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A collection of Jewish history and current Jewish events, in date format, updated daily in this Jewish history blog.

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    March 31

    1084: Henry IV, who had been embroiled in a conflict with the Papacy, was crowned Emperor by Clement III, called by some an anti-Pope. Within six years after this second coronation, Henry granted the Jewish community of Worms , the privileges of free commerce and exemption from taxation” and “designating the Jews as ‘subjects of his treasury,’”  placing  “them under his immediate protection, so that neither royal nor episcopal functionaries could exercise any jurisdiction over them” including the power of taxation.

    1146: Bernard of Clairvaux preaches his famous sermon in a field at Vézelay, urging the necessity of a Second Crusade. Louis VII is present, and joins the Crusade. Unlike the First Crusade, the Second Crusade is led by two monarchs - Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany. The “German connection” led to more suffering for the Jews of the Rhineland. Thanks to the incitement by one monk, the town of Wurburg was demolished during the massacres of Jews living along the Rhine River. As had happened during the First Crusade, the Christian warriors decided to slaughter the Infidels in their midst as they moved to free the Holy Land from the Infidels. The growing class of Christian merchants benefited from the violence since the destruction of the Jewish community destroyed their Jewish competitors. All Christians did not engage in this anti-Semitic behavior. Bernard himself tried to protect the Jewish population. His message of Crusade was heard. His message concerning the Jews was not.

    1283: Massacre of the Jews of Mayence in Germany.

    1310: At the auto da fé held at Paris today, a converted Jew who had returned to Judaism also died at the stake.

    1324: In his 53rd year, Henry II, “the last ruling and first titular King of Jerusalem” (part of the Christian fiction of control dating from the Crusades) passed away today.

    1381: During a popular uprising in France known as The Revolt of the Maillotins, Jews in France were murdered and their property plundered for next three or four days. The regent exercising royal power for the youthful Charles VI was unable to save the Jews or gain them indemnification for their loss.

    1492: Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon issued the Alhambra Decree or Edict of Expulsion, ordering her 150,000 Jewish subjects to convert to Christianity or face expulsion. Jews, unlike conversos and Marranos, were not subject to the Inquisition. So, the Church leveled a ritual murder accusation against them in Granada and was thus was able to call for the expulsion of both Jews as well as Marranos from Spain. The Marranos themselves were accused of complicity in the case so both groups were ordered to leave within four months. Torquemada, the director of the Inquisition (and incidentally of Jewish descent), defended this against Don Isaac Abarbanel. The edict was passed, and over fifteen thousand Jews had to flee - some to the Province of Aragon and others, like Abarbanel, to Naples. Still others found temporary sanctuary in Portugal.

    1499: In Milan, Bernardino de' Medici and Clelia Serbelloni gave birth to Giovanni Angelo Medici, who as Pope Pius IV issued a bull that improved the conditions of the Jews passed because it allowed them to stop wearing their yellow cap, buy land up to the value of 1,500 ducats and to trade in things other than old clothes. While they could speak with Christians, they could not have Christian servants. He also allowed the Jews to publish the Talmud as long as they did not use that word in the publication.

    1547: Francis I, for whom Agostino Giustiniani, the first person to occupy a chair of Hebrew and Arabic at the University of Paris, became a pensioner passed away today.

    1547: Henry II succeeded his father as King of France on his 28th birthday. Obadiah ben Jacob Sforno, the Italian Rabbi dedicated his commentaries on “The Song of Songs” and “Ecclesiastes” to the French monarch.

    1596: Birthdate of Rene Descartes, the French mathematician and philosopher who was one of the two main sources from which Spinoza derived his view of the world.

    1647: Ralph Cudworth who had been Professor of Hebrew at Cambridge since 1645 and who “maintained an extensive correspondence” with Isaac Abenda the hakam of the Spanish Portuguese Synagogue in London preached a sermon in the House of Commons that advocated “principles of religious toleration and charity.”

    1648: In an attempt to explain the drop off in the production of vanilla, Commander Beekman of Essequibo and Pomeroon wrote the following letter to his superiors in Amsterdam today

    “The Jew Salomon de la Roche having died some 8 to 9 months ago, the trade in vanilla has come to an end, since no one here knows how to prepare it, so as to develop proper aroma and keep it from spoiling. I have not heard of any this whole year. Little is found here. Most of it is found in Pomeroon, whither this Jew frequently traveled, and he sometimes used to make me a present of a little. In navigating along the river, I have sometimes seen some on the trees and picked with my own hands, and it was prepared by the Jew....I shall do my best to obtain for the company as much as shall be feasible, but I am afraid it will spoil, since I do not know how to prepare it.” [The letter is illustrative of the vital role Jews played in the production of vanilla.]

    1688: The German Jews received permission to participate in the tobacco industry “but only on condition that they would build houses in Christianshavn, a suburb of Copenhagen on the island of Amager.

    1722: Fifty –two year old Campegius Vitringa, the Elder, “a Dutch Christian Hebraist” whose works included a dissertation on the Synagogue and a “Commentary on Isaiah” passed away today at Franeker.

    1745: The Jews of Prague were exiled.

    1779(14thof Nisan, 5539) As the American Revolution dragged on for its fourth year, Jews observed the Fast of the First Born and prepared to sit down to a Seder this evening.

    1781: Today “the Hungarian government issued a decree known as the Systematica gentis Judaicae regulatio, which wiped out at one stroke the decrees that had oppressed the Jews for centuries. The royal free towns, except the mining-towns, were opened to the Jews, who were allowed to settle at leisure throughout the country. The regulatio decreed that the legal documents of the Jews should no longer be composed in Hebrew, or in Yiddish, but in Latin, German, and Hungarian, the languages used in the country at the time, and which the young Jews were required to learn within two years.”
     1783: Emperor Joseph II issued a proclamation allowing the Jews to live in so-called "Royal Cities" including Pest, which would later be the “Pest” in Budapest. By 1787 81,000 Jews would be living in Hungary. The Hungarian Jewish community would grow large and prosper but would all but perish in the Holocaust. Tragically, it was the Holocaust that produced Hungary’s most famous post-War Jew, Elie Weisel.

    1796: Birthdate of Hermann Hupfeld, the German Biblical commentator who specialized on ‘the Old Testament” and whose writings “included a treatise on the early history of Hebrew grammar among the Jews” published in 1846.

    1797: : Benvenida de Isaac Solis, the daughter of Isaac Henriques Henriques Valentine and Simha Mandil and Solomon da Solis gave birth to Samuel Solis.

    1799(24th of Adar II, 5559): Lorenzo Bertran was subjected to an auto-da-fe ("act of faith," in reality the public ceremony when the sentence of the Inquisition was read and carried out) in Seville. Supposedly he was the last person to be punished for attempting to lead others to Judaism in Spain. It was not the end of the auto-da-fe; a ceremony that was reported to have taken place in Mexico in isolated instance in the early 19th century.

    1808: In Westphalia, which was ruled by Jerome Bonaparte a Jewish consistory “was introduced by decree.”

    1808: Jacob Lazarus and Elizabeth Lazarus were married at the Great Synagogue.

    1808: The French created Kingdom of Westphalia ordered Jews to adopt family names

    1810: Birthdate of Hayyim Selig Slonimski a native of Byelostok, who was “a Hebrew publisher, astronomer, inventor” and a pioneer in providing Jews of Eastern Europe with a scientific education.

    1817(14th of Nisan, 5577): Ta'anit Bechorot

    1821: Abolition of the Portuguese Inquisition. The Inquisition was established in 1531 meaning it lasted for 290 years.

    1825(12th of Nisan, 5585): Ta'anit Bechorot

    1843: Birthdate of anti-Semitic political leader Bernhard Forster, the brother-in-law of Friedrich Nietzsche.

    1851: Birthdate of Sir Francis Henry Dillon Bell, the first native of New Zealand and the first Jew to serve as Prime Minister of the land of the Kiwis.

    1854: Birthdate of Joseph Schulen, the Munich banker who went into the brewery business in 1895, when he took over Munich’s bankrupt Unionsbrauerei and in 1904 “acquired Münchner Kindl, another failing brewery in Munich.” (As described by Yardena Schwartz)

    1853: In Hungary Michael Heilprin and his wife gave birth to Angelo Heilprin “an American geologist, paleontologist, naturalist, and explorer.

    1856: 40 Harmonia, a large main-belt asteroid was discovered today by German-French astronomer Hermann Goldschmidt

    1856: The Jews of Belarus or White Russia were denied the right to wear any distinctive garments that would mark them as different from the rest of the citizenry. At the time White Russia was part of the Czar's Russia with Poland and Lithuania to the west, Ukraine to the South, and Russia to the east. Minsk, home to a large Jewish population is today the capital of an independent Belarus.

    1857: In San Francisco, Jesse (Isaias) Seligman and Henriette Seligman gave birth to Henry Max Seligman the husband of Adeliade (Addie) Seligman.

    1863(11thof Nisan, 5623): Abraham Abraham, a native of Bath and an “optician and scientific instrument maker” who was the son of optician Jacob Abraham, and who served as President of the Liverpool Jewry’s Philanthropic Institute and Warden of “the Old Hebrew Congregation” passed away today.

    .1863: “The Will of Commodore Levy--The Bequest of the Monticello Estate to the People of the United States Void” published today described the litigation surrounding attempts to “break” the late Jewish naval hero’s will. “This was an action to obtain a construction of the will of Commodore Levy, in respect to the bequest of the People of the United States of a farm owned by him, and 200 acres adjoining it, at Monticello, Virginia, and also in respect to a bequest of $1,000 to the Jews' Hospital in this City. The Court now rendered the following judgment, declaring the devise and bequest of the Monticello estate, and the 200 acres adjoining, to the people of the United States void, and that said portions of the estate descended to and vested in the heirs at law and next of kin of the testator; also that the Jews' Hospital of New-York are entitled to have their bequest." Such was the endorsement upon the papers.”

    1865: During the American Civil War, Philadelphian Morris Schlesinger, the First Sergeant of the Twelfth Regiment, USA was mortally wounded at the Gravelly Run, Virginia today.

    1865(4th of Nisan): Rabbi Jacob Zevi ben Gamaliel Konigsberg author of Ha-Ketav ve-ha-Kabbalah passed away

    1865: The new Synagogue of the Congregation Shaar Hashomayim, (Gate of Heaven), in Rivington-street, between Ludlow and Orchard, was formally consecrated this afternoon. The building, which was erected in 1835, was occupied by a Presbyterian congregation until last November, when it was sold to its present occupants.

    1866(15thof Nisan, 5626): Second Day of Pesach and Shabbath

    1867: “The Insurance Companies and ‘Jew Risks’”published today reported on a meeting where members of the community including the mayor or Richmond expressed their anger over the decision of insurance companies to no longer accept ‘Jew Risks.’ The mayor, who had been in the insurance business for years, told the crowd that he had numerous dealings with Jews over the years and found them to be honest. No reason was given for the decision of the insurance companies.

    1875: Henry Moss married Matilda Leopold today.

    1876: Birthdate of William Henry Dieterich, the anti-Semitic and “somewhat pro-German” Senator from Illinois who lost his bid for re-election in 1938 thanks in part to the efforts of Henry Horner, the states Jewish governor.

    1878: It was reported today that “foreign Jews trading in Russia” are now have the same legal standing as native Russian merchants.

    1871: A poem in Hebrew about the Western Wall by Henry Vidaver, who served as a rabbi at Rodeph Shalom in Philadelphia, United Hebrew Congregation in St. Louis, B’nai Jeshrun in New York and Sherith Israel in San Francisco, appeared in the newspaper Havatzelet.

    1878: “The Order of B’Nai Brit” published today traces the history of the history of the Jewish fraternal organization which was founded 35 years ago in New York City.

    1878: It was reported today that “foreign Jews trading in Russia” are now have the same legal standing as native Russian merchants.

    1880(19thof Nisan, 5640): Fifth Day of Pesach

    1880(19thof Nisan, 5640): Forty-four year old Polish violinist and composer Henryk Wieniawski the son of Tadeusz Wieniawski, who converted to Catholicism before he earned his medical degree and Regina Wolf, “the daughter of a noted Jewish physician from Warsaw” passed away today.

    1880: Alexander II of Russia was assassinated, and with him his half-hearted liberalism. He was succeeded by Alexander III who, devoted to medievalism, urged the return to Russian civilization. The most influential person during his reign was Pobestonostov, his financier and procurator of the Holy Synod, who earned the title "the Second Torquemada."

    1882: One of two birthdates (the other being March 21) of Friederike Massaryk, the native of Austria, who converted to Protestantism in 1903 and gained game as actress and soprano Fritzi Massary.

    1885(15THof Nisan, 5645): Pesach

    1885: The New York Times reported that “the Jewish festival of Pesach, or Passover, instituted to commemorate the exodus of the children of Israel from Egypt, commenced last evening and its celebration will be continued among the orthodox Hebrews throughout the world for the next eight days. This festival is also known as Hag Ha’Matzos, or the fest of the unleavened bread.”

    1889: The Eiffel Tower is inaugurated. One of Chagall’s most famous paintings was “Eiffel Tower, Serenade.”

    1890: It was reported today that “the diary of Sir Moses Montefiore and Lady Montefiore which the Belforde Clark Company published in two octave volumes covers the period from 1812 to 1883. The papers of Sir Moses were left to his Secretary, Dr. Lowe, for arrangement and publication, but Dr. Lowe died upon completing the work and son of Sir Moses, now a resident of this country, then carried it forward.”

    1891: In Bilgoraj, Pinchas Mendl Zinger, a rabbi and author of rabbinic commentaries, and Basheva Zylberman gave birth to Hinde Ester Singer Kreytman, the sister of Joshua and Isaac Bashevis Singer who gained fame as Yiddish author Esther Kreitman.

    1892(1stof Nisan, 5652); Rosh Chodesh Nisan

    1892: It was reported today that 69 nine year old Mark Samuel, a former resident of Toronto, has passed away in London. He had found M & L Samuel in 1855 and helped found the Toronto branch of the Anglo-Jewish Association.  He was a supporter of efforts to settle Russian Jews in the Northwest Terriotories.

    1892: The SS Massilia, the steamship which had previously brought several Jews from Russia who were infected with typhus is scheduled to arrive in New York today.  Health authorities will be paying close attention to the passengers since they are similar to the ones brought here before.

    1893(14th of Nisan, 5653): Ta'anit Bechorot

    1893(14th of Nisan, 5653): Alexander Levi one of the earliest settlers and earliest Jewish settlers of Dubuque, Iowa, passed away today.

    1893: A group of Boston Jews belonging to Adath Israel petitioned Judge Ely for the return of wine and brandy which the Judge had previously ruled had been wrongfully seized by the police. Passover begins tonight and the Jews need the wine for the Seder. While the Judge said he would do all that he could to help with the return, “he could find no authority to order the wines returned before May.”

    1893: The New York Times reported that “the celebration of the feast of Pesach, or the Passover, will be begun by Jewish people throughout the world at sunset this evening and will be continued for eight days by the Orthodox Jews. Those who have accepted the reform ritual, among them a large number of the Jews in America, continue the celebration only seven days, the first and last days of that period being alone regarded as of special significance and celebrated as holy days.”

    1894: It was reported today that Russia is changing its rules about naturalizations and that “foreign Jews will be excluded” from applying for citizenship in the Czarist Empire.

    1894: “For the Jews in Palestine” published today described the appeal made by Abraham Neurmak, the rabbi at New York’s Orach Chaim to provide aid for those living in Eretz Israel.  “The North American Relief Society” under the presidency of Myer Isaacs has already responded with a donation of one hundred dollars.

    1894: As of today there are about 4,000 Polish Jews living in Zarephath, Hebron, Tiberias and Jerusalem. They came to Palestine to seek refuge from Russian persecution.

    1895: “A Charity For Children” published today described “the good work of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society.”

    1895: “Cider in Etymology” published today traces the origins of the English word “cider” which according to Sir George Birdwood has its origins in the Hebrew word “Shekar.”

    1896: In New York, the Herald Square Theatre is schedulued to host a special performance of “The Heart of Maryland” that is a fundraiser for the Hebrew Infants’ Asylum.

    1896: “More than 1,000 pushcart vendors” attending a meeting tonight at the Hebrew Institute which was held under the auspices of the City Vigilance League and presided over by New York May Strong.

    1896: In New York, Palmer’s Theatre was the site of fundraiser for the benefit of the A.C. Sisterhood, a Jewish organization headed by Rebecca Kohut, the wife of the late Dr. Alexander Kohut that “supports a kindergarten, day nursery, relief bureau and employment bureau.”

    1897: The improbably named “Jack the Jew” that went off at odds of 9 to 10 won the first race on a sloppy track in New Orleans.

    1897: Funeral services for the late Louis Israel, the owner of one of the largest livery stables in Brooklyn, will take place at Temple Beth Elohim today.

    1897: Massachusetts Congressman introduced the following resolution in the House of Representatives:

    “Resolved, That the Secretary of State be requested to demand from the Russian Government that the same rights be given to Hebrew –American citizens in the matter of passports as now are accorded to all other classes of American citizens and also to inform the House of Representatives whether any American citizens have been ordered to be expelled from Russian or forbidden the exercise of ordinary privileges enjoyed by the inhabitants because of their religion.”  (Editor’s Note – This champion of Jewish rights is John F. “Honey Fitz” Fitzgerald who provided the name for his famous grandson, John Fitzgerald Kennedy)

    1898: Dr. Kaufmann Kohler, the rabbi at Temple Beth-El will officiate at the funeral of the late Rabbi Emanuel Schwab. Cantor Hass of Adas Israel will preside over the internment in the Machpel Plot at Cypress Hills Cemetery

    1899: Rumania barred Jews from professional and agricultural schools/

    1899: Birthdate of Alexander Solomon, the native of Toronto and member of the Jewish Legion who served in Palestine before returning to Canada where he practiced law for 27 years.

    1904(15thof Nisan, 5664): First Day of Passover

    1904(15thof Nisan, 5664): Sophia Karp, born Sara Segal in Romania, who became a leading performer in the New York Yiddish Theatre working with such giants as Abraham Goldfaden, Israel Grodner and Sokher Goldstein passed away today at the age of 42 or 43

    1904: The New York Times reported that “at sunset last evening the Jewish people throughout the world began the celebration of the festival of "Pesach," or the Passover. This festival was instituted to celebrate the deliverance of the children of Israel from their long bondage in the land of Egypt, and, lasting for eight days, is a season of peculiar observances.”

    1905: Dorothy Levitt, the first English woman ever to compete in a motor race drove from the Adelpi Hotel in Liverpool, to Coventry and then on to the De-Dion showroom in Great Marlborough Street in London, retracing the 205 mile trip she had made the day before.

    1910: Sidney Sonnino, whose father Issacco Saul Sonniono was an Italian Jew who converted Anglicanism, completed his service as Prime Minster of Italy.

    1910: Luigi Luzzatti began serving as Italy’s 31st Prime Minister making him the second Jewish person to hold the position; the first being Alessandro Fortis.

    1912: It was reported that “Interesting archaeological discoveries, showing the observance as far back as 430 B.C. of the Jewish Passover, the festival commemorative of the exodus from Egypt, which Jews throughout the world will celebrate for a week beginning the evening of April 1, are described in the current issue of The American Hebrew.”

    1912: The Patriotic League of America, an organization dedicated to helping Jewish young men pursue careers in the army and navy has invited 200 service men stationed in and near New York City to be its guests at Seders for the first two nights of Passover at the Tuxedo Hall in New York. Adjutant General A.F. Ladd of the War Department has responded positively to the League’s lobbying efforts on behalf of the Jewish servicemen and has directed commanding officers to allow the Jewish soldiers to have furloughs so that they can observe the holiday which begins on the evening of April 1.

    1912: It was reported that Leopold Plaut, President of the United Hebrew Charities has issued a circular asking that the families of deceased Jews donate the money normally spent for flowers at a funeral to his organization. The organization will send acknowledgements to the donor and the family of the deceased, acknowledging the gift without mentioning the amount.

    1915(16thof Nisan, 5675): Second Day of Pesach

    1915: Lord Oxford and Asquith wrote in his diary “I think I have already referred to Herbert Samuel’s dithyrambic memorandum, urging that in the carving up of the Turk’s Asiatic dominion we should take Palestine, into which the scattered Jews would in time swarm back from all the quarters of the globe and in due course obtain Home Rule.” “Curiously the only other partisan of this proposal is Lloyd George, who, I need not say does not care a damn for the Jews or their past or their future, but thinks it will be an outrage to let the Holy Places pass into the possession or under the protectorate of agnostic, atheistic France” (As reported by JTA)

    1915(16thof Nisan, 5675): Seventy-four year old Nathan Mayer Rothschild, 1st Baron Rothschild, Baron de Rothschild, the eldest son of Baron Lionel de Rothschild and the grandson of Nathan Mayer Rothschild, the founder of the English branch of the famous banking family passed away today.

    1915: In Egypt,  Colonel John Henry Patterson swore in the new volunteers for the Zion Mule Corps and invited them to ‘Pray with me that I should not only, as Moses, behold Canaan from afar, but be divinely permitted to lead you into the Promised Land’

    1916(26thof Adar II, 5676): Fifty year old Maurice Rothschild, a member of the New York Exchange passed away today.

    1916: The Jewish War Sufferer’s Bazar which is being held in the Grand Central Palace closed at six o’clock this evening because of Shabbat and will reopen tomorrow evening at six o’clock when a record breaking crowd is expected to attend the fair.

    1917: “The latest official cablegram” received tonight at the United States State department “regard the torpedoing of the British steam Crispin stated that out of the sixty-nine Americans on board two appear to have been killed by an explosion and eighteen…more are still missing. (This is the latest report of the what those who wanted the United States to enter the war on the side of the Allies called “unrestricted submarine warfare” which would in fact lead to the U.S. going to war in April with all that that would mean for Americans in general and American Jews in particular.)

    1918(18thof Nisan, 5678): Fourth Day of Pesach

    1918: “Jews in Newark, NJ,” are scheduled to hold a parade “this afternoon to celebrate the arrival in Palestine of the Jewish Administrative Commission”

    1918: The members of Young Judea, “who have organized to help in the collecting the fund of one million dollars for the restoration of the Jewish homeland in Palestine” are scheduled to meet in cities across the United States “where plan for the restoration of a Jewish republic in Palestine will be discussed.”

    1918: Members of the British Expeditionary Force were forced to cross back to the west bank of the Jordan River after having been defeated by Ottomans during the first Battle of Amman, the first leg of a British offensive following the capture of Jerusalem which was designed to eventually end with the capture of Damascus thus ensuring Britain’s post-war control of the region.

    1918: Today, Dr. H.G. Enelow reviewed Jewish Theology Systematically and Historically Considered by Dr. Kaufman Kohler, the distinguished New York Rabbi and President of the Hebrew Union College.

    1919: The Alumni Association the Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary is scheduled to meet in New York today and “discuss the future of Judaism in America and special religious work in Palestine.”

    1919: It was reported today that “Dr. David Levine has been chosen” to serve as the rabbi for “newly-formed Progressive Synagogue of Brooklyn”

    1919: It was reported today that “Edmond A Guggenheim…has been appointed a special deputy police commissioner” who “will have charge of police affairs in the Bronx.

    1920: According to the Treaty of Versailles as of today the Reichswehr (German Army) was to have army no more than 100,000 men in a maximum of seven infantry and three cavalry divisions which the Allies thoughts would make it impossible for the Germans ever to threaten the peace of Europe with an offensive action.

    1921: Albert Einstein lectured in New York on his new theory of relativity.

    1922: In Detroit, Michigan, “Sarah (née Applebaum) and David T. "D.T." Nederlander” gave birth to James M. Nederlander, the brother of Harry, Robert, Fred, Joseph; and Frances Nederlander who founded Nederlander Organization “one of the largest operators of legitimate theatres and music venues in the United States.”

    1922: In Berlin, American-born German movie producer Seymour Nebenzal and his wife Lisbeth Mary Else Nebenzal gave birth to producer and novelist Harold Nebenzal who “was in charge of foreign film production for many years for MGM, and also worked on many of the films of Billy Wilder.

    1922: Birthdate of Lionel Davidson

    1923(14th of Nisan, 5683): Shabbat HaGadol and Erev Pesach

    1923: “Paganini” a silent bio-pic directed by Heinz Goldberg and featuring child actor Martin Herzberg was released today in Germany.

    1923: Birthdate of Shoshana Damari

    1925: The town of Afula was founded in the Jezreel Valley. Afula means The Town of Jezreel and it was started with the support of the American Zion Commonwealth. Unfortunately, the town never lived up to the original expectations with the settlers in the Jezreel Valley preferring to go to Haifa for rest and relaxation. The hospital at Afula did prove to be of lasting importance. Afula is a friendly crossroads town with numerous small stores selling what the locals claim to be the "best pistachio nuts in the world."

    1926(16thof Nisan, 5686): Second Day of Pesach

    1926: Jacob Adler, who had suffered a stroke in 1920 and had been in declining health ever since, suddenly collapsed today.

    1926: Despite Arab threats of a general strike, the French High Commissioner visited Jerusalem today where all of the stories owned by “Arabs and Christians” were closed “in sympathy with the Syrian rebels” and the Jewish shops were closed because of Passover.

    19927: While deliver an address today on “The Jew in Industry and Finance” President Frederick B. Robinson of City College said that “the alleged Jewish conspiracy in international industry and finanace is a figment of ill-informed persons.”

    1928: Real birthdate of Jacob Lateiner, Cuban born American pianist. His father would not get around to registering his birth until May of 1928 which has led to confusion about when he was really born.

    1928: Today Jewish and Gentile business men in Jerusalem and Haifa told a reporter today “that while the Government remained in the hands of the British they did not fear trouble with the Arabs or Bedouins who were more afraid of Lord Plumber than they had been of Hebert Samuel,” his civilian and Jewish predecessor as British High Commissioner.

    1929: Birthdate of Ilya Piastetski-Shapiro, famed math theorist who clashed with Soviet authorities. He passed away at the age of 79 on February 21, 2009 in Tel Aviv.

    1932: At Tel Aviv, on the final day of the first Jewish Olympics, Americans captured the lion’s share of the victories Sybil Koff of New York “won the women’s triathlon and the high jumps. Gus Hemann … won the men’s 100 meter dash…Leslie Flaksman won the 500 meter race…and Harry Schneider won the javelin, shooting, discus-throwing and men’s triathlon contests.” Victories by European teams included an Austrian first place finish in the 400 – meter race and first place finish by the a team from the Middlesex Regiment in the relay race that earned it the High Commissioner’s Cup.

    1933: Adolf Bertraim, archbishop of Breslau rejected the request of Oskar Wasserman for aid in protesting against the boycott of Jewish business organized by the Nazis but this was refused as he regarded it as purely an economic matter”
    1934(15th of Nisan, 5694): Pesach

    1935: German mathematician Felix Hausdorff who would later commit suicide when ordered to report to a concentration camp, was granted emeritus status today.
    1935: Hebrew novelist Samuel I. Agnon was awarded the Bialik Prize in Hebrew Literature. The Bialik Prize was established in memory of the dean of Hebrew literature, Chaim Nachman Bialik and is considered the equivalent of the Pulitzer Prize. S.I. Agnon is considered by sum to be a worthy candidate for the Nobel Prize.

    1935: The Italian liner Roma arrived in Haifa carrying 1,650 passengers, which is believed to the largest number of people ever brought to Palestine on one ship. Most of the passengers are believed to be headed for Tel Aviv, site of the upcoming Maccabiad.

    1935: In the Bronx, “Joseph Perelman, a textile official and Dorothy Shapiro Perelman, a public schoolteacher” gave birth to Judith Louise Perelman who gained fame as novelist Judith Rossner, the author of Looking for Mr. Goodbar.

    1935: The Palestine police (an instrument of the British mandatory government) “issued an order today prohibiting a parade of athletes participating in the Maccabiah, the world Jewish athletic games.” The parade was scheduled to be held in Tel Aviv on April 1. The police reportedly were responding to threats of violent outbursts by the Arab populace.

    1936: Birthdate of poet, playwright and novelist Marge Piercy who grew up in the racially divided city of Detroit, where her Jewishness made her the target of bullies. One grandparent was Yiddish-speaking and Orthodox; another was a union organizer murdered for his activism. These influences, together with grief over relatives murdered in the Holocaust, aroused Piercy's political activism. They also strengthened her commitment to remaining involved with issues and matters of Jewish importance.

    1936: In New York, The Friends of the New Germany, whose members are “supporters in the United States of Nazi philosophy, announced the organization would now be known as the German-American League or “Amerikadeutscher Bund” which is dedicated to combating “the Moscow-direct madness of the Red world mean and its Jewish bacillus carriers.” 

    1936: Mrs. Judah Dresner presided over the closing session of the 14thconvention of the New York State Conference of the National Council of Jewish Women at the Jamaica Jewish Center in Queens where Mrs. Maxwell Ehrlich of Staten Island was elected president.

    1937: “The anti-Jewish demonstrations begun before Easter continued” in the Free City of Danzig where “Jewish shops were picketed today.

    1937: The Palestine Post reported from Glasgow that the International Labor Party conference deplored the bloodshed in Palestine by terrorists and called upon Jews to resist all attempts by Arab reactionary elements, sometimes supported by the British authorities. The first regulation made by the High Commissioner under the New Palestine Orders allowed the authorities to seize and retain accommodation and food, as they thought fit for the execution of their duty.

    1938: As of today, “an eight month limit of 8,000 Jewish immigrants being allowed to enter Palestine will have expired.

    1938: According to reports published in the New York Times, Dr. Sigmund Freud cannot leave Vienna and move to The Hague because “the authoritieis have refused to give him a passport.” In other words, the Nazi Austrian government has madet the prominent Jewish psychiatrist a prisoner.

    1938: Birthdate of Brooklyn native Arthur B. Rubenstein, the composer of countless scores to television and movies including “Whose Life Is It Anyway” and “Lost in America.”

    1939: The Campbell Playhouse broadcast a non-musical version “Showboat” based on the novel by Edna Ferber on CBS Radio.

    1940: Nuri Said was replaced as Prime Minister of Iraq by Rsahid Ali who a year later would lead an anti-British pro-Nazi coup that would lead to the Farhud, a pogrom that was the beginning of the end for the ancient Jewish community of Iraq.

    1940: Birthdate of Massachusetts Congressman Barney Frank.

    1940: Benjamin V. Cohen met with Franklin Roosevelt in the White house from 5:10 pm to 6:45 pm.

    1941: After 7,500 Jews arrived from Vienna, a decree was issued to establish a ghetto at Kielce

    1941: With encouragement from the Axis powers (Italy and Germany) Rashid Ali al-Gaylani led an anti-British revolt in Iraq much to the detriment of the Jewish population.

    1941: After 7,500 Jews arrived from Vienna, a decree was issued to establish a ghetto at Kielce

    1942(12th of Nisan, 5702): Eighty-three year old Washingtonian, Aline Esther Solomons, the daughter of Rachel Phillips and Adolphus Solomons passed away today.

    1942: The Gestapo “disbanded” the Neu-Isenburg orphanage and deported the girls living there to Theresienstadt.

    1942: 1939 Naval Academy graduate Nathan “Fred” Asher married Selma Straus with whom he had three children – “Dennis, Karen and Jeffrey.”

    1942: In the western Ukraine, the Gestapo organized the first deportation of 5,000 Jews from Stanislawow ghetto to Belzac death camp.It was one of the biggest transports to Belzec in the first phase of the camp.

    1942: Birthdate of radio personality Michael Savage

    1942: Six thousand Jews from Eastern Galicia were deported to Belzec and gassed to death.

    1943: This was the deadline the Germans gave Spain to repatriate any Spanish nationals of the Jewish "race."

    1943: Broadway premier of the Rodgers and Hammerstein’s hit musical “Oklahoma.” Yes, it took a team of Jews to create this most famous of all American musical comedies. This is yet another example of how it was Jews who helped to create what some call "the American myth." It was this ability and not some Jewish plot that explains, in part, the success of Jews in various parts of the American entertainment industry.

    1943: Crematorium II at Auschwitz begins operation.

    1944(7thof Nisan, 5704): Sixty-seven year old Lothar Stark the German born movie producer who took refuge in Copenhagen in 1933 when his Jewish heritage was discovered  died in Sweden today after having been rescued along with most of the Danish Jewish population in 1943.

    1944: It was announced that every Jew in Hungary would be required to wear a yellow badge as of April 5th

    1945: Mother Maria of Paris, a Russian nun who had saved many French Jews by hiding them, was killed by the Nazis.

    1945: The deportation of Jews from Slovakia comes to an end. In all, German and Slovak authorities deported about 70,000 Jews from Slovakia; about 65,000 of them were murdered or died in concentration camps. The overall figures are inexact, partly because many Jews did not identify themselves, but one 2006 estimate is that approximately 105,000 Slovak Jews, or 77% of their prewar population, died during the war.

    1946: Birthdate of Gabe Kaplan in Brooklyn, New York. The comedian and actor gained famed as the teacher in “Welcome Back Kotter,” a television show that launched the career of John Travolta.

    1946: Hungarian born American layer and Nazi war crime prosecutor Benjamin B. Ferencz married his wife Gertrude today in New Yor.

    1946(28th of Adar): Yiddish author and translator Leon Kobrin passed away

    1947: Birthdate Israeli archaeologist Ronny Reich who shifted his focus from the Iron Age to the Early Roman period in the late 1970’s/

    1948:In Brooklyn, New York Philip Perlman “a Polish immigrant who was a manager at a doll parts factory and Adele Perlman, “a bookkeeper” gave birth to Comedic Actress Rhea Jo Perlam who gained fame for her roles in the television comedies “Taxi” and “Cheers” where she worked with her sister, producer and scriptwriter Heide Perlman.

    1948: as part of Operation Balak, “the airlift to Israel of fighter planes and military supplies” a Skymaster “flew directly from Prague to an airstrip near Be’er Tuivah, landing there today” with equipment immediately used in Operation Nahshon.

    1948(20thof Adar II, 5708): Sixty-two year old journalist, rebel and communist Egon Erwin Kisch died today two years after returning to his native Czechoslovakia.

    1949: The Dominion of Newfoundland joins the Canadian Confederation and becomes the 10th Province of Canada. There were somewhere between 215 and 360 Jews living in Newfoundland at this time. “The real history of the Newfoundland Jewish community began with the arrival in St. John's of Israel Perlin from the United States. He was instrumental in founding the first synagogue in Newfoundland, the Hebrew Congregation of Newfoundland, in 1909. The census of 1935 reported 215 Jews living in Newfoundland. The census of 1971 showed that that number had grown to 360.

    1953(15th of Nisan, 5713): First Day of Pesach

    1952: The Jerusalem Post reported that Israel had become the ninth nation to ratify the agreement to eliminate trade barriers on the import of educational, scientific or cultural materials, sponsored by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Forty tons of Jerusalem stone, hewn from the Castel quarry, went into the building of the UN headquarters in New York as Israel's contribution to the project. The stone was sufficient for 300 sq.m. of flooring. Israel purchased 40,000 tons of wheat from South Africa.

    1953: Birthdate of New York native and author Harold Augenbraum, “the former Executive Director of the National Book Foundation, and former member of the Board of Trustees of the Asian American Writers Workshop, and former vice chair of the New York Council for the Humanities.”

    1953: Birthdate of Ehud Banai, an Israeli singer and songwriter

    1953: The number of Israeli unemployed as of this date was 16,350.

    1954: As tensions grew between Jordan and Israel due to the attacks by terrorists based in Jordan, the British cabinet discussed military options for responding to a possible strike by Israel into Jordan.

    1956: In Boston, Albert Sinofsky and his wife gave birth to Bruce Jeffrey Sinofsky who grew up in Newton, Mass and pursued a career as documentary film maker.

    1958: The US Navy formed an atomic submarine division. Admiral Hyman Rickover is considered the “father of the atomic Navy.” Thanks to his efforts, America developed a fleet of nuclear submarines that provided the United States with its strongest strategic edge during the Cold War with the Soviet Union.

    1959: In one of those uniquely American cross-cultural experience Don Devlin (Bronx born Jew Donald R. Siegel) “appeared as an Indian, Dixon White Eagle” in an episode of “Sugarfoot.”

    1960: “Please Don’t Eat the Daisies” a movie version of a book by the same name produced by Joe Pasternak was released today in the United States.

    1961(14thof Nisan, 5721): Ta’anit Bechorot; Erev Pesach and erev Shabbat

    1961: “Just two months after Arthur Goldberg’s appoint as Secretary of Labor” Arthur and Dorothy Goldberg hosted a Seder to which the President, Speaker of the House, Chief Justice, the President of the AFL-CIO and both senators from the state of Illinois were invited.

    1963(4thof Nisan, 5723): Eighty-seven year old Samuel Paley, the native of Kiev who came to the United States in 1888, founded the United Cigar Company in 1896 and financed the purchase of what today is CBS by his son William, passed away today in Miami Beach.

    1966: It was reported that Harold L. Rosnebaum, the grandson of Rabbi Moses A. Poleyeff, a professor of Talmud at Yehisva’s Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary will be married this summer to Naomi AvRutick, the daughter of Rabbi Abraham N. AvRutick, a past president of the Rabbinical Counsel of America.

    1975: Boris Tsitlionok and Mark Nashpits were the defendants in the Soviet anti-Zionist trials that began today.

    1976: U.S. premiere of “W.C. Fields and Me” directed by Arthur Hiller, produced by Jay Weston, written by Bob Merrill, featuring Allan Arbus and Milton Kamen.

    1977: The Jerusalem Post reported that West Germany protested to Israel that it had not been told for more than a year of the arrest of two young West Germans, Brigitte Schultz and Thomas Reuter, who planned, on January 18, 1976, to shoot down an El Al plane in Nairobi. Five terrorists were arrested by Kenya: two Germans and three Arabs. Israel announced that they would soon be tried in camera, by a military court.

    1978: In New York City, Joseph Cross and his wife gave birth to actor turned businessman Harley who went from making such cult films “The Believers” to co-founding Hint Mint, a breath mint candy company.

    1979: In Jerusalem, Israel, Gali Atari &; Milk and Honey win the twenty-fourth Eurovision Song Contest for Israel singing "Hallelujah.

    1981: “The Yellow Star - The Persecution of the Jews in Europe 1933-45” lost out for an Oscar tonight as Best Documentary Feature.

    1983: NBC broadcast the final episode of the first season the hit sitcom “Cheers” co-starring Rhea Perlman as an Italian waitress supporting a multiplicity of offspring as a single mom.

    1985: After 122 performances the curtain came down the Off Broadway production of “Diamonds” a musical revue directed by Harold Prince with lyrics and/or music by Howard Ashman, Cy Coleman and Comden and Green

    1989: Six months after premiering in ItalyHeathers” a comedy starring Winona Ryder (Winona Laura Horowwitz) who also served as narrator was released in the United States today.

    1991: The 1960 television version of “Peter Pan,” with music by Mark Charlap and Jule Styne and lyrics by Carolyn Leigh, Betty Comden and Adolph Green which had become a classic was re-broadcast today.

    1993:  “Family Prayers” a dramatic film starring Paul Reiser and featuring Tzvi Ratner-Stauber and Allen Garfield was released in the United States today.

    1993: The “first season” of “Homicide: Life on the Streets” a television adaptation of Homicide: A Year on the Killing Streets by David Simon whose creators included Barry Levinson came to an end.

    1993: With Israel reeling from its worst wave of Arab violence in years, including the shooting deaths of two policemen this morning, the Government indefinitely closed the occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip today.

    1994: Yosef Zandani, age 28, of Bnei Ayish, was found killed in his apartment near Gedera. Near the body was a leaflet of the DFLP "Red Star", explaining that the murder was carried out in revenge for the shooting of one of its members by an Israeli citizen. The Israeli acted in self-defense

    1995: Al HaMishmar, a “paper owned by and affiliated with Hashomer Hatzair as well as the Hashomer Hatzair Workers Party of Palestine and Mapam” which was first published in 1943 ceased publication today.

    1996: “Who Owns The Dreyfus Affair?” published today provides an advance look at the opera based on the life of the famous French Captain.

    1997: The Union of Orthodox Rabbis issued “A Historic Declaration” which stated Reform and Conservative are not Judaism at all. Their adherents are Jews, according to the Jewish Law, but their religion is not Judaism...we appeal to our fellow Jew, members of the Reform and Conservative movements: Having been falsely led by heretical leaders that Reform and Conservative are legitimate branches and denominations of Judaism, we urge you to be guided by this declaration, and withdraw from your affiliation with Reform and Conservative temples and their clergy. Do not hesitate to attend an Orthodox synagogue due to your inadequate observance of Judaism. On the contrary, it is because of that inadequacy that you need to attend an Orthodox synagogue where you will be warmly welcomed

    1998(4th of Nisan, 5758): Former New York Congresswoman Bella Abzug passed away at the age 77 (As reported by Laura Mansnerus)

    1999(14thof Nisan, 5759): Ta-anit Bchorot; Erev Pesach; Deb Levin hosts her first Seder in what will become a tradition that will eventually be highlighted in the Cedar Rapids Gazette.

    1999: Did you ever wonder how Jews celebrate Pesach, the holiday of “Spring,” in the Southern Hemisphere where it is really Autumn? In “An Argentine Passover, Then and Now,” Joan Nathan gives us some sense of the celebration.

    2000: “Whatever It Takes,” a comedy co-starring Marla Sokoloff and James Franco and produced by Paul Schiff was released today.

    2000: “High Fidelity” a movie version of the novel directed Stephen Fears and co-starring Jack Black, Lisa Bonet and Sara Gilbert was released today in the United States.

    2000: “Rules of Engagement” a combination war and legal movie directed by William Friedkin, produced by Scott Rudin and featuring Mark Feuerstein was released in the United States today.
    2001: Uzi Landau replaced Binyamin Ben-Eliezer as Energy and Water Resources Minister of Israel

    2002: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of interest to Jewish readers including the recently released paperback editions of "Constantine’s Sword: The Church and the Jews: A History" by James Carroll and "Walking the Bible: A Journey by Land Through the Five Books of Moses" by Bruce Feller.

    2002(18thof Nisan, 5762): 4th day of Pesach and 3rd day of the Omer.
    2002(18th of Nisan, 5762): Fourteen “people were killed and over 40 injured in a suicide bombing in Haifa, in the Matza restaurant of the gas station near the Grand Canyon shopping mall. Hamas claimed responsibility for the attack. The victims: Suheil Adawi, 32, of Turan; Dov Chernevroda, 67, of Haifa; Shimon Koren, 55; his sons Ran, 18, and Gal, 15, of Haifa; Moshe Levin, 52, of Haifa; Danielle Manchell, 22, of Haifa; Orly Ofir, 16, of Haifa; Aviel Ron, 54; his son Ofer, 18, and daughter Anat, 21, of Haifa; Ya'akov Shani, 53, of Haifa; Adi Shiran, 17, of Haifa; Daniel Carlos Wegman, 50, of Haifa. Carlos Yerushalmi, 52, of Karkur, died the next day of wounds sustained in the attack.” (Jewish Virtual Library)

    2002(18thof Nisan, 5767): Hamas took credit for today’s attack at the Erfat Medical center where four people were injured.
    2003: Michael Chabon and Ayelet Waldman gave birth to their youngest child, Abraham “Abie” Wolf Waldman

    2003(27th of Adar II 5763):Eighty-five year old Sidney Greenberg, one of the Conservative movement’s leading rabbis, passed away.

    2003: National Security Advisor Dr. Condoleezza Rice addressed the American-Israel Public Affairs Committee’s Policy Conference.

    2004: An updated version of “Baby” the David Shire musical opened at “the Paper Mill Playhouse, Millburn, New Jersey today.

    2005: While Lewis Wolff may be the head of the group buying the Oakland Athletics, reports published today claim that John J. Fisher son of GAP founder Donald Fisher, is he one putting up most of the money for the purchase.

    2005: As of today Hans “Berliner still had by far the highest International Correspondence Chess Federation (ICCF) rating of any player in the United States, at 2726, 84 points above the second-highest rated player.”

    2005: ABC News reported that Ted Koppel will leave that organization when his contract expires in December of 2005. Mr. Koppel has been with the network for 42 years and has hosted the popular late night news program “Nightline” for the past twenty-five years. Nightline provided a hard-news late night alternative to the talk shows hosted by the two other networks. Nightline’s audience would always grow during periods of crisis such as the seizure of the American embassy in Teheran and the prolonged hostage seizure that followed.

    2005: At the Jewish Museum in New York, a distinguished panel of speakers, including exhibition co-curators Emily Bilski and Emily Braun, as well as Whitney Museum curator Elizabeth Sussman and Union College professor Brenda Wineapple, consider the contributions of women such as Gertrude Stein, Margherita Sarfatti, and Florine Stettheimer to literature and the visual arts from the late 18th century through the 1930s.

    2007: Shabbat Ha Gadol.

    2007: In Cedar Rapids, the show “Remnants of Memories” Interpretations of the collage by artists Tom Lee and Elizabeth Levi sponsored by Ginsberg’s Jewelry comes to a close.

    2008: Hillel receives a $10.7 million grant, from the Jim Joseph Foundation which the college oriented organization says is the largest in its history. The grant will be disbursed over five years and enable Hillel to engage an additional 30,000 students, according to a news release. Hillel intends to use the funds to place Jewish educators on 10 new campuses as part of its Experiential Educator Exemplar program. The grant also will go to support the Campus Entrepreneurs Initiative, which employs college students to engage their peers in Jewish life.

    2008: In New York, The Center for Jewish History presents a lecture by Dr. Atina Grossman entitled “Close Encounters: Jews and Germans in Occupied Germany during which she will discuss the story of the "close encounters" in Allied occupied Germany between Jewish survivors of the Nazi Final Solution who found themselves on "cursed German soil" after the German surrender, and the defeated Germans with whom they continually interacted.

    2008: End of Women’s History Month.

    2008: In Vancouver, B.C., the Vancouver Jewish Film Festival presents a screening of “Samuel Bak: Painter of Questions.”

    2008: “New Jerusalem: The Interrogation of Baruch de Spinoza at Talmud Torah Congregation: Amsterdam, July 27, 1656” was among the nominees for the 23rd annual Lucille Lortel Awards, celebrating excellence in Off-Broadway theatre,

    2008(24thof Adar II, 5678): Ninety-six year old movie director Jules Dassin the son of Russian immigrants who began his career as a Yiddish actor and was a victim of the infamous Hollywood Blacklist, passed away today.
    2008(24th of Adar II, 5768): Rabbi Herbert A. Friedman, a dominant figure in American Jewish philanthropy during Israel’s formative years, passed away at his New York home at the age of 89. (As reported by Dennis Hevesi)

    2009(6th of Nisan, 5769): Ruth Fredman Cernea, 74, a cultural anthropologist who wrote on topics that included the Jews of Myanmar and the annual mock debate at the University of Chicago on the respective merits of Jewish holiday foods such as latkes and hamantaschen, died today of pancreatic cancer.

    2009: Danny Ayalon began serving as Deputy Foreign Minister.

    2009: Moshe Kahlon replaced Ariel Atias as Communications Minister.

    2009: Gideon Sa'ar was appointed Minister of Education

    2009: Yeshiva University hosts the second day the Israel and India International Conference which features the theme "A Relationship Comes of Age." Presenters include Nathan Katz (Florida International University), Amit Kapoor (Management Development Institute, India), Efraim Inbar (Bar-Ilan University), Shlomo Mor-Yosef (Hadassah Medical Organization), Maina Chawla Sing (University of Delhi), P R Kumaraswamy (Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi), Gadi Ariav (Tel Aviv University).

    2009: Gottschalks, a chain of department stores that was founded by German Jewish immigrant Emil Gottschalk in 1904, “announced it would liquidate its remaining stores.”

    2009: Silvan Shalom replaced Yaakov Edri as Minister for the Development of the Negev and the Galilee

    2009: Ayoob Karab began serving as Deputy Minister for the Development of the Negev and the Galilee.

    2009: Ariel Atias replaced Ze'ev Boim as Minister of Housing and Construction

    2009: Ya'akov Margi replaced Yitzhak Cohen as Minister of Religious Services

    2009: Eli Yishai replaced Meeir Sheetrit as Minister of Internal Affairs

    2009: Uzi Landau replaced Binyamin Ben-Eliezer as Minister of Energy and Water Resources.

    2009: Daniel Hershkowitz replaced Raleb Majadele as Minister of Science and Technology.

    2010(16th of Nisan, 5770): First Day of the Omer; Second Day of Pesach

    2010: “Rethinking the Holocaust and Genocide with Michael Thaler”

    2010: An exhibition presented by the American Jewish Historical Society entitled “Pages from a Performing Life: The Scrapbooks of Molly Picon” featuring the 22 scrapbooks keep by Molly Picon and her husband Jacob Kalish chronicling their extraordinary 50-year career, is scheduled to come to an end.

    2010(16th of Nisan, 5770): Steven Zilberman died while serving his country. “Miroslav Zilberman, a Navy pilot known to his friends as Steven, moved with his parents from Ukraine to Columbus, Ohio, in the early 1990s. His parents, Anna and Boris, did not want their son to be forced into military service in their native land. AP reports describe Zilberman as grandson of Gregory Sokolov, a major in the Soviet Army in World War II. Zilberman decided to follow his grandfather’s footsteps and joined the Navy after graduating from Bexley High School in 1997. He went on to graduate from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, N.Y., where he majored in computer science. Zilberman’s plane, an E-2C Hawkeye, was returning to the carrier Dwight D. Eisenhower following a mission supporting operations in Afghanistan when the plane experienced a malfunction. Zilberman ordered his crew mates to eject before going down with the plane into the North Arabian Sea.”

    2011(25th of Adar II, 5771): Eighty-three year old Henry Taub, found of ADP, passed away. (As reported by Duff Wilson)

    2011: Yosef Begun a former Soviet Prisoner of Conscience is scheduled to speak at noon today in Washington, DC.

    2011: Performance of “Steve Reich’s masterpiece Tehillim” today.

    2011: The 14th annual Main Jewish Festival opens in Portland, Maine.

    2011: “The Army of Crime” and “Hidden Children” are two of the films scheduled to be shown at the Westchester Jewish Film Festival.

    2011: “The Human Resources Manager” is one of the films scheduled to be shown at the Hartford Jewish Film Festival

    2011: In Jerusalem, the Old City Flavors Festival comes do an end.

    2011:  David “Deutsch’s second book, The Beginning of Infinity: Explanations that Transform the World, was published” today further enhancing the reputation of the Haifa born British physicist who atteneded both Cambridge and Oxford.
    2011: “How Israel Won the Six-Day War” published today described Operation Yated and the role an Egyptian agent “turned” played in the miracle of June, 1967.
    2012(8th of Nisan, 5772: Parashat  Tzav and Shabbat Hagadol - 81st anniversary of the Bar Mitzvah of Joseph B. Levin, of blessed memory who was Bar Mitzvahed on Shabbat Hagadol

    2012: This evening Emily Bount married Michael Signer, the son of Robert and Marjorie Singer, who as Mayor of Charlottesville worked on plans to remove Confederate statues from his cities which led to violent protests from white supremacists and Nazi.

    2012: “Footnote” and “Salmon Fishing in Yemen” are scheduled to be shown at the Hartford Jewish Film Festival.

    2013: Jeremy Piven stars in “Mr. Selfridge” a Masterpiece Classics min-series that is scheduled to aire for the first time tonight on PBS.

    2013: The Eliyahu Hanavi Synagogue, also known as the Jobar Synagogue was erroneously reported to have been destroyed by Syrian forces operating in Damascus today when in fact it was only seriously damaged by mortar fire from either government or rebel forces.

    2013: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Retrospective by A.B. Yehosuha and Karl Marx: A Nineteenth-Century Lifeby Jonathan Sperber 

    2013: President Shimon Peres today congratulated Yitzhak Tshuva, the controlling shareholder of the Tamar natural gas field which was first put into use Saturday, for pumping the gas into Israel four years after the deposit was first discovered — adding, however, that the pumping should not have begun on the Sabbath, the Jewish day of rest.

    2013: Pope Francis and Rome’s Chief Rabbi Riccardo Di Segni exchanged greetings to mark Passover and Easter.

    2014: In Little Rock, Lubavitch of Arkansas under the leadership of Rabbi Pinchas Ciment is scheduled to host an evening with “author, comedian, journalist and musician David Nesenoff.”

    2014:Former Prime Minister Ehud Olmert was convicted today of receiving bribes to facilitate the construction of the Holyland housing project in Jerusalem a decade ago.

    2014: In their never-ending quest to get something for nothing “The Palestinians today gave US Secretary of State John Kerry 24 hours to resolve a dispute with Israel over prisoners after which they will resume moves to seek international recognition.

    2015: The Jewish Community Center of Northern Virginia is scheduled to lead Passover shopping expedition to Moti’s Market in Rockville, MD.

    2015: In Philadelphia, The National Museum of Jewish History is scheduled to host the VIP Opening Reception for “Richard Avedon: Family Affairs” which “features more than 70 portraits by the famed photographer.

    2015: The first part of “The Dovekeepers” a dramatization of events at Masada is scheduled to be shown on CBS.

    2016: Steven Gimbel, the professor of philosophy at Gettysburg College and author of Einstein: The Man is scheduled to lecture at Johns Hopkins University’s Baltimore campus.

    2016(21st of Adar II, 5776): Eighty-six year old Hungarian Holocaust survivor, author and Nobel Laureate Imre Kertesz passed away today.

    2016: Northern Virginia Jewish Film Festival is scheduled to host a screening of “Raise the Roof"– a documentary about the building of a replica of the “mural covered wooden synagogues of the 18th century” that were destroyed by the Nazis.

    2017: Bidding for the mineral rights on five blocks in the Mediterranean ‘including areas that lie in waters disputed by Israel” is scheduled to come to an end today in Beirut.

    2017: ABC broadcast the final episode of “Last Man Standing” a sit-come co-starring Molly Ephriam as the ditzy daughter Amanda “Mandy” Baxter.

    2017: “Norman Lear,” a film about “the life, trailblazing shows, and political activism of famous TV writer/producer Norman Lear: is scheduled to be shown this afternoon at the Seattle Jewish Film Festival.

    2017: Release of “The Zookeeper’s Wife.”

    2018: France J. Pruitt is scheduled to talk about her book Faith and Courage in a Time of Trouble “a memoir of a Belgian-Jewish girl and her family who were saved during the Nazi occupation of France through the compassion and heroism of French peasants from the southern part of the country” this afternoon at the US Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, DC.

    2018(15thof Nisan, 5778): Pesach; for more see

    15th of Nisan, 5650 (1890): An untold number of poor New Yorkers enjoyed eating meat at their Seder tonight thanks to the generosity of Mrs. Paulina Rosendorff who had provided the funding that enabled butchers to distribute their product free of charge.

    15thof Nisan, 5675(1915):The 300 Jewish soldiers and sailors who attended last night’s Seder sponsored by the Army and Navy Y.M.H.A. which also provided a night’s lodging at the Hotel Roland are scheduled to worship at Temple Beth Israel at Lexington and 72ndStreet today while the Secretary of War, the Governor of New York and the Mayor of New York City have been invited to attend tonight’s Seder sponsored by the Army and Navy Young Men’s Hebrew Association for the benefit of 300 of the 8,000 Jews serving in the military which is being held at Vienna Hall on Lexington and 58th Street.

    15thof Nisan, 5677 (1917): One day after U.S. declared War on Germany, Jews gather in the synagogue to observe Pesach and Shabbat

    15th of Nisan, 5705(1945):At least 58 Jews were murdered in a forest near the Austrian village of Deutsch Shuetzen, in what would come to be called the Deutsch Shuetzen Massacre while in the evening, members of the Jewish Infantry Brigade of the British 8thArmy serving in Italy took part in a Seder at Faenza.

    15th of Nisan, 5725(1965):  While Jews in the Soviet struggled to deal with a shortage of Matzah created by the government refusal to let state bakeries prepare adequate supplies of unleavened bread Rabbis in America were encouraged to deliver sermons that related the themes of Pesach with fight for Civil Rights complete with references to the recent voting rights march in Selma.

    15th of Nisan, 5728(1968):For the first time, Pesach is observed in a unified Jerusalem

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    April 1

    515 BCE:  The Second Temple was inaugurated in Jerusalem (As reported by Jona Lendering)

    527: Byzantine Emperor Justin I names his nephew Justinian I as co-ruler and successor to the throne. This was a “lose-lose” proposition for the Jewish people. When Justin I assumed the throne he adopted a policy of rigorously enforcing the anti-Jewish laws promulgated by Theodosius including excluding Jews from “all posts of honor” and banning the construction of new synagogues. “Justinian began persecuting the Jews immediately after his accession” as can be seen from the adoption of anti-Jewish legislation in the very first year of his reign.

    1205: Amalrik II King of Cyprus/Jerusalem, died. This was the period of the Crusades when followers of Islam and Christians from Europe jockeyed for control of Eretz Israel and Jerusalem.

    1315: Louis V “suspended the collection of the debts owed to” the Jews “which were still outstanding from their expulsion in 1306 as part of his plan to eventually allow the Jews to France.

    1548: Sigismund II Augustus, the Polish King who allowed “Jews to settle in Vilna without restriction” and who issued “the ‘Magna Cara of Jewish Self-Government’’ “which permitted Jews to elect their own chief rabbi and judges” began his reign as King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania.

    1557(1st of Iyar):  Iggeret Ba’alei Hayyim, a book on zoology translated by Kalonymus was printed for the first time in Mantua, Italy.

    1662(12thof Nisan, 5422):Isaac ben Abraham Uziel a Spanish physician, poet and grammarian, born at Fez” who became rabbi of Neveh Shalom in Amsterdam in 1610 when Judah Vega passed away died to in Amsterdam who left behind several literary works including “a Hebrew grammar, Ma’aneh Leshon.”

    1779(15thof Nisan, 5539): First Day of Pesach

    1782: The certificate authorizing Solomon Etting of Lancaster, PA to serve as a shochet was issued today making him the first native born American to receive this distinction

    1798(15thof Nisan, 5558): As Washington’s Ary continues to “winter in Middlebrook” Jews observe the first day of Pesach.

    1815: Birthdate of Otto Von Bismarck. A Prussian, he served as Chancellor from 1866 to 1890 making Germany into a united modern nation. His record concerning the Jews was mixed, He was Chancellor in 1869 when emancipation legislation was enacted removing limitations on civil rights based on religion. His personal physician was Jewish and there were Jewish department heads in the government. In his earlier years, Bismarck had been opposed to Jews as government ministers. Once again, as his career drew to a close and it fit his political needs Bismarck distanced himself from the Jews but did not adopt the rabid anti-Semitism that appeared in Germany during the 1880's.

    1817(15th of Nisan, 5577): First Day of Pesach

    1823: In Alsace, Charlotte Aron (Loew) and Alexandre Aron gave birth to Achille Aron

    1828: In Cassel, Germany, Moses Mordecai Büdinger gave birth to Austrian historian Max Büdinger who served as chair of the history department at the University of Vienna from 1872 until 1902.

    1829: Jacob ben Naphtali HaCohen married Beila bat Solomon HaCohen at the Western Synagogue.

    1835: Samuel Samuels married Esther Benjamin today at the Great Synagogue.

    1840: Lazarus Walter married Hannah Aaron at the Great Synagogue today.

    1845: In Trieste, Elisa Morpurgo and Giuseppe / Joseph Baron von Morpurgo gave birth to Louise Cahen d'Anvers (de Morpurgo)

    1852: Fire broke out in San Francisco destroying a boarding house owned by Abraham Abrahamsohn that boasted a “French cook, three waiters and a dishwashers.” Abrahamsohn would have tried his hand unsuccessfully in the gold fields and as tailor in Sacramento had made the money for the boarding house by working as a mohel. One can only assume that there was a good sized and prolific Jewish population in San Francisco for him to have earned enough capital from performing ritual circumcisions. This latest setback forced Abrahamsohn to head to Australia where he again failed as gold miner, but met with modest economic success when he returned to his original profession – baker – and began providing food for the hungry miners.

    1853: When an apprentice named Herman who was working for a boot and shoe shop was arrested on charges of theft that covered the last 9 months, he claimed that he was regular selling eighty dollars’ worth of merchandize of an un-named Jew for twenty-five dollars.

    1857: Joseph Abrahams married Betsie Mesner today at the Great Synagogue.

    1858(17thof Nisan, 5618): Third Day of Pesach.

    1858: The New York Times reported that one of the reasons for a drop in business at the local cattle markets this week was the absence of Jewish butchers who were observing Passover.

    1861: An English play entitled “Babes in the Wood” opened at the Winter Garden Theatre.  According to the reviewer, the play is based on the all too common practice of the impecunious English gentleman who borrows money from “a friendly Hebrew” for which he pays “a liberal interest” so that he may pursue a life style that includes “a generous supply of wine,” cigars and a marriage which all too often does not turn out to be solution to his problems. [It would appear that 3 centuries after the creation of Shylock, the English still are writing about the poor gentile victimized by the Jewish moneylender.]

    1862(1st of Nisan, 5622): Rosh Chodesh Nisan

    1864: In Cincinnati, the Ladies’ Hebrew Benevolent Society which was the ladies’ auxiliary of the Congregation Adath Israel was founded today.

    1865(5thof Nisan, 5625): In the waning days of the American Civil War, Sergeant Morris Schlesinger of Philadelphia who had been wounded yesterday at Gravelly Run, VA, died today.

    1865: Union forces defeat the Confederates at the Battle of Five Forks which effectively sealed the fate of Robert E. Lee’s Army and therefore the Confederacy.  The rebels were forced to abandon Richmond which would lead to the involvement of Raphael Moses, the native of Columbus, GA who had been with Lee at Gettysburg in the bizarre episode concerning the disposal of the Southern government’s bullion supply.

    1865: Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, later known as Leslie’s Weekly published a picture of the annual Purim Ball held in New York in March.

    1866(16thof Nisan, 5626): Second Day of Pesach; first day of the Omer

    1866: In a column entitled "Southern Jottings" published today described conditions in Charleston, South Carolina, including the observation that "the Hebrew element is largely represented here and speculators are as abundant as tea stores on Vesey Street."

    1866: Under the simple heading of “Nathan Meyer Rothschild of London” the New York Times published a lengthy article tracing the history of the family from its earliest beginning to its present prominent role in the world of finance as well as the role of other Jews in the financial growth that has occurred in Great Britain since “the days of the South Sea bubble.”

    1870: “April Fool” published today traces the origins of April Fool’s Day in which the author claims that the prophet Haggai “makes allusion to it in the third chapter of his book.” He also contends that Solomon recognized “the fool” in his writings and even references a specific day for fools in the 29th verse of the 17th chapter of Proverbs, “The fool has his day and the simple man his season…”

    1870(10th of Nisan, 5631): Shabbat HaGadol

    1870: Sixty-two year old physician and author Moses Philippson passed away today in Breitenfeld.

    1871: "Green Street Synagogue” was founded today by a small group of Jews in Baltimore, Maryland.

    1872: Birthdate of Conrad Gröber, the Catholic cleric whose eventual opposition to the Nazi regime did not include opposition to the Holocaust.

    1872: Today, the United States Postal Department authored the establishment of a post office in the community which would eventually be known as Seligman, MO.

    1874(14th of Nisan, 5634): The New York Times reported that “this evening the Jewish festival of ‘Pesach’ or the Passover will be inaugurated with the observances and ceremonies incident to its celebration. This festival is one of the most important in the Hewish calendar, and was instituted to commemorate the miraculous deliverance of the children of Israel from the vile system of slaver imposed upon them during their sojourn in the land of Egypt. The festival begins at sundown this evening and continues for eight days…and is distinguished from all festivals by the banishment of all leavened bread from the houses of the pious Israelites…”  

    1875:  Actress “Polly” Richards gave birth to , Richard Horatio Edgar Wallace whose works would banned by in Germany “because of rumors that the writer was of Jewish extraction” – a charge vehemently denied by his daughter Mrs. Frere Reeves.

    1876: It was reported today that I.S. Nathans, a Jew who has become an Episcopalian has been authorized by his church to led a mission to convert the Jews of New York which the church number at 110,000.

    1876: Sigmund Dringer, an Austrian born Jew, had acquired 4,000 tons of scrap iron and 1,700 tons of car wheels said to be worth one hundred thousand dollars.  This made Dringer the largest scrap medal dealer in the United States supplying foundries and rolling mills from Boston to Cincinnati.

    1880: This morning, Shearith Israel, located at West19th Street near 5thAvenue in New York City, celebrated the 150th anniversary of its consecration with special services led by Rabbis Nieto, Lyon and Pereia-Mendes.

    1881: Anti-Jewish riots broke out in Jerusalem.

    1881: Today marked the beginning of a three month exodus of Jews from Russia that would include “not less than 225,000 Jewish families” or “over a million souls.”

    1881: “Le tribut de Zamora, an opera in four acts” with a libretto by Adolphe d’Ennery premiered today “at the Opéra's Palais Garnier.”

    1882: A blood libel in Tisza Eszlar, Hungary began. “A week and a half before Easter, a fourteen year old Catholic housemaid, Esther Solymossy, left her employer’s home to buy paint. She did not return.” When a week long search failed to turn up any evidence of the missing girl, two prominent Hungarian anti-Semites named Onody and Istoczy began making claims about “ritual murder” forcing the local sheriff to pursue this blatantly false line of accusation. Fifteen Jews were ultimately charged and tried for "murder" for which there was no real evidence. After a year of futile effort, the fifteen were acquitted.

    1883: In New York, David Holtz and Pauline Moses, whom he had known for a brief time, were engaged to be married.

    1887: Birthdate of Leonard Bloomfield an American linguist whose influence dominated the development of structural linguistics in America between the 1930s and the 1950s. He is especially known for his book Language published in 1933 that described the state of the art of linguistics at its time. Bloomfield was the main founder of the Linguistic Society of America.

    1888: Three days after his death composer and pianist Charles-Valntin Alkan was buried today in the “Jewish section of Montmartre Cemetery, Paris,” in a tomb which would later be the burial site for his sister Celeste and which was “not far from the tomb of his contemporary Fromental Halévy.”

    1888: At Temple Beth-El in New York, Rabbi Kaugman Kohler delivered a lecture entitled “The Wandering Jews.”

    1889: Caroline and Edwin Robert Anderson Seligman gave birth to Eustace Seligman.

    1890: Three Russian Jewish immigrants – Ed Myers, Isadore Lowenstein and Ike Edeliman – have been charged with arson and are locked up the Central Police Station in Louisville, KY.

    1890: Nathan Birnbaum leader of Kadima and the publisher of the journal Selbst-Emanzipation created the term Zionism. Birnbaum was actually a Zionist before Herzl popularized the concept. Unfortunately, Birnbaum was not able to find a "home" in the movement as it grew. In a total role reversal he advocated the development of the Jewish community in the Diaspora, Yiddish instead of Hebrew and orthodoxy over secularism.

    1890: Fifty women formed The Beth El Society of Personal Services was formed with the intent of lessening the burden being placed on the United Hebrew Charities.

    1892: Grover Cleveland addressed a large crowd of Russian Jews in New York City.

    1892: In Great Britain, Mr. Balfour told the House of Commons that the British Ambassador in St. Petersburg had based his expectation that a large number of Jews would be coming to the UK because he believed that the United States was about to put an end to the immigration of Jews from Russa.

    1892: In Brooklyn, the Republican faction opposed to Ernst Nathan sent out a call for meeting.

    1893(15th of Nisan, 5653): First Day of Pesach

    1893: According to “the books of the Jewish shelter on Leman, Street, White Chapel,” London, today marked the start of the expulsion of Polish Jews that would totally 38 by the end of the month.

    1893: Meyer Lyask received an order warning “him to quit his lodgings in the village of Gmina (Poland) within seven days.

    1893: Nathan Straus, Isidor Straus and Simon F. Rothschild bought out Joseph Wechsler’s interest in Wechsler and Abraham and renamed the store Abraham and Straus which at that time had 2,000 employees.

    1893: German’s celebrate the 78th anniversary of the birth of Otto Von Bismarck, the Iron Chancellor who changed the face of Europe in ways too numerous to mention here.

    1894: Professor Felix Adler delivered a lecture on “The Influence of Woman” at the Music Hall in New York City.

    1894: “Over In Camden” published today described the purchase by the Sons of Israel of “a portion of the New Camden Cemetery for use as a cemetery for Jews in the New Jersey city.

    1894: It was reported today that there may have been a period of time when the Queen Insurance Company of New York did not insure Jews

     1894: “All Fool’s Day” published today attributed to the origins of April Fool’s Day as being tied to the fact that Noah made the mistake of “sending the dove out of the ark before the water had abated on the first day of the month” on the Jewish calendar which correlates “our 1st of April.”  Since then people would be sent on “fool’s errands” on this date in the foolish manner of Noah sending out the dove.”

    1894: “Godfathers and Godmothers” published today described the origins of this popular custom among Christians but for which “doubtless” began with the Jews.

    1895: Interview with Alphonse Daudet, French anti-Semitic writer, for whom Herzl translated an article. Herzl unfolds his views on the Jewish question, which produce a deep impression on Daudet. Daudet feels that Herzl should write a novel about his ideas.

    1895: First appearance of The "American Jewess," the first English-language publication published by and for American Jewish women.

    1895: In Columbia, “George Henry Issacs, an English Jew originally from Jamaica” and his wife gave birth to Jorge Isaacs Ferrer whom Isaac Goldberg described as “a half-Jew” who is “Spanish America’s most famous novelist.”

    1896: It was reported today that the recent benefit production of “The Heart of Maryland” raised about two thousand dollars for the Hebrew Orphan Asylum who had just celebrated 21 years of service to the Congregation.

    1896: The funeral for Rabbi Aaron Wise is scheduled to be held this morning at Rodeph Sholom, at Lexington and 63rd Street in Manhattan

    1896: “Promises For Peddlers” published today described a meeting between 1,000 pushcart vendors led by Abraham Benowitz, President of the Fish Peddlers’ Association  and New York leaders including Mayor Strong and President Teddy Roosevelt of the Police Board to discuss plans for how their business would be conducted on Hester Street on the Lower East Side.

    1897: Birthdate of Harry Joseph Passon, the brother of Herman and Nathan Pass and who “long with friends Eddie Gottlieb and Hughie Black organized a basketball team sponsored by the South Philadelphia Young Men’s Hebrew Association which became known by the acronym SPHAS.”

    1897: “Rights of Hebrew Americans” published today described the efforts of Congressman Fitzgerald of Massachusetts to have the Secretary State ensure that American Jews are not discriminated by the Czar’s government when they are doing business in Russia. (Congressman Fitzgerald is the grandfather of JFK)

    1898: In New York, Boris Sidis, Ph.D., M.D. and Sarah Mandelbaum Sidis, M.D. gave birth to child-prodigy and math wizard, William James Sidis

    1898: Birthdate of Joseph A. “Joe” Alexander the Syracuse native and three-time All-American guard on the Syracuse University football team who “was the first player signed by the original New York Giants” and who went on to a successful medical career when his playing days were over.

    1898: Louis and Clara Asia Parnes gave birth to Paul Parnes the husband of Fay Parnes and the father of William and Arlene Parnes.

    1898: Moses Samuel Zuckermandl who was the rabbi at Pleschen, Prussia “was appointed lecturer at the Mora-Leipziger Foundation at Breslau” today.

    1898(9thof Nisan, 5658): Sixty-eight year old German lawyer Hermann Makower who also served as President of the Board of the Jewish Community of Berlin passed away today.

    1899(21stof Nisan, 5659): 4th day of Pesach and Shabbat

    1899(21stof Nisan, 5659): Three weeks short of the third anniversary of the death of her husband, Baron Maurice de Hirsch; sixty-five year old Clara Hirsch, the Baroness de Hirsch passed away today in Paris. The daughter of Belgian banking family, she knew the personal tragedy of loss when her daughter died in infancy and her son died at the age of 31.  She threw herself into a variety of charitable efforts and after her husband’s used the family fortune to provide for a myriad of causes including settle Russian Jews in agricultural communities and establishing training schools for young girls so that they could learn a trade and be self-supporting.

    1899: Philip Michael Ritter von Newlinski, a Polish nobleman whom Herzl wanted to use his contacts with the Ottomans to promote the Zionist cause, dies in Constantinople.

    1899: In “Closing of the Schools” published today, “Vox Populi” defends the decision of the school board closing the schools at this time of the year since it coincides with Easter and Passover which means that Christian and Jewish students would not be in school.  Such a decision is not an unwarranted intrusion of religion in public education but an acknowledgement that in the United States we enjoy religious freedom that enables to honor the customs of Christians and Jews.

    1899: Despite a total lack of evidence, Leopold Hilsner was sentenced death today in Polna, Bohemia in another case of a Blood Libel. His sentence was later commuted and in 1916, Hilsner received a full pardon. It should be noted that his life was saved thanks to the activities of T.J. Masark, Czech patriot and the first president of an independent Czechoslovakia.

    1899: Austrian author Karl Kraus an advocate of Jewish assimilation and a critic of Theodor Herzl renounced the “faith of his fathers” today.

    1900: The executors of the estate of Abraham Wolf, a partner in the banking firm of Kun, Loeb & Co turned the estate over to the trustees Mrs. Addie Kahn and her son Gilbert W. Kahn

    1902(23rdof Adar II, 5662): Sixty-five year old David Oppenheimer, the German born son of Lob and Bina Oppenheimer and the husband of Johanna Oppenheimer passed away today in New York City.

    1902:“Leo Fresh, the well-known auctioneer, called at the police barracks tonight and stated that a fine hen, which he had been fattening for the Jewish Passover, had been stolen by a woman who lives at 83 Jenkins Street.”

    1903: Birthdate of Chess Champion Salo (Salomon) Landau, the Galician native who will die in Auschwitz.

    1903: Herzl meets McIlwraithe, the legal adviser of the Khedive. Herzl presents the Zionist proposal. McIlwraithe promises that the government will make a counter-proposal.

    1904(16thof Nisan, 5664): Second Day of Pesach; first day of the Omer

    1904(16thof Nisan, 5664): Eighty year old Gustav Freund, the husband of Rosa Fruend passed away today in Vienna.

    1905: Tonight over a thousand Jews watched as two Torah scrolls were carried to the First Zolyner Congregation Anshe Sefard from the home of Sigmund Yokel, the President of the Congregation. After a brief ceremony during which the scrolls were placed in the Holy Ark, “the marchers celebrated at a big banquet.”

    1905: The New York Times reported that the third edition of “The Seder Service,” a Haggadah prepared by Mrs. Phillip Cowen and published by her husband is now in available.

    1906: Birthdate of Nusyn Glass the Polish born actor who gained fame as Ned Glass known for his portrayal of Uncle Moe in “Bridgette Loves Bernie.”

    1906: Professor Ivan Michaelovitch Zanchevsky , the Rector of the university in Odessa, who has been “charged with organizing the student militia which defended the Jews during the massacres last November” is scheduled to “be place on trial before the Senate.

    1908: Birthdate of Abraham H Maslow, renowned psychologist and Brooklyn native who was the oldest of seven children of Russian Jewish immigrants. In a manner typical of this immigrant generation, Maslow's parents pushed him to succeed academically. Maslow studied law at CCNY and Cornell. He then married his cousin Bertha and enrolled at the University of Wisconsin where he began his study of psychology earning his doctorate in 1931. Maslow is most famous for developing his Hierarchy of Needs. Maslow was a professor at Brandeis from 1951 until 1969. He died in 1970. In examining Maslow's life and work, one commentator found a connection between Maslow's Jewish background and his scientific work. Just as Judaism tries to bring order of a chaotic world, so Maslow sought to develop a unifying structure that would enable people to bring order to their chaotic lives.

    "Human nature is not nearly as bad as it has been thought to be." Abraham Maslow.

    1909: Birthdate of Abner Biberman. Born in Milwaukee, Biberman gained fame as an actor and movie director. His films included “Gunga Din,” “Bridge At Saint Luis Rey,” “Winchester 73” and “Viva Zapata.” His oriental appearance made him a natural for the role of the Japanese officer in several war movies made during WW II, the most famous of which was “Back to Bataan.” He passed away in June, 1977.

    1912(14thof Nisan, 5672): Ta’anit Bechorot observed for the last time during the Presidency of William Howard Taft.

    1912(14th of Nisan, 5672): For the first time, the Patriotic League of America sponsored a Seder tonight at Tuxedo Hall for Jewish soldiers and sailors stationed in the New York metropolitan area.


    1912(14th of Nisan, 5672): In what appeared to be a classic SNAFU, 17 Jewish soldiers on Governor’s Island were assigned to guard duty tonight meaning that they could not attend the Seder at the Tuxedo. This was in direct violation of The Secretary of War’s had order that all soldiers in the New York area would receive a furlough to celebrate the holiday. When authorities found out about the mistake they corrected it so the soldiers could attend the Seder.

    1913: Mrs. Moses L. Purvin was elected President and Mrs. Benjamin Auerbach was elected Vice Presidents at the annual business meeting of The Chicago Woman’s Aid which will “continue its policy of having paintings of Chicago artists on view in the Library of the Sinai Centers

    1913: “The regular meeting Ladies Society of B’nai Sholom Temple Israel” took place this evening where the attendees he a program on “Our Holidays” that included a presentation on Passover by Mrs. Carrie H. Geil.

    1913: “New York fruit merchant” Joseph Kozinsky and his wife gave birth to Frank Kozinksky who would change his name to Frank King and along with his brothers Maury and Herman King Productions, the film company that had the courage to hire blacklisted writers during the McCarthy Era.

    1914: Birthdate of Philip Yordan, the native of Chicago and law school graduate who an Academy Award for Best Writing, Motion Picture Story for Broken Lance and who worked to thwart the effects of the infamous Hollywood Blacklist system.

    1915: Sam Lazarus and Annie Stein Lazarus gave birth to Jacob Mendel Lazarus who would be buried, for a Jew, in the unlikely location of Valdosta when passed away more than nine decades later.

    1915: Based on a resolution adopted today in Chicago, Orthodox Jews will be able to exercise their franchise in the upcoming elections scheduled for April 6, the last day of Passover. Since the Orthodox cannot write on the holiday, the resolution empowered judges and clerks of the election to mark the ballots for the observant Jews.

    1915: In Berlin an anti-war protest was held led by Rosa Luxemburg, an act for which she was imprisoned.

    1915: As “The Mule Corps swears allegiance to the British army” Jabotinsky refuses to serve “because its duties only involve transportation” and does not fulfill his demand for the establishment of a fighting legion.

    1916: The Federation of Rumanian Jews dedicates the new Jewish Home for Convalescents, which formally opens today at Grandview, Rockland County as a permanent memorial to the work of Dr. Solomon Schechter. Schechter was the noted Hebrew scholar and head of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, who died on November 20, 1915.

    1917: Professor Richard Gottheil of Columbia University introduced Major General Leonard Wood to the members of Zeta Beta Tau fraternity tonight “on preparedness and the obligations of alien-born citizens to their adopted country with regard to service in the army in war or peace.”

    1917: In Bavaria, Elsa Haas, the daughter of Joseph and Ida Schulein and her husband Dr. Alfred Haas gave birth to

    1917: “A declaration signed by sixty-eight Jewish citizens issued in support of the letter which Oscar S. Straus recently wrote to the British and French Ambassadors at Washington in which Mr. Straus contended that a majority of the Jews of the United States sympathize with the cause of Allies was issued” today “under the caption,” ‘A Declaration by American Jews.’”

    1917: Birthdate of Melville “Mel” Shavelson who gained fame a writer, director and producer of dozens of films featuring such stars as Lucille Ball, Jimmy Cagney and Frank Sinatra. He was nominated for two Oscars and created two Emmy Award-winning television series, "Make Room for Daddy" and "My World and Welcome to It."

    1917: Baron Alexander Gunzberg sent a cable from Petrograd to Louis Marshall in New York in which he wrote that the new Government be publishing  “a decree canceling all laws and paragraphs adversely affecting Jews” and that the “Russian Jewry, liberated from the yoke, in grateful appreciation of never-failing helpfulness stretch out their hand to their free-born American bretheren.”

    1917: As leaders work on the plans for the calling of “The American Jewish Congress” a special meeting of the Executive Committee was held today in New York where the a resolution was adopted setting the rules for calling a meeting the Congress on September 2, 1917.

    1918(19thof Nisan, 5678): Fifth Day of Pesch

    1918: In New York, one hundred thousand people are expected to participate in the celebration of the establishment of the Provisional Jewish government in Palestine which will include parades and a mass meeting in Carnegie Hall that will include a speech by Dr. Stephen S. Wise.

    1918: Chaim Weizmann, the head of the Zionist Commission, arrived in Palestine. The Commission had been established by the British to help carry out the promises of the Balfour Declaration. The Commission actually arrived before the war had ended and the Mandate had been established. The British had intended that the Commission be its official contact with the Jewish community (Yishuv) and help in setting policies concerning post-war settlement and development including immigration. Unfortunately this positive start did not pre-sage a continuation of British support during the inter-war period.

    1918: Following the capture of Jerusalem in December of 1917, the 7thIndian Division relieved the 52nd Division which had been transferred to the Western Front.

    1918(19th of Nisan, 5678): Isaac Rosenberg, a leading Anglo-Jewish poet, is killed on April Fool’s Day while fighting on the Western Front.

    1919: In Grodno, Yitahak and Dvora Livni gave birth to ham "Eitan" Livni who made Aliyah in 1925, served with the Irgun and became a Likud MK.

    1919: Birthdate of Jabr Muadi, the Israeli Druze politician who served in the Knesset for three decades from 1951 to 1981

    1920: The emergence of the Nazi Party. (This happened on the anniversary of the day that Haman published his decree of extermination of the Jews.)

    1920: Jewish merchant Henry Dix wrote to Mrs. Israel Unterberf, the President of the Young Women’s Hebrew Association about a gift he proposed giving to the association of a property he owned at Mt. Kisco as well as the establishment of trust fund for maintain the property.

    1921: In the United Kingdom, Alfred Moritz Mond, 1st Baron Melchett, completed his service as First Commissioner of Works and began serving as Minister of Health in a cabinet headed by David Lloyd George.

    1921: Beth El Hebrew School, “the second of a series of Hebrew schools to be established in the Bronx under the auspices of the New York committee of School Extension of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations” which has a capacity for five hundred students and is led by principal Louis E. Goldstein opened today.

    1921:  Marius Ranson who has been serving as assistant to Dr. Schulman at Temple Beth-El is scheduled to become the Rabbi at Temple Beth Emes in Albany, NY today  filling a pulpit at the congregation that has been vacant since the death of Rabbi Eli Mayer.

    1921: The United Relief Organization of Brownsville and East New York’s campaign to raise fifty thousand dollars “for war relief work” is scheduled to come to an end today.

    1921: In “Upholds Palestine Plan; Churchill Tells Arabs that Balfour Declaration Must Stand,” published today described“further details of Winston Churchill’s visit to Jerusalem.” Churchill met with a delegation of Arab Congress which had been held much earlier in Haifa and which “asked for the withdrawal of the Balfour declaration. Churchill declared…that the government was determined to keep to the Balfour declaration in both of its parts, namely, the establishment of the Jewish national home and the protection of the non-Jewish population.” Later, when he met with a Jewish delegation, Churchill concluded his remarks “by saying that the British taxpayers could not bear the expense of the establishment of the Jewish national home and that Jews must therefore make greater efforts to obtain the necessary funds.”

    1921: Lightweight Leach Cross (Louis Charles Wallach) fought his 140thbout in Los Angeles.

    1922: Sir Edgar Speyer “and his remaining partner in the London bank dissolved Speyer Brothers.

    1923(15th of Nisan, 5683): Pesach I

    1924: Otto Preminger’s theatrical career began today when he “appeared as a furniture mover in Reinhardt's comedia staging of Carlo Goldoni's ‘The Servant of Two Masters.’1925: Amid much pomp and circumstance, Hebrew University was opened in Jerusalem on Mount Scopus. Chaim Weizman beamed with pride as he saw his 25 year old dream come to life. Lord Arthur Balfour, of Balfour Declaration Fame, represented the British government. Much of the funding came from the American philanthropist Felix Warburg. The first chancellor of what this first class educational institution was Dr. Judah Magnes, a native of San Francisco. The cornerstones had originally been laid in 1918 when fighting was still going on between the British and Turkish forces in Palestine. Talk about Jewish optimism and dedication to learning.

    1925: Chanina Karchevsky, “The Tel Aviv Nightingale,” conducted the Gymnasisa Herzliya Choir in what has been termed an “unforgettable performance” on Mt. Scopus at the ceremony marking the dedication of Hebrew University.

    1926(17th of Nisan, 5686):Acting giant Jacob Pavlovich Adler passed away in New York City.  Born in Russia in 1855, he was a dominate figure in the Yiddish Theatre in Odessa, London and New York City. A name unknown to most, he is remembered as the father of the actor Luther Adler and Stella Adler who coached Marlon Brando.

    1926: Hebrew Book Day is mounted in Tel Aviv.

    1927: The HaShomer HaZair kibbutzim and training groups establish a national organization in Haifa called "HaKibbutz Artzi" - "National Kibbutz". The Kibbutz Artzi is a federation comprising 85 kibbutzim founded by the Hashomer Hatzair youth movement. In 1998 it numbered around 20,000 members and its entire population (including children, candidates, parents of members etc.) totaled approximately 35,000.

    1928: Birthdate of Herbert G. Klein newscaster and President Richard Nixon’s press secretary.

    1928: Konrad von Preysing, a Catholic prelate who would play a key role as an anti-Nazi activist during World War II was made a canon today.

    1929: In Chicago, Morton David Chan and Julia Elizabeth Cahn gave birth to Mary Elizabeth Cahn who became Mary Elizabeth Wolf when she married Stephen Louis Wolf.

    1930: “Blue Angel” a movie that was
    filmed simultaneously in English and German versions” directed by Josef von Sternberg, with a script co-authored by Robert Liebman

    1930: In Melbourne, Australia, a group of Jews interested in forming a “Liberal Community” met for the first time.

    1931: Birthdate of Rolf Hochhuth. This non-Jewish German playwright wrote The Deputy which portrayed the role of the Pope during the Holocaust.

    1932: Adolph Eichman joined the Nazi Party

    1932: The New York Times described the closing day activities at the Maccabiad. “An emotional crowd of 25,000 watched the conclusion of the first Jewish Olympics…The Palestine High Commissioner participated in the ceremonies as did other officials and representatives of foreign governments. There were tears in the eyes of many as the exhibits reached their close. Among the Maccabee displays were those of scouting, gymnastics, motorcycling, bicycle riding and horseback riding led by Abraham Shapiro, the hero of Petch Tikva…A procession of 5,000 Maccabeans led the way to the graves of Achad Ha’Am , Maz Nodeau and the victims of Arab riots, where wreaths were placed. …The procession marched through the main streets of Tel-Aviv” before dispersing at the “Herzlia Gymnasium where the march of the Maccabeans had begun.”

    1933: In Brooklyn, Philip Weinstein, a garment industry work, and “the former Shirley Bisnoff, a homemaker and jazz pianist” gave birth to Stanley Alan Weinstein who gained fame as Sam Weston, “the father of G.I. Joe” action figure.

    1933: German violinist (and non-Jew) Adolf Busch repudiated Germany altogether and in 1938 he boycotted Italy. 

    1933: Nazi Germany began its persecution of Jews by boycotting Jewish businesses. Less than a month after coming to power, the War Against the Jews began in earnest. This puts the lie to those who portray Hitler's policies against the Jews as only being an incidental part of his plans and programs.

    1933: At Lauphehim, members of the SA enforced the Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses “positioned themselves in front of Jewish shops in order to intimidate potential customers and prevent them from entering” while the windows were broken in at least one shop.

    1933: As part of the Nazi boycott against Jewish businesses, uniformed men “placed themselves in front of Jewish shops in Cologne” to prevent customers from entering.

    1933: In response to the Nazi boycott, in Cologne Jewish merchant Richard Stern, who had fought in the First World War, distributed a leaflet against the boycott and placed himself wearing his Iron Cross near the SA-poster in front of his shop.

    1933: In Berlin “SA paramilitaries” carrying signs that read “Germans! Defends yourselves! Don’t buy from Jews!” “blocked the entrance to a Jewish owned shop.”

    1933: In Constantine, Algeria, Abraham Cohen-Tannoudji and Sarah Sebbah tp French physicist, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, winner of the 1997 Nobel Prize.

    1934: Chevrolet ended its sponsorship of the Jack Benny Program. Benny continued the show with General Tire as the sponsor.

    1934: In Mishnietz, Poland Nechama Laska and Hiam Yehuda Giladi gave birth to Israel Giladi

    1935: The New York Times reported that “the American team is favored to retain the track and field title in the Jewish world games which open tomorrow…The strongest challenge for the Americans is expected to come from the German, French, Czech and Austrian teams.

    1935: “Storm Over the Andes” an adventure film co-authored by Dore Schary was released in the United States today.

    1935: Democratic leader General Hugh S. Johnson denounced “Father Charles Coughlin, comparing the Catholic priest to Adolf Hitler” because of the anti-Semitic pronouncements on his radio show

    1935: Anti-Jewish legislation in the Saar region was passed.

    1935:Israelitisches Familienblatt (Israelite Family Paper) began appearing in Berlin and became the organ of the Reichsvertretung

    1936: French conservatives condemned French Socialist leader Léon Blum because of his Jewish ancestry and his strongly anti-Nazi orientation. A popular slogan at the time condemned the future French premier: "Better Hitler than Blum."

    1936: “An injunction suit against Cantor David Katzman was filed in the Supreme Court” today “ by the First American Rumanian Congregation” that seeks to restrain the can from breaking a contract to officiate during the Passover holidays in the plaintiff’s synagogue…and going the Laurel-in-the-Pines Hotel at Lakewood, NJ.”

    1936: One hundred ninety Jewish exiles from German who had boarded the Cunard White Star line Berengaria at Cherbourg and Southampton arrived in New York today.

    1937: Birthdate of Sylvia Rafael, the Pretoria native who made Aliyah in 1963 and became an agent for Mossad.

    1937: The Palestine Post reported on the festive opening of a new road connecting Hadar Hacarmel and Mount Carmel in Haifa. The new road was 3,100 meters long and 10 to 15 meters wide - the asphalt width was six meters. It was expected that this new road would help to develop Mount Carmel.

    1937: The Palestine Post reported that according to the Palestine Review Jews contributed financially at least four times as much to the Arab economy as Arabs returned to the Jews.

    1937: The Palestine Post reported that a provision was made in the Pension Ordinance for officials in the Civil Service to retire, under special circumstances, on attaining the age of 50.

    1938: Fritz Löhner-Beda, the Bohemian born librettist, lyricist and writer was arrested and deported to Dachau Concentration Camp.

    1938: “Number 111” a thriller directed by Steve Sekely was released in Hungary today.

    1939: The Spanish Civil War came to an end marking another victory for fascism. Oddly enough, despite the support Franco got from Hitler and Mussolini he remained neutral during WW II, which proved quite advantageous to the Allies. As far as Franco’s treatment of the Jews, the record appears too mixed but consider the following as one piece of the puzzle.

     1939: At the age of 13, Raul Hilberg who would gain fame as Dr. Raul Hilber a world renowned Holocaust scholar fled Austria with his family a year after the Anschluss, for France, where they embarked on a ship to Cuba. From Cuba the family would make their way to the United States, where Hilberg, after serving with the U.S. Army in Europe would come home and build his academic career.

    1939: U.S. premiere of “Dodge City,” a western directed by Michael Curtiz, produced by Hal Wallis with music by Max Steiner.

    1940: The Institut für deutsche Ostarbeit (Institute for German Work in the East) was founded to study Polish Jewry.

    1940: Shanghai, China, accepted thousands of Jewish refugees.

    1941: A ghetto was established at Kielce, Poland. German overseers of the ghetto renamed some of the streets. New names were Zion Street, Palestine Street, Jerusalem Street, Moses Street, Non-Kosher Street, and Grynszpan Street.

    1941: In Iraq, Rashid Al led a successful anti-British, pro-Nazi coup that would lead to the pogrom known as the Farhud in June that was the beginning of the end for the ancient Jewish community in that Arab country.

    1941(4th of Nisan, 5701): German troops executed 250 members of a Jewish youth group in Subotica, Yugoslavia, who have been carrying out acts of sabotage.

    1941: A men's annex was established at the Ravensbrück concentration camp located in Germany,

    1941: Seven Warsaw Jews smuggled themselves into Bratislava, Slovakia, and from there to safety in Palestine.

    1941: A pro-Axis officer clique headed by Rashid Ali al-Gaylani seized power in Iraq, and prepared airfields for German use.

    1941: The Farhud, a pogrom aim at the Jews of Baghdad “inspired by both the Nazis and the Grand Mufti of Jersualem, Haj-Amin Al Husseini, began today.

    1941: The first Croatian concentration camp began operation, at Danica. Four more Croat camps were opened, at Loborgrad, Jadovno, Gradiska, and Djakovo.

    1941: Lillian Hellman's "Watch on the Rhine", premiered in New York City. A native of New Orleans, Hellman's father was "of German Jewish ancestry." Hellman was a staunch supporter of the Communists. Many right-wingers mistakenly took her ancestry and her political beliefs, tied them together and used Hellman as an example of the Jewish/Communist Conspiracy to overthrow America.

    1941 Bess and Rubin “Honest Joe” Goldestein gave birth to Eddie Goldstein whom Dallas knew as swap shop owner “little Honest Joe King Edward.”

    1941: Birthdate of Bonnie Sherr Klein, the Philadelphia native and Stanford graduate who went to Canada with her husband Michael Klein as part of an anti-war protest where she developed into a filmmaker and social activists.

    1942: Sobibór death camp was nearly operational; gassings would begin in May.

    1942: At the beginning of the first week in April, more than 4400 Jews died of starvation in the Warsaw Ghetto

    1942: At the beginning of April, the first transports of Jews arrive at the camp at Majdanek, Poland, which will begin gassing Jews later in the year.

    1942: During the first week of April, Sunday Times of London published, but did not highlight news items about the Nazi executions of 120,000 Romanian Jews..

    1942: During the first week of April, Jews were mocked and hanged at Mlawa, Poland.

    1942: The Nazis deported 965 Slovakian Jews to Auschwitz.

    1942: In occupied Poland the Nazis created the Łachwa Ghetto when the town's Jews were forcibly moved into a new ghetto consisting of two streets and 45 houses, and surrounded by a barbed wire fence. The ghetto housed roughly 2,350 people, which amounted to approximately 1 square meter for every resident

    1943: By the beginning of April, Nazi killing squads had murdered almost two million Jews in Eastern Europe.

    1943: Starting in the first week of April, the Germans forced Jewish prisoners to burn the bodies of 600,000 Jews exterminated at Belzec.

    1943: During the first week of April, the Germans launched an offensive against Jewish partisans active in the Parczew Forest, Poland.

    1943: During the first week of April, Resistance members derailed a death train in Belgium.

    1943: Pope Pius XII complained that Jews are demanding and ungrateful.

    1943: Dr. Julian Chorazycki, a former captain in the Polish Army and a leader of inmate resistance at the Treblinka death camp, took poison when the camp's deputy commandant discovered the stash of currency Chorazycki had planned to use to buy small arms.

    1945: On Easter, Jan M. Komski, who was not Jewish, was among the 20,000 prisoners marched from Hersbruck to Dachau

    1945(18thof Nisan, 5705): Fourth Day of Pesach

    1945(18thof Nisan, 5705): Twenty-seven year old Karel Švenk, the Czech entertainer who :was one of the first artists to be deported to Terezin in 1941 died today en route to Mauthausan.

    1945(18thof Nisan, 5706: Ninety-six year German immigrant Isaac Wolfe Bernheim, the founder of I.W. Harper, the premium bourbon whiskey passed away today.

    1945: Father Giuseppe Girotti, a Catholic theology professor at the Saint Maria della Rose Dominican Seminary of Turin, who acted to save many Jews by arranging safe hideouts and escape routes from the country died at Dachau. He had been arrested and sent to the camp after having been betrayed by an informer and caught in the midst of helping a wounded Jewish person. It is reported that while in Dachau, he continued to write his unfinished commentary on the biblical book of Jeremiah.

    1946: It was reported today that Ian Morris Heilbron was to be “the first non-American to honored with the Priestly Medal.

    1946: Sholom J. Kahn reviewed Star of the Unborn by Franz Werfel.

    1947: The first Jewish immigrants disembark at the port of Eilat. Eilat is a port the southern end of Israel on the Gulf of Aqaba. Ben-Gurion was determined to make this part of the new state of Israel. The tale of the race for Eliat in 1948 is a tale of daring-do that would worthy of Rambo or James Bond. Ben Gurion realized how important this southern port would be to the development of trade, among other things. The reality has exceeded his vision.

    1948: As the military situation for the Yishuv reaches a crisis status, Ben Gurion holds an urgent meeting with his senior Jewish Agency colleagues and forces them to adopt “a single blow offensive.”

    1948: Arabs attacked Beit Alpha, a kibbutz near the Gilboa Ridge, with mortars.

    1948: The first major report of Ralph Asher Alpher’s work describing the Big Bang Theory appeared in the periodical Nature.

    1948: During Operation Nachshon, three large convoys broke through the blockade of Jerusalem bringing food and arms to the beleaguered Jewish population.

    1949: Mordechai Maklef wаѕ appointed Head οf one of tһе General Command Departments in the IDF.

    1950(14th of Nisan, 5710): Shabbat Hagadol

    1950: At sundown, Israelis sit down to celebrate the second Pesach since the creation of the state of Israel. A Seder is being held on Mt. Scopus for the 118 Israelis taking care of the Hadassah Hospital and Hebrew University campus that have been cut off from the rest of Jewish Jerusalem. The climaxing word of the Seder “Next Year in Jerusalem” take on special meaning for the 80,000 newly arrived immigrants who will be eating their Matzah and Maror in transit camps.

    1951: Following the issuance of an order by David Ben Gurion, the “Central Institute for Coordination” or Mossad became operation under directorship of Reuven Shiloah.

    1952: The Jerusalem Post   reported that an acceptable formula had been reached at the London External Debts Conference on the eventual Israel-German reparations agreements. At The Hague, however, the German reparations delegation announced that it had no authority to assume any commitments towards Israel or World Jewry's representation. A woman who refused to accept a $10,000 inheritance from her sister, who died abroad, was charged with infringing Israel's financial regulations.

    1952: “Aaron Slick from Punkin Crick” produced by William Perlberg and co-starring Dinah Shore was released in the United States today.

    1952:  The Jerusalem Post reported that the deepest well in Israel, 565 m., was dug at Karkur and had produced 360 cu.m. of excellent water per hour.

    1952(6th of Nisan, 5712): Hungarian born dramatist and novelist Ferenc Molnár passed away today in New York.

    1953(16th of Nisan, 5713): Second Day of Pesach; First Day of the Omer

    1953: In New York City Irene “Kelly” Kellerman, “an art teacher” and “Sonny Sonnenfeld, a lighting salesman, educator, and architectural lighting designer” gave birh Barry Sonnenfeld director of the comedies “Men In Black” and “When Harry Met Sally.”

    1957: Birthdate of Representative Peter Deutsch, from Florida’s 20th Congressional District.

    1957: First Jewish immigrants to arrive by ship disembarked at Eilat.

    1958: U.S. premiere of “Teacher’s Pet” a romantic comedy produced by William Perlberg with a script by Fay and Michael Kanin.

    1959: An IDF drill for calling up the reserves turned into a fiasco that became known as The Night of the Ducks.

    1961(16thof Nisan, 5721) Second Day of Pesach

    1961(16thof Nisan, 5721): In Cincinnati, Ohio, seventy-six year old Julian A. Pollak, the president of the Pollak Steel Company from 1944 to 1957 and Chairman of the Board from 1957 until today who had been a member of the Cornell University football team from 1905 to 1957 and major philanthropist in his hometown passed away today.

    1965: The London Borough of Tower Hamlets which is the home of Field Street Great Synagogue founded in 1899, was created today.

    1965(28th of Adar II, 5725): Helena Rubinstein US cosmetic manufacturer passed away. Her age was not accurately determined, but she was reported to be 89 at the time of her death.

    1968(3rd of Nisan, 5728): Russian physicist Lev D Landau passed away at the age of 59. He won the Nobel Prize in Physics for the year 1962 for his pioneering theories of condensed matter, especially liquid helium He is also admired for a prolific series of textbooks on theoretical physics, co-authored with E. M. Lifshitz.

    1969: Holocaust survivor Fred Kort opened Imperial Toy Corp. on Seventh Street in downtown Los Angeles. His inaugural product: the hi-bounce ball. Kort's sons from his first marriage, Jordan, Steve and David, all joined their father's business.

    1973: In Castro Valley, CA, Elaine Maddow (née Gosse) and Robert B. “Bob” Maddow gave birth to MSNBC anchor and news personality Rachel Maddow whose paternal grandfather was from an Eastern European Jewish family named Medwedof but who is herself not Jewish.

    1973: In Rabbi Soloveitchik’s Talmud shiur at Yeshiva University we completed learning the first chapter of Talmud Bavli Tractate Hullin. The Rav gave a dvar Torah at the Siyyum. He explained the meaning of the recitation of the hadran alakh, the prayer that promised upon the completion of learning a Talmud chapter or Tractate that we would return to study you – speaking to the text – again

    1974: The Interim Report of the Agranat Commission published today “called for the dismissal of a number of senior officers in the IDF and caused such controversy that Prime Minister Golda Meir was forced to resign.”

    1976(1stof Nisan, 5766): Rosh Chodesh Nisan

    1976(1st of Nisan, 5736): Eighty-four year old Max Ernst “the self-taught German-painter who formed a Dada group in Cologne, Germany, with other avant-garde artists and pioneered a method called frottage, in which a sheet of paper is placed on the surface of an object and then penciled over until the texture of the surface is transferred” passed away today.

    1976: “Looking at the Law” featuring attorney Neil Lewis Chayet debuted today on WBZ.

    1977:  The Jerusalem Post reported that the visit to Israel of the French foreign minister, Louis de Guiringaud, ended with "normalization," if not an improvement of strained relations.

    1977: The Jerusalem Post reported that while visiting Washington King Hussein of Jordan declared that he was ready for a "full peace" with Israel, but would never give up East Jerusalem.

    1977: The Jerusalem Post reported that the ambitious Netivei Ayalon highway system in Tel Aviv had been revised owing to enormous expenses.

    1977:Raggedy Ann & Andy: A Musical Adventure” an animated feature film with the voices of Didi Conn as “Raggedy Ann,” Arnold Stang as “Queasy and Sheldon Harnick as “Barney Beanbag” was released today in the United States.

    1977: U.S. premiere of “Hot Tomorrows” directed and produced by Martin Brest and starring Ken Lerner

    1978: Rafael Eitan was promoted to the rank of General and was appointed by Ezer Weizman to be the Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces.

    1978: CBS broadcast the final episode of “The Bob Newhart Show,” a sitcom co-starring Suzanne Pleshette, the daughter of Jewish immigrants.

    1980(15thof Nisan, 5740): Jews observe Pesach as Ronald Reagan sought to unseat Jimmy Carter.

    1981: An Israeli communique said today that one Israeli soldier had been wounded in the fighting in southern Lebanon.

    1982: “Efim Goldberg, of Riga, was warned to stop teaching Hebrew.”

    1982(8thof Nisan, 5742): Eighty-two year old Jack I. Poses the “president and founder of Parfums D'Orsay Company, a founder of Brandeis University and a sponsor of the Poses School of Fine Arts at Brandeis” passed away today.

    1982: It was reported today that “289 Jews had left the Soviet Union in March.”

    1982: In trucks and vans loaded with furniture and farm equipment, most Jewish settlers completed their departure from northern Sinai yesterday, leaving behind a hard core of several hundred militants who vowed to defy the deadline imposed by the army for leaving the area.

    1984: The long-term efforts of Arnold Resincoff, a Conservative Rabbi and former military chaplain, to convince the United States Department of Defense to participate in the national annual program for the Days of Remembrance of the Victims of the Holocaust took a significant step forward today when “Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger signed a memorandum to the military services, urging the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and other military commanders to participate in the annual program for the first time”

    1987: Opening of the New York Antiquarian Book Fair whose offereings have included The ''Twenty Four Books of the Holy Scriptures,'' the first edition in English of what was for generations the standard Jewish-American Bible, translated and annotated by Rabbi Isaac Leeser and published in Philadelphia in 1853 ($1,750) and the first complete, corrected, printed film script of ''The Wizard of Oz,'' dated May 4, 1938, in its original blue wrappers from the files of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer ($7,500).

    1988: “Beetlejuice” with music by Denny Elfaman and co-starring Winona Ryder, which opened theatrically in the United States today earned $8,030,897 in its opening weekend.

    1991: Ehud Barak began serving as Chief of the General Staff of the IDF during a time when the first Oslo Accords were being implemented and the negotiations were going forward that would lead to a peace treaty with Jordan.

    1992: Daniel Goldin begins serving as the Administrator of NASA making him the first Jew to serve as head of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

    1993: Five months after premiering in the United States, “Toys” a “fantasy comedy directed by Barry Levinson” who co-produced and co-wrote the script, filmed by cinematographer Adam Greenberg and with music by Hans Zimmer was released today in Australia.

    1996: In an article published today entitled “Challenging a View of the Holocaust,” Danita Smith discusses the new information provided by Daniel Jonah Goldhagen in "Hitler's Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust."

    1997: “--Lancit Media Entertainment, Ltd. (Nasdaq: LNCT), a leading creator and producer of high quality children's and family programming, today announced that Susan L. Solomon has been named Chairman of the Board of Directors and Chief Executive Officer of the Company, effective immediately.”

    1998: “Israel today formally accepted a 20-year-old United Nations Security Council resolution calling on it to withdraw from Lebanese territory. But the Israelis said any pullback would be made only on the condition that Lebanon assume control over the region and prevent its use for attacks on Israel.”

    1999(15thof Nisan, 5759): Final Pesach of the 20th century.

    1999: Publication of “A Spiritual Life: A Jewish Feminist Journey” by Merle Feld.

    1999: In Denmark, premiere of “The One and Only,” a Danish romantic comedy directed by Susanne Bier.

    2000: Marvin Miller is inducted into The National Jewish Sports Hall of Fame and Museum.

    2001: The New York Times featured books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including “Stet: A Memoir” by Diana Athill.

    2001: Six days after she was killed by Palestinian gunfire, 10 month old Shalhevet Pass was buried today.

    2001(8thof Nisan, 5761): Forty-two year old Dina Guetta was stabbed to death by a terrorist today on Ha’atzmaut Street.

    2002: In response to the increasing violence or Arab terrorists that climaxed with the suicide bomber murdering 30 people at a Seder in the Park Hotel, the IDF made preparation for Operation Defensive Shield.

    2002 (19th of Nisan, 5762) Fifth day of Pesach

    2002(19thof Nisan, 5762) Tomer Mordechai, 19, of Tel-Aviv, a policeman, was killed in Jerusalem, when a Palestinian suicide bomber driving toward the city center blew himself after being stopped at a roadblock. The Fatah al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades claimed responsibility for the attack.

    2002: “Using doctored pictures purportedly from the Hubble telescope, NASA ‘proved’ that the Moon was made of green cheese an expression that came from a fable that Reb Meir,Rashi, the Iraqi Rabbi Hai Gaoan and the Petrose Alponsi an apostate Spanish Jew helped to popularize.

    2003: “A rumor that” Chilean television personality Mario Luis Kreutzberger Blumenfeld known to his public as “Don Francisco had died surfaced around the New York and New Jersey area. The rumor proved false, but sent many of his fans into a panic until it was revealed as an April Fool's joke.”

    2003(28th of Adar II, 5763): Late in the evening, sixty-two year old  Robert M. Levine, Gabelli Senior Scholar in the Arts and Sciences, Director of Latin American Studies, and professor of history at the University of Miami, died after a determined and ever-optimistic fight against cancer.

    2003(28thof Adar II, 5673): Eighty-eight year old Edward L. “Ed” Kweller who played college basketball for Duquesne before playing two years as professional in the pre-war National Basketball League passed away today.

    2004(10thof Nisan, 5764): One-hundred-one year old Colonel Aaron Bank, a veteran of the OSS and founder of the “Green Berets” passed a way today(As reported by Richard Goldstein)

    2004: A revival of “Sly Fox” a comedy by Larry Gelbart featuring Richard Dreyfus opened at the Ethel Barrymore Theatre today.

    2005(21stof Adar, 5765): Sixty-eight year old composer and song writer Jack Keller, the Brooklyn born son of Mal and Reva Keller who worked with fellow Jewish artists Carole King, Neil Sedaka and Howard Greenfield and whose musical skills ranged from writing the theme music for television hits like “Bewitched” to writing country and western music for Ernest Tubb and Loretta Lynn passed away today in Nashville, TN.

    2005: Lewis Wolff was among those purchasing the Oakland Athletics baseball team today

    2005:A sign was dedicated today in Deadwood, South Dakota by the Deadwood Historic Preservation Commission in conjunction with the Jewish American Society for Historic Preservation which records information about the purchase of Hebrew Hill and some of those buried there.

    2006(3rdof Nisan, 5766): In an interesting calendar coincidence, April Fool’s Day coincides with the reading of the first portion from the Book Vayikra (There’s a sermon topic in there some place)

    2007: The Sunday Washington Post reviewed two books designed to “untangle Biblical tales” that have just appeared in paperback: “David and Solomon In Search of the Bible's Sacred Kings And the Roots of the Western Tradition” by Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman and “Jesus and “Yahweh: The Names Divine” by Harold Bloom.

    2007:The New York Times reviewed books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including the recently released paperback edition of “Jesus and Yahweh: The Divine Name” by Harold Bloom.

    2007: Nancy Pelosi, Speaker of the House of the US Representatives addresses the Knesset in what is her first address to a foreign government legislature. She is the highest ranking American woman to speak before the Knesset.

    2007: Based on stories in the secular press, the world of Kashrut is alive and well. The Washington Post featured an article entitled “A Doughnut Shop's Change Leaves a Hole” that tells about the consequences of four Dunkin Donut stores in the Washington area to give up their kosher certification. The Chicago Tribune featured an article entitled “China Firms Clamor To Go Kosher: Businesses covet certification that lets them tap $150 billion market.”

    2007: “Gefilte Fish Chronicles” airs at 7 p.m. on New York’s Channel 13. The DVD has its own website

    2007(13th of Nisan, 5767): Eighty-two year old Abraham Louis Limmer who gained fame as Lou “Boomie” Limmer the major league first baseman who overcame the effects of having broken his neck and suffered temporary blindness “while sliding into third base in the Western League” to play for the Philadelphia Athletics in 1951 and 1954 passed away today.

    2007(13thof Nisan, 5767): Ninety-four year old Rabbi Josef Hirsch Dunner passed away today.

    2007: German Chancellor Angela Merkel received an honorary doctor of philosophy degree from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem "in recognition of her lifelong dedication to the principles of democracy and in appreciation of her warm and constant friendship for the people and State of Israel."

    2008: The 92nd Street Y presents “The Year of Living Biblically,” featuring author A.J. Jacobs who discusses his most recent book, The Year of Living Biblically, in which he recounts his fascinating, enlightening and delightfully strange year trying to follow all 613 commandments in the Bible.

    2008: In Washington, D.C., Sidney Blumenthal, a former advisor in the Clinton White House, discusses and signs “The Strange Death of Republican America: Chronicles of a Collapsing Party” at a Barnes and; Noble book store.

    2008: Idina Menzel “kicked off her 2008-2009 "I Stand Tour" in support of her new album performing 4 sold out legs.”

    2008: Shlomo “Benizri was convicted of accepting bribes, breach of faith, obstructing justice, and conspiracy to commit a crime for accepting favors worth millions of shekels from his friend, contractor Moshe Sela, in exchange for inside information regarding foreign workers scheduled to arrive in Israel.”

    2008(25th of Adar II, 5768): Radio broadcaster and actress and Shosh Atari passed away at the age of 58 after suffering a serious illness. Atari was born in Rehovot, and grew up in the central town. She spent her military service in Army Radio, and after her discharge from the Israel Defense Forces worked at Channel 1 television. In the 1970s Atari joined Israel Radio as a presenter. In the 1980s, she became one of the stars of Reshet Gimmel radio, where she hosted popular music chart shows, and other programs with Tony Fine as her editor. Atari was also famous as the moderator on the "Pitzuhim" game show on the Israel's educational TV channel. At the end of the 1990s the broadcaster joined Lev Hamedina Radio. A few years ago Atari underwent a kidney transplant operation after suffering from a kidney illness. Following the operation she moved again to Reshet Gimmel, but then returned to broadcast a daily program on Lev Hamedina radio. The broadcaster also performed on the stage at the Be'er Sheva theatre. In 2004, Atari's book "Secrets and Lies" was published. In 2007 she returned to television, starring in the "It's all honey" drama series on Channel 2.

    2008(25th of Adar II, 5768): Actor Mosko Alkalai, 77, died of respiratory failure. Alkalai was hospitalized and underwent surgery in Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center several weeks ago, but was unable to recover. Winner of the Israeli Film Academy's 2003 Lifetime Achievement Awards, Alkalai graced the stage and silver screen in a career spanning 21 years, appearing in dozens of theater plays and motion pictures. He also took part in various public activities and was the chairman of the Israeli Union of Performing Arts a member of the Israeli Arts Council and a member of the Israeli Film Academy.

    2009:Avigdor Lieberman replaced Tzipi Livni as Minister of Foreign Affairs.

    2009: Yitzhak Aharonovich replaced Avi Dichter as Minister of Internal Affiars.

    2009: The Center for Jewish History, PEN, Office of Cultural Affairs, Consulate General of Israel in New York and Blue Metropolis International Literary Festival co-sponsor a PEN World Voices entitled “Evolution/Revolution: Meir Shalev in Conversation with Daniel Menaker” featuring Israeli writer Meir Shalev the author of more than 16 highly praised works, spanning fiction, non-fiction and children's books and Daniel Menaker, the former Random House Editor-in-Chief.

    2009: In Cedar Rapids, Iowa, Temple Judah hosts a congregational meeting as it begins a search for its next Rabbi.

    2009: The Centennial Conference for Urban Sustainability opens at the Tel Aviv Performing Arts Center.

    2009: A new exhibition by the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw that has brought together photos and documents depicting the rich history of 1,000 years of Jewish life in Poland goes on display today at the European Parliament in Brussels and will run nearly a week.

    2009(7thof Nisan, 5769):Marcos Moshinsky “a Mexican physicist of Ukrainian and Jewish origin whose work in the field of elementary particles won him the Prince of Asturias Prize for Scientific and Technical Investigation in 1988 and the UNESCO Science Prize in 1997” passed away today.

    2009: “Picturing the Shoah,” a film festival sponsored by YIVO that explores how movies have represented the Holocaust from radical, provocative, and unexpected angles opens with a showing of “Schindler’s List.”

    2010: An exhibition entitled “From Dream to Reality: Zionism and the Birth of Israel” presented by the YIVO Institute for Jewish Research is scheduled to come to an end today.

    2010: An exhibition entitled “Folk Art Judaica by Herman Braginsky” presented by Yeshiva University Museum featuring carved ritual objects made of fine and aged woods, including tzedakah boxes, Torah pointers, mezuzot, dreidels, Torah arks, spice containers, and other works created by self-taught craftsman Herman Braginsky who was born in 1912 and passed away in 1999 is scheduled to come to an end today

    2010:A ceremony officially classifying the Machpelah Cave in Hevron as a National Heritage Site is scheduled to be held today, as tens of thousands visit the city for a Hol Hamo'ed celebration

    2010: The New York Times features a review of “Jenniemae & James: A Memoir in Black & White” in which Brooke Newman writes about her father, the famous mathematician James Newman,”the son of Jewish immigrants “who “had an I.Q. of 175.”

    2010:During a visit to Damascus, Democratic Sen. John Kerry, chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, reiterated US misgivings about the flow of weapons through Syria to Hizbullah and told reporters the US view is that this is "something that must stop" for there to be peace.

    2011: Eatliz, one of Israel’s leading alternative rock bands, is scheduled to perform at the City Winery in New York City.

    2011: The Arizona Diamondback hired former basketball front office maven Jerry Krause as a scout today.

    2011: “Nora’s Will” and “Anita” are two of the films scheduled to be shown at the Westchester Jewish Film Festival.

    2011:A loud explosion was heard outside the house of opposition leader Tzipi Livni today. The blast was apparently a result of a firecracker thrown at the security stand outside Livni's Tel Aviv home. Livni was not at her house when the explosion occurred.

    2011:Residents from all over Israel reported that they felt an earthquake this afternoon.Israel's Geophysical Institute said the earthquake, which occurred over 800km from Israel, was mostly felt in the north of Israel, including the towns of Safed and Nahariya. At the same time as residents in Israel reported buildings shaking, a deep 5.9 magnitude earthquake struck in the sea 76 miles (120 km) east-northeast of Iraklio, a town on the Greek island of Crete, on Friday, the US Geological Survey said.

    2011:Britain's first Jewish ambassador to Israel, Matthew Gould and his wife Celia had their first sabra baby girl today. Baby Rachel Elizabeth was born early this morning at the Lis Maternity Hospital in the Tel Aviv Medical Center.We are both incredibly happy and proud new parents," Gould said. "We are very grateful for the fabulous care we've received and all the mazel tovs we've been sent."

    2011:“Lillian Bassman: Lingerie,” is scheduled to be published by Abrams today.

    2012: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including ‘Enemies: A History of the FBI’  by Tim Weiner and ‘Mudwoman’ by Joyce Carol Oates.

    2012: Aluf Ram Rothberg, commander of the Israeli Navy reportedly “ordered senior commanders to prepare for a complex, 10-day exercise in Italy with the US and Italian navies” as part of an April Fool’s Day prank that got out of hand.

    2012: Anthony Russell, “an exciting new talent in the world of Yiddish music” is scheduled to perform at Temple Beth Emeth in Brooklyn.

    2012: “Footnote” and “Salmon Fishing in the Yemen” are two of the films scheduled to be shown at Hartford Jewish Film Festival.

    2012(9th of Nisan, 5772): Eighty-year old “Edmund L. Epstein the literary scholar who saved Lord of the Flies” passed away today. (As reported by Bruch Weber)

    2012: “Spinozium” is scheduled to take place today at Theatre J in Washington, DC.

    2013(21stof Nisan, 5773): Seventh Day of Pesach; Reform Jews recite Yizkor

    2013(21stof Nisan, 5773): Seventy-year old William H. Ginsburg, the California civil lawyer who was thrust into the national spotlight when he represented Monica Lewinsky, passed away today.

    2013: Those visiting the symphony bar are scheduled to have a chance to “experience Leopold Bloom's passage through Dublin in a dramatic episode from James Joyce’s masterwork Ulysses.”

    2013: In New York, Larry Schwartz and Beth Sandweiss are scheduled to offer a course in Jewish mindfulness which is designed to integrate the knowledge and practice of Judaism with mindfulness practice and key ideas that support that practice.

    2013: Beginning this morning, Israel “was hit by strong winds and dust” which led to “high levels of air pollution causing breathing complications.” (As reported by Yoel Goldman

    2013: In Ancient Fear Rises Anew Lisa Abend describes the resurgence of anti-Semitism in Hungary.

    2014: The Hebrew Language Table at the Library of Congress is scheduled to co-sponsor a presentation by Professor Gabriel Weimann entitled “Terrorism in Cyberspace: The Next Generation.”

    2014: Episodes 3, 4 and 5 of “The Story of the Jews with Simon Schama,”are scheduled to be shown this evening.

    2015: The Jewish Community Center of Northern Virginia is scheduled to host “Its Yiddish Time” with Alex Lieberman.

    2015: “Woman in Gold” is scheduled to open today in U.S. theatres.

    2015: “Joy of Life: Paintings by Dolorosa Rubens Margulis” is scheduled to open at the Oregon Jewish Museum and Center for Holocaust Education.

    2015: “Jewish Oklahomans” by Phil Goldfarb, Ed Harris and Katherine Frame was filed today.

    2015: Anna Sapir Abulafia, the wife of historian David Afulafia, was appointed the Professor of the Study of the Abrahamic Religions in the faculty of theology and religion at Lady Margaret Hall, University of Oxford tday

    2015: In recognition of the 50th anniversary of the establishment of New York City’s Landmarks Law, architectural historian and preservationist Samuel D. Gruber is scheduled to lecture on “Synagogues of New York: History, Architecture, and Community” at the Center for Jewish History.

    2015: Ninety-three year old “James Venture, one of the last survivors of the infamous Train de Loos, which carried French resistance fighters, Communists and Jews from a prison in the northern French village of Loos to concentration camps in Germany in September 1944” passed away today.

    2015: The second and final episode of “The Dovekeepers” a fictional account of the final days at Masada is scheduled to be shown on CBS.

    2016: Kate Hinz, daughter of Stephanie and Daniel Hinz and Ben Binder, son of Janice Binder, begin their B’Nei Mitzvah weekend by helping to lead Friday night services at Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, IA.

    2016: “Beyond the Balcony: the Works of Michal Nachmany is scheduled to open today in New York City.

    2016: In Fairfax, VA, the “First Friday Boaok Group” is scheduled to discuss Honeydew by Edith Pearlman.

    2017(5thof Nisan, 5777): Parashat Vayikra

    2017: For the second time this week Arab terrorists struck in Jerusalem today when two teenaged boys were stabbed in the Old City.

    2017: In Buenos Aires, 91 year old Holocaust survivor Eugenia Unger, who usually displays the number tattooed on her arm by the Nazis, covered it with her Shabbat clothes and her talit when she celebrated her bat mitzvah today. (JTA/TOI)

    2017: Bob Dylan finally received “his Nobel Literature diploma medal…during a small gathering this afternoon in a hotel” in Stockholm, Sweden. (As reported by David Keyton)

    2017: In New Orleans the Jewish Children Regional Services is scheduled to host its annual gala “Jews Roots of Past, Present and Future, honoring the former and current leadership of JCRS.

    2017: The Seattle Jewish Film Festival is scheduled to host a showing of “Past Life,” “a suspenseful, twisty, true tale from Israeli master Avi Nesher.”

    2017: Sixty-eight year old Rabbi David Saperstein, who “for the law two years served as the US ambassador-at-large for international religious freedom” is scheduled to “return to the Union of Reform Judaism’s senior staff” today.

    2018: The New York Times published books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Return of Marco Polo’s World: War, Strategy and American Interests in the Twenty-First Century by Robert D. Kaplan and (((SEMITISM))):Being Jewish in America in the Age of Trump
    by Jonathan Weisman

    2018(16thof Nisan, 5778): Pesach; for more see

    2018(16th of Nisan, 5778): First Day of the Omer

    2018: In Jerusalem, the Tower of David is scheduled to host a performance of “Jerusalem in My Heart” which tells “the story of Nissim, a Jew who is coming to Israel from Spain on his way to the Western Wall.”


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    April 2

    742: Birthdate of Charlemagne. Charlemagne was both King of the Franks and the first Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. Despite pressure from the Catholic Church and the mighty Pope Gregory, Charlemagne treated his Jewish subjects and they played a prominent part in his realm. Unfortunately, after his death in 814, his successors were unable to continue to his policies towards the Jews of Christian Europe.
    1118: Baldwin I, who arrogantly styled himself King of Jerusalem.  For Jews nothing more be said then that he was a brother of Godfrey of Bouillon and a leader of the bloody First Crusade.
    1279(Nisan, 5039): A number of London Jews were martyred following ritual charges. You will note that during the Easter Season there is a significant increase in these reports for several centuries in different parts of Europe.
    1453: Mehmed II began his siege of Constantinople. The siege would lead to the downfall of the Byzantine capitol which would improve the lot of the Jews living in the city as well as opening it up to settlement by Jews living Crete, Transylvania and Slovakia.
    1473: Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary, under whose reign the condition of the Jews improved, and his mistress, Barbara Edelpöck gave birth to John Corvinus
    1550: The Jews were expelled from of Genoa.
    1678(10th of Nisan): Rabbi Judah Ashael ben David del Bene author of Kisot le-Bet David passed away
    1738(12thof Nisan, 5498):  Joseph Oppenheimer was hanged. Oppenheimer, the finance minister, was arrested after the sudden death of Prince Karl of Wurttemberg. He was offered a pardon on condition of agreeing to be baptized. Although not a practicing Jew, he refused and was placed in a cage in the center of Stuttgart declaring "I will die as a Jew; I am suffering violence and injustice." He died while shouting Shema Yisrael.

    1756: Benjamin D’Israeli, the Anglo-Jewish merchant who was grandfather of the British Prime Minister married his first wife, Rebecca Mendez Furtado.

    1755(21st of Nisan, 5515):Aryeh Leib ben Saul Lowenstam passed away in Amsterdam. Born in Cracow this Polish rabbi was a member of long line of Jewish sages including his grandfather Rabbi Hoeschl of Cracow and his father Saul who served as rabbi of Cracow from 1700 to 1704,
    1770(7th of Nisan): Rabbi PInchas Zelig of Lask, author of Ateret Paz passed away
    1779(16th of Nisan, 5539): During the American Revolution France, the ally of the United States, was ten days away from signing “a secret treaty with Spain to wage war against Great Britain” Jews observed the Second Day of Pesach; first day of the Omer
    1787: Ephraim Hart “he was registered as an elector of the Shearith Israel congregation” in New York City.
    1791: Forty-two year old Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau (known simply as Count Mirabeau) a leader of the French Revolution who was an admirer of Moses Mendelssohn and whose support of Jewish emancipation can be seen in his statement “Confer upon” the Jews “the enjoyment of civil rights and they will enter the ranks of peaceful citizens, passed away today.
    1806: Birthdate of Gabriel Riesser, youngest son of Lazarus Jacob Riesser and an advocate for the emancipation of the Jews of Germany.
    1817(16th of Nisan, 5577): Second Day of Pesach; 1st day of the Omer
    1825(14th of Nisan, 5585): Shabbat HaGadol; Erev Pesach
    1825: “The special privileges granted to the Portuguese Jewish citizens of Suriname were terminated by order of the Dutch crown. Thenceforth, Jews in the Dutch colonies were accorded the same rights as the other inhabitants, and all privileges, concessions and exceptions of whatever nature were abolished.” (As reported by the Suriname-Jewish Community)
    1826: In Ancona, Italy, “Anna Costantini, a young girl, was torn from her family and forced into baptism.”
    1827: Birthdate of English painter William Holman Hunt who moved to Palestine in the 1850’s to find inspirations for his painting and whose house at No. 64 Street of the Prophets in Jerusalem would be the future home of Hebrew language poet Rachel Bluwstein.
    1840: Birthdate of Émile Zola. This non-Jewish French author would become a leading player in the Dreyfus Affair. His J”Accuse would be an indictment of the French military establishment and the anti-Semitic forces that swirled around this entire act of injustice.
    1844:"The building” housing the Great Synagogue in Sidney “was consecrated today with the music for the ceremony in the hands of Isaac Nathan, father of Australian music, who was also associated with the music at St Mary's Cathedral. For the occasion Nathan composed settings for Baruch Habba ("Blessed be he that cometh") and Halleluyah.
    1846: The last letter in the correspondence between Grace Aguilar and “the philanthropist Miriam Moses Cohen who acted as an agent for her publications in America” was sent today.
    1862: Abraham Crawcour married Catherine Rebecca Hart today.

    1863: During the Civil War, food shortages cause hundreds of angry women to riot in Richmond, Virginia and demand that the Confederate government release emergency supplies, in what became known as the Richmond Bread Riots. In her honor’s thesis entitled The Richmond Bread Riot of 1863: Class, Race, and Gender in the Urban Confederacy, MIDN 1/C Katherine R. Titus wrote that while the rioters targeted speculators and government offices “Richmond citizens also targeted foreigners and Jews. The city had a tradition of blatant anti-Semitism. Once the War erupted, many Richmond citizens openly blamed the Jews and foreigners in the city for speculation and charged them with disloyalty. Sallie A. Putnam, for instance, believed that the Jews in Richmond profited from the war. She exhorted, “They were not found, as the more interested of the people, without the means to purchase food when the Confederate money became useless to us from the failure of our cause.” Major John W. Daniel contended that local stereotypes allowed the rioters to target Richmond Jews. After the War, he reminisced, “certain people down there were credited with great wealth. It was said that they had made barrels of money out of the Confederacy, and the female Communists went at them without a qualm of conscience.”
    1865:Twenty Jewish men signed a constitution that became the framework that would guide the future of Reform Jews in Akron, Ohio.
    1865: Founding of the Akron Hebrew Congregation which holds services on holidays and Friday evenings.
    1865: In Montgomery, Alabama, “Abraham J. Schiff, the best Hebrew scholar in Wolosin” who served as rabbi in Montgomery until moving to New York where he became rabbi at Beth Hamedresh Hagodl  and Sheve Kapaln gave birth to I.O. Schiff who “opened his first dry goods store at 105 Essex Street” and married Stella Newmark with whom he had three children.
    1866(17thof Nisan, 5626) Third Day of Pesach; second day of the Omer
    1867: Birthdate of Mrs. Henry Gottdiener
    1869: Michael Henry became editor of The Jewish Chronicle– a position he would hold until his death in 1875.
    1870(1st of Nisan, 5630): Rosh Chodesh Nisan/Shabbat HaChodesh

    1871 In Baltimore, MD founding of Congregation Chizuk Amunah whose members included by M.S. Levy, Joseph Levi, and Milton Fleischer and has been served by Rabbi Henry W. Schneeberger and Canto Herman Glass.

    1874(15thof Nisan, 5634): Pesach

    1877(19th of Nisan): Rabbi Chaim Bezalel of Bielitz, Poland, author of “Derekh Yivhar” passed away.

    1878: In New York City, Austrian Jewish immigrants Fanny Ritterman and Bernard Kasner gave birth to their sixth child mathematician Edward Kasner.

    1881: It was reported today that the population of Thessaly, which is moving from Turk to Greek rule includes 50,000 Jews and Muslims as well as 300,000 who are classified as Greeks.

    1882:The New York Times reported that “the feast of Passover will commence tomorrow evening at sundown in accordance with the rabbinical ordinance which lays it down that it shall be celebrated from the evening of the 14thof Nisan and continues for eight days. It is regarded strictly as a feast of rejoicing and it’s a pleasant illustration of the liberalizing tendency of the age that many Jews make it a custom to send small presents of unleavened bread to the Christian friends”

    1882: The New York Times publishes an excerpt from “Domestic and Artistic Life of Copely” by Martha Babcock Amory in which the author describes a dinner with Baroness Lionel Rothschild in 1857.

    1883: After telling him that it was customary for newly engaged couple to announce their intention to become man and wife before an official at City Hall, the relatives of Pauline Moses to David Holtz to City Hall where an alderman performed a marriage ceremony; a fact not understood by Holtz because of his limited knowledge of the English language.

    1886(26th of Adar): Rabbi Aryeh Leib Yellin, author of Yefeh Einayim passed away today

    1887(8th of Nisan, 5647): Shabbat HaGadol

    1887(8th of Nisan, 5647): Sixty-one year old Austrian mathematician Simon Spitzer who became a professor of analytic mechanics at the Vienna “Handelsschule” in 1870 passed away today.

    1890: The Passover Association distributed free matzoth to over four thousand poor Jews this evening at the Goodfellow’s Hall on Essex Street in New York.

    1890: The New York Times reported that the American Hebrew will be publishing a special Passover edition this Friday.

    1890: It was suggested at today’s meeting of the New York Board of Estimate and Apportionment that the old Hebrew Orphan and Asylum on 77th Street could be used for the proposed new offices of the city’s Board of Education.

    1891: Birthdate of Max Ernst founder of surrealism who with his Jewish wife Luise Straus gave birth to painter Jimmy Straus and who was briefly married to Peggy Guggenheim at the end of 1941.

    1892: Simon Schafer, M.H. Moses, Judge M.S. Isaacs and A.L. spoke at tonight’s meeting of the Purim Association which was held at the Hoffman House tonight.

    1892: “Want To Hear Cleveland” published today described the ex-President’s popularity in New York as can be seen by warm reception his supporters receive when they address rallies of Russian Jews.  The Russians barely understand English, but the sound of Cleveland’s name is enough to bring out shouts of approval..

    1893(16th of Nisan, 5653): Second Day of Pesach; first day of the Omer

    1893: At Temple Emanu-El, Dr. Silverman is scheduled to deliver a lecture on “The Crucifixition.”

    1893: It was reported today that in German “the Conservatives have definitely thrown over Rector Hermann Ahlwardt the Jew baiter and libeler.”  However, their rejection has not stopped him from making public speeches and holding anti-Semitic rallies.

    1893: “Fine British Weather” published today described the social and political events taking place in the UK including plans by “an organization of progressive young Jews…to propose at all annual meetings of the synagogue throughout England, most of which are held next week, a resolution that it is not desirable to elect a man engaged in money lending as President of the congregation.”

    1893: Dr. Silverman is scheduled to give an address at Temple Emanu-El on “The Crucifixion.”

    1893: The New York Times reported that “an organization of progressive young Jews has arranged to propose at all annual meetings of the synagogues throughout England, most of which are held next week, a resolution that it is not desirable to elect a man engaged in money lending as President of the congregation.”

    1894: It was reported today that approximately 50 Jews, many of them women attended the evangelistic service at the Thalia Theatre Auditorium although there was no report of any of them coming forward to convert.  (These services were part of a concerted effort by some Christians to convert Jewish immigrants at the turn of the century)

    1896: The will of the late Charles S. Friedlander was filed with the Surrogate today for probate.

    1896: The funeral for Dr. Aaron Wise was held this morning at Temple Rodolph Shalom, the New York congregation he had served as Rabbi for several years.

    1896(19thof Nisan, 5656): Leonard Friedman, who is approximately 52 years old, passed away today at Lakewood, NU.  A native of Germany, he came to the United States and after fighting his way out of poverty established Leonard Friedman & Co which over the last twenty years has become one of the leading tobacco houses in the United States.

    1896: Funeral services were held for Dr. Aaron Wise, who had been rabbi at New York’s Temple Rudolph Shalom at the time of his death. The services at the Lexington Avenue Temple were attended by so many mourners that “not one half could gain entrance to the synagogue.” Several of New York’s leading clergy took part in the ceremony including Dr. Rudolph Grossman of Temple Beth-El, Dr. Kaufmann Kohler also of Temple Beth-El who delivered an address in German and Dr. Gustav Gottheil of Temple Emanuel who delivered a eulogy in English in which he said of Wise, “The spirit of his words cannot die. The influence of the teacher has not limits as to time or space.” Burial followed the service in Union Field, Cypress Hills Cemetery.

    1897: Reverend John Hall delivered a lecture on “Judaism and Christianity” in which he said “There is a distinction between Judaism as described in the Bible and the Judaism of the present generation.”

    1897: A school designed to teach students how to cook food according to the laws of Kashrut opened today in Brooklyn in a neighborhood with a large Jewish population.

    1897: In New York, Governor Frank Black appointed Jewish philanthropist and Republican Party activist Edward Lauterbach to serve as a member of the State Board of Charities.

    1897: In Austria, Count Casimir Badeni resigned during a government crisis that was precipitated, in part, by his clash with the anti-Semitic parties.

    1897: Julius Goldschmidt who had been Consul General in Vienna under President Harrison began serving as Consul General to Berlin

    1898(10thof Nisan, 5658): Shabbat Hagadol

    1898(10thof Nisan, 5658):Austrian pathologist and histologist Salomon Stricker passed away.

    1899” In Richmond, VA, founding of the Hebrew Sheltering Aid Society which “furnishes shelter and means of transportation to strangers and whose members included E.C. Meyer, Philip Hirshberg, S.I. Hirshberg and D.S. Sharove.

    1899: At the Hebrews Sheltering Guardian Society Orphan Asylum, Chaplain Joseph Kauffman officiated at service were a “bronze tablet in memory of Samuel Lewisohn” was unveiled.

    1899: “Disraeli and the Suez Canal” published today provided a summary an article by Arnold White that appeared in Harper’s Weekly describing the British leader’s role in facilitating the purchase of this vital waterway from which he gained no financial advantage.

    1902: “Controversy Over Hen Fattened For Passover” published in today’s Atlanta Constitution described a complaint filed by Leo Fresh with police to retrieve the chicken that he was preparing to take to a “shocket” which had mysteriously ended up in the yard of a neighbor lady who planned to have it killed in a manner not consistent with the laws of Kashrut.

    1903: The High Court of Australia sits for the first time. In 1930, Isaacs Isaacs would become the third person to fill this position and the first Jew to serve as Chief Justice of Australia.

    1903: Herzl meets McIlwraithe, the legal adviser of the Khedive where he finds out that an immediate counter-proposal is out of question. The size of the land and the duration of the contract are discussed.

    1904(17thof Nisan, 5664): Shabbat shel Pesach

    1905: The Executive Committee presented “the policy with regard to the granting of the degree of Doctor of Divinity and the degree of Doctor of Hebrew Literature as well as the formal requirement for the granting of these degrees was presented today to the meeting of the Board of Directors of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America.

    1905: President N. Taylor Phillips presided over “the second annual meeting of the New York Branch of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America where the nominating committee composed of Dr. Cyrus Adler, Julius Dukas and Simon was formed and the following were chosen to service as officers – Edgar J. Nathan, President; Isaac J. Danziger, Vice President; Daniel Guggenheim, Treasurer; and Joseph B. Abrahams, Secretary.   

    1906: During the conference at Algeciras, Morocco, “Mr. White, the chief of the American delegation and the Duke of Almodovar raised the question of “the unfavorable situation of the Jews in Morocco.”     

    1906: Tonight, in Clinton Hall, “at the installation of the newly elected officers of the Zionist Council of Greater New York, Dr. J. L. Magnes, the Secretary of the American Federation of Zionists read…a copy of a proclamation issued against the Jews in Russia” which he said practically meant that there would be another Pogrom in Ekaterinoslov.

    1907: In Brooklyn, movie producer Louis B. Meyer “and his first wife Margaret Shenberg gave birth Irene Mayer Selznick famed as the producer of Street Car Named Desire and the younger sister of Edith Selznick who was born in 1905

    1909: Ahmed Riza Bey, President of Turkish Parliament, offered Russian and Romanian Jews who were suffering tremendous persecution and attacks a chance to come settle in Turkey.

    1911: The newly formed Grand Council of the Jewish Community of Constantinople expresses loyalty of all Jews of all parties to the Ottoman Empire.

    1911:Rose Schneiderman, a prominent socialist and union activist, gave a speech at the memorial meeting held in the Metropolitan Opera House today to an audience largely made up of the members of the Women's Trade Union League in which she used the Triangle Fire as an argument for factory workers to organize:

    1912(15thof Nisan, 5672): As TR and Taft battled for control of the Republican Party, observance of Pesach observed the first day of Pesach.

    1912: Today “two wagons left the corner of Lilienblum and Herzl Streets in Tel Aviv carrying 4 "Ahuza" members, 3 laborers and 2 armed watchmen. After a 5 hour journey, they unloaded their baggage at the place destined to become Ra'anana which has grown to become a city of almost 70,000 people living in Israel’s Central District.

    1912(15th of Nisan, 5672): Fifty women attended a Seder tonight at the Young Women’s Hebrew Association building on Lexington Avenue. The attendance was limited by the size of the building underscoring the need to build a new facility.

    1913: Isador H. Weinstock, the Cantor of the Plum Street Synagogue in Cincinnati, presented a program on “The Music of the Synagogue” at “the seventh regular meeting” of the Isaiah Woman’s Club.

    1913: Funeral services were held today for Bernard Wolf, the husband of Amalia Wolf and “father of Mrs. Numa Lachman and Mrs. Isador Brown” at K.A.M. Temple in Chicago followed by burial at Mount Maariv.

    1913:Today, Jews living in New York City brought copies of letters from family members living in Anatolia describing persecution by Greeks living in that part of the Ottoman Empire to the attention of the American Jewish Committee. They called upon the committee to intervene on the behalf of their co-religionists and to organize a protest against these outrages.

    1914: The officers of the Jewish Soldiers and Sailors Passover Committee met at the Broadway Central Hotel in New York. After the meeting, Henry Berlin, Chairman of the Arrangements Committee, reported that Secretary of War Garrison and Secretary of the Navy Daniels had sent letters announcing that Jewish soldiers and sailors would receive furloughs to celebrate Passover this year.

    1914(6th of Nisan, 5674): Paul Heyes, the first Jew to win the Nobel Prize for Literature, passed away today at the age of 84. A native of Bonn, “he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1910 ‘as a tribute to the consummate artistry, permeated with idealism, which he has demonstrated during his long productive career as a lyric poet, dramatist, novelist and writer of world-renowned short stories.’ One of the Nobel judges, said that ‘Germany has not had a greater literary genius since Goethe.’" [Considering what would happen to the Jews of German two decades after his death, this praise has a strange ring to it. Also, Heyes is living proof that winning a Nobel Prize is no guarantee to lasting fame, even among his co-religionists.]

    1914: In New York, Mr. and Mrs. Percy Salomon gave birth to William Roger Salomon who would become a long time managing partner of the bond trading house Salomon Bros.

    1915: Today “Henry Fischel, the Treasurer of the Central Committee for the Relief of Jews Suffering through the War” “received a donation of five dollars from Leo Frank” who faces the death penalty in Georgia” and who compared “his own suffering with that now being borne by Jews in the war zones.”

    1916: At ninth anniversary services of the Free Synagogue led by Dr. Stephen S. Wise, Ambassador Henry Morgenthau talked about plans to move the congregation from its home in Carnegie Hall to a temple building to be built in the center of Manhattan that will be better suited to the religious mission.

    1916: Grand Master Samuel Goldstein presided over the convention of the Independent Order of the Free Sons of Judah in the Bronx today which was attended by approximately “450 delegates representing 18,237 member of the Jewish fraternal organization” who heard Rabbi Joseph Rosenblatt lead a memorial service for Jews who have been killed during the war in Europe.

    1916: “Joseph H. Cohen, President of the Beth Israel, today announced a plan to build a West Side Jewish Community Center” on 88th Street between Columbus and Amsterdam avenues which “contain a synagogue, a library, a gymnasium, kindergarten, public hall, roof garden and class rooms for educational work.”

    1917(NS): Today “the Provisional Government—in power until a Constituent Assembly could be called to determine the character of the successor Russian state—abolished all the legal restrictions on ethnic and religious communities, including Jews” which meant that “for the first time since they had been admitted to the Russian Empire, Jews gained full equality with all other citizens” which stood in mark contrast to the era of the “tsarist regime which had confined Jews to the Pale of Settlement and had severely restricted their opportunities in agriculture, the professions, military service, education” and governmental or civil unless Jews agreed to convert to Christianity.

    1917: According to a cable message received today by Louis Marshall, Chairman of the American Jewish Relief Committee from Baron Alexander Gunzburg in Petrograd, “all laws of Russia which are adverse to the Jews there are to be repealed by a decree of the provisional Government.”

    1917: President Wilson asked the United States Congress for a declaration of war against Germany. This was the first official step towards America’s entry into World War I as a combatant on the side of the Allies. While American Jews supported the war effort and served in all branches of the armed forces, there was an unintended downside for the Jews living in Central and Eastern Europe. It was easier for American Jews to get aid to their suffering co-religionists when the United States was a “neutral.” Once it joined the Allied side, the Central Powers (Germany and Austria) it would be much more difficult to get help to those living in the war torn areas under the control of these nations.

    1918: In Bohemia, the Emperor pardoned Leopold Hilsner a shoemaker who was serving a life term after having been convicted “on the charge of ritual murder” in 1900.

    1918: At Vienna “in an address to a deputation of the City Council…the Minister of Foreign Affairs said that in the peace negotiations between the Central Powers and Romania, the Jewish question will be solved with equal rights being guaranteed to the Jews of Roumania.

    1918: One day after his death on the Western Front, a letter written by poet and painter Isaac Rosenberg which had been written three days earlier arrives in London. In the letter he describes life in the trenches.

    1919: Dr. Rudolph I Coffee delivered a speech on “Peace Treaty” at the Teachers Institute of Boone County “under the auspices of the Illinois Branch of the League to Enforce Peace.”

    1919: In Chicago, Lillian Mitnick and Abe Diaman of Kansas City, MO were married at the Ashland Clubhouse.

    1919: In Chicago, Blanche Mosbach, the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Isaac Mosbach married Maxwell Glassner at the family’s home on Michigan Avenue.

    1921: Professor Albert Einstein held a press conference aboard the steamship Rotterdam today in New York Harbor. During the conference Einstein talked about his Theory of Relativity and his support for the creation of a Jewish homeland in Palestine.

    1921:Rufus Daniel Isaacs, 1st Marquess of Reading, began serving as Viceroy and Governor-General of India.

    1923(16th of Nisan, 5653): Second Day of Pesach; 1st day of the Omer

    1922: “Two wagons left the corner of Lilienblum and Herzl Streets in Tel Aviv carrying 4 "Ahuza" members, 3 laborers and 2 armed watchmen. After a 5 hour journey, they unloaded their baggage at the place destined to become Ra'anana, a city in the heart of the southern Sharon Plain of the Central District of Israel with a population of 68,300, as of 2009.”

    1923(16thof Nisan, 5683): Second day of Pesach

    1925: According to a cable message that was made public today by Judge Jacob S. Stahl, President of the American Palestine Line steamship company, the SS President Arthur has arrived in Haifa. The liner with 500 prominent American Jews from all parts of the United States sailed on March 12 on her maiden voyage to inaugurate a regular service between New York and the Holy Land.

    1925: At “the groundbreaking ceremony of the Hebrew University on April 2, 1925 Edmund Landau lectured in Hebrew on the topic Solved and unsolved problems in elementary number theory.

    1925: The Vatucan’s Holy Office published a decree saying that the Catholic Church, whatever its other views on Jew maybe, “condemns hatred against the people elected by God, a hatred that today is vulgarly called anti-Semitism.” (For more see Under His Very Windows by Susan Zucotti)

    1926: “Gdal Saleski, the Russian violoncellist” “who is a graduate of the Petrograd Conservatory of Music” “gave a recital” this “evening at Steinway Hall” accompanied by violinist Yasha Fishberg and pianist Lazare Weiner.

    1926: It was reported today that according to the census taken by The Christian Herald “numbers the members of Jewish congregations at 357,135” but notes “that these are chiefly heads of families.

    1926: “The twentieth anniversary of the Palestine Maccabee Sport was celebrated in Tel Aviv” today where Lord Plumer distributed the prizes.

    1927: Samuel Untermyer arrived in Jerusalem after a “rough” flight from Cairo that included “a detour of thirty miles over the Mediterranean to avoid a sand storm.”

    1927: It was reported today that Aaron Sapiro who has been testifying in the libel suit he brought against Henry Ford will spend the weekend in Chicago on personal business before returning to the stand on Monday to continue answering questions from James A. Reed, the Senator from Missouri who is representing Henry Ford, the anti-Semitic car maker.

    1927: “Service for Jewish Patients” published today described the services available “to Jewish patients in all of the city hospitals on Welfare Island” including the presence of Jewish social workers who can help the Jewish patients “in a non-Jewish institution.”

    1928: Birthdate of actress Rita Gam who was the wife of director Sidney Lumet and publisher Thomas Guinzberg (not at the same time) and the mother of producer Kate Guinzburg

    1928: In Paris Olga (nee Bessman) and Joseph Ginsburg gave birth to Lucien Ginsburg who gained fame as Serge Gainsbourg, a poet, singer, songwriter, actor, director and finally controversial guest on French television talks shows.

    1929: The rabbinical commencement exercises of the Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary and Yeshiva College, the first in three years and the first in the new building of the institution, were held today. Dr. Bernard Revel delivered an address in which he warned of the dangers of “religious illiteracy and urged that synagogues become centers of faith. Among those receiving diplomas were forty-one newly minted rabbis and 45 teachers.”

    1930: Isaac Isaacs completes his service as Puisine Justice of the High Court of Australia and begins serving as the as Chief Justice of Australia.

    1930: Haile Selassie is proclaimed emperor of Ethiopia. Part of his title included the honorific “Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah” which is tied to the contention that the Ethiopian rulers traced their origin to a relationship between King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba. During World War II, Orde Wingate would aid the king in his fight against the Italians. This is the same Orde Wingate who was stationed in Palestine before World War II. He was one of the few British officers who was supportive of the efforts of the Jews to defend themselves against the Arab who were attacking them. Wingate reportedly provided training for the Zionists in basic military tactics and weapons usage.

    1931(15thof Nisan, 5691): Pesach

    1931: “The Street Song,” “a musical crime film” directed and produced by Lupu Pick was released in Germany today.

    1931: “The Cleveland Indians picked” Moe Berg up today when “Chicago put him on waivers.”

    1931: U.S. premiere of “Skippy” directed by Norman Taurog who won an Academy Award, with a script co-authored by Joseph L. Mankiewicz and Sam Mintz.

    1931: As Jews gathered to observe the second Passover of the Great Depression Rabbis focused their holiday talks on the worsening economic conditions of the day and the need for reform. Sermons mixed holiday motifs and symbolism with the rise in unemployment and deteriorating social conditions. Using the Ten Plagues as his point of departure Rabbi Rosenblum of Temple Israel “declared that the unsettled economic condition of the world was the greatest plague of our era and that the leaders of government and business were responsible for the chaos and misery. Capitalism seems to be a Pharaoh…If Pharaoh listens he will not suffer ten plagues. If he does not, the very first plague will yet come to pass. It will be a revolution and blood.” At Temple Rodeph Shalom, Rabbi Newman “said that Passover, the Jewish festival of freedom, commemorated the release of the Israelites not only from political bondage but economic enslavement as well.” Rabbi Samuel Schulman broadened the scope a bit by pointing out the “power of religion to free or enslave man and emphasizing that real freedom required economic freedom which would allow for just and equal opportunity for every individual to use his powers in accordance with his ability and to receive just rewards.” (Sounds a bit like Marx and Moses meeting on New York’s fashionable east side.) But it was left to Rabbi Jonah Wise preaching at New York’s Central Synagogue to pull all elements of religion including Christianity together with the great crisis facing the nation. “Men are trained by loyalties to country, church and self to refuse to share life with foreigners, non-conformists and competitors. We shall never have security and morality until we learn to live at peace. We are making occasional breaches in the Chinese wall of creeds, tariffs and prejudices. Passover and Easter are supposed to be feasts of freedom and salvation. They are farces in the face of humanity starved in the presence of plenty and condemned to hatreds in fact while applauding love in theory.”

    1933: “The Nazis Begin To Dodge Anti-Semitic Boomerang” published today examine the effects of the government’s boycott of Jewish stores in Germany.

    1934:Birthdate of Paul Joseph Cohen famed mathematician who developed a technique he called “forcing.” He won the Fields Medal in 1966.

    1935: In Tel Aviv, the second Maccabiah Games opened “before 40,000 spectators at the Maccabiah Stadium. The German contingent marched flagless amid the fluttering colors of the other teams entering the venue. The American team including Janice Lifson, Doris Kelm and Lillian Copeland, placed “fourth in the “Tel Aviv Prepares Its Greatest Fair” published today Joseph M. Levy describes plan for the upcoming Levant Fair slated to open at the end of this month.

    1936(10thof Nisan, 5696): Eighty year old Mrs. Ethel “Etta” Yaroshev Cutler, the native of Ukraine and wife of Isaac Cutler who was the mother of Colonel Harry Cutler, the Chairman of the Jewish Welfare Board who had passed away in 1920, passed away today after which she was buried in the Sons of David and Israel Cemetery in Providence, R.I.

    1936: Birthdate of Shaul Paul Ladany, the Professor of Industrial Engineering and Management at Ben Gurion University and two-time Olympian who survived Bergen-Belson and the 1972 Munich Massacre.

    1936: The “formal presentation of the 1935 American Hebrew Medal for the Promotion of Better Understanding between Christian and Jews in America” is scheduled to “be made to Roger Williams Straus” the co-chairman of the National Conference of Jews and Christians at ceremonies being held “in the auditorium of the College of the City of New York.”

    1936: The list of ten true or false questions that was created by a professor at the Rhode Island State College for a test that will demonstrate “the amount of scientific thinking done by the person taking the test included: “The Christian faith is the only true one” and “Any nation that persecutes the Jews, as Germany has done recently be totally uncivilized.”

    1936: “Edwin Goodman, president of Bergdorf-Goodman was named” tonight “as chairman of the dress division of the Greater New York Campaign of the Joint Distribution committee for the Aid of Jews in German, Central and Eastern” at a dinner at the Harmonie Club.

    1936: Rabbi Jonah B. Wise spoke to a dinner at the Metropolis Club, where “a group of members reported that they had raised $30,000” which will go toward meeting the $75,000 quota set by the Joint Distribution Committee.

    1937(21st of Nisan, 5697): Seventh day of Pesach

    1937(21st of Nisan, 5697): Nathan Birnbaum passed away. Born in Vienna in 1864, Birnbaum coined the terms Zionists and Zionism in 1890. He was active with Herzl in the First Zionist Congress. However, he later drifted away from the movement becoming more concerned with a renaissance in Jewish culture and traditional Judaism. He left Germany after Hitler came to power and moved to the Netherlands where he continued his writings.

    1937: In Warsaw, “the Minister of Education issued a decree today dissolving the militant ant-Semitic Nationalist students’ organizations in” universities in Warsaw and Vilna.

    1937: On the outskirts of Warsaw at Sokolow and Lukow, “all the Jewish market stands were smashed and many Jews were injured and driven from the marketplaces today by a stone-hurling mob.”

    1973: Twenty-five year old New York City native Edward Isaac Lending arrived in Spain where he would fight with the Lincoln Brigade against the fascist forces of Franco.

    1937: In Albania, the Jewish community was granted official recognition by the government. The largest Jewish populations were located in Kavaje and Vlora. Approximately, 600 Jews were living in Albania prior to World War II, 400 of who were refugees. At the beginning of World War II, hundreds of Jews arrived in Albania seeking refuge from Nazi persecution in other regions of Europe.

    1938(1stof Nisan, 5698): Rosh Chodesh Nisan and Shabbat HaChodesh

    1938(1stof Nisan, 5698): Moise Micha Sapir the fourth commander of the Botwin Company (named for Naftali Botwin, the Polish Jewish radical executed in 1924) was killed at Lerida today during the Spanish Civil War.

    1941: In what would prove to be a prelude to the Farhud in June, today “Rashid 'Ali al-Kailani, an anti-British nationalist politician from one of the leading families in Baghdad, carried out a military coup against the pro-British government in Iraq” which “was supported by four high-ranking army officers nicknamed the “Golden Square,” and by the former Mufti of Jerusalem, Hajj Amin al-Husayni.

    1941: Hungarian Premier Count Pál Telecki committed suicide rather than collaborate with Germany. This is only one small chapter in the complex story of Hungary’s involvement in World War II. For much of the war, Hungary’s Jewish population would remain comparatively untouched by the raging Holocaust. Only in the final year of the war would the final solution come to this eastern European state.

    1942: Birthdate of Larry Selman whose life would captured in documentary “The Collector of Bedford Street.” (As reported by Paul Vitello)

    1943:At the Thirty-eighth Council of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations, which opened its three-day meeting in the Hotel New Yorker today,speakers declared that only through the creation of an international structure of mutual responsibility will the world obtain a lasting post-war peace period.

    1943: “Flight for Freedom” based loosely on the disappearance of Amelia Earhart, directed by Lothar Mendes, one of the many refugees from Nazi Germany, was released today in the United States.

    1944: Today, 90 Jews who were captured by the Nazis at Chalcis, a port on the Greek island of Euboea are shipped to Auschwitz.

    1944: In Haifa, British police discovered a cache of arms belonging to the Stern Gang following a bombing which caused the death of a Jewish constable and wounded a British policeman.

    1944: At night, British authorities arrested more than sixty individuals many of whom were reported to be “members of the Jewish revisionist party known as the New Zionist Organization.”

    1945: In a letter to Chaim Weizmann, president of the Jewish Agency for Palestine, Peter Bergson provides a description of the efforts of the Hebrew Committee of National Liberation (H.C.N.L.) to save the Jews of Europe and create a Jewish state.

    1945: After more than three years of service, Laurence A. Steinhardt left his post as Ambassador to Turkey.

    1946: In Cleveland, Ohio, Mrs. Henry Gottdiener celebrated her 79thbirthday today.

    1948: U.S. premiere of “B.F.’s Daughter” produced by Edwin H. Knopf and filmed by cinematographer Joseph Ruttenberg.

    1948: British Forces arrive at the air field south of Beit Darass looking for arms that had been delivered to the Jews. They found nothing since the Jews had hidden the weapons in the surrounding collective settlements.

    1948: In response to Soviet order to restrict shipments of goods to Berlin by the Allies General Lucius Clay ordered that all supplies be sent by air marking the actual start of the Berlin Airlift. (Editor’s note – this entry serves as a reminder that the events surrounding the creation of Israel took place at the same time that Russia was pursuing a ruthless policy of imperialism across Europe.)

    1950(15th of Nisan, 5710): First Day of Pesach

    1952:The Jerusalem Post reported that the Knesset passed the Nationality Act which was expected to confer automatic Israeli citizenship on all Jewish residents, and some of the non-Jews, on July 14, 1952. The vote was 43 to 17. The Knesset defeated, by a vote of 25 to 16, a proposal made by Herut which would require all persons holding dual citizenship to give up one nationality within two years after becoming Israeli citizens.

    1952:The Jerusalem Post reported that a report from The Hague stated that the German delegation to the reparations talks left for Germany for further consultations. The Israeli delegation denied that there was any "crisis" in the talks and explained that the preliminary, informative stage of deliberations drew to a close, and a formula for further talks had been agreed upon. The delegation hoped that this would allow for good progress in the further discussions and actual negotiations. A small letter bomb, containing 40 grams of modern explosives, was sent to the leader of the German reparations delegation at The Hague. It failed to explode when opened in the mail room of the German Embassy.

    1952:The Jerusalem Post reported that the IDF had completed "Operation Ma’barot," the winter-long assistance extended by various army units to new immigrants in their camps.

    1954: In Hong Kong, a Centenary Dinner was held celebrating the 100 anniversary of the founding of the Shanghai Volunteer Corps which from 1932 through 1942 included Company H or “The Jewish Company.”

    1955: Today, “six weeks after being sacked from a managerial position at AC Mila,” Hungarian born Jewish “soccer legend” Bela Guttman “lost control of a car he was driving, killing one teenager and seriously injuring another.”

    1958: Release date for “The Young Lions,” the cinematic treatment of Irwin Shaw’s novel of the same named produced by Al Lichtman one of the main protagonist of which is “Noah Ackerman”

    1961(16thof Nisan, 5721): Second Day of Pesach

    1961: ABC broadcast the first episode of “The Asphalt Jungle” created and produced by Mel Epstein.

    1961: It was reported today that Cincinnati industrialist Julian A. Pollack is survived by his second wife, Gertrude, “a daughter, Mrs. Morton A. Rauh of Yellow Springs, Ohio and two sons, David Pollack of Cincinnati and Julian Jr. Pollack of Arlington, VA.

    1962:Frieda Caplan opened her specialty produce company, Frieda's Inc., which has introduced a wide array of exotic produce to the American market.

    1965(29thof Adar II, 5725): Eighty-three year old Hebrew Union College graduate Dr. Abraham Cronbach, the son of Marcus and Hanna Itzig and husband of Rose Hentil who began his rabbinical career at the Reform congregation of Temple Beth Elin South Bend, Indiana” passed away today.

    1965: Birthdate of Rachel Freier, the daughter of Chasidic Jews from Borough Park and the wife of David Frier who when she “was elected as a Civil Court judge for the Kings County 5th judicial district in New York State” became the first Hasidic Jewish woman to be elected as a civil court judge in New York State and the “first Hasidic woman to hold public officein United States history.”

    1965: Hochhuth’s play "Stellvertreter" was banned in Italy. In English, the play is called "The Deputy." It was a sensation at the time for its dramatic portrayal of the negative role Pope Pious XII played during the Holocaust in terms of saving the Jews from the Holocaust and resisting the Nazis.

    1970: An Israeli Phantom jet piloted by Pini Nahmani was shot down over a Damascus suburb. Nahmani was imprisoned in the al-Mazza Prison in Damascus.

    1972(18thof Nisan, 5732): Fourth Day of Pesach

    1972(18thof Nisan, 5732): Sixty-two year old Chemistry Professor and patent holder Dr. David Perlman passed away today.

    1972: Actor Charlie Chaplin returned to the United States for the first time since being labeled a communist in the early 1950s during the Red Scare.

    1973(29thof Adar II, 5733): Seventy-four year old Jascha Horenstein, a native of Kiev who became a leading American conductor passed away today.

    1974: Tonight, at the 46th annual Academy Awards, Marvin Hamlisch won three Oscars “including Best Song and Best Dramatic Score for The Way We Were along with the award for Best Song Score and/or Adaptation for The Sting.”

    1977: “The Ascent” a Russian film set in WW II with music by Alfred Schnittke, the son of Frankfurt born journalist Harry Viktorovich Schnittke and grandson of “philologist and translator” Tea Abramovna Katz was released in the Soviet Union today.

    1978: CBS broadcast the first episode of “Dallas” a five-part mini-series created by David Jacobs that proved so popular it became a regular weekly show that lasted until May of 1991.

    1978: Birthdate of Nicholas Evan “Nick” Berg “the American freelance repairman” who was beheaded by Islamist terrorists in Iraq who were so proud of the act that they put the video on the internet.

    1979: Menachem Begin visited Cairo, Egypt. The historic visit followed the historic peace treaty that Begin and Sadat had signed. Begin was the first Israeli Prime Minister to visit Egypt.

    1981: “Seventy-five British academics signed a letter to Soviet Minister of Culture Petr Demichev protesting the repeated harassment of Hebrew teachers and students in the Soviet Union.”

    1981: “Anatoly Shcharansky, the Jewish Prisoner of Zion, who is serving a sentence in a Urals labor camp, informed his mother that in January 1981 he was sentenced to six months’ solitary confinement, and deprived of family visits in 1981.”

    1982: “Ivan Kovalev, 28, one of the last active members of the Helsinki Group of dissidents monitoring Soviet abuses of human rights, was sentenced by the Moscow City Court to five years in a labor camp followed by five years’ internal exile.”

    1982:Jewish militants opposing Israel's withdrawal from Sinai tried to reach the area by boat today after the army closed it to unauthorized civilians and set up roadblocks

    1987(3rd of Nisan, 5747): Famed drummer and orchestra leader Buddy Rich passed away at the age of 69. According to some sources, only Rich’s father was Jewish. However, on the official Buddy Rich Website, Rich’s religion is listed as Jewish

    1987:Theater of the Riverside Church offered a rare look at Israeli Experimentalist Theater and dance when it presented Tmu-Na today. The Tel-Aviv group, founded in 1982 by Nava Zukerman, takes its name from the Hebrew word for moving pictures.

    1988(15 of Nisan, 5748): Pesach

    1989(26th of Adar II, 5749): Jack Ruby Lindo whose tombstone in the Anglican cemetery in Ocho Rio has a “large six-pointed Star of David” passed away today.

    1992: Bernard Kouchner began serving as Minister of Health of France.

    1992: Jack Lang completed his second term as Culture Minister of France.

    1993: “The Crush” directed and written by Alan Shapiro and starring Alicia Silverstone was released in the United States today.

    1993: “Jack The Bear” a film based on the novel of the same name directed by Marshall Herskovitz was released today in the United States.

    1993: “Cop and a Half” a comedy directed by Henry Winkler was released in the United States today.

    1993: CBS broadcast the first episode of “Good Advice” a sitcom with scripts co-authored by Max Mutchnick.

    1995: Two members of Hamas blew themselves up in Gaza City while preparing for an attack on Israel.

    1995: In “Central Synagogue; A $500,000 Restoration of an 1872 Masterwork,” published today Christopher Gray traces the history of Central Synagogue, one of the most spectacular houses of worship in New York City, is a rare surviving example of early Victorian religious architecture. Construction sheds are now going up for a $500,000 restoration of the building's 1872 stone exterior. Central Synagogue, which was originally called Ahawath Chesed, was founded in 1846 by immigrants from Prague and the nearby regions of what was then Bohemia.

    1996: “The Dreyfus Affair” is scheduled to have its American premiere at the New York City Opera this evening.

    1997(24thof Adar II, 5757): Forty-nine year old Hedi Kravis, the Brooklyn born daughter of psychiatrist Bernard Shulman, the first wife Henry Kravis, passed away today. (As reported by Lawrence Van Gelder)

    1998:”Israel Offers Pullout if Lebanon Bars Raids” published today described the conditions under which Israel will leave its neighbor to the north.

    2000:The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or special interest to Jewish readers including “I Will Bear Witness:A Diary of the Nazi Years, 1942-1945by Victor Klemperer; translated by Martin Chalmers and the recently released paperback edition of “Playing for Keeps:Michael Jordan and the World He Made”by David Halberstam

    2000:Columbia University and the Jewish Campus Life Fund celebrates the dedication and cornerstone-laying, of the Robert K. Kraft Family Center for Jewish Student Life, a new $11.5 million building that fulfills the long-held goal of creating a permanent home for Columbia's vibrant and diverse Jewish student community. The building is named for the family of Robert K. Kraft, a 1963 graduate of Columbia College and University Trustee since 1991. His lead gift in 1993 launched the building campaign for the Center.

    2001: Scott Schoeneweis was awarded the honor of being the Angels' opening day starter today (his first such assignment) and he pitched effectively, yielding 3 runs and 8 hits in 7 innings; but Anaheim lost to Texas, 3-2.

    2001: Pitcher Tony Cogan played in his first major league game as a player with the Kansas City Royals.

    2002: As part of Operation Defensive Shield, the IDF entered the booby-trapped camp at Jenin and ”surrounded the headquarters of the Preventive Security Force in nearby Beitunia.”

    2002: Israeli forces surrounded the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem after 200 Palestinian terrorists took refuge inside. Instead of storming the church, the IDF surrounded the building a laid siege to the armed killers.

    2002: Frieda Caplan's specialty produce company, Frieda's Inc., which has introduced a wide array of exotic produce to the American market, celebrated forty years in business.

    2003: Milwaukee Brewers Pitcher Matt Ford appears in his first major league baseball game.

    2004: “Home on the Range” an animated musical western featuring the voice or Roseanne Barr was released in the United States today.

    2005: Pope John Paul II, “the Polish Pope” whose efforts to improve relations with the Jewish people included the first Papal visits to Auschwitz, a synagogue and Yad Vashem as well as his decision to recognize  the state of Israel and serving as host of “The Papal Concert to Commemorate the Holocasut” passed away today.

    2005: The Cedar Rapids Gazette reported that “the search for a new rabbi for Temple Judah has ended with the hiring of Rabbi Aaron Sherman.” Rabbi Sherman and his wife Stephanie Alexander recently purchased a home in Cedar Rapids. A graduate of Brown University, Rabbi Sherman has a Masters in Hebrew Letters and was ordained at the Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion in 2000.

    2006: At about 1 am today “a man at a party in Hollywood, a man argued with Paula Abdul grabbed by the arm and threw her against the wall” resulting “in a concussion and spinal injuries.”

    2006: Jaclyn Leibson Mintz, daughter of Dale Mintz, the national director of women’s health and advocacy for Hadassah and editor of “The Hadassah Jewish Family Book of Health and Wellness” and Stephen A. Mintz were married in a ceremony officiated at by Rabbi A. Rothman.

    2006: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including “Fair Trade For All: How Trade Can Promote Development” by Joseph E. Stiglitz and Andrew Charlton and the recently released paperback edition of “Incompleteness: The Proof and Paradox of Kurt Gödel by Rebecca Goldstein.”

    2007: “Nightrise” the third book in The Power of Five series, by Anthony Horowitz was released in the United Kingdom today.

    2007(14thof Nisan): Anniversary of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising on the Jewish calendar

    2007 (14th of Nisan): In the evening, Pesach begins with the first Seder.

    2007: The New Republic Magazine featured a review of George Konrad’s autobiography, “A Guest In My Own Country: A Hungarian Life.” Konrad, like the more famous Elie Weisel, survived the Holocaust in Hungary, but spent his adult life in the land where he had faced almost certain death.

    2007: Erev Pesach, Newsweek Magazine featured an article entitled “American Jews: The List—Choosing the Chosen” in which three American Jewish multi-millionaires list the top fifty rabbis in the United States. Following the criteria used by this trio, the Rabbis we read about Bnei Berak in the Haggadah would not have made the list.

    2007: Chicago real estate billionaire Sam Zell “has won the auction for the Tribune Co.” The 65 year old native of Highland Park, Illinois has bought the company whose holdings include the Chicago Tribune.

    2008: In Vancouver, B.C., the Vancouver Jewish Film Festival presents a screening of “Jewish Luck.” which was among the first Soviet Yiddish films to be released in the US during the 1920s. “Based on Sholem Aleichem's series of stories featuring the character Menakhem Mendl, “Jewish Luck” revolves around the daydreaming entrepreneur Menakhem Mendl who specializes in doomed strike-it-rich schemes.

    2008: The Hallmark Channel “Son of the Dragon” with a teleplay written by David Seidler “which helped to launch the cable channel.”

    2008: The Rosenbach Museum and Library received an official State Historical Marker by the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission in recognition of the lasting contributions of museum co-founder, Dr. A.S.W. Rosenbach.

    2009: Television financial personality and Harvard Law School graduate Jim Cramer has license to practice law suspended today “for failure to pay the registration fee” for the New York Bar.

    2009: Professor Amy-Jill Levine, of Vanderbilt University, delivers an address at Coe College in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, entitled “Misunderstanding Judaism/Misunderstanding Jesus.”

    2009: “The Teddy Bear was born in Bedford Stuyvesant” published today described the role of “Rose and Morris Michtom, two Russian Jewish immigrants who lived in Brooklyn” in creating this iconic American stuffed animal.

    2009(8th of Nisan, 5769): A terrorist infiltrated Bat Ayin in the Gush Etzion region of the West Bank and killed Shlomo Nativ, a 13-year-old Israeli boy, by striking him in the head with an axe. The terrorist also attacked a 7-year-old boy with the axe, hitting and wounding him in the head. He was taken to Hadassah Hospital in Jerusalem and is in moderate condition. Iran-backed Palestinian Islamic Jihad and an organization calling itself the Imad Mughniyeh Group claimed responsibility for the attack, although this has not been confirmed.

    2009: Today in an interview to the Radio Liberty Vitaly Lazarevich Ginzburg denounced the FSB as an institution harmful to Russia and the ongoing expansion of its authority as a return to Stalinism

    2010: Krista Tippe, host of American Public Media's Speaking of Faith and author of , Einstein's God: Conversations About Science and the Human Spirit, is scheduled to appear with Michel Martin, host of NPR's Tell Me More are scheduled , to get together for a dialogue about the role of faith in their lives at the Shakespeare Theatre Company's Sidney Harman Hall in Washington.

    2010: “Musical Shabbat” is scheduled to return to Friday Night Services at Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, Iowa.

    2011:Professor Yosef Shiloh, of Tel Aviv University's Sackler Medical School, the first Israeli to receive the prestigious Clowes Award presented by the American Association for Cancer Research is scheduled to be honored at the AACR Annual Meeting that opens today in Orlando, Florida. The prize includes a $10,000 grant, a commemorative plaque, and funding to attend this prestigious event.

    2011:Former Israel Olympian, Shaul Landry, a surviving member of the 1972 Munich delegation, is scheduled to celebrate his 75th birthday today by walking his age in kilometers.

    2011(27th of Adar II, 5771): Ninety-two year old Morris Parloff, a member of the "Ritchie Boys," a German-speaking unit of the U.S. Army that did intelligence work and psychological warfare in World War II, and who later became a psychotherapist, researcher and an administrator at the National Institute of Mental Health, passed away today. Parloff was among the surviving members of the Ritchie Boys featured in a 2004 documentary.

    2011(27thof Adar II, 5771): In Cedar Rapids, Iowa, the Traditional Saturday Morning Minyan celebrated Shabbat Ha-Chodesh.

    2011(27thof Adar): Yahrzeit of Zedekiah “the last king of the royal house of David to reign in the Holy Land. He ascended the throne in 434 BCE, after King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylonia (to whom the kingdom of Judah was then subject) exiled King Jeconiah (Zedekiah's nephew) to Babylonia.In 425 BCE Zedekiah rebelled against Babylonian rule, and Nebuchadnezzar laid siege to Jerusalem (in Tevet 10 of that year); in the summer of 423 BCE the walls of Jerusalem were penetrated, the city conquered, the (first) Holy Temple destroyed, and the people of Judah exiled to Babylonia. Zedekiah tried escaping through a tunnel leading out of the city, but was captured; his sons were killed before his eyes, and then he was blinded. Zedekiah languished in the royal dungeon in Babylonia until Nebuchadnezzar's death in 397 BCE; Evil Meroduch -- Nebuchadnezzar's son and successor -- freed him (and his nephew Jeconiah)” today. Ironically, Zedikiah died on the same day on which he was freed.

    2011: “The Matchmaker” is scheduled to be shown at the West Chester Jewish Film Festival.

    2011:Early this morning, in the southern town of Khan Yunis, IAF aircraft bombed a car carrying four senior Hamas operatives who, according to Israel, were on their way to Sinai with plans to kidnap or attack Israelis vacationing on the peninsula.

    2011: The Israeli Counter-Terror Bureau urged Israelis today to leave the Sinai Peninsula immediately, after revealing that Israeli intelligence agencies had obtained concrete information of plans by terrorists to kidnap or attack Israeli nationals vacationing there over the upcoming Pesach holiday. The bureau said that some terrorists were already in the Sinai.Israel is also concerned about reports of the Egyptian police abandoning Sinai in the face of growing Beduin violence and the territory turning into a breeding ground for Global Jihad. The Counter-Terror Bureau noted today that the terror cell planning the attacks against Israelis in Sinai was using local Beduin to help carry out the attacks.

    2011:Naama Shafir, a Sabbath-observing Israeli, scored a career-high 40 points to power the University of Toledo women's basketball team to the school's first national postseason championship in any sport. Shafir hit 13 of 27 shots as the host Rockets defeated the University of Southern California, 76-68 today for the Women's NIT title. The victory also marked the first women's national championship for a Mid-American Conference team in any sport. Shafir, a 5-7 junior guard from the small northern Israeli town of Hoshaya, also sank 13 of 18 free throws in the game. Following the victory on Saturday afternoon, Shafir walked home and held off interviews until long after the conclusion of Shabbat. Shafir is believed to be the first female Orthodox Jew to be awarded a Division I athletic scholarship. She led the Rockets this season with averages of 15.3 points and 5 assists per game. She had been courted by Boston University and Seton Hall before enrolling at Toledo. Getting the OK to play in the United States was no easy layup: Shafir obtained permission from an Orthodox rabbi in Israel to play games that coincided with the Jewish Sabbath, but not to practice, according to The Associated Press. Other special measures have been enacted to accommodate Shafir’s Sabbath observance: For road games, she checks into a hotel within walking distance of the host arena with a coaching staff assistant, bringing with her frozen kosher meals from Detroit. (As reported by JTA)

    2012(11th of Nisan, 5772): Ninety-seven year old “Mauricio Lasansky, an Argentine-born master printmaker who was equally well known for a series of drawings depicting the horrors of Nazism” passed away today at his home in Iowa City, Iowa. (As reported by Margalit Fox)

    2012(11th of Nisan, 5772): Ninety-year old Borscht Belt tumbler Lou Goldstein passed away today. (As reported by Joseph Berger)

    2012:Hillel C. Neuer and Bari Weiss are scheduled to discuss “From Eleanor Roosevelt to Qaddafi: An Insider's Account of Human Rights at the UN” at the 92nd Street Y.

    2012: “Kosher deli in England a Titanic survivor’s legacy” published today tells the story of restaurant started almost a century ago by a Jewish survivor of the aquatic disaster.

    2013(22nd of Nisan, 5773): Final Day of Pesach

    2013: Elem, a non-profit organization for runaway homeless and neglected Israeli and Arab youth in distress is scheduled to host an evening of dinner and drinks to support Israeli Jewish and Arab Youth at Risk prepared by some of New York’s finest chefs.

    2013: Defense Minister Moshe Ya'alon toured the Golan Heights this afternoon, and vowed that Israel would prevent the proliferation of weapons "that could threaten us in the future" to radical elements in Syria

    2013:Israel launched its first airstrike on the Gaza Strip today since the Egyptian-mediated truce ended November’s eight-day bout of fighting. The airstrike came in response to the firing of a projectile from Gaza, which had exploded in an open area of southern Israel’s Eshkol region.  Israel had not responded to a previous attack that came while President Obama was visiting the region in March.

    2013: As of today Supercentenarian Evelyn Kozak became “the seventh oldest person living in the world” an honor she held until her death in June of 2013.

    2014: The Jewish Theological Seminary is scheduled to present “Mah Nishtanah: Posing New Questions, Telling New Stories – An evening of inspiring Passover learning.”

    2014: The Oregon Jewish Museum is scheduled to host “Chai Fantasy” – a panel discussion about fantasy literature and Judaism.

    2014(2ndof Nisan, 5774) Ninety-four year old David Werdyger, the Chasidic Chazan and Holocaust survivor passed away today.

    2014(2ndof Nisan, 5774): Seventy eight year old pianist and critic Harris Goldsmith passed away today. (As reported by Vivien Schweitzer)

    2014(2ndof Nisan, 5774): Seventy-eight year old Sandy “Grossman, who won eight Emmys, directed broadcasts of 10 Super Bowls, 18 N.B.A. finals, 5 Stanley Cup finals and Olympic hockey” passed away today.

    2014: Pierre Moscovici completed his service as Minister of Finance for France.

    2015: Alex Schiffman Shilo is scheduled to speak today the “First Person 2015 Series” sponsored by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.

    2015: WQXR is scheduled to broadcast “A Musical Fest for Passover with Itzhak Perlman.

    2015: “At a White House news conference today, President Barack Obama said that the United States and the five other world powers negotiating in Switzerland had reached a “historic understanding with Iran” on a deal that, if fully implemented, would prevent Iran from acquiring nuclear weapons.” (As reported by JTA)

    2016(23rdof Adar II, 5776): Shabbat Parah

    2016: At Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, celebration of the B'nei Mitzvah of Kate Hinz and Ben Binder is scheduled to take place this morning.

    2016: “Firebirds” is scheduled to be shown at the Israeli Film Festival in Philadelphia, PA.

    2016: The new Nadav Remez Quintet is scheduled to perform for the first time at Rockwood Music Hall

    2017: “On the Map” a film about “the Maccabi Tel Aviv basketball team's historic win” is scheduled to be shown on the final day of the Seattle Jewish Film Festival.

    2017: “A new Israeli system designed to intercept medium-range missiles became operational today after it was unveiled at a ceremony attended by Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and US defense officials.” (As reported by Tama Pileggi and Stuart Winer)

    2017: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Casey Stengel: Baseball’s Greatest Character by Marty Appel and Blitzed:Drugs in the Third Reich by Norman Ohler

    2017: As part of Spring Break, the Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center is scheduled to let “kids and students” enter without an admission charge.

    2018(17th of Nisan, 5778): Third Day of Pesach, first day of Chol Hamoed; second day of the Omer

    2018: In Jerusalem, the Tower of David is scheduled to host a performance of “The Riddle of the Queen of Sheba.”

    2018: In Jerusalem, the Begin Center is scheduled to host “Map and Matza”



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    April 3

    309 B.C.E.: Traditional date for the start of the Seleucid Dynasty. The Seleucid dynasty was one of the dynasties founded after the death of Alexander the Great. Its territory included Syria and Babylonia. In 198 B.C.E. the Seleucids took control of Palestine from the Egyptian based Ptolemy dynasty. This change in dynastic role would lead to the uprising thirty years later that we celebrate as part of the Chanukah Story.

    33: According to some scholars, the actual date when a Jewish carpenter was crucified by the Romans for inciting rebellion. 

    1287: Honorius IV, the Pope who played a key role in the expulsion of the Jews from England passed away. “In November 1286 Pope Honorius wrote to the Archbishops of Canterbury and York, reaffirming the decision of the Lateran Councils. He enlarged on the evils of relations between Christians and Jews and warned of the pernicious consequences of the study of the Jews' Talmud. The King joined in the dialogue and condemnation by reviving the crimes of ritual murder. Jewish writers use the word "allegation" with regard to ritual murder with boring regularity.”

    1473: Sixty-three year Italian noble man Alessandro Sforza, the patron of “Jewish Italian dancer and dancing master Guglielmo Ebreo da Pesaro” who converted to Roman Catholicism under his influence passed away today.

    1544: Charles V, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire confirmed the privileges of Austrian Jews. The Emperor was anti-Jewish and a persecutor of the Marranos. But he was convinced by Josel of Rosheim to condemn the accusations of ritual murder. The fate of Jews under Charles appeared to have been a matter of geography. In 1541 he expelled the Jews from Naples and Flanders he instituted the Inquisition in Portugal in 1543. But in his Germanic holdings, Charles found the Jews to be useful and confirmed their rights in Augsburg, Speyer and Regensburg as well as Austria. As we will see when we study the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation, Charles treatment of the Jews must be viewed in terms of the clash between the Catholics and the Protestants and not just in terms of Jews versus Christians.

    1546(21st of Nisan, 5306): “Rabbi Jacob Berab, leader of a movement to restore the ancient rite of semichah died today at the age of seventy-two.” (As reported by Abraham Bloch)

    1637(9th of Nisan): Rabbi Joseph ben Phinnehas Haan of Cracow author of Yosef Ometz passed away today.

    1637(9th of Nisan): Rabbi Yosef Hahn, author of “Yosef Ometz”, passed away.

    1673(17th of Nisan): Rabbi Reuben Hoeshke Katz of Prague passed away

    1681(15th of Nisan): Rabbi Abraham Kalmansk of Lemberg, author of “Eshel Avraham” passed away

    1714: Italian rabbi David ben Solomon Altaras the author of a Hebrew grammar and editor of daily prayer book passed away today in Venice.

    1722: In New York City, Abraham Pinto and his wife gave birth to Rachel Pinto “one of the chief benefactors of Polonies Talmud Torah at Congregation Shearith Israel.”

    1751: Twenty-seven year old Hannah Levy, the daughter of Moses Raphael Levy and Grace Mears passed away today.

    1764: Meyer Hard, one of the founders of Easton, PA took the oath of allegiance to the colonial government today

    1787: In Portsmouth, UK, Bohemia native Solomon Lyon and Rachel Hart gave birth to Isaac Leo Lyon today.

    1790(19th of Nisan, 5550): Ephraim Moses Kuh, the nephew of Veitel Ephraim, Frederick the Great’s jeweler, whose poetry “vividly expresses his patriotism and his reverence for Frederick the Great; but also expresses his resentment at the bad treatment of Jews in Germany and scorn at his own and others' failures and weaknesses” passed away today in his hometown of Breslau.

    1818: In Silesia, Schiee Jaffé and his wife gave birth to Samuel Jaffé

    1823: Birthdate of Galicia native Solomon Rubin, the rabbi whose attraction for the Haskalah movement led him to become a school principle and tutor as well as “a prolific author ‘ who produced more than twenty-five works including “a Hebrew translation of Spinoza’s ‘Ethics’” which is considered to be his “most important contribution to Neo-Hebrew literature.”  

    1825(16th of Nisan, 5585): Second Day of Pesach; first day of the Omer

    1834: Nathan Baeck, a Rabbi in Kromau, Moravia and his wife gave birth to Rabbi Samuel Baeck the father of Leo Baeck.

    1844: A newspaper report states that a census was conducted at Constantinople and there were 900,000 people living in the city including 100,000 Jews.

    1847(17th of Nisan, 5607): Shabbat Shel Pesach; Third Day of Pesach

    1847(17th of Nisan, 5607): Sixty-four year old Tobias Asser died in his native Amsterdam today.

    1857: Löw Schwab, the rabbi at Budapest passed away today and would ultimately be replaced by Dr. W. Alois Meisel.

    1863(14th of Nisan, 5623): Fast of the First Born and Erev Pesach

    1866(18th of Nisan, 5626): Fourth Day of Pesach

    1870:Fifty-one year old Philipp Jaffé, “one of the most important German medievalists of the 19th century” who “was appointed assistant professor of history at Humboldt University of Berlin” in 1862 and who converted to Christianity in 1868 passed away today.

    1870: “Reformed Judaism: Advanced ideas in the Ancient Religion--Doctrines and Tenets of the Reformers--The New Temples in Brooklyn” published today reports on the growth of the Reform movement. It describes the activities of New York’s well-established Temple Emanuel including its purchase of the cemetery at Cypress Hill as well as the birth of Temple Israel, Brooklyn’s first Reform congregation. The Temple is led by Raphael Lewin who had served as Rabbi for the Reform Temple in Savannah, Georgia. The article also discusses the doctrines of Reform Judaism based on Lewin’s book, “What is Judaism; Or a Few Words to the Jews.

    1871: The New York Times reported that “the Jewish people of Newark are preparing for the celebration of the Feast of Passover, which begins on the 6th of April and last eight days It is calculated that during the feast more than 15,000 pounds of unleavened bread will be consumed.”

    1873(6th of Nisan, 5633): Lewin Aron (`Libesch') Pinner passed away today.

    1878: Irish-American playwright James A. Herne whose first successful play, “Hearts of Oaks” was written with and produced by David Belasco married Katherine Corcoran today.

    1880(22nd of Nisan, 5640: 8th day of Pesach

    1880: Birthdate of Austrian philosopher and author Otto Weininger

    1882(14th of Nisan, 5642): The New York Times reported that “the Jewish festival of ‘Pesach,’ or the Passover, commences at sundown this evening and will continue for eight days…The festival was instituted to commemorate the miraculous deliverance of the Children of Israel from the bondage to which they had been subjected in Egypt.”

    1884(8th of Nisan, 5644): Less than a month before his 72nd birthday Ignaz Karunda, the son and grandson of Czech second-hand book dealers who became a successful writer and Austrian parliamentarian passed away today in Vienna.

    1884: German painter Gustave Karl Ludwig Richter whose works included a portrait of his wife Cornelie Meyerbeer, daughter of composer Giacomo Meyerbeer and their son passed away.

    1890: It was reported today that “Count Dleianoff, Minister of Public Instruction, has refused to receive the petition recently prepared by” university students “asking for…the unrestricted admission of Jews.”

    1890(13th of Nisan): Aron Arnaud, chief rabbi of Strasbourg, Alsace, author of “Prieres d’un Coeur Israelite passed away”

    1890: In Bavaria Karoline and Leopold (Lehmann) Schloss gave birth to Isidor Schloss

    1890(13th of Nisan, 5650): Eighty-thee year Arnaud Aron, the Grand Rabbi of Strasbourg, passed away today. (According to some sources he was born in March and not May which means he would have been 82.  I have not been able to resolve the dispute)

    1890(13th of Nisan, 5650): On the day before Jews are scheduled sit down to their Seders on the first night of Passover, hundreds of people received free meat today thanks to the generosity of Mrs. Paulina Rosendorff. While most of the recipients were poor Polish Jews, several poor gentiles also lined up to get the free meat. Mrs. Rosendorff said she did not care because poverty knows no religious boundaries.

    1892: Birthdate of Frantisek Klein who was transported from Prague in 1942 to Ujazdow where he was murdered.

    1892: It was reported today that while Jewish refugees have been prevented from crossing the border between Russia and German, 5,000 Russian Christians have been allowed to cross into Germany in the last two weeks.

    1892: It was reported today that there “there is a growing belief that” Russian Jewish exiles are not “desirable as immigrants” to United States because “many of the immigrants have been shown to accept a permanent state of dependence and pauperism as a consequence of the immediate relief and help that were…extended to them.” (Editor’s Note – For those following the immigration debate in the United States, these comments have an eerily familiar ring; the only change is in the name of the immigrant group)

    1892: It was reported today that “the opinion of Baron Hirsch that the proportion of the Hebrew population of the United States was already as great as was desirable will be shared by most thoughtful Americans, Hebrews or otherwise.  In truth the only solution of the problem raised by the persecution of the Russian Jews is that of Baron Hirsch of a Hebrew colony which might ultimately become a Hebrew state.

    1893(17th of Nisan, 5653): Third Day of Pesach

    1893: In Forest Hill, London, Lilian Blumberg and Ferdinand Steiner gave birth to Leslie Howard Steiner, who gained fame as actor Leslie Howard. Yes, the blue-eyed blond who played the quintessential Southern gentlemen Ashley Wilkes in Gone With the Wind was Jewish. Lelies Steinner was born in England, the son of a Hungarian Jewish father, Ferdinand Steiner, and Lilian Blumberg daughter of a barrister named Charles Blumberg. The middle class Blumbergs did not approve of the marriage. However, they mellowed after the birth of young Leslie who was an officer in the cavalry during World War I. After the war, Steiner, now Howard built a career on the stage and later in films. He changed his name to avoid ant-Semitism, a not uncommon need among theatrical people of the time. Howard's death in June of 1943 is still shrouded in mystery. German fighters shot down the civilian plane, which was carrying him from neutral Portugal back to England. According to some, Howard was a British spy and the target of the attack. The mystery may be solved until 2025 when papers concerning the matter will finally be declassified

    1895: In Albany, state Senator Wolf introduced a bill “empowering the Hebrew Benevolent Orphan Asylum Society of the City of New York to convey certain property transferred to the society by the city.”

    1896: Among the institutions named to receive bequests from the late Charles S. Friedlander are Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews, $1,600; Society of Shevet Juda, $600; Hospital of Beth Israel, $600; Mount Sinai Hospital, $600; Hebrew Technical Institute, $600; Ladies Deborah Nursery Sanitarium for Hebrew Children, $600; Montefiore Home for Chronic Invalids, $600 and the Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum, $600.

    1896: In describing the virtues of Rabbi Aaron Wise who was buried yesterday, Rabbi Gustav Gottheil said “The spirit of his words cannot die.  The influence of the teacher has no limits as to time or space.”

    1897: It was said today that Jewish philanthropist and Republican politician Edward Lauterbach “would have been pleased if Colonel George Bliss had been selected by the Governor” to serve as a member of the State Board of Charities.

    1897: Rabbi Rudolph Grossman of Temple Beth-El delivered an address on ‘The Talmud’ “at a meeting of the Alumni Association of the Hebrew Technical Institute.”

    1898: Birthdate of George Jessel, the self- proclaimed toastmaster general. Jessel gained early fame as the star in the Broadway production of the Jazz Singer. The movie version was the first talking motion picture but it starred Al Jolson. As he aged and survived his contemporaries, Jessel became famous for his eulogies. During the Viet Nam War, he "wrapped himself in the flag" going so far as to equate the New York Times with Pravda and provoking the normally mild-mannered Ed Neuman to literally pull the plug on an interview on a live broadcast. Jessel died in 1981.

    1898: Birthdate of Harry Ferman, the native of Ukraine who came to Canada in 1912 where he worked as a farmer and retail trader before joining the Jewish Legion in 1918.

    1898: The New York Times published a lengthy, laudatory article about Rabbi Isaac Meyer Wise on the 90th anniversary of his birth.

    1899: It was reported today that Jesse Lewisohn had presented a check for one thousand dollars to the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society Asylum in memory of his late brother Samuel.

    1899: “Judaism and Christianity” published today contain the views of Dr. John Hall on the relationship of these two faiths including that “it would be almost impossible for us to understand” the Epistle to the Hebrews” unless we had the books of Leviticus to refer to.”

    1899: “The third of the series of model lessons conducted by Isaac C. Noot, Principal of the Hebrew Schools of New York will be held this afternoon in the vestry of Temple Beth-El.”

    1900: Birthdate of Shelomo Dov Goitein, “a German-Jewish ethnographer, historian and Arabist known for his research on Jewish life in the Islamic Middle Ages.

    1903: Seventy-five year old Hebrew grammarian Moses Ha-koen Reicherson who came to the United States from Wilna in the 1890’s passed away today.

    1903(6th of Nisan, 5663): Seventy-five year old Moses Ha-Kohen Reicherson, the Polish born Hebrew grammarian and teacher who moved to New York in 1890 passed away today leaving behind a number of unpublished works including commentaries on the Pentateuch, on the books of Samuel, Kings, Isaiah, Ezekiel, the Twelve Prophets, Psalms, Job, and Proverbs; and a prayer-book, "Tefillah le-Mosheh."

    1904(18th of Nisan, 5664): Fourth Day of Pesach

    1904: A thirteen-year-old Jewish girl and her mother arrived at the White House with a supply of Matzoth. While her mother waited in anteroom, the young girl went into the President’s office and presented the unleavened bread to a thankful Theodore Roosevelt. The President thanked the girl for the gift and complimented her on her tact and courtesy.

    1905(27th of Adar II, 5665): Seventy-four year old Levi Spiegelberg, the native of Prussia and husband of Bertha Spiegelberg passed away today in New York City.

    1906: Today, in the House of Lords, “Lord Northbourne asked the Government if would lay on the table any consular or other reports concerning the anti-Jewish outrages in Russia” because “he said that the publication of such reports might indirectly have some effect inducing the Russian Government to do its best to remedy conditions that outraged the civilization of the 20thcentury.

    1906: Today, in the House of Lords, Lord Fitzmaurice, speaking on behalf of the Foreign Office said the Government could not grant Lord Northbourne’s request to make reports of anti-Semitic activities in Russia public “without committing a grave impropriety” and besides which “Great Britain could not interfere in the internal affairs of Russia.

    1906: At Algeciras, at the Conference on Moroccan Reforms, unanimous support was obtained for the resolution that U.S. Ambassador White had introduced “on behalf of the Jews in Morocco.”

    1907: Today,,Alois Grossman, the chairman of the Committee on Synagogue Music of the Central Conference of American Rabbis addressed a letter to the individual members of the committee – Rudoph Grossman, I.L. Leucht, I.S. Moses, J.L. Magnes, William Loewenberg, A.M. Radin and Nathan Stern – on the issue of the role of traditional music in Reform services which elicited responses all of which were favorable to “the employment of more traditional music in the reform service” with one respondent going so far as to say “I hate church music in the synagogue” while another said that “I am heartily in favor of traditional music…”

    1907: Birthdate of Isaac Deutscher, the native of Galicia who left Poland in 1939 to work as newspaper in London and who wrote biographies of Trotsky and Stalin.

    1910: The Ninth Quinquennial Convention of the Independent Order of B’nai B’rith took place at Washington, D.C.

    1912: Birthdate of Willie Rubenstein, who in 1934 led the undefeated NYU Violets to victory over the undefeated CCNY Lavenders.

    1914: Henry Berlin, Chairman of the Arrangements Committee for the Passover celebrations to be held in this city under the auspices of the Jewish Soldiers and Sailors Passover Committee, reported today that with Capt. Lewis Landes of the committee he had called on Commander Moses of the United States battleship Texas and Commander Jackson of the United States battleship North Dakota. They extended invitations to attend the Passover dinner at Tuexedo Hall on April following the regular Passover services. The commanders of the two battleships promised to lend their aid in making the celebrations a success.

    1915(19th of Nisan, 5675): Shabbat Shel Pesach; Fifth Day of Passover

    1915(19th of Nisan, 5675): Sixty-two year old I.L. Peretz the failed whiskey distiller who became a leading poet, playwright and author passed away today in Warsaw.

    1915: Birthdate of Paul Claude Marie Touvier the French collaborator whose crimes included murdering seven Jewish hostages near Lyon.

    1916: The bazaar and fair sponsored by the People’s Relief Committee for the Jews suffering in the war zone which is being held at the Grand Central Palace is scheduled to come to an end today.

    1916: Birthdate of Ralph Glasser the Scottish psychologist, economist, advisor to developing countries and author of an autobiographical trilogy

    1917: Louis Marshall was reported to have said that the cable message from Baron Gunzburg confirmed that all of the restrictions that have been placed on the Jews “are to be repealed with the result that full, equal rights will be guaranteed to the Jews of Russia.”

    1918(21st of Nisan, 5678): Seventh Day of Pesach; Final Day of the holiday for Reform Jews

    1918: “In view of the Government’s suspension of wheatless regulations in is relation to the consumption of matzoths during the Passover season, Rabbi Isaac Landman of Temple Israel of Far Rockaway suggested that the Jews” of the United States “make up for the amount of wheat which they consumed in their matzoth during the festival season by imposing a ‘wheatless week’ upon themselves.”

    1920(15th of Nisan, 5680): First Pesach of “the roaring twenties”

    1921: Birthdate of David Arguete, the native of Aydin, Turkey who gained fame as Turkish “composer, lyricist and guitarist” Dario Moreno who was buried in Holon, Israel when he died suddenly in December, 1968.

    1922: Joseph Stalin became the first General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Stalin’s anti-Semitism would prove to be stronger than his sense of brotherhood for his fellow Socialist brethren. From his attacks on Trotsky to the Doctors’ Plot that came at the end of his life, Stalin displayed an attitude towards the Jewish people that would have made the Czars proud.

    1924: Birthdate of Marlon Brando. See below for Louis Kemp’s account of attending a Seder with the great American method actor.

    1925: In Nuremberg, a member of a minor German political group, Julius Streicher, gave a speech calling for the annihilation of the Jews. Eight years leader he would join his mentor Adolf Hitler in making this seeming empty threat a reality.

    1926:Rufus Daniel Isaacs, 1st Marquess of Reading, completed his service as the Viceroy and Governor-General of India.

    1927: At the Free Synagogue meeting today in Carnegie Hall, Dr. Stephen S. Wise delivered a sermon on “The Jew In American Colleges in which he declared that “few institutions in existence today are more hostile toward the spirit of true American democracy than Greek letter fraternities and sororities” and that “no one thing has been so damaging to the morale of the young Jews as the mere raising of the quota system question at Harvard.”

    1927: “Plans for a conference of a representatives of the two million Orthodox Jews in the United States for form an organization to prevent reform Jewry from deciding Jewish religious matters…were discussed” today “by representatives of more than 200 0rthodox Congregations of Greater New York at the Central Jewish Institute.”

    1927: The new home for Temple of Israel of Washington Heights, a neo-Georgian synagogue at 560-66 West 185th Street, designed by Sommerfeld & Steckler that cost $400,000 was dedicated today.

    1927: “The Carousel of Death” a silent drama produced by Lothar Stark was released today in Germany.

    1932: Birthdate of Chicago native and noted American Architect Norman Jaffe.

    1930: Birthdate of Max Frankel the native of Gera, Germany who came to the United States in 1940 and became “one of America’s preeminent journalists. He worked for The New York Times for fifty years, rising from college correspondent to reporter, Washington bureau chief, editorial page editor, and ultimately executive editor 1986—1994. He won the Pulitzer Prize for his coverage of President Nixon’s trip to China in 1972 and is the author of a nationally bestselling memoir, “The Times of My Life and My Life with the Times.” He lives in New York City.

    1933: In the wake of the Reichstag Fire, Time published “Germany: Hitler Enabled.”

    Before Berlin's Kroll Opera House swarmed a crowd of young Nazis last week. "Give us the Enabling Act!" they chanted, "give us the Enabling Act or there will be another fire!" The Reichstag was meeting in the Opera House because the central hall of the Reichstag building had been gutted by incendiary fire, a fire that despite popular murmurings the Nazis have persistently blamed on Communists. Because of the fire every Communist deputy was in jail. So the young Nazis' cry was easily answered : The Reichstag passed the Enabling Act 441-94. Adolf Hitler became Dictator of Germany for four years to come. Socialists did not let the bill go through without one word of protest. Cried Deputy Otto Wels: "Take our liberty, take our lives, but leave us our honor! If you really want social reconstruction you would need no such law as this." In full Nazi uniform Chancellor Hitler popped from his seat, his little mustache twitching with excitement. "You're too late!" he roared. "We don't need you any longer in molding the fate of the nation!" Not a few U. S. editors, rapidly scanning the Enabling Act for early editions, headlined their stories END OF THE REPUBLIC. Well they might, for the Enabling Act contained the following provisions

    1) Emergency decrees no longer need be signed by President von Hindenburg. Chancellor Hitler will proclaim them on the authority of his own Cabinet.

    2) Emergency laws need the approval of neither the Reichstag nor the Reichsrat (Federal Council of States). The right of popular referendum on them, expressed in the Weimar Constitution, is specifically set aside.

    3) Treaties with foreign powers no longer need Reichstag or Reichsrat approval.

    4) The Cabinet can decree the annual budget and borrow money on its own authority.

    5) Any law proclaimed by the Chancellor may deviate from the Constitution, becomes effective 24 hours after its publication in the Federal Gazette.

    Since the rights of free speech, public assembly and inviolability of the home have long been suppressed, here was more power in the Chancellery than even Bismarck dreamed of, but careful investigation showed that canny old Paul von Hindenburg still held two aces up his detachable cuffs: The President still has power to dismiss any or all members of the Cabinet including Handsome Adolf himself. He still remains Commander-in-Chief of the Reichswehr, with sole power to proclaim martial law. The Reichswehr is not yet a Nazi organization. If told to turn Adolf Hitler out of office it could theoretically do so. Observers agreed that these two cards had been shoved up the President's sleeve by Vice Chancellor von Papen. At the week's end lean-jawed Lieut.-Colonel von Papen was fighting hard for yet another check on the Nazis: the vital post of Prussian Premier. He was holding his own at the week's end. Chancellor Hitler let it be known that the Premiership would not be definitely awarded for some time yet; possibly until after May 1. Before the vote on the Enabling Act, Chancellor Hitler read a declaration of policy to the Reichstag that was mild as buttermilk compared with his former utterances. There was the old insistence on "rooting out Communism to the last vestige" but on the other hand "the Government regards the question of monarchistic restoration as indiscussible at present." Germany was pledged to refrain from arming if other nations disarmed radically. Hitler welcomed the Mussolini-MacDonald peace projects. To the general surprise he announced that Germany "looks forward to friendly relations with Soviet Russia." Despite world protests over anti-Semitic outrages in Germany and boycott murmurings that offer grave threats to German commerce and industry (see below), German business seemed to approve the Nazi dictatorship last week. In Berlin tycoons of the Reichs Federation of Industry signed a manifesto promising the Government their fullest support. Led by chemical and brewing stocks, the Berlin Bourse continued a boom that had been three weeks under way carrying some stocks 300% to 400%, above their crisis lows.

    1933: Time magazine published “Prayers & Atrocities” which includes a description of the British reaction to the rise to power of the Nazis in Germany

    1934: In the Bronx, Benjamin and Esther Hanft gave birth to actress Helen Hanft, "the Ethel Merman of off-off Broadway"

    1935: At the Maccabiah in Tel Aviv, American Syd Koff finished first in the 60 meter dash and second in the broad jump. New York prize fighter Solly Hornstein won his first round test while A. Horowitz of South Africa won the 10,000 meter race.

    1936: “Support to the Greater New York campaign of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee was pledged by representatives of 200 Jewish women’s organizations have a membership of 100,000 in the five boroughs” of New York City “and Westchester at a breakfast meeting” today “at the home of Mrs. Roger W. Straus” where attendees heard from several speakers including Mrs. Milton Wyle, Mrs. David Goldfarb and Carl J. Austrian..

    1936: After almost a year of being on the air, the Blue Network and NBC broadcast the last of Al Pearce’s radio shows sponsored by Pepsodent Toothpaste.

    1936: Dr. Hjalmar Schact, the German Minister of Economics advanced the argument that “whether Germany devalues” its currency “or not, she would still have to maintain rigid control of capital movements because of the ’12,000,000,000 to 20,000,000,000 marks of Jewish capital that would otherwise strive to leave the country.”

    1937: According to a report received in New York today by Dr. Stephen S. Wise from the Jewish Agency for Palestine, “a total of 34,500 German Jews settled in Palestine during the four year period since” Hitler came to power.

    1937(22nd of Nisan): Author and folklorist Judah Loeb Cahan passed away.

    1938: Birthdate of Brooklyn native Joel Adelberg who as Jeff Barry wrote such “immortal” hits as "Do Wah Diddy Diddy", "Da Doo Ron Ron", "Then He Kissed Me", "Be My Baby", "Chapel of Love",  "River Deep - Mountain High", "Leader of the Pack" and "Sugar, Sugar"


    1939: Dr. Chaim Weizmann and David Ben Gurion were greeted by cheering crowds when they returned to Tel Aviv from the Palestine Conference that had been held in London. Of the negotiations, Weizmann told the crowd, “We did not return victors, but neither were we vanquished.”

    1939: In Brooklyn, Abraham and Mildred Gralnick gave birth to Jeffrey Charles Gralnick “a blunt, gravel-voiced television news executive who got his start in the days of the 15-minute, black-and-white evening newscast and went on to play leading roles in the news divisions of three major broadcast networks.” (As reported by Dennis Heveisi)

    1939:Rosie Goldschmidt Waldeck author of Prelude To The Past became a naturalized U.S. Citizen today.

    1940: Ernst Heilmann, German jurist and political leader was murdered at Buchenwald

    1942: This day's deportations from Augsburg, Germany, emptied the town of Jews, ending a Jewish presence that was established in 1212. They were deported to the Belzec death camp.

    1942(16th of Nisan, 5702): The Final Solution came to Tlumacz also called Tlumach on the second day of Pesach. Tlumach was a town of about seven or eight thousand people, about a third of whom were Jewish. It was one of those places that changed hands several times including being part of the Soviet Union and Hungary. The Germans took control in 1941 and immediately killed off the leading Jews of the area. On April 3, twelve hundred Jews are taken to Belzac Extermination Camp and the remaining three thousand were placed in a ghetto. Later in the war another two thousand Jews were sent to Belzac. The Jewish community was not reconfigured after the war and is now only a page in the book of Jewish memory. Sad as this event is, it would be sadder still if we did not note their fate and remember (Yizkor) them.

    1943: Maria Różanski, Wiktoria Paduch and several others were sentenced to death today by the German Sondergericht special court for helping two Jewish women Elsa Szwarcman and Sala Rubinowicz escape from the Radom Ghetto

    1943(27th of Adar II, 5703): Actor Conrad Veidt who played Major Strasser in Casablanca passed away at the age of 50.

    1943: Birthdate of British director Jonathan Lynn, a nephew of Abba Eban.

    1944: As an indication that “the backbone of Jewish extremist gangs” may have been broken, British authorities suddenly lifted the rigid curfew in Palestine today.

    1944: Moshe Shertok reported to Jerusalem that his negotiations with Oliver Stanley, the British Colonial Secretary had succeeded in creating a breakthrough in the search for a safe haven for Romanian Jews fleeing the Nazis. Henceforth, for an all too brief period of time, “any Jews who reached Istanbul could continue on to Palestine irrespective of Palestine Certificates and quotas in effect because of the 1939 White Paper.

    1944: An internal memo of this week from the United States Government War Refugee Board states that it did understand the "attitude" of the Turkish government. On one hand it was "professing a desire to cooperate with the refugee program," while on the other it would not let the United States nor other countries use its ships to transport refugees from Romania to Turkey without formal contracts in place.

    1945(20th of Nisan 5705): On the 6th day of Pesach the Fourth Armored Division and the 355th Infantry Regiment of the 89th Infantry Division, part of General George Patton's famed Third U.S. Army, liberated the first death camp, Ohrdruf or North Stalag III, a sub camp of Buchenwald, located near Weimar.

    1945: Würzburg, which had had a population that included 2,000 Jews in 1930 most of which was shipped to the death camps between November 1941 and June 1943, was occupied by the U.S. 12th Armored Division and U.S. 42nd Infantry Division in a series of frontal assaults masked by smokescreens

    1946: In the United States, premiere of “Deadline At Dawn” directed Harold Cluman, with a script by Clifford Odets and music by Hanns Eislter.

    1947: The HMT Ocean Vigour was damaged by a bomb planted by the Haganah’s Palyam forces while docked at the port of Famagusta. She was a British freighter which had been converted into a caged prison ship used to deport illegal Jewish immigrants who had attempted to enter the Mandate Palestine back to Europe and to prison camps in Cyprus. “The Ocean Vigour was one of 3 ships used by the British authorities in “Operation Oasis” to deport the refugees from the Exodus 1947, most of whom were Holocaust survivors, to Germany. The Haganah commander on the Ocean Vigour was Meier Schwarz. The ship carried 1,464 deportees to Port-de-Bouc near Marseilles and, when they refused to disembark there, on to Hamburg, Germany, where they were forced off by club-wielding British troops.”

    1948: In another act of daring, a ship from Yugoslavia docked at Tel Aviv. Hidden in the ship’s cargo of potatoes and onions, were 500 rifles, 200 machine guns and a large quantity of ammunition. Jewish dock workers unloaded the vital supply of munitions and shipped them to the Haganah without being caught by the British.

    1949: Israel and Jordan signed an armistice agreement. This agreement was part of the negotiations held on the island of Rhodes under the auspices of the U.N. and Nobel Peace Prize Winner, Dr. Ralph Bunche. The agreement left the Jordanians in control of the eastern part of Jerusalem and the West Bank. When people speak today of Arab East Jerusalem, they are speaking of a result caused by the Arab Armies forcibly removing the ancient Jewish community from that section of the city; a condition that was in violation of the U.N. resolutions but which were made a reality by this armistice agreement. The Jordanians never honored the agreements for free, unfettered access to the Hadassah Hospital and Hebrew University Campus on Mt. Scopus.

    1950(16th of Nisan, 5710): Second Day of Pesach; 1st day of the Omer

    1950(16th of Nisan, 5710): Kurt Julian Weill, German born composer and socialist passed away in New York City.

    1952: The Jerusalem Postreported on satisfactory economic talks held in Great Britain where Israel sought, in addition to the Haifa Oil Refineries¹ deliveries agreement, more trade and credits, and genuinely modern military equipment.

    1952: The Jerusalem Postreported that 5 members of the family of Yehoshua Arya, a Tel Aviv municipal employee, slept on the pavement outside the Jewish Agency building after they had been evicted from their one-room apartment in the Hatikvah quarter.

    1952: The Jerusalem Post reported that owing to last-minute red tape, only 324 immigrants arrived aboard the S.S. Transylvania from Romania, instead of the expected 1,000. In Hamburg police arrested a neo-Nazi who mailed a letter-bomb to the head of the German reparations team at The Hague.

    1954: Aristides de Sousa Mendes, the Portuguese diplomat who risked his life and career to help Jews escape from Hitler’s Europe, passed away

    1955: The American Civil Liberties Union announces it will defend Jewish author Allen Ginsberg's book Howl against obscenity charges.

    1958(13th of Nisan, 5718): Sixty one year old Theodor Kramer whom Thomas Mann called “one of the greatest poets of the young generation” but whose career in Austria was short-circuited by the Anschluss and an escape to the United Kingdom passed away today.

    1958: U.S. premiere of “The Long Hot Summer” produced by Jerry Wald and starring Paul Newman.

    1960: George Lincoln Rockwell, the leader of the newly formed American Nazi Party held his first public rally on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.

    1961(17th of Nisan, 5721): Third Day of Pesach

    1961(17th of Nisan, 5721): Forty six year old Maurice Howard “Babe” Patt, the Carnegie Tech line who played five seasons in the NFL and served in the U.S. Navy during WW II passed away today.

    1961: “The Happiest Girl in the World” a musical with E.Y. Harburg opened today at the Martin Beck Theatre.

    1967: The original version of “I’ve Got a Secret” a popular panel game show co-produced by Mark Goods and created by Allan Sherman was broadcast for the last time today.

    1973(1st of Nisan, 5733): Aaron Rabinowitz, a pioneer in public and private house as well as real estate development passed away at the age of 93. The son of Jewish immigrants from Russia, Rabinowitz’s work in the field of public housing began in 1926 when he began serving on the New York State Board of Housing created by Governor Al Smith. He then worked closely with Lieutenant Governor (and later Governor) Herbert Lehman.

    1975: Bobby Fischer refuses to play in a chess match against Anatoly Karpov, giving Karpov the title of World Champion by default.

    1977(15th of Nisan, 5737): Pesach

    1977: The Jerusalem Postreported that HIAS (the Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society) urged Soviet immigrants to bring their relatives from the Soviet Union directly to the US in order to "reduce the growing phenomenon of dropouts in Vienna." Max Fisher, chairman of the Jewish Agency¹s Board of Governors, did not think that this would be at the expense of Jews who wished to come on Aliyah. He believed that if more Jews could be got out from Russia, more will come to Israel

    1977: The Jerusalem Post reported that US experts hailed the new Israeli tank, the Chariot.

    1978: CBS broadcast the final show for the third season of “One Day At A Time” starring Bonnie Franklin.

    1979(6th of Nisan, 5739): Seventy-eight year leader of the Arkansas Jewish community Adele Bluthenthal Heiman passed away today.

    1980: In one of those moments when you would think that “the theatre” could not exist without Jews Neil Simon’s “I Ought To Be In Pictures” starring Ron Liebman as “Herb” and Dinah Manoff as “Libby” which had first been produced by Emanuel Azenberg in Los Angeles with Tony Curtis as “Herb” opened tonight at the Eugene O’Neil Theatre. (Eugene O’Neil is the only non-Jew in this list)

    1981(28th of Adar II, 5741): Seventy-nine year old film critic Cecilia Ager, the wife the composer of “Happy Days Are Here Again,” Milton Ager passed away today.

    1982(10th of Nisan, 5742): Parashat Tzav; Shabbat HaGadol

    1982(10th of Nisan, 5742): Eighty-six year old Tillie Klausner, the Polish born daughter of Miriam and Aaron Wolf Bienenstock and wife of Josef Klausner passed away today in Denver, CO.

    1986: Birthdate of actress Amada Bynes.

    1986(23rd of Adar II, 5746): Israeli mathematician Elisha Netanyahu passed away.

    1987: Bob McAdoo, former National Basketball Association scoring champion, scored 15 of his 21 points in the second half today as Tracer Milan won the European Champions Cup by edging Maccabi Tel Aviv of Israel, 71-69, in the final.

    1987: The New York Antiquarian Book Fair comes to a close. Among the items offered at the fair was The ''Twenty Four Books of the Holy Scriptures,'' the first edition in English of what was for generations the standard Jewish-American Bible, translated and annotated by Rabbi Isaac Leeser and published in Philadelphia in 1853 which was valued at $1,750.

    1990:Gilbert and Sullivan Yield To Gershwin and Ryskind

    1991(20th of Nisan, 5751): Charles Henry Goren, the son of Russian-Jewish immigrants who became “a world champion American bridge player and bestselling author who contributed significantly to the development and popularization of the game” passed away.


    1992: Richard Schifter completed his term as Assistant Secretary of State for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs.

    1992(29th of Adar II, 5752): Eighty-four year old painter Aaron Bohrod passed away today.

    1992: “The Player” a satirical film featuring appearances by Sydney Pollack, Peter Falk, Jeff Goldblum and Gina Gershon premiered in Cleveland, Ohio today.

    1992: Jack Lang began serving as Education Minister of France for the first time.

    1992: “Beethoven,” the first in a series of dog comedy films co-produced by Ivan Reitman, starring Charles Grodin and with music by Randy Edelman was released today in the United States.

    1993(12th of Nisan, 5753): Parashat Tzav; Shabbat HaGadol

    1993(12th of Nisan, 5753): Eighty-two year old philanthropist Ludwig Jesselson passed away today in Jerusalem. (As reported by Eric Pace)

    1993(12th of Nisan, 5753): Pinky Lee kiddy host (Pinky Lee Show), died of a heart attack at 85. Born Pincus Leff, in 1916, Lee was a big star in the early days of television. His signature line was "Ha Ha Hee Hee." He was well known as a host of children's shows including the Pinky Lee Show. Lee ran into trouble with the Black List. One of his last programs was the Gumby Show in 1957. (Yes, there was Gumby before SNL.)

    1994(22nd of Nisan, 5754): Seventy-five year old Maj. Gen. Aharon Remez, the first commander of the Israeli Air Force, passed away today at the age of 75. General Remez had also served as a Labor Party Member of Parliament, Transport Minister and Israeli Ambassador to Britain. He was buried with full military honors on Monday in Jerusalem's military cemetery. Born in Tel Aviv in British-ruled Palestine, General Remez joined the Haganah underground in 1936. The Jewish Agency, then the governing body of Jewish settlement in what later became Israel, sent him to New Jersey in 1939 to learn how to fly. He flew a Spitfire for Britain in combat against the Germans. In 1947 he helped establish Haganah’s flying service, the predecessor to the Israeli Air Force, and Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion appointed him commander shortly after Israel's statehood was declared in 1948. General Remez stepped down three years later in a dispute over attempts to incorporate the Israeli Air Force into the general command. The air force is under separate command today. He served as Ambassador to Britain in the late 1960's.

    1997: A revival of Lillian Hellman’s “The Little Foxes” which uses a verse from Chapter 2, Verse 15 of the Song of Solomon which reads, "Take us the foxes, the little foxes, that spoil the vines: for our vines have tender grapes" as the inspiration for its title opens today at the Vivian Beaumont.

    1997: “Dogtown” a drama co-starring Jon Favreau and filmed by cinematographer Kramer Morgenthau was released today at the Los Angeles International Film Festival.

    1997(25th of Adar II, 5757): Seventy-five year old Los Angeles Judge Jerry Pacht “died of a cerebral hemorrhage today.”


    2002(21st of Nisan, 5762): Seventh day of Pesach and 6thday of the Omer

    2002: During Operation Defensive Shield, IDF troops secured Jenin but the fight for the terrorists’ stronghold still loomed ahead.

    2002(21st of Nisan, 5762) IDF reservist Maj. Moshe Gerstner, 29, of Rishon Lezion was killed in Jenin during anti-terrorist action (Operation Defensive Shield).

    2003: Release date for the Hebrew Language Israeli film “Bonjour Monsieur Shlomi.”

    2004: At the Rainbow Room in NYC, Rabbi Mark S. Golub officiated at the wedding of Anna Chloe Hoffman, a daughter of Dale and Stephen Hoffman and David Russ Steinhardt, a son of Judy and Michael Steinhardt, founder of “Makor, a cultural center which is part of the 92nd Street Y.

    2005: Official induction Pretoian born Warren Goldstein, as Chief Rabbi of South Africa making him the first native of South Africa and the youngest person to hold the post.

    2005: The New York Timesfeatured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including “Omaha Blues: A Memory Loop” by Joseph Lelyveld, “Inside the List by Rachel Donadio” and “Return to Greatness: How America Lost Its Sense of Purpose and What It Needs to Do to Recover It” by Alan Wolfe as well as the following monograph about ''Runny Babbit,'' Shel Silverstein's silly tale of a rabbit with a penchant for inverting his consonants that just made its debut at No. 1 on the children's picture book best-seller list. Silverstein, the much loved poet and author of idiosyncratic and often bittersweet books like ''The Giving Tree,''''Where the Sidewalk Ends'' and other children's classics of the past four decades, worked on ''Runny Babbit'' on and off for 20 years, before his death in 1999. Silverstein was a constant reviser. ''He had mountains of poems and stories, in bits and pieces, and in different versions, written on stray pieces of paper,'' his friend and former editor, Joan Robins, told Publishers Weekly. Robins and Toni Markiet, the executive editor of HarperCollins Children's Books, both helped shepherd ''Runny Babbit'' into print. Written in jolly inverse verse, the book recounts the adventures of a kindhearted, rather hapless rabbit, from restaurant to bath to library (''A bience scook? A boetry pook? / Oh, no -- a bomic cook!''). HarperCollins has done a first printing of 500,000 copies, betting that deprived Silverstein fans will be eager to snap it up. A good bet: The Times Magazine reported after his death that Silverstein -- who in the course of his career was a playwright, a regular cartoonist for Playboy and a country-western songwriter -- left an estate worth $20 million, so he clearly knew a thing or two about what people want.

    2006: Israeli Attorney General Menachem Mazuz announced that he was closing the Yona Metzger investigation and would not seek an indictment against him, citing a lack of sufficient evidence. He added, however, that in light of various "disturbing" information that came to light during the investigation, including contradictory statements given to the police that the Chief Rabbi should resign

    2007(15th of Nissan, 5767): First Day of Pesach

    2007: In “For Shtetl by the Sea, Only a Few Fading Signs Remain” published today Abby Goodnough provides a portrait of the changing face of “Jewish Miami Beach.”

    The synagogue at 1415 Euclid Avenue had only a few members left when Daniel Davidson, a New Yorker seeking a standout South Beach retreat, bought it in 2003. “I thought the space magical,” he said of the spare, white 16,000-square-foot building — now back on the market for $9,950,000 — “irrespective of religion. And so the Orthodox synagogue, Kneseth Israel, became Temple House, where Mr. Davidson has not only lived but also allowed Budweiser to film a commercial, Senator Bill Nelson of Florida and Al Gore to hold a Democratic fund-raising event and Jennifer Lopez to stage a listening party for her latest album, belting out love songs near where the Torah ark used to be. Like so many buildings that served a thriving Jewish population here for decades — synagogues, delicatessens, kosher markets and hotels, even Yiddish theaters — Temple House’s history is all but imperceptible now. The community that earned Miami Beach nicknames like Little Jerusalem and Shtetl by the Sea is largely gone, and many of today’s residents know nothing of it. Miami Beach had roughly 60,000 people in Jewish households, 62 percent of the total population, in 1982, but only 16,500, or 19 percent of the population, in 2004, said Ira Sheskin, a demographer at the University of Miami who conducts surveys once a decade. The decline — due mostly to elderly Jews dying or getting priced out after the city’s Art Deco revival, but also to the migration of others to Broward and Palm Beach Counties as greater Miami became more Hispanic — has forced old-timers to scour for hints of their past. A few remain, like the Hebrew-inscribed doors of a deserted Orthodox shul being converted to condominiums and the old entryway to Wolfie’s, a beloved coffee shop demolished for a condo building that will keep the faded front as a relic. But Miami Beach’s last kosher resort hotel, the Saxony, closed in 2005 to make way for condominiums. Its oldest synagogue, Beth Jacob, also closed that year after membership dropped to 22, from 1,200 in the 1950s. Its domed building is now the Jewish Museum of Florida, housing memorabilia like mah-jongg boards and anti-Semitic real estate ads promising “always a view, never a Jew.” (Residents with “Hebrew or Syrian blood” generally could not rent or buy north of Fifth Street until the 1950s.) On Lincoln Road, the pedestrian thoroughfare at the heart of South Beach, Temple King Solomon has given way to Touch, a restaurant and lounge with occasional belly dancers and flame throwers. On Washington Avenue, the Cinema Theater, home to one of the longest-running Yiddish vaudeville shows in the world, is now Mansion, a club favored by Paris Hilton types. Farther north, in Sunny Isles Beach, Wolfie Cohen’s Rascal House — Miami’s version of Katz’s Deli in New York, famous for “mile-high” corned beef sandwiches — will soon be demolished and replaced with yet another condo tower. This is not to say all Yiddishkeit is lost here: Talmudic University, which opened in Miami Beach in 1974, remains on Alton Road, along with a Lubavitch center that runs a day school and a rabbinical college. A few miles north of blingy South Beach, beachfront resorts like the Fontainebleau and the Eden Roc still fill up at Passover, and an Orthodox Jewish community is flourishing around 41st Street. But in South Beach alone, the number of people in Jewish households dropped by 53 percent between 1994 and 2004, to 4,171 from 8,775. Charlotte Cooper, who came to Miami Beach from New York to perform Yiddish theater in the 1960s and stayed until she was priced out in 1999, said she could hardly stand to return these days.“It’s an entirely different story now,” said Mrs. Cooper, a Holocaust survivor who moved to a condominium in Pembroke Pines but still performs here now and then. “People from Hollywood, movie stars, come to stay in those hotels now. It has nothing to do with the Jewish people anymore.” At Temple Emanu-El in South Beach, Rabbi Kliel Rose is striving to attract young Jews while keeping older, second- and third-generation members. The cavernous stone synagogue drew 1,200 families in the 1980s; it claims about 260 now. Rabbi Rose’s tactics include regular outings to South Beach bars and clubs, lectures on Kabbalah and a recent Havdalah ceremony, marking the end of Sabbath at sundown Saturday, with cocktails at Temple House. Rabbi Rose has added drums, guitar and an element of mysticism to Shabbat services. Still, to ensure the requisite 10 people for morning minyans, or prayer sessions, Temple Emanu-El teams up with the Cuban Hebrew Congregation, one of the neighborhood’s only other surviving synagogues. “We are truly experimenting,” said Rabbi Rose, 36, who wears an earring and was recruited from Congregation B’Nai Jeshurun, a booming conservative synagogue on the Upper West Side of Manhattan. “We are trying to think outside the box.” When his congregants started shifting in their seats toward the end of Shabbat services one recent Friday night, Rabbi Rose asked them not to leave just yet, admonishing, “Lincoln Road can wait.” David Weintraub, who directed “Where Neon Goes to Die,” a film about the Jewish retirees who flocked to Miami Beach from the 1920s through the 1980s, said his research was frustrated by an astonishing lack of documentation. “This legacy went on for over 60 years, and yet there is almost no memory that it even happened,” Mr. Weintraub said. “At the Miami Beach archives, I went through their file drawers for two weeks. There were drawers and drawers of cheesecake on the beach but not one photograph of Yiddish culture.” Now, Mr. Weintraub is thinking of organizing “ghost tours” of Jewish Miami Beach. But he does not want a tourist clientele. “We would target the folks who already live in Miami in the hopes that if people get a better sense of who and what came before,” he said, “they might be more pro-active when city planners destroy another piece of Miami’s past.” Marcia Zerivitz, founding executive director of the Jewish Museum of Florida, said that while the decline of the Jewish population is an old story here, the rest of the country is surprisingly unaware. Filmmakers and writers still call her to say they want to document Jewish culture in Miami Beach, Ms. Zerivitz said. “I get calls like that all the time, especially from California and up east,” she said. “I say: ‘Sorry, you’re many, many years too late. There’s nothing left.’ ”

    2008: Don Hewitt was honored with Washington State University's Edward R. Murrow Award for Lifetime Achievement in Broadcast Journalism.

    2008: As part of the Israel at 60 Celebration the 92nd Street Y hosts Israeli “Culture: Past and Present: Examining Pre-1948 Israeli Culture: Art and Literature.” Professor Uri Cohen examines the formation of Israeli culture from its inception to the creation of the state. His presentation includes readings from the works of Agnon, Gutman and Rubin.Uri Cohen is an assistant professor at Columbia University specializing in Modern Hebrew Literature and Israeli culture. His interests include the role of poetic language in political discourse and questions of cultural representation of conflict

    2008: Israeli-European economic ties are growing as the parties seek to speedily integrate the strong and expanding Israeli economy into the huge European market, according to statement made by EU officials today.

    2009: Richard Stoltzman presents “A Salute to Benny Goodman” at the Englert Theatre in Iowa City. Originally scheduled for Hancher Auditorium, the program was shifted to the smaller venue because of the Floods of 2008.

    2009: At Coe College in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, Vanderbilt University Professor Amy-Jill Levine delivers a lecture entitled “Hearing the Parables in their Jewish Contexts.”

    2009: “Fast and Furious” featuring Gal Gadot as “Gisele Yashar” was released in North America today.

    2010: Violinist Joseph Lin is scheduled to perform at the Sixth & I Synagogue in Washington, D.C.

    2010: On Shabbat Chol Hamoed Pesach, Temple Judah holds its monthly traditional Saturday morning service complete with a Kosher for Passover Kiddush, a one of a kind event in Cedar Rapids, Iowa.

    2010: Nili Shamrat “was sentenced to 300 hours of community service and given a five-year suspended sentence for possession of stolen property” for his role in the 1983 burglary of the L.A. Mayer Institute for Islamic Art.

    2011(27th of Adar II, 5771): Moshe V. Goldblum, rabbi of Pittsburgh’s Beth Shalom Congregation for 24 years, passed away today in Israel. “Goldblum was a 1949 graduate of the Jewish Theological Seminary and came to Pittsburgh from Jacksonville, Fla. He also served congregations in Columbus and Mansfield, Ohio, New York and Baltimore. He was a U.S. Army chaplain from 1945 to 1947.”

    2011(27th of Adar II, 5771): Twenty three year old Yale hockey player Mandi Schwartz passed away today. (As reported by Thomas Kaplan)

    2011: The Annual Used Book Sale is scheduled to begin at Gesher Jewish Day School in Fairfax, VA.

    2011: The Center for Jewish History in conjunction with the Jewish Book Council, the Skirball Department of Hebrew and Judaic Studies at New York University and the Columbia University Institute for Israel and Jewish Studies are scheduled to present a program entitled “The Jewish Book: Past, Present, Future” which deals with the questions of What makes a Jewish book?, Who are the People of the Book? How have Jewish books changed with changes in technology?

    2011: “Jews and Baseball: An American Love Story” is scheduled to be shown at The Westchester Jewish Film Festival.

    2011: Agudas Achim Synagogue is scheduled to host the Iowa City Jewish Community’s 3rd Annual Mitzvah Day - A Day of Community Service.

    2011: The New York Timesfeatures books by Jewish writers and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including ‘All the Time in the World’ by E.L. Doctorow and ‘The Free World’, David Bezmozgis’s first novel, set in Rome in 1978, which “follows three generations of Soviet Jews as they wait for visas to North America.”

    2011: President Shimon Peres is scheduled to leave for Washington, DC where he will meet with several US leaders including President Obama.

    2011: The Ministry of Public Diplomacy and Diaspora Affairs announced the names of people chosen to light beacons at this year's Independence Day ceremony. The ministry pointed out that each of the chosen beacon lighters represent the central theme of this year's ceremony, "Looking after one another – the year of mutual care," which was chosen by the cabinet. The 2011 Independence Day ceremony will take place on May 9, at Mount Herzl in Jerusalem. Among the torch lighters are Orit Dror, a member of Kibbutz Lavi who, together with her husband, donated her son's organs after he died of a terminal illness, and saved the life of a 13-year-old girl; Zehava Dankner (mother of businessman Nochi Dankner), a philanthropist who supported, among others, residents surrounding Gaza, and who is involved in matters of education, security and health; Barbra Goldstein, a representative of Hadassah, the women's Zionist organization of America, which is marking its 100th anniversary this year; Yovi Tsuma, a social activist who participates in a group of young Ethipian volunteers who help members of the immigrant community who have encountered difficulties in absorption; and Rabbi Shimon Rosenberg, a member of the Chabad movement, who lost his daughter and son in law in the November 2008 terrorist attack at the Chabad house in Mumbai.

    2012: “The Kid With a Bike” and “The Mill and the Cross” are scheduled to be shown at the Westchester Jewish Film Festival

    2012: A Concert of Russian and Jewish Music featuring Metropolitan Klezmer is scheduled to take place in New York City.

    2013: “The 2nd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in New York said a lower court had erred in dismissing fraud-based claims by” Steven A. Cohen’s “former spouse” Patricia Cohen and revived the lawsuit” while also reviving “claims of racketeering and breach of fiduciary duty, while upholding the dismissal of an unjust enrichment claim.”

    2012: The Jewish Community Center of Greater Kansas City, with the endorsement of the Greater Kansas City Interfaith Council, is scheduled to present a performance by the Yuval Ron Ensemble.

    2013: “Numbered,” a film that explores the relationship some Auschwitz survivors have with their tattoos, is scheduled to be shown at the Museum of Jewish Heritage at Battery Place in New York City.

    2013: Today “it was announced that Lorne Michaels will be taking over as the executive producer for The Tonight Show.”

    2013(23rd of Nisan, 5773): Ninety-five year old, Dorothy Taubman, the developer of the Taubman Technique for rehabilitating musicians passed away today. (As reported by Vivian Schweitzer)

    2013(23rd of Nisan, 5773): Eighty-six year old cartoonist Ed Fisher passed away today.

    2013: Palestinian terrorists fired two rockets at the southern Israeli city of Sderot this morning. The intermittent rocket attacks began while President Obama was touring the region before Pesach.

    2013: Today,A three-judge panel of the Tel Aviv District Court ordered Bank Hapoalim and three pension funds to pay around NIS 2.1 million to the estate of an elderly Holocaust survivor for liability in allowing the illegal withdrawal of her money by her home caregiver.

    2013: First baseman Nate Freiman made his major league debut with the Oakland A’s

    2014: The Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington is scheduled to host Jews and Baseball: D.C. and Beyond with Phil Hochberg, Jean Leavy and Aviva Kempler

    2014: A French court fines a 28-year-old Moroccan man $4,130 for posting photos online of himself giving the quenelle salute in front of Grand Synagogue in Bordeaux

    2014: “The Sturgeon Queens” is scheduled to be shown at the Austin Jewish Film Festival.

    2014: The Oregon Jewish Museum is scheduled to host the opening reception for an exhibit styled “The Seder: Meanings, Ritual & Spirituality” featuring the work of Samuel Eisen-Meyers.

    2014: Friends and family gather to celebrate the birthday of Elizabeth Levin, “daughter extraordinaire” of David Levin.

    2015: “President Obama issued Passover greetings” today “to those celebrating Passover in the United States, in the state of Israel and throughout the world.

    2015: President Obama and his hosted their seventh White House Seder where the menu included, “Moroccan charoset balls, savory holiday brisket and carrot soufflé.”

    2015: Francis J. Pruitt, the author of Faith and Courage in a Time of Trouble, “a memoir of a Belgian-Jewish girl and her family who were saved during the Nazi occupation of France through the compassion and heroism of French peasants from the southern part of the country” is scheduled to appear at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.

    2015: A year after having been shown at the Tribeca Film Festival “5 to 7” directed and written by Victor Levin was released in the United States today.

    2015: The friends and family of Elizabeth Levin will have to get her that birthday cake today before the last crumbs of Chametz are swept away.

    2015(14thof Nisan, 5775): Ninety-two year old English actor Robert Rietti, born Lucio Herbert Rietti, passed away today.

    2015(14th of Nisan, 5775): Fast of the First Born

    2016: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Don’t Let My Baby Do Rodeo by Boris Fishman and Spain in our Hearts: American in the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939 by Adam Hochschild

    2016: In Fairfax, VA, Temple Beth El is scheduled to host a “sneak preview of Sabena Hijacking” one of the films to be shown later at the JCCNV’s Annual Film Festival.

    2016: The Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center is scheduled to host a panel discussion on “The Forgotten Genocide: The Destruction of Cultural Heritage in Armenia, Bosnia and Syria.”

    2016: HaZamir: The International Jewish High School Choir is scheduled to perform at Carnegie Hall.

    2016: “Wedding Doll” is scheduled to be shown on the final night of the Israeli Film Festival in Philadelphia, PA.

    2016: Radio Kol Hamusica is scheduled to broadcast the works of Israeli composer Emanuel Vahl.

    2016: The Breman Museum, the Center for Civil and Human Rights and the Atlanta Jewish Film Festival, are scheduled to offer a free screening of the award winning film, “50 Children: The Rescue Mission of Mr.& Mrs. Kraus”

    2016:Leo Baeck Institute and Center for Jewish History are scheduled to host “Burning Words: A History Play by Peter Wortsman”

    2016: Unlike last year, Elizabeth Levin gets a break and she and her friends a family can enjoy plenty of cake as they celebrate her natal day.

    2017: The JTA Centennial Gala featuring Bernard-Henri Levy as the keynote speak and honoring Brian Sterling, Mark Wilf and Jane Weitzman is scheduled to take place this evening at the Museum of Jewish Heritage in New York.

    2017: Michael Cohen, Donald Trump’s personal lawyer, “was appointed a National Deputy Finance Chairman of the Republican National Committee” today.

    2017: In Cedar Rapids, a sad moment as the  community gathers for the funeral of Amy Barnum, wife of Joel Barnum, mother of Emma (Sam), Sasha (Lance), Gail and grandmother of Dean and Henry. A friend to so many – positive, upbeat woman of valor whose optimism was so contagious.

    2018(18thof Nisan, 5778): Fourth Day of Pesach

    2018: A real simcha for friends and family of Dr. Elizabeth Levin as they celebrate her natal day and acceptance into a prestigious fellowship program.

    2018: In New Orleans, Temple Sinai and the Jewish Federation of Greater New Orleans are scheduled to cost a LGBTQ Interfaith Seder this evening.

    2018: In Jerusalem, The Tower of David is scheduled to host a performance “A Lion of the Streets of Jerusalem”—a “story about Rabbi Aryeh.”

    2018: The Swann Auction Galleries is scheduled to a screening of selections from the feature documentary Rosenwald, followed by a conversation with director Aviva Kempner, hosted by Nigel Freeman.



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    April 4

    188: Birthdate of Cracalla, the Roman Emperor who allowed all free Jews within the empire to become full Roman citizens.

    397:Aurelius Ambrosius, (Saint Ambrose) a bishop of Milan who became one of the most influential ecclesiastical figures of the fourth century passed away. He lived during a period when the Christian Church was still trying to establish its identity. He was no stranger to Jews as we can see from the following three examples. In “De Abrahamo” Ambrose warned Christians against intermarrying with Jews.  His strong opposition can be seen in the following conflict he had with the Roman Emperor, Theodosius over the rebuilding of synagogue. “It appears that in 388 a mob, led by the local bishop and many monks, destroyed the synagogue at Callinicum. The emperor Theodosius the Great ordered the rebuilding of the synagogue at the expense of the rioters, including the bishop. Ambrose immediately issued a fiery protest to the emperor. He wrote to Theodosius that "the glory of God" is concerned in this matter, and that therefore he cannot be silent. "Shall the bishop be compelled to re-erect a synagogue? Can he religiously do this thing? If he obey the emperor, he will become a traitor to his faith; if he disobey him, a martyr. What real wrong is there, after all, in destroying a synagogue, a 'home of perfidy, a home of impiety,' in which Christ is daily blasphemed? Indeed, he must consider himself no less guilty than this poor bishop; at least to the extent that he made no concealment of his wish that all synagogues should be destroyed, that no such places of blasphemy be further allowed to exist." At the end, he succeeded in obtaining from Theodosius a promise that the sentence should be completely revoked, with the very natural consequence that thereafter the prospect of immunity thus afforded occasioned spoliations of synagogues all over the empire. That Ambrose could nevertheless occasionally say a good word for the Jews is shown by a passage in his "Enarratio in Psalmos" in which he remarks, "Some Jews exhibit purity of life and much diligence and love of study."

    1081: Alexios I Komnenos is crowned Byzantine emperor at Constantinople, beginning the Komnenian dynasty. Most Byzantine Emperors of this period “expressed little interest in combating…religious pluralism.  Alexios was the exception to the rule.  He took “an unusual interest in presenting himself as a defender” of the dominant Christian Orthodox faith. During his reign, St. Nikon agreed to go to Sparta if the Jews were expelled from the community. The town was enduring a wave of unusual illness and Nikon said that cause was the contaminating effect of “abominable” Jewish customs and the polluting effect of their worship.

    1284: The reign of Alfonso X as King of Castile and Leon who “employed Jewish, Christian and Muslim Scholars…primarily for the purposed of translating books from Arabic and Hebrew into Latin and Castilian” and who relied on Yehuda ben Moshe to translate selected works of magic, came to an end today.

    1284: Sancho IV of Castile, who treated the story of the affair between Rahel la Fermosa, a Jewish woman from Toledo, and King Alfonso VIII as fact and not fable, began his reign today.

    1285: Philip the Fair, King of France, began his policy of using Jews solely for his financial benefit.  He was called the Fair because of his complexion, not his behavior.  The Jews were caught up in the conflict called the Albigensians Heresy, a conflict within the Catholic Church.  Philip was always looking for ways to enrich himself.  Ultimately he expelled the Jews from his kingdom, abrogating the debts he owed them and confiscating all personal and communal property.

    1292: Pope Nicholas IV who had issued “Orat Mater Ecclesla,” a bull designed “to protect the Roman Jews from oppression, passed away today.

    1588: Christian IV, “the first Danish king to establish connections with Jews” which became a reality when he appointed Albert Dionis, a Sephardi Jew “to run the mint in the newly planned town of Gluckstadt on the Elbe.”

    1609: English navigator Henry Hudson set sail from Amsterdam harbor under direction from his “employer,” the Duct East India Company to sail east in the quest for a shorter water passage to the Indies.  Fortunately for the Jewish people, Hudson ignored these instructions and sailed west seeking the fabled Northwest Passage to the Orient.  As part of this quest, Hudson sailed past what is now New York on his way up what we know as the Hudson River claiming all of the surrounding for the Dutch.  This meant that the 23 Jews who arrived in New Amsterdam landed in a territory controlled by the religiously tolerant Dutch as opposed to a colony controlled Catholic Spain or Catholic France neither of whom would have allowed the Jews to settle.

    1660: King Charles II of England publishes the terms under which he will return to the throne in a document known as the Declaration of Breda. The restoration under Charles II bodes well for the Jews of England since it was Charles II who was the first to declare that the Jewish community could remain in England without suffering harassment.   

    1687: King James II issued The Declaration of Indulgence, one of the major steps towards the granting of full religious liberty in Great Britain.  Jews had returned to in 1655 and the next major step in the fight for full religious rights would come with the passage of the short-lived Jewish Naturalization Act of 1753.

    1693(27th of Adar II, 5453):Eighty-eight year oldRabbi Isaac Aboab da Fonseca, a kabbalist, scholar and leader of the Dutch Jewish community passed away.

    1718: Birthdate of Benjamin Kennicott, English churchman and Hebrew scholar who spent most of his life exploring and collating various Hebrew texts.  Unfortunately, the final printing of his work rendered much of it nearly useless.  One of the most positive outcomes was the recognition of the antiquity and common origins of the text of the Hebrew Bible.

    1733: Today in Saxony, “August II revived the decrees of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, ordering in addition that the body-tax be paid thenceforth by all Jews, regardless of sex or age, though Elijah Behrend succeeded in securing the exemption of children under ten years of age. Behrend furthermore obtained permission for all Bohemian, Moravian, and Hungarian Jews to travel on any road through Saxony and secured the repeal of the edict forbidding them to remain in any place longer than one day.”

    1739: “Israel in Egypt,” “an oratorio by George Frideric Handel that “it is composed entirely of selected passages from the Hebrew Bible, mainly from Exodus and the Psalms premiered at London's King's Theatre in the Haymarket”

    1754(12th of Nisan, 5514): Fast of the First Born held on Thursday because Pesach begins on Saturday night.

    1762(11th of Nisan, 5522): David Frankel, the chief rabbi of Berlin whose students included Moses Mendelssohn, passed away today.

    1772(1st of Nisan, 5532): Rosh Chodesh Nisan

    1772(1st of Nisan, 5532): In Medzhybizh,Simcha, the son of Rabbi Nachman of Horodenka and his wife Feiga gave birth to Rabbi Nachman of Breslov, a great-grandson of the Baal Shem Tov who was “the founder of the Breslov Hasidic Movement.

    1775: Birthdate of Samuel Elias, the native of Whitechapel, London who gained fame as the boxer Dutch Sam, a name that might be attributed to the fact that his parents had come to England from Holland.

    1776: Celebration of the first Pesach after the firing of the Shot Heard Round the World.

    1795(15th of Nisan, 5555): Pesach

    1795: Birthdate of violinist Joseph Böhm, the native of Pest who became a director of the Vienna Conservatory.

    1799: Birthdate of Mordecai ben Shumel, the grocer known as Marcus Samuel who passed away in 1870.

    1801: Twenty-year old Carel Asser married eighteen year old Rosa Levin Amsterdam.

    1818: Birthdate of Moritz Kohner, the native of Neuern, Bohemia, the merchants who was “elected president of the Leipzig Jewish community in 1868 and founded the Deutsch-Israelitische Gemeindebund in 1869.

    1830: Birthdate of Albert (Aaron) Siegfried Bettelheim, Hungarian born Rabbi and Hebraist.

    1838: Birthdate of Lawrence Barrett the Shakespearian actor who “portrays the character” of Shylock “with force, sincerity and at times with splendid effect”

    1838: Albert Moses Levy married Claudinia Olivia Gervais.  Levy was a Virginia born doctor who moved to Texas where he played a prominent role in the revolt against Mexico.  Levy’s father, a Dutch born Jew married an Episcopalian after coming to the United States.  Levy was raised in the faith of his mother and his wife, with whom he had five children, was also an Episcopalian. While stories like this were not uncommon among 18th and 19thAmerican Jewry, it is amazing that there were not more such cases given the fluidity of the American frontier.

    1841: In Augusta, GA, Gustavus V. Anker of Richmond, VA married Abigail Rebecca Sampson, the daughter of the late Joseph Sampson, who had lived in Charleston, SC.

    1841: Birthdate of Ancona (Italy) native Frederico Consolo, the violinist who “composed the arrangement for the national anthem of San Marino, based on a 10th-century chorale” which “was adopted in 1894.”

    1850:  Los Angeles is incorporated as a city. Jews were active in Los Angeles from its earliest days as an American city. Jacob Frankfort is reported to the first Jew to live in Los Angeles.  He arrived in the city in December, 1841, when it was still part of Mexico.  In the early 1850’s seven prominent, unmarried Jewish merchants occupied space at the Corner of Aliso and Los Angeles streets on what was called Bell’s row.  Two were from Poland and five were from Germany.  They ranged in age from 19 to 28.  For the trivia buffs, their names were Abraham Jacobi, Morris Michaels, Morris Goodman, Phillip Sichel, Augustine Waserman, Felix Bachan and Joseph Plumer

    1859:Dinorah, originally Le pardon de Ploërmel ("The Pilgrimage of Ploërmel"), a French opéra comique in three acts with music by Giacomo Meyerbeer was first performed at the Opéra-Comique (Salle Favart), in Paris.

    1859: It was reported today that “the number of Jews in Oregon, most of whom are engaged in commercial pursuits, is quite large. In Portland, they have a synagogue recently incorporated by the legislature under the name of ‘Congregation Beth Israel’ where religious worship is conducted after the manner of German Israelites.  A large portion of them are, however, free-thinkers.”

    1861: It was reported today that M. Guranda, the Viennese Jewish editor of the Ost Deutsche Post was elected to serve in the Provincial Diet.

    1862: Birthdate of Leonid Pasternak, the native of Odessa who became a noted post-impressionist painter and was the father of Boris Pasternak.

    1863(15thof Nisan, 5623): Pesach

    1865: Private Henry Strauss was discharged from the 10th Mississippi Infantry today.

    1866(19thof Nisan, 5626): Sixth Day of Pesach

    1866(19thof Nisan, 5626): Twenty-two year old Heinrich Oppenheimer, the son of Marx and Sarah Oppenheimer, passed away today.

    1866: Birthdate of Adolph Joachim Sabath, the native of Zabori who came to the United States at the age of 15 and served in the U.S. House of  Representatives from 1907 to 1952.

    1871: “Matzoth Again: The Feast of Passover Unleavened Bread How They Make Passover Cakes,” published today describes the process of making Matzah. [Ed. Note: Given the comparatively small Jewish population, this article is remarkable for several reasons.]

    1872: Johann Jacoby joined the Social Democrat Party in Prussia today.

    1872: The Grand Lodge of the Sons of Israel received a report today that 2,176 names were on the rolls of the Endowment Fund which had been established to provide for widows and orphans and that the fund was now capitalized at $69,604.40.

    1877(21stof Nisan, 5637): Seventh Day of Pesach

    1877: The third of the annual special services for the Jews “held in Christ Church Spitafields” which were part of the on-going attempts to convert Jews and which in the past had provoked demonstrations by Jews of the area was led by Reverend A.I. McCaul an included a sermon by Reverend Samuel Bardsley

    1877: Birthdate of Yiddish poet and songwriter Mordechai Gebirtig.

    1878: In Chicago, Adolph Loeb, the son of Jakob and Ester Loeb, and his wife Johanna Loeb gave birth to Ludwig Mannheimer Loeb

    1878: In Singapore, the new Maghain Aboth Synagogue on Waterloo Street which had been financed in part by Menasseh Meyer, “supposedly the richest Jew in Asia,” was consecrated today.

    1879: Birthdate of Ignacz Trebitsh the son of Paks, Hungary merchant, who left his native land in 1896, converted to Christianity and led a life as Lincoln Trebitsch whose remarkable life included serving three years in a British jail for being a German spy and as an MP from Darlington.

    1879: A correspondent for the Neue Zilricher Zeitgungdescribeda massacre of Jews in Satschcheri in the Caucuses. At the beginning of April the body of a child was found in the woods. Seven Jews were accused by the Christian villagers of having killed the child and then having hid the body as part of their Easter Sacrifice.  The accused were taken before a local Judge who dismissed the charges after “a medical witness” testified that the child had died of natural causes and that the wounds on the body “were the work of wild animals.  The Jews celebrated their deliverance with a party which was interrupted by a an axe wielding Christian mob.  The mob, which had been incited by an Orthodox Priest broke into the house killing six of the Jews and injuring many more.

    1879: A correspondent for the Neue Zilricher Zeitgung described a massacre of Jews that had taken place in Satschcheri, a town in the Caucasus region.  The massacre was the result of a blood libel based on claims by Christian villagers that seven Jews had killed a child whose body was found in the woods.

    1880: In Marienpol, Poland, Nathan and Sarah Lamport gave birth to Samuel Charles Lamport, a graduate of high school in Burlington, VT, City College and Brown University, who is the owner of Lamport Manufacturing and Supply Company and a leader of the Jewish community as can be seen by his service as a trustee of the Jewish Publication Society and a director of the JTS and the Home of the Daughters of Jacob.

    1882(15th of Nisan, 5642): First Day of Pesach

    1882: As the Jews of Tisza-Eszlar, Hungary, observe Pesach rumors are circulating that Esther Solymosi, a 14 year old Christian peasant girl who disappeared on the first of the month has been killed by the Jews so her blood could be used in baking matzah.

    1883(26thof Adar II):Menahem Cattawi Bey, known as the "Egyptian Rothschild” passed away today

    1884: In Pest, The Supreme Tribunal has confirmed the acquittal of all the Jews who were charged with murdering Esther Salomossy. It was alleged that they had killed her to obtain blood to mix with “Passover Bread”

    1885: In Mantua, Lodovico Mortara and his wife gave birth to “economist, demographer and statistician” Giorgio Mortara, the grandson of Rabbi Marco Mortara.

    1886(28thof Adar II, 5646): Moritz Warburg, who was born in 1810 who represented his native Altona in the Reichstag passed away today.  He was survived by his first son Albert who was born in 1843 but was pre-deceased by his second son Jacob who was born in 1848 and was killed during the Franco-Prussian War.

    1887(10thof Nisan, 5647): Isais Morgenstern passed away.

    1889: Clarence Charles Minzesheimer, “who had entered the banking and brokerage business of his father Charles Minzesheimer became a member of the New York Stock Exchange today.

    1890(14thof Nisan, 5650): Ta’anit Bechorot; Erev Pesach and Erev Shabbat

    1890: “The Jewish Feast of Pesach” published today continues a tradition of the New York Times of writing about the holiday stretching back to the earliest days of the paper’s founding before the Civil War.

    1890: “Meat Given To The Poor” published today descried the distribution Passover provisions the needy.  While most of those in line were Polish Jews, “there was also a number of poor Gentiles.”  They were given coupons to take to local butchers since those distributing the food felt that there should be no distinction to helping the poor regardless of religion.

    1890(14th of Nisan, 5650): As Jews begin the celebration of Passover this evening, the less fortunate Jews living in New York will enjoy a happier holiday thanks to the efforts of the Passover Relief Association which distributed 9,830 pounds of Matzah, 1,000 pounds of sugar, 480 pounds of coffee and 50 pounds of tea at Goodfellow Hall prior to the start of the holiday.

    1890(14th of Nisan, 5650):Felix Albert Bettelheim passed away in Baltimore, Maryland. Born in Hungary in 1861 he was the son of the rabbi Aaron Siegfried Bettelheim. He immigrated to the United States in the sixties. In his seventeenth year he was graduated from the University of California with high honors, and three years later from the Medical College in San Francisco. From 1880 to 1881 he was resident physician of the San Quentin state prison; from 1881 to 1883, ship's surgeon of the Pacific Mail steamship "Colima"; 1883-89, surgeon-general of the Panama Railroad and CanalCompany. Through his efforts the first hospital in Panama was built; and he became one of its staff of physicians. He held several high offices and received a number of medals and testimonials from the government in recognition of his services. Bettelheim was the discoverer of a new germ peculiar to tropical countries, an account of which is given in medical records. In 1889 he studied clinical methods in the great European cities. On his return to America he died from a tropical liver complaint which was held by American authorities to be unique and was described by Professor Osler, of Johns Hopkins University, in a London medical journal. He was a frequent contributor to the "Lancet" and other periodicals, and left a posthumous work, "On the Contagious Diseases of Tropical Countries," still unpublished. A text-book by Dr. Thorington of Philadelphia, on the diseases of the eye, is dedicated to Bettelheim's memory.

    1890 (14th of Nisan, 5650): The Jewish Messenger reports that “despite the undeniable tendency to change in every direction, the festival of Passover, which begins this evening survives with all its old time strength and picturesqueness.  Our Passover “is over three thousand years old and likely to survive three thousand more.”

    1890: Erev Pesach, the American Hebrewpublishes a special Passover edition including an article entitled “Prejudice Against the Jews; its Causes and Remedies.”

    1892: It was reported today that newly elected officers of the Purim Association are M.H. Moses, President; Simon Schafer, Vice President; and Sol E. Solomon, Treasurer.   The $16,000 that the association raised at its last charity ball has been donated to the United Hebrew Charities.

    1892: It was reported today that “fever and diphtheria” are ravaging Jewish communities on “both sides of the Russian-German border.”

    1894(27thof Adar II, 5654): Sixty-eight year old Rabbi Abraham Pereira Mendes passed away in New York.  A native of Kingston, he was educated in England where he served congregations in Birmingham and London and served as the Dayan for the Sephardic community.  He came to the United States in 1883 to serve as Rabbi at the historic Touro Synagogue in Newport, RI.  He and his wife Eliza who was the daughter of Rabbi D.A. de Sola had two sons Frederick de Sola Mendes and Henry Pereira Mendes each of whom became rabbis.

    1894: The Philadelphia Inquirer reported that in Camden, NJ, “the Hebrew Independent Political Club has endorsed Isaac H. Weaver for Council and Harry Wolfe for Freeholder in the Fifth Ward.”

    1895: In Galicia, Sarah and Abraham Teichman gave birth to Moses Teichman who came to the United States with his mother in 1897 aboard the S.S. Friesland who gained fames as Arthur Murray the man who danced his way into a financial empire of the Arthur Murray Dance Studios.  He began teaching dance while attending Georgia Tech as a way to pay for his college expenses. 

    1895: The will of Bernhard Bernhard who had passed away last week we filed for probate today.

    1896:  Birthdate of poet Tristan Tzara [Samuel or Sami Rosenfeld].  Born in Romania, he began publishing in 1912.  In 1916 he moved to Switzerland where he a founder of Dadaism.  Tzara named this nihilistic movement by opening the dictionary and choosing the first meaningless word.  Tzara moved to Paris and was a member of the Communist wing of the Resistance.  He died in 1963.

    1896: Birthdate of Wolfgang Fürstner, the Wehrmacht officer who was in charge of the Olympic Village in 1936 and who committed suicide after he was reclassified as non-Aryan when it was discovered that his grandfather was a Jew who had converted to Christianity.

    1897: “Dr. Grossman on the Talmud” published today included the view Dr. Rudolph Grossman of Temple Beth-El “that while there were many who knew what the Talmud was they failed to thoroughly comprehend the many and interesting truths contained in the book.”

    1897: “A new Sefer Torah will be dedicated this afternoon Congregation Adath Israel of West Harlem.”

    1897: “Kosher Cooking School” published today described the opening of “school for instruction in the art of kosher cooking;” kosher meaning prepared “in accordance with the Jewish dietary laws.”

    1897: It was reported today that Ancient History of the Peoples of the East by the French Egyptologist Gaston Maspero has been translated into Hebrew by a publisher in Warsaw.

    1897: “In The Public Eye” published today described the phenomena of Hebrew “spring up again as  living literary language in Eastern Europe” as can be seen by, among other things, the publication of monthly Hebrew language review now being published in Berlin.

    1897: It was reported today that Israel Zangwill, author of Children of the Ghettowill be speaking in Jerusalem later this month.

    1897: Birthdate of Sir Francis Edward Evans, the Belfast native who served as the United Kingdom’s Ambassador to Israel from 1951 to 1954.

    1899: Rabbi B. A. Elzas officiated at the wedding of Israel D. Hart of Beaufort, SC and Rosalie Cecile Levy at the Charleston home of her parents, Mr. and Mrs. Charles F. Levy

    1899: In Berlin, sociologist and economist Franz Oppenheimer and his wife gave birth to Hillel Oppenheimer, the Israeli botany professor who helped to found the “Faculties of Natural Science and Agriculture” at Hebrew University and passed away in 1971.

    1899: In Albany, NY, the state Assembly passed a bill “exempting the real estate of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association of New York City from taxation.”

    1899: In New York City, the trustees of the United Hebrew Charities offered Dr. Lee K. Frankel of Philadelphia the position of manager of the organization.

    1899: Birthdate of Carmel Myers, the San Francisco native whose Australian rabbi father used his connections with D.W. Griffith, to help her launch a movie career that began with “Intolerance” in 1916.

    1900: Birthdate of St. Louis native Ernest E. Ellman.

    1901(15th of Nisan, 5661): At Temple Israel in New York City,  more than $100 was raised after Rabbi Harris delivered a Passover sermon in which he called for funds to be raised to alleviate those suffering through the horrific famine in Bessarabia.

    1901(15thof Nisan, 5661): Pesach

    1901(15th of Nisan, 5661): R. J. de Cordova passed away in London today at the age of 79.   De Cordova, whose parents were English, was born in the West Indies. He came to the United States in 1849 where he enjoyed a successful business career until the Panic of 1857.  At that time he began a career as humorist, author and journalist who wrote for the New York Express and the New York Times.  Mr. de Cordova was a regular speaker at Temple Emanu-El where he had a contract at one time to give a lecture on every third Saturday of the month.  He moved to London in 1885.

    1904(19thof Nisan, 5664): Fifth Day of Pesach

    1905: In a speech delivered at a Zionist banquet in London, “Israel Zangwill declared that in the whole history of the world the Jews never had a better friend than President Theodore Roosevelt.”  In the same speech, Zangwill rejected Britain’s offer of territory in East Africa (often referred to as the Uganda Plan) saying that the land might be useful “for rearing goats” but that it “was doubtful if a settlement 500 miles from the sea offered sufficient bais for a prosperous Jewish colony.”

    1906: It was reported today that the police authorities in Berlin are “conferring with the local Jewish Auxiliary Society” as to how to deal with the 7,000 impoverished Russian refugees most of whom are alleged to be their co-religionists.

    1908: In Great Britain, the conflict between those who believe in a literal interpretation of the Bible and those who believe in a more liberal interpretation heated up today when Sir Samuel Montagu, head of the banking firm of Samuel Montague & Co threatened to withdraw his financial support from the Jewish Religious Education Board unless it severed any further relationship with two of its more “liberal members” – Calude Joseph Goldsmid-Montefiore and Israel Abrahams. Montefiore and Abrahams are noted scholars.  The former is the author of The Origin and Development of the Religon of the Ancient Hebrews and the latter is a reader at Cambridge who is also editor of The Jewish Quarterly Review. Montague, who is officially known as Lord Swaythling, is an active leader and famed philanthropist in the Jewish community.  He is referred to as King of the East End because of his generous support of the less fortunate and is second only Lord Rothschild as its benefactor.  The Jewish Religious Education Board is a major communal organization that “looks after the material welfare and religious education of more than 10,000 Jewish children in the great East End of London.  According to some accounts, the whole matter reached a boiling point over whether or not one really believes that Balaam’s ass actually spoke to its master as described in the book of Numbers.  Montefiore accepts the text literally.  The two biblical scholars apparently think there is room for interpretation.  

    1909: Hashomer, the first Jewish self-defense organization was founded to protect Jewish settlements in what was Palestine, a part of the Ottoman Empire.  Until then, local Arab militias had been paid to protect farmers and others from marauding bands.  The early Zionists had already begun providing their own farm labor.  Now they decided to provide their own protection as well.  Needless to say, this did not sit well with the local population.  This is one more example of how the Zionists were resented not for being Jewish, but for failing to conform to the behavior acceptable to the local power structure.  From the Jewish perspective, Hashomer represented yet another break with the European experience.  Jews would no longer be at the mercy of others.  They would provide their own protection.  Having just experienced of wave of Pogroms in Russia, this had an extra special meaning for the early members of Hashomer, many of whose members were recent arrivals from Russia who had organized self-defense organizations in Russia during the pogroms five years earlier. Its founders included Itzhak ben Zvi, Israel Giladi, Israel Shohat and Alexander Zeid. It was eventually absorbed into the Hagannah the Jewish defense force formed in the 1920's that became the foundation for the modern IDF.

    1911: Marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Edward Schwartz, members of the Euclid Avenue Temple in Cleveland, Ohio.

    1913: Hannah Roth, “widow of the late Samuel Roth” was lead to rest today at the Waldheim Cemetery.

    1913: Sixty-nine year old Edward Dowden, the Irish author who claimed that “in the original Persian” version of the Shylock story, “the Jew is not impelled to cruelty because the money is not returned to him but for the reason that he in love with his debtor’s wife” and whose daughter Hester “claimed to communicate via various spirit guides including ‘Johannes,’ an ancient Jewish Neo-Platonist who lived 200 years before Jesus, passed away today.

    1913:  Birthdate of Jerome Weidman“revered New York novelist and playwright who first made a splash with his novel I Can Get It for You Wholesale and later won a Pulitzer Prize with George Abbott for their Broadway collaboration Fiorello!  He died in 1998 at the age of 85.

    1913(26th of Adar II, 5673): Sixty-five year old Frankfort banker “B. Oppenheimer” passed away today.

    1915(20thof Nisan, 5675): Sixth Day of Pesach

    1915: “Twenty thousand Jewish children held simultaneous Passover celebrations” this “morning in nine theatres in New York under the auspices of Young Judea.”

    1916: A bazar and fair designed to raise funds for “the Jewish war sufferers” which had begun on March came to an end at the Grand Central Palace in New York.

    1917: The Russian revolutionary government headed by Kerensky granted equality to all Russian Jews for the first time in Russian history. Since about 18 percent of the world's Jews were living in areas controlled by the Russian government, this decree would appear to have had a major impact on the fate of the world's Jews.  Unfortunately, such was not the case.  Within the year, the democratic Kerensky government was replaced by Lenin and the Bolsheviks.  That regime spelled the end of real freedom for everybody although Stalin would later have some special twists of evil for the Jewish population.

    1917: Dr. Avram Coralnik, who has been in the United States since last October representing “an influential publication at Petrograd said today it “is well known all over the world, the Jews were the most persecuted people in Russia.”

    1918(22ndof Nisan, 5678): 8th Day of Pesach

    1918(22 Nisan, 5678): Seventy-five year old German Jewish-philosopher Hermann Cohen, whose works included Religion of Reason out of the Sources of Judaism passed away in Berlin.

    1920(16th of Nisan, 5680): Second Day of Pesach

    1920: Arab orators in Palestine roused crowds into a fiery mob which attacked and killed Jews in three days of violent rioting that began today. At least five Jews were killed and hundreds more were injured during the Arab riots in Jerusalem.  The riots were fomented to protest Jewish immigration.  In a portent of the future, the British arrested the Jewish leaders, including Vladimir Jabotinsky and others for organizing a self-defense league.  The origins of the Arab rioting stemmed from intra-Arab conflicts – those who favored and opposed Feisal’s rule in Palestine.  Chaim Weizmann, who witnessed the riots, wrote to British Prime Minister Lloyd George that British authorities had done little to protect the Jews, a view that was supported by a later commission of investigation.

    1921: A Jewish battalion and an Arab battalion are founded by the British.

    1922:  Birthdate of composer Elmer Bernstein.  He wrote the theme songs or other music for more than 200 films and TV shows, including The Magnificent Seven, The Great Escape, The Ten Commandments, The Man with the Golden Arm, To Kill a Mockingbird, and the fanfare used in the National Geographic television specials. He received 14 Academy Award nominations, but his only win was for Thoroughly Modern Millie. Along with many in Hollywood, Bernstein faced censure during the McCarthy era of the 1950s. He was "gray-listed"—not banned, but kept off major projects—due to sympathy with left-wing causes, and had to work on a series of low budget films.

    1922: The Jewish industrial chemist and Liberal politician, Sir Alfred Mond, who was then Minister of Health, wrote to Sir Herbert Samuel warning him that the Arab delegation currently visiting London to express its opposition to the principles of the Balfour Declaration had become ‘a focus and a tool of the general anti-Semitic movement.’

    1923(18th of Nisan, 5683): Forty-nine year old Yuily Osipovch Martov, the Russian Revolutionary who led the Mensheviks – one of the many parties to be outlawed by Lenin and his Bolsheviks – passed away as an exile living in Germany.

    1923: Today “1923, following the success of the studio's film “The Gold Diggers,” Warner Brothers Pictures, Inc. was officially established, with. Harry Warner as president, Albert Warner as treasurer and Jack Warner and Sam Warner as co-heads of production.

    1924: The British and French end their dispute over the northern border of Palestine. Metula and its environs are included in the territory of the British Mandate.
    1924: The first issue of the periodical "Kiryat Sefer" appears. It is published by the National Library in Jerusalem.

    1924: In Hajdunanas, Hungary, Abraham Ornstein, an accountant, and the former Frieda Sziment gave birth to Holocaust survivor and psychoanalyst Paul Hermann Ornstein. (As reported by Sam Roberts)

    1926: Louis Lipsky, the Chairman of the Zionist Organization of America announced today “the beginning of a nation-wide movement for the promotion of Jewish education” that will be designed in cooperation with the “more than 2,000 Jewish schools in the United States.

    1926: In Berlin, real estate investor Oskar Rohr and Perla Gelbard Rohr gave birth to Sami Rohr who would survive the Holocaust to become a real estate mogul and philanthropist.

    1927: William H. Gallagher, the attorney representing Aaron Shapiro in his suit against Henry Ford “served notice that he will call Mr. as the next witness” to which Ford’s attorney responded that the anti-Semitic automaker would not be available because of medical reasons.

    1927: Samuel Untermyer is scheduled to return to Cairo from Jerusalem this morning.

    1927: Birthdate of Sam Adams, the native of Chicago who became a leading literary and Hollywood agent.

    1928(14thof Nisan, 5688): Ta’anit Bechorot; Erev Pesach

    1928: In London’s East End, Annie Berlin and Abraham Noserovitch gave birth to Monty Noserovitch, who gained fame as composer Monty Norman, the creator of “The James Bond Theme.”

    1928: “Eve’s Daughters” a drama starring Wolfgang Zilzer and filmed by cinematographer Otto Keller was released today in Germany and Czechoslovakia

    1931: U.S. premiere the action film “Dirigible” produced by Harry Cohn with a script co-authored by Jo Swerling.

    1931: U.S. premiere of “Front Page” for which director Lewis Milestone received an Oscar nomination.

    1931: In New York City, premiere of “Cracked Nuts” with music by Max Steiner.

    1932: In Brooklyn Herman and Florence Davies gave birth to Clive Davis.

    1932: “Zion, Ten Years Later” published today described the fundraising efforts of the Jewish Agency to raise $2,500,000 “of which hone million is to be raised in New York City” to go toward rebuilding the Jewish National Home in Palestine.

    1933: In Germany, a Civil Service Law prohibiting Jews from holding public service jobs was adopted.

    1933: A front-page article in the German-Jewish newspaper Jüdische Rundschau exhorted Jews to wear the identifying Yellow Star with the headline, Tragt ihn mit Stolz, den Gelben Fleck!(Wear it with Pride, the Yellow Badge!). The article was one of a series written a German Jew, Robert Weltsch, all of which were based on the same theme:"Say 'yes' to our Jewishness." The original article was written in response to the to the April 1, 1933 Nazi-led boycott of Jewish shops, which was the first meaningful anti-Jewish action of the newly-empowered Nazis,

    1935: Sixty-eight year old Bettino Levi, “an intimate friend of Theodor Herzl” who has working to provide relief for Jewish refugees from Germany passed away today.  (As reported by JTA)

    1935: American competitors at the 2nd Maccabiah in Tel Aviv came in first in their respective events.  Sybil Koff continued her winning ways in the 400 yard hurdles while “Abe Rosenkrantz captured the 1,500-meter run.”  Julius Finkelstein took the top spot in the shot put and James Sandler tied the Maccabiah record as he claimed first place in the high jump.  Lilian Copeland, who had done so well at the 1932 Olympics, won “both the javelin and discuss throws in the women’s division.”

    1936(12thof Nisan, 5695): Shabbat HaGadol

    1936(12thof Nisan, 5695): Forty-three year old Budapest born American “violinist, conductor and composer, best known for his song "Bluebird of Happiness" written in 1934 for Jan Peerce” passed away in Flemington, NJ toda.

    1936: “The United Palestine Appeal issued a statistical analysis showing that 36,372 Jews from Germany entered Palestine from January, 1933 to December, 1935.”

    1936: “The American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee announced” today “that $10,000 had been sent to Jews in Poland and Germany for Passover relief and the purchase of kosher meat.”

    1936: “At a dinner given his honor by a committee head by Stephen S. Wise and attended by 900 persons” “Eddie Cantor announced tonight at the Hotel Astor that he intended to go ‘from one end of the country to the other’ in an effort to raise funds to take as many German Jewish children out of Germany as possible.”

    1936: One of the letters meant to reply to a political whispering campaign aimed at Secretary of Labor Perkins released tonight said that “there were no Jews in her ancestry” and that “If I were a Jew I would not secret of it” and “would be proud to acknowledge it.”

    1936: It was reported today that “even under present restrictions the flight of Jewish capital is so serious a factor that any Jewish capitalist wishing to emigrate from Germany now is being visited by the Gestapo.” (Talk about gross rationalization for anti-Semitism)

    1937(23rdof Nisan, 5697): Seventy-nine year old Henry Goldman the only member of Goldman-Sachs to support Germany during World War I and who moved to Germany in the early 1930’s only to barely escape back to the U.S. in 1936, passed away today.

    1937: Twelve organizations participated in a meeting organized by the American Ort Federation to honor the memory New York civic leader Henry Moskowitz during which Mayor La Guardia testified to “his public service and intellectual honesty” and Governor Lehman said that “his sympathies knew no limits of race, color, creed or nationality.”

    1937: The Palestine Post commented on the text of the 300-page memorandum submitted by the Jewish Agency to the Royal (Peel) Commission on Palestine. The agency pointed out that the duty of the Mandatory government was to establish the Jewish National Home in Palestine, to encourage Jews to immigrate, to help them to settle down and to develop self-governing institutions. The Crown Colonist, published in London, advocated Jewish settlement in Transjordan, as a means of getting that country out of its economic plight.

    1938:Todayduring a heated House of Commons debate in which he had been criticizing the government's foreign policy, Manny Shinwell slapped the face of the Conservative MP Commander Robert Tatton Bower after Bower told him to "go back to Poland" because “Shinwell said he had taken this to be an anti-Semitic remark.”

    1938: Arthur Sweetser, a director of the secretariat of the League of Nations met with President Roosevelt to discuss the fate of the Jews of Europe and proposal for a “rescue plan.  According to Mr. Sweetser, during the meeting, Roosevelt took credit for this latest proposal to deal with the problem. “Then Roosevelt turned more expansive and said ‘Suddenly it struck me: why not get all the democracies to unite to share the burden? After all, they own most of the free land of the world, and there only…what would you say, 14, 16, million Jews in the whole world of whom about half are already in the United States.  If we could divide up the remainder in groups of 8 or 10, there wouldn’t be any Jewish problem in three or four generations.’”

    1939: Four year old Faisal II becomes King of Iraq. Faisal is the King of Iraq during the Israel War for Independence.  Iraq was the largest Arab state without a border with Israel that sent a major contingent “to drive the Jews into the sea.”  More importantly, Faisal was the last king of Iraq.  He was overthrown and murdered in a brutal revolt in 1958 when the Ba’ath Party (the party that would give us Saddam Hussein) came to power. 

    1939: The Institut zur Erforschung des jüdischen Einflusses auf das deutsche kirchliche Leben(Institute for the Study of Jewish Influence on German Church Life) was founded.

    1940: FDR met in the White House today Michigan Senator Prentis M. Brown, the future senior partner of Brown, Lund and Levin.

    1940: “I Love a Mystery” sponsored by Fleischmann’s Yeast and featuring Tony Randall (Aryeh Leonard Rosenberg) expanded to a 30 minute broadcast format today on NBC.

    1942: Birthdate of New York native Elizabeth Levy, the author of over “eighty children’s books.”

    1943: In the Bronx, Jack Espstein, a Toronto born salesman and his wife Evelyn gave birth to Michael Peter Epstein, the product of Fairfax High in Los Angeles and U.C., Berkeley who gained game as Major Leaguer first baseman Mike “SuperJew” Epstein.

    1944: An Allied spy plane flying over Poland happened to photograph Auschwitz while documenting construction of a synthetic-fuels plant providing photographic proof of the existence of the death camp.

    1944: German Holocaust victim Anne Frank, 14, wrote in her diary: 'I want to go on living even after my death! And therefore I am grateful to God for giving me this gift...of expressing all that is in me.'

    1944(11th of Nisan, 5704): “Miss Irene Lewisohn, founder and co-director of the Neighborhood Playhouse School” passed away tonight.

    1945:The 4th Armored Division and the 89th Infantry Division liberated Ohrdruf concentration camp.  It was the first Nazi concentration camp liberated by the U.S. Army. General George S. Patton, Old Blood and Guts, described it as "one of the most appalling sights that I have ever seen."

    1945: Birthdate of Daniel Marc Cohn-Bendit who gained famed as student protester in France known as "Danny the Red". Like many other radicals, this son of refugees from Hitler’s Germany later sought political respectability.  In his case, he became a lead of the European Greens and a member of the European Parliament.

    1946: As international postal service is begun after a six year hiatus, large numbers of letters and postcards are sent to numerous locations including Tel Aviv.

    1946: Eitan Livini was arrested today on charges that he had participated in the “Night of the Trains,” an Irgun led sabotage operation aimed bringing the British transportation infrastructure to a halt.

    1947: After premiering in Miami, “The Sin of Harold Diddlebock,” a comedy featuring Lionel Stander and Julius Tannen was released in the United States today.

    1948: Birthdate of Michael Kleiner, the native of Munich who made Aliyah in 1951 and whose career in politics led him to be elected President of the Supreme Court of Likud, “the party's highest judicial body in all matters pertaining to its constitution, and party members and divisions are subject to its decisions.”

    1948: Following an attack in the Northern Negev,a Palmach Unit destroyed "nine Bedouin lay-bys and one mud hut."

    1948: The Arab Liberation Army opened an attack on kibbutz Mishmar HaEmek with a barrage from 7 artillery pieces supplied by the Syrian Army which elicited a successful counter-attack by the Haganah.

    1948: “As National Commander of the Jewish War Veterans, Julius Klein organized an enormous show of strength for the establishment of the State of Israel in the form of a JWV parade down New York's Fifth Avenue.”

    1949: “Gabriel Haritos, as the Mayor of Rhodes, was the local partner for the proceedings for the initial talks between Israel, Egypt and Jordan, under the auspices of United Nations, at the Grande Albergo delle Rose (Hotel of Roses) in Rhodes” which had begun in January and came to an end today.

    1949:French Labor Leader Leon Jouhaux, who is visiting Israel as a guest of the General Federation of Jewish Labor, was pelted with tomatoes and oranges by Communist hecklers tonight when he made a public address in Tel Aviv Museum.

    1949: Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion addressed the Knesset on the impact of the armistice signed yesterday with Trans-Jordan.

    1950: Birthdate of “American poet, essayist, editor and literary scholar Charles Bernstein who is the husband of artist Susan Bee.

    1951: U.S. premiere “I Can Get It for You Wholesale” a film adaptation of Jerome Weidman’s 1937 novel directed by Michael Gordon, produced by Sol C. Siegel, with a script by Abraham Polonsky and Vera Caspary and music by Sol Kaplan.

    1951: In what was the first outbreak of anti-Semitism in postwar Austria, 26 Jews were wounded in Salzburg.  The first outbreaks of anti-Semitism in postwar Europe actually began in Poland.  This episode reinforces the notion that the Nazis were so successful because they had willing help from the local populations.

    1951: Seven soldering were killed today in what is known as the “el-Hamma incident.”

    1952: The Jerusalem Post reported from The Hague that a critical stage had been reached in the reparations talks held there, after the German delegation, upon its return from Bonn, claimed that it had been denied any authority by the West German Federal Government.

    1952: The Jerusalem Post reported that four Israeli passengers aboard a Cyprus Airways ended up in the Beirut airport. They were flying from Nicosia when heavy fog forced the emergency landing. The four Jewish passengers were allowed to proceed to Lod unharmed.

    1952: The Jerusalem Post reported that on the eve of rather frugal Pesach holidays, Dr. Dov Joseph, minister of commerce and industry, promised a richer menu, better organization and more supplies for the forthcoming summer.

    1953: Birthdate of Simcha Jacobovici the Israeli born “Canadian film director, producer, free-lance journalist, and writer.”

    1953: Birthdate of Laurie Hope Beecham the Philadelphia native whose short career on Broadway included appearances in “Annie” and “Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat.”

    1953: Eleanor Roosevelt, the widow of FDR, met with Lazarus Joseph “to advocate for the preservation of social welfare projects.”

    1954: Paddy Chayefsky’s teleplay “Mother” was broadcast by The Philco Televison Playhouse.

    1960: Seventy-six year old German historian Wilhelm Herzog the author of Die Affäre Dreyfus (The Dreyfus Affair) which “was adapted as the British film “Dreyfus” in 1931 and as the 1937 play “I Accuse!” passed away today.

    1960: “A Palm Tree in a Rose Guardian produced by David Susskind was broadcast as “The Play of the Week”

    1960: Actress Shelley Winters (Shirley Schrift) won her first Academy Award for her performance as Mrs. Van Daan in the film version of “The Diary of Anne Frank.”

    1962: “A Thousand Clowns” featuring Gene Sakes as “Leo Harman” had a “preview” Broadway performance today.

    1964: Anyone Can Whistle, a musical with a book by Arthur Laurents and music and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim” opened on Broadway today at the Majestic Theatre.

    1966 (14th of Nisan, 5726): Rabbi Alan Greenspan, a Chaplain in the United States Army, leads a Seder for 135 Americans in Saigon.  This simple statement does not do justice to the efforts of Rabbi Greenspan who overcame a wide-range of obstacles to pull off this fete.

    1966 (14th of Nisan, 5726): General William Westmorland issued a Passover greeting to Jewish soldiers in which he compared the Freedom theme of the holiday with the American effort to provide freedom and security for the people of Viet Nam.

    1967(23rd of Adar II, 5727): Mischa Elman passed away at the age of 76.  Another in a long list of world-class violinists who were Jewish, Elman was born in Kiev.  The child prodigy eventually made his way to the United States where he spent the bulk of his adult life.

    1967(23rd of Adar II, 5727): Lyricist Al Lewis whose most famous work was “Blueberry Hill” passed away. Written in 1940, it gained everlasting fame when it was recorded by Fats Domino in 1956.

    1967: Dr. Martin Luther King opened his “Beyond Vietnam” speech at Riverside Church in New York City by welcoming Rabbi Abraham Heschel.

    1968: Larry Rosen, the owner of Smith’s Pharmacy at 14th and Clifton Streets, N.W. in Washington spent his last day at his business which would be burned down in the rioting that began tonight after the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

    1968: The riots that erupted in several cities today led to the writing of Making the Second Ghetto: Race and Housing in Chicago, 1940-1960 in which historian Arnold R. Hirsch analyzed the impact of “institutional forces during World War II and the decades that followed, when millions of African Americans migrated to cities outside of the South, high-rise towers sprouted up in predominantly black neighborhoods and policymakers announced a cheery-sounding doctrine known as “urban renewal” — what writer James Baldwin would later dub “Negro removal.”

    1971(9thof Nisan, 5731): Seventy year old Shlomo Yisrael Ben-Meir the native of Warsaw who arrived in Israel in 1950 after having worked as a lawyer in the United States and then served as an MK from 1952 until his death, passed away today.

    1971: “Follies” “a musical with music and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim,a book by James Goldman” and scenic designs by Boris Aronson opened on Broadway at the Winter Garden Theater

    1972(20th of Nisan, 5732): Sixty-nine year old German born, American composer Stefan Wolpe, passed away.

    1972: Le Mondedescribed Charles Bettelheim as "the most visible Marxists… in France as well as in Spain, Italy, Latin America, and India.”

    1973: Attacks by four Arabs “on the Israeli Ambassador’s residence in Nicosia” and an Arkia plane at the Nicosia airport was thwarted today.

    1973:  Birthdate of Magician David Blaine “the son of Patrice White, who may or may not have been a gypsy, but was certainly a Russian Jew living in Brooklyn” and is sometimes called a modern day Harry Houdini. 

    1976(4th of Nisan, 5736): Sixty-seven year old Chicago native Louis James “Lou” Gordon who played tackle for Illinois from 1927 through 1929 so well that “football historian Dr. L.H. Baker to the All-Time Illini Team” and whose nine year NFL career including playing for the Green Bay Packers when they defeated the Boston Redskins for the Championship, passed away today.

    1977: CBS broadcast the final episode of season five of “Maude” starring Bea Arthur in the title role

    1977:The Jerusalem Post reported that Egyptian President Anwar Sadat ended talks with French and German leaders by saying that he saw encouraging signs for the reconvening of the Geneva Peace Conference and the establishment of a permanent peace in the Middle East.

    1977:The Jerusalem Post reported that El Al planes took off for overseas flights without cabin crews who had absented themselves to protest against El Al's refusal to compensate them for duty on holidays.

    1978:Kahal Kadosh Beth Elohim Synagogue was added to the National Register of Historic Places

    1979: Birthdate of actress Natasha Lyonne who appeared in Slums of Beverly Hills and FreewayII

    1979: Joseph Stephen Stanford began serving as Canada’s Ambassador to Israel.

    1980(18thof Nisan, 5740): Fourth Day of Pesach

    1980(18thof Nisan, 5740): Seventy-one year old movie director Aleksander Ford who was born Mosze Lifszyc in Kiev, passed away today.

    1981(29th of Adar II, 5741):Icko Wakmann, retired president of the Relide Clock Company in Manhattan and founder of the Wakmann Watch Company and father of Tel Aviv resident Margalit Zwiebel passed away at the age of 86.

    1982: The New York Times publishes a review of “Kibbutz Makom Report From an Israeli Kibbutz” by Amia Lieblich.

    1982: In recognition of the Lubavitcher Rebbe's 80th birthday, the Senate and the House of Representatives of the United States in Congress assembled have issued House Joint Resolution 447 to set aside today as a "National Day of Reflection."

    1983:Responding to Iraqi charges that Israel was guilty of ''mass poisoning'' of Palestinian schoolgirls in the West Bank, the Security Council tonight called on Secretary General Javier Perez de Cuellar to investigate ''the causes and effects of the serious problem of the reported cases of poisoning.'' The ambiguous language, necessary to win the approval of all 15 Council members, left open the question of whether the schoolgirls had actually been poisoned and left up to the Secretary General to decide whether the outside medical teams summoned by Israel meet the demand for ''independent inquiries.'' The Council issued its statement through this month's president, Jeane J. Kirkpatrick of the United States. A presidential statement has less political force than a resolution, but the arrangement spared the Council an open meeting. Some Arab diplomats said they would not welcome inflammatory speeches, particularly if the inquiries disclose no poisoning has taken place. Mrs. Kirkpatrick had arranged the outlines of this solution in meetings last Friday with Riyadh al-Qaysi of Iraq, chairman of the Arab group, and Abdullah el-Salah of Jordan, the Council's Arab member. In his letter convoking the Council, Mr. Qaysi charged that ''mass poisoning'' had struck ''more than 1,000 Palestinian schoolgirls.'' He said the poisoning was ''caused by a yellow substance containing sulfur concentrates which emitted poisonous gases with dangerous physical and psychological consequences.'' Yehuda Z. Blum, the Israeli delegate, who termed the charges ''irresponsible and unfounded,'' rejected the Council statement and said references in it to poisoning were ''completely unwarranted.''

    1984: NBC broadcast the first episode of “Double Trouble” a sitcom starring Jean and Liz Sagal whose executive producers including Saul Turteltaub.

    1985:Birthdate of Israeli tennis player Dudi Sela

    1987(5th of Nisan, 5747): Michael Redstone, the media mogul whose companies included CBS and Viacom, passed away.

    1987: Annette Greenfield Strauss won a plurality of the vote for Mayor of Dallas. Winning a run-off election on April 18, she became the city's first elected woman mayor.

    1988: Publication of “Chasing a Chameleon - Trebitsch Lincoln” in the 38thVolume of History Today.

    1992(1st of Nisan, 5752): Rosh Chodesh Nisan/Shabbat Ha-Chodesh

    1992(1st of Nisan, 5752):Samuel "Sammy" Herman Reshevsky, a chess prodigy and grand chess master passed away.  Reshevsky was an Orthodox Jew who did not play on Shabbat.

    1993: Israeli tennis star Amos Mansdorf was the runner-up at today’s tournament in Osaka, Japan.

    1996(15thof Nisan, 5756): Pesach

    1997: Today’s edition of The Jewish Press “quoted from ‘A Historic Declaration’, issued by the Union of Orthodox Rabbis on March 31” which began “Reform and Conservative are not Judaism at all.”

    1998: Shabbat Hagadol

    1999: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or special interest to Jewish readers including “Uncovering Clinton:A Reporter's Story” by Michael Isikoff and “The Rise and Fall of the House of Barneys: A Family Tale of Chutzpah, Glory and Greed” by Joshua Levine.

    1999: In an article by Bill Kent published today,John Mulloy, president of Ginsburg's bread bakery laments the fate of his company’s sales during Pesach.

    'What happens to our bread business during Passover?'' sighed John Mulloy, president of Ginsburg's bread bakery here. ''It dies!'' During the eight days of Passover, Jews refrain from eating all foods made from grains except matzah, a flat, cracker-like wheat bread that Mr. Mulloy does not make. ''In the old days the Ginsburgs would just close up and take a vacation when Passover came around,'' Mr. Mulloy went on. ''We never close.'' What started as a family-run business on Atlantic Avenue in 1903 that made bread and cakes for Boardwalk hotels now employs 120 and occupies an entire city block at Mediterranean and New York Avenues. All of the casino hotels use Ginsburg's baked goods. The bread is also sold in six supermarket chains in the area. And eight regional distributors put the bread on grocery shelves as far away as Flordia and California. In the 20 years Mr. Mulloy has owned the bakery, Ginsburg's three Israeli-made, natural gas-fired Thermatron ovens have never grown cold. ''There were some bad years when the business went up and down,'' said Mr. Mulloy, who owned a delicatessen in Philadelphia and ''raised four sons on corned beef specials.'' He bought the bakery from the Ginsburgs with a partner in 1979 partly because of its Jewish rye bread. ''Even in Philadelphia, where you could get all the good Jewish rye you wanted, my customers would rave about the Ginsburg rye. For some of them, before the casinos opened up, it was the only reason to go to Atlantic City.'' Two years later, after moving to the area, Mr. Mulloy bought out his partner and turned over the management of the bakery to his sons -- John, 33; Michael, 32; Dan, 30; and Chris, 29 -- who learned the peculiar difficulties of doing business with a casino industry whose buyers can be notoriously fickle and take four months to pay their bills. An attempt to sell the bread through a retail storefront failed, he said, when ''tourists just couldn't find us.''''There were other times when we didn't think we'd make it,'' Mr. Mulloy said. ''But, as locations go, this one has been very good to us.'' The plant uses no milk ingredients in its dough and is inspected yearly by a panel of local rabbis who assure that its preparation techniques and products are in accordance with Jewish dietary laws. Beyond saying that his plant uses about 75 tons of flour each week, Mr. Mulloy would not disclose how much bread his bakery produces, or how much sales decrease during Passover. ''But there is enough of a downturn for us to use the holiday to make improvements to the plant,'' he said. Ginsburg's has just begun a $1.5 million renovation ''that will just make us a little bit more efficient'' -- in time for September, when the demand for chalah peaks at Rosh Hashanah.

    2000: Rabbi Ismar Schorsch, chancellor of the Jewish Theological Seminary delivered the first public lecture sponsored by the John Cardinal O'Connor Distinguished Chair in Hebrew and Sacred Scripture at St. Joseph's Seminary.

    2002(22ndof Nisan, 5762): 8th day of Pesach and 7th day of the Omer

    2002(22ndof Nisan, 5762): During Operation Defensive Shield a member of the Israel Border Police was killed by terrorists when they went to arrest a member of the Al-Aqsa Martyrs’ Brigade at Hebron.

    2002(22ndof Nisan, 5762): “Rachel Charhi, 36, of Bat-Yam, critically injured in a suicide bombing in a cafe on the corner of Allenby and Bialik streets in Tel-Aviv on March 30, died of her wounds. Some 30 others were injured in the attack. The Fatah Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades claimed responsibility.”

    2002(22ndof Nisan, 5762): During Operation Defensive Shield Border Police Supt. Patrick Pereg, 30, of Rosh Ha'ayin, head of operations in an undercover unit, was killed Thursday while attempting to arrest a wanted member of Fatah's al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade.

    2002(22ndof Nisan, 5762): During Operation Defensive Shield Sgt.-Maj.(res.) Einan Sharabi, 32, of Rehovot; Lt. Nissim Ben-David, 22, of Ashdod; and St.-Sgt. Gad Ezra, 23, of Bat-Yam were killed today.

    2003: After premiering at the Toronto International Film Festival six months ago “Phone Booth” an urban terror film directed by Joel Schumacher, produced by David Zucker and written by Larry Cohen was released in the United States today.

    2005(24th of Adar II, 5765):  Edward Bronfman, Canadian financier and philanthropist passed away at the age of 77.  Part of “the other Bronfmans” to distinguish him and his brother from the more famous Edgar Bronfman family, Edward Bronfman amassed business holdings valued at $80 million.  His generosity and in recognition of his other contributions to the civic good earned Bronfman  the Order of Canada, the nation’s highest civilian honor.

    2006: Eightieth birthday of Sami Rohr.

    2006: “While turning the pages of The Miami Herald” Sami Rohr “was surprised by a large advertisement announcing a new literary award” – The Sami Rohr Prize – that his three children had created without his knowledge to honor him. “It’s the largest prize of its kind in North America, in terms of the amount,” and gives “authors an opportunity to take time off to pursue their craft’” which furthered Rohr’s desire “to make sure that Jewish literature would thrive for generations.”

    2006: Paula Abdul filed a report at a Hollywood police station claiming she had been a victim of battery at a private party…"According to Abdul, the man at the party argued with her, grabbed her by the arm and threw her against a wall," L.A.P.D. Lt. Paul Vernon said. "She said she had sustained a concussion and spinal injuries

    2006:The Justice Ministry confirmed that Yona Metzger would not be able to continue as chief rabbi if the dayanim Appointment Committee disqualifies him from serving as a judge in the High Rabbinic Court

    2006: In “With Yoga, Comedy and Parties, Synagogues Entice Newcomers,”  published today Michel Luo reports on the development of Jewish outreach programs

    2007: New Mexico’s Bosque Redondo State Monument, a site commemorating “The Long Walk” hosts the traveling exhibition “Anne Frank: A History for Today.”

    2007: “A little over three weeks after Robert “Bob” Levinson was arrested, an article today by Iranian state-run PressTV stated that he "has been in the hands of Iranian security forces since the early hours of March 9" and "authorities are well on the way to finishing the procedural arrangements that could see him freed in a matter of days". The same article explained that it was established that Levinson's trip to Kish "was purely that of a private businessman looking to make contact with persons who could help him make representations to official Iranian bodies responsible for suppressing trade in pirated products which is a major concern of his company.”

    2007: An exhibition styled “Landmarks” presented by students of the Jewelry and Fashion department at the Bezalel Academy of Art and Design comes to a close.

    2007916thof Nisan, 5767): Second Day of Pesach.

    2007: Florida Congresswoman Ileana Ros-Lehinten, the ranking Republican on the House (of Representatives) Foreign Affairs Committee “stated at a Congressional Hearing” that “‘Jews who were born in Arab countries have lost their resources, their homes, their heritage, and their heritage sites.’” During these same hearings, Irwin Cotler, a member of the Canadian Parliament and a former Justice minister argued that “’the rights for Jewish refugees from Arab countries have to a party of any peace process if tht peace process is to have any integrity.’”

    2007: Today “a little over three weeks after Robert Levinson was arrested, an article by Iranian state-run PressTV stated that he "has been in the hands of Iranian security forces since the early hours of March 9" and "authorities are well on the way to finishing the procedural arrangements that could see him freed in a matter of days

    2008: The Youth Department of Congregation Beth Judea holds a special Friday Evening Shabbat Service led by the Kadinkers, the Kadima and the members of USY.  The service is preceded by a traditional kosher dinner.  Founded in 1969, the synagogue is in Long Grove, Il and serves families located in nearby Wheeling and Buffalo Grove.  Its website provides an on-line entry into the world of synagogue music.

    2008: Army radio reported that Palestinian militants had opened fire on farmers working in the fields of Kibbutz Ein Hashlosha, near Gaza. Thirty of the fieldworkers being shot at were volunteers from kibbutzim from different parts of Israel who had come to aid their counterparts at Ein Hashlosha, which has been the target of repeated sniper attacks

    2008: Hamas spokesman Abu Obeida announced today that sniper fire from Hamas' military wing, which wounded Public Security Minister Avi Dichter's bureau chief near Gaza, was in fact aimed at the minister himself. Dichter's senior aide Mati Gil sustained moderate wounds in the attack, but the minister himself was not hurt.

    2008: The city of Montreal stated it planned to allow demolition of the building that housed Bens De Luxe Delicatessen and Restaurant originally opened by Ben and Fanny Kravitz in 1908.

    2009(10thof Nisan, 5769): In Cedar Rapids, Iowa, at Temple Judah, the Traditional Saturday morning minyan celebrates Shabbat Hagadol

    2009:Rabin Square in central Tel Aviv hosts the city's Centennial Opening Gala. A showcase for top Israeli and International artists, the event includes an impressive 360-degree audiovisual display and performances by the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra and Israeli Opera.

    2009: Retired American soccer play Daniel Jacob "Dan" Calichman “was honored by the Galaxy in a pre-game match ceremony.”

    2009:Several hours after IDF soldiers killed two Palestinian terrorists who were trying to plant a bomb along the Gaza border fence, Border Police forces killed a terrorist who tried to carry out a shooting attack at their base in the Negev this afternoon.

    2010: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including the recently published paperback edition of One State, Two States: Resolving the Israel/Palestine Conflict by Benny Morris, “the father of Israel’s ‘new historians’” who “was convinced by the failed 2000 Camp David summit that Israel could do nothing to make Arab Muslims agree to its existence as a Jewish state” and “ now sees the two-state solution as a fantasy” while rejecting  “the so-called one-state solution as a call for Israel’s elimination.”

    2010: “Tulane University President Scott Cowen received the Times-Picayune Loving.”

    2011: Larry Page “officially became chief executive of Google.”

    2011: A revival production of “The House of Blue Leaves” starring Ben Stiller began its preview performances at the Walter Kerr Theatre.

    2011: YIVO Institute for Jewish Research and Leo Baeck Institute are scheduled to present a rare interview with Nobel Laureate Elfriede Jelinek as part of a program entitled “Rechnitz: Austria's Dirty Little Secret.”

    2011:SheshBesh - The Arab-Jewish Ensemble of the IPO – is scheduled to perform in New York City.

    2011:La Rafle,” a film described as “a European Schindler’s List” is scheduled to be shown at the Westchester Jewish Film Festival.

    2011(29thof Adar II, 5711): Actor Juliano Mer-Kham was gunned down in Jenin.

    2011(29thof Adar II, 5711): Fifty-one year old John Adler who “was a U.S. Representative for New Jersey's 3rd congressional district, serving from 2009 until 2011” passed away today.

    2011(29thof Adar II, 5711): Ninety year old William Prussoff  “a pharmacologist at the Yale School of Medicine who, with a colleague, developed an effective component in the first generation of drug cocktails used to treat AIDS” passed away today. (As reported by William Grimes)

    2011(29thof Adar II): Anniversary of the giving of the first commandment to the Jewish people. “Shortly before sundown on the 29th of Adar, G-d commanded Moses regarding the mitzvah of sanctifying the crescent new moon and establishing a lunar calendar. This is the first mitzvah the Jews were given as a nation.”

    2011:Dirar Abu Sisi was Hamas's leading missile developer according to an indictment filed today at the Beersheba District Court. Abu Sisi was reportedly abducted by Israel over a month ago as he was traveling on a train in Ukraine and brought to Israel for interrogation. According to the indictment, Abu Sisi received his doctorate in engineering in Ukraine in the 1990s and studied with some of the leading Ukrainian military engineers. After returning to the Gaza Strip, he was recruited into Hamas by the military commander of the terrorist organization at the time, Salah Shehada, and began working as one of their leading engineers for short- and long-range missiles.

    2011:The Lehi considered killing Winston Churchill, The Telegraph reported today, citing declassified MI5 files. Eliyahu Bet-Zuri, a member of the underground group during the time of the British mandate, reportedly suggested in November 1944 that Lehi, or Stern Gang, members fly to London to kill the prime minister and force the British out of Mandatory Palestine, sparking concern in MI5 that Jewish extremists might try to assassinate foreign secretary Ernest Bevin, as well. "As soon as [Bet-Zuri] returned to Stern Group headquarters, he proposed to suggest a plan for the assassination of highly placed British political personalities, including Mr. Churchill, for which purpose emissaries should be sent to London," a sources within the Lehi told Major James Robertson from MI5's Middle East section. Four months later, Bet-Zuri was executed in Cairo for assassinating Lord Moyne, the British Minister in the Middle East.

    2011:Requests from charities around the country for food aid packages to help feed the country’s growing needy population have nearly doubled this year compared to last year, Israel’s largest food bank, Leket, reported today. (As reported by Ruth Eglash)

    2012: “The Kid With a Bike” is one of the films scheduled to be shown at the Westchester Jewish Film Festival.

    2012: The Yuval Ron Ensemble is scheduled to present a program thatexplores music of the ancient biblical Hebrew, Yemenite and Babylonian musical traditions, in Manhattan, Kansas.

    2012(12th of Nisan, 5772):On the 12th of Nissan, 3412, Ezra departed from the river of Ahava, for Eretz Israel. This was part of the return from the Babylonian Exile that would lead to the building of the Second Temple and the regular, public reading of the Torah.

    2012: Ruth Goodman and Gabi Gabay are scheduled to lead a program of Israeli Dancing at the 92nd Street Y.

    2013: A renewal contract for the “Judge Judy” television show with Judith Sheindlin in the title role extended the show through the 2016-2017 season.

    2013: The Center for Jewish History is scheduled to present “At the Edge of the Jewish World: Central Asia’s Bukharan Jews.

    2013: As part of the lecture series 'FilmTalk: The Jewish Villian', the Wiener Library is scheduled to present “Reviewing Fagin, 1948-2005”

     2013: The Jewish Theological Seminary is scheduled to host “a concert starring the Juilliard Jazz Ensemble” that “will feature the music of prominent Jewish and African American jazz composers” and “will explore the singular connections between the compositions and the cultures.”

    2013: The White House will not hold a Jewish History Month event this year because of the sequester. The White House will not hold a Jewish History Month event this year because of the sequester. A White House official confirmed to JTA that the reception, which usually takes place toward the end of May, would not take place this year because of the congressionally mandated across-the-board budget cuts that kicked in last month.

    2013: More than 100 U.S. Jewish leaders urged Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu to make clear "Israel’s readiness to make painful territorial sacrifices for the sake of peace."

    2013: Women who recite the Mourner's Kaddish at the Western Wall will not be arrested, Jewish Agency Chairman Natan Sharansky said he has been assured, despite a police vow to enforce a ban.

    2014: Congregants at Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, Iowa are scheduled to take a trip down memory lane with “Retro-Reform” Shabbat Evening Services featuring Gates of Prayer, the prayerbook which was considered ground-breaking when introduced just a few decades ago.

    2014: The 12thannual Austin Jewish Film Festival is scheduled to come to an end today.

    2014: “The Prime Ministers: The Pioneers” and “Aya with Wherever You Go” are scheduled to be shown at the Westchester Jewish Film Festival.

    2014: The Cedar Rapids Gazette is scheduled to publish a feature story about Cesare Frustaci the survivor of the Nazi ghetto in Budapest who will be the featured speaker at the upcoming Yom Hashoah Service sponsored by The Thaler Holocaust Remembrance Fund.

    2014: In Spain, a Family Reunion, Centuries Later

    2014: “A Legendary Mossad Commander Steps from the Shadows” published today explores the life and times of Mike Harari.

    2015: Francis J. Pruitt, the author of Faith and Courage in a Time of Trouble, “a memoir of a Belgian-Jewish girl and her family who were saved during the Nazi occupation of France through the compassion and heroism of French peasants from the southern part of the country” is scheduled to appear at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.

    2015(15thof Nisan, 5775): Eighty-two year old actor and playwright Ira Lewis passed away today.

    2015(15th of Nisan, 5775):First day of Pesach coincides with observance of Shabbat.

    2016: “In Search of Israeli Cuisine” and “Are You Joking?/ The Plagues” are scheduled to be shown at the Hartford, CT, Jewish Film Fest.

    2016: Today, Jerry Reinsdorf, the owner of the Chicago Bulls “was elected to the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame as a contributor.

    2016: “Aliyah Dada” and “The Prime Ministers II: Soldiers and Peacemakers” are scheduled to be shown today at the Westchester Jewish Film Festival.

    2017: Publication of Survivor: A Portrait of the Survivors of the Holocaust by Harry Borden

    2017: In Des Moines, The Iowa Jewish Historical Society is scheduled to host a luncheon featuring three Israelis – Sandee Illouz, the founder and director of EREZ College Shlomi; Noa Kali of the Kadar Center for Innovative Learning Approches and Yoram Poslinsky, the director of the community Center Network in Akko and the found of the Rosh Pinnna Music School and Orchestra.

    2018(19thof Nisan, 5778): Fifth Day of Pesach

    2018: In Memphis, TN, Rabbi Feivel Strauss is scheduled to focus on Jesus as part of the Great Jewish Renegades series.

    2018: In Jerusalem, The Tower of David is scheduled to host a public reading of “Young David and the Pitcher.

    2018: The American Jewish Historical Society is scheduled to host the NYC premiere screen of “GI Jews: Jewish Americans in World War II,” a documentary ‘Directed by Lisa Ades, Produced by Amanda Bonavita, and Written by Maia Harris” that tells the story of the more than half a million Jewish Americans “who served in WW II.”

    2018: “Remember Baghdad,” “an exploration of the rich Jewish life and culture that had flourished in Iraq before the events of the 20th and early 21st centuries dramatically changed the course of the country – and the fate of its Jews” and “The Outer Circle,” “a portrait of four generations of the Fattals as they gather for their annual feast in Mama’s house on Rosh Hashanah” are scheduled to be shown at the CCA Glasgow, in Glasgow, Scotland.










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    April 5

    1291: Muslim forces began the siege of Acre, the last Crusader stronghold.  Today, this site, Akko, is back in the control of the true titleholders, the people of People of Israel who were more often than not victims during the centuries dominated by the Crusades.

    1419: Sixty-nine year old Vincent Ferrer, the Dominican Friar who used dubious means to force Jews to convert to Catholicism and helped to sow the seeds of anti-Semitism in Spain passed away today. Among the leaders who sought to provide the Jews with the intellectual support to fight this period of darkness was Isaac ben Jacob Canapton, the Spanish rabbi who lived from 1360 to 1463 and wrote A Methodology of the Talmud. (The Catholic Church saw fit to canonize the priest)

    1464: Anti-Jewish riots broke out in Seville, Spain.

    1533: In an effort to stop the Inquisition, Pope Clement VII issued the Bulla de Perdao which was essentially a pardon for all past offenses. This was supposed to help the News Christians living in Portugal. Unfortunately the pope died a few years later and the Inquisition was officially established.

    1558: Birthdate of Philosopher Thomas Hobbes who discussed the nature and source of the canonized Biblical texts in Chapter 33 of his seminal work, The Leviathan.

    1566:  Two hundred Netherlands noblemen, led by Hendrik van Brederode, force their way into the presence of Margaret of Parma and present the Petition of Compromise which denounces the Inquisition in the Netherlands. The Inquisition was suspended and a delegation was sent to Spain to petition Philip II.(Ed note:  This should provide further explanation of the reasons for the rise of the Jewish community in the Netherlands and ultimately in the United States)

    1568: Batpism of Maffeo Barberini who has Pope Urban VIII “ended the custom according to which a Jew, upon enter the pontiff’s presence was expected to kiss the Holy Father’s foot.”  All that he required was that the Jew kiss the spot on the floor where the Pope’s foot had stood. (As reported in The Sword of Constantine, page 384)

    1649: Birthdate of Elihu Yale who took a Jewish wife while serving in India and fathered a child with her.  [And you thought the only Jewish connection was the group of Hebrew letters on the crest of Yale University.]

    1697: King Charles XI of Sweden, in whose presence Israel Mandel, Moses Jacobs and the 28 members of their families were baptized in Stockholm as a pre-condition for being able to do business in Sweden, passed away today.

    1721(8th of Nisan): Rabbi Benjamin Zev, author Ir Binyamin, passed away today

    1760(19thof Nisan, 5520): Centenarian Isaac Ḥayyim de Brito Abendana:Ḥakam of the Portuguese community in Amsterdam, who “published "Sermão Exhortatoria," in 1753 passed away today.

    1775: Pope Pious VI issued the “Editto sopra gli ebrei,” a proclamation that reinstituted all former anti-Jewish legislation. The proclamation included forty-four clauses prohibiting the possession of Talmudic writings, erection of gravestones, forbidding Jews from passing the night outside the ghetto, under pain of death, and more. The regulations were in effect until the arrival of Napoleon army 25 years later.

    1795(16thof Nisan, 5555): 2nd day of Pesach

    1795(16thof Nisan, 5555): After having been arrested as an Austrian spy, accused of corruption and bribery” Moses Dobruschka was sent to the guillotine.

    1804: Birthdate of German botanist Matthias Jakob Schleiden

    1812: In Stuttgart, Germany, Sheinle Ephraim and Isaac Samuel Wormser gave to Lewis Wormser Harris the successful Irish financier who served as Lord Mayor of Dublin and President of the Dublin Hebrew Congregation.

    1822(14th of Nisan, 5582):Ta'anit Bechorot

    1822(14th of Nisan, 5582): Rabbi Benjamin Zev of Zabrocz , Poland, passed away in Tiberias. (As reported by Abraham P. Bloch)

    1824: The brit of Lewis Levy, the son of Joseph Levy and the former Hanna Isaacs took place on Holywell Street which may have been the same street described as “19th-century London’s epicentre of erotica and smut.”

    1830, “In his maiden speech to the House of Commons, Thomas Macaulay spoke eloquently in favor of Robert Grant's bill for the Removal of Jewish Disabilities. Alluding to but not actually naming, Nathan Rothschild (who had financed the Allied armies ranged against Napoleon), Macaulay noted that "as things now stand, a Jew may be the richest man in England.... The influence of a Jew may be of the first consequences in a war which shakes Europe to the centre," and yet the Jews have no legal right to vote or to sit in Parliament. "Three hundred years ago they had no legal right to the teeth in their heads." If some members of the House thought it indecent of Macaulay to dredge up this nasty old business about King John extracting gold teeth from Jewish heads, certain opponents of Jewish Emancipation found it still much the best policy. According to J. A. Froude, his biographer, Thomas Carlyle, standing in front of Rothschild's great house at Hyde Park Corner, exclaimed: "I do not mean that I want King John back again, but if you ask me which mode of treating these people to have been nearest to the will of the Almighty about them--to build them palaces like that, or to take the pincers for them, I declare for the pincers." Carlyle even fancied himself in the role of a Victorian King John, with Baron Rothschild at his mercy: "Now, Sir, the State requires some of these millions you have heaped together with your financing work. 'You won't? Very well'--and the speaker gave a twist with his wrist--'Now will you?'--and then another twist till the millions were yielded." Although Macaulay was a liberal, he did not speak for all liberals, some of whom stood much closer to Carlyle on the Jewish question. One of these was Thomas Arnold, the famous headmaster of Rugby and intellectual leader of the liberal or Broad Church branch of the Church of England. Arnold set himself against conservatism as the most dangerously revolutionary of principles: "there is nothing so unnatural and so convulsive to society as the strain to keep things fixed, when all the world is by the very law of its creation in eternal progress." (4) When John Henry Newman, leader of the Anglo-Catholic (or "High") branch of the Church of England, declared that liberalism was "the enemy," and that by liberalism he meant "the Anti-dogmatic Principle," Arnold was among the principal culprits he had in mind, particularly "some free views of Arnold about the Old Testament."

    But Arnold's preference of improvement to preservation and of free views to dogma drew up short where the Jews were concerned. He might excoriate the High Church party for having, throughout English history, opposed improving measures of any kind; but he shared with his Anglo-Catholic adversaries the conviction that Christianity must be the law of the land. In 1834 (a year after the Jewish Emancipation Bill had been passed by the Commons but rejected by the Lords) Arnold insisted that he "must petition against the Jew Bill" because it is based on "that low Jacobinical notion of citizenship, that a man acquires a right to it by the accident of his being littered inter quatuor maria [on the nation's soil] or because he pays taxes." That indelicate word "littered" suggests that Arnold's opposition to Jewish emancipation was not purely doctrinal, but had a strong admixture of compulsive nastiness (or worse).

    1832: Ellis Abrahams married Rachel Hyams today at the New Synagogue.

    1849: The Sons of Israel held its fifth meeting today where it is decided to buy a seal which will not cost more than five dollars.

    1850: The Danish King implemented a law that allowed foreign Jews to settle in Denmark

    1859: In England, John and Alice Watchorn gave birth to Robert Watchorn, the Immigration Commissioner who in 1907attended a Seder at Ellis Island in 1907 where he gave “a speech dealing with the right of every man in this country to worship God according to his own conviction and pointing out that a man who served God was sure to make a good citizen.

    1860: According to reports published today Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise, “editor of the Cincinnati Israelite, has written to several Senators to caution them against the repetition of any clause in the Chinese treaty similar to that in the treaty with Switzerland, which debars the Jews from enjoying the privileges of other American citizens.”

    1860: In New York, the Assembly passed a bill “to amend the charter of the Hebrew Benevolent Society”.

    1860: In New York, the Assembly passed a bill “to amend the charter of the Cemetery Association of” B’nai Jeshurun.


    1861: An article published today entitled “What Made Him Sick” described the desperate financial condition of the Ottomans whose creditors include Jews who left the government undisclosed amounts of money.  [During its last century of existence, Westerners referred to the Ottoman Empire as “the sick man of Europe.’]

    1862: In Beerfelden, Germany, Simon Buttenwieser and Bella Saalheimer gave birth to Moses Buttenweiser, the holder of a Ph.D. from Heidelberg University and husband of Ellen Clune  who after teaching and writing in his native land became “Professor of Exegesis at Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati, Ohio.

    1863(16thof Nisan, 5623): Second Day of Pesach

    1866(20thof Nisan, 5626): Sixth Day of Pesach

    1870(14th of Nisan, 5631):Ta'anit Bechorot

    1870: Today the Sultan Abdul Aziz issued a firman that allocated the "Alliance Israelite Universelle" 2600 dunams of land east of Jaffa for the establishment of a school of agriculture and also granted permission for importing all kinds of tools and machinery free of taxes and customs. As Ben Gurion, said: "I doubt that the Israeli dream would have been realized if the farm school of Mikveh Israel had not existed."

    1871(14th of Nisan, 5631): As the Jews of Newark, New Jersey, begin the celebration of Passover this evening, it is estimated that they will consume 10,000 to 15,000 pounds of matzoth during the eight days of the holiday.

    1872: Birthdate of Mogilev native David Pinski, the Yiddish playwright who pursued his career in Warsaw, Berlin and New York before making Aliyah in 1949 after the creation of the State of Israel.

    1882(16th of Nisan, 5642): Second Day of Pesach; First Day of the Omer

    1882(16th of Nisan, 5642): German born rabbi and educator Max Lilienthal passed away in Cincinnati, Ohio. After a successful career in Europe, “Lilienthal left Russia suddenly in 1844 and went to the United States. Settling in New York, he became rabbi of the Congregation Anshe Chesed, Norfolk street and, later, rabbi of Shaar ha-Shomayim,. His somewhat advanced views led to considerable friction. He resigned his position in 1850 and established an educational institute with which he attained considerable success. In 1854 he became correspondent of the "American Israelite," and in the following year removed to Cincinnati and became associate editor of that journal and rabbi of the Congregation Bene Israel. His activity in Cincinnati extended over a period of twenty-seven years. He organized the Rabbinical Literary Association, serving as its president, and was at first instructor and later professor of Jewish history and literature at Hebrew Union College. He was prominent, also, in the Jewish press as the founder and editor of the "Hebrew Review," a quarterly, and the "Sabbath-School Visitor," a weekly, and as a frequent contributor to the "Israelite," the "Occident,""Deborah" (founded by him), the "Asmonean,""Volksblatt," and "Volksfreund." He published a volume of poems entitled "Freiheit, Frühling und Liebe" (1857), several volumes of addresses and sermons, and left three dramas in manuscript—"Die Strelitzen Mutter,""Rudolf von Habsburg," and "Der Einwanderer."Lilienthal took an active interest in the affairs of the municipality. As member of the Cincinnati board of education, and as director of the Relief Union and of the university board, he contributed much to the welfare of his adopted city. He was a reformer by nature; he was instrumental in introducing reforms in his own congregation in Cincinnati, constantly preached tolerance, and urged a more liberal interpretation of Jewish law.”

    1890(15th of Nisan, 5650): First Day of Pesach

    1891: In Paris, Alfred Dreyfus, the most famous Jew to serve in the French Army and Lucie Eugénie Hadamard gave birth to Pierre Léon Dreyfus, the husband of Marie Apllonie Dreyfus.

    1895: “Bequests by Bernhard Bernhard” published today included a partial list of those benefiting from his generosity including the Hebrew Benevolent Association, Mount Sinai Hospital, the Home for the Aged and Infirm Hebrews and the Montefiore Home for Chronic Invalids each of which received $150 and the Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews which received $100. 

    1896(22ndof Nisan, 5656): Eighth and final day of Pesach with ceremonies that include Yizkor.

    1896(22ndof Nisan 5656): Seventy-three year old Leopold Pick, the husband of Sofie Sara Pick passed away today in Vienna.

    1896: Rabbis Gottheil, Silverman and Sparger will officiate at the funeral of Leonard Friedman who died last week in New Jersey. Edward Lauterbach will deliver the graveside address.

    1896: Dr. Joseph Silverman spoke today at Temple Emanu El on “Passover and Easter; a Comparative Study.”

    1896: “Solomon’ Song” published today contains a detailed review of Elbert Hubbard’s study of the biblical book entitled  The Song of Songs, Which Is Solomon’s

    1896: Using information that first appeared in The American Hebrew, “Error in the Jewish Calendar” published today described a lecture “delivered under the auspices of the Graetz College in Philadelphia on ‘The Jewish Calendar’ in which Dr. Cyrus Adler called attention to an error in the calendar” which was first “promulgated by Hillel II” in or around 350 C.E.

    1897: Reverend Lyman Abbott of Plymouth Church addressed an event hosted by the Jewish Alliance in the Assembly Hall of Temple Emanu El

    1899: Dr. Lee K. Frankel of Philadelphia accepted the offer to serve as the manager of United Hebrew Charities of New York City succeeding N.S. Rosenau who had resigned from the position last February due to poor health.

    1899: “Real Estate Exemption” published today described Assemblyman Green’s efforts to gain a property tax exemption for the Young Men’s Hebrew Association of New York City.

    1901: Birthdate of actor Melvyn Douglas.  Born Melvyn Hesselberg in Macon,Georgia, Douglas enjoyed a long and distinguished career in films.  One of his most memorable roles was in Hud, in which he played the craggy old Texas father committed to the virtues of the frontier.  This is another example of the Jew portraying the quintessential American.  Douglas gained a different kind of fame when his wife Helen Gagahan Douglas ran against Richard Nixon for U.S. Senator in 1950.  Nixon and his allies combined her liberal politics with his Judaism to create the specter of the Jewish/Communist Conspiracy.  The fact that Douglas had changed his name was considered evidence of the conspiracy. "Californians can do one thing very soon to further the ideals of Christian nationalism, and this is not to send to the Senate the wife of a Jew."  Douglas died at the age of 80 in 1981 just before the appearance of his final film, Ghost Story.

    1901: In Detroit, a site was chosen at the corner of Woodward Avenue and Eliot Street was purchased on which would be built a new Temple for Congregation Beth El.

    1903: In Maciejowice, Poland, Rabbi Mendel of the Warka Hasidic dynasty and his wife gave birth to Ita Kalish.

    1904(20th of Nisan, 5664): Sixth Day of Pesach

    1904: Birthdate of Bronx native Pincus “Pinky” Silverberg who gained fame Flyweight Champion “Young Silverberg.”

    1905: The announcement of the engagement of journalist and former cigar worker Rose Pastor to prominent Protestant philanthropist James Graham Phelps Stokes caused a media sensation.

    1905: Birthdate of Elias Pichney, the native of Fostov, Ukraine, the field secretary of the National Jewish Welfare Board and “the co-founder of Social Workers for a Sane Nuclear Policy.”

    1906: In Cologne, a congregation introduced the use of an organ which led to the departure of its Orthodox members who formed a new congregation.

    1908: Henry Asquith became Prime Minister of Great Britain today and appointed two rising stars to his cabinet and future Prime Ministers to his cabinet – David Lloyd George and Winston Churchill.  Lloyd George would be the Prime Minister whose government issued the Balfour Declaration; a document he would continue to champion during the 1920’s when such support ceased to be “fashionable.”  Churchill enjoyed the support of friendship of members of the Jewish community, supported the Balfour Declaration and was a personal friend of Chaim Weizmann.  This personal friendship did not keep Churchill from turning his back on the Zionists in the waning days of WW II.

    1909: Birthdate of Art Cohn, the New York native who became a successful sports writer of the Oakland Tribune (CA) and screenwriter who died in a plane crash with his friend movie producer Mike Todd whose biography he was in the process of writing

    1909(14thof Nisan, 5669): As Jews in Atlanta, GA sat down to their Seders, for the first time they had a choice of which matzoth to use – they could either continue with the Manischewitz or use that offered for the first time in this southern city produced by A. Goodman & Son, of New York which also offered  “Berliner Tea Matzoths, Matzoth Meal, and Imported Potato Flour”  

    1909(14th of Nisan, 5669): The New York Times reported that “The celebration of the Jewish festival of Pesach, or the Passover, will commence at sunset this evening and will continue among the orthodox members of the Hebrew community for eight days. The first two days and the last two days of this period are held as strict holidays on which no business should be transacted or servile work entered upon, except such as may be considered works of necessity or charity.”

    1910:  Birthdate of Chaim Grade, poet, novelist and short story writer.  Born in Vilna, Lithuania (which at that time was part of Russia), Grade gained prominence in the 1930's as a Yiddish author.  He survived the Holocaust and came to the United States after the war where he continued to write.  Two of his more famous novels are The Agunah and The Yeshiva.  In My Mother's Sabbath, Grade created a memoir praising his mother, "a pious woman, who raised her son alone and worked herself to the bone...but never forgot the holiness of the Sabbath."  Elie Wiesel described Grade as "one of the greatest, if not the greatest of contemporary Yiddish novelists."  Grade passed away on June 26, 1982.

    1911:Eight hearses carried the caskets of seven unknown victims of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire to the Cemetery of the Evergreens in Brooklyn.

    1912: Today, Dr. Heinrich Harburger, the Professor at the University of Munich and the Councilor at the Court of Appeals was appointed President of the Senate of the Supreme Court.

    1913: Maimonides Kosher Hospital founded in Chicago

    1913: It was reported today that there were at least five Jews, including three from Warsaw “in the deputation which presented the Czar with a million rubles in commemoration of the three hundredth anniversary of the Romanoff dynasty.”

    1913: The celebration of the 25th anniversary of the founding the Jewish Publication Society is scheduled to begin this evening after Shabbat with an “Authors Evening” “to which all the living authors who have written books for the society will be invited.”

    1914:Preparations were made today for the free distribution of thousands of pounds of unleavened bread or Matzoth to needy Jewish families, for use duruing the week of the Passover, which begins on Friday night.

    1914: The 24th annual convention of the Independent Order of Free Sons of Judah opened today at the Murray Hill Lyceum

    1914: The New York Times Magazine features on articledescribing “the almost unrivaled collection of Jewish manuscripts found at the Jewish Theological Seminary, which, thanks to Dr. Solomon Schechter and others is surpassed only by those found at the British and Bodleian Museums.”

    1915(21stof Nisan, 5675): Seventh Day of Pesach

    1917: Harry Hirschfeld of Ossining received permission today from the warden at Sing Sing to provide food for a seder to be attended by Alexander Shuster who is in the deathhouse and other Jewish prisoners which will be paid for by Jacob Schiff and others.

    1917: The Evening Telegram published what Samuel Untermyer later said was a “fabricated” interview in which it was claimed he said he “was opposed to the United States sending young men to fight for England which has injured” the United States ‘as much as Germany has.”

    1917: “The tenth annual report of the American Jewish Committee made public” today contained “a census of the Jews in the army and navy of the United States showing that there 2,953 enlisted or commissioned Jews in the regular army and navy and more than 1,000 in the National Guard at a time when the peace-time army had approximately 100,000 members.

    1917: Birthdate of Robert Albert Blochwhowrote hundreds of short stories and over twenty novels, usually crime fiction, science fiction, and, perhaps most influentially, horror fiction. He was a contributor to pulp magazines like Weird Tales in his early career, and was also a prolific screenwriter. He was the recipient of the Hugo Award, the Bram Stoker Award, and the World Fantasy Award. He served a term as president of the Mystery Writers of America. Robert Bloch was also a major contributor to science fiction fanzines and fandom in general. In the 1940s, he created the humorous character Lefty Feep in a story for Fantastic Adventures. He passed away in 1994.

    1917: “Professor Israel Friedlaender of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, an authority on Russian Jewry gave a statement to the press in which he expressed his disagreement with the belief of “Rabbi David Philipson of Cincinnati that the Russian Revolution will put an end to Zionism by removing the necessity for Jews to seek refuge in a State of their own to escape persecution.”

    1918: In an interview given in Berlin to a representative of the Judische Rundschau, the Bulgarian Minister stated “that his government intended to press for the grant of full rights to Jews in Romania at the peace congress and promised that steps will be taken to end the mistreatment of the Bessarabian Jews.”

    1918: Premier Radoslavoff of Bulgaria praises the patriotism of Jews, and pledges his

     Government will be an ally of the Jewish cause in the negotiations with Romania.

    1918: The Duetschvolkische Blutter wrote “that the time has arrived to declare war on Jews openly because of their opposition to German war aims” while deputies in the Reichstag were “demanding the adoption of measures against the Jewish race which agitates for strikes and raises the price of food.”

    1918: It was reported today Kiev continues to the scene of “anti-Semitic agitation” as can be by the fact that “when the city was captured by the Ukrainians most of the inhabitants they shot were Jewish.”

    1918: It was reported today “that anti-Jewish riots have occurred in Turkestan” including the city of Kokand where 300 Jews have been killed and great deal of property has been destroyed.

    1919: Rabbi Joseph H. Margolies conducted services at the South Side Hebrew Congregation on Michigan Avenue in Chicago.
    1919(5th of Nisan, 5679): The Polish army executed 35 young Jews who had helped in the distribution of packages sent by the Joint to the Jewish community of Pinsk. They were taken from a legitimate business meeting of the Jewish Cooperative and accused of being Jewish Bolshevists. Others also arrested were told to dig their own graves and but were released.  Ironically, the relief activities of the Joint Distribution Committee were used by Russians, in the declining years of Stalin, as a pretext for their anti-Semitic charges of disloyalty against Soviet Jews.

    1920(17thof Nisan, 5680): Third Day of Pesach

    1920: As Arab violence in Jerusalem grew worse, “the Old City was sealed off and martial law was declared which did not put an end to the “looting, burglar, rape and murder” which makes the decision to withdraw the soldiers that night all the more inexplicable or as the Palin Report would call it “an error in judgment.

    1923: Birthdate of Belgian born philosopher and economist Ernest Mandel

    1922: “The House Without Laughter,” a silent drama produced by Lupu Pick was released in Germany today.

    1925: Celebration of the 40th anniversary of the founding ofMontefiore Hospital for Chronic Diseases a leading medical intuition named to honor the memory of Sir Moses Montefiore. During the observance, President Rosenbaum reviewed the history of the hospital and Dr George E. Vincent, President of the Rockefeller Foundation, delivered an address on "The Hospital and the Community."

    1926: At Footgaurd Hall in Hartford, CT, flyweight Pincus “Pinky” lost his only fight by a knockout when he was “ko’d” in the third round.

    1926:Newspaper correspondent T. Walter Williams reported that the American Zionist Commonwealth and the Palestine Securities Corporation are paying $20 a dunam (quarter of an acre) to the Arabs for land in Palestine and selling it to Jewish settlers for $100 per dunam.

    1927: It was reported today that Joseph A. Koffend, a product of the Presbyterian Church’s aggressive conversation activities “wishes to go to Africa as a missionary.

    1927: Municipal elections are held in Jerusalem. The election ordinance allocates four seats for Jews and eight for Arabs. Ragheb al Nashashibi is elected mayor. Deputy Mayors are Chaim Salomon and Ya'akuv Faraj (a Christian).

    1930: U.S. premiere of “Ladies of Leisure” written by Jo Swerling and produced by Harry Cohn.

    1931(18th of Nisan, 5691): 4thday of Pesach

    1931(18th of Nisan, 5691): Twenty year old Lewis Warner, the son of Harry Warner, who had been appointed “as head of Warner Bros.” passed away today “when an infected, impacted wisdom tooth was extracted, which led to septicemia and then double pneumonia.”

    1931(18th of Nisan, 5691): Seventy-nine year old Nathan Frank, passed away today.

    1931: “Skippy,” a comedy directed by Norman Taurog, produced by Adolph Zukor, Jesse Lasky and B.P. Schulberg with a script by Joseph L. Mankiewicz and Sam Mintz was released today in the United States.

    1933: In Washington, “William Venezky and the former Millie Ruth Bronstein, Jewish immigrants from Russia” gave birth to Melva Jane Venezky who gained fame as Melva Bucksbaum, the wife of Des Moines shopping center developer Martin Bucksbaum, who went from being president of the Des Moines Art Center board to being a nationally known art collector and curator.

     1934: Birthdate of “Dr. Fritz H. Bach, a physician and medical researcher who helped develop techniques to improve people’s chances of surviving organ and bone marrow transplants.” As reported by Douglas Martin)

    1934: Birthdate of Moise Yacoub Safra, the scion of affluent Syrian and Lebanese bankers who moved to Brazil where he “co-founded Banco Safra” with his brothers.

    1935: In Jerusalem, at the final session of the Actions Committee, the Supreme Council of the World Zionist Organization voted to approve the largest budget ever in its history which will include funds for settling an “agricultural colony named in honor of the late Baron Edmond de Rothschild of Paris.”

    1936: Based on an analysis of figures “sent from Jerusalem by Dr. Werner Senator, director of the immigrant department of the Jewish Agency for Palestine” published today “134,500 people from all countries arrived in Palestine” from January of 1933 to December of 1935, of whom 36,372 came from German including “24,499classified as permanent settler and 11,873 classified as tourists most of whom are rapidly indicating their intention of staying permanently.”

    1936: Plans were published today describing the upcoming viewing of “important works of the Dutch masters of the seventeenth century” that will take place at the Manhattan home of Mr. and Mrs. Joseph L. Buttenweiser which will serve as fundraiser for the women’s division of the United Palestine Appeal.

    1936: “Dr. Ludwig Lewisohn’s list of ‘the ten greatest living Jews’ was criticized for including the names of ‘Jews who are great men but not great in an address delivered this morning at the Free Synagogue by Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, who “was one of the listed by Dr. Lewisohn.”

    1936: In Pittsburgh, Pa, “the executive board of District 5 of the United Mine Workers of America asked its 40,000 members today to enforce a boycott on all German-made goods.”

    1936: “Slogan calling for a boycott of Jewish businesses were plastered in the shape of swastikas over the windows of Jewish stores” tonight which “was the newest phase of a Jew-baiting campaign among the 35,000 Jewish citizens of Leeds, UK.

    1936: The Fraenkische Tageszeitug reported today that a Nuremberg court sentenced a Jewish cattle dealer to six weeks’ imprisonment for wearing brown trousers.”

    1936: “The conference of Jewish youth organizations meeting” in New York “at the Hotel Pennsylvania adopted a resolution today favoring the inclusion of Jewish history and Hebrew in school curriculums.”

    1936: “A plan for settling 12,000 German Jews a year in countries other than Palestine at an annual cost $1,000,000 was completed by the Hilfsverein der Juden in Deutschland, the Jewish relief organization and forwarded to the Council for German Jewry in London.”

    1937: “Elephant Boy” a Kiplingesque film directed by Zoltan Korda and produced by Alexander Korda was released in the United States today.

    1937: The Palestine Post reported in a leading article that the Mandatory government’s delay in granting certificates to workers, apparently for political reasons, had caused a severe shortage of Jewish labor.

    1937: The Palestine Post reported that Jews living Safed were forced to remain in their own quarter since those who dared to go into the Arab parts of the city were stoned.

    1937: The Palestine Post reported that a royal palace was been unearthed at Megiddo by the archaeological expedition, organized by the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago.

    1937: The Palestine Post reported in Poland Menachem Begin and members of his Betar Revisionist youth group were sentenced to various terms of imprisonment for having demanded free immigration to Palestine, during a demonstration held outside the British Embassy in Warsaw. The Polish government expressed its regrets to the British Embassy.

    1937:  In New York City, “while fifty men and women who said they represented more than 100 Jewish organizations picked the Polish Consulate…at noon today, a delegation of seven presented a petition to a consulate attaché demanding that the Polish Government take immediate action to stop attacks” on Jews in Poland.

    1937: Birthdate of Aryeh “Arie” Selinger who “served as the head coach of the USA Women's Team in the years 1975-1984.”

    1937: Rabbi Arthur J. Lelyveld and the former Toby Bookholtz gave birth to Pulitzer Prize winning author and New York Timesexecutive editor Joseph Lelyveld.

    1938: Anti-Jewish riots break out in Dabrowa and spread across Poland.

    1938: Lazar Kaganovich began serving his second term as People’s Commissar for Transport.

    1939(16th of Nisan, 5699): Second Day of Pesach; 1st day of the Omer

    1939(16th of Nisan, 5699): Dr. Moses Gaster passed away today. Birthdate of Aliza Kashi, Israeli, actress and singer.  She gained some of her popularity as a regular on the Merv Griffin Show.

    1942: The Lutheran Church of Norway issued "Kirken grunn" ("Foundations of the Church"), a letter condemning Nazism and racism and protesting efforts of Vidkun Quisling, Norway's German puppet, to "Nazify" Norway's churches.

    1943: In Aleppo, Syria, Jacob Safra and his wife gave birth to Brazilian businessman and co-founder of the Bano Safra Moise Safra.

    1943(29th of Adar II, 5703): Three hundred Jews from Soly and Smorgon, Byelorussia, were transported by rail westward to Vilna, Lithuania. En route, the captives shattered the railcars' wire-reinforced glass and attempted to flee, but were shot to death by guards. The survivors were later shot at Ponary, southwest of Vilna, by German and Lithuanian SS troops. About 4000 Jews from in and around Vilna were trucked to Ponary, slaughtered, and dumped into mass graves. Jews arriving at the Ponary station by rail from Oszmiana and Swieciany, Lithuania, resisted with revolvers, knives, and their bare hands; a few dozen escaped to Vilna and the rest were shot. During the massacre, a Lithuanian policeman was wounded by Jews and an SS sergeant was hospitalized after being stabbed in the back and in the head.

    1943(29th of Adar II, 5703): The final trainload of Jews from Macedonia arrived at Treblinka. All aboard were gassed immediately.

    1943: Three Tunisian Jews, Joseph, Gilbert and Freddy Scemla, were flown from North Africa to Germany where they would be imprisoned in Dachau and eventually be beheaded.  The three men had been betrayed by an Arab when they were attempting to hide from the Nazis in the days before Tunisia was liberated by the Allies. 

    1943: Hans vonDohnányi a German jurist who was part of the Resistance and really did rescue Jews, was arrested at his office by the Gestapo] on charges of alleged breach of foreign currency violations: he had transferred funds to a Swiss bank on behalf of the Jews he had saved

    1944: Deadline arrives for all Jews of Hungary to wear a Gold Star on their clothing.

    1944: At today’s meeting of the Cairo Forces Parliament which when it met for the first time in February included Welsh attorney and future MP Leo Abse, “an officer gave notification that the assembly was contrary to King’s Regulations” the more than 500 attendees voted for a bill call for then nationalizing banking system” and then dissolved.

    1944: Violette Szabo, who would eventually be murdered at Ravensbruck  began her first mission as a covert agent today when she was flown from RAF Tempsford in Bedfordshire in a US B-24 Liberator bomber and parachuted into German-occupied France, near Cherbourg

    1944: A prisoner escaped from Auschwitz to warn Czech Jews about the death camp.

    1945: Forty-seven year old Karl Otto Koch, the Nazi commander of Buchenwald, Majdanek and Sachsenhausen was executed today after having been found guilty by “the Supreme Court of the SS and Police”

    1945: Today “units from the American Fourth Armored Division of the Third Army were the first Americans to discover a concentration camp with prisoners and corpses.”

    1946: It was reported today that “the New York State Legislature is considering a bill introduced by Bernard Austin to establish in Brooklyn a $2,000,000 college to train Hebrew teachers and grand degrees in Hebrew literature.”

    1946: It was reported today that 27 “Protestant churches in Massachusetts have organized a campaign to build a synagogue for Jewish families in Athol area” who “have been worshipping in a loft above a store.”

    1947(15th of Nisan, 5707): In China, a Seder was held at The Shanghai Jewish Young Community Center

    1948: While Jerusalem was under siege and the United States was wrestling with question of the creation of the Jewish state, the Soviets were using all tactics to strangle the West in Berlin including the harassment of Allied civilian aircraft by Russian fighters as can be seen by today’s collision of a Yak-3 with British airliner.

    1949: Birthdate of Dr. Judith Arlene Resnik.  Born in Akron, Ohio, Resnik was a design engineer, electrical engineer and biochemical engineer for Xerox, RCA and NIH.  She was a mission specialist on the Challenger where she died in 1986.

    1951: “Teresa” directed by Fred Zinnemann, produced by Arthur Loew, Jr., with a script by Stewart Stern and music by Louis Appelbaum was released today in the United States.

    1951: The Rosenbergs and David Greenglass were convicted of spying.  Prosecuted by Jewish lawyers, the Rosenbergs were sentenced to death by a Jewish judge.

    1953(20thof Nisan, 5713): Sixth Day of Pesach

    1953(20thof Nisan, 5713): Twenty-seven year old Herb Gorman, who had been taken out of game while playing left field for the PCL San Diego Padres today after complaining of pain passed away at a local hospital.

    1953: Birthdate of Ghaleb Majadele, an Israeli-Arab member of the Labor Party who has served as an MK and cabinet minister.

    1955: Having been named Prime Minister for a second time in 1953, Winston Churchill retried from the post today. For more about Churchill and the Jewish people see Churchill and the Jews by Sir Martin Gilbert.

    1956: Birthdate of “English author and screenwriter” Anthony Horowitz.

    1956: In a case of Jew versus “Abraham Telvi, a mobster and hit man, attacked journalist Victor Riesel with acid, blinding him as he left” Lindy’s Restaurant in New York.  Riesel was a crusading journalist who exposed the connection between mobsters and certain elements of the American labor movement.

    1956: Egyptian artillery in the Gaza Strip bombarded settlements in the Negev.  Four civilians and two Israeli soldiers were wounded.  At mid-day Egyptian terrorists were spotted trying to infiltrate from Gaza.  The failed attempt was accompanied by a renewed barrage from the Egyptians which killed three Israeli soldiers.  The Israelis returned fire, killing 63 civilians in the process.  The Foreign Ministry expressed regret at the loss of civilian life but reminded the Egyptians that it was “their folly” which had brought on the exchange in the first place.  Attacks like these from Gaza were one of the causes of the war between Egypt and Israel that took place later in 1956. [Yes, this is the same Gaza from which the Kassam Rockets are being launched during the 21st century.

    1958(15th of Nisan, 5718): First Day of Pesach

    1958(15thNisan, 5718): Terrorists lying in an ambush shot and killed two people near Tel Lakhish

    1961: Barbra Streisand made her first performance on national television tonight when she appeared on the Jack Paar Show singing Harold Arlen’s “A Sleepin’ Bee.” (Of the three mentioned Paar is the one who was not Jewish.)

    1962: “A Thousand Clowns” featuring Gene Sakes as “Leo Harman” officially opened on Broadway today

    1965:Jack Benny, whose weekly television show will not continue after this season, said today he would star on two special hour-long shows next season on the National Broadcasting Company network. The 71-year-old comedian will thus continue the uninterrupted association with broadcasting that began in 1932.

    1966(15thof Nisan, 5726): Pesach1967: “Double Trouble” an Elvis Presley musical directed by Norman Taurog  and produced by Irwin Winkler and Judd Bernard was released in the United States today.

    1967(24thof Adar II, 5727): Seventy-six year old Nobel laureate Herman Joseph Muller passed away today.

    1967(24th of Adar II, 5727): Violinist Mischa Elman passed away.

    1971: The Supreme Court rendered a decision in INVESTMENT COMPANY INSTITUTE et al., Petitioners, v. William B. CAMP, Comptroller of the Currency, et al. in which Joseph B. Levin represented the petitioner, National Association of Securities Dealers, Inc.

    1972(21st of Nisan, 5732): Pesach VII

    1972(21st of Nisan, 5732): Sixty-five year old MK Reuven Barkat passed away today.

    1973(3rd of Nisan, 5733): Five days before his 70th birthday, “Austrian-American opera producer” Herbert Graf, the Little Hans discussed in Freud's 1909 study Analysis of a Phobia in a Five-year-old Boy” passed away today.

    1973: Funeral services are held at Temple Emanu-El in New York for Aaron Rabinowitz, a pioneer in the field of affordable housing and other forms of real estate innovation.

    1974: “132 Soviet Jews from 13 towns appealed to the U.S. Senators in behalf of Alexander Feldman, who was confined to a punishment cell and whose detention was repeatedly extended despite serious illness.”

    1977:The Jerusalem Postreported that US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger warned that his country and Israel must not paralyze ourselves by suspiciousness that deprives our relationship of dignity and our cooperation of significance. He reassured, “We’ll never abandon Israel.”

    1977:The Jerusalem Postreported that President Sadat of Egypt, who was in Paris on an arms-purchasing mission, assured his hosts that he had withdrawn the Soviet Union’s right to use Egyptian port naval facilities.

    1977: Birthdate of Israeli tennis player Jonathan Erlich.

    1982(12th of Nisan, 5742): Abe Fortas Supreme former Supreme Court Justice and advisor to Lyndon Johnson died at the age of 71. (As reported by Linda Greenhouse)

    1985(14thof Nisan, 5745): Ta’anit Bechorot and Erev Pesach

    1987: Broadcast of the first episode of “The Tracey Ullman Show” which was created and produced by James L. Brooks

    1990: Eighty-one year old Rabbi S. Gershon Levi, a former president of the Rabbinical Assembly and a former editor of the quarterly publication Conservative Judaism, died of heart failure at his home in Jerusalem.

    1991: U.S. premiere “The Marrying Man” with a script by Neil Simon and featuring Paul Reiser as “Phil.”

    1992(2nd of Nisan, 5752): Actress Molly Picon, the star of the Yiddish theatre who played Yente the Matchmaker in the film version of “Fiddler on the Roof” passed away today

    1993(14th of Nisan, 5733): Ta’anit Bechorot; erev Pesach

    1994: "Jackie Mason Politically Incorrect" opened in New York City for the first of 347 performances.

    1995: Alisa Flatow, a Brandeis University Junior from New Jersey, was riding a bus in the Gaza Strip when a van loaded with explosives was driven into the bus. Shrapnel from the bomb went through her skull and she never regained consciousness. Stephen Flatow, her father, flew to Israel to confirm that the brain-dead young woman was his daughter. Staff at Sororkin Hospital in Beersheva asked him if he would be willing to donate his daughter’s viable organs. After consulting with his wife and making a conference call to his rabbis, Alvin Marcus and Rabbi Moshe D. Tendler of Yeshiva University, Alisa’s parents decided to follow the positive mitzvah of Pikuach Nefesh, the "Saving a Life." Alisa’s organs changed the lives of six people on the transplant waiting list. "People have called it a brave decision, a righteous decision, a courageous decision. To us it was simply the right thing to do at the time," said Flatow. The Flatow family decision had an emotional impact on a grieving Israel. Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin told American Jews in May 1995 that "Alisa Flatow’s heart beats in Jerusalem." Even more, the Flatow’s decision made public a painful issue — Jewish views about organ donation.

    Alisa Flatow, 20, was riding a bus in the Gaza Strip when an Islamic Jihad militant drove a van loaded with explosives into the bus. Shrapnel from the bomb went through her skull, and she never regained consciousness. Her heart was successfully transplanted to a 56-year-old man who had been waiting more than a year for one; her liver was donated to a 23-year-old man, and her lungs, pancreas and kidneys to four different patients. Her corneas were donated to an eye bank. Miss Flatow, a Brandeis University junior from West Orange, N.J., had taken a semester off to study at a Jerusalem seminary. She loved Israel and had considered settling there; it was fitting that she could help others in Israel. Alisa was a young Jewish woman of sterling character who came to Israel to study her Jewish heritage; an unusually thoughtful person -- bright, modest, and delightful. Her loss is felt by her family, her community, her classmates and her many friends in the United States, Israel, and throughout the world.

    1993: The keel of INS Hanit, the corvette built Northrop Grumman, was laid down today.

    1996: Marlon Brando made anti-Semitic remarks about Hollywood on The Larry King Show.

    1997(27th of Adar II, 5757): Beat poet Allen Ginsberg passed away.

    1998: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including “Confederates in the Attic” by Tony Horwitz,Good Spirits: The Making of a Businessman” by Edgar M. Bronfman and “Jewish Roots in Poland: Pages from the Past and Archival Inventories” by Miriam Weiner.

    2000: Joseph Gutnick was among three men who resigned as directors of Great Central Mining following the exposure of financial irregularities.

    2000: “Keeping the Faith” a romantic comedy about boyhood friends who become respectfully a rabbi and a priest and as adults deal with loving the same woman – a gentile doctor who converts to Judaism – written by Stuart Blumberg with a cast filled with Jews including Lisa Edestein, Ben Stiller and Eli Wallach was released in the United States today.

    2001(12thof Nisan, 5761): Ta’anit Bechorot

    2001(12th of Nisan, 5761): German born entertainer, Theodore Gottlieb, known as Brother Theodore, passed away.

    2002: Operation Defensive Shield continued today with Israeli forces fighting terrorists in a number of towns including Jenin, Hebron, Nablus and Bethlehem where their mission was made that much more difficult because the terrorists hid among the Arab civilians.

    2002(23rdof Nisan, 5762):Sgt. Merom Fisher, 19, of Moshav Avigdor; Sgt. Ro'i Tal, 21, of Ma'alot; and Sgt. Oded Kornfein, 20, of Kibbutz Ha'on - were killed in exchanges of fire between IDF troops and Palestinian gunmen in Jenin during Operation Defensive Shield.

    2002: “Big Trouble” the movie version of the book by the same name directed and produced by Barry Sonnenfeld was released today in the United States.

    2002: Qeis Adwan, head of the suicide bombing network responsible for the Passover Massacre at the Park Hotel in Netanya was killed by IDF forces today during Operation Defensive Shield, after the IDF and the Yamam caught him in Tubas, some 70 kilometers north of Jerusalem.

    2004(14th of Nisan, 5764): On the Jewish calendar, 61st anniversary of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.

     2005(25th of Adar II, 5765):  Pulitzer Prize winning author Saul Bellow passed away at the age of 89.  In a story that resonates with special meaning as Jews prepare to remember another Anniversary of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, the Jerusalem Post reported on the reuniting of two cousins, Holocaust survivors, who had been separated for 66 years. For 66 years, Ella Friedvald, 82, and her 79-year-old sister Lila were sure that their cousin Krystyna had been killed in the Holocaust, just as she was convinced they were long dead. After all, the three women were barely teenagers when the Germans invaded Poland and their families were separated, their paths seemingly forever split as their world shattered before them. After the war, Ella and Lila settled in Israel, while Krystyna, 79, made her home in the US, all having failed to find traces of their respective parents. But, as fate willed it, a faded postcard sent from a German labor camp 60 years ago and the determination of a very persistent octogenarian to claim her family's pre-war life insurance benefits led to their reunification here this week. The Friedvald girls grew up in Warsaw in the 1930s. After the Nazis invaded Poland, their families fled to Lvov, at the time still part of Poland, but under Soviet control. Although they escaped the Germans, Ella, Lila and their parents were forcibly taken by the Soviets to a closed labor camp, while Krystyna and her parents eventually made their way back to Warsaw once the Germans entered Lvov. Krystyna's last childhood memory of her two cousins was that of her father racing to the train station in Lvov in the hopes of bribing the Russian soldiers to free the two girls, only to come back home empty-handed having failed to find the family at the station. Her last piece of information about her cousins for the next six and half decades was a letter that Lila wrote her from the Soviet camp in which she said that her parents and older sister were dying of hunger. The two sisters were indeed soon orphaned, but they managed to survive the war, and eventually made their way to Israel where they married and had families. Their cousin's parents fared no better than their own, as both were killed by the Nazis in Warsaw. But young Krystyna, who was living on the Aryan side of the city and who took part in the Warsaw uprising, managed to survive the war against all odds, largely since the Germans had no clue that the Polish-speaking teen was Jewish. After the Nazis crushed the Polish rebellion, she was taken, together with a group of Poles, to a labor camp in Germany, where she remained until the war ended with the Red Army liberating the camp. While she was still at the camp, Krystyna sent out postcards to various places in Poland in search of family members and friends, but they were returned to the camp with no such persons found. "I was positive they were dead," Krystyna told The Jerusalem Post, "and they were sure I was killed with the rest of the Jews of Poland." After the war, Krystyna's uncle brought her to England, where she would meet her future husband. After the young couple married, they decided to move to the US since they did not want to start a family in war-ravaged Europe. For the next 50 years, Krystyna, of Eastchester, NY, was unaware that her two cousins were alive and well in Israel. Then, five years ago, her cousin Ella began to make inquires about possible remuneration from the Generali Company for life insurance taken out by her family members before the war. The Polish offices of the company did not find any policies for her parents or grandparents but they did find one for her cousin's father. Ella Friedvald then contacted a Polish organization of authors and composers, where he had worked, to see if they had any record of him. The organization wrote back that their cousin had informed them in a letter in 1947 that her father had been killed in 1942. That letter opened up a whole new world for them. "At that moment we knew that she had survived the war," Ella said. The next thing to do was to see if she were still alive. Coincidentally, around the same time that Ella began to make inquiries, her cousin had answered an advertisement put out by the Polish Consulate in New York in search of survivors of the Warsaw uprising. A representative of the consulate then visited Krystyna in her home, and when he asked her if she had any memento for a museum to mark the uprising, she gave him a postcard she had written from the German labor camp 60 years earlier that had been stamped "return to sender." The Polish official was very happy with the postcard, and the museum subsequently put it on its Internet site, which would prove critical in her cousins' search for her, which they carried out with the help of two Polish friends. Last month, Krystyna Friedvald got a call from the Polish museum. "Someone is looking for you," the voice on the other line said in Polish. "Who?" she asked. The museum staffer asked her if she had any cousins, using their married names. Krystyna said she did not know of any such people. "How about Ella and Lila?" the voice - like a dream out of the past - asked. "Where are they?" Krystyna cried, thinking her cousins were in Poland. "They are in Israel," came the reply. The next morning at 5 a.m. Krystyna's phone rang. It was her long-lost cousin calling from Israel. "We talked and we talked and we talked," she said. The following week Krystyna was on a plane to Israel to reunite with her cousins. After 66 years, the three, who look remarkably alike and who communicate with each other in Polish, were clearly trying to squeeze a lifetime into Krystyna's one-week visit, her first ever to Israel. "It's these two stubborn ladies, they decided to find me," she concluded with a smile.

    2007: An exhibition opens at the Skirball Cultural Center in Los Angeles entitled “The Art of Vintage Israeli Travel Posters”

    2008: The 92nd Street Y presents a piano recital by Peter Serkin, son of the famous Rudolf Serkin

    2008: Shabbat Ha-Chodesh

    2008(29th of Adar II, 5768): Eugene Ehrlich, a self-educated lexicographer who wrote 40 dictionaries, thesauruses and phrase books for the "extraordinarily literate," not to mention people just hoping to sound that way, died at his home in Mamaroneck, New York at the age of 85

    2008: The New York Times reported that Sederot, a long neglected immigrant town a mile from Gaza, pounded by Palestinian rockets for the past seven years, is taking on a new identity, edging into the center of Zionist consciousness as a symbol of the nation’s unofficial motto: “Never Again.” Like the Yad Vashem Holocaust memorial in Jerusalem, Sderot is now a must-see stop for those who support Israel or are being urged to do so.

    2009: “Picturing the Shoah,” a film festival sponsored by YIVO that explores how movies have represented the Holocaust from radical, provocative, and unexpected angles continues with a presentation of the works of director Jean-Luc Godard including– In Praise of Loveand Our Music.

    2009: The New York Times featured books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including “Mainly On Directing: Gypsy, West Side Story, and Other Musicals”by Arthur Laurents

    2009: The Washington Post featured books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Spartacus War by Barry Strauss.

    2009:Israeli archaeologists continued their inspection today of the Western Wall stone by stone in a new conservation effort at the Jewish holy site. The oldest stones were laid 2,000 years ago as part of the retaining wall of the Jewish Temple, and the newest by the Ottomans - who ruled the area until 1917. Israeli Antiquities Authority archaeologist Jon Seligman says the work aims to make sure stones don't collapse on those praying below. Today workers on a platform cleaned stones near the top of the 20-meter high wall, which is a religious flash point. The authority says work will likely continue for two months.

    2010(21st of Nisan, 5770): In Jerusalem, Isralight is scheduled to host the Seudat Mashiach this evening.

    2010:Edom; featuring Israeli guitaristEyal Maoz is scheduled to appear at The Local 269 in New York City.

    2011(1stof Nisan, 5771): Rosh Chodesh Nisan

    20122(1stof Nisan, 5771): Eighty-seven year old Charles Laufer, the creator of magazines aimed at teenage girls passed away today. (As reported by Douglas Martin)

    2011(1stof Nisan, 5771): Nobel Prize-winning biochemist Baruch Blumberg passed away today.

    2011: In New York City, the Guggenheim Museum is scheduled to present “Omer Fast: Art Talk.”Omer Fast is a native of Jerusalem who “works with film, video, and television footage to examine the complex interplay between personal and public histories.”

    2011: Irwin and Ginny Edlavitch are scheduled to be honored at the Washington DCJCC Annual Spring Gala.

    2011: Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington is scheduled to kick off the 150th anniversary month of the Civil War with t a Lunch and Learn entitled “The Jewish Civil War.”

    2011: President Peres joined President Obama for a working lunch at the White House where they will discuss Israeli peace proposals.

    2011:A leading US Congressman blasted demonization of Israel and anti-Semitism in the Arab world today, and stressed that action against incitement must be part of the Israeli-Palestinian peace process. “If this is a new era of openness in the Middle East, then the work of defending Israel from ideological attacks becomes even more pressing,” House Democratic Whip Steny Hoyer told the Anti-Defamation League’s leadership conference. “That’s because, if this is a new era of openness, it matters more than ever that the Arab people have a view of Israel unclouded by bigotry.

    2011:Doctors around the country began a two-day warning strike in the public health and hospital system today after a meeting between representatives from the Finance Ministry and the Israel Medical Association (IMA) ended with no agreement yesterday. The public health sector and hospitals around the country will operate on a reduced Shabbat schedule.

    2012: The Timofeyev Ensemble is scheduled to present the NYC premiere of "Shloyme: a Musical Biography of an Imaginary Hero."

    2012: The Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center is scheduled to present “All the Missing Souls: A Personal History of the War Crimes Tribunal.”

    2012(13thof Nisan, 5772): Eighty-seven year old University of Oxford Professor Siegbert Salomon Prawer whose family had fled Nazi Germany in 1939 passed away today.

    2012(13thof Nisan, 5772): Ninety-four year old Bernard Rapoport, the Texas insurance tycoon who became the financial angel for numerous liberal candidates and causes passed away in Waco, TX. (As

    2012: “Fake ‘eviction notices’ scare Jewish Students” published today described efforts by Students for Justice in Palestine to terrorize Jewish students attending Florida Atlantic University.

    2013: The Eden-Tamir Music Center is scheduled to host a celebration of Verdi’s 200thBirthday in the form of a performance by The Israeli Opera’s Meitar Studio.

    2013:  In Coralville, IA, Agudas Achim is scheduled to host its annual Sisterhood Shabbat Service.

    2013: “No Place on Earth” a documentary about the Sterner and Wexler families surviving in Ukrainian caves for 17 months is scheduled to premiere in New York City.

    2013:Hundreds of demonstrators marched in Tel Aviv this afternoon for the second consecutive year in protest of violence against women in the now world-famous Mitzad Sharmuta (SlutWalk).

    2013: Royal Dutch Shell declined to comment on reports that it will divest its stake in an Australian energy firm because of that firm’s investment in Israel’s gas fields. (As reported by Times of Israel)

    2014: Yaala Ballin and her Quintent are scheduled to “celebrate the outstanding female vocalists of Jazz history” at their performance at the Brooklyn Conservatory of Music.

    2014: Yoni Rechter is scheduled to perform at the Stephen Wise Free Synagogue.

    2014: “Friends From France” is scheduled to be shown at the Westchester Jewish Film Festival.

    2014: “Cupcakes” is scheduled to be shown at 11th JCC Rockland International Jewish Film Festival

    2014: The European Weightlifting Championships are scheduled to begin today in Tel Aviv.

    2014: “An original chamber opera, also titled ‘Regina’" based on the life of Regina Jones, the Berlin born rabbi “written by composer Elisha Denburg and librettist Maya Rabinovitch, premiere in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.”

    2014: In Waterloo, Iowa, Sons of Jacob Synagogue is scheduled to host Harry Brod, author of Superman is Jewish?: How Comic Book Superheroes Came to Serve Truth, Justice and the Jewish-American Way

    2014: The Shachar Club, a kosher nightclub, is scheduled to open in Moscow.

    2015(16thof Nisan, 5775): Second Day of Pesach

    2015: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including ISIS: State of Terror by Jessica Stern and J.M.Berger, ISIS: Inside the Army of Terror by Michael Weiss and Hassan Hassan, Act of Godby Jill Ciment and Eleanor Marx: A Life by Rachel Holmes.

    2015: “Nearly 100,000 people came to B’nei Brak early this morning for the funeral procession for Rabbi Shmuel Halevi Wosner.”

    2015(16thof Nisan, 5775): Ninety-three year old New York labor leader Victor Gotbaum passed away today.

    2015(16thof Nisan, 5775): Eighty-seven year old emeritus Professor Barbara Bergman, a trail-blazing academic, passed away today in Bethesda, MD.

    2016(26thof Adar II, 5776): Eighty-eight year old author Erwin Nathanson whose The Dirty Dozen was the inspiration for one of the most popular WW II movies ever made.

    2016(26thof Adar II, 5776): Seventy-nine year old “Emmy-nominated screenwriter” Barbara Turner who was also the mother of actress Jennifer Jason Leigh passed away today.

    2016: Center for Jewish History and The Edgar M. Bronfman Center for Jewish Student Life at NYU are scheduled to present Rabbi Jonathan Sacks lecturing on “The People and the Book – The World We Make with Words.”

    2016: The Rosh Hashanah tractate, the first completed volume of the first Italian translation of the Babylonian Talmud is scheduled to “be ceremonially presented to Italy’s president today five years from the start of the state-funded project.”

    2016: “Imber’s Left Hand” is scheduled to be shown at the Hartford Jewish Film Festival.

    2016: “The Heartbreak Kid” is scheduled to be shown at the Westchester Jewish Film Festival.

    2016: The UJA Federation of New York is scheduled to host the opening reception for Beyond The Balcony: The Works of Michal Nachmany

    2017: “Fanny’s Journey” and “Atomic Falafel” are scheduled to be shown on the last day of the 14th annual International Jewish Film festival at the JCC in Rockland, NY

    2017: Trezos” The Lost Jews of Kastoria” and “The Queen of Rebetiko” are scheduled to be shown at the 20th annual New York Sephardic Jewish Film Festival.

    2018(20thof Nisan, 5778): Sixth Day of Pesach

    2018: At the Begin Center, “Map and Matza”—“a festival happening for the whole family that includes tours of the museum creative workshops” is scheduled to come to an end today.

    2018: In Coralville, IA, Agudas Achim is scheduled to host Erev Pesach services this evening.

    2018: The 92nd Street Y is scheduled to present “Perfect is Boring: 10 Things My Crazy, Fierce Mama Taught Me About Beauty, Booty and Being a Boss.”


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    April 6

    1199: King Richard I of England dies from an infection following the removal of an arrow from his shoulder. Richard spent most of his reign fighting to protect his lands in France or on the Third Crusade. While he was in England, he did protect his Jewish subjects.  Jews did suffer during his Kingship.  Among other things, they were forced to contribute a disproportionate amount towards the ransom collected to free Richard from the clutches of an Austrian duke.  Richard’s death put King John on the throne.  John openly exploited Jewish subjects.  His tyranny brought on the Magna Charta which included a special section on treatment of the Jews.

    1233: Pope Gregory IX, who was criticized by some for being too protective of the Jews wrote "Mandate, if facts are established, to the archbishops and bishops of France to induce the Christians in their dioceses to stop persecuting the Jews, who had complained to the pope that they were being maltreated and tortured by certain lords, imprisoned and left to die. The Jews are willing to forsake usury. They are to be set free and are not to be injured in person or in property."  A year later, in Decretals, he invested the doctrine of perpetua servitus iudaeorum – perpetual servitude of the Jews – with the force of canonical law. According to this, Jews would have to remain in a condition of political servitude and abject humiliation until Judgment Day. The doctrine then found its way into the doctrine of servitus camerae imperialis, or servitude immediately subject to the Emperor's authority, promulgated by Frederick II.

     The second-class status of Jews thereby established would last until well into the 19th century.

    1397: Boniface IX issued a papal bull confirming the “grant of Roman citizenship on Manuele” a Jewish physician “and his son Angelo.

    1443:  In a document from King John of Castile on economic conditions, he mentions Jews are prohibited from exercising certain high offices among Christians, and from being employed as judges, farmers, collectors, directors, or stewards of revenue (taxes).

    1453: Mehmed II began his siege of Constantinople (Istanbul).  His ultimate conquest of the city would be a positive thing for the Jews since, among other things, he opened the city to their settlement

    1490: Matthias Corvinus also known as Matthias I King of Hungary and Croatia who “created the office of Jewish prefect in Hungary” passed away today marking the start of an immediate downturn in the fortunes of the Jewish people which included the confiscation of their property, refusal by gentiles to pay their debts and the start of a “generalized period of persecution.”

    1568:”Elvira del Campo, a young Marranon woman, was subjected to her first torture session by the Inquisition of Toledo, Spain.” (As reported by Abraham Bloch)

    1667: The “Old Synagogue” is among the buildings damaged when an earthquake struck Dubrovnik today. The synagogue dates back to the 14th century and is reportedly the oldest Sephardic synagogue in use today.

    1754(14thof Nisan, 5514: Parashat Tzav; Shabbat HaGadol; erev Pesach. 

    1766: Birthdate of Israel B. Kursheedt, the native of Sing-hafen Germany who when he arrived in Boston in 1796 became the first rabbi to come to the city.

    1720: Manuel San Vicente, a Spanish mercenary turned himself in to the Inquisitional Tribunal after living among the Spanish Jews in Constantinople and Salonica as a Jew for a month. He sought pardon for his sin, and/or to avoid being turned in by another party. While he was in the Ottoman Empire he was circumcised, and learned Jewish prayers.

    1785: Joseph Hart Myers married Jane Diamantschleifer today

    1790(22ndof Nisan, 5550): 8th day of Pesach

    1790: According to some sources, birthdate of Rachel Luzzatto, the native of Trieste, who was “called ‘the Queen of the Hebrew Versifiers.”

    1792(14thof Nisan, 5552): Ta’anit Bechorot; erev Pesach

    1808: John Jacob Astor incorporated the American Fur Company.

    1809: Jews fled Pressburg (Bratislava) when Napoleon attacked the city

    1810: German Jewish author Saul Ascher was arrested on Berlin.

    1810: Birthdate of Philip Henry Gosse, the native of Worcester, UK who wrote The History of the Jews from the Christian Era to the Dawn of the Reformation

    1812: Birthdate of Aaron David Bernsterin whose works included a “translation of the ‘Song of Songs’ published in 1834.

    1814: Louis XVIII, during whose reign the emancipation the came about under the Revolution and Napoleon, was left unchanged much to many Bourbons, began his service as King of France.

    1819: Birthdate of Elizabeth Magnus the daughter of Sarah Moses and Lazarus Magnus, who was born at Chatham, Kent, England.

    1822(15th of Nisan, 5582): Pesach

    1841(15th of Nisan, 5601): Pesach

    1845: After a year and a half of meeting for worship services a group of Jews whose number grown to 33 voted to establish a congregation called Emanu-El which “then engaged Dr. Ludwig Merzbacher as rabbi and lecture and G.M. Cohn as reader” each of whom was paid $200 per year while Mr. Renau was hired “as secretary and sexton with an annual salary of $150” and a room was rented in house at the corner of Grand and Clinton Streets to be used as a synagogue. (The room was fitted so that the front seats for men and the front seats for women – a configuration that would change as Emanu-El became Temple Emanu-El, the leading Reform congregation in NYC.)

    1848: "In every part of Germany excluding Bavaria, Jews were granted civil rights. As a result, Gabriel Riesser (a Jew, and an advocate for Jewish emancipation) was elected vice-president of the Frankfurt Parliament, and became a member of the National Assembly.” It must be noted that for the most part these freedoms existed only on paper and were not enforced."  This paper emancipation was part of the revolutionary ferment sweeping Europe at this time. The revolts failed in Germany.  The result was a migration of German liberals, including many Jews, to the United States.

    1853: In Leipzig Rosalie Bettelheim and Dr. Adolf Jellinek, a leading Rabbi in the Austrian Empire gave birth to Emil Jellink who sat on the board of Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft ('DMG') and was responsible for the naming of Mercedes in Mercedes-Benz.

    1856:“After a background check” the Board of Congregation Baith Israel Anshei Emes (the Kane Street Synagogue)“decided by a 10–9 vote” that M. Gershon, its newly hired Cantor, “had never held the position of cantor in any other congregation, and was therefore not ‘sufficiently acquainted with the actual requirements to fill said office’, and was furthermore not ‘a competent reader enough to read the Sefer Torah’. As a result, services were led by laymen,[ except during the Jewish holidays, when a professional cantor would be brought in from Manhattan.”

    1858(22ndof Nisan, 5618): Eighth and final day of Pesach

    1861: According to the “Our Charleston Correspondence” column published today, Benjamin Mordecai was among those who lent the government of South Carolina funds it needed immediately after its declaration of secession.  Mordecai’s “free will offering” was in the amount of $10,000.  Another un-named “Hebrew gentlemen” from Charleston was pressured by his co-religionists into donating five hundred dollars to the cause.  He had just returned from New York where he had made $50,000 speculating as a “Bear” in the stock market.

    1862: During the American Civil War, The Battle of Shiloh begins in Tennessee when Confederate forces under Albert Sidney Johnston attack forces under Union General Ulysses S. Grant.  The Confederate attack surprised the Union troops who literally ended the day with their backs to the river.  On the following day, the Union forces would go over to the attack and drive the Confederates back into Mississippi. The 16th Regiment from Iowa was one of the units engaged in the fight.  Among the “Hebrew Hawkeyes” engaged in the fight were Jacob Jacobs and Charles Weissman of Company B and Abraham Meyers and Jacob Lehman of Company D.  Both Jacobs and Meyers were wounded in the battle.

    1862: First Lieutenant Charles A. Appel was promoted to the rank of Captain in Company F of the 99nd Regiment/Ninth Cavalry

    1863(17thof Nisan, 5623): Third Day of Pesach

    1864(29thof Adar II): Hebrew author Zebi Hirsch Mecklenberg, passed away at Konigsberg

    1864: Leopold Schloss married Anna Horatia Montefiore today.

    1866(21stof Nisan, 5626): Seventh Day of Pesach

    1866: The Grand Army of the Republic, an American patriotic organization composed of Union veterans of the American Civil War, was founded today.  Among other things, the GAR worked to establish appropriate burial sites for Union veterans. When the five Grand Army of the Republic posts in Seattle established a cemetery in 1895, Huldah and David Kaufman donated the land.  The Kaufmans were two of the first Jews to settle in Seattle having settled there in 1869.

    1866: In New York Israel Ullman and Julia Bluemthal gave birth to Selina Greenbaum the wife of Samuel Greenbaum who was President of of the Young Women’s Hebrew Association and a member of the Board of Directors of the Council of Jewish Women.

    1869(25thof Nisan, 5629): Seventy-nine year old Richmond, VA born Baltimore business man Jacob I. Cohen, Jr. who supported the “Jew Bill” that removed the religious requirement for holding public office in Maryland

    1870(15th of Nisan, 5631): Pesach

    1871(15th of Nisan, 5631): In New York, on the first day of Passover, The Forty-fourth Street Synagogue, the Thirty-fourth Street Synagogue and the Clinton Street Synagogue are the only Jewish houses of worship where rabbis will preach sermons in English. All of the others, with the exception of the Sephardic congregations, will hear sermons preached in German including Temple Emanuel on Fifth Avenue.

    1872: In Turin, Giacomo Serge and his wife gave birth to “General Roberto Segre who commanded artillery formations at the start of” World War I and was cited for bravery at the Battle of Gorizia” being promoted to chief of staff of the Fifth Army Corps before becoming  head of the Italian-Austrian Armistice Commission.

    1874:  Birthdate of Harry Houdini.  Houdini was the stage name of Ehrich Weiss one of the premier magicians and escape artists of all times.  Born in Hungary, the Weiss family settled in Appleton, Wisconsin. Harry’s “father, Mayer Samuel Weiss, served as rabbi of the Zion Reform Jewish Congregation. After losing his tenure, Mayer moved to New York City with Ehrich in 1887, where they lived in a boarding-house on East Seventy-Ninth Street. Mr. Weiss later called for the rest of his family to join him once he found more permanent housing. The name "Harry" came from a family pet name for Ehrich, Ehrie(rhymes with and sounds like 'Harry').”

    1875(1st of Nisan, 5635): Rosh Chodesh Nisan

    1875(1st of Nisan, 5635): Moses Hess passed away.

    1876(12th of Nisan, 5636):Ta'anit Bechorot

    1878: Birthdate of Erich Mühsam. Mühsam was a German-Jewish anarchist, writer, poet, dramatist and cabaret performer.  The Nazis imprisoned him in a series of concentration camps following the Reichstag Fire.  After months of beatings and torture guards at the Orianberg Concentration camp murdered him in July of 1934.

    1879: “A Festival of Thankfulness” published today states rthat “To-morrow evening the Jewish feast of Peach, or the Passover, will commence, and will continue for seven days. This festival, which was instituted to celebrate the deliverance of the children of Israel from the land of Egypt and out of the house of bondage, is also called Hag Hamatzoth.”

    1879: Future Dreyfusard Ludovic Trarieux was elected to the Chamber of Deputies

    1881: “The administrators of the Tunis Railway have seized a case of cartridges sent to the Khoumis by Tunisian Jews.” (The Khoumis were a tribe living on the frontier who had rebelled against Mohammed Bey. So far, I have not been able to find a reason for the Jews to be sending them aid since Mohammed Bey had made amends for executing a Jew named Batto Sfoz on charges of blasphemy.)

    1882: Birthdate of Rose Schneiderman, the labor organizer who taught Eleanor Roosevelt everything she "knew about trade unionism." Born in Russian Poland, her Orthodox Jewish family was close but exceedingly poor, despite both her parents' employment as tailors. Her mother insisted that Rachel (who would later change her name to Rose) attend school and enrolled her in a traditional Hebrew school and, when she turned six, in a Russian public school. The family immigrated to the United States in 1890 and made the Lower East Side of New York City their home. Two years later, Samuel Schneiderman died of meningitis, leaving his family in a dire economic condition. Deborah, his widow, took in borders and sewed for neighbors; despite her efforts, however, the family descended into poverty and was forced to rely on charity to help pay the rent and grocery bill. A thirteen-year-old Rose dropped out of school after the ninth grade to help support the family by working as a department store sales clerk. Three years later, despite her mother's objections, Rose left sales for a better paying (but more dangerous) job in the garment industry. By 1903, she organized her first union shop, the Jewish Socialist United Cloth Hat and Cap Makers' Union, where she quickly developed a reputation as an effective leader after she organized a successful strike opposing an open-shop policy. By 1907, Schneiderman devoted most of her time to the Women's Trade Union League, which she later called "the most important influence on my life." Within a year, she was elected vice-president of the New York chapter, and thanks to a stipend provided by a member, she was able to work full-time organizing for the WTUL. After the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire, she helped established the International Ladies Garment Workers Union and led its 1913 strike. Determined to outlaw sweatshop labor, she told New Yorkers, "I would be a traitor to those poor burned bodies if I came here to talk good fellowship. . . . Every year thousands of us are maimed. The life of men and women is so cheap and property is so sacred." Although she was a committed trade unionist, Schneiderman grew increasingly frustrated trying to get male union members to address women's labor issues. By the late nineteen teens, the WTUL was her major focus. As president of both the New York and national WTUL, she concentrated her efforts to lobby for minimum wage and eight-hour-day legislation. In 1921, she helped organize the Bryn Mawr Summer School for Women Workers. In 1922, Eleanor Roosevelt joined the WTUL and the two women began a lifelong friendship. Schneiderman tutored ER on the issues confronting women workers, the challenges facing the trade union movement, and the problems inherent in labor-management relations. ER responded to Schneiderman's tutorial by chairing the WTUL finance committee, donating the proceeds from her 1932-1933 radio broadcasts to the WTUL, and promoting WTUL in her columns and speeches. As Schneiderman recalled in her autobiography, ER overcame the trappings of privilege to become "a born trade unionist."President and Mrs. Roosevelt enjoyed Schneiderman's company and often invited her to their homes in New York City, Hyde Park, and, after FDR became governor, Albany. In 1933, FDR named Schneiderman to the advisory board of the National Recovery Administration, a position she held until the Supreme Court declared the NRA unconstitutional in 1935. For those two years, she represented labor's voice on the board, working to see that wage and hour provisions of the NRA codes treated workers fairly. In 1935, she returned to both the New York and the national WTULs, whose presidencies she held until the New York WTUL ceased operations in 1950 and the national WTUL disbanded in 1955. From 1937 to 1943, Schneiderman, balancing her WTUL work with state politics, served as secretary to the New York State Department of Labor. Ninety-year old Schneiderman died in New York in 1972 at the Jewish Home and Hospital for the Aged.

    1882(17th of Nisan, 5642): Third Day of Pesach

    1882(17th of Nisan, 5642): Sixty-nine year old Austrian Rabbi Ephraim Israel Blucher passed away today in Budapest after having served “at Osviecin, Galicia, and Kosten, Moravia.”

    1883: In Bloomington, Illinois, “at a meeting held today, Maik Livingston offered a donation of $100 toward the building of the temple, providing the congregation was named after Sir Moses Montefiore, the great English philanthropist.”

    1885: In Archachon, France, Isaac Gaston Salzedo and Thérèse Judith Anna Salzedo-Silva gave birth to Charles Moïse Léon Salzedo who was born prematurely and gained fame as Carlos Salzedo, “French harpist, pianist, composer and conductor.”

    1886: David Oppenheimer, “the fourth son of Salomon Oppenheimer” one of the two brothers who “opened the first wholesale grocery house in Vancouver in July, 1887, was among those who successfully petitioned for the incorporation of Vancouver which became a reality today.

    1886:  Vancouver was incorporated as a Canadian City. Jewish people have been on the Vancouver scene since the city's earliest days. The first to take up residence was Polish born Louis Gold who arrived in 1872. His wife Emma was a businesswoman, and by 1882 she had established the West End Grocery and Royal City Boot and Shoe stores. David Oppenheimer, a German native, was undoubtedly the outstanding citizen in Vancouver's formative period. He promoted incorporation of the city. In June of 1886, Oppenheimer Bros.--today Vancouver's oldest business--built the first wholesale grocery in the city's first brick building, still extant in present-day Gastown. The Great Fire passed over its foundation, then under construction. Upon completion, the building was used as Vancouver's first "city hall." Both David and his brother Isaac were members of the 1887 city council, David being chairman of the finance committee. From 1888 to 1891 David served four terms as mayor, among the most constructive in Vancouver's history.

    1886(1st of Nisan, 5646): Rosh Chodesh Nisan


    1886(1st of Nisan, 5646): Rabbi Mordechai Aby Serour of Morocco, who was best known for his work as a geographer and explore passed away.

    1889: Baltimore Hebrew Congregation which had been variously known as "Stadt-Schul" or "Fell's Point Hebrew Friendship Congregation" erected its new synagogue at Madison Avenue and Robert Street.

    1890(16th of Nisan, 5650): Second Day of Pesach; first day of the Omer

    1890: “Aid For Immigrants” published today described the finalization of “the plans for the fund which Baron de Hirsch…has established to the amelioration of the conditions” of Jews living in Russian, Romania “and those other countries in Europe where the Jew is persecuted to martyrdom” to find refuge in more civilized places.

    1892: “Rabbi Browne on the ‘Talmud’” published today described the speech delivered on this topic at the Central Musical Hall.  The lecture entitled "Talmud - Its Ethics and Its Literary Beauties" including his assertion that "What the Congressional Record is to the loyal American citizen, the 'Talmud' is to the Jew - an embodiment of the laws and history of his race. And yet the books of the 'Talmud' so dear to every Hebrew heart have gone through a most trying ordeal. At times they have been banished and burned, plundered and torn, and yet their glory lives.”

    1895: Three revenue collectors raided a basement at 119 Division Street where they found 200 gallons of wine that was supposed to be “Kosher.”  The illegal still is operated by a Russian Jew known as “Gordon” who was not on the premises when the raid was being made. 

    1895: The Tidings, a weekly Jewish newspaper published in Rochester, NY has been merged with The American Hebrew published in New York City.

    1896: The German anti-Semitic agitator Herman Ahlwardt was accompanied by A.M. Woeller, President of the Anti-Semitic Society and Jacob Hoefnagel, the society’s secretary as he made his way to deliver a speech at Germania Hall in Hoboken, NJ.

    1897(4th of Nisan, 5657):

    1897: Birthdate of Otto Marz who was transported from Uhersky Brod from Terezin in 1943 before being transported from Terezin in 1944 to Auschwitz where he was murdered.

    1897: Rabbi Joseph Silverman of Temple Emanu El and Cantor William Sparger officiated at today’s funeral for the late Julius Ehrmann.

    1897: President Lewis Parmer of the Hebrew School on Stone Avenue said that the Long Island Water Supply Company is refusing to continue to service because “the supply lines are worn out”

    1897: Frances Danzig, the widow of Louis Danzig, a resident of New York City, passed away today while visiting Atlantic City, NJ.

    1898(14th of Nisan, 5658): Ta’anit Bechorot; erev Pesach

    1898(14th of Nisan, 5658): “The Feast of Passover” published today states that “The Jewish Passover, or the Feast of Unleavened Bread, will be ushered in at sundown to-day. It will be universally observed by orthodox Jews for eight days and by their reformed and Palestinian brethren for seven days. With the former, however, only the first and last two days are actual holidays, and with the latter only the first and last, the intervening days being only semi-festivals, on which all manner of work may be performed.”

    1899: Mrs. Samuel Hirsch will sing at today’s musicale and tea sponsored by the Women’s Committee of the Hebrew Technical Institute being held at Sherry’s.

    1899: Adolf von Sonnenthal received a standing ovation when he returned to the Irving Place Theatre as Nathan in Lessing’s “Nathan Der Weise.”

    1899: In Paris, L’Figaro published “the evidence given by Examining Magistrate Bertulus before the Court of Cassation hearing the Dreyfus Case.

    1903(9th of Nisan, 5663):  The Kishinev pogrom began. “The Kishinev pogrom was an anti-Jewish riot that took place in Kishinev, which was back then part of the Bessarabia province of Imperial Russia (currently Chişinău is the capital of independent Moldova).  It started on April 6 and lasted until April 7, 1903.The riot started after a Christian Russian boy, Michael Ribalenko, had been found murdered in the town of Dubossary, about 25 miles north of Kishinev. Although it was clear that the boy had been killed by a relative (who was later found), the government chose to call it a ritual murder plot by the Jews.The mobs were incited by Pavolachi Krushevan, the editor of the Anti-Semitic Newspaper "Bessarabetz", and the vice-governor Ustrugov. They used the ages-old blood libel against the Jews (that the boy had been killed to use his blood in preparation of matzo). Viacheslav Plehve, the Minister of Interior, supposedly gave orders not to stop the rioters. During three days of rioting, the Kishinev Pogrom against the Jews took place. Forty-seven (some put the figure as high as 49) Jews were killed, 92 severely wounded, 500 slightly wounded and over 700 houses looted and destroyed.This pogrom is considered the first state-inspired action against Jews of the 20th century. Despite a world outcry, only two men were sentenced to seven and five years and twenty-two were sentenced for one or two years. This pogrom was instrumental in convincing tens of thousands of Russian Jews to leave to the West and to Israel.”

    1904(21st of Nisan, 5665): Seventh Day of Pesach

    1904(21st of Nisan, 5664): Fifty three year old literary critic Elazar Atlas, the son of David Atlas passed away today in Bialystok.

    1906: The Jewish Chronicle reported that Pope Pius X “cordially” received “Cav. Grassini, the Vice President of the Jewish Congregation of Venice.

    1907: In Brooklyn, “Russian Jewish immigrants Ernestine (nee Miriamson) and Leopold Lewis who was an optometrist gave birth to movie producer Joseph H. Lewis.

    1907(22nd of Nisan, 5667): Eighth Day of Pesach and Shabbat

    1907(22nd of Nisan, 5667): Seventy-six year old Hungarian native Adolf Neubauer who served “at the Austrian Consulate in Jerusalem and studied in Paris before moving to the United Kingdom where he “was sublibrarian at the Bodleian Library and reader in Rabbinic Hebrew at Oxford University” passed away today.

    1909(15th of Nisan, 5669): Pesach

    1909(15th of Nisan, 5669): Abraham Bengrihan, Chief Rabbi of Marrakech, Morocco, passed away.

    1909: Birthdate of Estella Agsterribe, later Estella Blits- Agsterribe, the Dutch Olympic Gold Medal winner who would die at Auschwitz with her children and her husband.

    1910: Commanding officers in Constantinople granted Jewish soldiers nine days off for Passover, even though official leave is stipulated only for the first two and last two days. 

    1910: In Constantinople in response to a request from the Hambashi The Minister of Justice, ordered all Jews in prison for trivial offenses be liberated in preparation for the celebration of Pesach.

    1912: In Chicago,  more than 15,000 thousand Jews found out today that the Orthodox among them will not be able to participate in the primary election being held on Tuesday, April 9, the last day of Passover.  A plan to allow somebody to accompany Orthodox Jewish voters into the booth and mark the ballot for them was rejected “because of the chances of fraud.”

    1912(19th of Nisan, 5672): Shabbat Chol HaMoed Pesach

    1912(19th of Nisan, 5672): Sxity-three year old California educator William Lissner passed away today in San Francisco.

    1913: Sons of Israel Synagogue founded in Lawrence, MA.

    1913: The Alliance of Jewish Women was founded in Washington, D.C. today.

    1913: In Philadelphia, as part of the second day of the celebration of the 25th anniversary of the Jewish Publication Judge Simon W. Rosendale of Albany who “presided over the Convention at which the Publication Society was organized” is scheduled to preside over the afternoon session.

    1914:A committee met at the hotel Astor tonight to make final arrangements for the Passover celebration for the Jewish soldiers and sailors whose release on furlough was obtained a few days ago.

    1915: In discussing the United States reaction to losses at the hands of German submarines the Frankfurter Zeitung, denigrated the possibility of a U.S. military response saying that “if now a war should break out the hosts of Russian Jews and their children…would increase the obstacle which would be met by a people that goes to war only half-heartedly.” (Editor’s note – two years later, the Germans would find out how badly they had misunderstood the patriotism of the vast number of American Jews.)

    1916: Albert Lucas, Chairman of the Central Jewish Relief Committee of New York City address a meeting at Memorial Hall in Dayton, Ohio where “$6,700 was raised for the relief of Jews in the war-stricken countries of Europe.”

    1917(14th of Nisan, 5677): Erev Pesach - As Jews sat down to their Seders tonight, they had no idea how much their world was about to change!

    1917: “The celebration of Passover which began” this evening “was made especially notable by the rejoicing of the new freedom of the Jews in Russia.

    1917: “At Temple Emanu-El a public announcement was made to the effect that a Russian decree had emancipated the Jews of that country” based on a message that Jacob H. Schiff had sent to Louis Marshall who was at the Temple.

    1917: “Special services” marking the celebration of Passover were held at the Hebrew National Orphan Home followed by a dinner for 200 orphan boys and girls who were accompanied by “forty well-known men and women who took the part of foster parents.”

    1917: "The United States declared war on Germany. Approximately 250,000 Jewish soldiers (20% of whom were volunteers) served in the U.S. army - roughly 5.7% of the servicemen, while 7of Eastern and Central Europe.  The aftermath, Communism and Fascism, would prove to be even worse.  For American Jews, the aftermath of the war included immigration restrictions and the Red Scare.

    1917: German soldiers and a military band marched through the streets of Jerusalem which was controlled by their Turkish ally, apparently unaware of the fact that the United States was preparing to declare war on the Kaiser’s kingdom.



    1917: “A movement was started” today “by a group of Austro-Hungarian Jews to enlist citizens of foreign birth who are loyal to the American flag in the in the army and navy.”


    1917: One of the British Undersecretaries for Middle Eastern Affairs, Mark Sykes informed his French counterpart Georges-Picot that Britain’s military efforts in Palestine would have to be “taken into account” at the peace conference.  This was a polite way of saying that new realities had changed the British view of the Sykes-Picot Agreement and that the British would be pushing for a Jewish homeland in Palestine.

    1918: A “a choir of boys from various synagogues sang ‘The Star-Spangled Banner’ Governor Charles addressed the annual convention of the Rumanian Jews of America tonight at the Hebrew Technical School for Girls.

    1918: The Jewish Administration Commission for Palestine arrives at Tel Aviv.  “Dr. Chaim Weizmann, head of the commission, evokes great enthusiasm when he replied in Hebrew to the address of welcome.  The British Military Governor of Jaffa, who participated in the reception, expresses his sympathy with the Zionist aims.”

    1919: In Moscow, Miron Kovarsky, a piano student at the St. Petersburg conservatory and the former Zinaida Eisenstadt gave birth to New Yorker cartoonist and artist Anatoly Mironovich Kovarsky.

    1919: In Cincinnati, Ohio, former president William Howard Taft delivered an address on “A League of Nations” at the 30th convention of the Central Conference of American Rabbis

    1919: Ernst Toller began servings as President of the short-lived Bavarian Soviet Republic.

    1920(18thof Nisan, 5680): Fourth Day of Pesach

    1919: Sol Witkewitz, the Instructor at the Art School of Chicago Hebrew Institute is scheduled to take his classes to the Chicago Artists Exhibition at the Art Institute this afternoon.

    1920: Despite the declaration of martial law, Arab attacks continue on the Jews of Jerusalem for a third day.

    1920:  Birthdate of Dr. Edmond H. Fischer. The son of a Jewish father, Fischer shared in the 1992 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine.

    1923: Birthdate of Shoshana Shenburg who moved to Eretz Israel a year later where she would marry Professor Elisha Netanyahu and gain fame as attorney and jurist Shoshana Netanyahu who served as a justice on the Supreme Court of Israel.

    1925: Birthdate of Helga Deen, a young Jewish girl who kept a diary that “described her stay in the Dutch prison camp “Kamp Vught” which was only recently discovered.

    1925: During his triumphal tour of Palestine, Lord Balfour, of Balfour Declaration fame, spent tonight at the hotel on top of the historic Mount Carmel, from which he had a superb view of Haifa, on the northeastern slope, and of the bay below.

    1926(22ndof Nisan, 5686) Eighth Day of Pesach

    1926: At Temple B’nai Jershurun, Rabbi Israel Goldstein paid tribute during the Pesach Services to the late Jacob P. Adler, the Jewish actor who “he characterized…as the Nestor of the Yiddish drama who never cheapened his origin or discarded his people during his long stage career.”

    1927: Birthdate of Jules Hirsch, the physician who was a pioneer in the scientific study of obesity.

    1927: In Hudson County, New Jersey, District Court Judge Myron C. Ernst said today that if the date proposed for voting on constitutional amendments is not changed from September 27, the date on which Rosh Hashanah is observed “every Jewish voter in this State will be disenfranchised.”

    1929: In Berlin, Charlotte (née Epstein) and Jack Previn, who was a lawyer, judge, and music teacher gave birth to pianist and conductor Andre Previn

    1930: Today, “during an exhibition baseball game against the Little Rock Travelers,” Moe Berg’s “spikes caught in the soil as he tried to change directions and he a knee ligament.

    1930: The Jewish Telegraphic Agency reported that according to a report submitted by the Zionist Education Council to the Action Committee, “there are 21,031 pupils in the schools maintained in Palestine by the Zionist Organization. The annual budget for the schools is $637,250 which includes…a $37,975 subsidy from the Palestine Colonization Association and $60,000 from the municipality of Tel Aviv.

    1930: René Dreyfus won the 1930 Monaco Grand Prix today in a privateer Bugatti..

    1930: In an interview on this date “Ittamar Benavi, one of Palestine’s leading journalists” reiterates his support for the creation of a series of Cantons along the Swiss model as a way to govern Palestine.

    1931: The first episode of “Little Orphan Annie” Radio Show aired today with a ten-year-old Jewish girl named Shirley Bell playing the lead role.

    1931: Birthdate of Deborah Meier “an American educator often considered the founder of the modern small schools movement.”

    1934: In Brooklyn, Henry and Shirley Guttenplan gave birth to Howard Herman Guttenplan, “who took what began as an antipoverty program on the Lower East Side of Manhattan and transformed it into a leading workshop and showcase for experimental filmmakers.”

    1935: It was reported today that Actions Committee of the Supreme Council of the World Zionist Organization has adopted a budget of £329,000 for the coming year at its meeting in Jeruslaem.

    1936(14th of Nisan, 5696):Ta'anit Bechorot, Erev Pesach

    1936(14thof Nisan, 5869): Ninety-year old historian Alfred Stern, a professor at the Zurich Technical Institute since 1887, a contributor to the Journal of the History of Jews in Germany  and the author of A History of the English Revolution, A History of Switzerland and History of Europe, 1815-1871 passed away today. (As reported by JTA)

    1936: In Germany, “Gestapo agents…stood guard within synagogues to listen to the sermons…”

    1936: The Passover “service at the Hebrew Association for the Deaf…was conducted entirely in sign language under the leadership of Mrs. Tanya Nash, director of the association.”

    1936: Today, “the United Palestine Appeal…released messages from public leaders” including Frank D. Fitzgerald of Michigan, Hill McAlister of Tennessee and Harry Nice of Maryland “hailing a Zionist ideal.”

    1936: In a note to Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, released today “Secretary of State Cordell Hull said: ‘The existence of a Jewish national home in Palestine has been a source of encouragement and comfort to many Jews who in these difficult times have found it necessary to seek refuge and new homes.  All will agree that the support and extension of the benevolent work of providing shelter in the Holy Land for homeless Jews is a highly unselfish and commendable task.  I sincerely hope that your efforts in this laudable undertaking will meet with success.’”

    1936: In case that “involves a State law to prevent ‘frauds on religious institutions’ through sales for profit of tickets to purported religious services” “the Supreme Court continued in effect an interlocutory injuncted obtained by Sara Wachs” “in the New York ‘mushroom synagogue’ controversy.”

    1936: In Lodz, Poland, “twenty-four young nationalist were sentenced today to terms of imprisonment ranging from one to four years after they had been convicted of having formed a secret society with the object of committing acts of terrorism against Jews and destroying Jewish property.”

    1936: Today, “the scholarship department of the Yeshiva Endowment Foundation announced…a $10,000 bequest from the family of the late Mr. and Mrs. Albert Herskovits in memory of the parents.”

    1936: Rabbis Samuel H. Goldenson and B. Benedict Glazer conducted Passover eve services at Temple Emanu-El on 65th Street.

    1936: “The American Jewish Congress called upon American Jews to ‘united for the collective security of the Jewish people to combat progressive deterioration of their equal rights in their native lands’ and to organize for the ‘self-defense of the Jewish people through a world Jewish congress.’”

    1936: Rabbi Jonah B. Wise, Carl J. Austrian and Rabbi Herbert S. Goldstein participated in a radio broadcast sponsored by the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee “which is conducting a $3,500,000 drive” to “aid their oppressed brethren in Germany, Poland and other Eastern European Countries.”

    1937: At is annual conference today, the “Jewish Marachi…adopted a resolution strongly opposing any attempt at partition of Palestine and declaring that the whole country must be open to Jews to the extent of its historic boundaries.”

    1937: In Jerusalem Moshe Baram and his wife Grazia who was born in Aleppo, gave birth to MK and cabinet minister Uzi Baram.

    1939: In Chicago, delicatessen owners Paul and Gertrude Krause gave birth to Jerome “Jerry” Krause the general manager who turned the Chicago Bulls into an NBA dynasty.

    1941: German forces, in alliance with Hungarians and Bulgarians, invaded Yugoslavia and Greece.  The invasion was caused by the Italian Army's failure against the Greeks.  For the Jews, this meant that the Balkans would come under Nazi domination which later resulted in the destruction of some of the most ancient Jewish communities in the world.  According to some, this "diversion" delayed the invasion of the Soviet Union which resulted in the Nazi forces becoming trapped in the Russian Winter.  This in turn was a contributing factor to the final defeat of the Nazis.

    1941: In New York City, 23 year old Sylvia Lubow Rindskopf married Ensign Maurice H. Rhindskopf – a marriage that would last nearly 69 years during which she played the perfect Naval wife to Rear Admiral Mike Rindskopf.

    1941: The Nazis established two ghettos in Radom, Poland.  Radom's Jewish community dated back to the Middle Ages.  Nine tenths of the Jewish population of 25,000 perished in the Holocaust.  According to some reports, the remaining Jews did not return because of the anti-Semitic riots that took place in Poland after the war.

    1941: “Flame of New Orleans” a comedy produced by Joe Pasternak, co-starring Mischa Auer and featuring Shemp Howard was released in the United States today.

    1942: In Baltimore, MD Violet "Vi" (née Krichinsky) and Irvin Levinson, who worked in the furniture and appliance business gave birth to Academy Award winning director Barry Levinson whose works included one the greatest movies ever – “Avalon.”

    1943: “Tahiti Honey,” a musical comedy starring Simone Simon “the daughter of Henri Louis Firmin Champmoynat, a French Jewish engineer, airplane pilot in World War II, who died in a concentration camp” was released in the United States today.

    1944: The Jewish nursery at Izieu-Ain France was overrun by Nazi's 1945: The 14th Armored Division liberated the Serbian hospital at Camp Hammelburg whose patients included Captain Abraham Baum who had been shot in the groin while trying to rescue General Patton’s son-in-law John K. Waters who was also in the hospital recovering from his wounds.

    1945: After the USS Bush, an American destroyer was struck by a Japanese suicide bomber today, Raphael J. “Ray” Moses was among those who were rescued from the East China Sea.

    1946: The British consulate General in Madagascar reported in confidence to the foreign Office in London that while Madagascar might be suitable for 200 colonists of the peasant class, stress should be laid by Britain on providing the right type of colonist in the first instance and not city-bred Jews who were worn and emaciated through long confinement in concentration camps.

    1947: As it begins its American tour, The Hapoel soccer team is scheduled to board a plane a Tel Aviv today as it makes its way to New York City.

    1947: The first Tony Awards are presented for theatrical achievement.

    1948: The Irgun raided the British Army camp at Pardes Hanna killing seven British soldiers and stealing a large quantity of weapons

    1948: Operation Nachshon was launched this evening in an attempt to open the road to Jerusalem.  At the same time, a convoy left the coast and after a ten hour trip arrived in the beleaguered city.  It was the first the first convoy to reach the city in two weeks.  They found a city that was under constant bombardment from Arab Legion (Jordanian Army) artillery situated on the high round north of the Damascus Gate.  For the next three weeks, the Arabs would use their military might to try and re-gain control of the Jerusalem-Tel Aviv Road. 

    1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that Israel Air Force planes bombed Syrian entrenchments in the demilitarized zone near El Hamma where seven Israeli policemen were killed and one wounded. The government lodged a complaint with the UN Security Council listing all recent Syrian border violations.

    1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that for the first time since the establishment of the state, Britain announced that it was ready to sell small arms to Israel, on the same terms as had been enjoyed by Egypt.

    1952: A Broadway revival of Clifford Odets’ “Golden Boy” starring John Garfield as “Joe” as after 55 performances at the ANTA Playhouse.

    1954: The body of Baron Edmond de Rothschild was re-interred in Zichron Yaakov, the wine-producing village which had been established with his help.

    1954: Today, during the Rudolf Kastner trial Dr. Rueben Hecht, who worked as an Irgun representative in Zurich was interrogated as the seventeenth witness by advocate Tamir who questioned him about his relationship with Dr. Jean-Marie Musy, the former president of the Swiss Confederation and “long term friend” of Heinrich Himmler.

    1954(3rd of Nisan): Yiddish poet Aaron Leib Baron passed away


    1955: David Saul Marshal, a descendant of Indian Baghdadi Jews, began serving as Chief Minister of Singapore.


    1957: First oil tanker in Eilat arrived filled with Persian Gulf oil.

    1957: In Brooklyn, “Thomas Sapolsky, an architect who renovated the restaurants Lüchow's and Lundy's and his wife gave birth to Harvard graduate Robert Morris Sapolsky, the neuroendocrinologist and the John A. and Cynthia Fry Gunn Professor at Stanford University, holding joint appointments in several departments, including Biological Sciences, Neurology & Neurological Sciences, and Neurosurgery.

    1958(16th of Nisan, 5718): Second Day of Pesach; First day of the Omer

    1959: “The Sound and the Fury” the movie version of the novel by the same name directed by Martin Ritt, with a script co-authored by Irving Ravetch was released in the United States today.

    1959(27thof Adar II, 5719): Sixty-four year old Leo Aryeh Mayer, who worked jointly with Eleazar Sukenik, in connection with the excavations of the "Third Wall" of Jerusalem, built by in 41-44 CE, Agrippa, king of Judea, in 41-44 CE and served as rector of Hebrew University, passed away.

    1959: Joseph B. Levin represented the Securities and Exchange Commission before the Fifth Circuit United States Court of Appeals in Columbia General Investment Corporation v. the SEC.

    1962: Leonard Bernstein causes controversy with his remarks from the podium during a New York Philharmonic concert featuring Glenn Gould performing Brahms' First Piano Concerto.

    1967: Birthdate of Brooklyn native Glenn Thrush who became the White House correspondent for the NY Times in 2017.

    1967: Avraham Lanir “scored his first aerial kill in a major skirmish along the Syrian border which ended with the downing of six Syrian jets. Lanir, flying Mirage 60, downed a SAF MiG-21 with cannon fire after closing in to a distance of 200 meters. The MiG exploded and Lanir flew right through the fireball, covering his aircraft with soot. Initially blinded, enough soot was eventually blown off his canopy to afford Lanir a safe landing at Ramat David. The scorched aircraft earned the nickname ‘Black Mirage’".

    1968: Romanian Jewish playwright Israil Bercovici adapted a collection of Itzik Manger's poems into a two-act stage piece, Mangheriada, which premiered today at the Romanian State Jewish Theater in Bucharest

    1969: In Passaic, NJ, two Anglo-Jewish immigrants, Michael Rudd, “an historical guide and former vice president of TWA” and his wife Gloria, a sales manager at a television station gave birth to actor Paul Rudd

    1969: Birthdate of actress Ari Meyers best known for her role as "Emma Jane McArdle" in the television series, “Kate & Allie.”

    1969:  Gold Meir spoke to 3,000 teenagers in Jerusalem, expressing her absolutefaith that peace would come.

    1971: Jews must have felt mixed emotions today when Igor Stravnisky passed away today.  On the one hand he was a giant in the world of music and yet he was also an anti-Semite.

    1973: In the aftermath of the Munich Olympic Massacre, Basil al-Kubaissi, a law professor who provided arms and logistic support for Black September was shot to death while returning home from dinner in Paris.

    1974(14th of Nisan, 5734): Shabbat Hagadol; Erev Pesach

    1974(14th of Nisan, 5734): Canadian born poet Rochelle Mass and her family celebrate their first Pesach in Israel at a kibbutz where she had picked oranges during the Yom Kippur War in 1973.

    1975: Birthdate of actor Zach Braff

    1975: Sandy Helberg the American actor who is the son of 2 Holocaust survivors married Harriet Birnbaum.

    1975(25th of Nisan, 5735): Seventy-one year old Ernst David Bergman, “the father of Israel’s nuclear program” passed a way today.

    1976(6th of Nisan, 5736):Sidney Franklin passed away.  A Brooklyn born Jew whose name was originally Sidney Frumkin, Franklin was the U.S.’s first successful bullfighter.

    1976: The Jerusalem Post reported that France sold to Egypt Mirage F-1 interceptors, the most advanced French combat aircraft. It is pointless for Israelis, or for Israel friends abroad, to shadow box with PLO, Defense Minister Shimon Peres told the International Conference on Palestinians and the Middle East, since the PLO aspires to liquidate the Jewish State. He added that the PLO had maintained its rigid extremism, and had lined up the entire Arab world behind this position.

    1977: CBS broadcast, “Something for Joey” a sports film featuring Steve Guttenburg and with music by David Shire for this time today.

    1977:The Jerusalem Post reported that Egyptian President Anwar Sadat called upon US President Jimmy Carter to establish "a political entity where the Palestinians can, at long last, be a community of citizens, not a group of refugees." The Israel Press Council decided to form a team to check local papers’ observance of their ban on publication of criminal suspects’ names before they are remanded. Israeli artillery shelled terrorist concentrations in Lebanon. Israeli meat producers obtained a US permit to export kosher meat to America

    1979: “Israeli agents sabotaged the Osirak reactor awaiting shipment to Iraq at La Seyne-sur-Mer in France.”


    1979: Thirteen people were injured by a bomb set off at a bus stop in Jerusalem.

    1980: After six weeks, the curtain came down today on an Off-Broadway production of “Biogra