTG) at SAP AG to pursue interests in alternative energy and climate change.

    2008: In Jerusalem, The Bible Lands Museum in conjunction with the Rubin Academy of Music present Hot Slavic Winter – The Passion of Tchaikovsky, Rachmaninoff and more, as part of the Opera in the Morning series.

    2008: With a theme of “Shake it up on Shabbat with your Shabbat Egg Shakers!” Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, Iowa sponsors its second Musical Shabbat.

    2008: Three Kassam rockets were fired at Israel from the northern Gaza Strip, one of them hitting the outer wall of a preschool in one of the kibbutzim in the Sha'ar Hanegev region moments after the children were taken inside by their teacher.

    2009(3rdof Nisan, 5769): Eighty-eight year old Janet Rosenberg Jagan, the wife and political partner of Cheddi Jagan who held numerous political offices in Gyuana including the presidency passed away today.

    2009: Jews all over the world begin reading the Book of Vayikra (Leviticus)

    2009: In Iowa City, the U of I Hillel sponsors “Blintzes, Bubbly & Bingo” an enjoyable evening of food, drink, good company...and fabulous prizes!

    2009: The Chicago Tribune reviews “Levittown: Two Families, One Tycoon and the Fight for Civil Rights in America’s Legendary Suburb” by David Kushner

    2010: An episode of the “Simpsons” titled "The Greatest Story Ever D'ohed," is scheduled to be shown this evening. The episode includes scenes of Homer and Bart at the Western Wall with their Israeli tour guide, who will be voiced by British comedian Sascha Baron Cohen, of Borat and Bruno fame. In the episode, Homer gets "Jerusalem Syndrome" and believes that he is the Messiah. Also, the tour guide bickers and exchanges political barbs with Marge. In one scene, tour guide Jacob (Baron Cohen) presses the Simpsons for positive marks on a comment card. When Marge accuses him of being “pushy,” he snaps back, “Try living next to Syria for two months and see how laid back you are.”Ned Flanders, the Simpsons’ neighbor who has taken it upon himself to redeem Homer, is the one who invited the Simpsons on a Christian tour of the Holy Land.“[Flanders] feels that when Homer sees the sacred sites that he’ll become a good person,” Jean said in a phone interview. When the family visits the Western Wall, Bart reads some of the notes and responds, “Nope, not gonna happen.” At the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, Homer’s behavior gets Flanders banned for life. It is the Israeli hotel’s opulent breakfast buffet that appeals most to Homer. In the end, Producer Al Jean said, “Homer tries to unite the faiths through a message of peace and chicken because everybody eats chicken, no matter what religion they’re in.” “The Simpsons” have delved into Jewish subject matter in the past, including an adult bar mitzvah for Krusty the Clown (nee Herschel Shmoikel Pinchas Yerucham Krustofski) and a 2006 “Treehouse of Horrors” segment titled “You Gotta Know When to Golem.” "This is an episode that people from all three religions will be equally offended by," said Simpsons’ producer Al Jean.

    2010: Kathe Goldstein, “the musical voice” of Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, Iowa is scheduled to hold a piano recital for the enjoyment of the senior citizens living at Meth-Wick House who would otherwise be bereft of such cultural pleasure.

    2010: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including "The Sabbath World" by Judith Shulevitz and "The Living Fire: New and Selected Poems, 1975-2010" by Edward Hirsch.

    2010: The second and final day of The Legacy of the Shoah Film Festival is scheduled to take place at John Jay College in New York City featuring “Forgotten Transports: Family Stories – Latvia,” “Forgotten Transports: Men’s Stories – Belarus,” “Forgotten Transports: Fighting to Survive - Poland” and “Distant Journeys” by Alfred Radok

    2010: Two Israeli soldiers killed in a firefight with Palestinian terrorists in the southern Gaza Strip were buried in separate ceremonies today. Thousands attended the funeral for Maj. Eliraz Peretz, who was on Mount Herzl in Jerusalem. He is the father of four young children. His brother was killed in action in 1998. Staff Sgt. Ilan Sviatkovsky of the Golani Brigade, Staff Sgt. Ilan Sviatkovsky of the Golani Brigade, was buried later in the day.

    2011: “The Simon Wiesenthal Center posthumously awarded Hiram Bingham IV their Medal of Valor in New York City with a film tribute” that showed how US Vice-Consul Bingham saved lives as the Nazis marched across western Europe.

    2011: A ruckus broke out in the lobby of the Supreme Court on today when right-wing activists Itamar Ben-Gvir and Baruch Marzel hurled insults at Balad MK Haneen Zoabi as she came out of the courtroom..

    2011: Evergreen is scheduled to perform a concert “Enchanted Celtic Music from Israel” sponsored by The Embassy of Israel, the Jewish Community Relations Council of Greater Washington and Sixth & I Historic Synagogue.

    2011: “An Article of Hope” is scheduled to be shown at the Hartford Jewish Film Festival.

    2011: “Grace Paley: Collected Shorts” and “Eichmann’s End: Love, Betrayal, Death” are scheduled to be shown at The Westchester Jewish Film Festival.

    2011: Under legislation approved unanimously today by the Maryland House of Delegates, SNCF must catalog and put online records relating to its transportation of 76,000 Jews and other prisoners from the suburbs of Paris to the German border from 1942 to 1944. (As reported by JTA)

    2011: The Northern Virginia Hebrew Congregation is scheduled to host a lecture by Michael O’Hanlon entitled “The Limits of Foreign Policy: Reconsidering the Future Role of the U.S. In World Affairs

    2012: Jennifer Laszlo Mizrahi, founder and President of The Israel Project, is scheduled to discuss "The Prime Ministers: An Intimate Narrative of Israeli Leadership" with its author, Ambassador Yehuda Avner.

    2012: In New York City, The Center for Traditional Music and Dance's An-sky Institute for Jewish Culture is scheduled to present the year's first installment of the Tantshoyz Yiddish Dance Party series, as part of the Sixth Street Community Synagogue's klezmer series.

    2012(5thof Nisan, 5772): Eighty-two year old “Irving Louis Horowitz, an eminent sociologist and prolific author who started a leading journal in his field but who came to fear that his discipline risked being captured by left-wing ideologues” passed away today. (As reported by Douglas Martin)

    2013: YIVO Institute for Jewish Research is scheduled to present Boris Sandler's Film "Yosef Kerler"

    2013: The Bernard and Irene Schwartz Distinguished Speakers Series is scheduled to present “Those Angry Days’ Roosevelt, Lindberg, and America’s Fight Over World War II” featuring Lynn Olson and Tom Brokaw.

    2013: Artists Ben Schacter and Yona Verwer are scheduled to lead a discussion of “It's a Thin Line: The Eruv and Jewish Community in New York and Beyond´ at the Yeshiva University Museum.

    2013: Jewish dead lie forgotten in East L.A. graves” published today” described a snapshot of a forgotten world as seen through Mt. Zion Cemetery

    2013: The traditional Birkat Kohanim mass priestly blessing took place this morning at the Kotel.

    2013:The escalation of Palestinian violence in the West Bank is reminiscent of the second intifada, but has not yet turned into a third one, Judea Brigade Commander Col. Avi Baluth told The Jerusalem Post today.

    2014: In Chile, “an art school that promotes Nazi ideology scheduled to open today in the southern island of Chiloé.”

    2014: Paramount is scheduled release the biblically based epic film “Noah” to the general movie-going public.

    2014: Israel told the Palestinians it will not free the final batch of prisoners they had been expecting alongside US-brokered peace talks, a senior Palestinian official said today.

    2014: This afternoon, “Under the Same Sun” is scheduled to be shown at the Northern Virginia Jewish Film Festival.

    2015: In keeping with its annual tradition Congregation Agudas Achim is scheduled to hold Shabbat morning services at the home of Joseph and Kineret Zabner, to honor the Torah scroll which is a long-time family possession.

    2015: Lewis Black is scheduled to perform at the Garden of Laughs Benefit in NYC.

    2015: “The Green Prince” and “Magic Men” are scheduled to be shown at the Northern Virginia Film Festival.

    2015: Sonia Kaplan, author of My Endless War, is scheduled her experiences during the Shoah at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.

    2015(8thof Nisan, 5775): Shabbat Hagadol







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    March 29

    835 BCE (1st of Nisan, 2926): According to some Joash assumed the throne as King of Judah

    1188: Emperor Frederick was convinced (both diplomatically and financially) by Moses bar Joseph Hakohen of Mayence to issue a decree declaring “that anyone who wounds a Jew shall have his arm cut off, he who slays a Jew shall die. This decree succeeded in preventing most of the excesses of the pervious crusades in the third crusade soon to follow.

    1244(11th of Nisan, 5004): Rabbi Meir Abulafia Halevi (Ramah), noted Talmudist, masorete, and poet passed away today at Toledo, Spain at the age of 74. (As reported by Abraham Bloch)

    1349: Emperor Charles IV “declared that the city of Speyer had no blame for” the riots in January, 1349 during which “the Jewish community was totally wiped out.”

    1366: Coronation of Henry II as King of Castile and Leon. Henry denigrated his rival Peter by portraying him as a friend of the Jews; a portrayal that including calling him “King of the Jews.” Henry exploited Castilian animosity towards Jews by instigating pogroms and forcing them to convert to Christianity.

    1559: Polish King Sigismund II grants the Jews a charter despite opposition of the local authorities at Przemysl.

    1602: In Stoke-on-Trent, Vicar Thomas Lightfoot and his wife gave birth to clergyman John Lightfoot who authored several books on the Old Testament and its positive relationship to Jesus as well as such works as A Handful of Gleanings out of the Book of Exodus

    1614(19th of Nisan): Rabbi Joshua Falk ben Alexander Katz of Lemberg author of Sefer Me’irat Einayim, passed away today.

    1629: Birthdate of Alexis Mikhailovich, the second of the Romanov Czars. He reigned during the period marked by the Chmelnicki Uprising that decimated eastern European Jewry and the appearance of Sabbati Zvi. Considering the fact that we have records of the Czar ordering sharpshooters to protect Jews on their travels, sending Jewish merchants abroad to purchase wine and allowing Jews living in territory he acquired under the Treaty of Andrussev to continue living there as Russian citizens, he is considered to have been “kindly disposed toward the Jews.

    1632: The Treaty of Saint-Germain is signed, returning Quebec to French control after the English had seized it in 1629. Return of the city to French control would keep Jews from settling in Quebec for another 130 years. The French gave up Canada to the British in 1763 at the end of the Seven Years War, known in America as The French and Indian War. Once the British were in control, Jews began to openly settle in the former French colony.

    1664: Consecration of Giulio Rospigliosi to whom apostate Jew Giovanni Battista Jona, dedicated a Hebrew translation of the New Testament when he became Pope Clement IX

    1714(13th of Nisan): Rabbi David ben Solomon Altaras, author of Kelalei ha-Dikduk passed away.

    1719(9th of Nisan): In Venice, Rabbi Jacob Pardo of Ragusa and his wife gave birth to David Pardo who accepted the position of Chief Rabbi at Sarajevo in 1764 and passed away in Jerusalem in 1792.

    1744(16th of Nisan): Rabbi Hayyim ben Jacob Abulafia of Smyrna, author of Ez ha-Hayyim passed away.

    1773:Pope Clement XIV confirmed the bull issued by Clement VII concerning “Jus Gazaka” which the Jews viewed positively since it dealt with their right to rent houses in the ghetto of Rome.

    1793: In a decree issued today, the restriction on Austrian Jews “farming rural property” was modified to allow for it on “the estates of noblemen” “and even then hereditary tenancy or acquisition was prohibited.”

    1801(15th of Nisan, 5561): First Day of Pesach – the holiday is observed for the first time during the Presidency of Thomas Jefferson

    1814: The King of Denmark officially allowed Jews to find employment in all professions and makes racial and religious discrimination punishable by law.

    1819: Birthdate of Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise. Isaac Mayer Wise was one of America's most influential Jewish leaders during the 19th Century. His major achievements were the establishment of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations in 1873, the Hebrew Union College in 1875, and the Central Conference of American Rabbis in 1889. This brief summary can in no way do justice to the life a man who had such an impact on the American Jewish community.

    1819: In Larraine, France Simon and Pauline Levy gave birth to Kalmus Calmann Levy.

    1821: Birthdate of engraver and publisher Frank Leslie whose Illustrated Newspaper carried pictures of Jewish events including a Hebrew Purim Ball and Chanukah Celebration.

     1832: Birthdate of Austrian philosopher Theodore Gomperz, the native of Brno, who “was elected a member of the Academy of Science, received the degree of Doctor of Philosophy honoris causa from the university of Königsberg, and Doctor of Literature from the universities of Dublin and Cambridge.”

    1848: In Great Britain, Samuel Joseph Rubinstein married a daughter of David Moses Dyte, a London quill merchant.

    1848: A decree issued today granted civil rights to the Jews of Alessandria, Italy which allowed to serve in the army and hold government jobs.

    1858(14th of Nisan): Jews who had served in the Russian army received the right of residence in the province of Abo-Bjorneborg, Finland upon its annexation today.

    1860: Todays "Personal" column reported that “The Cincinnati papers notice the arrival in that city of Mr. Israel J. Benjamin, author of Eight Years in Asia and Africa -- a Jew, who is making the tour of North America to examine the condition of his race. His design is to cross the Plains, spend a short time in the Rocky Mountains, and thence proceed through California to Asia.

    1861: Opening night at the Winter Garden for “The Hebrew Son” a play designed to appeal to the Jews in the audience.

    1862: Birthdate of Swiss born American portrait painter whose work includes a painting of Isaac Newton Seligman that has disappeared and one of his five year old son Joseph L. Seligman which was done in 1891 and first exhibited in January of 1892.

    1863 “New From Fortress Monroe “published today reported that two Jews were arrested while on board the SS Thomas A. Morgan which was making her trip from this Fortress Monroe, VA to Yorktown, VA. The Jews had “a lot of contraband goods” in their possession. [The implication of the article is that the Jews were trading with the Rebel forces further upriver.

    1863: The New York Times reported that Colonel Crane and a group of Union soldiers captured a schooner towing a lighter filled with cotton in Florida. Of the 12 men aboard the schooner, 10 were rebels while the others were a man named Titus from Rhode Island and “a Jew from New York named J. Cohen.” [The correspondent does not say how he ascertained that Cohen was a Jew or why his was the only one whose religion was mentioned.]

    1866(22nd of Adar II, 5646): Rabbi Menachem Mendel of Lubavitch passed away. Born in 1789, Rabbi Menachem Mendel was the grandson of the first Chabad Rebbe and was the third Chabad Lubavitch Rebbe. "He was also known as the Tzemach Tzedek (Righteous Sprout), the name for a voluminous compendium of Jewish halachah that he authored. He also authored Derech Mitzvotecha (Way of Your Commandments), a mystical exposition of Jewish law." According to some sources, the seventh Lubavitch Rebbe, Menachem Mendel Schneerson was named in honor his illustrious predecessor. This brief summary can in no way do justice to the life and writing of this illustrious sage.

    1867: “Affairs In Illinois” published today reported on the victimization of the insurance companies by a series of fraudulent claims. The article concludes by stating “And the fire insurance companies have been so frequently victimized by Jews practicing arson, that many of them are declining Israelitish risks.’ The article does not contain any details about these Jewish arsons.

    1867: “The Purim Ball” published today reported that this event is different from the other balls that make up the New York Social Season. Unlike the other festivities, the Purim Ball is rooted in the national traditions of the Jews and calls for form of costume and masquerade that makes it a unique event.

    1873(1st of Nisan, 5633): Rosh Chodesh Nisan

    1875: It was reported today that there is a dispute among the members of New York’s Beth-El congregation over how to deal with the remains of those buried at the two cemeteries owned by the congregation. Beth-El was formed by a merger of Anshei Chesed (Norfolk Street Synagogue) and Adas Jeshurun which is why Beth-El has two cemeteries.

    1877(15th of Nissan, 5637): First Day of Pesach – the holiday is observed for the first time during the Presidency of Rutherford B. Hayes.

    1878: Birthdate of Albert Gumm, the Indiana native who gained fame as a songwriter under the name of Albert Von Tilzer, the author of “Take Me Out To The Ballgame.”

    1880: Myer Stern represented the Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum Society at today’s meeting of the New York State Board of Charities meeting.

    1880(17thof Nisan, 5640): Sixty-year old Heinrich Bernhard Oppenheim, the scion of a Jewish banking family who served as editor of the liberal Die Reform (The Reform) who served in the German Reichstag.

    1880: Birthdate of pianist Rosina Lhévinne whom Juilliard president Peter Mennin called "quite simply one of the greatest teachers of this century." Born in Kiev, she began her piano studies at age six and entered the Moscow Conservatory at age nine. Over the next nine years, she perfected her piano technique, graduating in 1898 with the school's gold medal. Among her classmates at the Conservatory were Sergei Rachmaninoff and Josef Lhévinne, whom Rosina married after her graduation. After getting married, Lhévinne abandoned her fledging solo performance career in order to keep her husband, also an accomplished pianist, in the spotlight. However, she did not abandon the performance circuit, often playing two-piano concerts with her husband. The Lhévinnes toured the U.S. for the first time in 1907, and moved permanently to New York immediately after World War I. In 1924, they joined the faculty of the newly established Juilliard Graduate School, where they shared a studio. After Josef Lhévinne's death in 1944, Rosina continued to teach at Juilliard, where her students included such promising musicians as Van Cliburn, David Bar-Ilan, James Levine, and Arthur Gold. As her students made their mark in national and international piano competitions, Lhévinne's fame grew. However, it was only in 1956, at the age of seventy-six, that Lhévinne resumed her own solo piano career. Her first concert was with the Aspen Festival Orchestra; she went on to perform with orchestras around the country. In 1963, she appeared in four performances with the New York Philharmonic, under Leonard Bernstein's direction. Despite a busy performance schedule, Lhévinne continued to teach at Juilliard until she passed her ninety-sixth birthday.

    1881: In Leadville, CO a fire broke out in the Pioneer Salon which spread to the next door liquor business owned by the Schloss family.

    1882: A two day Pogrom in the largely Jewish town of Balta (Russia) comes to an end leaving nearly half of the homes and shops in ruins.

    1884: Mrs. Max Rosenberg claimed that on this day her husband forced her to pack her trunk, leave their New York apartment and stopped providing her with financial support. (Rosenberg would subsequently deny these claims, citing proof that she left of her own volition, that he continued to support her, that she still loved him and that the cause of their problems was that he was Jewish – a fact resented by her gentile father.)

    1887: In Leadville, CO, Simon Schloss “was a member the committee of arrangements for the eighth annual Purim Masque Ball held at the Tabor Opera House today

    1888(16thof Nisan, 5648): Second Day of Pesach; 1st day of the Omer

    1888(16thof Nisan, 5648): Seventy-four year old composer and pianist Charles-Valentin Alkan whose “Op. 31 set of Préludes includes a number of pieces based on Jewish subjects, including some titled Prière (Prayer), one preceded by a quote from the Song of Songs, and another titled Ancienne mélodie de la synagogue (Old synagogue melody)

    1890(8th of Nisan, 5650): Shabbat HaGadol

    1890: Birthdate of daughter Pauline Herzl, daughter of Theodor Herzl who passed away in 1930.

    1890: “Emanuel Bernheimer” published today listed the philanthropies and charities supported by the founder Lion Brewery including Mount Sinai Hospital, the Hebrew Orphan Asylum and the Montefiore Home for the Chronic Invalids.

    1890: It was reported today that in St. Petersburg, university students have presented Professor Menelieff with demands that entrance fees be reduced and the restrictions against Jewish admission be removed.

    1890(8th of Nisan, 5650): Forty-five year old Morris Eising, a Jewish immigrant from German was found dead in his boarding house at West 24th Street.

    1892: The Russian government published the edict that expelled 14,000 Jews from Moscow. Two thirds of Moscow’s Jewry were disposed and violently removed to the Pale of Settlement.

    1892(1st of Nisan 5652): Rosh Chodesh Nisan

    1892(1st of Nisan 5652): Rabbi Elimelech Szapira of Grodzhisk passed away. Born in 1832, he “was the leading Hasidic rebbe of his time in Poland. He was a chosid (follower) of the Rizhiner Rebbe. After the death of his father, the Sorof of Mogelnica, he assumed leadership of the chasidim, who eventually numbered ten thousand. His sons-in-law were the Kozhnitser Rebbe and Rebbe Osher the Second of Stolin-Karlin.”

    1893: In Boston, Judge Ely dismissed charges against Tavia Angus, the defendant charged by the police with illegally possessing wine and liquor which his co-religionists from Adat Israel claimed he was holding for them and which would be distributed prior to Passover which begins at sundown on March 31. The Jews will now be able to get their wine and brandy back from the police in time for the first Seder.

    1893: “New Immigration Commissioner” published today described Secretary of Treasury John G. Carlisle’s appointment of Joseph H. Senner as the Commissioner of Immigration at New York. (Carlisle was not Jewish; Senner was)

    1895: “Grand Cake Walk For Charity” published today described the fund raiser sponsored by the Monte Relief Society which began with an address by the founder and President Sofia Monte-Loebinger. The society which is named for its founder was founded by a handful of Jewesses and provides financial aid to the city’s destitute.1895(4th of Nisan, 5655): Bernhard Bernhard, a benefactor to many Jewish charities including the Hebrew Benevolent Association, passed away today at his home on East 62nd Street in New York leaving behind two children

    1896(15th of Nisan, 5656): First Day of Pesach

    1896(15th of Nisan, 5656): The New York Times reported that “Pesach, or the Feast of the Passover, with which the Israelites celebrate the deliverance of the Jews from bondage in Egypt, was inaugurated at sundown yesterday. The feast continues eight consecutive days and will close with the setting of the sun next Saturday.”

    1896(15thof Nisan, 5656): Fifty-two year old Hungarian born revolutionary Leó Frankel who took part in the Paris Commune of 1871 passed away today.

    1896: It was reported today that Lucien L. Bonheur is chairman of the committee planning the 19th annual Strawberry Festival sponsored by the Young Men’s Hebrew Association. He is being assisted by Isaac Newton Lewis, Falk Younker, Levi Hershfield, Edwin M. Schwartz and Dr. Louis S. Rosenthal. Percival S. Menken is President of the Association.

    1897: “Millions For Charity” published today described a “stupendous project” to be underwritten by the Baron de Hirsch Fund that will “relieve the congested district of” New York’s “east side by building homes and establishing industries in the suburbs.”

    1897(25thof Adar II, 5657): Sixty-six year old David Weinberg, a retired furrier, passed away at his home leaving behind a widow and four children in New York.

    1897(25thof Adar II, 5657): Forty-nine year old Louis Israel, “proprietor of the one of the largest livery stables in Brooklyn” passed away today.  A native of Brooklyn, he was President of the Hebrew Benevolent Society and a member of the Independent Order of the Free Sons of Israel, the King Solomon Lodge and the B’nai Sholom Benefit Society.

    1898(6th of Nisan, 5658): Rabbi Emanuel Schwab who was 101 years old passed away today in New York City.  A native of Frankfort on Main he came to the United States 53 years ago where he served as rabbi of congregations at Schenectady, NY and Bridgeport, Conn.  He was preceded in death by his wife the former Miss Sophie Hirsch whom he had married in 1862.

    1899: Baroness Hirsch the widow of the late Jewish philanthropist is reportedly to be critically ill.

    1899: The Jewish Colonial Bank in London begins to accept subscriptions.

    1900: The American Israelite announced the death of Isaac Mayer Wise.

    1903: Herzl meets with the Belgian born barrister Leon Constant Ghislain Carton de Wiart now living in Egypt. Herzl tells him that “We will give up the word 'Charter' but not the thing itself."

    1905: At 07:00 today Dorothy Levitt “departed from the De-Dion showroom in Great Marlborough Street London, and arrived at the Adelphi Hotel in Liverpool at 18:10, having completed the 205 miles in 11 hours” thus establishing “a new record for the longest drive achieved by a lady driver.”

    1907(14th of Nisan, 5667): On Ellis Island, Rabbi Adolph Radin joined 180 Jewish immigrants in a Seder this evening which marked their first Passover in the United States.

    1907: As of today 140,000 soldiers had been recruited to help quell the Romanian Peasant Revolt. The peasants were revolting against the Christian nobles who were the landowners responsible for their exploitation. An untold number of Jews fell victim to the peasants because they were the one who collected the rents. Once again, a dispute between groups of Christians results in dead Jews.

    1910: Eugène-Melchior, vicomte de Vogüé a 19th century French archaeologist and author “who is known for his architectural studies of Jerusalem, the Temple Mount and the surrounding areas. (For more see Digging Through The Bible by Richard A. Freund)

    1912: By decree of the King of Italy, Jews in Tripoli can now organize as a community.

    1913: Birthdate of Hyman Bloom who came to the United States with his family in 1920, at the age of seven. He lived for most of his life in Boston, Massachusetts and at a young age planned to become a rabbi, but his family could not find a suitable teacher. Bloom and Jack Levine, another Jewish painter from Boston, received scholarships in the fine arts given by the famous Harvard art professor Denman Ross. Bloom, along with Levine and another painter, Karl Zerbe, eventually became associated with a style named Boston Expressionism. He passed away in 2009.

    1913: Birthdate of comedian Phil Foster. Born Phil Feldman in Brooklyn, Foster gained lasting fame as Frank De Fazio on the 1970’s sitcom “Laverne and Shirley.” He passed away in 1985.

    1915: Emanuel Beckerman, an interpreter in the Bronx Municipal Court was pleased to learn today that the ten pounds of matzoth that he had shipped to Rabbi Bernard Pressen for his Seder in Berlin had arrived in Amsterdam and should have made it to Berlin in time for the Seder. Beckerman had met Pressen in 1907 did not want his co-religionist to go with unleavened bread because the Kaiser’s government had banned using wheat to make matzoth.

    1915: “More than 300 Jewish soldiers and sailors along with Admiral Charles Sigsbee who had commanded the Battleship Maine, were the guests tonight at a Seder hosted by the Army and Navy Y.M.H.A.

    1915(14th of Nisan, 5675): Ninety men and one hundred and five women ranging in age from 67 to 110 held a Seder at the Home of the Daughters of Jacob in New York City. Nissen Rosen, 105 years old, will sit at one end of the table where he will face 110 year old Ethel Rosenstein. It will be a double celebration for Hannah Perlaeur who was born on the night of the Seder 95 years ago.

    1915(14th of Nisan, 5675): One hundred Jews who had recently arrived from Jerusalem were among those who participated at a Seder at the Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society’s home on Broadway.

    1915(14th of Nisan, 5675): Dr. M.J. Leff conducted a Seder for the staff at the Beth Israel Hospital in New York City.

    1915: As Jews ran their last errands in preparation for the Seder at Ostrolenka, Russia, German planes began bombing the city with what appeared to be a decision by “the enemy to raze the city to its foundations.”

    1915: It was reported today that Judge Nathaniel E. Harris, the governor-elect of Georgia believes “the bitterness against Leo Frank has largely passed away and there are now many who take the view that his conviction was a miscarriage of justice” while “on the other hand, there are plenty of them who do not.”

    1919: “The centenary of the birth of the late Dr. Isaac M. Wise” is scheduled to “be celebrated by the Jews of America” today according to Rabbi Joseph Silverman.

    1921: Birthdate of Bronx native Abraham H. Baum, who would lead the raid commanded by Blood and Guts Patton to rescue his son-in-law from a German POW camp.

    1921: Winston Churchill, British Colonial Secretary, is greeted by 10,000 Jews on Mt. Scopus in Palestine. Both the Chief Sephardic and Ashkenazic Rabbis were in attendance. They gave him a Sefer Torah. Churchill planted a tree on the future site of Hebrew University and spoke in support of the Zionist endeavors in Palestine.

    1921: It was reported today that the late Julia Wormser Seligman was a native of San Francisco who was the only daughter of the late Isidore Wormser from whom she inherited two million dollars.

    1923(12th of Nisan, 5683): Fast of the First Born observed because the 14th of Nisan falls on Shabbat.

    1923: Birthdate of Jack David Dunitz the Glasgow born British chemist and widely known chemical crystallographer who was a Professor of Chemical Crystallography at the ETH Zurich from 1957 until his official retirement in 1990 and is the husband of Barbara Steuer as well as the father of Marguerite and Julia Gabrielle Steuer

    1925: While visiting Palestine, Lord Balfour, of Balfour Declaration fame, “reads the lessons in the Anglican Cathedral of St. George.”

    1926: In Kecskemét, Hungary, Solomon and Margaret Sandberg who were murdered in 1944 gave birth to Gusztáv Sandberg who gained fame as Dachau survivor and Israeli economist Moshe Sanbar.

    1927: Birthdate of Martin Fleischmann. A chemist at the University of Utah, Fleischmann (and his partner Stanley Pons) claimed to have discovered Cold Fusion in 1989.

    1928: Yeshiva College received its charter in New York City. Yeshiva College began as a Cheder on the lower east side of Manhattan in 1886. During the first decades of the twentieth century the school began offering dual curriculum including secular level high school courses. At that time it became known as The Talmudical Academy. Yeshiva College was founded to provide TA grads with alternative to secular colleges when going on to higher education. The college became Yeshiva University in 1946 and eventually altered its charter to become a secular university. None of these changes came without protests. But these changes show how Modern Orthodoxy has dealt with need to maintain Jewish education and tradition while equipping generations of youngsters with the skills to live in the secular world.

    1930: The first American convention of the promoters and adherents of the Yiddish language, literature and culture opened this evening at the Irving Plaza Hall in New York City. Eight hundred people from the United States and Canada attended the opening session of a convention working to foster Yiddish Culture.

    1931: Birthdate of Evelyn de Rothschild. Rothschild headed the English branch of the family and its banking business for twenty-one years. In 2003, the English and French branches merged and Baron David de Rothschild, head of the French branch assumed the new leadership position. The Rothschilds continue to be "one of the world's largest private banking dynasties."

    1932: At the first Jewish Olympic Games, officially known as the Maccabiah, American Sybil Koff of New York, finished first in the semi-final of the 100 meter race while the American team finished second in the semi-final of the relay race. The opening contests in which American Jews played a prominent part took place “in the newly built stadium situated at the junction of the Yarkon River and the Mediterranean Sea” before a crowd estimated to exceed the venue’s 25,000 seat capacity.

    1932: Jack Benny debuted on radio. This legendary Jewish entertainer moved from vaudeville to the electronic medium - radio, the movies and finally television.

    1933: The front page of the Nazi newspaper, Volkisher Beobachter, stated "Let Jewry Know Against Who it Has Declared War".

    1933: “In an act of anticipatory obedience to the Nazi regime, the management of UFA, a leading German motion picture production company, decided to fire several Jewish employees.”

    1934(13th of Nisan, 5694): Otto Hermann Kahn passed away. Born in Germany in 1867, this noted banker, collector, philanthropist and patron of the arts moved to the United States in 1893. He joined the banking firm of Kuhn, Loeb & Company and continued to add to his fortune. He was a founder and President of the Metropolitan Opera Company. He bankrolled numerous artists including Hart Crane, George Gershwin and Arturo Toscanini. Kahn uttered the following warning, “The deadliest foe of democracy is not autocracy but liberty frenzied. Liberty is not foolproof.” To work “it demands self-restraint, a sane and clear recognition of the practical and attainable, and of the fact that there are laws of nature which are beyond our power to change.”

    1934: Birthdate of Ehud Netzer, the native of Haifa who became a leading Israeli archeologist.

    1935: In Brooklyn, Abraham M. and Belle Lindenbaum gave birth to Samuel H. Lindenbaum, who was widely considered New York City’s top zoning lawyer and who was credited with doing as much as any of the powerful developers among his clients to shape the modern skyline of Manhattan…” (As reported by David W. Dunalp)

    1936: The SS guard formations were renamed SS-Totenkopfverbände (SS-Death's Head Units). They provided guards for concentration camps

    1938: A total of $20,000 was contributed tonight to the Youth Aliyah (immigration) fund of Hadassah to remove children from Austria as well as Germany and Poland.

    1937: Birthdate of Moacyr Jaime Scliar a Brazilian writer and physician who passed away in 2011.

    1937: The Palestine Post reported that the body of Jacob Zwanger, an engineer who had disappeared some 18 days earlier, was found near Rehovot. He was apparently strangled. A Jew and his Arab partner were arrested, both suspected of Zwanger's murder.

    1937: The Palestine Post reported that Arab brigands held up and robbed drivers near Jenin.

    1937: The Palestine Post reported that a plea was made in the House of Commons to reduce the British tariff on Palestine oranges which was devised to protect the South African citrus industry.

    1938: The New York Times reported that Dr. Sigmund Freud has been denied a passport so that he cannot leave Vienna for the Netherlands. A delegation that included Princess Marie Bonaparte had gone to Vienna to make Freud aware of the warm welcome that would await him in what would be his new Dutch home.

    1938: A total of $20,000 was contributed tonight to the Youth Aliyah (immigration) fund of Hadassah to remove children from Austria as well as Germany and Poland.

    1939: Birthdate of Roland Arnall, the French native who became a successful American businessman, diplomat and financial contributor to the well-being of Chabad-Lubavitch.

    1939: The Soviet NKVD secret police arrested Rabbi Levi Yitzchak Schneerson, the father of the late Chabad-Lubavitch Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson for his outspoken efforts against the Communist Party’s efforts to eradicate Jewish learning and practice in the Soviet Union. After more than a year of torture and interrogations in Stalin's prisons, he was sentenced to exile to the interior of Russia. He died there in 1944. Rabbi Schneerson was a distinguished Kabbalist. Some of his writings have been published under the name Likkutei Levi Yitzchak. Most of it, however, was burned or confiscated by the Soviet authorities and has yet to be returned to the Chabad movement.

    1942: SS Captain Dieter Wislicey wants $50,000 in cash as the price for stopping the deportations of Slovakian Jews to the death camps. He will get the money, but the deportations will continue

    1942: Founder's Day in honor of Isaac Mayer Wise, founder of Reform Judaism, was observed this afternoon in the Central Synagogue, with a special service under the auspices of the Greater New York City Alumni of the Hebrew Union College

    1943: Third and final shipment of Macedonian Jews from Skopje to Treblinka.  Of the 7,144 Jews shipped there over three days only about 200 survived the war/

    1944: Anne Frank mentions in her diary that Gerrit Bolkestein, Education Minister of the Dutch Government in exile, delivered a radio message from London urging his war-weary countrymen to collect "vast quantities of simple, everyday material" as part of the historical record of the Nazi occupation and writes "Ten years after the war people would find it very amusing to read how we lived, what we ate and what we talked about as Jews in hiding."

    1944: Tel Aviv was declared off limits to all military personnel today, including those who have family living in the city. The ban was in response to attacks on police stations in Haifa, Jaffa, and Jerusalem for which the Irgun has taken public credit.

    1945(15th of Nisan, 5705: First Day of Pesach

    1945(15th of Nisan, 5705): On the first day of Pesach least 58 Jews were murdered in a forest near the Austrian village of Deutsch Shuetzen, in what would come to be called the Deutsch Shuetzen Massacre. SS sergeant Adolf Storms SS sergeant Adolf Storms was among the perpetrators of the killing.

    1945: In the evening, members of the Jewish Infantry Brigade of the British 8thArmy serving in Italy took part in a Seder at Faenza.

    1945: The ill-fated and ill-conceived mission ordered by General Patton to rescue his son-in-law John K. Waters under the command of Captain Abraham Baum came to an ignominious end with Baum who had been shot in the groin joining the wounded Walters in a German hospital for POWS.

    1946: U.S. premiere of “Night Editor” directed by Henry Levin

    1947: Clifton Daniel interviewed Jewish refugees at Caraolos, a British run displaced persons camp outside of Famagusta, Cyprus. “An appeal for the outside world to consider their plight was the first and only formal proposal addressed” to him by these immigrants. Currently, there are 11,000 Jews living in camps like this all across Cyprus. If the British stick to their policy of releasing 750 Jews a month to go to Palestine, it will take at least fourteen months to empty these camps.

    1947: “A ship carrying 1,600 Jewish unauthorized refugees was intercepted tonight off the northern coast of Palestine by the Royal Navy.” The ship which was known as the Patria or Moledeth was taken to the harbor at Haifa.

    1947: At a mass meeting in Tel Aviv, Golda Meyerson, the head of the Jewish Agency’s political department “assailed the underground extremists’ warfare today in these words: ‘Terrorism is assisting Palestine’s British administration it has put Palestine Jewry on the defensive, whereas but for terrorism the Zionists could have pursued a more vigorous line in their political efforts…we don ot want to embark on internal warfare, but if it be thrust upon us we shall finish with the terrorists, although without cooperating with the Government in doing so.’”

    1949: In a meeting with Zionist leaders in New York, former Prime Minister Winston Churchill offers assurance that his commitment to the Jewish state is as solid as it has ever been.

    1950: The United Nations Conciliation Commission for Palestine issues a memorandum designed to “meet the Israeli demands for direct negotiations and the Arab desire that the commission act as mediator.”

    1950: The “first contingent of ‘hard core’ cases from the refugee camps in German and Austria arrive in Israel” three days before Pesach. “These unfortunates, the halt, the lame and the blind were brought in by the combined efforts of the international relief organizations, the Jewish Agency for Palestine and the Israeli Government.” Their arrival is an example of David Ben Gurion’s belief that Israel is the home for all Jews regardless of their condition.

    1951: Judy Holliday, born Judy Tuvim, won the Oscar for Best Actress for her portrayal of Billie Dawn in the film “Born Yesterday.”

    1951: Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were convicted of espionage. The prosecutor in the case and the judge who would pronounce the death sentence were also Jewish. However, right-wing politicians would overlook this and use the Rosenberg case as further proof that the Jews were part of the Communist Conspiracy.

    1953: Birthdate of Samuel Elliott Chwat founder of the Sam Chwat Speech Center.

    1954: In “Massacre at Scorpion’s Pass” published today the Time correspondent described the terror attack that took place south of Beersheba.,33009,819663,00.html

    1956: Syria returned 4 Israeli soldiers who had been held captive for fifteen months in return for an the prisoners the Israelis had taken during Operation Olive Leaves.

    1956: Be'er Sheva or Beersheba was linked to Israel's railway system. Yes, this is the ancient city mentioned connection with Abraham and Isaac. This is just one example of how the young state of Israel was developing its economy and infrastructure while confronting on-going threats of Arab attacks as well as the reality of cross-border raids by fedayin (the name given to the terrorists of those days.)

    1959: Birthdate of Nouriel Roubini, the Turkish born son of Iranian Jews who became a leading American advisor on economics and the chairman of Roubini Global Economics.

    1959: Birthdate of Perry Farrell, lead singer of Jane’s Addiction

    1959: Release date for “Some Like It Hot” a great comedy film directed, produced and co-authored by Billy Wilder.

    1963: U.S. premiere of Miracle of the White Stallions” directed by Arthur Hiller.

    1965: In the United Kingdom, premiere of Rodgers and Hammerstein’s “The Sound of Music” with a script by Ernest Lehman.

    1965: Birthdate of Elisheva Greenbaum. In June of 2003, at the Metulla Festival of Poetry, Ellisheva was awarded the prestigious "Tevah" prize in poetry. Earlier, in 2002, Elisheva was awarded The Prime Minister's prize for poetry.

    1967(17th of Adar II, 5727): Israeli author, Isaac Dov Berkowitz passed away. Born in Belarus in 1885 he made aliyah in 1928. The son-in-law of Sholom Aleichim, he was a two-time winner of the Bialik Prize and a winner of the Israel Prize for literature in 1958.

    1970: Eighty-four year old Heinrich Brüning, the Chancellor of Germany who tried to save the Weimar Republic in the wake of the anarchy created by the Communists and the Nazis and sought to thwart Hitler’s rise to power passed a way today.

    1973(25th of Adar II, 5733): Ida Cohen Rosenthal, the woman who created the modern brassiere industry passed away.

    1977: Robert Stauss began serving as United States Trade Representative.

    1977: The Jerusalem Post reported that the Soviet Foreign Minister, Andrei Gromyko, said that he would allow the early reconvening of the Geneva Peace Conference without PLO participation. The conference might later decide on the PLO's eventual participation.

    1977: The Jerusalem Post reported that the Egged management threatened to withdraw public transport service to and from Lod due to hooliganism, personal attacks, theft and other difficult conditions at the Lod Central Bus Station.

    1979: U.S. premiere of “Real Life” the first feature film directed by Albert Brooks who co-authored the script and co-starred in the picture.

    1981: The New York Times reviews "The Geneva Crisis" by Matti Golan, an Israeli diplomat writing about a fictional attempt by idealistic Jews who are duped when they attempt to work for peace with Palestinian rebels.

    1983(15thof Nisan, 5743): Pesach

    1986(18thof Adar II, 5746): Seventy-eight year old Harry Ritz, one of the famous three Ritz Brothers passed away today.

    1987: Yitzhak Shamir was re-elected chairman of right wing Herut Party. Born in Poland in 1915, Shamir moved to Palestine in 1935. While attending Hebrew University he joined the Irgun. He later left the Irgun and joined what was the Stern Gang. Shamir would later rise above what some people might think of a rather dubious past to become Prime Minister in 1988. To his credit, in May 1991, Shamir ordered the airlift rescue of thousands of Ethiopian Jewry, codenamed "Operation Solomon." In September, Shamir provided living proof that people can change, when he represented Israel at the Madrid Peace Conference which brought about direct negotiations with Syria, Jordan, Lebanon and the Palestinians.

    1987: Tonight Colonel Aviem Sella, the Israeli Air Force who was indicted earlier this month in the United States for his role in recruiting Jonathan Pollard as a spy, said that he was giving up his recent promotion to the rank of general because of “the problems it had caused between the United States and Israel.”

    1987: An American Rabbi, Arthur Schneier, said that “that the Soviet Union has agreed that future Jewish émigrés will be sent to Israel by way of Rumania.” In the past, those Jews who were allowed to leave the Soviet Union traveled through Vienna where many of them obtained visas for the United States even though they had said they were leaving to go to Israel. Schneier hopes the change will lead to an increase in the number of Jews who are allowed to leave the Soviet Union. The Rumanians have asked that the transit cite in their country not be identified so that it will not become a target for terrorists.

    1991(14th of Nisan, 5751): The Kesim celebrated the last Pesach for their community at the Israeli embassy in Addas Abba, Ethiopia.

    1993: Billy Crystal served as host at the 65th Academy Awards Ceremony in Los Angeles. Elizabeth Taylor was co-winner of the Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award

    1993: Simone Veil replaced Bernard Kouchner as Minister of Health in France

    1993: Jack Lang completed his first term in office as Education Minister of France.

    1994(17th of Nisan, 5754): During Chol Hamoed Pesach, Yitzhak Rothenberg, age 70, of Petah Tikva, was attacked on a construction site by two residents of Khan Yunis by axe blows to the head. He died several days later of his wounds.

    1996: Actress Rebecca “Schaeffer's life and death became the topic of the first E! True Hollywood Story episode, which originally aired” today,

    1998: The 27th Nabisco Dinah Shore Golf Championship was played today. The namesake of this major LPGA event was born Frances Rose Shore in Winchester, Tenn. in 1917. She adopted the name Dinah from a hit 1930's tune of the same name that was her signature song in the early days of her career.

    1998: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or special interest to Jewish readers including “Diplomacy for the Next Century” by Abba Eban, “Clement Greenberg: A Life” by Florence Rubenfeld,” The Castle: A New Translation, Based on the Restored Text” by Franz Kafka; translated by Mark Harman and “Getting Away With Murder: How Politics Is Destroying the Criminal Justice System” by Susan Estrich.

    1998: Famed basketball player Henry "Hank" Rosenstein Rosenstein was inducted into the National Jewish Sports Hall of Fame

    1999: In the ever-changing revolving door of Israeli party politics, Eliezer Sandberg”s HaTzeirim faction joined Shinui.

    1999: Emanuel Zisman left the Third Way political party and served the rest of his term as an independent MK.

    2000: Israel's high court orders that about 700 Palestinians be allowed to return to their traditional homes in caves in the southern West Bank.

    2002(16thof Nisan, 5762): Second Day of Pesach and 1st day of the Omer.

    2002(16thof Nisan, 5762): “Tuvia Wisner, 79, of Petah Tikva and Michael Orlinsky, 70, of Tel-Aviv were killed Friday morning, when a Palestinian terrorist infiltrated the Neztarim settlement in the Gaza Strip.” (Jewish Virtual Library)

    2002(16thof Nisan, 5762): Rachel Levy, 17, and Haim Smadar, 55, the security guard, both of Jerusalem, were killed and 28 people were injured, two seriously, when a female suicide bomber blew herself up in the Kiryat Yovel supermarket in Jerusalem. The Fatah Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades claimed responsibility for the attack. (Jewish Virtual Library)

    2002(16thof Nisan, 5762): Lt. Boaz Pomerantz, 22, of Kiryat Shmona and St.-Sgt. Roman Shliapstein, 22, of Ma'ale Efraim were killed in the course of the IDF anti-terrorist action in Ramallah (Operation Defensive Shield. (Jewish Virtual Library)

    2002: In response to the suicide bombing at a Seder in the Park Hotel that claimed the lives of 30, the IDF launched Operation Defensive Shield.

    2002: U.S. premiere of “Clockstoppers” a “science fiction comedy film” with a script co-authored by David N. Weiss.

    2002: U.S. premiere of “Teddy Bears’ Picnic” a comedy directed by Harry Shearer who also wrote the script.

    2002: In the U.K. premiere of “Invincible” a drama based loosely on the life of Jewish vaudeville strongman and circus performer Siegmund “Zishe” Breitbart.

    2003: In her presidential installation sermon Rabbi Janet Marder spoke about the need to develop and sustain progressive Judaism in Israel, and about "developing an inner life — about personal prayer, about seeking the Holy One, and quiet hours inside a book, and the solitude that is essential for a life of clarity and integrity."

    2005: The New York Times reported that “as Columbia University awaits a report on charges of intimidation of Jewish students in classes in Middle East studies, a group of graduate students began circulating a petition calling for the resignation of Columbia’s president, Lee Co. Bollinger, because he ‘failed to defend our faculty, thereby nurturing an environment of fear and intimidation throughout the university.’” Columbia’s faculty has been divided about Mr. Bollinger’s performance ever since the showing of a videotape last fall that demonstrated some professors of Middle East studies intimidating Jewish students in classes and on campus.

    2006: With 95 percent of the ballots counted, the election results for the 17th Knesset appeared as follows:

    Kadima: 28 Knesset seats

    Labor: 20

    Shas: 13

    Likud: 11

    Israel Beitenu: 12

    NRP / NU: 9

    Pensioners: 7

    United Torah Judaism: 6

    Meretz: 4

    Balad: 3

    Hadash: 3

    United Arab List: 4

    While it appears that Acting Prime Minister Ehud Olmert’s Kadima Party gained the largest number of seats, it was fewer than had been estimated in earlier polls. Once the results are final, Olmert will probably be asked to form a government. If the total holds at or around thirty seats, Kadima will have to gather another 31 seats to gain the 61 seats necessary to control the Knesset and govern the country.

    2007: The Tel Aviv Museum of Art presents, for the first time in Israel, a retrospective selection of works by Mark Rothko, one of the pillars of the New York School artists, identified in the late 1940s and early ‘50s as the painters of Abstract Expressionism.

    2008: Shabbat Parah, 5768

    2008: The 92nd Street Y presents “Gershwin Brothers’ Dream of a Great American Opera: Porgy and Bess and beyond” the third lecture in a series entitled “Music as Melting Pot Mosaic: The Gershwins.”

    2009: In the 2nd of a four part lecture series marking this special year of Hakhel Rabbi Jonathan Sacks, Chief Rabbi of England a noted author and lecturer delivers a talk on Unity and Redemption - Celebrating Freedom Together.

    2009: Model Matzah Baker takes place at Lubavitch Chabad of Northbrook with participants learning about Passover and enjoying the thrill of baking their own Matzah.

    2009: The Chicago Tribune reviews “The Kindly Ones” a Holocaust novel by Jonathan Littell which the reviewer calls a “helpless narrative” and “missed opportunity.”

    2009: The Times of London reported today that the Israel Air Force used unmanned drones to attack secret Iranian convoys in Sudan that were trying to smuggle weapons to Palestinian militant organizations in the Gaza Strip. Defense officials were quoted as saying that the trucks were carrying missiles capable of striking as far as Tel Aviv and the nuclear reactor in Dimona.

    2009(4thof Nisan, 5769): Ninety-five year old American photographer Helen Levitt passed away.

    2010: Pro-Palestinian protesters disrupted a performance in London by the acclaimed Jerusalem Quartet. Today’s lunchtime concert, which was being broadcast live on BBC Radio, was taken off the air in the middle due to the disruption, the Jewish Chronicle reported. The quartet completed its program. About five protesters took turns disrupting the concert with anti-Israel epithets at 10-minute intervals throughout the performance at Wigmore Hall, according to reports. They were removed from the audience. Protesters in other countries also have disrupted the quartet's performances. In a statement, the quartet noted that all four musicians served in the Israeli army as musicians and not in combat, and also perform as regular members of Daniel Barenboim's West-Eastern Divan Orchestra, which brings Israeli and Arab musicians together. "We no more represent the Government of Israel than the audience at the Wigmore Hall represented the Government of the United Kingdom," read the statement. Only one of the four musicians is a native Israeli; one lives in Portugal and another in Berlin

    2010: In New York, a week long program entitled The New Israeli Cuisine is scheduled to come to an end.

    2010(14th of Nisan, 5770): Fast of the First Born

    2010(14th of Nisan, 5770): In the evening, Jews around the world sit down to the Seder. Have a zissen Pesach

    2010(14thof Nisan, 5770): Seventy-five year old author Alan Isler whose works included The Prince of West End Avenue, a novel “set in a Jewish old person’s home” which won the National Jewish Book Award and the Jewish Quarterly-Wingate Literary Prize passed away.

    2011: “Nora’s Will” and “Precious Life” are scheduled to be shown at the Westchester Jewish Film Festival.

    2011: President Obama nominated Daniel B. Shapiro to serve as the Ambassador of the United States of America to the state of Israel.

    2011: Center for Jewish History and Leo Baeck Institute presented “Romantic Piano Trios: Schumann and Rachmaninoff.”

    2012: The Andy Statman Trio (Andy on mandolin and clarinet, Jim Whitney on bass, Larry Eagle on drums & percussion) is scheduled to wrap up the season at the Charles Street Synagogue.

    2012: Al Munzer is scheduled to moderate “Spinoza, Superstar of the millennium?” as part of Theatre J’s backstage program.

    2012: Jon Lebowitz was confirmed for a second term as Chairman of the Federal Trade Commission.

    2012: “Footnote” is among the films scheduled to be shown today at the Westchester Jewish Film Festival.

    2012(6thof Nisan, 5772): Seventy-four year old “Kenneth Libo, a historian of Jewish immigration who, as a graduate student working for Irving Howe in the 1960s and ’70s, unearthed historical documentation that informed and shaped World of Our Fathers, Mr. Howe’s landmark 1976 history of the East European Jewish migration to America” passed away today. (As reported by Paul Vitello)

    2013: The Ruach Minyan at Adas Israel in Washington, D.C. is scheduled to host a Pesach Shabbat dinner.

    2013: The Eden-Tamir Music Center is scheduled to host a concert “Passion and Fire in the 20th Century.”

    2013(18thof Nisan, 5773): Ninety-one year old linguist John H. Gumperz passed away today.

    2013: The 23rdannual Haifa International Children’s Theatre Festival is scheduled to come to an end.

    2013: The Bernard and Irene Schwartz Classic Film Series is scheduled to present “That Hamilton Woman” the classic directed by Michael Korda

    2013: Forty year old Michael Steinberg, a SAC Capital Advisors portfolio manager who had worked for discredited billionaire Steven Cohen, was arrested by federal agents today.

    2013: A man claiming to represent the hackers behind one of the biggest attacks in Internet history made anti-Jewish statements.

    2014: “Fountains of the Deep: Visions of Noah and the Flood” is scheduled to be shown for the last time in a pop art space at 462 West Broadway.

    2014: “Labor and Race in Modern Germany,” co-sponsored by the Pears Institute for the Study of Anti-Semitism is scheduled to come to a close today

    2014: “The Zigzag Kid” is scheduled to be shown at the Northern Virginia Jewish Film Festival.

    2014: “A Jewish woman and her partner were among the first same-sex couple ever to be officially married in Britain today, after a law authorizing same-sex marriages went into effect throughout the country. Twenty-nine-year-old Nikki Pettit, who is Jewish, married Tania Ward, 28, in a Jewish ceremony in Brighton, on Britain’s south coast.”

    2014: “Trebilinka: Hitler’s Killing Machine is scheduled to air tonight on the Smithsonian Channel.

    2014: Israel did not conduct the fourth stage of the prisoner release tonight,

    2014: “New Jersey Gov. Chris Christie apologized to Jewish billionaire Sheldon Adelson today for using the controversial term "occupied territories," saying he "misspoke" during his speech to a Republican Jewish Coalition event, Politico and CNN reported.”

    2014: “Rabbi Yousef Hamadani Cohen, chief rabbi of Iran since 1994, who passed away over the weekend was laid to rest” today.

    2015: Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center is scheduled to host a screening of “Defiance.”

    2015: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Country of Ice Cream Starby Sandra Newman

    2015: Suite Française a film “based on the best-selling book by Irène Némirovsky, written by her during the Nazi occupation and before she was sent to Auschwitz is scheduled to be shown today as part of the UK Jewish Film Festival

    2015: “A Happy End” by Iddo Netanyahu is scheduled to be performed for the last time at the June Havoc Theatre in Manhattan.

    2015: The 64th Annual Israel Folk Dance Festival and Festival of the Arts is scheduled to take place in NYC.

    2015: Professor Derek J. Penslar is scheduled to deliver a lecture on “1948 as a Jewish World War” in Miami Beach.


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    March 30

    1135: On the secular calendar, birthdate of Maimonides (Moses Ben Maimon) in Cordova, Spain. According to Jewish tradition he was born Erev Pesach. "From Moses to Moses there was none like Moses.' This folk saying sums up the greatness of the man. There is not space enough to do justice to his amazing life. Such were his intellectual capabilities that one person said, if you did not know that Maimonides was the name of the man you would think that it was the name of a university. He is most noted for his codification of Jewish Law called the Mishneh Torah (Review of the Torah) and his philosophic work Moreh Nevuchim (Guide To The Perplexed). But for some the true measure of the man is the lesser known Letter of Consolation and Letter on the Sanctification of God. He wrote both of these to reassure the Jews of Fez that to encourage them in their steadfastness to Judaism and to emphasize the fact that God hears our prayers and that our sins do not detract from our good deeds. He wrote a great deal more including medical books. Maimonides refused to "make a profit from the crown of the Torah" so while he served as the leader of the Jewish community in Egypt; he earned a living as a leading physician. Maimonides died in Egypt in December, 1204 or Tevet, 4965. He is buried in Tiberias and many make a point of visiting the grave of this sage. If you do the math this is the 870th anniversary of the birth of Maimonides. This would make this an especially auspicious year for Jews to devote study time to this sage who has influenced non-Jews as well as Jews eight centuries.'s%20Two%20Maimonides.pdf

    1191: King Philip II of France set sail from Sicily to begin his campaign against Saladin in what is called the Third Crusade. Throughout his reign, Philip persecuted his Jewish subjects by variously holding them hostage for ransom, releasing Christians from paying their debts to the Jews and expelling them so he could seize all of their property and assets.

    1218: Henry III of England enforced the Yellow Badge Edict. The badge was a piece of yellow cloth in the shape of the Tablets of the Law and was worn above the heart by every Jew over the age of seven.

    1296: Edward I sacks Berwick-upon-Tweed, during armed conflict between Scotland and England. This is the same King who expelled the Jews from England in 1290. He expelled them so that he could finance his various wars against the French, the Welch and the Scots

    1432: Birthdate of Mehmed II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. Mehmed’s reign was a positive period for the Jews. After he conquered Constantinople in 1453, he allowed Jews from today's Greek Islands and Crete to settle in Istanbul. His declaration of invitation said, in part, "Listen sons of the Hebrew who live in my country...May all of you who desire come to Constantinople and may the rest of your people find here a shelter". After fighting off a crusade led by Jean de Capistrano, Mehmed invited the Ashkenazi Jews of Transylvania and Slovakia to the Ottoman Empire. The invitation may have been as a sign of appreciation for fighting prowess of a Jewish regiment called “the Sons of Moses.” Mehmed ordered that various synagogues that had been damaged by fire should be repaired and several Jews held positions at Court.

    1492: King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella signed a decree expelling the Jews from Spain.

    1526: In Antwerp, Belgium, Emperor Charles V issued a general safe-conduct to the Portuguese "New Christians" and Marranos allowing them to live and work there. Although they still had to live under cover they were safe from the Inquisition.

    1581: Pope Gregory XIII issued a Bull banning the use of Jewish doctors. This did not prevent many popes from using Jews as their personal physicians.

    1690: Alexander VIII issued “Animarum Saluti,” a papal relating to the neophytes in the Indies.

    1739(20th of Adar II): Rabbi Moses Meir Perles of Prague, author of Megillat Sofer passed away

    1773: In Newport, Ezra Stiles, the future President of Yale invited Hebron born Rabbi Chaim Isaac Caregal and Aaron Lopez to his home for a meeting that would be the beginning of strong friendship that lasted for the next 6 months when the Rabbi left town to continue his travels.

    1801(16th of Nisan, 5561): Second day of Pesach; The Omer is counted for the first time during the Presidency of Thomas Jefferson.

    1804: Birthdate of Salomon Sulzer the Austrian Chazan and composer whose "Shir Tziyyon" a work in two volumes that “established models for the various sections of the musical service—the recitative of the cantor, the choral of the choir, and the responses of the congregation—and contained music for Sabbaths, festivals, weddings, and funerals which has been introduced into nearly all the synagogues of the world.”

    1804: Birthdate of Austrian Chazan and composer Salomon Sulzer

    1816: In Moravia, Jacob Steinschneider and his wife gave birth to Moritz Steinschneider “a Bohemian bibliographer and Orientalist who passed away in 1907.

    1820(15thof Nisan, 5580):  As Americans enjoy political season of “good feelings” Jews observe Pesach

    1831(16thof Nisan, 5591): In Mayence, Rabbi Samuel Bondi and Sophie Sueschen Bondi gave birth to Marcus Meir Bondi.

    1839(15thof Nisan, 5599): Pesach

    1849: In New York, Isidor Bush published the first edition of Israel’s Herald, “the first Jewish weekly in the United States” that folded after only 3 months.

    1856: Birthdate Charles Waldstein, the native of New York who became a leading Anglo-American archaeologist who was knighted in 1912 and changed his name to Walston in 1918 so he became known as Sir Charles Walston, husband of Florence Seligman.

    1856: The Treaty of Paris was signed, ending the Crimean War. One of the stranger aspects of the conflict that most remember for “The Charge of the Light Brigade” was the creation of Mickiewicz’s Jewish Legion. A Polish nobleman and nationalist who was living in exile in Paris at the start of the war, Mickiewicz went to Constantinople where he and Armand Levy organized a military unit made up of Jews from Poland and Palestine. The group was also called the Hussars of Israel. Mickiewicz died before he could lead them into action.

    1856: The attempts of the Turkish sultan, Abed Almagid, to ally his kingdom with the west came to fruition today when the Ottoman Empire “was officially included among the European family nations’ today during the Congress of Paris.  Abed Almagid had showed his support for the cause of the Jews when he issued a decree in 1840 absolving the Jews of Rhodes from the charges of having killed a Christian child so his blood could be used in making matzah.

    1858: Hyman Lipman, a Philadelphia Jew patented the lead pencil. Lipman was a printer who also played a key role in the early development of the postal card.

    1862: In Brooklyn, Congregation Beth Elohim dedicated its new facility on Pearl Street which gave rise to its nickname “the Pearl Street Synagogue.”

    1863: During the Civil War, President Lincoln issued a proclamation proclaiming Thursday, April 30, 1863 as a National Day of Fasting.

    1864: Birthdate of German- born sociologist Franz Oppenheimer, the father of Hillel Oppenheimer, a professor of botany at Hebrew University.

    After a distinguished career in Germany, Oppenheimer passed away as a refugee in Los Angeles in 1943.

    1873(2ndof Nisan. 5633): Eighty-eight year old Count Abraham Camondo passed away. Born in Istanbul, he “was a Jewish Ottoman-Italian financier and philanthropist and the patriarch of the Camondo family.”

    1877(16th of Nisan, 5637): Second Day of Pesach; 1st day of the Omer

    1879: “Egyptian Influence on Hebrew Names” published today described the work of Dr. Brugsh that there is no Hebrew derivation for the names Moses, Aaron or Miriam but they do contain Egyptian roots. Also, the name Pinchas (the famed slayer in the Book of Numbers) comes from an Egyptian term for “the Negro” which was applied to dark-skinned men in Egypt

    1880: It was reported today that a new opera, “The Queen of Sheba” by Goldmark has been successfully performed in several German cities.

    1881: In Leadville, CO, the liquor business owned by the Schloss family was determined to have sustained $250 in damages in a fire that began last night.

    1882: Birthdate of Austrian-born English psychoanalyst and child psychologist Melanie Klein. Klein developed methods of play technique and play therapy in analyzing and treating child patients. She passed away in 1960.

    1883: Temple Emanu-El-Beth Sholom, Westmount, a Reform synagogue in Westmount, Quebec, the oldest “Liberal” or “Reform” synagogue in Canada, was incorporated today.

    1888(18thof Nisan, 5648): Forty-one year old “German Jewish physician and Arctic explorer” Dr. Emil Bessels suffered a stroke today and passed away in Stuttgart, Germany.

    1890: Ida Levy of New York will marry Henry Naftal of Asbury Park today.

    1890: Authorities concluded that Morris Eising, German-Jewish immigrant who had been found dead in his rooming house had died by his own hand.  Apparently he was despondent over the loss of his job which meant he could not send money back to his wife in Bavaria.

    1890: This morning Rabbi Gustav Gottheil will officiate at the funeral Emanuel Bernheimer, “one of the owners of the Lion Brewery” and one of the oldest brewers living in New York.  Born in 1817, he learned his craft in his native Germany before coming to the United States in 1844.  In 1850 he and August Schmid formed the Constanz Brewery and in 1860 they took over and enlarged the Lion Brewery.  Bernheimer was one of the oldest member of Temple Emanu El and a patron of several charities including Mount Sinai Hospital, the Hebrew Orphan Asylum and the Montefiore Home for Chronic Invalids. After the funeral, Dr. Silverman will officiate at the burial in the Salem Field Cemetery.

    1890: “The Theatrical Week” published today provides highlights of current and upcoming productions including  “The Shatchen,” a new play by Charles Dickson and Harry Dobbin whose protagonist is Myer Petooksy  a peddler who also works as “an unlicensed marriage broker.”

    1891: “New Books” published today contains a complete review of The Persecution of the Jews in Russia that includes an “appendix containing a summary of special restrice laws, a map showing the pale of Jewish settlements.”

    1892: It was reported today that Prague after police quelled a riot by a mob upset by the Imperial authority’s refusal to allow a celebration of the anniversary birth of a medieval educational reformer, John Comenius.  When the rioters were thwarted by authorities, they cried “Let’s make for the Jews!” followed by calls to head for the Jewish quarter where they could “vent their fury on the inoffensive Hebrews.” The mounted policemen wanted an end to the rioters and drove them from the streets including those in the Jewish quarter. (Yes, this mindless anti-Semitic attack took place in the supposedly civilized confines Prague.  The anti-Semitic outburst that consumed Paris during the Dreyfus affair was really not such an aberration after all.)

    1892: A cable was received today in Toronto from London describing the death of sixty nine year old Canadian Jew Mark Samuel

    1892: Birthdate of Erwin Panofsky, the husband of Dorothea (Dora) Mosse, the German art historian who was forced to pursue his career in the United States after the rise of the Nazis.

    1895: Birthdate of Pierre Péteul, who as the Capuchin Franciscan friar Père Marie-Benoît saved approximately 4,000 Jews from the Shoah.  He was was honored with the Medal of the Righteous among the Nations and was known as Père des juifs  (Father of the Jews.

    1896(16th of Nisan, 5656): Second Day of Pesach; First Day of the Omer

    1896(16th of Nisan, 5656): Citizens are required to return their census papers in London. While most citizens are required to return their census papers today in London, the Jews have been given an extension and do not have to return them until tomorrow since today is the second day of Passover and the English respect the need to observe the holiday.

    1896(16th of Nisan, 5656): Fifty-one year old Rabbi Aaron Wise who had gone to Rodelph Sholom to officiate at Passover Services this morning, complained of being ill and went home after consulting with Benjamin Blumenthal without preaching lay down on a longue in the basement dining room as passed away before medical help could arrive.

    1897: Colonel Goldsmid asks Herzl to stay away from the Zionist Congress in order to prevent a split in the ranks of the Hovevei Zion.

    1897: Dr. Adler, Chief Rabbi of Great Britain, and Moritz Güdemann, Chief Rabbi of Vienna, led anti-Zionist attacks. They were known as the "Protestrabbiner" - "Protest Rabbis".

    1897: “In Memory of General Grant” published today described the units that will be marching in the parade to honor the late President and Civil War hero including a contingent from the Hebrew Orphan Asylum Cadets under the command of Major Martin Cohen and Adjutant Max Saltzman.

    1897: In New York City’s Lower East Side, Bessie and Jakob Riskin gave birth to “screenwriter and playwright Robert Riskin who won an Oscar for the timeless comedy “It Happened on Night” as well as “Mr. Deeds Goes to Town” – an example of the American cultural myth actually created by Jewish immigrants and their children in Tinsel Town.

    1898: Liebe Blond and her four children who had arrived in the United States were put on a ship bound for Europe after authorities refused to let her husband who has been working here see her or listen to his entreaties to let them stay in the United States.

    1899(19th of Nisan): Rabbi Hayyim Leib Tiktinski, head of the Mir Yeshivah for 49 years passed away

    1899: It was reported today that when Baron Hirsch passed away he left a fortune estimated at 125 million dollars, most of which was tied to railroad companies.  Both before and after his death, Hirsch had given large sums to the poor including 10 million dollars for the Jewish Colonization Association of the United States.

    1899: It was reported today that since the death of her husband, Baroness Hirsch has been very generous in providing aid to the poor including $1,500,000 to the need of Paris and an even large amount to the Educational Alliance which assists the Russian Jews.

    1899: Birthdate of movie producer Irving Thalberg., an early pioneer in the film industry. His brief career (he died of pneumonia at the age of 37) left such a mark on the world of cinema that a year after his death the Academy of Motion Picture Artists created a special award in his name that is given annually at the Oscar Presentations. Thalberg was the inspirations for F. Scott Fitzgerald’s novel, The Last Tycoon. In explaining why his name did not appear in the film credits, Thalberg said, “if you’re in a position to give yourself credit, you don’t need it.”

    1900: Birthdate of Charles A. Robinson, Jr. the Professor of Classic at Brown University who married Celia Sachs, the daughter of art historian Paul J. Sachs who played a key role in planning to save and retrieve works of art in World War II.

    1903: Birthdate of Sol C Siegel, journalist turned movie producer who helped to create such hits as “High Society,” “Gentlemen Prefer Blondes,” “No Way to Treat a Lady,” “Alvarez Kelly” “Three Coins In A Fountain” and “A Letter to Three Wives” the last two which were nominated for Oscar’s as Best Picture.

    1903: As part of negotiations to secure land for a Jewish homeland, Carton de Wiart talked to a lawyer with the Egyptian government who recommends that the concession should be in the form of a lease, not a freehold. Herzl demands a 99-year lease.

    1904: It was reported today that the children of the late Mayer Lehman, who was a Director of Mount Sinai Hospital for 19 years, have given $93,000 to cover the cost of constructing the Dispensary Building which is to be dedicated in memory of their father.

    1904(14th of Nisan, 5664): At Ellis Island, three hundred Jewish immigrants who “have been detained while awaiting inspection” held a Seder on the first night of Passover. The meal was served on dishes that were brand new having been brought straight from the storeroom. All of the utensils used in the kitchen were also brand new and the meal was prepared under the supervision of the Jewish immigrants. The meal included chicken soup, roast goose, apple sauce, mashed potatoes, black tea, oranges and, of course, Matzah and ground horseradish.

    1904: Alice Weinberg, the twelve year old daughter of Max Weinberg was reported missing by her father. The girl had gone to play with her friends this morning while her family prepared for tonight’s Seder. The family called off its Passover celebration so it could search for Alice.

    1907(15thof Nisan, 5667): Pesach

    1909(8th of Nisan, 5669): Mrs. Michla Shilotzdky passed away this morning at the age of 106. The cause of death was pneumonia. Mrs. Esther Davis, 115 years old; Mrs. Rosei Aaronwald, 108 years old; and Mendel Diamond, 107 years old were at her bedside at the Daughters of Jacob Home in New York.

    1909: Official opening of the Queensboro Bridge which two Jewish boys from Queens named Simon and Garfunkel would immortalize in the 1960’s hit "The 59th Street Bridge Song (Feelin' Groovy)"

    1910: The Mississippi Legislature founds The University of Southern Mississippi at Hattiesburg, Mississippi. At the time of the founding of USM, there was a small Jewish population in Hattiesburg including Maurice Dreyfus who operated a saw mill and Frank Rubenstein who opened a department store called “The Hub.”

    1913: B’nai Israel Congregation was founded in Greensburg, PA.

    1913: Ahavas Achim Congregation was founded in Buffalo, NY.

    1915(15thof Nisan, 5675): Pesach

    1915: Rabbi Aaron Elseman is scheduled to deliver a sermon on “America the Hope of Humanity” this morning at Temple Beth Israel in Manhattan.

    1915: The 300 Jewish soldiers and sailors who attended last night’s Seder sponsored by the Army and Nay Y.M.H.A. which also provided a night’s lodging at the Hotel Roland are scheduled to worship at Temple Beth Israel at Lexington and 72ndStreet.

    1915: The Secretary of War, the Governor of New York and the Mayor of New York City have been invited to attend tonight’s Seder sponsored by the Army and Navy Young Men’s Hebrew Association for the benefit of 300 of the 8,000 Jews serving in the military which is being held at Vienna Hall on Lexington and 58thStreet.

    1919: Birthdate of Oscar Benjamin “Ossie” Schectman the Queens born son of Jewish immigrants who won the NIT while playing basketball for Long Island University and “is credited with having scored the first basket in what became the National Basketball Association.

    1920: A British soldier digging a trench in Syria uncovered ruins of Dura Europus which would include the discovery a synagogue that dated back to 244 “making it one of the oldest synagogues in the world.

    1920: In Baranovichi, Poland, Brakha née Sokolovsky and Shraga (Feivel) Tunkel gave birth to Yaakov Tunkel who would gain fame as Yaakov Banai, a leader of Lehi also known as the Stern Gang.

    1921: Birthdate of Clemens Kalischer, the German born American photographer whose skill raises the question “What is there about Jews and cameras?”

    1921: Churchill visits Tel Aviv where he delivers a speech praising what the Jews have accomplished in the last twelve years since the city was first founded.

    1921: Winston Churchill visits the “39 year old agricultural colony of Rishon le-Zion where he spoke approvingly of the accomplishments of the Zionists and the positive affect their activities have had on the surrounding Arab population.

    1921: British Colonial Secretary Winston Churchill completes his fact finding trip to Palestine and leaves Jerusalem for Egypt.

    1925: Birthdate of Edward Sidney Finkelstein, the native of New Rochelle, NY, “a master merchandiser who turned Macy’s into one of the nation’s smartest, fastest-growing department store chains.”

    1925: Timemagazine published the following account Rabbi Solomon Goldman’s attempt to make changes at his synagogue in Cleveland, Ohio.
    In spite of generations of prophets and reformers, Jewish ritual with all its shrilly "orthodox" punctilio has lived with few radical changes. In Cleveland, Ohio, some months ago, Rabbi Solomon Goldman, spiritual head of the local "Jewish Center," proposed to rid his congregation of some bits of orthodoxy. In particular, he decided that men and women might sit in the same pews. Here was reform indeed! Not since Solomon built his great temple had the thoroughly orthodox Jewess sat with the thoroughly orthodox Jew at worship. She had been relegated to one side of the temple, or to the gallery, or to a seat in the rear behind a curtain. It was custom not merely Jewish, but Pan-Asiatic. Muhammadan women do not squat with men folk in the pit of the Mosque. And even in the new Christian Churches in China, Japan and elsewhere, women have always, until very recently, sat in a special section railed or curtained off for them. Now Rabbi Goldman of Cleveland has changed all this in his congregation. At once A. A. Katz, one of Rabbi Goldman's flock, cited him to appear before the Union of Orthodox Rabbis of America to answer for his ecclesiastical liberality. Rabbi Goldman refused to appear. In this, he was supported by his congregation. When the week ended, it was still the turn of the Jewish Fundamentalists to move. It should be noted that departure from Jewish orthodoxy is not equivalent to becoming a Reformed Jew. The latter class, whose most prominent leader is Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, disregards many customs from which Rabbi Goldman is not likely to depart, among which are:
    Blessing - At each service, men are called up before the congregation to say a blessing before and after portions of the Torah, which is read— on all Sabbaths and holidays. In congregations where Jewish customs are meticulously observed, this privilege is auctioned off to the highest bidder.
    Music - No instrumentation is permitted. Weird half-shouted chants, led by a slippered cantor, are the only melodies.
    Costume - Both men and women must wear hats. The enthusiastically orthodox wear skullcaps, shawls. Men also wear the talis, a fringed scarf, draped over the shoulders.

    1926(15thof Nisan, 5686): Pesach

    1926: Birthdate Thomas Guinzburg, an editor and publisher who helped create The Paris Review, and who later became president of Viking Press, the publishing house founded by his father,

    1928: While serving in the final year of her term as President of Hadassah Irma Levy Lindheim the American women's Zionist organization, declared that the administration of the ZOA was "not an effective instrument for the achievement of world Zionist aims for the up-building of Palestine." In so doing, she asserted her opposition to the leadership of ZOA President Louis Lipsky. Although Lindheim was careful to note that she spoke as an individual and that Hadassah had no quarrel with the World Zionist Organization led by Chaim Weizmann, she came under attack for her comments from both ZOA leadership and other Hadassah members. During her presidency, Hadassah was in frequent conflict with the Zionist Organization of America (ZOA), which wanted to control and dispense the funds raised from the Hadassah membership. The Hadassah-ZOA conflict had roots dating back to 1918, when Hadassah (founded in 1912) first joined the umbrella organization, giving up some of its organizational authority. Seven members of the Hadassah board had been expelled in 1920 when the organization's Central Committee refused to raise money for the ZOA fund Keren Hayesod. Despite Hadassah's loss of autonomy, the organization's membership steadily increased even as general ZOA membership declined.

    1928: Birthdate of American Jewish author Carl Solomon.

    1929: U.S. premiere of “Chinatown Nights” based on the story “Tong War” by Samuel Ornitz and produced by David O. Selznick.

    1929: It was reported today that Hadassah has acquired a portrait of Nathan Straus painted by Eward Salzan which will be hung in the Straus Health Center currently under construction in Tel Aviv.

    1930: Birthdate of Gene Selznick, the native of Los Angeles who helped to make volleyball the popular sport in southern California.,0,4439222.story#axzz2x2Jxl7y2

    1930: It was reported today that if the government’s case against New York’s Century Club ever reaches the Supreme Court on appeal, Justice Benjamin Cardozo would be one of the one the judges who would have to recuse himself because he had been a member of the exclusive New York social organization.

    1930: A citrus tree was planted on the 140 acre plot purchased in 1926 under the direction of Mrs. Ada Maimon marking the official founding Ayanot, a women’s farm that took its name from the two springs located on the acreage. For the next two years, the women workers lived in Ness Ziona and came to Ayanot every day to cultivate the soil. In 1932, Ada Maiomon and ten girls would being living on a cowshed on the property.

    1932: Birthdate of A. J. (Arie) Zuckerman, Dean of the Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine. Zuckerman’s area of expertise is the study of hepatitis.

    1936(7thof Nisan, 5696): Seventy year old David Eder, a British psychoanalyst who treated soldiers for mental problems during World War I and served as President of the Zionist Federation of Great Britain passed away today.

    1938: Mrs. Joseph Stroock, a member of the national Youth Aliyah committee of Hadassah, the Women's Zionist Organization of America announced that a total of $20,000 was contributed last night to the Youth Aliyah (immigration) fund of Hadassah to remove children from Austria as well as Germany and Poland.

    1940: At today’s meeting of its stockholders, The Workers Bank, Ltd. Of Tel Aviv, the central bank of the cooperatives in Palestine, declared the tenth annual dividend of 4 per cent on its common stock.

    1942: After being open for only two weeks, the Belzac Concentration Camp has processed 15,000 Jews most of whom were from the Liviv Ghetto.

    1944: Moshe Sertok, the head of the international department of the Jewish Agency, asked Oliver Stanley, the Colonial Secretary to allow any Jew reaching Istanbul from Nazi-occupied Europe to be admitted to Palestine.

    1945(16th of Nisan, 5705): SS Sergeant Adolf Storms reportedly shot “a Jew who could no longer walk during a forced March in from Deutsch Shuetzenn to the village of Hartberg.”

    1945(16th of Nisan, 5705): Nine women tried to escape from Ravenbruck. They were caught and executed.

    1946: “St. Louis Woman,” a Harold Arlen musical opened its Broadway run at the Martin Beck Theatre

    1946: Birthdate of Lesley Sue Goldstein who gained fame as recording star Lesley Gore.

    1947: Benjamin Teller, who is managing the Hapoel’s American Tour announced today that the soccer team is scheduled to fly out of Tel Aviv on April 6 and arrive in New York on April 10.

    1947: The Rabbinical Council of Palestine called on the terrorists to halt their actions and “issued a strong denunciation of terrorism as ‘completely contrary to Jewish religious feeling.’”

    1947: The 18 Americans who made up most of the crew of the SS Ben Hecht, formerly the Abril, boarded the Marine Carp, an American ship headed for New York. The British had declined to press charges against the crew.

    1949: Yigal Yadin and Walter Eytan returned to King Abdullah’s villa at Shuneh to try and reach final armistice terms with the Jordanians.

    1950: In Ottawa, Canadian attorney and CFL owner Sam Berger and his wife gave birth to Canadian MP David Berger.

    1950(12th of Nisan, 5710): Seventy-seven year old Léon Blum French, the former French premier, passed away. Leon Blum was born in Paris, France, on April 9, 1872. The son of Jewish parents, he studied law at the Sorbonne. He became active in politics as result of the Dreyfus Affair. Blum became a leader of the Socialist Part. He was part of a group of left-wing parties in France known as the Popular Front that opposed Hitler in the 1930's. As leader of the Popular Front and head of the Socialist Party, Blum became Prime Minister of France, the first Jew to hold that position in the history of France. Blum lost his post before the outbreak of the war over the issue of the Spanish Civil War. After the Germans invaded France, Blum was arrested by the Petain Government which tried him along with other officials of the Third Republic on charges of betraying France. He was found guilty in 1942 and held by the Germans until 1945. Blum briefly returned to public life after the war

    For more see Leon Blum: From Poet to Premier by Richard Stokes

    1951: Neve Shalom, a new synagogue, was dedicated in Istanbul,. The building holds more than 1,000 people, and the 400,000 Lira it cost to be built was raised by the Jewish community of Galata, Pera, and Chichli.

    1953(14th of Nisan, 5713): Ta'anit Bechorot

    1953(14th of Nisan): Yiddish novelist and poet Abraham Reisen passed away

    1953: Albert Einstein announced his revised unified field theory.

    1957: "The Libyan government began to enforce a law forbidding any individual or corporation in Libya 'to make personally or indirectly an agreement of any nature whatsoever with institutions or persons residing in Israel.' The penalty was eight years in prison and a heavy fine."

    1957: In New York City, Helen and Sam Reiser gave birth to Paul Resier whose credits include “My 2 Dads,” “”Diner, “Aliens” and “Mad About You.”

    1958: Syrian forces attack Israelis at Lake Hula

    1962: “Delousing of Harry Bogen” published today reviewed “I Can Get It for You Wholesale” starring Elliot Gould as Harry Bogen and introducing Barbra Streisand as Miss Marmel-stein.,33009,895977,00.html

    1965: In Los Angeles “Mission Impossible” stars Martin Landau and Barbara Bain gave birth to actress Juliet Rose Landau

    1967(18thof Adar II, 5727): Linguist Uriel Weinreich of whom Dovid Katz said, "Though he lived less than forty-one years, Uriel Weinreich ... managed to facilitate the teaching of Yiddish language at American universities, build a new Yiddish language atlas, and demonstrate the importance of Yiddish for the science of linguistics” passed away today.

    1970: “Applause,” the Tony Award musical “with a book by Betty Comden and Adolph Green and music by Charles Strouse  and starring Lauren Bacall (Betty Joan Perske) in her Tony Award winning portrayal of “Margo Channing” and featuring Bonnie Franklin opened on Broadway today.

    1972(15thof Nisan 5732): Pesach

    1973: Birthdate of Adam Michael Goldstein, the native of Philadelphia known as DJ AM who found fame and fortune in Los Angeles.

    1975: Agudas Achim, the Orthodox congregation in Little Rock, AR, breaks ground for its new building which is located in western Little Rock.

    1976: Israeli Arabs hold their first Land Day which was public held a protest strike against the expropriation of lands in the Galilee "for purposes of security and settlement."

    1976: Five Israeli Arabs were killed by security forces during mass protests in Nazareth, Israel. As a result of this deadly incident congregants of Mishkan Israel, a synagogue in New Haven, raised $10,000 so that their rabbi, Bruce M. Cohen, could go to Israel to promote peace. Three weeks later, while giving a speech in Jerusalem, Rabbi Cohen was approached by a young Israeli Arab, Farhat Agbaria, who shared his dream. Together they founded Interns for Peace.

    1976: The first season of “One Day At A Time” starring Bonnie Franklin ended tonight.

    1980: Yakov Kreizberg made one of his first public appearances as conductor today, when he led an orchestra at the Marble Collegiate Church in a performance of Haydn's Symphony no. 88.

    1981: In the United Kingdom, premiere of “Chariots of Fire” based, in part on the life of Harold Abrahams with a score conducted by Harry Rabinowitz.

    1988: U.S. premiere of the Geffen Film Company’s “Bettlejuice,” costarring Winona Ryder with music by Danny Elfman.

    1994: The two terrorists who attacked Yitzhak Rothenberg, age 70, of Petah Tikva with axes yesterday were arrested today.

    1997: The New York Times includes a review of "The Vanishing American Jew: In Search of Jewish Identity for the Next Century" by Alan M. Dershowitz

    2000: At least 23 Israeli and Palestinian Arabs are injured in clashes with Israeli security forces during an annual day of protests.

    2002(17thof Nisan, 5762):Border Policeman Sgt.-Maj. Constantine Danilov, 23, of Or Akiva was shot and killed in Baka al-Garbiyeh, during an exchange of fire with two Palestinians trying to cross into Israel to carry out a suicide attack. The Fatah Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades claimed responsibility.

    2002: Al Aqsa terrorists took credit for today’s bombing of an Allenby Street coffee shop in Tel Aviv.

    2002: Joelle Fiasham, a member of the CPUSA, was among those who endorsed the call today for a national holiday honoring Cesar Chavez.

    2003: Het Parool, which began “as a resistance paper during the German occupation of the Netherlands” “became the first newspaper in the Netherlands to switch from broadsheet to tabloid format.”

    2003: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of interest to Jewish readers including "The New Face of War: How War Will Be Fought in the 21st Century" by Bruce Berkowitz and the newly released paperback edition of SOROS: The Life and Times of a Messianic Billionaire by Michael T. Kaufman.

    2003: Secretary of State Colin Powell addresses the American-Israel Public Affairs Committee’s Policy Conference

    2005: Release date of “Live and Become” a French film about an Ethiopian Christian boy who disguieses himself as a Jew to escape to Israel was directed by Romanian born Jewish director Radu Mihăileanu

    2005: Eli Aflalo began serving as Deputy Minister of Industry, Trade and Labor.

    2005: Ruhama Avraham, a member of Kadima began serving as Deputy Internal Affairs Minister.

    2006(1st of Nisan, 5766): Three Israelis were killed when a Palestinian suicide bomber detonated explosives in a car after nightfall at the entrance to the West Bank settlement of Kedumim, located west of Nablus. The vehicle blew up around 9:45 P.M. next to the Kedumim gas station. Security forces sealed roads in the area immediately in the wake of the attack. A new group linked to Fatah, the party headed by Palestinian Authority Chairman Mahmoud Abbas, claimed responsibility for the attack. The group, from the Balata refugee camp in nearby Nablus, called itself Kateb al-Shahid Chamuda and identified the bomber as Mahmoud Masharka, 24, from the West Bank city of Hebron. Al-Manar TV in Lebanon broadcast a claim of responsibility from the Al Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades, a violent offshoot of Fatah. The three Israeli casualties had apparently picked up the suicide bomber, who was likely dressed as an observant Jew, as he was hitchhiking on the road. He then exploded in their car. It is not clear if the terrorist got in the car at the entrance to Kedumim or rode with the Israeli victims to Kedumim from another location. A rescue service official said medics could not approach the car, because it was still on fire nearly an hour after the blast. The blast scattered pieces of the car across a wide area. Rafaela Segal, who lives in Kedumim, said she heard the blast from her house, from where she can see the gas station. "I saw thick smoke rising from the gas station and at first I thought the gas station was on fire," she said. "Now all the roads are closed except for the emergency vehicles. The smoke has reached my windows," she told Israel Radio more than an hour after the blast. "Security forces are searching the area. "The Prime Ministers' Office blamed the Palestinian Authority for the attack, PMO official David Baker told Haaretz. "The Palestinian Authority continues to do nothing to prevent terror against Israelis. There are currently scores of terrorist alerts concerning attacks against Israelis in the works," said Baker. "The Palestinian Authority continues to be fertile ground for terrorist attacks, most notably because of the PA's aversion to taking any necessary steps to prevent terror," he added. The last suicide bombing in the West Bank was December 29, 2005, at an Israel Defense Forces checkpoint. An IDF soldier and two Palestinians were killed in addition to the bomber. This was the first suicide bombing claimed by a group other than Islamic Jihad since a cease-fire was declared in February 2005

    2006: Lisa Kron's sparkling autobiographical play "Well” opened on Broadway when it premiered tonight at the Longacre Theater.

    2006: Haaretz reported on how a piece of a Torah scroll passed from a former Nazi offer to a “holy man.” Rabbi Yitzchak Dovid Grossman was sitting  in his home in Migdal Ha'emek and touching, for the umpteenth time, the parchment cut over 60 years ago from a Torah scroll in an Eastern European synagogue. Although the piece of parchment has been in his possession for several days, apparently it is still a source of great excitement for him. This parchment was cut by an officer in the German air force, the Luftwaffe, during World War II, from a Torah scroll; he used it as a cover for his officer's ID document. Now it has come into the hands of the rabbi of Migdal Ha'emek, head of the Migdal Ohr youth village and an Israel Prize laureate. Rabbi Grossman says Moti Dotan, the head of the Lower Galilee Regional Council, recently came to his house with a notebook in hand. Dotan had returned from a ceremony in honor of the 25th anniversary of the twin cities pact between the regional council and the Hanover district in Germany. Dotan said that at the conclusion of a festive evening, a member of the Hanover district council approached him and asked to speak to him. "My father, Werner Herzig, died a few weeks ago," said the man. "Before his death he said he wanted to speak to me, and he told me he had participated in the war and been involved in crimes. 'It's important for me to tell you this, because today there are Holocaust deniers,' [said the Herzig senior]." Dotan says Herzig added that his father told him he had participated in the burning of a synagogue on the Russian front. According to Dotan, Herzig junior gave him the ID document and asked him to find a holy man in the Lower Galilee and give it to him. "I thought that Rabbi Grossman did holy work, and he was the most suitable person to receive the notebook," says Dotan. "When I came to him and gave him the document, I told him the story, he held the parchment and began to cry," recalls Dotan. He says that Rabbi Grossman symbolizes all that is good in Judaism, and will make proper use of the item. Rabbi Grossman turns over the piece of parchment and reads from the text. The parchment is from the book of Deuteronomy, from the weekly portion "Ki Tavo." The rabbi reads: "...and distress wherewith thy enemy shall distress thee in thy gates ... then the Lord will make thy plagues remarkable, and the plagues of thy offspring, even great plagues, and of long continuance, and severe sicknesses, and of long continuance ... also every sickness and every plague which is not written in the book of this Torah, them will the Lord bring upon thee, until thou art destroyed. And you shall be left few in number, whereas you were as the stars of the heaven for multitude" (Deuteronomy 28, 57-62). The rabbi is convinced that this is a "supreme message, with personal supervision. After 60 years, this notebook arrives in Israel, wrapped in these words of reproof, and is calling on us 'to awaken.' After all, the German could have cut the parchment from other books, from any of the Five Books of Moses, and he specifically cut out the section that speaks of redemption," said the rabbi. In recent days, Rabbi Grossman has shown the notebook to young people whom he met in the city, and according to him, it is causing a great deal of excitement. "It's a tangible thing, which you can see with your own eyes. You can see here the embodiment of evil, how after the destruction of a synagogue, this man had the daring to enter and to cut from the Torah scroll, only because he thought that the parchment was a suitable way to preserve his document." The rabbi promises to visit schools and young people with the notebook and to show it to them.

    2008: In Jerusalem, as part of the Contemporary Music Concert at the Jerusalem Music Centre The Israeli Contemporary Players perform music by Josef Bardanashvili, Tristan Murail and Arnold Schoenberg.

    2008: The Sunday New York Times featured a review of "The End of the Jews" by Adam Mansbach.

    2008: In Washington, D.C., Aaron David Miller, a 20-year veteran of the State Department (most recently as the senior advisor for Arab-Israeli negotiations), discusses his new book, The Much Too Promised Land: America's Elusive Search for Arab-Israeli Peace at Politics and Prose Bookstore.

    2008: Wolfie Cohen's Rascal House, a Jewish delicatessen located at the intersection of 172nd Street and Collins Avenue in Sunny Isles Beach, Florida, which opened in 1954 and closed today. Sporting a large neon sign in the front, the building was designed in the 1950s "MIMO" style (Miami Modern) which is common too much of the northern precincts of the Miami-area beaches. The neon sign makes a brief appearance at the beginning of the video for "Night Fever" by the Bee Gees. Wolfie Cohen's Rascal House was not the same as the original Wolfie's, another famous Jewish deli and restaurant in Miami Beach, also started by Wolfie Cohen, on the corner of 21st Street and Collins Avenue (closer to South Beach). For several years, Wolfie's featured a sign that read "The only thing that needs to come dressed is our chickens!" (meaning dining was casual, not clothing optional). That restaurant closed in 2001. Cohen also founded a third Jewish deli, Pumpernik's, at 67th Street and Collins Avenue, which also closed. (Personal note: One of the great joys of my childhood was eating at Wolfie's and Pumperniks - escpecially the latter. It was billed as the home of the pumpernickel bagel which for lovers of dark bread was indeed a delight)

    2009: Reuven Rivlin was chosen to serve as the Speaker of the Knesset when he got 90 out of the 120 possible votes.

    2009: Yeshiva University hosts the first day of the Israel and India International Conference styled"A Relationship Comes of Age" which includes the following presenters: Nathan Katz (Florida International University), Amit Kapoor (Management Development Institute, India), Efraim Inbar (Bar-Ilan University), Shlomo Mor-Yosef (Hadassah Medical Organization), Maina Chawla Sing (University of Delhi), P R Kumaraswamy (Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi), Gadi Ariav (Tel Aviv University).

    2009(5th of Nisan, 5769): Fifty-two year old Frank Stein, 'the face of Australian Jewry in Israel passed away today. (As reported by Raphael Ahren)

    2010: 80th anniversary of the founding of Ayanot

    2010(15th of Nisan, 5770): First Day of Pesach

    2010: A Chabad house in Budapest was stoned during a Passover Seder. The home of Rabbi Shmuel Raskin was stoned twice during the Seder on tonight, according to Israel Radio. Police came after the first incident, and the second incident reportedly took place after the police left. The incident comes amid an election campaign in Hungary some have described as worrisome due to the expected rise of the far-right Jobbik party. No suspects were reported arrested in the attack.

    2011: “The Matchmaker” and “Seven Minutes in Heaven” are two of the movies scheduled to be shown at the Hartford Jewish Film Festival.

    2011:”Norman Mailer: The American” and “The Klezmatics: On Holy Ground” are two of the films scheduled to be shown at the Westchester Jewish Film Festival.

    2011: A memorial service for George Einstein is scheduled to be held at the Sandestin Beach Club in Sandestin Resort, Fl.

    2011: Today the World Jewish Congress lauded Colombia’s decision not to recognize a Palestinian state, saying it showed courage in the face of pressure from neighboring countries.

    2011: “Israel Air Force jets struck a group of Palestinian militants in southern Gaza, killing one gunman and wounding another as they rode a motorcycle. The Israel Defense Forces confirmed carrying out the dawn strike, saying it targeted Palestinians who had launched a short-range rocket across the border yesterday. No one was hurt in that attack, which followed a surge in fighting around Gaza this month.”

    2012: One World One People, an exhibit of the works of renowned photographer Arnold Newman, is scheduled to come to an end at the Jewish Museum of Milwaukee.

    2012: “The Kid With a Bike,” “Salmon Fishing in the Yemen” and “Footnote” are scheduled to be shown at the Westchester Film Festival.

    2012: Shabbos Zingt - A Bay Area Yiddish ensemble that has created a new kind of Shabbos service, with Yiddish melodies and a Klezmer feel – is scheduled to appear at Shir Hadash in San Francisco.

    2013: In Coralville, Agudas Achim is scheduled to host Shabbat Yeladim

    2013:  An ensemble consisting of violinists Anna Ioffe and Alina Keitlin and harpsichordist Natilie Rosenberg is scheduled to perform at the Edin-Tamir Music Center.

    2013: "The ( * ) Inn”, an early touchstone for experimental theater in Yiddish, is scheduled to be performed at the Abrons Arts Center in New York.

    2013:Natural gas flow from the Tamar natural gas field began flowing this afternoon

    2013: In Memphis, TN “Paul Goldenberg, the burly former cop who runs the Secure Community Network, the security arm of the national Jewish community” has played a key role with the Jewish community including Cantor Rick Kampf in preparing for today’s scheduled rally by the KKK. (As reported by JTA)

    2014: “Thousands of French Jews attended an information fair today in Paris about moving to Israel amid an unprecedented spike in immigration to the Jewish state and a wave of anti-Semitic attacks.”

    2014: The musical “If/Then” starring Idina Menzel as “Elizabeth” is scheduled to official open on Broadway at the Richard Rogers Theatre.

    2014(28thof Adar II, 5774): Seventy-one year old Rivka Haut, a founder of the Women at the Wall and fighter for the rights of women within traditional Judaism passed away today.

    2014: “Quality Balls: The David Steinberg Story” is scheduled to be shown on the last night of the Northern Virginia Jewish Film Festival.

    2014: “The Sturgeon Queens” is scheduled to be shown at the Pittsburg Jewish Film Festival and the New Jersey Film Festival.

    2014: “If/Then,” a musical starring Idina Menzel as “Elizabeth Vaughn” opened on Broadway at the Richard Rogers Theatre.

    2014: “The Jews of Ioannnia gathered…to commemorate the seventieth anniversary of the destruction of the community by the Nazis.”

    2014: The 6thannual Gesher Jewish Day School Used Book Sale is scheduled to come to an end in Fairfax, VA.

    2015: “The Muses of Isaac Bashevis Singer” is scheduled to be shown at the Gershman Y in Philadelphia, PA.

    2015: The University of Connecticut is scheduled to host a faculty colloquium featuring historian Elisha Russ-Fishbane on “Maimonidean Controversies in Egypt.”

    2015: Dr. Derek Penslar is scheduled to speak on “Dreyfus Was Not Alone: Jewish Military Officers in the Modern World” at FIU.

    2015: At the Center for Jewish History, Jeffrey S. Gurock, author of The Holocaust Averted is scheduled to deliver a lecture that asks the question “What might have happened to the Jewish community in the United States if the Holocaust had never occurred?What might have happened to the Jewish community in the United States if the Holocaust had never occurred?

    2015:Carolyn Starman Hessel is scheduled to retire as Director of the Jewish Book Council.

    2015(10thof Nisan): “According to the Book Of Joshua” that date on the Jewish calendar “of the first-ever mass Aliyah with the Biblical narrative relating that the Israelites crossed the Jordan River” today “ending their 40 years of wandering in the desert.” (As reported by Deborah Kamin)








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    March 31

    1084: Henry IV, who had been embroiled in a conflict with the Papacy, was crowned Emperor by Clement III, called by some an anti-Pope. Within six years after this second coronation, Henry granted the Jewish community of Worms , the privileges of free commerce and exemption from taxation” and “designating the Jews as ‘subjects of his treasury,’”  placing  “them under his immediate protection, so that neither royal nor episcopal functionaries could exercise any jurisdiction over them” including the power of taxation.

    1146: Bernard of Clairvaux preaches his famous sermon in a field at Vézelay, urging the necessity of a Second Crusade. Louis VII is present, and joins the Crusade. Unlike the First Crusade, the Second Crusade is led by two monarchs - Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany. The “German connection” led to more suffering for the Jews of the Rhineland. Thanks to the incitement by one monk, the town of Wurburg was demolished during the massacres of Jews living along the Rhine River. As had happened during the First Crusade, the Christian warriors decided to slaughter the Infidels in their midst as they moved to free the Holy Land from the Infidels. The growing class of Christian merchants benefited from the violence since the destruction of the Jewish community destroyed their Jewish competitors. All Christians did not engage in this anti-Semitic behavior. Bernard himself tried to protect the Jewish population. His message of Crusade was heard. His message concerning the Jews was not.

    1283: Massacre of the Jews of Mayence in Germany.

    1310: At the auto da fé held at Paris today, a converted Jew who had returned to Judaism also died at the stake.

    1324: In his 53rd year, Henry II, “the last ruling and first titular King of Jerusalem” (part of the Christian fiction of control dating from the Crusades) passed away today.

    1381: During a popular uprising in France known as The Revolt of the Maillotins, Jews in France were murdered and their property plundered for next three or four days. The regent exercising royal power for the youthful Charles VI was unable to save the Jews or gain them indemnification for their loss.

    1492: Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon issued the Alhambra Decree or Edict of Expulsion, ordering her 150,000 Jewish subjects to convert to Christianity or face expulsion. Jews, unlike conversos and Marranos, were not subject to the Inquisition. So, the Church leveled a ritual murder accusation against them in Granada and was thus was able to call for the expulsion of both Jews as well as Marranos from Spain. The Marranos themselves were accused of complicity in the case so both groups were ordered to leave within four months. Torquemada, the director of the Inquisition (and incidentally of Jewish descent), defended this against Don Isaac Abarbanel. The edict was passed, and over fifteen thousand Jews had to flee - some to the Province of Aragon and others, like Abarbanel, to Naples. Still others found temporary sanctuary in Portugal.

    1547: Henry II succeeded his father as King of France on his 28th birthday. Obadiah ben Jacob Sforno, the Italian Rabbi dedicated his commentaries on “The Song of Songs” and “Ecclesiastes” to the French monarch.

    1596: Birthdate of Rene Descartes, the French mathematician and philosopher who was one of the two main sources from which Spinoza derived his view of the world.

    1647: Ralph Cudworth who had been Professor of Hebrew at Cambridge since 1645 and who “maintained an extensive correspondence” with Isaac Abenda the hakam of the Spanish Portuguese Synagogue in London preached a sermon in the House of Commons that advocated “principles of religious toleration and charity.”

    1648: In an attempt to explain the drop off in the production of vanilla, Commander Beekman of Essequibo and Pomeroon wrote the following letter to his superiors in Amsterdam today

    “The Jew Salomon de la Roche having died some 8 to 9 months ago, the trade in vanilla has come to an end, since no one here knows how to prepare it, so as to develop proper aroma and keep it from spoiling. I have not heard of any this whole year. Little is found here. Most of it is found in Pomeroon, whither this Jew frequently traveled, and he sometimes used to make me a present of a little. In navigating along the river, I have sometimes seen some on the trees and picked with my own hands, and it was prepared by the Jew....I shall do my best to obtain for the company as much as shall be feasible, but I am afraid it will spoil, since I do not know how to prepare it.” [The letter is illustrative of the vital role Jews played in the production of vanilla.]

    1688: The German Jews received permission to participate in the tobacco industry “but only on condition that they would build houses in Christianshavn, a suburb of Copenhagen on the island of Amager.

    1722: Fifty –two year old Campegius Vitringa, the Elder, “a Dutch Christian Hebraist” whose works included a dissertation on the Synagogue and a “Commentary on Isaiah” passed away today at Franeker.

    1745: The Jews of Prague were exiled.

    1781: Today “the Hungarian government issued a decree known as the Systematica gentis Judaicae regulatio, which wiped out at one stroke the decrees that had oppressed the Jews for centuries. The royal free towns, except the mining-towns, were opened to the Jews, who were allowed to settle at leisure throughout the country. The regulatio decreed that the legal documents of the Jews should no longer be composed in Hebrew, or in Yiddish, but in Latin, German, and Hungarian, the languages used in the country at the time, and which the young Jews were required to learn within two years.”
     1783: Emperor Joseph II issued a proclamation allowing the Jews to live in so-called "Royal Cities" including Pest, which would later be the “Pest” in Budapest. By 1787 81,000 Jews would be living in Hungary. The Hungarian Jewish community would grow large and prosper but would all but perish in the Holocaust. Tragically, it was the Holocaust that produced Hungary’s most famous post-War Jew, Elie Weisel.

    1796: Birthdate of Hermann Hupfeld, the German Biblical commentator who specialized on ‘the Old Testament” and whose writings “included a treatise on the early history of Hebrew grammar among the Jews” published in 1846.

    1799(24th of Adar II, 5559): Lorenzo Bertran was subjected to an auto-da-fe ("act of faith," in reality the public ceremony when the sentence of the Inquisition was read and carried out) in Seville. Supposedly he was the last person to be punished for attempting to lead others to Judaism in Spain. It was not the end of the auto-da-fe; a ceremony that was reported to have taken place in Mexico in isolated instance in the early 19th century.

    1808: In Westphalia, which was ruled by Jerome Bonaparte a Jewish consistory “was introduced by decree.”

    1808: The French created Kingdom of Westphalia ordered Jews to adopt family names

    1810: Birthdate of Hayyim Selig Slonimski a native of Byelostok, who was “a Hebrew publisher, astronomer, inventor” and a pioneer in providing Jews of Eastern Europe with a scientific education.

    1817(14th of Nisan, 5577): Ta'anit Bechorot

    1821: Abolition of the Portuguese Inquisition. The Inquisition was established in 1531 meaning it lasted for 290 years.

    1825(12th of Nisan, 5585): Ta'anit Bechorot

    1843: Birthdate of anti-Semitic political leader Bernhard Forster, the brother-in-law of Friedrich Nietzsche.

    1851: Birthdate of Sir Francis Henry Dillon Bell, the first native of New Zealand and the first Jew to serve as Prime Minister of the land of the Kiwis.

    1853: In Hungary Michael Heilprin and his wife gave birth to Angelo Heilprin “an American geologist, paleontologist, naturalist, and explorer.”

    1856: 40 Harmonia, a large main-belt asteroid was discovered today by German-French astronomer Hermann Goldschmidt

    1856: The Jews of Belarus or White Russia were denied the right to wear any distinctive garments that would mark them as different from the rest of the citizenry. At the time White Russia was part of the Czar's Russia with Poland and Lithuania to the west, Ukraine to the South, and Russia to the east. Minsk, home to a large Jewish population is today the capital of an independent Belarus

    1863(11thof Nisan, 5623): Abraham Abraham, a native of Bath and an “optician and scientific instrument maker” who was the son of optician Jacob Abraham, and who served as President of the Liverpool Jewry’s Philanthropic Institute and Warden of “the Old Hebrew Congregation” passed away today.

    .1863: “The Will of Commodore Levy--The Bequest of the Monticello Estate to the People of the United States Void” published today described the litigation surrounding attempts to “break” the late Jewish naval hero’s will. “This was an action to obtain a construction of the will of Commodore Levy, in respect to the bequest of the People of the United States of a farm owned by him, and 200 acres adjoining it, at Monticello, Virginia, and also in respect to a bequest of $1,000 to the Jews' Hospital in this City. The Court now rendered the following judgment, declaring the devise and bequest of the Monticello estate, and the 200 acres adjoining, to the people of the United States void, and that said portions of the estate descended to and vested in the heirs at law and next of kin of the testator; also that the Jews' Hospital of New-York are entitled to have their bequest." Such was the endorsement upon the papers.”

    1865(4th of Nisan): Rabbi Jacob Zevi ben Gamaliel Konigsberg author of Ha-Ketav ve-ha-Kabbalah passed away

    1865: The new Synagogue of the Congregation Shaar Hashomayim, (Gate of Heaven), in Rivington-street, between Ludlow and Orchard, was formally consecrated this afternoon. The building, which was erected in 1835, was occupied by a Presbyterian congregation until last November, when it was sold to its present occupants.

    1867: “The Insurance Companies and ‘Jew Risks’ “published today reported on a meeting where members of the community including the mayor or Richmond expressed their anger over the decision of insurance companies to no longer accept ‘Jew Risks.’ The mayor, who had been in the insurance business for years, told the crowd that he had numerous dealings with Jews over the years and found them to be honest. No reason was given for the decision of the insurance companies.

    1878: It was reported today that “foreign Jews trading in Russia” are now have the same legal standing as native Russian merchants.

    1871: A poem in Hebrew about the Western Wall by Henry Vidaver, who served as a rabbi at Rodeph Shalom in Philadelphia, United Hebrew Congregation in St. Louis, B’nai Jeshrun in New York and Sherith Israel in San Francisco, appeared in the newspaper Havatzelet.

    1878: “The Order of B’Nai Brit” published today traces the history of the history of the Jewish fraternal organization which was founded 35 years ago in New York City.

    1878: It was reported today that “foreign Jews trading in Russia” are now have the same legal standing as native Russian merchants

    1880: Alexander II of Russia was assassinated, and with him his half-hearted liberalism. He was succeeded by Alexander III who, devoted to medievalism, urged the return to Russian civilization. The most influential person during his reign was Pobestonostov, his financier and procurator of the Holy Synod, who earned the title "the Second Torquemada."

    1885(15THof Nisan, 5645): Pesach

    1885: The New York Times reported that “the Jewish festival of Pesach, or Passover, instituted to commemorate the exodus of the children of Israel from Egypt, commenced last evening and its celebration will be continued among the orthodox Hebrews throughout the world for the next eight days. This festival is also known as Hag Ha’Matzos, or the fest of the unleavened bread.”

    1889: The Eiffel Tower is inaugurated. One of Chagall’s most famous paintings was “Eiffel Tower, Serenade.”

    1890: The New York Times reported that “the diary of Sir Moses Montefiore and Lady Montefiore which the Belforde Clark Company published in two octave volumes covers the period from 1812 to 1883. The papers of Sir Moses were left to his Secretary, Dr. Lowe, for arrangement and publication, but Dr. Lowe died upon completing the work and son of Sir Moses, now a resident of this country, then carried it forward.”

    1891: In Bilgoraj, Pinchas Mendl Zinger, a rabbi and author of rabbinic commentaries, and Basheva Zylberman gave birth to Hinde Ester Singer Kreytman, the sister of Joshua and Isaac Bashevis Singer who gained fame as Yiddish author Esther Kreitman.

    1892(1stof Nisan, 5652); Rosh Chodesh Nisan

    1892: It was reported today that 69 nine year old Mark Samuel, a former resident of Toronto, has passed away in London. He had found M & L Samuel in 1855 and helped found the Toronto branch of the Anglo-Jewish Association.  He was a supporter of efforts to settle Russian Jews in the Northwest Terriotories.

    1892: The SS Massilia, the steamship which had previously brought several Jews from Russia who were infected with typhus is scheduled to arrive in New York today.  Health authorities will be paying close attention to the passengers since they are similar to the ones brought here before.

    1893(14th of Nisan, 5653): Ta'anit Bechorot

    1893(14th of Nisan, 5653: Alexander Levi passed away. Levi was one of the earliest settlers and earliest Jewish settlers of Dubuque, Iowa.

    1893: A group of Boston Jews belonging to Adath Israel petitioned Judge Ely for the return of wine and brandy which the Judge had previously ruled had been wrongfully seized by the police. Passover begins tonight and the Jews need the wine for the Seder. While the Judge said he would do all that he could to help with the return, “he could find no authority to order the wines returned before May.”

    1893: The New York Times reported that “the celebration of the feast of Pesach, or the Passover, will be begun by Jewish people throughout the world at sunset this evening and will be continued for eight days by the Orthodox Jews. Those who have accepted the reform ritual, among them a large number of the Jews in America, continue the celebration only seven days, the first and last days of that period being alone regarded as of special significance and celebrated as holy days.”

    1894: It was reported today that Russia is changing its rules about naturalizations and that “foreign Jews will be excluded” from applying for citizenship in the Czarist Empire.

    1894: “For the Jews in Palestine” published today described the appeal made by Abraham Neurmak, the rabbi at New York’s Orach Chaim to provide aid for those living in Eretz Israel.  “The North American Relief Society” under the presidency of Myer Isaacs has already responded with a donation of one hundred dollars.

    1894: As of today there are about 4,000 Polish Jews living in Zarephath, Hebron, Tiberias and Jerusalem. They came to Palestine to seek refuge from Russian persecution.

    1895: “Cider in Etymology” published today traces the origins of the English word “cider” which according to Sir George Birdwood has its origins in the Hebrew word “Shekar.”

    1895: “A Charity For Children” published today described “the good work of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society.”

    1896: In New York, the Herald Square Theatre will host a special performance of “The Heart of Maryland” that is a fundraiser for the Hebrew Infants’ Asylum.

    1896: “More than 1,000 pushcart vendors” attending a meeting tonight at the Hebrew Institute which was held under the auspices of the City Vigilance League and presided over by New York May Strong.

    1896: In New York, Palmer’s Theatre was the site of fundraiser for the benefit of the A.C. Sisterhood, a Jewish organization headed by Rebecca Kohut, the wife of the late Dr. Alexander Kohut, that “supports a kindergarten, day nursery, relief bureau and employment bureau.”

    1897: The improbably named “Jack the Jew” that went off at odds of 9 to 10 won the first race on a sloppy track in New Orleans.

    1897: Funeral services for the late Louis Israel, the owner of one of the largest livery stables in Brooklyn, will take place at Temple Beth Elohim today.

    1897: Massachusetts Congressman introduced the following resolution in the House of Representatives:

    “Resolved, That the Secretary of State be requested to demand from the Russian Government that the same rights be given to Hebrew –American citizens in the matter of passports as now are accorded to all other classes of American citizens and also to inform the House of Representatives whether any American citizens have been ordered to be expelled from Russian or forbidden the exercise of ordinary privileges enjoyed by the inhabitants because of their religion.”  (Editor’s Note – This champion of Jewish rights is John F. “Honey Fitz” Fitzgerald who provided the name for his famous grandson, John Fitzgerald Kennedy)

    1898: Dr. Kaufmann Kohler, the rabbi at Temple Beth-El will officiate at the funeral of the late Rabbi Emanuel Schwab. Cantor Hass of Adas Israel will preside over the internment in the Machpel Plot at Cypress Hills Cemetery

    1899: Rumania barred Jews from professional and agricultural schools

    1904(15thof Nisan, 5664): As T.R. prepares to run for re-election the Jews celebrate Passover

    1904(15thof Nisan, 5664): Sophia Karp, born Sara Segal in Romania, who became a leading performer in the New York Yiddish Theatre working with such giants as Abraham Goldfaden, Israel Grodner and Sokher Goldstein passed away today at the age of 42 or 43

    1904: The New York Times reported that “at sunset last evening the Jewish people throughout the world began the celebration of the festival of "Pesach," or the Passover. This festival was instituted to celebrate the deliverance of the children of Israel from their long bondage in the land of Egypt, and, lasting for eight days, is a season of peculiar observances.”

    1905: Dorothy Levitt, the first English woman ever to compete in a motor race drove from the Adelpi Hotel in Liverpool, to Coventry and then on to the De-Dion showroom in Great Marlborough Street in London, retracing the 205 mile trip she had made the day before.

    1912: It was reported that “Interesting archaeological discoveries, showing the observance as far back as 430 B.C. of the Jewish Passover, the festival commemorative of the exodus from Egypt, which Jews throughout the world will celebrate for a week beginning the evening of April 1, are described in the current issue of The American Hebrew.”

    1912: The Patriotic League of America, an organization dedicated to helping Jewish young men pursue careers in the army and navy has invited 200 service men stationed in and near New York City to be its guests at Seders for the first two nights of Passover at the Tuxedo Hall in New York. Adjutant General A.F. Ladd of the War Department has responded positively to the League’s lobbying efforts on behalf of the Jewish servicemen and has directed commanding officers to allow the Jewish soldiers to have furloughs so that they can observe the holiday which begins on the evening of April 1.

    1912: It was reported that Leopold Plaut, President of the United Hebrew Charities has issued a circular asking that the families of deceased Jews donate the money normally spent for flowers at a funeral to his organization. The organization will send acknowledgements to the donor and the family of the deceased, acknowledging the gift without mentioning the amount.

    1915(16thof Nisan, 5675): Second Day of Pesach

    1915: Lord Oxford and Asquith wrote in his diary “I think I have already referred to Herbert Samuel’s dithyrambic memorandum, urging that in the carving up of the Turk’s Asiatic dominion we should take Palestine, into which the scattered Jews would in time swarm back from all the quarters of the globe and in due course obtain Home Rule.” “Curiously the only other partisan of this proposal is Lloyd George, who, I need not say does not care a damn for the Jews or their past or their future, but thinks it will be an outrage to let the Holy Places pass into the possession or under the protectorate of agnostic, atheistic France” (As reported by JTA)

    1915(16thof Nisan, 5675): Seventy-four year old Nathan Mayer Rothschild, 1st Baron Rothschild, Baron de Rothschild, the eldest son of Baron Lionel de Rothschild and the grandson of Nathan Mayer Rothschild, the founder of the English branch of the famous banking family passed away today.

    1915: In Egypt,  Colonel John Henry Patterson swore in the new volunteers for the Zion Mule Corps and invited them to ‘Pray with me that I should not only, as Moses, behold Canaan from afar, but be divinely permitted to lead you into the Promised Land’

    1921: Albert Einstein lectured in New York on his new theory of relativity.

    1922: Birthdate of Lionel Davidson

    1923(14th of Nisan, 5683): Shabbat HaGadol and Erev Pesach

    1923: Birthdate of Shoshana Damari

    1925: The town of Afula was founded in the Jezreel Valley. Afula means The Town of Jezreel and it was started with the support of the American Zion Commonwealth. Unfortunately, the town never lived up to the original expectations with the settlers in the Jezreel Valley preferring to go to Haifa for rest and relaxation. The hospital at Afula did prove to be of lasting importance. Afula is a friendly crossroads town with numerous small stores selling what the locals claim to be the "best pistachio nuts in the world."

    1926: Jacob Adler, who had suffered a stroke in 1920 and had been in declining health ever since, suddenly collapsed today.

    1928: Real birthdate of Jacob Lateiner, Cuban born American pianist. His father would not get around to registering his birth until May of 1928 which has led to confusion about when he was really born.

    1929: Birthdate of Ilya Piastetski-Shapiro, famed math theorist who clashed with Soviet authorities. He passed away at the age of 79 on February 21, 2009 in Tel Aviv.

    1932: At Tel Aviv, on the final day of the first Jewish Olympics, Americans captured the lion’s share of the victories Sybil Koff of New York “won the women’s triathlon and the high jumps. Gus Hemann … won the men’s 100 meter dash…Leslie Flaksman won the 500 meter race…and Harry Schneider won the javelin, shooting, discus-throwing and men’s triathlon contests.” Victories by European teams included an Austrian first place finish in the 400 – meter race and first place finish by the a team from the Middlesex Regiment in the relay race that earned it the High Commissioner’s Cup.

    1933: Adolf Bertraim, archbishop of Breslau rejected the request of Oskar Wasserman for aid in protesting against the boycott of Jewish business organized by the Nazis but this was refused as he regarded it as purely an economic matter”
    1934(15th of Nisan, 5694): Pesach

    1935: German mathematician Felix Hausdorff who would later commit suicide when ordered to report to a concentration camp, was granted emeritus staus
    1935: Hebrew novelist Samuel I. Agnon was awarded the Bialik Prize in Hebrew Literature. The Bialik Prize was established in memory of the dean of Hebrew literature, Chaim Nachman Bialik and is considered the equivalent of the Pulitzer Prize. S.I. Agnon is considered by sum to be a worthy candidate for the Nobel Prize.

    1935: The Italian liner Roma arrived in Haifa carrying 1,650 passengers, which is believed to the largest number of people ever brought to Palestine on one ship. Most of the passengers are believed to be headed for Tel Aviv, site of the upcoming Maccabiad.

    1935: The Palestine police (an instrument of the British mandatory government) “issued an order today prohibiting a parade of athletes participating in the Maccabiah, the world Jewish athletic games.” The parade was scheduled to be held in Tel Aviv on April 1. The police reportedly were responding to threats of violent outbursts by the Arab populace.

    1936: Birthdate of poet, playwright and novelist Marge Piercy who grew up in the racially divided city of Detroit, where her Jewishness made her the target of bullies. One grandparent was Yiddish-speaking and Orthodox; another was a union organizer murdered for his activism. These influences, together with grief over relatives murdered in the Holocaust, aroused Piercy's political activism. They also strengthened her commitment to remaining involved with issues and matters of Jewish importance.

    1937: The Palestine Post reported from Glasgow that the International Labor Party conference deplored the bloodshed in Palestine by terrorists and called upon Jews to resist all attempts by Arab reactionary elements, sometimes supported by the British authorities. The first regulation made by the High Commissioner under the New Palestine Orders allowed the authorities to seize and retain accommodation and food, as they thought fit for the execution of their duty.

    1938: According to reports published in the New York Times, Dr. Sigmund Freud cannot leave Vienna and move to the Hague because “the authoritieis have refused to give him a passport.” In other words, the Nazi Austrian government has madet the prominent Jewish psychiatrist a prisoner.

    1940: Birthdate of Massachusetts Congressman Barney Frank.

    1941: After 7,500 Jews arrived from Vienna, a decree was issued to establish a ghetto at Kielce

    1941: With encouragement from the Axis powers (Italy and Germany) Rashid Ali al-Gaylani led an anti-British revolt in Iraq much to the detriment of the Jewish population.

    1941: After 7,500 Jews arrived from Vienna, a decree was issued to establish a ghetto at Kielce

    1942: The Gestapo “disbanded” the Neu-Isenburg orphanage and deported the girls living there to Theresienstadt.

    1942: In the western Ukraine, the Gestapo organized the first deportation of 5,000 Jews from Stanislawow ghetto to Belzac death camp.It was one of the biggest transports to Belzec in the first phase of the camp.

    1942: Birthdate of radio personality Michael Savage

    1942: Six thousand Jews from Eastern Galicia were deported to Belzec and gassed to death.

    1943: This was the deadline the Germans gave Spain to repatriate any Spanish nationals of the Jewish "race."

    1943: Broadway premier of the Rodgers and Hammerstein’s hit musical “Oklahoma.” Yes, it took a team of Jews to create this most famous of all American musical comedies. This is yet another example of how it was Jews who helped to create what some call "the American myth." It was this ability and not some Jewish plot that explains, in part, the success of Jews in various parts of the American entertainment industry.

    1943: Crematorium II at Auschwitz begins operation

    1944: It was announced that every Jew in Hungary would be required to wear a yellow badge as of April 5.

    1945: Mother Maria of Paris, a Russian nun who had saved many French Jews by hiding them, was killed by the Nazis.

    1945: The deportation of Jews from Slovakia comes to an end. In all, German and Slovak authorities deported about 70,000 Jews from Slovakia; about 65,000 of them were murdered or died in concentration camps. The overall figures are inexact, partly because many Jews did not identify themselves, but one 2006 estimate is that approximately 105,000 Slovak Jews, or 77% of their prewar population, died during the war.

    1946: Birthdate of Gabe Kaplan in Brooklyn, New York. The comedian and actor gained famed as the teacher in “Welcome Back Kotter,” a television show that launched the career of John Travolta.

    1946(28th of Adar): Yiddish author and translator Leon Kobrin passed away

    1948: Birthdate of Rhea Perlman who gained fame for her roles in the television comedies “Taxi” and “Cheers.”

    1949: The Dominion of Newfoundland joins the Canadian Confederation and becomes the 10th Province of Canada. There were somewhere between 215 and 360 Jews living in Newfoundland at this time. “The real history of the Newfoundland Jewish community began with the arrival in St. John's of Israel Perlin from the United States. He was instrumental in founding the first synagogue in Newfoundland, the Hebrew Congregation of Newfoundland, in 1909. The census of 1935 reported 215 Jews living in Newfoundland. The census of 1971 showed that that number had grown to 360.

    1953: Birthdate of Ehud Banai, an Israeli singer and songwriter.

    1953(15th of Nisan, 5713): First Day of Pesach

    1954: As tensions grew between Jordan and Israel due to the attacks by terrorists based in Jordan, the British cabinet discussed military options for responding to a possible strike by Israel into Jordan.

    1958: The US Navy formed an atomic submarine division. Admiral Hyman Rickover is considered the “father of the atomic Navy.” Thanks to his efforts, America developed a fleet of nuclear submarines that provided the United States with its strongest strategic edge during the Cold War with the Soviet Union.

    1952: The Jerusalem Post reported that Israel had become the ninth nation to ratify the agreement to eliminate trade barriers on the import of educational, scientific or cultural materials, sponsored by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Forty tons of Jerusalem stone, hewn from the Castel quarry, went into the building of the UN headquarters in New York as Israel's contribution to the project. The stone was sufficient for 300 sq.m. of flooring. Israel purchased 40,000 tons of wheat from South Africa.

    1953: The number of Israeli unemployed as of this date was 16,350.

    1956: In Boston, Albert Sinofsky and his wife gave birth to documentary filmmaker Bruce Jeffrey Sinofsky.

    1975: Boris Tsitlionok and Mark Nashpits were the defendants in the Soviet anti-Zionist trials that began today.

    1976: U.S. premiere of “W.C. Fields and Me” directed by Arthur Hiller, produced by Jay Weston, written by Bob Merrill, featuring Allan Arbus and Milton Kamen.

    1977: The Jerusalem Post reported that West Germany protested to Israel that it had not been told for more than a year of the arrest of two young West Germans, Brigitte Schultz and Thomas Reuter, who planned, on January 18, 1976, to shoot down an El Al plane in Nairobi. Five terrorists were arrested by Kenya: two Germans and three Arabs. Israel announced that they would soon be tried in camera, by a military court.

    1979: In Jerusalem, Israel, Gali Atari &; Milk and Honey win the twenty-fourth Eurovision Song Contest for Israel singing "Hallelujah.

    1981: “The Yellow Star - The Persecution of the Jews in Europe 1933-45” lost out for an Oscar tonight as Best Documentary Feature

    1991: The 1960 television version of “Peter Pan,” with music by Mark Charlap and Jule Styne and lyrics by Carolyn Leigh, Betty Comden and Adolph Green which had become a classic was re-broadcast today.

    1993: The “first season” of “Homicide: Life on the Streets” a television adaptation of Homicide: A Year on the Killing Streets by David Simon whose creators included Barry Levinson came to an end.

    1993: With Israel reeling from its worst wave of Arab violence in years, including the shooting deaths of two policemen this morning, the Government indefinitely closed the occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip today.

    1994: Yosef Zandani, age 28, of Bnei Ayish, was found killed in his apartment near Gedera. Near the body was a leaflet of the DFLP "Red Star", explaining that the murder was carried out in revenge for the shooting of one of its members by an Israeli citizen. The Israeli acted in self-defense

    1995: Al HaMishmar, a “paper owned by and affiliated with Hashomer Hatzair as well as the Hashomer Hatzair Workers Party of Palestine and Mapam” which was first published in 1943 ceased publication today.

    1997: The Union of Orthodox Rabbis issued “A Historic Declaration which stated Reform and Conservative are not Judaism at all. Their adherents are Jews, according to the Jewish Law, but their religion is not Judaism...we appeal to our fellow Jew, members of the Reform and Conservative movements: Having been falsely led by heretical leaders that Reform and Conservative are legitimate branches and denominations of Judaism, we urge you to be guided by this declaration, and withdraw from your affiliation with Reform and Conservative temples and their clergy. Do not hesitate to attend an Orthodox synagogue due to your inadequate observance of Judaism. On the contrary, it is because of that inadequacy that you need to attend an Orthodox synagogue where you will be warmly welcomed

    1998(4th of Nisan, 5758): Former New York Congresswoman Bella Abzug passed away at the age 77 (As reported by Laura Mansnerus)

    1999: Did you ever wonder how Jews celebrate Pesach, the holiday of “Spring,” in the Southern Hemisphere where it is really Autumn? In “An Argentine Passover, Then and Now,” Joan Nathan gives us some sense of the celebration.

    2001: Uzi Landau replaced Binyamin Ben-Eliezer as Energy and Water Resources Minister of Israel

    2002: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of interest to Jewish readers including the recently released paperback editions of "Constantine’s Sword: The Church and the Jews: A History" by James Carroll and "Walking the Bible: A Journey by Land Through the Five Books of Moses" by Bruce Feller.

    2002(18thof Nisan, 5762): 4th day of Pesach and 3rd day of the Omer.
    2002(18th of Nisan, 5762): Fourteen “people were killed and over 40 injured in a suicide bombing in Haifa, in the Matza restaurant of the gas station near the Grand Canyon shopping mall. Hamas claimed responsibility for the attack. The victims: Suheil Adawi, 32, of Turan; Dov Chernevroda, 67, of Haifa; Shimon Koren, 55; his sons Ran, 18, and Gal, 15, of Haifa; Moshe Levin, 52, of Haifa; Danielle Manchell, 22, of Haifa; Orly Ofir, 16, of Haifa; Aviel Ron, 54; his son Ofer, 18, and daughter Anat, 21, of Haifa; Ya'akov Shani, 53, of Haifa; Adi Shiran, 17, of Haifa; Daniel Carlos Wegman, 50, of Haifa. Carlos Yerushalmi, 52, of Karkur, died the next day of wounds sustained in the attack.” (Jewish Virtual Library)

    2002(18thof Nisan, 5767): Hamas took credit for today’s attack at the Erfat Medical center where four people were injured.
    2003: Michael Chabon and Ayelet Waldman gave birth to their youngest child, Abraham “Abie” Wolf Waldman

    2003(27th of Adar II 5763): Eighty-five year old Sidney Greenberg, one of the Conservative movement’s leading rabbis, passed away.

    2003: National Security Advisor Dr. Condoleezza Rice addressed the American-Israel Public Affairs Committee’s Policy Conference.

    2005: ABC News reported that Ted Koppel will leave that organization when his contract expires in December of 2005. Mr. Koppel has been with the network for 42 years and has hosted the popular late night news program “Nightline” for the past twenty-five years.

    2005: At the Jewish Museum in New York, a distinguished panel of speakers, including exhibition co-curators Emily Bilski and Emily Braun, as well as Whitney Museum curator Elizabeth Sussman and Union College professor Brenda Wineapple, consider the contributions of women such as Gertrude Stein, Margherita Sarfatti, and Florine Stettheimer to literature and the visual arts from the late 18th century through the 1930s.

    2007: Shabbat Ha Gadol.

    2007: In Cedar Rapids, the show “Remnants of Memories” Interpretations of the collage by artists Tom Lee and Elizabeth Levi sponsored by Ginsberg’s Jewelry comes to a close.

    2008: Hillel receives a $10.7 million grant, from the Jim Joseph Foundation which the college oriented organization says is the largest in its history. The grant will be disbursed over five years and enable Hillel to engage an additional 30,000 students, according to a news release

    2008: In New York, The Center for Jewish History presents a lecture by Dr. Atina Grossman entitled “Close Encounters: Jews and Germans in Occupied Germany during which she will discuss the story of the "close encounters" in Allied occupied Germany between Jewish survivors of the Nazi Final Solution who found themselves on "cursed German soil" after the German surrender, and the defeated Germans with whom they continually interacted.

    2008: End of Women’s History Month.

    2008: In Vancouver, B.C., the Vancouver Jewish Film Festival presents a screening of “Samuel Bak: Painter of Questions.”

    2008: “New Jerusalem: The Interrogation of Baruch de Spinoza at Talmud Torah Congregation: Amsterdam, July 27, 1656” was among the nominees for the 23rd annual Lucille Lortel Awards, celebrating excellence in Off-Broadway theatre,

    2008(24thof Adar II, 5678): Ninety-six year old movie director Jules Dassin the son of Russian immigrants who began his career as a Yiddish actor and was a victim of the infamous Hollywood Blacklist, passed away today.

    2008(24th of Adar II, 5768): Rabbi Herbert A. Friedman, a dominant figure in American Jewish philanthropy during Israel’s formative years, passed away at his New York home at the age of 89. (As reported by Dennis Heves

    2009(6th of Nisan, 5769): Ruth Fredman Cernea, 74, a cultural anthropologist who wrote on topics that included the Jews of Myanmar and the annual mock debate at the University of Chicago on the respective merits of Jewish holiday foods such as latkes and hamantaschen, died today of pancreatic cancer.

    2009: Danny Ayalon began serving as Deputy Foreign Minister.

    2009: Moshe Kahlon replaced Ariel Atias as Communications Minister.

    2009: Gideon Sa'ar was appointed Minister of Education

    2009: Yeshiva University hosts the second day the Israel and India International Conference which features the theme "A Relationship Comes of Age." Presenters include Nathan Katz (Florida International University), Amit Kapoor (Management Development Institute, India), Efraim Inbar (Bar-Ilan University), Shlomo Mor-Yosef (Hadassah Medical Organization), Maina Chawla Sing (University of Delhi), P R Kumaraswamy (Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi), Gadi Ariav (Tel Aviv University).

    2009: Gottschalks, a chain of department stores that was founded by German Jewish immigrant Emil Gottschalk in 1904, “announced it would liquidate its remaining stores.”

    2009: Silvan Shalom replaced Yaakov Edri as Minister for the Development of the Negev and the Galilee

    2009: Ayoob Karab began serving as Deputy Minister for the Development of the Negev and the Galilee.

    2009: Ariel Atias replaced Ze'ev Boim as Minister of Housing and Construction

    2009: Ya'akov Margi replaced Yitzhak Cohen as Minister of Religious Services

    2009: Eli Yishai replaced Meeir Sheetrit as Minister of Internal Affairs

    2009: Uzi Landau replaced Binyamin Ben-Eliezer as Minister of Energy and Water Resources.

    2009: Daniel Hershkowitz replaced Raleb Majadele as Minister of Science and Technology.

    2010(16th of Nisan, 5770): First Day of the Omer; Second Day of Pesach

    2010: “Rethinking the Holocaust and Genocide with Michael Thaler”

    2010: An exhibition presented by the American Jewish Historical Society entitled “Pages from a Performing Life: The Scrapbooks of Molly Picon” featuring the 22 scrapbooks keep by Molly Picon and her husband Jacob Kalish chronicling their extraordinary 50-year career, is scheduled to come to an end.

    2010(16th of Nisan, 5770): Steven Zilberman died while serving his country. “Miroslav Zilberman, a Navy pilot known to his friends as Steven, moved with his parents from Ukraine to Columbus, Ohio, in the early 1990s. His parents, Anna and Boris, did not want their son to be forced into military service in their native land. AP reports describe Zilberman as grandson of Gregory Sokolov, a major in the Soviet Army in World War II. Zilberman decided to follow his grandfather’s footsteps and joined the Navy after graduating from Bexley High School in 1997. He went on to graduate from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, N.Y., where he majored in computer science. Zilberman’s plane, an E-2C Hawkeye, was returning to the carrier Dwight D. Eisenhower following a mission supporting operations in Afghanistan when the plane experienced a malfunction. Zilberman ordered his crew mates to eject before going down with the plane into the North Arabian Sea.

    2011(25th of Adar II, 5771): Eighty-three year old Henry Taub, found of ADP, passed away. (As reported by Duff Wilson)

    2011: Yosef Begun a former Soviet Prisoner of Conscience is scheduled to speak at noon today in Washington, DC.

    2011: The 14th annual Main Jewish Festival opens in Portland, Maine.

    2011: “The Army of Crime” and “Hidden Children” are two of the films scheduled to be shown at the Westchester Jewish Film Festival.

    2011: “The Human Resources Manager” is one of the films scheduled to be shown at the Hartford Jewish Film Festival

    2011: In Jerusalem, the Old City Flavors Festival comes do an end.

    2011: “How Israel Won the Six-Day War” published today described Operation Yated and the role an Egyptian agent “turned” played in the miracle of June, 1967.

    2012: Shabbat Hagadol - 81st anniversary of the Bar Mitzvah of Joseph B. Levin, of blessed memory who was Bar Mitzvahed on Shabbat Hagadol

    2012: “Footnote” and “Salmon Fishing in Yemen” are scheduled to be shown at the Hartford Jewish Film Festival.

    2013: Jeremy Piven stars in “Mr. Selfridge” a Masterpiece Classics min-series that is scheduled to air for the first time tonight on PBS.

    2013: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Retrospective by A.B. Yehosuha and Karl Marx: A Nineteenth-Century Lifeby Jonathan Sperber 

    2013: President Shimon Peres today congratulated Yitzhak Tshuva, the controlling shareholder of the Tamar natural gas field which was first put into use Saturday, for pumping the gas into Israel four years after the deposit was first discovered — adding, however, that the pumping should not have begun on the Sabbath, the Jewish day of rest.

    2013: Pope Francis and Rome’s Chief Rabbi Riccardo Di Segni exchanged greetings to mark Passover and Easter.

    2014: In Little Rock, Lubavitch of Arkansas under the leadership of Rabbi Pinchas Ciment is scheduled to host an evening with “author, comedian, journalist and musician David Nesenoff.”

    2014:Former Prime Minister Ehud Olmert was convicted today of receiving bribes to facilitate the construction of the Holyland housing project in Jerusalem a decade ago.

    2014: In their never-ending quest to get something for nothing “The Palestinians today gave US Secretary of State John Kerry 24 hours to resolve a dispute with Israel over prisoners after which they will resume moves to seek international recognition.

    2015: The Jewish Community Center of Northern Virginia is scheduled to lead Passover shopping expedition to Moti’s Market in Rockville, MD.

    2015: In Philadelphia, The National Museum of Jewish History is scheduled to host the VIP Opening Reception for “Richard Avedon: Family Affairs” which “features more than 70 portraits by the famed photographer.

    2015: The first part of “The Dovekeepers” a dramatization of events at Masada is scheduled to be shown on CBS.





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    April 1

    515 BCE:  The Second Temple was inaugurated in Jerusalem (As reported by Jona Lendering)

    527: Byzantine Emperor Justin I names his nephew Justinian I as co-ruler and successor to the throne. This was a “lose-lose” proposition for the Jewish people. When Justin I assumed the throne he adopted a policy of rigorously enforcing the anti-Jewish laws promulgated by Theodosius including excluding Jews from “all posts of honor” and banning the construction of new synagogues. “Justinian began persecuting the Jews immediately after his accession” as can be seen from the adoption of anti-Jewish legislation in the very first year of his reign.

    1205: Amalrik II King of Cyprus/Jerusalem, died. This was the period of the Crusades when followers of Islam and Christians from Europe jockeyed for control of Eretz Israel and Jerusalem.

    1557(1st of Iyar):  Iggeret Ba’alei Hayyim, a book on zoology translated by Kalonymus was printed for the first time in Mantua, Italy.

    1782: The certificate authorizing Solomon Etting of Lancaster, PA to serve as a shochet was issued today making him the first native born American to receive this distinction

    1798(15thof Nisan, 5558): Pesach

    1815: Birthdate of Otto Von Bismarck. A Prussian, he served as Chancellor from 1866 to 1890 making Germany into a united modern nation. His record concerning the Jews was mixed, He was Chancellor in 1869 when emancipation legislation was enacted removing limitations on civil rights based on religion. His personal physician was Jewish and there were Jewish department heads in the government. In his earlier years, Bismarck had been opposed to Jews as government ministers. Once again, as his career drew to a close and it fit his political needs Bismarck distanced himself from the Jews but did not adopt the rabid anti-Semitism that appeared in Germany during the 1880's.

    1817(15th of Nisan, 5577): First Day of Pesach

    1828: In Cassel, Germany, Moses Mordecai Büdinger gave birth to Austrian historian Max Büdinger who served as chair of the history department at the University of Vienna from 1872 until 1902.

    1845: In Trieste, Elisa Morpurgo and Giuseppe / Joseph Baron von Morpurgo gave birth to Louise Cahen d'Anvers (de Morpurgo)

    1852: Fire broke out in San Francisco destroying a boarding house owned by Abraham Abrahamsohn that boasted a “French cook, three waiters and a dishwashers.” Abrahamsohn would have tried his hand unsuccessfully in the gold fields and as tailor in Sacramento had made the money for the boarding house by working as a mohel. One can only assume that there was a good sized and prolific Jewish population in San Francisco for him to have earned enough capital from performing ritual circumcisions. This latest setback forced Abrahamsohn to head to Australia where he again failed as gold miner, but met with modest economic success when he returned to his original profession – baker – and began providing food for the hungry miners.

    1853: When an apprentice named Herman who was working for a boot and shoe shop was arrested on charges of theft that covered the last 9 months, he claimed that he was regular selling eighty dollars’ worth of merchandize of an un-named Jew for twenty-five dollars.

    1858: The New York Times reported that one of the reasons for a drop in business at the local cattle markets this week was the absence of Jewish butchers who were observing Passover.

    1861: An English play entitled “Babes in the Wood” opened at the Winter Garden Theatre.  According to the reviewer, the play is based on the all too common practice of the impecunious English gentleman who borrows money from “a friendly Hebrew” for which he pays “a liberal interest” so that he may pursue a life style that includes “a generous supply of wine,” cigars and a marriage which all too often does not turn out to be solution to his problems. [It would appear that 3 centuries after the creation of Shylock, the English still are writing about the poor gentile victimized by the Jewish moneylender.]

    1862(1st of Nisan, 5622): Rosh Chodesh Nisan

    1865: Union forces defeat the Confederates at the Battle of Five Forks which effectively sealed the fate of Robert E. Lee’s Army and therefore the Confederacy.  The rebels were forced to abandon Richmond which would lead to the involvement of Raphael Moses, the native of Columbus, GA who had been with Lee at Gettysburg in the bizarre episode concerning the disposal of the Southern government’s bullion supply.

    1865: Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, later known as Leslie’s Weekly published a picture of the annual Purim Ball held in New York in March.

    1866: In "Southern Jottings" published today described conditions in Charleston, South Carolina, including the observation that "the Hebrew element is largely represented here and speculators are as abundant as tea stores on Vesey Street."

    1866: Under the simple heading of “Nathan Meyer Rothschild of London” the New York Times published a lengthy article tracing the history of the family from its earliest beginning to its present prominent role in the world of finance as well as the role of other Jews in the financial growth that has occurred in Great Britain since “the days of the South Sea bubble.”

    1870: “April Fool” published today traces the origins of April Fool’s Day. He claims that the prophet Haggai “makes allusion to it in the third chapter of his book.” He also contends that Solomon recognized “the fool” in his writings and even references a specific day for fools in the 29thverse of the 17th chapter of Proverbs, “The fool has his day and the simple man his season…”

    1870(10th of Nisan, 5631): Shabbat HaGadol

    1870: Sixty-two year old physician and author Moses Philippson passed away today in Breitenfeld.

    1871: "Green Street Synagogue” was founded today by a small group of Jews in Baltimore, Maryland.

    1872: Birthdate of Conrad Gröber, the Catholic cleric whose eventual opposition to the Nazi regime did not include opposition to the Holocaust.

    1874(14th of Nisan, 5634): The New York Times reported that “this evening the Jewish festival of ‘Pesach’ or the Passover will be inaugurated with the observances and ceremonies incident to its celebration. This festival is one of the most important in the Hewish calendar, and was instituted to commemorate the miraculous deliverance of the children of Israel from the vile system of slaver imposed upon them during their sojourn in the land of Egypt. The festival begins at sundown this evening and continues for eight days…and is distinguished from all festivals by the banishment of all leavened bread from the houses of the pious Israelites…”  

    1876: It was reported today that I.S. Nathans, a Jew who has become an Episcopalian has been authorized by his church to led a mission to convert the Jews of New York which the church number at 110,000.

    1876: Sigmund Dringer, an Austrian born Jew, had acquired 4,000 tons of scrap iron and 1,700 tons of car wheels said to be worth one hundred thousand dollars.  This made Dringer the largest scrap medal dealer in the United States supplying foundries and rolling mills from Boston to Cincinnati.

    1880: This morning, Shearith Israel, located at West19th Street near 5thAvenue in New York City, celebrated the 150th anniversary of its consecration with special services led by Rabbis Nieto, Lyon and Pereia-Mendes.

    1881: Anti-Jewish riots broke out in Jerusalem.

    1882: A blood libel in Tisza Eszlar, Hungary began. “A week and a half before Easter, a fourteen year old Catholic housemaid, Esther Solymossy, left her employer’s home to buy paint. She did not return.” When a week long search failed to turn up any evidence of the missing girl, two prominent Hungarian anti-Semites named Onody and Istoczy began making claims about “ritual murder” forcing the local sheriff to pursue this blatantly false line of accusation. Fifteen Jews were ultimately charged and tried for "murder" for which there was no real evidence. After a year of futile effort, the fifteen were acquitted.

    1883: In New York, David Holtz and Pauline Moses, whom he had known for a brief time, were engaged to be married.

    1887: Birthdate of Leonard Bloomfield. Bloomfield was an American linguist whose influence dominated the development of structural linguistics in America between the 1930s and the 1950s. He is especially known for his book Language published in 1933 that described the state of the art of linguistics at its time. Bloomfield was the main founder of the Linguistic Society of America.

    1888: At Temple Beth-El in New York, Rabbi Kaugman Kohler delivered a lecture entitled “The Wandering Jews.”

    1890: Three Russian Jewish immigrants – Ed Myers, Isadore Lowenstein and Ike Edeliman – have been charged with arson and are locked up the Central Police Station in Louisville, KY.

    1890: Nathan Birnbaum leader of Kadima and the publisher of the journal Selbst-Emanzipation created the term Zionism. Birnbaum was actually a Zionist before Herzl popularized the concept. Unfortunately, Birnbaum was not able to find a "home" in the movement as it grew. In a total role reversal he advocated the development of the Jewish community in the Diaspora, Yiddish instead of Hebrew and orthodoxy over secularism.

    1890: Fifty women formed The Beth El Society of Personal Services was formed with the intent of lessening the burden being placed on the United Hebrew Charities.

    1892: Grover Cleveland addressed a large crowd of Russian Jews in New York City.

    1892: In Great Britain, Mr. Balfour told the House of Commons that the British Ambassador in St. Petersburg had based his expectation that a large number of Jews would be coming to the UK because he believed that the United States was about to put an end to the immigration of Jews from Russa.

    1892: In Brooklyn, the Republican faction opposed to Ernst Nathan sent out a call for meeting.

    1893: German’s celebrate the 78th anniversary of the birth of Otto Von Bismarck, the Iron Chancellor who changed the face of Europe in ways too numerous to mention here.

    1893(15th of Nisan, 5653): First Day of Pesach

    1894: Professor Felix Adler delivered a lecture on “The Influence of Woman” at the Music Hall in New York City.

    1894: “Over In Camden” published today described the purchase by the Sons of Israel of “a portion of the New Camden Cemetery for use as a cemetery for Jews in the New Jersey city.

    1894: It was reported today that there may have been a period of time when the Queen Insurance Company of New York did not insure Jews

    1894: “All Fool’s Day” published today attributed to the origins of April Fool’s Day as being tied to the fact that Noah made the mistake of “sending the dove out of the ark before the water had abated on the first day of the month” on the Jewish calendar which correlates “our 1st of April.”  Since then people would be sent on “fool’s errands” on this date in the foolish manner of Noah sending out the dove.”

    1894: “Godfathers and Godmothers” published today described the origins of this popular custom among Christians but for which “doubtless” began with the Jews.

    1895: Interview with Alphonse Daudet, French anti-Semitic writer, for whom Herzl translated an article. Herzl unfolds his views on the Jewish question, which produce a deep impression on Daudet. Daudet feels that Herzl should write a novel about his ideas.

    1895: First appearance of The "American Jewess," the first English-language publication published by and for American Jewish women.

    1896: It was reported today that the recent benefit production of “The Heart of Maryland” raised about two thousand dollars for the Hebrew Orphan Asylum who had just celebrated 21 years of service to the Congregation.

    1896: The funeral for Rabbi Aaron Wise is scheduled to be held this morning at Rodeph Sholom, at Lexington and 63rd Street in Manhattan

    1896: “Promises For Peddlers” published today described a meeting between 1,000 pushcart vendors led by Abraham Benowitz, President of the Fish Peddlers’ Association  and New York leaders including Mayor Strong and President Teddy Roosevelt of the Police Board to discuss plans for how their business would be conducted on Hester Street on the Lower East Side.

    1897: “Rights of Hebrew Americans” published today described the efforts of Congressman Fitzgerald of Massachusetts to have the Secretary State ensure that American Jews are not discriminated by the Czar’s government when they are doing business in Russia. (Congressman Fitzgerald is the grandfather of JFK)

    1898: In New York, Boris Sidis, Ph.D., M.D. and Sarah Mandelbaum Sidis, M.D. gave birth to child-prodigy and math wizard, William James Sidis

    1898: Moses Samuel Zuckermandl who was the rabbi at Pleschen, Prussia “was appointed lecturer at the Mora-Leipziger Foundation at Breslau” today.

    1898(9thof Nisan, 5658): Sixty-eight year old German lawyer Hermann Makower who also served as President of the Board of the Jewish Community of Berlin passed away today.

    1899(21stof Nisan, 5659): 4th day of Pesach and Shabbat

    1899(21stof Nisan, 5659): Three weeks short of the third anniversary of the death of her husband, Baron Maurice de Hirsch; sixty-five year old Clara Hirsch, the Baroness de Hirsch passed away today in Paris. The daughter of Belgian banking family, she knew the personal tragedy of loss when her daughter died in infancy and her son died at the age of 31.  She threw herself into a variety of charitable efforts and after her husband’s used the family fortune to provide for a myriad of causes including settle Russian Jews in agricultural communities and establishing training schools for young girls so that they could learn a trade and be self-supporting.

    1899: Philip Michael Ritter von Newlinski, a Polish nobleman whom Herzl wanted to use his contacts with the Ottomans to promote the Zionist cause, dies in Constantinople.

    1899: In “Closing of the Schools” published today, “Vox Populi” defends the decision of the school board closing the schools at this time of the year since it coincides with Easter and Passover which means that Christian and Jewish students would not be in school.  Such a decision is not an unwarranted intrusion of religion in public education but an acknowledgement that in the United States we enjoy religious freedom that enables to honor the customs of Christians and Jews.

    1899: Despite a total lack of evidence, Leopold Hilsner was sentenced death today in Polna, Bohemia in another case of a Blood Libel. His sentence was later commuted and in 1916, Hilsner received a full pardon. It should be noted that his life was saved thanks to the activities of T.J. Masark, Czech patriot and the first president of an independent Czechoslovakia.

    1899: Austrian author Karl Kraus an advocate of Jewish assimilation and a critic of Theodor Herzl renounced the “faith of his fathers” today.

    1900: The executors of the estate of Abraham Wolf, a partner in the banking firm of Kun, Loeb & Co turned the estate over to the trustees Mrs. Addie Kahn and her son Gilbert W. Kahn

    1903: Birthdate of Chess Champion Salo (Salomon) Landau, the Galician native who will die in Auschwitz.

    1903: Herzl meets McIlwraithe, the legal adviser of the Khedive. Herzl presents the Zionist proposal. McIlwraithe promises that the government will make a counter-proposal.

    1905: Tonight over a thousand Jews watched as two Torah scrolls were carried to the First Zolyner Congregation Anshe Sefard from the home of Sigmund Yokel, the President of the Congregation. After a brief ceremony during which the scrolls were placed in the Holy Ark, “the marchers celebrated at a big banquet.”

    1905: It was reported today that the third edition of “The Seder Service,” a Haggadah prepared by Mrs. Phillip Cowen and published by her husband is now in available.

    1906: Birthdate of Polish born actor Ned Glass known for his portrayal of Uncle Moe in “Bridgette Loves Bernie.”

    1908: Birthdate of Abraham H Maslow, renowned psychologist. Born in Brooklyn, Maslow was the oldest of seven children of Russian Jewish immigrants. In a manner typical of this immigrant generation, Maslow's pushed him to succeed academically. Maslow studied law at CCNY and Cornell. He then married his cousin Bertha and enrolled at the University of Wisconsin where he began his study of psychology earning his doctorate in 1931. Maslow is most famous for developing his Hierarchy of Needs. Maslow was a professor at Brandeis from 1951 until 1969. He died in 1970. In examining Maslow's life and work, one commentator found a connection between Maslow's Jewish background and his scientific work. Just as Judaism tries to bring order of a chaotic world, so Maslow sought to develop a unifying structure that would enable people to bring order to their chaotic lives.

    "Human nature is not nearly as bad as it has been thought to be." Abraham Maslow.

    1909: Birthdate of Abner Biberman. Born in Milwaukee, Biberman gained fame as an actor and movie director. His films included “Gunga Din,” “Bridge At Saint Luis Rey,” “Winchester 73” and “Viva Zapata.” His oriental appearance made him a natural for the role of the Japanese officer in several war movies made during WW II, the most famous of which was “Back to Bataan.” He passed away in June, 1977.

    1912(14th of Nisan, 5672): For the first time, the Patriotic League of America sponsored a Seder tonight at Tuxedo Hall for Jewish soldiers and sailors stationed in the New York metropolitan area.

    1912( 14th of Nisan, 5672): It what appeared to be a classic SNAFU, 17 Jewish soldiers on Governor’s Island were assigned to guard duty tonight meaning that they could not attend the Seder at the Tuxedo. This was in direct violation of The Secretary of War’s had order that all soldiers in the New York area would receive a furlough to celebrate the holiday. When authorities found out about the mistake they corrected it so the soldiers could attend the Seder.

    1915: Based on a resolution adopted today in Chicago, Orthodox Jews will be able to exercise their franchise in the upcoming elections scheduled for April 6, the last day of Passover. Since the Orthodox cannot write on the holiday, the resolution empowered judges and clerks of the election to mark the ballots for the observant Jews.

    1915: In Berlin an anti-war protest was held led by Rosa Luxemburg, an act for which she was imprisoned.

    1915: As “The Mule Corps swears allegiance to the British army” Jabotinsky refuses to serve “because its duties only involve transportation” and does not fulfill his demand for the establishment of a fighting legion.

    1916: The Federation of Rumanian Jews dedicates the new Jewish Home for Convalescents, which formally opens today at Grandview, Rockland County as a permanent memorial to the work of Dr. Solomon Schechter. Schechter was the noted Hebrew scholar and head of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, who died on November 20, 1915.

    1917: Birthdate of Melville “Mel” Shavelson who would gain fame a writer, director and producer of dozens of films featuring such stars as Lucille Ball, Jimmy Cagney and Frank Sinatra. He was nominated for two Oscars and created two Emmy Award-winning television series, "Make Room for Daddy" and "My World and Welcome to It."

    1918: Chaim Weizmann, the head of the Zionist Commission, arrived in Palestine. The Commission had been established by the British to help carry out the promises of the Balfour Declaration. The Commission actually arrived before the war had ended and the Mandate had been established. The British had intended that the Commission be its official contact with the Jewish community (Yishuv) and help in setting policies concerning post-war settlement and development including immigration. Unfortunately this positive start did not pre-sage a continuation of British support during the inter-war period.

    1918(19th of Nisan, 5678): Isaac Rosenberg, a leading Anglo-Jewish poet, is killed on April Fool’s Day while fighting on the Western Front.

    1919: In Grodno, Yitahak and Dvora Livni gave birth to ham "Eitan" Livni who made Aliyah in 1925, served with the Irgun and became a Likud MK.

    1919: Birthdate of Jabr Muadi, the Israeli Druze politician who served in the Knesset for three decades from 1951 to 1981

    1920: The emergence of the Nazi Party. (This happened on the anniversary of the day that Haman published his decree of extermination of the Jews.)

    1921: In the United Kingdom, Alfred Moritz Mond, 1st Baron Melchett, completed his service as First Commissioner of Works and began serving as Minister of Health in a cabinet headed by David Lloyd George.

    1921: In “Upholds Palestine Plan; Churchill Tells Arabs that Balfour Declaration Must Stand,” published today described“further details of Winston Churchill’s visit to Jerusalem.” Churchill met with a delegation of Arab Congress which had been held much earlier in Haifa and which “asked for the withdrawal of the Balfour declaration. Churchill declared…that the government was determined to keep to the Balfour declaration in both of its parts, namely, the establishment of the Jewish national home and the protection of the non-Jewish population.” Later, when he met with a Jewish delegation, Churchill concluded his remarks “by saying that the British taxpayers could not bear the expense of the establishment of the Jewish national home and that Jews must therefore make greater efforts to obtain the necessary funds.”

    1922: Sir Edgar Speyer “and his remaining partner in the London bank dissolved Speyer Brothers.

    1923(15th of Nisan, 5683): Pesach I

    1925: Amid much pomp and circumstance, Hebrew University was opened in Jerusalem on Mount Scopus. Chaim Weizman beamed with pride as he saw his 25 year old dream come to life. Lord Arthur Balfour, of Balfour Declaration Fame, represented the British government. Much of the funding came from the American philanthropist Felix Warburg. The first chancellor of what this first class educational institution was Dr. Judah Magnes, a native of San Francisco. The cornerstones had originally been laid in 1918 when fighting was still going on between the British and Turkish forces in Palestine. Talk about Jewish optimism and dedication to learning.

    1925: Chanina Karchevsky, “The Tel Aviv Nightingale,” conducted the Gymnasisa Herzliya Choir in what has been termed an “unforgettable performance” on Mt. Scopus at the ceremony marking the dedication of Hebrew University.

    1926(17th of Nisan, 5686):Acting giant Jacob Pavlovich Adler passed away in New York City.  Born in Russia in 1855, he was a dominate figure in the Yiddish Theatre in Odessa, London and New York City. A name unknown to most, he is remembered as the father of the actor Luther Adler and Stella Adler who coached Marlon Brando.

    1926: Hebrew Book Day is mounted in Tel Aviv.

    1927: The HaShomer HaZair kibbutzim and training groups establish a national organization in Haifa called "HaKibbutz Artzi" - "National Kibbutz". The Kibbutz Artzi is a federation comprising 85 kibbutzim founded by the Hashomer Hatzair youth movement. In 1998 it numbered around 20,000 members and its entire population (including children, candidates, parents of members etc.) totaled approximately 35,000.

    1928: Birthdate of Herbert G. Klein newscaster and President Richard Nixon’s press secretary.

    1928: Konrad von Preysing, a Catholic prelate who would play a key role as an anti-Nazi activist during World War II was made a canon today.

    1930: In Melbourne, Australia, a group of Jews interested in forming a “Liberal Community” met for the first time.

    1931: Birthdate of Rolf Hochhuth. This non-Jewish German playwright wrote The Deputy which portrayed the role of the Pope during the Holocaust.

    1932: Adolph Eichman joined the Nazi Party

    1932: The New York Times described the closing day activities at the Maccabiad. “An emotional crowd of 25,000 watched the conclusion of the first Jewish Olympics…The Palestine High Commissioner participated in the ceremonies as did other officials and representatives of foreign governments. There were tears in the eyes of many as the exhibits reached their close. Among the Maccabee displays were those of scouting, gymnastics, motorcycling, bicycle riding and horseback riding led by Abraham Shapiro, the hero of Petch Tikva…A procession of 5,000 Maccabeans led the way to the graves of Achad Ha’Am , Maz Nodeau and the victims of Arab riots, where wreaths were placed. …The procession marched through the main streets of Tel-Aviv” before dispersing at the “Herzlia Gymnasium where the march of the Maccabeans had begun.”

    1933: German violinist (and non-Jew) Adolf Busch repudiated Germany altogether and in 1938 he boycotted Italy. 

    1933: Nazi Germany began its persecution of Jews by boycotting Jewish businesses. Less than a month after coming to power, the War Against the Jews began in earnest. This puts the lie to those who portray Hitler's policies against the Jews as only being an incidental part of his plans and programs.

    1933: In Constantine, Algeria, Abraham Cohen-Tannoudji and Sarah Sebbah tp French physicist, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, winner of the 1997 Nobel Prize.

    1934: Chevrolet ended its sponsorship of the Jack Benny Program. Benny continued the show with General Tire as the sponsor.

    1935: It wasreported today that “the American team is favored to retain the track and field title in the Jewish world games which open tomorrow…The strongest challenge for the Americans is expected to come from the German, French, Czech and Austrian teams.

    1935: Democratic leader General Hugh S. Johnson denounced “Father Charles Coughlin, comparing the Catholic priest to Adolf Hitler” because of the anti-Semitic pronouncements on his radio show

    1935: Anti-Jewish legislation in the Saar region was passed.