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A collection of Jewish history and current Jewish events, in date format, updated daily in this Jewish history blog.

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    March 11

    222: Serverus Alexander began his reign as Roman Emperor during which a table in Intercisa (Hungary) was inscribed as follows: “To the Eternal God! For the salvation of our Lord; the pious, felicitous Emperor Severus Alexander and the Empress Julia Mamea, mother of the Emperor; Cosmius, chief of the Spondilla customhouse, head of the synagogue of the Jews, gladly fulfills his vow.” (Raphael Patai)

    1344: In Speyer, a year after the Jews had been the victims of an Easter Time blood libel the citizens “requested the king's permission to confiscate the houses of these Jews for the benefit of the city” – a request which was granted

    1415: Pope Benedict XIII banned the study of the Talmud in any form and tried to restrict Jewish life completely. The town of Tortosa, Spain, was the scene of a disputation between Christians and Jews from 1412 through 1414.  These disputations were always rigged so that the Christians would win.  The Pope (or as he described by some the anti-Pope) was enraged by the lack of conversions which was the cause of the ban.

    1513:  Leo X elected Pope.  Leo X succeeded Julius II, the Pope who paid for the painting of the Sistine Chapel.  “To Martin Luther, Leo was the functioning head of a “kingdom of Antichrist.’”  Even his admirers might say that Leo was more a man of the Renaissance than a Vicar of Christ.  He respected learning, even when that learning was Jewish.  In a dispute concerning the Talmud, Leo took the side of Johann Reuchlin one of the Christian scholars who could read Hebrew.  He defended the Talmud, saying that it did blaspheme Jesus or Christianity.  Despite the pressure on him to burn the Talmud to the opposed tact and had a Christian printer produced the text in its entirety, without censorship.  Leo banned the requirement of the Jew Badge in his French possessions and refused to enforce it in his Italian holdings. 

    1638(25th of Adar I, 5398): Simon Auerbach, the son of Rabbi Meshullam Solomon Fischhof-Auerbach and his wife Miriam Lucerna and the bother of Rabbi Menahem Mendel Auerbach, “who at the age of twenty three wrote a penitential poem on the occasion of epidemic that broke out among children in Vienna in 1634,” passed away today at Eibenschütz

    1670: Birthdate of John Toland, Anglo-Irish author and philosopher who in 1714, at a time when Jews were still considered to be outsiders by many Englishman, wrote “Reasons for Naturalizing the Jews” in which he advocated “full citizenship and equal rights for the Jewish people

    1704:Clement XI issued “Propagandae  Per Unicersum,” a Papal Bull that “confirmed all the benefits given to converts under Paul II and expanded them to include giving them the rights over properties owned by non-converted members of the their families.” (As reported by

    1762: Although Rhode Island was considered more liberal than other states, and although a few Jews had been previously granted citizenship, the state refused to grant citizenship to Aaron Lopez and Isaac Eliezer. The court stated that “no person who is not of the Christian religion can be admitted free of this colony.” Lopez was granted citizenship by Massachusetts, and the sentence “upon the true faith of a Christian” was excluded from the oath. Lopez was probably the first Jew to be granted citizenship in Massachusetts.

    1763: Birthdate of Baruch Schottlander who gained fame as Benedict Schott, the itinerant teacher who served as a “tutor in the house of Herz Beer, the father of composer Jacob Mayerbeer and as an author who petitioned Napoleon on the matter of improved education.

    1770: In Birtsmorton Court, Malvern, Worcestershire, William and Elizabeth Huskisson, gave birth to one of four sons, MP William Huskisson who supported toward full emancipation of the Jews and in 1830 “presented a petition signed 2,000 merchants from Liverpool” calling for the removal of all civil disablilites.

    1787(21st of Adar): Rabbi Elimelekh of Lizhansk, author of Noam Elimelekh, a commentary on the Torah, passed away today. He was the brother of Rabbi Zušya, of Hanipol (one of my favorite Chassidim) and a student of the Maggid of Mezeritch the successor to the Baal Shem tov.

    1800(14th of Adar, 5560): First Purim of the 19th century

    1801: Paul I of Russia is assassinated, leading the way for his son Alexander I to accede the throne. Paul’s death was no loss to the Jews of Russia. At the time of his death, Paul was preparing to implement the recommendations contained in a report entitled, “An Opinion on How to Avert the Scarcity of Food in White Russia Through the Curbing of the Jews’ Avaricious Occupations, Their Reformation and Other Matters.”  Alexander I began his reign by adopting a series of policies that were designed to further degrade and impoverish the Jews.  As the threat of Napoleon loomed on the horizon, Paul’s policies towards the Jews softened and improved.  The first Lubavitcher Rebbe urged Jews to support Alexander in the fight against Napoleon.  After the Napoleonic threat disappeared Alexander’s treatment of the Jews became increasingly less sympathetic.  By the time of his death, he had returned to the reactionary views that had marked the start of his reign. 

    1812: Prussian Jews were granted civil rights. The price of citizenship included the adoption of family names in the Western style. Although later reaction revoked most of this freedom, the discrimination never returned to the level existing in the "Middle Ages." That is, until the rise of Hitler.

    1827: Birthdate of Moritz Ellstätter the native of Karlsruhe and “son of a Jewish furniture trader who served as minster in the government of Baden.

    1829: James Graham Lewis married Harriet Davis today at the Great Synagogue.

    1831: Birthdate of Adolf Neubaur, the native of Hungary and student of rabbinical literature who worked in the Austrian Consulate at Jerusalem where he began publishing articles about the Jews of that city. Eventually he made his way to Oxford where he enjoyed a distinguished career as a reader in Rabbinic Hebrew and sub-librarian at Bodelian Library. Besides his extensive cataloguing work, this unsung intellectual hero edited the Aramic text of the Book of Tobit and discovered a Hebrew fragment of the wisdom text of “Ben Sira.”

    1833: In Amsterdam, Aron Mendes Chumaceiro, who served as the “chakam of Curacao in the Dutch West Indies” and his wife gave birth to Jacob Mendes Chumaceiro who “was inspector of the Jewish schools of Amsterdam, head and librarian of the bet ha-midrash Ets Haim, and editor of Het Israelietisch Weekblad.”

    1838: Birthdate of Leo Blumenstock von Halban, native of Cracow, the Austrian trained physician who became “chair of forensic medicine in 1881.”

    1838: Abraham Marks married Phoebe Simmons at the Great Synagogue today.

    1841: In Venice, birthdate of Luigi Luzzatti who “served as the 31st Prime Minister of Italy between 1910 1911; making him the second Jew to hold this position.

    1852: In “Benjamin Disraeli” published today described the various views, most of them negative, on the appointed of Disraeli to serve as Chancellor of the Exchequer.  Much of the criticism was based on Disraeli’s career as the author of several novels.  Apparently being a man of letters should have disqualified him for such a post.  According to the author of the article, Disraeli’s literary background gives him unique qualifications for public life.  Besides which, he was the most capable member of his party serving in the House Commons where the Conservatives were in need of leaders.

    1852: Joel ben Alexander married Ziporah bat Joseph at the Great Synagogue today.  

    1853(1stof Adar II, 5613): Rosh Chodesh Adar II

    1853: The Jewish Disabilities Bill came up in the House of Commons for a second reading. Mr. Ernal Osborne argued “that religious liberty was violated in the exclusion of Jews from Parliament and thought the question not one of Jewish disabilities, but of the right of Christians to be represented by whom they pleased.”  Several Members of Parliament “totally opposed the bill on Christian grounds.”

    1853(1stof Adar II, 5613): Sixty-eight year old Pinchas Selig Rubino passed away

    1857: Moritz Jacobi of Florence, SC married Charlotte Phillips at Timmonsville, SC.

    1857: Moss Emanuel married Fanny Cohen today at the Great Synagogue.

    1861: In Bakau, Romania, Leib Ehrlich and Sarah Kaufman gave birth to Joseph Ehrlich the multi-lingual fresco painter who “came to the United States in June of 1889, where he eventually became the United States Immigrant Inspector at the port of Philadelphia while serving as the secretary of the Hebrew Literature Society and as the director of a Chevra Kadisha in the City of Brotherly Love.

    1861: Birthdate of S. Kutner, the native of Poland who became Director of the Jews’ Deaf and Dumb Home in 1894 where his wife served as a matron and who authored several books including Kutner’s Aid to Solid Geometry.

    1865(13thof Adar, 5625): Parashat Tetzaveh; Shabbat Zachor; erev Purim

    1865: Corporal Jacob Kaufman began his service with Company A of the 101stRegiment.

    1872(1stof Adar II, 5632): Rosh Chodesh Adar II

    1873: In a letter written today, W. Archdall O’Doherty stated that it was a year ago to the day that he had delivered “control of the Erie Railway to a little London Jew of the name of Bischsoffsheim.” The letter continues with his explanation of the financial machinations that the new owners have engaged in since the sale. [Editor’s Note – The reference is to Bischoffsehim and Goldschmidt, British bankers, who were the leaders of a group of English shareholders seeking to oust Jay Gould from his controlling position of the railroad which he was ruining for his personal financial gain.  Gould was one of the villains of the Robber Baron Era.  The letter was written by a shadowy figure whose role was emerging during the multiple investigations that were being conducted.  His resort to an anti-Semitic smear was not unusual in certain circles at that time

     1874(22nd of Adar, 5634): Sixty-nine year old James Bondi, a native of Dresden who came to the United States where he served as rabbi of “the Norfolk Street Synagogue” in New York and proprietor/editor of The Hebrew Leader.

    1876: It was reported today that the Purim Ball which has been held for several years at the Academy of Music did not take place this year.  No reason was given for the change which came as a surprise because it was so popular with both Christian and Jewish citizens of New York.

    1884(14thof Adar, 5644): Purim

    1884(14thof Adar, 5644): Seventy-three year old Levi Herzfeld the historian and rabbi who, while personally strictly Orthodox, favored “moderate” reforms passed away at Brunswick, Germany

    1886: In Chicago, Rabbis Lesser, Anexter and Oalperstein officiated at the appraisal of four casks of wine and liquor shipped from Jerusalem for using during the upcoming holiday of Passover.  According to the appraiser, the wine will carry a duty of three dollars a gallon.  The wine looks liked “ordinary Rhine wine and tastes like hard cider.”  After the Appraiser finished his work, the religious leaders sealed the casks and recited the appropriate prayers over them.

    1887: In South Carolina, Rabbi Rubin officiated at the marriage of Harris Frank and Sarah C. Isear.

    1889: U.S. Secretary of State James G. Blaine took up the case of Herman Kempinski a Russian born American citizen who had been imprisoned by the Czar’s government went he returned to his native land on a business trip.

    1890: Birthdate Albert Lorch “Al” Loe who played Center for the Georgia Tech Yellow Jackets football team in Atlanta, GA “where he was nicknamed ‘The Yiddish Wildcat’”

    1890: “Found Dead In A Cellar” published today described the events surrounding the discovery of a female corpse in a building that is used as a dry goods store by Moses Levy on the ground floor and as a school by Aitz Chaim, a Talmud Torah occupying the second and third floors under the direction of Isaac Libermann and Hermann Rothstein.

    1891: Ignatz Klein swore before Coroner Levy that a girl that he had seen the United States named Rose Kohlmeyer was in fact Esther Soloymis, the girl he was accused of murdering nine years ago in Hungary as part of an alleged blood libel.

    1892: Authorities are investigating reports of patient neglect at North Brothers Island, the site where numerous typhus fever, many of whom are Russian Jewish immigrants, are supposed to be held until they regain their health or pass away.

    1892(12th of Adar, 5652): Sixty-two year old Mason Hirsh, an umbrella manufacturer from Philadelphia, passed away today New York after being hit by a car two days ago.  He was the Treasurer of the United Hebrew Charities of Philadelphia.

    1894: “The Treaty in the Reichstag” published today described the debate taking place in the German parliament over the adoption of a Russian-German Commercial Treaty; a debate filled with ant-Semitism. Baron von Hammerstein and Lieberman von Sonnenberg called the treaty “monstrous” because it would allow Russian Jews to enjoy all the privileges of Germans while avoiding military service.  They “warned the government that these Russian Jews would inevitably overrun and monopolize entire villages and absorbed the prosperity of the provinces.

    1896: Herzl meets Reverend William Hechler chaplain to the British Embassy in Vienna. Hechler was tutor in the household of the Grossherzog von Baden. He knows the German Kaiser and thinks he can get Herzl an audience.

    1897: Mount Sinai Hospital, the Hebrew Benevolent Orphan Asylum, the Montefiore Home, the Home for Aged and Hebrews are each to receive bequests of three thousand dollars from the late Simon Goldenberg. The United Hebrew Charities and the Hebrew Technical Institute each will receive bequests of five thousand dollars.

    1897(7th of Adar II, 5657): Seventy-seven year old lexicographer Daniel Sanders who “published a translation in verse of the Song of Songs in 1866” passed away today in Strelitz, Germany.

    1899: “Africa” published today provides a review of The Redemption of Africa in which Frederic Perry Noble includes a description of the impact of Abraham’s journey to Egypt on the continent’s religious and social development.

    1899: “The Best of Histories” published today listed 143 works that should be purchased by anybody forming a historical library including The Story of the Jews by J.K. Hosmer and The History of the Jews by Josephus Falvius translated by William Whiston

    1900: In Konitz, West Prussia, 19 year old Ermst Winter, the son of an architect from Prechlau who going to school in Konitz did not return to his boarding house.  It was assumed that he had fallen through the ice and a search was begun.  Unbeknownst to everybody, including the Jews of Konitz, this would mark the start of Konitz Affair, a 20thcentury blood libel.

    1903: Zionist leader Oskar Marmorek returns to Vienna.  While few may know his name today, the Austrian born architect was an early convert to Zionism joining Max Nordau and David Wolffsohn as one of Herzl’s key supporters.

    1903: In New York, Mortimer Schiff and Adele (Neustadt) Schiff gave birth to Dorothy Schiff who “was an owner and publisher of the New York Post for nearly 40 years.”

    1904: Birthdate of leading childhood obesity and anorexia researcher Hilde Bruch. Raised in a small German town, Bruch originally wanted to become a mathematician. An uncle convinced her that medicine was a more practical career for a Jewish woman, and she earned her doctorate in medicine at the University of Freiburg in 1929. After giving up her academic career for private practice in response to anti-Semitism within the university, Bruch fled Germany altogether in 1933, immigrating to England. After a year in London, she moved to the United States, where she began working at Babies Hospital in New York City. Bruch began researching obesity in children in 1937; her work in this area would prove to be groundbreaking. Yet she left this research in 1941 to study psychiatry at the Johns Hopkins University. Returning to New York in 1943, she both established a private psychoanalytic practice and joined the faculty at Columbia University's College of Physicians and Surgeons. In New York, and at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas, where she joined the faculty in 1964, Bruch's research increasingly focused on the underlying causes of anorexia nervosa. She published both scholarly and popular articles on eating disorders, and continued to see patients until her eightieth birthday. Her collected work, published as Eating Disorders: Obesity, Anorexia Nervosa and the Person Within in 1973, is still considered a definitive work on the subject. Bruch died in Houston in December, 1984.

    1906(14th of Adar, 5666): Purim

    1906: In “Most Interesting Educational Experiment In New York” published today described efforts of Miss Olive M. Jones and Miss Julia Richman to educate the children of Russian Jewish immigrants.

    1906: During a service held today in the Alexandrovsky Monastery sponsored by the League of the Russian People, “the orators openly summoned their followers, the ‘Black Hundreds’ to kill the Jews…”

    1906: The West End Synagogue is scheduled to host “an entertainment for the Sunday School in the synagogue at Amsterdam and 82nd Street.

    1906: This afternoon the Hebrew and Sunday School of Congregation Beth Israel Biku Cholim are scheduled to host a Purim celebration at Lexington Avenue and 72nd Street.

    1906: The Jewish Endeavor Society is scheduled to host a Purim celebration this afternoon for 150 religious school students.

    1906: “The Young Men’s and Young Ladies’ Auxiliary of the Consumptives’ Sanitarium in Denver, Colorado” is scheduled to host a bazaar and Purim Ball tonight at the Grand Central Palace.

    1906: In a column entitled “Talk With Josef Lhevinne,” the Jewish pianist who is visiting the United States discussed a wide range of topics including the impact of Anton Rubinstein on his career, his love and admiration for America and his disappointment that he will not be able to go fishing while in this country.  “Fishing is favorite diversion, aside from tennis which he plays constantly to keep down his weight and to diversion to the muscles of his arms.”

    1907(25th of Adar, 5667): Seventy-four year old Prussian born Kentucky attorney and uncle of Justice Louis Brandies, Lewis Naphtali Dembitz who was one of those who placed Lincoln’s nomination in at the Republican Convention in 1860 and was an early supporter of the Zionist movement passed away today in Louisville.

    1908(8th of Adar II):  Hebrew novelist Isaiah Bersadsky passed away

    1909: Birthdate of Jules Engel “a Jewish-Hungarian American filmmaker, painter, sculptor, graphic artist, set designer, animator, film director, and teacher.”

    1909: Birthdate of Sidney “Sid” Goldin the Georgia Tech basketball player who won a Bronze Star while serving in the United States Navy during WW II and worked for Shell Oil for 40 years.

    1910: Birthdate of physicist Henry Solomon Lipson, the native of Liverpool who “was the co-inventor of the Beevers-Lipson Strip, a calculating device in crystallography.

    1911: Birthdate of Haim Cohen, the Lübeck, born Israeli legal scholar and jurist who wrote The Trial and Death of Jesusin 1968 in which he argued that it was the Romans, not the Sanhedrin, who tried and executed Jesus.

    1913(2nd of Adar II, 5673): Forty-two year old Chicagoan Victor B Strelitz, a member of the firm of Strelitz Brothers and the husband of Sarah Strelitz passed away “suddenly in New York City” today.

    1913: The funeral of Pauline Phillips, the wife of Herman Philips is scheduled to take place today followed by burial at Waldheim Cemetery.

    1915: The Red Cross Fund which Jacob Schiff serves as Treasurer now totals $467,779.75.

    1915(25th of Adar, 5675): Eighty-four year old Leopold Caspari, a French-born businessman and politician from Natchitoches, Louisiana who in 1884 while serving as state representative pushed for the establishment of Northwestern State University.

    1915: It was reported today that more than $200,000 has been sent to aid Jews in Russia suffering from the effects of the Great War while another $150,000 has been by American Jews to aid their co-religionists “to that part of Poland now held by the Germans.”

    1916: Mr. and Mrs. Isaac W. Brill who moved to Chicago from Cincinnati to live with their daughter Mrs. Samuel Hoffman celebrated their golden wedding this evening at the Metropole Hotel.

    1916: The New York Warheit published an interview city editor Isaac Gonickman conducted with Jacob H. Schiff where the leading member of the American Jewish Committee expressed concerns about the upcoming congress to be held in Philadelphia of the danger presented by Zionists who might attend and because of a “possible loss of the respect and good-will which have shown to so great an extent” to the Jewish people.

    1916(6th Adar II, 5676): Parshat Vayikra

    1916(6th Adar II, 5676): Samuel Dalkowitz a merchant, passed away today in San Antonio, TX.

    1917: In Manhattan, services are scheduled to begin at 11 a.m. at Beth-El Temple where the sermon will be on “Priest, Prophet and Mystic.”

    1917: At the Free Synagogue meeting in Carnegie Hall, Dr. Herbert S. Bigelow is scheduled to preach on “What Shall We Do With Our Millionaires!”

    1917: In New York Dr. Silverman will deliver a sermon at Temple Emanu-El on “What the World Should Know About the Idealism of the Jews.”

    1917: During World War I Baghdad falls to the Anglo-Indian forces commanded by General Maude. Those welcoming the British included, “red-fezzed oriental Jews in misfit European clothing…” Baghdad was part of the Ottoman Empire.  According to General Maud, Jews, not Moslems, made up the majority of the city’s population.  Maude probably overstated the actual number of Jews.  But he did not overstate the economic role the Jewish population played in an area that children of Israel had lived in since the days of the Babylonian exile. According to Martin Gilbert, for several years afterwards, their arrival was celebrated by the Jews of Baghdad as "a day of miracles."

    1918: Mrs. Felix Warburg opened her home on New York’s Fifth Avenue, for a reading by Miss Jenny Mannheimer which was intended to be fundraiser for the War Relief Fund.

    1919:Grigori Yakovlovich Sokolnikov began serving as a “full member of the ‘the 7th Bureau and the 7th Secretariat of the Russian Communist Party.’”

    1921: The British C-I-C for Palestine quashed all military proceedings against Jabotinsky and 19 of his comrades for what came to be seen as self-defense measures taking during the Arab riots in Jerusalem.

    1921: Birthdate of Elisabeth Jenny Jeanne Meynard who gained famed as Elisabeth Maxwell, the wife of British media tycoon Robert Maxwell.

    1922: Bernard Baruch and Henry Morgenthau were among those who pledged to raise $100,000 for the Woodrow Wilson fund of $1,000,000 which is to be used in the establishment of annual prizes for meritorious public service.

    1926: The Jewish Agricultural Society issued a report today compiled by Gabriel Davidson, the general manager of the society that showed that during the last 25 years, “the Jewish farm population in the United Sates has grown from one thousand to seventy-thousand” with Jews farming “approximately one million acres.”

    1926: “An announcement was made today by Felix M. Warburg, the honorary Chairman of the $6,000,000 United Jewish Campaign of New York, of a contribution of $30,000 from Louis D. Beaumont, the American banker and philanthropist.

    1927: Samuel Lionel "Roxy" Rothafel opened the theatre that bears his name – Roxy Theater- in New York City.  Six years later he would open an even more famous venue – Radio City Music Hall – that feature the “Roxyettes” who were later known as the “Rocketts.”  (And you thought those leggy gals were named after a missile.)

    1929: Seventy-seven year old Joseph Toole, who while Governor of Montana laid the cornerstone for Temple Emanu-El in Helena passed away today.

    1929: As the world of movies entered the era of “the talkies” “Asphalt” – one of the last silent films directed by Joe May – was released in Germany.

    1929: A year before moving up to the Light Heavyweight Division, twenty two year old Abie Bain won his third straight lightweight bout each of which ended with knocking out his opponent in the first round.

    1931: Birthdate of media entrepreneur Rupert Murdoch. Murdoch’s mother was Jewish.

    1932: In the UK, Joan Elisa Davis and commodity-trader Ralph Lawson, the son of Gustav Leibson, gave birth to Nigel Lawson, the Conservative Party leader and journalist who would become the Lord Lawson of Blaby

    1932: At NYC City Hall, Mayor Jimmy Walker met with 10 of 13 of the athletes who will be participating in the Jewish Olympics before they set sail this evening on SS Majestic. The mayor praised the group saying that the co-ed cohort of athletes would bring honor and glory to the United States and New York City.

    1933: In New Orleans, LA, Isadore Rosen, a dentist and Anna Rosen gave birth to Benjamin “Ben” M. Rosen the  Chairman and Acting Chief Executive Officer of Compaq Computer Corporation and “co-founder of the Sevin Rosen Funds” who was the husband of Donna Perret Rosen.

    1933: Jewish-owned department stores in Braunsshweig were looted.

    1933: Florence and Aaron Zacks gave birth to Gordon Zacks who became Chairman of the Board of R.G. Barry Corporation in 1979.

    1936(17th of Adar, 5696): Seventy-one year old Russian born New York realtor, Zionist and philanthropist Morris Polsky passed away today.

    1936: “The Federation of Polish Jews in America made public tonight a telegram to the Polish Ambassador at Washington that charged local authorities of Przytyk, Poland, with collusion in anti-Semtic riots there and demanded that the officials involved be punished.”

    1936: “The ant-Semitism in some countries of Europe is due to the efforts of the ruling groups to conceal from the masses their failure to cope with critical economic conditions, Soviet Ambassador Alexander A Troyanovsky.”  (Editor’s note – It would be interesting to hear his explanation for anti-Semitism in the Soviet Union.)

    1937: As Arab violence continued to mount, The Palestine Post reported that armed Arabs attacked Jews who plowing fields near Afula.  Two Kfar Tavor farmers, Jacob Kizler and Shlomo Rothenstein, were seriously injured during the attack by armed. Stanislav Sluga, the 46-year-old Pole who was shot in a Ness Ziona orange grove, died after being taken to the hospital. Dogs tracked his alleged Arab assailant.

    1937: In Berlin, the Ministry of the Interior announced plans for “a further intensification of the anti-Jewish boycott in Germany”

    1938: Birthdate of Petr Klager who was deported from Prague in 1942 to Ujazdow where he was murdered.

    1938: The German army entered Vienna. Austrian Jews were instantly deprived of all civil rights. Physical and mental oppression of Austrian Jews began and Austria ceased to exist as in independent state.

    1938: Birthdate of Joseph Kaplan, the native New Yorker who gained fame as song and jingle writer Joseph Brooks whose works include “You’ve Got a Lot to Live” for Pepsi and “Good to the Last Drop Feeling” for Maxwell House coffee the producer of the famous Passover hagadah.

    1938:  As the prowess of Szapsel Rotholc continued to grow, “the Idishe Bilder newspaper ran a front-page headline proclaiming "Our Szapsel, the boxing hero." The article went on to point out that Szapsel  the Yiddish version of the Hebrew name Shabtai, means sheep, but his army of fans saw him as a far more dangerous animal. "Who would ever have imagined," the correspondent waxed, "that the Jewish people, the People of the Book, would take the sport of boxing to their hearts? After all, Jews - who are, by their very nature, gentle souls - have never been thought capable of such things." The article went on to describe Rothholc as "our jewel, who made the Germans eat dirt."

    1939(20th of Adar, 5699): Parashat Ki Tisa; Shabbat Parah

    1939: Rabbi Samuel H. Goldenson is scheduled to deliver a sermon on “Seeing God in Retrospect” this morning at Temple Emanu-El.

    1939: Rabbi Nathan Stern is scheduled to deliver a sermon on “Living on the Heights” this morning at West End Synagogue.

    1939: Rabbi Louis I. Newman is scheduled to deliver a sermon on “Our Affirmations as Jews Today” this morning at Temple Rodeph Sholom.

    1939: Rabbi Hyman Judah Schachtel is scheduled to deliver a sermon “My Reasons for Hope” this morning at Temple Israel.

    1939: Rabbi Alexander Zegel is scheduled to deliver a sermon this morning on “A Foretaste of Paradise” at the Fort Washington Synagogue.

    1939: The Fort Washington Synagogue is scheduled to its annual reception this evening at the American Woman’s Association in Manhattan.

    1939: Rabbi Harold H. Mashioff is scheduled to deliver a sermon “No One Has a Monopoly on Brotherhood” this morning at the Temple of the Covenant.”

    1939: Rabbi Asher Block is scheduled to deliver a sermon on “Idle Worshippers at Temple Gates of Israel.

    1940(1st of Adar II, 5700): Rosh Chodesh Adar II

    1940(1st of Adar II, 5700): Charles Polakoff, the former president of the Jewish Federation of Buffalo passed away today.

    1942: Birthdate of Binghamton, NY native producer David Weisman whose works included “Kiss of the Spider Woman” and “Ciao! Manhattan” and who is the brother of director Sam Weisman.

    1942:  The Gestapo used Jews for target practice at Janowska labor camp. Chief Dibauer and Lieutenant Bilhause would pick them off from their window as they carried loads of rocks.

    1943: Birthdate of Robert Bryant “Bob” Plager the Ontario native and son of a hockey official who played in the NHL for the Rangers and the St. Louis Blues.

    1943: “The Sephardic Jewish community of Monastir, historically the largest Jewish community in Macedonia was deported…In cooperation with the Germans, Bulgarian military and police officials rounded up 3,276 of Monastir's Jewish men, women, and children, deported them to German-controlled territory and turned them over to the custody of German officials. The Germans transported the Jewish population of Monastir and environs to their deaths in Treblinka as part of their plan to murder all European Jews.”

    1943: “Bulgarian police monitored by SS rounded up the entire Jewish population of Skopje, Bitola and Štip.The population was sent to temporary detention center in the state tobacco warehouse known as "Monopol" in Skopje. Among 7,215 people who were detained in warehouses there were:

     539 children less than 3 years old,

     602 children age 3 to 10 years

     1172 children age 10 to 16 years

     865 people over 60 years old

     250 seriously ill persons (tied to the bed)

     4 pregnant women who have given birth in the detention camp

     4 people died at the arrival in the camp.”

    1943: Birthdate of Mark R. Cohen, “a leading scholar of the history of Jews in the Middle Ages under Islam.”

    1944: The plan of Captain von Breitenbach to carry a pistol into a staff meeting and shoot Hitler today was thwarted by “a Führer directive excluding junior officers from Führer briefings.”

    1945: Birthdate of Mark Steinvocalist/organist and founder of Vanilla Fudge.

    1946: Birthdate of Antony Lerman, “a British writer who specializes in the study of anti-Semitism, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, multiculturalism, and the place of religion in society.”

    1946: “I Am a Fugitive” a Spanish language comedy with a script co-authored by Hans Wilhelm was released today in Mexico.

    1947: Levy Shklonik, the secretary of the Tel Aviv Labor organization told its members today “that the time would come when the labor movement would have to undertake a bloody anti-terrorist struggle.  His message echoed the words of Hashomer Hatzair (Young Guard Movement) which called on the Federation of Jewish Labor to join in the fight against terror and kidnapping.

    1947: “The American League for a Free Palestine distributed an announcement in the name of the American Sea and Air Volunteers for Hebrew Repatriation which identified itself as the organization that had had recruited the volunteer crew of the Ben Hecht.

    1947: Kibbutz Yakum (He Shall Rise) was established on the Plain of Sharon north of Tel Aviv.  The collective was founded by members of the Hashomer Hatzair (Young Guard Movement).

    1947: A group of American, Rhodesian and South African Jewish war veterans who had served variously with the American military, the British Army and South Africa’s Sixth Armored Division have founded Maayan Baruch (Spring of Barch), a kibbutz in the Upper Galilee near the borders with Syria and Lebanon.  The kibbutz is named in honor of Bernard Gordon of blessed memory who had served as vice president of the South African Zionist Federation and who had left half of his large estate to the Jewish National Fund.

    1948(30th of Adar I, 5708): Rosh Chodesh Adar II

    1948(30thof Adar I, 5708): Arabs bombed the headquarters of the Jewish Agency. The explosion of the car bomb in the courtyard of KH-UIA's building, tragically claiming the lives of Keren Hayesod - United Israel Appeal's Director, Leib Jaffe and 11 other Keren Hayesod - United Israel Appeal employees.

    The Jewish Agency was the unofficial government of the Jewish Community (the Yishuv) in what was to become the state of Israel.  This attack was part of the unofficial war waged by the Arabs designed to "drive the Jews into the sea" prior to the British leaving Palestine in May, 1948.

    1948: Today “President Truman declared that a story by a columnist whom he did not name writing in The New York Mirror, quoting him” as saying “that New York Jews were disloyal was ‘vicious’ and ‘a lie out of the whole cloth’” after which Drew Pearson issued a statement identifying himself as the columnist and standing by his story.

    1948: “Forty-one Democratic members of the Senate and the House of Representatives” made public a letter to Secretary of State Marshall in which among other things they expressed their surprise at “the unilateral course adopted by” the United States “prohibiting the export of arms to the Middle East thus increasing ‘the odds against the Jewish defenders’  while Arab bands, supported by neighboring Arab states were being supplied with stocks of weapons, some of which were coming from current British shipments.”

    1949: The first Israeli troops reached the Gulf of Aqaba where a white bedsheet with a hand drawn blue Star of David is hoisted as a sign of the Jewish state’s claim to the area around Eilat.

    1950(22nd of Adar, 5710): Dr. Mordecai Elash, Israel’s Ambassador to Great Britain, passed away today.

    1950: “Perfect Strangers” a comedy produced by Jerry Wald and featuring Thelma Ritter and Ned Glass was released in the United States today.

    1950: “The visiting Istanbul Fenerbache soccer players were carried off the hield on the shoulders of Israeli fans today after they had whipped the Tel Aviv Hapoel 3 to 0 in the first mach of their Israel tourney.”  The enthusiastic demonstration was probably the result of Turkey’s announcement this week that it was recognizing the state of Israel, making Turkey the first Moslem country to do so.     

    1950:  Birthdate of film director Jerry Zucker.  “Ghost” and “Ruthless People” were two of his more notable films.

    1951: Birthdate of MK Aryeh Gamliel

    1952(14th of Adar, 5712): Final Purim observed during the Presidency of Harry S Truman

    1952: The Jerusalem Post reported that the Israel Medical Association warned that the "deteriorating nutrition situation was inherently dangerous." The Minister of Agriculture, Levi Eshkol, voiced full support for "Magen David Yarok"­ the planting of vegetables in home gardens. Urgent steps were taken to solve the problems of theft, pilferage and smuggling in the Haifa port which assumed dangerous proportions.

    1953: “My Three Angels” “a comedy by Samuel and Bella Spewack…opened on Broadway at the Morosco Theatre” today.

    1954: “The Golden Apple,” a Jerome Moros musical opened today at the Phoenix Theatre where it “was one of the first musicals produced “Off-Broadway.”

    1955(17th of Adar, 5715): Anna Freud, a sister of Sigmund Freud, passed away.

    1955: Archibald Maule Ramsay the former British military officer and Member of Parliament who was such a rabid anti-Semite and so sympathetic to the Nazis that he became the only member of the House of Commons “to be interned under Defense Regulation 18B which allowed the government to suspend habeas corpus to imprison Nazi sympathizers.

    1957: The 1957 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament which would be dominated by Lennie Rosenbluth and the North Carolina Tarheels opened today in Kansas City.

    1959: Premiere of “Raisin In The Sun” the controversial play produced by Philip Rose who personally raised the money to bring the drama to Broadway.

    1962: In New York City, Sally and Laurence “Larry Berg” gave birth to actor and director Peter Berg.

    1964: Birthdate of actor Peter Berg,best known as Dr. Billy Kronk on TV's Chicago Hope. Berg’s father is Jewish and his mother was Catholic.

    1964: Release date for “Becket” with a script by Edward Anhalt and music by Laurence Rosenthal.

    1968:  Birthdate of singer and songwriter Lisa Loeb.

    1969(21st of Adar, 5729): Robert “Bob” Briscoe the son of Lithuanian immigrants who served in the Irish Parliament for almost thirty years passed away today.

    1971: “The Law Man,” a western directed and produced by Michael Winner, with music by Jerry Fielding and co-starring Lee J. Cobb was released in the United States today.

    1971: “A New Leaf” a comedy written and directed by Elaine May (in her first directorial role) who co-starred alongside Walter Matheau was released in the United States today.

    1972: Birthdate of Benjamin Cohen the French singer no known Benjamin Diamond.

    1973: Today, the New York Times “reported on dwindling enrollments at Jewish day school” which “was somewhat odd” because this was “at a time when ‘a reordering of priorities seems to have been taking place in Jewish life as mounting concern about Jewish cultural survival was metropolitan areas Jews to place greater importance on Jewish education

    1975(28th of Adar, 5735): Fifty-two year old former MK Meanchem Cohen passed away.

    1975(28thof Adar, 5735): Sixty year old Ella Drori, the St. Petersburg born daughter of Alexander Govorkovski and Ester Goverkovsky and wife of Amnon Drori passed away today in Tel Aviv.

    1975(28th  of Adar, 5735): Victor Perlmutter, a native of Russia who came to the United States in 1920 and became a leader of the Jewish community in Washington, DC, passed away today in Miami Beach.

    1976: “Robin and Marian” an off-beat look at aging Robin Hood and Maid Marian with a script by James Goldman was released today in the United States.

    1977:The Jerusalem Postreported from Washington that Hanafi Moslem terrorists held more than 100 mostly Jewish hostages in three buildings and threatened to chop off their captives’ heads, unless their demands were met. Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin was pleased with US President Jimmy Carter¹s definition of peace and with his distinction between "defense lines" and "legal borders." But he forecast a tough clash with the US over Israel¹s final borders.

    1977: More than 130 hostages held in Washington, D.C., by Hanafi Muslims were freed after ambassadors from three Islamic nations joined the negotiations.  The B’Nai Brit building was one of the three buildings which the Muslims had seized.

    1977(21st of Adar, 5737): Palestinians killed 34 Israelis on the Tel Aviv-Haifa highway.

    1978(1stof Adar II, 5738): Rosh Chodesh Adar II

    1978: The Palestine Liberation Organization carried out a massive terrorist attack in Israel. PLO terrorists from Lebanon first killed Gail Rubin, an American Jewish photographer. 

    1978: Eleven Palestinian terrorists landed in Zodiac boats on a beach just outside Ma'agan Michael and from there ventured towards Tel Aviv in a hijacked bus in what has become known as the Coastal Road massacre where 39 Israelis were killed.

    1978: Terrorists killed 45 Israelis during an attack on a mail truck at Tel Aviv.

    1980(23rdof Adar, 5740): Mikhail Abramovich Kaufman, the native of pre-Revolution Bialystok who gained fame as a cinematographer and photographer passed away today in Moscow.

    1980: In the Moscow Igor Guberman was the defendant in the “anti-Zionist” trial that began today.

    1982: In an article entitled “The Dance: By Pola Nirenska,” New York Times correspondent Anna Kisselgoff  described the travailed filled life of this accomplished dancer and choreographer whose life took her from pre-war Poland, through the days of the Holocaust to a new life in America.

    1983: “10 to Midnight” a crime-thriller filmed by cinematographer Adam Greenberg was released in the United States today.

    1984:In the “The British and The Beginnings of The Jewish State” published today J. Robert Moskin provided a detailed reviews of The High Walls of Jerusalem by Ronald Sanders that examines the origins of the Balfour Declaration and the British Mandate in Palestine.

    1985: Mikhail S. Gorbachev, who promised “a policy of openness (glasnost) and restructuring (perestroika) was appointed General Secretary of the Communist Party today.

    1986: The Georgia State Board of Pardons and Paroles granted Leo Frank a pardon, citing the state's failure to protect him or prosecute his killers, though they stopped short of exonerating him.

    1987: Secretary of State George P. Shultz today called the Israeli spy case ''very disheartening'' and said a decision by the Israeli Government to investigate would have ''a cleansing effect.''  Testifying before the Foreign Operations Subcommittee of the House Appropriations Committee, Mr. Shultz also confirmed reports that all United States officials in Israel had been ordered to have no contact whatever with Col. Aviem Sella or with the Tel Nof Air Base, which he commands. Colonel Sella has been indicted by a Federal grand jury on charges of espionage in the case of Jonathan Jay Pollard, a United States Navy employee who has been sentenced to life in prison for giving intelligence information to Israel.

    1989: In Leningrad, “Irina (née Korina) and Viktor Yelchin, a pair figure skaters who were celebrities as stars of the Leningrad Ice Ballet for 15 years” gave birth to Russian-born, American actor Anton Yelchin. 

    1989: “Eighteen years after Yuli Edelstein first applied for an exit visa to Israel, he and his family finally left the Soviet Union.” (As reported by Laura Bialis)

    1990(14th of Adar, 5750): Purim

    1992(6thof Adar II, 5752): Seventy-nine year old screenwriter and director Richard Brooks whose versatility enabled to create films about inner city teenage delinquents and decadent southerners passed away today.

    1992(6thof Adar II, 5752): Eighty-seven year old “Laslo Benedek, a cameraman, screenwriter and director whose directing credits include "Death of a Salesman" (1951) and "The Wild One" (1953), passed away today at Montefiore Medical Center in the Bronx.”

    1993: Silent Screen, “an American Champion Thoroughbred racehorse” owned by Sonny and Leah Ray Werblin died today in Lexington, KY.

    1994: U.S. premiere of “The Hudsucker Proxy” directed by Joel Coen, produced by Ethan Coen with a script by the Coen brothers and Sam Raimi and starring Paul Newman

    1997: A revival of “Lady in the Dark is a musical with music by Kurt Weill, lyrics by Ira Gershwin and book and direction by Moss Hart” opened “on the West End at the Royal National Theatre” starring Maria Friedman.

    1997(2nd of Adar II, 5757): Eighty-four year old composer Hugo Weisgall passed away today. (As reported by Paul Griffiths)

    1999: In ceremonies at New York City's 92nd Street Y, Rachel Adler was awarded the National Jewish Book Award for Jewish Thought. The award recognized “Engendering Judaism: A New Theology and Ethics,” which set forth a new model for integrating modern feminism with traditional Jewish theology.

    2001(16thof Adar, 5761): Shushan Purim

    2001: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or special interest to Jewish readers including “Martyrs' Crossing” by Amy Wilentz and “Paradise Park” by Allegra Goodman.

    2001:A Class Act, “a quasi-autobiographical musical loosely based on the life of composer-lyricist Edward Kleban, who died at the age of 48 in 1987” “ transferred to Broadway today at the Ambassador Theatre, where it ran for 30 previews and 105 regular performances.”

    2001: In New York, premier performance of “I Will Bear Witness: The Diaries of Victor Klemperer” by Victor Klemperer; adapted by Karen Malpede and George Bartenieff; translated by Martin Chalmers.

    2002: Israel lifted Yasser Arafat's three-month confinement in West Bank.

    2004: Seventy-one year old “Gordon Zacks is stepping down as president and chief executive officer of R.G. Barry Corp. after 50 years with the company.”

    2004 The Colloquium “Jacques Faitlovitch and the Jews of Ethopia being held in Jerusalem and Tel Aviv came to an end today.

    2004: In “in the first modern Islamist attack on European soil 191 people were killed and another 1,857 were injured when a series of terrorist bombs were detonated today in Madrid.

    2005: The United States government reached a $25.5 million settlement with the families of Jewish Hungarian Holocaust victims in the so-called Nazi "Gold Train" affair and will acknowledge the U.S. Army's role in commandeering a trainload of the families' treasures during World War II.

    2006: A London revival production of “Once in a Lifetime” written by Moss Hart and George S. Kaufman came to an end today.

    2006: Spain began a somber remembrance of the Madrid terror bombings on this, the second anniversary of the attacks - with plans for Christians, Muslims and Jews to join in prayers for peace, and for silence to descend at a memorial set up for victims.

    2007 In Nagoya, Jewish professional wrestler Matt Bloom and Travis Tomko defeated Manabu Nakanishi and Takao Ōmori to win the IWGP Tag Team Championship.

    2007: After 117 performances the curtain came down on a revival of the “The Apple Tree with music by Jerry Bock and Lyrics by Sheldon Harnick which had been produced by the Roundabout Theatre Company.

    2007: The Central Conference of American Rabbis, a 1,500 member group representing Reform Rabbis opened its annual meeting in Atlanta, Georgia.

    2007: An exhibition entitled “Biblical Art in a Secular Century: Selections, 1896-1993” featuring that includes the works of such Jewish artists as George Segal and Ben-Zion Weinman, as well as outstanding non-Jewish artists, at New York’s Museum of Biblical Art comes to an end.

    2007: The Reconstructionist movement formally names Rabbi Toba Spitzer to head its Rabbinical Association. Rabbi Spitzer is the first avowed Lesbian to lead such a Jewish group.

    2007: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including “The Gospel of Food:Everything You Think You Know About Food Is

    Wrong”by Barry Glassner and “At the Same Time”by Susan Sontag 

    2007: The Washington Post features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including “Waiting for Daisy” by Peggy Orenstein.

    2008: The 92nd Street Y presents “Dennis Prager: The Case For Judaism,” featuring the popular radio talk show host and author.

    2008: In Jerusalem famous Israeli singer Ronit Shahar performs in an acoustic concert at Beit Shmuel, singing many of her hit songs.

    2008:The Belgian government and banks agreed to pay €110 million ($170 million) to Holocaust survivors, families of victims and the Jewish community for their material losses during World War II.

    2008: A Kuwaiti newspaper published unprecedentedly harsh criticism of the terror attack which killed eight students at Mercaz Harav Yeshiva. "The attack at the yeshiva was a barbaric murder of eight children who were engaged in religious study," read an op-ed in the daily Al-Watan. "This odious and inhuman terror attack exemplifies the extremist and inhuman path of the terror organizations Hamas and Hizbullah." The writer goes on to assert that "the terror attack must prompt the free world to comprehend the magnitude of terrorism and its threats and to realize that a clear and unequivocal stance must be assumed against it. There can be no negotiations with terrorism that indiscriminately aims itself at students, women and babies without any consideration for the means and the targets." Contrasting the terror attack with the IDF's operations in the Gaza Strip, the writer explains that "there is no link between a murderous terrorist act and the inadvertent killing of civilians in response to the firing of rockets by Hamas."

    The piece presented a stark contrast to the main current in the Arab press, which presented almost sweeping praise for the "heroic operation."

    2008: Jewish American playwright David Mamet announced a shift in political view and allegiance with an essay in The Village Voice, “Why I Am No Longer a 'Brain-Dead Liberal'.”

    2009 (15 Adar, 5769): Shushan Purim

    2009(15thof Adar, 5769): Physicist David Medved, the son of Ukrainian Jewish immigrants whose “interest in science” stemmed from a chemistry set he received for his Bar Mitzvah and who almost made it as an astronaut going to Mars passed away today.

    2009: In Sterling, Virginia, Rabbi Bonny Grosz of the Community Rabbi Foundation leads the first of three study sessions on "Turning Torah: Studying the Weekly Torah Reading Using Different Approaches."

    2009: This evening two Palestinian Authority Arab men attacked Jewish soldiers and civilians in the Binyamin region.

    2010: Construction began on Barclay’s Center, the pride and joy of Bruce Ratner

    2010: At the Sixth & I Historic Synagogue, The Jewish Studies Centers is scheduled to present “Judaism and Islam: Mirrors and Echoes - Tales from the Koran and Torah” during which Afroze Mohammed and Stephanie Lowitt will trace the stories about Joseph, or Yusuf, through both scriptures, and you’ll learn how this always fascinating character is pivotal to both Jewish and Muslim traditions.

    2010: United States Vice President Joe Biden warned Israelis in a direct address from Tel Aviv today that the status quo in the Middle East was not sustainable, and vowed that the United States would do everything in its power to prevent Iran from obtaining nuclear weapons.

    2010: The New York State Attorney General appointed Judith Kaye as an independent counsel to investigate allegation that the Governor had violated ethics laws.

    2010: “The Sherman Brothers (Richard and Robert) were presented with a Window on Mainstreet Disneyland in Anaheim, California in honor of their contribution to Disney theme parks.

    2011: After snowing throughout the day yesterday, the snow was expected to taper off last night with rain in the north forecast for today.

    2011: The “women building a bridge” festival at the Valley of Springs near Ashdot Ya’acov is scheduled to be held on the Jordan River banks near the border between Jordan and Israel today.

    2011:  The Song of Songs minyan is scheduled to come together for a community Kabbalt Shabbat at the Jewish Community Center of the East Bay as part of The Jewish Music Festival.2011(5th of Adar II: Anniversary of Moses’ last day as leadership of the Jewish people.  According to Chabad, this took place on 5th of Adar 1273, BCE.

    2011: Hours after an 8.9 magnitude earthquake followed by a devastating tsunami struck Japan today, Jewish and Israeli humanitarian groups pledged to help relief efforts in the island nation. Today, the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC) announced it was collecting funds for relief efforts and has reached out to the Japanese Government to offer its expertise in earthquake and tsunami-related response. Meanwhile, IsraAID-FIRST, an Israeli umbrella group of relief organizations, said this morning it was preparing to send a team of experts to the island nation to assist in relief efforts. “We’ve been looking past few hours at the damage and the needs,” IsrarAID head Shahar Zehavi said. “Our main agenda is to send a delegation of earthquakes specialists and water purification experts to the region.” Zehavi said the delegation should arrive in Japan by tomorrow morning but that its schedule depends on air traffic to and from Japan.

    2011(5 Adar II, 5771): Five members of an Israeli  family were killed tonight when a suspected terrorist broke into their home in the West Bank settlement of Itamar and stabbed them all to death. According to police, the suspect broke into the house armed with a knife and stabbed the mother, father and three children, aged 11, three and an approximately one-month-old baby. Magen David Adom rescue services arrived at the scene and found them all dead. The victims of the brutal murders are Rabbi and IDF tank unit officer Udi Fogel, his wife Ruth, 11-year-old Yoav, four-year-old Elad and three-month-old Hadas.

    2011(5 Adar II, 5771): Eighty-seven year old Danny Stiles a New York disc jockey who styled himself as the “King of Nostalgia and “The Vicar of Vintage Vinyl” passed away today. (As reported by the Eulogizer)

    2011(5 Adar II, 5771): Eighty-two year old Stan Ross, the producer-engineer who co-founded Gold Star Studio passed away today in Burbank, CA.(As reported by Valerie Nelson)

    2012: Major General Nitzan Alon is scheduled to officially take up his post as head of the Central Command at the headquarters in Jerusalem.

    2012: Dan Shapiro and Julie Fisher are scheduled to be honored at tonight’s JPDS-NC Purim Ball, sponsored by the only Jewish Day School in Washington, D.C.

    2012: “Ahead of Time” is scheduled to be shown at the Sacramento Jewish Festival in Sacramento, CA

    2012: “Einsatzgruppen: The Death Brigades” is scheduled to be shown at the Vancouver Jewish Film Festival in Vancouver, CA.

    2012: Stephen Stern is scheduled to moderate “Modern Judaism Wrestles with Spinoza” featuring Rabbi Lyle Fishman and Joel Schwartz as part of the backstage events surrounding the performance of “New Jerusalem.”

    2012: The Eliat Chamber Music Festival, which will include an appearance by violinist Valery Soklov, is scheduled to open tonight.

    2012: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including “The Escape Artists: How Obama’s Team Fumbled the Recovery” by Noam Scheiber and “Beautiful Souls: Saying No, Breaking Ranks, and Heeding the Voice of Conscience in Dark Times” by Eyal Press.  “Beautiful Souls” contains a vignette about Paul Grüninger, a Swiss police commander, who “broke the law to help Jewish refugees flee from Austria” after the Nazis annexed  the country.

    2012: Residents of southern Israel suffered another day under siege today as Palestinians in the Gaza Strip fired about 50 more rockets at the Negev. (As reported by Gili Cohen, Yanir Yagna, and Ave Issacharoff)

    2013: Rabbi Sidney Kleiman’s 100th birthday on the Today Show

    2013: In Brooklyn, Judge Eric Vitaliano “rejected a Jewish attorney’s request to exclude Jews from a jury involving a client facing charges of lying about joining the Taliban” ruling “that it would be unconstitutional to bar a prospective juror because of religion.” The attorney is Frederick Cohn who is representing Abdel Hameed Shehadeh

    2013: An 11 day mission to Israel sponsored by The Jewish Federation of North America’s

    Network of Independent Communities is scheduled to being today.

    2013: NASHIM Annual Women's Seder is scheduled to begin at 6:00pm

    2013: Publication date for Lean In: Women, Work, and the Will to Lead by Sheryl Sandberg 

    2014: Historic 6th& I Synagogue is scheduled to host “Food for thought- Digesting Ethics, Mysticism, and Philosophy with Rabbi Yosef Edelstein of MesorahDC

    2014: In Denver, CO, Temple Emanuel is scheduled to host “The Dishes of Our Lives: Jewish Cookbooks, Jewish Stories”

    2014(9thof Adar II, 5774): Seventy-two year old Judge Edmond Levy, a retired member of the Israeli Supreme Court and author of the Levy Report, passed away today.

    2014: Three terrorists from Islamic Jihad were killed by an IAF strike while an IDF UAV crashed over Gaza following “a technical malfunction.”

    2014: Dutch political leader Onno Hoes began serving as Chairman of the Dutch Center for Information and Documentation Israel (CIDI)

    2014: The IDF insisted today that Raed Zeiter, a Jordanian citizen who was shot dead yesterday morning at the Allenby crossing into Israel, had attacked soldiers and tried to grab a weapon before he was shot dead. (As reported by Gil Ronen)

    2014: The Knesset passed the amendment to the Basic Law on The Government known as the “Governance Law,” with 67 in favor, and none voting against or abstaining. The law limits the number of government ministers to 18 and stipulates that all ministers will have portfolios. It also raises the electoral threshold required for a party to enter the Knesset to 3.25% of the total votes cast in national elections.(As reported by Gil Ronen)

    2015: Mandolin star Avi Avital is scheduled to join the Venice Baroque Orchestra in an evening almost pure Vivaldi at Carnegie Hall.

    2015: The Center for Jewish History is scheduled to present “Echoes of the Borscht Belt” with Marisa Scheinfeld.

    2015: Professor Daniel J. Schroeter is scheduled to deliver a lecture on "There Are No Jews in Morocco, Only Moroccan Subjects Responding to Vichy's Anti-Jewish Laws in Colonial Morocco during World War. II.2015: Bruce Guenther, recently retired Chief Curator of the Portland Art Museum, and Susan Winkler, author of Portrait of a Woman in White are scheduled to discuss “Looted Art: The Unfinished Business” at the Oregon Jewish Museum and Center for Holocaust Education.

    2015: Annie Cohen-Solal and Met Curator Marla Prather are scheduled to discuss the works of Mark Rothko at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

    2015: The Oxford Centre for Hebrew and Jewish Studies is scheduled to host “an historic conference on the topic of the contemporary Jewish scene in Britain, with four distinguished speakers.”

    2015: “Owners of the Leviathan field said that the Palestine Power Generation Company had canceled a $1.2 billion agreement, signed in 2014, to buy 4.75 billion cubic meters of gas over 20 years.” (As reported by Stuart Winer)

    2015: “Speaking on HuffPost Live today, Ben Cohen and Jerry Greenfield, the founders of Ben & Jerry’s ice cream, seemed open to the idea of a pot-infused ice cream after a viewer asked about it.” (As reported by Julie Wiener)

    2015: Comedian Sarah Silverman posted a message on the internet today calling on supporters of Meretz to vote in Israeli elections scheduled to take place on March 17. (As reported by Stuart Winer)

    2016(1stof Adar II, 5776): Rosh Chodesh 2, Adar II

    2016: “The Muses of Isaac Bashevis Singer” is scheduled to be shown this afternoon before the start of Shabbat at the Houston Jewish Film Festival.

    2016: “Shari Redstone Prepares for Battle to Control a Media Empire” published today profiles the daughter of media mogul Sumner Redstone.

    2017(13thof Adar, 5777): Parashat Tetzaveh; Shabbat Zachor; Erev Purim. 

    2017: Tonight, Ahmed Daqamseh, the Jordanian soldier responsible for the 1997 killing of the Israeli schoolgirls” including “13 year old Adi Malka” was released from jail today after serving a sentence of 20 years.

    2017: In Paris, the symposium “The Holocaust in Ukraine. New Perspectives on the Evils of the 20th Century,” is scheduled to come to an end today.

    2017: The Oxford University Jewish Society is scheduled to host its annual “Purim Extravaganza” complete with the traditional Megila reading followed a “Purim Partaaay!”

    2017: In Atlanta, the Breman is scheduled to host a preview party introducing its newest exhibition “Atlanta Collects Contemporary” featuring unique items that “normally reside in private Metro Atlanta homes.

    2018: The Beth Chai-Jewish Humanist Congregation of Greater Washington is scheduled to host a screening of “Rosenwald” at the Burning Tree Elementary School in Bethesda, MD.

    2018: JW3 is schedule to host a screening of “Bombshell: The Hedy Lamar Story.”  (Yes, in the list of the many things they did not tell us when were kids was the fact this femme fatal was as Jewish as Ruth or Esther)

    2018: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Behemoth: A History of the Factory and the Making of the Modern World by Joshua B. Freeman and the recently released paperback editions of Steven Spielberg: A Life in Filmsby Molly Haskell and The Imagineers of War: The Untold Story Darpa, the Pentagon Agency That Changed the World by Sharon Weinberger

    2018: In honor of Israel’s 70th anniversary, The Breman Museum and The Atlanta Jewish Music Festival are scheduled to partner with the Israeli Consulate to bring one of Israel’s hottest acts, Yemen Blues,withRavid Kahalani to Atlanta.

    2018: “Destination Unknown” is one of the films scheduled to shown at the 5thannual JCC Chicago Jewish Film Festival.

    2018: The Goldring Family Foundation and Morton Katz are scheduled to be honored today in New Orleans Jewish Endowment Foundation “Annual Event” at the Westin Hotel. (As reported by Crescent City Jewish News, the source and resource for all things Jewish in Cajun Country)

    2018: “The Ancestral Sin,” “The Rock in the Red Zone,” “Starting Over Again” and “The Band’s Visit” are scheduled to be shown at the New York Sephardic Film Festival.

    2018: The Streicker Center is scheduled to host “A Celebration of Jewish Books” – “a day filled with Jewish storyteller” and more than fifty “Jewish storytellers.”




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    March 12

    515 BCE: On the secular calendar the construction of the Second Temple was completed. (Book of Ezra, 6:15 “And this house was finished on the third day of the month Adar, which was in the sixth year of the reign of Darius the king.”  Darius began his reign in 522 BCE.)

    604: Pope Gregory I passed away. Born in 540, Gregory was Pope from 590 until 604. The great prelate was a vigorous foe of Judaism, a religion he believed was based on depravity.  In his eyes, “the Jewish understanding of scripture was perverse.” He sought to keep Jews and Christians apart.  He forbade Christians from using Jewish doctors and would not let the clergy employee Jews as clerks.  Jews were not to hold public office, build new synagogues, marry non-Jews or convert Christians to Judaism.  But Gregory was not an unmitigated anti-Semite.  On several occasions he protected the private property and synagogue of European Jews.  One of his writings summed up the view,

    “Just as it is not befitting to permit Jews in their communities to go beyond the boundaries of what is permissible by law, so also the rights they already have should not be diminished.”

    1088: Urban II began his papacy during which he initiated the First Crusade, which brought death and destruction to the Jews all the way from the Rhineland to Jerusalem.

    1421: In Vienna, under the auspices of Archduke Albert of Austria, a combination of murder, libel and host-desecration charges brought about the destruction of the entire Jewish community. This was partly due to the revival of the crusader spirit of the Hussite Wars. Many Jews were forcibly baptized, others took their own lives. The rest were forced to leave. Later this became known as the Wiener Gezairah (The Vienna edict).

    1496: Maximilian I expelled the Jews from Styria, Austria.

    1604: Today, in Mexico, during the trial of Jorge de Almeida, by the Inquisition, the prosecuting attorney testified that “the accused was a native of the city of Almeida in the Kingdom of Portugal” and that just because “efforts to arrest him have failed” “it is proper and necessary that such grave crimes as those of which Jorge de Almeida is guilty should not remain unpunished” which means “that the present prosecution and trail of Jorge de Almeida should not be stopped but on the contrary be allowed to proceed in contumaciam.”

    1619: Fifty-two year old Richard Burbage who played the starring role in “The Jew of Malta” each time it was performed by the Admiral’s Men passed away today.

    1664: New Jersey becomes a colony of England. A year later, New Jersey granted religious toleration to those living in the colony. While there were undoubtedly Jewish merchants operating in the colony in the 17thcentury, the honor of being the first Jews to live in the colony may go to “Aaron and Jacob Lozada, who owned a grocery and hardware store in Bound Brook as early as 1718.”

    1682:  Anti-Jewish riots beak out in Krakow.

    1715: Elector Max Emanuel ordered the expulsion of the few Jews still living in Bavaria, Germany.

    1776: In Chevening, UK, Charles Stanhope, 3rd Earl Stanhope and Lady Hester Pitt gave birth to Lady Hester Lucy Stanhope, the eccentric English noblewoman whose “archaeological expedition to Ashkelon in 1815 is considered the first modern excavation in the history of Holy Land archeology.”

    1777: During the American Revolution, Captain Lewis Bush who had transferred from the Sixth Pennsylvania Battalion to Harley’s Additional Continental Regiment was promoted to the rank of Major.

    1797: Birthdate of Samuel Marum Mayer, the son of a Rabbi in Fruedental  a convert to Lutheran Christianity who marred a pastor’s daughter and became a lawyer and legal scholar.

    1811(16th of Adar): Judah Leib ben Ze’ev, the first Jewish grammarian of modern times passed away

    1813: Joseph “Yosef” Friedlander, a native of Austria, was in Dresden when he was kidnapped by Russian troops who hired him as a translator when they discovered that he could speak Russian

    1814: Birthdate of Louis Jean Königswarter the Amsterdam native who became a leading French economist

    1817: Henry Davis married Ellen Lewis at the Western Synagogue.

    1817:Czar Alexander I of Russia declared the Blood Libel -- the infamous accusation that Jews murdered Christian children to use their blood in the baking of matzah for Passover, for which thousands of Jews were massacred through the centuries -- to be false.” (Editor’s Note – based on subsequent events, this was one time that Russians did not obey their Czar)

    1822: L'esule di Granata (The exile of Granada) a melodrama (opera seria) in two acts by German Jewish composer  Giacomo Meyerbeer, had its world premiere at the famed at La Scala Opera House in  Milan, Italy.

    1823(29th of Adar, 5583): Thirty-nine year old Anne Emilie Solar, the wife of Moise Solar and the daughter of Abraham Furtrado, the President of the Assemblee des Notables, passed aeway today.

    1824: Birthdate of Darmstadt native Heinrich Blumenthal a successful manufacturer of farm equipment and the President of Jewish Community of Darmstadt for more than twenty years.

    1827(13thof Adar, 5587): Ta’anit Esther; erev Purim.

    1834: Joseph David married Julia Jacobs today.

    1837: Mordecai ben David married Leah bat Nathan today at the Western Synagogue.

    1844: In Steele, Prussia, Israel Stein and Rosetta Kappel gave birth to Philip Stein, a graduate of the University of Wisconsin where he earned a B.A. and M.A. a member of the Milwaukee bar and the husband of Emma Stein who was elected Judge in the Superior Court of Cook Country, Illinois in 1892 and appointed to the Appellate Court in 1903.

    1845: Burnett Nathan married Marian Collins today at “29 Orchard Street, Marylebone, London.”

    1846(14thof Adar, 5606): Purim

    1847: In Prossnitz, Moravia, Oberrabiner Hirsch B. Fassel “who had been decorated by three emperors for his literary works” and Fannie Sternfeld gave birth journalist Rosa Sonneschein who came to the United States in 1869 and was the “publisher and editor of The American Jewess.”

    1852: The New York Times publishes an evaluation of the British government headed by Lord Derby which included Benjamin Disraeli as Chancellor of the Exchequer.  Disraeli’s appointment to this particular post came as a surprise and, given what the Times reporter considered his lack of aptitude for the job “his triumph will astonish the public and lead to his greater glory.”

    1856: In Liszka, Hungary, Wolfe Feuerlicht and Leah Cohen gave birth to Jacob Feurlicht the husband of Rose Buxbaum, who came to the United States in 1882 and served as the rabbi at Moses Montefiore Congregation in Chicago, Gates of Prayer in Boston, Ansche Chesed in Scranton, PA and B’nai Israel in Augusta, Ga before become the Superintendent of the Jewish Hospital and Asylum in Baltimore and finally the Superintended of the Jewish Home for the Aged in Chicago.

    1856: The New York Times reported that the Greene Street Synagogue has replaced Anselm Leo with a new leader from Germany who has musical skills which he has used to introduce a choir to the congregation.  No musical instruments are allowed, but a pitch pipe is used to set the tone for the choir.

    1858: Birthdate of Adolph S. Ochs, publisher of the New York Times.  Ochs was the engine behind the Times rise to being the "paper of record" in the United States. Ochs is one of many American Jews who have been involved in the media giving rise to the anti-Semites' false claim that Jews control the media.  Ochs was the son of German Jews whom immigrated to the United States before the Civil War.  His life story is a classic example of that groups rise to prominence from the end of the Civil War through the start of World War II. It is obvious from reading Ochs' obituary in the New York Times that he was active in the Jewish community and quite proud of his heritage.  He was a Classical Reform Jew.  He was a trustee of Temple Emanu-El. He donated a building to the Temple in Chattanooga named for his parents.  And he raised $4,000,000 (quite a sum in 1926) for the Hebrew Union College, which had been founded by his father-in-law.  In responding to an inquiry about the keys to his success, Ochs wrote, in part, "My Jewish home life and religion gave me a spiritual uplift and a sense of responsibility to my subconscious better self --which I think is the God within me, the Unknowable and the Inexplicable.”

    1862:  “The Line of the Mississippi” published today described the fortifications on both the North and South sides of the city of New Orleans.  According to travelers who have recently arrived in St. Louis from the Crescent City, the Jews are the only people in the city not “regularly enlisted” in its defense.

    1862: Second Lieutenant Samuel S. Bloom of Company H resigned from the 111thRegiment today.

    1862(10th of Adar II, 5622: The U.S. Congress allowed Rabbis to serve as army chaplains.

    1865(14th of Adar, 5625): Purim celebrated for the last time during the Presidency of Abraham Lincoln.

    1873(13th of Adar, 5633): Fast of Esther

    1873: “The Palestine Lodge of the I.O. of F.S.I. will host a masque ball at the Germania Assembly Rooms” tonight in New York as part of the celebration of Purim.

    1873: A Purim masquerade will be held in Brooklyn tonight at the Assembly Rooms above the Post Office.

    1874: Birthdate of Edmund Samuel Eysler, the son a Viennese merchant and husband of Polodi Allnoch who gave up a career as an engineer to become a musician, composer and Kapellmeister.

    1876: The annual Purim reception held at the Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews located at Lexington and 63rd Street began at 11 in the morning and lasted until seven in the evening.

    1876(16thof Adar, 5636): Shushan Purim observed since Shabbat was on the 15thday of Adar.

    1879: In Lübeck, Rabbi Salomon Carlebach and his wife gave birth to Ephraim Carlebach, who like four of his seven brothers became a rabbi and who moved to Palestine in 1935 the year before he passed away in Ramat Gan.

    1881: Birthdate of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founding father of the modern secular state of Turkey who served as its first President. In 1923, during the early days of the newly created Turkish Republic Ataturk declared, “Our country has some elements who gave the proof of their fidelity to the motherland. Among them I have to quote the Jewish element; up to now the Jews have lived in happiness and from now they will rejoice and will be happy.” Ataturk came to the aid of the Jews in the early days of Hitler’s rise to power. “In 1933 Ataturk invited to Turkey many University Professors of Jewish origin that were threatened by Nazi cruelty. The list of names is long; approximately 600 distinguished scholars took refuge in Turkey.”

    1884(15thof Adar, 5644): Shushan Purim

    1887: Dr. Hugh L. Wintner, the rabbi at Temple Beth Elohim in Brooklyn delivered a eulogy in memory of the late Henry Ward Beecher “at the regular Saturday morning service” in which he said that Beecher “will be remembered by the Jewish people like Mordecai of old as being a great promoter of their good, advocating their welfare and speaking peace to all of them.”

    1889: Birthdate of Philip Guedalla, the Anglo-Jewish barrister and author whose quips include this one that frightens all historians or would-be historians - "History repeats itself. Historians repeat each other."

    1890: The Passover Relief Association held its 18th annual Purim Masquerade Ball this evening at the Lexington Avenue Opera House.

    1891: Jesse Seligman received a draft for twelve million francs from Baron Hirsch today.

    1891: Birthdate of Hungarian born American scientist turned philosopher, Michael Polanyi.

    1892(13thof Adar, 5652) Parashat Tetzeveh; Shabbat Zachor and Erev Purim

    1893: At the Stepney Synagogue on Jersey, David Lawton, “the youngest son of the late John and Jane Lawton” married Rebecca Michaels, the youngest daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Isaac Michaels of Aldgate.

    1893: Rabbi Adloph Radin of Shaari Tikvah was one of the speakers who addressed the crowd gathered at the hall of the Hebrew Institute where citizens were protesting the closing of the annex to Grammar School #7 on Hester Street.

    1894(4thof Adar II, 5654): Ludwig August Ritter von Frankl-Hochwart passed away after leading a multi-faceted life.  Born in Boehmia in 1810, he studied Hebrew with Zecharias Frankel, earned an M.D. from the University of Pauda before moving to Vienna.  There he served as secretary and archivist of the Vienna Jewish congregation and became active in the Revolution of 1848.  He was a prolific author and philanthropist whose literary works include “Nach Jeruslem” which describe his travels to Asia, Greece and Jerusalem where he help founded a school.  And this is only the tip of the iceberg. (As reported by Singer and Mannheimer)

    1894: Coca-Cola is sold in bottles for the first time. Coca-Cola was actually first introduced in 1886 at Jacob’s Pharmacy in Atlanta. Ga. Jacob’s Pharmacy was owned by Dr. Joe Jacobs who is buried in the same section of Atlanta’s Oakland Cemetery as other prominent Atlanta Jews including Morris Rich, founder of Rich’s Department Store. Coke was not certified as Kosher and Kosher for Passover until 1935 thanks to the efforts of an Atlanta orthodox rabbi named Tobias Geffen.

    1895: Dreyfus arrives in French Guyana.

    1895: “The Rights of Clubmen” published today described the struggle between saloon owners and members of private clubs in New York.  Among the clubs that could be affected by a change in status would be the Adelphi Club, which is the leading private Jewish club in Albany.  Its members include “some of the wealthiest Jews” living in the state capital.

    1896: Judge Charles P. Daly will deliver an address entitled “Songs and Song Writing” at tonight’s meeting of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association.

    1896: Today’s special performance of “The Heart of Maryland” which was intended to raise funds for the Hebrew Infants’ Asylum has been postponed until the end of the month.

    1896: It was reported today that “Charles Frohman has purchased a new melodrama” which he will not name but says will be produced in Boston before being brought to Broadway.

    1897(8thof Adar II, 5657): Eighty-seven year old Daniel Sanders, who earned a doctorate in 1843 after studying at the universities of Berlin and Halle and who served as a school principle for ten years before pursuing a career as a German grammarian and lexicographer passed away today.

     1897: About 200 cloakmakers who are employed in the shops of contractors who work for Julius Stein & Co in Manhattan went out on strike today.

    1897: The will of Elias Joseph which was filed with the Surrogate today left three bequests of $1,000 each to the Montefiore Home, Mount Sinai Hospital and the Hebrew Orphan Asylum.

    1898: Sir George Henry Lewis, the well-known Jewish lawyer testified before a committee of the House of Commons that was investigating “the evils of money lending.”

    1898: “Boston Announcements” published today included a description of a book of Yiddish poetry with an English translation written by Marice Rosenfeld which will be published Messrs. Copeland & Day.  The translation is being prepared by Professor Wiener of Harvard.  Jewish author Israel Zangwill and Abraham Cahan, editor of the Forwards have expressed their approval of the work.

    1898:"Anti-Juif Bourguignon,” appeared today for the first time at Dijon,

    1899(1st of Nisan, 5659): Rosh Chodesh Nisan

    1899(1st of Nisan, 5659): Sir Julius Vogel, the first Jewish Premier of New Zealand passed away.

    1899: Seventy-five year old Hannah Jacobs, a native of Poland who was the wife of Nathan Jacobs was buried today at the Bath Jewish Burial Ground.

    1902: Sophia Karp, Jacob Fischel and Joseph Lateiner founder the Grand Theatre in New York which was the first theatre in New York built to serve as venue for performing Yiddish theatricals.

    1904: Herzl authorizes Dr. Leopold Kahn to enter into negotiations with the Ottoman Empire for renting the administrative revenues of the Sanjak of Acre and for a loan to be obtained for the Imperial treasury.

    1905: Birthdate of New Jersey native Myles S. Friedman who played center on the Syracuse University football team from 1924-1926.

    1906: “Startling reports of the condition and future of Russia’s 6,000,000 Jews were made” today “in Berlin to the annual meeting of the Central Jewish Relief League by Germany by Dr. Paul Nathan…who has returned from an extensive trip through Russia as the special emissary of Jewish philanthropists in England, America and Germany to arrange for distribution of the relief fund of $1,500,000 raised after the massacres last Autumn.”

    1906: Solomon Schechter and Louis Marshall are among the speakers scheduled to speak at this evening’s dinner “for the faculty, students, directors and officers of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America on 123rd Street and Broadway.

    1908: Birthdate of David Saul Marshall. Born in Singapore to an Orthodox family that had come from Iraq, Marshall was trained as a lawyer.  After World War II he became leader of the Labour Front political party and in 1955 became the first Chief Minister of Singapore.

    1909: In Sophia, Bulgaria, The Medical Congress decided to print brochures in Ladino. The decision was in response to a request from a Christian Delegate who asked that this be done for the benefit of Jews unfamiliar with the Bulgarian language.

    1910: At the first meeting of the sub-committee on laws of the Civic Federation’s Committee on Compensation for Industrial Accidents “letters were received from Louis Brandeis of Boston giving suggestions the establishment of an accident insurance system” designed to provide relief for workers injured on the job.

    1911: Vera Cheberiak, leader of a group of thieves in Kiev, makes plans to have Andrei Yustschinski murdered.  His murder will touch off the infamous Mendel Bellis Case.

    1914(14thof Adar, 5674): Last Purim before the outbreak of WW I.

    1914: Birthdate of Irwin “King Kong” Klein, the Younkers native who was an All American football player at New York University and who led the NYU basketball team to a 16-0 as a sophomore in 1934 and then to a 19 and 1 record  the following season which led “to the Helms National Championship.”

    1915: General Sir John Grenfell Maxwell met with a delegation headed by Jabotinsky to discuss the formation of a “Jewish fighting unit” in the British Army. “The General said he was unable, under the Army Act, to enlist foreign nationals as fighting troops, but that he could form them into a volunteer transport Mule Corps.”

    1915: As of today, the fund of the American Jewish Relief Committee for Suffers from the War has collected $555, 3119.19

    1916: According to a report tonight by H.E. Adelman, the Secretary of the Hebrew Free Burial Association at the annual meeting at the Uptown Talmud Torah, “in the last year 1,253 people were buried by the association” including “353 buried from their homes, 218 from Bellevue Hospital and the morgue, 651 from other institutions, 28 from outside” of New York City and 3 disinterments from Jewish cemeteries.

    1916: The National Union for Jewish Rights held its first meeting this afternoon in London. The Anglo-Jewish community formed the organization to secure the rights of the Jews at the end of the World War. Lucien Wolf and Israel Zangwill addressed the group.  Zangwill said that “if England got Palestine” he “hoped a Jewish governor would be appointed.

    1916: Pianist Vera Kaplun-Aronson and soprano Mrs. George Halperin are scheduled to perform this afternoon at “the 19th regular Sunday afternoon concert…at the Chicago Hebrew Institute.

    1916: Rabbi Wolf Gold of the Third Street Synagogue opened the convention today in Sonia Hall where “more than 400 delegates from Jewish societies in Brooklyn” met “to consider plans for the proposed Jewish Congress and to elect delegates to the preliminary conference” to be held later this month in Philadelphia.

    1916: This afternoon Rabbi Max Reichler and Cantor Morris Schrager officiated at the dedication ceremonies of “the new Temple of the Sinai Congregation of the Bronx a Stebbins Avenue and East 163rd Street” which “were attended by nearly 1,000 including the 125 members of the temple.”

    1916: Today The Day, the Jewish daily newspaper edited by Herman Bernstein published the following cablegram from a special correspondent in Berne.  “I have learned from an absolutely reliable source that the Pope has prepared an important document of great interest to the Jewish people.  It is understood that this document will prove of the same importance and significance as the bull issued by Pope Innocent IV denouncing the ritual murder accusations against the Jews as false and based upon a cruel legend. The present statement by the Pope, who has interested himself so deeply in peace is devoted to the sorrows of the Jews in the belligerent lands and contains a plea for justice and fairness to the Jews.” [The article referred to Pope Benedict XV.]

    1917: During the Russian Revolution, the Duma elected a “provisional committee” which was effectively a new executive branch for the Russian government that would replace the Czar.  The apparent triumph of these social democrats offered hope (ultimately false hope) for the Jews of Russia that revolution would lead to liberation.

    1917: At 11:00 a.m. Dr. Enelow is scheduled to speak on “The Jewish Messiah Idea and Jesus” followed by the daily noon service.

    1918: Following the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, today Erzurm returned to Turkish control which may have given the Ottomans hope that they would regain control of the rest of their Empire including Palestine.

    1919: Louis Marshal, President of the Executive Committee of the American Jewish Committee and Dr. Cyrus Adler, the chairman of the committee left today aboard Caronia as they began their voyage to the Peace Conference at Paris.

    1920: Birthdate of Roland Lorent a member of the anti-Nazi Ehrenfeld Group who was hanged in 1944.

    1921: The Histadrut (General Federation of Labor) passed a resolution to establish the Haganah.  Haganah, (literally "defense") was established for the purpose stated in its name.  It was organized to protect the Jewish settlements from Arab attacks - something the British could not or would not do.

    1921: Birthdate of Harry Hamilton Pollak, the Passaic, NJ native, graduate of Rutgers and the University of Chicago and husband of the former Suzette L. Aldon who was serving as “labor advisor to Secretary of State Edmund Muskie” at the time of his death in 1980.

    1921: The Cairo Conference began during which Winston Churchill sought to examine the workings of the British Mandates for governing Iraq and Palestine.

    1921: In New York City, Iphigene (née Ochs) and Arthur Hays Sulzberger, “the publisher of the NYTimes from 1935 to 1961” gave birth the second of their four children Ruth Sulzberger Holmberg whose exciting life included working as a Red Cross Volunteer in Europe during WW II, to a career in journalism and the benefactor of wide variety of charities and institutions.

    1922(12thof Adar, 5682): Samuel Hirsch Margulies passed away.  Born at Berezhany in 1858, he held several rabbinic posts before being appointed chief rabbi of Florence, Italy in 1890 where he also became head of the Collegio Rabbinco when it was transferred from Rome to Florce

    1922(12th of Adar, 5682): Eighty year old Minnie Dessau Louis passed away.

    1922: According to reports published today Samuel Untermeyer and his son Irwin are among the members of a New York committee that has pledged to raise $100,000 for the Woodrow Wilson Foundation fund. 

    1922: In Boyle Heights, Los Angeles, CA, Max and Jennie Gold gave birth to Sydney Gold who gained famed body-builder Joe Gold, founder of Gold’s Gym – one of the most ubiquitous fitness centers found in most major and not so major cities in the United States.

    1926: It was reported today that of the 32,000 Jews who left Poland in 1925, 15,000 went to Palestine, 8,616 went to Argentina and 3,840 went to the United States.

    1926: It was reported today that Henry Ittlelson had been commissioned by William Fox “to solicit contributions for the United Jewish Campaign of New York from Jewish citizens of New York” who are in Europe.

    1927: Paul and Fay Parnes gave birth today to William Irwin Parnes.

    1927: Offices of Hias-Ica-Emig-directed, the organization formed by Hias “in cooperation with the Jewish Colonization Association and the United Jewish Immigration Committee” designed to help Jewish immigrants move to “Southern American countries eager for Jewish immigrants” “began to function today” in “the principal ports” so provide help immigrants learn the native language and places them “with some trade.”

    1928: Birthdate of Mordechai Eliyahu, the Jerusalem native who would become a prominent rabbi, posek and who would serve as the Sephardi Chief Rabbi of Israel from 1983 to 1993.

    1929: One of the first “talkie Hollywood Biblical epics, “Noah’s Ark,” the Warner Brothers film written by Darryl Zanuck premiered to critical and popular acclaim in New York City.

    1930: Birthdate of Los Angeles native Eugene Bleecher Selznick gold medal winning volleyball player and coach.

    1932: U.S. premiere of “The Lost Squadron” -- first RKO production to carry the screen credit "Executive Producer, David O. Selznick" with music by Max Steiner and additional dialogue written by Herman J. Mankiewicz.

    1932: Supreme Court Benjamin Cardozo was among the judges for the National Oratorical Contest which announced its winners tonight.

    1933: CBS broadcast the first episode of “Lazy Dan, The Minstrel Man” starring Irving Kaufman.

    1933: During the Great Depression, newly elected President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave his first “fire-side” chat today.

    1935:  After opening in New York in January, “The Good Fairy” a movie version of the Broadway play, directed by William Wyler and Carl Laemmle, Jr. opened today in Los Angeles.

    1936: Warsaw’s Chief Rabbi, Moses Schorr, who is also a Senator, told that body about “a veritable pogrom in Prztyk, in central Poland” and then “appealed to the Interior Minister to put an end to the anti-Semitic rioting occurring all over the country.”

    1936: Count Rostworowski, “a member of the government party…requested the government to combat the growing anti-Semitic movement, which he said was aimed at the government” adding that anti-Semitism “was the Nationalists’ strongest weapon with which to weaken the government and win over the population.

    1937: The Palestine Post reported that the Colonial Secretary, Mr. Ormsby-Gore, told the House of Commons that from 1922 to 1935 the population of Jerusalem rose from 63,000 to 110,000; of Tel Aviv from 15,000 to 110,000; of Jaffa from 33,000 to 74,000 and of Haifa from 25,000 to 85,000. He added that a committee had been set up by the High Commissioner in 1932 to consider compulsory health insurance, but it had decided that the introduction of such system in Palestine was premature, especially for the Arab section of the population.

    1938: Hitler entered Austria to the greetings of the Church and Cardinal Innitzer. Seys-Inquert, who later achieved infamy as a mass murderer of Jews, was appointed Chancellor. The following day, Austria was annexed to Germany. Just a month before Hitler’s arrival, J.D. Salinger left Vienna to return to the United States.  He had been in the country since 1937 where he was learning about the meat-importing business.

    1938: During the Spanish Civil War, the Botwin Company named after Jewish Polish radical Naftali Botwin were one of the units that went into action today when fighting began at Belchite.

    1938: As part of its drive to raise $4,500,000, The United Palestine Appeal issued a report today focusing on the growth in Palestine over the last twenty years.  Among highlights of the report are figures showing that from 1931 to 1936, exports increased from eight million dollars to eighteen million dollars. At the same time, bank deposits more than doubled in the last five years and the numbers of factories and workshops more than doubled in period starting in 1921 and ending in 1937.

    1939: Pope Pius XII was crowned Pope in Vatican ceremonies. While the Catholic Church may be considering Pious XII for canonization, the Jewish view of him is one who is “impious.”

    1939: Mrs. Tehilla Lichtenstein is scheduled to deliver an address on “A Time to Be Silent and a Time to Speak” this morning at the Jewish Science Society.

    1939: Rabbi Hyman Judah Schactel is scheduled to deliver an address on “Palestine Today” at the West End Synagogue.

    1939: Rabbi Israel Goldstein is scheduled to deliver a sermon on “The Relgion of the Unintelligent” at Temple B’nai Jeshurun.

    1939: Rabbi Nathan A Perilman is scheduled to deliver a sermon this moring at Temple Emanu-El.

    1939: Rabbi Stephen S. Wise is scheduled to deliver a sermon on “The London-Palestine Conference and Arab Appeasement” at the Free Synagogue in Carnegie Hall.

    1941: Churchill met with Weizmann and reiterated his support for the eventual establishment of Jewish military units and a Jewish state in Palestine.

    1941: A sentry shot and killed a 13 year old in the Lodz ghetto.

    1942(23rd of Adar): David Raziel was killed while serving for the British in Iraq

    1942: The Nazis ordered 8,000 Jews from southern Polish town of Mielec to be at the train station. The next morning, as they gathered, 2,000 children and elderly were shot dead at the train station.

    1943: In Chicago, Illinois, Rabbi Eliyahu Meir Finkel and his wife, Sara Rosenblum gave birth to Nosson Tzvi Finkel, the Haredi Rabbi who became Rosh Yeshiva of the Mir Yeshiva in Jerusalem

    1943: Aaron Copland's ''Fanfare for the Common Man'' was performed for the first time, by the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra.

    1943(5thof Adar II, 5703): Ninety-two year old Mary Jane Phillips Greenawalt, the widow of Abraham Greenawalt passed away today

    1943(5thof Adar II, 5703): Forty-eight year old Jiří (Georgo) Mordechai Langer passed away in Tel Avi.

    1943: Tonight is the night when Oskar Schindler changed his life, the life of his workers and history. Addressing his workers, he told them not to go home tonight. The Krakow ghetto, he said, would be liquidated the next day. Schindler had witnessed the killings and decided he must protect his laborers. He would build his own concentration camp as a satellite to Kraków-Plaszów, and his staff would compile the now famous list of workers he wanted transferred to his camp.

    1945(27th of Adar, 5705): Bernard Drachman, who served as rabbi at the Park East Synagogue for 55 years starting in 1890, passed away today.

    1945: According to some sources, this is the day Anne Frank died at Bergen Belsen two months before the liberation by British forces.

    1947: In the U.K. premiere of “Nicholas Nickleby” a screen adaption of the novel by the same name produced by Michael Bolton, the son of Jewish immigrants

    1947: Speaking as leader of the Loyal Opposition, Churchill attacks the Labor Party’s policy in Palestine attacking what he called “a senseless, squalid war with the Jews, in order to give Palestine to the Arab or God knows who.”

    1947: A British corvette warned British troops that a large number of Jewish refugees on board the SS Susanna, were attempting to land on the southern coast of Palestine.  British troops assisted by the local Arab population worked to intercept and arrest the refugees.  The British reported that they had captured almost 900 people but 240 may have been Jewish citizens of Palestine.

    1947: The Truman Doctrine was proclaimed today.  It was a policy set forth by U.S. President Harry S Truman stating that the U.S. would support Greece and Turkey with economic and military aid to prevent their falling into the Soviet sphere.  Greece was in the throes of a civil war where one side was supported by the Soviets.  In February of 1947, the British government informed Washington, that it was too broke to continue its traditional role of protecting Greece which had been part of its “sphere of influence.”  While Britain did not have the money to halt Soviet imperial expansion, she apparently had enough funds to patrol the Mediterranean to stop Jews from getting to Palestine. And she had enough money to support what had become an army of occupation aimed at thwarting the creation of a Jewish homeland.  It should be remembered that when President Truman was being pressured to deal with the problems of the displaced Jews of Europe and the issue of Palestine, he was also dealing with an explosion of other problems including the Soviet drive to control Europe.  His decisions vis a vis the Jews must also be viewed against the backdrop of a much larger world stage which the United States was only reluctantly entering on to.

    1947: During a session of the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry on Palestine, Auni Bey Abdulhadi described the “wartime associations of the Mufti of Jerusalem…with Hitler and Mussolini.”

    1948(1stof Adar II, 5708): Rosh Chodesh Adar II

    1948: Orville Prescott provided a complete review of A Mask For Privilege: Anti-Semitism in America by Carey McWilliams.

    1948: “The representatives of the United States, the Soviet Union, China and France heard leaders of the Jewish Agency for Palestine present a nine-point plan for implementation by the Security Council of the United Nations General Assembly for a partition of” Palestine.

    1949: The raising of a hand-drawn flag, known as the “Ink Flag over the police station at Umm Rashrash, the future site of the city of Eilat, at 16:00 “is considered to mark the end of the War of Independence.

    1949(11thof Adar): At the conclusion of Operation Uvada, the commander sent the following telegram “"On Hagana day, the 11th of Adar, the Palmach Negev brigade and the Golani brigade present the Gulf of Eilat to the State of Israel".

    1949: Birthdate of producer, director and writer Rob Cohen. It may not be fair to include Cohen on this page given his view of being Jewish.  When asked about his feelings about being Jewish Cohen has said, “I'm totally in reaction to it. I've never been comfortable with the Jewish identity. It's been one of those crosses to bear that I had the surname 'Cohen' which is a label. You can't hide even if you wanted to, so I don't practice. It's not anything of interest to me. I don't want to rediscover it. I'm not interested.”

    1950: The Foreign Ministry of Israel is scheduled to host a reception for members of the Istanbul Fenerache soccer team who played their first game in Tel Aviv yesterday.  The reception is in response to the fact that Turkey announced its decision earlier this week to recognize the state of Israel.

    1950(23rdof Nisan, 5710): Eighty-three year old Dr. Armand Ahron Noach Kaminka, the son of Wolf and Sura Beile Kaminka and husband of Klara Kaminka, “the renowned rabbi, Hebrew scholar and secretary of Alliance Israelite Universelle in Vienna” who was arrested by the Nazis in 1938, passed away today.

    1950(23rdof Nisan, 5710): Louis I. Jaffe who had been editor of The Norfolk Virginian-Pilot for thirty years” and who “was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for an editorial” opposing lynching passed away today.

    1950: As a reminder of the fact that the Jewish state is surrounded by enemies committed to its destruction “the Israeli Defense Ministry today ordered the registration for the Army Reserve of all physicians between the ages of 29 and 49.”  Reportedly the government will soon require all civilians between the ages of 18 and 49 who have not served in the military to register with the Ministry of Defense.

    1950: The New York Times reported that the Israel Ministry of Education and Culture has appointed Mr. Frank Pelleg to serve as head of its music department.

    1951: In Hartford, CT, Jacob (Jack) Isserman and the former Flora Huffman gave birth to Maurice Isserman, a “long-time Professsor of History at Hamilton College” and the award winning biographer of Michael Harrington.

    1951: As of this date the Iraqis allowed planes filled with Jewish refugees to fly straight to Israel instead of having to go to Cyprus first.

    1952:The Jerusalem Post reported that Foreign Minister Moshe Sharett met Sir Anthony Eden, the British foreign secretary, in London and told him that Israel was eager to reach a settlement with its neighbors and to stop to "perpetuate its loneliness" in the area.

    1953: Birthdate of Ron Jeremy, pornographic film actor

    1954:The first performance of Arnold Schönberg's "Moses und Aaron.” This was not the only Jewish themed work by this great Jewish composer.

    1954: Birthdate of British sculptor Anish Kapoor who was born in Bombay (Mumbai) to Jewish mother whose family emigrated from Baghdad and whose grandfather was the cantor in the Synagogue in Pune. Kapoor lived on a Kibbutz and after discovering that Engineering was not his forte decided to gain the skills that have made him a famous artist.

    1954: Birthdate of Chicago native Larry Rothschild who was the first manager of the newly minted Tampa Bay Devil Rays as well as a successful pitching coach for numerous teams including the New York Yankees.

    1955: Opening of the 2nd Pan American Games during which Eugene Selznick’s led U.S. Volleyball team won a gold medal.

    1955: Birthdate of Druze Israeli political leader and MK Ayoob Kara.

    1956: The 1956 NCAA Basketball Tournament in which Temple coached by Harold “Chief” Litwak defeated Holy Cross, Connecticut and Temple in the East Region began today.

    1957: Birthdate of actor Jerry Levine.

    1958: “Desire Under the Elms” a cinema version of the novel by the same name with a script by Irwin Shaw (Irwin Gilbert Shamforoff) and music by Elmer Bernstein was released in the United States today.

    1960(13thof Adar, 5720): Parashat Tetzaveh; Shabbat Zachor; Erev Purim

    1960: “Taffy Pergament won the Novice Ladies singles title at the Middle Atlantic Figure Skating Championships in Iceland.” (As reported by Bob Wechsler.

    1963: Bob Dylan cancels "Ed Sullivan Show" television appearance.

    1964: After premiering in London in January, “Summer Holiday” a musical with a score by Stanley Black was released in the rest of the United States today.

    1964: S[amuel] N[athaniel] Behrman's "But for Whom Charlie" premieres in New York.

    1965: Birthdate of American sports journalist, Steve Levy.

    1967: Naqi Jahan, the daughter of the first Miss India, Esther Victoria Abraham, was chosen Miss India. (As reported by Dr. Navara Jaat Aafreedi)

    1968: Mauritius achieves independence from Great Britain. Mauritius is located in the Indian Ocean. In 1940, the British created a prison there to hold Jews who had escaped from Hitler’s Europe and were trying to enter Palestine.  The Jewish cemetery on the island attests to the cost of the British policy.  Since gaining its independence, Mauritius has sent many of its citizens to Israel for professional training in several fields of study including that of agronomy.

    1969; In New York City, Theodore S. “Ted” Tapper, “the president of South Philadelphia Pediatrics and associate clinical professor of pediatrics at Jefferson Medical College” the former Helen Anne Palmatier gave birth to CNN newsman Jake Tapper who was raised in Philadelphia and “graduated Phi Beta Kappa and magna cum laude with an A.B. in History, modified by Visual Studies, in 1991.”

    1969: Four months after premiering in the UK, “Where Eagles Dare” a WW II espionage film produced by Elliot Kastner was released in the United States today.

    1969: Linda Eastman married Beatle Paul McCartney (A marriage that fits with Purim motif)

    1972(26thof Adar, 5732): Eighty-four year old Louis Joel Mordell, the American born British mathematician “for pioneering research in number theory” passed away today.

    1972: “The Rabbinical Council of America” an Orthodox organization “appealed for Congressional legislation that would ‘grant tax deductions to parents who pay for their children in the all-day Jewish schools’ arguing that the hundreds of day schools ‘educate a substantial portion of the American children’ and that ‘our public schools are ill-equipped to absorb the youngsters who are currently in these schools.’”

    1975: Birthdate of Dan Greenbaum, the native of Torrance, CA who played on the 1992 U.S. Olympic 

    Volleyball team that won a bronze medal.

    1976(10thof Adar II, 5736): Seventy-three year old Charley Phil Rosenberg, who was World Bantamweight Champion from 1925 to 1927 passed away today.

    1977: Egypt's Anwar Sadat pledged to regain Arab territory from Israel.  Sadat would reach his goal, but with the pen of the peace treaty not the sword of war.

    1979(13thof Adar, 5739): Ta’anit Esther; erev Purim

    1980: “A Small Circle of Friends” directed by Rob Cohen was released in the United States today.

    1985(19th of Adar, 5745):  Eugene Ormandy, Hungarian born conductor, passed away.  Born in 1899, he came to United States in 1921.  He was the permanent conductor and music director for the Philadelphia Orchestra from 1938 until 1980.

    1987: CBS broadcast the last episode of “The Wizard” srarring David Stephen Rappaport.

    1990(15thof Adar, 5750: Sixty-nine year old businessman and sport’s team owner, Gene Klein passed away today.

    1990 (15th of Adar, 5750): Rabbi Stuart E. Rosenberg, a spiritual leader of Canada's Jews and an author, died of cancer today in West Palm Beach, Fla., where he had a winter home. He was 67 years old and also lived in Toronto.  For nine years, until he retired last August, Rabbi Rosenberg led the Beth Torah synagogue in Toronto. Earlier, he was senior rabbi for 17 years at BethTzedec in Toronto, the largest Conservative congregation in Canada. Rabbi Rosenberg was one of the first Western religious leaders to focus on the plight of Soviet Jews, traveling to Moscow in 1961 and writing a series of newspaper articles on their problems. He was also a pioneer in Christian-Jewish dialogue in Canada. He wrote 20 books, including ''Christians and Jews: The Eternal Bond,'' published in 1985, and a two-volume study, ''The Jewish Community in Canada'' (1971). His last book, ''Secrets of the Jews,'' is scheduled to appear in the fall. He also worked as an editor for the Encyclopedia Judaica with responsibility for Canadian matters. Born in Manhattan, Rabbi Rosenberg was a graduate of the Jewish Theological Seminary and received a Ph.D. from Columbia University.

    1993(19thof Adar, 5753): Eighty-three year old Michael Kanin passed away. The brother of Garson Kanin, he co-authored the Oscar winning script for “Woman of the Year” and shared an Oscar nomination with his wife Kay Mitchell for the script of “Teacher’s Pet.”

    1993(19th of Adar, 5753): Yehoshua Freidberg, a 24 year old immigrant from Canada was shot dead on the Tel Aviv to Jerusalem highway.

    1998(14thof Adar, 5758): Purim

    1998: Pope John Paul II wrote to Cardinal Edward Idris Cassidy:

    On numerous occasions during my Pontificate I have recalled with a sense of deep sorrow the sufferings of the Jewish people during the Second World War. The crime which has become known as the Shoah remains an indelible stain on the history of the century that is coming to a close.

    As we prepare for the beginning of the Third Millennium of Christianity, the Church is aware that the joy of a Jubilee is above all the joy that is based on the forgiveness of sins and reconciliation with God and neighbour. Therefore she encourages her sons and daughters to purify their hearts, through repentance of past errors and infidelities. She calls them to place themselves humbly before the Lord and examine themselves on the responsibility which they too have for the evils of our time.

    It is my fervent hope that the document: We Remember: A Reflection on the Shoah, which the Commission for Religious Relations with the Jews has prepared under your direction, will indeed help to heal the wounds of past misunderstandings and injustices. May it enable memory to play its necessary part in the process of shaping a future in which the unspeakable iniquity of the Shoah will never again be possible. May the Lord of history guide the efforts of Catholics and Jews and all men and women of good will as they work together for a world of true respect for the life and dignity of every human being, for all have been created in the image and likeness of God.

    1999: The Times of London features a review of From Catastrophe to Power: Holocaust survivors and the emergence of Israel by Idith Zertal. 

    1999(24th of Adar, 5759): Sir Yehudi Menuhin famed violinist passed away at the age of 82.  Born in New York in 1916, Menuhin was raised in San Francisco.   He was a child prodigy who debuted at the age of eight.

    2000: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or special interest to Jewish readers including In America by Susan Sontag, How We Got Here. The 70's: The Decade That Brought You Modern Life (For Better or Worse)by David Frum and The Nazis by Piotr Uklanski.

    2000: Pope John Paul II asked God's forgiveness for the sins of Roman Catholics through the ages, including wrongs inflicted on Jews, women and minorities. What a difference in the events from 61 years before on this date.

    2003: At the Library of Congress opening of an exhibition entitled Herblock’s Gift: Selections from the Herb Block Foundation Collection

    2003: In an article entitled “A New Glasnost on War’s Looted Art,” Sophia Kishkovsky describes the efforts of Russia’s Ministry of Culture to return thousands of paintings, archives and rare books looted by Soviet forces in Germany and Eastern Europe during and after World War II and taken to Russia as so-called trophy art. Hitler's forces had previously pillaged many of the works from Jewish owners and other Nazi victims

    2003(8th of Adar II, 5763):  Howard Fast passed away.  Born in 1914, some of the controversial authors more famous works include Spartacus, Citizen Tom Paine and The CrossingThe Crossing was adapted for a PBS mini-series depicting the battles surrounding Washington’s Crossing the Delaware which were critical to the colonists ultimate victory over the British.

    2005:  “Roman Allegories” a solo exhibition of the works of Eleanor Antin came to a close at Ronald Feldman Fine Arts in New York, NY

    2005: “Love Counts,” an opera in two acts by Michael Nyman “premiered today at the Badisches Staatstheater Karlsruhe, Germany.”

    2006: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Lipshitz Six or Two Angry by T Cooper and the recently released paperback edition of Rebels on the Backlot: Six Maverick Directors and How They Conquered the Hollywood Studio System by Sharon Waxman

    2006: A two-hour event - "Jewish Unity Live 2006" - is held at a hotel in New Brunswick, New Jersey.

    2007: The Jerusalem Post reported that “the first Israeli Druse physician to become a professor is Dr. Jamal Zidan, head of the oncology department at Ziv Medical Center in Safed. He received his title from the Medical Faculty of the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology in Haifa, and he has worked at Ziv since 1979, when he was an intern.”

    2007: In “Some Things You Never Forget” published today Theresa Vargas remembers the “1977 siege by Hanafi Muslims” that gripped Washington, DC thirty years ago.

    2008: In Washington, D.C.,Joseph Horowitz, a former New York Timesmusic critic and executive director of the Brooklyn Philharmonic Orchestra, discusses and signs Artists in Exile: How Refugees from Twentieth-Century War and Revolution Transformed the American Performing Arts.

    2008: The New Republic featured reviews of The Jewish King Lear: A Comedy in America by Jacob Gordin, translated by Ruth Gay and Iron Kingdom: The Rise and Downfall of Prussia by Christopher Clark in which the author attributes the rise of Prussia during the 17thcentury to the “legendary religious tolerance of the Hohenzollerns” which enabled them to strengthen the state’s economy by opening its borders to Jews. The same magazine also profiled the Jews of Sefwi Wiawso a community of about 150 Ghanaians who claim to be descendants of the lost tribes of Israel  

    2008:Masada, a musical group led by American saxophonist and composer John Zorn”performed at Yoshi's San Francisco jazz club

    2008: The Australian parliament commemorated Israel's 60 years of independence as its leaders pledged their commitment to the country's security and stated their "respect for the Israeli cause," Australia's The Age reported. The motion was put forward by Prime Minister Kevin Rudd and seconded by Opposition leader Brendan Nelson.

    2008: Israel's Holocaust memorial posthumously recognized a prominent Spanish diplomat, who was the grandfather of the Oscar-nominated actress Helena Bonham Carter, for his role in saving hundreds of Jews during World War II.  Yad Vashem named Eduardo Propper de Callejon a "Righteous Among the Nations," the highest honor granted to non-Jews who risked their lives to save Jews during the Holocaust. More than 22,000 have been honored since the designation was originated in 1963, including Oskar Schindler, whose efforts to save more than 1,000 Jews was documented in the Oscar-winning film "Schindler's List," and Raoul Wallenberg, a Swedish diplomat who is credited for having saved at least 20,000 lives from Nazi death camps. Only four Spaniards have been granted the award. About six million European Jews were killed by German Nazis and their collaborators during World War II. As German troops marched into France in the summer of 1940, Propper de Callejon, then first secretary in the Spanish embassy in Paris, stamped and signed passports for four days nearly nonstop to allow refugees to escape to Spain, and from there to the relative safety of Portugal. Propper de Callejon, a Franco loyalist, defied Spanish foreign ministry instructions not to issue such visas. In 1941, he was demoted and never promoted to be an ambassador. He retired in 1965 and died in 1972. The exact number of visas Propper de Callejon issued remains unknown, but Yad Vashem Director Avner Shalev - who called Propper de Callejon the "Spanish Raoul Wallenberg" - said it was believed to be at least 1,500, both Jewish and non-Jewish. "He was signing papers with both his hands. He signed so many that his hands hurt so much, my mother had to bandage them at the end of the day," said Elena Bonham Carter, his daughter. "It was extraordinary. Bonham Carter attended Wednesday's ceremony at the memorial's Garden of the Righteous along with her brother, Felipe Propper de Callejon. "Today, justice has been done to my father," He said. Bonham Carter said her famous daughter wished she could have been at the ceremony as well, but she is currently on location for the latest film in the Harry Potter series - "Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince." 

    2009: New York University’s Taub Center of Isreal Studies presents “Negotiating Peace With Syria,” a public dialogue subtitled “Lessons from the Past, Promises from the Future,” featuring Martin Indyk, former US Ambassador to Israel, and Itamar Rabinovich, former Israeli Ambassador to the US.

    2009: The Westchester Film Festival opens with a screening of “The Gift of Stalin,” the moving tale of a Jewish boy’s exile to the hinterlands of Kazakhstan in 1949 who is raised by the gruff Kasym, a Muslim, and Verka, a Christian.

    2009:The disgraced financier Bernard L. Madoff was immediately handcuffed and led off to jail today after a hearing in which he pleaded guilty to running a vast Ponzi scheme that bilked investors out of billions of dollars. Rather than letting Mr. Madoff remain free on bail and return to his apartment on the Upper East Side of Manhattan, Judge Denny Chin of Federal District Court ordered Mr. Madoff remanded as he awaited sentencing.

    2009: The National Book Critics Circle awarded the autobiography prize to Ariel Sabar's "My Father's Paradise," which traces the author's Jewish roots in Kurdish Iraq. Sabar, who spoke of being an immigrant's son in 1980s Los Angeles, remembered growing up with a father who "looked funny,""talked funny" and "couldn't get his clothes to match." But Sabar became deeply curious about his family's history and was struck by Iraq's long history of people of different faiths "who pretty much got along."

    2009(16thof Adar. 5769): Ninety one year old Lenore Cohn “Lee” Annenberg, the widow Walter Annenberg, passed away.  (As reported by Robert McFadden)

    2010: The Adas Israel Scholar-In-Residence Weekend is scheduled to begin with a Friday night service, dinner and a presentation by Professor David Kraemer on "Sacrificial Judaism, Vegetarianism, and the “Theology” of Food and Kashrut"

    2010:The former mayor of Amsterdam, 62-year-old Marius Job Cohen became the new head of the Dutch Labor party today after Wouter Bos, his predecessor, resigned. Cohen reportedly could become Prime Minister after elections are held this June.

    2011: Eighty-nine year old Tawfix Toubi, the last surviving member of the First Knesset (1949) passed away today in Haifa.  An Arab Christian, he was a member of the Communist Party who served in the Knesset until he retired in 1990.

    2011: In Fairfax Station, VA, Jewish Rock Artists Rick Recht and Sheldon Low are scheduled to perform at a special concert celebrating Temple B’nai Shalom’s 25th anniversary.

    2011: “Zion and his Brother” and “There Were Nights” are scheduled to be shown at the 15th New York Sephardic Jewish Film Festival.

    2011: “Ajami,” an Israeli film that had been nominated for an Oscar is scheduled to be shown at Columbia Jewish Congregation’s (CJC) 2011 - Nineteenth Season of Movies

    2011(6thof Adar II): According to tradition today marks the anniversary of Moses completion of the book of Deuteronomy, which took place on 6 Adar, 1273.

    2011(6thof Adar II): Ninety-five year old Yiddish actress Shira Lerer passed away today in New York City.(As reported by Joseph Berger)

    2011: Defense Minister Ehud Barak vowed today that Israel would use every means possible to track down those behind the fatal stabbing of a family of five in the West Bank settlement of Itamar .

     2011: In “A Local Life: Al Ungerleider, 89; old soldier recalled nightmare mission,” published today, Lauren Wiseman recounts the exploits of the Jewish general who as a young lieutenant fought his from Normandy across Europe where he saw the horror of Nordhausen.

    2012: The East Bay International Jewish Film Festival is scheduled to open in Oakland, CA

    2012: The Jewish Community Relations Council of Greater Washington, The American Jewish Committee, and The American Association of Jewish Lawyers and Jurists are scheduled to sponsor a “brown bag lunch” featuring Art Spitzer, Legal Director of the American Civil Liberties Union of the National Capital Area who will provide a look at some of the civil liberties cases on the Supreme Court Docket.

    2012(18thof Adar, 5772): Eighty-five year old “Mike Silverstein, a founder of Nina Footwear” passed away today. (As reported by Daniel Slotnik)

    2012(18thof Adar, 5772): On the Hebrew calendar, the 211th anniversary of David Emanuel being sworn in as Governor of the state of Georgia, making him the first Jew to serve as the chief executive of any state government in the United States.

    2012: Offensive tackle Geoff Schwartz signed a one-year contract with the Minnesota Vikings.

    2012: Palestinian terrorists in the Gaza Strip fired more than 40 rockets at Israel today, as the heavy cross-border barrage continued into its fourth day.  

    2012: Journalist turned politician Yair Lapid blamed the Palestinians for the failure to reach a breakthrough in the peace process in a speech on Monday at Tel Aviv University.

    2013: The Center for Jewish History is scheduled to present “Private Films, Public Identities: Jewish Self-Representations in Hungarian and Polish Interwar Home Movies”

    2013:”The Other Son” is scheduled to be shown at the Minneapolis Jewish Film Festival.

    2013: Sameh "SAZ" Zakout a native of Ramle is one of the Israeli musicians scheduled to perform today at SXSW 2013

    2013: In an op-ed column entitled “An Endelible Stain on FDR’s Legacy” Richard Cohen wrote “FDR supported programs that did. . . save 100,000 Jewish lives” while “condemning President Roosevelt for not doing more to help Europe’s Jews escape Hitler.”

    2013(1stof Nissan, 5773): Rosh Chodesh Nissan

    2014: “A month after canceling a trip to Israel because of floods at home, British Prime Minister David Cameron is expected to address the Knesset today.” (As reported by Spence Ho)

    2014: The Center for Jewish History is scheduled to host the Phoenix Chamber Ensemble in a performance of Schubert’s Sonatina in D Major, Brahms’ Sonata No 2 in A Major and Prokofiev's Violin Sonata No. 1 in F minor, Op 80,

    2014: The Center for Jewish History is scheduled to present “Light and Shadows: The Story of Iranian Jews.”

    2014: In Washington, DC, as part of “Voices of the Vigil, graphic designer Avrum Ashery will showcase his unique role in creating posters, buttons, and cards of protest for the movement.

    2014: The Washington Wizards basketball team is scheduled to host Jewish Heritage Night & a Pre-Purim Celebration.

    2014: In Washington, the Jewish Study Center is scheduled to host the “Latke-Hamentashen Debate.”

    2014: Ruth Goodman and Yossi Almani are scheduled to lead “Israeli Dancing” at the 92ndStreet Y.

    2014: In Metairie, LA, Rabbi Mendel Ceitin is scheduled to begin teaching at six week course “To Be a Jew in the Free World: Jewish Identity Through the Lens of Modern History.”

    2014: Islamic Jihad took credit for the barrage of rockets fired into Israel today.  The terrorist claim they fired 90 missiles but the IDF puts the number at 60. (As reported by Adiv Sterman)

    2014: IDF jets hit 29 targets this evening in Gaza in response to the most massive rocket barrage since 2012.  In addition, IDF tanks fired into Gaza eliminating at least two “terror targets.”(As reported by Marissa Newman and Tova Dvorin)

    2014(10th of Adar II, 5774): Ninety-one year old David Sive, “founder of environmental law” passed away today. (As reported by Margalit Fox)

    2014: Geoff “Schwartz signed a four-year, $16.8 million deal with $6.2 million guaranteed with the New York Giants, after confirming the deal on Twitter.”

    2014:“After years of heated public debate and political wrangling, Israel’s Parliament on today approved landmark legislation that will eventually eliminate exemptions from compulsory military service for many of the ultra-Orthodox students enrolled in seminaries.” (As reported by Isabel Kershner)

    2015: The Tulane University Jewish Studies Department under the leadership of Dr. Brian Horowitz is scheduled to present “A Read and Discussion of ‘I Pity the Poor Immigrant’” with Zachary Lazar.

    2015: The Illinois Holocaust Museum is scheduled to honor Renée and Lester Crown at the 2015 Humanitarian Awards Dinner in Chicago.

    2015: “Zaytoun” directed by Eran Riklis is scheduled to be shown at the Jewish Community of Northern Viriginia.

    2015: The Canadian Haggadah Canadienne is scheduled to go on sale today at Montreal.

    2015: In Atlanta, the 2015 Molly Blank Jewish Concert Series is scheduled to present “Kurt Weill: Berlin to Broadway.”

    2015: Unless the labor court in Jerusalem intervenes, Histadrut is scheduled to begin a general strike that will hit cities and towns from Ashdod to Eilat.

    2015: The American Sepharidi Federation’s Film Festival is scheduled to open today.

    2015: In Cedar Rapids, Iowa, The National Czech & Slovak Museum & Library is scheduled to present “Voices of the Generations: Stories from the Holocaust” with Julie Kohner, whose mother Hanna was Holocaust survivor.

    2015: “Former president and Prime Minister Shimon Peres today threw his support behind the Zionist Union’s Isaac Herzog for prime minister in the upcoming March 17 elections.” (As reported by Marissa Newman)

    2016(2ndAdar II, 5776): Shabbat Pekuday; final Torah portion of Exodus

    2016(2ndof Adar II, 5776): Eighty-nine year old Elliot Gant, one of the creators of that ultimate in preppy-wear, the Gant buttoned-down shirt with the loop in the back passed away today.

    2016: The Jerusalem Symphony Orchestra is scheduled to celebrate its 78thseason by beginning a new tour under conductor Dmitry Yablonsky.

    2016: In Texas, “Remember” and “Serial Bad Weddings” are scheduled to shown at the Houston Jewish Film Festival.

    2016: In North Carolina, “Once in a Lifetime” is scheduled to be shown at the Charlotte Jewish Film Festival.

    2016: The Jewish Community Center of Northern Virginia is scheduled to host a third visit by the Richmond Ballet II.

    2016: After Palestinian terrorists fired rockets from Gaza yesterday, Israeli aircraft “struck at Hamas military bases in the Gaza Strip.”

    2016: Philadelphia is scheduled to hold the opening event for the 20thAnnual Israeli Film Festival. 

    2017: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Gestapo: The Myth and Reality of Hitler’s Secret Police by Frank McDonough, Insomniac City: New York, Oliver, and Me by Bill Hayes and the recently released paperback edition of The Photographer’s Wifeby Susanne Joinson

    2017: “Keep Quiet” a film that tells the story of vocal anti-Semite Holocaust denier Csanád Szegedi who discovers that he is Jewish and his grandmother survived Auschwitz is scheduled to be shown in Glasgow under the sponsorship of UKJF.

     2017(14th of Adar, 5777): Purim

    2018: This evening in Memphis, TN, Temple Israel is scheduled “to host the third installment of MLK Moral Monday, the three-part clergy led servings and gatherings featuring distinguished speakers on the pressing social just issue of our times” that will music led by Abbie Strauss and readings by Rabbi Feivel Strauss

    2018: “Brave Miss World” is scheduled to be shown at the New York Sephardic Jewish Film Festival.




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    March 13

    624: Islamic forces under the command of Muhammad were victorious at the Battle of Badr which cemented the power of the Moslem leader with all that we would mean for civilization in general and the Jews in particular.

    1202: Seventy-six year old Mieszko III, the Duke of Greater Poland who “employed Jews in his mint as engravers and technical supervisors, and the coins minted during that period even bear Hebraic markings” passed away today.

    1245: As the Mongols sweep across Asia and Christian Europe, Innocent IV issued “Cum non solum,” a letter addressed to the Mongols asking them to desist from attacking Christian nations.  This is the same Innocent IV who had ordered the massive burning of Jewish books including many priceless copies of the Talmud. 

    1366: During the Castilian Civil War, Peter of Castile, whose depiction by his enemies as being friendly Jews was used against was deposed as King of Castile and Leon.

    1421 (10th of Nisan): After nearly a year’s imprisonment, the Jews of Austria were ordered to be burned.  “In Vienna alone, more than a hundred perished in one field near the Danube.” 

    1421(10th of Nisan): Rabbi Aaron of Neustadt, author Hilkhot Niddah died the martyr’s death in Vienna

    1524: Suleiman II issued a firman that brought closure to Abraham de Castro who had exposed the traitorous plans of Amad-Pasha to take control of Egypt and protection for the Jews of Egypt, an event memorialized by “Cairo Purim)

    1601(9th of Adar II): Mordecai Marcus Meisel passed away. Born in in 1528, the son of Samuel Meisel, he was one of the wealthiest people in Bohemia. A noted philanthropist, he was a leader of the Jewish community in Prague. During his youth, the Jews of Prague were the victims of the fanatical persecutions instituted by Ferdinand I. “In 1542 and 1561 his family, with the other Jewish inhabitants, was forced to leave the city, though only for a time. The source of the great wealth which subsequently enabled him to become the benefactor of his coreligionists and to aid the Austrian imperial house, especially during the Turkish wars, is unknown. He is mentioned in documents for the first time in 1569, as having business relations with the communal director Isaac Rofe (Lékarz), subsequently his father-in-law. His first wife, Eva, who died before 1580, built with him the Jewish Town Hall in Prague, which is still standing, as well as the neighboring Hohe synagogue, where the Jewish court sat. With his second wife, Frummet, he built (1590-92) the Maisel Synagogue, which was much admired by the Jews of the time, being, next to the Altneusynagoge, the metropolitan synagogue of the city.”  After his death, despite the fact that  “his widow had given presents of tens of thousands of florins to the king and city, soldiers would forcibly enter his house on the Sabbath and torture his nephews until they ‘confessed’ that there was still more money hidden away. All the money was declared property of the Bohemian Chamber with nothing left to the family.”

    1615: Birthdate of Antonio Pignatelli who as Pope Innocent XII abolished Jewish loan-banks in Rome 1682. In the following year he extended the ban to Ferrara and other Jewish ghettos under his authority. He also prohibited the Jews under his control from serving as shopkeeper and banned them most trades and crafts, causing the Roman Jewish community to shrink.

    1639: Harvard College is named for clergyman John Harvard. Eighty-three years later, Harvard would hire its first Jewish instructor, sort-of. In 1722,”the officers of Harvard Corporation vote that Judah Monis be approved as an instructor of the Hebrew language at the College, under the condition that he convert to Christianity. One month before assuming his post at Harvard, Monis converts before a large assembly in College Hall.” It would take Harvard another 221 years to hire a Jewish professor without the requirement that he convert. Harry Levin became the first Jewish full professor in the Harvard English department in 1943.

    1656: The Jews were denied the right to build a synagogue in New Amsterdam.

    1682: Students in Cracow staged anti-Semitic riots

    1741: Birthdate of Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor.  On the positive side, Joseph did away with numerous humiliating conditions for his Jewish subjects including the special badges and taxes. He wanted to liberate the Jews from “humiliating and oppressive laws and to assure that all Austrian subjects could contribute to the public welfare without any distinction with regard to nationality and religion.”  The thrust of his reforms were intended to make Germans out of his Jewish subjects.  This liberalization worried the empire’s anti-Semites.  But it also bothered Jewish leaders including Moses Mendelssohn.  They feared that the price of being free was a diluted Judaism. 

    1745: Jews exiled from Prague

    1808(14th of Adar, 5568): Purim

    1808: Frederick VI, who had shown a great deal of interest in his Jewish subjects while regent and who would support full Jewish emancipation began his reign as King of Denmark.

    1809: Birthdate of Alexander Levi, a French born Sephardic Jew, who was one of the early settlers of Dubuque, Iowa. He would live there until he passed away in 1893.  Levi was a successful merchant and civic leader who was one of the first Jews to hold public office in the Hawkeye state.

    1815: In Pressburg, Sarel, the daughter of Rabbi Akiva Eger and Rabbi Moses Sofer gave birth to Shmuel Binyomin Sofer a leading 19th century Hungarian Rabbi and rosh yeshiva of the Pressburg Yeshiva.

    1825: Birthdate of Immanuel Heinrich Ritter who succeeded Samuel Holdheim as the rabbi at the Berlin Reform Temple in 1860.

    1825: Birthdate of Grigori Asaacovich Bogrov, the native of Minsk, the Russian author whose first work was Memoirs of a Jew in which he “portrays the vicissitudes of his life and surroundings” and who left an unpublished Hebrew transcript on astronomy at the time of his death in 1885.

    1827(14th of Adar, 5587): Purim

    1833: David Nathan married Mary Lazarus at Canterbury, Kent, UK.

    1836: In Bavaria, Aron Emunuel Scharff and Magdelanna Roos gave birth to Nicholas Scharff

    1840: In Rotterdam, Salomon Isaac Bril and the former Mietje Maria Benedictus gave birth to Betje Bril

    1843: Birthdate of Solomon Abedndana Belmonte, the Hamburg born jurist who was elected deputy to the Hamburg Bürgerschaft, in 1887.

    1844: In Paris, twenty-one year old Emma Silberstein, “the daughter of Salomon Silberstein and Amilie Kempner married Louis Loewe with whom she had four daughters and five sons, “one of whom was James Lowe, Raphael Loewe’s grandfather.”

    1845: Felix Mendelssohn's Violin Concerto is premièred in Leipzig with Ferdinand David as soloist. Born in 1809 Felix Mendelssohn was the grandson of Moses Mendelssohn.  His Jewish parents had him baptized as a Lutheran in 1816.  The violinist Ferdinand David was Jewish.

    1847: In Mitwitz, Bavaria Abraham H. Freund and Marie Hoenigsberger gave birth to Adolph Freund, the husband of Henrietta Newman and trustee of both the National Jewish Hospital for Consumptives in Denver and the Montefiore Kesher Home for Aged and Infirm Israelites of Cleveland who was he Diretor and Financial Representative of Cleveland, Ohio’s Jewish Orphan Asylum.

    1848(8th of Adar II, 5608): During the Revolution of 1848, “as Viennese students thronged toward the Lower Austrian Diet to submit their revolutionary demands, imperial troops fired into the crowd” killing Carl Heinrich Spitzer, “a 17-year old Moravian Jew” studying at the Vienna Polytechnic making him “the first martyr of the revolution.

    1850: David Meyer Davidson married Henrietta Cohen at the Great Synagogue today.

    1852: In Berlin, Louis and Pauline Blumenthal gave birth to Oskar (Oscar) Blumenthal who morphed from theatre critic to playwright and was the husband of Marie Blumenthal with whom he had one son – Ferdinand.

    1852: "Austria" published today reported that "a Hungarian Jew has been arrested for trying to negotiate a number of Kossuth notes that he had brought with him from Hamburg."

    1854(13th of Adar, 5614): Ta’anit Esther; Erev Purim

    1862(11th of Adar II, 5622): Fast of Esther. 

    1862: Birthdate of Baltimore native Henriette Hennie van Leer.

    1865(15th of Adar, 5625): Shushan Purim

    1865: After rejoining his regiment in December, 1864, today Edward S. Salomon “received a brevet promotion to brigadier general.”

    1865: Frederick Knefler, who was serving under the command of General William Tecumseh Sherman, was promoted to the rank of brevet brigadier general just before the end of the Civil War.  Born in Hungary in 1833, Knefler had the distinction of being one of the few people to rise from the rank of private to general during the course of a war.  In 1861 he volunteered for the Union Army and became a captain within one year.  He passed away in 1901.

    1865:During the Civil War Major Alfred Mordecai, Jr was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel in the Union Army.  The newly promoted Lieutenant Colonel was the son of Alfred Mordecai, a southern born officer in the United States Army.  Mordecai Sr. resigned from the Army rather than fight against the South, marking the end to an illustrious career.  However, in a display of honor that was rare among other Southerners who left the U.S. Army, he refused to accept a commission in the Confederate Army or serve the South in any civilian capacity.

    1865: Thirty-three year old Philadelphia native Myer Asch who had been serving with the Union Cavalry since 1861 and spent six months in Rebel prisons including the infamous Libby Prison, was breveted as a Colonel of United States Vounteers “for gallant and meritorious services during the war

    1866(26th of Adar, 5626): Seventy-one year old Julius Rubo who despite his brilliance and ability found both a legal and academic career ultimately closed to him because of his religion from which he refused to convert, passed away today.

    1870: At a meeting of the board of directors of the “B'nai Jeshurun Ladies' Hebrew Benevolent Society, the President, Mrs. Henry Leo, the founder of the Society, presented a report on the growing number of destitute Jews who were elderly and in poor health.  She urged the ladies to develop a practical way of dealing with this growing problem

    1870:  A group of leaders of the Jewish community, including Thomas H. Keasing, E.S. Isaacs and T.J. Solomon, met today to make plans for establishing a society that would destitute Jewish immigrants when they came to United States.  A committee of seven was selected to draw up plans for such an organization that would be submitted to this group at its next meeting.  In the meantime, fifty dollars was donated to serve as “seed money” for the group’s work.

    1871: The children of Aaron Adolphus, a wealthy New York Jew who passed away in January, contested the terms of their father’s will in Surrogate Court.

    1873(14thof Adar, 5633): Purim

    1873: Birthdate of Benzion ben Moses Eisenstadt, the native of Minsk whose literary output included poetry and biography of rabbis and scholars.

    1873: In New York, the Sabbath School Fair Association of the 57th Street Congregation hosted a Purim reception and masked ball at the Terrace Garden.

    1875: It was reported today that the police in Hartford, Connecticut, have arrested a swindler named W.F. Gerhardt.  Gerhardt is really is really Hungarian born Jew named Moritz who worked his larceny in his native land before being forced to flee to the United States. His confederates include Michael Mandl, an Austrian Jew and Henry Hertz.

    1876: It was reported that the Jews in Washington, DC celebrated Purim with “a brilliant masked ball.”

    1876: A police officer found the body of Leopold King in front the building housing Ahavat Chesed in New York City. The police found an empty blue vial in his hand that smelled of prussic acid. The 54 year old King was a native of Prussia who had retired from his successful cap making business and gone into real estate.  The family could offer no reason for a suicide and said they thought “that he died from a fit of apoplexy.”

    1876: It was reported today that the managers of the  Home for the Aged and Infirm Hebrews has leased the “Old Hildebrand Mansion “ at the corner of 87th Street and Avenue A in New York City.  The number of people seeking admission has grown to such a large number that the current facility on Lexington Avenue and 63rd Street is no longer large enough.

    1880(1st of Nisan, 5640): Parashat Vayikra; Rosh Chodesh Nisan’; Shabbat HaChodesh.

    1881: Alexander II of Russia is assassinated, which put an end to his half-hearted liberalism. He was succeeded by Alexander III who was devoted to medievalism and urged a return to “Russian civilization.”  The most influential person during his reign was Pobestonostov, his financier and procurator of the Holy Synod, who earned the title "the Second Torquemada." The newspapers in Moscow, Kiev and Odessa began a campaign against the Jews which would only lead to greater outbreaks of anti-Semitism as the Czarist regime swirled forward on its downward dance with destruction that ended in 1917.

    1884(16th of Adar, 5644): Sixty-four year old Charlotte von Rothschild, the only daughter of Carl Mayer von Rothschild and the wife of Lionel de Rothschild with whom she had five children passed away today.

    1887:  In Clinton, IA, a group of Protestants founded the American Protective Association which was anit-Catholic and anti-immigrant at the same time that an untold number of Jews were trying to escape from repressive regimes Russia and Romania.

    1888: Justice Samuel Greenbaum married Selina Ulman today. They had four children - Lawrence Samuel, Edward Samuel, Grace and Isabel – before she passed away at 25 years of age.

    1890:It was reported today that the Passover Relief Association had raised nearly $250 at its annual Purim masquerade ball which would go toward the fund it raises yearly to provide the Hebrew poor of this city with the wherewithal to celebrate Passover.

    1890: “Hebrew Charities” published today summarized the efforts of the United Hebrew Charities during the month of February which including providing 226 applicants with work and providing 216 pupils with free instruction in the industrial school. The charity provided over seven thousand dollars in direct aid.

    1891: It was reported today that the funds Jesse Seligman has received from Baron Hirsh “will be kept in the vaults of various trust companies until the trustees of the fund decide” how it is to be invested.

    1892(14th of Adar, 5652): Purim

    1893: Felix Adler is among those scheduled to meet with President Cleveland today to urge him to veto the newly passed Treaty of Extradition with Russia.

    1893: “Oriental Records Translated” published today provides a detailed review of Records of the Past edited by A.H. Sayce  which includes the information that “in the soil of Palestine, for example, the spade has brought to light evidence of the existence of a Canaanitish library dating from a period earlier than the birth of Moses…” The material translated provided a comparison between Biblical texts and those of other, recently discovered civilizations in the East.

    1894: “Want The School Reopened” published today describe a meeting held to protest the closure of grammar school on Hester Street which will impact 500 children, most of them who are Jewish.  The leaders of the protest contend that the Jewish “resident of the district were anxious to have their children the English language” and were afraid that the closure would impede this.  (Editor’s Note – Compare this view of the English language by Jewish immigrants with that which has evolved in the 21stcentury)

    1894: The United Hebrew Charities is one of the organizations distributing the proceeds from a concert given by Musurgia to help aid those suffering during the current economic depression.

    1895: Sir Arthur Wing Pinero’s “The Notorious Mrs. Ebbsmith” was produced for the first time at the Garrick Theatre.

    1896: In Chicago, Benvendia Solis Firth, the daughter of Moses Maness Ritterband and Esther Amada Ritterband and Emil Firth gave birth to Mildred Rosenkranz, the wife Elias Victor Rosenkranz.

    1897:  San Diego State University founded. The first Jew connected with San Diego was a young adventurer named Louis Pollock who was temporarily imprisoned in San Diego along with other Americans by Mexican authorities.  By 1851, there were enough Jews in San Diego for Lewis Franklin to organize the first High Holiday services held in southern California.  Today SDSU has approximately 2,500 Jews among its 27,000 undergraduates and 500 Jews among more than 6,300 graduate students. The school offers 15 courses in Jewish studies and students can major or minor in Jewish Studies. The campus has an accredited Hillel with its own Hillel House.For more information about the SDSU Jewish community see

    1897: “Another Homer to be Identified” published today provides a critique of “The Unknown Homer of the Hebrews” by Amos Kidder Fiske the author of The Jewish Scriptures.  According to Fiske, just as Homer is the father of Greek literature, so is there one author un-named author who created much of the Biblical literature.  Based on “higher biblical criticism” Fiske contends that the author is the Prophet Elijah

    1897: “The Austrian Election” published today described the outcome of the vote for Mayor in Vienna where “Dr. Lueger, the well-known Jew-baiter” has emerged victorious over Mayor Strohbach.  The Emperor had nullified an earlier victory by Lueger but the belief is that the he will not intervene for a second time.

    1898: “Money Lenders Attacked” published today summarized the testimony of Sir George Lewis “the well-known lawyer” and leader of the Jewish community before the House of Commons in which he complained of the behavior of money lenders, “the bulk of them” who “were Jews whom “the Jewish community loathed and despised.”  The worst of the lot was one known as “Sam” who had played a key role in the scandal surrounding Lord Nevill-Spender Clay.

    1898:Lemercier-Picard, author of the forged letter quoted by General de Pellieux a month earlier (the "faux Henry"), is found hanging from the window-catch of his hotel bedroom.  Circumstances of death remain unclear.

    1899: While testifying before the Court of Inquiry investigating “the beef counsel” Edward Tilden, the treasurer of Libby, McNeill & Libby Packing Company testified that “the forequarter of the carcass is the only part eaten by an Orthodox Jew” but that that the price of the beef does not depend on “the number of Jews in the community.”

    1899: Rabbi H.P. Mendez, Dr. Stephen Wise, Rabbi Gustav Gottheil and his son were among the prominent Jews attended Professor Thomas Davidson’s lecture entitled “Zionism from a Non-Jewish Standpoint” at Shearith Israel Synagogue.

    1899: This evening Cincinnati, Ohio, Rabbi David Philippson is scheduled to deliver the “address of welcome” at the preliminary meeting prior to the official opening of the annual Conference of American Rabbis which will start tomorrow.  Dr. Joseph Silverman and Rabbi Isaac M. Wise are also scheduled to address the meeting to which the general public has been invited.

    1900: Henri Didon Louis Remy, the Dominican Friar who wrote approvingly of the fifth and final volume of Renan’s History of the Jews passed away today.

    1901: Sixty-seven year old Benjamin Harrison, the 23rd President of the United States whose Secretary of State, James G. Blaine “instructed the American minister to Russia to exert his influence against” any new anti-Jewish measures being adopted by the Czar and whose administration received a memorial from William Blackstone and his supporters calling for “an international conference to consider the condition of the Israelites and their claims to Palestine as their ancient home” passed away today.

    1902: The Sultan approves the Rouvier project (from the French government) for the consolidation of the public debt. This was part of a project that Herzl had worked on, the idea being that assisting the Ottomans with their financial needs would help smooth the way for the creation of a Jewish homeland in Eretz Israelwhich was part of the Sultan’s empire.

    1903(14th of Adar, 5663): Purim

    1904(26th of Adar, 5664): Lieutenant Bendix, “a German Government engineer” and “an officer of the Bavarian Reserves” who “had been engaged on the construction of a railroad in German West Africa” was killed today “in the fight near Owikokorereo against the Herreros.”

    1904:During the presidency of Isaac Wallach, the new buildings of the Mount Sinai Hospital in Madison Avenue (between 100th and 101st streets) for which $1,500,000 had been raised, were dedicated today.

    1904:Ludovic Trarieux, the French political leader who served as Minister of Justice during the Dreyfus Affair where he should great courage in taking up the cause of the French military officer who was a victim of anti-Semitism and a conspiracy of right wing militarists passed away today.

    1905: “Kid” Herman (Herman Landfield) knocked out former featherweight champion Dave Sullivan one month before he fought Harry Lewis.

    1906: Eighty-six year old social reformer and suffragette Susan B. Anthony whose allies included Ernestine Rose, the Polish born American and English suffragette whose slogan of “Agitate, Agitate” she adopted, passed away today.

    1906: It was reported today that the “anti-Jewish proclamation” issued in Russia included “a demand for the expulsion of the Jews from all the cities of European Russia and Siberia into the Pale,” “the levying” of a tax on the Jewish people “in lieu of military service,” forcing Jews to reassume their “Jewish names” if they have changed them, and the prohibition of Jews from certain professions and from higher education.

    1906:  Birthdate of Oscar Nemon, the Slavonian born English sculptor, best known for his series of more than a dozen public statues of Sir Winston Churchill as well as sculptures of Harry Truman and Margaret Thatcher.  After World War II, he made sculptures of a spectacular list of high-profile figures including such war-time leaders as Dwight D. Eisenhower Earl Alexander of Tunis, Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, Lord Freyberg and Lord Beaverbrook.  He passed away in 1985.

    1907: Montreal resident Clarence Isaac de Sola, the son of Cantor Abraham and Esther de Sola and Belle Maud de Sola gave birth to Gabriel (Oliviera) de Sola

    1908: Birthdate of Walter Annenberg.  The famed philanthropist built a publishing empire around the Daily Racing Form, the Philadelphia Inquirer and that uniquely American cultural icon, TV Guide.

    1908: A major fire in the Jewish quarter of Haskoy, Constantinople, Turkey destroys 500 houses. There were over 5,000 Jews left without shelter. A cablegram was sent from Constantinople to Oscar S. Straus, U.S. Secretary of Commerce and Labor asking for assistance.

    1910 It was reported today that Alma Gluck will perform at matinee performance on March 17 at The New Theatre in New York.

    1912: Birthdate of Lillian Fruendlich , the wife of Irwin Freundlich who had been born in 1908 and with whom she teamed to perform recitals “featuring pieces for one piano and 4 hands.

    1913: The Annual Conference on Child Labor to which Leon Schwarz of Mobile, Alabama had been appointed as a delegate opened today in Jacksonville, Florida.

    1913: Birthdate of Harold Hochstein who would gain fame as Harold Stone, a character who played numerous roles on Broadway, in Hollywood films and television. Stone usually played ‘heavies” or bad guys.  He was the sort of actor who became the role.  You might not recognize the name but as you see the original version of Spartacus or re-runs of the television series, The Untouchables, you will remember who he was.

    1914: Premiere of Die geheimnisvolle Villa“a short silent German film directed by Joe May” born Joseph Otto Mandel.

    1915: Today, after further conversations with the Prime Minister and the Foreign Herbert Samuel “circulated a revised text of “The Future of Palestine” – a “Zionist memorandum” originally submitted by Chaim Weizmann

    1915: Sixty-five year old Count Sergei Witte a leading progressive Russian minster, whose marriage to Matilda Ivanovna (Isaakovna) Lisanevich, to a converted Jew caused a scandal and limited his political effectiveness and who tried to reform the Empire while keeping Russia from entering WW I which he feared would doom his country passed away today

    1915: Among those listed as contributors to the American Jewish Relief Committee for Sufferers from the War were Beth Gimel, Ottumwa, IA; Beth Chayim Congregation, Cumberland, MD; Congregation Israel, Hot Springs, Arkansas and the Literary Society of Beaumont, TX.

    1916: The delegation from Brooklyn chosen to attend the “proposed Jewish Congress” meeting Philadelphia later this month was reported to include Judge Strahl, Magistrate Geismar, Rabbi Gold, Dr. H.L. Melkin, Henry Eiser, Samuel Lippman, and Moe Wervelosky.

    1916: It was reported today that the officers of Temple of the Sinai Congregation of the Bronx include William Daub, President; Emil Fleish, First Vice President; Samuel Grossman, Second Vice President and William Mitchell, Secreatary.

    1916: “The Day, the Jewish daily newspaper edited by Herman Bernstein published…a cablegram from” its correspondent in Berne that read “I have learned from an absolutely reliable source that the Pope has prepared an important document of great interest to the Jewish people” which “will prove of the same importance and significance as he bull issued by Pope Innocent IV denouncing the ritual murder accusations against the Jews as false and based on a cruel legend.”

    1917: In expressing their support for I. Edwin Goldwasser’s suggestion to do away with flowers at Jewish funeral and to use that money to support charities, Louis Marshall said, “I have long thought the practice wasteful, extravagant and in many instances vulgar” while Henry Morgenthau said that “as long as the living are destitute and in despair, it seems wise to direct those who wish to show regard for departed friends to do so by contributing, in memory of their names, to a fund to alleviate the misery of the poor.”

    1918: The Joint Distribution Committee for Jewish War Sufferers expressed its displeasure that Dr. Israel Friedlander had resigned “from the commission which the American Red Cross is sending to take part in the reclamation of Palestine” because of unfounded rumors that he had been pro-German before the United States entered the World War.

    1918: American Red Magen David, the Jewish Red Cross, was formed.

    1918: During a gathering of Lithuanians tonight at Madison Square Garden, “Dr. Isaac Hourwich appealed for the cultural autonomy of the Jews of Lithuania” within a newly created Lithuanian Republic that will become a reality after the World War.

    1919(11th of Adar II, 5679): Fast of Esther

    1919: U.K. bantamweight Johnny Brown, who fought under the alias of Philip Hickman fought and lost his first professional fight.

    1919: Today, Alexander H. Geismar told “a story of the suffering of Jews in war-stricken countries” to the workers in the $500,000 drive for war relief” at the Brooklyn Committee’s headquarters on Court Street.

    1921: U.S. premiere of “Know Your Men” filmed by cinematographer Joseph Ruttenberg and produced by William Fox.

    1921:  Birthdate of cartoonist and Mad Magazine illustrator Allan Jaffee.

    1924: Birthdate of “jazz pianist, arranger and producer” Dick Katz.

    1926: It was reported today that 10,392 Jews were admitted to the United States “for the last United States immigration year that ended on June 30, 1925 while 29,142 Jews settled in Palestine during the same period of time.

    1926: “Native Art From Palestine” published today described the history of the Bezalel School of Arts and Crafts founded by Boris Schatz which is displaying some of its works at the Grand Central Palace in New York.

    1926(27thof Adar, 5675): Eighty-five year old Shlomo Elyashiv passed away.  The grandson of Yosef Sholom Eliashiv, and the son of Chayim Chaikl Eliashiv or Eliashoff , he is best known author of Leshem Shevo V’Achlama

    1926: In Rochester, NY, Rose (nee Shaywitz) Weinstein and Harris Weinstein, an immigrant tailor gave birth to Donald Weinstein, “an influential historian of the Italian Renaissance.”

    1928: Despite support from Lloyd George and Chancellor of the Exchequer Winston Churchill, the British Cabinet rejects a loan designed to support the “Zionist enterprise” in Palestine in a manner consistent with the Balfour Declaration.

    1929: Birthdate of wrestler Jack Laskin, the native of Hamilton, Ontario who fought under various aliases including Abe Levinsky who in the 1990’s “got a license to marry people and became a lay rabbi” when people in his California community had difficulty getting married by the local Orthodox rabbis.

    1930(13thof Adar, 5690): Ta’anit Esther; Erev Purim

    1930: “Because the Jewish deputies had to be present in parliament during “tonight’s “vote on the budget, “Purim was celebrated this evening in the club room of the Jewish members of Parliament” with a reading of the Book of Esther (As reported by JTA)

    1930: Woolf Barnato, the youngest son of Barney Barnato, “set off from the bar at the Carlton Hotel” this evening in his 6½ Litre Bentley Speed Six as he tried to win a bet that he could reach London before the Blue Train reached Calais.

    1931: Premiere of Sturm im Wasseglas (Storm in a Water Glass) a film based on a play by Bruno Frank with a script co-authored by Felix Salten, co-produced by Josef Somlo and starring Paul Otto who would hang himself when his Jewish origins were discovered during the Nazi period.

    1932: On Sunday, Benjamin Cardozo was sworn in as Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme.  A liberal nominated by the conservative President Herbert Hoover, he would join Louis Brandies as the second Jew to serve on the High Court.  Unlike Brandeis whose confirmation hearing had been contentious with more than a whiff of anti-Semitism, Cardozo’s nomination sailed through with near unanimous support.

    1933: Jewish lawyers and judges were expelled from court in Breslau

    1933:  Birthdate of rock and roll composer Mike Stoller.

    1934: Today,“Pro-Hitler pressmen printed and folded hate literature into an edition of the Los Angeles Times

    1935: Birthdate of philosopher and political commentator Michael Walzer.

    1936: It was reported today that in Prztyk, a town in central Poland where 80 per cent of the inhabitants are Jewish, the Jews endured a month’s long boycott where trade is so restricted that they cannot buy even such a basic necessity of milk for their children.

    1936: In Poland, a mob raided the Jewish shops at Turka and order was restored only after the police finally intervened and “arrested twenty rioters.”

    1936 In New York, “a good will Sabbath” was held at the Mount Neboh this evening (Friday night) “marking the opening of the congregation’s Silver Jubilee program” where members of the congregation and visitors, who include “representatives of the Jewish, Protestant and Catholic faiths” heard Rabb Abraham L. Feinberg “say that the class and labor struggles were no less destructive than the widespread anxiety caused by intense nationalism.”

    1936: Sir Francis Henry Dillon Bell, thefirst New Zealand-born Prime Minister of New Zealand, passed away. His Jewish mother had converted before he was born.

    1937(1st of Nisan, 5697): Parashat Vayikra; Rosh Chodesh Nisan; Shabbat HaChodesh

    1937(1st of Nisan, 5697): Eighty-four year old former Fire Commissioner Jacob Solis Carvalho, a native of Charleston, West Virginia and the son of Sarah Solis and Solomon Carvalho passed away today in New York

    1938: On Sunday, just after his native Austria had been annexed into the Reich, “Adolf Hitler placed a wreath on his parent’s grave in his adopted hometown of Linz, Austria.”

    1938: While walking home from school in Hungary, Tom Lantos sse a newspaper with the headline: "Hitler Marches into Austria.” Years later, Lantos said that he sensed that this historic moment would have a tremendous impact on the lives of Hungarian Jews, my family, and myself."

    1939:  Birthdate of musician Neil Sedaka, a product of Brooklyn’s Sephardic Community.

    1939: Commissioner William B. Herlands is scheduled to deliver a lecture on “Real Facts About Communists and Jews” at the West Side Institutional Synaogue.

    1939: Churchill wrote to a leading Albanian diplomat stating that he had been authorized to negotiate ways to establish a refuge for Jews fleeing Germany in Albania.  The plan came to naught when Mussolini invaded the little Balkan country a month later. 

    1939: Today, “a British Cabinet subcommittee started drafting British proposals for solution of the problem of the Holy Land.”

    1940: The three month war between Finland and the U.S.S.R which had begun with the Soviet invasion of its neighbor and in which 204 Finnish Jews had fought (with 37 dead) ended today with the signing of the Moscow Peace Treaty.

    1941(14th of Adar, 5701): Russian author Isaac E Babel was executed during one of Stalin’s periodic purges. The Soviets exonerated him in 1954. 

    1942: The first trainload of 1000 deportees arrived from Theresienstadt at the village of Izbica Lubelsak, just north of Belzec. Only six would survive the war.

    1943(6th of Adar II, 5703): Parashat Pekudei

    1943(6th of Adar II, 5703): Sixty-two Rachel Hellman the daughter of Rabbi Isaac Seckel Bamberger and Julie Judith Bamberger (Klein) and the wife of Moritz Hellman was murdered today at Sobibor.

    1943(6th of Adar II, 5703):German forces liquidated the Jewish ghetto in Cracow. Two thousand Jews were rounded up for deportation at Cracow, Poland. Before the trains left hundreds of children were shot to death, hundreds of elderly were killed in the streets, and an untold number of patients were killed in the hospital wards.

    1943: An attempt to assassinate Hitler masterminded by General Henning von Tresckow failed today when a bomb that had been smuggled aboard the Fuhrer’s plane failed to detonate.

    1946:Birthdate of Yonatan "Yoni" Netanyahu who was a commander in the elite Sayeret Matkal unit of the Israel Defense Forces. His younger brothers are Benjamin Netanyahu, the current Prime Minister of Israel, who previously held that office from 1996-99, and Iddo Netanyahu, an Israeli author and playwright. Yoni was awarded the Medal of Distinguished Service (Hebrew: עיטור המופת) for his conduct in the Yom Kippur War. He was killed in action during Operation Entebbe at Entebbe airport, by Ugandan soldiers, when the Israeli military rescued hostages after an aircraft.

    1947:The Lerner and Lowe musical ''Brigadoon'' opened on Broadway.

    1947: Tonight the British government in Palestine announced that it had arrested 78 people including 15 members of the Stern gang and 12 members of the Irgun. The arrests of these “terrorists” had been made possible, in part, because of “assistance from the Jewish community.”

    1947: “Some resistance was encountered by British troops today when 703 Jews who arrived in Palestine waters yesterday after running the naval blockade were taken aboard the steamer Empire Rival.”  The Jews are reportedly being shipped to camps in Cyprus.

    1948(2nd of Adar II, 5708): Parashat Pekudi

    1948: “Paying tribute to Jan Masaryk as a friend who ‘rescued Jews in distress and championed Jewish cause,’ Rabbi Louis I. Newman in Temple Rodeph Sholom, 7 West Eighty-third Street, said today that ‘Masaryk has died a martyr to the madness which is sweeping the world.’”

    1948: As a reminder that the crisis in Palestine was only one issue with which the United States was wrestling, a Republican Senate voted to provide the funding that Democratic President Truman had proposed which would make the Marshall Plan possible.

    1948:While speaking at the ceremony marking the induction of Dr. Nelson Glueck as head of Hebrew Union College Samuel I. Rosenmean, who has served as a special assistant to both Presidents Roosevelt and Truman, assails appeasement. He called for a "policy of resistance" rather than appeasement and said that the Russian dictatorship had started rolling westward in true Hitler manner.

    1950: Birthdate of New York native Charles Krautheimer, the graduate of McGill University and Harvard Medical School who turned from medicine to begin a Pulitzer prize winner and television news personality who has shown a propensity for appearing on FOX.

    1950: The body of Dr. Mordecai Eliash, Israel’s first ambassador to the United Kingdom, arrived at Lydda Airport today and was taken to Jerusalem where it will lie in state until tomorrow’s funeral.

    1950: Dr. Walter Caly Lowdermilk, American expert on soil erosion, met today with Prime Minister David Ben Gurion and Finance Minister Elizar Kaplan before leaving for London.

    1951: Israel demanded DM 6.2 billion compensation from Germany

    1952: The Jerusalem Post reported that Eilat was bedecked and illuminated to mark the third anniversary of the town¹s liberation. A military parade was held and a message was read from Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion, who said: "The military victory will be won only if pioneers make the land fertile."

    1960(14th of Purim, 5720): Last Purim observance during the Presidency of Ike Eisenhower.

    1961: Monash University, the Australian school named in honor of Sir John Monash accepted its first 347 students today at Clayton.

    1965: In Los Angeles, CA, Martin Landau and Barbara Bain, the Jewish stars of “Mission Impossible” gave birth to actress Juliet Rose Landau.

    1967: Margaret Arnsteinbecame dean of the Yale University School of Nursing. As dean, she brought Yale's nursing school into the forefront of nursing education. Arnstein's lifetime of work was well recognized in her later years. In 1966, she became the first woman to receive a Rockefeller Public Service Award. In 1971, she received the Sedgwick Memorial Medal, the American Public Health Association's highest honor.

    1967: Broadway opening of “You Know I Can’t Hear You When the Water’s Running” for which Martin Balsam won the Tony for best performance by a leading actor in a play.

    1967: Larry Blyden began appearing as “George” “Chuck” and “Richard Pawling” in You Know I can’t Hear You When the Water’s Running.”

    1969(23rd of Adar, 5729): Paul Burlin, famed abstract expressionist painter, passed away. Burlin joined such artists as Picasso, Manet, Monet, and Degas at the famous Armory Show in 1913 which was the turning point in public acceptance of expressionism in the United States.

    1971: Jerry Wolman, the former owner of the Philadelphia Eagles, has agreed to sell historic Shibe Park which he had purchased in 1964 for $757,500.

    1973: The New York Times reviewed the first edition of Our Bodies, Ourselves. Nine of the 12 women who first formed the collective that created this groundbreaking women's health reference were Jewish

    1973: “After thirteen previews, the revival of” “Irene” a musical with a book by Joseph Stein and co-starring George Irving “opened at the Minskoff Theatre.

    1974: One of David Wolper’s crews filming a National Geographic history of Australopithecus at Mammoth Mountain Ski Area was killed when the Corvair 440 Sierra Pacific Airlines plane exploded on takeoff from Eastern Sierra Regional Airport in Bishop, California killing all 35 on board including 31 Wolper crew members.

    1977: The Jerusalem Post reported from Washington that Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin was surprised to find out that when the US State Department spoke about "minor adjustments" in the pre-1967 Israeli borders, it referred to border changes of only a few hundred meters, or "straightening out of the line" in such places as Latrun or Kalkilya. It was in order to correct such assumptions that Rabin repeated that under no circumstances would Israel go back to the 1967 lines. "We believe that we are entitled to decide, when it comes to our defense, where the boundaries will be which will defend Israel in the future," Rabin concluded.

    1977: The Jerusalem Post reported that In Washington Hanafi Moslem terrorist leaders freed their hostages in return for their release without bail, guaranteed by the authorities.

    1978(4th of Adar II, 5738): Seventy-nine year old historian and biographer Matthew Josephson an acolyte of economic determinist Charles Beard who created and popularized the term “robber barons” to describe certain 19thcentury “captains of industry.” (Editor’s note – NYT shows March 13; his official papers show March 15)

    1979(14th of Adar, 5736): Purim

    1981(7th of Adar II, 5741):Jacques Zucker, an artist whose paintings in post-Impressionist style were seen in many one-man shows in the United States and abroad, died today at Beth Israel Hospital after a long illness. Mr. Zucker, who lived in Manhattan, was 80 years old. His work, including landscapes, still lifes and portraits, is part of permanent collections in Paris, Tel Aviv and the collection of Joseph Hirschorn in Washington, D. C. He was born in Radom, Poland. As a youth studied art at the Bezalel Art School in Jerusalem. He continued his art studies in Paris and maintained a home there.

    1985(20th of Adar, 5745): Sixty-five year old record producer Bob Shad (Abraham Shadrinsky) passed away today.

    1985: In Topanga, California, Margaret Esther (née Davenport) and David M. Hirsch gave birth to actor Emile Davenport Hirsch

    1986(2nd of Adar II, 5746): Ninety-three year old Leo Korbin “an owner of Kobrin Brothers” passed away today.

    1986(2nd of Adar II, 5746): Seventy-four year old archeologist George M.A. Hanfmann who led the expeditions to Sardis, the capital of ancient Lydia, passed away today.

    1987:A poll conducted by the Yediot Aharonot newspaper today indicated that two-thirds of Israelis believed their Government should help Mr. and Mrs. Jonathan Pollard.

    1989: “Attorney and women’s rights activist” Harriet Pilpel who “was widowed in 1987…married New York Medical College administrator Irvin B. Schwartz” today.

    1990(16th of Adar, 5750):  Bruno Bettelheim, noted child psychologist, psychiatrist and Holocaust survivor committed suicide six years after his wife had died from cancer.(As reported by Daniel Coleman)

    1993(20th of Adar, 5753): Simha Levy, a woman who worked as driver taking Palestinians from Gaza to  their jobs inside the pre-1967 borders was axed to death in her van at Khan Yunis.

    1994: The “stained-glass ‘Sephardic Heritage Windows’ designed by Israeli artist Raphael Abecassis” that had been “commissioned by the Maurice Amado Foundation” and that used “Jewish symbols and Sephardic motifs” to “depict the history of Sephardic Jews, beginning with their expulsion from Spain in the 15th Century” are scheduled to be dedicated this morning at The Sephardic Temple Tifereth Israel in Los Angeles.

    1997(4th of Adar II, 5757): Seven school girls aged twelve and thirteen, all from the same school at Beit Shemesh, were shot dead and Hila Levy was injured by a Jordanian soldier who went berserk on the Jordan Border after which King Hussein paid surprise and much appreciated condolence call on the grieving families.

    1997:Virologist and immunologist, Hilary Koprowski who invented the world's first effective live polio vaccine received the Legion d'Honneur from the French government.

    1998: Former major league catcher and manager of the Detroit Tigers Brad “Ausmus and his wife Liz whom he married in 1995 gave birth to their first daughter, Sophie.

    1999(25th of Adar, 5759): Director Garson Kanin passed away. From a Jewish point of view, Kanin’s claim to fame is that he direced the play Diary of Anne Frank.  The play premiered in 1955 and ran for 717 performances.  In 1964 he directed the Broadway hit Funny Girl, the story of Fannie Brice.  The musical ran for over a thousand shows.

    1999: “A Professor in Nanjing Takes Up Jewish Studies” published today examines the rise of a Center for Judaic Studies in the central Chinese city of Nanjing.

    1999(25th of Adar, 5769): Ninety year old multi-talented artist Lucienne Bloch, the youngest child of Ernst Bloch, passed away today. (As reported by Thomas Roberts, Jr.)

    2001: In “Year by Year, a Witness to the Nazis’ Affronts,” published today Bruce Weber reviews “I Will Bear Witness: The Diaries of Victor Klemperer” by Victor Klemperer; adapted by Karen Malpede and George Bartenieff; translated by Martin Chalmers a one-actor theatrical adaptation of the second volume of Klemperer’s diaries that had been published last year.

    2004: Evelyn Franklin, the wife of photographer Richard Avedon, and mother of John Avedon, passed away today.

    2005: In a case of Jew follows Jew, Disney announced that Bob Eiger would succeed Michael Eisner as CEO

    2005: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of interest to Jewish readers including recently released paperback editions of An Almost Perfect Moment by Binnie Kirshenbaum a darkly comic novel, set in the 1970's that revolves around a Jewish teenager in Brooklyn who thinks she's the Virgin Mary and There Are Jews in My House  by Lara Vapnyar

    2006: Cole Meyer announced that it was selling Myer, an Australian department store chain founded by Sidney Meyer (born Simcha Myer Baevski) ”to a consortium controlled by US private equity group Newbridge Capital, part of the Texas Pacific group:

    2006(13th Adar): The Fast of Esther has been designated International Agunah Day by Yad L'Isha. An agunah is a woman who is unable to obtain a get(Jewish divorce).

    2007: Under the direction of its founder Eylon Nuphar, Mayumana opens its production of “Be” at the Union Theatre Square. “Mayumana is a corruption of the Hebrew word for skill, and the players display a variety of them, in a show that combines mime, dance, gymnastics, music and percussion in a joyous celebration of life.”

    2008:In Washington, D.C. veteran scriptwriter and television producer Gary David Goldberg, creator of the series "Family Ties" and "Spin City," discusses his new memoir, Sit, Ubu, Sit: How I Went from Brooklyn to Hollywood with the Same Woman, the Same Dog, and a Lot Less Hair at the Sixth & I Historic Synagogue formerly the site of Adas Israel which relocated to Connecticut Ave and Porter and is the only Conservative Synagogue still located in the District of Columbia.

    2008: Israeli President Shimon Peres paid tribute to the French who saved Jews during the Holocaust in a somber ceremony at the Pantheon in the Latin Quarter, and visited a French Foreign Ministry exhibition about the origins of the state of Israel.

    2009: “The Saul Steinberg: Illuminations” travelling exhibition opened in Hamburg, Germany

    2009: Award winning Israeli author Etgar Keret comes to Albany University for a screening of his film “Wristcutters: A Love Story” sponsored by the Albany Center for Jewish Studies and the Writers Institute.

    2010: Israeli diva Rita is scheduled to begin her U.S. Tour today.

    2010: As part of the Scholar-In-Residence program, Professor David Kraemer is scheduled to speak on “Laity in the Lead” following Shabbat morning services.

    2010:Late today Israel Defense Forces soldiers arrested a top Hamas official in Ramallah, suspected of leading military cells responsible for the murder of more than 70 Israelis over the course of the second Intifada. Mahar Udda, 47, has been wanted in Israel for over a decade for his alleged involvement in terror activity including the deadly double terror attack at Cafe Hillel in Jerusalem and at the bus stop near the Tzrifin military base in central Israel on September 9, 2003. He was one of the founding members of Hamas and built the Islamist movement's military cell in the West Bank in the early 1990s. The cell under his command allegedly gathered ammunition for Hamas terror activity against Israel and also kidnapped Palestinians suspected of cooperating with Israel. He was arrested by the Palestinian Authority in 1998, but released shortly after. Udda's arrest late Saturday was executed in a joint effort between the IDF, Israel Police and the Shin Bet security service

    2010:Around 1,000 demonstrators marched this evening outside the Prime Minister's residence in Jerusalem to protest Transportation Minister Yisrael Katz's decision to allow the continuation of single-sex bus lines that serve the Haredi community.

    2011(7th Adar II): Yahrzeit of Moshe Rabbeinu. According to tradition Moses passed on his 120thbirthday, Adar 7, 2488 (1273 BCE). This same tradition teaches that he was born in Egypt on the 7th of Adar of the year 2368 from creation (1393 BCE).

    2011(7th of Adar II): Burial Society Day. “The Chevrah Kadisha (Jewish Burial Societies) hold their annual get-together and feast on Adar 7th. This is based on the tradition that God Himself buried Moses on this day.”

    2011:The Palestinian leadership must be held accountable for continued incitement and failure to stop the glorification of murderers, a senior aide to Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu said today as the Fatah faction named a town square in El-Bireh after the leader of the 1978 Coastal Road Massacre

    2011:Chabad Lubavitch of Northern Virginia is scheduled to present The Rabbi Samuel and Zehava Friedman Annual Yeshiva Day. 

    2011:Jubanos: The Jews of Cuba” and “The Fig Tree” (La Higuera) are two of the films scheduled to be shown at the 15th New York Sephardic Jewish Film Festival.

    2011: As part of its commemoration of the Triangle Waist Factory Fire and the changes that followed in its wake, the Jewish Women's Archive has organized a walking tour which is scheduled to take place today.

    2011: The second wedding to take place at the Huvra Synagogue since its re-dedication is scheduled to take place today.

    2011: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Executive Unbound : After the Madisonian Republic co-authored by Eric A. Posner and the recently released paperback editions of Wrestling With Moses:How Jane Jacobs Took On New York’s Master Builder and Transformed the American City by Anthony Flint and  Making a Toast:A Family Story by Roger Rosenblatt.

    2011:Former Knesset member Tawfik Toubi aged 89 a Haifa resident, who was the last remaining living member of the first Knesset was laid to rest in Haifa's Kfar Samir (Sde Yehoshua) cemetery.  Toubi, a Christian Arab Israeli, was a member of the Communist Party.

    2011: An orthodox Jewish prayer observance by three passengers aboard an Alaska Airlines flight today

     alarmed flight attendants unfamiliar with the ritual, prompting them to lock down the cockpit and issue a security alert, officials said.

    2011: Tens of thousands attended the funeral for five members of the Fogel family massacred at Itamar.

    2012: A Chabad rabbi who was serving the tiny ancient Jewish community in Cochin, India, and his wife were expelled today and sent back to Israel for allegedly engaging in illegal activities. Indian authorities accused Rabbi Zalman Bernstein of failing to declare on his visa application that he would be conducting religious activities and of trying to convert foreigners. A local daily accused him and his wife of spying for Israel.

    2012:Gaza militants fired a Grad-type Katyusha rocket toward the western Negev today, despite a Egypt-mediated cease fire between Israel and militant groups that went into effect earlier in the day.  The rocket struck a residential area if the town of Netivot, with one person lightly wounded. Eleven people were treated for shock.

    2012:Israel's Counter Terrorism Bureau warned Israeli citizens today against travelling to Turkey, citing intelligence that terror groups were planning attacks against Israeli or Jewish institutions in the country.

    2012: Israeli composer and organist, Roman Krasnovsky is scheduled to perform a solo recital at the Central Synagogue in New York City.

    2012:Shmuel Ashkenasi is scheduled to perform with the Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center.

    2013: The Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington is scheduled to sponsor a private tour lead by Dr. Peggy Pearlstein of Words Like Sapphires: 100 Years of Hebraica at the Library of Congress,


    2013: Seton Hall basketball player Tom Maayan informed his uncle David Fuchs that he could not postpone his service in the IDF any longer and packed his bags for the flight to Tel Avv.

    2013: The Yeshiva University Museum is schedule to sponsor a curator’s tour “Passages Through the Fire: Jews and the Civil War.”

    2013(2nd of Nisan, 5773): Eighty-four year old actor Malachi Throne passed away today. (As reported by Daniel E. Slotnik)

    2013: In another case of “Jew on Jew” Larry Page announced in a blog post that Andy Rubin “had moved from the Android division to take on new projects at Google.”

    2013: “A new documentary, ‘Philip Roth: Unmasked’ opened at New York City’s Film Forum today.

    2013: Bruce Ruben, director of the School of Sacred Music at HUC, is scheduled to a lecture entitled “Max Lillienthal and the Making of the American Rabbinate” at the Leo Baeck Institue.

    2013:In Washington, DC, the Religious Action Center for Reform Judaism is scheduled to host a community organizing training program for those participating in the Jewish Energy Network.

    2013: Jorge Mario Bergoglio, the Argentinian cardinal who was elected pope late today and will take the name Francis I, is said to have a good relationship with Argentinian Jews.

    2014: The 17th Annual New York Sephardic Jewish Film Festival is scheduled to open at the Center for Jewish History.

    2014: The 92nd Street Y is scheduled to host “The Immigrant Experience in Movies.”

    2014(11thof Adar II, 5774): Fast of Easter observed on Thursday. 

    2014: Terrorists continued their rocket attack firing missles at Ashdod and Ashkelon in the morning and at Sderot and surrounding communities this afternoon. (As reported by Maayana Miskin)

    2014: There was no confirmation today by Israel of Islamic Jihad’s claim that an Egyptian brokered cease fire had gone into effect.  (As reported by Spencer Ho)

    2015: Team Crossroads is scheduled to participate in today’s Jerusalem Marathon.

    2015: The Oxford University Jewish Society is scheduled to host its last Friday Night of the academic term.

    2015(22nd of Adar, 5775): Ninety-one year old MVP winning Cleveland Indians third baseman Al Rosen passed away today.

    2015(22nd of Adar, 5775): Ninety-six cartoonist Irwin Hasen passed away today.

    2015(22nd Adar, 5775): Lia van Leer, the cinema pioneer who founded “the Haifa Cinematheque, the Jerusalem Cinematheque, the Israel Film Archive and the Jerusalem Film Festival” passed away today.

    2015: “Many Jewish bodies in Europe are being bankrupted by the growing need for security measures, the US State Department’s special envoy on anti-Semitism said today.”

    2015: This morning, erev of Shabbat, over 25,000 people participated in the Jerusalem Marathon. (As reported by Itamar Sharon)

    2015: “The Argentine government today declassified its files on an unsolved 1994 bombing at a Buenos Aires Jewish center that is at the center of a new political firestorm.”

    2015: Lewis Black is scheduled to appear at the Johnny Mercer Theatre in Savanah, GA.

    2016: In North Carolina, “Serial (Bad) Weddings” and “A Tale of Love and Darkness” are scheduled to be shown on the last day of the Charlotte Jewish Film Festival

    2016: The Jerusalem Symphony Orchestra is scheduled to celebrate its 78th season by performing at the State Theatre where it performed in April of 1988 when the State Theatre “was officially reopened as a nonprofit performing arts center.

    2016: In London, the Pears Institute for the Study of Anti-Semitism is scheduled to host a screening of “The Last of the Unjust” followed by a panel discussion led by Director David Feldman and Professor Jacqueline Rose.

    2016: In Atlanta, the Breman Museum is scheduled to host “Somewhere Over The Rainbow’ – the music of Harold Arlen.

    2016: The Oregon Jewish Museum and Center for Holocaust Education is scheduled to host a reception marking the opening of “Ruth Gruber, Photojournalist” an exhibition that“celebrates the remarkable life, vision, and heroic tenacity of a twentieth-century pioneer and trailblazer” who is now in her 104th year.

    2016: At London’s Tate Britain, an exhibition of 36 paintings by Frank Auerbach is scheduled to come to an end today.

    2016: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Secret of the American Musical: How Broadway Shows Are Built by Jack Viertel, Is that Kafkfa? by Reiner Stach  and Anna and The Swallow Man by Gavriel Savit

    2017: Tony Nominee Tovah Feldshuh is among the stars scheduled to appear the Streicker Center’s “Jewish Broadway.”

    2017: In Atlanta, the Breman is scheduled to open “Atlanta Collects” to the public today.

    2017(15th of Adar, 5777): Shushan Purim

    2017(15th of Adar, 5777): Fifty-one year old author and filmmaker tragically succumbed to ovarian cancer today.(As reported by Sam Roberts)

    2018: “The Pirate Captain Toledano,” “Sara Levy Cohen,” “116 Cameras” and “Keep It Cool” are scheduled to be shown at the New York Sephardic Jewish Film Festival.

    2018: JW3 is scheduled to host a screening of “Bombshell: The Hedy Lamar Story” in London.

    2018: “Dr. Stranglelove” is scheduled to be shown at the Houston Jewish Film Festival.




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    March 14

    388: A law prohibiting mixed marriages between Jews and non-Jews which is defined as adultery, is promulgated as part of the Theodosian Code.

    1181: King Philip Augustus of France ordered the seizure of all Jews of Paris attending synagogue and had them detained for ransom

    1473(14th of Adar): Marranos massacred in Cordova, Spain

    1489: The Queen of Cyprus, Catherine Cornaro, sells her kingdom to Venice. Jews had been living on this Mediterranean island since Roman time.  At the time of the Venetian acquisition, a considerable number of Jews were leading merchants in the port of Famagusta. 

    1492: Queen Isabella of Castile orders her 150,000 Jewish subjects to convert to Christianity or face expulsion.

    1535: David dei Rossi a Jewish merchant from Italy, who set out for the Orient in 1534, writes his wife Sarah the following observation of life in Ottoman Palestine, "Hatred of the Jew is, in contrast to our homeland, unknown here, and the Turks hold the Jews in esteem. In this country and in Egypt, Jews are the chief officers and administrators of the customs.

    1543: During the Counter Reformation, Paul III issued entitled “Injunctum nobis,” a papal bull that affirmed certain Catholic teachings, including the authority of the Pope, in the face of Protestant challenges. This came a year after Paul III had launched an Inquisition that was designed to stamp the Protestant revolution begun by Luther.  “Judaizing” was one of the crimes that the Inquisition was empowered to investigated and punish. 

    1630: In Przemysl, Poland, Moses the Braider, a Jewish merchant, was accused of conspiring to desecrate the host and was burned alive.

    1647: Bavaria, Cologne, France and Sweden sign the Truce of Ulm during the Thirty Years War. The Thirty Years War coincided with the great Cossack Uprising.  Jewish refugees from these two calamities reversed the eastward migration of Jews.  A trickle that would eventual became a comparative “torrent” began moving Westward settling in Holland and England. 

    1682: Jacob Isaackszoon van Ruisdael, the Dutch landscape painter whose works include “The Jewish Cemetery” passed away today.

    1750: In New Amsterdam (New York City), Isaac Mendes Seixas, a native of Lisbon and Rachel Franks Levy, a native of London gave birth to Abraham Mendes Seixas who would be buried in Charleston, SC when he passed away at the end of the 18th century.

    1774(2nd of Nisan, 5534): The Jews of Basra, Persia celebrated a special Purim, Yom Ha Nes

    1791: Sixty-five year old Johann Salomon Semler the Lutheran historian and biblical commentator who “was the first to take due note of and use for critical purposes the opposition between the Judaic and anti-Judaic parties of the early church” passed away today.

    1794(12 of Adar II, 5554): Elias Issak Wetheim, who had moved to Frankfurt in 1769 and was the husband of Merle Cahn passed away today.

    1799: The French Army under Napoleon leaves Jaffa after conquering the city and “continued its march northwards towards its goal, Acre.”

    1808(15th of Adar, 5568): Shushan Purim

    1820: Birthdate of Victor Emmanuel II, the first King of a unified Italian state.  He reigned from 1861 until 1878.  How big a difference did the emergence of the modern Italian nation make to the Jewish people?  “Historian Howard Morley Sacher puts it this way: ‘In 1848 there had been no European country save Spain where the restrictions placed upon Jews were more galling and more humiliating than in Italy.  After 1860, there was no country on the continent of Europe where conditions were better for Jews.’”

    1821: Thirty-two year old Sarah Marks, the daughter of Michael Marks married Samuel Lyons today.

    1827(15th of Adar, 5587): Shushan Purim

    1832: In Edinburgh, Helen and Sir Charles Fergusson gave birth to Sir James Fergusson who during a Parliamentary debate in 1890 “said that the British Charge d’Affiares at St. Petersburg had telegraphed the Foreign Office that no fresh measures were under consideration by the Government aiming to deprive the Jews of any of the privileges they now enjoy.”

    1841: Birthdate of Moritz Rosenhaupt, whose father was the rabbi at Offenbach on the Glan (Prussia) who served as a cantor at Speyer and Nuremberg.

    1845: The state of Massachusetts granted a charter of incorporation to Congregation Ohabei Shalom (Lovers of Peace) giving form anal possession of land to the Jewish Community. Organized by German Jews living in Boston, this large Reform congregation is now located in Brookline, MA. It is the only Jewish congregation in the Bay State and the second oldest in New England.

    1851: While traveling from London to Philadelphia, Rabbi Sabato Morais arrived in New York

    1853: British Parliament debates a Jewish Disabilities Bill. Lord John Russell said that “his object was to complete the edifice of religious toleration by permitting the Jewish subjects of Britain the same rights and privileges of British subjects as were a presented enjoyed by Protestants, Dissenters and Roman Catholics.” He could see no danger to Christian institutions to allow “a small number of believers in a different faith and who were otherwise good citizens and not given to proselytizing” to hold civil office. Among the opponents, the famed Robert Peel claimed that “it was incompatible with the dignity of Christians to admit Jews into almost every office.” One member of the House called for a definition of Parliamentary Christianity because “he could not understand what doctrine of the Christian religion was involved in Parliamentary Christianity. While another opponent said that Jews were as bad as atheist, Mr. O’Connell came to the defense of the Jews.  As a Roman Catholic he had suffered discrimination and felt it was his duty to speak up on behalf of another group suffering the same fate.  The Bill would be defeated.  Victory would not come until 1848.

    1853: Sixty-six year old Julius Jacob von Haynau, the Austrian general who pardoned Judah Leib "Leopold" Löw after he had been arrested following the Revolutions of 1848.

    1854(14th of Adar, 5614): Purim

    1854: Birthdate of Nobel Prize Winner and medical scientist, Paul Ehrlich. Ehrlich discovered a treatment for syphilis.  He died in 1915 at the age of 61. How does a Jew become a German scientist? - By winning the Nobel Prize.  Interestingly, the obituaries of both of these men (see Einstein below) identify them as Germans even though in the case of Einstein he was forced to flee by the Germans just before the Brown Shirts ransacked his home and office.

    1855: Four years after protesting “against the ratification of a treaty between Switzerland and the United States on the ground that the former government discriminated against his co-religionists,” Jacob Ezekiel, a prominent Richmond, VA Jew and the brother-in-law of Jacob A. Levy wrote to Dr. Isaac M. Wise suggesting “the establishment of a Zion Collegiate Institute in Cincinnati and a Union of the Israelites in America in which all could co-operate in matters of religion.”

    1859: Birthdate of Adolf Cardinal Bertram the archbishop of Breslau and cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church who in 1933 refused the request of an inter-faith group to take part in the protest of the boycott of Jewish businesses organized by the Nazis and who “ordered Church celebrations upon Nazi Germany's victory over Poland and France, with order to ring bells all across Reich upon the news of Nazi capture of Warsaw in 1939.”

    1860(20th of Adar, 5620): Lewis Charles Levin passed away.  Levin was the first Jew elected to the U.S. House of Representatives. He was the American Party candidate from Pennsylvania in 1844. He was born in Charleston South Carolina, on November 10, 1808. He graduated from South Carolina College (now the University of South Carolina) with a law degree. He was a founder of the Native American Party and published and edited the Philadelphia Daily Sun. Levin was reelected twice before being defeated in 1850. He then returned to the practice of law in Philadelphia.

    1861: It was announced at today’s meeting of the Board of Charities and Corrections that the Hebrew Orphan and Half orphan Asylum was among the organizations that received a portion of the $645 dollars recently raised at benefit held to raise funds for the benefit of New York’s widows and orphans.

    1865:The fourth annual masquerade ball of the Purim Association took place this evening at the Academy of Music. The society is composed exclusively of Jews, and the proceeds are to be devoted to charitable purposes.

    1862: Aaron Katz, a native of Philadelphia, PA who had been working as a clerk in Mecklenburg County, NC, enlisted in the Confederate Army today

    1865: “The Hebrew Purim Ball” one of the highlights of the New York social season was held this evening at the Academy of Music.

    1866: Seventy-six year old American historian and former President of Harvard Jared Sparks who had taken an interest in the life of Haym Solomon passed away. When others were attempting to denigrate Solomon’s role, Professor Sparks “wrote to the effect that Solomon’s association with Robert Morris ‘were very close and intimate and that a great part of the success that Mr. Morris attained in his financial schemes was due to skill and ability of Hyam Solomon.”

    1868(20th of Adar, 5628): Shabbat Parah

    1868(20th of Adar, 5628): Solomon Ben Baruch Salkind, the Lithuanian born poet who wrote in Hebrew passed away today.

    1871: The group that would eventually become the Personal Rights Association in which “English author and economist’ Joseph Hiam Levy played a major role, met for the first time today in Manchester, UK.

    1871: In a lecture delivered tonight at Rutgers Female College entitled “The Bible in the Rocks,” Professor Egleston said that the Bible was written for “Hebrew bondsman, so all of the illustrations are of a simple nature and can be comprehended by the most unenlightened.  Yet these illustrations are perfectly consistent with the latest discoveries of modern science.”

    1873(15th of Adar, 5633): Shushan Purim

    1874: “The History of Hats” published today traces the men’s headgear from ancient Tibet to modern day France.  According to the author, Jews have not made any contribution to what he calls “hatology” claiming that he cannot find a Hebrew word hat and that Jews have “entirely discarded that useful article of dress.”

    1876: A full dress reception sponsored by the Purim Association will be held at Delmonico’s this evening in New York City. This event marks the fifth and final day of receptions, suppers and other festivities marking the celebration of Purim.

    1879: In Ulm, Hermann Einstein, a salesman and engineer, and Pauline Koch gave birth to Albert Einstein. Forced to flee Germany during the Nazi era, Einstein continued his career at Princeton where he died in 1955.  He published four scientific papers in his spare time while he worked as an examiner in the Swiss Patents Office. Each one had revolutionary implications for the field of physics. Among them was his special theory of relativity. Einstein said, "If A equals success, then the formula is A equals X plus Y plus Z. X is work. Y is play. Z is keep your mouth shut." It was Einstein who warned Roosevelt of the dangers of Nazi Germany building the Atomic Bomb - a warning headed by the United States.  Einstein's views on religion were not exactly Jewish, but he was Jewish enough to be offered the Presidency of the infant state of Israel - a position he reluctantly declined.

    1881: According to Mrs. Berthold Riese, she was married to Berthold Riese, a Jewish clairvoyant on this date.  During a trial in 1887, in which he faced charges of having abandoned his wife, Riese would deny the validity of the document which said the he, a Jew, was married to Catholic by a Lutheran minister.

    1883: Karl Marx passed away.

    1884: Birthdate of Maxwell Zwerbach the American gangster known as Max "Kid Twist" Zwerbach who led the Eastman Gang.

    1888: This morning, at Coosaw, SC, Rabbi David Levy officiated at the wedding of Maurice Emanuel of St. Augustine, FL and Mary E. Seixas at the home of A.M. Lopez.

    1892(15th of Adar, 5652): Shushan Purim

    1892: Police Recorder dismissed the charges that had been lodged against two Jewish grocers who had been arrested last week for doing business on Sunday.

    1893: Two members of a gang in Kansas City, MO that uses a Jewish fence named Morantz were captured this morning.

    1894: In Vienna, burial of eighty-four year Bohemian born medical doctor Ludwig August Ritter von Frankl-Hochwart, the student of Zecharias Frankel who served as secretary and archivist of the Vienna Jewish community where he practiced medicine and was active in the Revolution of 1848. (As reported by Singer and Mannheimer)

    1894: Among the charities that received money from the Mayor’s Committee of Five which was distributing funds that had been raised   to aid those who have lost their jobs during the current economic distribution was the United Hebrew Charities which was given $2,700.

    1896: The Hovevei Zion in Vienna decides to call on Herzl to work for the fulfillment of the program of a Jewish state.

    1896: The Jewish children whose families live on the upper east side of New York City gave a ball and carnival tonight at the Central Opera House.

    1896: The Sutro Baths, the “largest indoor swimming pool establishment” which were built by Adolph Sutro, opened “on the western side of San Francisco” today.

    1897: “The Old Dutch Records” published today described the impact of “the city of New York” to publish “the records of its municipal ancestor, Nieuw Amsterdam. Included in the documents is a report of the arrival of 23 Jews in 1654 who “were ordered to depart March 1, 1655.  The Patroons of the West India Company decide, however that as the Jews owned most of the stock in that organization, they would be let alone.”

    1897: “Austria’s Extraordinary Politics” described the electoral climate in the polyglot empire where “the Clerical Party” which “style themselves as Christian Socialites but are better known as anti-Semites” “is led by the lower clergy in defiance” of the Bishops “but which has the benediction of the Vatican” has again won victory in Vienna.

    1897: In Brooklyn, Father Sylvester Malone of the Church Saint Peter and Saint Paul spoke in praise of “Mrs. Nannette Marks, a Jewish lady who has become famous throughout Brooklyn for her benevolent acts” irrespective of the creed of those in need.

    1897: Emma Frohman was in charge of the entertainment presented by the Hebrew Institute on East Broadway this evening.

    1897: A service was held in memory of Morris Goodhart, the late President of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society who passed away in February.

    1897: Seventieth anniversary of the birth of Mrs. Philip J. Joachimsen, the native of Bristol, who fund the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society.

    1898: Felix Adler addresses the Mother’s Congress this afternoon.

    1899(3rd of Nisan, 5659): Seventy-five year old Ludwig Bamberger who was a revolutionary in 1848, a patriot during the Franco-Prussian War who was elected to the first German Reichstag that met in 1873

    1899(3rd of Nisan, 5659): Seventy five year old Hyman Steinthal, the brother-in-law of Moritz Lazarus, who was “a German philologist and philosopher” passed away today.

    1899: In Albany, Edward Lauterbach appeared before the state Senate Cities Committee to voice his opposition to a bill that would establish St. Nicholas Park because the park would encompass grounds on Amsterdam Avenue that had been previously granted to the Hebrew Orphan Asylum.

    1899: “Certain Phases of Zionism” published today described the view of Professor Thomas Davidson that the Jewish return to Palestine because of selection by “a Supreme Being” is “illogical and unfair.”  “Jew must cast off the swaddling clothes of supernatural and superstition” for “the new Zion of religious freedom.”

    1899(3rd of Nisan, 5659): Émile Erckmann, co-author of the 1869 play “Le Jeuf Polonais” (The Polish Jew) passed away today.

    1899(3rd of Nisan, 5659): Seventy-five year old “German philologist and philosopher” Heymann Steinthal, the brother-in-law of Moritz Lazarus and “privat-dozent in critical history of the Old Testament and in religious philosophy at the Hochschule für die Wissenschaft des Judentums, or Higher Institute for Jewish Studies” passed away today.

    1899: “Topics of the Times” published today described the career of Dr. Isaac Mayer Wise, “the oldest American rabbi now in active service and generally and cordially recognized as the most eminent of them” who will be honored at the upcoming session of the Central of American Rabbis.  According to the article he was born on March 14 while other sources show his birthdate as March 29, 1819.

    1899: The member of the Central Conference of American Rabbis presented Dr. Isaac M. Wise with an ivory gavel mounted in gold as part of the celebrations honoring his 80th birthday which included a dinner at the Phoenix Club in Cincinnati, Ohio.

    1899: Birthdate of Des Moines, IA native and Yale University graduate Elliot E. Cohen the founding editor of Commentary magazine.

    1900: Morris and Rose Gershwin gave birth to future stock broker and composer Arthur Gershwin

    1900: In Philadelphia, Joseph and Eva Biberman gave birth to blacklisted screenwriter and director Herbert J. Biberman, the brother of Edward Biberman

    1903: Birthdate of American painter Adolph Gottlieb an original member of “The Ten” a group of mostly expressionist and mostly Jewish avant garde artists.  Gottlieb abandoned figuration for a new style, “abstract expressionism.”

    1904: Pope Pius X accepted the resignation of Theodor Kohn as Archbishop of Olomous who had been forced to resign according to some because his grandfather was Jewish.

    1905: Birthdate of Raymond-Claude-Ferdinand Aron, “a French philosopher, sociologist and political scientist, well known for his lifelong, often critical friendship with Jean-Paul Sartre, and for his skepticism of the post-war vogue in France for ideologies that largely took their inspiration from a Marxist tradition.” The son of a Jewish lawyer who witnessed Nazi book burnings, he passed away in 1983.

    1906: In St. Petersburg, “the government announced that it will take measures to stop the incitement to murder Jews” which has given rise to a rumor that the government plans to abolish all of the reactionary organizations.

    1906: Flora Krichefski the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. A. Krichefski of Jersey married Hyman Appleberg, the son of Mr. and Mrs. A.L. Appleberg at the Great Synagogue.

    1906: In St. Petersburg, the Police Prefect to Premier Witte that he did not know how a “proclamation calling for the extermination of the Jews was printed in the official printing office attached to his department.”

    1906: Beth Israel Hospital is scheduled to host its annual ball tonight at Madison Square Garden.

    1909: In “Rabbi Lyons Urges Reform Judaism,” published today Rabbi Alexander Lyons of Temple Beth Elohim in State Street, Brooklyn expressed his opposition to the formation of a Jewish federation in New York City. His opposition is based, in part, on his strongly held belief that Reformed Judaism is “the religion of the Jewish future” and that Orthodox Judaism is doomed. Furthermore he believes that such a federation would be futile attempt to paper over the social, economic and ideological differences in the Jewish community and that such an organization would separate the Jewish people from their fellow Americans.

    1910: Birthdate of Harry Blitman, the featherweight boxer from Philadelphia who began his boxing career at the age of 16.

    1911(14th of Adar, 5671): Purim

    1913: According to Dr. Maurice H. Harris who spoke tonight at Congregation Temple Israel, “the Jewish citizens of America were caricatured unjustly by Burton J. Hendrick in his article ‘The Jewish Invasion of America” published in the March issue of McClure’s Magazine>.

    1913: The Annual Conference on Child Labor to which Leon Schwarz of Mobile, Alabama had been appointed as a delegate continued for a second day in Jacksonville, Florida.

    1913: The funeral was held today in Chicago for Victor B. Strelitz, a member of the firm of Strelitz Brothers – David I., Isaac D., Maurice and Arthur V. – who had died suddenly in New York City at the age of forty two.

    1914: In Asbury Park, New Jersey, Ethel and Mores Hess, a kosher butcher, gave birth to Leon Hess, “the founder of the Hess Corporation and owner of the New York Jets professional football team.

    1914: “While the extraordinary motion hearing was pending, the Journal called for a new trial, saying that to execute Frank based on the atmosphere both within and outside the courtroom would "amount to judicial murder". Other newspapers in the state followed suit and many ministers spoke from the pulpit supporting a new trial.

    1915: Birthdate of L.B. Stein, the native of Chatham, Mississippi, the “first cousin once removed” of Greenville, MS, born and Tulane University educated Rabbi Fred Victor Davidow and “historian”  who ministered to the spiritual needs of many members of the Jewish community in Philadelphia, PA.

    1915: A benefit performance sponsored by the Krakauer Charity and Aid Society is scheduled to take place tonight at the Lyric Theatre. The money raised by this event will used to buy Matzoth which will be distributed among the city’s poor Jews for their use during the upcoming celebration of Passover.  The famous singer and actress, Lillian Russell has volunteered to serve as the announcer for the event. [The Krakauer Charity and Aid Society was one of the many organizations established by Jews from Cracow, Poland.  No reason is given for Lillian Russell’s having volunteered her services for the event.  However, she was married to Edward Solomon, the English composer whose family was Jewish.]

    1915: “Nearly 3,000 delegates assembled” today at “the sixth annual meeting of the Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aide Society” which “was held” this “afternoon in the auditorium of Public School 62” at the corner of Hester and Essex Streets.

    1915: The United States collier Vulcan set sail today from Philadelphia bound for Jaffa carrying supplies for “the relief of the needy of the Holy Land” as well as supplies for the United States battleships North Carolina and Tennessee.

    1915: “About 250 persons” attended “a rally of the Bronx Young Men’s Hebrew Association” that was held this afternoon at Morris High School chaired by Assemblyman M. M. Fertig.

    1916: “An enthusiastic demonstrations for preparedness was made” in Philadelphia “tonight when the Maccabean Regiment, the first Jewish military corps in the United States was formed preparatory to any call that might arise for the nation’s defense.”

    1916: “Representatives of the Union of Orthodox Congregations and of the New York Board of Jewish Ministers appeared at Albany” today to express “opposition to the pending bill providing for the compulsory reading from the Bible in the public schools” of New York.

    1917: Fifty-six year old Fernand-Gustave-Gaston Labori, French attorney who defended Émile Zola in 1898 in the Dreyfus trial and Captain Alfred Dreyfus at the court martial in Rennes in 1899 passed away today.

    1917: “Turn Flowers To Charity” published today described Henry Morgenthau and Louis Marshall’s support for the suggestion of I. Edwin Goldwasser, the Director of the Federation for the Support of Jewish Philanthropic Societies that people stop sending flowers for funerals and contribute the money in the name of the deceased to a charity of their choice.

    1918: Rabbi Hyman Gerson Enelow who served “as a member of the Overseas Commission of the Jewish Welfare Board, which went to France in July, 1918” wrote today that it was his “good fortune” be in Paris after the signing of the Armistice and that “the People don’t seem to be able to find a way to express their joy” over the “marvelous victory of the Allies.”

    1918: The first edition of the New York Weekly Jewish News edited by P.M. Raskin and Saul J. Cohen complete with “brief and authoritative articles, lively fiction, a woman’s page, children’s’ sections and cartoon” is scheduled to makes it appearance it today.

    1918: In keeping with orders issued by the U.S. Army last week, Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniel has instructed all naval commanders that it is within in their discretion “to give forty-two hours leave being with the evening of March 27 to men of the Jewish faith in the navy so that they may observe Passover.”

    1918: A dinner hosted by Judges Otto A, Rosalsky and Moses H. Grossman was held tonight at New York’s Savoy Hotel in honor of Judge Julian W. Mack of Chicago during which sixty thousand dollars was raised to go to a fund for establishing a Jewish State in Palestine.

    1919: Birthdate of St. Paul, MN native Maximillian Shulman the humor writer who gave us loads of off-beat laughs in the tales of Dobie Gillies, “The Tender Trap” and Rally Round the Flag Boys and was married to Mary Goodman Shulman, the mother of Martha Rose Shulman.

    1920: Hayyah and Zevi Kempner gave birth to Vitka Kempner the Jewish resistance fighter who married famed poet Abba Kovner.

     1921: In New York, Leah Rosenthal Landman and Dr. Michael Louis Landman gave birth to Ada Louise Landman who as “Ada Louise Huxtable, pioneered modern architectural criticism in the pages of The New York Times, celebrating buildings that respected human dignity and civic history — and memorably scalding those that did not…” (As reported by David Dunlap)

    1921: Arthur Shelby Levinsohn who had been serving as lieutenant in Quartermaster Corps since January was promoted to the rank of Captain in the U.S. Army today.

    1921: Alice Edith Isaacs, Marchioness of Reading (née Alice Edith Cohen) was appointed Companion of the Order of the Crown of India today.

    1921: Lionel Leopold Meyer was promoted to the rank of Captain in the United States Army today.

    1921: Eustace Maduro Piexotto who had been serving a lieutenant in the Infantry was promoted to the rank of Captain in the United States Army today.

    1921: Ralph Hirsch was promoted to the rank of Captain in the U.S. Army today.

    1921: Lester Abraham Harris was promoted to the rank of Captain in the U.S. Army today.

    1921: Nathaniel L. Simmonds was promoted to the rank of Captain in the U.S. Army today.

    1921: Joseph Philip Kohn was promoted to the rank of Captain in the U.S. Army today.

    1921: Charles Wells Jacobson was promoted to the rank of Captain in the U.S. Army today.

    1921: Milton Lowenberg was promoted to the rank of Captain in the U.S. Army today.

    1922(14th of Adar, 5682): Purim

    1922: In London, Joe Pole “a refugee from the Ukraine who was Head of Publicity for the United Arts and Phoebe Louise Pole (nee Rickards) a suffragette, school-teach and Labor Party member of Finchley Council gave birth to historian Jack Richon Pole whose works included Political Representation in England and the Origins of the American Republic and The Pursuit of Equality in American History.

    1923: In New York, David Nemerov and Gertrude Russek Nemerov, the owners of Russek’s department store gave birth to Diane Nemerov who gained famed as photographer Diane Arbus.

    1923: Birthdate of Meyer Zarodinsky the Bessarabian native who made Aliyah in 1925 and gained fame Meir “Zarro” Zorea an IDF general and member of the Knesset

    1926: At the Hotel Astor, Judge Otto Rosalsky was among the speakers during a dinner that raised $25,000 as the opening event for a fund to build the Jewish Center of University Heights which will require at least $150,000.

    1926: During “an executive meeting of the American Jewish Congress held today at the Hotel Biltmore, William Filderman described the anti-Semitic conditions in his home country of Romania including a measure which “disenfranchise 15,000 Jews.

    1930(14th of Adar, 5690): First Purim of the Great Depression

    1930: Racecar driver Woolf Barnato, the son of Barney Barnato, “reached Dale Bourne's club (the Conservative) in St James's,” thus making good on his boast that he could reach London before the French “Blue Train” reached Calais

    1930: Premiere of Die letzte Kompagnie (The Last Company) a German War movie directed by Curtis Bernhardt and produced by Joe May.

    1932(6th of Adar II, 5692): Benjamin N. Cardozo joins his fellow Jew Louis Brandeis as an Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court.

    1935: Birthdate of “Jack Keil Wolf, an engineer and computer theorist whose mathematical reasoning about how best to transmit and store information helped shape the digital innards of computers and other devices that power modern society.” (As reported by Douglas Martin)

    1936: The campaign for contributions to an “Albert Einstein Fund for Palestine” that began today on Dr. Einstein’s birthday has the unique rule that “no one will be permitted to more than one dollar” which is designed to encourage a massive outpouring affection for the scientist.

    1936: Members of Mount Neboh Temple, which last night heard speeches from “former Judge Jeremiah T. Mahoney, Rabbi Israel Goldstein of B’nai Jershurun and Dr. Robert A. Ashworth, educational secretary of the National Conference of Jews and Christians continued celebrating the congregation’s Silver Jubilee today.

    1936: According to reports published today, “an appeal to relatives in the United States and Canada for assistance in emigration from the district” where anti-Semitic riots are taking place “ was made by the 700 Jewish families of Przytyk where” the violence has left three dead and at least 22 people with serious injuries.

    1937: Pope Pious XI issued an encyclical condemning racism. This was one of the few times the Vatican made a public statement against the Nazi regime. The next pope, Pious XII, did even less.

    1937: The Palestine Post reported that Shlomo Gafni, 28, and Hanoch Metz, 24, of Kfar Hahoresh were stabbed to death and their flock of 320 sheep and 70 goats stolen by Arab murderers. A bomb was thrown in Tiberias and there were various shooting incidents in Galilee. In Safed, a self-constituted Arab "National Committee" confined Jews to their quarter, subject to a rigid boycott. "We are like prisoners over whom hangs an indeterminate sentence," one Safed Jew complained. In London the Royal (Peel) Commission on Palestine heard further evidence from Sir Winston Churchill and other important British personalities.

    1938: In its first response the “German conquest of Austria” Prime Minster Chamberlain today “foreshadowed a new kind of national service” which was voluntary for now but which later might become “compulsory” which “would make Britain a nation in arms for the first time since 1918.”

    1938: “William Ormsby-Gore, Secretary of State for. Colonies, today announced another stop-gap quota for Jewish immigration into Palestine, which probably will maintain the flow at about the same reduced level as at present for another six months instead the approximate figure of 8,000 Jews permitted to enter Palestine during the eight months from August through the present month.”

    1938: Time published “GERMANY: Vivid Satisfaction!”

    1939: “Emil Hácha, the apolitical jurist who unluckily became president of Czechoslovakia shortly before the German occupation” “was placidly having lunch with a bishop when he was ordered to Berlin to meet with Adolf Hitler” to learn of Hitler’s decision send German troops to occupy the rest of his country in direct violation of the agreements reached at Munich.

    1939: Sara Adler’s fifty years of work on the stage were celebrated in a gala event at the National Theater during which she performed the third act of Tolstoy's Resurrection.

    1939: “Slovakia seceded from Czechoslovakia and became a separate pro-Nazi state”

    1939: German troops fully occupy the Czechoslovak provinces of Bohemia and Moravia. This was a gross violation of the Munich Agreement that Chamberlain had negotiated.  This was the last step on the road to war in Europe and the Final Solution.

    1939: “Hours before Hitler dismembered the Czech provinces of Bohemia and Moravia as a German “Protectorate,” the first 20 children left Prague on a train” that had been arranged for by Nicholas Winton.

    1939: As the Nazis advance on Prague, Martha and Waitstill Sharp decided to remain in the Czech capital and continue their work of rescuing refugees from Hitler’s murder machine.

    1941: The Nazi occupiers of Holland forbade Jewish owned companies.

    1942: Lehmann (Leo) Katzenberger, a Jewish businessman and leading member of the Nuremberg Jewish community who was accused of having an affair with a young "Aryan" woman was sentenced to death during a “notorious show trial” known as the Katzenberger Trial.

    1943:  In Krakow the deportation of Jews continued. Children younger than three years were flung into baskets and emptied like trash into ditches. They were buried alive. One child, Shachne Hiller, who survived due to the efforts of a Polish couple, was taken by them to a Polish priest for baptism. The Priest refused, thinking that it would be unfair to the wishes of the child's parents. The child survived. The Priest went on to become Pope John Paul II.

    1943: Aaron Copeland's "Fanfare for the Common Man” was played for the first time in New York City with George Szell conducting

    1944: Australian Lt. Col. Paul Alfred Cullen arrived at Port Morseby today.

    1944: Hanna Szenes Yoel Palgi and Peretz Goldstein were parachuted into Yugoslavia and joined a partisan group.

    1945: Winston Churchill wrote to Laura Wingate, widow of Orde Wingate the British officer who had helped trained Jewish fighters during the 1930’s telling of her plans to build a memorial to her late husband on the grounds of Hebrew University.  Wingate had been killed while fighting the Japanese in Burma during the war.  At a time when the British officer corps ranged from pro Arab to anti-Semitic Wingate stood out as a “chever” (friend) to the Jewish people in the truest sense of the term.

    1945: Special services were held in many American synagogues today as Jews here and abroad marked the end of a week-long period of mourning for the millions of Jews who had been murdered by Hitler and his cohorts. 

    1945(29th of Adar, 5705): Fifty-one year old German born actor Alexander Granach who fled from Hitler and then Stalin before settling in the United States where his first screen appearance was in the comedy “Ninotchka” passed away today.

    1945: Palestine’s 600,000 Jews ended their week of mourning for the millions of their co-religionist who have been murdered in what would come to be known as the Holocaust or the Shoah by observing a solemn day of fasting where they abstained from normal commercial and social activities.  Among other things, “factories, workshops, schools, restaurants and places of entertainment were closed for hours beginning at 9 o’clock this morning.”

    1946(11th of Adar II, 5706): Ta’anit Esther

    1946: “As part of the illegal immigration to Eretz Israel ("Aliya Bet"), the “Wingate” sailed from Italy with 238 maapilim ("illegal immigrants") on board, mostly from Eastern Europe.”

    1947: Birthdate of Judith Plaskow, “the first Jewish feminist to identify herself as a theologian.”

    1947:  At Doctor’s Hospital in Manhattan “Helen (née Gabler), a housewife, and Jack Crystal, who owned and operated the Commodore Music Store, founded by Helen's father, Julius Gabler” gave birth to William Edward Crystal who gained fame as the multi-talented “Billy” Crystal who has made us smile and laugh in several different venues.

    1947: According to reports received in Jerusalem, today’s attacks on oil pipelines at Haifa were the work of the Stern Gang and not the Irgun. 

    1947: U.S. premiere of “The Lost Moment directed by Martin Gabel and produced by Walter Wagner

    1947: Canadian actress Frances Bay and her husband Charles gave birth to their only so Josh (Eli Joshua) today.

    1947: In an interview today that expressed frustration with both terrorism and the British government, Moshe Shertok, a leader of the Jewish Agency said that “terrorist groups and White Paper government are vying with each other in ruining the Yishuv.”

    1947: A photo the SS Ben Hecht appeared on the front page of today’s edition of the Bergson Group’s newspaper, The Answer.

    1948: Today, “at Doctors Hospital on the Upper East Side of Manhattan,” “Helen (née Gabler), a housewife, and Jack Crystal, who owned and operated the Commodore Music Store, founded by Helen's father, Julius Gable” gave birth to the William Edward Crystal who gained fame as the multi-talented funny man Billy Crystal.

    1948: “Jewish witnesses failed to identify three absentee British police constables at an identity parade at Jerusalem police headquarters today as being connected with the recent Ben Yehuda Street Bombing in Jerusalem.”

    1948: In Cairo, the Foreign Ministers of the Arab countries said tonight that they would meet in Lebanon to “act on the Palestine question.”

    1949: The IAF flight school graduated its first class. Among the graduates was Mordechai "Mottie" Hod, the commander of Israel’s Air Force during the Six Day War.

    1950: It was announced today that “Dr. Walter Clay Lowdermilk, American expert on soil erosion and pioneer of the Tennessee Valley Authority,” has been appointed to serve as an adviser to the Israeli government.

    1950: The burial of Dr. Mordecai Eliash, who was serving as Israel’s Ambassador to the United Kingdom when he passed away, is scheduled to take place today in Jerusalem.

    1950: Dr. Serge Koussevitzky, the 75 year old conduct emeritus conduct of the Boston Symphony who is currently on a sixteen concert tour in Israel has donated “his entire music library to Hebrew University.”

    1951: “Bird of Paradise” starring Jeff Chandler and featuring Maurice Schwartz was released in the United States today.

    1952: The Jerusalem Post reported from the US that President Harry Truman¹s $7,000m. Mutual Security Program listed $196m for the Middle East, $76m.for Jewish refugees in Israel and $65m for Palestine refugees. .

    1952: U.S. premiere of “Deadline – U.S.A.” produced by Sol C. Siegel and directed by Richard Brooks who also wrote the script.

    1953(27th of Adar): Essayist and journalist Chaim Greenberg passed away.

    1954: “Salt of the Earth” directed by Herbert J. Biberman and produced by Paul Jarrico both of whom were blacklisted and with music by Sol Kaplan who was fired after his appeared before HUAC was released in the United States.

    1957: Edgar D'Arcy McGreer began serving as Canada’s Ambassador to isreal.

    1960(15th of Adar, 5720): Shushan Purim

    1960: Walter Mathau appeared in the role of James Hyland and Jacob Ben-Ami appeared in the role of Dr. Jacobson in tonight’s Play of the Week – “The Rope Dances” – produced by David Susskind.

    . 1960: Israel's Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion and West Germany's Chancellor Konrad Adenauer met to discuss mutual problems. Adenauer was trying to build a "new Germany" and his work to establish a positive relationship with the state of Israel was part of an attempt to remove the Nazi Stain.  Ben-Gurion, ever the realist, saw West Germany as a source of financial support (war reparations and other aid) as well as political support in a world in which the new Jewish state had few friends.  Ben-Gurion was criticized by many Jews both in and out of Israel for his work with West German and Adenauer.

    1961(26th of Adar, 5721): Akiba Rubinstein world famous chess player passed away at the age of 78.

    1964: A jury in Dallas, Texas finds Jack Ruby guilty of killing Lee Harvey Oswald, assassin of John F. Kennedy.  The man who shot JFK was not Jewish.  The man who shot the man who shot JFK was Jewish.

    1968(14th of Adar, 5728): Last Purim celebration during the administration of Lyndon Johnson, a true friend of Israel and a supporter of Civil Rights.

    1968(14th of Adar, 5728): Seventy-five year old art historian Erwin Panofsky who came to the U.S. from Germany in 1934 passed away today.

    1969(24th of Adar, 5729): Painter Ben Shahn passed away at the age of 70.

    1970: In Italy, premiere of I girasoli (Sunflower) co-produced by Arthur Cohn and Joseph Levine

    1970: In Malibu, CA, Gary Salenger, DDS and his wife Dorothy, an interior designer gave birth to actress Meredith Dawn Salinger.

    1971: Barbra Streisand appears on "The Burt Bacharach Special" on CBS TV

     1972: A small New York study group using the name "Ezrat Nashim", founded in 1971 to study the status of women in Judaism, presented Conservative rabbis with a manifesto for change at the Rabbinical Assembly convention.

    1977: The New York Times reported that Ezrat Nashim (part of the Conservative movement) was about to publish a booklet entitled "Blessing the Birth of a Daughter: Jewish Naming Ceremonies for Girls."

    1977:The Jerusalem Post reported that upon his return from the US, Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin declared that President Jimmy Carter said nothing to indicate a reversal of his pre-election stand, which said that Israel ought not to withdraw from Jerusalem or Golan Heights. Israel made it clear to the US that it would never return to the 1967 lines and was sufficiently strong to accept Carter¹s opinion, or to disagree with him on this issue.

    1977: Asher “Yadlin pleaded guilty to some of the charges, involving bribes totaling I£ 124,000, but claimed that he had handed over I£ 80,000 of the money to Labor party funds, adding that he had raised "millions" for the party” – a claim the judge did not accept so he “sentenced him to five years' imprisonment and a fine of I£ 250,000. “

    1978:  The Israeli Defense Force, in retaliation for a terrorist attack three days earlier, invades and occupies southern Lebanon, under codename Operation Litani, resulting in the evacuation of at least 100,000 Lebanese, approximately 2,000 deaths, as well as the creation of United Nations Interim Forces In Lebanon (UNIFIL)

    1979(15th of Adar, 5739): Shushan Purim

    1979: Birthdate of actor Chris Klein

    1980(26th of Adar, 5740):  Politician Allard Lowenstein passed away at the age of 51.  He was the Democratic Congressman from New York’s Fifth District.

    1982: The New York premiere of ''Genocide,'' a film about the Holocaust narrated by Elizabeth Taylor and Orson Welles, opened at the Ziegfeld Theater preceded by a cocktail party given by Samuel and Frances Belzberg in the Parker Meridien and followed by a wine and cheese reception at the theater honoring Simon Wiesenthal the guest of honor at this fundraising benefit for the Simon Wiesenthal Center of Yeshiva University of Los Angeles. (As reported by Ruth RobinsonP

    1986: U.S. premiere of “Gung Ho!” based on a story by Edwin Blum and Lowell Ganz with a screenplay co-authored by Lowell Ganz.

    1991: In Boston, MA, “Elazer Edelman (a notable biomedical engineer, physician, professor, and inventor)” and attorney Cheryl Edelman gave birth to Adam (AJ) Edelman the MIT graduate and skeleton competitor who “competed for Israel at the 2018 Winter Olympics.”

    1991(28th of Adar, 5751): Forty year old lyricist Howard Ashman passed away.  Born Howard Elliot German in 1950 in Baltimore, Maryland, Ashman teamed with Alan Menken on several scores for Disney movies including Beauty and the Beast and Aladdin.  He won two Grammies, and two Oscars for Best Song.

    1993: “After 402 performances and 30 previews” the curtain came down on the original Broadway production of “Conversations With My Father,” a play that “presents the saga of a first generation of American Jews who came of age in the Depression and were assimilated at a high price during and after World War II.”

    1996(23rd of Adar, 5756): Seventy-seven year old philanthropist and successful businessman Alfred P. Slaner passed away today. (As reported by Robert Thomas, Jr)

    1996: An exhibition, Synagogue for the Arts, featuring the works of Fritz Ascher, opened today.

    1997(5th of Adar II, 5757): Eighty nine year old Austrian-born director Fred Zinnemann, passed away

    1997(5thof Adar II, 5757): Fifty-nine year old Jurek Becker, the survivor of the Lodz Ghetto and two concentration camps who was the author of Jakob the Liar which was the basis for a film of the same name that was one of the most improbable and yet “must-see” Holocaust movies.

    1997: A decision was reached by the Israelis to begin work on a building project at Har Homa in southern Jerusalem.

    1997: Sandy Berger completed his services United States Deputy National Security Advisor and began serving as the 19th United States National Security Advisor.

    1999: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or special interest to Jewish readers including Aaron Copland: The Life and Work of an Uncommon Man by Howard Pollack and Sex and Social Justice by Martha Nussbaum.

    2000: “Israel deployed the first battery of Arrow missiles.”

    2000: “Susan’s Plan,” a dark comedy directed and written by John Landis who also co-produced the film co-starring Rob Schneider and featuring Lisa Edelstein “was released straight to video” today.

    2001: President George Bush issued an Executive Order adding the al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade to the State Department’s list of Foreign Terrorist Organization.

    2002: Avigdor Lieberman completed his service as National Infrastructure Minister

    2003(10th of Adar II, 5763): Jack Goldstein passed away at the age of 57. Born in 1945, he was one of the first graduates of the California School of Fine Arts; Jack Goldstein was known for his experiments in film, sound and performance art. In 1974, he moved to New York where he had his first show in 1981. He often made use of commercial production techniques or isolated bits of Hollywood films such as creating a continuous loop of the roaring MGMlion. In the late 1970s, he focused on painting and did works ranging from images of lightning storms, volcano eruptions and World War II battles to abstractions based on astronomy.

    2004: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of interest to Jewish readers including A Sportswriter’s Life: From the Desk of a New York Times Reporter
    by Gerald Eskenazi.

    2005: During the Cedar Revolution hundreds of thousands of Lebanese went into the streets of Beirut to demonstrate against the Syrian military presence in Lebanon and against the government. This entry serves as a reminder that there is a lot of violence in the Middle East that has nothing to do with Israel.  It also serves as a reminder that the late President Assad wanted to create “Greater Syria” which included territory now known as Lebanon, Jordan and much of Israel.

    2006(14th of Adar 5766): Purim

    2006(14th of Adar, 5766): Ninety-two year old Nathan “Nat” Frankel who played college basketball for Brooklyn College before turning pro with the Pittsburgh Ironman of the Basketball Association of America passed away today.

    2006:  National Public Radio profiled Allan Sherman on “All Things Considered.”

    2006: The IDF launched Operation Bringing Home the Goods to prevent Hamas from making good on their threats to release terrorists held in a Jericho prison.

    2006: “People & Politics” published today described the switch of Mark Leibovich from the Washington Post to the New York Times.

    2006: Eric Lichtblau was a co-winner of the Goldsmith Prize for Investigative Reporting for coverage of the Bush administration’s domestic eavesdropping program.

    2006:  Haaretzreported that Rome's chief rabbi paid a landmark visit to the capital's mosque yesterday, calling for greater dialogue between Jews and Muslims to promote peace. Rabbi Riccardo Di Segni's visit to the sprawling mosque on Rome's outskirts, one of the largest in Europe, was the first by a chief rabbi of Rome since it opened in 1995. "We must contribute to creating the conditions for peace," he said in an address to Muslim leaders. "We have a duty to promote dialogue and this is what we are trying to do." The visit took place less than two weeks after Roman Catholic and Jewish leaders met at the Vatican and agreed that they should widen their dialogue to involve Muslims in the wake of tension over the publication of newspaper cartoons of the Prophet Mohammed. Di Segni encouraged Muslims, who have overtaken Jews as the second-largest religious group in Italy after Roman Catholics, to become full members of the community. "As Italian Jews who have been here for 20 centuries, we had a very long relationship with Italian authorities and we have managed to find solutions and models of coexistence," he said. "We think our experience can be very useful to you in this very difficult process of integration." Abdellah Redouane, head of the Islamic cultural institute based in the mosque complex, said the cartoon controversy was an example of how Jews and Muslims could work together. "I want to thank the Jewish community for the solidarity they showed toward Muslims when, recently, the Prophet Mohammed was ridiculed and insulted with offensive cartoons that were simply not funny," Redouane said.

    2007(24th of Adar, 5767): Lucie Samuel (Bernard) Aubrac, French history teacher and member of the French Resistance passed away. In 1939, Lucie Bernard married a French Jew named Raymond Samuel. After WW II began, Samuel changed the family name to Aubrac in response to the anti-Semitism so prevalent at the time.  Lucie and Raymond were both active in the Free French Resistance and kept the name Aubrac even after hostilities came to an end in 1945.

    2007: The Central Conference of American Rabbis (CCAR) ended its annual meeting which was held in Atlanta, Georgia.

    2007: Israel Singer, one of the heads of the World Jewish Congress and a leading figure in the Jewish world for the past 30 years, was dismissed in an unexpected move from all his posts in the WJC.

    2007: An exhibition styled “Notes from the Underground, Subway Portraits by Joseph Solman” opened at the Danforth Museum in Framingham, MA.

    2008: At the Newberry Library in Chicago, NextBook presents A Gateway to Jewish Literature, Culture, and Ideas featuring author Sara Paretsky.  Sara Paretsky published her first story in The American Girl at the age of 11, but didn't turn to detective fiction until her 30s. Troubled by the way women were traditionally portrayed in that genre, Paretsky created V. I. Warshawski, a tough, independent female private eye, now one of the best-known characters in crime fiction. Growing up in a small eastern Kansas town, where she and her brothers were the only Jewish kids in school, Paretsky discusses how her Jewish upbringing has informed her life and her writing. Sara Paretsky's papers are in the collections of the Newberry Library. Chicago Illinois,

    2008 The Paris book fair, one of the major events on the European literary calendar opens with Israel as the ‘guest of honor.”Several Arab countries are boycotting the prestigious annual fair, because it honors Israeli writers. Each year the international fair puts the spotlight on one country. This year it is inviting 39 writers from Israel, including David Grossman, Amos Oz, A.B. Yehoshua and Aharon Appelfeld. A similar controversy is brewing about the May book fair in Turin, which is also highlighting Israeli works."It's sad and a shame," said Martine Heissler, who was helping to run a stand at the fair for Tribune Juive, a monthly for the French Jewish community. "We're not talking about Kalashnikovs here. Ironically, the 39 Israeli writers being honored were mainly from the political left and supported Palestinian statehood.

    2008: Austria honored the work of the kinder transport and those who helped with the rescue mission that took place in the months leading to the outbreak of World War II, with a special ceremony on at the Westbahnhoff, Vienna railway station. Austrian Minister of Transport Werner Faymann will unveil a statue to commemorate the kinder transport and a plaque to honor Britain, which took in nearly 10,000 Jewish children from Europe. The commemoration honors the different rescuers, including Rabbi Solomon Schonfeld, a British rabbi who personally rescued thousands of Jews, and the role of the Quakers and the Christadelphians. The statue is the work of Flor Kent, a Jewish Venezuelan artist living in London. Following the unveiling ceremony and speeches, a kosher celebratory meal will be served on the station platform.

     2008: The commemoration of the kinder transport and those who helped with the rescue mission continues at the Vienna Synagogue with special Friday evening services led by Austrian Chief Rabbi Chaim Eisenberg. The Vienna Synagogue was built in 1824 and was the only synagogue to survive the Nazis,

    2009: Shabbat Parah

    2009: In Little Rock, AR, a special Kiddush is given by Rabbi Pinchus and Estie Ciment in honor of the most recent addition to the family of these august Lamplighters who joined the Ciment Clan in the evening between Purim and Shushan Purim.

    2009: Opening night of the Hartford Jewish Film Festival featuring the Connecticut premiere of “The Little Traitor, the beautiful story of an implausible 1947 friendship between amiable British Sergeant Dunlop and spirited 12 year old Proffy Liebowitz, starring Alfred Molina, Ido Port and Theodore Bikel.

    2010: HBO broadcast the first episode of the mini-series “The Pacific” featuring theme music by Hans Zimmer, over-seen by executive producer Steven Spielberg and featuring Ashley Zukerman and Jon Bernthal.

    2010: Israeli forces caught Maher Udda, the Hamas terrorist who participated in several attacks “including the Café Hillel bombing”

    2010: Congregation Adat Reyim is scheduled to host a Community Women’s Seder (age 13+) using a Haggadah honoring the role of women in the Passover tradition while giving the participants a chance to lead a reading, join in the singing and discussion and share favorite recipes at a pot-luck dairy dinner of Passover foods.

    2010: Magen David Sephardic Congregation is scheduled to host special afternoon of Israeli Art & Culture featuring the works of Ilan Hasson and Avi Biran. Ilan’s artistic themes are based on Jewish subjects from the Torah, Talmud, Passover Haggadah, Kabbalah, and landscapes of Israel. Avi has produced a large array of Judaica using a broad variety of materials.

    2010(28th of Adar, 5770): Ninety-three year old Chimen Abramsky, the Professor of Jewish Studies at University College London passed away today.

    2010: More than 70 years after its synagogue was destroyed by Nazi rioters, the German town of Herford dedicated a new Jewish house of worship. In a ceremony today, local and national Jewish leaders and clergy joined to unveil the new structure, which will serve the 106-member community -- 90 percent are immigrants from the former Soviet Union. Four rabbis carried a Torah scroll into the sanctuary as Cantor Jacow Zelewitsch chanted "Ma Tovu" and Rabbi Shimon Grossberg of Osnabruck lit the eternal light. The community does not yet have its own rabbi. Among the guests were Charlotte Knobloch, head of the Central Council of Jews in Germany; Jurgen Rüttgers, minister president of North Rhine-Westphalia; Rabbi Julian Chaim Soussan of Düsseldorf; Harry Roth, president of the Jewish community; and Rainer Heller, mayor of Detmold. The new synagogue cost about $2.7 million, a third of which was borne by the German government. Another $137,000 is needed, community member Ruben Heinemann, head of the building fund, told JTA. Heinemann, 47, said his late father and uncles had spoken often of the old synagogue of Herford, which was burned down in 1938, where they had their bar mitzvahs.  For decades after World War II, the tiny community used an old Jewish school building and the former rabbi's residence as a synagogue. "But it only had 28 seats, which became too small," Heinemann said, adding that he expects the larger synagogue to draw more members to the community from the region. Ten new synagogues have been built in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia in the past 15 years. The Jewish population in Germany has quadrupled since 1990 with the influx of Jews from the former Soviet Union. An estimated 200,000 Jews live in Germany today, but only about half are affiliated with Jewish communities. There are 82 active Jewish communities in the country.

    2010: The LA Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including “Pulitzer: A Life in Politics, Print, and Power “by James McGrath Morris.

    2011: Fallen Heroes – Remembering the Jewish casualties of Iraq and Afghanistan published today. 

    2011: Zemer Chai (Living Song), “The Jewish Community of Chorus” is scheduled to perform at the National Theatre as part of the Washington Sings: Festival of Song.

    2011:The Commonwealth Club's Middle Eastern Forum and JIMENA are scheduled to present “Last Jews of Yemen” with linguist, journalist and blogger, Josh Berer.

    2011: Next Year in Bombay, a documentary about the Bene Israel, is one of the films scheduled to be shown today at the 15thNew York Sephardic Jewish Film Festival.

    2011: Albert Einstein will go digital in the coming months, as the Hebrew University of Jerusalem begins a project to digitize the German-Jewish physicist's archives. The digitization is expected to take around one year and then the over 80,000 documents will be available on the Albert Einstein Archives website. News of the initiative, which will be made possible by a $500,000 grant from the Polonsky Foundation of London, was announced today; the 131st anniversary of Einstein's birth in the town of Ulm in what is today Southern Germany. The university said today that the project will safeguard and provide access to more than 80,000 documents in Einstein's archives for future generations. Einstein was one of the founders of Hebrew University in 1918 and sat on its first board of governors. He left his entire archives to the university in his will. Since 182, the archives have been kept in the Jewish National Library on the Edmond J. Safra Campus of the Hebrew University. Professor Hanoch Gutfreund, director of the Einstein Center at the Hebrew University, said the archives are "an asset whose worth is very difficult to gauge. All of the 80,000 documents shed light on Einstein's scientific work, but also his political ideas. He was someone who spoke up about all of the public and political issues of his time." Gutfreund said that the archives also paint a picture of Einstein's personal life, including his musings on his family, relationships, and day-to-day life as well as issues of politics and science.

    2011:The Jewish New Media Innovation Fund announced over half a million dollars in grants today for nine digital media projects intended to engage people between the ages of 18 and 40 with Jewish life. The fund is a pilot program of the Jim Joseph, Righteous Persons, and Charles and Lynn Schusterman Family foundations, and the projects were selected from over 300 applicants in eight countries. The projects include an interactive Haggada creator, a mobile application focused on Jewish campus life, and online cartoon videos teaching Jewish families how to incorporate Jewish rituals into their homes.

    2011: Sixty-nine year old Neil Diamond was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame tonight during a ceremony at New York’s Waldorf-Astoria.  The Jewish Diamond was introduced by another Jewish musical icon – Paul Simon.  Two other Jews were among the evening’s honorees –Art Rupe founder of Specialty Records and Jac Holtzman, founder of Elektra Records, the label that recorded numerous LP’s by Theodore Bikel.

    2011(8th of Adar II): Seventy-six year old Canadian Larry Zolf, who was a popular CBC journalist, passed away. Zolf was a self-described product of the Jewish ghetto of North Winnipeg. He is the father of famous poet Rachel Zolf.

    2012: In Washington, DC, Theatre J is scheduled to a Backstage Discussion entitled “A Spinozian Sense of Justice: Crime and Punishment in a World According to Spinoza.”

    2012: “The Pioneer Jewish Film Festival” which is held in Amherst and Springfield, MA is scheduled to open today.

    2012(20th of Adar, 5772): On the Hebrew calendar, Yahrzeit of Yoel Sirkes Rabbi of Krakow and author of the Bayit Chadash ("Bach"), a commentary on the great Halachic work, the Arba'ah Turim. (As reported by Chabad Lubavitch)

    2012(20th of Adar, 5772): Ninety-five year old Rabbi Moshe Yehoshua Hager, the leader of the Viznitz Hasidim pass away today.(As reported by Joseph Berger)

    2012: TIP's Alan Elsner is scheduled to host Dr. Emily Landau who will be speaking about "Iran's Nuclear Challenge and Israel's Possible Responses.”

    2012: Marbin, an improvised music duo consisting of Israeli-American guitarist Dani Rabin and Israeli saxophonist Danny Markovitch.  is scheduled to perform at the Newton Theatre at Newton, NJ.

    2012: Azerbaijan authorities have arrested 22 people suspected of plotting to attack the Israeli and American embassies in the capital Baku, AFP reported today.

    2012: A Jerusalem Court acquitted an antiquities collector on most counts of forgery today eleven years after the case was first opened.

    2013: The Wiener Library is scheduled to present “I'll Never See You Again: A Story of Survival and Reconciliation” featuring 92 year old Holocaust survivor Margot Barnard.

    2013: “Melting Away, “ an Israeli film that “follows the story of a Tel Aviv family drawn into crisis after the parents discover their son is secretly a cross-dresser and expel him from home” is scheduled to have its Minnesota Premiere at the Minneapolis Jewish Film Festival..

    2013: LABAlive is scheduled to present “Drunk,” an evening of learning, art and performances on the heavens and hells of intoxication in ancient Jewish tradition.

    2013: Alast-minute glitch delayed final completion of coalition negotiations today, with the prime minister’s wife reportedly at its center. Still, most insiders remained confident that a deal would be done, and the new government sworn-in next Monday. According to Army Radio, Sara Netanyahu demanded that Jewish Home leader Naftali Bennett — with whom she reportedly fell out when he served as her husband’s chief of staff from 2006-08 — not be given the largely symbolic title of deputy prime minister in the new government, and that the same title also therefore be denied to fellow putative coalition partner Yair Lapid of Yesh Atid.

    2013:  The white smoke had barely dispersed from over the Vatican this morning when President Shimon Peres invited the new pope for a visit to Israel, asking him to contribute to peace as a spiritual, rather than a political, leader.

    2013: Today the Israel-based Shem Olam Holocaust and Faith Institute showcased items that may have been used for Passover rituals at the Chelmno death camp in western Poland. The items were discovered during excavations of the site in pits containing prisoners’ belongings

    2014: Rebecca Kushner is scheduled to lead Musical Shabbat at Augdas Achim in Coralville, Iowa.

    2014: The 92nd Street Y is scheduled to host a Purim themed Shabbat Dinner complete with costumes.

    2014: Rabbi Hillel Cohen, the head of Hatzallah emergency services in Ukraine was recovering from the wounds suffered yesterday when he was beaten and stabbed in Kiev by Russian speaking youths. (As reported by Times of Israel)

    2014: The Israeli Air Force struck seven targets in the Gaza Strip early this morning in response to another day of rocket fire on southern Israel.

    2014: Michael Hiltzik reviews The Story of the Jews: Finding the Words 1000 BC – 1492 AD by Simon Schama

    2014(12thof Adar II, 5774): Eighty year old courageous and controversial Israeli war hero Meir Har-Zion, a man Moshe Dayan once called “the greatest Jewish warrior since Bar Kochba,”  passed away today.

    2014: After three days of rocket attacks in the region, Chief Askenazi Rabbi David Lau and Mayor Alon Davidi visited several centers in Sderot including the Sderot Yeshiva after which they distributed Purim baskets to the IDF soldiers manning the Iron Dome defense system. (As reported by Ari Yashar)

    2014: Benjamin Schwarz review of Scars of War, Wounds of Peace: The Israeli-Arab Tragedy by Shlomo Ben Ami published today.

    2015: Following services at Shaare Tefila, Laura Apelbaum is scheduled to deliver a lecture “Candlesticks, Charm Bracelets & Protest Signs.”

    2015: “God’s Slave” is scheduled to be shown at the 18th Annual New York Sephardic Jewish Film Festival

    2015: A peace ring created by Danish Muslims is scheduled to formed today “at the central Copenhagen shul, or Krystalgade Synagogue.” (As reported by JTA and Times of Israel)

    2015: As negotiations designed to halt the Iranaina nuclear program appear to be reaching a climax, “Iran today formally inaugurated what it said was mass production of a long range anti-ship missile.” (As reported by Justin Jalil)

    2015(23rdof Adar, 5775): Ninety year old Lia Van Leer, “the founder of the Haifa Cinematheque, the Jerusalem Cinematheque, the Israel Film Archive and the Jerusalem Film Festival” passed away today

    2015: Seventy-one year old Robert Durst was arrested today in New Orleans by the FBI which claimed to have new evidence linking him to the murder of Susan Berman in 2000.

    2015: In Cedar Rapids, Iowa, Kirkwood Community College is scheduled to host “Voices of the Generations: Stories from the Holocaust” with Julie Kohner, whose mother Hanna was Holocaust survivor.

    2016(4th of Adar II, 5776): Eighty-six year old “Geoffrey H. Hartman, a literary critic whose work took in the Romantic poets, Judaic sacred texts, Holocaust studies, deconstruction and the workings of memory” passed away today. (As reported by Margalit Fox)

    2016: Migdalei haYam haTichon is scheduled to host “Around the World, At the Speed of Sound” with guitarist Jean-Robert Ben Danan and pianist Eliah Zabaly

    2016: “Very Semi-Serious” and “To Life” are scheduled to be shown at the Houston Jewish Film Festival.

    2017: The Lysander Piano Trio - Itamar Zorman, Violin; Michael Katz, Cello; Liza Stepanova, Piano – is scheduled to perform at Carnegie Hall.

    2017: Catherine Hickley examined how German art collectors answer the question “Do I Own Nazi Loot?

    2017: Former Arizona Wildcats basketball player Josh Pastner, the ACC coach of the year, led his Georgia Tech against Indiana in the first round of the NIT.

    2017: “The La Hora newspaper reported” today that “the Guatemalan government partnered with the local Jewish community to launch an educational project to study the Holocaust” as part of a project design “to promote the values of tolerance and respect.” (As reported by TOI and JTA)

    2017: The YIVO Institute, The Center for Jewish History and the Leo Baeck Institute are scheduled to sponsor a presentation by  András Koerner and Victor Karady on “How They Lived: The Everyday Lives of Hungarian Jews 1867-1940.

    2018: Chef Alon Shaya is scheduled to “speak about his newly released memoir/cookbook” Shaya: An Odyssey of Food, My Journey back to Israelthis evening at the JCC in New Orleans

    2018: “Bye, Bye Germany is scheduled to be shown today at the Houston Jewish Film Festival.

    2018: “Two Zions: The Living Legacy of the Queen of Sheba and King Solomon” is scheduled to be shown at the 21st New York Sephardic Jewish Film Festival.





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    March 15

    457 BCE (12th of Nisan, 3303): Ezra and his followers departed from the River Ahava on their way to Jerusalem.

    44 BCE: Julius Caesar was assassinated in the Roman Senate. The Jews supported Caesar in his fight for power against Crassus and Pompey. Pompey had seized Jerusalem, violated the Holy of Holies and shipped thousands of Judeans off to the slave markets. Eight years later, Crassus came to Jerusalem and stole the Temple Treasury. As a reward for Jewish support, Caesar returned the port of Jaffa to Judean control. He instituted a more humane tax rate that took into account the Sabbatical Year. He allowed the walls of Jerusalem to be rebuilt and he allowed Jewish communities in the Italian peninsula, including Rome itself, to "organize and thrive."

    351: Constantius II elevates his cousin Gallus to Caesar, and puts him in charge of the Eastern part of the Roman Empire. During his rule, Gallus had to deal with a Jewish rebellion in Judea/Palestine. The rebellion, possibly started before Gallus' elevation to Caesar, was crushed by Gallus' general, Ursicinus, who ordered all the rebels slain.

    1391: “A Jew hating monk” is responsible for starting anti-Jewish riots in Seville, Spain. These riots marked the start of a wave of violence throughout Spain and Portugal which claimed 50,000 lives within less than a year. Many Jews escaped death by converting to Christianity. This marked the emergence of Marranos who were said to number 200,000.

    1545: Opening session of the Council of Trent. At the Council of Trent in the 16th century, the Roman Church stated as a theological principle that all men share the responsibility for the Passion—and that Christians bear a particular burden. "In this guilt [for the death of Jesus] are involved all those who fall frequently into sin..." read the catechism of the council.” This guilt seems more enormous in us than in the Jews since, if they had known it, they would never have crucified the Lord of glory; while we, on the contrary, professing to know him, yet denying him by our actions, seem in some sort to lay violent hands on him."

    1672: Charles II of England issues the Royal Declaration of Indulgence. This declaration was part of the jockeying for power between Roman Catholics, Anglicans and non-Anglican Protestants. Religious rights for Jews were not a part of this measure. Oliver Cromwell, the Protestant civil ruler who temporarily replaced the Stuarts allowed the Jews to re-enter England. Charles II continued his policy and actually expanded the rights and protection for the growing Jewish population. Charles II’s, his successor King James II and the last Catholic King of England further expanded the royal protection of the Jews. Both monarchs appreciated the financial support they received from Jewish bankers. By the time William and Mary had replaced James on the English throne, Jews were too well established in England to ever again be candidates for expulsion and exile.

    1773: The South Carolina Gazette reported that Moses Lindo purchased a stone which he believed to be a topaz of immense size, and that he sent it to London by the Right Hon. Lord Charles Greville Montague to be presented to the Queen of England.” Lindo was a native of England who settled in South Carolina where he prospered in the trade of indigo.

    1776: South Carolina becomes the first American colony to declare its independence from Great Britain and set up its own government. The Jews played an active role in the political affairs of South Carolina from its earliest days. As early as 1702 they were voting in the colony’s general elections. Francis Salvador began serving in the Provincial Congress in the year before the Palmetto State declared her independence

    1795: Birthdate of Samuel Moses Marx, the son of a Jewish doctor in Halle who, when baptized in 1819, changed his name to Adolf Bernhard Marx who gained fame as a German composer and critic.

    1800: Birthdate of Joseph Wetheimer, who joined his father’s business in 1821 and who was “the founder of Jewish Alliance in Vienna.

    1801: Birthdate of Joseph Levin Saalschütz, the native of Konigsberg who was the first Jew to earn a Ph.D. from the University of Konigsberg.

    1809: Philip Lazarus married Amelia Barnes today at the Great Synagogue.

    1817: Birthdate of Samuel Naumbourg, the native of Bavaria who served as Chazzan at Besancon and choir director at a Strasburg synagogue before becoming the leader “of synagogue of the Rue Notre-Dame de Nazareth at Paris, where he became professor of liturgical music at the Séminaire Israélite” in 1845.

    1820: Just a year after Rebecca Gratz established the country's first Female Hebrew Benevolent Society in Philadelphia, Richa Levy led a group of women that established a Female Hebrew Benevolent Society at New York's Shearith Israel congregation. At that time, Shearith Israel was the only synagogue in New York City.

    1820: The King of Saxony granted “Jewish tradesman” Joseph Friedländer permission to remain at Bautzen.

    1820: Maine becomes the 23rd state to join the Union. Today Maine has a small but active Jewish population. There are ten congregations in the state. There are Hillel chapters at the University of Maine, Colby, Bates and Bowdoin. Statewide organizations include the Jewish Community Council of Bangor, Main, the Holocaust Human Rights Center of Main, The Jewish Community Alliance of Southern Maine and the Maine Jewish Film Festival. The mission of the Maine Jewish Film Festival is to “provide a forum for the presentation of films to enrich, educate and entertain a diverse community about the Jewish experience.” Since 1998, we have fulfilled this mission by presenting over 145 films about all facets of Jewish life and culture to nearly 17,500 people. Our annual Festival takes place over nine days in mid-March, and each year we bring a rich selection of films to Maine that otherwise wouldn’t get seen by audiences anywhere else in the state or even Northern New England. The Festival serves filmgoers of all ages and backgrounds, both Jews and non-Jews alike. Maine is one of the smallest cities in the United States to host an independent Jewish film festival and each successive year we attract increasing numbers of attendees (over 3,000 in 2006).

    1827: The University of Toronto is chartered. The first Jewish community did not develop in Toronto until the 1840’s. Today the Toronto University has 3,000 Jewish students among its 40,000 undergraduates and 500 Jewish students among its 10,000 graduate students. The University offers approximately 35 courses in Jewish Studies and a minor in Jewish studies. The Hillel chapter is located at the Wolfond Center for Jewish Life.

    1830: Birthdate of Paul Johann Ludwig von Heyse, the first Jew to win the Nobel Prize for Literature

    1839: In Württemberg, Germany, Bernhard Frankfurter, the son of Moses Levi Frankfurter and Mirjam Landauer, and his wife Esther Frank gave birth to Henriette Emma Frankfurter

    1840: Ephraim Alex married Catherine Jones today the Great Synagogue.

    1849: Birthdate of Emanuel Rich, who with his brother Morris, founded Rich’s Department Store.

    1848: Birthdate of Ignace Ephrussi, the native of Odessa, who was a member of a family of famous Jewish bankers that included his brother Charles.  The family moved their operations from Odessa to Paris and Vienna.

    1848: Birthdate of Toby Edward Rosenthal, the native of New Have CT, whose family moved to San Francisco in 1855 where he began his art studies which led him to pursue a career as painter whose worked include “Morning Prayers In Bach’s Family” which was purchased by the government of Saxony and hung at the museum in Leipzig.

    1851: Birthdate of Hungarian attorney and Diet Member, Arthur Jellinek.

    1854(15thof Adar, 5614): Shushan Purim

    1855: Birthdate of Bohemian native Eduard Glaser, a ground breaking Arabist and archeologist.

    1855: Pauline Koch and Hermann Einstein the parents of Albert Einstein gave birth to their youngest child Friederike, nicknamed “Rika.”

    1856: Following the creation of the Company Ports of Marseille, Franco-Jewish financier Jules Mires formed a partnership with Talabot Paulin to rebuild the docks of this major French Mediterranean port.

    1859: Abramo Volterra, a cloth merchant, and Angelica Almagià, the parents of Italian mathematician and physicist, Vito Volterra were married today.

    1860: Birthdate of Count Moïse de Camondo, a native of Constantinople whose Sephardic family owned one of the largest banks in the Ottoman Empire and who became a leading French banker and art collector.

    1860: Birthdate of bacteriologist Waldemar Mordecai Wolff Haffkine, the native of Odessa who refused to convert to further his career choosing instead to immigrate to France where he continued his work that led to vaccines against cholera and the bubonic plague.

    1862:  “Treason in Embryo: A Remarkable Document” published today contained excerpts from correspondence written by David Yulee in January of 1861. At the time, Yulee was a United States Senator representing Florida. The correspondence described the meetings of U.S. Senators from several southern states and the role they would be playing the secession movement and the establishment of the Confederate States of America.

    1864(O.S.) Birthdate of Sergei Zubatov. “the head of the Czarist Secret Police in Moscow” who “convinced” the imprisoned Manya Shochat to form “tame” workers “organizations that would work for reform rather than the overthrow of the government” which would supposedly “help achieve rights for Jews” – a supposition which the policeman knew was false and which the Jewish leader came to see as a “pipe dream.”

    1865: The activities surrounding “the fourth annual masquerade ball of the Purim Association” which was held last night was described in an article published today entitled “The Purim Ball--Grand Masquerade at the Academy of Music.” According to the article “The Purim Ball is held to commemorate one of the great epochs of Jewish history -- the deliverance of the chosen people from the machinations of Haman, Prime Minister to King Ahasuerus, of Persia. “The Purim Association raised approximately $9,000 for its charitable activities through the sale of 900 tickets at $10 each. The society also published the Purim Gazette, a paper which is printed at each recurrence of the Purim ball.1867: The Amusements Column, in an item styled "Last of Shylock" reported that this evening marked the next to the last performance of “The Merchant of Venice” at the Winter Garden Theatre. There would be one more Saturday matinee and then "farewell to the Jew for the Season. “The Merchant of Venice” featuring Shylock reportedly was the first Shakespearean play to have been performed in United States; a performance that took place in colonial Virginia.

    1869: Prussia does away with the Oath More Judaico or Jewish Oath

    1876: It was reported today that the Earl of Aylesford was in such dire financial straits that if he paid all of the money he owed to various English Jews, “he would have scarcely had a income to support himself.”

    1877(1st of Nisan, 5637): Rosh Chodesh Nisan

    1877(1st of Nisan, 5637): Sixty-two year old Albert Cohn, the Hungarian born French philanthropist and scholar who enjoyed a “lifelong connection with the Rothschild” and worked to improve the condition of Algerian Jewry passed away in Paris.

    1879: Birthdate of Warsaw native Yakov Ganetsky, “also known as Jakub Furstenberg” the Bolshevik Revolutionary who reportedly was one of those who negotiated with the German General Staff to send Lenin back to Russia so he could complete the revolution and take Russia out of the war so that the Kaiser would be able to defeat the Allies in the West and win World War I.

    1880: It was reported today that Wissenschaftliche Abhandlungen by Johann Karl Friedrich Zöllner “bristles with attacks on Jews.”

    1881(14thof Adar II, 5641): Purim

    1881: The Purim Masquerade Ball will be held today at the Academy of Music in New York City.

    1882(24th of Adar): Rabbi Eliezer Lipmann Silbermann founder of Ha Maggid, the first weekly Hebrew newspaper, passed away today.

    1884(18thof Adar, 5644): Shabbat Parah

    1884(18thof Adar, 5644): Seventy-nine year old Mary Moss, the daughter of Solomon and Rebecca Eve Levy and wife of Eleazer (Eugene) Moss passed away today in Philadelphia.

    1884: In Podolia, Hana and Boksir Dov Sharfshtein gave birth to author and linguist Zvi Scharfstein who came to the United States in WW I where he continued his work.

    1886: In New York, formation of the Jewish Immigrants’ Protective Society

    1886: Birthdate of Morris Schulman, the Russian native who gained famed as American actor Michael Mark who enjoyed a forty career in films

    1886: Yeshiva Etz Chaim was founded in New York. It was the first American yeshiva to include the study of Talmud.

    1889: Simon Cook was promoted from Ensign to Lt. Jr. Grade in the USN.

    1889: Birthdate assigned to Melech Epstein by his parents. The native of Belarus moved to the United States where he wrote Labor in U.S.A. and The Jew and Communism 

    1891: General H.B. Carrington delivered four lectures today a Syracuse University including one entitled “Hebrew History.”

    1891: “New York University” published today described the upcoming free lectures that would be offered by The School of Pedagogy including Rabbi Leight on speaking on “Old Hebrew Education.”


    1892: Birthdate of Jacob Bartfield, “an Austrian-born Jew nicknamed "Soldier" because he served in the American army after emigrating to the USA” who “boxed as a welterweight and middleweight in the 1910s and 1920s” and who passed away in September of 1970.

    1892: “Sunday Not Recognized By Jews” published today described the grounds on which John Besher dismissed the charges that had been lodged against two Jewish grocers for doing business on Sunday. Bsher accepted their position that “Sunday being recognized by their race as an ordinary week day, they were entitled to keep their stores open for business” but only if they observe Saturdays as their Sabbath.

    1892: As the business operations of J.E. Guenzburg crumbled today in St. Petersburg, it was announced that the Jewish bankers had liabilities totaling six million rubles. It had been thought that the assets of his firm which dates back to the Crimean War were closer to ten million rubles.

    1892: In Paris, the Bourse closed down based on reports of the failure of J.E. Guenzburg’s banking interests in St. Petersburg.

    1892: Word of the failure of J.E. Guenzburg, a leading Russian banker had little effect on the financial markets in London

    1892: In Berlin it is believed that the failure of Guenzburg was the result of governmental animosity. The Czar’s government objected to the power of a Jewish banker and his involvement with German bankers since Russia is now allying itself with France. Creditors have good reason to believe that Guenzburg will pay all of his creditors.

    1893: Birthdate of Jules Salvador Moch, the French politician who was the grandson of Colonel Jules Moch and the son of Captain Gaston Moch who was born and died in the same year as Captain Alfred Dreyfus whose cause he supported.

    1893: Arthur Reichow, a representative of the committee connected with the Baron Hirsch Fund, returned to New York City tonight after having spent the day investigating conditions at the Jewish colony at Chesterfield, eight miles from New London, CT. “Instead of starvation” Reichow said “he found a comparatively contented people with only six families of the thirty two” at the colony were “really in need of assistance” and two of the families refused to accept any help unless it was in the form of loan.

    1893: It was reported today that a Jewish peddler named Morantz has been fencing stolen goods for several gangs in the Kansas City area.  Morantz has a daughter named Mollie who takes the goods from the thieves when her father leaves the city “to sell the plunder.”

    1893: Citing information that has appeared in German newspapers, “Andrew D. White, the United States Minister to Russia” has written to the State Department warning “that it is the intention of the promoters of the Baron Hirsch fund…to renew the immigration of Russian” Jews “to the Argentine Republic.”  “Only the better class of” Jews “will be sent to the South American republic and that those of an undesirable class will be sifted out and sent to the United States.”  White did not comment on the credibility of the reports saying only that U.S. immigration officials should vigilant about the appearance of such undesirable immigrants.

    1895: Alfred Dreyfus arrived at the Iles de Sault, “a small archipelago situated twenty-seven miles (43 km) off Cayenne, opposite the mouth of the River Kuru” best known for Devil’s Island where the disgraced officer was to be imprisoned.

    1896: In Rochester, NY, founding of the Congregation of Tailors (Chevra Chayteem) whose members included Nathan Rubenstein and which held services three times a day, operated a daily religious school and used Mt. Hope Cemetery.

    1896: Seventy-eight Jewish veterans of the Union Army met in New York City's Lexington Opera House to form the Hebrew Union Veterans, the precursor group to the Jewish War Veterans of the USA. The veterans gathered in an attempt to refute claims in Harper’s Weekly and the North American Review that Jews had not fought in the war. (As reported by Seymour “Sy” Brody) The same charge was also made by Mark Twain which would prove to be unusual on two counts. Twain’s brief flirtation with the war had come on the Rebel side and his daughter would end up marrying a Jews.

    1896: In Knyszyn, Poland “Reb Eli Novodvorsky, a Jewish scholar, and Chaya Tserel Novodvorsky, a small goods store owner” gave birth to Shimeon Novodvorsky, better known as Jim Novy,  the Austin, TX businessman and leader of the Jewish community who worked to save Jews from the Holocaust and was close friend of Lyndon Johnson.

    1896:”Russia and Religious Liberty” published today described the treatment of non-Orthodox treatment in the Czar’s empire including his five or six million Jewish subjects who are subject to “Jew baiting” in which the government has “appealed to what is worst in human nature.  “The harrying of the Jews is generally admitted to be one of the cause of the growth of poverty” among the Russian people.  “After the expulsion of the Jews from Moscow, the rate of interest in private pawnshops rose from 25 to 200 per cent per annum. (So much for the myth of the avaricious Jewish moneylender)

    1897: It was reported today that a performance of “My Uncle’s Will” by the students of the American Academy of Dramatic Arts was the main entertainment provided at an event hosted by the Hebrew Institute.

    1897: Eighty-two year old English Mathematician James Joseph Sylvester, the son of Abraham Joseph who was awarded the Copley Award, the highest honor of the Royal Society passed away today.

    1897: “Eulogies of Mr. Goodhart” published today described the speeches made by Dr. Emil G. Hirsch of Chicago, Dr. Stephen S. Wise, Dr. F. de Solo Mendes and Dr. Hermann Phillips the religious director at the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society all of which spoke movingly of the contribution of the late Morris Goodhart.

    1897: The Hebrew Education Society of Philadelphia, whose “annual report showed that it had an income of $9,114 last year” celebrated its 49thanniversary today.

    1897: “Ephraim Lederer” has volunteered to continue giving “weekly lectures on the Constitution of the United States and the requirements for the proper performance of the duties of a citizen” in Philadelphia.

    1897: “Catholic Praises of Jewess” published today described the praise Reverend Sylvester Malone, State Regent and Pastor of the Church of Saints Peter and Paul in Brooklyn had for “Mrs. Nannette Marks, a Jewish lady who has become famous throughout Brooklyn for her benevolent acts, irrespective of creed and who walked to the altar rail and presented a bouquet of flowers” to Reverend Maurice Ryan, the Paulist missionary.

    1899: Today the General Conference of American Rabbis discussed a paper entitled “The National Idea in Judaism with Especial Reference to the Zionistic Movement” presented by Rabbi Emil G. Hirsch of Chicago, Illinois.

    1899: Three hundred forty-five guests attended the celebration of the 80thbirthday of Rabbi Isaac M. Wise which included a dinner at the Phoenix Club in Cincinnati, Ohio hosted by the General Conference of American Rabbis.

    1899: It was reported today that the next musicale and tea sponsored by the Woman’s Committee of the Hebrew Technical Institute will take place next month at Sherry’s

    1900: Parts of the body of Ernst Winter, a student who had disappeared in Konitz, West Prussia were discovered in a nearby lake and an arm was found in a cemetery.

    1900: Following the death of a student in Konitz, Poland, local Jews are faced with another “blood libel” episode. While Count Plucker promoted riots against the Jews, Wolf Israelski was accused and arrested. After Israelski was proven innocent, two other Jews, Moritz Lewy and Rosenthal, were arrested on the same charge. Rosenthal and Lewy were acquitted, yet Lewy was sentenced to four years for denying he knew the victim. All the evidence was based on the testimony of a petty thief named Masloff who later received only one year for perjury.

    1903(16thof Adar, 5663): Shushan Purim

    1903(16thof Adar, 5663): Sixty-four year old Adolph Loeb the native Bechtheim, Germany, the son of Jakob and Ester Loeb and the husband of Johanna Loeb passed away today in Chicago.

    1905: Birthdate of Nat Perrin, the lawyer turned gag writer whose career spanned Marx Brothers Movies to “The Addams Family” – a 1960’s sitcom.

    1905(8thof Adar II, 5665): Seventy-seven year old Meyer Guggenheim, the native of Switzerland, who came to the United States in 1847 where he made his fortune in mining and smelting and became the patriarch of the Guggenheim clan consisting of his wife Barbara and ten children, passed away today.

    1906: While delivering a speech at Chesham on the question of the excluding aliens from settling in the British Isles, The Honorable Lionel Walter Rothschild, Member of Parliament for the Aylesbury Division of Buckinghamshire, “referred to the number of poor Russian refugees excluded from Great Britain in the last few months.” Based on what he considered to be “irrefutable evidence,” Mr. Rothschild, the son of Lord Rothschild, reported that those Russians who were forced to return to their native land were shot at the border without being given any kind of trial.

    1907: The Jewish Chronicle reported that, a departure from Jewish burial customs, “at the cemetery of the United London Synagogue” a minister officiated at the burial of ashes.

    1908: With Passover a month away, the baking of Matzoth has become a full time operation in New York with large moving vans having to be used to take the boxes of unleavened bread from the bakeries to the various distribution centers around town. A bakery on 33rd Street between Second and Third Avenues is actually having to work around the clock to keep up with the worldwide demand for Matzoth.

    1912: The Turkish Ministry of the Interior to the Governor of Jerusalem issued a decree permitting the Jews to place benches and light candles in front of the Western Wall.

    1913: The Annual Conference on Child Labor to which Leon Schwarz of Mobile, Alabama had been appointed as a delegate continued for a third day Jacksonville, Florida.

    1913: It was reported today that “the will of the late Moses Strauss, a Polk County, Iowa, pioneer and financier bequeathed $75,000 to charities in Des Moines, IA.

    1914(17thof Adar, 5674): Eighty year old Prussian born Canadian artist, a founding member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts passed away today in Montreal.

    1915: Birthdate of Joe E. Ross, borscht belt comedian and star of such television sitcoms as “Car 54 Where Are You?”

    1915:Vilkovishky, Lithuania. Rabbi Simon Eisenstein Barzilay and Taube (Rosenthal) Barilay gave birth to American historian and educator, Isaac Eisenstein, the husband of and father of Sharonah and Joshua Barzilay.

    1915: Birthdate of Bronx native Theodore Wilentz “who with his brother, Eli, owned the Eighth Street Bookshop, a bustling bibliophilic beehive in the 1950's and 60's.” (As reported by Douglas Martin)

    1915: Birthdate of broadcast journalist David Schoenbrun, the CBS broadcast bureau chief in Washington DC and Paris France who was one of the famous “Murrow boys.”

    1915: It was reported today that the “relief cargo” being carried by U.S. collier Vulcan, “represents an expenditure of $150,000 by the American Jewish Relief Committee” and the flour is the primary staple in the shipment.

    1915:Birthdate of Dr. David Wilfred Abse, the native of Cardiff ,Wales  and Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Virginia from 1962 until 2000 whose siblings included poet Dannie Abse and Welsh Labor Member of Parliament Leopold “Leo” Abse.

    1915: It was reported today that L. H. Levine and E.W. L. Epstein of New York will direct the distribution of relief supplies once they arrive at Jaffa.

    1915: It was reported today that the membership in the Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society had grown from 15,357 in 1913 to 46,023 in 1914 and that the society had raised $112, 988 last year and spent $110,869.

    1915: It was reported today that Jewish immigration had fallen form 130,237 in 1913 to 66,557 in 1914.

    1916: It was reported today that in Philadelphia, the newly formed Maccabean Regiment has “unanimously elected Jacob D. Lit, one the owners of Lit Brothers department store which had been founded as dress and millinery shop by his sister Rachel, as Colonel” and “Isidore Stern, a prominent attorney as Chairman.”

    1916: An expeditionary force under the command of General Pershing crossed into Mexico in an attempt to capture Pancho Villa – a military action that would include enough Jews that Rabbis were sent to the Mexican border by the Army and Navy Committee and the Central Conference of American Rabbis to conduct services for the High Holidays and Sukkoth.

    1916: As part of the ceremonies marking the dedication of “the new Temple of Sinai Congregation of the Bronx” the Sinai Auxiliary Societies are scheduled to host a reception tonight complete with music and speakers.

    1917: “Herman Bernstein, the editor of the American Hebrew…predicted” tonight “that equal rights for the Jews would be one the important results of the Reactionary Party.”

    1917: Czar Nicholas II abdicated bringing an end to the Romanov dynasty which had caused so much suffering for the Jewish people.

    1918: In Lemberg, the police searched the “headquarters of the Paolie-Zionists and Union Jewish Workmen and arrested several leaders.”

    1918: In Frankfort, a “conference of Orthodox Jewish organizations resolved that the support of a Jewish settlement in Palestine is the religious duty of all Jewry and pledged itself to work for the emancipation of Jews everywhere.”

    1919(13thof Adar II, 5697): Parashat Vayikra; Shabbat Zachor; Erev Purim

    1919(13th of Adar II, 5679): Albert, (Avraham) Harkavy passed away. Born in Belarus in 1835, Harkavy led an unusual life for a Russian Jew. After getting a Yeshiva education he received two degrees from the University of St. Petersburg before gaining a doctorate while studying abroad. In a country wracked by anti-Semitism, he was appointed head of the Oriental Division in the Imperial Public Library, a position he held until his death.

    1919: This evening, Drs. David Philipson of Cincinnati, Samuel Schulman, Joseph Silverman and Ambassador Abram I. Elkus were among the speakers at Temple Emanu-El where the campaign to raise funds for organizations created by Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise as a way of “commemorating the centenary of his birth” was formally begun.

    1919: In Connecticut, Michael and Rose Abitz gave birth to Irving Abitz, who served with Patton’s Third Army during WW II and who was the husband of Ruth Abitz.

    1919: “Ex-Ambassador Henry Morgenthau” sailed for Europe today where “he will assist in Red Cross work…and help to arrange the international convention” of the Red Cross” which will be held in Geneva after the peace treaty ending the World War has “been promulgated.”

    1919: The New York office of the Jewish Correspondence Bureau opened today as a New York Corporation with a total capitalization of $26, 650.

    1921: Birthdate of John Patrick Kenneally, the illegitimate son of a wealthy Jewish textile manufacturer, who won the Victoria Cross for his bravery on April 29 and April 30, 1943, while fighting in Tunisia.

    1922: After Egypt gains nominal independence from the United Kingdom, Fuad I becomes King of Egypt. This is the same King Faud I who declared in 1917, when he was the Guest of Honor at the opening of the Zionist Movement in Cairo and Alexandria that: "You Jews of Egypt, will always be protected by us, until you go back to your land, the Land of Israel"

    1923: Birthdate of Rostam Bastuni, an Arab Christian who was the “the first Arab citizen of Israel to represent a Zionist party in the Knesset.”

    1923: “Old Heidelberg” a silent film starring Eugen Burg and directed by Hans Behrendt who was murdered at Auschwitz in 1942.

    1924: Birthdate of Michael Harsegor an Israeli historian and a professor for history at the Tel Aviv University who specialized in the history of Europe in the late Middle Ages.

    1924: Birthdate of Richard Topus, who gained fame as pigeon trainer during World War II. Born in Brooklyn, Topus was the son of Russian Jewish immigrants. Growing up in Flatbush, he fell in love with the pigeons his neighbors kept on their rooftops in spacious coops known as lofts. His parents would not let him have a loft of his own — they feared it would interfere with schoolwork, Andrew Topus said — but he befriended several local men who taught him to handle their birds. Two of them had been pigeoneers in World War I, when the United States Army Pigeon Service was formally established.

    “In January 1942, barely a month after Pearl Harbor, the United States War Department sounded a call to enlist. It wasn’t men they wanted — not this time. The Army was looking for pigeons. To the thousands of American men and boys who raced homing pigeons, a popular sport in the early 20th century and afterward, the government’s message was clear: Uncle Sam Wants Your Birds. Richard Topus was one of those boys. He had no birds of his own to give, but he had another, unassailable asset: he was from Brooklyn, where pigeon racing had long held the status of a secular religion. His already vast experience with pigeons — long, ardent hours spent tending and racing them after school and on weekends — qualified him, when he was still a teenager, to train American spies and other military personnel in the swift, silent use of the birds in wartime. World War II saw the last wide-scale use of pigeons as agents of combat intelligence. Mr. Topus, just 18 when he enlisted in the Army, was among the last of the several thousand pigeoneers, as military handlers of the birds were known, who served the United States in the war. Pigeons have been used as wartime messengers at least since antiquity. Before the advent of radio communications, the birds were routinely used as airborne couriers, carrying messages in tiny capsules strapped to their legs. A homing pigeon can find its way back to its loft from nearly a thousand miles away. Over short distances, it can fly a mile a minute. It can go where human couriers often cannot, flying over rough terrain and behind enemy lines. By the early 20th century, advances in communications technology seemed to herald the end of combat pigeoneering. In 1903, a headline in The New York Times confidently declared, “No Further Need of Army Pigeons: They Have Been Superseded by the Adoption of Wireless Telegraph Systems.” But technology, the Army discovered, has its drawbacks. Radio transmissions can be intercepted. Triangulated, they can reveal the sender’s location. In World War I, pigeons proved their continued usefulness in times of enforced radio silence. After the United States entered World War II, the Army put out the call for birds to racing clubs nationwide. Tens of thousands were donated. In all, more than 50,000 pigeons served the United States in the war. Many were shot down. Others were set upon by falcons released by the Nazis to intercept them. (The British countered by releasing their own falcons to pursue German messenger pigeons. But since falcons found Allied and Axis birds equally delicious, their deployment as defensive weapons was soon abandoned by both sides.) But many American pigeons did reach their destinations safely, relaying vital messages from soldiers in the field to Allied commanders. The information they carried — including reports on troop movements and tiny hand-sketched maps — has been widely credited with saving thousands of lives during the war. Mr. Topus enlisted in early 1942 and was assigned to the Army Signal Corps, which included the Pigeon Service. He was eventually stationed at Camp Ritchie in Maryland, one of several installations around the country at which Army pigeons were raised and trained. There, he joined a small group of pigeoneers, not much bigger than a dozen men. Camp Ritchie specialized in intelligence training, and Mr. Topus and his colleagues schooled men and birds in the art of war. They taught the men to feed and care for the birds; to fasten on the tiny capsules containing messages written on lightweight paper; to drop pigeons from airplanes; and to jump out of airplanes themselves, with pigeons tucked against their chests. The Army had the Maidenform Brassiere Company make paratroopers’ vests with special pigeon pockets. The birds, for their part, were trained to fly back to lofts whose locations were changed constantly. This skill was crucial: once the pigeons were released by troops in Europe, the Pacific or another theater, they would need to fly back to mobile combat lofts in those places rather than light out for the United States. Mr. Topus and his colleagues also bred pigeons, seeking optimal combinations of speed and endurance. After the war, Mr. Topus earned bachelor’s and master’s degrees in business from Hofstra University. While he was a student, he earned money selling eggs — chicken eggs — door to door and afterward started a wholesale egg business. In the late 1950s, Mr. Topus became the first salesman at Friendship Food Products, a dairy company then based in Maspeth, Queens; he retired as executive vice president for sales and marketing. (The company, today based in Jericho, N.Y. and a subsidiary of Dean Foods, is now known as Friendship Dairies.) In the 1960s and early ’70s, Mr. Topus taught marketing at Hofstra; the C. W. Post campus of Long Island University; and the State University of New York, Farmingdale, where he started a management-training program for supermarket professionals. In later years, after retiring to Scottsdale, he taught at Arizona State University and was also a securities arbitrator, hearing disputes between stockbrokers and their clients. Though the Army phased out pigeons in the late 1950s, Mr. Topus raced them avidly till nearly the end of his life. He left a covert, enduring legacy of his hobby at Friendship, for which he oversaw the design of the highly recognizable company logo, a graceful bird in flight, in the early 1960s. From that day to this, the bird has adorned cartons of the company’s cottage cheese, sour cream, buttermilk and other products. To legions of unsuspecting consumers, Andrew Topus said last week, the bird looks like a dove. But to anyone who really knew his father, it is a pigeon, plain as day. Mr. Topus passed away in December of 2008.

    1925(19th of Adar): Mordecai Spector passed away

    1926: James N. Rosenberg of New York, the Vice Chairman of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee conferred today in Washington with Secretary Herbert Hoover who “expressed great interest in the plans” of the committee to provide relief for the Jews in Russia and said “he would assist the committee as far as circumstances permitted.”

    1926: David A. Brown, the national chairman of the national campaign to raise fifteen million dollars for the relief of Jews in “Russia, Poland, Palestine, Eastern and Southeastern Europe” is scheduled to address the first meeting of the Women’s Division of the New York campaign chaired by Mrs. Abram I. Elkus, the wife of the former ambassador and supported by Mrs. Jacob Schiff, the honorary chairman.

    1927: In Vienna, violinist Max Rostal and his wife gave birth to psychologist Sybil Bianca Giuliett Eysenck the psychologist and editor of “Personality and Individual Differences” whose husband Hans was raised by a grandmother who, although a devout Lutheran, died in a concentration camp because “she ‘apparently’ was from a Jewish family.”

    1927: “The Csarda Princess” a romance film directed by Hanns Schwarz and with music by Artur Guttman was released today in Germany and Hungary.

    1926: Birthdate of Sheldon Jerome Segal, “who led the scientific team that developed Norplant, the first significant advance in birth control since the pill, and who also developed other long-acting contraceptives…”

    1927: The libel suit that Aaron Sapiro brought against Henry Ford’s newspaper, the laughably named Dearborn Independent(it was published in Dearborn, but hardly independent since nothing was published in it that did not reflect the views of Ford) began today.

    1929: Birthdate of Betty Asher, who as Betty (Mrs. Jacob) Levin would grow up to be a marvelous person, who raised four fine children, taught school, opened her heart and home to one and all and was a life-long partner to her husband of blessed memory.

    1932: In an article datelined London, the Associate Press describes “the Jewish Olympiad at Tel Aviv, Palestine” as one the “four great athletic competitions of 1932” putting it in the same category as the world’s Tenth Olympic Games to be held in Los Angeles. “More than mere physical contests, the Jewish games serve both body and soul. They recall the protest of ancient Maccabees against the Greek Olympiads which glorified Athenian physique.”

    1933: In Brooklyn, Nathan and Celia (née Amster) Bader gave birth to their second daughter, Ruth Joan Bader who gained fame as Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsberg.

    1933: Three Jews were arrested by Storm troopers in Breslau were beaten and bloodied.

    1934: “Romance of Ida” a film based on a book by the same name directed by Steve Sekely was released in Hungary today.

    1935: Bernard S. Deutsch, New York’s President of the Board of Alderman, met with the team of Jewish athletes that will be representing the United States at the World Maccabiah Games

    1935: According to a statement issued today by Dr. E.L. Sukenik, Professor of Archaeology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, twelve pieces of broken pottery found on the site of ancient Lachish destroy the very foundations of biblical "higher criticism."

    1935: Birthdate of actor Judd Hirsch best known for his role in the hit sitcom, “Taxi.”

    1936: The Joint Distribution held a memorial meeting at the Commodore Hotel where tribute was paid “to the memory of Paul Sandor, statesmen, member of the Hungarian Parliament and leader in the organization and legislation to preserve Hungarian Judaism.”

    1936: In Tel Aviv, shops were closed “as a sign of grief for the plight of the Jews of Poland said to be the victims of renewed pogroms.” The economic protests “coincided with a mass meeting called by the Jewish National Council of Palestine.” According to published reports, Polish Jewry is facing a threatened prohibition of kosher slaughtering in the Polish republic.

    1936: “The Ages-Old Battleground of Conflicting Faiths” published today provides a detailed review of The Battleground: Syria and Palestine by Hilaire Belloc. (Eighty years later to the day, sounds like this book was published to match today’s headlines.)

    1936: In London, Doctor Chaim Weizmann is scheduled to address a meeting that will mark the start of an appeal “to British Jewry to raise one million English pounds for the expatriation of Jews from Germany.”

    1936: “Mass Lesson In Charity” published today described plans for the upcoming pageant at the Roxy Theatre that “will portray historical episodes illustrating the evolution of the tradition of Jewish charity from Old Testament times to the present.”

    1936: Birthdate of Howard “Howie” Greenfield, the Brooklyn native who formed a successful songwriting partnership with Neil Sedaka with whom he co-wrote four songs performed his Sephardic Jewish friend that reached first place on Billbaord.

    1937: The Palestine Post reported that after Shlomo Gafni and Hanoch Metz were murdered and robbed near Nazareth, Gedaliah Geller, 36, Moshe Zalman Ben-Sasson, 33, and Yehuda Eliovitz, 28, of Yavne¹el were murdered nearby. Police dogs followed the tracks to Tiberias. Ammunition disappeared from a sealed government armory at Kfar Tavor and there was sporadic shooting all over Galilee. Dr. Chaim Weizmann accepted a donation of £5,000 for the Yishuv¹s security and development from the British Synagogues Federation.

    1937: Dr. James Bryant Conant the President of Harvard is scheduled to deliver a lecture on “the ideals of scholarship and academic freedom” which is the third in a series of lectures sponsored by the Semi-Centennial Committee of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America.

    1937: Based on a cablegram from Gordon Loud, who was leading the Megiddo Expedition sponsored by the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, to Dr. John A. Wilson, Director of the Institute, an announcement was made that gold, gems and vessels hidden at Megiddo dating back to 1400 BCE had been discovered. It is speculated that the treasure was hidden there by some hitherto unnamed “Prince of Megiddo.”

    1938: As the Nazis took over Prague Martha and Waitstill Sharp who were running one of the most successful refugee rescue operations in Europe finished burning their notes to keep any information from failing into the hands of the SS.

    1938: Today, “all over Austria,” as “excited crowds are cheering the union” with Germany, “the Jews of Austria” who have been “loyal citizens” “now find themselves disfranchised, barred from public office, deprived of their citizenship, harried and beaten in the streets.”

    1939: Felix Weltsch left Prague with Max Brod and his family on the last train out of Czechoslovakia. In Palestine, Weltsch worked as a librarian in Jerusalem until his death in 1964.

    1939: Following today’s occupation of Czechoslovakia by the Germans, Czech diplomate  Egon Hostovský left Brussels, “emigrated to Paris” then moved on to Portugal before finally arriving in New York in 1941.

    1939: German troops marched into Prague in what was the last act of German aggression before the start of World War II. It also brought the Jews of Czechoslovakia under the control of the Nazis

    1939: In Slovakia, Alexander Mach became commander of the Hlinka Guards, the Slovak Nazis who helped deport the Jews to Auschwitz.

    1939: Today, one day after “Slovakia seceded from Czechoslovakia and became a separate pro-Nazi state” “Carpathian Ruthenia proclaimed its independence” three days before it would be swallowed up by Hungary.  (The unraveling of central Europe just before WW II was more than just a case of Hitler on the march.)

    1939: The family of historian Dr. Yehuda Bauer left Czechoslovakia for Palestine. Bauer’s life reads like some character out of one of those historic fiction novels that Leon Uris would write. It spans everything from membership in the Palmach to a distinguished academic career.

    1940: In the Bronx, Benjamin Faerstein, a dentist, and “the former Rose Rosenberg,” “Jewish immigrants from what is now the Ukraine” gave birth to Florence Ina Faestein who gained fame as poet and translator Chana Bloch. (As reported by William Grimes)

    1940: Birthdate of Judith Rose Fingeret, the Pittsburgh native, who, as Judith F. Krug, led the campaign by libraries against efforts to ban books, including helping found Banned Books Week, then fought laws and regulations to limit children’s access to the Internet.

    1941: In Amsterdam, Etty Hillesum a young woman studying Slavic languages at Amsterdam University recorded her rage of the deportations (of the Jews) writing in her diary “The whole German nation must be destroyed root and branch. They are all scum.”

    1942: The First Dünamünde Action, a murderous assault designed “to execute Jews who had recently been deported to Latvia from Germany, Austria, Bohemia and Moravia” conducted by the Nazis and their Latvian collaborators began today in the Biķernieki forest, near Riga, Latvia.

    1942: In Brooklyn, bookkeeper Eleanor Friedman and insurance salesman Alan Jacob Friedman gave birth to Alan Jacob Friedman “a physicist who specialized in communicating the tenets of science to nonscientists and as the director of the New York Hall of Science in Queens oversaw its growth from a moribund museum to one of the city’s formidable educational institutions.”

    1942(26thof Adar, 5702): Seventy year old Viennese born composer and conductor Alexander von Zemlinksy passed away today in the United States.

    1943: In Toronto, Canada, “Esther (née Sumberg), a musician, and Milton Cronenberg, a writer and editor’ gave birth to David Paul Cronenberg  a Canadian film director and occasional actor who is one of the principal originators of what is sometimes known as the "body horror" genre, which explores people's fears of bodily transformation and infection.

    1943: The deportation of the Jews from Thrace began. When Hitler was dismembering the Balkans, he gave Thrace to Bulgaria. The price was for the Nazis largesse was the extermination of the local Jewish population. The Jews of Thrace ended up at Treblinka. At the time of the deportation, Anthony Eden, the British Foreign Minister was meeting in Washington with the Cordell Hull, the Secretary of State. Hull raised the issue of rescuing the Balkan Jews. Eden cautioned against this. After all, Hitler might offer the Allies the Jews of Poland and Germany as well and there simply were not enough ships available for such an effort.

    1943(8th of Adar II, 5703): At the Theresienstadt Ghetto, Trude Neumann died of starvation. She was the daughter of Theodor Herzl, founder of the Zionist movement.

    1943: “The Silver Fleet,” a British war movie co-produced by Emeric Pressburger and filmed by cinematographer Erwin Hillier.

    1943: In Cleveland, Ohio, “Helen (Smolen) Moss, a schoolteacher, and Nelson Nathan Moss, a lawyer and small-business owner: gave birth to Harvard Business School professor Rosabeth Moss Kanter.

    1943: “In the aftermath of the Stalingrad disaster, Hitler informed Joseph Goebbbels that the liquidation program should not ‘cease or pause until no Jew is left anywhere in the Reich.’”

    1944: Fort Ontario, an 80 acre federal reservation on Lake Ontario, was closed today, only to be re-opened later in the year as the European refugee center that would be known as “Safe Haven.”

    1944: Birthdate of Josef Joffe, the native of Łódź, Poland who grew up in West Berlin and became editor of Die Zeit, a weekly German newspaper before moving onto a career in academia in the United States.

    1944: Abba Berditchev parachuted into Yugoslavia. His “mission was to assist the Jews, gather intelligence and help rescue members of the air forces who were captured or had parachuted into Romania. He did not succeed in reaching Romania, instead returning to Bari, Italy. In August 1944 Berditchev traveled to Slovakia, where he participated in the Slovak National Uprising. After two months of fighting in the mountains, Berditchev was captured by the Germans and transferred in December 1944 to Mauthausen along with other captives, where he was brutally tortured and murdered by the Nazis.”

    (As chronicled by Yad Vashem

    1944:  Bowing to international criticism led by the British and Americas, Turkey abolished the “Varlik Vergisi” or “Wealth Tax” levied on that nation’s non-Muslim population including the Jews.

    1944: Birthdate of Adèle Geras, the native of Jerusalem, wife of Norman Geras and author Sophie Hannah who gained fame as author specializing in works for “young children and teens and winner of the National Jewish Book Award for Golden Windows.

    1945: Birthdate of New York politician Mark J. Green

    1945: The exact date of the death of Anne Frank has not been established. According to one source, on this date Anne Frank died in Bergen Belsen concentration camp from Typhus shortly before the liberation. Anne was born in Frankfurt but spent most of her life in Holland. Once the deportations began Anne and her family moved to a hiding place and stayed there from July 9, 1942 until August 4, 1944 when they were betrayed. Anne had hoped to become a writer and succeeded beyond anything she could have imagined when her diary was published after World War II

    1946: British premier Attlee agreed to India's right to independence. This decision had a major, if under-reported effect on the future of the Jews in Palestine. Once the British decided to give up India, the need to protect the Suez Canal, the British lifeline to India, had greatly diminished. The British had wanted the Palestine Mandate primarily to protect this lifeline. Now that this would no longer be needed, the British were prepared to give up the Palestine Mandate which led to the creation of the state of Israel two years later.

    1947: For the first time, British authorities have shipped “authorized immigrants” from Palestine to Cyprus on Shabbat, the Jewish day of rest. The immigrants are Jews who had come to Palestine aboard the Susannah.

    1948: Birthdate of Kate Bornstein, American transgender author.

    1948: “The meeting of the United Nations Security Council scheduled today for consideration of the Palestine question was postponed until 2:30 P.M. tomorrow as a result of an eleventh-hour decision by the United States, China and France to ask Jews and Arabs whether they would agree to a truce in the Holy Land,”

    1948: “A spokesman of the Jewish Agency protested today that the seven-day curfew on road traffic which imposed on Jewish settlements in the Upper Galilee was ‘inconsistent’ with the neutrality that British security forces had professed to maintain.”

    1949(14thof Adar, 5709): Purim

    1949(14thof Adar, 5709): Emma Menko, the wife of Jake Menko and the daughter of Charles Wessolowsky, an earlier supporter of B’nai B’rith in Alabama, passed away.

    1950: “Tarzan and the Slave Girl,” another film about the Jungle man directed by Lee Sholem, produced by Sol Lesser and written by Hans Jacoby was released today in the United States.

    1952: In Tangiers, a Muslim demonstration supporting union with Morocco turned violent and "many Jewish-owned shops were among those looted and burned."

    1952: The Jerusalem Post reported from Egypt that a political battle was shaping up in Cairo between Palestine hard-liners and moderates over the future of the Palestine Liberation Organization¹s role in the Middle East and its relations with Jordan and Syria.

    1953(28th of Adar, 5713): Eighty year old Herman B. Baruch, the brother of financier and Presidential adviser Bernard Baruch who was both a doctor like his father and a former Ambassador to the Netherlands   and Portugal passed away today.

    1956: "My Fair Lady" opened on Broadway. The lyrics were written by Alan J. Lerner and the music was composed by Frederick Lowe. These are but two Jews connected with that unique American entertainment creation - the musical comedy. Some other names include the team of Rogers and Hammerstein, Moss Hart, Leonard Bernstein, Frank Loesser, Jerome Kern and the Gershwin Brothers, George and Ira.

    1957(12th of Adar II, 5717): Twelve days after having been shot by Zeev Eckstein, Rudolf Israel Kastner succumbed to his wounds and died today in Tel Aviv.

    1957: Birthdate of David Silverman, American animator best known for his work on the television “The Simpsons.”

    1959: In Irvine, CA, Austrian born Holocaust survivor and former resident of Israel Eric Teltscher and his wife, a native of pre-state Israel gave birth to American tennis pro Eliot Teltscher.

    1962(9th of Adar II): Seventy-four year old Minsk native Daniel Persky who “had been a columnist for the Hebrew weekly Hadoar” since 1921 and columnist for Haaretz as well as the winner of Louis LaMed Prize winner for the best Hebrew book of 1948 for writing Ivri Anokhi (I Am a Hebrew) passed away today in New York’s Mt. Sinai Hospital.

    1965: President Lyndon Johnson asked Congress to ensure everybody's right to vote regardless of any race, religion, sex, etc. This landmark legislation which was heavily supported by Jewish voters and politicians would be known as the Voting Rights Act of 1965. It would change the landscape of American politics forever. And it was a true act of political and physical courage for Johnson to make and support such a proposal.

    1966(23rd of Adar, 5726): Abe Saperstein founder of the Harlem Globetrotters passed away at age 63.

    1967: ABC broadcast the last episode of “The Monroes” created by Milt Rosen and co-starring Barbara Hershey.

    1967: “In Like Flint,” a spy spoof produced by Saul David, co-starring Lee J. Cobb, featuring Herb Edelman and with music by Jerry Goldsmith was released in the United States today.

    1969: US Supreme Court Justice Abe Fortas resigned under a cloud of scandal. Fortas was a close friend and advisor to Lyndon Johnson. According to some accounts, when Johnson told Fortas that he was going to appoint him the "Jewish seat" on the Supreme Court, Fortas, cautioned against this. He told Johnson that neither he, nor the Jewish community, would consider his appointment as fulfilling that role. Apparently, Fortas saw himself only nominally as a Jew and did not see this accident of birth as a stepping stone to power. Johnson ignored him and made the appointment later.


    1970: “After 28 previews, the Broadway production” of Purlie directed by Phillip Rose who also wrote the book for this musical by Louis Johnson, opened at The Broadway Theatre.

    1972: “Slaughterhouse-Five” a movie version of the novel by the same name co-starring Ron Leibman was released in the United States today.

    1972: “The Godfather,” a movie version of the novel by the same name produced by Albert S. Ruddy and co-starring James Caan and Abe Vigoda opened at the Loew’s State Theatre.

    1973(11thof Adar II, 5733): Ta’anit Esther

    1973: An attack on the Israeli and Jordanian embassies in Paris” was “forestalled” today when “2 Arabs were arrested by French police at the French-Italian bordered, leading to the arrest of one Palestinian and one English doctor in Paris.”

    1973: André Bettencourt, who like so many Frenchmen of his generation had a checkered pass, as can be seen by his service as cabinet under President Pierre Mendès France after having written during the days of Vichy France that Jews were “hypocritical Pharisees whose race has been forever sullied by the blood of the righteous” for which “they will be cursed” began serving as French Foreign Minister.

    1974:“President Nixon stated that  the rise in the number of Jews permitted to leave the USSR is due to his personal contacts with Soviet leaders; passage of his trade bill necessary for continuing dialogue with Russians and further emigration.”

    1974: “Senators Henry Jackson and Abraham Ribicoff told Dr. Kissinger that Soviet assurance of more than 35 thousand Jewish emigration permits annually are the condition for considering compromise on the Jackson Amendment.”

    1975: In a case of Jews playing Jews, U.S. premiere of “Funny Lady” with Barbara Streisand as Fanny Brice and James Caan as Billy Rose.

    1976(13thof Adar II, 5736): Ta’anit Esther and Erev Purim

    1976: Just days before his 75th birthday, Jewish born set designer Jo Mielziner who converted to Catholicism passed away today. (As reported by Albin Krebs)

    1977: The Jerusalem Post reported that at his press conference in Washington US President Jimmy Carter suggested how Israeli and international troops, assisted by listening stations, might possibly man Israel¹s "defense line" which would be outside of the sovereign border. He refused, however, to say where the "line" would be. He warned that further Israeli settlement in the administered territories hampered the peace effort.

    1977: The Jerusalem Post reported that The Knesset Law Committee discussed legislation which would introduce partial constituency elections in Israel.

    1977: The Religious Torah Front, a political alliance in Israel composed of Agudat Yisrael and Poalei Agudat Yisrael that held five seats in the Knesset split with Agudat Yisrael taking three seats and Poalei Agudat Yisrael two.

    1977: The Hadash movement which included Rakah and Non-Partisans parliamentary group was formed in preparation for the 1977 elections.

    1978(6thof Adar II, 5738): Fifty year old “Milton Perlmutter, president and chief executive officer of the Supermarkets General Corporation” passed away today.

    1979: In Cincinnati, Ohio, Carolyn and Mike Youkilis, a wholesale jeweler, gave birth to professional baseball player Kevin Youkilis.

    1980: “The Union of Council for Soviet Jews convened an international consultation in London and in Israel, meeting with officials and local groups to coordinate efforts and discuss strategies and programs to defend Soviet Jews.”

    1982: Paul Saginaw, Michael Monahan and Ari Weinzweig founded Zingerman's, a kosher-style delicatessen, in Ann Arbor, Michigan.

    1983: “Over 1,000 delegates from 30 countries attended the opening session of the Third World Conference on Soviet Jewry in Jerusalem.”

    1984: Ninety-one year old Henning Linden, the Brigadier General who led a group of reporters including Marguerite Higgins and a detachment of the 42nd (Rainbow) Infantry Division as the soldiers liberated Dachau, generating international headlines by freeing more than 30,000 Jews and political prisoners, passed away today.

    1985: “Lost In America” a comedy directed by, written by and co-starring Albert Brooks was released in the United States today.

    1987: In an article entitled, “For Israel and U.S., A Growing Military Partnership,” David K. Shipler describes how the relationship between the two nations continues to thrive despite the Jonathan Pollard fiasco.

    1987: Today an Israeli newspaper quoted Rafael Eitan, named as the spymaster in the Pollard case, as saying that his superiors had known of the operation, contradicting the Government's position. Mr. Eitan later denied having made such a statement.

    1988: CBS brought the series “My Sister Sam” featuring Rebecca Schaeffer as “Patricia Russell” back to the air today due in part to letters from fans and the 1988 Writers Guild of America strike which affected the production of other television series for CBS and the other two major television networks. (Schaeffer would be murdered by an obsessive, stalker a year later)

    1990: The first London production” of “Sunday in the Park with George, a musical with music and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim” “opened at the Royal National Theatre today, and ran for 117 performances, with Maria Friedman as Dot

    1990: Haim Bar-Lev complete his terms as Minister of Public Security

    1990: Yitzhak Rabin completed his term as Minister of Defense.

    1990: Gad Yaacobi completed his term as Minister of Communications

    1990: Ezer Weizman completed his term as Minister of Science and Technology.

    1990: The Labor Alignment left the National Unity Government leading to the defeat of Likud’s Yitzchak Shamir.

    1990: Yitzhak Moda'I and four other MKs (all of them former members of the Liberal Party) broke away from Likud to form the Party for the Advancement of the Zionist Idea, later renamed the New Liberal Party.

    1992: In “Separating the Men From the Apes” published today Frans B. Waal reviewed The Third Chimpanzee: The Evolution and Future of the Human Animalby Jared Diamond.

    1994(3rd of Nisan, 5754): Arthur Taubman, a self-made businessman who built the Advance Stores auto parts chain into a multimillion-dollar business passed away at the age of 92. During World War II, Mr. Taubman also helped about 500 European Jews reach the United States by filing affidavits with the immigration authorities saying the Jews were relatives. When questioned by Federal officials, he said any Jew facing death in Nazi-occupied Europe was his first cousin. In addition, he was the founding chairman of Alliance Tire and Rubber Company Ltd., which he and Prime Minister David Ben Gurion of Israel established in 1953. The company, based in Hadera, Israel, became the largest such manufacturer in the Middle East. Mr. Taubman, who was born and reared in Astoria, Queens, went to work as a stock boy in a New York department store at the age of 13 after completing the sixth grade. He served in the Navy in World War I and later began an auto parts chain in Pittsburgh. When the business failed in the early 1930's, he moved to Roanoke, Va., and started over, making a down payment on three failing auto-parts shops. This time he achieved success. The chain, Advance Stores, a privately held family business based in Roanoke, now has 370 stores. Automotive Marketing magazine estimated its 1992 sales at $320 million. Mr. Taubman was president of the chain until 1969, when he became chairman. He retired in 1973 but was vice chairman until 1985.

    1998: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or special interest to Jewish readers including The Children by David Halberstam and Persian Brides by Dorit Rabinyan

    2002: Three Israelis made the Forbes list of 500 Billionaires - Cruise ship heiress Shari Arison Dorsman, shipping magnates Sammy and Yuli Ofer and software kingpin Gil Schwed are the world's richest Israelis. Jewish billionaires featured on the list include New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg, a media mogul turned Republican politician, whose $4.4 billion fortune ranks him at No. 72. Mortimer Zuckerman, chairman of the Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations, is No. 413 with $1.1 billion

    2005: Dignitaries from all over the world attended the opening of Yad Vashem's new History Museum in Jerusalem.

    2006: Attorney David Etra stays overnight at the White House on the day after Purim When asked to explain the holiday’s meaning, Etra summed it by saying, “It was a about a crazy guy in Iran who wanted to kill all the Jews” which caused President Bush to remarked that “not much has changed.”


    2006: 15th of Adar 5766 – Shushan Purim. This day points out one of the differences between the Jews and those who sought to conquer or destroy them. There are still Jews around to celebrate Purim and Shushan Purim. Where are the Romans who must “Beware of the Ides of March”?

    2007(25th of Adar, 5767): Stuart Rosenberg an American film and television director whose notable works included the movies Cool Hand Luke), Voyage of the Damned ,The Amityville Horror, and The Pope of Greenwich Village passed away at the age of 79.

    2007: As part of its program to republish out of print “classic works” Amazon published a paperback edition of Chronicle of An American Crusade by Rabbi Samuel S. Mayerberg.

    2007: “Stan Lee Media's new president, Jim Nesfield, filed a lawsuit against Marvel Entertainment for $5 billion, claiming that the company is co-owner of the characters that Lee created for Marvel.”

    2007: USA Today reported that Businessman Jimmy Delshad is set to become the first Iranian-American mayor in the USA. The sixty-sixty year old Delshad, who immigrated to America at the age of 19, will assume the top job in Beverly Hills, California. As the article points out, 8,000 of the city’s 35,000 residents are of Iranian descent. Just as America benefited from the German Jews who fled Hitler in 1933, so it would appear that America is benefiting from the Iranian Jews who fled the Ayatollah in 1979.

    2007: The Canadian Jewish News reported that Zahal Square, the barren space just outside the walls of Jerusalem’s Old City, is to be rebuilt by Canadians, Jewish and non-Jewish, into an attractive public gathering place and site of national celebrations and cultural events, under a joint project of the Jerusalem Foundation, the municipality and leading Israeli businesspeople.

    2008: Shabbat Zachor, 5768

    2008: The Jewish Federation of the Quad Cities and The Iowa Arts Council present Israeli Pianist Ofra Yitzhaki at the Galvin Fine Arts Center, St. Ambrose University. Ms. Yitzhaki is a recipient of the Vladimir Horowitz Scholarship at Julliard and the winner of the Van Cliburn Institute Concerto Competition.

    2008: In Washington, D.C. The National League of American Pen Women hosts author Cynthia Polansky presenting a lecture, "Why a Holocaust Novel? The Far Above Rubies Journey," delving into the real-life story that inspired her novel.

    2009: Soviet-born Israeli-American pianist “Yefim "Fima" Naumovich Bronfman “performed Brahms's Second Piano Concerto with the Houston Symphony Orchestra.”

    2009: In an event that is part of the Chaim Kempner Author Series and is co-sponsored by the Italian Cultural Institute Robert Zweig discusses and signs Return to Naples: My Italian Bar Mitzvah and Other Discoveries at the D.C. Jewish Community Center.

    2009: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Other Side of the Island by Allegra Goodman

    2009(19th of Adar, 5769): A Palestinian terrorist shot Israeli Senior Warrant Officer Yehezkel Ramzarkar, 50, and Warrant Officer David Rabinowitz, 42, as they patrolled near the northern Jordan Valley town of Massua. The so-called Imad Mughniyeh Group claimed responsibility for the murder, which occurred when a terrorist cell staged a vehicle breakdown and then shot at a police car that had stopped to assist, killing the two policemen inside.

    2009: Over 600 Jewish professional from across North America who are attending the National Young Leadership Conference in New Orleans took a break from lectures and learning opportunities to work on restoring Archbishop Hannan High School in St. Bernard Parish which had been abandoned in the wake of Hurricane Katrina.

    2009(19 Adar, 5769): Twenty-four year old Sgt. Robert Weinger was killed near Bati Kot, Afghanistan, when his vehicle struck an explosive device.

    2010: After a nearly 62-year hiatus, the renowned Hurva synagogue inside the Jewish Quarter of Jerusalem’s Old City has been rebuilt and is again an operational house of prayer.Hundreds of people, braving the wind and an unexpected Jerusalem chill, crowded into a courtyard opposite the outer walls of the synagogue tonight to take part in an official rededication ceremony for the newly-rebuilt shul – which stands in the exact spot it did before its destruction at the hands of the Jordanian Arab Legion during the War of Independence in 1948. Huvra’s first incarnation came in 1701, when it was constructed by disciples of Judah Hahasid. Its first destruction came some 20 years later, when those same disciples lacked the funds to repay local creditors, who in return burned the Hurva to the ground.It was nearly 150 years before the Hurva stood again, but in 1864, after a massive construction project was approved by the Ottoman Turks and funds were procured from Jewish communities the world over, a neo-Byzantine Hurva was soon towering over the rest of the Jewish Quarter. However, that Hurva, which hosted the likes of Theodor Herzl and Ze’ev Jabotinsky before the creation of the state, also met with ruin. The Jordanian army took Jerusalem’s Old City in May of 1948, loaded the building with explosives and set off a blast whose smoke cloud could be seen miles away.

    2010: The New York Philharmonic is scheduled to present “Sondheim: The Birthday Concert” marking the 80th anniversary of the birth of Stephen Sondheim.

    2010: Phillips-Van Heusen (the Phillips part of the name goes back to a Moses and Endel Phillips a 19th century that sewed shirts and sold them in a pushcart in Pennsylvania) was “acquired by Tommy Hilfiger today for three billion dollars.”

    2010: Actress Isla Fisher who took the Hebrew name “Ayala” when she converted in 2007 married actor/comedian Sacha Baron Cohen”

    2010: An Israeli lawmaker told a delegation of American Jewish leaders that he would consult with Diaspora Jewry on issues involving conversion

    2011(9thof Adar, 5771): Fifty-one year old “Yakov Kreizberg, an internationally known conductor praised for the depth and intensity of his interpretations” passed away today.  (As reported by Margalit Fox)

    2011: “Action Bronson's debut studio album Dr. Lecter was independently released under Fine Fabric Delegates” today.

    2011(9th of Adar II): On the Jewish calendar anniversary of First Dispute Between Two Schools of Torah Thought (1st century CE). According to Chabad-Lubavitch, “The schools of Shammai and Hillel for the very first time disagreed regarding a case of Jewish law. This occurred around the turn of the 1st century. In the ensuing generations, the schools argued regarding many different laws, until the law was established according to the teachings of the "House of Hillel" -- with the exception of a few instances. According to tradition, following the arrival of the Moshiach the law will follow the rulings of the House of Shammai. All throughout, the members of the two schools maintained friendly relations with each other.”

    2011: The five finalists for the Sami Rohr Prize in fiction for Jewish Literature are scheduled to meet with judges in New York City. The winner is expected to be announced shortly after these meetings.

    2011: “Yolande: An Unsung Heroine” is one of the films scheduled to be shown today at the 15th New York Sephardic Jewish Film Festival. The movie tells “the heroic, riveting story of Yolande Gabai (de Botton), a beautiful, sophisticated Jewess from Alexandria, who became one of the most prominent Israeli spies in Egypt in 1948, risking her son's life and her own collecting intelligence in Egypt, undercover as a reporter for the Palestine Post.”

    2011: Samuel Heilman is scheduled to deliver a lecture entitled “Lubavitchers: What Do They Want, and Who Sent Them?” at Ohev Shalom – The National Synagogue.

    2011: Nissim Reuben, the American Jewish Committee’s Program Director for Indian-Jewish American Relations is scheduled to deliver a lecture about the Jewish community in India, Jewish Indian Americans, their relationship with Israel, and his personal story at Congregation Beth Emeth.

    2011: The IDF seized a freighter ship with dozens of tons of weaponry from Iran headed for Hamas in the Gaza Strip today.

    2011: At 11:00 AM this morning, people throughout the country stopped, observing five minutes of silence in honor of Gilad Schalit. Rather than the customary one minute of silence, Ofer Ben Tal, one of the organizers for the campaign to free Gilad Schalit, asked the public to stop for five full minutes, one minute for the nearly five years Schalit has been held in captivity by Hamas in the Gaza Strip. Traffic jams were observed throughout Tel Aviv, as cars stopped in the streets in Schalit's honor.

    2011: The Tel Aviv Museum of Art announced the selection of painters Asaf Ben Zvi and Michael Halak as the winners of the 2011 Rappaport Prize. (As reported by Daniel Rauchwerger)

    2011: Egyptian security officials said that Egypt's army captured five vehicles smuggling weapons into the country from Sudan, and apparently heading to Gaza, AP reported.

    2012(21stof Adar, 5772): Seventy-four year old “Jerome Albert, who with his father, Dewey, created and operated Astroland, the space age-themed amusement park that breathed new life into the Coney Island Boardwalk in the 1960s” passed away today. (As reported by Denis Hevesi)

    2012: Noa (Achinoam Nini) and Mira Awad, two of Israel’s most beloved singing stars and coexistence advocates are scheduled to perform their concert “Two Voices, One Vision.”

    2012: Political Stand-up Comedian Jeremy ‘Political’ Man is scheduled to appear at the Off The Wall Comedy Basement in Jerusalem.

    2012: “Non-practicing” Jewish authoress Jodi Picoult is scheduled to discuss the moral dilemmas presented in her new novel “Lone Wolf” at the Historic Sixth and I Synagogue in Washington, DC.

    2012: New York Congressman Gary L. Ackerman a flamboyant Jewish Congressman from New York and a supporter of Israel announced today that he will not seek re-election.

    2012: The Iron Dome anti-missile system intercepted a Grad-type Katyusha rocket fired by Gaza militants toward the southern city of Ashdod today, following hours of relative calm along Israel's border with the coastal enclave. Two more projectiles hit an open field in the Eshkol and Ashkelon regional Councils; no wounded reported.

    2013: In Olney, MD, Shaare Tefila is scheduled to sponsor “Shabbat Alive!”

    2013: “FDR: Anti-Semite or friend of the Jews?” published today

    2013: In Tel Aviv, the city’s annual marathon will not be run today because of the expectation of unseasonably high temperatures.  Other races, including the half marathon, are scheduled to be run as planned. (As reported by Adviv Sterman)

    2013: Yotam Ben Horin and Sarai Givaty are scheduled to perform at SXSW 2013 in Austin, Texas.

    2013: Playwright Jonathan Garfinkel has probably gone where no Canadian Jewish writer has gone before — Pakistan and Afghanistan — to create his new play, “Dust.” Premiering today at the Enbridge playRites Festival in Calgary, the drama centers on three women — Canadian, Pakistani and Afghan — and how their lives are affected by the War on Terror. It’s based on hundreds of pages of interviews conducted by Garfinkel and Christopher Morris, the play’s director, in each of those countries.

    2013(4thof Nisan, 5773): A participant in the Tel Aviv half marathon collapsed and died Friday morning, and more than 20 others were hospitalized due to extremely hot conditions. The deceased runner, Michael Michaelovitch, was a 29-year-old IDF sergeant from the settlement of Tene, south of Hebron

    2013: The Jewish Home and Yesh Atid parties signed a coalition agreement with Likud-Beytenu this afternoon, paving the way for Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu to swear in his new government early next week

    2014: The Desert Film Society is scheduled to show “The Sturgeon Queens.”

    2014(13thof Adar II, 5774): Shabbat Zachor

    2014: “My Best Holiday” is scheduled to have its New York Premiere at the New York Sephardic Jewish Film Festival.

    2014: Today, Masha “Gessen wrote in the Washington Post that Putin's popularity had been restored thanks to the Sochi Olympics and invasion of Ukraine, which had played on the longstanding notion "that Russia is a country under siege, surrounded by enemies and constantly on the brink of catastrophe" and added that "the only way to continue shoring up his popularity is to escalate war rhetoric and the war effort," to paint "the Western/fascist/Ukrainian enemy as ever more dangerous and the Russian invasion of Ukraine as ever more important

    2014: In Springfield, VA, Congregation Adat Reyim is scheduled to host a Purim Pasta Party.

    2014: In the evening, Ilan Caplan is scheduled to chant the Megalith Esther at Shir Chadish in Metairie, LA.

    2014: Four Border Police soldiers were hit by a car, driven by a Palestinian, at a roadblock near Beit Ummar in Gush Etzion in what the driver claimed was an accident. (As reporterd by Yoav Zitun)

    2014(13thof Adar II, 5774): Seventy-eight year old comedian David Brenner passed away.

    2015: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Last Flight of Poxl West by Daniel Torday and Frank: A Life in Politics From the Great Society to Same-Sex Marriage by Barney Frank.

    2015: “The kosher supermarket in Paris attacked by a jihadist gunman linked to the shootings at Charlie Hebdo magazine in January re-opened today.” (Times of Israel)

    2015: World premiere of “Khoya: Jewish Morocco Sound Archive” is scheduled to take place at the 18th Annual NY Sephardic Film Festival.

    2015: In Chicago the Lyric Opera is scheduled to perform “The Passenger” which tells the story of a former SS officer who thinks she sees one of her former prisoners on an ocean liner.

    2015: “Two days ahead of the general election, Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Zionist Union leader Isaac Herzog today continued to vie for the premiership, with the former addressing a right-wing rally in Tel Aviv in the evening and Herzog saying he was willing to form a national unity government under his own leadership.” (As reported by Marissa Newman)

    2015:  “Breaking Silence, Survivor Sets Out to Meet Holocaust Past” published today

    2016: In Washington, DC Dr. “Pamela Nadell -- the Patrick Clendenen Chair in Women's and Gender History, Chair of the Department of History, and  Director of the Jewish Studies Program at American University – is scheduled explore the lives of Jewish women who immigrated to the United States as she lectures on “Tevye’s Daughters in America.”

    2016: “The Man in the Wall” and “Baba Joon” are scheduled to be shown at the Houston Jewish Film Festival

    2016: “Hiker finds rare gold coin in Israel” published today described Laurie Rimon’s discovery in the eastern Galilee of “a 2,000 year old coin with the face of Emperor Augustus…who ruled from” 27 BCE to 14 CE.

    2016: Mosh Ben Aris, an Israeli from a Yemenite Iraqi family, is scheduled to perform at B.B. King Blues Club in New York.

    2016: The Oregon Jewish Museum and Center for Holocaust Education is scheduled to host an  “Educators' Open House  which is open to teachers and educators from around the region and is a chance to learn directly from OJMCHE staff about renowned photojournalist Ruth Gruber's importance to the topics of 20th century history.

    2017: “Henryk Ross’s Grim Photos Document Life in the Lodz Ghetto” published today provides a description of an exhibition entitled “Memory Unearthed: The Lodz Ghetto Photographs of Henryk Ross” scheduled to open at The Museum of Fine Arts in Boston.

    2017: The Jerusalem Unity Prize, which was “launched in 2015 in memory of three slain Israeli teenagers” -- Eyal Yifrach, 19; Naftali Fraenkel, 16; and Gil-ad Shaar, 16 – included Limmud, “the international network of Jewish learning communities” among the winners announced today.

    2017: The Yeshiva University Museum is scheduled to present fabric artist Ita Aber and curator Bonni-Dara Michaels leading a tour of Yeshiva University Museum’s Uncommon Threads exhibition, featuring garments, textiles and jewelry from the Museum’s collection, including Aber’s 1970s customized Israeli flag.

    2017: The Streicker Center is scheduled to host “The Jewish Response to Racism” presented by April N. Baskin the Union for Reform Judaism’s Vice President of Audacious Hospitality, Stosh Cotler the CEO of Bend the Arc: A Jewish Partnership for Justice and longtime U.S. civil rights strategist Eric Ward.

    2018: The Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center is scheduled to host “If Not Now, When – Impact and Response to the Rohingya Genocide.”

    2018: “Journey from Tunisia” and “Remember Baghdad” are scheduled to make their premiere showing on the final night of the 21st NY Sephardic Jewish Film Festival.

    2018: “Saving Neta” and “Winter Hunt” are scheduled to be shown at the Houston Jewish Film Festival.

    2018: The Chabad Rosh Chodesh Society is scheduled to meet in Metairie, LA.

    2018: Liz Alpern and Jeffrey Yoskowitz—cofounders of Gefilteria and coauthors of The Gefilte Manifesto: New Recipes for Old World Jewish Foods -- are scheduled to host “All About Gefilte Fish” at the Streicker Center.




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    March 16

    597BCE (2ndAdar): On the secular calendar, according to certain archaeological calculations, the first conquest of Jerusalem by Babylonian King Nebuchadnezzar occurred. In the Bible, the event is recorded in 2 Kings 24:1ff. and in 2 Chronicles 36:5-8. It is also implied in the early chapters of Jeremiah and Ezekiel.

    37: Caligula becomes Roman Emperor after the death of his great uncle, Tiberius.  Caligula was a challenge to all those he ruled, including the Jews, because he was “crazy.” Among other things, he appointed his favorite horse to the position of Consul.  He did present a special problem for Jews because he believed he was a god and expected to be worshipped by his subjects.  Fortunately, he never succeeded in having his golden image installed in the Temple of Jerusalem.  After a bizarre meeting with a delegation of Jews from Alexander that included the famous Philo, Caligula said of the Jews, “They’re not so bad after all.  They’re just a poor, stupid people unable to believe in my divinity”

    455: Valentinian III, Western Roman Emperor passed away. During his reign, the position of Jews continued to worsen. Under one imperial decree, Jews were excluded from government service and were prohibited from practicing law. Another decree made it possible for the children of Jews who converted to Christianity to inherit the property of their Jewish parents. 

    1021:The first documentary reference to Jews living in Cologne after 331 occurs during the time of Archbishop Heribert of Cologne who passed away today.

    1190: On the Sabbath eve before Passover ("Shabbat Hagadol") in York, England, a group made up of clergy, barons indebted to the Jews, and crusaders waiting to follow Richard, set Jewish houses on fire and stole all their valuables. The Jews under Josce, a prominent Jew of York, and their Rabbi, Yom Tov of Joigny (a contemporary of Rabbenu Tam and author of the Yom Kippur Hymn "Omnam Ken"), fled to the castle. Richard Malebys (a noble who owed large sums to Jewish moneylenders) commanded the attackers. For 6 days the Jews held out. A monk who came each morning to celebrate mass and inflame the crowd was killed by a stone thrown from the tower. Facing the choice of baptism or death, most chose death. (Josce killed his wife and two children, and was in turn killed by the Rabbi). The vast majority killed themselves after destroying their belongings. Josce was the last to die. The few who remained opened the gate and requested baptism. They were massacred anyway. Over 150 Jews died.

    1421: Chomutov, a Czech city which was declared “Judenrein” a week before the occupation by Germany in 1938 and was the home to the Seligman family “was sack and burned” today by the Taborites, a sect of Catholic heretics.

    1523: Birthdate of Antoine Rodolphe Chevaillier, the French born English Hebraist who learned the language from Francis Vatablus and who tutored Elizabeth I in the Biblical tongue while producing translations of several books in both the New and Old Testaments.

    1547:François Vatable who got the chair of Hebrew at what “became known as the Collège de France” where “he procured Hebrew editions of the Bible for scholarly use” and whose lectures were attended by Parisian Jews passed away today.

    1711(25thof Adar, 5471): Isaac Spira, the son of Eliezer Spira and the father of Nathan Spria, passed away leaving behind a text entitled Elef ha-Magen.

    1716: Birthdate of Pehr Kalm, the Swedish-Finnish explorer who visited North America in 1740’s and described “the Jews of New York” as having “formed a considerable portion of the population”  having “stores and fine houses and ships and flourishing synagogue” while enjoying “all the privileges of the other citizens.”

    1722: The new "Aeltesten-reglement" (Constitution of the Jewish Community) was issued today in Prussia. It was intended to do away with the evils that had become apparent in the administration of the community, and which, in order to be brought home more thoroughly, was to be read every year in the synagogue. Under this constitution the administration consisted of two permanent chief elders, five elders, four treasurers, and four superintendents of the poor, and assistants; new officers were to be elected every three years by seven men chosen by lot from among the community. The committee was to meet every week in the room of the elders, and to keep the minutes of their proceedings; resolutions, passed by them, becoming law by a majority vote. The exclusion of a member of the community from the Passover was made dependent on the unanimous vote of the committee; the ban could be pronounced only with the consent of the rabbi; and both of these measures were to be subject to ratification by the Jews' commission. The elders were held responsible with their own money for the proper collection of the taxes, but could proceed against delinquent payers. Every year the entire board had to report to a committee of five chosen by the community. The college of rabbis was to consist of a chief rabbi, a vice rabbi and two or three assessors. Other taxes were soon added to the existing ones; e.g., on pawnshops, and calendar money for the Royal Society of Science, and marriage licenses. The income from the last was paid into the treasury from which enlisted men received their pay, and its amount (4,800 thalers a year) soon became a permanent tax upon the whole community.

    1743: The New-York Weekly Journal reported that a Jewish funeral procession in New York was attacked by a mob. According to "one learned Christian" witness to it, the mob had, "insulted the dead in such a vile manner that to mention all would shock a human ear."

    1751: Birthdate of James Madison author of the Federalist Papers and 4th President of the United States.  Madison was also the President during the War of 1812.  He was the first President to appoint a Jew to a diplomatic post.  “In 1813, President Madison appointed Mordecai Manuel Noah as Consul to Tunis in the Barbary States, where he obtained the release of Americans who had been captured and sold into slavery by the Barbary pirates. It was a difficult task requiring considerable adroitness, but he spent more than his allotment for the purposes and his commission was revoked, the letter of recall affirming that his religion was deemed to disqualify him for the post…In time, however, he got a clean bill of health in the conduct of his mission and the sums he advanced in performing it were reimbursed.”  While Noah’s name is known but a handful today, he was considered to be “the most conspicuous figure in the American Jewish community in the period between the War of 1812 and the Mexican War (1846).” When he returned from Tunis, Noah became a power in New York politics.  At one point he was elected High Sheriff of New York.  One angry citizen complained about Noah saying “What a pity that Christians are to be hung by a Jew.”  Noah replied, “What a pity that Christians should have to be hung.” 

    1789: Benvenida de Isaac Solis, the daughter of Isaac Henriques Henriques Valentine and Simha Mandil and Solomon da Solis gave birth to David Solis.

    1794: Birthdate of “Rabbi Samuel Bondi one of the founders of the orthodox congregation of Mayence and the progenitor of the largest branch of the Bondi family.”

    1796: Robert Reuben married Esther Solomons at the Great Synagogue today.

    1802: The United States Military Academy West Point is established.  According to recent figures, there are 85 Jewish Cadets among the 4.200 members of the Corps of Cadets.  There is an accredited Hillel Chapter at West Point and a Jewish Chaplain.  “The West Point Jewish community provides a warm, supportive, nondenominational family to all West Point Jewish cadets and cadet friends. Family night services are very popular. The choir practices once per week and travels several times per semester to other university Hillel Houses and community functions for relaxed overnight trips. The community celebrates nearly all Jewish holidays and the West Point Hillel sponsors parties, retreats and service field trips.” The completion of the Jewish Chapel in 1984 culminated a twenty year undertaking. The organization responsible for the project was the West Point Jewish Chapel Fund a private, non-profit civilian organization. This group raised more than 7.5 million dollars to erect and furnish the facility. In 1986 the Jewish Chapel was deeded to the Academy. Led by a military chaplain, the congregation serves the needs of various branches of Judaism represented in the Armed Forces. In close connection with the Jewish Welfare Board worship resources are designed to meet the broad spectrum of our faith. The Chapel contains an extensive Judaica collection, a fine library, and special exhibits. Sabbath services are held every Friday evening during the academic year at 7:00 p.m.” 

    1806: Israel Jacobs married Elizabeth Abrahams at the Great Synagogue today.

    1813(14th of Adar II, 5573): As Americans fight the British  and the Canadians fight what is known in the United States as the War of 1812, Jews on both sides observe Purim.

    1818: Birthdate of Germain Sée the native of Ribeauvillé who graduated from the Sorbonne in 1846 after which he became a leading Parisian physician.

    1828: In Grebenstein, Germany Meyer (Meier) Goldschmidt and Lea Goldschmidt (Katzenstein) gave birth to Selig Meier Goldschmidt.

    1832(14th of Adar II, 5592): Purim

    1843: In Moravia, Jakob Brüll and his wife gave birth to “rabbi and scholar” Nehemiah Brüll

    1855: Bates College in Lewiston, Maine is founded. According to recent figures, this small liberal arts college has 150 Jewish students among its 1,700 student body.  The school has a Hillel Chapter.  The environment on campus is described as follows. “Bates is very supportive of the Jewish Community. Jewish students gather weekly for Shabbat services and dinner at the Multicultural Center. Films, lectures, holidays, and parties are frequent. Highlights include Sukkah Building and campout, Tu B`Shvat Seder, and Parent's Weekend Bagel Brunch. Bates has a Klezmer Band, Gefilte Dog, and speakers are brought to campus for forums and discussions often. Hillel also presents a visiting Rabbi retreat. Programs are also held with students at Colby and Bowdoin. Bates students volunteer at the local synagogue, Temple Shalom.”

    1859: Emperor Alexander II granted Jewish scholars, wholesale merchants and manufacturers the right to live outside of the Pale

    1860: Based on reports from the Halifax Sun, “an extraordinary event in the history of the German Jews has just taken place. In the free City of Hamburg, where a Jew, ten years ago, was not even eligible for a night constable, a Jew, by the free suffrages of the citizens, has lately been chosen a chief magistrate, next in station to the highest dignity in that Republic. The gentleman elected is a distinguished juris-consult and writer, Dr. Gabriel Reisser who was Vice-President of the German Parliament that sat at Frankfort in 1848.” Born in 1806, Gabriel Riesser “was the first Jewish judge in Germany and an advocate of the emancipation of the Jews in Germany.”

    1862: Birthdate of Ruben ben Mordecai Brainin the native of Belarus who gained fame as Reuben Brainin (Some sources show March 15, 1862 as his birthdate)

    1864: In Baltimore, MD, ”Elkan Bamberger, who had emigrated from Bavaria in 1840, and Theresa (Hutzler) Bamberger, who was heir to a large Baltimore department store” gave birth to Caroline “Carrie” Bamberger, the fifth of their six children who became Caroline Frank when she married Louis Frank and Caroline Frank Fuld when she married Felix Fuld the name under which became a noted philanthropist  who provide the initial endowment of five million dollars for “what became the Institute of Advanced Study in Princeton.”

    1866(29th of Adar): Rabbi Solomon Ha-Kohen of Radomsko, author of Tiferet Shelomo passed away.

    1868: “Affairs In England” published today described the reaction to Benjamin Disraeli who was a member of the Conservative or Tory Party, to being selected to serve as Prime Minister.  Generally speaking, the “Radical press” has congratulated Disraeli on the appointment and wish him well in his new position. The “Conservative press” has responded coldly, showing distinct dissatisfaction with Disraeli’s appointment.  For them, Disraeli’s appointment is not a triumph for the Tories but “a blow to their prejudices and principles.”  Instead of being led by Duke or an Earl, the party is now being led by a commoner who “is not an Englishman by descent” but rather by a man “whose grandfather was a Jew of Venice, whose father was a man of letters” and who himself was the editor of a newspaper.

    1872: Birthdate of  Philip King, the native of Washington, DC, who played quarterback for Princeton before going on a coaching career at the University of Wisconsin and Georgetown University.

    1872: Emily Catherine and Josiah Wedgwood gave birth to Josiah Clement Wedgwood the British political leader.  During the 1930’s Wedgwood took the politically unpopular positions of opposing the appeasement of Hitler and the limitations on Jewish settlement in Palestine that climaxed with the White Paper of 1939. Although he passed away in 1943, the Jewish people honored his memory by naming several things in his honor including Moshav, an INS destroyer and streets in Jerusalem, Tel Aviv and Haifa.

    1873(18th of Adar, 5633): Seventy-seven year old Joseph Salvador a member of a distinguished French Sephardi family whose mother was Roman Catholic, the author of Paris, Rome, Jerusalem ou la Question religieuse au XIX siècle  who was angered by the anti-Jewish riots in German and was considered a ‘proto-Zionist” passed away today.

    1874: It was reported today that the Germania Theatre Company will be performing at the Terrace Garden Theatre in two days for the benefit of the Ladies’ Hebrew Benevolent Society

    1875: Mayor Wickham Chamberlain Tappan was among the dignitaries who attended tonight’s charity ball organized by the Purim Association. The event raised $13,000 for the various Hebrew charities in New York City.

    1876” Birthdate Bolshevik revolutionary and Soviet official Solomon Lozovsky, who would like many others, find out that Russian anti-Semitism was stronger the Communist brotherhood when he was executed by Stalin in 1952 along with other members of the Jewish Ant-Fascist Committee.

    1878: On Shabbat Zachor, rabbis at several synagogues addressed the appeal that has been issued by the Board of Delegates of American Israelites to raise funds to aid their suffering co-religionists trapped in war torn Eastern Europe and parts of the Ottoman Empire.  They did not make a direct appeal for funds. Instead the urged them to respond to the appeal that has been sent to all congregations by the Executive committee of the Central Relief Committee whose members include Meyer S. Isaacs, Moritz Ellinger, Jacob H. Schiff, Leonard Lewisohn and Hyman Blum

    1879: “Mendelssohn and Lessing” traced the improvement in the situation of the Jews of Germany reminding readers that when these two met, “the country where the Hebrew race has since attained the highest honors – where a galaxy of Jewish names, Heine, Borne, Rahel figure among the glories of national distinction – the Jew was then looked on like a spotted leper, against whom were shut the doors not merely of the aristocracy and of fashion, but actually of all public schools and public office” and were excluded “from social position and civic right” in a manner worse than now found in Romania.

    1882: The Tenth Assembly District Republican Association met tonight to decide if Civil Justice Alfred Steckler, Charles Steckler, and Julius Harburger should be expelled because they had supported Steckler over the association’s chosen candidate. (In the 19thcentury the majority of Jews voted Republican)

    1883: Sir George Jessel, who was fighting a variety of chronic illnesses, sat as the Master of Rolls for the last time.  He was the first Jew to hold this important judicial position.

    1885: Birthdate of Sydney Chaplin, half-brother of Charlie Chaplin

    1887(20th of Adar, 5647): Eighty-seven year old Joseph Ritter Von Wertheimer whose good works included the founding of the first kindergarten in Vienna, the founding of a Jewish children’s school in the same city in 1834 and the establishment of the Society for the Education of Jewish Orphans in 1860 while fighting for the full emancipation of the Jews, passed away today.

    1889(13th of Adar II, 5649): Shabbat Zachor; erev Purim

    1889(13th of Adar II, 5649): Sixty-four year old Dr. Alfred Edersheim the Austrian born Jew who would later convert to Christianity passed away today. He was made an A.M. at Oxford in 1881 where he lectured on Biblical topics and wrote Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah.

    1890: The Mageburg Israelitishes Wochenblat reported “that a petition is in circulation among the rabbis of Europe and America begging the Pope to end the calumny that the Jews use human blood in religious sacrifice by ordering a formal denial throughout the Catholic churches.”

    1890: Birthdate of Solomon Mikhoels, Soviet actor and chairman of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee.Solomon Mikhoels was a Soviet Jewish actor and director in Yiddish theater and the chairman of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee. Born Shlioma Vovsi in Dvinsk (now Daugavpils), Latvia, Mikhoels studied law in Saint Petersburg, but left school in 1918 to join Alexander Granovsky,s Jewish Theater Workshop, which was attempting to create a national Jewish theater in Russia based on the Yiddish language. Two years later, in 1920, the workshop moved to Moscow, where it established the Moscow State Jewish Theater. This was in keeping with Lenin's policy on nationalities, which encouraged them to pursue and develop their own cultures under the aegis of the Soviet state. Mikhoels, who showed outstanding talent, was the company's leading actor and, as of 1928, its director. He played in several memorable roles, including Tevye in an adaptation of Sholom Aleichem's comic short stories about Tevye the Milkman(which were adapted for an American audience as Fiddler on the Roof) as well as in many original works, such as Bar Kochba, and translations. Perhaps his most noted role was as King Lear in a Yiddish translation of the play by William Shakespeare. These plays were ostensibly supportive of the Soviet state, however, closer readings suggest that they actually contained veiled critiques of Stalin's regime. It is noteworthy that two of the Shakespearean plays put on by the theater company were King Lear and Richard III, both studies in tyranny. It is now believed that the Ukrainian director Les Kurbas contributed to the original King Lear production after he was ousted from his Berezil theater in 1934. He seems to have had a lasting influence on Mikhoel's directing style. By the mid-1930s, Mikhoels' career was threatened because of his association with other leading intelligentsia, who were victims of Stalin's purges, notably author Isaac Babel. Mikhoels actively supported Stalin against Hitler, and in 1942, he was made chairman of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee. In this capacity, he travelled around the world, meeting with Jewish communities to encourage them to support the Soviet Union in its war against Nazi Germany. While this was useful to Stalin during World War II, after the war, Stalin opposed contacts between Soviet Jews and Jewish communities in non-Communist countries, which he deemed as "bourgeoisie." The Jewish State Theater was closed and the members of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee were arrested - all except for two were eventually executed in the purges shortly before Stalin's death. Mikhoels was the most visible of the intellectual Jewish leadership, and a show trial would have cast aspersions on Stalin's rule. Such claims lead most people to a suggestion that Stalin had him assassinated in Minsk in January of 1948 masking his death as a car crash, and Mikhoels received a state funeral. According to documents unearthed by the historian Gennady Kostyrchenko, the organizers of the assassination were L.M. Tsanava and S. Ogoltsov, and the "direct" murderers were Lebedev, Kruglov and Shubnikov. Mikhoels' brother Miron Vovsi was Stalin's personal physician. He was arrested during the Doctors' plot affair but released after Stalin's death in 1953, as was his son-in-law, the composer Mieczyslaw Weinberg.

    1892: Based on information that first appeared in the Hartford Courant and the New Haven Evening Post it was reported today that when he is not lecturing on military topics Professor Charles Totten of Yale, devotes his time to Biblical work including study of the Hebrew Prophets. Furthermore, this early supporter of Jewish settlement in Palestine says in the preface to the published copy of his Yale Military Lectures that “the whole series was written in the spirit of Anglo-Saxon identity with the ten lost tribes of Israel.”

    1892: In Albany, GA, Julia and Morris Weslosky gave birth to their daughter Blanche who became Blanche Adler when she married Ben Adler

    1892: “A Russian Banker Fails” published described the impact of the failure of the Russian-Jewish banker J.E. Guenzburg. The firm dates back to the Crimean War when Guenzburg’s father supplied “vast quantities of spirits to the Russian Army.  While Guzenburg currently has extensive holdings in lands and mines, his financial setbacks are due in no small part to “the expulsion of the Jews who were employed in the firm’s immense sugar factories” and the hostility of the current government towards its Jewish citizens.

    1893: “A Contented Colony” published today described conditions “in the Jewish colony at Chesterfield” which is eight miles from New London, CN. Contrary to previously published reports the colonists are not destitute and that most of the 32 families are “comparatively contended people” The colony already has 180 cows which will provide milk for the new creamery; something that will produce “considerable revenue.” The colony is supported by the Baron Hirsch Fund.

    1895: Lt. Moses G. Zalinski who had been serving with U.S. Army artillery units since 1885 transferred from the 4th Artillery to the 2nd Artillery

    1897: It was reported today that “a recent and clever English novel represents the rector of a struggling parish as having a written a book assailing the moral character of the Hebrew patriarchs.” The purpose of the novel is to acquaint the reader with “higher Biblical criticism” and demonstrate “that Moses did not write the Pentateuch.”

    1898: Oscar S. Straus said today that the “a large sum of money that had recently” been received by the Trustees of the Baron de Hirsch funds “was not a new gift “but the second installment of $1,000,000 which the Baroness had promised him last year” to help “the Jews in the crowded districts of New York.”

    1898: The recital of Aristide Franceschetti in the Carbon Studio on West Sixteenth Street began “with an evening prayer,’Vegna reba’ in the Hebrew text, which preserved by tradition in the synagogue of Leghorn.”

    1898: At today’s meeting of the School Board for the Boroughs of Manhattan and the Bronx, the commissioners voted 11 to 5 to set aside “the full week in which Good Friday” and “some of the Passover days occur” as Spring Vacation.

    1899: Those attending the meeting of Rabbis belonging to the Reform Movement in Cincinnati will have to decide if this conference “will supersede the conference which” had been scheduled to be held in Boston this year. While the current conference has included several general reports, its primary purpose was to celebrate the 80th anniversary of Rabbi Wise, who favors holding the Boston conference.

    1899: “Credit Men Meet At Dinner” published today described the event sponsored by the New York Credit Men’s Association which included the statement by one of the speakers declared that “No man in business life respects” Jewish merchants “more than I do.  I have lost less money by them than by Gentiles, at the ratio of 4 to 1.  They often pay 100 cents on the dollar when they fail.

    1899: Simon Wolf of Washington, DC delivered a lecture at Temple Israel in New York at a meeting of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association entitled “American Jewish Philanthropy.”

    1899: Ant-Jewish riots begin in Nikolayev, Russia

    1900: Herzl, in his never ending quest to have the rich and powerful support the creation of a Jewish homeland in Eretz Israel, had a luncheon with Eulenburg-Hertefeld, the German ambassador in Vienna.

    1904: Birthdate of Mississippi native Buddy Myer, the infielder for the Washington Senators from 1925 through 1941 except for two years spent with the Boston Red Sox.
    1906: Birthdate of Henny Youngman.  Born in London, England, this comedian was known for his signature line, 'Take my wife, please. Youngman was had to drop out of school as a youngster and was not Bar Mitzvahed at age 13.  When he was well past the age of seventy, Youngman studied and proudly participated in the rites that he had missed out on as a youngster.

    1906: The Jews of Vladivostok were ordered to leave the city within the next three days.

    1907: Brooklyn, “George Wiener, an attorney who had emigrated from Russia in 1903, and Mollie (Zuckerman) Wiener” gave birth to Dr. Alexander Solomon Wiener whose many accomplished included the discovery of the Rhesus factor and who was the 1946 recipient of the Lasker Award.

    1908: It was reported today that the Passover Relief Association has arranged to buy 10,000 pounds of matzoth, 3,000 pounds of coffee, 5,000 pounds of sugar and 500 pounds of tea which will be distributed among the city’s poor Jews at a distribution center at the Continental Hall during the week prior to the celebration of Passover which begins on the evening of April 15.

    1908: In Haifa, "bitterness against the Jews led to a clash between Jews, Ottoman soldiers and local Arabs in which thirteen Jews were injured, some of them severely."

    1911: Election for Grand Council of the Jewish Community of Constantinople takes place. Ashkenazim boycott the elections. Five Ashkenazim who were elected by the votes of Sephardim do not accept office.

    1911: The American Jewish Committee which had organized in 1906 was incorporated in New today.

    1911: Birthdate of Josef Mengele.  This is was a dark day in history, marking the birth of the German Nazi doctor at Auschwitz extermination camp.  To make matters worse, Mengele escaped justice and lived out his days in South America.  He died in 1979.

    1912: In New York City, “Drs. Pauline (a psychiatrist) and Maurice (an ear, nose and throat specialist) Rosenthal” gave birth to Jean Rosenthal “one of the pioneers of theatrical lighting design.”

    1913: Birthdate of Natalie Goldstein the native of Chicago’s south side who gained fame as Natalie Goldstein Heinmen, “a pioneering national champion for children’s welfare and respected community and national leader, changed the lives of thousands of children through her innovative and thoughtful leadership.” (As reported by Pastora San Juan Cafferty)

    1913(7th of Adar II, 5673): Sixty-two year old Abraham H. Fisher, the Maryland Judge who was a founder of what is now Nusiinov Smith LLP, attorneys at law, passed away today in Baltimore, MD.

    1913: The Annual Conference on Child Labor to which Leon Schwarz of Mobile, Alabama had been appointed as a delegate came to a closed today  in Jacksonville, Florida.

    1914: Dr. Franz Opphenheimer, a lecturer on political economy at the University of Berlin told a mass-meeting in Cooper Union about agricultural cooperation in Palestine, saying that “the colony which I have founded in Palestine is on the plain of Jezreel, with fifty people working 1,000 acres and is “of the pure co-operative kind.”

    1915: “Tried to Drive Jews Out” published today described an attempt by the Russians to force the Austrians soldiers to accept the 1,500 Jewish families being expelled from territory in and around Namiona and Tysmieniczany into their lines and to not shoot them as they made their way forward.

    1915: “The American Jewish Committee announced today that it had decided to contribute $5,000 to the International Pro-Falasha Committee which has been endeavoring to spread knowledge of Judaism among the Falashas, or Black Jews, of Abyssinia.”

    1916: Felix M. Warburg, Dr. Morris D. Waldman of the United Hebrew Charities and Judge William M. Cohen are scheduled to address today’s meeting at Temple Emanu-El where plans will be discussed “to federate” the Jewish charitable organizations in New York City.

    1916(11th of Adar II, 5676): Rabbi Moses Guedalia passed away at the age of 76.  Born in Gibraltar, Guedalia lived in Brazil before coming to New York City when he was nine years old.  This “prominent Jewish scholar” was the founder of the Moses Montifore Congregation and during “the last few years of his life served as the lay-reader for the Free Synagogue established by the Spanish-Portuguese congregation.

    1917: At Temple Israel of Harlem, Dr. M.H. Harris is scheduled to deliver a sermon on “Cleanliness and Godliness” at services this evening erev Shabbat,

    1917: It was reported today that Herman Bernstein, the editor of The American Hebrew, believes the condition of the Jews would improve under the revolutionary government that has taken control of Russia. He also believes that the new government will seek a separate peace with Germany while seeking to sign a treaty with the United States that guarantee the Russian government would allow all Americans to visit and do business in Russia.

    1917: Provisional government of Russia voided many anti-Jewish laws and restrictions.  This was the so-called Kerensky Government which replaced the Czar.  Unfortunately, Kerensky and the forces of democracy were overthrown by Lenin and his Bolsheviks.

    1918:  Birthdate of Frederick Reines winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1995.

    1918: Dr. Joseph Silverman, the rabbi of Temple Emanuel is scheduled to be one of the speakers when “leaders in the Catholic, Protestant and Jewish communities take their place side by side tonight at the Hippodrome to start the campaign in New York State to raise funds for the kings of Columbus Camps and Over-Seas Service Program.”

    1919(14th of Adar II, 5679): Purim

    1919(14th of Adar II, 5679): Yakov Mikhaylovich Sverdlov, Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Congress of Soviets of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic(SFSR) passed away at the age of 33. 

    1919: The Isaac M. Wise Centenary Meeting at Temple Emanu-El where attendees paid tribute “to the Americanism of Dr. Isaac M. Wise” marked the inauguration of “the campaign which will last all this week for the” purpose of raising $300,000 for the support of the institutions founded Dr. Wise.”

    1920: Birthdate of Avron Zalmon Fleischman, the native of Brooklyn who gained game as author Albert Sidney “Sid” Fleischman.

    1921: Birthdate of welterweight Daniel Kapilow, the founder of Ring 8 “which was founded to offer health coverage and aid to retired aging boxer and President of Teamsters Local 966 who was the husband of Natalie Kapilow.

    1923: Premiere of “The Covered Wagon” a silent Western film produced by Jesse Lasky with music by Hugo Riesenfeld.

    1925(20th of Adar, 5685): Fifty-nine year old August Paul von Wassermann, the Bamberg native, who developed the Wassermann test that remains “a staple of syphilis detection” passed away today.

    1925: Seventy-five year old  “French sculptor Charles-Henri Cordier who in 1862 created a bust called “Jewess from Algiers,” which portrays a striking woman cloaked in Eastern garb; a striped headdress covers her hair, and her shoulders are draped in a voluminous and intricately detailed white cloth,” passed away today.

    1926:Mrs. Abram I. Elkus, wife of the former United States Minister to Turkey, was appointed chairman of the Women's Division of the New York drive in the United Jewish Campaign. Mrs. Jacob H. Schiff heads the Division as its honorary chairman, according to an announcement made by William Fox, chairman of the New York drive. An organization meeting will be held today at the Hotel Biltmore, where headquarters of the New York drive are located. Fifty women, leaders in women's clubs, professional groups, synagogue organizations, and others making up a representation of all varied women's interests in the Jewish life of the city, will be present. They will be addressed by David A. Brown, national chairman of the United Jewish Campaign. Each of these fifty will head a unit of workers in the active drive, which opens April 11th. Mrs. Elkus served in the great Jewish War Relief Campaign of 1918, and led a group of 1,000 women workers in the Red Cross Drive of that year. Her life abroad in the years immediately after the war in Eastern Europe brought her into personal contact with the tragedy precipitated by the war upon European Jewry.(As reported by JTA)

    1926:  In Newark, NJ, Daniel Levitch and Rachel ("Rae") Levitch (née Brodsky) gave birth to Joseph Levitch who gained fame as Jerry Lewis who teamed with Dean Martin to form one of the most popular comedy duos of the post-war period.  After the team broke up, Lewis honed his comedic craft and is especially loved by French audiences.  He is best known for his Labor Day MDA Telethons which have raised untold millions for research and care of those suffering from this disease.

    1930(16th of Adar, 5690): Shushan Purim

    1930: It was reported today that “the main difficulty in connection with the report of the Palestine Inquiry Commission centers around the land question…” (As reported by JTA)

    1933: Birthdate of Sandy Weil financer and CEO of Citigroup until 2003.  The son of Polish immigrants, Weil became one of the wealthiest individuals in America.  Recent revelations have shown that while Weil made a lot of money, some his methods were of a questionable nature.

    1929: New York Hakoah of the Eastern Soccer League defeated a touring team from Budapest today thanks to two goals scored by Moritz Haeusler. (Bob Wechsler)

    1933: “A Love Story” based on a play by Arthur Schnitzler and directed by Max Opuls was released in France today.

    1934: In its first international football (soccer) match the team from Mandatory Palestine (the future Israel) lost to Egypt 7 to 1.

    1935: After 237 performances the curtain comes down on the original Broadway production of “Life Begins at 8:40,” “a musical revue with music by Harold Arlen, lyrics by Ira Gershwin and E.Y. Harburg.”

    1935: Fourteen Jewish American athletes and their manager David White set sail on the SSConte di Savola.  The athletes will participate in the Maccabiah, the Jewish Olympics, scheduled to open in April in Tel Aviv.  Due to unexpected financial difficulties, it was not known until the last minute if the team would be able to go.  Thirty teams are expected to compete in the games up from the twenty-five teams that competed in the inaugural games held in 1932.  

    1935(11th of Adar II, 5695): Aron Nimzowitsch passed away.  Nimzovichor Niemzowitsch was born in Latvia in 1886 when it was part of the Russian Empire. He was a chess grandmaster and was the foremost figure amongst the hypermoderns. Nimzowitsch came from a wealthy Jewish family and learned chess from his father. He travelled to Germany in 1904 to study philosophy, but began a career as a professional chess player that same year. After tumultuous years during and after World War I, Nimzowitsch moved to Copenhagen in 1922 and lived there until his death. He is buried in Bispebjerg Cemetery in Copenhagen, Denmark.

    1936: Jews in Palestine protested the worsening conditions under which the Jews of Poland were living.  Polish Jews were dealing with everything from a government threat to end Kosher slaughtering to actual Pogroms.  The Jewish National Council of Palestine conducted a mass protest meeting and the Jews of Tel Aviv shuttered their shops for one day.

    1936: The U.S. Secretary of the Interior “spoke at a joint banquet” held tonight by the United Synagogue of America and its women’s auxiliary where he told the attendees “Like those forefather of yours, we of America today are wandering the desert even though it is a social and not a physical desert.”

    1936: Magistrate Anna Moskowitz Kross and Mrs. David E. Goldfarb are scheduled to speak a tea being held today that has been organized by Mrs. Benjamin Antin and Mrs. Edna Crane which will mark the opening event of the Bronx Women’s Division of the United Palestine Appeal.

    1937: In New York, “Catholic, Protestant and Jewish speakers” including Rabbi Elias L. Soloon and Rabbi Morris M. Goldberg joined in tonight’s celebration of the 100th anniversary of Congregation Shaare Zedek which was also marked by President Roosevelt and Governor Lehman who “sent letters of feciliation…”

    1937: Birthdate of cognitive psychologist Amos Tversky.  Born in Haifa, Amos Tversky, a Stanford psychology professor and his longtime colleague, Princeton psychologist Daniel Kahneman, jointly won the 2003 Grawemeyer Award for Psychology. The $200,000 prize, awarded for the third time by the University of Louisville in Kentucky, recognizes outstanding contributions to the field of psychology. Working as a team for nearly three decades, Kahneman and Tversky revolutionized the scientific approach to decision making, ultimately affecting all social sciences and many related disciplines. Tversky died of cancer in 1996.  His untimely death prevented him from sharing in a Nobel Prize with his longtime colleague, Daniel Kahneman. 

    1937: Police fired on a crowd in Clichy which provoked a crisis that the opponents of Leon Blum used in an attempt to gain a vote of no confidence in his Popular Front government.

    1937: Thanks to intervention by United States consular representatives, Boris Smolar, a correspondent for JTA who was ordered to leave Germany on March 12, “has received permission for an indefinite stay I Berlin.”

    1938(13th of Adar II, 5698): Fast of Esther

    1938: Tonight, Harold Jacobi, the chairman of the New York United Palestine Appeal, joined with leaders of Hadassah in using a Purim theme to call upon American Jews to support the drive to provide aid for the “more than 200,000 Jews in Austria who have come under the rule of the Nazis” on the eve of the holiday when Persian Jews were faced with possible destruction.

    1938: Jewish professors were kicked out of Austrian universities

    1938: In his review of Goodbye Wester Countryby Henry Williamson, Ralph Thompson described the author’s interpretation of the Nazi revolution as being “the most naïve interpretation of the Nazi revolution ever put to paper.

    1938: During the Spanish Civil War the four day battle at Belichite in which the Botwins, a company of Polish volunteers named after political radical Naftali Bortain, had almost been wiped out.

    1938: Adolf Eichmann went to Austria to begin the removal of Jews

    1939: Emil Hacha, who had been the last President of an “independent” Czechoslovakia bowed to personal pressure from Hitler and became the “State President of Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia” where, regardless of what else he did to help or combat the Nazis, he did sign “into law legislation modeled after the Nuremberg Laws that meant the Jews were no longer Czech citizens in any sense of that term.

    1939: As Arab violence continues unabated, 3 Arabs were killed today and another 250 were arrested by British forces who also seized a large quantity of rifles, ammunition and explosives.

    1939: “Myron C. Taylor, the United States representative on the Evian inter-governmental refugee committee, who is en route home, arrived in London and spend the day discussing with the leaders in the City problems connected with the mass emigration of Jews from Germany if the recent Nazi proposals are carried out.”

    1940(6th of Adar II, 5700): Samuel Untermyer passed away. It is difficult to do justice to the life and career of this lawyer, self-made millionaire and leader of the Jewish community born in Virginia who found success in New York City. The following lengthy obituary in the New York Times provides a picture of his life and accomplishments  Untermyer was the grandfather of Samuel Untermyer II. Born in 1912, he was “a United States nuclear engineer who theorized that steam bubble formation in a nuclear reactor core would not produce unstable reactions but would instead result in an inherently stable and self-controlling reactor design. He was responsible for the BORAX Experiments and in recognition of his fundamental development work on safe, water-cooled reactors the American Nuclear Society now has an award named after him for work in this field.” He won the Newcomen Medal in 1980 and passed away in 2001.

    1942: The first 1,600 Jews were deported from Lublin to Belzec. Another 10,000 would follow the next week.

    1942: “The American Federation for Lithuanian Jews, of which Sidney Hillman is honorary president, today issued an appeal to all Jews from the Baltic countries now in the United States to come to the aid of Lithuanian Jews who succeeded in escaping from the Nazis into Soviet territory.” (As reported by JTA)

    1943: Birthdate of actress Susan Linda Bay who is the widow Leonard Nimoy.

    1943: In Manhattan, attorney Jacob Goldberg and “the former Etta Herman, a department store coat model and homemaker” gave birth to Michael Harris Goldberg “the general counsel of the upstart American Basketball Association during its final years in the 1970s and the head of the N.B.A. coaches’ union for nearly four decades…” (As reported by Richard Sandomi

    1943(9th of Adar II, 5703):  An SS officer was killed by a Jew named Kotnowski at Lvov. In reprisal, the Germans hung 11 Jewish policemen from the balconies overlooking the main street of the Ghetto. Also over 1,000 Jews were taken away and shot.

    1944: Following reports that Prime Minister Miklós Kállay was putting out feelers to the Allies about a possible capitulation, “Hitler summoned Admiral Miklos Horthy to a meeting” where he pressured him to stay in the work and “to assist in the kill of more of Hungary’s Jews.”

    1945: Approximately 90% of Wurzburg, a city that had shipped its Jewish population to concentration camps from 1941 through 1943, was destroyed today when 225 British heavy bombers attacked the city in a 17 minute period.

    1946(13th of Adar II, 5706): Parashat Vayikra; Shabbat Zachor; erev Purim

    1946: Today The Acheson-Lilienthal Report Report on the International Control of Atomic Energy was published.  Lilienthal is David Lilienthal who had gained fame as the creator of TVA. His involvement in how the United States should deal with Atomic Energy in the post-war world is another example of Jewish involvement in a whole raft of issues dealing with the creation and use of both the Atomic and Hydrogen bombs.

    1947: “The Red House,” the film version of the book by the same name, starring Edward G. Robinson was released today in the United States.

    1947: The British announce plans to end Martial Law in Tel Aviv and adjacent areas effective tomorrow. 

    1947(24th of Adar, 5707): Sixty-three year old Copenhagen born Waldemar Holberg, the world welterweight champion in 1914 who boxed for in the 1908 Olympics for Denmark passed away today.

    1947: An explosion ripped through press room and tourist information center in the Jerusalem offices of the Jewish agency.  While some said the attack was the work of “Jewish terrorists” and highlighted the split between Yishuv and militant extremists, the Irgun denied responsibility and said the attack may have been the work of the British.

    1948: “In a day of comparatively little violence in Palestine, a spokesman of the Jewish Agency for Palestine said today that the Jews ‘would welcome any truce under any conditions.’”

    1948: As Arab forces waged a war of terror designed to undo the UN Partition Resolution, the Palmach attacked al-Husayniyaa in response to the explosion of land mine.

    1949:  In London, Ontario, Joe Garber and Hope Wolf gave birth to Canadian actor Victor Garber

    1952:  Birthdate of French American businessman, Philippe Kahn, founder of Borland Software Corporation

    1954(11th of Adar II, 5714): Tonight unknown assailants attacked an Egged bus traveling between Eilat and Tel Aviv killing the driver Efraim Firstenberg, eight male passengers and two female passengers following which the killers spat on and abused the bodies of the dead before leaving with loot they had collected.

    1957: “Robert Briscoe, the Jewish Lord Mayor of Dublin, carrying his Talis bag from Dublin visited and prayed at the Park East Synagouge on Shabbas morning.

    1958: In Croatia Slavko Goldstein and his wife gave birth to Ivo Goldstein, the historian who is ‘the former president of Bet Israel, a Jewish community in Zagreb, which he founded with his father” with whom he also worked on “the reconstruction of the Zagreb Synagogue.”

    1959: Birthdate of Scott L. Schwartz, the native of Philadelphia who used “his size and agility at 6"10 and 303 pounds (137 kg)” to carve out careers in law enforcement, acting and wrestling.

    1962: It was reported today that Daniel Persky, the brother of Eliah Persky, had the motto “Eved L’Ivrith Anokhi” (A slave unto Hebrew am I) on his business cards.

    1962: The “Golani Brigade raided Syrian outposts to the north of the Sea of Galilee in order to stop Syrian shelling of Israeli Villages.  Seven Israeli soldiers and thirty Syrian soldiers were killed during the battle.”  The raid did not end the shelling.  It would continue sporadically until 1967 when the IDF heroically took the Golan Heights. 

    1963: “Personality: Boom is Loud for Lesser” published today provides a profile of Louis Lesser and his real estate empire.

    1964: Premiere of “Nothing But the Best,” a British comedy with a script co-authored by future Oscar winner Frederic Raphael.

    1965: Israel Votes to Have Diplomatic Relations with West Germany

    1965: As bagel bakers clashed over how to deal with the changing world of Bagel Baking, Morris Skolnick was defeated in his bid to be elected business agent for famed local 388.

    1966: When David Dubinsky announced his retirement today from the International Ladies Garment Workers he told fellow union officers, ''I didn't have a life, I had a union life. You know my nature. If I'm president I can't only be president from morning till night. It has to be from morning until the next morning.''

    1968(16th of Adar, 5728): Italian Jewish composer Mario Castelnuovo-Tedescopassed away. Born in Florence in 1895, he was descended from a prominent banking family that had lived in the city since the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492. Like many artists who fled fascism, Castelnuovo-Tedesco ended up in Hollywood, where, with the help of Yasha Heifetz, he landed a contract with MGM as a film composer. Over the next fifteen years, he worked on scores for some 200 films there and at the other major film studios. He was a significant influence on other major film composers, including Henry Mancini, Jerry Goldsmith, Nelson Riddle, John Williams, and André Previn. His relationship to Hollywood was ambiguous: later in life he attempted to deny the influence that it had on his own work, but he also believed that it was an essentially American art form, much as opera was European. In the United States, Castelnuovo-Tedesco also composed new operas and works based on American poetry, Jewish liturgy, and the Bible.

    1976(14th of Adar II, 5736): Purim observed for the last time during the Presidency of Jerry Ford.

    1980(28th of Adar, 5740):  Allard Lowenstein, Congressman from New York’s 5th district and noted liberal Democrat was murdered.

    1982: In case of Jew on Jew, in “Rudnick’s Poor Little Lambs’ of Yale” Frank Rich reviewed Paul Rudnick’s ''‘Poor Little Lambs,’ a no-holds-barred account of a year in the life of the Whiffenpoofs singing group.”

    1983: The Third World Conference on Soviet Jewry continued to a second day in Jerusalem.

    1984: William Buckley, the CIA station chief in Beirut, Lebanon, is kidnapped by Islamic fundamentalists and later dies in captivity.

    1985:  Associated Press newsman Terry Anderson is taken hostage in Beirut.

    1985(23rd of Adar, 5745): Shabbat Parah

    1985(23rd of Adar, 5745): Olga Ginsburg (nee Bessman) who had been born in 1894 and was the wife of Joseph Binsburg and the mother of the multi-talented Serge Gainsbourg passed away today.

    1987: Israel radio reported today that the Israeli Government has helped to pay the legal bills of Jonathan Jay Pollard, the American intelligence analyst sentenced to life in prison last month for spying for Israel. The radio said ''state elements in Israel'' transferred $80,000 by unspecified indirect means to the defense of Mr. Pollard and his wife, Anne Henderson-Pollard. Mrs. Henderson-Pollard was sentenced to five years for helping her husband to pass hundreds of top-secret American documents to the Israeli Government. The couple's total legal expenses were reported to be somewhere between $120,000 to $200,000. The radio report did not say when the transfer took place or whether the Israeli Government planned to make additional payments to the Pollards. Israel radio said the funds were provided to James Hibey, a Washington lawyer, whom it described as the lawyer for Mr. Pollard and his wife.

    1987(15th of Adar, 5747): Shushan Purim

    1987(15th of Adar, 5747): Eighty-seven year old Estonia native Samuel H. Shapiro, the second Jew to serve as Governor of Illinois passed away today.

    1987: Defense Minister Yitzhak Rabin today denied reports that Israel may still be spying on the United States. Mr. Rabin was responding to a story in The Washington Post which said American investigators became suspicious during their questioning of Mr. Pollard that Israel had another agent working in an American intelligence operation.

    1987: Doctors discovered and removed a tumor from the brain of Jazz Drummer Buddy Rich. (As reported by James Barron)

    1988(27th of Adar, 5748): Eighty-five year old Austro-Hungarian Empire native Paul Kohner, a dominating talent agent, the brother of novelist Frederick Kohner and father of actress of Susan Kohner passed away today.

    1991: "Underground," a new work by the Israeli playwright Joshua Sobol, directed by Adrian Hall, is scheduled to have its last performance today at the Yale Repertory Theater.

    1991: “Trabbi Goes to Hollywood” a comedy film directed by Jon Turteltaub and featuring Milton Berle was released in Germany today.

    1992: Loretta Weinberg began serving as a Member of the New Jersey General Assembly from the 37th Legislative District,

    1995(14thof Adar II, 5755): Purim

    1997: In “Cabaret That Shocked, Shocked the Nazis” published today David Mermelstein Ute Lemper’s plans to “perform relatively obscure cabaret songs banned by the Nazis.”

    1998: The Vatican expressed remorse for the cowardice of some Christians during the Holocaust, but defended the actions of Pope Pius XII.

    1998:At a press conference today Cardinal Cassidy, President of the Holy See's Commission For Religious Relations With the Jews, presented for publication the document, We Remember: A Reflection On The Shoah. Joining him in the presentation were Bishop Pierre Duprey, Vice President of the Commission, and Father Remi Hoeckmann, O.P., its Secretary.

    1999(28th of Adar, 5759): Rhoda Mendelson Faffer passed away today at the age of 87.  The deceased was the wife of the late Samuel Faffer and the late, well-known Chazan, Cantor Nathan Mendelson of Montreal Canada. 

    2001: More than 30 Jewish student journalists from across the United States studied with Pulitzer Prize-winners Charles Krauthammer and Glenn Frankel, the editor of The Washington Post Magazine, as well as editors of leading American Jewish publications as part of the Journalism Track of the 2001 Charlotte and Jack J. Spitzer B'nai B'rith Hillel Forum on Public Policy.
    2002: “The Last Days of Pompeii,” a solo exhibition of the works of Eleanor Antin came to a close.

    2003: On the eve of the United States' invasion of Iraq, Pastor John Hagee took to the pulpit to warn of the coming Antichrist. In his sermon, "The Final Dictator," Hagee described the Antichrist as a seductive figure with "fierce features." He will be "a blasphemer and a homosexual," the pastor announced. Then, Hagee boomed, "There's a phrase in Scripture used solely to identify the Jewish people. It suggests that this man [the Antichrist] is at least going to be partially Jewish, as was Adolph Hitler, as was Karl Marx." This "fierce" gay Jew, according to Hagee, would "slaughter one-third of the Earth's population" and "make Adolph Hitler look like a choirboy."

    2003: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of interest to Jewish readers including What Liberal Media? The Truth About Bias and the Newsby Eric Alterman

    2005:  In yet another exchange of land for a promise of peace, Israel officially hands over Jericho to Palestinian control

    2006: Excavations at Tel Arad in the Negev were photographed today

    2006: In an interview at the time, repeated on BBC2's Newsnight today Michael Levy stated that "Over the years I have paid many millions of tax and, if you average it, each year it comes to many hundreds of thousands of pounds. In that particular year, I was giving my time to the Labour Party and the voluntary sector, and I just lived off capital.

    2007: While serving as Chief Rabbi of France, Joseph Haim Sitruk “was selected as Commander of the Legion of Honor.”

    2007: The Jewish Post reported that “Hadarom, the Rabbinical Council of America’s annual Torah journal, is now available on the Internet. The 50-year-old journal, which deals principally with matters of Jewish law and biblical and Talmudic exegesis, is accessible at”

    2008: The New York Times book section features reviews of Why We’re Liberals:A Political Handbook for Post-Bush America by liberal Jewish columnist Eric Alterman and The Best American Erotic Poems From 1800 to the Presentedited by David Lehman.

    2008: Within a week of the near collapse of Bear Stearns led by President and COO Bear Stearns and merger withJP Morgantoday, “the shares were trading at $5.33 per share which eventually prompted a reportedly angry confrontation between Schwartz and senior trader Alan Mintz in the company gym 

    2008: “Black Rabbi Reaches out to Mainstream of His Faith” published today described the life and work of Rabbi Capers C. Funnye, Jr. (prounced fun-AY) the spiritual leader of Chicago’s Beth Shalom B’nai Zaken Ethiopian Hebrew Congregation.

    2008:About two dozen Holocaust survivors, including some saved by German industrialist Oskar Schindler mark the 65th anniversary of the Nazi's liquidation of the Jewish ghetto in Krakow.

    In just two days in March 1943, German soldiers emptied the ghetto of its estimated 16,000 Jewish residents, shipping them to a forced-labor camp in nearby Plaszow and to the Auschwitz-Birkenau death camp, where most were killed in the gas chambers. Those left behind were executed, with some 2,000 Jews killed. By the end of World War II, just 3,000 Jews who lived in the ghetto survived. About 25 survivors _ some returning to Poland for the first time since the war's end _ will march through the Podgorze district in Krakow to the grounds of the former camp in Plaszow where around 8,000 people, including Poles, perished during the war. Just 60 of the Jews Schindler saved are alive and a dozen are expected for the march, said Andrzej Skotnicki, who helped bring back Schindler's Jews for the anniversary events and recently published a book on Jews from Krakow that were saved by Schindler."  They lost many members of their families, so its not easy for them," Skotnicki told The Associated Press. The Plaszow camp was the setting for Steven Spielberg's 1993 Oscar-winning film "Schindler's List," which chronicled the German businessman's efforts to shield more than 1,000 Jews from Nazi death camps by hiring them to work in his Krakow factory. Since the release of Spielberg's film, tourists to Krakow have sought out the place where Schindler kept the emaciated, frostbitten Jews, claiming their work was essential to the survival of his metal works factory, where prisoners produced enameled pots and pans. Schindler spent his fortune feeding the Jews he saved. After the war, he emigrated to Argentina with his wife, Emilie, but returned to Germany in 1958 where he died in 1974. He was buried in Jerusalem at his own request.

    2008:A bomb alert today at the Paris Book Fair, which this year honors Israeli writers, prompted the evacuation of thousands of people but appeared to be a false alarm, Paris police officials said.

    2009: In Albany, NY, a screening of Etgar Keret’s film “Jellyfish” followed by Q&A with the famed Israeli author.

    2009: After The New Republic published ‘Wasting Away in Hooverville” today, Jonathan “Chait appeared on Comedy Central's The Colbert Report to counter conservative arguments that the New Deal was a failure.”

    2009:As part of Lillian Goldman Literary Seriesthe American Jewish Historical Society, the Center for Jewish History and Jewish Heritage present: “The Lifecycles of New York Jews: Love and Loss,” the second in an already widely praised series of staged readings that explores the experiences of love, well-being and loss through the eyes of New York Jewish authors. With the assistance of stage and screen star Kathleen Chalfant and a wonderful supporting cast, acclaimed author Nicole Krauss joins in a theatrical reading of her poignant and powerful New Yorker magazine story, "The Last Words on Earth," from the novel The History of Love.  Non-fiction story writer and memoirist Dorothy Gallagher, whose work has been described as "intimate, fierce and hilarious," reads from her collections How I Came Into My Inheritance and Strangers in the House.  Jonathan Rosen, editorial director of Nextbook, reads from his national bestseller, The Life of the Skiesand Alix Kates Shulman reads from her memoir, To Love What Is: A Marriage Transformed.

    2009: A 29 year old Israeli man connected with Jerusalem’s haredi “modesty squad” was sentenced to four years in prison today for the brutal gang assault of a woman in her apartment last year. The Justice Minister announced that the group’s ringleader and other alleged cell members were never charged in the case due to a lack of evidence.

    2009: Ninety-six year old song writer Jack Lawrence passed away today.

    2010: Federal Communications Commission Chairman Julius Genachowski “released a National Broadband Plan, titled “Connecting America: The National Broadband Plan”.

    2010: Rosh Chodesh Nisan, 5770

    2010: According to the Vilna Gaon, construction of the third temple is scheduled to begin on this day.

    2010: As part of its series “Far Flung Jews: Jewish Cultures Around the World,” the Jewish Study Center is scheduled to offer a program describing “The Resurgent Jewish Community of Berlin” at Adas Israel in Washington, DC.

    2010:A senior Israel Defense Forces officer said today that despite the violence that erupted across Jerusalem in response to Hamas' declaration of a "day of rage" neither the Palestinian Authority nor Israel was interested in seeing a renewal of conflict.

    2010:Avner Netanyahu, 15, son of Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu and Sarah Netanyahu, received the top honor in Israel's national Bible Quiz championship for youth today. The girls' champion was Or Ashual of the Bnei Akiva Amana Academy in Kfar Saba.

    2010: David Sofer, “the Jewish Israeli businessman living in London” whose property would be part of a dispute in 2018 between Israel and the Greek Orthodox Church, and his wife Cindy attended the “opening reception of the Jewish Museum in London” today.

    2010: “Celebrity chef Nigella Lawson…helped” to “re-launch the London Jewish Museum” today “after a two year closure. “Food and the nature of Britishness both play a significant part in the museum, which has expanded from a Victorian house in London's Camden Town to a former piano factory next door, tripling its floor space. Among the interactive displays is a chance to smell chicken soup cooking in a recreated East End immigrant's kitchen. There also is a cavalcade of historical figures, both famous and obscure, including 19th-century Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli; war poet Isaac Rosenberg, killed on the Western Front; and Daniel Mendoza, an 18th-century boxing champion of England. Their stories sit alongside those of humbler figures - laborers, seamstresses, trade unionists, entertainers.” According to Sarah Jillings, the museum’s exhibition project director, the goal is to tell both the story of the Jewish community in London and the story of London itself.  “Britain's 300,000-strong Jewish community stretches back to 1066, when the first Jews arrived with William the Conqueror's invading Norman army. The museum attests to a thriving medieval community. One of its star displays is a 13th-century mikvah, or ritual bath, uncovered in what is now the heart of London's financial district. England's entire Jewish population was expelled by King Edward I in 1290 after years of anti-Semitic violence, and Jews were only readmitted in 1656 under Oliver Cromwell, who had overthrown the monarchy. From there, the museum tells an evocative tale - common to many immigrant communities - of dislocation and hard work, prejudice and resistance, and the gradual move from inner-city tenements to greater prosperity in the suburbs. There are many Jewish museums, Holocaust museums - extraordinary places - around the world, said Alan Yentob, creative director of the BBC and a patron of the museum. But this is one that tells the story of an immigrant culture, and therefore chimes with many people around the world today. One gallery is devoted to the Holocaust, focusing on the experience of one British survivor of Auschwitz, while another holds a large display of Jewish ceremonial art. Its curators acknowledge that the history of Briton's Jews is also the history of anti-Semitism. For centuries Jews were barred from many professions, including serving in Parliament - Disraeli was allowed because he had converted to Christianity as a teenager. A century ago, the press ran sensationalist headlines about alien newcomers as tens of thousands of Jews fleeing persecution in Eastern Europe settled in Britain. The museum sees its role as helping to build social cohesion. It predicts that a majority of the 65,000 visitors expected this year will not be Jewish, and will include many groups of schoolchildren.” As to fish and chips, that supposedly quintessential British dish, Celebrity Chef Lawson says, “Fish and chips, which everyone thinks of as very English, is, in fact Sephardic Jewish.”  According to some sources, “Britain's national dish has its origins in fried fish introduced to the country by Spanish and Portuguese Jews.”

    2011: The 15th New York Sephardic Jewish Film Festival is scheduled to come to an end.

    2011(6th of Adar II, 5871): Seventy-five year old actor Al Israel who was best known for his role in two Al Pacino gangster films – Scarface and Carlito’s Way—passed away today.

    2011: Final screening of Human Resource Manager, a film based on a novel by A.B. Yehoushua, is scheduled to take place at the Cinema Village in New York.

    2011: Yale Strom & Hot Pstromi are scheduled to appear “in concert for the opening of the exhibit on Ketuvot at The Jewish Museum.

    2011: The Israel Air Force fired two missiles at a security compound in the Hamas-ruled Gaza Strip today, killing two Palestinians

    2011:Jewish youth held an artistic and educational ceremony to memorialize the victims of the 1992 bombing of the Israeli Embassy in Buenos Aires Israeli pop star Ivri Lider, who was invited to Argentina by the "Autumn Festival” of music, performed at the event. Youth media professionals specializing in video and film prepared a video called “Justice will not stay buried under the rubble” about the attack memorials.

    2011:The northern California home of Rabbi Michael Lerner, editor of the progressive Tikkun magazine, was vandalized for the third time in less than a year. The attack came a day after Lerner presented the Tikkun Award for ethics to South African Justice Richard Goldstone at a celebration of Tikkun’s 25th anniversary attended by more than 600 people at the University of California, Berkeley. (As reported by JTA)

    2011: The Chief Rabbinate, Interior Ministry and State Attorney’s Office are currently drawing up new procedures to determine the validity of Orthodox conversions for the purpose of aliya, Chief Sephardi Rabbi Shlomo Amar said today.

    2012: “Nina Menkes Retrospective: Cinema as Sorcery” featuring personal appearances by the famed filmmaker whose parents are Holocaust survivors is scheduled to come to an in New York City.

    2012: The Friars Club is scheduled to present a tribute to Jerry Lewis at the 92ndStreet Y. The program will include a “screening of a new documentary, Method to the Madness of Jerry Lewis, followed by a talk/tribute with Jerry Lewis on the occasion of his 86th birthday.”

    2012: Jerusalem hosted its second annual marathon today.

    2013: The Alexandria Kleztet is scheduled to perform in Rockville, MD. 

    2013: “The Day I Saw Your Heart” is scheduled to have its Minnesota Premiere at the Minneapolis Jewish Film Festival.

    2013(5thof Nisan, 5773): Sixty year old former MK Marina Solodkin suffered a stroke and passed away while attending a conference in Riga, Latvia.

    2013: The Jewish Community Center of Northern Virginia is scheduled to a the Virginia Virtuosi performing an evening of Jewish classical music celebrating Freedom.

    2013: The Philomusica Quartet – Nadia Weintraub, Yelena Tishin, Avraham Leventhal, Dmitri Golderman – is scheduled to perform at the Eden-Tamir Music Center

     2013: Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu presented the new government to President Shimon Peres tonight.

    2013:MK Tzipi Livni, Israel’s newest Justice Minister, stressed today that she would not support the basic law bill “Israel is the national state of the Jewish people,” whose promotion is part of the new coalition agreements with the Jewish Home party. In the absence of a constitution, The Basic Laws of Israel (Chukei Hayesod) deal with the formation and role of the principal state’s institutions, and the relations between the state’s authorities.

    2014(14thof Adar II, 5774): Purim

    2014(14thof Adar II, 5774): Eighty-six year old Tony award winning composer Mitch Leigh whose work also included the “Nobody Doesn’t Like Sara Lee “ jingle  passed away today. (As reported by Anita Gates)

    2014: Eden Rose Strauss, daughter of Rabbi Feivel and Abbie Strauss and granddaughter of Dr. Bob and Laurie Silber is scheduled to be the youngest person in Bexley, Ohio “celebrating” what for will be her first Purim

    2014: The Jewish Museum is scheduled to host a family concert by The Dirty Sock Funtime Band.

    2014: “The Jewish Cardinal” and “Suskind” are scheduled to be shown at the Houston Jewish Film Festival.

    2014: The New York Sephardic Jewish Film Festival is scheduled to host a screening of “Joann Sfar Draws From Memory” which “tracks his odyssey through the Algerian and Eastern European Jewish heritage that serves as the wellspring of his work.”

    2014: Ilan Caplan, the Chazan for the Traditional High Holiday Services in Cedar Rapids is scheduled to chant Megalith Esther at Shird Chadesh In Metairie, LA which when it was the Conservative Congregation of New Orleans gave Mitchell Levin who davens in Cedar Rapids, his first teaching job. (Don’t you just love Jewish Geography?)

    2014: In Cedar Rapids, Iowa Temple Judah is scheduled to host a Religious School Purim Carnival followed later in the day by a Megillah Reading with attendees including adults in costumes.

    2014: In Israel, Channel 2 reported that Israel has tightened security in its airspace following the disappearance of Malaysian Airlines flight MH370. (As reported by Times of Israel)

    2014:”Justice Minister Tzipi Livni, Israel’s top negotiator in talks with the Palestinian Authority, chastised Defense Minister Moshe Ya’alon on Sunday evening over comments he’d made the previous day dismissing the viability of peace talks, saying “grumbling and despairing is easy…our responsibility is to change reality.”  (As reported by Itamar Sharon)

    2014: “Hundreds of east Jerusalem residents held a demonstration in Jerusalem’s Old City near the Damascus Gate this evening, with several demonstrators throwing rocks at a police car, breaking its windshield.” (As reported by Itamar Sharon)

    2014: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and or of special interest to Jewish readers including  Bernard Malamud: Novels and Stories of the 1940s and 50s: "The Natural,""The Assistant,""Twenty Stories,""Posthumously Published Stories edited by Philip Davis, Bernard Malamud: Novels and Stories of the 1940s and 50s: "The Natural,""The Assistant,""Twenty Stories,""Posthumously Published Stories edited by Phillip Davis and The Wherewithal, A Novel in Verse by Philip Schultz as well as the publication of an interview with Philip Roth.

    2015: “Solomon Schechter Symposium” with Dara Horn is scheduled to be presented by the Herbert D. Katz Center Advanced Judaic Studies.

    2015: Rabbi Denise Eger read the Torah today during installation as CCAR president.

    2015: Jack Goldberg is scheduled to deliver a lecture on “Middle East Chaos: From Civil Wars to Disintegration of States” in San Diego.

    2015: Orient Stier is scheduled to deliver a lecture on “The Hidden and the Revealed: A God’s-Eye View of the Landscape of Holocaust Postmemory” at the Jewish Museum of Florida.

    2015: “Los Angeles County prosecutors filed a murder charge today against real estate scion Robert Durst in the December 2000 killing of his longtime friend Susan Berman, who was found shot execution-style in her Benedict Canyon home on Christmas Eve.”

    2015: “Under pressure on the eve of a surprisingly close election, Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu of Israel today doubled down on his appeal to right-wing voters, declaring definitively that if he was returned to office he would never establish a Palestinian state.”

    2015: “The Allied Powers’ Response to the Holocaust Conference” is scheduled open today.

    2016: “Shore of Love” and “Arabic Movie” are scheduled to be shown at the 19thNew York Sephardic Jewish Film Festival.

    2016: “Women’s Night Dinner” and “A La Vie” are scheduled to shown at the Houston Jewish Film Festival.

    2016: During a speech in the Rose Garden this morning “new U.S. Supreme Court nominee Merrick Garland credited his Jewish grandparents, who he said fled to the United States from anti-Semitism in Russia, for putting him in position to be nominated”

    2016: The YIVO Institute for Jewish research is scheduled to present a lecture on “Yiddish Culture and Interwar Paris: The 1937 World's Fair & the Modern Jewish Culture Pavilion.”

    2017: Mobster Myron Sugerman, the son “Barney Sugerman, a man who partnered in the gambling business with such notorious mob figures as Meyer Lansky and fellow Jerseyan Abner “Longie” Zwillman” and who “followed his father into the world of illegal gambling and wound up serving 19 months at the Federal Correctional Complex in Allenwood, Pa., after being convicted on gambling charges” “regaled the crowd at Congregation Beth Israel with his own take on the Jewish involvement in famous crime syndicates. (As reported by Alan Smason) Editor’s Note – wonder when the congregation will yuck it up with tales of the Purple Gang.

    2017(18thof Adar, 5777): Ninety-one year old neurologist, Dr. Lewis Rowland passed away way today. (As reported by Denise Grady)

    2017: The Princeton Tigers (23-6) led by senior forward Spencer Weisz, “a Maccabiah Games gold medalist” and “the Ivy League’s Player of the Year are scheduled to face off against Notre Dame in the opening round of the NACC Basketball Tournament.

    2017: JW3 is scheduled to host the last screening of “Denial,” a film based on the libel trial in which professor Deborah E. Lipstadt squared again Holocaust denier David Irving.

    2017: The Temple Emanu-El Streicker Center is scheduled to host “Hidden Mysteries and Magic: Kabbalah and Jewish Mysticism in Renaissance Florence.”

    2018: The New Jersey Jewish Film Festival is scheduled to present a screening of “The Children of Chance,” the story of a Jewish boy surviving the Holocaust in Paris.

    2018: The Fifth Edition of the Socially Relevant Film “featuring Israeli films The Gravedigger’s Daughter by Shira Gabay, The Girl by Lihi Sabag, Jerusalem In Line by Amir Har-Gil and Hotel Everest by Claudia Sobral.” Is scheduled to open in New York City.

    2018: Following a services at the Sephardic Temple Tifereth Israel and a Shabbat dinner, scholar-in-residence Rabbi Marc D. Angel is scheduled to deliver his first lecture.

    2018: Limmudfest is scheduled to begin this evening in New Orleans, LA.

    2018:Collecting for the Nation: The 75th Anniversary of the Lessing J. Rosenwald Gift of Prints and Drawings to the National Gallery of Art” is scheduled to begin at noon at The National Gallery of Art.

    2018: Following its release in Berlin and the United Kingdom, “Seven Days in Entebbe” is scheduled to be released in the United States today.




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    March 17

    796 BCE (1stof Nisan, 2956): Based on computations using the Bible and archaeology, possible date for the death of Jehoash, King of Judah.

    45 BCE:  Julius Caesar defeated the forces of Pompey at the Battle of Munda.  Caesar’s victory put an end to the Pompeian attempt to rule Rome. Considering the way Pompey treated the Jews, Caesar’s victory was the preferable outcome.

    180: Antonius Marcus Aurelius Emperor of Romepassed away at the age of 58.  The author of Meditations was known as a wise philosopher-king.  However, he had little use for the Jews.  While traveling in Judea, he described the Jews as "Stinking and tumultuous."  He reportedly expressed a preference for the Teutonic barbarians whom he was fighting on the border between Gaul and Germania.

    455: Petronius Maximus becomes emperor of the Western Roman Empire after murdering Valentinian III and forcing the Empress Eudoxia to marry him.  The Empress wrote to Genseric the Vandal asking him to come to Rome to avenge her. According to Theophanes he came and sacked the city and reportedly carried off the treasures from the Second Temple that had been seized by Titus in 70.   

    763: Birthdate of Harun al-Rashid, the Abbasid caliph who sent Jewish teachers to France at the request of Charlemagne.

    1190: The Crusaders completed the massacre of Jews of York England slaughtering 500 Jews on this particular day.

    1398: Today “The city council of Worms enacted an ordinance that every Jew or Jewess over twelve should pay one old tournois in Leibzoll, but not one farthing more.”

    1616: In Holland, under the rule of Prince Maurice of Orange, it is decided that each city could decide for itself whether or not to admit Jews. In those towns where they were admitted they would not be required to wear a badge of any sort identifying them as Jews.

    1636:Urban VIII issued “Cum allias piae” a Papal Bull that ordered the “Synagogues of the Duchies of Ferarri and Urban, to pay a tax of 10 ecus.”

    1654: Alexis Mikhailovich, the second Romanov Czar, issued an edict today instructing “a party of Lithuanian Jews to proceed from Kaluga to Nijni-Novgorod” under the protection of an “escort of twenty sharpshooters.”

    1733: “Deborah,” an oratorio by Handel based on Chapters 4 and 5 of the Book of Judges premiered at the King’s Theatre in London.

    1749: “Solomon,” an oratorio by Handel based on the Biblical account of the Israelite King had its first performance at the Theatre Royal in London.

    1762: The first St. Patrick’s Day Parade is held in New York City.  The parade was organized by Irish soldiers serving in the British Navy.  “Corned beef and cabbage is the traditional meal enjoyed by many on St. Patrick's Day, but only half of it is truly Irish. Cabbage has long been a staple of the Irish diet, but it was traditionally served with Irish bacon, not corned beef. The corned beef was substituted for bacon by Irish immigrants who came to America and who could not afford the real thing i.e. bacon. According to one version of this tale, the Irish immigrants learned about the cheaper alternative, corned beef, from their Jewish neighbors.” Are we to believe that traif bacon gave way to kosher Corned Beef?  Only in America!

    1757:Following a dispute with other members of the Bet Din in London, Isaac Nieto wrote a letter today resigning as ab bet din.  Nieto was the son David Nieto and he had served as the Haham of Bevis Marks and as the first Rabbi of the Great Synagogue in Gibraltar. He had been serving as the ab bet din since 1751.

    1798: Birthdate of Jacob Ettlinger, the native of Baden who became a leader of Orthodox Judaism and served as Chief Rabbi in Altona from 1836 until his death in 1871

    1789: Birthdate of Edmund Kean, the great 19thcentury Shakespearian actor who first gained fame for his portrayal of Shylock.  The portrayal of the Jew from Venice was a difficult role and a career-maker for those few who did it successfully.

    1801: In Galicia, Rabbi Shebah ha-Levi and his wife gave birth to Orientalist Simchah Pinksker, the father of Leon Pinsker.

    1805: The Italian Republic, a creation of Napoleon, was transformed in the Kingdom of Italy with the French emperor serving as King.  The Jews of Italy benefited from the appearance of the French revolutionary armies. Between 1796 and 1798, they had liberated several ghettos, most notably the Rome Ghetto in 1798.  The Jews will be forced to return to their ghettos with the return of Italian reactionaries but Napoleon would have one last success when he freed the Jews of Florence from their Ghetto in 1808.

    1807: Birthdate of Mendel Hess the Chief Rabbi of the Grand Duchy of Weimar (Germany).

    1808: Today an imperial edict was issued that “divided the Jews living in French countries into consistories. Brussels (Belgium) was included in the consistory of Crefeld. Since 1794, the French had controlled Belgium.  By the time of the issuance of that edit, this meant Napoleon was the one issuing the orders. On the overthrow of Napoleon, Belgium was united with Holland; and the Jewish community of Brussels became the head of the fourteenth religious district of Holland. After the revolution of 1830 Brussels became the head of the Belgian consistories, and a chief rabbi was nominated.”

    1808: The Infamous Decree (decret infame) of Napoleon canceled all debts owed to Jews by those serving in the military or by women if it was signed without the approval of their husbands or parents. It also abolished freedom of trade of the Jews by forcing them to acquire permits (which were almost never given) from the local prefects, and it prevented Jews from settling in the area of the Upper and Lower Rhine.

    1808: Establishment of the Central Consistory of French Jews.

    1811: Birthdate of Karl Gutzkow, the author “Uriel Acosta” which was first performed in Yiddish in 1882 at the Mariinsky Theatre in Odessa starring Abba Schoengold whom Jacob Adler described as "the god of the Yiddish public, the god, indeed, of all who saw him on stage... the handsomest man in the world. Tall. Blue eyes. Golden hair. An Apollo."

    1811: The Austrian Emperor denied Simon Edler von Lämel permission to purchase a house in Vienna but “in the same year elevated him to the hereditary nobility” as a reward for his assistance in supplying the Army during the Napoleonic Wars.

    1815: In Darmstadt, Reina (Rachel) Oppenheimer and Abraham Oppenheimer gave birth to Myer Oppenheimer.

    1818: “A restrict measure, which Napoleon had enacted in 1808, -- to continue in force for ten years only, on his assumption that such a ten years’ term was necessary to enable the Jews to conform to the conclusions of his Sanhedrin to become good citizens of the country of their domicile and to be an alien nation expired” today “by its own limitation.”

    1819: Abraham Solomon married Ellen Levy at the New Synagogue today.

    1832: Birthdate of Moncure Daniel Conway the Unitarian clergyman and author whose works include The Wandering Jew and Solomon and Solomonic Literature

    1836: In Charleston, South Carolina, Isaac and Babetta Dittenhoefer, gave birth to Abram Jess Dittenhoefer. His parents were immigrants from Germany who lived in Baltimore and Charleston before settling in New York where his father became a successful merchant.  A graduate of Columbia Law, young Dittenhoefer would become a practicing attorney and successful judge. Oddly enough, this Jew who was born in the Cradle of the Confederacy would be one of the electors from New York who would cast a vote for Abraham Lincoln in the Electoral College.

    1840: Henry Benjamin married Marian Alexander at the Great Synagogue today.

    1840: Birthdate of Henri Didon Louis Remy, the Dominican friar who spoke “approvingly of Renan’s closing work, History of the Jews which depicts “Christianity as the flower, masterpiece and glory of Judaism.”

    1841: Harris Barnett married Leah Levy at the Great Synagogue today

    1848: Eight years before the death of his father Jacob Steinschenider, Moritz Steinschneider “after many difficulties succeeded in becoming a Prussian citizen” in “the same year” that “he was charged with preparation of the catalogue of Hebrew books in the Bodleian Library at Oxford.”

    1848: By the time the time that Carl Heinrich Spitzer, a 17 year old Moravian Jew studying at the Vienna Polytechnic who had been the first one shot down by imperial troops two days ago was laid to rest today, Emperor Ferdinand had “had acceded to the students’ demands for a national guard, a freed press and the promise of a constitution.”

    1851: Rabbi Sabato Morais arrives in Philadelphia with the expectation of becoming the spiritual leader of Congregation Mikveh Israel.

    1852: In Germany, Lazarus Siegel and Zerlin Koch gave birth to Henry Siegel, who married Marie Vaugh Wilde after his first wife Julia Rosenbaum passed away and came to the United States in 1867 and opened a series of progressively more successful department stores starting in Parkersburg, West Virginia and climaxing with purchases of emporiums in Chicago and New York.

    1852: In Eubigheim, Lazarus Siegel and Zerlina Koch gave birth to Henry Seigel, the German immigrant who came to United States in 1852 where he established and/or acquired a series of increasingly successful department store including Siegel, Hartsfield & Co., the Siegel Cooper Company, Simpson Crawford Company in New York, and the Schlesinger and Mayer Company in Chicago.

    1854: Mr. and Mrs. Moses Ley Maduro Peixotta gave birth to Daniel Levy Maduro Peixotto, a leader in the New York State Militia who died as a result of fever contracted during the Spanish-American War.

    1857: Paul Reuter, a Jew by birth who would become one of the first of the modern Press Lords as the founder of Reuters legally became a British subject.  Reuter had already shed the Jewish part of his origins when he converted in November of 1845, a month after he had moved to London.

    1859: In Frankfurt, Selig and Clementine Goldschmidt gave birth to their second child Flora.

    1861: The Kingdom of Italy is proclaimed. The ghetto walls came tumbling down and the Jews were fully emancipated.  Jews played an active part in the creation of the modern Italian state and they enjoyed a level of social and legal acceptance that was second only to that enjoyed by the Jews of Great Britain.

    1862(15th of Adar II, 5622):Shushan Purim

    1862: A group of wealthy young men who formed what would be known as the Purim Association held the first Purim Ball in New York City.

    1862(15th of Adar II, 5622): Composer Jacques François Fromental Élie Halévy passed away.  Born in 1799, Halévy composed the tragic opera La Juive and the comic opera L'Éclair. These works are his major claim to artistic fame.

    1864(9th of Adar II, 5624): Abraham David Meijer, the brother of Jonas Daniel Meijer (the first Jewish lawyer in the Netherlands) passed away today.

    1865(19th of Adar, 5625):Seventy-one year old Rabbi Isaac Noah Mannheimer, the native of Copenhagen passed away today in Vienna.

    1869: In Baghdad, Heskel Shalma Ezra Shlomo-David, Hakham and Messouda/Massoda/Massouda Shlomo-David gave birth to Sir Sassoon Eskel, who following WW I became Iraq’s finiance minister and who was the father of Rahel Cohen and Meir Eskel

    1869: Louis and Bluma Joseph were married today at Cavendish Square.

    1870(14th of Adar II, 5630): Purim

    1870(14th of Adar): Rabbi Dov Ber ben Isaac Meisels of Cracow, author of Hiddushei Mahardam passed away

    1870: Since the Purim balls in New York appear to have lost their popularity, tonight’s Purim celebrations will not consist of any “grand demonstration” but will be limited to some unpretentious entertainments.

    1873(18th of Adar, 5633): Seventy-seven year old Joseph Salvador a member of a distinguished French Sephardi family whose mother was Roman Catholic, the author of Paris, Rome, Jerusalem ou la Question religieuse au XIX siècle  who was angered by the anti-Jewish riots in German and was considered a ‘proto-Zionist” passed away today

    1874:  In Budapest, Dr. Aaron Wise, the future rabbi of Congregation Baith Israel Anshei Emes in Brooklyn, New York and his wife gave birth to Rabbi Stephen Samuel Wise, the grandson of Rabbi Joseph Hirsch Weiss and Móric Fischer de Farkasházy, the founder of the Herend Porcelain Company.

    Rabbi Stephen Samuel Wise declined to accept the pulpit of New York's largest Reform Congregation if it meant he could not speak out in favor of Zionism and he became the President of the Zionist Organization of America.  Wise was one of several Jews who attended the Paris Peace Conference at the end of World War I.  In 1922, Wise founded the Jewish Institute of Religion "in an attempt at sectarian non-partisanship, so that its graduates might serve any one of the [Jewish] religious groupings" in the United States.

    1876: Birthdate of New York City native Samuel Levy, the lawyer,the New York Board of Education and Manhattan Borough President who married Sadie Vesell with whom he had one son Lawrence, the husband of Betha Rothafel, “the daughter of theatrical impresario and entrepreneur Samuel Roxy Rothafel.

    1879: In Paris,Noémie and Adolphe Bloch gave birth to Jules André Albert Bloch

    1877: According to a report published today in The Times of London the “Jews’ Deaf and Dumb Home” “was founded in 1863 by Baroness Mayer de Rothschild as a school where resident Jewish children could learn to speak.”

    1878: “Ethical Culture” which was published today describes the growth of The Society for Ethical Culture which was founded only two years before by Felix Adler.  The author gives due consideration to Adler’s Jewish origins and the effect that has had in creating the increasingly popular movement.

    1878: The Jewish owner of the coffee and cake saloon at number 7 Fulton Street failed in his effort to get Justice Murray to find that his employee was not guilty of violating the city’s ordinance against throwing oyster shells, after shucking them, into the street. 

    1878: The annual Purim reception at the Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews began this morning at 11 o’clock.  Due to the inclement weather, the turnout was smaller than normal.  The reception ended at 6 in the evening.

    1878: Cohen Davis, an elderly glazier, was tried for perjury today in the General Sessions Court.  The prosecutor charged that he had lied under oath during the trial of Abraham Freeman and Charles Freeman who have been convicted of arson in the first degree. 

    1880: It was reported today that the annual ball sponsored by the Purim Association had raised $18,585.80 for the New York’s Mt. Sinai Hosptial.

    1880: It was reported today that George Kessler is among those selling tickets the Concord Society’s first grand annual charity ball which is a benefit for the Young Ladies’ Charitable which is an adjunct of the United Hebrew Charities.

    1882: “Justice Steckler Expelled” published today described the decision to expel Alfred Steckler and some of his associates from the Tenth Assembly District Republican Association.  Steckler and his associates were not expelled because they were Jewish but because they had failed to support the Republican candidate.

    1884: Birthdate of Dr. Nahum Nir, the native of Warsaw who made Aliyah in 1925 and was one of the signatories of the Israeli Declaration of Independence.

    1884(20th of Adar, 5644): Benjamin Gratz passed away in Lexington, KY.  Part of the famous Gratz family, he was born in Philadelphia in 1792.  After serving in the Army during the War of 1812 he moved to Kentucky where he practiced law and served as trustee of Transylvania University.

    1886(10th of Adar II, 5646): Ninety-one year old Leopold Zunz also known—"Yom Tov Lipmann Tzuntz" passed away. Born in 1794, “he was a German Reform rabbi and writer, the founder of what has been termed the "Science of Judaism" (Wissenschaft des Judentums), the critical investigation of Jewish literature, hymnology and ritual.”

    1888: In Yemen, Bohemian born linguist Eduard Glaser began his third journey from Sanaa to Ma’rib

    1889(14th of Adar II, 5649): Purim

    1892(18th of Adar, 5652): Fifty-seven year old Moravian native Max Srakosch, “an impresario and agent” who was the brother of Maurice Strakosch passed away today in New York.

    1892: It was reported today that Rabbi Stephen S. Wise will be addressing the congregants at Temple Israel in Harlem.

    1892: In Seattle, WA, founding of the Ladies’ Hebrew Benevolent Society which met on the first Wednesday of each month and whose members included Ida Davis who served as the society’s secretary.

    1893: “Russia’s Securities May Suffer” published today described an appeal made by the London Russo-Jewish Committee that has been “sent to every Jewish banker, bank director, bank manager, stock broker, and “agent de change” in Europe calling on them” to boycott Russian loans and Russian financial transactions in general. “The appeal is in retaliation” for the continued severe treatment of the Russian Jews by the Czar

    1894: Moritz Kepes, a Jewish saloon owner, was beaten up today by John Fuchs and his son who owned a nearby saloon.

    1894: A fire broke out today in a tenement house on Jefferson Street this morning that is owned by Abraham Doworsky and is occupied by Russian Jews.  Some of the tenants told Doworsky that they would be starting a newspaper in the building’s basement, but the fire exposed the fact that they were operating an illegal still.

    1894: “The Germans and their Fatherland” published today provides a detailed review Germany and the Germans by William Harbutt in which the author devotes one chapter to the anti-Semitic party and another chapter the criminal activities in which Jews engage.  The author does raise and does not answer the question “What do the anti-Semites propose to do with the Jews and what would do without them

    1894: The United Hebrew Charities reported today that between October 1, 1893 to March 1, 1894 that they had over 18,000 applicants for assistance.  During those five months, the charity had spent over $103,000 for clothing, medicine burials, coal and operating the industrial schools.  For the same period a year ago, they had spent a little more than $46,000 which is indicative of the losses caused by the depression that began in 1893.

    1895: Birthdate of Shemp Howard.  Born Samuel Horwitz in Brooklyn, New York, this comedic star gained fame as one of the Three Stooges and for his role in “The Bank Dick.”

    1897(13thof Adar II, 5657): Ta’anit Esther; erev Purim

    1897: Birthdate of Charles Levine, the son of Massachusetts scrap metal dealer, who was a pioneer in the field of aviation.  A contemporary of Lindbergh, he was on the second plane that flew from America across the Atlantic.  Unlike Lindbergh who was heading for Paris, Levine was trying to make Berlin.  Although he had to land one hundred miles short of his distance, he had actually out-distanced the Lone Eagle.

    1897: Samuel Simon Leibowitz arrived in America with his parents from Romania.  Born in 1893, he would become a famous defense attorney and New York Judge.  He is best known as attorney who took the lead in defending the Scottsboro Boys.

    1898:”The Baron De Hirsch Fund” published today described the efforts to build “model tenements” and erect “suburban homes” to relieve the overcrowding on the Lower East Side.  Some of the money had already been used to purchase 12 lots across the Harlem River where “model tenements” will be constructed. These efforts are not to be confused with other efforts financed by the late Baron Hirsch and his widow to develop “agricultural colonies” including the one at Woodbine, NJ.

    1899: “Jewish Philanthropy” published today described Simon Wolf’s view of Jewish generosity.  According to him, “We take care of our people and we help others.”  “In the largest cities in the United States” Jews have collected $64,000,000 for philanthropic purposes, thanks in no small measure to the efforts of such mean as Oscar Nathan, Isidor Straus and Adolphus S. Solomon.

    1899: On Chicago’s South Side, Rabbi Isaac M. Wise dedicated the sanctuary of The Reform Congregation of Isaiah Temple which had been designed by Dankmar Adler.

    1900: Birthdate of American film composer Alfred Newman, a major Jewish-American composer of music for films. He received 45 Academy Award nominations (a record in the music categories, now shared with John Williams), winning 9 times; in 1940 he was nominated for 4 different films. He also composed the familiar fanfare which accompanies the studio logo for 20th Century Fox, where he headed the music department. He was active until the end of his life, scoring Airport shortly before his death. Between 1930 and 1970, he wrote music for over 200 films of every imaginable type, including a score for the newsreel made from the World War II footage of the Battle of Midway

    1901: In Philadelphia, PA, a federation of Jewish charities including the Jewish Hospital Association, Jewish Foster Home, Society of United Hebrew Charities, Hebrew Education Society, Orphans' Guardians, Jewish Maternity Association, Jewish Immigration Society, Young Women's Union, and Hebrew Sunday-School Society was formed today with Jacob Gimbel as President

    1902: Herzl is authorized to obtain three letters of credit, each for a million francs, from banks in Paris, Berlin and London. The funds are to be deposited in Turkish banks.  Several members of the Actions Committee including Avraham Menachem Mendel Ussishkin are opposed to the plan. Ussishkin and Herzl were both fervent Zionists but they had different views as to the goal of establishing a Jewish home in Eretz Israel could be accomplished. Born in 1863 in Russia, Ussishkin would become an early Zionist leader and first President of the Jewish Nation Fund or JNF.In his youth,he became an enthusiastic reader of the works of contemporary Hebrew writers in his teens, and from then on the revival of the Hebrew language was one of the main goals of his life work. Like many other early Hibbat Zion members, he was shocked by the Russian pogroms of 1881, which emphasized to him the necessity for Jewish emigration. Ussishkin then began working actively for several Zionist groups. After graduating as a technical engineer from the Technological Institute in Moscow, he became active in Hebrew educational work as well as in Zionist propaganda and fund-raising in Russia. Ussishkin was a "practical" Zionist who viewed agricultural settlement in Eretz Israelas the first and most important step toward attaining a Jewish state. He was thus active in recruiting youth for pioneer work and for agricultural settlement of the land. He was a delegate to the First Zionist Congress held in Basle in 1893, and was appointed Hebrew secretary of the Congress. At the Seventh Zionist Congress (1905), he was among the leaders of those who forced the abandonment of the Uganda Scheme, and he then proposed a program of Zionism which was later adopted by the Zionist movement. Under his influence the Zionist movement actively supported the establishment of agricultural settlements, educational and cultural institutions, and a Hebrew university. In 1919 Ussishkin himself settled in Eretz Israel, and in 1923 he was chosen to head the Jewish National Fund, a position he held for nearly twenty years.

    1904: Birthdate of Alfred Henry “Truck” Miller the native of Boston who played who played for Harvard before spending one year as a profession with the Boston Bulldogs.

    1904: Birthdate of Chaim Gross an Austrian born American sculptor. Gross began exhibiting both his sculpture and graphic art in 1935, and was one of 250 sculptors who exhibited in the 3rd Sculpture International held at the Philadelphia Museum of Art in the summer of 1949. Gross was a practitioner of the direct carving method, with the majority of his work being carved from wood. Gross was a professor of printmaking and sculpture at both the Educational Alliance and the NewSchool for Social Research in New York City, as well as a member of Artists Equity, the Federation of Modern Painters and Sculptors, and the National Institute of Arts and Letters. He served as President of the Sculptors Guild of America.  He passed away in 1991 at the age of 84. (As reported by John T. McQuiston)

    1905: In Chelsea, MA, Joseph A Strauss and Ida (Chayah) Kasriels of Russia gave birth to Harry Strauss who married Cecile G Pofcher in 1931.

    1906: Adolf Kraus of Chicago, the President of the Executive Committee of B’nai B’rith received a cablegram from the Russian Premier, Count Witte in response to his letter inquiring what measures had been put in place to protect the lives and property of Jews during a planned Easter massacre in which Witte said his government does not approve of violence and that all measures will be taken to protect “peaceable inhabitants without regard to nationality.”

    1906: It was reported today that “two high officials of the Ministry of the Interior, one of whom has been arrested” were “the authors of the pamphlet inciting the people to murder the Jews”

    1907(2nd of Nisan, 5667): Gotlieb Schmelkes the husband of Henriette Schmelkes and the father of Markus and Rachel Schmelkes passed away today


    1908(14thof Adar II, 5668): Purim1909: Welterweight Joe Hirst fought “his first big fight today in Philadelphia which was a six round bout that was a draw.

    1910: Alma Gluck is scheduled to appear in a matinee performance of the opera “Werther” at The New Theatre in New York.

    1910: Birthdate of David Abraham "Sonny" Werblin the Flatbush native who gained national fame for his purchase of the New York Jets and the signing of Joe Namath – an act which helped to force the NFL to merge with the AFL.

    1911: In Vienna “artisan Jakob Goldsand and his wife Helene” gave birth to American classical pianist Robert Goldsand.

    1911: Birthdate of Moshe Baram the native of Zdolbuniv who made Aliyah in 1931 and after Independence served as an MK and cabinet minister.

    1913(8thof Adar II, 5673): Forty-four year old glass manufacturer Jacob H. Werbelowsky passed away today in in Brooklyn, NY.

    1915: Birthdate of Wolfgang Doblin the son of German author Bruno Alfred Döblin

    1915: The Russian official press bureau tonight issued a statement tonight denying claims by the Austrians that Russian soldiers have “committed outrages on the Jewish populations in Galicia, Bukowina and Russian Poland.”

    1915: “The American Jewish Relief Committee announced” today “that letters to person in Russia should be written in either Russian, English or French” since owing to the strict censorship in force in Russia…letters written in Yiddish or any other language than those named had little or no chance of being delivered.”

    1915: As of today, the American Jewish Relief Committee has collected $573,267.00.

    1915: Today, Professor A.T. Fowler of the Biblical Department of” Brown “University and a member of the Advisory Board of the” Menorah “Society spoke on ‘The Bible as a Literary Document.’”

    1915: As of today it was reported that there are an estimated 50,000 Falsahas (Black Jews) living in Abyssinia (Ethiopia) and that Dr. Jacques Faitlovitch, a French Jew is working on developing an educational program for them.

    1915: Tonight, in Washington, DC, “the Austro-Hungarian Embassy…made public a dispatch from the Foreign Office in Vienna” that the “Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Army under the pretext that populating sympathizing with Austrians and Germans…has ordered that Jews are forbidden to remain in districts occupied by the army and are forbidden to enter the country east of Jaroslau.” (Editor’s Note – Jaroslau is a town in southeast Poland on the border with Russia where Jews had lived since the 15th century and whose pre-WW I population was 25% Jewish.  On the Eastern Front all warring parties accused the Jews of being spies or worse and used this as an excuse for indiscriminate killing and expulsion.)

    1916(12thof Adar II, 5676): Julia Frankau, the Dublin born Jewish daughter of photographer Hyman Davis and wife of Arthur Frankau who used the penname Frank Danby during her writing career which began with the publication of a novel that was a “social satire” of Anglo-Jewry passed away today.

    1916: Birthdate of Dr. Albert M. Kligman, a dermatologist who invented the widely used acne medication Retin-A but whose experiments involving prisoners raised ethical questions that dogged his career.

    1916: During the expedition to capture Pancho Villa, a military action that involved so many Jewish soldiers that Jewish chaplains were dispatched to the theatre of operation and High Holiday services were held at several locations, General Pershing established his main base at Colonia Dublan.

    1917: One hundred and ninety Jews from Palestine migrate to Cyprus on an Ottoman mail steamer.

    1917: Birthdate of Karel Švenk, the native of Prague and multi-talented entertainer – “cabaret artist, comedian, songwriter and writer” – who was shipped to Terezin and then to Auschwitz before weeks before the war ended on a transport to Mauthausen.

    1917:Dorothy Cohen Schwartzman, Ida Bienstock Landau, Minna Goldsmith Mahler, Eva Effron Robin, and Sylvia Steierman founded Delta Phi Epsilon (ΔΦΕ or DPhiE) is an international sorority at New York University Law School.

    1918: It was reported today that “as a result of their on Washington’s Birthday the 62,000 members of the International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union have contributed $140,000 to the American Jewish Relief Committee.

    1918: The British Army including the Jewish battalion captured Amman.

    1918: It was reported today that the American Jewish Relief Committee chaired by Louis Marshall continues to receive contributions from committees across the country including $1,000 from Nashville, TN and $174 from Richmond, Indiana.

    1919: In Paris “President Wilson conferred today with Bernard Baruch and others who are serving as economic experts with the American mission and approved their proposals of no trade discrimination against enemy countries after the war.”

    1919: Today, “leaders of the Isaac M. Wise Centenary Fund Campaign expressed themselves as highly pleased with the result of the first day’s work in the campaign…which will endeavor to raise $100,000 among the Jews of New York for the furtherance of the work of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations and the Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati, Ohio.”

    1920: St. Louis Rabbi, Goodman “George” Lipkind wrote a one act comedy, “Wanted a Housekeeper.”

    1921: Birthdate of Meir Slutzki who as Meir Amit gained fame as an Israeli politician, general, and Director of the Mossad.

    1921: The Constituent Assembly ratified the constitution of the Polish Republic which granted equal rights to the Jews.

    1921: Thirty year old Barney Sedran led the Trenton Bengals to victory over the Wilkes-Barre Barons.

    1921: At the Cairo Conference attended by Winston Churchill and T.E. Lawrence (better known as “Lawrence of Arabia”) it was agreed that Transjordan (an Arab State) should be separated from Palestine “thus enabling Britain to fulfill its wartime pledges to both the Arabs and the Jews.”  The decision reinforced the right for Jews to “be able to settle the land from the Mediterraneanto the Jordan, from the Galilee to the Negev.” (“This comprised the area of both Israel and the West Bank today.”)

     1926: Rodgers and Hart's musical "Girl Friend" premiered in New York.  This is but one example of a Jewish team providing a hit musical comedy for Broadway.

    1926: Seventy two year old Alexsei Brusilov, the Chief of Staff who approved the appointment of Jewish Chaplains to serve in the Russian Army in 1917 passed away today.

    1926: As of today members the Women’s Division of the Harmonie Club which is helping to raise six million dollars for the United Jewish Campaign include Mrs. Felix M. Warburg, Mrs. Rebekah Kohut, Mrs. Ira Hill Bamberger and Mrs. Charles J. Liebman.

    1927(13thof Adar II, 5687): Fast of Esther

    1927: A man identified as “Prince Michel Obolensky, scion of a noble but impoverished Russian family celebrated by St. Patrick’s Day by” delivering “an oration” attacking the Jews on the corner of 14th Street and Avenue which touched off neighborhood brawl.

    1928: In Manhattan “Benjamin Kaufman, the chairman of Kaufman Management, and the former Stella Cohen, a fashion designer known as Brownie” gave birth to George Stewart Kaufman, “the real estate magnate”  who helped to make the Queens a place for movie and television production. (As reported by Sam Roberts)

    1929: The Flonzaley Quartet which had played the String Quartet No. 1 by Erin Schulhoff performed for the last time in a public concert at The Town Hall in New York City.

    1929: On St. Patrick’s Day, flyweight Moe Mizler fought his 29th bought in London.

    1930: It was reported today that “King Alexander has accepted patronage over the Jewish National Fund bazaar which the Jews of Zagreb are organizing” and that “he is also making a personal donation to the King Peter Forest which the Jewish National Fund is to plant in Palestine.”

    1933: Victor Klemperer writes in his diary, “on Friday, unfortunately, Thiemes was here. It was frightful . . . such enthusiastic conviction and support. The phraseology of unity. Progress piously repeated. Grete (his wife) said, "Everything else failed, now we have to blow this horn." He corrected her vehemently. "We didn't have to." In really free elections he has voted for the right cause. This I can't forgive him. The poor dog may be frightened for his job. He must howl with the wolves. But why in front of me? . . . Naked violence, breach of law, terrible hypocrisy, unmitigated barbarism poses as law.

    1933: The Chevrolet Program starring Jack Benny is broadcast for the first time on NBC Radio

    1935(12thof Adar II 5695): Mary Goldsmith Prag, the mother of “Florence Prag Khan, the first Jewish congresswoman” passed away today.

    1935: The Palestine Maccabee Association announced that it would not participate in the 1936 Olympics to be held in Germany because of that country’s treatment of its Jewish citizens.

    1936: “Louis Lipsky, vice president of the American Jewish Congress and honorary president of the Zionist Organization of America returned” today “on the Cunard White Star line Berengaria from Paris and London where he attended several conferences with Jewish leaders and foreign statesmen on the situation of the Jews in many countries including Germany and Poland.”

    1936:”Resolutions condemning war as a means of settling international disputes and calling upon the United States Government to ‘reiterate its renouncement of war’ made in the Kellogg-Briand pact were adopted at the closing session today of the biennial convention of the United Synagogue of America.”

    1936: In response to the receipt of a copy of Victor Gallancz’s The Yellow Spot: The Extermination of the Jews in Germany from Harold Laski, Churchill wrote Laksi urging the Laborite to find a way to gain support from the Labor Party for the re-armament program designed to thwart the threat of the Nazis.

    1936: Following a series of Pogrom-like attack on Jews in central Poland, a mass demonstration of Polish Jews, left-wingers, and liberals was held to protest anti-Semitism in Poland.

    1937: “One Jewish policeman was seriously injured and sixteen other Jews were slightly hurt tonight when a bomb was thrown in to a bus on Jaffa Road, Jerusalem’s main thoroughfare.”

    1937: The Palestine Post reported that in addition to five young Jews who were murdered by Arabs during the past few days, there were two more victims: Samuel Gottfried, 26, of Rosh Pina and an Arab villager who defended his flock from robbers.

    1937: “At about 10:30 P.M.,” Meyer Levin discovered two large swastikas painted in black enamel on the door of Ahavath Chesed in Brooklyn and four smaller ones in chalk on the side doors of the synagogue and then notified Abraham Beier, the president of the synagogue “who then asked the police to place a guard on the building.”

    1937: The Palestine Post reported that The Jewish Agency Executive in London submitted a memorandum to the British government which claimed that the Arab disturbances which began on April 19, 1936, did not end on October 12, 1936, as claimed by the government and the Arab Higher Committee, but continued uninterruptedly, claiming many Jewish lives.

    1938(14thof Adar II, 5698); Purim

    1938: “In a message read during the Purim Festival program sponsored by the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee” the national radio audience heard the words of President Roosevelt who said “enteral vigilance is the price of liberty” and “the defeat of Haman’s plot to destroy the Jews…is one of the milestones in mankind’s long and bloody struggle to achieve freedom.”

    1938: Among the “Books Published Today” were An Open Letter to Jews and Christians: A discussion of Jesus in relation to Jews today by John Cournos and the Selected Works of Israel Zangwill including “Children of the Ghetto,” “Ghetto Comedies” and “Ghetto Tragedies.

    1939: At a meeting in Tel Aviv today, “the National Council of Palestine Jews…decided to a call a 24 hour strike” to start on Monday, March 20th “  “as the first step in its program of ‘drastic political action’ against Great Britain’s plan” for Palestine.  “The Council condemned the plan as ‘the liquidation of the Jewish national home and strangulation of the Jewish settlement.’”

    1939: Erich Otto Sonnheim arrived in the United States from Germany.

    1940: Fritz Todt, who escaped being tried at Nuremberg because he died during WW II was named Riech Minister for Armaments and Ammunition today.

    1941: According to a death certificate issued by the Soviet government and made public in 1954 this is date of the death of Isaac Babel. It would not be until the 1990’s that this would be exposed as a lie. Babel had actually been executed by the Soviets on January 27, 1940.

    1941: Hans Frank, General Governor of Occupied Poland, had a meeting with Adolf Hitler about the fate of Jews in Europe. Afterwards, Frank informs the General Government's undersecretaries of state, police and SS chiefs, district governors, and department directors that the Jews are to be eliminated.

     1942: The 60,000 Jews in Tunisia are restricted to publishing only one newspaper.

    1942: It was reported today that “despite the fact that Jews constitute about three percent of the population in the United States, they total eight percent of the 75 recipients of the Distinguished Flying Cross so far in this war, among American forces.” (JTA)
    1942: In eastern Poland, the Belzec Concentration Camp opened as 1,500 Jews arrive from the Lviv Ghetto in the western Ukraine.  At that time 30,000 Lublin Polish Jews were transported to this death camp.

    1942: The deportations which began in Lublin would not until 30,000 had been shipped to Belzec by April where most of them were murdered.

    1942: Birthdate of South African born educator Meyer Feldberg the Dean of the A.B. Freeman School of Business at Tulane University and the Dean of the Columbia School of Business

    1942(28th of Adar, 5702): In Pochep, Russia, 1,816 Jewish villagers were massacred in an anti-tank ditch.

    1943(10th of Adar II, 5703): More than 1200 Jews from Lvov, Ukraine, were killed at Piaski, Poland, as retribution for the March 16 murder of an SS trooper by a Jewish man. Eleven Jewish policemen were hanged in the ghetto, 1000 Jewish slave laborers were executed, and an additional 200 Jews were murdered.

    1943:Today,”the National Gallery of Art marked its second anniversary with the announcement of an extraordinary gift from print collector and former Sears, Roebuck and Company chairman Lessing J. Rosenwald: Rosenwald's print and drawing collection, which ultimately numbered more than 22,000 works at the time of his death.

    1943:Dimitur Peshev and 40 other members of the Sobranje, the Bulgarian parliament, sign a petition demanding that deportations of Jews from Bulgaria to Occupied Poland end. Archbishop Kiril of Plovdiv sends a telegram to Tsar Boris III informing him of his intention to lie down on the tracks in front of any trains transporting Bulgarian Jews.

    1944: Al Bummy Davis (Abraham Davidoff) lost a bout to the former lightweight chamption today.

    1945(3rdof Nisan, 5705): After enduring six months of imprisonment at Buchenwald sixty-one year old Henri Paul Gaston Maspero, the French sinologist died today just weeks before the camp was liberated by Patton’s Third Army.

    1945: Birthdate of mathematician Valery Senderov, the native of Moscow who risked his life and career “in the struggle against state sponsored anti-Semitism.”

    1946(14thof Adar II, 5706): Purim

    1946: Some of the members of “Kibbutz Buchenwald” set sail for Palestine from France today on the Maapilim boat the “Tel-Chai”.

    1947: The Palestine police issued a “broadsheet” today “offering an unspecified reward for information leading to the arrest of 18 wanted men” described as “terrorist chiefs.”  The list which includes photos and physical descriptions is in alphabetical order beginning with Menachem Begin of the Irgun.  The penultimate spot on the list goes to Nathan Friedman Yellin, Abrahm Stern’s successor as head of the Stern Gang.  The last name on the list is Itshak Yexernitsky who has been captured by the British but has escaped their custody.

    1947: Leaders of the Arab League are scheduled to meet in Cairo today where they will map out their propaganda program to oppose the creation of a Jewish state  and how best to present their case at the upcoming meeting of the United Nations.

    1947: “Just before noon today an Army officer blew his whistle” in Jerusalem marking the end of martial law in several areas including Mea Shearim.

    1948: In Jerusalem, the British abandoned their compound on the grounds of Schneller Orphanage which the Etzioni Brigade would “use at its base of operations during the Israeli War of Independence.

    1948: While speaking at a news conference of the American Fund for Palestinian Institutions, Moshe Pomorok of the Palestine Maritime League said that “90 per cnet of Palestine’s export and import trade went to foreign shipping companies” which led him to call for the “establishment of Palestine’s sea power.”

    1948: Dr. Alexander Rosenfeld of the Hebrew World Union described “an underground movement to teach Hebrew in Syria and Iraq where the language has been banned.”

    1948: The Naval Service, which became the Israeli Sea Corps, was formed today and the members for the Plugat HaYam (the naval arm of the Palmach) were ordered to join.

    1950: The Jewish Agency for Palestine announced tonight that it was prepared to receive 20,000 refugees from Iraq.  This issue has taken on a great deal of urgency for Iraq’s 150,000 Jews, since the Baghdad government has given them a year to leave the country for Israel.  As part of the price of departure, the Jews must basically leave behind most of their possessions and wealth for use by the Iraqi’s. 

    1950(28th of Adar, 5710): Eighty-four year old Ellis Gimbel, Sr. the last surviving of the Gimbel brothers who has served as Chairman of the Board of Gimbel Brothers, Inc since 1936 passed away today

    1953(1stof Nisan, 5713): Rosh Chodesh Nisan

    1953: With the help of Anna Sokolow, “Camino Real” starring Eli Wallach opened on Broadway today.

    1954: Following last night attack in the Negev, where an Israeli bus was ambushed by “a group of Palestinian Arabs who had infiltrated into Israel from Jordan in which the driver and ten passengers were killed “Israeli trackers assisted by police dogs and accompanied by UN observers followed the attackers' tracks to a point 6 miles west of the Jordanian border, where the tracks were lost”

    1957(14thof Adar II, 5717): Purim

    1957: “Great Philosophy in Small Packets” included a review of The Age of Enlightenment: The Eighteenth Century Philosophers, Selected with introduction and commentary by Isaiah Berlin.

    1962(11thof Adar II, 5722): Shabbat Zachor

    1962(11thof Adar II, 5722): Ninety-four year old “Rabbi Clifton H. Levy, the oldest past president of the New York Board of Rabbis and a leader of the Reform rabbinate” passed away today. “Together with the late Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, Rabbi Levy was a founder in 1922 of the Association of Reform Rabbis of New York City and Vicinity. Born in New Orleans, LA, Rabbi Levy received his ordination from the Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati. He was the author of a book, Judaism Applied to Life, and of pamphlets and articles on Biblical archaeology and art.” (As reported by JTA)


    1967: “Mourning Becomes Electra” a three act opera composed by Marvin David Levy premiered at the Met in New York City.

    1968: Israel defeated Ceylon today in the Olympic Games soccer qualifier thanks to the play of Mordechai Spiegler.

    1969: Golda Meir became Prime Minister of Israel. A dedicated Zionist and Socialist, Mrs. Meir devoted her entire life to creating a national homeland for the Jewish people where we could flourish in peace and safety.  Her life reads more like a novel with all of its twists and turns ranging from the gritty determination of the 1920's when she was a pioneer in primitive Palestine, to the clandestine trips she made to meet the King of Jordan in an attempt to avert war in 1948, to her fund raising in the United States so the unborn state would have some weapons with which to face the invading Arab Armies, to...well I think you get the idea.  She certainly is worthy successor to the memory of Miriam and Deborah and Moses and David as well.

    1972: “The Time of Your Life” a revival of which in 1969 was directed by John Hirsch was revived again today in Los Angeles co-starring Richard Dreyfus, Lewis J. Stadlin

    1973(13thof Adar II, 5733): Parashat Vayikra; Shabbat Zachor; erev Purim

    1973: “Lost Horizon” a musical version of the pre-war movie and novel of the same name produced by Ross Hunter, with a script by Larry Kramer and music by Burt Bacharach and Hal David was released in the United States today.

    1974(23rd of Adar, 5734): Seventy-three year old architect Louis Kahn passed away.

    1974: “The Ford Foundation allocated $250,000 to help resettle Soviet émigré scholars and writers in America.”

    1977:The Jerusalem Postreported that Leah Rabin, wife of the prime minister, admitted that she had closed her dollar account in Washington and transferred the money totaling $2,000, as a donation to a charity for autistic children which she headed. Events surrounding this bank account would lead to Prime Minster Rabin’s political downfall, end the Labor Party’s domination of Israeli politics and bring Menachem Begin and Likud to power for the first time since the founding of the state in 1948.

    1977: “The Cadaver in the Clutter” the second episode of “Lanigan’s Rabbi” starring Bruce Solomon as Rabbi David Small was broadcast tonight.

    1978:Reuven Schmeltzer, who had been orphaned at the age of 13 and was “one of the 1684 Jews who escaped Nazi-controlled Hungary on the Kastner train and spent time in the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp before being released in Switzerland” and his wife gave back to their 11th child Lipa Schmeltzer, the “singer, entertainer, and composer” who is popular among Hasdic and “modern Jewish communities.”

    1978: Jack Klugman was roasted on The Dean Martin Celebrity Roast on NBC

    1983: In Jerusalem, the Third World Conference on Soviet Jewry came to an end.

    1983: Actor Dustin Hoffman and Lisa Hoffman give birth to their daughter Rebecca Lillian Hoffman

    1983: The Third World Conference on Soviet Jewry which had been attended by over 1,000 delegates from 30 countries came to an end today in Jerusalem.

    1984: Billy Crystal hosted SNL for the first time tonight.

    1989: The Broadway production of “Chu Chem,” a musical inspired by “a trip to Kaifeng Fu (prefecture), China, the site of a major Jewish migration in the 10th century” with music by Mitch Leigh opened at the Ritz Theatre.

    1989: “The Adventures of Baron Munchausen” a fantasy comedy with music by Michael Kamen was released in the United States today.

    1991: “The Substance of Fire” written by Jon Robin Baitz opened Off-Broadway at Playwrights Horizons with a cast that included Ron Rifkin and Sarah Jessica Parker

    1992(12th of Adar II, 5752): The Islamic Jihad used a truck bomb to attack the Israeli Embassy in Buenos Aires Argentina killing 29.

    1994(5th of Nisan, 5754): Ninety-four year old German born English zoologist and geneticist Charlotte Auerbach, the daughter of Friedrich Auerbach and the granddaughter of Leopold Auerbach passed away today.

    1995: Premiere of “Candyman: Farewell to the Flesh” a horror film with music composed by Philip Glass.


    1995: “Bye Bye, Love” directed by Brandeis grad Sam Weisman, co-authored and co-produced by Gary David Goldberg and co-starring Paul Reiser and Rob Reiner was released in the United States today.

    1997:Janet Rosenberg Jagan, the Chicago born Jewess, began serving as Prime Minster of Guyana.

    1997: Eighty-one year old Joe J. Heydecker who as a German soldier created a secret photographic record of the Warsaw Ghetto, which, after being published in 1981 provided “evidence of Nazi atrocities and inhumane living conditions in the Ghetto passed away today.

    1999: HBO released the final episode of “Tracey Takes On…” starring Tracey Ullman

    1999(29th of Adar, 5759): Seventy-seven year old Ernest Gold the Austrian-born Jewish-American Academy Award winning composer of the theme from the movie Exodus, the creator of 100 film/television scores between 1945 and 1992, including the Hawaii Five-O theme and the composer of a 1968 Broadway musical "I'm Solomon" passed away today.

    2002: At the Jewish Museum in New York an exhibition entitled ''The Emergence of Jewish Artists in 19th-Century Europe'' comes to a close.

    2002: Twenty-five people were injured in a terrorist bombing of Egged Bus 22 in Jerusalem.

    2003(13thof Adar II, 5763): Ta’anit Esther; Erev Purim

    2003(13thof Adar II, 5763): Eight-seven year old historian Herbert Aptheker passed away. (As reported by Christopher Lehman-Haupt)

    2005(6th of Adar II, 5765): Seventy-eight year old college and professional basketball player Norman Clifford "Norm" Mager who was involved in a point shaving scandal passed away today.

    2005: “The Southern Command of the Israel Defense Forces issued a military order prohibiting Israeli citizens not living in the Gaza Strip settlements from taking up residence there.”

    2006: The Forwards reported that the Aleph Institute, an organization linked to the Chabad-Lubavitch movement was approved by the Department of Defense to endorse chaplains. 

    2006: Premiere of “Tall: The American Skyscraper and Louis Sullivan” a documentary directed and produced by Manfred Kirchheimer.

    2006. The large-scale photographs are all anchored in the Bible stories: Cain and Abel, Noah, Abraham and Isaac, Jacob and Esau, Joseph, David and Jonathan, Saul and Samuel, Job, Elijah, Ruth and Naomi. Chosenas “actors” and background for each shot were individuals and landscapes from here and now; the emphasis is placed on godforsaken places and on figures on the fringe of Israeli society: a woman beggar on a street corner, an old and barefoot homeless person. The photographs are charged with enriching references to the history of art and masterpieces, including Caravaggio’s “Abraham,” “Ivan the Terrible Murdering His Son” by Ilya Repin, or the famous and impressive portrait taken by Dorothea Lange – “Migrant Mother.”

    2007: Shabbat Ha-Chodesh

    2007: At the Tel Aviv Museum of Art, an exhibition styled “Adi Nes: Bible Stories” opens to the general public. The series contains fourteen works of staged photography created by Adi Nes between 2003 and

    2008: In “How Hamas Is Playing the Spoiler,” published today U.S. News & World Report describes how the latest Hamas rocket attacks on Ashkelon pose a new strategic threat to Israel and the limited options available to the Israelis in responding to this latest downward spiral in the Middle East.

    2008: Today, David Gregory began hosting “a show on MSNBC weekday evenings.”

    2008(10 Adar II, 5768): Ronald E. Arnall, French born American businessman who served as U.S. Ambassador to the Netherlands and was a “friend” of Chabad-Lubavitch passed away.

    2008: Sports Illustrated describes the pending confrontation over allegations that Patriots coach Bill Bilichick illegally videotaped his opponents.  This could turn into a Jew versus Jew situation since the probe into the matter is being spearheaded by Arlen Specter, the Jewish Republican Senator from Pennsylvania and the Patriots are owned by Jewish businessman and philanthropist Robert Kraft.

    2008: Israel and Germany upgraded their ties approving a host of joint projects and agreeing to hold annual government consultations, in one of the highlights of German Chancellor Angela Merkel's three-day visit. German Chancellor Angela Merkel and Prime Minister Ehud Olmert chaired a joint session of members of their respective cabinets, at which both governments signed off on a range of projects, including in education, the environment and defense. The security cooperation agreement signed between Defense Minister Ehud Barak and his German counterpart Franz Josef Jung includes joint military training projects. Merkel started the second day of her three-day trip with a ceremony at Jerusalem's Yad Vashem Holocaust Memorial, laying a wreath in the Hall of Remembrance. Signing the guest book, the German chancellor wrote: "The German government, keeping in mind its responsibility for the Holocaust, expresses its determination to shape a joint future by holding the first German-Israeli consultations."

    2008: Chief Rabbi Shlomo Amar announced that Ethiopian immigrants should be able to convert to Judaism in their native land and make Aliyah under the Law of Return.

    2008:  Haaretz reported that Elie Wiesel has told the Prime Minister’s office that he will not take part in the torch-lighting ceremony marking the 60thanniversary of Israel’s Independencedue to prior commitments. 

    2008: Governor of New York Eliot Spitzer resigns after a scandal involving a high-end prostitute.

    2009: “For the Love of Movies: The Story of American Film Criticism” a 2009 documentary co-starring Stanley Kaufman and featuring appearances by Manny Farber, Harland Jacobson, Leonard Matlin, Pauline Kael and Gene Siskel.

    2009: At The YIVO Institute for Jewish Research Dr. Ellen Kellman of BrandeisUniversity delivers a lecture entitled “Educating ‘Moyshe’ or Corrupting Him? Polemics around the Novel Sanin in the American Yiddish Press ca. 1908” in which she discusses the role of serialized fiction in the American Yiddish press which was the subject of rancorous debate from its beginnings. Critics lambasted socialist-oriented papers for printing romance novels instead of serious fiction in translation. Yet some works, such as the Russian novel Sanin, proved to be even more controversial than those originally written in Yiddish.

    2009: Services are held at Congregation Shaarey Zedek in Southfield for Detroit Pistons owner Bill Davidson, a noted philanthropist who was inducted into the basketball Hall of Fame last year and passed away on March 13, 2009 at the age of 86.Among the causes he funded were Hadassah University Medical Center, the Israel Antiquities Authority,the Jerusalem Archaeological Park,the Wexner Foundation and the William Davidson Graduate School of Jewish Education at the Jewish Theological Seminary in New York.

    2009:Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg said today that her surgery for pancreatic cancer was successful and that she is scheduled to undergo a precautionary round of chemotherapy starting later this month.

    2010(2nd of Nisan, 5770):  Ninety-one year old Albert J. Rosenthal who had served as Dean of the Columbia Law School passed away.

    2010(2nd of Nisan, 5770): One the day after his 90th birthday, award winning author Albert Sidney “Sid” Fleischman passed away today in Santa Monica. (As reported by Margalit Fox)

    2010: In Jerusalem, Hama'abada is scheduled to present "Janana," by Yiftach Klein.

    2010: Cookbook author Judy Zeidler is scheduled to offer tips on prepping for your Seder and mastering your grocery list, along with recipes for new and traditional Seder dishes in a program entitled “Passover: Cooking with Judy” sponsored by the American Jewish University.

    2010:Some 3,000 officers were put on high alert on today after Hamas called for anti-Israel protests.

    2010: “Sin,” a play by Mark Altman opened at the .Baruch Performing Arts Center.

    2010:Veteran IPO subscribers enjoy a memorable evening as Itzhak Perlman performs with Israel Philharmonic Orchestra.

    2011:Tamar Hirschl is scheduled to show a suite of paintings and recent resin works “in the inaugural Artist Project in New York City, a fair for independent artists.”