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A collection of Jewish history and current Jewish events, in date format, updated daily in this Jewish history blog.

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    April 20

    121:  Birthdate of Marcus Aurelius 16th Roman emperor.  The “Philosopher” Emperor reigned from 161-180 and he was a cut above those who came before and after him.  But he had a low opinion of the Jews, referring to them as “stinking and tumultuous” as “he rode through Judea.”  He reportedly preferred the company of the barbaric Teutons in the north to that of the Jews.  This attitude may have been shaped by the difficulty the Romans had in defeating the Jews during their successive rebellions against Rome.  Only 25 years before Marcus Aurelius came to power, it had taken the full force of the Roman Empire four years to finally defeat Bar Kochba and Rabbi Akiva.

    570: Birthdate of Muhammad or Mohammad, the founder of Islam.

    636:  At the Battle of Yarmuk the Arabs took control of Syria and Palestine away from the Byzantine Empire. It is considered by some historians to have been one of the most significant battles in the history of the world, since it marked the first great wave of Muslim conquests outside Arabia, and heralded the rapid advance of Islam into Christian Palestine, Syria and Mesopotamia.  The battle took place only four years after the prophet Muhammad died in 632.  Considering the way the Christians had been treating them, the conquest by the Arabs left the Jews in a comparatively better position.

    1096: Approximately 40,000 peasants led by Peter Hermit left Cologne on the start of what was called the “Peasants’ Crusade.”  This populist movement among the poor was the most ill-fated part of the First Crusade.  The peasants had nothing and trusted in God to provide for them. This meant living off of the land which would bode ill for those in their path including the Jews of the Rhineland.

    1176: Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, nicknamed “Strongbow” whose attempt to establish an independent kingdom in Ireland was bankrolled by a Jewish financier, “Josce Jew of Gloucester” passed away today.

    1191: Phillip II, who expelled the Jews from France in 1182 after extorting as much money as he could from them, arrived at Acre to perform his holy Christian obligation to take part in the Crusades.

    1192: As the Christians jockey for control over the Holy Land, Richard I of England gives his support to Conrad of Montferrat’s claim to be King of Jerusalem.

    1298:  In Rotttingen, a small German town in Franconia, a local noble named Rindfleish, accused the local Jews of profaning the host. He then incited the Burgher and local populace to join in the killing. Twenty one Jews were murdered. The killing soon spread to a hundred and forty communities in Bavaria and Austria. In all tens of thousands of Jews were either killed or wounded.  The killing stopped when the civil war raging through Germany ended.  Albrecht, the newly chosen Emperor, brought an end to the violence and even punished some the participants.

    1303: Pope Boniface VIII issues the bull creating The University of Rome La Sapienza. Considering the fact that Boniface believed in the concept that “Outside the Church, no Salvation” meaning that the key to salvation required membership in the Catholic Church, it is safe to assume that there were no Jewish students or faculty at the school.  Relations between the Jews and the school have obviously changed as can be seen by the “wide-ranging cooperation agreement” that was signed by Tel Aviv University and Rome's Sapienza University in March of 2010. The agreement, allows for exchanges of students and professors, as well as joint research projects and master's programs. The Italian economist Franco Modigliani and Zionst Ze'ev Jabotinsky were two of the most prominent Jews to attend the University of Rome during the 20th century.

    1314: Pope Clement V the first of the “Avignon Popes who in the first year of his reign, 1305, became the “first pope to threaten Jews with an economic boycott in an attempt to force them to stop charging Christians interest on loans passed away today.

    1344(28thof Nisan, 5104): Levi Ben Gershon (the RaLBaG) also known as Gersonides passed away.

    1505: Philibert of Luxembourg expelled the Jews from Orange Burgundy. At this time Luxembourg is ruled by Phillip the Fair, King of Spain - where Jews had been expelled in 1492.  Phillip's mother was Marie of Burgundy.  In this case the Jews merely seemed to have gotten caught up in the dynastic swirl that was so much of European History prior to the French Revolution.

    1506: Violence continued for a second day in Lisbon after Christians attack the Jews when a recently converted Jew “raised doubts” about the appearance of a miraculous vision at St. Dominic’s Church. (History of the Jewish People)

    1615:  Led by Dr. Chemnitz, the guilds of Worms "non-violently" forced the Jews from the city. Chemnitz was a lawyer and he devised a series of schemes where the Jews were deprived of food and the ability to leave and enter the city.  A deputation came to them on what was the seventh day of Pesach and gave them an hour to leave the city.  As the Jews left, the thousand year old synagogue and the adjacent burial grounds were attacked and desecrated by the "non-violent" citizens of Worms, Germany.

    1632(29th of Nisan): “Nicolas Antione, a French Protestant theologian and pastor who attempted to convert to Judaism and lived the life of a crypto-Jew “suffered martyrdom by being burned at the stake in Geneva today.

    1657:  After a battle of almost two years Asser Levy one of the original 23 settlers was allowed to serve on guard duty. Levy had been denied the right to serve, having been told to pay a tax instead.  This was the European Way of doing things.  Levy would have none of it.  Serving guard duty marked him as a full-fledged citizen.  It was an early indication that the New World would indeed be a new world for the Jews. Levy who was the ritual slaughterer of the town opened his slaughterhouse on what is now Wall Street. He further petitioned to be allowed the rights as a Burgher or freeperson on the town, which he received albeit reluctantly by the burgomasters of New Amsterdam.

    1728:The London Gazette reports that twelve individuals (including four Jews) who had been previously captured by Moroccan pirates are now released under a new peace treaty between England and the Emperor of Morocco. Rachel, David, and Raphael Franco along with Blanco Flora had been captured while en route from London to New York. The Gazettereports that they were returned to England on "His Majesty's Ship Monmouth." Interestingly enough, though the other victims are listed by name and nationality i.e. William Pendergrass/English, Joseph Patroon/Spanish, Alboro Tordaselas/Gibraltar— the four Jews (Rachel, David and Raphael Franco, and Blanco Flora), are listed as "Jews," under nationality. These events of 1728 preceded the era of Jew Bills and the civil and religious liberties of Jewish people were far from secure. They were indeed people without a country. Our research shows the Franco family to be of Portuguese/Sephardic extraction, who generations before undoubtedly fled the Inquisition of Portugal. Raphael Franco became a powerful merchant in the diamond and coral trade operating between India, Brazil and England.

    1729: London native Mordecai Marks who came to America in 1726 “was baptized today at Stratford, CT.”

    1772(17thof Nisan, 5532): Third day of Pesach

    1772(17thof Nisan, 5532): Israel Ben Moses Ha-Levi Zamosz, a Polish born Talmudist who wrote on both religious and secular subjects passed away today at Brody

    1753(16thof Nisan, 5513): Second Day of Pesach and First Day of Omer

    1759:Vögele Pressburg, the daughter of Isak Aron Arnsteiner and Ella Elsa Eleonora Arnsteiner and wife of Simon Samuel Pressburg passed away today at Mattersburg, Burgenland, Austria.

    1777: At Kingston, the New York Convention voted to guarantee the free exercise of religion

    1790: Birthdate of Ludwig Hermann Friedlander, the native of Konigsberg who served as physician with the Prussian Army, the first step on a career that led to him being appointed as a Professor of Theoretical Medicine at Halle, as position he held until his death in 1851.

    1796: Amsterdam native Rabbi Abraham Azuby, the “first paid rabbi at K.K. Beth Elohim Congregation in Charleston” officiated at the wedding of “Benjamin Milhado of Kingston, Jamaica to Hannah Depass, “the youngest daughter of Ralph Depass, a vendue master” in Charleston, SC. (Editor’s note – according to the dictionary a vendue master is an auctioneer.)

    1799(15thof Nisan, 5559): Last Pesach of the 18th century.

    1799: In a proclamation, a copy of which is quoted below, Napoleon "promised" the Jews of Eretz Israel the "reestablishment of ancient Jerusalem", coupled with a plea for their support. This was the first promise by a modern government to establish a Jewish state. In 1799, the French armies under Napoleon were camped outside of Acre. Napoleon issued a letter offering Palestine as a homeland to the Jews under French protection. The project was stillborn because Napoleon was defeated and was forced to withdraw from the Near East. The letter is remarkable because it marks the coming of age of enlightenment philosophy, making it respectable at last to integrate Jews as equal citizens in Europe and because it marked the beginning of nineteenth century projects for Jewish autonomy in Palestine under a colonial protectorate. After the defeat of Napoleon, it was largely the British who carried forward these projects, which have in hindsight been given the somewhat misleading name of "British Zionism." Napoleon conquered Jaffa but retreated from Acco (Acre); Napoleon's Proclamation of a Jewish State was stillborn, and his declaration of equal rights for Jews was repealed in part in 1806.

    Letter to the Jewish Nation from the French Commander-in-Chief Bonaparte issued at General Headquarters, Jerusalem 1st Floreal, April 20th, 1799, in the year of 7 of the French Republic by BUONAPARTE, COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF OF THE ARMIES OF THE FRENCH REPUBLIC IN AFRICA AND ASIA, TO THE RIGHTFUL HEIRS OF PALESTINE.

    Israelites, unique nation, whom, in thousands of years, lust of conquest and tyranny have been able to be deprived of their ancestral lands, but not of name and national existence!
    Attentive and impartial observers of the destinies of nations, even though not endowed with the gifts of seers like Isaiah and Joel, have long since also felt what these, with beautiful and uplifting faith, have foretold when they saw the approaching destruction of their kingdom and fatherland: And the ransomed of the Lord shall return, and come to Zion with songs and everlasting joy upon their heads; they shall obtain joy and gladness and sorrow and sighing shall flee away. (Isaiah 35,10) Arise then, with gladness, ye exiled!  A war unexampled In the annals of history, waged in self-defense by a nation whose hereditary lands were regarded by its enemies as plunder to be divided, arbitrarily and at their convenience, by a stroke of the pen of Cabinets, avenges its own shame and the shame of the remotest nations, long forgotten under the yoke of slavery, and also, the almost two-thousand-year-old ignominy put upon you; and, while time and circumstances would seem to be least favorable to a restatement of your claims or even to their expression ,and indeed to be compelling their complete abandonment, it offers to you at this very time, and contrary to all expectations, Israel's patrimony! The young army with which Providence has sent me hither, let by justice and accompanied by victory, has made Jerusalem my head-quarters and will, within a few days, transfer them to Damascus, a proximity which is no longer terrifying to David's city. Rightful heirs of Palestine! The great nation which does not trade in men and countries as did those which sold your ancestors unto all people (Joel,4,6) herewith calls on you not indeed to conquer your patrimony ;nay, only to take over that which has been conquered and, with that nation's warranty and support, to remain master of it to maintain it against all comers.
    Arise! Show that the former overwhelming might of your oppressors has but repressed the courage of the descendants of those heroes who alliance of brothers would have done honor even to Sparta and Rome (Maccabees 12, 15) but that the two thousand years of treatment as slaves have not succeeded in stifling it. Hasten!, Now is the moment, which may not return for thousands of years, to claim the restoration of civic rights among the population of the universe which had been shamefully withheld from you for thousands of years, your political existence as a nation among the nations, and the unlimited natural right to worship Jehovah in accordance with your faith, publicly and most probably forever (JoeI 4,20).

    1803: Myer Tobias married Hannah Woolf at the Great Synagogue today.

    1808: Birthdate of Louis-Napoleon, nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte who became Napoleon III, Emperor of France from 1852 to 1871. On July 19, 1870, Napoleon III declared war on Prussia in what is known as the Franco-Prussian War. A number of Jews, including Jules Moch and Leopold See, attained high rank in the French army. See later became Secretary General of the Ministry of the Interior. The war also marked the beginning of Rabbis serving as chaplains in the German army. After the War the region of Alsace and part of Lorraine became annexed to Germany. Many Jewish families preferred to emigrate rather than be under German rule.

    1811: Ephraim Gompertz married Adelaide Smith at “Camberwell St. Giles.”

    1814(30thof Nisan, 5574): Rosh Chodesh Iyar

    1814(30thof Nisan, 5574): Thirty-four year old “Jewish writer, teacher, translator and publisher” Moses Philippson passed away today at Desau.

    1832: Congress established a park at Hot Springs, Arkansas when it designated itsfamous natural springs as a natural resource preserve as people from around the country flocked to the 143 degree water as a medical treatment for arthritis and other bone ailments. Jews were connected with Hot Springs from its earliest day.  Jacob Mitchell, a Jewish immigrant from Galicia, arrived in Arkansas in 1830 along with his two brothers.  Mitchell somehow acquired an old Spanish land grant to a portion of the springs, and he and his heirs spent the next forty years unsuccessfully fighting the federal government in court over their rights to the springs. Regardless of the status of the litigation, Mitchell became an active part of the city’s commercial scene when bought a hotel in Hot Springs in 1846 and opened a bath house.

    1835: Henry Russell married Isabella Lloyd today.

    1837(1th of Nisan, 5597): Jews observe Pesach for the first time with Martin Van Buren as President of the U.S.

    1838:Charlotte Beyfus married German banker Abraham Oppenheim.

    1841: Despite opposition from Hamburg’s Ashkenazi community led by Chief Rabbi Isaac Bernays, the Senate granted a license to the New Israelite Temple Society to build a house of worship.

    1851(18thof Nisan, 5611): 4th day of Pesach

    1851: In Breslau, Samuel Lubszyński and Rebeka Lubszyńska gave birth to Zygmunt Lubszyński, who gained fame as Siegmund Lubin “the motion picture who founded Lubin Manufacturing Company, the Philadelphia, PA film company.

    1851: After three years of meeting at a building on Pearl Street, Congregation B’nai Israel moved to Number 63 Christie Street, where the congregation began raising “funds for the erection of a more commodious synagogue to the meet the requirements of the rapidly increasing membership.”

    1851(18thof Nisan, 5611): Isaac Erter, the native of Galicia who gained fame as a physician and satirist passed away today at Brody.

    1852: Abraham Harris married Leah Brandon today at the Great Synagogue.

    1854(22ndof Nisan, 5614): Eighth and final day of Pesach observed as pro- and anti-slavery forces fought it out in what was called “Bleeding Kansas.”

    1856(15th of Nisan, 5616): First Day of Pesach

    1860: “In a small town near Kowno, Russia, David Rabbino and Leah Yeglin gave birth to Bernhard Rabbin, the husband of Anna Ladewig who served as a rabbi at several American congregations beginning with one Keokuk, IA in 1884 before becoming an attorney in Florida and then in New York where he settled in 1899 and became he attorney with the Legal Aid Bureau of the Educational Alliance.

    1861: Joseph Seligman, “whose firm, J. and J. Seligman & Co., sold federal bonds in the astonishing sum of $200,000,000” attended a pro-Union meeting today held at Union Square in New York City.

    1861: In Baltimore, MD, a pro-Southern mob attacked the printing shops that produced Der Wecker and Sinai, two "abolitionist publications.  Rabbi Einhorn, an out-spoken foe of slavery, felt threatened enough to agree to the request of his congregation that he leave the city.  Einhorn would move to Philadelphia where he would resume publishing the Sinai.

    1864: In Opava, a town in the Moravian-Silesian Region, Samuel D. and Charlotte Kaluber gave birthd to Emile Kaluber who married an attorney Alois Eisler and became Emilie Eisler, the mother of Otto, Rudolf and Paul Eisler.

    1865: “An estimated 25 million Americans attended memorial services for Abraham Lincoln in Washington and around the country.” In New York several synagogues held well-attended services in memory of the recently assassinated President. At Shearith Israel, after the choir sang a variety of Psalms, Rabbi J.J. Lyons “delivered a short but eloquent address, in which he frequently” referred “to the qualities of the man and the unswerving loyalty and honesty of the statesman, whose loss they were…suddenly called upon to mourn.”  This was followed by a recitation of the Kaddish and “a special prayer for the recovery of Secretary of State Seward who had been wounded on the same night that Lincoln had been killed. The service ended with a prayer for “ the future prosperity of the country” and the chanting of psalms by the choir.  At B'nai Jeshurun, the chanting of Psalms was followed by a Dr. Raphael’s sermon in which he praised the virtues of the slain President.At the Broadway Synagogue, the chanting of opening hymns was followed by a prayer for the government before the opened Ark and a sermon by Rabbi S.W. Isaacs based on Genesis, chap. xv., v. 1: "Fear not, Abraham; I am thy shield. Thy reward shall be exceedingly great.'' Services were also held at several other synagogues including the Norfolk Street Synagogue, the Greene Street Synagogue and Temple Emanu-El. The neat little synagogue of the Congregation Sheary Berochole, in East Ninth-street, was the scene of very impressive ceremonies. At noon, the building was filled to overflowing with a very respectable audience, mostly dressed in deep mourning, to participate in the services commemorative of the death of Mr. Lincoln arranged by the congregation. After reciting Psalms 1, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 10, the Kadish, or prayer for deceased persons, was said, and the Minchah Prayer intoned, at the close of which Rev. H. WASSERMAN delivered the funeral sermon. His text was from Isaiah 44, 7: "For a small moment I have forsaken thee, and all forsook thee." The tenor of his discourse was the necessity of trusting to the goodness of God, however mysterious his providences may seem. He exhorted all to imitate the honesty, charity and good will to all men which had distinguished the life and character of our deceased President. The Hebrew prayer for a deceased father was then said, coupled with an exhortation for the recovery of the Secretary of State and his son was then said, and after the recitation of five psalms, the congregation dispersed.

    1865: As the nation mourned the death of President Lincoln, today’s Boston Traveler noted that “solemn and appropriate services were held at both Jewish synagogues” – a reference to Adath Israel, a Reform Congregation led by Rabbi Joseph Schoninger and Mishkan Israel led by Rabbi Alexis Alexander.

    1866: In a plebiscite, Charles was elected in a near unanimous vote to serve as King of Romania. His government would not prove to be a protector of its Jewish citizens.

    1867(15th of Nisan, 5627): Jews living in Alaska celebrate Pesach for the first time as U.S. citizens since the U.S. had purchased Seward’s Folly 30 days ago.

    1868: Birthdate of French author Charles Maurras, whose anti-Semitism first surfaced during the Dreyfus Affair and continued through his support for Vichy and Petain.

    1871(29thof Nisan, 5631): Polish author Jacob Tugenhold who was born near Krakow and who founded a “modern Jewish school” in Warsaw, passed away today.

    1874:Di Yidishe Gazeten, the first influential Yiddish newspaper in the United States began publication today.

    1875(15th of Nisan, 5635): Pesach

    1875: Birthdate of Edouard Alexandre de Pomiane, also known as Edouard Pozerski author of the 1929 epic “The Jews of Poland: Recollections and Recipes” who passed away in 1964

    1879: According to the report made by Superintendent Louis today, the Brooklyn Hebrew Orphan Asylum was home to 10 children, eight of whom were boys and two of whom were girls, ranging in age from three and half years to ten years.

    1882(1st of Iyar, 5642): Rosh Chodesh Iyar

    1882:  J. A. Engelbart presided over tonight’s meeting of a committee formed “raise money to feed and shelter Jewish refugees from Russia and to aid them in finding home in” in the United States.  The meeting was held at B’nai Jeshrun.  Among the attendees were Rabbi Henry S. Jacobs and Dr. Simeon N. Leo.

    1882: It was reported today that a dispatch from St. Petersburg “states that the persecution of the Jews continues” unabated.  At least 17,000 Jews have been left homeless after villages in Southern Russia were destroyed.

    1882: “Current Foreign Topics” published today described a private meeting that had been held in Berlin to provide assistance for Jews who wished to leave Russia.  The attendees pledged seventy thousand marks to assist in the endeavor.

    1883(13th of Nisan, 5643): Ninety-one year old Asher American, who had served as the Assistant Reader at congregations on Norfolk, Stanton and Sixth Streets passed away tonight.

    1883: It was reported today that The Cleveland Herald has been interviewing the city’s Jewish clergy on the possibility of Jews returning to Palestine.  Rabbi Hahn considers the idea as being impracticable and feels that “the Jewish people…are a great deal better off here than they could possibly be there.”  Rabbi Lane echoes these sentiments and “is most strongly opposed to …immigration schemes.”   The Herald believes “that these gentlemen speak the prevailing sentiment” of the Jewish people.

    1884: According to “The Relations of Animal Diseases to the Public Health and Their Prevention” by Frank S. Billings which was reviewed today’s New York Times, the author “quotes the Hebrew legislator who forbade pork as food for the chosen people of the Lord.  Moses did this with a knowledge of its ‘non- hygienic character.”

    1884(25th of Nisan, 5644): Dr. Lyon Berhard, one of the oldest dentists in New York passed away today in Manhattan.  Born in Amsterdam in 1812 and a graduate of the Baltimore College of Dentistry, he came to New York 42 years ago.  He was a founding member of B’Nai Israel and was an active member of the Hebrew Mutual Benefit Society.

    1884: Rabbi Gustav Gottheil, Rabbi Kaufman Kohler and Joseph Blumenthal were among the attendees at a reception given at the new building of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society.  The building which is located at Avenue A and 87th Street was originally built for the use of the late John Jacob Astor.

    1886(15th of Nisan, 5646): First Day of Pesach

    1888: It was reported today that in Jacksonville, FL, Rabbi of Levy of Charleston, SC had presided at the marriage of Susie Jacoby of Charleston to Mose J. Ullman of Evansville, Indiana.

    1888:  The Jewish Messenger reports that Orach Chaim has contributed support for a New York City Chief Rabbi. "This action is the more significant as it is the first uptown congregation to join the downtown contingent and mostly composed of Germans while the other uptown orthodox congregations are mostly composed of the Polish element."

    1888((9th of Iyar): Russian born philanthropist Samuel Poljakoff passed away.

    1889: Birthdate of Otto Heinrich Frank, father of Anne Frank, who survived the Holocaust and passed away in 1980.

    1889: Birthdate of Adolph Hitler

    1889: In Chicago, Israel and Augusta (née Mendeburskey) Balaban gave birth A.J. (Abraham Joseph Blaban) the co-founder the Balaban and Katz Motion Picture Theatre chain.

    1889: Birthdate of Albert Jean Amateau,rabbi, businessman, lawyer and social activist.

    Born a Sephardic Jew in Milas, Turkey, Amateau attended the American International College in Izmir (Smyrna), Turkey. He immigrated to the United States in 1910. In the early 1920s, Amateau began a movement to bring more Jews into the workplace and government. He was also involved largely in the affairs of deaf people. After he returned from the Army (he served in World War I), Amateau was ordained in 1920 at the Jewish Theological Seminary, and he became the first rabbi of a congregation of the deaf. In 1941, Amateau developed the Albert J. Amateau Foreign Language Service, a business providing translators for lipsync dubbing for motion pictures. The business continued in operation until 1989. An ardent supporter of his homeland of Turkey, Amateau began various Turkish-oriented organizations while residing in the United States. In 1992, at the age of 103, he helped found the American Society of Jewish Friends of Turkey and was named as its president. Amateau was also an advocate of peace, and in 1937, he assisted with negotiations between Jews and Arabs of Palestine. Amateau died in 1996 at the age of 106 years, 10 months.

    1890(30th of Nisan, 5650): Rosh Chodesh Iyar

    1890: “In Trois-Rivières, Berthe (née Genest) and local politician Nérée Le Noblet Duplessis gave birth to Maurice Duplessis who as Premier of the Province of Quebec issued the warrant which empowered the provincial police to raid “the cultural section of the Canadian Labor Circle, a Jewish fraternal organization” during which they removed “eight hundred books of the 950 volume library maintained by Jewish cultural circle.”

    1890: It was reported today that strikers in Austria are trying to turn the labor unrest “into an anti-Jewish crusade.  Many of the mill and mine owners in the region are Jewish and the Rothschilds own the largest iron and steel works at Witkowitz.  The strikers have turned their fury on the local Jewish merchants and their attacks have left several hundred Jewish families “camping in the fields in utter destitution.

    1891: A fire broke out in a tenement house at 194 Henry Street which is home to a large number of Russian Jews.

    1893(4thof Iyar, 5653): Dr. Wilhelm Lowenthal, “the Jewish scientist who had been invited to Argentina in 1890 to share his technological expertise on agricultural matters” and who “persuaded Baron de Hirsch to fund the Jewish Colonization Association (JCA) to aid Jewish settlers in Argentina” passed away today.

    1893: William A. Matson, the Secretary of the Church Society for Promoting Christianity Among the Jews wrote a letter today in which he took issue Reverend Jacob Freshman’s statement he was “the pioneer” in New York City “in mission work for the conversion of the Jews

    1894(14th of Nisan, 5654): An article entitled “Festival of the Passover” states that “Pesach, the Jewish festival of the Passover, begins the evening and continues for a week.”  Furthermore, “the households of the Orthodox and many of those who have accepted the modern or reformed” customs will host a Seder.

    1895(26thof Nisan, 5655): Joseph Heiman Caro, author of Ṭevaḥ ṿe-hakhen (טבח והכן: כל דני שחיטות ובדיקות) passed away today

    1895: The Hebrew Orphan Asylum Band performed at the Odd Fellows’ Home Fair which is being held at the Lenox Lyceum.

    1896: “A Precious Privilege Retained” published today described a declaration published by the anti-Semitic German “National” Students at the University of Vienna stating that “they would henceforth refust to accept challenges from the Jewish Students’ Corps, as they would think themselves defiled if they fought them.”  The Rector refused to respond to an appeal from the Jewish students asking that this declaration be overturned. According to some observers, the German students’ declaration is rooted in the fact that the Jews have defeated them whenever a challenge was made and accepted.

    1897: In Samara, Russia, Sophie (née Markison) and Benjamin Ratner gave birth to Grigory Vasilyevich Ratner, who gained fame as actor and director Gregory Ratoff whose portrayal of “Max Fabian” in “All About Eve” is one of my personal favorites.

    1899: Fire broke out tonight at the New York Theatre in the “dressing rooms used by ‘Hebrew Creditors’ characters” appearing in the first act “The Man in the Moon.”

    1899: Testimony continues to be given before the Court of Cassation in the Dreyfus revision inquiry.

    1900: Max Nordau introduced Herzl to Alfred Austin who gives him a friendly letter to Lord Salisbury, the British Prime Minister. Herzl sought British support in his attempts to persuade the government at Constantinople to allow the development of a Jewish homeland. . Salisbury did not receive Herzl "on account of the war worries".

    1905(15thof Nisan, 5665): As Russia confronted its defeat by the Japanese and the violence of the Russian Revolution, the Jews observe Pesach.

    1905: The Manchester Guardian published “The Aliens Bill: Some Prejudices Examined” by M.J. Landa.

    1905: Birthdate of composer Nicholas “Slug” Brodszky, the native of Odessa who came to the United States in 1934 where he worked with lyricist Sammy Cahn and produced songs for numerous movies, the most famous which might have been “The Student Prince” and Love Me or Leave Me.”

    1908: Birthdate of Yisrael Yeshayahu Sharabi, a native of Sa’dah, Yemen, who made Aliyah in 1929 and eventually became the fifth Speaker of the Knesset.

    1912: Birthdate of David Ginsburg, “a liberal lawyer and longtime Washington insider who helped found the Americans for Democratic Action and led the presidential commission on race relations whose report, in 1968, warned that the United States was ‘moving toward two societies — one black, one white, separate and unequal.’”

    1912: In the Bronx, a memorial service is to be held at the Montefiore Congregation for the crew and passengers who died when the Titanic sank.

    1912: Guy Zinn, an outfielder with the New York Highlanders (later re-named the NY Yankees) “scored the first run ever at Boston’s Fenway Park” today.

    1912: A banquet celebrating the fifth anniversary of the Free Synagogue hosted by Rabbi Stephen Wise was postponed as public mourning for those who lost their lives on the Titanic continues.

    1912: Birthdate of Gertrude Erika Perlmann, the Czechoslovakian-born U.S. biochemist.

    1913: A general strike by 4,000 kosher bakers began today when 1,000 of them quit work in Manhattan, Brooklyn and Brownsville.  The strike had originally been scheduled to start on April 29. The early strike date really was of little significance since the bakers would have quite working tomorrow any way do the fact that Passover starts tomorrow evening.

    1913: Rabbi Joseph Stolz is scheduled to deliver a sermon on “Walking in the Statutes of the Nations at the Isaiah Temple at Vincennes and 45th Street.

    1913: This morning at Temple Sinai, on Chicago’s south-side, Dr. Emil G. Hirsch is scheduled to on “The Ethics of Judaism and the Ethics of Christianity” which is “the concluding lecture in the series on the ‘Relations of Liberal Judaism to its Neighbors.’”

    1913: This afternoon, Dr. Emil G. Hirsch will deliver the sermon at the People’s Synagogue which meets every Sunday at Chicago’s Ziegfeld Theatre. (Editor’s Note: As you can see from these entries, this was a period in which Reform Judaism was making a concerted effort to replace Saturday morning services with Sunday morning services—a move which they thought would improve attendance and participation.)

    1913: Morris Siegel, known to his friends and family as “Morris the Apple Peddler” attended the Brit Milah today for three boys – his three sons all of whom were born eight days ago.  The crowd of well-wishers grew even larger when the entire class of his 13 year old son Harry arrived at the event.

    1914: Investment banker and art collector Maurice Wertheim, the son Jacob and Hanna Wertheim, and his first wife Alma Morgenthau gave birth to Anne Rebe Wertheim, the younger sister of historian Barbara Tuchman.

    1915: Birthdate of South African-born, American psychologist Joseph Wolpe.

    1915: “It was announced” today “in a letter received from Counselor Robert Lansing” of the U.S. State Department “by The Jewish Daily Warheit of New York” that “the State Department in Washington has telegraphed the American Consul at Warsaw” seeking a full report on “the severe sufferings of the Jews in Russian Poland.”

    1915(6th of Iyar, 5675): Seventy-two year old Nathan Gratz, a well-known New York lawyer passed away today. He was the son of Jonathan and Rebecca Gratz (Moses) Nathan. “Mr. Nathan graduated from Columbia College in 1861. He engaged in practice in 1864 and was well known in Democratic political circles, clubs, and charitable societies. He was a member of New York law Institute, Columbia Alumni, and the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society.”

    1915: Birthdate of journalist Israel Epstein.

    1916(17thof Nisan, 5676): Third Day of Pesach

    1916:”A ‘Life for a Life’ campaign in which 500,000 Jewish women in the United States are expected to raise $1,000,000 a month for the needy Jews in Europe was started by the Women’s Proclamation Committee of the Central Jewish Relief Committee at the Astor Hotel today.”

    1916: Birthdate of Wiera Vera Gran, the Polish born Jewish singer who first performed under the name Sylvia Green and who became the center of a controversy surrounding her survival of the Holocaust.

    1917:  As the Russian military position continued to deteriorate and Russian soldiers demanded immediate peace with the Germans, mutinies broke out.  In one instance an artillery officer named Khaust who had demanded that his fellow Russians lay down their armswas saved from an angry assembly of soldiers by a Jewish soldier known simply as Rom who intervened on their behalf.

    1917(28thof Nisan, 5677): During WW I, Lt. Max Oster was killed at the Battle of Aisne.

    1917(28thof Nisan, 5677): During WW I, Lt Sydney Fine, 2/5 S Lancers, the son of Jacob Fine of Edgbaston, was killed today.

    1918(8thof Iyar, 5678): Parashat Achrei Mot – Kedoshim

    1918: Rabbi Krass is scheduled to deliver a sermon on “Hebraism and Humanity” at Central Synagogue on Lexington Avenue.

    1918: Rabbi Silverman is scheduled to deliver a sermon on “Revival of Jewish Culture” at Temple Emanu-El.

    1918: Rabbi M.H. Harris is scheduled to deliver a sermon on “The Loaf that Fed the Multitude” at Temple Israel of Harlem.

    1918: “Banquet to Jewish Soldiers” published today described plans for an upcoming banquet being hosted by the Jewish Board of Welfare and the Young Men’s Hebrew Association  under the chairmanship of Benjamin Natal for the benefit the young Jewish men who are about to leave for Fort Dix to begin serving in the U.S. Army.

    1919: Dr. J. Leon Magnes spoke a ground breaking ceremonies for the new Bronx Jewish Hospital during which $60,000 was pledged toward the building fund.

    1919:  The public was invited to attend the entertainment of the children of the Marks Nathan Jewish Orphan Home during Chol-Homaed Pesach.

    1919: The Jewish Literary Society meeting at Zion Temple is scheduled to discuss The Religion of Canaan by Mary Erenberg and The Religion of Babylon and Syria by William Elfenbaum.

    1919: “The young women who worked as telephone operators at New England Telephone and Telegraph walked off the job. One of the strike leaders was Rose Finkelstein, a young Jewish worker, who had emigrated with her family as a young child from Kiev, Russia.”  (As reported by Jewish Women’s Archives)

    1920: “Chaim Weizmann arrived at the Hotel Royal in San Remo, two days after the San Remo conference had convened.”  Still smarting from the failure of the British to stop the riots aimed at the Jews of Jerusalem that had broken out earlier in the month, the usually reserved Weizmann, congratulates Phillip Kerr, Lloyd George’s private secretary, on the “first pogrom ever conducted under the British flag.”  The unusual outburst took place in the hotel lobby, a public denunciation that caught the British leader off guard and led to cooling off period for the Zionist leader.

    1920:  In the aftermath of World War I, Palestine ceased to be a part of the defeated Ottoman Empire (now Turkey).  The League of Nations made Palestine a British Mandate which meant recognition of the

    terms of the Balfour Declaration.

    1921: Birthdate of Marcos Moshinsky the Ukrainian born Mexican physicist who won the Prince of Asturias Prize for Scientific and Technical Investigation in 1988 and the UNESCO Science Prize in 1997. He passed away in 2009 at the age of 87.

    1922: Philadelphia Athletics 2nd baseman Heinie Scheer appeared in his first major league baseball game.

    1923(4thof Iyar, 5683): Eighty-one year old German born Philadelphia lawyer Mayer Sulzberger, a life-long Republican who served as a judge and was active in numerous Jewish organizations including the Jewish Theological Seminary and Dropsie College.

     1924(16th of Nisan, 5684): Second Day of Pesach

    1924: Birthdate of Morris Edward Chafetz, the son of Jewish immigrants who played an important role in changing the public perception of alcoholism from social crime or personal failing to a disease requiring treatment.´ (As reported by William Grimes)

    1926: At luncheon at the Hotel Biltmore, Mrs. Alexander Kohut  told members of the Women’s Division of the United Jewish Campaign about “the conditions she witnessed on her trip to Eastern Europe and urge the newly appointed committee heads to  spare no effort toward raising the $500,000 which the women have pledged as their share of the New York quota.”

    1926: Warner Brothers, which was owned by the four Warner brothers and Western Electricannounced the creation of Vitaphone, a process to add sound to film. Vitaphone would be the sound system used in the making of “The Jazz Singer,” the first talking motion picture.

    1929(10th of Nisan, 5689): Parsahat Metzora and Shabbat HaGadol observed for the last time before the Great Depression

    1932(14th of Nisan, 5692): Fast of the First Born is observed for the last time under the Presidency of Herbert Hoover and in pre-Hitler Germany.

    1935(17th of Nisan, 5695): Third day of Pesach

    1935(17th of Nisan, 5695): In Pelham, NY, merchant and philanthropist Philip Pearlman passed away today.

    1935: “Little Mother,” a comedy directed Henry Koster, produced by Jose Pasternak and starring Otto Wallburg was released in Austria today.

    1936: As tension continue to rise amid reports of plans for further attacks by Arabs, “all the Jews in the Beersheba district have been moved to Jerusalem in trucks under police escort.”

    1936: Jews repelled an Arab attack in Petach Tikvah. This attack was part of the Arab Uprising that lasted from 1936 until 1939.  The Arabs aim was to put an end to the dream of a Jewish homeland.  While they failed militarily, they were handed victory by a British decision to virtually put an end to Jewish land purchases and immigration.  This effectively slammed the door shut on the Jews of Europe on the eve of the Shoah.   Petach Tikvah or "Gateway of Hope" was originally founded by religious Jewish pioneers who had been living in Jerusalem.  What would eventually become a city, was a collection of mud huts built by 26 families on malaria infested piece of land seven miles east of what would one day become Tel Aviv.  Petach Tikvah took its name from a verse in Hosea "And I will give her...the valley of Achor for a gateway of Hope (2:17)."  The moshav would be abandoned for a brief period and then re-started with support from Baron Rothschild.  Petach Tikvah became a model and inspiration for the moshav movement.  Unfortunately, Petach Tikvah is no stranger to Arab violence.  During the 1920's, the defense of Petach Tikvah had helped to defeat an earlier Arab attempt to destroy the efforts by Jews to resettle and rehabilitate land that had been designated as “the Jewish Home.’ In the latest Arab Uprising, Petach Tikvah has been the scene of a suicide bombing in 2002 and the scene of a thwarted bombing in 2003. 

    1936(28th of Nisan, 5696): Zvi Dannenberg died today of wounds suffered on April 15 when he and Israel Khazahn were attacked by Arabs as they traveled from Nablus to Tulkarm.

    1936: Bronislaw Huberman, founder and organizer of the Palestine Symphony Orchestra announced that Arturo Toscanini has decided to include music by Mendelssohn on the first program he will conduct with the symphony. There is an element of political protest in this announcement since Mendelssohn has been banned by the Nazis.

    1936(28th of Nisan, 5695): “In an attack in the Shapira quarter, a Jewish suburb of Jaffa, Arabs killed two Jews and wounded several others” including “a Jewish youth riding a bicycle in Jaffa” who “was beaten so severely that he died almost instantly.”

    1936: “The Yemenite Jewish quarter outside of Tel Aviv” was destroyed by fire set by Arabs.

    1936: Part of a mob of three hundred Haurani Arabs “broke into the home of a Jewish family in Manshieh quarter and killed the father and injured the mother who was transported by the police along with their three children to Hadassah Hospital.

    1937: B'nai B'rith was banned in Nazi Germany because of individual members spreading "communist propaganda.

    1937: After moving its meeting that had been scheduled to start on April 13 in London, the Zionist General Council is scheduled to meet today in Jerusalem.

    1938: Despite bomb throwing which has become a daily occurrence in Jerusalem, an enthusiastic crowd filled Jerusalem’s Edison Hall for Toscanini’s fifth concert Aprof the season with the Palestine Orchestra.

    1938: German planes fly over Austria on Hitler’s birthday dropping tiny Swastikas.  This is the “new” Austria after the Anschluss which had taken place in March of 1938.

    1938: The Palestine Post reported that for the third night in succession bombs had been thrown in the center of Jerusalem, injuring Edwin Eisler, 18, and Banu Baland, 35. Forty "illegal" Jewish immigrants who had been in Palestine for many years, declared a hunger strike in order to persuade the mandate's authorities to change their status from "illegal" immigrants whom the courts failed to deport, to that of recognized permanent residents, so that they could bring here their families from abroad.

    1939:  On Hitler's fiftieth birthday, all Catholic churches in Greater Germany hoisted the swastika in celebration.

    1939: The Wirtschafts- und Verwaltungshauptamt(WVHA; Economy and Administration Main Office) was upgraded. It was concerned with SS economic matters, particularly at concentration camps.

    1939: At a meeting of the British Cabinet’s Palestine Committee, Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain, ever the appeaser, stressed that it of ‘immense importance’ with regard to British strategy ‘to have the Moslem world with us.  If we must offend one side, let us offend the Jews rather than the Arabs.’ This pronouncement was a complete violation of the Balfour Declaration and the terms of the Mandate.  It set the stage for the effective closing of Palestine to Jewish immigration in May of 1939; a policy that bought death for the Jews but failed to win the goodwill of the Arabs.  

    1941: Philippe de Rothschild was “released from Vichy custody” today following which he went to England and joined the Free French under Charles de Gaulle.

    1941: Birthdate of New York native, author and Distinguished Professor of history Blanche Wiesen Cook.

    1941: German newspapers in Greece come out blaming Jews for ruining Germany after World War I.   During this same period in April, the Greek newspaper New Europe wrote in capital letters “DEATH TO THE JEWS.” The paper reported that the Jews were the cause of economic problems in Germany. Levy stated the Greek paper called for the destruction of the "Jewish race once and for all."

    1942: The Battle for Moscow comes to an “end.”  The war in the East will grind on.  But thanks to the gritty, desperate defense of the Soviet capital, the German Army has been stopped and what was to have been a lightning war turns into a war of attrition.  As bad as the Holocaust was, defeat at Moscow would have made it even worse.  The Soviet victory here, along with other Soviet victories later in the war caused General Douglas McArthur (of all people) to declare that the Red Army was the Hope of the World.

    1942: “Frank L. Weil was re-elected president of the National Jewish Welfare Board, and Judge Irving Lehman was re-elected honorary president at the Twenty-Fifth annual conference of the J.W.B. which concluded its three-day session today” in New York City. (As reported by JTA)

    1942: At Mauthausen, “forty-eight people were shot at two minute intervals as a present to Hitler on his birthday.”

    1942: “Thirty French hostages – “Communists, Jews and sympathizers” – were executed today by the German military command near Roden in reprisal for the bombing last week of a military train in which a large number of German soldiers were killed.” (As reported by JTA)

    1942: At a birthday banquet for Hitler in East Prussia, Hermann Göring announced that he was responsible for the Reichstagfire of February 27, 1933, that set off Nazi reprisals against purported Communist subversion.

    1942: “More than a thousand prominent educational and religious leaders gathered tonight at the University of Chicago’s Mandel Hall at a convocation called by the Jewish Theological Seminary to honor Rabbi Saadia Gaon, the thousandth anniversary of whose death is being celebrated this year. President Robert M. Hutchins of the University of Chicago presided at the meeting.” (As reported by JTA)

    1943(15thof Nisan, 5703): Pesach

    1943: On the second day of Pesach, the Warsaw uprising continued for a second day.  The ghetto is bombarded with fire frp, mortars and machine guns. Germans kill all the sick in the Czyste hospital. Then they set the hospital on fire. Jewish resistance was stubborn and organized.  The Nazis, who had swept France in a mere six weeks, could not believe that the Jews of all people were providing this kind of a fight.  According to one account, some of the Jews could not believe they were doing it either. 1945(7thof Iyar, 5705): During the night 20 children and at least 28 adults were hanged at Bullenhuser Damn, one of the satellite camps of Neuengamme. The Bullenhuser Damm Memorial is dedicated to the memory of these children, who were subjected to medical experiments in the Neuengamme concentration camp before being murdered, to the 4 prisoners who cared for them, and to 24 unidentified Soviet prisoners.(Based on information supplied by the Wiener Library)

    1945: Jerusalem’s District Commissioner, James Huey Hamilton Pollock, met with Arab leaders in an attempt to reach a solution as to how Jerusalem should be governed.  Jewish leaders had accepted a British proposal that would have the position of Mayor rotate among each of the three main religious groups in the city.  The Arabs had maintained that the mayor must be Muslim.  The compromise would allow for a partition plan. 

    1945: Prime Minister Churchill telegraphs his wife who is in the Soviet Union stating that “Here we are all shocked by the most horrible revelations of German cruelty in the concentration camps.”

    1945: Ernst Hess, who was Hitler’s commanding officer during World War I ended his work as a “forced laborer’ for plumber named George Grau.

    1946: The Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry completed its report, urging the British to end the land purchase restrictions imposed on the Jews as part of the 1939 White Paper and to grant 100,000 Palestine certificates immediately.  The British rejected the proposal, refused to allow immigration on anything approaching that scale. 

    1946: “Five Yemenite Jews were killed when a three-inch shell exploded…in Nathanya” a town halfway between Tel Aviv and Haifa.

    1946: “Devotion” a biopic directed by Curtis Bernhardt was released in the United States today.

    1948: On the eve of Pesach, "the last food convoy after Operation Nachson, made up of some 300 trucks brought provisions to Jerusalem.

    1948: A convoy that included Prime Minister David Ben Gurion set out from Tel Aviv to the besieged city of Jerusalem.  Ben Gurion wanted to spend Pesach in Jerusalem with the beleaguered defenders as a way of raising moral.  The trip was extremely dangerous because the Arabs controlled the high ground on both sides of the highway and had successfully beaten back several other such attempts.  While Ben Gurion, who was traveling in one of the lead vehicles, made it through, the rest of the convoy came under heavy attack and was forced to turn back after suffering heavy casualties.  This was only one of the many battles fought to open the road to Jerusalem.  Long after the war was over, travelers on the modern-four lane highway from the coast to Jerusalem could see the burned-out hulks of the Jewish vehicles that serve as constant reminder of the price the Jewish people paid for Jerusalem.

    1948(11thof Nisan, 5708): Twenty Jewish soldiers were killed today when “a second attempt was made to” take Metzudat Koach, a Tegart fort built by Solel Boneh during the British Mandate” that “was a key observation point on the Naftali heights, overlooking the Hula Valley” which had been seized by the Arabs thus threatening the existence of kibbutzim in the Upper Galilee.

    1948(11th of Nisan, 5708): Five members of Haganah were killed and twenty-four were wounded during a day long fight “at Deir Ayoub, just short of the gorges of Bab El Wad” with Arabs who were trying to keep a convoy from reaching Jerusalem which was under siege that was a violation of international law.

    1948: “Arab throngs turned out at Amman to welcome The Grand Mufti, Haj Amin el Husseini” prior to his meeting with King Abdullah of Trans-Jordan who has intimated that his Arab Legion would soon join armies from Arab nations in an invasion of Palestine.

    1948: “In Jerusalem armed Arabs held up a postal trucked, for the driver to drive to the Garden of Gethsemane and stole seventy-six bags of foreign, domestic and army mail.

    1948: A group of Jewish veterans who had had served with the British Army during World War II drove a convoy to twenty-four armored trucks to the edge of the Negev where they founded “a new settlement called Brur Hayal.

    1949(21stof Nisan, 5709): Seventh Day of Pesach

    1949(21stof Nisan, 5709): Ben Spector, an ironworker from Russia and the father of famous popular musician Phil Spector passed away today.

    1949: Twenty-five year old outfielder Cal Abrams plays in his first game with the Brooklyn Dodgers.

    1949: Publication of The Brave Bulls which would become a 1951 film directed by Robert Rossen.

    1950: During a debate in the House of Commons Prime Minister Atlee’s Labor government announced that it would continue to refuse to sell arms to Israel while continuing to sells arms to Egypt, Iraq and Jordan.  According to sources in Tel Aviv, the British have said they would consider sales of weapons to Israel if she reaches a full settlement with the Arab states.  No such pre-condition has been attached to sales to the Arab states.

    1952: NBC broadcast the final episode of “The Big Show” a radio variety show written by Goodman Ace of Easy Aces who hired Selma Diamond to work on the scripts with him.

    1953(5th of Iyar, 5713): Yom HaAtzma'ut observed

    1954: “The Golden Apple,” a Jerome Moros musical that had opened “Off-Broadway” in March opened on Broadway today at the Alvin Theatre.

    1955: A production of “Guys and Dolls” “starring Walter Matthau as Nathan Detroit” opened today.

    1956: A subpoena duces tecum was served today on Mauricio Hochschild.

    1957: U.S. premiere of “The Spirit of St. Louis” directed by Billy Wilder who also co-authored the script with music by Franz Waxman.

    1958(30th of Nisan, 5718): Rosh Chodesh Iyar

    1960: “From A to Z,” “a musical revue with a book by Woody Allen…opened on Broadway” today at the Plymouth Theater.

    1963: CBS broadcast the final episode of “Have Gun – Will Travel” that included an opening theme composed by Bernard Herrmann and over its six year history included episodes written by Bruce Geller and Irving Wallace as well as appearances by Martin Balsam, Sydney Pollack, Norma Crane, Suzanne Pleshette, Werner Klemperer and Dyan Cannon.

    1965: U.S. premiere of “The Pawnbroker” the film version of the novel by Edward Lewis Wallant, directed by Sidney Lumet and filmed by cinematographer Boris Kaufman.

    1965: In Montreal, architect Moshe Safdie and his wife gave birth to “Canadian-American-Israeli playwright and screenwriter Oren Safdi who whose works included “Jews & Jesus, a musical that satirizes the naiveté of young Jews, half-Jews, Christians who date Jews and vice versa, while questioning the place of religion in this unfettered age.”

    1967: Birthdate of Mike Portnoy, drummer in the progressive metal band Dream Theatre.

    1968: After 598 performances, the curtain came down on Woody Allen’s “Don’t Drink the Water”

    1970(14th of Nisan, 5730):Ta'anit Bechorot; Erev Pesach

    1970(14th of Nisan, 5730): Forty-nine year old Poet and translator Paul Celan passed away.

    1970: Bruno Kreisky became the first Socialist and the first Jew to serve as Chancellor of Austria.

    1970: Pini Nahmani, an Israeli pilot being held in a Damascus prison, celebrated a Seder made possible by two Haggadot and some Matzah crumbs sent by the Chief Rabbi of Zurich. 

    1971: Barbra Streisand recorded "We've Only Just Begun"

    1974: South African Jewish professional association footballer Martin Cohen was part of the White XI that played their black counterparts today “in a racially charged match at Rand Stadium. After initially going down 1-0 to the black side (the goal was called off-side by referee Wally Turner), Cohen scored a crucial goal before Neil Roberts put the game away.”

    1975: Larry Blyden, a practicing Jew from Houston born Ivan Lawrence Blieden, co-hosted the  telecast of the Tony Awards.

    1976: Paula Hyman spoke about the history of Jewish women in America on New York radio station WEVD.

    1977: "Annie Hall" a comedy directed and written by Woody Allen co-starring Paul Simon and Janet Margolin was released in the United States, a month after premiering at the Los Angeles Film Fesitval.

    1978:The Jerusalem Postreported that Yitzhak Navon was elected the fifth president of the State of Israel on his 57th birthday. The minister of defense, Ezer Weizmann, was expected to leave for Cairo in another bid to renew the stalled Israeli-Egyptian peace negotiations. In Washington, efforts were made to set the stage for another, possibly more promising, summit between Prime Minister Menachem Begin and US president, Jimmy Carter.

    1979: U.S. premiere of “Dawn of the Dead” co-starring Gaylen Ross who would later produce the acclaimed documentary “Killing Kasztner,”

    1981(16thof Nisan, 5741): Second Day of Pesach; First Day of the Omer under President Reagan.

    1982(27thof Nisan, 5742): Yom HaShoah

    1986:An Irishwoman arrested in connection with an attempt to blow up a crowded Israeli airliner was freed tonight after two days of questioning with no charges brought against her, the police said. Anne-Marie Murphy, 32 years old, was arrested at London's Heathrow Airport carrying explosives on Thursday as she was about to board an El Al flight to Tel Aviv. She carried a bag containing about 10 pounds of explosives stashed in a false bottom. The police said she may have been duped into taking the bomb onto the plane. Detectives are still questioning her fiancé, Nezar Hindawi, a 35-year-old Jordanian who was arrested on Friday.

    1986 - World famous pianist Vladimir Horowitz performed in his Russian homeland. A non-observant Jew, this performance was one of his last before he went into his final retirement. "It's better to make your own mistakes than to copy someone else's.""My future is in my past and my past is in my present. I must now make the present my future."

    1987:Two Israeli soldiers and three Palestinian guerrillas were killed today in a shootout after the Palestinians cut through a Lebanon border fence and crossed into northern Israel, an Israeli Army spokesman said. The Israeli radio said three Palestinian guerrillas who slipped past Israeli troops in southern Lebanon and crossed the border near the Menara kibbutz ''were wiped out,'' but not before they had killed the two Israeli soldiers who had tracked them to their hiding place in an apple orchard 500 yards inside Israel. Al Fatah, Yasir Arafat's faction of the Palestine Liberation Organization, took credit for the operation.

    1988(3r of Iyar, 5748) Yom HaZikaron observed

    1989(15thof Nisan, 5749): Pesach is observed for the first time during the Presidency of George H.W. Bush.

    1991(6th of Iyar, 5751: Movie director Don Siegel passed away.  Born in Chicago in 1912 and educated in England, Siegel had a long and storied career. In 1945, two shorts he directed, Hitler Lives? and A Star in the Night, won Academy Awards, which launched his career as a feature director. Among his long list of film credits were a series of Clint Eastwood films including Coogan’s Bluff,Two Mules for Sister Sarah and the classic Dirty Harry.

    1993:At a solemn outdoor ceremony tonight at the place where several hundred poorly armed Jews battled the Nazis 50 years ago, the leaders of Poland and Israel hailed the valor of the uprising and called for a new beginning in the often difficult relationship between Jews and Poles.

    1994: “Paul Touvier, the first French citizen tried for crimes against humanity, was sentenced today to life in prison for ordering the execution of seven Jews during World War II.”

    1995(20thof Nisan, 5755): Fifty-two year old, “Jacob Shaham, among the world's leading theoretical astrophysicists in the study of neutron stars and professor of physics at Columbia” passed away today.

    1997: The New York Times featured reviews of Rabin: Our Life, His Legacyby Leah Rabin and The Boys:The Untold Story of 732 Young Concentration Camp Survivors by Martin Gilbert.

    1999(4thof Iyar, 5759): Yom HaZikaron

    1999(4thof Iyar, 5759): Eighty-four year old Baroness Bethsabée de Rothschild passed away in Tel Aviv

    2000(15thof Pesach, 5760): Pesach

    2000: In Shanghai, 100 Jews attended Pesach services at Ohel Rachel Synagogue.

    2000: “A Story Still Painful After Repeated” provides a review the Robert Myers’ “The Lynching of Leo Frank which is another in a list of less than successful attempts to capture the events surrounding the events that took place in pre-WW I Georgia.

    2001(27thof Nisan, 5761): Ninety-two year old Avigdor HaKohen Miller passed away today.

    2002(8thof Iyar, 5762): Border Policeman St.-Sgt. Uriel Bar-Maimon, 21 of Ashkelon was killed in an exchange of fire near the Erez industrial park in the northern Gaza Strip. Israeli forces pursued the Palestinian gunman and killed him. An explosive belt was found on his body. The Fatah Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades claimed responsibility.

    2002(8thof Iyar, 5762): Sgt. Maj. Nir Krichman, 22 of Hadera, was killed in an exchange of gunfire, when IDF forces entered the village of Asira a-Shamaliya, north of Nablus, to arrest known Hamas terrorists.

    2003: The New York Times included reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including recently released paperback versions of “Sunday Jews, by Hortense Calisher in which she “explores the disparate fortunes of an extended Jewish family living on the Upper West Side after World War II” and “Be My Knife” by David Grossman.

    2003(18thof Nisan, 5763): IDF photographer Cpl. Lior Ziv, 19, of Holon, was killed and three other soldiers were wounded during an operation to destroy a Hamas smuggling tunnel in Rafah, in the Gaza Strip.

    2003(18th of Nisan, 5763): Biophysicist, Sir Bernard Katz passed away. Sir Bernard Katz was born in Germany in 1911.  He fled to Great Britain when the Nazis came to power.  Katz was noted for his work on nerve biochemistry.  He shared the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine in 1970 with Julius Axelrod and Ulf von Euler. He was knighted in 1970.

    2004: The Public Law Department of the Buenos Aires University School of Law and the International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation organized and presented The International Seminar "Diplomacy and the Holocaust.”

    2006(22ndof Nisan, 5766): Eighth Day of Pesach including recitation of Yizkor.

    2006(22ndof Nisan, 5766): Seventy-seven year old Medal of Honor Jack Weinstein passed away today

    2006(22ndof Nisan, 5766): Eighty-two year old Paul Mortiz Cohn, the “Aster Professor of Mathematics at University College London passed away today.

    2006: “President George W. Bush signed an official document declaring the month of May Jewish American Heritage Month (JAHM)”

    2007(2ndof Iyar, 5767): Ninety-two year old Israeli rabbi Yehuda Meir Abrmowicz, the son Tzvi Yitzchok Abramowicz  who made Aliyah in  1935 where “he served as general secretary of Agudat Yisrael, which he represented in the Knesset from 1972 until 1981, and as Deputy Speaker of the Knesset between 1977 and 1981” passed away today.

    2007: Haaretz reported that sixty-six civilians were killed in hostile actions since last Independence Day, mostly during the Second Lebanon War, bringing the number of civilians killed in terror attacks since the state's establishment in 1948 to 1,635, according to National Insurance Institute (NII) Director Dr. Yigal Ben-Shalom.

    2007: The Jerusalem Post reported that Prime Minister Ehud Olmert had condemned as "hurtful" and "spurious" comments made by former Sephardi chief rabbi Mordechai Eliyahu that the victims of the Holocaust were made to suffer because of the sins of the Reform Movement. Olmert went on to praise the Reform Movement as an important element in the “House of Israel.”

    2007: U.S. premiere of “In The Land of Women” starring Adam Brody with a script by Jon Kasdan who also directed the film.

    2008(15thof Nisan, 5768): First Day of Pesach

    2008:San Francisco chefs Gayle Pirie and John Cook are and putting a Slow Food spin on the Passover Seder for the second night of Passover. The Seder, held at Foreign Cinema is sponsored by Heeb and is the magazine’s inaugural "Slow Food Seder.”

    2008: The New York Times book section featured a review of “Dictation the most recent work of Jewish author Cynthia Ozick.

    2008: The Washington Post book section featured a review of a biography of the Jewish poet Louis Zukofsky entitled “The Poem of a Life”by Mark Scroggins and an interview with American poet Edward Hirsch whose grandfather was a stringer for a Yiddish newspaper who wrote poems and copied them into the backs of books.

    2008: The Sunday Chicago Tribune reported that two Torah scrolls were taken from Kenosha synagogue. Just days before the beginning of Passover, two Torah scrolls each worth an estimated $40,000 to $60,000, were reported stolen from a Jewish temple in Kenosha, officials said. On Tuesday, Rabbi Tzali Wilschanski of the Congregation Bnei Tzedek Chabad realized his laptop, which he had used during a class the night before, was missing. He checked to see whether the Torahs were safe, and discovered they were missing too. He said he last saw them April 5. Several valuable silver ornaments used to adorn the scrolls were not taken, leading Wilschanski to suspect that the robbery was not a garden-variety theft.
    "If this was a hate crime, it would explain why they took something that is so dear to us," he said.
    "If this was not a hate crime, it was the work of very sophisticated criminals who know that the Torah scrolls are much more valuable than the silver pieces." There were no signs of forced entryinto the temple at 1602 56th St., but a deadbolt lock was open, Kenosha police Sgt. Hugh Rafferty said. While police do not have any suspects in custody, they are following several leads, he said.

    2009:In Washington, D.C.,Adina Hoffman, a Jerusalem-based writer, critic and founder of Ibis Editions, discusses and signs “My Happiness Bears No Relation to Happiness: A Poet's Life in the Palestinian Century, “her new biography of Palestinian poet Taha Muhammad Ali.

    2009: Opening session of “Durban II Counter at the Fordham University School of Law. The American Association of Jewish Lawyers and Jurists sponsor this counter-conference organized to address the real issues of "racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and other forms of intolerance." 

    2009:Human Rights Watch said in a new report issued today thatHamas security forces killed at least 32 Palestinian political rivals and those suspected of collaborating with Israel during and after the Israeli offensive in the Gaza Strip. The report also said “unlawful arrests, torture and killings in detention” were making a mockery of Hamas’s claims to uphold the law in Gaza, which is ruled by Hamas, an Islamic group.“Hamas should end its attacks on political opponents and suspected collaborators in Gaza, which have killed at least 32 Palestinians and maimed several dozen more during and since the recent Israeli military offensive,” the report by Human Rights Watch, an advocacy group, said. It said that gunmen believed to be from Hamas killed 18 Palestinians, most suspected of collaborating with Israel, and that another 14 Palestinians had been killed by people said to be members of Hamas security forces since Israel ended its offensive.

    2009:TodayPresident Mahmoud Ahmadinejad of Iran used the platform of a United Nations conference in Geneva on combating racism to disparage Israel as a “cruel and repressive racist regime,” prompting delegates from European nations to desert the hall and earning a rare harsh rebuke from Secretary General Ban Ki-moon.

    2009: Lord Hoffmann (Leonard Hoffmann) completed his terms as Second Senior Lord of Appeal in Ordinary in South Africa.

    2009: “President Obama formally nominated Fred Hochberg” the son of refugees from Nazi Germany   “to be Chairman and President of the [[Export-Import Bank.”

    2009: Steve Reich was awarded the 2009 Pulitzer Prize for Music, on April 20, 2009, for Double Sextet

    2010(6thIyar, 5770): Yom Ha’Atzmaut

    2010: The US premier of “I Was There In Color,” is scheduled to take place as part the Yom Ha’Atzmaut celebration at the JCC in Manhattan.

    2010:Or Ashual, a 17-year-old student at the Kfar Saba Amana girls’ school, became the 2010 winner of the World Bible Quiz competition today, which took place on Israel’s 62nd Independence Day at the Jerusalem Center for the Performing Arts.
    2011(16thof Nisan, 5771): Second Day of Pesach

    2011:Beit Avi Chai, in collaboration with Merkaz Hamagshimim Hadassah, is scheduled to hold its second annual English speaking amateur theatre festival: "Stage One".

    2011:Two suspects were arrested today in connection with setting fire to a synagogue on the Greek island of Corfu a day earlier, Greek Police said.

    2011: A Haggadah Fair sponsored by Kol HaOt and the Inbal Hotel will open today in Jerusalem.

    2011: One day after Steve Soboroff was hired to be the Vice Chairman of the LA Dodgers, Major League Baseball seized control of the team from Frank McCourt.

    2012: “In Darkness” a film about Polish sewer worker and Jews living in the Lvov Ghetto is scheduled to be shown in Iowa City under the sponsorship of Agudas Achim.

    2012: “Joanna” and “Life Is Too Long” are scheduled to be shown at the Westchester Jewish Film Festival

    2012: “The Man Behind the Curtain” provides a detailed review of Mr. Broadway: The Inside Story of the Shuberts, the Shows and the Stars by Gerald Schoenfield. 

    2013: “No Place on Earth” is scheduled to be shown for the first time in Claremont, CA.

    2013: Adam Burstain, the son of Todd and Jennifer Burstain - pillars of the Cedar Rapids Jewish community- and marvelous student of Judaism is scheduled to appear in the final performance of “Urine Town.”

    2013: “Cabaret-Berlin: The Wild Scene” is scheduled to be shown at the Westchester Jewish Film Festival

    2013: “Dorfman in Love” is scheduled to be shown at the Northern Virginia Jewish Film Festival.

    2013: Israeli gymnast Alexander Shatilov won the gold medal in the European Men's Artistic Gymnastic individual Championships, held in Moscow today.

    2013: U.S Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel will finalize a huge arms deal with Israel during his visit starting today, under which Israel will for the first time be permitted to purchase US aerial refueling planes and other ultra-sophisticated military equipment that could prove vital to any Israel strike against Iran’s nuclear facilities

    2014: “Igor and the Crane’s Journey” is scheduled to be shown at the JCC Rockland International Jewish Film Festival

    2014:Helen Suzman: Fighter for Human Rights” an exhibition that has been on display at the Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center is scheduled to come to a close.

    2014: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including No Book But The World by Leah Hager Cohen, Updike by Adam Begley and

    Plato at the Googleplex: Why Philosophy Won’t Go Away by Rebecca Newberger Goldstein

    2015: Mark Strauss, the “well-known oil painter” and Holocaust survivor who wrote Crumbs under the pen-name of Marek Mann is scheduled to speak at the US Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C.

    2015: “Secrets of War” and “Magic Men” are scheduled to be shown at the Westchester Jewish Film Festival.

    2015: The American Sephardi Federation is scheduled to present a lecture by Rabbi Marvin Toyaker and Ellen Rodman, authors of Pepper, Silk & Ivory: Amazing Stories about Jews and the Far East.

    2015: In Washington, DC, Dr. Samuel Gruber is scheduled to deliver a lecture that “will explore the evolution of the movement to preserve historic synagogues entitled “Preserving America’s Synagogues” Past and Future.”

    2015(1stof Iyar, 5775): Rosh Chodesh Iyar

    2015(1stof Iyar, 5775): Eighty-five year old record executive Bernard Stollman whose parents met in the balcony of a Yiddish theatre, passed away today.

    2015(1stof Iyar, 5775): Ninety year old Frederick Morton, the baker turned author passed away today.

    2015(1stof Iyar, 5775): Eighty-one year old Paris born Rosh Yeshiva and expert on Halakah rabbi Aharon Lichtenstein passed away at Alon Shvut, Israel.

    2016: “A New Leaf” and “Michael Nichols: American Masters” are scheduled to be shown on the final night of the Westchester Jewish Film Festival.

    2016: The funeral for Rabbi Ben-Zion Gold, the Director of the Harvard Hillel is scheduled to be held in Brookline where mourners will include his daughters Merav and Hannah.

    2016: The ShapeShifter Lab is scheduled to present the Alon Yavnai Big Band.

    2016:The Samaritans are scheduled to celebrate their Passover today.

    2017: In Arizona, the Valley Beit Midrash and the Jewish Book Council are scheduled to co-host “Why Be Jewish? – Continuing the Legacy of Edgar Bronfman”

    2017: The Jerusalem Opera Spring concert scheduled for this evening will “pay home to Enrico Caruso.

    2018:  The “12 day Journey of Remembrance and Celebration” sponsored by the Steicker Center is scheduled to come to an end today.

    2018: “Hungarian Kosher Foods, a Chicago-area landmark for 45 years”  “America’s first all –kosher supermarket” which was founded by “Holocaust survivor Sandor Kirsche” is scheduled to become the property today of “Orian Azulay, the owner of the kosher supermarket Sara’s Tent in Aventura, Florida.”

    2018: In Metairie, LA, the Jewish Community Day School is its Yom Ha’atzmaut Celebration which including a torch lighting ceremony “representing the 12 Tribes of the people of Israel.”

    2018: “Spring Scenes,” the final production of the Cleveland Institute of Music Opera Theatre under the leadership under the direction artistic director David Bamberger is scheduled to open this evening.



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    April 21

    753 BCE: According to tradition, on this date Romulus and Remus founded Rome.  Considering the impact that Rome would have on the Jewish people this date is worth noting. 

    586: Ricard I became King the Visigoth King of Hispania.  “A year later converted from Arianism to Catholicism, which changed the nature of life in Iberia in the same way that Constantine's conversion had changed things in the Roman Empire. Recared approved the Third Council of Toledo's move in 589 to forcibly baptize the children of mixed marriages between Jews and Christians. Toledo III also forbade Jews from holding public office, from having intercourse with Christian women, and from performing circumcisions on slaves or Christians. Still, Recared was not entirely successful in his campaigns: not all Visigoth Arians had converted to Catholicism; the unconverted were true allies of the Jews, oppressed like themselves, and Jews received some protection from Arian bishops and the independent Visigothic nobility.”

    629: Emperor Heraclius marched into Jerusalem at the head of his army. Heraclius was head of the Eastern Roman Empire.  During the fifth and sixth centuries the Christian rulers tried to make life for Jews in Palestine as difficult as possible.  Heraclius was defeated by the Persians and the Jews sided with the Persians who were viewed as liberators.  The joy was short lived as the Christians re-took the land from the Persians and punished the Jews severely.  Ultimately all of this matter very little since the Arabs would soon appear in Palestine and Islam would become the dominate force.

    1073: Pope Alexander II passed away. In 1063, Pope Alexander II had given his blessing to Iberian Christians in their wars against the Muslims, granting both a papal standard and an indulgence to those who were killed in battle. This was another act in the battle between Moslems and Christians for control of Spain.  The Jews were caught in the middle and their fortunes fluctuated over the centuries.  In hindsight, this was really just one more step in the long path that led to the expulsion in 1492.

    1481(13thof Iyar, 5241): Jews of Seville burned at the stake

    1499: The New Christians, including those who had been forcibly baptized, are forbidden to leave Portugal.

    1506: Three days of anti-Semitic rioting ends in Lisbon, Portugal where two thousand Jews were killed by the mobs.

    1509: Henry VII, King of England passed away.  Henry negotiated the marriage between his son, the Catherine of Aragon, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain (the monarchs who had expelled the Jews from Spain).  One of the terms of the marriage was that the Jews would never be allowed to return to England.  If Henry had not agreed to this term, the marriage would not have taken place. 

    1574: Fifty-four year old Cosimo de’ Medici whose record regarding the Jews was a mixed bag passed away today. On the one hand in “1551 he had issued an invitation to merchants from the Levant, including Jews, to settle in Tuscany and do business there and in 1557 he gave asylum to Jewish refugees from the Papal States while refusing to implement the anti-Jewish restrictions issued by Pope Paul IV “or to hand over the Jews to the Inquisition.  On the other hand, “he yielded to Papal pressure” ordering the burning of the Talmud and “rigorously applying the requirement the Jews wear the distinctive ‘Jews Badge.’” (Jewish Virtual Library)

    1585(22nd of Nisan, 5345): Sixteenth century Salonica born Rabbi Moses ben Joseph di Trani (Mabit) passed away in Safed.

    1619:Shlomo Ephraim ben Aaron Luntschitz, who was born at Lenczyk in 1550 and who studied with Solomon Luria in Lublin before being appointed rabbi of Prague in 1604 passed away today

    1649: The Toleration Act was passed by the Maryland Assembly. It protected Roman Catholics within the American colony against Protestant harassment, which had been rising as Oliver Cromwell's power in England increased.  Maryland had been founded under the Catholic Calvert family.  They were trying to create a refuge for English Catholics.  The Jews benefited from what was a clash between different branches of Christianity.

    1729: Birthdate of Catherine the Great, Tsarina of Russia from 1762 to 1796.   Under Catherine, Russia took part in the three-way partition of Poland which gave Russia its large Jewish population.  At first, her treatment of her new Jewish subjects was fairly tolerant.  She saw them as an economic asset.  But in her later years she succumbed to the demands of Christian merchants and began to tighten the noose around the neck of the Jews.  In the end, she laid the groundwork for the creation of what came to be known as The Pale of Settlement.

    1805: Birthdate of Sir Culling Eardley Eardley, 3rd baronet, a Christian evangelical who was, on his mother’s side of the family, the great-grandson of Jewish financier Sampson Gideon and a financial support of the Jaffa-Jerusalem railway.

    1808: The name of Raphael Bischoffsheim was included on a list dated today that “included…the twenty-five foremost Jews” in the city of Mayence. The authorities were to choose the representatives for Napoleon’s Sanhedrin from the names on that list.  Born in 1773, at Bischofsheim-on-the-Tauber, he went to Mayence during the French Revolution, and from a small merchant became a purveyor to the army. Bischoffsheim was president of the Jewish community of Mayence prior to his death in 1814.

    1818(15th of Nisan, 5578): Pesach

    1822(30th of Nisan, 5582): Rosh Chodesh Iyar

    1822: Abraham ben Simon married Beila bat Simhah HaLevi at the Western Synagogue.

    1833: In London James Graham Lewis and his wife gave birth to George Lewis who would become a successful lawyer known to posterity as Sir George Henry Lewis, 1st Baronet

    1836: Texans under the command of General Sam Houston defeated the Mexican Army at the Battle of San Jacinto which resulted in Mexican recognition of the Republic of Texas. Among the Jews who served with Houston was Dr. Albert Moses Levy, the Surgeon in Chief for this fledgling force.  Adolphus Sterne was a friend of Houston from their days in Tennessee and he helped raise funds for the Texans.

    1840: Birthdate of Asher (Arthurd) Simhah Weissmann, the native of Galicia who served as director of two different Jewish schools before settling in Vienna where he pursued a literary career that included workds on “cremation according to the Bible and Talmud” and “the canonization of the of the Books of the TaNaCh.”

    1843:Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, the sixth son of George III (the one who lost the 13 colonies) who “became a Patron of the Jews' Hospital and Orphan Asylum, later to become the charity known as Norwood” and who supported legislation to remove “the civil liabilities of Jews” passed away today.

    1846: Formation of the United Order of True Sisters

    1856(16th of Nisan, 5616): On the same day Jews observed the Second Day of Pesach, in Melbourne, “building workers agitated for the eight-hour day.”

    1858:As of this date, records show that the Association for the Free Distribution of Matzos to the Poor had spent a grand total of $691.87 to ensure that indigent Jews would have unleavened bread to celebrate the recently completed Passover holiday.

    1860: “From Southern Africa” published today reported that “The Jews of the Cape had subscribed £183 for the benefit of their suffering brethren in Morocco. Where is the place in the wide world to which the Jew does not penetrate?”

    1860: A letter to the editor published today from a former prizefighter recounts the history of pugilism in England and the United. It included the following positive description of Jewish skill in the ring. ‘”In spite of their muscle, their undoubted courage, and admitted pugnacity, no Irishman has ever long held a distinguished place in the Ring. The Jews, on the other hand, not famous for any of these qualities, have always, from the days of Menodoza and Aby Belasco, had a good position, and like their great countryman, Judas Maccabeus, have "made battles and been renowned in the uttermost part of the earth." [Mendoza is the 18thcentury British fighter Daniel Mendoza.  Belasco was a well known fighter in “the post Mendoza era.”]

    1861: It was reported today that in his study of the synchronisms of ancient Assyrian and Egyptian History, Sir Henry Rawlinson has discovered “the first clear account of a conflict between the Egyptians and the Assyrians occurs in the reign of Sargon, (B.C. 721- 702,) who was, as we know from the Bible, the King who carried away the Jews captives from Samaria.”

    1864(15th of Nisan, 5624); First day of Pesach

    1864: Isaac J. Levy, a Confederate Soldier serving with the 46th Virginia Infantry participated in a Seder at Adams Run South Carolina.  Levy would later admit that he was confused as to the date of the start of the holiday.  (As an example of the confusion that can take place in reporting events, Abraham Bloch described Levy as being a Union soldier)

    1864: Birthdate of Max Weber.  Born in Germany, Weber was one of the fathers of modern sociology.  He was also a noted economist and historian. "Weber was among those who believed that modern capitalism was the product of religious notions, variously termed the Protestant work ethic and the Calvinist salvation panic...He also believed that Jewish businessmen, like Calvinist ones, tended to operate most successfully when they had left their traditional religious environment."   Obviously, some of his ideas are open to debate based on historical evidence.  But he was an intellectual giant regardless of whether or not you agree with his theories.  He passed away in 1920.

    1865(21stof Nisan, 5625): Seventh Day of Pesach

    1865: In Albany, NY, the Argus published an account of Rabbi Max Schlesinger’s talk at Temple Anshe Emeth expressing his feelings about the assassination of President Lincoln and the decision of Congregation to hold services three times on the day of Lincoln’s funeral, “first at 6 a.m. for morning prayers, at 10 a.m. for a sermon by Rabbi Gotthold and at 6 p.m. for evening prayers.”

    1865(21stof Nisan, 5625): Twenty-five year old Victorine Kann, the first wife of Sir George Lewis died today shortly after having given birth to their daughter Alice Victorine Lewis.

    1870(20thof Nisan, 5630): Sixth day of Pesach

    1871(30th of Nisan, 5631): Rosh Chodesh Iyar

    1871: In New York, Bernard Werner and his wife gave birth to lithographer Simon Werner, the Paris trained artist whose “drawings and illustrations” appeared in many popular magazines including Harper’s and Ladies’ Home Journal and whose paintings were “exhibited at the National Academy of Design.”

    1880: In New York, Matilde (de Perkiewicz) and Max Liebling gave birth to soprano Estelle Liebling, one of the most influential teachers of singing in America

    1880: For the fiscal year that ended today, the Brooklyn Hebrew Orphan Asylum had receipts totaling a little more than $35,000 and had made expenditures of $12, 327.34.

    1880: In Prague, Barbara / Babette Bondy and Jakob Bondy gave birth to Bertha Fried

    1880: Benjamin Disraeli completed his second and final term as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.

    1881(22nd of Nisan, 5641): 8th day of Pesach

    1881(22ndof Nisan, 5641): “Jurist, publicist and scholar, Wolfgang Wessely who had been born in Moravia in 1801 passed away today in Vienna.

    1882: Based on information first published in The Allegemeine Zeitung, it was reported today that troops in the Russian city of Balte joined in the plundering of the Jewish population instead of protecting it. Forty Jews were injured in the riots, an unknown number of which later died.  A thousand homes were destroyed and damage is estimated to be in excess of 4,500,000 rubles.

    1883(14th of Nisan, 5643): Shabbat HaGadol; Erev Pesach

    1884: Three men were arrested tonight in Nashville, TN on charges that they took part in the assault that left a Jewish citizen named Meyer Friedman beaten to death.

    1884: The Board of Estimate and Apportionment met today and awarded funds to a variety of charitable institutions including the United Hebrew Charities of the City of New York ($8,500),   Mount Sinai Hospital and Dispensary (4,250) and the Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews (1,820).

    1884: A report was published describingthe plans being developed by the Jewish community to celebrate the 100thbirthday of Sir Moses Montefiore which will take place in October.  Leaders of the community are calling for the establishment of Home for Chronic Invalids named in the philanthropist’s honor.  In addition to raising funds to construct the building, the community will have to raise $20,000 a year to operate the home.

    1886: It was reported today that oil tycoon John D. Rockefeller has gone to New York to meet with those holding the mortgage on the University of Chicago.  Rockefeller has taken an interest in creating a course that will lead to solvency for the school provided that Professor H.L. Harper would be named President of the school. Harper’s area of academic expertise is the Hebrew language of which he is a professor.  At this point in America, the only people interested in Hebrew were a handful of Jews and academics teaching Biblical topics at Protestant dominated colleges.

    1886(16th of Nisan, 5646): Second Day of Pesach; 1st day of the Omer

    1889: A report published today described the transformation of a German Jewish intellectual named Emin Bey into Emin Pasha a Moslem leader ruling over a large swath of central Africa.  Much of the information was supplied by Henry Stanley, the same man who “found” Dr. Livingston.

    1890(1st of Iyar, 5650): Rosh Chodesh Iyar

    1890: Lucie Hadamard, married Alfred Dreyfus.

    1890: Alfred Dreyfus is accepted at the Ecole Superiore de Guerre (Superior War College), the prestigious French military school designed to train the elite members of the French officer corps.  Dreyfus will graduate 9th in his class but his final evaluation will be marred by the entries of an anti-Semitic French general.

    1891: Rosa Gombesky a young Russian Jewish immigrant who jumped from a fires-escape to the street when the tenement at 194 Henry Street caught fire is being treated at Gouverneur Hospital for the serious injuries she has suffered.

    1892: “A Moorish Jew, Joseph MIzrachee” was sentenced to 10 years for shooting Henry Pereira Mendes, the rabbi of Congregation Shearith Israel.

    1892: “Typhus Among the Russian Jews” published today described efforts by the Germans from preventing infected Russians from crossing the border.

    1893: The Austrian Premier has informed the American government that it will not grant diplomatic recognition to Max Judd, the St. Louis Jew, whom President Grover Cleveland appointed as Counsel General for the United States at Vienna.

    1893: “Jewish Ministers Aroused” published today described the action being taken by Christian organizations to convert Jews and the response of the Jewish community including that of Temple Beth Israel’s Rabbi Lustiwig who said “The trouble is that we have provided sufficient instruction for our people in the Jewish faith. The introduction of Friday night and Sunday night lectures to take the pace of Saturday services has done no good to Judaism.  While it may be well enough to have lectures at other times than Saturdays, we should above all other things observe Saturday and all of our synagogues should be supplied with minsters who will impress upon the people the importance of Bible subjects.” (Editor’s note – This was from a reform rabbi at a Reform Temple) 

    1894(15thof Nisan, 5654): Pesach

    1895: Professor Felix Adler delivered a lecture on “The Ten Commandments: at Carnegie Hall” this morning

    1895: “The Trustees of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum, which is controlled by the Hebrew Benevolent Society, held their annual meeting” this morning.

    1895: “Care of Hebrew Orphans” published today described the origins and growth of Brooklyn Hebrew Orphan Asylum which opened its doors fifteen years ago.

    1896(7th of Iyar, 5656): Baron Maurice de Hirsch passed away at his estate in Pressburg, Hungary.  While the name of Baron Hirsch may be unfamiliar to many living in the 21st century, he was one of the great philanthropists his time.  The Baron (and he really was a Baron) was part of an established, extremely wealthy family.  The Baron funded a variety of charities many of which were designed to provide relief for the sufferings Jews of Russia and Eastern Europe.  He donated great sums to establish agricultural communities in North and South America including Argentina, Canada and rural areas of the United States. 

    1896: Oscar S. Straus, who had served as U.S. Minister to Turkey told a reporter from the New York Times that “It was my good fortune to enjoy the personal acquaintance of Baron de Hirsch and my recollections of him, while tinged with sorrow at his sudden death, are of the pleasantest kind.

    1896: Léon Say, who had worked on the on the Northern Railway Company which was owned by his friend Alphonse de Rothschild and who had supported Rothschild’s fight to maintain bimetallism while serving as Minister of Finance passed away today.

     1898: As the United States and Spain drifted into war after the sinking of the Maine, “Spain severed diplomatic relations with the United States and the U.S. Navy began a blockade of Cuba.” Fifteen of the sailors who died on the Battleship Maine were Jewish.  Approximately 5,000 Jews served as volunteers in the military during the war.  A sixteen year old Jewish trooper was the first casualty among Teddy Roosevelt’s Rough Riders

    1899: “Dreyfus Case Evidence” published today summarized the 24 columns of coverage The Figaro devoted to the coverage of “testimony offered before the Court of Cassation in the Dreyfus revision inquiry” including the statement by Major Forzinetti who was the Director of the Chereche-Midi Prison in 1894 that “Dreyfus consistently and persistently protested his innocence” and declared “that his only crime was in having been born a Jew.”

    1903: Herzl arrived in London as he continued to his quest to get support from leading British political leaders and prominent English Jews for a Jewish homeland.

    1905(16th of Nisan, 5665): Second Day of Pesach

    1905(16th of Nisan, 5665):Meyer Kayserling a German-born rabbi who held pulpits in Switzerland and Hungary passed away in Budapest. Born in 1829, Kayersling was a noted historian and prolific author.

    1909(30th of Nisan, 5669): Rosh Chodesh Iyar

    1909(30th of Nisan, 5669): Eighty year old Edward Salomon, the 8th governor of the state of Wisconsin passed away today.

    1912: “The year-old Wager Earners’ League for Woman Suffrage” whose co-founders included Clara Lemlich and Rose Schneiderman “held its first mass rally today at New York’s Cooper Union’s Great Hall of the People.”

    1912: Rabbi Stephen Wise, assisted by Rabbi Emil Hirsch of Chicago, is scheduled to lead a memorial service at Carnegie Hall this morning honoring those who lost their lives when the Titanic sank.

    1912: In speaking about the sinking of the Titanic, Rabbi Joseph Silverman says, “"Not God was responsible for this great disaster but the imperfection of human knowledge and judgment."

    1913: Tonight Reverend Thomas M. Chalmers of the Jewish Evangelical Society refused to comment on his application “for a license to preach for the conversion of Jews to Christianity” on street corners in the sections of Manhattan, Brownsville and Brooklyn that have large Jewish populations or on Mayor William J. Gaynor’s letter rejecting his request.  In his letter rejecting the petition Gaynor wrote, “Do you not think the Jews have a good religion?  Have not the Christians appropriated the entire Jewish sacred scriptures?  Was not the New Testament also written entirely written by Jews?  Was not Jesus also born of the Jewish race, if I may speak of it with due reverence?  Did not we Christians get much or the most of what we have from the Jews?  Why should anyone work so hard to proselytize the Jew?  His pure belief in the one true living God …is one of the unbroken lineages and traditions of the world.  I do not think I should give you a license to preach for the conversion of the Jews in the streets in the thickly settled Jewish neighborhoods which you designate.  Would you not annoy them and do more harm than good?” Gaynor had studied in a seminary as a young man.  He was a pillar of the community who surprised everybody by standing up to the corruption of Tammany Hall. 

     1913(14th of Nisan, 5673): Fast of the First Born

    1913:“Feast of Passover Begins This Evening” published today reported that at sunset this evening, the celebration of Pesach, the Feast of the Passover, will begin in the Jewish households throughout the world. Pesach is the Spring festival of the Jews, and was specially ordained to commemorate the providential deliverance of the children of Israel from the bondage in which they had been held for many years under the Pharaohs of Egypt.”

    1913(14th of Nisan, 5673):The Young Men’s Hebrew Association will be holding a seder tonight beginning at 7 o’clock which will be attended by many of the soldiers and sailors stationed at nearby forts and naval yards.

    1913(14th of Nisan, 5673): Sixty-nine year old Isaac Aronwitz was the youngest person and 109 year old Ettel Polansky was the oldest person at the seder held at the Home of the Daughters of Jacob on East Broadway.

    1915: “Professor David G. Lyon of Harvard University gave an illustrated lecture on ‘The Samarian Excavations’ at the Menorah Society of Brown University.

    1915(7th of Iyar, 5675): Eighty-one year old Abraham Berliner who served as professor of Jewish history and literature at Israel Hildesheimer’s Yeshiva in Berlin while publishing an acclaimed edition of Rashi’s commentary on the Pentateuch and bringing new life to the Mikitze Nirdamin, “a society for the publication of old Hebrew books and manuscripts that were either never published or long out of print” passed away today. 

    1915: In London, Sarah and Abraham Goodman Jacobs gave birth to Henry Jacobs

    1915: Seventy Jews from Palestine arrived in Alexandria. They described the conditions in Jerusalem as terrible, with many people dying from starvation. An eyewitness account from the village of Mea She’arim in Jerusalem tells of the conditions:
    "My God…I never imagined that such wretched poverty really exists and that there really are such dark and filthy corners…. old men and women bloated with hunger. Children with an expression of horror, the devastation of hunger written on their faces…" This is an example of how the fate of the Jewish homeland was tied up in the game of international power politics.  Palestine was part of the Turkish Empire.  The Turks were at war with the Allies including the British who sought to take Palestine as a way to defend the Suez Canal; the French who wanted colonies in that part of the Turkish Empire that is now Syria and Lebanon; and the Russians who wanted to take control of the Dardanelles and the Black Sea away from the Turks. A large percentage of the Jewish population in Palestine had Russian origins.  While many of the Jews in Palestine were willing to fight on the side of the Turks, the Turks viewed the Jews as Russians or English sympathizers.  There was more than a little truth to the Turkish view of things.  At any rate, as the war dragged on, the Turks worked to make life miserable for the Jews and the Jews became more sympathetic to the Allied cause.

    1916(18th of Nisan, 5676): Fourth Day of Pesach

    1916: Dr. S. M. Melamed said today that The American Jewish Chronicle, a soon to published new publication, said today it “would not in any sense be pro-German, but that it would give all the news of Jewry without reference to race or religious differences.”

    1916: It was reported today that one women in Kansas City have each pledged “to donate a dollar a month to the Women’s Division of the Central Jewish Relief Committee” for as longs the World War lasts.

    1916: Today, in New York, “County Clerk Schneider received a letter from Louis Schaffer, manager of the Naturalization Aid League” in which he wrote “Permit us to thank you for the very splendid arrangements your office made for the Passover week in order to accommodate the hundreds of Jews in this city who applied for naturalization papers.”

    1917(29th of Nisan, 5677): Parashat Shmini

    1917: Rabbi M.H. Harris is scheduled to deliver a sermon on “The Work That Is Blessed” at Temple of Israel Harlem.

    1917: Dr. Enelow is scheduled to deliver a sermon on “God’s Dwelling Place” at Temple Emanu-El

    1917: Birthdate of Emanuel Vardi.  Born in Jerusalem Israel, Vardi became a world-class violist who was featured with the San Diego Symphony from 1978 to 1982.

    1917: A report published today from the Central Committee of the Bund in St. Petersburg concluded by saying “With one blow the Russian revolution has conquered Czarism, abolished all restrictions and opened a new page in Jewish history.  The liberation of the Jewish nation is in the faithful hands of the revolutionary Russian nation.”

    1918(9thof Iyar, 5678): Lt. Frederick Adolphus Arron who had attended Uppingham and then Cambridge before enlisting died today while serving with the Royal Field Artillery.

    1918: World War I: German fighter ace Manfred von Richthofen, known as "The Red Baron", is shot down and killed over Vaux-sur-Somme in France. Despite rumors to the contrary, the Red Baron was not Jewish.  According to film based on his life, one of his close friends was a Jewish pilot named Friedrich Sternberg who was shot down and killed during the war.  This would have made Sternberg one of over a hundred pilots who flew for the Kaiser during the Great War. Ironically, Richtofen’s death would result in Herman Goering, the future Nazi Number Two and head of the Luftwaffe, taking command of what was left of the famed Flying Circus.

    1918: Dr. Schulman is scheduled to deliver a sermon on “The War and American Ideals” at Temple Bethel.

    1918:Dr. Isaac Alcalay, the Chief Rabbi of Serbia, is scheduled to deliver a talk on “The Jews of Serbia and of the Allied Countries” at Temple Emanu-El.

    1918: At the Free Synagogue in Carnegie Hall, Dr. Wise is scheduled to speak on “Why the World’s Woe, Where the World’s Comfort? The Answer of Job.”

    1918: Dr. Lissman is scheduled to serve as the Master of Ceremonies at the installation ceremony of Maxwell Sacks as Rabbi at Temple Israel of Washington Heights

    1918: Birthdate of Stephen Theodore Norman, the only grandchild of Theodore Herzl.

    1919(21stof Nisan, 5679): Seventh Day of Pesach

    1919: In New York, the East Side is expected “secure $100,000,000 in subscriptions during the Victory Liberty Loan campaign opening today.

    1919: Professor William E. Dodd of the University of Chicago History Department is scheduled to discuss “The Value of the League of Nations” during an open forum at the Sinai Social Center in Chicago.

    1920: One of two dates in FSB archives for the death of Alexander Dubrovin, the founder of the anti-Semitic journal Russkoye Znamya who helped organized “the pogroms of the Black Hundreds.”

    1920(3rdof Iyar, 5680): Seventy-eight year old Silesian born American artist Henry Mosler best known for his illustrations and the paintings of the Civil War passed away today in New York City.

    1922: Final publication of The American Hebrew & Jewish Messenger.

    1924: Birthdate of MGM executive Daniel Melnick, who was producer of the television comedy hit, Get Smart

    1925: In Little Rock, AR, Jesse Heiman and his wife gave birth to Max Adolph Heiman, the brother of Rose Heiman and Robert Jesse Heiman.

    1926: Zeta Beta Tau fraternity announced today that “Rabbi Stephen S. Wise has been awarded the Gottheil medal ‘for distinguished service to the cause of Judaism.

    1926: In Manhattan, Laurence Mayer and the former Mildred Miller gave birth to Roger Laurance Mayer a film executive who was instrumental in preserving and restoring countless classic movies and who owed his career, in a strange twist to anti-Semitism since he turned to movie production work only after having been turned down by several L.A. law firms because he was Jewish.

    1927: In Manhattan, Isidor Brokaw, a lawyer who was wiped out in the Great Depression and the former Marie Hyde gave birth to Norman Robert Brokaw, the head of William Morris and driving force in the entertainment industry.

    1927: Birthdate of Robert Brustein, Dean of the Yale School of Drama.

    1928: “The Passion of Joan of Arc” a silent biopic based on the Joan’s trial filmed by cinematographer Rudolph Maté was released in Denmark today.

    1930: Hank Greenberg made his major league baseball debut.

    1931: Brooklyn outfielder Max Rosenfeld made his major league baseball debut.

    1932: In Philadelphia, PA, “theater director/actor Jack Berlin and actress Ida (Aaron) Berlin” gave birth to Elaine Iva Berlin who gained fame as writer, director and comedian Elaine May.

    1932: Birthdate of “Daniel Melnick, a producer and studio executive who brought an innovative and often unconventional sensibility to films that included “Straw Dogs,” “All That Jazz” and “Altered States.”

    1932(15th of Nisan, 5692): Pesach

    1932: On the first day of Pesach Rabbi Rosenbaum of Temple Israel and Rabbi Katz of Montefiore Hebrew Congregation tied the current economic crisis to the themes of Passover.  Katz said that today, the entire social and economic structure is falling and that a return to the Mosaic system offers a source of salvation.  After gaining their freedom, the Jews were taught that periodically “they must emancipate those elements in the population who, because of lack of foresight or ability lose their status as self-supporting and self-respecting men, who, in other words relinquish their freedom because of economic compulsion.”  We must adopt a modern version of the Mosaic codes which in ancient times called for periodic redistribution of the land and those who sold themselves because of debt were freed.

    1933: The slaughter of animals according to the rules of Kashrut was banned by the Nazis in Germany.  Nazi propaganda portrayed Jewish slaughtering customs as treating animals in an inhumane way.  Yes, the people who would butcher six million of our co-religionists actually hid behind the animal rights’ movement.  There were many Jewish butchers who defied the law as long as possible and continued to supply kosher meat to their observant customers.

    1933: King Christian X of Denmark attended the celebration of the 100th anniversary of the Crystal Synagogue in Copenhagen to demonstrate his sympathy for the Jews. This is the same King Christian who is the hero of a famous "urban legend."  According to the story he wore a Yellow Star during the war in support of his Jewish subjects.  While Christian showed great fortitude by staying with his people during the war and while the Danes protected their Jewish fellow citizens, the story of the star is a myth.  In fact, most of the Jews were not required to wear the star.  The important thing is the lengths to which the Danes went to protect the Jews.  If others had done as much, the Shoah would not have happened.

    1933:  “According to a cable message received today by The Jewish Morning Journal” in New York, “Baruch Schwartz, noted Jewish educator passed away at the age of 72 in Tel Aviv.  Born in the Ukraine, Schwartz was an early member of the Zionist movement.  His greatest contribution was his work to modernize the Hebrew language and the development of simplified methods of teaching what had been considered to be a “dead language.”  Schwartz made Aliyah in 1923 and had completed three volumes of his memoirs before he passed away. 

    1934: In Vienna, Emmanuel and Lilly (Hillel) gave birth to Michael Shinagel who “grew up to be the longest-serving dean in Harvard’s 380-year history.

    1934:  Moe Berg, catcher for the Washington Senators, played his 117th consecutive game without an error, setting a record for his position. 

    1935: In Pittsburgh, PA, “Lena (née Singer), who worked in the family store and volunteered for disabled veterans, and Theodore I. Grodin, who sold wholesale supplies” gave birth to actor and talk show host Charles Grodin.

    1936: In Tel Aviv and Jaffa, Arabs riot to protest Jewish immigration to Palestine.  This was the beginning of two years of violence that would not end until 1939. Contrary to popular misconception, these riots were not a spontaneous expression of Arab feelings.  Arab leaders called for a general strike and a rebellion against the Mandate and in an effort to prevent Jewish immigration. Initially 80 Jews were murdered and 308 wounded.  By fall of 1939, over one hundred Jews had been killed in Arab attacks. The official Zionist policy at the time was “Havlagah” (self-restraint). In other words, the Jewish forces acted in self-defense.  They did not go out after their attackers nor did they stage attacks on Arab villages or centers of population.  The Arabs would succeed in their efforts.  In 1939, just prior to the start of World War II, the British government violated the terms of the Mandate and the Balfour Declaration by all but putting an end to Jewish immigration to Palestine and ending the purchase of land by Jews.  The British zealously enforced the ban on immigration which played a helpful role in the success of the Final Solution.

    1936:  The funeral for six Jews who were murdered by Arab rioters in Tel Aviv yesterday was held at 6 o’clock this morning at the end of which all were buried in a common grave including one of the victims who was never identified.

    1936: “The newspaper the Journal said in an editorial today that the disordered in Palestine between Jews and Arabs were Great Britain’s penalty ‘for supporting the Ethiopians against Italy.’”

    1936: “Former Governor Alfred E. Smith, Postmaster General James A. Farley and Senator Royal S. Copeland joined today in an appeal for support for the drive of the Greater New York campaign of the Joint Distribution Committee which is seeking $1,500,000 as this New York City’s share of a $3,500,000 nation-wide fund for the aid of Jews in Germany and Central and Eastern Europe.

    1936: Five Arab leaders who met with the British High Commissioner today said, “the rioting had been caused by the government’s refusal to forbid Jewish immigration and by the sale of land to Jews.”

    1936: The Jews of Hebron who lived through the riots of 1929 when sixty-two Jews were murdered are now “safely sheltered in the Hadassah Hospital.”

    1937: “Rabbi William F. Rosenblum of New York urged the Senate Judiciary Committee to reject” President Roosevelt’s court program saying “that the supreme judiciary is the rock of ages against which demagoguery and dictatorship alike will be dashed to pieces.”

    1937: In Chicago, costume jeweler Sidney Kass and the former Celia Gorman gave birth to Jerome Kass, the author best known for the Emmy nominated “Queen of the Stardust Ballroom.”

    1938: Germany issued a decree that effectively eliminated Jews from the nation's economy and provides for the seizure of Jewish assets.

    1938: The Palestine Post reported that five Arab terrorists were killed when they attacked the Tel Amal police post and the neighboring Jewish settlement. One Arab constable was killed during the attack.

    1938: The Palestine Post reported that Switzerland demanded that all foreign nationals and in particular Austrian refugees leave the country. The acquisition of land, or even a substantial financial investment could not any more serve as a reason to obtain a permit to remain on the Swiss soil. (This was aimed at Jewish refugees who sought safe haven in supposedly neutral Switzerland.  It is only one example of how the Swiss betrayed the much touted moral high ground of neutrality to ingratiate themselves with the Nazis at the expense of the Jews of Europe.)

    1939: In a letter written from Germany to Max Marx in Palestine, Jenny Marx described the family’s desperate condition including Siegmund Mayer’s internment in a concentration, while thanking him for sending a picture of his new fiancée – a measure that seemed to fill her with hope for the future.

    1941 (24th of Nisan, 5701):  A mentally ill woman was forced by the sentries to dance by the barbed entrance to the Lodz Ghetto. When she was done they shot her dead. This unfortunate soul perished with no record of her name.  By mentioning the episode, she may remain nameless, but not unremembered. 

    1945: In St. Louis, MO, Nathan and Bluma (Rubin) Schwartz gave birth author Howard Schwartz whose efforts have him the Koret Jewish Book Award and the National Jewish Book Award.

    1945: Birthdate of director and screenwriter Nadav Levitan, a native of Kibbutz Kfar Masayrk

    1945: In Montreal, Abe Wainberg, a glassware company employee and his wife Fay gave birth to Mark Arnold Wainberg, the microbiologist who played a key role in developing treatment for AID’s patients.

    1945: Robert Limpert who had been brutally hung in the Bavarian town of Ansbach for courageously trying to sabotage the Nazis in the waning days of WW II was buried today.

    1946 (20th of Nisan, 5706): On the 6thDay of Pesach, five Jews, each of them a concentration-camp survivor, motoring near Nowy Targ, Poland, were stopped at a mock police checkpoint and shot to death. The oldest victim was 35, one was 25, and the remaining three were 22.

    1946: The Palestine civil service strike gained new support when “municipal workers in Nazareth and employees of the Trans-Jordan railways walked out in sympathy with the other strikers.”

    1946: Thirty-five year old Wisconsin native Morrie “Snooker” Aronvich the outfielder who “kept kosher for his whole life” ended his seven year major league baseball career today as a player with the New York Giants.

    1948: In “Big Convoy Fights Way To Jerusalem” Dana Adams Schmidt described the attack by the Arabs at Deir Ayoub on the 260 vehicles bring food and other supplies to the besieged Jewish community which last for a full day claiming the lives of five members of the Haganah leaving another twenty four wounded.”

    1948: It was reported today “Trans-Jordan’s Arab Legion and other Arab regular armies would soon invade Palestine” and that “the Arab League’s Political Committee had decided to set up a government claiming sovereignty over all of Palestine.”

    1948: The British government in Palestine denied that any promises had been made guaranteeing “Jews access to the Wailing Wall…during the” upcoming “Passover festival” – a claim disputed by the Zionists.

    1949(22nd of Nisan, 5709): 8th day of Pesach

    1951(15thof Nisan, 5711): As UN Forces fight the Chinese and the North Korean forces trying to conquer South Korea, the Jews observe Pesach.

    1953: Roy Cohn and G. David Schine, two of Senator Joseph McCarthy's chief aides, recommend the removal of 30,000 books from the libraries of the United States Information Service posts in Europe, including works by Dashiell Hammett, W. E. B. Du Bois, Herman Melville, John Steinbeck and Henry David Thoreau, calling them "pro-Communist.”  Not all Jews, even ones who were New York born lawyers, were liberals.  This also puts the lie to the notion that all Jews were Communists.

    1953: The Jerusalem Post reported that on the occasion of Israel's sixth birthday, the President, Yitzhak Ben-Zvi, ordered the release of eight prisoners and reduced the sentences of about a hundred others. Nazareth and Arab villages in Galilee were richly decorated with flags of the State. Arab and Druze notables participated in the Haifa march-past army parade and other celebrations.

    1953: The Jerusalem Post reported that diplomatic steps were taken in an urgent effort to improve the deteriorating conditions on Israeli borders, troubled by a continued infiltration, murder, theft and sabotage.

    1953: The Jerusalem Post reported that Israel accused Egypt of an act of piracy when three Israeli fishing smacks were stopped and searched, in international waters, by an Egyptian corvette.

    1954: Danny Kaye was appointed UNICEF's Ambassador at Large, and made a 40,000 mile good-will trip, which resulted in the short, Assignment Children.

    1956(10thof Iyar, 5716): Samuel Gottesman, the “Hungarian-born, American pulp-paper merchant, financier and philanthropist” who best known for “the donation of the so-called Dead Sea Scrolls to the State of Israel, where they are housed in the Shrine of the Book” passed away today.

    1958(1st of Iyar, 5718): Rosh Chodesh Iyar

    1958: At Treblinka, the construction of a monument 8 metres (26 ft) tall was inaugurated today with the laying of the cornerstone at the site of the former gas chambers

    1961: “Israel: The Man in the Cage, an article published” by Time magazine described the events at the Eichmann Trial

    1962: “The Century 21 Exposition” also known as the Seattle World’s Fair for which Lawrence Halprin provided the “master landscaping plan” opened today

    1964: Houston Third Baseman Steve Hertz appeared in his first major league baseball game.

    1964: “Funeral services” are scheduled “to be held at Temple Rodeph Sholom” today “for Ben Hecht, American-Jewish author, journalist, playwright, and stormy petrel in the Zionist movement, who died suddenly at the age of 70.” (As reported by JTA)

    1968: Bernard Gersten, a man who served in many theatrical capacities married a dancer named Cora Cahan.

    1969: “The Night Thoreau Spent in Jail” co-authored by Jerome Lawrence (born Jerome Lawrence Schwartz) opened today for the first time at Ohio State University.

    1970(15thof Nisan, 5730): Pesach

    1971: Publication of The Classical Style: Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, ‘a book by the American pianist and author Charles Rosen” that “analyses the evolution of style during the Classical period of classical music as it was developed through the works of Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and Ludwig van Beethoven.

    1974: After 538 performances and “two previews” the curtain came down on the original Broadway production of Neil Simon’s “The Sunshine Boys” produced by Emanuel Azenberg, directed by Alan Arkin and co-starring Sam Levene as “Lewis” and Jack Albertson as “Clark.”

    1976(21stof Nisan, 5736): Seventh Day of Pesach

    1976(21stof Nisan, 5736): Seventy-six year old “French director and screenwriter” the native of St. Petersburg, Russia, passed away today in Paris.

    1977(3rd of Iyar, 5737):Yom HaAtzma'ut

    1977(3rd of Iyar, 5737): Eighty-four year old Gummo [Milton] Marx passed away fifth son Minnie and Sam Marx. Born in either October 1892 or 18993, he is the Marx brother most people do not remember.  Although he and Groucho were the original performers in the family, Gummo left show business to join the Army.  He was replaced by Zeppo.  After the war, Gummo sold dresses and cloth.  He came back to show business, but not as a performer.  He was the agent for his famous brothers. 

    1977: The original Broadway production of “Annie” with music by Charles Strouse, lyrics by Martin Charmin opened at the Alvin Theatre today.

    1978:The Jerusalem Postreported that the Government and the Histadrut reached a mini-package anti-inflation deal, providing for a six-month freeze on taxes, prices and service charges, with an option to be extended for another six months.

    1978:The Jerusalem Postreported that Israeli authorities had recently been looking into the possibility of curbing what was termed as an increased partisan activity by the too inquisitive foreign diplomats in the West Bank and Gaza Strip.

    1979(24thof Nisan, 5739): On Shabbat, in Nahariya, terrorists attacked an apartment building killing four people including two children and injuring four others.

    1983: “The Anti-Zionist Committed of the Soviet Public was formed in Moscow to combat Jewish cultural and emigration activities.”

    1984(19thof Iyar, 5744): Marcel Janco,Romanian and Israeli visual artist, architect, art theorist and cultural promoter, known as the co-inventor of Dadaism and a leading exponent of Constructivism in Eastern Europe passed away.

    1985(30th of Nisan, 5745):  Rosh Chodesh Iyar

    1985(30th of Nisan, 5745):  Ninety-one year old songwriter and music scout Irving Mills passed away.

    1985(30th of Nisan, 5745): Sixty-two year old fashion designer Rudi Gernreich passed away.

    1985:“The Normal Heart,” a largely autobiographical play by Larry Kramer” premiered at The Public Theatre in New York City.

    1986: “Act of Vengance” an HBO film featuring Ellen Barkin as “Annette Gilly” and Maury Chaykin as “Claude Vealey” was broadcast for the first time.

    1987: In today’s “Postscript” German historian Joachim Fest wrote "In its substance, the dispute was initiated by Ernst Nolte's question whether Hitler's monstrous will to annihilate the Jews, judging from its origin, came from early Viennese impressions or, what is more likely, from later Munich experiences, that is, whether Hitler was an originator or simply being reactive. Despite all the consequences that arouse from his answer, Nolte's question was in fact a purely academic exercise. The conclusions would probably not have caused as much controversy if they had been accompanied by special circumstances"

    1988(4thof Iyar, 5748) Yom HaAtzma’ut

    1988(4thof Iyar, 5748): Sixty-seven year old I.A.L. Diamond screenwriter whose work included “The Apartment” and “Some Like It Hot” passed away today.

    1989(16thof Nisan, 5749): Second Day of Pesach; First Day of the Omer

    1989: The Price Center, named for Sol Price, the founder of COSTCO who “donated two million dollars for the construction of this student center” at the University of California, San Diego, opened today.

    1993:Yiddish theater producer and advocate Dora Wasserman received the Order of Canada, the highest honor bestowed on civilians by the Canadian government.

    1994(10thof Iyar, 5754): Officer cadet Shahar Simani , age 20, of Ashkelon, was found stabbed to death near the roadside at the village of Beit Hanina , north of Jerusalem . He had been kidnapped while hitchhiking in the south.

    1995(21stof Nisan, 5755): Seventh Day of Pesach

    1995: “While You Were Sleeping” a comedy directed by Jon Turteltaub, produced by Roger Birnbaum and Joe Roth and with music by Randy Edelman was released today in the United States.

    1996: “Modern Holocaust Memorial: Thesis of Victim on Internet” published today tells the story of Esther Hautzig’s very personal, very innovative efforts to insure that the life of her Uncle Ela-Chaim Cuzner will be remembered.

    1997(14th of Nisan, 5757): Ta’anit Bechorot; Erev Pesach

    1997(14th of Nisan, 5757)): Ninety-two year old Herbert Zipper, the composer and conductor who survived Dachau and co-composed “the Dachau Song” passed away today.

    1998: “We’ve Never Heard of You, Either” the first major album for Evan and Jaron was released today.

    1999(5thof Iyar, 5759): Final Yom HaAtzma’ut celebration of the 20thcentury.

    2001(28thof Nisan, 5761):Dr. Mario Goldin, 53, of Kfar Sava, was killed when a terrorist detonated a powerful bomb he was carrying near a group of people waiting at a bus stop on the corner of Weizman and Tchernichovsky streets. About 60 people were injured in the blast. Hamas claimed responsibility.

    2001(28thof Nisan, 5761): Thirty-eight year old Stanislav Sandomirsky was murdered by an unknown terrorist north of Ramallah today following which his body was “mutilated.”

    2001: The 2001 NFL Draft in which Sage Rosenfels was drafted by  the Washington Redskins began today.

    2002: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including the recently published paperback edition of “Before the Storm: Barry Goldwater and the Unmaking of the American Consensus” by Rick “The End of Days: Fundamentalism and the Struggle for the Temple Mount” by Gershom Gorenberg in which the “ senior editor and columnist for The Jerusalem Post examines the incendiary mix of religious groups -- Arab, Jewish and fundamentalist Christians -- that view the destiny of the sacred Temple Mount as crucial to their apocalyptic faith.”

    2002: Official end of Operation Defensive Shield, the Israeli response to a wave Arab terrorism that included the murder of 30 people during a Seder.

    2003: Seventy year old singer/song stylists and civil rights activist Nina Simone,who brought her own unique style to the singing of “Eretz Zavat Halav” and who recorded “Strange Fruit” written by a Jewish songwriter about lynchings in the South on her 1965 album Pastel Blues” passed away today

    2003: An Israeli intelligence officer identified only as “Colonel K” gave a lecture today predicting that Hezbollah had shore-to-sea missiles in its possession.

    2003:In the United Kingdom, “Rififi” directed by Jules Dassin was released on DVD by Arrow Films

    2005:Ivri Lider performed in Tel Aviv where he was joined byRita, Berry Sakharof, and Assaf Amdursky.

    2005(12th of Nisan, 5765):  Fast of the Firstborn.

    2005: Premiere of “Fathers and Sons” featuring Linda Edelstein and Mordecai Finley.

    2006(23rd of Nisan, 5766): The Brit of Joshua Larry Rosenstein, son of Mr. and Mrs. David Rosenstein and the grandson of Larry and Judy Rosenstein (of blessed memory) takes place in New York City.

    2006: President Bush proclaims May as Jewish American Heritage Month.

    2007: Sara Paretsky, creator of the V.I. Warshawski novels, takes part in a book reading and book signing in Forest Park, Illinois.  Ms. Paretsky is an outspoken critic of the powers the Patriot Act.  Despite threats from a variety of sources, she reported that she found the courage to speak out because of her Jewish heritage.  Silence had enabled those who made the Holocaust and she was not going to be threatened into silence.

    2007:  An exhibition entitled “Otot” featuring the works of Yosef Halevi opens at the Meirov Municipal Art Gallery in Holon. Halevi won the then-coveted Diezengoff Prize in 1962.

    2008(16th of Nisan, 5768): Second Day of Pesach, First Day of the Omer – 5768.

    2009(27th of Nisan, 5769): Yom Hashoah – Holocaust Remembrance Day

    2009: In Cedar Rapids, Holocaust Survivor Irene Furst speaks at Mt. Mercy College.Irene Furst, at 87, still travels the country to tell her story because it’s one she doesn’t want to be forgotten. Furst is a Holocaust survivor. She fears that as the survivors die, so, too, will their stories.
     “I don’t know what will happen when all the survivors will be gone,” Furst said. “My children’s generation would still probably remember and talk about it, but I don’t know what will happen after that. The Jewish people will not forget, but I don’t know about everyone else.”   Furst, a native of Poland, spent six years in three locations during the Holocaust. These included the Lodz Ghetto and Auschwitz concentration camp. She celebrated her 18th birthday shortly after being detained in the first ghetto, in 1939, and wasn’t liberated until May 1945. After the war, she met her future husband, who had been imprisoned in Latvia. They came to the United States in 1947. Furst tells her story not only to keep the memories going but to help ensure the event won’t be repeated.
     “It should never happen again,” she said. “Germans wanted a final solution to the number of Jews. They wanted to kill all the Jews. “It’s important to know that one race can hate another so badly that they wanted to kill them,” she said.  Her visit to Cedar Rapids is funded through the Thaler Holocaust Memorial Fund.

    2009:  A Holocaust Remembrance Day (Yom Hashoah) ceremony takes place this evening at the Waterloo Center for the Arts. The ceremony involves participants of different faiths and backgrounds, and includes a candle-lighting to pay tribute to the victims, liberators and rescuers of the Holocaust, as well as victims of other genocides. The event was organized in collaboration with the Sons of Jacob Synagogue of Waterloo.

    2009:Today, for the first time, Israel Kasztner, the man, who organized a train that saved 1,682 Hungarian Jews from death at the hands of the Nazis will be honored in a ceremony near the scene of the murder. Among those present will be the children and grandchildren of those he saved. A little over 52 years ago, Israel Kasztner was murdered on his doorstep on Emanuel Haromi Street in Tel Aviv. The trial for libel of journalist Malkiel Gruenwald, who accused Kasztner of collaborating with the Nazis to organize the train for a select few Jews, and Kasztner's subsequent murder, wracked Israel in the 1950s. Kasztner was posthumously exonerated by the High Court of Justice, but the controversy persists. The ceremony was organized by Itamar Sagi, whose mother and grandmother were on the Kasztner train. "I don't want to fight with angry people. But I think that after 60 years we must give respect to a person who saved hundreds of people," Sagi said. Sagi's grandmother did not talk about the affair for years, and his mother was too young to remember. "A few years ago I went to look for the report that Kasztner himself wrote. You can see that at a time when people were being murdered in the street, a man used his political talents to save as many as he could, all the while in danger himself. Some people think only the rich and influential were on the train. I don't think that's true."

    2009:Saleh Bahman, a Kuwaiti journalist who will be running for parliament in next month's general election today called on the Gulf state to establish full diplomatic ties with Israel. "Israel is a reality and has international influence... Kuwait would benefit from Israel's influence if we establish relations with them."

    2009: In a statement issued in the House of Commons today, Foreign Secretary David Miliband announced that “in light of Operation Cast Lead and in line with” the British governments “obligations after a conflict” there would be “a review of extant export licenses for Israel” 

    2009: “The government filed a motion with the Sixth Circuit asking for the stay against deportation to be lifted, arguing that accused war criminal John Demjanjuk had sought the stay in order to provide an opportunity for the BIA to rule upon his motion to reopen the deportation order. Since the BIA denied the motion, the government argued, the basis for the Sixth Circuit's stay was no longer valid, and the stay should accordingly be dismissed

    2009: After over 14 years Leonard Hoffman, Baron Hoffman completed his service as Lord of Appeal in Ordinary, a senior position in the British judiciary.

    2009: Eighty-three year old Vivian Dorothy Maier the creator of a photographic record of “Jewish Chicago” passed away today.

     2010:Centro Primo Levi and the Center for Jewish History are scheduled to present a Panel Discussion with Moshe Idel about his Book Old Worlds, New Mirrors: On Jewish Mysticism and 20th-Century Thought

    2010:Nevin Shapiro, the crooked University of Miami booster who orchestrated a $930 million Ponzi scheme  “was charged in New Jersey with securities fraud and money laundering” today.

    2010: Israeli authors Assaf Gavron and Eshkol Nevo are scheduled to read from their newest novels at Cornell University as part of a program entitled “Israeli Literature Today.”

    2010:Whitney Harris, one of the last of the prosecutors who brought high-ranking Nazi war criminals to justice at the Nuremberg trials and who, a half-century later, was a significant voice in the creation of the International Criminal Court, died today at the age of  97. (As reported by Dennis Hevesi)

    2011: “Rabies” an Israeli film about a psychotic serial killer, is scheduled to be shown today at the Tribeca Film Festival in New York.

    2011:Ten thousand Jewish worshipers gathered at the Western Wall Plaza today take part in the bi-annual Priestly Blessing, which usually occurs on the second intermediate days of Sukkot and Pessah. The blessing, known in Hebrew as the Birkat Hakohanim, is a public gathering in which the Kohanim – the priestly class – bestow upon the Jewish people a three-fold blessing that originated with the giving of the Torah at Mount Sinai. Massive police presence ensured that the prayers passed peacefully and without incident.

    2011: Joining the likes of US President Barack Obama, French President Nicolas Sarkozy, UK Prime Minister David Cameron and teen pop sensation Justin Bieber, Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu was named by Time Magazine today as one of the 100 most influential people of 2011.

    2011: The Haggadah Fair sponsored by the Kol HaOt organization and the Inbal Hotel featuring “the magnificent Haggadot of such internationally renowned artists as Avner Moriah, Maty Grünberg, David Moss, Eliyahu Sidi, Matt Berkowitz, Ya’akov Daniel and Ilya Gefter” came to an end today.

    2012:Former Ambassador Richard Schifter is scheduled to speak about Israel's relations with the international community, the United Nations, the U.S. Congress and the American Rabbinate at Tifereth Israel Congregation in Washington, DC. 

    2012: “Jewish Luck” is scheduled to be shown at the Columbia Jewish Congregation’s (CJC) 2012 - Twentieth Season of Movies.

    2012: “Retoration” and “Mabul” (The Flood) are scheduled to be shown at the Westchester Jewish Film Festival. 

     2012:  “Avigdor Arikha: Works from the Estate” an exhibition at the Marlborough Gallery is scheduled to come to an end.

    2013: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Interestings by Meg Wolitzer  and the recently released paperback edition of Exorcising Hitler: The Occupation and Denazification of Germany by Frederick Taylor.

    2013: “Microcosms: Ruth Abrams, Abstract Expressionist” which opened in August, 2012 is scheduled to come to an end at Yeshiva University Museum.

    2013: Consultation on Conscience, Reform Judaism’s flagship social justice conference, is scheduled to open in Washington, D.C.

    2013: International conference “Being witness to the Holocaust. 70th anniversary of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising” is scheduled to open in Warsaw.

    2013: An exhibition of the work of Holocaust survivor Israel Bernbaum at the George Segal Gallery at Montclair State University is scheduled to come to an end.

    2013: Tiftereth Israel in Des Moines is scheduled to host a giant Israel Festival called “A Taste of Israel.”

    2013: Today the cabinet approved an Open Skies Agreement with the European Union, even as Israeli carriers grounded their fleets and hundreds of airline workers gathered outside the meeting in protest.

    2013: U.S. Secretary of Defense of Chuck Hegel arrived in Israel today vowing to provide Israel “with advanced weapons that will enhance its abilities to strike at Israel.

    2014(21stof Nisan, 5774): Seventh Day of Pesach

    2014 (21st of Nisan, 5774): Eighty-two year old Herb Gray who “represented Windsor West for almost 40 years” and was “Canada’s first Jewish federal cabinet minister” passed away today.

    2014: In Marionville, MO, a special meeting of the Board of Alderman is scheduled to be held to accepting the resignation of Jessica Wilson, an alderwoman who is giving up her position in responsed to the endorsement of Mayor Daniel Clevenger’s endorsement of the views of Frazier Glen Miller, the anti-Semitic gunman who murdered three people when he attacked a Jewish community center and assisted living facility in Kansas City.

    2015: SS guard Oskar Groening is scheduled to go trial for his role in the murder of Hungarian Jews at Auschwitz.

    2015: The Jewish Historical Society of England is scheduled to sponsor Simon Anglim’s lecture on “Major General Orde Wingate: Unconventional Warrior.”

    2015: The Oregon Jewish Museum and Center for Holocaust Education is scheduled to host a bilingual poetry reading from the works Russian born poet Boris Slutsky followed by a Q & A session with
    “Marat Grinberg, Associate Professor of Russian and Humanities at Reed College, and Judith Pulman, poet and translator, who have been collaborating to translate a selection of Slutsky’s unpublished poetry.”

    Whether I grow wiser or I grow older—

    I grasp myself clearly to be a Jew.

     I thought that I had made it.

     And I thought I’d broken through—

    I didn’t make it, I unmade myself,

     I didn’t break through, I broke down,

     I am not to be read from left to right,

     but in Jewish, from right to left.

                -Boris Slutsky, translated by Judith Pulman and Marat Grinberg


    2015: Israel is scheduled to “come to a standstill this evening at 8 p.m. for a minute long memorial sired to commemorate the country’s  fallen soldiers and terror victims…followed by the lighting of a memorial flame for the fall at the Western Wall, the site of the official state commemoration ceremony.” (As reported by Times of Israel)

    2015: The Consulate General of Israel in New York is scheduled to host The Official Memorial Day Service “honoring the soldiers who gave their lives in defense of the State of Israel and the victims of terrorist attacks” at the 92ndStreet Y.

    2015: Flight 2521 to Prague by El Al’s budget carrier UP! “made an emergency landing at Ben Gurion Airport shortly after having taken off amid fears that one of its tires had been been damaged durin take-off. (As reported by Stuart Winer)

    2015(2ndof Iyar, 5775: One-hundred two year old literary critic M.H. Abrams passed away today. (As reported by William Grimes)

    2015: Today “Abu Khdeir’s name showed up on the government’s online database of terror victims, next to an Israeli flag overlaid with a picture of the Blood of the Maccabees flower, which has come to symbolize the country’s fallen.” (As reported by Judah Ari Gross)

    2016: Magda Brown, who was 17 years old in 1944 when she and her family were deported on one of the final transports to Auschwitz-Birkenau spoked at Washington High School as part of the “annual Yom HaShaoh sponsored in Cedar Rapids, IA by Iowa The Thaler Holocaust Memorial Fund under the leadership of Dr. Robert Silber and the Inter-Religious Council of Linn County.

    2016: As part of The Holocaust and Genocide Studies Project the Oregon Jewish Museum and Center for Holocaust Education is scheduled to present a lecture by Dr. Heather Ohaneson on “The Syrian Crisis in Terms of the Trauma of the Armenian Genocide.”

    2017(24thof Nisan, 5777): Seventy-six year old Albert Samuel “Sandy” Gallin the General Artists mailroom employee who worked his up to a vice presidency and booked the Beatles for the first time on the Ed Sullivan television show passed away today.

    2017: In Iowa City, the University Of Iowa Chapter Of AEPhi Sorority in act of “gemilut chasadim” so appropriate to this time of the year, is scheduled to sponsor “Jazz on the Rocks” – a fund raiser of the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation

    2017: In the United Kingdom, after Kabbalat Shabbat, The Oxford Jewish Society is scheduled to host “Oth Week” Friday Night Dinner

    2018(6thIyar, 5778): Parashat Tazria and Metzora; Pirke Avot Chapter 2; for more see

    2018: In Metairie, LA, as part of the celebration of Israel at 70, Ambassador Yoram Ettinger is scheduled to speak at Shir Chadash Conservative Congregation following Shabbat morning services.

    2018: In the United Kingdom, The Oxford Jewish Society is scheduled to host a Seudah on Pirke Avot following Mincha services.

    2018: The Jewish Lake Alliance is scheduled to host Havdalah this evening at the Bottlehouse Brewery.

    2018: At Agudas Achim in Coralville, IA, Rabbi Jackie Tabick is scheduled to officiate at the Installation of Rabbi Esther Hugenholtz between Mincha and Havdalah.

    2018: The Be’er Sheva Theatre House is scheduled to perform “Lost in Yonkers.”





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    April 22

    404:Emperors Arcadius and Honorius limit the opportunities of Jews to serve the Empire when they issue the following:  "We decree that the Jews and Samaritans who flatter themselves with the privilege of being in the secret service will be deprived of all employment with imperial service." [CTh 16.8.16]

    1073: Pope Gregory VII begins his twelve year reign.  While history may remember him for his role as a reformer and for his “battles” with the Henry IV, the Holy Roman Emperor, others may also remember him as “The Jewish Pope” since he was reportedly “descended from an Italian Jew named Baruch” who started a bank in Rome and converted to Christianity in 1030.

    1213:Pope Innocent III issued the papal bull Quia maior, calling all of Christendom to join what became the Fifth Crusade. The Crusades were a period of intermittent disaster for the Jews of Europe and Palestine.

    1391:King Wenceslaus issued an edict affording protection to the Jews of Worms.

    1451: Birthdate of Isabella I of Castile, the queen who played a key role in the destruction of a seven century old civilization when she cruelly expelled the Jews from Spain 

    1488(11thof Iyar, 5248): Almost a year after publishing Perush Rashi al ha-Torah (Rashi’s commentary on the Torah, Joshua Soncino finished printing “a complete Biblia Hebraica” (Hebrew Bible.

    1490(1st of Iyar): Leo, Jewish court physician to Grand Duke Ivan II, was executed today.

    1500: Portuguese explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, accompanied by Gaspar da Gama, a Polish born Jew whose slave name had been Yusuf ‘Adil before being forcibly converted to Christianity, sighted the mainland of Brazil for the first time today.

    1509: Henry VIII ascended the English throne following the death of his father, Henry VII.  While Jews were officially banned from living in England, evidence exists that a small congregation of Marranos had settled in London by 1540.  Henry’s contact with Jews and Judaism was indirect but somewhat pivotal in the events surrounding his various wives.  Henry’s older brother had married Catherine of Aragon in a state marriage designed to guarantee peaceful relations between England and Spain.  When Henry’s older brother died, the English sought to keep the amicable relations alive by arranging a marriage between Henry and Catherine.  The English got the Pope to approve of the marriage by invoking the Biblical law concerning the Levirate Marriage.  Years later, Henry sought to have the marriage annulled so that he could marry Anne Boleyn.  He claimed that the marriage was a nullity because he had coveted his late brother’s wife and their marriage was a product of sin.  Henry sought support from those most learned in these matters, a group of Italian rabbis.  Regardless of the Halacha involved, the Italian rabbis were loath to anger the Pope who was their “neighbor” in a clash with a monarch living in a distant land in which Jews were forbidden to live.

    1585(23rd of Nisan): Rabbi Moses (Trani) of Safed, author of “Kiryat Sefer” passed away today.

    1593:  The first group of Marranos led by Jacob Tirado arrived in Amsterdam, Holland. This group was the first Jews to settle in Amsterdam after the Spanish Expulsion. Moses Uri Halevi soon joined them and helped arrange for prayer services.

    1610: Birthdate Alexander VIII.  During his papacy, Alexander was confronted with an unusual request.  Instead of demanding that Jews be banished from their town, the priors of Perugia appealed to Alexander to overrule Pope Innocent X and allow Jews to return to their city. The absence of Jews from the city’s fairs was a having a negative impact on the area’s economy.

    1625: Urban VIII issued “Sedes apostolica,” a papal bull concerning “heretical Portuguese Jews.”

    1724: Birthdate of German philosopherImmanuel Kant.  Kant may have been one of the giants of the Enlightenment, but from a Jewish point of view, he was an intellectual pygmy. As Michael Mack of Hebrew University wrote, “Kant consistently equated Jewish identity with a host of undesirable traits, including superstition, dishonesty, worldliness and even cowardliness.‘Every coward is a liar; Jews for example, not only in business, but also in common life,’ Kant noted in a lecture on practical philosophy… All the positive traits of Kantian philosophy (freedom, autonomy, reason) are formed by being contrasted with a negative image of unenlightened humanity, usually taking the form of an anti-Semitic or some other racist caricature. For Kant, motives could only be good if they were not aimed at any material benefit. He saw Judaism as an inherently materialist religion, based upon a quid pro quo between God and His chosen people .In order to fully define the formal structures of his philosophy (autonomy, reason, morality and freedom), Kant almost unconsciously fantasized about the Jews as it’s opposite. He posited Judaism as an abstract principle that does nothing else but, paradoxically, desire the consumption of material goods."

    1762: In Prague, Jonas Jeiteles and his wife gave birth to Talmudist Baruch Ben Jacob Benedict Jeitles, the father of Ignaz Jeiteles.

    1770(17th of Nisan): Israel Ben Moses Zamsoc of Brody, author of “Nezah Yisrael” passed away today.

    1777(15th of Nisan, 5537): Celebration begins of the first Pesach in the recently declared independent United States of America.

    1783: The Jews sent a petition to Emperor Joseph II which “expressed their gratitude…for his favors and reminding him of his principle that religion should not be interfered with, asked permission to wear beards.

    1792: Birthdate of Uriah Phillips Levy, Commodore of the United States Navy. Born in Philadelphia, his mother was a descendant from the Nunez family that arrived in Charleston in 1733.

    1796: In Charleston, SC, Kingston, Jamaica native Hannah de Pass, the daughter of Ralph de Pass married Benjamin, Milhado today.

    1822(1st of Iyar, 5582): Rosh Chodesh Iyar

    1822: Shmuel ben Azreal married Fegele bat Yehuda at the Great Synagogue today.

    1834: Dr. Albert Moses Levy and his wife moved back to Virginia after he had completed his medical training at the University of Pennsylvania. After his wife’s death. Levy would make his way to Texas where he participate in the rebellion against Mexico and become a leading member of the new republic

    1841: Birthdate of Versailles native and French jurist Edgar Demange, who served as co-counsel during the two trials of Alfred Dreyfus.

    1842: Birthdate of Alexander Kohut the Hungarian born American rabbi and orientalist.

    1845(15th of Nisan, 5606): Pesach

    1845: Birthdate of Rabbi Jakob Guttmann the native of Beuthen who became the Chief Rabbi at Hildesheim who was the father of Rabbi Julius Guttmann.

    1847: “Charles VI,” a grand opera with music composed by Fromental Halevy was performed in New Orleans for the first time.

    1850: Birthdate of anatomist and embryologist Gustav Born who was the father of Max Born.

    1851: Birthdate of Gustav Jacob Born “the German histologist and author whose first wife was Gretchen Kauffman, with whom he had one son – Nobel Prize winning physicist Max Born.

    1853: In the House of Commons, following a third reading, the bill removing Jewish disabilities was carried by a majority of 58.

    1860: Dr. George B. Cheever delivered an anti-slavery speech tonight at The Church of the Puritans in which he compared slaveholders to the anti-Semitic King John of England who “who, to extort money from a Jew, pulled a tooth every day from out the Hebrew's head until he complied with his demands.”

    1861: Philadelphian Abraham who would rise to the rank of Corporal began serving in Company H of the 35th Regiment.

    1863(3rd of Iyar, 5623): Fifty-seven year old Gabriel Riesser the first Jewish judge in Germany and an advocate of the emancipation of the Jews in Germany passed away today.

    1863(3rd of Iyyar, 5623: Soro Chano Szatan, the mother of Chanokh Heynekh Lewin (Rebbe Reb Heynekh of Aleksander) passed away.  Born in 1779, her husband was Pinchas Lewin who passed away in 1837.

    1864(16th of Nisan, 5624): Second day of Pesach; 1st day of the Omer

    1864: Captain Ezekiel Levy, his brother Isaac J. Levy and other Jews serving with the 46th Virginia Infantry observed Pesach at their camp in Adams Run, South Carolina, outside of Charleston. On the first day of the holiday they feasted on a “fine vegetable soup” which contained “new onions, parsley, carrots turnips and a young cauliflower … a pound and a half of fresh [kosher] beef, the latter article sells for four dollars per pound in Charleston.”

    1865: In Philadelphia, 16 German boys reportedly beat a Jewish named Bernadotte Glischman.  Following the beating, the boys took Glischman to his room where they stuck him with pins.  Glischman said the boys did this to him because he was Jewish and they said that the Jews had killed Christ.

    1868: Birthdate of Friedrich Münzer the “German classical scholar” known “for his demonstrations of how family relationships in ancient Rome connected to political struggles.”

    1868: Birthdate of Miles Poindexter, the Senator from Tennessee who was one of only three Republicans to vote for the confirmation of Louis Brandeis as an Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Coutr.

    1868: Woolf Elias of Camden, SC, married Emily Weinberg of Charleston, SC.

    1870: Birthdate of Vladimir Lenin, who led the Bolshevik Revolution.  Contrary to popular misconception, Lenin was not Jewish. Also, Lenin and the Communists did bring down the Czar.  They overthrew the Kerensky government, the democratic socialists, who had actually ended the three hundred years of Romanov rule. Many people who were born Jews were followers of Lenin.  The most famous was Trotsky.  But Lenin’s impact on the Jewish people far transcended the presence of these individuals. History would prove that Communist Russia was no more hospitable for those who wanted to practice their Judaism than Czarist Russia had been. 

    1871(1st of Iyar, 5631): Rosh Chodesh Iyar

    1871: Bavaria grants equal rights to its Jewish citizens completing the process of emancipation in the German Empire.

    1872(14th of Nisan, 5632): Ta'anit Bechorot; Erev Pesach

    1872(14th of Nisan, 5632): “The Feast of Passover: Celebration of Israel’s Delivery From Bondage – Jewish Traditions and Observances” published today states that “At sundown today the people of Israel, wheresoever dispersed over the fact of the earth will begin the celebration of the feast of Pesach or the Passover, one of the most important festivals in the Jewish Calendar.”

    1880: In Leadville, CO, the Bush-Trimble Building collapsed.  The building Kaskel & Co, clothing business co-owned by Caesar J. Kaskel and Jacob Michaelis of New York City and managed by Julius W. Kaskel one of the first Jews to settle in Leadville.

    1881: It was reported today that an anonymous Jewish donor had sent a basket of flowers to Reverend William A. Barltett of Indianapolis’ Second Presbyterian Church as a token of appreciation for the speech he gave on “the Jewish question.”

    1881: Birthdate of Alexander Kerensky, the most prominent leader of the Provisional Government that replaced the government of the Czars.  Kerensky was not Jewish but the failure of the democratic forces that he led certainly had a major impact on the Jews of what would become the Soviet Union.  This short guide does not provide the space for further comment on this major episode in Jewish History.

    1881: Visitors at the Hebrew Cemetery at Cypress Hills on Long Island heard shots emanating from the house of the groundskeeper, Max Blecker.  Further investigation led to the discovery of Blocker’s body which had a large wound on the right side of his head and a revolver grasped tightly in his hand.  Reportedly, he had been in ill health and he “told his friends that he would be better off dead.”

    1881: It was reported today that Tunisia with a population of about 2 million is of little financial value to the French who seem determined to annex the territory.  The little commercial activity that does exist is primarily in the hands of the 25,000 Jews who make up about a fifth of the population of Tunis.

    1882: It was reported today, that in Berlin, a committee composed of leading citizens belonging to all religious denominations has raised 100,000 marks to provided assistance for Jews seeking to leave Russia.

    1882: It was reported today that reports have reached Vienna confirming the attacks on Jews in towns near Odessa.  In Balta, the riots lasted for two days leaving at least 2,000 Jewish families in ruin.  “The riots almost assumed the character of a struggle for the annihilation of the Jews…”

    1883(15th of Nisan, 5643): On the first day of Pesach an article entitled “The Feast of the Passover” reported that “the morning services at” the Jewish “places of worship…will be peculiarly interesting.”

    1884: In Nashville, TN, John Schoffner made a full confession to police concerning the murder of Meyer Friedman, a Jew living in Nashville.  According to Schoffner, Meyer Morris organized the killing and that Mrs. Friedman wanted her husband dead because “she did not love him” and he “treated her badly.”1884: Birthdate of Austrian-born psychoanalyst, Otto Rank. He wrote the first psychoanalytic book by a disciple of Freud. Rank moved to the United States in the 1930’s.  He died at the age of 55, one month after Freud passed away.

    1884: New York dentist and founding member of B’nai Israel Dr. Lyon Berhard was laid to rest at Cypress Hill this morning.

    1885:  Ninety-six year old Reverend Leonard Withington, the oldest Congregational Clergyman in the United States passed away today.  Withington was a scholar well versed in Hebrew who had written a book entitled “Solomon Songs.”  He was a prime example of the reality that in 19th century America some of the people who were the most knowledgeable about Hebrew as a language were Protestant ministers.

    1886: Jess Seligman presided over tonight’s celebration of the second anniversary of the Hebrew Technical Institute which was held at Temple Emanu-El in New York City.  Among the dignitaries attending the event was Carl Schurz, the famous German-American journalist and social reformer who gave the evening’s main address. (The school would remain open until 1939)

    1887: It was reported today that two Englishman carrying an American flag recently imprisoned a Jewish merchant from Alcazar Morocco on charges of not paying a debt.  The prisoner was paraded through various towns in chains as hje was taken to Tangier.  The event, which took place during Passover, has been condemned by the leading Jews of Tangier who have sought the aid of the local British, French and Portuguese Consuls

    1889: The Literary Notes column reported that “The Jew in English Fiction” by Rabbi David Philipson will soon be issued by Robert Clarke & Co of Cincinnati, Ohio.  Among the characters discussed are Marlowe’s Jew of Malta, Shakespeare’s Shylock, Cumberland’s Jew, Scott’s Jew in “Ivanhoe”, Dickens’ Jew in “Oliver Twist’ and “Our Mutual Friend”, Disraeli’s in “Coningsby” and “Tancred and George Eliot’s “Daniel Deronda”.  (At the time, Philipson was a young Reform rabbi from Wabash, Indiana)

    1889: At high noon, thousands rush to claim land in the Land Run of 1889. Within hours the cities of Oklahoma City and Guthrie are formed with populations of at least 10,000. ‘Jewish settlers began coming to Oklahoma and Indian Territory as early as 1875. The Jewish population grew as Oklahoma blossomed into a boom area, after the famous Land Run of 1889 and statehood in 1907. The early settlers came as peddlers and salesmen and later became shopkeepers and retail merchants. According to the American Jewish Year Book, there were 1,000 Jews in Oklahoma Territory in 1901.” (courtesy of the Jewish Federation of Greater Oklahoma City)

    1891(14th of Nisan, 5651): “The Festival of Pesach: It will begin at Sunset To-Night and Last For A Week” published today reported that “all the reform temples and orthodox synagogues will be open for services this evening…and appropriate sermons will be delivered by the spiritual heads of the communities.

    1892: In Brooklyn, Adolph and Deborah (Spaine) Dannenberg gave birth to Oscar Asahel Halevy Dannenberg, the Yale alum and lawyer who served as a Sheriff in Bridgeport, CT.

    1893(6th of Iyar, 5653): Chaim Aronson passed away at the age of 77. Born in Lithuania in 1825 when it was part of Russia, Aaronson was a gifted linguist (Hebrew, German, and Russian) with a penchant for invention who went from being a clockmaker to developing a variety of machines including one for making cigarettes and one that was a prototype for a movie camera.  Aronson was a better scholar and engineer than he was a businessman since none of his work brought him commercial success.  His most long lasting contribution was a literary work entitled A Jewish Life under the Tsars: The Autobiography of Chaim Aronson, 1825-1888 that provides a picture of life in the final century of Czarist Russia.

    1893: Rabbi Raphael Benjamin delivered a sermon this morning on the subject of the recent blackballing of Theodore Seligman by the Union League.

    1893: “Max Judd Objected To” published today described the reasons that the government of Austria provided for refusing to recognize the appointment of Max Judd as Consul General for the United States at Vienna.  The Austrians claim that the refusal is based on that fact the Judd had been born in Austria and “is engaged in the emigration business.” The Austrians claim that the objection has nothing to do with Judd’s religion which is just as well because the U.S. government has said that Mr. Judd’s replacement will not be of Austrian descent, but he will be Jewish.

    1894: Hyman Blumenthal was arrested on charges that he had deliberately tried to burn down the tenement at 28 East Broadway.

    1894: Birthdate of Max Weinreich, the Russian born American linguist and a founder of the Yiddish Institue (YIVO) and author who was “the father of the linguist Uriel Weinreich, who edited the Modern Yiddish-English English-Yiddish Dictionary.”

    1894: Rabbi Joseph Silverman delivered a lecture at Temple Emanu-El in New York entitled “The Jewish Passover and Its Modern Message to Jews and Christians” in which he described that observing Passover was “the celebration of the anniversary of the Jewish Independence Day.”

    1894: “The Babylonian Element” published today included Professor Archibald Sayce’s comparison of the narratives found on Babylonian Tablets and those found in Genesis which “assume an entirely different complexion in the hands of the Biblical writers” who strip them of their polytheism, accommodate them to the Hebrew point of view and “make them the vehicle of profound religious truths.

    1895: It was reported today that the Hebrew Orphan Asylum is providing housing for 700 children at its building at 137thStreet and Amsterdam Avenue.  Trustees Theodore Seligman, Edward Lauterbach and Emanuel Leyman are considering a proposal to raise $250,000 to expand the facility in order to meet increased demand for its services.

    1895: “Object To The McCall Bill” published today described the “vigorous protest” of “the American Anti-Semite Association” to the passage of the McCall Educational Test bill and “recommends the passage of the Stone Consular Certificate bill” that “considers as desirable immigrants only those who for five years previous have been actively engaged in agricultural pursuits with their own manual labor.”

    1896 (9th of Iyar, 5656): Gustave May passed away today in New York City.  Born in Paris in 1845, he served as Quartermaster General with the forces fighting to protect the Commune at the end of the Fanco-Prussian War.  When the Commune forces were defeated he fled  to America with his brother where they started May Brothers, a firm of commission merchants that “was the first to import cigarette papers into the United States. Although born Jewish May saw himself as a “Freethinker” and was active in the French Exile community.  His brother Elie had served as a General in the forces of the Commune.

    1896: Herzl began a two day journey to Karlsruhe where he was received in audience by Grossherzog (Grand Duke) Friedrich of Baden.  Herzl was heartened by the meeting saying ("Jedenfalls nahm der Grossherzog meine Staatbildung von Anfang an vollkommen ernst." - "In any case, the Grand Duke took my proposed formation of a state quite seriously from the beginning.")

    1896: Prince Ferdinand of Bulgaria, cut short his state visit to Russia and left St. Petersburg for Paris so he could attend the funeral of his friend Baron Hirsch.

    1896: “Strong Tribute To His Memory” published today provided reminiscences by Oscar S. Straus about the late Baron de Hirsh saying that “it was my good fortune to enjoy the personal acquaintance of Baron de Hirsch” whom he said gave away $25,000,000 to provide relief for Russian Jews which the Baron considered to be the most oppressed people in the world.

    1897(20th of Nisan, 5657): Sixty-seven year old Simon Alexander passed away today having lost his 9 month long battle with asthma and heart sickness.  He was an editorial writer for The Hebrew Journaland member of Temple Emanu-El

    1897:  In New York City, the world's largest Jewish daily newspaper, "The Forward," was first published. Abraham Cahan, 43, one of its founders, became editor of the paper in 1903, remaining until his death in 1951.  The Forward began as a Yiddish paper.  By the 1930's it was one of the nation's leading dailies with a readership of 275,000 supplemented by a radio audience listening to WVED.  One of its most famous features was the Bintel Briefs, a Yiddish Dear Abby.  The paper shifted its formant and became English weekly in the 1980's.  Later it added a Russian language edition for the new wave of Jewish immigrants. 

    1898(30th of Nisan, 5658): Rosh Chodesh Iyar

    1898(30th of Nisan, 5658): Simon Kayserling passed away. Kayserling was a German born teacher and author.  He was the brother of Meyer Kayserling.  Both brothers were historians.  But Meyer also pursued career in the Rabbinate while Simon followed a more secular career serving on the faculty of the Jewish Free School while writing or translating books about the history of Poland and the history of the Jews living in Spain and Portugal.

    1898: N.S. Roenau of the United Hebrew Charities was one of the speakers who addressed a group Yale University students studying Sociology under the direction of Professor William T. Blackman who visited New York City today.

    1899: The sixth annual reunion banquet of the Hebrew Technical Institute Alumni Association was held this evening at the Broadway Central Hotel.

    1899: Minnie Jacobs and her lawyer Joseph Moss appeared before William J. Youngs, Secretary to the Governor of New York to plead for a pardon for her father, Saul Jacobs.

    1900(23rdof Nisan): Author Louis Bein passed away.

    1900: District Grand Lodge No. 7 of B’nai Birth which includes the states of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee and Texas with over 1,700 members opened its 27 convention today in New Orleans.

    1900: Twenty four year old Jacob Mack married 22 year old Bertha “Birdie” Ronsheim, a native of Cincinnati, Ohio.

    1902(15th of Nisan, 5662): On the first day of Passover The New York Times took exception to a letter that Mayor Seth Low had sent to Police Commissioner John N. Partridge advising him not to enforce “blue laws” on Sunday April 20 because Jews needed to shop and conduct such activities as killing chickens as they prepared for their holiday which would begin on Monday evening, April 21.  The Times said that the Mayor’s ruling “was uncalled for” and “was wrong in principle and conclusion. [Editor’s Note: Those of us living in the 21st century with its 24/7 schedule probably have difficulty that power of Sunday closing laws; laws that were enforced well into the closing decades of the 20th century.”

    1903: Herzl meets Lord Rothschild who tells him that Edmond de Rothschild is delighted with his plan.

    1903: Birthdate of Marcus Polak, the native of Goor who would be murdered at Bergen Belsen.

    1904: Birthdate of Robert J. Oppenheimer.  Born in New York, Oppenheimer was the son of a prosperous German-Jewish textile importer and an artistic Baltimore Jewess who died when Oppenheimer was a child.  A renowned physicist, Oppenheimer bordered on the brilliant and enjoyed a wide range of intellectual pursuits.  His claim to fame is the Manhattan Project.  He was the scientific overlord of the American race to develop and build the Atomic Bomb.  After the war, Oppenheimer had reservations about additional military uses of science.  He opposed the building of the Hydrogen Bomb, a project that was brought to a successful conclusion by yet another Jewish scientist, Edward Teller.  Oppenheimer fell victim to the post-War Red Scare and lost his security clearance. Oppenheimer's security clearance was regained during the Kennedy years and his reputation was publicly rehabilitated.  He passed in 1967 at the age of 62.  As to the Jewish influence in his life, consider the following. Prior to the 1930's, Oppenheimer had led the cloistered life of the privileged and the scientist in his ivory tower.  During the 1930's Oppenheimer became involved in liberal and social justice causes.  According to him, the change came about, in part became, "I had had a continuing smoldering fury about the treatment of Jews in Germany,  I had relatives there, and was later to help in extricating them and bringing them to this country...I began to participate more fully in the life of the community." 

    1906: In Montreal, Shlomo Chaim Caplan and Chaya Bluma Routtenberg gave birth to Jonah Ephraim Caplan the Yeshiva University graduate who had come to the United States in 1924 served as the rabbi at several congregations including one Astoria, NY and was “active in the Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations.

    1908: Birthdate of Leonard Schapiro, the native of Glasgow, Scotland “who spend in his childhood in Riga and St. Petersburg but returned to Britain with his parents in 1920 where he carved out a career in economics and political studies that led to his being named Professor of Political Science at the London School of Economics.

    1909: In Turin, Italy, Adamo Levi, an engineer, and Adele Montalcini, a painter, both Italian Jews who traced their roots to the Roman Empire gave birth to Rita Levi-Montalcini, winner of the 1986 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine. (As reported by Benedict Carey)

    1910: Today Rabbi Haim (Henry) Pereira Méndez, President of the Union of Orthodox Congregations wrote a letter to New York Mayor William Gaynor on behalf of the Orthodox congregations in the United States and Canada thanking him for his letter rejecting the request of Rev. Thomas M Chalmers for a license to “preach for the conversion Jews” on street corners in some of the city’s most heavily “Jewish” communities.  Mendez expressed his appreciation for the tone of the letter which was sympathetic to the Jewish people and said that he would work with the Christian ministers to lift the level of modern society to a level closer to that expressed by Judaism and Christianity.

    1910: Rabbi Hyman Gerson Enelow completed his service as The Temple“Louisville, Kentucky Jewish weekly that firs appeared in July of 1909.

    1912: The Wage Earner's League for Woman Suffrage held a major rally at New York's Cooper Union. Clara Lemlich, Rose Schneiderman, and three others founded the League which sought to encourage working women to join the political process as well as to agitate for the right to vote. Lemlich, a shirtwaist maker, became the League's vice president. Drawing on their background in the Socialist movement, the founders of the Wage Earners' League emphasized the special concerns of working women. They argued in speeches and pamphlets that women needed the vote in order to secure basic human rights like safe working conditions. In doing so, League leaders came into conflict with both Socialist men and middle-class women. The men who counted on female allies in Socialist causes bluntly suggested that suffrage activists return to their kitchens. Middle-class women showed their class bias in suggesting that their wealth and education made them more capable activists than these working women. Wary of having their specific concerns sidestepped, League members agreed that any woman could join their group, but that only workers could vote, ensuring that working women would remain in control of the League's agenda and tactics. Today’s rally at Cooper Union brought together thousands of cheering women to listen to arguments for women's suffrage. The location was symbolic; Cooper Union was the site of the rally that had kicked off the "Uprising of the 20,000," one of the first and most influential strikes of industrial garment workers, just three years before. Despite a large and enthusiastic turnout at the rally, the League dissolved soon afterward. Lacking a full-time organizer and a steady source of funding, the League ceased to be active. Schneiderman went on a speaking tour for another suffrage organization; her colleagues likewise turned their energies to other groups. Ultimately, the fight for suffrage would depend on alliances across class and gender lines.

    1912: In London, those attending a “meeting of the East End Jewish shopkeepers” passed a “resolution petitioning the local Borough Council to grant Jewish East End traders an exemption under the Shops Act.”

    1913(15thof Nisan, 5673): Pesach

    1913(15thof Nisan, 5673): Seventy-four year old “manufacturer” Gabriel Hirsch passed away today in Philadelphia.

    1913: Rabbi Tobias Schanfarber is scheduled to lead Passover services this morning at K.A.M. Temple in Chicago, Illionis

    1913: Founding of Beth Aaron Synagogue in Minneapolis, MN.

    1913: Jacob Adler and Sara Adler are scheduled to begin a week long run at the Haymarket Theatre where he will perform “Style” by Abraham Shomer.

    1914: In the Netherlands, Professor Arnold Hendrik and Lucretia de Hartog gave birth to author Jan de Hartog who wrote “Skipper Next to God” in which Wolfe Barzell’s performance provided the inspiration for his nephew Emanuel “Manny” Azenberg to become interested in theatre; an interest that would lead to a thirty-three relationship with playwright Neil Simon.

    1915:”An application for a commutation of Leo Frank's death sentence was submitted to a three-person Prison Commission in Georgia.”

    1915: During WW I, at Ypres, the Germans used gas for the first time on the battlefield.

    1915(8thof Iyar, 5675): David S. Lehman, the native of Portsmouth, Ohio, the husband of the former Alma Schlesinger, the son-in-law or Rabbi Max Schlesinger of Albany, NY and the Vice President of the National Jewish Hospital for Consumptives died in Denver today “form intestinal trouble after several months’ of illness.

    1915: “Seventy Jews” who are seeking to emigrate to America or Australia arrived in Alexandria today from Jerusalem and described the “terrible economic situation” with flour costing fifteen dollars a sack, potatoes being sold for “six times the ordinary cost” and the appearance of huge swarms of locusts.

    1916(19thof Nisan, 5676): Fifth day of Pesach; Shabbat

    1916: It was reported today that Dr. Straus a native of Germany now living in New York provided the $25,000 to start the Alpha and Omega Publishing Company which will published The American Jewish Chronicle, a weekly publication that will serve as an advocate for the rights of European Jews after the World War comes to an end.  

    1916:  Birthdate of Yehudi Menuhin famed violin virtuoso and conductor. He passed away in March, 1999 at the age of 83.

    1917(30thof Nisan, 5677) Rosh Chodesh Iyar

    1917: Rabbi Samuel Schulman is scheduled deliver a talk on “The War and Religion” at Temple Beth-El.

    1917: At Carnegie Hall, the Free Synagogue is scheduled to host “Tenth Anniversary Exercise” that will include a sermon by Rabbi Wise on “Is the Free Synagogue Worthwhile?”

    1917: Dr. Silverman is scheduled to deliver a talk on “What the Jews Have Done for the World” at Temple Emanu-El.

    1917: “Students from Adelphi College, College of the City of New York, Columbia Univesity, Hunter College and New York University” attended “the second annual dinner of the Menorah Society in Greater New York” which was held this evening at the Hotel Netherland in New York City

    1917: In Cardiff, Wales, “solicitor and cinema owner” Rudolf Abse gave birth to Leo Abse, the husband of Marjorie Davis with whom he had two children – Tobias and Bathsheba – who was a lawyer and a 30 Welsh Labour Member of Parliament who promoted laws to liberalize divorce and decriminalize homosexual behavior.

    1917: Professor Philip Boas of Whitman University delivered a speech entitled “Youth and Judaism” at the Spring Assembly of the Eastern Council of Reform Rabbis at Temple Emanu-El this evening in which he “said that he did not believe that Jewish youths were deserting the synagogue.”  “He asserted there signs of greater consciousness of Judaism among the young than there were ten years ago, but the youth wanted to see resulted and wanted to see how religion was benefiting the world.”

    1917: “The American Jewish Historical Society began its 25th convention today at the Hotel Ansonia.

    1917: Max J. Kohler, the son of the President the Hebrew Union College, presented a paper on “Jewish Rights at the Congress of Vienna” today.

    1917: Dr. Cyrus Adler, Oscar S. Straus, Dr. Jacob H. Hollander and Daniel P. Hayes spoke at this evening’s reception hosted by the Judean Society under the leadership of its President, Dr. Henry M. Leipziger for members of the American Jewish Historical Society.

    1917: Jacob H. Schiff, a long-time opponent of creating a “Jewish nation in Palestine” delivered a speech at a meeting of the League of the Jewish Youth of America at the Century Theatre in which expressed his support for the creation of a “center for Jewish culture” in Palestine because he believed “in the Jewish people, in the mission of the Jewish people” and in the need for a place where “Jewish culture might be further and developed, unhampered by the materialism of the world.”

    1918: Austrian native Nettie Kinsbruner, the daughter of Shmuel Meyer Stettner and Rachel Stettner and her husband David (Aubie) Kinsbruner gave birth to Beatrice, the sister of American college basketball star Mac Kinsbrunner.

    1918: Birthdate of Solomon Aaron Berson, the New York born physician who worked with Rosalyn Yallow on “major advances in clinical biochemistry.”

    1919(22ndof Nisan, 5679): Eighth Day of Pesach

    1919: I. Edwin Goldwasser, the executive director of the Federation for the support of Jewish Philanthropic Societies is scheduled to lecture on “Co-ordination in Jewish Philanthropy” at this evening’s meeting of the Council of Jewish Women at the Sinai Center in Chicago.

    1919: Jacob H. Schiff, Abram I.Elkus and Dr. Stephen S. are scheduled to speak at the reception for the Earl of Reading sponsored by the Judaeans which will be presided over by President Samson Lachman

    1920: During the San Remo Conference, Chaim Weizmann has a private meeting with Lloyd George and Lord Balfour during which he presses the British leaders “for a civil administration in Palestine, run by the British under a League of Nations mandate.  This stood in stark contrast with the French leaders who did not want the Balfour Declaration to be part of the peace treaty with the Ottomans. 

    1920: In Washington, the Tacoma News Tribune reported that Leach Cross (born Louis Charles Wallach” whose boxing nickname was “The Fighting Dentist” “had signed with Universal Pictures in Los Angeles to appear in an 18-episode serial entitle “The Vanishing Dagger.”

    1921(14thof Nisan, 5681):Ta’anit Bechorot; Erev Pesach

    1921: Today, as Englishman who “believed in the Jewish origin of the British Royal Family” considered Saeki Yoshiro’s theory of the Jewish origins of the Japanese people, Israel’s Messenger carried a letter from former lady-in-waiting Elizabeth A. Gordon

    1922: The national board of Hadassah voted "no confidence" in the leadership of ZOA President Louis Lipsky.

    1923: In Manhattan, novelist Paul Hervey Fox and “the former Elsie de Sola” gave birth to novelist Paula Fox.

    1925: In Sosnowiec, Poland, Herschel Krysztal, an accountant and the former Dora Grossman gave birth to Henyek Krysztal who gained famed as psychiatrist Dr. Henry Krystal. (As reported by Sam Roberts)

     1926: In Milwaukee, Wisconsin, “Russian Jewish immigrants Esther (née Ottenstein), who was a childhood friend of Israeli Prime Minister Golda Meir, and Meyer Lubotsky, a retail tire business owner gave birth to Charlotte Rae Lubotsky who gained fame as Emmy nominated actress Charlotte Rae and the mother of Larry Straus who co-authored her autobiography The Facts of My Life.

    1928:  Birthdate of Aaron Spelling, TV executive producer who gave us “Charlie's Angels.”

    1928: Following Hadassah President Irma Levy Lindheim’s recent declaration that the administration of the ZOA was "not an effective instrument for the achievement of world Zionist aims for the up-building of Palestine" today the National Board of Hadassah registered a vote of no confidence in the leadership of ZOA President Louis Lipsky.

    1930: Release date for the all-star revue “Paramount on Parade” written by Joseph Mankiewicz and co-produced by Jesse Lasky, Adolph Zucker, Albert S. Kaufman and B.P. Schulberg.

    1930: In Manhattan, The Warner Bros. Hollywood Theatre which was later re-named The Mark Hellinger Theatre, opened today.

    1931:JBI International was founded as the Jewish Braille Institute of America

    1932(16thof Nisan, 5692): Second Day of Pesach; first day of the Omer is observed for the last time during the Presidency of Herbert Hoover, who without fanfare or controversy, appointed the second Jewish Supreme Court Associate Justice.

    1933(26th of Nisan, 5693):  A Jewish merchant, Salomon Rosenstrauch was shot dead in Wiesbaden, Germany.

    1933: In Nazi Germany, the government adopted measures excluding Jewish students from school.

    1935: In Los Angeles, the premier of “Bride of Frankenstein,” the sci-fi thriller” produced by Carl Laemmle, Jr and filmed by cinematographer Franz Waxman.

    1936(30th of Nisan, 5696): Rosh Chodesh Iyar

    1936: “As the racial rioting stormed in its third week, a communique issued by the (British) police declared that masses of Arabs were still attacking Jewish settlements” including at “Hatikvah Settlemet” and “Shechunath Areyh, midway between Tel Aviv and Petach Tikvah” were “Jews successfully defended the settlement until police arrived and beat off the invaders.”

    1936: “At Jenin, on the main highway to Jerusalem, a large crowd of Arab villagers help up and stone Jewish buses, wounding two passengers.”

    1936: Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, national chairman of the United Palestine Appeal announced today that the Palestine Foundation Fund and the Jewish National Fund had sent $100,000 to Palestine” from funds that were being collecting in the United States for the settlement of Jews from German, Poland and countries in Palestine.

    1936: “At 5 o’clock this morning a Jewish-owned cardboard factory near Tel Aviv was burned by Arabs.”

    1936: “A Jewish merchant in the old city of Jerusalem who tried to open his shop was beaten by young Arab agitators and forced to close.”

    1937(11thof Iyar, 5697): Ninety-four year old Albany, NY native Simon Wolfe Rosendale the New York State Attorney General who was the first Jew elected to a state-wide office in “the Empire State” and who was active in Jewish communal affairs even though he was an anti-Zionist passed away today.

    1937(11thof Iyar, 5697): Sixty-seven year old Mrs. Marcus M. Marks, the “widow of the Borough President of Manhattan” who was also called by some “the father of day-light saving plans” passed away today.

    1938(21stof Nisan, 5698): Seventh Day of Pesach.

    1938: It was reported today that a “lawyer’s group” to raise funds for the American Ort Foundation “was formed at meeting in the office former Judge Grossman” and a “dentists group” was formed at offices on offices at 212 Fifth Avenue where “Dr. John L. Kaufman was elected chairman.”

    1939: Birthdate of Uri Orr, the native of Kfar Haim who rose to the rank of general in the IDF before pursuing a political career that included serving as an MK and Deputy Minister of Defence.

    1939: “The Greek cattle boat Assimi which attempted to land 263 illegal Jewish immigrants” in Palestine “twelve days ago was ordered to leave Haifa tonight.”    When the police announced the decision, “the passengers tore off their clothing and screamed that they would rather be killed than be sent back to sea. Some prayed and recited psalms. When the Jewish residents of Haifa heard the screams and prayers aboard the Assimi” they spontaneously proclaimed a strike that took hold throughout the city.  Protesters carried signs reading ‘Open the gates to the Jewish illegals’ and ‘Down with the barbaric attitude toward illegals. The captain had been fined and imprisoned for his role in bringing the Jews to Palestine. To add insult to injury the captain had been fined and imprisoned for his role in bringing the Jews to Palestine.

    1940(14th of Nisan, 5700): The Sommer family sits down to their first Seder in Liechtenstein.  How this family of German Jewish refugees from Munich came to be there was chronicled by Susi Pugatsch-Sommer in an article entitled “A Pesach Miracle in Nazi Germany.”


    My family - my parents Binyamin and Friedl Sommer, myself (13) my sister Ella (10), my brother Alfred (7), and my grandmother, Rachel - lived in temporary quarters in Munich, after our home had been confiscated by the Nazi daily newspaper, Völkischer Beobachter in 1939. My father had been arrested and incarcerated in the Dachau Camp in 1938 for a short time. Once he was released, he realized that he and the family had to leave Germany as quickly as possible, but he could not find a way to get out. In November 1939, my father left home for a few days, and hid the forest near Munich, since he was informed that the Nazis would arrest all male Jews again and send them to a concentration camp. By chance, he met a man in the forest who identified himself only as an engineer. This man told him that he could arrange an entry permit into neutral Liechtenstein only if he had enough money to open a building materials factory and pay salaries to 100 workers, since unemployment was high in Liechtenstein. My father agreed immediately, since he had no other option to save our lives. Miraculously, we received visas for Liechtenstein in the beginning of April 1940, in the middle of World War II, our passes to relative safety. We had 14 days to leave Germany, and each person was allowed to take one suitcase and 10 reichmarks. We boarded the train in Munich three days before Pessah. We were frisked at the German border and after the Nazis didn't find anything forbidden, were allowed to cross the border to Liechtenstein on foot. We were completely exhausted when we arrived in Vaduz, Liechtenstein, and went to sleep in a simple hotel. We did not know if there were any Jewish families in Liechtenstein, and we had no idea how we would keep Pessah properly and buy matzot. Then our next miracle happened. The following morning, as we wandered around town, a young girl stopped us and asked if we were Jewish and if she could help us. Immediately, she introduced us to her parents and some other Jewish families. The Schönwalder family invited us into their home, to their Seder and we continued to have all our meals and prayers there during the week of Pessah. We continued to reside in Liechtenstein for 10 years. At this time, only 40 to 50 Jews lived there. I met with the Schönwalders' daughter, Edith, almost every day, and she is still a very good friend of mine. Today, we both live in Israel. I'll never forget the miracle that happened to us - my father's chance meeting with the engineer, an emigration visa in the midst of the war, and the wonderful families who helped us celebrate Pessah as religious Jews.


    1940:  SS official Odilo Globocnik announced a plan to increase the use of Jewish forced labor and to establish separate work camps for Jewish men and women.

    1940: Detroit Tigers Pitcher Dick Conger appeared in his first major league baseball game.

    1940: Ten members of the staff of Ben Shemen Youth village, including the director are sentenced to serve prison terms of up to seven years. The British had raided Ben Shemen in January and found weapons belonging to the Haganah. The prison sentences were for their role in hiding the weapons.

    1941: Birthdate of Israeli Amir Pnueli an Israeli scientist who developed a “critical technique for verifying the reliability of computers.”

    1942: U.S. premiere of “Saboteur,” a WW II spy thriller with a screenplay co-authored by Peter Viertel and Dorothy Parker.

    1943: “We Will Never Die” was performed in Philadelphia's Convention Hall, with guest stars Claude Rains and Edward G. Arnold in the lead roles. More than 15,000 people attended--it was the largest Jewish public event in the city in many years — and it received extensive coverage in the local press.

    (As reported by Jewish Virtual Library)

    1943:  The Nazis deported the Jews of Amersfoort, Holland.

    1943: Day four of the Warsaw Ghetto uprising.

    1943:  In New York City, Daniel Gluck, the inventor, along with is brother-in-law Sundel Doniger, of the X-Acto Knife and his wife gave birth to Louise Elisabeth Gluck the American Pulitzer Prize winning poet who “was appointed Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress in 2003, after serving as a Special Bicentennial Consultant three years prior in 2000.”

     1945: The Big Red One, whose members included Samuel Fuller, “finished clearing the Harz Mountains” before turning south to join up with the U.S. Third Army.

    1945:  Six hundred of the remaining inmates at Jasenovac Concentration Camp rose up against their Croatian killers.  The Croatians killed over five hundred of them.  This camp was located in a breakaway republic from Yugoslavia called Coratia.  The Croatians ran the camp for their Axis allies and were responsible for the deaths of tens of thousands of Jews.  For those of you who remember the fighting in the 1990's in Yugoslavia, you will now understand that genocide is no stranger to the Balkans. Only a thousand Jews and Serbs remained. Tens of thousands of them were killed over the past five years. Six hundred rose in revolt. The Germans killed 520 of them.

    1945:  The Soviet Army liberated the Concentration Camp at Sachsenhausen in Germany.  The camp was about 35 kilometers from Berlin and was established in 1938.  Approximately thirty to thirty-five thousands people including Jews perished in the camp.

    1945: Birthdate of Donald E. Graham, the grandson of Eugene Meyer and the son of Katherine Graham

    1946: Opening of Kibbutz Beitar in Bruna.

    1946: Associate Justice Felix Frankfurter joined the Chief Justice and another Associate Justice in dissenting in Girouard v. United States – a case involving a the application of a pacifist for naturalization.

    1946:  Composer Ezra Laderman was discharged from the U.S. Army today. He then studied composition under Stefan Wolpe of New York and Miriam Gideon of Brooklyn College where he earned his 1950. He then went on to study under Otto Luening of Columbia University where he earned his M.A. in 1952.

    1947(2nd of Iyar, 5707): In Jerusalem’s central prison, Moshe Barazani and Meir Feinstein beat the hangman when they used a grenade smuggled into death row to blow themselves up. The two had planned to detonate the device when they were on the scaffold thus taking the British appointed executioner with them.  But when the Rabbi who visited them earlier in the day said he would return to be with them at the moment of execution, the two decide to act earlier so as to kill the Jewish cleric. 

    1947: Another 769 illegal Jewish immigrants arriving on board the Galata in Eretz Israel were trans-shipped to Cyprus.

    1948: Operation Misparayim (scissors) was launched by the Haganah as part of the Yishuv’s attempt to assume control of Haifa after British withdrawal and attacks had been made by Arab forces to control this port city.  By the end of the day, Haifa was in the hand of the mainline Zionist forces.

    1949: Writing in Haaretz, Arye Gelblum described immigrants from North Africa as dirty, disease ridden and prone to drunkenness and prostitution.

    1949: The NBC Television Network broadcast the final episode of the panel show “Stop Me If You’ve Hear this One” on which Morey Amsterdam, Lew Lehr and Benny Rubin appeared as regular panelists.

    1949: Hebrew University reopened in temporary quarters in west Jerusalem

    1950: Tonight, after the end of Shabbat, Israel began the celebration of her second year of independence.  In his address to the nation, President Weizmann called upon Israelis “to celebrate in joy and happiness the great salvation wrought to our people after centuries of exile and affliction.”  In Jerusalem, Joseph Sprinzak, Speaker of the Knesset, lit a torch on Mt. Herzl which lit from fire provided by veterans of the Masada Battalion which had defended Jerusalem from attacks by Egyptians and Arab Irregulars during the dark days of the siege of the City of David. Similar festivities took place throughout the country including open air performances, torch light parades and the sounding of sirens by ships of many nations docked in Israel’s major ports.

    1950: In Germany, Holocaust survivors Joseph and Elizabeth Wilf gave birth to real estate developer Zygmunt “Zygi” Wilf who bought the Minnesota Vikings football team in 2005.

    1951: Philadelphia Athletics first baseman Lou Limmer played in his first major league baseball game. 

    1952(27th of Nisan, 5712): Yom HaShoah

    1952(27th of Nisan, 5712): Forty-nine year old Jakob Rosenfeld the Lemberg born Jewish doctor who survived Dachau and Buchenwald and gained fame as General Luo, the Minister of Health under Chairman Mao, passed away today. (Editor’s note – an exciting life like is certainly worthy of a biography and a NETFLIX series)

    1953: The Jerusalem Post reported that the "past seven days was the bloodiest week along Israeli borders for a long time." Two Israelis were murdered at Mevuot Betar, the marauders were active in the South, in Galilee and Jerusalem. There was a general outcry when General Bennet L. de Ridder, the U.N. Chairman of the Israel-Jordan Mixed Armistice Commission refused to comply with the Israeli request to call an emergency meeting of the Commission to discuss the latest developments and, in particular, the murder of Zvi Genauer and his niece, Dvora, in Jerusalem. This incomprehensible U.N. decision was taken despite the fact that the tracks of the three marauders, responsible for this murder, were discovered by an U.N. observer and an Israeli officer who noted that they led to the Jordanian-occupied village of Beit Iksa. The General claimed that it was not the duty of his Commission to deal with incidents "of this type."


    1953: The Jerusalem Post reported that Israel's three-years-long land survey, conducted by the Ministry of Agriculture, had almost been completed.

    1953: Herman Pekarsky, the director of the Jewish Community Council of Essex County, NJ, was among the speakers at the 25th birthday celebration held at the Park Sheraton, honoring The Welcome Wagon organization.

    1953: Birthdate of Steve Bond, the native of Haifa who gained fame while appearing in the soap opera General Hospital.

    1953: “It Happens Every Thursday” a comedy directed by Joseph Pevney, produced by Leonard Goldstein and with music by Herman Stein was released today in the United States.

    1954: Leo Lerman, the Jewish editor and writer for such glossy fashion magazines as Vogue, Mademoiselle and Vanity Fairmet famed American author William Faulkner for the first time.

    1954:  The so-called Army-McCarthy Hearings began. These hearings, which helped bring an end to McCarthy’s abuse of power was triggered by two of his Jewish supporters.  One was the powerful Roy Cohn, the McCarthy Committee’s chief counsel.  The other was Cohn’s close friend, G. David Schine.  :

    1955: ABC broadcast the final episode of “Where’s Raymond,” the sit-com produced by Stanley Shapiro.

    1958: “Jordanian soldiers shot and kill two fishermen near Aqaba.”

    1960: In Quebec, Dr. Harry J. Stern led the services dedicating the new home of Temple Emanu-El-Beth Sholom, the oldest Reform or Liberal congregation in Canada.

    1961: Lucille Ball collapsed while performing in “Wildcast” the musical with lyrics by Carolyn Leigh and music by Cy Coleman.

    1963(28th of Nisan, 5723): Yom HaShoah

    1970: Arthur Krock “was presented with the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Richard Nixon.”

    1971(27th of Nisan, 5731): Yom HaShoah

    1971(27th of Nisan, 5731): Seventy-two year old Joseph Ginsburg the father of French entertainer Serge Gainsbourg passed away today.

    1973:Birthdate of Ofer Talker, the native of Ashdod who gained fame playing football for several teams the last of which was Hapoel Kfar Saba from which he retired in 2009.

    1973: Birthdate of Delmar, NY native Anita Lynn Kaplan, the 6’5” center on the Stanford University Basketball team who played professionally for the San Jose Laser and Chicago Condors and was released by the WNBA Cleveland Rockers before league play began.

     1974: Israeli political leader Amir Peretz was severely injured in accident at the Mitla Pass.

    1975:  Barbara Walters signed a five-year $5 million contract with the American Broadcasting Corporation (ABC), becoming the highest paid television newsperson.

    1975: Eighty-two year old Sir Godfrey Rolles Driver the Old Testament scholar who was a Professor of Semitic Philology at Oxford whose expertise included a knowledge of the Semitic languages of the Biblical period passed away today.

    1976(22ndof Nisan, 5736): Eighth Day of Pesach observed for the last time under President Ford.

    1977:  Shimon Peres became premier of Israel.

    1977: “The Late Show,” a mystery co-starring Bill Macy was released today in the United States.

    1978:  In Paris, France, Izhar Cohen & Alphabeta won the twenty-third Eurovision Song Contest for Israel by singing "A-ba-ni-bi".

    1978:  The Jerusalem Post reported that an agreement was reached to end the 18-days-long El Al lockout which had already cost the national airline more than IL100m, and the tourist industry hundreds of millions more.

    1978:  The Jerusalem Post reported that Israel won the Eurovision Song Contest for the first time with an entry called "A-Ba-Ni-Bi". Israel scored 157 points, Belgium 121 and France 119.

    1978: After six seasons, CBS broadcast the final episode of “Maude” a sitcom created by Norman Lear and starring Beatrice Arthur in the title role.

    1979(25th of Nisan, 5739): Shamir Kuntar was part of a cell that raided the northern Israeli town of Nahariya, fatally shooting a civilian, Danny Haran, while his daughter Einat, 4, watched, then smashing the girl’s head, killing her as well. Mr. Haran’s wife, Smadar, hid with their 2-year-old daughter, accidentally suffocating her in an effort to stop her from crying out.

    1982(29thof Nisan, 5742): Eighty-two year old Irish film director and actor Harold Goldblatt passed away today.

    1982: “Six refuseniks in Odessa joined the hunger strike begun by Kiev refuseniks on March 15th.”

    1984: In Israel Al HaMishmar published the first report of allegations that the hijackers of Bus 300 had been shot after being captured.

    1985: According to Israeli businessman Yaacov Nimrodi, today was the day when a chartered merchant ship, the Westline, was scheduled to leave Eilat filled with weaponry for Iran as part of a deal that Americans would come to know as Iran-Contra.

    1985: The United States Trade Representative and the Israeli Minister of Industry and Trade signed a Free Trade Agreement today that “eliminated all duties and virtually all other restrictions on trade in goods between” their two respective countries.

    1988: U. S. premiere of “White Mischief” directed by Michael Radford who co-authored the screenplay.

    1988: “Permanent Record,” the highly praised drama directed by Marisa Silver was released today in the United States.

    1989(17thof Nisan, 5749): Third Day of Pesach

    1989(17thof Nisan, 5749): Eighty-four year old Emilio Gino Segrè the Italian refugee who was part of the Manhattan Project and who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1989 passed away today.

    1990: At the Royale Theatre, after 476 performances the curtain came down on the original Broadway of “Lend Me a Tenor" produced by Jerry Zaks and featuring Tova Feldshuh and Victor Garber

    1991(8thof Iyar, 5751): Eighty-one year old Judah Bergman, the London born boxer known was Jack Kid Berg “who became the World Light Welterweight Champion in 1930” passed away today in his hometown.


    1991:  Shalom America (Jewish cable network) was launched in Brooklyn & Queens.

    1993:  The Holocaust Memorial Museum was dedicated in Washington, D.C.  There is no way to do this justice.  For more information see

    1993: Miles Lerhman served as chairman of the Holocaust Memorial Museum from its opening today until 2000, eight years before his death in 2008 at the age of 88.

    1994: “Chasers” a comedy featuring Betty Schram as “Flo” was released in the United States today.

    1994: “The Inkwell,” a romantic comedy produced by Irving Azoff was released today in the United States

    1994: Dr. Lewis Barth, Professor of Midrash and Related Literature at HUC-JIR in Los Angeles delivered the 1994 Rabbi Max Nussbaum Memorial Lecture.

    1994:  Richard Nixon, 37th President of the United States passed away.  Nixon's relations with Jews and the Jewish community ranged from uneven to stormy.  In his first campaign for the U.S. Senate, Nixon supporters smeared his opponent with the tar brush of anti-Semitism.  Nixon did have Jews working on White House Staff.  He  was frustrated by is inability to gain support among Jewish voters and some of his comments on the White House tapes about Jews are, to be charitable, less than complimentary.  At the same time, in 1973, he came through for Israel.  Thanks to Nixon, the Americans conducted a mammoth airlift of supplies that enabled the IDF to turn the tide after the Arab sneak attack and gain a military victory in the Yom Kippur War.

    1995:  Yagil Amir, who had sworn to kill Prime Minister Rabin, unsuccessfully tried to enter a hall in Jerusalem where Rabin was present as the guest of honor.

    1995(22ndof Nisan, 5755): 8th Day of Pesach

    1995(22ndof Nisan, 5755): Ninety-two year old Sir Horace Kadoorie, scion of the Kdoorie family that migrated from Baghdad to Mumbai to Hong Kong passed away today.

    1997(15th of Nisan, 5757): Pesach

    1997: ‘Déjà Vu,” an “American dramatic romance film directed by Henry Jaglom” was released in the United States today.

    1998: Five days after premiering in the United States, “Paulie” a fantasy film co-starring Hallie Eisenberg was released in Germany today.


    1999: In Manhattan, jurors awarded a patient of Dr. Pamela Lipkin, an East Side plastic surgeon $600,000 in damages.

    2000(17th of Nisan, 5760): Third day of Pesach

    2000(17th of Nisan, 5760): Seventy-nine year old theatrical producer Alexander H. Cohen passed away today. (As reported by Alex Witchel)

    2001: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Country Matters: The Pleasures and Tribulations of Moving From a Big City to an Old Country Farmhouse by Michael Korda, Teacha!: Stories From a Yeshiva by Gerry Albarelli and Resisting Hitler: Mildred Harnack and the Red Orchestraby
    Shareen Blair Brysac.

    2001(29th of Nisan, 5761):Dr. Mario Goldin, 53, of Kfar Sava, was killed when a terrorist detonated a powerful bomb he was carrying near a group of people waiting at a bus stop on the corner of Weizman and Tchernichovsky streets. About 60 people were injured in the blast. Hamas claimed responsibility.]

    2001: The National Football League Draft ended today with Iowa State University Quarterback Sage Rosenthal becoming a Washington Redskin.

    2002 “Mideast Turmoil: American Jews; Unusually Unified in Solidarity With Israel, but Also Unusually Unnerved” published today describes the feelings an action of the Jewish community in the wake of attacks on Israel and anti-Semitism in the United States.

    2002(10th of Iyar, 5762): Ninety-three year old Victor Frederick Weisskopf’ an Austrian-born Jewish American theoretical physicist, passed away today.

    2002(10thof Iyar, 5762): Twenty-two year old Sgt. Mag. Nir Kirchmann of Hadera was killed when the IDF entered a village north of Nablus to arrest Hamas terrorists.

    2003: Charles “Krauthammer predicted that the President would have a "credibility problem" if weapons of mass destruction were not found in Iraq within the next five months.”

    2004: In North Korea, a freight train exploded killing technicians from Syria who had come the country to take possession of fissionable material which they were to take home as part of nuclear program that could lead to the creation of warheads for the Assad regime

    2004: The Roundabout Theatre Company’s Broadway production of Stephen Sondheim’s “Assassins”   opened today

    2005: “The Interpreter” a complex mystery set at the UN directed by Sydney Pollack who also made a cameo appearance was released in the United State today.

    2005: Jews of Omaha, Nebraska celebrated Israel’s 59th year of Independence as the Jewish Community Center hosts the Jewish Arts Festival and Yom Ha’Atzmaut activities designed for the whole family. This year’s Yom Ha’Atzmaut celebration is a unique and exciting compilation of an Arts Festival with more than 25 vendors, plus the usual exciting assortment of carnival games, first-class entertainment, and delicious foods from a variety of Omaha restaurants.

    2006: On Shabbat, thousands of police were positioned around the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in east Jerusalem on Holy Saturday, hoping to prevent confrontations between various groups of worshippers making their way to the church on Saturday afternoon.

    2007: At the Yeshiva University Museum the exhibition entitled “Reuben Kadish’s Holocaust Sculpture” comes to an end.

    2007: Yom Hazikaron begins tonight in Israel with a special memorial ceremony at Mt. Herzl in Jerusalem.

    2007: The Sunday New York Times Book Section featured reviews of The Grand Surprise: The Journals of Leo Lerman, edited by Stephen Pascal, Positively American: Winning Back the Middle-Class Majority One Family at a Time by Chuck Schumer (the Jewish Senator from New York) with Daniel Squadron, Black and White a novel by Jewish author Dani Shapiro and The Lady Upstairs: Dorothy Schiff and The New York Post by Marilyn Nissenson. Schiff was the granddaughter of the German Jewish banking magnate Jacob H. Schiff.

    2007: The Sunday Washington Post Book Section featured a review of The Worlds of Lincoln Kirstein by Martin Duberman. This “rich and revelatory biography of one of the crucial cultural figures of the twentieth century” provides another example of an American Jew who has had a major impact on our culture.

    2008: Earth Day; Third Day of Pesach – suggested date for Street Seders designed to address the Global Climate Crisis.

    2008: The Jerusalem Cinematheque presents “Refusenik” 

    2009: At YaleHagai El-Ad, Israeli civil rights activist, founding director of Jerusalem Open House and director of the Association for Civil Rights in Israel, delivers a talk entitled “Civil Rights in Israel.”

    2009: The Tribeca Film Festival opens with the world premiere of Woody Allen’s “Whatever Works.”

    2009: Holocaust Survivor Irene Furst speaks at Cornell College in Mt. Vernon, Iowa and Coe College in Cedar Rapids, Iowa.

    2009: In Cedar Falls, Iowa, Holocaust scholar Michael Berenbaum presents “The Holocaust and Contemporary Ethics: Legal, Religious, Political and Medical Ethical Implications of the Holocaust,” the inaugural address for the Norman Cohn Family Holocaust Remembrance and Education Lecture Series at the University of Northern Iowa. Berenbaum is a writer, lecturer and teacher consulting in the conceptual development of museums and the historical development of films. He has written more than a dozen books, scores of scholarly articles and hundreds of journalistic pieces. His most recent books include “A Promise to Remember: The Holocaust in the Words and Voices of Its Survivors” and “After the Passion Has Passed: American Religious Con sequences.” He also has received numerous awards for his work in film and journalism. Berenbaum was the former director of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Research Institute and president of the Survivors of the Shoah Visual History Foundation.

    2009: “Author Jared Diamond Sued for Libel” published today described the litigation face by the Pulitzer-Prize winning author.

    2009: Rome’s city hall was the site for the Nobel Laureate Rita Levi-Montalcini’s 100thbirthday party.

    2009: Five hundred Jews who were making their monthly visit to Joseph’s Tomb in Nablus arrived at the shrine this evening and found that it had been subjected to anti-Semitic vandalism including being painted with swastikas.  According to the Oslo Accords, the tomb is under Israeli control, but that has been rendered as nothing more than a legal fiction since the outbreak of Arab violence in 2000.

    2010:Professor Jason Rosenblatt, author of Renaissance England's Chief Rabbi: John Selden is scheduled to speak at the Washington DCJCC as part of the

    Distinguished Scholar Series

    2010: The Jewish Community Center of Northern Virginia is scheduled to host the reception marking the opening of the Annual NoVa International Jewish Film Festival.

    2011:On the 41st annual Earth Day and the first anniversary of the BP oil spill Reform congregations and their rabbis are scheduled to implement “tried-and-true Earth Day ideas, innovative programs in education and advocacy, and ways to continue our service and commitment to the Gulf Coast” some of which had been presented in a workshop that featured Margo Wolfson of Temple Shalom, Aberdeen, NJ (a GreenFaith Pilot Program congregation), Stephen Fox of Temple Isaiah, Los Angeles, CA, Rabbi Andy Koren, Temple Emanuel, Greensboro and Rabbi Daniel Swartz, Temple Hesed, Scranton, PA.”

    2011:The Maccabee Queen is scheduled to be performed 12 noon at Beit Avi Chai in Jerusalem. “Written and directed by Lauri Donahue, the play chronicles the rule of the last queen of Judea.”

    2011:The Beit Yisrael synagogue in Netanya has been pelted with rocks, allegedly by ultra-Orthodox youths waging a battle to scare the congregants into leaving.

    2012: Amy Irving, star of “Crossing Delancey” is scheduled to take part in a Q&A following a showing of this Jewish romantic comedy featuring “Sam, the pickleman” at the Westchester Jewish Film Festival.

    2012:The Iowa Jewish Historical Society and the Jewish Federation of Greater Des Moines are scheduled to host a special event to recognize and honor Iowa’s Jewish men and women who serve and have served in all branches of the United States military, during times of both war and peace.

    2012: Ambassador Stuart Eizenstat is scheduled to deliver the keynote address at the Northern Virginia’s 2012 Holocaust Observance at Gesher Jewish Day School2012(30thof Nisan, 5772): Rosh Chodesh Iyar

    2013: Fifty-three years after its founding the Canadian Jewish News “issued termination notices to its 50 staff and announced that it will cease printing with its June 20 edition due to financial constraints.”

    2013:The American Jewish Historical Society and Yeshiva University Museum are scheduled to present a performance by The Momenta Quartet featuring the music of Stefan Wolpe, Aaron Copland and Darius Milhaud.

    2013: “Portrait of Wally” and “A Bottle in the Gaza Sea” are scheduled to be shown at the Northern Virginia Jewish Film Festival.

    2013:” Dressing America: Tales from the Garment Center” is scheduled to be shown at the Westchester Jewish Film Festival.

    2013: Daniel Mendelsohn, author of the international bestseller The Lost: A Search for Six of Six Million, is scheduled to join award- winning journalist Leslie Maitland, author of Crossing the Borders of Time: A True Love Story of War, Exile and Love Reclaimed in a discussion of their true stories of lives and loves lost in the Holocaust at the Washington DCJCC.

    2013: Twentieth anniversary of the dedication of the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum

    2013: The Histadrut labor federation today threatened to shut down Ben-Gurion International Airport as a show of solidarity with Israeli airline employees, who are striking against Transportation Minister Yisrael Katz's Open Skies agreement with the European Union that was approved by the cabinet yesterday

    2013: Jordan has allowed Israel to fly military drones over the country en route to Syria in order to monitor the situation there and, should the need arise, target chemical weapons caches in the civil war-torn country, the French daily Le Figaro reported today.

    2014: In New York, Temple Shaaray Tefila is scheduled to host the Yom HaShoah Screening of “No Place On Earth.”

    2014(22ndof Nisan, 5774): 8th day of Pesach – Yizkor

    2014: In Serbia, Holocaust Remembrance Day

    2014(22nd of Nisan): Circumcision of Isaac (Rosh Ha-Shannah 10b)

    2015: Shoah survivor Marcel Drimer is scheduled to speak at the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum.

    2015: Yeshiva University Museum is scheduled to host a tour “Modeling the Synagogue – From Dura to Touro.”

    2015: “Belle and Sebastian” and “Famous Nathan” are scheduled to be shown at the Westchester Jewish Film Festival.

    2015(3rdof Iyar, 5775):  Seventy-eight year old performer Lois Lilienstein passed away today. (As reported by Bruce Weber)

    2015: Rabbi Lance J. Sussman is scheduled to teach the second session “Jews, Judaism and American Law” in Philadelphia, PA.

    2015:Today, another official memorial ceremony is scheduled to be held at the Mount Herzl military cemetery in Jerusalem and will be attended by IDF Chief of Staff Lt. Gen. Gadi Eisenkot, as well as senior Israel Defense Forces officers and politicians followed by a separate commemoration for Israel’s terror victims will take place at Mount Herzl.(As reported by Times of Israel)

    2015: Memorial Day is scheduled to end at sundown today with the start of Independence Day, traditionally ushered in with fireworks and street celebrations nationwide. (As reported by Times of Israel)

    2016(14thof Nisan, 5776): Ta’anit Berchorot; Erev Pesach and Erev Shabbat

    2016(14thof Nisan): Yahrzeit for the thirty people murdered by terrorists at a Seder at the Park Hotel in Netanya in 2002 and this does not include the 140 who were wounded.

    2016(14thof Nisan, 5776): 99th anniversary of the United States entry into World War I.  As Jews were fasting for the first born, searching for chametz and getting ready for their first Seder, Congress was declaring war on Germany.  This would usher in a three year period of dynamic change and growth for the American Jewish community. 

    2017(26thof Nisan, 5777): Parashat Shemini; Start of Pirke Avot Cycle – Read Chapter One;

    2017(26thof Nisan, 5777): Eighty-seven year old Professor of Philosophy Hubert Lederer Dreyfus passed away today in Berkeley.

    2017: The Oxford University Jewish Society is scheduled to provide a full day of events including lunch following Shachrit and Mussaf capped off by a Seduah an before the end of Shabbat

    2017:  The Jerusalem Opera Festival is scheduled to continue its opening week events with another concert dedicated to Enrico Caruso.

    2018: The American Sephardi Federation is scheduled to present the final performance of “Cyrano De Bergerac” starring David Serero in the title role.

    2018: “The entire Twin Cities Jewish Community” is scheduled to celebrate “Israel@70” at the Minneapolis Event Center this evening in an event featuring the singing of Abbie Strauss.

    2018: The Center for Jewish History is scheduled to host a presentation by “Jeffrey Shandler, Rutgers University Professor of Jewish Studies, which will examine the USC Shoah Foundation Visual History Archive as a major project of public memory situated in a series of contexts: Jewish ethnographies, public memory projects at the turn of the millennium, and the different media used to document the Holocaust.”

    2018: In Coralville, IA, Agudas Achim is scheduled to host the “8th Annual Concert of Commemoration.”

    2018: The New York Times published reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Bible of Dirty Jokes by Eileen Pollack and Who We Are and How We Got Here: Ancient DNA and the New Science of the Human Past by David Reich




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    April 23
     0034: According to Sir Isaac Newton, this is the date of the crucifixion of Jesus.

    1185: Birthdate Alfonzo II, the third King of Portugal who was part of a dynasty that who provided a comparatively secure environment for their Jewish subjects. He was the grandson of King Alfonso I and the son of King Sancho I both of whom had recognized the Jewish community, allowing it settle its own legal problems. King Alfonzo set the tone for the dynasty when he appointed Yahia ben Yahi III, the first chief Rabbi of the Portuguese Jewish community to serve as his royal tax collector.

    1229: As the Christians fought the Moors, Ferdinand III of Castile re-conquered Caceres. During this period the city had an important Jewish quarter: By the start of 15th century 140 Jewish families lived in city that had a population of 2000 people. As with everything in Sephard the story of the Jews of Caceres ends the same way with the expulsion by Queen Isabella and Ferdinand of Aragon in 1492.

    1283: Sixteen Jews were killed in Bruckenhausen

    1533: The Church of England annuls the marriage between Catherine of Aragon and Henry VIII. This was a major step in the break between Protestant England and Catholic Europe including France, Spain and those under the sway of the Pope.  The English would be a valuable ally for the Protestants who were struggling to establish themselves in such places as the Netherlands and the Germanic states.  For the Jews, this growing division among European Christians had the short term disadvantage of being caught between two warring parties and abused accordingly.  In the long run, it was advantageous. Protestant England (even when the Catholic James II would come to throne) and Holland would provide early and safe havens for European Jews, especially those looking for homes and opportunity after their experience with the Spanish Inquisition.

    1564:  Birthdate of William Shakespeare.  Was Shakespeare an anti-Semite?  The question comes up every time there is a revival of “The Merchant of Venice.”  The term Shylock, the term “pound of flesh” and the line “oh my ducats oh my daughter” have provided fodder for anti-Semites through the centuries.  On the other hand, Shakespeare depicts Shylock as a human with feelings, which was certainly a cut above the normal portrayal during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.  According to some critics, “Merchant of Venice” was written as The Bard’s theatrical response to Christopher Marlow’s, “The Jew of Malta.”

    1571: In Venice Diana Rachel and Isaac of Modena gave birth to Leon (Judah Areyh) of Modena, famed Italian scholar, rabbi and Poet.

    1615: Louis XIII decreed that all Jews must leave the country within one month on pain of death. This decree became the basis for the infamous Code Noir the Black Code which forbade Jews to live in French colonies in the New World including in 1724 the colony of Louisiana.  This may explain why there are no Jewish Creoles in New Orleans society.

    1615: Christians in France were forbidden, under pain of death, to shelter or converse with Jews, by order of Louis XIII.

    1620(20thof Nisan, 5380): Hayyim ben Joseph Vital passed away at Damascus. Born at Calabria in 1543, he was a foremost exponent of Lurianic Kabbalah, recording much of his master's teachings

    1625: Prince Maurice of Orange passed away despite the best efforts of his “Jewish physician” Joseph Bueno

    1659(30th of Nisan): Eight Jews were martyred today at Przemysl

    1661: Birthdate of Issachar Berend Lehmann, the native of Essen, Westphalia whose many accomplishments led him to become “the Court Jews for Elector Augustus II, the Strong of Saxony.

    1661: King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland is crowned in Westminster Abbey. The coronation of Charles II marked the Restoration following the death of Oliver Cromwell.  Cromwell had allowed the Jews to quietly re-enter England and develop a community.  “Technically, the 1558 Act of Uniformity, which labeled any rites other than those of the Church of England unlawful remained in force.”  But while still in the Netherlands, trying to secure his throne, Charles had assured Amsterdam that English Jews had nothing to fear from his kingship. A generous contribution from Jewish bankers and merchants certainly helped the situation.  Once in power, the king proved true to his word.  When Christian merchants tried to oust their Jewish competition on grounds that they were not members of the Church, Charles stood by his Jewish subjects as long as they obeyed the laws and remained peaceful subjects.  In 1673, an anti-Semitic mob demanded that the Jewish leaders be punished for worshipping in public.  When a grand jury caved in an indicted some of the leading Jews, the Israelites threatened to leave the kingdom rather than give up their religious liberties.  Charles issued orders to halt the proceedings and “not to cause any more anxieties to Jews.”

    1702: Margaret Fell, a founder of the Society of Friends (Quakers) who was a passionate advocate for the readmission of Jews to England during the debated in the middle of the 17th century passed away. At the same time, she like many other English Protestants wrote epistles to Jews in mainland Europe to persuade them to convert to true Christianity by which she “meant the Quaker movement which they saw as the spiritual House of Israel.

    1720: Birthdate of Elijah (Eliyahu) ben Shlomo Zalman "Kremer" better known as the Vilna Gaon. [Ed. Note: There is not enough room to do justice to this Giant of Judaism.  The following website is a good point of departure.]

    1744: In Havana, Isaac Mendez, and two other Jews boarded the Fortune, a French merchant sloop bound for Curacao.  Mendez, a resident of Kingston, Jamaica, was a Jewish merchant and loyal subject of King George II. In 1743, during a trading voyage, Mendez’s ship was captured by the Spanish and he was imprisoned in Havana.  In accord with ancient Jewish tradition, friends learned of his plight.  They “arranged for his release” and paid for his passage aboard the French vessel. [Yes, there is more to the story.  But you will have to wait for TDIJH for April 24 for the next installment]

    1791: Birthdate of James Buchanan, 15th President of the United States who in1857 received a committee of Jews led by Isaac Meyer Wise seeking his support in over-turning a treaty with the Swiss Cantons that resulted in American Jews being subjected to the anti-Semitic laws of Switzerland. Buchanan said he would work to correct the situation.  But Buchanan was no more effective in helping American Jews than he would be in preserving the Union when Secession came.

    1797: Birthdate of Solomon Plessner, the native of Bresalau who defended Orthodox Judaism against the in-roads of the Reform Movement.

    1797: In Charleston, SC, Sarah and Abraham Moise gave birth to Penina Moise. “Moïse was the first Jewish American woman to contribute to the worship service, writing 190 hymns for Beth Elohim. The Reform movement’s 1932 Union Hymnal still contained thirteen of her hymns.” (As reported by Jay Eidelman)

    1818: Birthdate of Christopher Oscanyan, the Armenian-born American author and speaker whose lecture topics included “The Women of Turkey and the Jews of the East.”

    1819: In Devon, UK, Robert Frounde, the archdeacon of Totnes and his wife gave birth to English historian and author James Anthony Froude whose works included the 1890 biography of Benjamin Disraeli entitled Lord Beaconsfield and who defeated Disraeli by a vote of fourteen votes for the position of Lord Rector of St. Andrews.

    1848: In New York, Congregation B’nai Israel moved from the old Shakespeare Hall at the corner of William and Duane streets” to a building on Pearl Street.

    1849: Noah Lodge No 1 of the Independent Order of Free Sons of Israel which had been formed in January of this year, held its eighth meeting today at which Mr. Stern and Mr. Buttenheim to advance the organization the 25 dollars needed to buy “emblems for the grand officers.”

    1852: “Le Juif errant” premiered at today at the Salle Le Peletier of the Paris Opera. “Le Juif errant (The Wandering Jew) is a grand opera by Fromental Halévy, with a libretto by Eugène Scribe and Jules-Henri Vernoy de Saint-Georges.” The opera is based extremely loosely on themes of the novel “Le Juif errant” by Eugène Sue. While the novel is set in 19th century Paris and the Wandering Jew is incidental to the main story-line, the opera begins in Amsterdam in 1190 and the Jew, Ahasvérus, is a leading character. The music was sufficiently popular to generate a Wandering Jew Mazurka, a Wandering Jew Waltz, and a Wandering Jew Polka.”

    1854: In New York, Abigail Kursheedt and Asher Kursheedt gave birth Alphonse Hart Kursheedt.

    1856: Morris Ehrlich, the President of the Kane Street Synagogue “proferred a complaint against the Shames for creating a disturbance in the Synagogue” which was found to be valid enough to warrant a fine of $4.00 being levied against the worker.

    1858: Birthdate of Max Plank, German physicist and Nobel Prize Winner.  During World War II, Plank tried to convince Hitler to spare the lives of Jewish scientists.  His son was executed for his part in the 1944 plot to kill Hitler.  Plank passed away in 1947.

    1859: In Ploieşti, Romania,house painter and amateur artist, MoisiŞăineanu and his wife gave birth to Lazăr Șăineanu who gained fame as Lazare Sainéan the French philologist and cultural historian

    1860: According “The Extortions of Slavery” published today, Dr. George B. Cheever delivered an anti-slavery speech last night at The Church of the Puritans in which he compared slaveholders to the anti-Semitic King John of England who “who, to extort money from a Jew, pulled a tooth every day from out the Hebrew's head until he complied with his demands.”

    1860: The Democratic National Convention which former Congressman Henry Myer Phillips attended as a delegate from Pennsylvania opened today.

    1861: Major Alfred Mordecai wrote an angry letter to Colonel Craig complaining that he had not had any response to his request for a transfer.  Unbeknownst to Mordecai, Craig had been replaced as his superior. Mordecai was a distinguished officer in the United States Army who was born in the South.  He was trying to gain a transfer to a post in the West so he could stay in the army without having to fight family and friends from the South.

    1868: According to today’s “Foreign News by Mail” column, when Ion Bratiano, Minister of State, was asked a question about the present of the National Guard at Jassy (Romania), he that “as long as the violent hatred against the Jews lasted he would not furnish the enemies of the Jews with arms.” Bratino was a Rumanian nationalist who worked to secure the establishment of an independent Romania.  He was the leader of the liberal cabinet that would declare Romania’s independence in 1877.  The conditions of Romania’s Jews did not improve with independence.

    1870: The remains of Dr. George Frick who had passed away while visiting Berlin were interred in the Greenmount Cemetery in Baltimore, MD.  Dr. Frick was the younger brother of the late Judge Frick. 

    1870(22ndof Nisan, 5630): 8th day of Pesach

    1871: Franz Joseph I of Austria made Solomon Benedict de Worms the “1stBaron de Worms.”

    1871: Derech Emunoh consecrated its new synagogue today in what has been the chapel of New York University.  The congregation which has been using a building on Greene Street leased its new facility.  The service was led by Rabbi S.M. Isaacs.

    1872(15th of Nisan, 5632): On the first day of Pesach, Rabbi Henry Vidaver delivered a sermon “on the celebration of Passover” at B’Nai Jeshrum in New York City.  Rabbi Vidaver was one of the contributors to the “Abridged School and Family Bible in Hebrew & English.”

    1878: In New Orleans, Rebecca (Kiefer) and Isidore Newman, the namesake of the Isidore Newman School gave birth to Miriam Dorothy Newman who gained fame as multi-talented artist Isadora Newman.

    1879(30th of Nisan, 5639): Rosh Chodesh Iyar

    1879: In Charleston, Rabbi David Levy presided over the wedding of Julian C. Levin and Lulie Bringloe, the eldest daughter of Captain Samuel G. Bringloe.

    1880: An article published today about Benjamin Disraeli, that begins with “Lord Beaconsfield steps down and at his advanced age it is not probable that he will ever again hold the reins of power” traced the career of the British statesman that began fifty-four years ago with the publication of “Vivian Gray” and includes such highlights as the maneuvering which brought the Suez Canal under British control.”  The article included the following, “Of Semitic origin, his ideas, methods, and sentiments bore an Oriental stamp.”  His father may have taken Disraeli to the baptismal font, but he was still “a Jew” to many of his contemporaries. 

    1881: A large number of Jews have arrived in Cincinnati for the upcoming dedication of a new building at the Hebrew Union College.

    1881: Samuel Alatri, the Italian politician who led the Jewish Community of Rome, delivered "Discorso Pronunziato nella Scuola del Tempio” today.

    1882: A conference designed to provide aid to the Jews of Russia was held today in Berlin.  There were representatives from several different countries including the United States and Great Britain which was represented by Sr. Juilan Goldsmid and Dr. Herrman Adler.  In making plans for the future, the conference assigned the Americans the responsibility for finding employment for Russian immigrants going to the United States.  The Germans and British were given responsibility for raising additional funds.

    1882: It was reported today, that as a result of a report issued by the Minister of Justice, the Czar has ordered that the trials of all those accused “of outrages against the Jews” be dealt with in a speedy manner.

    1883: It was reported today the biography of Dr. Barclay, the late Anglican Bishop in Jerusalem will be published shortly.  The book will include significant information about the failure to convert Jews and Moslems.

    1889(22nd of Nisan, 5649): 8th day of Pesach

    1889: Millionaire stock broker, Isidor Wormser, whose daughter is a Seligman by marriage, was so upset with the comments that Rensselaer Bissell had made about him that he challenged him to a fistfight outside of the NYSE after the exchange had closed.  In the end, Bissell backed down, much to the disappointment of his fellow brokers.

    1890: “A Mighty Power” by Frank Rothschild, Jr. had a pre-Broadway matinee performance at the Fifth Avenue Theatre. 

    1891(15thof Nisan, 5651): Pesach

    1891: Birthdate of Ostrog, Russia native and WW I veteran William Alexander Perlzweig who came to the U.S. In 1906 where he earned all three degrees at Columbia before pursuing a career as a biochemist at Duke University.

    1891: An order expelling the Jews from Moscow was published today,

    1893: Rabbi Raphael Benjamin was reported today as describing the blackballing of Theodore Seligman by the Union League as “unmanly, un-American and un-Christian.” At the same time he took issued with those who “that this is only the beginning of a movement against Jews” in New York City and saw “it only as a small remnant of the ignorant prejudiced with once existed toward” Jews “and which, under the enlightening influence of education is fast disappearing.”

    1894: Hyman Blumenthal, a Jewish peddler is being held in jail facing charges of arson for his role in burning a tenement in New York City.

    1894: “Lesson from the Passover published today presented Dr. Joseph Silverman’s view of “Judaism as a religion based on freedom” and that “a religion that would seek to subvert American unity and establish a union of Church and State and subsidize itself from the Public Treasury was nothing but organized treason.”

    1894(17th of Nisan, 5654): American banker and philanthropist Jesse Seligman passed away today at Coronado Beach CA. Born at Baiersdorf, Bavaria, on  August 11, 1827, he followed his brothers to the United States in 1841, and established himself at Clinton, Alabama. In 1848 he moved with his brothers to Watertown, N. Y., and then, with his brother Leopold, went to San Francisco in the autumn of 1850, where he became a member of the Vigilance Committee, as well as of the Howard Fire Company. He remained in California until 1857, when he joined his brother in establishing a banking business in New York. With his brother Joseph he helped to found the Hebrew Orphan Asylum in 1859, and was connected with it till his death. At the time of his death he was a trustee of the Baron de Hirsch Fund. He was a member of the Union League Club, of which he was vice-president, and from which he resigned in 1893 when the club for racial reasons refused to admit to membership his son Theodore. He was head of the American Syndicate formed to place in the United States the shares of the Panama Canal. He was also a friend and supporter of President Grant whom he first met when the young army officer was stationed near Watertown.  In fact, Grant tried to make him the first American Jew to serve in the Cabinet. (As reported in the Jewish Encyclopedia and Dr. Jonathan Sarna)


    1896, Herzl wrote in his diaries of his arrival in Karlsruhe at Reverend William Hechler’s request.

    “Arrived here at eleven last night. Hechler met me at the station and took me to the Hotel Germania, which had been “recommended by the Grand Duke.” We sat in the dining-room for an hour. I drank Bavarian beer, Hechler milk. He told me what had happened. The Grand Duke had received him immediately upon his arrival, but first wanted to wait for his privy-councilor’s report on my Jewish State. Hechler showed the Grand Duke the “prophetic tables” which seemed to make an impression. When the Kaiser arrived, the Grand Duke immediately informed him of the matter. Hechler was invited to the reception and to the surprise of the court-assembly the Kaiser addressed him with the jocular words: “Hechler, I hear you wanted to become a minister of the Jewish State.”

    1896: A memorial honoring the late Jesse Seligman was unveiled this afternoon at the Hebrew Orphan Asylum on 138thStreet and Amsterdam Avenue

    1896: The New York Section of the National Council of Jewish Women met in vestry rooms of Temple Beth-El.

    1896: The Times of London reported today that Prince Ferdinand of Bulgaria cut short his official to Russia and left St. Petersburg for Paris so he could he could attend the funeral “of his friend,” Baron Hirsch.

    1898: The Alumni Association of the Hebrew Technical Institute hosted its fifth annual reunion banquet at the Tuxedo

    1898: Start of a two day Preliminary conference in Vienna prior to the second Zionist Congress. Representatives from Russia, Austria and Germany all attended. It is decided to send Leo Motzkin to Palestine to prepare a report. The congress will meet again in Basel, Switzerland. As was befitting for liberal movement that would come to be dominated by socialist idealist, the Zionist leaders decided that women would be allowed to attend the Congress as voting delegates. In other words, Zionist women had the vote two decades before women in the United States got the vote.

    1898: Spain declared war on the United States, the first half of the official act to officially start the Spanish-American War in which 5,000 Jewish volunteers would serve.

    1899: Herzl begins the two day Bank Conference in Köln with Wolffsohn and Heymann as he sought to develop his “top down” concept of creating a Jewish home in Eretz Israel.

    1899: The American Hebrew League of Greater New York met in Brooklyn this evening.

    1899: Dr. Felix Adler is scheduled to deliver a lecture on “The Metropolitan Greatness of New York and the Vast Moral Problems It Raises” at the Music Hall in New York City.

    1899: Thanks to a donation of $25,000 from Abraham Slimmer of Waverly, Iowa a permanent home for the Chicago Home for Jewish Orphans was dedicated on a piece of land donated by Henry Siegel and other members of the Windy City’s Jewish community.

    1899: “Hebrew Technical School” published today included a history of the Jewish school that included among its graduates the architect William C. Sommerield and  that after being open for only 15 years has become so successful that it had turned away fifty applicants for lack of space.

    1900: The 27th Convention of the District Grand Lodge No. 7 of B’nai Birth continued for a second day in New Orleans.

    1901: The New York branch of the Alliance Israelite Universelle was reorganized under direction of M. Nissim Behar. The meeting was held in English, Yiddish and German. Mr. Louis Marshall was elected President, and Henry Periera Mendes as secretary.

    1902(16thof Nisan, 5662): Second Day of Pesach; First Day of the Omer.

    1902(16thof Nisan, 5652): In Detroit, “the cornerstone laying ceremony for the new synagogue building of Temple Beth El” took place today.
    1903: Herzl is received by Joseph Chamberlain, who just came back from Africa.
    The Chamberlain-Herzl negotiations of the "Uganda scheme" are the first recognition of the president of the Zionist Organization as representing the Jewish people.

    1903: During the “Melvin Bellis Case” a report from the Kiev District Procurator, based on an autopsy by a medical professor from Kiev University, intimated that Andrei Yustchinski had been the victim of a ritual murder.  “Years later, it would be learned that the ministry of justice had slipped the doctor a four thousand ruble bribe.”

    1904: In London Gladys Helen Rachel Goldsmid and Louis Montagu, 2nd Baron Swaythling gave birth to  Ivor Goldsmid Samuel Montagu “a British filmmaker, screenwriter, producer, film critic, writer, table tennis player and apparent Soviet spy who  “received some credit for the development of a vibrant intellectual film culture in Britain during the interwar years.”  He passed away in 1984.

    1907: Birthdate of Elizabeth “Lee” Miller the fashion model who during WW II became a war correspondent and photographer who covered the “horrors of Buchenwald and Dachau.” (She was not Jewish but the photos were part of the creation of a record of the Horrors of the Holocaust.)

    1908: Birthdate of Czech writer and diplomat Egon Hostovsky, a distant relative of Stefan Zweig, most of whose immediate family perished in the Holocaust and who was immortalized by the posthumous creation of the Egon Hostovsky Prize for literature.

    1908: In Cologne, Germany, music critic Paul Hiller and his wife Sophie Lion gave birth to Erwin Ottmar Hiller grandson of pianist Ferdinand Hiller, who gained fame as Holocaust survivor and actor Marcel Hillaire, whose most memorable for me was as the French Chef in the marvelous comedy “Sabrina.”

    1910: Birthdate of Martin Roman, the German jazz pianist who played with the Marek Weber Band and was shipped to Theresienstadt in 1944.

    1910(14th of Nisan, 5670): On Shabbat HaGadol, Rabbi Joseph Silverman delivered a sermon at Temple Emanu-El in which his he praised Mayor Gaynor for this letter to Reverend Chalmers refusing him a license to preach on the street corners of the East Side with the aim of converting Jews to Christianity.

    1910(14th of Nisan, 5670): “Passover Begins To-Night” published today states that “"Pesach," the Hebrew festival of the Passover, one of the most important festivals of the Jewish calendar, will begin at sunset this evening, which is the fourteenth day of the month of Nison. This festival was ordained to celebrate the deliverance of the children of Israel from their long captivity in Egypt and their departure from the house of bondage on the way through the wilderness to the promised land of Canaan.”

    1910 (14th of Nisan, 5670): A Seder will be held tonight on Ellis Island for the Jewish immigrants who have not been given permission to enter the United States.

    1910: Clarence Charles Minzesheimer, head of the banking and brokerage house Charles Minzesheimr & Co had his appendix removed after suffering an attack of appendicitis.

    1911: In Marseille, Erma Maria Domenica Giorcelli and “Henri Louis Firmin Champmoynat, a French Jewish engineer, airplane pilot in World War II, who died in a concentration camp” gave birth to French movie star Simone Thérèse Fernande Simon.

    1913(16thof Nisan, 5673): Second Day of Pesach; First Day of the Omer

    1913: George Washington Ochs-Oakes, he son of Julius and Bertha Ochs, and his wife Bertie gave birth to John Bertram Oakes

    1914: Birthdate of Harry Kravitsky, the Brooklyn native who  as Harry Crane  went from  Borscht Belt comic to screenwriter for Hollywood films and television.

    1914: Justice Ben Bill of the Georgia State Supreme Court heard the appeal of Leo Frank today.

    1915: It was reported today that “Hermann Laundau, a prominent Jewish philanthropist associated with various Jewish charities in London” has said that “seven million Poles, of whom 2,000,000 are Jews are in dire need of food” and that “the Jews are even poorer than the Gentiles, because of the boycott against the Jews in parts of Poland before the beginning of the war, which impoverished thousands who otherwise would have been able to provide for their families.”

    1915: Three years after its founding, the second annual convention of the Mizrahi of America opened its second annual convention in New York City.

    1915: Rupert Brooke, a young scholar and poet serving as an officer in the British Royal Navy” whom Alexander Aciman called his “Favorite Anti-Semite” “died of blood poisoning on a hospital ship anchored off the Greek island of Skyros, while awaiting deployment in the Allied invasion of the Gallipoli Peninsula.

    1916(20thof Nisan, 5676): Sixth Day of Pesach

    1916: “Nathan Straus greeted thousands of Jewish children” in New York this morning “at the Passover gatherings of Young Judea” where “he urged them to remain true to the traditions of their people and said they might well be proud of being young Zionists.”

    1916: “Henry Morgenthau, the U.S. Ambassador to Turkey, was the guest of honor this afternoon at the Fifth Annual Convention of the Federation of Oriental Jews in American” at P.S. No. 91 where he said “that his career had been started in a public school and that a similar chance in life could be the reward for anyone who was willing to make the effort.”

    1917: It was reported today that Louis Marshall has described the formation of The League of Jewish Youth of America as “the protest of the young Jews and Jewesses against the deadly tendency to drift hopelessly on arctic sea” and as “the expression of their desire to affect a stable and dignified adjustment of ancient Jewish idealism to perfect American citizenship.”

    1917: A cable received from the Petrograd correspondent of the Jewish Daily Forward in New York today described “how the Jews of Russia are aiding the new Government in its effort to bring order out of chaos and successfully prosecute the war against Germany.”

    1917: Zangwill Back To Zionism” published today described the return of Israel Zangwill to the Zionist Movement from which he has been estranged since 1905 when he others sought to find other places for a Jewish Home” including land in Africa which was part of the British Empire.

    1917: “A stormy controversy over the question of woman suffrage sprang up at the assembly of the Eastern Council of Reform Rabbis at Temple Emanu-El” today with “Dr. Stephen S. Wise threatening to resign from the council because of the in which the President, Dr. Joseph Silverman, opposed any attempt to present the suffrage issue to consideration of the assembled rabbis.”

    1918: Dr. Alexander Dushkin announced today that 3,700 new members have joined “the Jewish Community” which has its headquarters on Second Avenue and has been conducting a membership drive that has “included Jews of all classes” in New York City.

    1918: In New York, Regina and Nisim Yeuda Levy gave birth to Louis N. Levy.

    1918: In Paris, “Lazare Kessel, a promising actor of Jewish Russian descent whom committed suicide” and his wife gave birth to author Maurice Druon who along with his Uncle Joseph Kessel wrote the lyrics “to the unofficial anthem of the French Resistance” in 1943.”

    1919: The funeral for one year old Pearl Gerber, the daughter of Edward and Rose E. Gerber was held today in Chicago.

    1920: Political change comes to the Ottoman Empire as the national council denounces Sultan Mehmed VI and The Grand National Assembly of Turkey is formed.  These events are steps down the road to the dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire and the creation of modern day Turkey. The end of the Ottoman Empire was a critical factor in the creation of a Jewish Homeland that led to the state of Israel.  But this dismemberment has been a critical factor that haunts the Middle East to this day.

    1920(5th of Iyyar, 5680): Isaac Gause passed away.  Born in 1843 in Ohio, he was a corporal in the 2nd OhioCavalry (USA) Army who won the Medal of Honor for valor displayed at Berryville, VA, in September of 1864.

    1921(15thof Nisan, 5681): First Day of Pesach

    1921(15thof Nisan, 5681): Seventy-three year old Israel Zeitoun, “the chief rabbi and president of the Rabbinical Court in Tunis” passed away today.

    1921: Gambler Nick Arenstein and comedic actress Fannie Brice gave birth abstract painter William Brice.

    1923: Birthdate of Shlomo Hillel an Iraqi-born Israeli diplomat and politician who served as Speaker of the Knesset, Minister of Police and Minister of Internal Affairs. He was also an ambassador to several countries in Africa.

    1923: Birthdate of dancer Melissa Hayden

    1923: Birthdate of Avram Davidson. Born in Yonkers, NY, educated at NYU, Yeshiva U and Pierce College, he spent a year in the Israeli Amy during the Arab-Israeli War of 1948-49. His first sale was to Orthodox Jewish Life Magazine eight years before he broke into the genre. Originally an observant Orthodox Jew. Converted to Tenrikyo in 1970, after which he spent time in Japan, studied the religion intensely, and translated some texts into English.He was a writer of fantasy fiction, science fiction, and crime fiction, as well as the author of many unclassifiable but unforgettable stories that do not fit into a genre niche. He won a Hugo Award and was three time winner of the World Fantasy Award in the science fiction and fantasy genre, and a Queen's Award and an Edgar Award in the mystery genre. Davidson edited The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction from 1962 to 1964. He passed away in 1993.

    1924: In Columbia, South Carolina dress shop manager Mordecai Moses Donen and Helen Cohen, the daughter of a jewelry salesman gave birth to director and choreographer best known for “Singing’ In the Rain” and “On the Town.”

    1926: Sixty-eight year old Joseph Pennell, the artist and author whose works include The Jew at Home: Impressions of a Summer and Autumn Spent With Him.

    1928: “The Plastic Age” produced by B.P. Schulberg which would gain the attention of Adolph Zukor, the CEO of Paramount, was released today in Finland.

    1929: In Pairs, Frederick Steiner, a senior lawyer in the Austrian Central Bank and Else Steiner, “a Viennese Grande Dame” gave birth to Francis George Steiner “French-born American literary critic, essayist, philosopher, novelist, and educator” whose works include Portage to San Cristobal of A.H., in which Jewish Nazi hunters find Adolf Hitler (the "A.H." of the novella's title) alive in the Amazon jungle thirty years after the end of World War II

    1930: In New York City, stockbroker Louis E. Oppenheimer and his wife Irene (née Rothschild) Oppenheimer gave birth to Alan Oppenheimer who had a long list of movie and television credits to his name including the role of Dr. Rudy Wells in the “Six Million Dollar Man.”

    1930: In Brooklyn, attorney Louis Cohen and his wife gave birth to Arthur George Cohen “who began a roller-coaster real estate career with a $25,000 investment in tract housing on Long Island before creating the nation’s largest publicly held real estate company, teaming up with tycoons like Aristotle Onassis to build trophy Manhattan skyscrapers…” (As reported by Douglas Martin)

    1934: Abraham Stavsky, Zvi Rosenblatt and Abba Achimeyer went on trial for the murder of Dr. Chaim Arlosoroff today in Jerusalem.

    1935: According to an announcement made today by Dr. Gross, the head “of the Nazi party’s race bureau” “the exclusion of Jewish children from public schools in Germany and their transfer to special Jewish schools is the next point in the government’s program for dealing with German Jews.”

    1936(1st of Iyar, 5696): Rosh Chodesh Iyar

    1936: Isaac Ben Zvi, representing Vaad Leumi (the Palestine Jewish National council) and Rabbi Moses Blau of Agudath Israel call on Jon Hall, Chief Secretary of the Palestine Government and asked him to prevent Arabs living in surrounding villages from coming to Jerusalem tomorrow.  The villagers are coming in response to a call from the Mufit of Jerusalem.  The fears of the Jewish leaders are based on the current climate of violence in Palestine and the fact that the current conditions remind one of conditions that resulted in the violent Arab riots in August of 1929.  As if to underscore their concerns, reports have surfaced in Jerusalem that the “private offices of the May of Tel Aviv…were plundered in Jaffa this afternoon.”

    1936: John Hathorn Hall, Chief Secretary of the Palestine Government refused the request of Isaac Ben Zvi of the Vaad Leumi (the Palestine Jewish National Council) and Rabbi Moses Blau of Agudath Israel to prevents villages from coming into Jerusalem tomorrow because “they were coming for religious purposes.”  Blau responded, “That is the same reply I received from the High Commissioner Luke in 1929 just before the big massacre of Jews began.”

    1936: In Massachusetts, “Alexander Lincoln, president of the Sentinels of the Republic, whose recently voiced belief that ‘the Jewish threat is a real one,’ cause a storm of protest, resigned from the State Board of Tax appeals today” at the same time that Governor Curley was trying to oust from the postion.

    1936: Governor James Michael Curley announced today that he would appoint Abraham Webber, a leader in the Jewish community to serve as a Public Utility Commissioner.

    1936: “Travelers returning from Poland” brought “reports of pogroms and persecution in the larger cities” and described the “state of affairs” under which the Jews are living as “pitiable.”

    1936: The Jewish Telegraph Agency “said that thirty persons had been killed in the four days of Arab-Jewish clashes” and approximately 190 more had been wounded.

    1936: “David Ben Gurion, Chairman of the Executive of the Jewish Agency for Palestine spoke by telephone from Jerusalem with American Jewish leaders today and said that the Jewish community in Palestine would not be dissuaded from their “work of rebuilding the country” because of the current violence.

    1937(12thof Iyar, 5697): Sixty-six year old Austrian obstetrician and gynecologist, Josef van Halban, the son of Philipp and Anna Sara Hinda Halban  and the husband of opera singer Selma von Halban passed away today in Vienna.

    1938(22ndof Nisan, 5698): Eighth Day of Pesach and Shabbat

    1938: Rabbi Samuel H. Goldenson is scheduled to deliver a sermon on “Jews by Birth and Jews by Belief” at Temple Emanu-El.

    1938: Rabbi William F. Rosenblum is scheduled to deliver a sermon on “One Third of the Nation and the Other Two Thirds” at Temple Israel.

    1938: Rabbi Alexander Segel is scheduled to deliver a sermon on “The Four Parties in Israel at the Red Sea” today at the Fort Washington Synagogue.

    1938: In Carrigrohane, René Dreyfus took ahead of his number one pole position to win the Cork Crand Prix in which he posted the fastest lap as well.

    1938 Jews in Vienna, Austria, were rounded up on the Sabbath by Nazis and forced to eat grass at the Prater, a local amusement park. Many of the victimized Jews suffered heart attacks and a few died.

    1939: The police arrested 218 more illegal immigrants near Jaffa early this morning.  The group that included fifty women and ten children had been put ashore by a Greek ship near Ashkelon.  The British forces found them wandering in the dunes.  They were taken to holding camps in Jaffa.  Along the way, the convoy passed several Jewish settlements where the residents cheered these latest escapees from Hitler’s Europe.

    1940(15thof Nisan, 5700): Pesach

    1940: The Chief of Naval Operations “publicly stated that Admiral Joseph Taussig’s views” on the inevitably of war between Japan and the United States if present trends continue “were contrary to the Navy Department’s and today issued a reprimand that was placed in Taussig’s file.”

    1940: The Nazis ordered the Jews to jump in cesspool at the Stutthof Labor Camp. The short ones drown.

    1941: Eighty year old Davenport, IA native Charles Edward Russell the author of Haym Salomon and the Revolution and a leading supporter of the creation of a Jewish state in Palestine passed away today in Washington, D.C.

    1943(18thof Nisan, 5703): Saartje Polak de Beer and Wed. E. Polake de Levie, two sixty year olds from Goor were murdered at Sobibor today.

    1943(18thof Nisan, 5703): Seventy-seven year old Alexander Gotthold Ephraim Freud passed

    1943: “Clancy Street Boys” a Bowery Boys comedy produced by Sam Katzman and Jack Dietz was released in the United States today.

    1943: Much to everybody's surprise, the Warsaw Uprising continues even though supplies and weapons are at the bare minimum.  By now the Poles know what is going on.  They watch, but they offer no aid.  The Polish underground will suffer a similar fate in 1945.  Then they will rise up against the Nazis, but the Soviet troops wait outside the city giving the Germans to wipe the predominately non-Communist part of the resistance movement.  As somebody once said, as you treat your Jews, so shall you be treated.

    1944: “Following the German occupation of Germany” today, the Portuguese ruler António de Oliveira Salazar decided to order his ambassador to return to Lisbon and leave Teixeira Branquinho,  as the chargé d'affaires, in his place – a move which made it possible for the courageous Branquinho to save at least a thousand Jews from the Nazis and their Hungaridan allies.

    1944: Otto Armster, a German military intelligence officer who was part of the plot to kill Hitler was arrested by the Gestapo today where he was taken Berlin and placed in solitary confinement.

    1945: Units from the U.S Army’s 2nd Cavalry Group, Mechanized, the 90th Infantry Division and the 97th Infantry Division liberated Flossenburg Concentration Camp today where they found 1,600 survivors including Czech journalist Josef Taussig in a place where at one time the Nazis had murdered 30,000 inmates.

    1946: Forces of the Irgun including Dov Bel Gruner attacked the police station in Ramat Gan.  Two policemen were killed and Gruner, who was wounded in the attack, was taken prisoner.1947: The trial of Hans Biebow “the chief of German Nazi administration of the Łódź Ghetto in occupied Poland” began today.1948(14th of Nisan, 5708): Erev Pesach the rations given out in Jerusalem for the observance of Passover included 2 lbs. of potatoes, ½ lb of fish, 4 lb. of matzo, 1 ½ oz. dried fruit, ½ lb. meat, and ½ lb. of matzo flour. As one who was there later wrote, “For the trapped citizens of Jerusalem, who had become accustomed to privation, the Passover provisions seemed like a banquet. However, for the citizens of Jerusalem, it was not a particularly merry affair. On the verge of their national freedom, the inhabitants of Jerusalem sat somberly around their tables. This was the first time since the nightly shellings that the city's citizens had come together in assembly in the various homes throughout the city that had been the dream of two thousand years' Seders. Tonight is a holiday, but tomorrow the struggle will go on. As they sat to begin the Seder, they heard the beginning of the snipers bullets looking for a straggler in the streets. But tonight was different. As they opened the door, as they had done for scores of generations, to welcome in Elijah, there was no fear. Tonight is a night of divine protection. As the Holy One protected the Jews in Egypt, so shall he protect us here in the war torn city of Jerusalem. "Once we were slaves, but today we are free men" recited in the Haggadah, took on new meaning. The British are leaving, the Arabs are attacking, and we are beginning our new national lives as free men in our own country. "Next year in Jerusalem" had a meaning that we never before understood. We meant it; we would not relinquish our dream to return to our homeland, to the city that has been in our hearts throughout the two thousand year exile. Now we are free men, tomorrow we must continue the fight to remain free.

    1948: Corporal David Hyman Rubenstein the 19th Milford, Massachusetts man to lose his life in World War IIwas buried at Beth Israel Cemetery in Everett, with full military honors. “Milford’s Fallen Family” of that war would come to total 55. Rubenstein was killed in action, in France, on July 4, 1944. Weeks after his death, his last letter arrived home. Written on June 28 from a fox hole, it described the “carnage about him ... as a slaughterhouse.”

    1948: The port of Haifa was captured by elements of the Israeli Carmeli Brigade.  On April 21, the general commanding British forces in Haifa announced that he was withdrawing his forces in 24 hours.  This announcement resulted in an outbreak of fighting between Jewish and Arab forces.  Unfortunately for the Arabs, their three to leaders fled at the outbreak of the fighting, demoralizing the population.  The British general lost his bet that neither side would win as the outnumbered members of the Haganah took control.  Despite efforts of the Jewish leaders to convince them to remain, most of the city’s Arab population left for Lebanon or Nazareth.  . Today, Haifa is a thriving and diverse cultural and ethnic center, home to Jews, Arabs, and Druze, and marked for its high level of coexistence.  It is this level of harmony that has made Haifa a target for terrorist bombings in the latest wave of Arab violence.

    1950: St. Louis Browns pitcher Sid Schacht made his major league baseball debut.

    1950: Correspondent Gene Currivan evaluates Israel’s chances for survival and offers an explanations for her success against her more powerful Arab neighbors in an article published today entitled “Mid-East Peace Nearer Despite Arab Gestures.”  He points out that the Arab League’s failure to provide a common front was but one of the many problems facing the Arabs.  “At the outset of the Israel-Arab war, when the Arabs spoke of 40,000,000 Arabs banding together against Israel, the were thinking in terms of Moslems, but the Moslems of Saudi Arabia, Iran and Afghanistan could not have cared less…When those who did enter the war sat back and licked their wounds, they probably wonder what all the shouting had been about.  The war was started by the Arabs in defiance of the United Nations’ partition plan which they had refused to accept…The Arabs made a grave mistake…but they are reluctant to forgive and forget.”

    1950: Israel continued to celebrate its second year of independence as Dr. Weizmann receives congratulatory visits by foreign dignitaries lead by U.S. Ambassador James G MacDonald.

    1953: The Jerusalem Post reported that the "past seven days was the bloodiest week along Israeli borders for a long time." Two Israelis were murdered at Mevuot Betar, the marauders were active in the South, in Galilee and Jerusalem. There was a general outcry when General Bennet L. de Ridder, the U.N. Chairman of the Israel-Jordan Mixed Armistice Commission refused to comply with the Israeli request to call an emergency meeting of the Commission to discuss the latest developments and, in particular, the murder of Zvi Genauer and his niece, Dvora, in Jerusalem. This incomprehensible U.N. decision was taken despite the fact that the tracks of the three marauders, responsible for this murder, were discovered by an U.N. observer and an Israeli officer who noted that they led to the Jordanian-occupied village of Beit Iksa. The General claimed that it was not the duty of his Commission to deal with incidents "of this type."

    1953: The Jerusalem Post reported that Israel's three-years-long land survey, conducted by the Ministry of Agriculture, was almost completed.
    1954: Jockey William Harmatz rode six consecutive winners “at Bay Meadows Racetrack.”
    1954: Cincinnati pitcher Moe Savransky made his major league baseball debut.
    1955: In New York, Robert and Patricia Mozer gave birth to Paul William Mozer, the Salomon Brothers employee who “played a pivotal role in a bond scandal.”

    1955: Final performance of “The Dark Is Light Enough” featuring as Marian Winters “Gelda.”
    1956: For the third time, Sigmund Freud is featured on the cover of Timemagazine.
    1957(22nd of Nisan, 5717): 8th day of Pesach
    1957(22nd of Nisan, 5717): Lucille Frank, the widow of Leo Frank, passed away, a victim of heart disease.
    1958(3rd of Iyar, 5718): Yom HaZikaron
    1958: Birthdate of Radu Mihăileanu, the native of Bucharest who moved to Paris in 1989 where he gained fame as a film director and screenwriter.

    1958: The first production of “J.B.” a play written in free verse which is a modern retelling of the story of the biblical figure Job opened today at Yale University.
    1958: “Expresso Bongo,” a musical with a book co-authored by Wolf Mankowitz and music by Monty Norman opened for the first time at the Saville Theatre in London today.

    1958: San Francisco Giants outfielder Don Taussig appeared in his first major league baseball game.
    1959(15th of Nisan, 5719): Pesach
    1960: In Shaker Heights, Raphael Silver and Joan Micklin Silver, both of whom were directors, gave birth to Marisa Silver, an American author, screenwriter and film director. She is a second generation film director.

    1961: Judy Garland, two of whose five husbands were Jewish and who was re-interred at Beth Olam Cemetery performed at Carnegie Hall today.
    1963(29th of Nisan, 5723):Seventy-eight year old Yitzhak Ben-Zvi, third President of Israel passed away.

    1963: Kadish Luz was named interim President of Israel.
    1966(3rd of Iyar, 5726): Parashat Tazria-Metzora
    1966(3rd of Iyar, 5726): Eighty-one year old Gertrude D.H. Perlman “a lawyer for more than fifty years and an attorney with the New York State Mortgage Commission” who was the widow of Max Perlman passed away today.
    1969: Sirhan Sirhan was sentenced to death for killing Bobby Kennedy. Sirhan Sirhan's sentence was commuted to life in prison.  He still is serving his sentence.  The young Palestinian claimed that he shot Kenney because he was a supporter of Israel.  Yes, the terror and the violence are an old story.

    1975: At Tulane University, U.S. President Gerald Ford stated that the war is over as far as the United States was concerned. According to at least one Jewish Tulane alum, this was an appropriate place to make such an announcement since the primarily poitically apathetic campus had missed the start of the war.

    1969: Birthdate of novelist Arthur Phillips, the native of Minneapolis whose works include Prague, The Egyptologist,Angelica, The Song Is You and The Tragedy of Arthur

    1972: At an “academic convocation held under the auspices of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America” a thousand people saw “His Excellency the Right Honourable Roland Michener, governor general of Canada, accepted the honorary degree of doctor of laws from Rabbi Louis Finkelstein, chancellor of the seminary. In his acceptance speech, Michener “made special reference to the125thanniversary of Congregation Shaar Hashomayim.”

    1972(9th of Iyar, 5732): Seventy-five year old British racecar driver Albert Moss who was the father of the more famous racecar driver Sterling Moss passed away today.
    1973(21st of Nisan, 5733): Seventh Day of Pesach
    1973(21st of Nisan, 5755): Eighty-five year old Leonard Jacques Stein, the barrister and MP who served as President of the Anglo-Jewish Association and Jewish Historical Society of England passed away today.

    1974: Senator Ted Kennedy arrived in Moscow today where he planned to discuss issues related to the Middle East and emigration.
    1977(5th of Iyar, 5737): Parashat Tazria-Metzora
    1977(5th of Iyar, 5737): Eighty-six year old Vienna native William Popper, the son of Johanna and Herman Joseph Popper and the husband of Annie Popper passed away today in San Francisco.

    1984: During an attempt at reconciliation, at “family dinner at the Carlyle Hotel” Lillian Goldman, the estranged wife of millionaire Sol Godman agreed to return to her husband and the reconciliation agreement which was written on the spot by Raoul Felder, Mr. Goldman’s lawyer included a stipulation that she would receive one million dollars in cash “within a week and additional five million dollars by April, 1989.

    1986(14th of Nisan, 5746): Fast of the First Born

    1986(14th of Nisan, 5746): Composer Harold Arlen passed away. Born Hyman Arluck in 1905, in Buffalo, New York, Arlen's father was a cantor.  Arlen inherited his father's voice and the family hoped he would become a cantor, or at least a doctor or a lawyer.  However, Arlen showed a propensity for the piano.  He moved to New York City in the 1920's where he flourished as composer of a variety of hits. Some of his most famous music is heard every time the Wizard of Oz is shown on television.  Arlene was murdered in 1981 at the age of 81

    1986(14th of Nisan, 5746): Director and actor, Otto Preminger passed away.  Born on December 5, 1905, in Vienna, Preminger began as a director and producer in the theatre.  He came to the United States in 1935 as a film director.  Later he left to work in the theatre in New York.  He returned to Hollywood as actor where he played the Nazi or German officer in several films, most notably Stalag 17, the product of another Jew, Billy Wilder.  Preminger and others were struck by the success a Jew from Austria had playing Nazi soldiers.  Preminger returned to directing movies, one of which, Anatomy of A Murder is considered to be one of the finest legal/mystery movies ever made.  He passed away after suffering from Alzheimer's Disease for many years.

    1986:An Israeli Defense Ministry official said today that Avraham Bar-Am, a retired Israeli general who is among those accused in a smuggling case involving attempts by Iran to buy American-made weapons through illegal channels, was licensed to deal in weapons, but not in a manner that violated the law.

    1986: CBS broadcast the final episode of “Fast Times” a television miniseries based on the movies of the same name both of which were directed by Amy Heckerling.

    1987: Birthdate of Israeli singer and songwriter Boaz Mauda.

    1990(28th of Nisan, 5750): Actress Paulette Goddard passed away

    1991(9th of Iyar, 5751): Seventy-nine year old attorney and advocate for the rights of women Harriet Pilpel passed away today in New York City.

    1993: The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum opened on the Mall in Washington, DC under the chairmanship of Miles Lerman. Born Shmuel Milek Lerman in 1920 in Tomaszov-Lubelski, Poland was a Holocaust survivor.  He was appointed to the chairmanship by Jimmy Carter and given responsibility for creating this American memorial to the Shoah. (As reported by Dennis Hevesi)

    1994: In a letter to the New York Times historian Ronald N. Stromberg wrote, “"The Italian government did not turn a single Jew over to the Germans despite great pressure…"

    1995(23rd of Nisan, 5755):  Howard Cosell passed away.  Born Howard Cohen in Winston Salem, North Carolina in 1918, Cosell was educated in New York.  Ah yes, grits and gefilte fish.  Trained as a lawyer, Cosell gained fame as a sports broadcaster.  He helped revolutionize television football coverage and changed American social mores with his participation in Monday Night Football on ABC.  Cosell was a controversial figure with as many supporters as detractors. But when he passed away, all that was remembered was the man who was "the first to tell it like it is" in the world of sport.

    1996(4thof Iyar, 5756): Yom HaZikaron

    1997(16thof Nisan, 5757): Second Day of Pesach

    1997(16thof Nisan, 5757): One hundred year old Esther Schiff Goldfrank passed away in New York.

    1998(27th of Nisan, 5758): Yom HaShoah.

    1999:After months of testing, today McDonald's officially unveiled -- in 6,000 stores across the Midwest and Northeast, including New York and New Jersey -- three new ''bagel breakfast sandwiches.'' Ana Madan-Russo, president of McDonald's New York Tri-State Owners and Operators association, says franchise owners are excited about selling bagel sandwiches ''in the bagel capital of the world.'' Not so fast, says Mr. Zabar, dissecting a McDonald's steak, egg and cheese bagel in Eli's, his market on the Upper East Side.

    A true bagel, he asserts, must be boiled, then baked to achieve authenticity. ''This one,'' he says regretfully, ''has been steamed, not boiled.'' He notes the telltale signs, the wimpy crust and the soft inside that pulls apart without a fight. ''It's like Wonder bread in a circle,'' he says. ''A New York bagel fights with you. It's tough on the outside, and chewy on the inside, and you struggle with it.'' Elena Ramos, marketing director for McDonald's in New York, dismisses as irrelevant whether McDonald's bagels are steamed or boiled, or treated with any special preservatives. ''I'm not sure if the customers buying them up get into all that,'' she says. The company has no plans to sell bagel sandwiches in its other 7,000 restaurants outside the Midwest and Northeast, and Ms. Ramos says it is too soon to tell whether the McDonald's bagels will catch on with New York City's sizable population of bagel nuts. But, she notes, they sold briskly in several test markets, including Hartford. In addition to the steak bagel, McDonald's is offering a Spanish omelet bagel and one with ham, egg and cheese.

    ''It looks like the customers love them as much as we do,'' she says. Indeed, some New Yorkers welcome the menu additions. ''They should gear food for the area they're in,'' says Joseph Loach, 39, of Brooklyn, during lunch in McDonald's at Eighth Avenue and 43d Street. ''Bagels are definitely indicative of New York.'' Which is precisely the worry for some New York food aficionados, who view the bagel as the city's cultural equivalent to Paris's baguette. For New Yorkers who first tasted bagels as teething babes, the notion of a ham, egg and cheese bagel topped with McDonald's special ''breakfast sauce'' may seem, well, unorthodox. Like lox on white. Or pastrami with mayonnaise. Ed Levine, author of ''New York Eats (More),'' bemoans the McDonald's bagel invasion as ''a scary proposition.''''It seems to be that this is the logical extension of the commodification of bagels,'' he says. ''A bagel used to have character. Now anything that's vaguely round, that's puffed up with a hole in it, can be called a bagel. I knew this was coming.'' He worries that in the age of fast food chains and relentless mass marketing, McDonald's $2.49 bagel sandwiches will ever so gradually diminish a durable New York icon. ''I'm nostalgic, but many people will taste McDonald bagels and think they're fine,'' he says. ''They've made the bagel into a neutral food. They used to be made with malt and have a crust. Now even many New Yorkers don't want their bagels with a crust.'' A skeptic might ask whether the Big Apple has any proprietary rights to the bagel. New York, after all, didn't invent the bagel. According to one popular legend, that honor dates to 1683, when some Viennese bakers cooked up a few in tribute to Jan Sobieski, the King of Poland. Bagels made their way to New York in the early part of this century with Eastern European Jewish immigrants. Now the bagel is everywhere. In Canada, Toronto holds a weekly Bagel Bash. Mattoon, Ill., sponsors Bagelfest! In Boston, there's a New Year's Eve Bagel-Off. On the Internet, you can find yourself a bagel consultant, or read bagel poems. Some of New York's most established bagel makers have done their share to spread bagels to the masses. When a reporter visits H & H Bagels on Broadway and 80th Street, the owner, Helmer Toro, sends over a media kit boasting that his company supplies bagels to Dunkin' Donuts. He even provides a list of celebrity customers, including such un-New York names as Ann Landers. And yet Mr. Toro, when asked about the McDonald's bagels, is crushing in his response: ''They're not a quality product.'' The reviews are more generous just up Broadway in Zabar's, another New York bagel landmark. The owner, Saul Zabar, 70, is the older brother of Eli Zabar. Saul Zabar dissected the Spanish omelet bagel. ''Hey, these bagels aren't bad,'' he says, tasting first the egg, then the sausage patty and then the bagel itself. ''My God, I think it's remarkable.'' And Dr. Rick Feinberg, eating a Zabar's bagel with Nova and cream cheese at the counter, makes a sheepish concession: If he were on the highway in some strange place, and if he were really hungry, he might just be tempted to stop at a McDonald's and try one -- though he probably would stick with an Egg McMuffin

    1999: The Times of London reviews Weathered by Mircacles: A history of Palestine from Bonaparte and Muhammad Ali to Ben-Gurion and the Mufti by Thomas A Idinopulos.

    2000: An exhibit entitled “Berlin Metropolis: Jews and the New Culture, 1890 – 1918” comes to an end at the Jewish Museum in New York City. “’Berlin Metropolis’ focused on a number of Jewish modernists in Berlin. None of them solitary artists, they gathered together at galleries, cafés, theaters, and around avant-garde journals—Jews and Gentiles, Germans and non-Germans—furthering what was innovative in the arts and bringing it to a wider public. They opened up Berlin to international movements: French Impressionism, the Symbolism of the Norwegian Edvard Munch, French Cubism, and Italian Futurism. Jews and non-Jews were partners in this project, forming close professional and personal relationships. Together they helped define the agenda for twentieth-century culture.”

    2000: The New York Times included reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Ravelstein by Saul Bellow and No Logo: Taking Aim at the Bullies by Naomi Klein. 

    2001: Eight people were injured when during a bombing at Or Yehuda near Ben Gurion Airport for which Hamas took credit.

    2003(21st of Nisan, 5763): Professor Bernard Katz, German-born biophysicist passed away at the age of 92. Born and educated in Germany, Katz fled to Britain during the 1930’s. He shared the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine in 1970 with Julius Axelrod and Ulf von Euler. He was knighted in 1970. (As reported by Sandra Blaeslee)

    2005(14th of Nisan, 5765): As Jews sit down to celebrate the first night of Pesach they can enjoy what the New York Times describes as two zippy kosher whites from California and a pretty Israeli red from the Judean Hills: Baron Herzog's citric 2003 chenin blanc, Baron Herzog's herbal 2003 sauvignon blanc and Carmel's juicy 2002 cabernet.” In this post-Manischewitz era, with dry trumping sweet, they can be sipped all night.”

    2005: At the Nottingham Playhouse, final performance of Arnold Wesker’s “Chicken Soup with Barley.’

    2006: Aharon Friedman of Brooklyn married Tamar Epstein, seven years his junior, of suburban Philadelphia. Years later, their messy divorce would rock some in the Orthodox world over his refusal to grant her a get.

    2006: The Washington Post reviewed books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including In Search of Memory:The Emergence of a New ScienceMindby Nobel Prize Laureate Eric R. Kandel.

    2006: The New York Times reviewed books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including “Seducing the Demon: Writing for My Life” by Erica Jong and “Elements of Style” by Wendy Wasserstein who died of lymphoma at the age of 55 in January of 2006.

    2007: Yom Ha'atzma'ut – Israel Independence Day begins at sundown as  Israel celebrates her 59thbirthday.

    2007: The Center for Jewish History in New York presents “An Evening with Acclaimed International PEN Author and Essayist George Konrad.” The Hungarian born Konrad discusses his recently published autobiography, A Guest In My Own Country.

    2007: Judy and Larry Rosenstein Memorial Lecture at Tulane University features ProfessorDavid Stern, University of Pennsylvania speaking on "Through the Pages of the Past: The Jewish Book in Its Historical Context.”

    2008: The Jerusalem Cinematheque features a screening of “Lonely Man of Faith: The Life and Legacy of Rabbi Joseph B. Soloveitchik” 

    2008(18th of Nisan, 5768): Esta Saltzman, a veteran of the Yiddish Theatre passed away today.

    2009: In New York, a screening of “The Forgotten Refugees” the award-winning film documenting the 20th Century exodus of Jews from the Middle East and North Africa.

    2009: In Chevy Chase, Maryland,Aaron David Miller, a State Department veteran and most recently a senior adviser for Arab-Israeli negotiations discusses his recent book, “The Much Too Promised Land: America's Elusive Search for Arab-Israeli Peace.”

    2009: Holocaust Survivor Irene Furst speaks to the students of Kirkwood Community College in Cedar Rapids, Iowa.

    2010(9th of Iyar, 5770): “One Israeli worshiper was killed and five were wounded in Nablus early this morning after their vehicle was shot at by Palestinian security forces as they were exiting the city from prayer services held at Joseph's Tomb.”

    2010: In “Emma Freud: My Father, Clement Freud, Remembered” a daughter describes her feeling a year after her famous father’s death.

    2010: “American chess player, martial arts competitor and author” Joshua Waitzkin “married Desiree Cifre, a screenwriter and former contestant on The Amazing Race.”

    2010: Robyn Helzner, one of the leading interpreters of world Jewish music, and Cantor Larry Paul are scheduled to lead a Carlebach-inspired service at the Historic Sixth & I Synagogue in Washington, D.C.

    2010:Wendy Becker & Rik Howard are scheduled to lead a special Musical Shabbat Service at Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, Iowa.

    2010: “The Chameleon” starring Ellen Barken as “Kimberly Miller” premiered at the Tribeca Film Festival.

    2011(19th of Nisan, 5771): Shabbat Chol Hamoed Pesach

    2011: Today’s tours at the Skirball Cultural Center are scheduled to focus on Passover.

    2011: The Los Angeles Times featured a review of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including 'Onward: How Starbucks Fought for Its Life Without Losing Its Soul' by Howard Schultz.

    2012: The Broadway revival production of “Ghost the Musical” starring Cassie Shira Levy as “Molly Jensen” a role she created in the original Broadway production opened at the Lunt-Fontanne Theatre.

    2012:Library of Congress, LCPA Hebrew Language Table is scheduled to present an address by Canadian/Israeli journalist Judie Oron based on “Cry of the Giraffe, “an award-winning book based on the story of an Ethiopian Jewish teenager named Wuditu who, together with her younger sister, Lewteh, was separated from her family in a violent incident in a refugee camp in Sudan.”

    2012: Ambassador Peter Rosenblatt is scheduled to take part in a Q&A following a screening of “Turkish Passport” at the Westchester Jewish Film Festival.  Turkish Passport tells “the little-known story of the righteous Turkish diplomats posted in several European countries who saved the lives of many Jews during World War II by enabling them to find safety in Istanbul. (Considering current conditions between Israel and Turkey, this film is well-worth seeing.)

    2012: A weeklong program designed to highlight the role of the Jews in the life of Wurzburg is scheduled to come to an end today in this northern German city.

    2012(1st of Iyar, 5772): Rosh Chodesh Iyar

    2012: Egyptian engineer Hani Dahi, executive director of the Egyptian General Petroleum Corporation, said today that the military council and the government had no part in the decision to terminate Egypt's agreement to provide natural gas to Israel.. (As reported by Avi Issacharoff and Amos Harel)

    2012:Anti-Zionist graffiti was found this morning sprayed at various locations at the Ammunition Hill memorial site in Jerusalem.  The graffiti included slogans slamming President Shimon Peres, as well as praise for German poet Gunter Grass. The slogans that were found included: “The evil Zionist regime will fall,” and “Gunter Grass – be strong and brave.”

    2012: U.S. President Barack Obama announced that Jan Karski would receive the country's highest civilian honor, the Presidential Medal of Freedom in recognition of the bravery he showed in informing the Polish Government-In-Exile and the Allies about the destruction of the Warsaw Ghetto and the Nazi death camps.

    2013: Trudy Peterson is scheduled to deliver a talk entitled "The French Railroad, the Records, the Holocaust, and the State of Maryland" in Iowa City.

    2013: The Algemeiner 40th Anniversary Jewish 100 Gala featuring Elie Wiesel is scheduled to take place at Guastavino’s in New York.

    2013: The YIVO Institute for Jewish Research is scheduled to present a lecture by Efraim Sicher that examines the work of Isaak Babel entitled “Babel in Yiddish/Yiddish in Babel.

    2013: Shia LaBeouf joined the cast of the upcoming WW II, “Fury.”

    2013: “The Young Salinger, Mordant Yet Hopeful” published today

    2013: The weeklong Holocaust Memorial Program came to an end in Wurzburg, Germany.

    2013: Iran has essentially crossed the “red line” set by Israel for its nuclear activity, and the coming few months will be a crucial period, Maj. Gen. (res.) Amos Yadlin, a former head of IDF Military Intelligence, said today.

    2013: Israel’s senior military intelligence analyst said today there was evidence the Syrian government had repeatedly used chemical weapons in the last month, and he criticized the international community for failing to respond, intensifying pressure on the Obama administration to intervene.

    2014: The Spring Semester of The Skirball Center for Adult Jewish Learning at Temple Emanu-El is scheduled to begin.

    2014: “There Was Once…” which “documents the contemporary struggles of a Hungarian high school teacher who sparks controversy by uncovering the Jewish past of her small town, Kalocsa” is scheduled to be shown at The Center for Jewish History

    2014: “Plot for Peace” is scheduled to be shown at the UK Jewish Film Festival in London.

    2014:Three cartoonists Liana Fink (A Bintel Brief), Miriam Katin (Letting it Go), and Eli Valley (artist in residence, The Forward) are scheduled to “discuss how their surroundings, family, history, and backgrounds have inspired their representations of Jewish life in pen and ink” at the Museum of Jewish Heritage.

    2015 (4th of Iyar): Yom HaAtsmaut – Israel Independence Day observed

    2015: Rabbi Deborah Waxman, President of the Reconstructionist Rabbinical College and Susan Herbst, President of the University of Connecticut are scheduled to discuss “What is Zionism’s Role in North American Jewish Life Today?” as part of the celebration of the 67th anniversary of the establishment of the state of Israel.

    2015: Vice President Joe Biden is scheduled to attend Israel’s Independence Day event today in Washington, D.C.

    2015: “Deli Man” and “Woman in Gold” is scheduled to be shown at the Westchester Jewish Film Festival.

    2015: “FotoMacher Frank Barnett: Examining Lives with Jewish Eyes” is scheduled to open at the Oregon Jewish Museum and Center for Holocaust Education.

    2015: IDF tanks struck targets in the northern Gaza Strip just before midnight toay, after a rocket was fired from the Strip into the area of the Shaar Hanegev regional council late tonight.

    2015: U.S. officials revealed today that American aid worker Warren Weinstein who was being held captive by al Qaeda had been killed accidently by an U.S. drone attack last January.

    2015:"Ordinary Matters": Animations and Paintings by Shelley Jordon is scheduled to open at the Oregon Jewish Museum and Center for Holocaust Education.

    2016(15thof Nisan, 5776): First Day of Pesach; in the evening second Seder and counting of the Omer

    2016: In Cedar Rapids, Iowa, Temple Judah, under the leadership of its President Nancy Margulis hosts its annual Community Seder.

    2017: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including You Say to Brick: The Life of Louis Kahn by Wendy Lesser and The Soul of the First Amendment by Floyd Abrams.

    2017: Oxford University Jewish Society is scheduled to host a Yom HaShoah Film Night “preceded by a special ma’ariv service.

    2017: “Four people were wounded in a terror attack that “began in the lobby of the Leonardo Beach Hotel” in Tel Aviv.

    2017: In Atlanta, Eternal-Life Hemshech, the William Breman Jewish Heritage Museum, and the Jewish Federation of Greater Atlanta are scheduled to host the 52ndAnnual Yom HaShoah Community-Wide Holocaust Commemoration at the Greenwood Cemetery.

    2017: “In honor of Yom HaShoah” scheduled to host “Family Reunion After War” presented by University of Iowa History Professor Elizabeth Heinemann.

    2017: The University of Iowa Hillel is scheduled to host its Spring Concert featuring the Saul Lubaroff Quarter.

    2017: “Israel’s Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu launched a blistering assault on Allied policy during World War II, saying world powers’ failure to bomb the Nazi concentration camps from 1942 cost the lives of four million Jews and millions of others.”  (Editor’s note – In the case of the United States this statement shows an ignorance of history since “the first Army Air Forces bomber mission over Western Europe was by US crews of the 15th Bomb Squadron” flying the British version of the A-20, a twin engine aircraft that hardly had the range to fly from England to Poland and back and lacked a pray of getting to the target since there were no fighters to cover the mission for this lightly armored aircraft.)

    2017: “The annual Holocaust Remembrance Day event in Jerusalem began tonight at the Yad Vashem Holocaust museum’s Warsaw Ghetto Square.”

    2017: A Community Service of Remembrance For the Victims of the Holocaust featuring Holocaust survivor Jacob Eisenbach organized by The Thaler Holocaust Memorial Fund is scheduled to be held in Cedar Rapids, IA.

    2018: “On the Spectrum” directed by Yuval Shafferman is scheduled to be shown at the Tribeca Film Festival today.

    2018: The Streicker Center at Temple Emanu-El is scheduled to a presentation by Cecile Richards, author of Make Trouble and the president of Planned Parenthood.

    2018: The Jupiter Symphony Chamber Players which was bounded by Jens Nygaard who directed the Washington Heights YW-YMHA concerts for 25 years, and which includes violinist Itamar Zorman is scheduled to perform “Touched by Mozart” today.

    2018: NA’AMAT USA Cleveland Council is scheduled to honor Judge Francine Goldberg this evening.

    2018: The Oxford University Jewish Society is scheduled to host an evening with JSoc friend at Duke of Cambridge on Little Clarendon Street.





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    April 24

    70: During the Jewish rebellion against Rome, Roman legions break through Jerusalem’s middle wall, but are driven back by the Jewish defenders. 

    396: As conditions for the Jews in the Roman Empire worsen, the Roman Emperors adopt a law that appears to be an anomaly. They issue a decree punishing anyone who insults Jewish leaders. "If any one dare publicly insult the Illustrious Patriarchs, he shall be subject to a sentence of punishment."  (Editor’s Note – I can find no explanation for this)

    858: Start of the papacy of Nicholas I. During his papacy he issued “a very obscure order which is contained in a letter Bishop Arsenius of Orta, to whom he prohibits the use of Jewish garments.”

    1342: Pope Benedict XII passed away.In 1337 Benedict’s effort to protect the Jews when Christian mobs in Germany Bavaria, Bohemia, Moravia and Austria attacked them because of false accusations of “host desecration,” proved futile. Benedict’s intervention on behalf of the Jews marks him as unusual.  His failure is a testament to the strong power of these false allocations.

     1288:  A Christian body was placed in the house of the richest Jew of Troyes, France. The resulting tribunal condemned fourteen of the city's wealthiest men and women to be burned at the stake. This was part of a blood libel which the Dominicans and Franciscans used to “provoke a massacre of the local Jews.

    1439(30thof Nisan, 5199): Rabbi, Kabbalist and poet Avigdor Ben Isaac Kara passed away today.

    1547:  Elector of Saxony John Frederick, the patron and protector of Martin Luther, who in 1536, “issued a mandate that prohibited Jews from inhabiting, engaging in business in, or passing through his realm” completed his reign as Elector of Saxony and Landgrave of Thuringia today

    1547: Maurice, the Duke of Saxony,who expelled the Jews from Zwickau, became the Elector of Saxony today.

    1575: Thomas Wakefeld, “the first Regius Professor of Hebrew at Cambridge was buried today at Chesterton.

    1731: Daniel Defoe passed away.  Apparently the author of “Robinson Crusoe had a rather low opinion of the Jews since he “depicted Jews as vicious and corrupt” according to “Britain in the Hanoverian Age.” For reasons yet not understood, Defoe’s “An Essay Upon Literature” was published in the same pamphlet with Toland’s “The Agreement of the Customs of the East Indians With Those of the Jews.”

    1744: The Revenge, a British privateer commanded by Captain James Allen, intercepted the sloop Fortune, one of whose passengers was an English Jewish merchant named Isaac Mendez.  When Captain Allen brought the Fortune to Newport, he filed papers claiming the cargo of the Fortune as his pirze.  Mendez took exception with the claim and this would lead to tortuous litigation. [Editor’s note: There will be more to the story in THDIJH in May.]

    1772: Empress Marie Theresa issued an order allowing Jews to “engage in jeweler’s work but not to employ apprentices in the business.

    1776: During the American Revolution The Pennsylvania Journal published a letter from Thomas Paine in which the famous pamphleteer uses quotes from the Bible including the books of Samuel and Hosea to show that a monarchy is a sinful form of government condemned by God. (As reported by Abraham Bloch)  While most of the American revolutionaries had never met a Jew, they identified with the ancient Israelites through the lens of the Old Testament.  They saw King George as a modern Pharaoh and compared their fight for independence with the Exodus from Egypt.  Benjamin Franklin wanted a depiction of the Jews crossing the Red Sea to appear on the Great Seal of the United States.

    1783: Emperor Joseph II granted the request of his Jewish subjects that they be able to continue to wear beards. At the same time he reaffirmed all of the other parts of the “Systematica gentis Judaicae regulation”

    1788: In Frankfurt am Main, Guttle and Mayer Amschel Rothschild gave birth to “"Carl Mayer von Rothschild the founder of the Rothschild banking family of Naples."

    1790(10thof Iyar, 5550): Talmudic scholar, Rabbi Meir Margalioth passed away in Ostrog

    1800: The United States Library of Congress is established when President John Adams signs legislation to appropriate $5,000 USD to purchase "such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress". “The Hebraic Section … Israel, the Hebrew language, biblical studies, and the ancient Near East. began operation in 1914 as part of the Division of Semitic and Oriental Literature, and it concentrates on Jewish culture,Israel, the Hebrew language, biblical studies, and the ancient Near East.”

    1809: Birthdate of Joseph Addision Alexander, a Protestant biblical scholar and student of the Hebrew language whose works included two volumes on the prophecies of Isaiah.

    1811: Today thirty year old London native Jacob da Silva Solis who arrived in the United States in 1803 married Charity Hayes with whom he had seven children and still found time to found “Congregation Shanarai Chasset in New Orleans” and later be active in Congregation Shearith Israel in Mt. Pleasant, NY.

    1818: “The Jew of Malta” by Christopher Marlow which was billed as “The Famous Tragedy of The Rich Jew of Malta” “was revived by Edmund Kean at Drury Lane.”

    1824: Birthdate of Sabato Morais, the native of Leghorn, Italy who rose to become one of the earliest and most prominent Rabbis to serve the American Jewish Community. [This is based on an article published at the time of his death.  Other sources show April 13, 1824.]

    1836: Birthdate of Rabbi Moses Samuel Zuckermandl, the native of Breslau who studied under Samson Raphael Hirsch

    1838: Birthdate of Jules Levy, the native of London who was perhaps “the most celebrated” person to play the coronet during the 19th century

    1839: Mr. Eugene Esdra of Bordeaux married Miss Esther Rodrigues Monsanto in her native city of Charleston, SC.

    1842: In Neisse, Germany, Julius Schindler and Bertha Algasi gave birth to Solomon Schindler, the husband of Henrietta Schutz, who came to the United States in 1870 where he served as rabbi at Adath Emuno in Hoboken, NJ and Adath Israel in Boston before becoming Superintendent of the Leopold Morse Home for Infirm Hebrews and Orphans at Mattapan, MA and a published author whose works included Dissolving Views in the History of Judaism.

    1842: In Cincinnati, a group of Jewish women met and established a Sunday School under the direction of Mrs. Louisa Symonds who would later resign her post due to the heavy work load.  She would be replaced by Mr. Joseph Jonas.


    1846: The Voice of Jacob contained a short article describing that described the two public Jewish schools at Kingston, Jamaica as “languid and unsatisfactory,” due the paucity of trained and qualified teachers.

    1851: Charles Sumner began his twenty three year career as a U.S. Senator from Massachusetts.  In 1864, he introduced an amendment to the United States Constitution that would define the United States as a “Christian government.”  Congress rejected the proposal. (For more see A New Promised Land by Hasia R Diner, et al.)

    1853: In Paris, Louis-Adolphe Bertillon and his wife gave birth to Alphonse Bertillon who was not a handwriting expert but who testified against Alfred Dreyfus claiming that the Jewish French officer was the author of “the incriminating document” known as the “bordereau” – the treasonous document that supposedly proved he was selling French military secrets to the Germans.

    1854: In New York, Ahawath Chesed began worshiping at their synagogue at Number 27 Columbia Street which would be there home for the next ten year when the growing congregation moved to a facility on the corner of 4th Street and Avenue C.

    1856:  Birthdate of Henri-Phillipe Petain.  In World War I, General Petain was a hero - the leader in the victory at Verdun.  In World War II, he was head of the Vichy Government. The Vichy Government was allied with the Nazis and was an active participant in the deportation and death of thousands of Jews.  Some of these were part of the very old French Jewish community.  Others were relative new-comers who had sought refuge in France during the 1930's as the Nazi scourge began to sweep across Europe.  Petain was not prosecuted for collaborating because of his previous military contribution and advanced age.  Pierre Laval, the Prime Minister of the Vichy government did not escape punishment. Petain passed away at in 1951at the age of 95.

    1859: The First Hebrew Benevolent Association was founded today in Portland, Oregon.

    1861: "When the Richmond Blues left...for war" today, fifteen of its ninety-nine members were Jewish including Ezekiel J. ("Zeke") Levy, it fourth sergeant. 

    1864: Isaac Levy, a Virginian serving the Confederate Army wrote his mother from his post in South Carolina describing the Seder that he and his fellow soldiers had celebrated a few days earlier.

    1866: Seventy year old Protestant Biblical commentator Hermann Upfield who specialized in studies on the “Old Testament” and whose works included a “treatise on the early history of Hebrew grammar among the Jews” published in 1846 passed away today.

    1867: Michael Rudelsheim married Rebecca Hirsch today in Amsterdam.

    1869: Mlle. Janauschek is scheduled to appear in a benefit performance of "Deborah," the proceeds of which will go to the Hebrew Free School in New York City.

    1871: “Synagouge Consecreation” published today described the ceremony led by Rabbi S.M. Issacs as Derech Emunoh took over its new home in what had been the chapel of New York University.

    1872(16th of Nisan, 5632): Second day of Pesach; first day of the Omer

    1878: Birthdate of Hyman Pearlstone, the native of Buffalo, TX who was a businessman in Waco, Palestine and Dallas, TX where he was a member of the Chamber of Commerce. (His brother was born exactly ten years later)

    1879(1st of Iyar, 5639): Rosh Chodesh Iyar

    1880:  Because of his “reputation of a public-spirited man…and because of his many gifts to charitable and scientific institution which won Raphael Louis Bischoffsheim the exceptional honor of "grande naturalization," by which, today he became a citizen of the French republic.”1881: The Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati, Ohio, the only Jewish “institution for advanced study in America” is dedicating a new building today.  As a testament to the school’s strength, the administration was able to spend $25,000 to purchase one of the city’s old mansions and then spend additional funds to remodel it.  The school began as a dream of community leaders in 1872 and opened its doors in 1875 to 17 pupils who used rooms at the Plum Street Temple for their classes.

    1881: It was erroneously reported today that King Charles I, the new King of Romania “has removed the disabilities of the Jews who comprise the largest foreign element of his population.”

    1881: “Disraeli, Novelist and Orator” published today examines the career of the author turned politician.  It concedes that nobody could have imagined the political heights he was to scale when his first novel came out.  At the same time, throughout his 40 year career, he was victimized by the press as can be seen by the issues of Punch in which he was “assailed…with ridicule, sneer and caricature.”

    1883: Birthdate of German actress Lotte Spira who was forced by the Nazis to divorced her Jewish husband Fritz Spira because he was Jewish and then forced to sign a statement that her daughter Camila was his daughter.

    1885: Birthdate of Romana Manczyk, the Warsaw native who became famous as Zionist activist Romana Goodman.

    1885: According to today’s Boston Post, there is a colony of Jews living in China who came to that country two hundred years before the Christian era.

    1887(30th of Nisan, 5647): Rosh Chodesh Iyar

    1887(30thof Nisan, 5647): Grand Rabbi Joseph Emmanuel Levi of Italy who had previously served as rabbi of Mondovi and Cuneo before taking the pulpit at Corfu passed away today.

    1887: When the Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum Society held its 64thannual meeting this morning, Jesse Seligman was chosen to serve as President and Henry Rice was chosen to serve as Vice President.  Currently, there are 482 orphans in the asylum, 277 of whom are boys. According to Myer Stern, the society’s secretary, 16 of the boys have recently “been provided with good positions.”

    1888: Birthdate of Julius Hart Pearlstone, a native of Buffalo, TX who became a merchant in Palestine, TX and a leader of the Jewish Federation for Social Service in Dallas, TX.

    1888: Eduard Glaser completed his third journey from Sanaa to Ma’rib

    1889(23rd of Nisan, 5649): Salomon or Solomon Formstecher, a German rabbi and student of Jewish theology passed away.Born at Offenbach am Main in 1808 he earned a Ph.D from the Giessen University, he settled in his native city as preacher, succeeding Rabbi Metz in 1842 a position he held until his death. “During his long ministry he strove to harmonize the religious and social life of the Jews with the requirements of modern civilization. His aims were expressed at the Rabbinical Conference of Brunswick, Frankfurt, Breslau, and Kassel in the conferences of the German rabbis. The most important of his works is Religion des Geistes ("Religion of the Spirit," Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1841). It contains a systematic analysis of the principles of Judaism. The author endeavors to demonstrate that Judaism was a necessary manifestation, and that its evolution tends in the direction of a universal religion for civilized mankind. Judaism, in contrast with paganism, considers the Divinity to be a Being separate from nature, and allows no doubt of God's existence. Consequently any theogony, any emanation, any dualism must be rejected. Formstecher concludes his work with a history of Judaism which is a valuable contribution to Jewish religious philosophy.”

    1889: Birthdate of Yakov Naumovich Reizen the “Ukrainian-born Bolshevik” who gained famed Jacob Golos, a member of the Communist Party in the United States and a Soviet espionage agent during WW II.

    1889: It was reported today that some brokers at the NYSE who are not Jewish are accusing Isidore Wormser of leading a cabal of Jewish financiers in stock manipulation especially where the Reading Railroad is concerned.  The charge is not anchored in reality since some of his cohorts are said to include the notorious Jay Gould and the very gentile James R. Keene.

    1890: Sylvester Pennoyer was nominated for Governor today at the Democratic State Convention in Portland, Oregon, with the expectation that he could be able to carry the Jewish vote in the upcoming general elections.

    1890: Judge Max Mayeyhardt of Rome, GA, the son of David J. and Esther (Marks) Mayerhardt today married Nettie Watson, a native of Tuskegee, Alabama.

    1890: “A Mighty Power” by Frank Rothschild, Jr. had a pre-Broadway matinee performance at the Fifth Avenue Theatre.  The play is a melodrama set in Czarist Russia that portrays the suffering of a Jewish brother and sister at the ends of “a fierce, malignant, autocrat, General Mickrakoff. The play was poorly received particularly by the Jews in the audience who do not care for this sort of “buncombe.”

    1891: Henry Blumenthal took his father David Blumenthal out an insane asylum in Amityville, Long Island, today. He then took his father who had been a wealthy Jewish dry goods businessmen before his confinement to all of the banks where he had deposits, withdrew the funds that totaled over $30, 000 and then boarded a ship bound for Bremen, Germany

    1893: “On The Watch For Converts” published today described the aggressive attempts by various Christian churches to convert Jews in response to which “a considerable number” of the Jews in New York “have formulated a plan for checkmating the vigorous efforts…to proselytize them from their ancient faith.”

    1894: In New York, “Russian Jewish immigrants Frederick and Yetta Pitler gave birth to Jacob Albert “Jake” Pitler the husband of Henrietta L. Pitler whose two year career with Pittsburgh Pirates was followed by lengthy career as a coach with the Brooklyn Dodgers that included being on the 1955 team that won Brooklyn’s only World Championship.

    1894: “Mr. Seligman’s Career” published today glowingly described the career of the recently deceased Jewish businessman and philanthropist Jesse Seligman who “came to New York in steerage” and was worth over $20,000,000 when he passed away.

    1895: “Mr. Hutton’s Book On Jerusalem” published today provides a detailed review of Literary Landmarks of Jerusalem by Laurence Hutton.

    1895: “Saved From Starvation” published today described the work of the Monte Relief Society led by Mrs. Sofia Monte Loebinger whose five hundred members provide immediate relief in the form of money and clothing to the needy immigrants of the Lower East Side and who also help them find jobs which will provide long term improvement in their condition.

    1896: A new synagogue is scheduled to be dedicated this evening in Lancaster, PA.

    1896: “Does Not Favor Intermarriage” published today described the meeting of the New York Section of the National Council of Jewish Women at Temple Beth-El presided over by Mrs. Alexander Kohut at which included the reading of papers on “Intermarriage” and “A Practical View of Philanthropy”

    1897: It was reported today that during March the United Hebrew Charities dealt with 3,326 applications for relief that affected 11,086 peoples.  One thousand people received clothes, shoes and furniture while 319 people were taken to the doctor.  Of the 950 people who registered for work, 589 were found jobs.

    1898: On its 76th anniversary, the Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum Society met at the asylum’s building on 136th Street and Amsterdam Avenue.

    1898: It was reported today that among those who attended the 5th annual reunion banquet of the Hebrew Technical Institute were Meyer Cushner, Maximilian Zipkes, James Hoffman, Joseph L. Gensler, Dr. Henry M. Leipziger, A. Lincoln Saruya and Edgar S. Barnay

    1898:  Congress today declared that a state of war between the U.S. and Spain had existed since April 21, the day the blockade of Cuba had begun. Fifteen Jews serving on the battleship were killed. Five thousand Jews served in the American Army, a ratio of 20% more than the general population. The first person of Colonel Roosevelt's Rough Riders to reach the top of San Juan Hill was reportedly a Jew named Irving Peixotto.

    1898: The Adath Israel Fair which is a fundraiser for their new building in West Harlem is scheduled to come to an end.

    1899: In Kobrin, Russia, Bazel Zaritsky and Hanna Tennenbaum gave birth to Oscher Zaritsky who gained fame as award winning American mathematician Oscar Zariski.

    1900: The Twenty-Seventh Convention of District No 7 of the B’nai B’rith continued for a third day in New Orleans.

    1902:The first step toward the creation of a permanent endowment fund for the United Hebrew Charities was taken today by William Guggenheim, a member of the Board of Directors, when he sent” Henry Rice, “the President of the organization…a check for $50,000 for that purpose and a promise of $50,000 more…”

    1902: Birthdate of Moshe Ziffer the native of  Przemyśl, the Austro-Hungarian city that was the scene of great Jewish suffering during WWI, who made Aliyah in 191 and became a leading Israeli artist and sculptor whose works included busts of Einstein, Ben-Gurion and Weizman.

    1905(19th of Nisan): Anti-Semitic riots began in Zhitomir, Russia

    1905: In New York, Gladys Seligman the daughter of David and Adelaide Seligman became Gladys Wertheim when she married Henri Hendrik Pieter Wertheim van Heukelom today,

    1906: In Barley, Hertfordshire, England, Redcliffe Nathan Salaman, the son of Myer and Sarah Salaman, and Nina Ruth Salaman gave birth to Raphael Arthur Salaman

    1910(15thof Nisan, 5670): Pesach

    1911:  Birthdate of comedian Jack E Leonard.  Born Leonard Lebitsky in Chicago, Illinois, Leonard was a heavy-set, cigar-smoking practitioner of an aggressive form of humor.  His movie credits included the “Disorderly Orderly,” “The Fat Spy,” and “Target: Harry.” He passed away on May 9, 1973.

    1913(17thof Nisan, 5673): Third Day of Pesach

    1913: In Chicago, Rabbi Schanfarber officiated at the funeral of 44 year old Oscar Grant Lehman, the son of Louis and Barbara Lehman.

    1913: In Chicago, Rabbi Schanfarbert officiated at the funeral of Rena Levi, the wife of Julius Levi and the “mother of Sigbit and Fannie L. Rothschild.”

    1914: Birthdate of Jan Karski, a liaison officer of the Polish underground who infiltrated both the Warsaw Ghetto and a German concentration camp and then carried the first eyewitness accounts of the Holocaust to a mostly disbelieving audience of Western leaders.

    1914: Birthdate of actress and political activist Roberta "Robbie" Seidman Garfield Cohn, the wife of actor John Garfield.

    1915: “Betty” a musical comedy with lyrics and music by Paul Rubens opened at Daly’s Theatre in London where it ran for 391 performances.

    1915: Nearly 1,000 people “representing every synagogue and Jewish society in” New York City met tonight “at the Concert Hall for the opening session of the annual convention of the Kehillah or Jewish Community” which is led by “Dr. J. L. Magnes, the Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Kehillah” who said “the fate of the Jewish people is hanging in the balance” and wondered if “the great war will bring political, religious and national freedom to the Jews?”

    1915: The Armenian Genocide began when the Young Turks undertook the systematic annihilation of Armenian intellectuals and entrepreneurs within the city of Constantinople and later the entire Armenian population of the Ottoman Empire.  The Jewish population of Palestine was aware of this slaughter.  The leaders of its nascent military force, Hashomer, were especially cognizant of what had happened.  They were determined that the Jews would not suffer a similar fate.

    1916:  Birthdate of movie critic Stanley Kauffmann the husband of Laura Kauffman.

    1916(21stof Nisan, 5676): 7th day of Pesach

    1916(21stof Nisan, 5676):  During WW I, Captain Wilfrid Langdon, a graduate of Rugby, was killed today.

    1916: In New Orleans, Ted “Kid” Lewis lost a bout which cost him his title as World Welterweight Champion.

    1916: The Easter Rising began in Dublin.  Many Jews were attracted to the cause of Irish Republicanism including Estella Solomons and Michael Noyk an Irish solicitor who joined Sinn Fein shortly after the Rising and defended several of the I.R.A. prisoners.

    1917(2ndof Iyar, 5677): Sixty-five year old Berlin born Oscar Blumenthal playwright and critic passed away today in his hometown.

    1917: The final session of the “assembly of the Eastern Council of Reform Rabbis” which had split over the issues of voicing support for women’s suffrage and Zionism was held today.

    1917: Jacob de Hass, Secretary of the Provisional Executive Committee for General Zionist Affairs said” today “that the consideration by the envoys in Washington of the problem of a Jewish nation in Palestine was the result of a carefully planned movement by the Zionist organizations in the United States, England, France and Russia.”

    1918: It was reported today that “The Jewish Administration Commission for Palestine has established bureaus in Jerusalem and Tel Aviv and is engaged in the actual work of laying the foundation for the Jewish state.  Of immediate concern was the need for “large sums of money designed to save orange growers from ruin owing to their inability to market their crops due to the World War.  Long term loans to the orange growers are imperative necessity.”

    1918: Author Thomas Mann and his wife Katia, who would later convert to Christianity gave birth to their fifth child Elisabeth today.

    1918: “Violent pogroms” took place in Cracow today.

    1919: Hungarian Jewish immigrant Mary Teitelbaum and her husband gave birth to Sara Teitelbaum who gained fame as Clinton confidant Sarah Ehrman.

    1919(24thNisan, 5679): A month before his 56th birthday Parisian born opera composer Camille Erlanger passed away.

    1919: “The Chicago Mendelssohn Club” is scheduled to give the final concert of this season this evening.

    1921(16thof Nisan, 5681): Second Day of Pesach

    1921:  Vladimir Jabotinsky was sentenced by the British mandatory government of Palestine to 15 years of imprisonment for his participation in the Jewish self-defense corps. During Passover in 1920, Jabotinsky stood at the head of the Haganah in Jerusalem against Arab riots and was condemned by the British Mandatory Government to 15 years hard labor. Following the public outcry against the verdict, he received amnesty and was released from Acre prison. 

    1921: Birthdate of Layos Lenovitz, the native of Hungary who as Lou Lenhart served as pilot with the U.S. Marines during WW II before volunteering for “Sherut Avir, the precursor of the IAF,” taking part in IAF’s first attack on Egyptian forces driving on Tel Aviv and helping to airlift immigrants to the nascent Jewish State.

    1924: Birthdate of Detroit native Isadore Manuel Singer, a Professor of Mathematics at MIT who “is noted for his work with Michael Atiyah proving the Atiyah–Singer index theorem in 1962, which paved the way for new interactions between pure mathematics and theoretical physics.” (This breakthrough was accomplished by an American Jew and a native of the Sudan, raised in Egypt who now lives in Great Britain.  Yes, peaceful collaboration is possible.)

    1924: Birthdate of Ruth Maxine Kahn, the native of Des Moines, IA, who gained fame opera and Broadway musical star Ruth Kobart.

     1924:  Birthdate of composer and pianist Yehoshua Lakner.  Born in Bratislava, Lakner moved to what is now Israel in 1941. During his early years in Palestine, Lakner studied and played in small jazz band. Yehoshua Lakner's work has received numerous awards, including the Engel Prize of Tel-Aviv for his "Toccata for Orchestra" (1958). He was honored by the Zurich City Council for his theatre music (1969) and was awarded the Salomon David Steinberg Foundation's Music Prize, as well as a composer-in-residency from the City of Zurich (1987/88).  Lakner taught at the Rubin Academy for Music in Tel Aviv and later used the computer to create multi-sensory musical experiences.

    1925: At Carnegie Hall, “Variations for Piano on a Theme by Dvorak,” and “Suite for Two Pianos,” which had been composed by Leopold Damrosch Mannes was performed for the first time

    1929(14thof Nisan, 5689): Fast of the First Born; erev Pesach

    1929: The Ezra Society  for Nervous Diseases arranged the Passover celebration “held tonight for several hundred Jewish patients at the Manhattan State Hospital on Ward’s Island.

    1929: Thanks to the efforts of the Jewish Social Service Association “said to be the oldest Jewish relief and family welfare society in America” “flour, food and funds” have been distributed to those in need so they can “observe the traditions of the holiday” this evening.

    1929: Louis Singer led the Seder at the Home of Old Israel on Jefferson Street which was attended by 112 residents.

    1932: Detroit Tigers Pitcher Izzy Goldstein, a native or Odessa, Russia, appeared in his first major league baseball game.

    1932: Benny Rothman, the Jewish political activist, led the Mass trespass of Kinder Scout, leading to substantial legal reforms in the United Kingdom.

    1933: Soviet Union Foreign Commissar Maxim Litvinov appears on the cover of Timeand is the subject of the magazine’s feature article. Litvinov was the son of a wealthy Jewish banking family who became an ardent Bolshevik. Stalin will remove Litvinov, the Jew, when he decides to negotiate the non-aggression pact with Germany in 1939. Americans would come to know Litvinov during World War II when he served as the Soviet ambassador to the United States where he played a key role in lend-lease negotiations.  Litvinov was unique among the original Jews Bolshevik leaders because he was one of the few to escape Stalin’s wrath and die of natural causes.

    1933(28thof Nisan, 5693): Eighty-one year old Felix Adler passed away.

    1933: After meeting with President Roosevelt, Secretary of State Cordell Hull wrote to Norman Davis, the American representative to the Geneva Disarmament Conference that FDR would regard adjournment of the conference as a failure that might give Hitler an excuse to start a war.  (In the first months of his Presidency, FDR saw that Hitler posed an undetermined threat to peace.  He wanted to keep him at bay because he was dealing with the worst crisis in American history.  What most people fail to understand with their twenty-twenty hindsight was that the United States was tottering on the brink of disaster and there was no guarantee that she could not followed the fascist model of Germany and Italy or the Communist model of the Soviet Union.)

    1934: In the Bronx, Harry Rosen and the former Ruth Jacobson gave birth to Walter Rosen who made Junior’s Restaurant and its cheesecake into a New York cultural icon.

    1934: It was reported today that Abraham Stavsky, Zvi Rosenblatt and Abba Achimeyer have gone trial for the murder last month of Dr. Chaim Arlosoroff.  “Achicmeyer is charged with inciting the alleged murderers by speeches and newspaper articles.”  The other two defendants are charged with the actual murder with Rosenblatt having been named as the “trigger man.”

    1935: Birthdate of Pottsville, PA native Allan Jaffe, “the entrepreneur who developed Preservation Hall into a New Orleans jazz tradition” and father of Ben Jaffe who followed in his father’s footsteps.

    1935: The New Republic published “The Funeral of R.A.A.P.” by Jewish author Robert Gessner.

    1935: “Today, the Angriff, the official afternoon” Nazi newspaper “in Berlin appeared with black banner headlines above a story asserting that half the apartment house in” Berlin “were still owned by Jews.”

    1936: “Reports that eight Arabs had been killed yesterday during disorders were described as ‘false and baseless’ by the Jewish Agency in Palestine.”

    1936: Today David Ben Gurion was reported to have “urged that exaggeration of the disturbances” in Palestine “be avoided” no doubt because the Arabs were using their attacks to pressure the British to end Jewish immigration and land purchases.

    1936: “Assurance has been given to Jews in America by the High Commissioner of Palestine that he would not ‘put a premium upon violence’ by yielding to any unjust demands of the Arabs, Dr. Stephen S. Wise said today and that furthermore “continued admittance of immigrants to Palestine was guaranteed.”

    1936: At a luncheon held in the Hotel Astor, “Luis Posner, Mortgage Commissioner of the State of New York said the Jewish settlers” in Palestine “had always pursed a policy of peaceful cooperation and mutual understanding with the Arabs.

    1936: In Zagreb, Yugoslavia, Dr. Vladimir Matchek denied today that anti-Semitic pamphlets recently published under the name of the Croat Peasant party had been approved or circulated by the party.”

    1936: While contrary to expectations there was no violence in Jerusalem today “rifle shots were fired at Hakoresh, a Jewish settlement in northern Palestine” and “fires in crops, houses, shops and timber yards” owned by Jews continue to break out in different parts of the countries.

    1937:  Pastor Martin Niemöller, one of the foremost leaders of the German opposition forces to Hitler, preached that it is unfortunate that God permitted Jesus to be born a Jew.

    1938: In Vienna, Marrianne and Hubert Joachim Adler gave birth to San Diego, CA “civil rights and criminal defense attorney” Tom Adler.

    1938: In one of those uniquely American cross-cultural events, the orchestra led by African-American Duke Ellington recorded “a live performance” “On the Sunny Side of the Street” with lyrics by Dorothy Fields at Harlem’s iconic Cotton Club.

    1938: All sessions of the religious school resumed at Temple Emanu-El following the Passover recess.

    1938: At the Free Synagogue meeting in Carnegie Hall, Dr. Ludwig Lewisohn is scheduled to deliver a lecture on “My Unwritten Books: A Preview.”

    1938: At Temple Rodeph Sholom, Dudley Digges and Rabbi Louis I. Newman are scheduled to deliver an address on “The Ethical Message of Paul Osborn’s play ‘On Borrowed Time.’”

    1939: Birthdate of Ernst Zündel, the German-born Canadian Holocaust denier who also published neo-Nazi pamphlets such as “The Hitler We Loved and Why.”

    1939: In apparent response to pressure from the British government the Greek government announced that a law prohibiting Greek vessels from carrying any more Jewish refugees unless their papers are strictly in order would be enforced.  The move will strike a blow against the Greek economy since Greek ship owners and “brokers” had been able to make “exorbitant profits” from trafficking in Jewish misery.

    1940(16thof Nisan, 5700): Second Day of Pesach

    1940(16thof Nisan, 5700): Forty-three year old Joe “Yussel the Muscle” Jacobs fight manager passed away today.

    1941: Birthdate of Richard Charles Albert Holbrooke “a top-ranking American diplomat, magazine editor, author, professor, Peace Corps official, and investment banker. He was the only person to have held the position of Assistant Secretary of State position for two different regions of the world (Asia from 1977 to 1981 and Europe from 1994 to 1996). Later, was the Special Representative for Afghanistan and Pakistan under the Obama administration. Holbrooke was born in New York City, to Dan Holbrooke and Trudi Moos (née Kearl). Holbrooke’s mother, whose Jewish family fled Hamburg in 1933 for Buenos Aires before coming to New York, took him to Quaker meetings on Sundays. “I was an atheist, his father was an atheist,” says his mother, a potter now married to a sculptor. “We never thought of giving Richard a Jewish upbringing. The Quaker meetings seemed interesting.” Holbrooke’s father, a doctor born of Russian Jewish parents in Warsaw, died of cancer. His father changed his name to Holbrooke when he arrived in the United States in the 1930s. Such, however, is the family’s loss of contact with its roots that his original name is unknown. After Scarsdale High School Holbrooke received his A.B. from Brown University in 1962 and completed a post-graduate fellowship at Princeton University in 1970. He married Kati Marton in 1995. His marriage to Marton has led him to look more closely at his past. She was born into a family of Hungarian Jews but raised a Roman Catholic. In researching a book about Raoul Wallenberg, the Swedish diplomat in Budapest who saved Jews during World War II, Marton traveled to her native Hungary whence she and her parents had fled the Communists in the 1950s. It was there that an old friend of her mother’s told her that Wallenberg had come too late for Marton’s grandparents. It was the first she had heard about her Jewish roots. Like Madeleine Albright’s parents, Marton’s family hid their Jewish identity when they came to the United States. She learned that one of her maternal grandparents had died in the Auschwitz concentration camp. He passed away in 2010.

    1941:  The Nazis “closed” the Lublin Ghetto.  The Lublin (Poland) Ghetto was established in March, 1941 and contained about 34,000 Jews.  As of this date Jews could only leave if they had a special permit or were part of a labor group. The Lublin Ghetto was the first ghetto in the General Government to be liquidated, and the Nazis gained much experience, for future deportation actions. Jews from Lublin were the first victims of the newly constructed death camp at Belzec. Only 200-300 of formerly 40,000 Lublin Jews survived in hiding or were finally liberated in several concentration camps. About 1000 Jews survived the war in Soviet areas.

    1942: The liquidation of the WloclawekGhetto began today.

    1942:  Jews throughout Greater Germany were prohibited from taking public transport.

    1942:  Birthdate of singer and film star Barbra Streisand.

    1943: Oliver Harvey, Anthony Eden’s Private Secretary described the British Foreign Minister’s attitude toward the Jews with an entry in his diary stating “Unfortunately AE is immovable on the subject of Palestine.  He loves Arabs and hates Jews.”  This entry explains why the British Foreign office did nothing to save the Jews of Europe from the Holocaust and gives some example of the type of society in which Churchill was forced to make his decisions.

    1943: A twelve day joint Anglo-American conference designed to deal with the issue of refugees (and in reality Jewish refugees) comes to an end without taking any action to save the Jews of Europe including the opening of Palestine to settlement by Jewish refugees.

    1943(19th of Nissan 5703):Rabbi Menachem Ziemba a distinguished pre-World War II Rabbi who had been born in 1883, known as a Talmudic genius and prodigy was gunned down by the Nazis during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. “Rabbi Menachem Zemba was born in a suburb of Warsaw, Poland in 1883. A follower of the Gerrer chassidic dynasty, he was a great genius and Torah scholar. He joined the Warsaw rabbinate in 1935, and was recognized as a leading rabbinic figure in pre-war Eastern Europe.

    Rabbi Zemba was a moral force in the Warsaw Ghetto, always striving to infuse the community with optimism and hope. He arranged clandestine locations in cellars and bomb shelters where girls and boys would study Torah. Although afforded opportunities to escape the ghetto, he refused to do so, insisting that his presence was needed by the Jews in the ghetto. Rabbi Zemba was a strong supporter of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, donating personal funds for ammunition and giving his whole-hearted blessing for the endeavor (see Jewish History for the 27th of Nissan). Five days after the fighting begun, on Shabbat the 19th of Nissan, the house were Rabbi Zemba was hiding was set afire by the SS. When attempting to escape, Rabbi Zemba was shot dead by the Nazis. May G-d avenge his blood. The rabbi was buried in the Ghetto, and in 1958 his body was flown to Israel where he was buried in Jerusalem amid a great funeral procession. Rabbi Zemba was a prolific writer. Unfortunately, most of his scholarly manuscripts were burnt in the Warsaw Ghetto. His few works which were authored before the war are still studied by Torah scholars world-wide. (As reported by Chabad)

    1944: Two escapees from Auschwitz, Rudolf Vrba and Alfred Wetzler reached Zilina, in northern Slovakia, where they worked with Jewish leaders on their report. The two men provided separate but consistent accounts. Factual assertions were checked against records whenever possible. The 32-page report was sent to the British and United States governments, the Vatican and the International Red Cross. Most important, it went to the leadership of Hungary's Jews, next on Hitler's list.

    1945: When Soviet troops entered the German capital, they found 800 Jews alive at Berlin’s Jewish Hospital.1945: Forty-three year old Karl Ludwig von Guttenberg who had been arrested after the failure of the plot to assassinate Hitler in July, 1944 and who refused to name names despite being tortured by was murdered in the early hours of this morning by order of “Gestapo chief Heinrich Muller.”

    1945: Holocaust survivor Dr. Hadassah Bimko Rosensaft, gave one of the first eyewitness accounts of the horrors of the Holocaust on a Movietone News newsreel that was filmed at the recently liberated Nazi concentration camp of Bergen-Belsen."It is difficult for me to describe," she said, "all that we inmates experienced here in the camps. As a small, very small example I can relate that we inmates were thrown onto the earth of a filthy, lice-filled camp, without blankets, without bags of hay, without beds. We were given a 12th of a piece of bread daily and one liter of turnip soup so that almost 75 percent of the inmates were swollen from hunger. A severe typhus epidemic broke out, and the hunger and the typhus devoured us." Through the camera she told the world how the Germans had refused to give starving inmates food shipments sent by the Red Cross until shortly before the arrival of British troops, and how the camp's SS commandant had stolen large quantities of chocolate intended for Jewish children to enrich himself on the black market.

    1946:  Five thousand Jews attending a funeral for five Jews murdered by Poles at Nowy Targ, Poland, three days earlier were abused from rooftops and windows by anti-Semitic taunts.

    1947: Birthdate of Roger David Kornberg an American biochemist and professor of structural biology at Stanford University School of Medicine who “was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2006 for his studies of the process by which genetic information from DNA is copied to RNA, "the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription."

    1947: The trial of Hans Biebow “the chief of German Nazi administration of the Łódź Ghetto in occupied Poland” continued for a second day.

    1948(15th of Nisan, 5708): Pesach

    1948: During the siege of Jerusalem, on the first day of Pesach, Zipporah Porath “feasted on an omelet made from our special Pesach ration, which included Matzah and one egg each.”

    1949: Birthdate of Peter Friedman, the New York native who “played the role of Jewish immigrant ‘Tateh’ in Ragtime” for which he “was nominated for the 1998 Tony Award for Best Performance by a Leading Actor in a Musical and the Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Actor in a Musical.”

     1950: King Abdullah of Jordan annexed all of the land west of the Jordan River and the Dead Sea seized by his troop.  The state of Jordan was formed by the union of Jordanian-occupied Palestine and the Kingdom of Transjordan. In the view of some, the creation of the original state of Trans-Jordan by the British after World War I was an illegal act since amounted to a partition of the Palestine Mandate.  That is why there are those that contend that if the Arabs want a state in Palestine, they already have it.  It is called Jordan.  The creation of Jordan in 1950 was another act of illegality.  The land west of the Jordan River including the eastern part of Jerusalem had been seized by the Jordanian Army during the Israeli War for Independence.  Since the Arabs held what is now called the West Bank, east Jerusalem and Gaza in 1950, you would have expected that the Arab State of Palestine would have been created.  The demand for an Arab state of Palestine in these areas only began after June, 1967.

    1950: The government of Israel announced that it would not accept the annexation of eastern Jerusalem and the West Bank by Jordan.  Israel said that it had accepted the occupation as part of the truce agreement subject to final peace negotiations.  Israel expressed its displeasure at the possibility of British military installations being installed on her frontiers. 

    1953: Drummer Buddy Rich, the son of Jewish-American vaudevillians, married “dance and showgirl” Marie Allison today with whom he had one child – Cathy – and to whom he remained married “until his death in 1987.”

    1955: The Bandung Conference came to an end. At the height of the Cold War, twenty-nine self-described non-aligned nations of Asia and Africa finish a meeting that condemned colonialism, racism, and the Cold War. One of the prime movers behind the conference was Prime Minister Nehru of India.  The Israelis had wanted to attend.  They saw themselves as a socialist country who had thrown the British out and was not officially aligned with either the Eastern or Western Blocs.  However, Nehru did not want the Israelis there because it would upset the Arabs and the Moslems. 

    1958(4th of Iyar, 5718): Yom HaAtzma'ut

    1958: Thirteen months after being released in the United Kingdom, “Ill Met by Moonlight” on which Emeric Pressburger served as co-writer, co-director and co-producer was released today in New York City.

    1958: Chaim Laskov, the recently appointed Chief of General Staff, “presided over a huge military parade in Jerusalem to mark the tenth anniversary of Israel's independence. This took place despite warnings by Jordan that such a parade would be considered an act of aggression. During the parade, Laskov displayed Israel's latest military hardware, including weapons captured from Egypt in the Sinai and from Syria during clashes in the Hula Valley.”

    1958: Brooks Atkinson reviewed the first production of JB, a play based on the Book of Job for the New York Times.

    1961, Professor Salo Baron testified at the trial of Adolf Eichmann in Jerusalem. Baron explained the historical context of the Nazi genocide against the Jews. He further explained that in his birthplace, Tarnow, there had been 20,000 Jews before the war but, after Hitler, there were no more than 20. His parents and a sister were killed there1961, Professor Baron testified at the trial of Adolf Eichmann in Jerusalem. Baron explained the historical context of the Nazi genocide against the Jews. He further explained that in his birthplace, Tarnow, there had been 20,000 Jews before the war but, after Hitler, there were no more than 20. His parents and a sister were killed there

    1962:  Dodger Legend Sandy Koufax pitched his second 18-strikeout game.

    1963: The will of Samuel Paley, the father of William S. Paley, the Chairman of the Board of the Columbia Broadcasting System, was filed for probate today showing that that his estate “was valued at $27,000,000.

    1963: Oskar Schindler wrote a letter from Frankfurt am Main today “to his close friend confidante Itzhak Stern” in which he “discusses his financial hardship,” speaks of the “optimism towards the future” he felt a year ago” and expresses his despair by asking himself “if it’s even worth lving.

    1965(22nd of Nisan, 5725): 8th day of Pesach

    1966(8thof Iyar, 5726): Yom HaZikaron

    1968: The original West End London production of Man of La Mancha with music by Mitch Leigh opened at the Piccadilly Theatre.

    1968: Mauritius becomes a member state of the United Nations. During World War II, the British used Mauritius as detention camp for Jews fleeing Hitler’s Europe who were trying to enter Palestine despite the White Paper.

    1969: “If It's Tuesday, This Must Be Belgium”  a comedy directed by Mel Stuart, produced by Stan Margulies and David Wolper, with music by Walter Scharf and featuring Sandy Baron, Normal Fell and Marty Ingels was released today in the United States.

    1974: “Refusenik and war hero Yefim Davidovich suffered a heart attack”

    1976: Birthdate of Nathan Rabin, an American film and music critic

    1976: At The Town Hall in New York City, world premiere of Steve Reich’s “Music for 18 Musicians.

    1977: A terrorist bus bombing injured 28 people at Hebron today.

    1977: NBC broadcast the fourth and final episode “Lanigan’s Rabbi” which was based on a series of novels by Harry Kemelman co-starring Bruce Solomon in the role of “Rabbi David Small.”

    1979(27thof Nisan, 5739) Yom HaShoah

    1979(27thof Nisan, 5739): Seventy-six year old British Labour Party leader Maurice Orbach, the father of author Susie Orbach and Laurence Obach, the former history teacher and CEO of the Quarto Publishing Group passed away today.

    1980: A seminar on Soviet Jewry sponsored by The European Union of Jewish Students opened today in Amsterdam.

    1980: Barbara Tuchman delivers the Jefferson Lecture in the Humanities. The announcement contains the following:


    Barbara Tuchman, who was born in 1912, never earned a graduate degree in history, but her best-selling books made history come alive for millions of readers and earned two Pulitzer Prizes for their author. Raised in a privileged New York family, Tuchman traveled extensively with her parents before attending Radcliffe College, where she studied history and literature. After her graduation, she wrote about the Spanish Civil War for The Nation, and then worked at the Office of War Information during World War II, traveling in Asia. These reporting stints sparked Tuchman's interest in the history of war. Tuchman’s first book, Bible and Sword: England and Palestine from the Bronze Age to Balfour(1956), expressed strong sympathy for Zionism. She is best known, however, for two books that won Pulitzer Prizes: The Guns of August(1962), about the First World War, and Stilwell and the American Experience in China, 1911-1945 (1972). The Guns of Augustwas later made into a movie of the same name. Although her relationships with professional historians were sometimes strained, Tuchman did garner recognition, serving as the president of the Society of American Historians (1970-1973), and as president of the American Academy of Arts and Letters (1979).Tuchman was the first woman invited to deliver the Jefferson Lecture in the Humanities under the auspices of the National Endowment for the Humanities. An invitation to give the Jefferson Lecture is the highest honor the federal government confers for distinguished intellectual achievement in the humanities. In her lecture, presented on April 24, 1980, Tuchman took "Mankind's Better Moments" as her title and theme, reflecting her general optimism about the human condition. Tuchman repeated the lecture in London a week later, the first time that a Jefferson Lecture had been repeated abroad, marking her international renown as a writer. Tuchman published her last book, The First Salute, just a year before her death in 1989.


    1983: In article entitled “Discovering Herod’s Israel,” Nitza Rosovsky describes the various building projects of the cruel king including those at Caeseria, Massada and Jerusalem remnants of which can be seen today as well as the opportunities for students to take part in archaeological digs during the summer.

    1984(22ndof Nisan, 5744): Eighth Day of Pesah

    1984: David Shipler, the New York Timescorrespondent in Israel “was summoned to the office of the director of the Government press office, Mordechai Dolinsky, and was ‘severely reprimanded’” for his reporting on the so called “Bus 300 Affair.”

    1985: According to Israeli businessman Yaacov Nimrodi, today he canceled the sailing of the merchant ship, the Westline which had been scheduled to leave Eilat filled with weaponry for Iran as part of a deal that Americans would come to know as Iran-Contra.

    1986(15thof Nisan, 5746): Pesach

    1987:  Howard Stern held a free speech rally at Dag Hammarskjold Plaza New York City.

    1990: In an example of meaningless political posturing, the House of Representatives adopted H.R. 290 “expressing support for Jerusalem as Israel’s capital.”

    1990:  Securities law violator Michael Milken pled guilty to 6 felonies.

    1991(10th of Iyar, 5751): Eighty-five year old English and Yiddish Poet Menke Katz who “won two Stephen Vincent Benet Narrative Poetry Awards, in 1970 and 1974”  whose English version of his two-volume Yiddish epic poem, "Burning Village," had been nominated for a Pulitzer Prize” passed away today.

    1992: Catcher Jesse Levis appeared in his first major league baseball game wearing the uniform of the Cleveland Indians.

    1992:  George Steinbrenner dropped his lawsuits against major league baseball.

    1992: U.S. premiere of “White Sands” produced by Scott Rudin

    1992: “Passed Away” a comedy produced by Larry Brezner and co-starring Peter Riegert was released today in the United States.

    1992: U.S. premiere of “A Midnight Clear” a WW II movie starring Peter Berg.

    1993:  ABC news analyst Jeff Greenfield married Karen Gannett.

    1994: After having made it world premiere at the Long Wharf Theatre in New Haven, Arthur Miller’s Broken Glass opened at the Booth Theater.

    1994: “Acting Against Type: The Self-Hating Jew” published today provides an interview with actor Ron Rifkin who plays the role of Phillip Glellburg in Arthur Miller’s “Broken Glass.”

    1996(5thof Iyar, 5756): Yom HaAtzma’ut – Israel Independence Day

    1996(5thof Iyar, 5756): Seventy five year old Los Angeles native Melvin Wallace “Mel” Bleeker the USC quarterback who played for four years in the NFL – first with the Eagles and then with the Giants.

    1997(17thof Nisan 5757): Third Day of Pesach

    1997:A special Seder was held in Washington D.C. today and attended by the Dalai Lama, as well as by numerous U.S. dignitaries and celebrities, including Supreme Court Justice Stephen Breyer and Adam Yauch of the Beastie Boys

    1998: U.S. premiere of “Sliding Doors” a comedy starring Gwnyeth Paltrow and produced by Sydney Pollack.

    1999: “Woman Wins 600G From Face-Lift Doc” published today described the outcome of a suit brought against Dr. Pamela Lipkin.

    2000(19thof Nisan, 5760): Pearl Padamsee, the Indian stage actress, director and producer whose mother was Jewish passed away today.

    2001: The Criterion Collection released a DVD version of Jules Dassin’s “Rififi.”

    2002: Erich Bloch has named Erich Bloch as the recipient of the Vannevar Bush Award, “it highest award for scientific achievement and statesmanship.”

    2003(22ndof Nisan, 5763): 8th Day of Pesach

    2003(22ndof Nisan, 5763): Outside the train station in Kfar Saba which had only been open for eleven days,  Security guard Alexander Kostyuk was murered and 13 were wounded in a suicide bombing for which groups  related to the Fatah Al Aksa Martyrs Brigades and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine claimed responsibility.

    2004(3rd of Iyar, 5764):  Estée Lauder, found of a cosmetics company bearing her name passed away.  Lauder was born Josephine Esther Mentzer in Queens, New York in 1906.  She was the daughter of Hungarian Jewish immigrants. She married Joseph Lauter in 1930, divorced him in 1939, and re-married him in 1942. The Lauter family changed their surname to "Lauder" in the late 1930s.They remained married until his death in 1982. Lauder died in her Manhattan home of cardiopulmonary failure at the age of 97.She was the only woman on Timemagazine's 1998 list of the 20 most influential business geniuses of the 20th century. She was also the recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom.

    2004(3rdof Iyar, 5764): Twenty-four year oldNathan Bruckenthal was killed today in a suicide attack in the Northern Persian Gulf. “Nathan Bruckenthal was a fun-loving child. “He was all good things, everything every father would love,” recalled his father, Eric Bruckenthal. His parents separated when Bruckenthal was 6 years old and then respectively remarried, but the two families remained close. Bruckenthal grew up in Stony Brook, N.Y., in a home where a sense of purpose was drilled into him. His father has been on the police force for 35 years, and his stepfather was in the Army. So when Bruckenthal approached his father about enlisting in the Coast Guard, Eric Bruckenthal was not surprised. Later, after joining the specialized Tactical Law Enforcement Team, Bruckenthal was deployed to Iraq.  He had just found out that his wife was three months pregnant with their first child when he was killed. That child, a daughter, recently turned 6 years old. As the only Coast Guard officer to be killed in action since the Vietnam War, Bruckenthal left a legacy that has been embraced by the Coast Guard, which has invited his father to speak at its events. “Though I lost a son, I gained 40,000 surrogate sons and daughters in the Coast Guard,” his father said. Though Bruckenthal did not have a bar mitzvah, he began identifying with Judaism toward the end of his life and decided that when he returned home, he would become a bar mitzvah. “He was laid in his coffin, draped in a tallis and the Star of David. For our family, he received his last rites as a Jewish man,” his father said.      

    2005(15th of Nisan, 5765):  First day of Pesach.  In the evening, count the omer for the first time.

    2005(15th of Nisan, 5765):  Ezer Weizman passed away. If you did not know that such a person had really lived, you would have thought his life was the creation of Walter Scott style novelist.  

    2005: The New York Times reviewed The End of Poverty by Jeffrey D. Sachs,in which the author argues that if the wealthy countries of the world were to increase their combined foreign aid budgets to between $135 billion and $195 billion for the next decade, and properly allocate that money, extreme global poverty -- defined by the World Bank as an income of less than a dollar a day -- could be eliminated by 2025.

    2006:This evening, the State of Israel will take time out to remember the six million Jews who perished in the Holocaust, marking the start of Holocaust Remembrance Day. The annual state ceremony will begin at 8 p.m. at Yad Vashem, Israel's Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority. The hour-long event, which will be broadcast live on television and radio, will be attended by President Moshe Katsav, Interim Prime Minister Ehud Olmert and scores of dignitaries and ambassadors from around the world.

    2007: The New York Times reported that “David Halberstam, a Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist and tireless author of books on topics as varied as America’s military failings in Vietnam, the deaths of firefighters at the World Trade Center and the high-pressure world of professional basketball, was killed yesterday in a car crash south of San Francisco. He was 73.” Strangely enough the prolific author who wrote on from Apartheid to the Red Sox-Yankee rivalry never wrote about Israel, the Middle East, or any topic related to Jews or Judaism.

    2007:The military wing of Hamas fired a barrage of rockets and mortar shells from the Gaza Strip into Israel for the first time since Hamas committed to a cease-fire in November. A spokesman for the Hamas military wing in Gaza declared the truce there over.” The rockets fired by Hamas are not to be confused with rockets fired by other terrorists during this period.  

    2007: The long awaited second novel by Nathan Englander, The Ministry of Special Cases, was released.

    2007:Brooklyn Borough President Marty Markowitz and the Brooklyn Jewish Heritage Committee co-hosted Jewish Heritage Night. The annual event, which is open to the public, recognizes the myriad achievements of Jewish Brooklynites and celebrates Israeli independence.


    2007 (6th of Iyar, 5767):Yom HaAtzma'ut

    2007: Irwin Hansen, the creator of the comic strip Dondi suffered a stroke today.

    2008: The Jerusalem Cinematheque features a screening of Adma \ אדמה. The film looks at the legendary Moshav Nahalal, an agricultural settlement, and focuses on the veteran farmers who are now forced to deal with the generation gap conflict: the continuation of the traditional family based farms, and difficult personal questions.

    2008: The Washington Post reported that author Cynthia Ozick has won 2 Lifetime Achievement Awardsthis week - the $5,000 PEN/Malamud prize for short fiction, and the $20,000 PEN/Nabokov award for "enduring originality and consummate craftsmanship."

    2008(19th of Nisan, 5768):Two Israeli security guards were shot dead in a night time attack at the Nitzanei Shalom industrial zone, near the West Bank city of Tul Karm. A third guard managed to flee after the gunman opened fire. The victims were named as Shimon Mizrahi, 53, of Beit Hefer, and Eli Wasserman, 50, of Alfei Menashe.

    2009(30th of Nisan, 5769):Irving D. Chais, who in his 45 years as the owner and chief surgeon of the New York Doll Hospital in Manhattan reattached thousands of heads, arms and legs; reimplanted fake hair shorn by scissor-wielding toddlers; and soothed the feelings of countless doll lovers, young and old, passed away today at the age of 83.

    2009: At Agudas Achim in Iowa City, annual Sisterhood Shabbat.

    2009: Harvard Law School professor Cass Suunstein and Samantha Power gave birth to their first child Declain Power Sunstein

    2009: In Columbus, Ohio, last day for nominations JCC's Jewish Sports Hall of Fame

    2009:  At the Folger Shakespeare Library in Washington, D.C., Amy Bloom, author of the novels “Come to Me” (a National Book Award finalist) and “Away,” joins novelist Susan Choi, author of “The Foreign Student and American Woman,” for a joint reading presented by PEN/Faulkner.

    2009: Rosh Chodesh Iyar, 5769 (first day of two day Rosh Chodesh)

    2010: “A Tiny Piece of Land” is scheduled to have its final performance at the Pico Playhouse in Los Angeles California.

    2010:Father’s Footsteps,” a movie about a Tunisian-Israeli family that settles in Paris and  “For My Father,” a movie about a Palestinian terrorist who comes to know Israelis first-hand when forced to spend a weekend in Tel Aviv are scheduled to be shown at the 2010 NoVA International Jewish Film Festival.

    2011: The 92nd Street Y is scheduled to present “Russian Piano School: A Conversation with Vladimir Feltsman” the Russian born Jewish classical pianist.

    2011: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish president and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including “Scribble, Scribble, Scribble: Writing on Politics, Ice Cream, Churchill, and My Mother” by Simon Schama, “Come On All You Ghosts” by Matthew Zapruder and “Silver Roses” by Rachel Wetzsteon.

    2011: The Los Angeles Times features reviews of books by Jewish president and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including “Trillin on Texas” by Calvin Trillin.

    2011(20thof Nisan, 5771): A group of 15 Jewish worshipers were hit by gunfire from Palestinian security forces as they Joseph’s Tomb. A 30-year-old male was pronounced dead at the scene. A 20-year-old man was injured in serious condition, suffering of an abdominal wound. He was airlifted to Bellinson Hospital in Petah Tikva where he underwent surgery. A 17-year-old youth was evacuated by a Magen David Adom Yarkon crew in moderate condition, suffering a wound to his shoulder. Another youth was injured and evacuated for medical treatment after he was questioned by authorities. Another two were in light condition and were treated on scene.

    2011(20thof Nisan, 5771):Ben Yosef Livnat, 25, was killed this morning after praying at Joseph's Tomb where his father, Noam once sat and learned more than a decade ago.


    2011(20thof Nisan, 5771):One hundred year old Hudesa Gora, a Holocaust survivor who ran a fur business in the Cleveland area for many years passed away today. According to published reports, “She belonged to Kol Israel Foundation, a Cleveland-area group of Holocaust survivors, and to ORT.Gora was born in Krasnik, Poland, a town of 5,000 at the time, half of which was Jewish. After the Nazi occupation at the beginning of World War II, Gora obtained false gentile identity papers so she could work outside the ghetto. According to a story in the Cleveland Jewish News, Gora raised the suspicions of the Catholic family for whom she worked when she “baked a loaf of bread and did not put a cross on the bottom of it per their custom. She left that job quickly.” The Gestapo once rounded up a group that included Gora, her sister and her sister’s two children, almost all of whom had false identity papers. She was not able to get them for her nephew. “When an officer discovered this and asked who the boy belonged to, Mrs. Gora prevented her sister from claiming him because she realized the Nazis would know she was Jewish and kill her. The boy was taken away and killed,” the Cleveland paper reported. Gora lost the majority of her family in the Holocaust. She met her husband, Charles, and married him in Germany, came to the United States in 1949 and settled in Cleveland the next year.”

    2011:Tamir Cohen, of the Bolton Wanderers, and the son Avi Cohen paid a tribute to his late father after scoring the winner against Arsenal and celebrating with a printed T-shirt with his father's face on it.

    2012: “Looking for Lenny,” a film about the late Lenny Bruce, is scheduled to be shown at the Westchester Film Festival.

    2012: The Jerusalem International Chamber Music Festival, a project initiated by pianist Elena Bashkirova, is scheduled to begin today in the Glass Courtyard.

    2013: “Kinderblock 66” and “Hitler’s Children” are scheduled to be shown at the Northern Virginia Jewish Film Festival.

    2013: Wa'al al-Arjeh “was convicted of intentional murder and sentenced to two life terms and an additional 58 years” for his role in the deaths of Asher and Yonatan Palmer.”

    2013: Representatives from the Virginia Jewish Community are scheduled to participate in “Mission to Washington” which include briefings from State Department Officials about the Arab Spring and meetings with Senators Warner and Kaine.

    2013: “Pictures of Resistance: The Wartime Photographs of Jewish Partisan Faye Schulman” is scheduled to close at the Oregon Jewish Museum in Portland.

    2013:Deputy Finance Minister Mickey Levy (Yesh Atid) denounced the haredim as "parasites" during an interview on haredi radio this morning. He almost immediately retracted the comment, explaining that it was said "in a moment of anger."

    2013: Histadrut Labor Federation Chairman Ofer Eini threatened Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu and Finance Minister Yair Lapid with a general strike over expected budget cuts that could cut workers’ pay.

    2014: Illinois Holocaust Museum & Education Center is scheduled to host “Rwanda in the Aftermath of Genocide: A Twenty Year Perspective.”

    2014: In Washington, D.C., Georgetown University is hosting “a full-day centenary tribute” in honor of Jan Karski.

    2014(24thof Nisan, 5774): Supercentenarian Arturo Licata passed away today leaving Alexander Imich “who escaped Nazi persecution and the Soviet gulag” “as the world’s oldest living man.” (As reported by Yifa Yaakov)

    2014:  “The Jewish Cardinal” is scheduled to be shown at the JCC Rockland International Jewish Film Festival

    2014: In New York, Temple Shaaray Tefila is scheduled to host a “Klezmer Jam” where attendees are encouraged to bring their own instruments and join in the dancing.

    2015: In Cedar Rapids, IA, Temple Judah is scheduled to host “Retro Reform” Shabbat services using Gates of Prayer.

    2015: Lewis Black is scheduled to appear at the DeVos Performance Hall in Grand Rapids, Michigan.

    2015: “The Go-Go Boys” and “While We’re Young” are scheduled to be shown at the Westchester Jewish Film Festival.

    2015: Thanks to the efforts of Ben Jaffe, the son of Allan Jaffe of blessed memory and Alan Samson “the Preservation Hall Jazz Band headlined this year’s 24th annual Touro Synagogue Jazz Fest Shabbat held as part of the Friday night service. (The event took place on the 80th anniversary of Allan Jaffe’s birth)

    2015: Shoah survivor Louise Lawrence Israels is scheduled to speak the US Holocaust Memorial Museum today.

    2015: The main, Midtown Manhattan branch of Carnegie Deli was closed temporarily due to the discovery of an illegal gas line in the restaurant.

    2015: Ninety-three year old Auschwitz survivor Wladyslaw Bartoszewski passed away today.

    2015: The meeting of the Republican Jewish Coalition is scheduled to open today in Las Vegas.

    2016(16thof Nisan, 6776): Second Day of Pesach

    2016: “Two Indian-born Jewish brothers” David and Simon Reuben” were named today as the
    richest people in Britain according to the UK Sunday Times.
    2016: The New York Times featured books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Old Age: A Beginner’s Guide by Michael Kinsley, Disraeli: The Novel Politician by David Cesarani and The Houseguest by Kim Brooks.

    2017(28thof Nisan, 5777): Yom Ha’Shoah – Holocaust Remembrance Day

    2017: Holocaust Survivor Jacob Eisenbach is scheduled to speak this afternoon at the Sinclair Auditorium at Coe College in Cedar Rapids, IA thanks to the efforts of the David and Joan Thaler Holocaust Remembrance Committee chaired by Dr. Robert Silber.

    2017: The Leo Baeck Institute is scheduled to present “When We Remembered Zion” during which “the Grammy-nominated New Budapest Orpheum Society, under the direction of Philip V. Bohlman and Ilya Levinson, bears witness to those murdered, those who resisted, and those who must not be forgotten. 2017: The Yeshiva University Museum is scheduled to present Liel Leibovitz lecturing on “Inbound Exile: Jerusalem As Viewed From Tel Aviv.”

    2017: The Center for Jewish History and the YIVO Institute for Jewish Research is scheduled to host a poetry reading and discussion led by Lee Sharkey who “will read from her new poetry collection Walking Backwards.”

    2017: With “Israel’s Holocaust Remembrance Day” coming just a week after the end of Passover, “Yad Vashem created an online photo exhibit commemorating the celebration of the significant spring holiday before, during and after the Holocaust.”

    2017: The Seder Plates belong to the late Joan Rivers, “made in the 1980s by Spode Judaica in the United Kingdom” is scheduled to be auctioned today J. Greenstein and Co. in Cedarhurst, NY.

    2018: Armenian Genocide Remembrance Day, an event discussed in Ambassador Morgenthau’s Story by Henry Morgenthau, Sr. and was an event that helped Polish Jewish lawyer Raphael Lemkin to “coin the concept of Genocide as a crime against humanity.”

    2018: The Steicker Center is scheduled to hold a reception prior to tomorrow’s opening to the general public of the exhibit “Home: Lens on Israel” which is “a photographic tour celebrating Israel’s 70th birthday, explore the multitude of communities—and worlds—that dwell side by side within Israel’s meager 8,000 square miles, just the size of New Jersey.”

    2018: The Oxford University Jewish Society is scheduled to host a new version of “Dine and Discuss” where attendees will watch and discuss an episode of “Shitsel.”




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    April 25

    693: Opening session of the Sixteenth Council of Toledo which, before its close, would add more regulations that would prove oppressive to the Jews living under the Visigoths.  This Visigoth anti-Semitism would provide a major impetus for Jewish support of the Moors when they invaded Spain in the early decades of the next century.

    1211: Birthdate of Duke Frederick II the Quarrelsome who granted a privilegium to the Austrian Jews in 1244.

    1214: Birthdate of King Louis IX of France. According to one historian Louis “hated the Jews so thoroughly that he would not look at them.”  Considering the fact that Louis that Louis financed his Crusade from the wealth he stole from his Jewish subjects, the fact that he expelled them from his domain and that he burned 12,000 copies of the Talmud and other Jewish texts, one would have to say that there is more than just a little credence to this evaluation.

    1221(2ndof Iyar): Baruch ben Samuel, a leading Talmudist and author of religious poems  “who was one of the leading signatories of the Takkanot Shum, a set of decrees designed to deal with the problems facing Rhineland Jews in the wake of the Crusades passed away toay

    1284: Sancho IV of Castile, who treated the story of the affair between Rahel la Fermosa, a Jewish woman from Toledo, and King Alfonso VIII as fact and not fable, began his reign today.

    1284: Birthdate of King Edward II of England Edward would be the first King of England since the Norman Conquest, to reign over a Kingdom that had no Jewish subjects.

    1295: King Sancho IV of Castile who treated the story of the affair between Rahel la Fermosa, a Jewish woman from Toledo, and King Alfonso VIII as fact and not fable, began passed away. Among the Jews who served Sancho were the Kabbalist Todros Abulafia and the physicians of the Ibn Waqar family who were close enough to the king that they served as witnesses to his last will and testament.

    1342: Pope Benedict XII during whose Papacy a large number of Jewish communities were attacked in Bavaria, Austria and Poland and Isaac ben Jacob of Lattes of Provence wrote “Toledot Yitzhak” which provided a history of his community passed away today.

    1367:  Poland's Casimir III "The Great" expanded the "privileges" of 1334 to include the Jews in Lesser Poland and Ukraine.

    1599:  Birthdate of Oliver Cromwell.  Most people remember Cromwell as one of the leaders in the revolt against Charles I that left the latter a beheaded monarch and the former Lord Protector.  To the Jews, he is the English leader who enabled the Jews to return to England after three and half centuries of exile.  Despite a great deal of opposition, Cromwell held fast to his commitment to the return of the Jews.  Although they came in secret at first, by 1657, one year before the death of Cromwell, the Jews of London felt confident enough in their position to purchase a building to be used as a Synagogue. Cromwell passed away in September, 1658.

    1607: During the Eighty Years' War, the Dutch fleet destroys the anchored Spanish fleet at Gibraltar.The Eighty Years' War, or Dutch Revolt, was the war of secession between the Netherlands and the Spanish king that lasted from 1568 to 1648. The war resulted in the Seven United Provinces being recognized as an independent state. The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or the Dutch Republic, became a world power for a time through its merchant shipping and experienced a period of economic, scientific and cultural growth.The region now known as Belgium and Luxembourg also became established as the Southern Netherlands, part of the Seventeen Provinces that remained under royal Habsburg rule.  The Spanish were Catholics.  The Dutch were Protestants.  More importantly, the Protestant Dutch were willing to provide a safe haven for the Jews.  In fact, the early Jewish community in the Netherlands was dominated by Sephardic Jews whose families had been driven out of Catholic Spain.  It was this Dutch victory over the Spanish that would mean that New Amsterdam would be Protestant and would be a haven for the first Jewish community in what would become the United States. 

    1770: Birthdate of Georg Sverdrup the Norwegian who favored a constitutional ban on Jews living in his country because he “felt that it would be incompatible with Judaism to deal honestly with Christians, writing that ‘no person of the Jewish faith may come within Norway's borders, far less reside there.’”

    1785: Birthdate of Meyer Israel Bresselau, a notary by trade who “was a founding member and chairman of the Hamburg Temple, one of the first Jewish reform congregations in Germany

    1792:Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle composed La Marseillaise (French national anthem). One hundred and eighty-one years La Marseillaise would become part of Jewish liturgy. On Shemini Atzeres, 5734/1973, before the fourth hakafa, the Rebbe stood on the edge of the bima and began to sing “Ha’aderes vehaemuna” to the tune of the French national anthem, “La Marseillaise.”Rebbe’s rendition of “Ha’aderes vehaemuna” to “La Marseillaise,” was related to the concept of “Napoleon’s March,” when the Alter Rebbe took the theme of victory from the March.

    1795: After nineteen days of imprisonment, German-Jewish author Saul Ascher was released by authorities in Berlin.

    1803: Wolf Breidenbach, a self-made man who used his wealth and influence in the cause of Jewish emancipation in Germany, succeeded today in having the Jewish "Leibzoll" abolished in Isenburg.  The "Leibzoll" was a tax levied on Jews when they entered a town in which they did not leave or in which the Jews had not been granted special priviliges.

    1808: Birthdate of Gustav Weil, the native of Sulzburg who eschewed a career as a rabbi and instead became one of the leading Orientalists of his time which, in those days meant a study of what today we call the Middle East including studies of the world of Islam and their leading prophet.

    1810: Nineteen days after having been arrested, 33 year old Berlin native Saul Ascher was released by authorities.

    1823: Birthdate of “German orientalist and biblical scholar” whose works included commentaries on Genesis published in 1875, Exodus and Leviticus published in 1880 and the “Ascension of Isaiah” published in 1877.

    1823: Birthdate of Abdülmecid I, the Ottoman Sultan under whom Yakir Gueron served as chief rabbi of Constantinople

    1824: Birthdate of Samuel Mohilwer, the native of Hluboka who became a rabbi and a supporter of Jewish settlement in Palestine.

    1825: Yenchiel Michael ben Samuel married Hindela bat Eliezer today at the Western Synagogue.

    1845: Today, the Herald of Freedom published an article entitled "The Jews and the Holy Land" in which Nathanial Peabody Rogers, a leading abolitionist from New Hampshire "expressed his views of Mordecai Noah's efforts at Jewish restoration in Palestine." Showing a complete lack of understanding of Jewish feeling for Palestine, Rogers expressed his opposition to "any American Jewish effort to rebuild a Jewish Palestine as a weakening of the struggle for justice and equal rights in the United States."

    1846(29th of Nisan): Rabbi Judah ben Joshua Heskiel Bacharach, author of “Nimukei Hagriv and a lineal descendent of Tobias Bacharach, passed away today

    1846:The United Order of True Sisters, the first independent national women's organization in America, held its first meeting. Organized at Temple Emanu-El in New York City, the United Order of True Sisters (UOTS) was conceived as a female counterpart to the male Jewish B'nai B'rith organization (founded in 1843), but functioning separately, UOTS claims to be the first independent national women's organization in the United States. Some of the Order's goals resembled those of earlier Jewish women's mutual aid and charitable societies. The Sisters sought "refinement of the heart and mind and moral improvement," and paid regular dues to be used for burial fees and material aid to members struck by illness or sudden poverty. Unlike earlier charitable women's organizations, however, the UOTS also had explicitly political goals. In the words of the group's 1864 constitution, the Order sought "particularly the development of free, independent and well-considered action of its members. The women are to expand their activities, without neglecting their obligations as housekeepers, in such a manner, that if necessary they can participate in public meetings and discussions." The structure of the lodge, with secret passwords, degrees of membership, and closely-guarded rituals, mirrored the organization of men's fraternal organizations like B'nai B'rith, the Masons, and the Odd Fellows. The members of UOTS were mostly middle-class German-Jewish women, as evidenced by the fact that meetings at most lodges were conducted in German until the end of the First World War. Many members were wives of B'nai B'rith members. The UOTS provided these women a place to exercise their leadership abilities and develop a role in the public sphere, without being subject to the authority of men. Although most probably did not fear material want, the system of mutual aid provided an unusual degree of security and independence. Initiated under the leadership of Henriette Bruckman, and founded with just ten other members, the original lodge counted over 100 members by 1851. In the same year, the UOTS established a Grand Lodge as an umbrella organization to connect lodges in different cities and to centralize authority. By the mid-1860s, lodges existed in Philadelphia, New Haven, and Albany as well as New York. Active in public life from the beginning, the UOTS established its own newspaper, Der Vereinsote, in 1884.Today, the UOTS continues to maintain chapters across the country, although its focus has changed and is no longer identified as an exclusively Jewish organization. Since 1947, the main activities of the Order have been raising money for cancer research and providing support to cancer patients. The most recent chapter was formed in Suffolk County, New York, in 1978.

    1846: “Charles VI” a French grand opera with music composed by Fromental Halevy was performed at The Hague for the first time.

    1847: In New York, the “Orthodox congregation…composed exclusively of natives of Holland” which was found on April 14, 1847 and was led by Rabbi Simon C. Noot today “adopted the name B’nai Israel

    1848(22ndof Nisan, 5608): Eighth and final day of Pesach

    1848:  The new Austrian constitution guaranteed freedom of the Jewish religion.

    1849:General Joseph von Radowitz began serving as the chief minister for Frederick William IV “who declared in the beginning of his reign that he desired to exclude the Jews from military service, believed strongly in a "Christian" state.”

    1850: Paul Julius Reuter used 40 pigeons to carry stock market prices.  Born Israel Beer Josaphat, Reuter had left his uncle's bank just two years before to establish what would become one of the world's greatest news gathering organizations.

    1851: In Neuilly-sur-Seine, Hauts-de-Seine, Nathaniel de Rothschild and Charlotte de Rothschild (née de Rothschild) gave birth to Baron Arthur de Rothschild yachtsman and philatelist.

    1852: Twenty-one Reform Jews formed Washington Hebrew Congregation in Washington D.C.

    1859: Construction of the Suez Canal begins. The construction and operation of the canal became entangled in the European power politics and imperial conflicts between the French, who built the canal and the British who wanted to control it.  While serving as Prime Minister, Benjamin Disraeli bought a controlling interest in the company that owned the canal.  This “extra-legal” purchase was made possible by money from the House of Rothschild.

    1861: In New York City Joseph and Babette Steinhart gave birth to influential political economist Edwin Robert Anderson Seligman, the husband of Caroline Beer who earned a B.A. Ph.D. and LL.B from Columbia University and who became the head of the faculty of economics and sociology at his alma mater while authoring numerous works that works were “translated into French, Italian and Japanese” including The Economic Interpretation of History.

    1861: At the outbreak of the Civil War, Philadelphian William Moss, the son of Joseph and Julia Moss enlisted for a three month hitch with Company A of the Seventeenth Regiment. (Lincoln’s initial call had been for ninety-volunteers)

    1862: In London, Colonel George Henry Grey and Harriet Jane Pearson gave birth to Sir Edward Grey, the British Foreign Minister who expressed his support for “a homeland for the Jewish people” and after the outbreak of WW I, for the “emancipation of the Russian Jews.

    1880(14th of Iyar, 5640): Pesach Sheni

    1880(14th of Iyar, 5640): Joseph Seligman, founder of Seligman Brothers passed away today in New Orleans.

    1880: In Ostrina, Russia, Mr. and Mrs. Nathan Krensky gave birth to Harry Krensky who came to the United States at age 13 and who would return to Russia to facilitate his parents coming to America.  Krensky eventually settled in Waterloo, Iowa where he became a successful merchant.

    1880: “The Falashas –Remnants of Jews in Abyssinia” published today provides a brief history of the Jews of Ethiopia beginning with the generals who divided the empire created by Alexander the Great.

    1880:  It was reported today that a correspondent for the Jewish Messenger in Jerusalem has described the attempt to develop a Jewish agricultural movement near Safed has failed.  The farms have been abandoned and the would be-farmers have returned to live in Safed.

    1881: “Journeys in Asia Minor” published today includes a review of “The Land of Gilead with Excursions in the Lebanon” by Laurence Oliphant.”  According to the review the book describes Oliphant’s mission to the land ruled by the Ottomans which included what some saw as “nothing less than” an attempt to begin “a restoration of the Jews” in Palestine.

    1881:  A petition signed by 250,000 Germans was presented to the government requesting the barring of foreign Jews from admission into Germany. The petition bore no less than two hundred and fifty-five thousand signatures. This petition marked the opening of modern German anti-Semitism.

    1881: In what some say marks the start of “modern anti-Semitism” in Germany, “a petition signed by 250,000 Germans was presented to the government requesting the barring of foreign Jews from admission to the country

    1882 “The Persecuted Russian Jews” published today described a meeting that was held in Berlin attended by Sir Julian Goldsmid and Dr. Herman Adler from London, Mortiz Ellinger from the United States and several leading German Jews to decide the roles that various Jewish communities should play in aiding their c0-religiionists trying to escape the Czar’s oppression.  The Jews of London and Berlin will take care of raising funds for the efforts.  The Jews in the United States will be in charge of procuring employment for the immigrants as they arrive in America.

    1882: Tonight, in the Russian town of Kamentz, shops and houses belonging to the Jews were destroyed by a fire.  Losses are reported to total 500,000 rubles.

    1882: It was reported today that four hundred “Jewish mechanics” who had left Warsaw for the United Sates were stopped at the border between Russia and Germany because they did not have passports. Several of them escaped but most of them are being held by authorities and are waiting for a disposition of their cases. (The Russians did not want to keep the Jews but they did not want to let them leave either.)

    1884(30th of Nisan, 5644): Rosh Chodesh Iyyar

    1886: Sigmund Freud opened his practice at Rathausstrasse 7, Vienna.

    1887(1st of Iyyar, 5647): Rosh Chodesh Iyyar

    1889: The coroner began an investigation into the death of a Jewish youngster named Tobias Hipper who had reportedly been killed by some other boys in his neighborhood.

    1890: It was reported today that Jews in Oregon are expected to support the Democrats because the Republican candidate had worked to unseat Joseph Simon as Chairman of the State Central Committee.  Simon was the law partner of Solomon Hirsch who was appointed as U.S. Minister to Turkey by President Harrison.

    1890: The first meeting of the working girls’ section of the Beth-El Society of Personal Service which would be known as the Pansy Club was held today.

    1891: Today, Fannie Ingber, the mother of cartoonist William Erwin “Will” Eisner, was born on a ship born bound for the United States.

    1892: It was reported today that D. Appleton & Co will be publishing The Jew at Home by Joseph Pennell based on the author’s first hand observations of life the Jews living in the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

    1893: It was reported today that gentiles in Dennisville, NJ are organizing “a law and order society for the purpose of making the Jews from Woodbine, the Baron Hirsch colony, show proper respect for Sunday.” The people of Woodbine “trail their carts and wagons through Dennisville” which reportedly upset the villagers who are all “interested in church and temperance work.”

    1894: “The Samaritan Pentateuch” published today described the text from 1232 which is in the possession of the Lenox Library.  It contains thirty chapters of the Book of Genesis which are not found in the copies of the Samaritan Pentateuch in the possession of the British Library or the Vatican Library. The text is written in Hebrew and contains the Samaritan version of the Five Books of Moses.

    1895: “Boston's German-Jewish population establishes the Federation of Jewish Charities of Boston to help the Russian-Jewish immigrants adjust to life in America. Member organizations include the United Hebrew Benevolent Society, the Hebrew Ladies Sewing Society, the Leopold Morse Home for the Aged and Infirm Hebrews and Orphanage, the Free Employment Bureau, and the Charitable Burial Association. Boston's Jewish population is estimated at 20,000, including 14,000 new immigrants.”

    1896:The Reverend William H. Hechler brought a very nervous Theodor Herzl to a private audience with the Grand Duke, Friedrich I of Baden, the uncle of Kaiser Wilhelm II, It was the first time that Herzl was able to share his vision of Political Zionism and his solution to the “Jewish Problem” with German royalty. The Grand Duke was very taken with Hechler’s eschatological predictions and with Herzl’s pragmatic solution to the Jewish problem through restoration of the Jews to Palestine. The Grand Duke became a lifelong advocate of Herzl and the Zionist cause. He used his office and his relationship with his nephew…to support Herzl and Zionism. Hechler was an English clergyman who fought against anti-Semitism and was an early and ardent supporter of Zionism in general and Herzl in particular.

    1896: Gustave May, a French born Jew who had taken refuge in the United States after the Franco-Prussian War was buried today.  May considered himself a “freethinker” and did not want a religious funeral.  His friend Columbia Professor Adolph Cohn delivered a eulogy in French.

    1896: Yesterday’s planned dedication of a new synagogue in Lancaster, PA did not take place because of an explosion caused by a gas leak.  Isaac Grootfield, the “shamas” was injured when struck by flying timbers.

    1897: Rabbi Silverman of Temple Emanu-El will officiate at the funeral of Simon Alexander Wolf the long-time writer for The Hebrew Journal.

    1897: Professor Felix Adler delivered an address on “The Debt of the American People to Ulysses S. Grant” at Carnegie Hall today.

    1897: It is estimated that the world’s Jewish population totals 7 million souls.

    1897: In Boston, the founding of the Utopian Club whose members included Isaac H. Peyser, Lew E. Goldman and Arnold Hartman.

    1897: The annual meeting of the Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum took placed at the asylum’s building at 136th Street and Amsterdam Avenue.  Emanuel Lehman who had recently donated $100,000 to the asylum was re-elected as President.

    1898: The newly elected officers of the Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum Society are: Emmanuel Lehman, President; Henry Rice, Vice President; Abraham Wolff, Treasurer and Meyer Stern, Secretary.  Dr. Herman Baar continues to serve as the superintendent.

    1898(3rd of Iyar, 5658): Michael Wromser, the son of a poor butcher from Lorraine, passed away in Phoenix, Arizona, where he was the sole possessor of an agricultural empire worth a quarter of a million dollars. 

    1899: The annual meeting of the Society for the Aid of Jewish Prisoners was held tonight at Temple Emanu-El

    1900: Birthdate of Wolfgang Ernst Pauli.  The Austrian born physicist won the Nobel Prize in 1945.  Pauli shows up on lists of Jewish scientists.  In reality, his father was born Jewish and his maternal grandfather was Jewish.  But like so many German and Jewish intellectuals of the time, conversion had taken him out of the House of Israel and only the blood laws of Hitler could have “brought him back.”

     1900: The 27thConvention of the District Grand Lodge No. 7 of B’nai Birth ended today in New Orleans.

    1900: A two day crisis began in the Jewish Colonial Bank. Herzl called a meeting of the directors, and had the bank affairs reviewed by an accountant and a bank expert.

    1902: It was reported today that Rabbi Morris Schreiber died while being taken to Bellevue Hospital after suffering an apparent heart attack when he was leaving the East Tenth Street Ferry House. Rabbi Schreiber whose congregation was located on Bushwick Avenue was on his way to eat a Passover meal with relatives living in Manhattan.

    1902: The first step toward the creation of a permanent endowment fund for the United Hebrew Charities was taken today by William Guggenheim, a member of the Board of Directors, when he sent to the President of the organization. Henry Rice, a check for $50,000 for that purpose and a promise of $50,000 more upon the fulfillment of certain specified conditions.

    1903: Herzl returns to Paris as he continues to search for support for a Jewish home with the leaders of European government and business.  His approach would stand in stark contrast with the methods of the leaders of the Second Aliyah.

    1903: A report from St. Petersburg, that was published in spite of the censor, said that “the anti-Jewish riots in Kishinev” were the product of “a well-laid out plan for the general massacre on the Jews on the day following the Russian Easter” where “a mob led by the priests” crying “kill the Jews” – something they did so well that 120 were murdered and 500 injured including “babes who were literally torn to pieces by the frenzied, blood-thirty mob.

    1904: A mass meeting at Carnegie Hall the attendees who were “concerned with the plight of working children overwhelmingly supported the formation of the National Child Labor Committee one of the founding members of which was Felix Adler.

    1905: In Providence, Rhode Island, James Edward Ingham and Elizabeth Whelan gave birth to Martha Ingham Dickie who as Martha Sharp acted to save those at risk from Hitler and the Nazis for which she was honored by Israel as one of the righteous among the nations.

    1906: Birthdate of Joel Brand who gained fame for his role in negotiations with Adolf Eichmann in an attempt to save the Jews of Hungary. 

    1907: Birthdate of Helen Misener the Greenwich (UK) daughter of a Polish born Jew whose acting career included appearing in “A Night to Remember” and starring in a 1939 staging of “Night Must Fall” which produced “for the benefit of deportees on the German-Polish border” passed away today.

    1907: Birthdate of Estonia native Israel Shapiro who gained fame as Samuel H. Shapiro, the Lt. Gov. of Illinois who became the second Jewish governor of “the Land of Lincoln” when the incumbent resigned to become a federal judge.

    1908: Birthdate of Edward R. Murrow.  Most of the world remembers him as Ed Murrow, the voice of CBS News. But before joining CBS, Murrow served as Assistant Secretary of the Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, which helped prominent German scholars most of whom were Jews deal with the effects of the Nazi rise to power.  When the committee issued its first report in 1934, Murrow compared the conditions with those reminiscent of “the explusion of the Jews from Spain in 1492.”

    1908: Joseph Dulberg, a leader of the Manchester Jewish Community, writes to Winston Churchill expressing sympathy for Churchill’s failure to win re-election and reiterating the strong support that Jews showed for him during the election.

    1911: Cornerstones were laid for new buildings at Hebrew Union College.

    1911:  Birthdate of Jack Ruby, the man who killed presidential assassin Lee Harvey Oswald. Ruby was Jewish.  Oswald was not.

    1911: As part of “The Case of Mendel Bellis,” two medical professors from Kiev University issued a second autopsy of the thirteen year old boy who had been killed in March of 1911.  The report “stated the victim had been almost been completely drained of blood…” and intimated that a ritual murder had been committed.  The autopsy was a fraud.  The two medical men had received a 4,000 ruble bribe from the Russian Ministry of Justice.

    1913(18thof Nisan, 5673): Fourth Day of Pesach

    1913: J. Rosenberg, the President of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association of Jacksonville, FL, wrote to the Editor of the Reform Advocate in Chicago, asking him to inform the Jews of that city his organization which was founded three years ago has purchased a lot and raised $8,000 on which they will build “a substantial and creditable building” to use in their cause of perpetuating “the cause of Judaism.”

    1914: In the UK, Isidore Abrahams, who would acquire Aquascutum, “the raincoat manufacturer and retailer” and his wife gave birth to Sir Charles Myer Abrahams who served as Vice President of Nightingale House of the Home for the Jewish Aged and Vice President of the British Paraplegic Sports Federation.

    1914: The Second Annual Convention of the Jewish National Workers Alliance of America continued to meet for a fourth day in Philadelphia, PA

    1914: Birthdate of screenwriter Arnold Manoff whose career was ruined by the infamous “blacklist.”

    1915: The Second Annual Convention of the Mizrahi of America continued for a fourth day in New York City.

    1915: Birthdate of Mortimer Weisinger, the American magazine and comic book editor who edited the Superman series and helped create such action heroes as Aquaman and Green Arrow

    1915: The seventh semi-annual Assembly of the Eastern Council of Reform Rabbis opened today in New York City.

    1915: The Anglo-French invasion of the Gallipoli peninsula began.  Almost 30,000 men landed on the beach to fight the Turks for this strategic position.  Fighting with the British was a Jewish force known as the Zionist Mule Corp. The Zion Mule Corps was a supply unit that carried material from the beach up to the front lines.  The work was not glorious.  The founders of the corps had hoped to have a Jewish fighting force.  That would come later.  In the meantime, this was the first military unit composed of Jews who fought as Jews since the second century of the common ear.  Unbeknownst to the Jews serving with the Allies, the Turkish army had Jews fighting in Gallipoli at the same time.

    1916(22ndof Nisan, 5676): Eighth Day of Pesach

    1916: On the day after the end of Pesach for Reform Jews the Sinai Social center offered a much demanded course in “First Aide to the Injured.”

    1917: “A cablegram was received in New York” today “from the Central Committee of the Bund at Petrograd, one of the influential revolutionary bodies composed of Jews, stating unqualified that the bund was opposed to a separate peace with Germany.”

    1917: At Minsk, Russia, during the a great-army congress attended by representatives of the Council of Workmen and Soldier Deputies and the Duma Executive Committee, one of the leaders so of the Jewish question, “It is the shame of the twentieth century to have to raise this subject.  I as a Russian am insulted when I hear it said, ‘Shut out the Jews from the universities or they will take all the first places in science.’ The Jews question was one of the chief tools of the autocracy.  Russia must be rid of this nightmare.”

    1918: Lieutenant General Sir John Monash, the son of Jewish immigrants and the ranking member of the Australian Army serving on the Western Front, described today’s recapture of the town of Villers-Bretonneux as the turning point of the Great War.

    1918: “With the première of his opera Die Gezeichneten, in Frankfurt today, Franz Schreker moved to the front ranks of contemporary opera composers.

    1919: Formation of Ha-Shomer ha-Za’ir

    1919: The funeral of Bertha M. Kahn, the wife of Max R. Kahn and the mother of Ludwig and Mrs. Anna Schiller is scheduled to take place today in Chicago.

    1919: The funeral of Maier Neumann, the 74 year old husband of Sera Neuman and the father of Fannie M. Neuman is scheduled to take place today followed by “interment at Mount Maariv.”

    1920: At the San Remo Conference, the Supreme Allied Council assigns mandates for Mesopotamia and Palestine to Britain, and Syria and Lebanon to France. The Zionists scored a triumph since, when awarding the mandate to the British it was stated that “the mandatory would be responsible for putting into effect the declaration originally made on the 8th November 1917 by the British government.”  In other words, “the Blafour Declaration was affirmed in an international treaty. 

    1920: As the San Remo Conference comes to an end, “Jewish and Arab delegations dined together in the Hotel Royal, toasting each other as the British looked on benevolently at the next table.”  Enmity between Zionists and Arabs was neither inevitable nor “present at the creation.”

    1920: “The Paris Peace conference formally confirmed the allocation of the Middle East’s Arab rectangle to Britain and France. The Allies’ final boundaries for their respective mandates in Palestine and Syria did not produce the viable frontiers the Zionists had anticipated for their National Home.” 

    1921(17thof Nisan, 5681): Third Day of Pesach

    1923(9thof Iyar, 5683): Seventy-four year old Elise Lehmann passed away today after which she was interred at the Jewish Cemetery in Morgan City, LA.

    1923: In Toronto Jacob Herman and Kate Weinberg gave birth to Mildred Hayden who gained fame as ballerina Melissa Hayden.

    1924(21stof Nisan, 5684): Seventh Day of Pesach

    1926: The first regular meeting of the recently created Department of Industrial Economics of the National Civic Federation was held at the Park Avenue Hotel.  Speakers for the evening included Louis D. Brandeis of the National Civic Federation and Samuel Gompers, President of the American Federation of Labor.  As the last speaker of the evening, Gompers “reviewed the blessings which had come to the individual through organized labor and expressed the opinion that the beneficiaries would hardly agree to the proposition that association curtailed their liberty.  He said that labor could not depend upon the courts for protection citing the recent decision of the Supreme Court of the United States in holding the ten-hour day for bakers unconstitutional.  ‘I suppose bakers will have to go back to the eleven and twelve hour and even longer day.  If they do I will urge them to strike.’”

    1926: A campaign to raise six million dollar led by the Mrs. Jacob H. Schiff, the Honorary Chairman of the Women’s Division of the United Jewish Campaign of New York was scheduled to begin today.

    1927: Seventeen year old Eddie Wolfe, the Memphis born welterweight fought his first professional bought today.

    1927: Members of Temple Emanu-El are scheduled to meet today discuss the possible merger with Temple Beth-El in New York.

    1929(15thof Nisan, 5689): Last Pesach of the Roaring Twenties.

    1929: “An appeal to the Jews of New York to celebrate Passover by increasing their cooperation in the rebuilding of Palestine as the Jewish national homeland…issued by Morris Rothenberg” was read today in several synagogues.

    1930: The Soviet Union establishes the Gulag administration to coordinate the network of penal labor camps for criminals and political prisoners many of whom were Zionists or Jews who fell afoul of the Stalinist regime such as the members of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee.

    1930:  In New York, Jean (née Gerson), a piano player for dance classes, and David Mazursky, a laborer gave birth to Irwin Mazursky who gained fame as Paul Mazursky, director of “Down and Out in Beverly Hills.”

    1932: Rose Franken's "Another Language", premiered in New York City.

    1933:  The Law against the Overcrowding of German Schools and Institutions of Higher Learning set a Jewish quota of 1.5 percent of high-school and university enrollment, and stipulated a limit of 5-percent Jewish enrollment in any single school. Because a compulsory education law was in effect, Jewish enrollment in primary schools was not limited for the time being. However, growing numbers of Jews voluntarily moved to purely Jewish settings by 1938, when they were totally barred from general institutions. In autumn 1941, the Jewish schools were closed by administrative order. Ironically, extra-legal discrimination against Jews seeking admission to colleges and universities existed in the United States at this time.  These quotas would hang on until the later 1960’s.

    1933: Birthdate of songwriter Jerry Leiber who teamed with another Mike Stoeller, “another Jewish white boy” who also loved Jazz and Boogie Woogie to create some of the greatest songs of the early days of Rock and Roll including Hound Dog, Love Potion #9, On Broadway and most of the hits recorded by the Coasters.  If you recognize these classics, you are almost as old as the author and if you are scratching your because you never heard them, then you are young, very young and should be home practicing the Four Questions.

    1934: “Princess Charming” a comedy produced by Michael Balcon and filmed by cinematographer Mutz Greenbaum was released today in the United Kingdom.

    1935: Birthdate of Edna Shavit the, “Emeritus Professor in the Drama department in the University of Tel Aviv, and Ha'Levi theatre prize winner for the year 2006.”

    1936: As Arab violence in Palestine continued a British policeman was injured when Arab demonstrators stoned government officers at Tulkarem.

    1936: The policed arrested three Arabs after “a fire in the Jewish quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem tonight destroyed one of the largest wholesale groceries in the city” causing damaged “estimated at $50,000.”

    1936: The Supreme Arab Executive Committee led by the President, Mufti Haj Amin el Husseini “decided that all Arabs in Palestine would continue their strikes until Jewish immigration had been prohibited and the sale of land to Jews had been stopped.”

    1936: Joseph C. Hyman, the secretary of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee said today that “the salvage of the Jewish community in Germany depends increasingly on American aid” which will come to a total of two million dollars if the committee is able to reach its goal of raising $3,500,000.

    1936: In New Haven, CT, Felix M. Warburg told a meeting of the New England Conference of Jewish Communal Agencies meeting at Temple Mishkan Israel, that I “improved business conditions in the United States” should help Jews to give generously to the relief program designed to aid the suffering Jews in Germany, Russia and Poland.

    1936: Following a mass meeting this morning at Columbus Circle in New York, “a resolution protesting treatment of Jewish people and ‘bloody pogroms’ in Poland was presented’ this afternoon “ to an attaché of the Polish Consulate by the a delegation representing the Peoples Committee Against Polish Pogroms.”

    1936: “The Spokesman, a Louisville, KY, Jewish newspaper today quoted Alfred P. Sloan Jr., president of General Motors as saying ‘under no circumstances will I further, knowingly, support The Sentinels of the Republic’” an organization recently identified by a Senate investigating committee as being anti-Semitic.

    1937: Benjamin Winter announced today that “Jeremiah T. Mahoney, New York Supreme Court Justice, president of the Amateur Athletic Union of the United States and leader of the forces which opposed American participation in the 1936 Olympic Games in Germany has accepted the chairmanship of the current one million campaign of the American Committee Appeal for the Jews in Poland” of which Professor Albert Einstein is the honorary chairman.  (Editor’s note – for the revisionist in Poland, this entry serves as a graphic reminder of the anti-Semitism that had swept Poland during the 1930’s.)

    1938: Associate Justice Louis Brandeis writes the majority opinion in the landmark case Erie Railroad Co. v. Tompkins.  Associate Justice Benjamin Cardozo joins the majority in the 7 to 2 decision.

    1938: “An exhibition and sale of paintings by contemporary American artists…for the benefit of the Joint Distribution Committee to aid needy Jews overseas” is scheduled to open today at the Studio Gallery at 730 Fifth Avenue.

    1938: The Palestine Post reported that Arab terrorist gangs murdered two Arabs who refused to hand over money and valuables in a village near Tulkarm.

    1938: The Palestine Post reported that there were isolated shooting incidents in Jerusalem and Haifa.


    1938: The Palestine Post reported that Arturo Toscanini, the famous conductor who had just given a series of concerts all over the country, and Bronislav Huberman, the great violinist and the founder of the Palestine Symphonic Orchestra, were granted the freedom of Tel Aviv.

    1939: Birthdate of Dr Yaacov Maor, the native of Lithuania and son Ella and Yehezckiel who at the age of the 29 passed away when the Dakar was lost on January 25, 1968.

    1939: In Harbin, China, Boris Skidelsky, a Russian Jewish British subject and his Christian wife gave birth to award winning economic historian and lecturer, Robert Jacob Skidelsky, the future Baron Skidelksy and author of the definitive work on British economist John Maynard Kenyes.

    1939: In Chicago Shirley Mazur Garrison and Henry Garrison gave birth to cartoonist Niocle Hollander.

    1941: U.S. premiere of “Ziegfeld Girl,” a musical produced by Pandro S. Berman and filmed by cinematographer Joseph Ruttenberg.

    1941: “During a White House press conference” President Roosevelt criticized Charles Lindbergh, the popular American hero and a leader of the Isolationists for his opposition to the Lend-Lease Bill calling him “a defeatist and appeaser.”

    1943: As the Warsaw Uprising raged on, Germans continued their invasion of the ghetto by lighting fires to buildings. Escaping women and children were shot to death and burned.  Thus, the ancient Polish Jewish Community began its final descent from greatness into oblivion.

    As fires set by Germans consume the Warsaw Ghetto, a German Jew named Hoch desperately leaps from a fourth-floor window, breaking both arms and his spine.

    1943:  Composer Ezra Laderman was inducted into the U.S. Army where he served as a radio operator with the 69th Infantry Division during World War II. In describing his wartime experiences Laderman wrote "we were in Caversham, England poised to enter the war. It was here that I learned that my brother Jack had been shot down and killed in Germany. The Battle of the Bulge, crossing the Rhine at Remagen, liberating Leipzig, meeting the Russians at Torgau on the bank of the Elbe were the points in this constellation that was filled with tension and waiting, victory and grief. We became aware of the horror, and what we now call the 'holocaust,' while freeing Leipzig." During the weeks after the war was over, Laderman composed his Leipzig Symphony. This work brought him recognition within the army, and subsequently he was assigned as orchestrator of the GI Symphony Orchestra.

    1944: “Religious pioneers from Germany members of the Ezra youth movement and Agudat Israel founded a new kibbutz which was called Chafet Chaim.

    1944:  Joel Brand, a member of the Relief and Rescue Committee of Budapest, was summoned to a meeting with Adolf Eichmann, who presented him with an offer that would be known as "Blood for Trucks." Eichmann told Brand that the highest SS authorities had approved the terms, in which Eichmann would barter "a million Jews" for goods obtained outside of Hungary, including 10,000 trucks for civilian use, or, as an alternative, for use on the eastern front. The 1 million Jews would have to leave the country-since Eichmann had promised that Hungary would be Judenrein-and might head for any destination other than Palestine, since he had promised the Mufti of Jerusalem that no Jews would be allowed to emigrate there. To negotiate the effectuation of the deal, Eichmann let Brand leave Hungary. Although Brand was unaware of it at the time, the offer was evidently connected with an attempt by Himmler to drive a wedge between the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, and to conclude a separate peace with the former. Brand did go to Ankara, Jerusalem, and Cairo, and he negotiated with American officials and leaders of the Jewish Agency for Palestine. However, he was arrested and imprisoned in Cairo, and the rescue scheme was never implemented.

    1945: Ten months after the Americans landed at Normandy they successfully completed their drive across Europe when they linked up today with Soviet troops on the Elbe River.

    1945: In Italy, a partisan uprising began that ended with the execution of Fascist Party dictator Benito Mussolini. Members of the Jewish Infantry Brigade Group, an all Jewish fighting force in the British Army, was part of the Allied forced that helped liberate Italy.

    1945: Forty-three year old Karl Ludwig von Guttenberg who had been arrested after the failure of the plot to assassinate Hitler in July, 1944 and who refused to name names despite being tortured by was murdered in the early hours of this morning by order of “Gestapo chief Heinrich Muller.”

    1946: The French ship Champollion brought 880 Jewish refuges with Palestine immigration certificates to Haifa today from Marseille.  Of the group, 500 were children, mostly orphans.”  Many of the immigrants were concentration camp survivors.

    1946: A force of Jewish fighters attacked a police station in northern Tel Aviv killing seven British soldiers and policemen while wounding two other Britons and nine Jewish civilians.  The Jewish fighters got away without suffering any casualties and have apparently escaped the security cordon created by the British.

    1946: Several thousand Jewish youth marched through the streets of Tel Aviv mourning the death of Braha Fuld who was killed during the attack on the Sarona police mobile force headquarters.  She was referred to as ‘a fighter for immigration’

    1947: “Haven For Homeless Is Offered By Dutch” published today described an offer from the Government of Surinam, Dutch Guiana, “to open territory there for the colonization of 30,000 homeless European Jews.”

    1947: It was announced today that “the American Council for Judaism will ask the United States to oppose any move by the Jewish Agency for Palestine to become a non-voting representative at the United Nations General Assembly session on Palestine.”

    1948(16th of Pesach, 5708): Second Day of Pesach

    1948:  A reporter for The Times of London (the voice of the British establishment) described the efforts of the Jewish leaders in Haifa to convince the Arab residents to remain.  “The Jews wish the Arabs to settle down again to normal routine, but evacuation continues.”  While the Haganah was distributing leaflets urging the Arabs to stay, the Arab High Command based in Damascus was urging them to leave supposedly to avoid Arab casualties when Arab planes would bomb Haifa.  The planes never came, but the Arabs took flight and the “refugee problem” was born.

    1948:A comedic bit featuring funny man Don Wilson and opera singer Dorothy Kirsten generates what would become the longest laughter pause in the history of the Jack Benny Program.

    1950: Following the collapse of a building in Jaffa that killed nineteen and injured thirty mostly recent Jewish immigrants, Mayor Israel Rokah “called for the immediate evacuation of 1,700 people from unsafe houses in Jaffa”

    1949: Birthdate of Dominique Gaston André Strauss-Kahn, a French economist, lawyer, politician, and member of the French Socialist Party who became the Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund (IMF).,

    1950: Mohammed Pasha Shureiki “formally notified the United Nations today that Jordan had annexed eastern Palestine and the old walled city of Jerusalem.”  This action is in complete violation of the United Nations partition resolution which called for Jerusalem and Bethlehem to be administered by the UN Trusteeship Council.  There was no motion of condemnation of the Jordanian action which was really the “ratification of facts on the ground” created by the invasion of Jerusalem in the winter of 1947/1948. 

    1950: Prime Minister David Ben Gurion addressed the Zionist General Council on the sixth day of its meeting in Jerusalem.  Ben Gurion told the leaders from around the world that “their financial and other aid to Israel did not entitle them to a voice in the affairs of Israel.”  While acknowledging the importance of aid and support from the Jewish communities in the Diaspora, Ben Gurion took the classical Zionist line that “only Zionists who came to Israel and assumed the responsibilities of citizenship were entitled to a voice in determining policy.

    1951(19thof Nisan, 5711): Fifth day of Pesach

    1951(19thof Nisan, 5711): Sixty-seven year old Soviet composer Alexander Krein part of a long line of Russian/Lithuanian musicians passed away today in Moscow.

    1954: It was reported today that Frederick Marcus Warburg, a graduate of Harvard “and a partner of the firm of Kuhn, Loeb and Co. since 1931 has been elected to” served a year term as a member of the Board of Trustees of Smith College.

    1957: Birthdate of Bernard Rajzman, the native or Rio de Janeiro who became one of Brazil’s leading volleyball players

    1957: In the U.K., premiere “Funny Face” directed Stanley Donen that included music by George and Ira Gershwin.

    1958(5th of Iyar, 5718): Sixty year old  Adele Meltsner, the daughter of Sarah Bach and Joseph Meltsner and the wife of Charles Pores passed away today.

    1960(28th of Nisan, 5720): Yom HaShoah observed for the last time during the Presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower.

    1964:  Birthdate of actor Hank Azaria, voice of Moe and Comic Book Guy on “The Simpsons.”

    1965: “Half A Sixpence” a musical directed by Gene Sakes opened at the Broadhurst Theatre in New York.

    1966(5thof Iyar, 5726): Yom HaAtma’ut

    1966(5thof Iyar, 5725): Seventy-five year Yiddish author and Jewish labor leader Jacob Pat passed away today.

    1967(15thof Pesach, 5727): Pesach

    1967:  Jules Feiffer's "Little Murders", premiered in New York City.

    1969: Birthdate of Israeli yachtsman Nir Shental. Shenatal and his brother Ran won a bronze medal in the 1995 the World 470 Sailing Class Championships.  Nir and Ran also represented Israel in the 1996 Olympics.

    1972(11th of Iyar, 5732): Seventy-five year old Israel Mandelkern a member of the Yiddish Theatrical Alliance passed away today after which he was interred at Mount Hebron Cemetery in Queens County, NY.

    1974(3rd of Iyar, 5734): Yom HaAtama’ut

    1974: Senator Ted Kennedy met with “leading Jewish activists in the apartment of Professor Alexander Lerner.”

    1974: “Jews all over the Soviet Union commemorated Israel’s 26th Independence Day and sent messages to President Katzir and the Israeli people.”

    1975(14th of Iyar, 5735): Pesach Sheni

    1975(14th of Iyar, 5735): Twenty-eight year old Israeli singer Mike Brant, the son of two Holocaust survivors passed away today.

    1976(25th of Nisan, 5736):Markus Reiner“an Israeli scientist and a major figure in rheology” passed away. Reiner was born in 1886 in Czernowitz, Bukovina, then part of Austria-Hungary, and obtained a degree in Civil Engineering at the Technische Hochschule in Vienna (Vienna University of Technology). After the First World War, he emigrated to Palestine, where he worked as a civil engineer under the British mandate. After the founding of the state of Israel, he became a professor at the Technion (Israel Institute of Technology) in Haifa. In his honour the Technion later instituted the Markus Reiner Chair in Mechanics and Rheology. Reiner was not only a major figure in rheology, (the study of the flow of matter: primarily in the liquid state, but also as 'soft solids' or solids under conditions in which they respond with plastic flow rather than deforming elastically in response to an applied force) he along with Eugene C. Bingham coined the term] and founded a society for its study. As well as the term rheology, and his publications, he is known for the Buckingham-Reiner Equation, the Reiner-Riwlin Equation, (now usually spelled Reiner-Rivlin), the Deborah number and the Teapot effect - an explanation of why tea runs down the outside of the spout of a teapot instead of into the cup

    1978:The Jerusalem Post reported that Myron Marcus, an Israeli prisoner in Mozambique, was released in a three-way prisoners exchange swap.

    1978:The Jerusalem Post reported that in Washington the White House officials declared that the U.S. President Jimmy Carter, will not consider any compromise with Congress on the all-or-nothing aircraft package sale to Saudi Arabia, Egypt and Israel that would change the number of planes involved. A group of outspoken critics of the Carter Administration published a full-page advertisement in the "New York Times" warning that any weakening of Israel was in effect, a weakening of U.S. in the Middle East. 1979: U.S. premiere of Woody Allen’s “Manhattan” with music by George Gershwin that included Helen Haft in “a cameo role.”

    1979:  Peace treaty between Israel and Egypt went into effect.

    1979: In an article entitled “Camp David: Farseeing Diplomacy or Neocolonialism?”Daniel Pipes expresses his concerns about the newly signed peace agreement.

    1980(9thof Iyar, 5740): Ninety-six year old Katia Mann, the wife of Thomas Mann, the famous author who left Germany because his wife had been born Jewish.

    1980(9thof Iyar, 5740): Ninety-four year old Austrian born American conductor Richard Lerft, the brother of  director Ernst Lert passed away today in California.

    1982:  The Sinai Peninsula was returned by Israel to Egypt, as part of the 1979 Camp David Accord.

    1984: “The weekly HaOlam HaZeh (This World), which had appeared with blank spaces the week before, published on its front page a blurred picture of a man being led away.”

    1984: “Dangerous Moves” the winner of the Academy Award for Best Foreign Film produced by Arthur Cohn was released in Switzerland and France today.

    1985: Felipe Gonzalez sent a personal letter to the secretary general of the Arab League informing him of Spain’s plans recognize Israel.

    1986: Funeral services are scheduled to be held today for composer Harold Arlen at the Frank E. Campbell Funeral Home in Manhattan

    1988:  The popular ABC news program "Nightline" went on location to Jerusalem Israel.

    1988: In Israel, John Demjanuk is sentenced to death for war crimes committed in World War II.

    1991: U.S. premiere of “The Punisher” an action film directed by Mark Goldblatt with a script Boaz Yakin.

    1993(4th of Iyar, 5753): Yom HaZikaron

    1993(4thof Iyar, 5753): Sixty-two year old Canadian Doris Giller who went from being “a secretary with a supermarket chain” to a career in journalism passed away today.

    1996(6thof Iyar, 5767): Seventy-five year old movie designer and corporate logo creator Saul Bass passed away today.

    1996: In “Germans, Jews and Blame: New Book, New Pain” published today Alan Cowell described the German reaction to the recently published"Hitler's Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust" by Daniel Jonah Goldhagen.  “The book's message is that the Holocaust was a result of a deep strain of specifically German anti-Semitism, growing from the 19th century onward that sought the elimination of Europe's Jews and drew enthusiastic, willing support from possibly hundreds of thousands of ordinary Germans who physically took part in Hitler's deadly campaign against the Jews. The Holocaust, the book says, was a ‘national project.’ The German response, in a flurry of published articles, has been to condemn the book as lacking in scholarship, one-sided, derivative, downright wrong and willfully provocative.”

    1997: Launch of the INS Leviathan, a Dolphin class submarine.

    1997(18thof Nisan, 5757): Fourth Day of Pesach

    1997(18thof Nisan, 5757):Hagit Zavitzky, 23, of Kfar Adumim and Liat Kastiel, 23, of Holon were found stabbed to death in Wadi Kelt.

    1997: “Romy and Michele's High School Reunion” a comedy starring Lisa Kudrow was released in the United States today.

    1997: “In concert with the publication of Lauren Greenfields’s debut monograph, Fast Forward: Growing Up in the Shadow of Hollywood (Knopf 1997) her first major show, "Fast Forward" had its US debut at the International Center for Photography (ICP) today.

    1999: PGA golfer Bruce Fleisher won the Home Depot Invitational

    1999: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or special interest to Jewish readers including The Lexus and The Oliver Tree by Thomas L. Friedman

    2000(20th of Nisan, 5760): Producer David Merrick passed away. Born in 1912 in St. Louis, Merrick's name was originally Margoulis.  He lived in what he described as a mid-western Jewish ghetto.  He had an extremely unhappy childhood.  He found solace and success working in stage production at The Young Means Hebrew Association where his uncle was the director.  Merrick married well, moved to New York where he disassociated himself from his Jewish origins and carved a successful career on Broadway.  Some of his more notable hits were Beckett and Hello Dolly.

    2000: In initial DVD release of “Little Women” starring Winona Ryder who won the Best Actress Oscar for her portrayal of “Jo March.”

    20012(2ndof Iyar, 5761): Yom HaZikaron

    2003: “It Runs In the Family” starring three generations of the Douglas family – Kirk, Michael and Cameron – was released in the United States today.

    2003: On the day after Pesach had come to an end it is reported that In a unique partnership between Chabad and the New York-based Manischewitz company, ten tons of Matzah reached Lithuania’s 6,000 Jews in time for Passover. Donated by The donation by Manischewitz was particularly meaningful in a country long part of the Soviet Union, where Matzot were baked clandestinely.


    “The largest amount of Matzah received since the independence of Lithuania, this donation literally assured Jews countrywide the ability to have a kosher Pesach,” says Rabbi Sholom Ber Krinsky, Chabad representative to Lithuania.The donation came through a business associate of Manischewitz and an acquaintance of Rabbi Krinsky’s, Mr. Armand Lindenbaum, whose grandfather Rabbi Moshe Avigdor Amiel lived near Vilna in the early 20th century. When Krinsky approached him several months back about the possibility of making a donation to the Jewish community of Lithuania, Lindenbaum, who visited Vilna and was surprised to find a thriving Jewish community there, facilitated the initial contact between Chabad and The B. Manischewitz Company. From its perspective, Manischewitz, the leading manufacturer of kosher processed food products in the U.S., and the top provider of Matzah worldwide, feels the need and is honored to “give back to the Jewish community,” says executive vice president Steven M. Grossman.One thousand people participating at Chabad’s thirteen public Seders in Lithuania, partook of the Matzah, which was distributed in Lithuania’s major cities and remote towns. Even the five lone Jews living in Svencionys—a city whose pre-Holocaust Jewish population numbered 4,000—were not forgotten. “I want to thank you from the bottom of my heart for your help in enabling us to conduct the Seders in Svencionys according to Jewish tradition and with kosher Matzah,” said one. According to Grossman, this was Manischewitz's first joint venture with Chabad, and Grossman sees the company’s relationship with Chabad as an “opportunity to make other contributions in the future.” The concerns of the general Jewish community, he says, are concerns of Manischewitz as well, and the company is pleased to contribute wherever it can.


    2004: The New York Times reviewed books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Alexander Hamiltonby Ron Chernow and A Chance Meeting: Intertwined Lives of American Writers and Artists, 1854-1967by Rachel Cohen

    2004:The Hadassah-Brandeis Institute and the Cohen Center for Modern Jewish Studies at Brandeis University sponsor a program entitled “Double or Nothing: Jewish Families and Mixed Marriage in the United States.

    2004: Starting today “the Lancaster City Museum and Art Gallery hosted the first show of the successful touring exhibition: Hannah Frank: A Glasgow Artist.’

    2005:For the first time since the Expulsion in 1492, a public, rabbi led Passover Seder was celebrated in Piano Battaglia, Palermo by Rabbi Barbara Aiello.

    2005(16thof Nisan, 5765): Second Day of Pesach; 1st day of the Omer

    2005(16thof Nisan, 5756): Rabbi Shlomo Wolbe passed away in Jerusalem.  Born in Berlin in 1914, he made Aliyah in 1946 and is remembered as the author of  Alie Shur

    2006: In “Grits and Gefilte: How did a southern Methodist college become a destination for America's Jews?” author Steve Stein explains the phenomenal growth in the number of Jews attending Atlanta’s Emory University.  Jewish students now compromise almost one third of the student body at a school once known primarily for its connection with Coca Cola.

    2006(27th of Nisan, 5766): Observance of Yom Hashoah – Holocaust Remembrance Day.

    2007:“Makor Rishon started publishing daily. At the same time, HaTzofe (also owned by Hirsch Media) stopped publishing its daily edition, becoming instead a weekly religious insert in Makor Rishon” Shlomo Ben-Tzvi's Hirsch Media had purchased the newspaper in 2003. His wife is the editor of Segula, a magazine about Jewish history and culture that began publishing in 2012.

    2007: At the Leo Baeck InstituteBarbara Hahn, Distinguished Professor of German at Vanderbilt University, previously Professor of German at Princeton University, delivers a lecture entitled, “Kafka´s Wife - the Children of Bruno Schulz - On broken Traditions.”

    2007:Yiddish Theater: A Love Story" is scheduled to be shown at American Jewish University (formerly the University of Judaism), as part of the Los Angeles Jewish Film Festival

    2008(20thof Nisan, 5768): Sixth Day of Pesach

    2008(20thof Nisan, 5678): Ninety-nine year “painter and sculptor” Enrico Donati succumbed to injuries “sustained in taxi accident” and passed away today.

    2008: The Jerusalem Cinematheque features a screening of “The Decalogue” 

    2008: “Harold & Kumar Escape from Guantanamo Bay” a comedy directed by Jon Hurwitz who also co-authored the script was released today in the United States.

    2008: In what would be the start of a minor tempest, Entertainment Tonight reported that Annie Leibovitz had taken topless pictures of a 15 year old actress for a layout in Vanity Fair.

    2009(1st of Iyar, 5769Rosh Chodesh Iyar

    2009(1st of Iyar, 5769): Beloved television and theater star Bea Arthur passed away today at her home in Los Angeles after a battle with cancer. The 86-year-old was born Beatrice Frankel to a Jewish family in New York City and became a household name on such TV shows as "Golden Girls" and "Maude". Arthur began her career in the theater, where she won a Tony Award for the musical "Mame" and played "Yente the Matchmaker" in the Broadway premiere of Fiddler on the Roof. Arthur was perhaps most well known for her role as Dorothy Zbornak on the hit series Golden Girls. The show, which centered on the lives of four retired women living together in a house in Miami, Florida, was a hit for six seasons and won 10 Emmys, including one for Arthur in 1988. After Golden Girls ended its run, Arthur appeared in guest spots on TV, including a part as Larry David's mother on Curb Your Enthusiasm. Arthur was inducted into the Academy of Television Arts and Sciences Hall of Fame in 2008.

    2009:The David Bromberg Quartet at MerleFest

    2010: Agudas Achim in Iowa City is scheduled to host its annual “Mitzvah Day.”

    2010: The Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington is scheduled to offer “A Walking Tour of Downtown Jewish Washington” that will enable participants to visit the sites of four former synagogues while learning what it was like to live and worship as a Jew from 1850-1950 in the historic Seventh Street neighborhood, now known as Chinatown.

    2010: A revival production of “Promises, Promises” with music  by Burt Bacharach, lyrics by Hal David, and book by Neil Simon opened at The Broadway Theatre.

    2010:Wrestler Bill Goldberg and Olympic swimmer Jason Lezak were among seven inductees into the National Jewish Sports Hall of Fame. The five others inducted at the Hall of Fame in Commack, N.Y., were Virginia Tech men’s basketball coach Seth Greenberg; female judo champion Rusty Kanokogi; Penn State women’s volleyball coach Russ Rose; Achilles Track Club founder Dick Traum; and former NFL offensive lineman Alan Veingrad. Goldberg, an all-American defensive end at the University of Georgia, was taken in the 11th round of the 1990 NFL draft by the Los Angeles Rams, but he turned to wrestling and martial arts three years after an injury ended his football career in 1994. During his seven-year career on the World Champion Wrestling circuit, World Wrestling Entertainment twice recognized Goldberg as the world heavyweight champion. In an often humorous and casually self-effacing speech at the Hall of Fame ceremony, Goldberg sought to tie his unconventional career choice in professional wrestling to Judaism." I wanted to try my best to give the Jewish youth something to look up to, someone who's persevered and somehow made a difference," Goldberg said. "What better way to help Jewish youth in dealing with adversity than to parade around the ring on national television in my underwear, demolishing every single person in my path?" Goldberg did not address recent rumors of a return to professional wrestling, instead saying that he wanted to focus on remaining on this season of NBC's reality television show "Celebrity Apprentice."  Lezak, a professional swimmer, came to national prominence as the unassuming hero of the U.S. 4-by-100-meter freestyle relay team that won the gold medal in the 2008 Beijing Olympics and set a world record. His dramatic final lap of the race made international headlines and helped teammate Michael Phelps notch a crucial victory on his way to a record eight gold medals at the Games. Lezak has won numerous Olympic medals, including an individual bronze at the '08 Games, and earned four gold medals at the Maccabiah Games in Israel last summer

    2011: “Twilight Becomes Night” is one of two documentary shorts scheduled to shown at Film Form in New York. The documentary examines the widespread closing of independently-owned businesses in New York City, and the significant impact this transformation has on the people who live here. Russ & Daughters, a multi-generational Jewish owned family business known for its quality and genial atmosphere, “is presented in the film along with interview clips with Niki Russ Federman and Russ & Daughters' longtime manager, Herman Vargas.”

    2011:Yael Hedaya, “an Israeli novelist, one of the head writers for In Treatment, the acclaimed Israeli TV series adapted for HBO” is one of the writers scheduled to appear at “PEN Speakeasy: Sex; Erotic Readings” on the opening day of the PEN World Voices Festival.

    2011(21 Nisan, 5771): Seventh Day of Pesach – holiday ends for Israelis and Reform Jews.

    2011:Politicians from left, right and center put aside their political differences this evening to join in the traditional Moroccan celebration of Mimouna marking the end of Pessah and the beginning of spring. During Mimouna, revelers feast on moufleta, an oil-rich crepe that serves as the first hametz to be eaten following the holiday. The Mimouna festival has evolved into an opportunity to acknowledge and honor Israel's Moroccan community, and Moroccan activists mark the event by hosting politicians in their homes.

    2011: In New York, Russ & Daughters is co-sponsoring a screening of The Vanishing City & Twilight Becomes Night, two documentaries that trace the changing face of the city and the reasons behind the morphing of Manhattan.

    2012: “Common Sense Media honored John David Leibowitz, the Chairman of the Federal Trade Commission as a Champion for Kids

    2012: Israeli newspapers reported today that Lt. Gen. Benny Gantz has said economic and diplomatic pressures against Iran were beginning to succeed

    2012:  Filmmakers Alan Snitow and Deborah Kaufman are scheduled to participate in a Q&A following a screening of “Between Two Worlds” at the Westchester Jewish Film Festival.

    2012:The Embassy of Israel, the Washington Jewish Film Festival and The Avalon Theatre are scheduled to sponsor a screening of the Israeli film "Ha'lahaka"

    2012:  Ninety-six year old Inge Elsas who gave an untold number of youngsters their first taste of Jewish education as the Kindergarten Teacher at Temple Sinai, passed away today.

    2012(3rd of Iyar, 5772): Yom Hazikaron –Israel Remembrance Day

    2013(15th of Iyar, 5773): Ninety-six year old “inventor and philanthropist” Stanley Dashew passed a way today

     2013: In Columbus, Ohio, Congregation Tifereth Israel is scheduled to host a concert where the winners of the 2012 Justine Hackman Memorial Young Artist Competition will perform.

    2013: The Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington is scheduled to a lunchtime event commemorating the 70th anniversary of the performance of “We Will Never Die” at Constitution Hall.

    2013: In London, the Wiener Library is scheduled to present “The Human and the Inhuman: Writing in the Wake of the Holocaust”

    2013:Police today finished a probe of Rabbi Avraham Chaim Sherman, a judge on the Great Rabbinical Court of Jerusalem. Officers from the National Fraud Investigative Unit suspect Sherman of breach of trust, obstruction of justice and abuse of power in his ruling in a divorce proceeding. Today Police handed over the case to state prosecutors who will decide whether to pursue an indictment.

    2013: A court handed the Women of the Wall a significant legal victory in a decision released today, ruling that the state cannot arrest the women for their activities at the holy site.

    2014: In New York, the Centro Primo Levi is scheduled to host a presentation by David Meghnagi and Barbara Spadaro on “The Jews of Libya Between the 19thCentury and the Colonial Era.” 

    2014: Funeral services for Canadian political leader Herb Gray ware scheduled to held at Congregation Machzikel Hadas in Ottawa followed by interment at the Jewish Memorial Gardens.

    2015(6thof Iyar, 5775): Parashat Tazria-Metzora

    2015(6thof Iyar, 5775): Ninety-three year old German born screenwriter and novelist Don Mankiewicz passed away today.

    2015: Today Israeli filmmaker Nadav Lapid received his award for best director at the Buenos Aires Film Festival for the “Kindergarten Teacher.” (JTA)

    2015: “Assaf Evron’s one person show “The sea was smooth, perfectly mirroring the sky” is scheduled to close at the Andrea Meislin Gallery.

    2015: “Theodore Bikel: In the Shoes of Sholom Aleichem” is scheduled to be shown at the Westchester Jewish Film Festival.

    2015: “The Arrest” directed by Yair Agmon is scheduled to be shown at the Tribeca Film Festival.

    2015: An Evening of Songs and Stories In Tribute to Israel’s Greatest Music Legend Arik Einstein

     In Celebration of Israel Independence Day is scheduled to take place this evening at The Axelrod Performing Arts Center.

    2016(17thof Nisan, 5776): Third Day of Pesach

    2016: The Halelu Choir is scheduled to present a Pesach Concert at the Waldorf Astoria in Jerusalem.

    2017(29thof Nisan, 5777): One-hundred-eight year old Holocaust survivor Shobha Magdolna Friedman Nehru passed away today at her home India.

    2017: In Cedar Rapids, IA, Holocaust survivor Jacob Eisenbach is scheduled to speak at Kirkwood Community College, a Holocaust Memorial Event co-sponsored by David and Joan Thaler Holocaust Memorial Fund

    2017: The Oxford University Jewish Society is scheduled to host a “3 course meals and a group discussion focusing on ‘The countdown: Sefirat Ha’omer in halacha, thought, history and memory.’”

    2017: In Mt. Vernon, IA, Holocaust survivor Jacob Eisenbach is scheduled to speak at Cornell College, a Holocaust Memorial Event co-sponsored by David and Joan Thaler Holocaust Memorial Fund

    2017: Matti Friedman and Hair Watzman are scheduled to discuss their new books – Pumpkinflowers; A Soldier’s Story and Necessary Stories– at the Crusaders Hall at the Tower of David at event sponsored by the Times of Israel.

    2018: Dr. Frederick Roden is scheduled to begin lecturing on “Reform Spirituality” this evening at The Temple Emanu-El Streicker Center this evening.

    2018: In Memphis, TN, Temple Israel congregants are scheduled to participate in a community-wide social action panel discussing “Food Insecurity.”

    2018: A photo exhibition showing “Elderly Jews and Holocaust Survivors” opened at the Streicker Center.

    2018: The American Jewish Historical Society is scheduled to host the book talk and the launch of Broadway: A History of New York City in Thirteen Miles, where the author Fran Leadon will talk about the extraordinary ways in which American Jews contributed to making Broadway the iconic street that it is today.



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    April 26

    121: Birthdate of Marcus Aurelius the Roman Emperor who described the Jews as being “stinking and tumultuous.”

    1478: The Pazzi attack Lorenzo de' Medici and killed his brother Giuliano during High Mass in the Duomo of Florence. The Pazzi were rivals of the Medici family. Lorenzo’s death was a setback for the Jewish community of Florence.  The Pazzi’s big claim to fame was their participation in the First Crusade. On the other hand Lorenzo de’ Medici had defended the Jewish community from expulsions and from the aftermath of the anti-Semitic sermons given by Bernardino da Feltre in which he whipped up the masses into a violent frenzy by demonizing the Jews as the Christ Killers.

    1624: Birthdate of Johannes Leusden, the native of Utrecht and a Professor Hebrew who authored numerous text on the Hebrew language and  “in 1660, together with the Amsterdam rabbi and book printer Joseph Athias, published his Biblia Hebraica, the first edition of the Hebrew Bible with numbered verses.

    1654: The Jews were expelled from Brazil.  The city of Recife had been taken from the Dutch by the Portuguese.  As a Dutch city, Recife had been hospitable to the Jews. But Portugal meant the Inquisition, forced conversion or exile.  It was the Jews fleeing from Recife who ended up in New Amsterdam later in 1654 and thus began what would become the American Jewish Community.Professor Arnold Witzner, author of “Jews In Colonial Brazil” the Jews could have remained in Brazil if they had converted.  They chose not to which meant that “all openly professing Jews left Brazil” prior to this date. “A total of 16 ships transported the Jewish and Dutch colonists from Recife. Some claim as many as 5,000 Jews left Recife at this time. Most of these Jews returned to Holland; some relocated to colonies in the Caribbean. Twenty-three of the Jews aboard one of these ships eventually arrived in New Amsterdam (New Netherland/New York) on September 7, 1654. There are at least two versions of the story of how these Jews came to settle in New Amsterdam. One version is that the original ship was captured by pirates at one point. The Jews were subsequently taken aboard the French ship the St. Charles, and this ship brought them to New Amsterdam. According to Wiznitzer, there was no capture by pirates. Instead, the Jews were driven by adverse winds to Spanish-held Jamaica. From there they boarded the small French frigate, Sainte Catherine, which took them to New Amsterdam.”

    1655:  The directors of the Dutch West India Co. refused to grant permission to Governor Peter Stuyvesant to exclude Jews from New Amsterdam. This put an end to official efforts to bar Jews from North America. The Dutch West India Co. also specified that no restriction of trade be imposed upon the Jewish settlers. Thus it guaranteed not only the physical inviolability of the Jews but also their orderly economic development and progress. The only condition contained in the directive provided that "the poor among them shall be supported by their own nation." This gave further impetus to the growth of Jewish philanthropy in the New World.

    1695: Isaac Levy, the husband of Bella Levy with whom he had three children passed away today.

    1706: In Barbados, Abraham Burrows wrote his will today.

    1721: A massive earthquake devastates Tabriz. There are records of a Jewish community in Tabriz dating back to the 12th century. The community must have been large and culturally diverse since it included bath Rabbanites and Karaites. In 1830, the Jews of Tabriz were massacred during a rise of Islamic fervor that also included the forced conversions of the Jews in Shiraz and Mashhad.

    1737: Without any warning, the King of Prussia ordered that the decree limiting the number of Jewish families allowed to live in Berlin be enforced. According to a document entitled “General privilege and regulations to be observed concerning the Jews in his Majesty's dominions,” issued in 1730, the King had granted the Jews the right to settle 120 families in the capital city. By 1737, the number of Jewish families had risen to 180 and the king wanted these additional sixty families to depart even if it meant a loss of tax revenue.

    1753(22ndof Nisan, 5513): Eighth Day of Pesach

    1774(15th of Iyar, 5534): Moses Lindo passed away. Born in England he moved to South Carolina where he became a leading planter and merchant. “He did more than any other individual to encourage and advance the indigo industry of the colony, among the most important industries in South Carolina in prerevolutionary times. His transactions were enormous, and in 1762 he was appointed "Surveyor and Inspector-General of Indigo, Drugs, and Dyes," an office he resigned in 1772.

    1796: The Jews of Fossano escaped from a massacre which they commemorated by celebrating the Purim of the Bomb

    1792: Joseph ben Meir Teomim, the native of Galicia who served as a rabbi in Lemberg and Frankfurt an der Order and whose works include “Pri Megadim (פרי מגדים), a supercommentary on some of the major commentators on the Shulkhan Aruch passed away today.”

    1808: Birthdate of Jonathan-Raphaël Bischoffsheim, the native of Mainz, who was part of the Bischoffsheim family and co-founder of the bank of Bischoffsheim & Goldschmidt which played an important role in the financial world during “the early years of Belgian independence.”

    1817: Joseph Freiherr von Sonnenfels the son of Perlin Lipman “who was baptized in his early youth” and went on to become a leading “Austrian and German jurist and novelist.”

    1826(19th of Nisan): Chaim (Hermann) Bloch, author of “Mavo ha-Talmud” passed away today

    1826: Birthdate of Civil War Veteran and early homesteader Daniel Freeman.  Freeman was not Jewish.  He was the successful plaintiff in one of the first landmark cases that declared Bible reading and praying in public schools were unconstitutional.  Most of the landmark cases involving separation of church and state were brought by non-Jews.

    1829: French jurist and parliamentarian Pierre-Stanislas Bédard who opposed Ezekiel Hart taking his seat in Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada because he did not think Jew should sit in the legislature, passed away today.

    1829: Birthdate of Prussian-born Austrian surgeon Christian Albert Theodor Billroth who in 1876 trigger a storm with his “criticism of what he considered the disproportionately large share of Jewish medical students from Hungary and Galicia. Billroth questioned the success of assimilation, arguing "that the Jews are a sharply defined nation, and that no Jew, just like no Iranian, Frenchman, or New Zealander, or an African can ever become a German; what they call Jewish-Germans are simply nothing but Jews who happen to speak German and happened to receive their education in Germany, even if they write literature and think in the German language more beautifully and better than many a genuine Germanic native.”Therefore [we should] neither expect nor want the Jews ever to become true Germans in the sense that during national battles they feel the way we Germans do."

    1843: Philip Marcus Leuw married Hannah Van Gelder today in Hollan.

    1850(14thof Iyar, 5610): Pesach Sheni

    1850(14thof Iyar, 5610): Sixty-nine year old, Leo Wolf, who was one of the founders of the “Temple’ (reform) in Hamburg passed away today.

    1853: Following a recent vote by the First Prussian Chamber to exclude Jews from public employment, today, thousands of Prussian citizens including  Alexander Von Humboldt, presented petitions to the Second Chamber urging it to reject the action of the First Chamber and adopt legislation allowing Jews to hold “civil offices” and allowing everybody full freedom of religious opinion.

    1854: Albert E. Hertz and Maria S. Solana, daughter of Mathew Solana were married today in St. Augustine, FL.

    1856: In Mannheim, Germany, Lazarus and Babette Morgenthau gave birth to Henry Morgenthau, Sr. the American lawyer and businessman who was best known as America’s Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire.

    1856: In Philadelphia, sixteen German boys have been charged with savagely beating a boy named Bernadotte Glischman.  After attacking him a barroom, they took the boy to his room where they stuck him with pins and covered his face with a pillow so he could not cry out.  According to the boy,  he was attacked because he was Jewish and the other boys were Catholics who wanted to punish him because the Jews crucified Christ.  The boys were being held with bail being set at $250 for 15 of them and $800 for the remaining defendant.

    1857: “The original Broadway Tabernacle” which was replaced by a new building designed by Leopold Eidlitz “was opened for the last time for “Divine Service” today.

    1857: Birthdate of Dayton, Ohio native Louis D. Beaumont who with “his two brothers joined with David May, their brother-in-law, in the 1880s to form the May Shoe and Clothing Company, which became the predecessor to May Department Stores.”

    1859: Odo William Leopold Russell, 1st Baron Ampthill, a British diplomat serving in Italy, wrote to Sir Moses Montefiore describing the progress he has made in attempt to present a petition to the Pope concerning the kidnapping of Edgaro Martoro 

    1860: Seventy-year old Friedrich Wilhelm Carl Umbreit the “Protestant theologian and Hebrew Bible scholar” whose works included translations and commentaries on Job and Proverbs and “a four-volume exegetical work on the prophets of the Old Testament” passed away.

    1860: The Queen's Own Rifles of Canada (originally named 2nd Battalion, Volunteer Militia Rifles of Canada) whose most famous Jewish member may have Benjamin “Ben” Dunkelman who led them ashore at Normandy and later turned down the opportunity to command the unit, was formed today.

    1860: As of 6 o’clock this evening the body of the unknown man, who was supposed to have committed suicide by shooting himself at Weehawken, NJ, had not been identified. For reasons that have not been disclosed, authorities believe him to be a German Jew from New York.

    1861:  The Jewish Messenger publishes the following editorial entitled “Stand by the Flag” which demonstrates the patriotic, pro-Union beliefs held by a majority of Jews living in the United States.


    “It is almost a work of supererogation for us to call upon our readers to be loyal to the Union, which protects them. It is needless for us to say anything to induce them to proclaim their devotion to the land in which they live. But we desire our voice, too, to be heard at this time, joining in the hearty and spontaneous shout ascending from the whole American people, to stand by the stars and stripes!

    “Already we hear of many of our young friends taking up arms in defense of their country, pledging themselves to assist in maintaining inviolate its integrity, and ready to respond, if need be, with their lives, to the call of the constituted authorities, in the cause of law and order.

    The time is past for forbearance and temporizing. We are now to act, and sure we are, that those whom these words may reach, will not be backward in realizing the duty that is incumbent upon them—to rally as one man for the Union and the Constitution. The Union—which binds together, by so many sacred ties, millions of free men—which extends its hearty invitation to the oppressed of all nations, to come and be sheltered beneath its protecting wings—shall it be severed, destroyed, or even impaired? Shall those, whom we once called our brethren, be permitted to overthrow the fabric reared by the noble patriots of the revolution, and cemented with their blood?

    And the Constitution—guaranteeing to all, the free exercise of their religious opinions—extending to all, liberty, justice, and equality—the pride of Americans, the admiration of the world—shall that Constitution be subverted, and anarchy usurp the place of a sound, safe and stable government, deriving its authority from the consent of the American People?

    “The voice of millions yet unborn, cried out, 'Forbid it, Heaven!' The voice of the American people declares in tones not to be misunderstood: `It shall not be!'

    “Then stand by the Flag! What death can be as glorious as that of the patriot, surrendering his life in defense of his country—pouring forth his blood on the battlefield—to live forever in the hearts of a grateful people. Whether native or foreign born, Gentile or Israelite, stand by it, and you are doing your duty, and acting well your part on the side of liberty and justice!

    “We know full well that our young men, who have left their homes to respond to the call of their country, will, on their return, render a good account of themselves. We have no fears for their bravery and patriotism. Our prayers are with them. G-d speed them on the work which they have volunteered to perform!

    “And if they fall—if, fighting in defense of that flag, they meet a glorious and honorable death, their last moments will be cheered by the consciousness that they have done their duty, and grateful America will not forget her sons, who have yielded up their spirit in her behalf.

    And as for us, who do not accompany them on their noble journey, our duty too, is plain. We are to pray to Heaven that He may restore them soon again to our midst, after having assisted in vindicating the honor and integrity of the flag they have sworn to defend; and we are to pledge ourselves to assume for them, should they fall in their country's cause, the obligation of supporting those whom their departure leaves unprotected. Such is our duty. Let them, and all of us, renew our solemn oath that, whatever may betide, we will be true to the Union and the Constitution, and STAND BY THE FLAG.”


    1865: Seventeen year old Henry Schneeberger, a student at Columbia was invited to deliver his first sermon at Rodeph Shalom in New York.  His discourse provoked a resounding round of approval from the congregants. (This may be an incorrect date since a source claims that this sermon was delivered on the second day of Pesach which fell on April 12)

    1865: Reuters, the news service created by Paul Julius Reuter, brought news of President Abraham Lincoln's assassination in the United States to the European public, making it the first news service to provide the information to those on the eastern side of the Atlantic Ocean.

    1865: Edward Storm, a resident of Greenville, MS, was discharged from the Confederate Army having served in Company D of the 28th Mississippi Cavalry.

    1868: Today’s European Affairs column reported that “Thirty-one radical members of the Rumanian House have proposed the most Draconic laws against theJews, which, if put into effect, would result in an absolute expulsion of the unfortunate Hebrews.  England, Prussia and other Governments havemade the most energetic protests agains such foolish measures, and the cry of indignation thoughout Europe has already had so much effect as to cause of the signers of the bill to withdraw their signatures from it.”

    1869: Public school teachers and “scholars” living in and around New York City have reportedly been swindled by “an individual calling himself a converted Jew” and “a long-time resident of Palestine. He promises to take their photographs, asks that he be paid in advance and promises to return with the pictures “in a day or two” Needless to say, he has not been returning with the pictures

    1871: It was reported today that Jacob Cohen is the publisher of a new Jewish newspaper, The Hebrew News.  The paper will be published weekly in Hebrew and English.

    1876: Judge McAdams officiated at the wedding of Marion W. Dibble and Eliza Emma Ottolengui both of whom live in Charleston, SC.

    1878(23rd of Nisan): Orthodox Rabbi David Duetsch of Budapest, author of “Goren David” passed away today

    1880: Birthdate of Russian native Oscar Potoker the composer who based some of his works on “Jewish folk music and moved to the United States in 1924 where he created movie music.

    1880: A letter from St. Petersburg that was first published in the London Times takes issue with the contention that the Jews dominate the Nihilist and revolutionary movements in Russia.

    1881: Pogroms spreading across the Ukraine, reached Kiev.

    1882: Rabbi David Levy officiated at the wedding of Louis L. Cohen of Atlanta, GA and Hortense Solomons which took place at the residence of her father, S.S. Solomons.

    1882: It was reported that the “poorer Jews” in Odessa, Russia, are marrying at the rate of 150 couples per day.  There is a belief that if they are married, they will be given free land in either the United States or Palestine.

    1883(19thof Nisan, 5643): Sixty year old author and philosopher Samuel Alexander Byk passed away today in Leipzig.

    1883: The Brooklyn Eagle reported today that after two previous failures Baith Israel, Beth Elohim, and Temple Israel, Brooklyn's three leading synagogues, tried to merge for a third time.

    1883(19th of Nisan, 5643): Rabbi Solomon Reimann was crushed to death tonight when he attempted to jump from a ferry on to the dock.  The distance was only three feet, but no reason was given as to why he attempted the jump in the first place. He leaves behind a widow and four adult children

    1884(1st of Iyar, 5644): Rosh Chodesh Iyar

    1884: A motion to grant convicted killer Edward Brice was denied today in Washington, DC.  The motion was based on the grounds “that one of the jurors” who was Jewish took the oath on a Christian Bible instead of on the Five Books of Moses.  The judge said that the objection should have been raised at the time of the swearing in and refused to consider it.

    1885: Phoenix, AZ suffers one of its worst fires during Emil Ganz’s first term as the city’s mayor.  Among the buildings burnt was the Bank Exchange Hotel which was owned by native of Germany who come to Phoenix by way of Georgia.

    1885: The new facility of the Brooklyn Hebrew Orphan Asylum “which had cost about $20,000 was occupied and in operation when the seventh annual meeting took place” today where it was reported the facility was not caring for 29 boys and 17 girls.

    1885:”Archaelogical Frauds In Palestine,” published today recounts the various sales of an inscription written in Greek that had supposedly been found in “an old Arab house near the Mosque of Omar.”  The inscription that read “Let no foreigner pass within the precincts of the temple.  Anyone found so doing will be guilty of his own death.”  Those who sold the relic claimed that it was a sign posted in the precincts of Herod’s Temple.

    1887: “Eliot and Beatrice de Pass of Kensington, London,” gave birth to Frank Alexander de Pass who as “a Lieutenant in the 34th Prince Albert Victor's Own Poona Horse” became the first Jew and the first officer of the Indian Army to receive the Victoria Cross which was awarded posthumously for his bravery in the trenches in France on November 24, 1914.

    1888: In Milwaukee, Wisconsin, five Jews from two different synagogues faced a preliminary hearing on charges that they were leading a boycott of a Jewish butcher named Jacob Weisfeld.  Weisfeld claimed that the two congregations were boycotting his business because he refused to pay a tax of one half a cent per pound of meat sold to the rabbis. Weisfeld claimed that his refusal led to a whispering campaign that claimed his meat was not kosher. The defense tried to prove that Weisfeld, was in fact, guilty of not slaughtering his meat in a kosher fashion.

    1889: Birthdate of Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein, an Austrian born professor of philosophy at Cambridge University.  Wittgenstein was not Jewish but his family was up until the beginning of the 19th Century when the road to wealth and social acceptability was opened to those who would trade the Magen David for the Sign of the Cross.

    1889: The Coroner’s Inquest that is trying to determine the cause of death a young Jewish boy named Tobias Hipper entered into its second day.  Dr. Stern and Deputy Coroner Jenkins have already testified as to the manner of death and two other witnesses have identified a couple of neighborhood boys as the culprits.

    1890: Henry Rice, President of the United Hebrew Charities, testified before the sub-committee of the Joint Congressional Committee on Immigration.

    1891: “Sir Pertinax Macpsycophant” published today provides a review of Charles Macklin by Edward Abbott Parry, a biography of the 18th century actor whose signature role was his portrayal of Shylock done in such a unique  manner that when “King George II saw the production” he “was so moved he could not fall asleep that night.

    1893: Abraham E. Pumpiansky, the rabbi at Riga, passed away today.

    1893: It was reported today the Prussian Supreme Court has declared “that to exclude Jews, qua Jews, from a Freemasons’ Lodge would be a violation of the Prussian Constitution. The case stemmed from the decision of a newly formed lodge of Freemasons to admit Jews which had been objected to other lodges that did not admit Jews because the “anti-Semitic members” did not want “to fraternize with Jews.”

    1894: Rockford, Illinois native and Sears, Roebuck executive Albert Henry Loeb married Anna Bohnen today

    1895: Mayor Strong held hearings on the Hebrew Benevolent Home Bill which has already been passed by both branches of the Legislature.

    1896: In South Bend, Indiana, “Louis Stein, a dry goods store owner, and Rosa Cohen (née Kahanaski) gave birth to Jules Stein, an ophthalmologist by training who was also the founder of MCA which became the leading talent agency in the United States.  Stein joined forces with another Jew name Lou Wasserman to create the Universal entertainment empire.  Stein used his fortune for humanitarian purposes primarily in the field of research and treatment related to the eye.  He passed away in 1981 leaving behind such legacies as the National Eye Institute and the Jules Stein Eye Institute at UCLA.

    1896: It was reported today that Great Britain has “a national concern” as a result of the death of Baron de Hirsch’s death. The Baron had large investments in England and the death duties owed on these properties would “yield enough revenue to build three or four new” battleships which would help the UK in its naval race with Germany.  However, the Baron is an Austrian and the will be probated in Vienna. The fear is that this will make it difficult if not impossible for the British to collect any taxes on the estate.

    1896: A betrothal reception for Lucien L. Bonheur and Amelia Simon was held today the home of Miss Simon’s parents on East 56th Street.

    1896: David Wolffsohn visited Herzl and offers his cooperation. Wolffsohn had been a supporter of groups seeking to establish a Jewish homeland in Eretz Israel.  Wolfffsohn provided Herzl with an entree into the German Hovevei Zion, Lover’s of Zion, organizations.

    1896: In the report of the Committee on the Hebrew Technical Institute which was presented at the meeting of Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum Society the necessity of creating a fund to provide assistance for the boys who were graduating but who had not started working was called to the trustees’ attention.

    1897: According to a report by Superintendent Herman Baar published today, the Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum is caring for 823 children.  Of these, 350 children attend Grammar School No. 43 while the balance attended classes at the asylum.

    1898: In Romania, Sara and Israel Freedman gave birth to radio gag writer David Freedman and author whose bestselling biography of Eddie Cantor was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize.

    1898: Max Nordeau delivered a speech on "Die Gegner des Zionismus" in Berlin today.

    1899: The list of the Board of Directors for the Society of Aid of Jewish Prisoners published today included “Jacob H. Schiff, William N. Cohen, Jacob A. Cantor, Samuel B. Hamburger, Dr. Joseph Wiener, A.S. Solomons, E. W. Bloomingdale and the Reverends Davidson and Harris. 

    1902: Birthdate of painter Isaac Soyer, the native of New York whose older twin brothers Moses and Raphael Soyer were also painters.

    1903: Herzl has a meeting with representatives of the I.A.C. in Paris who had read the report about the expedition to the Sinai Peninsula. The I.A.C. is the Jewish Colonization Association which was funded by Baron de Hirsch. The I.A.C. was established to set up agricultural settlements in places like Argentina, Brazil, Canada and the United States.  The settlements were supposed to provide places of refuge for Romanian and Russian Jews. Herzl sought enlist I.A.C. support for the establishment of agricultural colonies in the Sinai which would be a stepping stone to a Jewish home in Eretz Israel.

    1903: The building of the Jewish Theological Seminary at West 123rd Street which had been funded by Jacob Schiff “was erected” today.

    1903: According to an article in today’s edition of the New York Daily Tribune, “the gang that would become the Eastman Gang (named for Monk Eastman, the turn-of the-century gangster who was its leader) “first came on the scene in the early 1890s. They started out in the notorious Corlear's Hook section of the lower east side on Rivington Street in the vicinity of Mangin and Goerck streets. Another gang of the era, the Short-Tail Gang, had its headquarters in this same area, making it entirely possible that the Eastmans grew out of the Short-Tails. Originally composed of gentiles from the local slums, the gang quickly became almost exclusively Jewish with the influx of Jewish immigrants into lower Manhattan and nearby Brooklyn. When Monk Eastman himself entered the gang is unknown, but the fact that several newspaper articles refer to him as hailing from Corlear's Hook indicates that it was probably during this early era”.

    1904: Birthdate of Marion Elkus Kohlman who would be buried at the Springhill Avenue Temple Cemetery in Mobile, Alabama when she passed away at the age of fifty.

    1904: Solomon Barnato Joel and his wife the former Ellen “Nellie” Ridle gave birth to Conservative Party MP and horse racing aficionado Dudley Jack Barnato Joel, the husband of Esme Oldham who “was killed in action 1941” while serving as a member of the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve aboard the steam merchant ship Registan.

    1905: Birthdate of Charles Kenneth Gould who gained famed as talent agent and producer Charles K. Feldman.

    1907: Klauber, Horn and Company, of which Samuel David Klauber was partner was dissolved today.

    1912: Anglo-Jewish boxer Mathew “Matt” Wells lost a bout to Packey McFarland at Madison Square Garden.

    1912: In New Zealand, Arthur Myers received “the portfolios of Finance, Defense and Railways.”

    1913(19thof Nisan, 5673): Fifth Day of Pesach; Shabbat

    1913(19thof Nisan, 5673): Eighty-one year old Rabbi Moses Trager passed away in London.