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A collection of Jewish history and current Jewish events, in date format, updated daily in this Jewish history blog.

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    May 30



    70: During the Siege of Jerusalem, Titus and his Roman legions breach the Second Wall of Jerusalem. The Jewish defenders retreat to the First Wall. The Romans build a circumvallation, cutting down all trees within fifteen kilometers.



    1096: In one of the few instances of individual courage, the local Bishop of Cologne and some of the local Burghers offered the Jews protection in their own houses. The Bishop later escorted them to towns under his protection. Crusaders reached Cologne and found the gate to the city closed by order of the bishop. Of all the Jewish communities in the path of the Crusaders, Cologne's Jews were the only ones to escape total destruction.



    1096(6th of Sivan): In Cologne, Mar Isaac and Rebecca perish in an act of Kiddush Ha-Shem



    1096(6th of Sivan: Isaac of Mayence committed suicide on Shavuot two days after he had he submitted to forced baptism to save the lives of his mother and children.  According to legend, he set the synagogue on fire to keep it from being turned into a church.  (As reported by Abraham Bloch)



    1201: Birthdate of Theobold IV, Count of Champagne. When Louis VIII issued an ordinance that prohibited his officials from recording debts owed to Jews, Theobold was the only French baron who refused to accept the royal decree since this would interfere with extra income he gained by being able to tax Jewish financial transactions.  The issue here really had nothing to do with either party caring about the Jews.  The issue was money and who would have the real power; the monarch or his barons.



    1252:Saint Ferdinand III, the King of Castile and King of Galicia and Leon passed away. The King must have been both courageous and practical.  He stood up to the powerful Catholic Church when refused the Pope’s demand that Jews be forced to wear special badge and clothing. He was afraid that the requirement would force the Jews to leave for Muslim Granada which would had a disastrous effect on revenue collections for his kingdom.



    1497: King Ferdinand of Spain “proclaimed in a royal decree that Luis de Santangel and his family, present and future, were to be protected from the inquisition.” Born at Valencia Santangel, a baptized Jew, was the finance minister to the Spanish monarchs who convinced them to sponsor Columbus’ voyage to the new world. He raised the funds himself.



    1574:  Henry III becomes King of France on the death of his brother, Charles IX.  Henry had been serving as the King of Poland at the time of his brother’s death.  He owed his selection as ruler Poland to a Jew named Solomon Ashkenazi who was an advisor to the Turkish Sultan. 



    1593: Twenty-nine year old Christopher Marlowe the English playwright whose work included “The Jew of Malta” which like Shakespeare’s “Merchant of Venice” portrays the Jews in such a way that it is assumed to be anti-Semitic passed away today.



    1599: Birthdate of Samuel Bochart, the French Protestant biblical scholar who was an expert on Oriental languages including Hebrew and who delivered a series of unique lectures on Genesis including “the names contained in the Table of Nations.”



    1635: During what will be known as the Thirty Years War (it started in 1618 and ended in 1648) the Peace of Prague is signed marking the start of the end of hostilities. The war will finally end with the Peace of Westphalia. The war was  between pitted Protestants against Catholics with Jews caught in the middle For example the Jews of Vienna suffered as a result of the occupation of the city by Imperial soldiers in 1624 when Emperor Ferdinand II confined the Jews to a ghetto. The fighting centered around Germany, Austria, France and the Netherlands and throughout many towns in Germany and Moravia, the Jewish population was expelled, which resulted in thousands of refugees fleeing to Cracow and other Polish cities. These Jews would get caught up in the uprisings that took place in Polish dominated Ukraine. The good news is that the end of the Thirty Years War would mark the rise of a flourishing Protestant Netherlands that would prove a home to European Jews.



    1762: Anti-Jewish riots broke out in Emden, Prussia.



    1775: In Charleston, Miss Rachel De Costa married Jacob Tobias.



    1778: Voltaire French philosopher and author passed away.  Voltaire is generally regarded as a great thinker.  However, as can be seen from his own words, he was a rabid anti-Semite. He described Jews as being “small, ignorant and crude people.”  Voltaire did not base his anti-Semitism on the Jews adherence to their religion.  Cure them of their religion, he wrote and there is still the problem of their in-born character.



    1781(6thof Sivan, 5541): On the same day that Jews on both sides of the Atlantic celebrate Shavuot, George Washington dealt with reports of British movement along Lake Champlain and the presence of their army in South Carolina and Virginia.



    1796: In the United Kingdom, London financier and leader of the Jewish community, Levi Salomons and Matilda de Metz gave birth to their eldest son, Philip Salomons.



    1798: Isaac Harris and Esther Abrahams were married today at the Great Synagogue in London



    1800(6th of Sivan, 5560): Shavuot celebrated for the first time in the 19th century.



    1806: “A decree was issued today requesting that a special assembly of Jewish leaders and Rabbis from all of the different French departments, would meet in Paris and discuss all outstanding matters including answering questions dealing with accusations against the Jews made by the anti-Semites.”



    1806: Joseph David Sinzheim was among those attending the Jewish Assembly of Notables convened by Napoleon I.



    1807: Today, U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall officiated at the ceremony during which Marcus Levi and Simon Z. Block, both born in Germany, became U.S. citizens.



    1814: Signing of the First Treaty of Paris.  The treaty officially returned the Bourbons to the French throne which marked the official beginning of a period of reaction which was not good for the Jews who had gained many rights during the Napoleonic Wars. 



    1814: Birthdate of Russian anarchist Mikhail Bakunin whose anti-Semitic views would seem to prove that anti-Semitism is the common denominator for Russians be they Romanovs or Revolutionaries.



    1828: William Huskisson, who took “the first step toward” freeing the Jews from their disabilities by presenting “a petition” to Parliament “singed by 2,000 merchants and others from Liverpool” completed his service as Secretary of State for War and the Colonies



    1829: Birthdate of Lewin Goldschmidt, the native of Gdansk who became a leading German jurist and an ardent supporter of Chancellor Bismarck’s idea of a united German Empire that exclude Austria and its polyglot empire.



    1838(6thof Sivan, 5598): Shavuot



    1839:Birthdate of. Hermann Adler, the Hanover born Rabbi who succeeded his father as Chief Rabbi of the British Empire a position he held from 1891 until his death in 1911.



    1844(12th of Sivan, 5604): Italian physician and author Benedetto Frizz (AKA Benzion Raphael Kohen) passed away today.



    http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0007_0_06900.html



    1845: In Colmar, France, the chief rabbi and his wife give birth to French physician Theodore Klein who “was also a member of the Jewish Consistory of Paris, and for eighteen years president of the Société de l'Etude Talmudique”



    1849: In Raudnitz, Bohemia, “a petty merchant” and his wife gave birth to law student turned journalist Emil Schiff who wrote for the "Deutsche Zeitung,Spener'schen Zeitung and Neue Freie Presse.”



    1860: In Charleston, SC, Rabbi Henry S. Jacobs officiated at the wedding Daniel Ottolengui and Helene R. Rodrigues, the daughter of Dr. B.A. Rodrigues.



    1861: Edward Storm a German Jewish immigrant living in Greenville, MS enlisted in the Confederate Army.



    1866: In Kiev, Philip Thomashefsky and Bertha Wishnefsky gave birth to Boris Thomashefsky, “leading actor, manager and lessee of the People’s Theatre in New York City.”



    http://www.thomashefsky.org/



    http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/boris-thomashefsky



    1868: In London, famed actress, Adah Isaacs Menken, gives in her last theatrical performance.



    1869: In Portland, Oregon, founding of Ahavai Sholom a congregation with a religious school that meets on Sunday, Tuesday and Wednesday and is supported by the Ladies’ Auxiliary and a cemetery “about two miles south of Portland.”



    1870: Jim Levy, an Irish Jew, survived his first gunfight in Pioche, Nevada.  Levy shot it out with a local thug named Michael Casey.  After an earlier gunfight, Levy contradicted Casey’s claim that he acted in self-defense. An angry Casey challenged the unarmed Levy to a gunfight.  Levy had to borrow a gun before he could answer the challenge.  Levy fired a single shot which mortally wounded Casey.  Contrary to the popular image in Western Movies, the gunfight was not a one-on-one combat. Dave Neagle, a friend of Casey, fired a shot at Levy while he was facing Casey.  The shot hit Levy in the jaw but did not prove to be life threatening.  The episode changed Levy’s lifestyle as he went from peaceful miner to leading the life of a gambler and “professional regulator” – a polite term for a fast gun for hire.



    1873: The Jewish Messenger published an appeal for funds to support a program of summer excursions for Jewish children in New York including those at the Orphan Asylum and those attending “Free Schools.”



    1875: Birthdate of Michael Fried, the native of Hungary and graduate Jewish Theological Seminary of America who served as the rabbi of Ahavath Sholom Beth Aron in Brooklyn and Congregation Tree of Life in Pittsburg, PA as well as Chaplain of the J.M. Gusky Orphanage of Western Pennsylvania



    1876: A week before his death, Ottoman sultan Abd-ul-Aziz is replaced by his nephew Murat V. As can be seen from the items below, Abd-ul-Aziz’s reign was a net plus for the Jewish people. Several Jews served in prominent governmental positions. Sultan Abdul Aziz allocated the "Alliance Israelite Universelle" 2600 dunams of land east of Jaffa for the establishment of a school of agriculture and also granted permission for importing all kinds of tools and machinery free of taxes and customs. As Ben Gurion, said: "I doubt that the Israeli dream would have been realized if the farm school of Mikveh Israel had not existed." Upon recurrence of blood libel accusations, Sultan Aziz issued a firman taking the Jews under his protection. Thanks to this firman the Greek Orthodox patriarchate had to issue encyclicals to all churches, forbidding such practices. Murat passed away three months after reaching the throne, leaving no legacy for the Jews or any of his other subjects.



    1876:Judge McAdam is scheduled to render a decision today in a case involving a can-can dance named Katie Forest and her Jewish partner, a jewelry salesman named Solomon Care.



    1876(7th of Sivan, 5636): Second Day of Shavuot



    1877: Based on responses from 174 congregations and 125 charitable institutions to a questionnaire sent by the Board of Delegates of American Israelites it was reported these congregations have a total of 11,507 members, 11,341 in their religious schools and 597 teachers providing instruction.  The total property value comes to an estimated six million dollars.  There are five Jewish hospitals, six orphan asylums, 3 homes for the aged and infirmed, 15 newspapers and magazines and four Jewish fraternal orders, the large of which is the Order of the B’Nai Brith.



    1878: It was reported today that over seven million dollars had been collected in New York City to provide relief for the Jews who suffering as a result of the war between Russia and Turkey.



    1879: It was reported today that Benjamin Mayer has been sentenced to two and half years in the state penitentiary and ordered to pay a fine of six thousand dollars for his role in in defrauding thirty financial firms.  During the sentencing statement, the Judge stated that Mayer had received a fair trial and that his religious background had no impact on the verdict or the sentence.



    1880: H.S. Allen presided over the sixth annual meeting of the United Hebrew Charities which was held at the Hebrew Orphan Asylum in Manhattan.  The members re-elected Henry Rice to serve as President and Mr. Allen will continue serving as First Vice President.



    1882: Birthdate of Ludwig Lewisohn the native of Berlin who settled with his family in South Carolina in the 1890’s.



    http://books.google.com/books?id=kVulUT-HfTcC&lpg=PA744&dq=Ludwig%20Lewisohn%201955&pg=PA23#v=onepage&q=Ludwig%20Lewisohn%201955&f=false



    1884(6th of Sivan, 5644): First Day of Shavuot



    1886: During today’s exercises celebrating the accomplishments of the 500 youngsters at the Hebrew Orphan Asylum, Mrs. Jacob Bookman is scheduled to present the Betty Bruhl prize which includes a one dollar award and Jesse Seligman, the President of the Asylum Society will present the Malcolm Atherton Strauss Prize.



    1887(7th of Sivan, 5647): Second Day of Shavuot



    1888: It was reported today that dispute brought on by the death of Moses A. Isaacs last year has been settled with the North American Relief Society for Indigent Jews in Jerusalem, Palestine receiving $50,000 plus interest earned over the last thirty years as provided by the will of Samson Simpson, the uncle of Moses A. Isaacs.



    1890: The Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum will host its annual reception today.



    1890: Several Polish Jews came to Essex Market Place Court today to file a complaint against William S Wolf whom the claimed “had defrauded them out of money they had given him” which he was supposed to have sent back to Poland.



    1890: It was reported today that New York City Mayor Grant has exercised his prerogative under the law and appointed Isidor Strauss to serve as a bridge commissioner – an appointment that will be matched by the governor.



    1890: Birthdate Paul Czinner the native of Budapest who was active in the Hungarian world of cinema who spent WW II in the United States before moving to England where he pursued his career as “a writer,  director, and producer.”



    1890: Jacob Epstein, a twenty-nine year old Russian Jewish immigrant and his wife Flora who are in Gouverneur Hospital are not expected to survive their gunshot wounds which were inflicted by Epstein during a fit of jealousy.  The children are being cared for the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children.



    1891: Birthdate of Bernard Anzelevitz, the native of Bayonne, NJ, who gained fame as Ben Bernie the jazz violinist and bandleader whose career included vaudeville and radio in its golden age of pre-World War II variety shows.



    1892: As part of today’s Memorial Day ceremonies the Honorary Staff of the Veteran Zouaves’ Association will present “a handsome silk flag” to the Hebrew Orphan Asylum followed by a speech from General J.R. O’Beirne.



    1892: Myer S. Isaacs, A. S. Solomons of the Baron de Hirsch Fund, Judge Henry M. Goldfogle, General Robert Avery, Joseph Blumenthal of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association and Rabbi H.S. Jacobs addressed the children of the Baron de Hirsch Fun Schools at today’s Memorial Day celebration.



    1892: The Free School at Jefferson Street and East Broadway, which was funded by Baron de Hirsch, was the scene of a unique Memorial Day celebration. The school was awash with patriotic paraphernalia including little American flags and red, white and blue bunting. Visitors to the school were treated to four hundred recently arrived Jewish children from Russia singing “My Country Tis of Thee” in faultless English followed by a recitation of “Our Flag Shall Float” and climaxed by these same youngsters singing The Star Spangled Banner.  This program is an example of the Americanization activities that are an integral part of the immigrant children’s education.



    1894: Memorial services for the late Jesse Seligman were held at the Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum on Amsterdam Avenue starting at three o’clock this afternoon.



    1894: The original Nathan Lattauer Hospital, which had been built thanks to the generous support of his son Lucius Nathan Littauer was opened today.



    1894: Charles Dupuy, formed a new government and began serving as Prime Minister of France – a post from which he would preside over the arrested and condemnation of Alfred Dreyfus.



    1894: During an interview today, Mrs. Esther J. Ruskay, defended a paper she presented at to a cross section of Jewish women at Temple Emanu-El in which she “declared that among the Jews of America there was no family life because parents had allowed themselves to drift away from the time honored observances of their faith.” She attributed this to parent paying “too much attention…to their worldly advancement…and a consequent drifting away from the synagogue” as cam be seem by their “giving up” the observance of the Sabbath.



    1895(7th of Sivan, 5655): Second Day of Shavuot



    1895: Cadets from the Hebrew Orphan Asylum will march with the Fourth Division in today’s Brooklyn (NY) Memorial Day Parade.



    1895: J. Ernest G. Yalden married Margaret Lyon, the sister of Cornell Agronomy Professor T. Littleton Lyon.  In 1894, The Trustees of the Baron de Hirsch Fund hired him to be superintendent of their school, a position he held for 25 years.



    1896: In Kensington, London, Abraham Moss, who was Jewish and his wife Sara Jane gave birth British race car driver and dentist Alfred Ethelbert Moss who invented the Morrison Shelter during WW II and the father of world famous race car driver Stirling Moss.



    1896: In Philadelphia, founding of “Gmilus Chasodim” a society that “loans money to the poor without interest” and whose member include S.L. Halperin and Rabbi David G. Kratzok.



    1898: The newly elected officers of the League of Zionist Societies of the United States are Dr. Phil Klein – President; Dr. Michael Singer – General Secretary; Morris Neuman – Treasurer; Dr. Henry Wald – Chairman of the Executive Board.



    1898: The excursion for the grand opening of the country sanitarium of the Montefiore Home for Chronic Invalids at Bedford Station, NY will leave New York City at 11:30 this morning.



    1898: As part of today’s Memorial Day observance, The Hebrew Union Veterans’ Association is scheduled to hold memorial services at Temple Emanu-El this evening.



    1898: Birthdate of Parisian Cyril Gottlieb who came to the United States where as Cyril Gottlieb he went from child actor to movie director.



    1898: “Albert Lasker arrived in Chicago” today “with $75 in his pocket – the money had given him to launch his new life” which was temporarily thwarted when he arrived at the offices of Lord and Thomas but found the doors locked because the business was closed because of Memorial Day.



    1898: It was reported today that the Directors of the Maurice Grau Opera Company designated Edward Lauterbach to prepare a set of resolutions expressing their regret over the death of Hungarian born conductor Anton Seidel which are to be given to his widow. Lauterbach was a prominent lawyer who served as a trustee of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum for almost 4 decades.



    1899: It was reported today that the United States Grand Lodge of the Independent Order Sons of Benjamin sent a telegram to the wife of the imprisoned Captain Dreyfus expressing their support and commending her for her behavior at the “approach of vindication.”



    1899: In Brooklyn, William and Henrietta (Haymann) Thalberg gave birth to American movie producer Irving Thalberg,



    http://www.oscars.org/awards/academyawards/about/awards/thalberg.html



    1899: Judge Ballot-Beaupre read his report on the Dreyfus case before the Court of Cassation.



    1900: Captain Antoine Louis Targe began serve as aid-de Camp under General Andre, the French Minister of War.  Three years later, under the Minister’s direction he began an investigation of evidence brought against Dreyfus.  Targe would produce information that would help to free Dreyfus.



    1900: The new home of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association was dedicated today. The facility includes a gymnasium, classrooms and a library with 9,000 volumes.



    1901: Herzl meets Grossherzog Friedrich of Baden, who tries to get him an audience with the Czar.



    1903: Herzl informs Zadoc Kahn and Lord Rothschild about the failure of the El-Arish Project.



    1901:in Czernowitz, Austria-Hungary, Hillel Manger, “a skilled tailor in love with literature” and his wife gave birth to Yiddish playwright and poet Itzik Manger.



    1903: “Camden At Hebrew Meeting” published today described plans for the upcoming meeting in Philadelphia sponsored by the Kishineff Relief Committee which will be attended by Mayor Nowry and to which Archbishop Ryan has already contributed $20.



    1902: Lt. Louis C. Wolf retired from the military today at Sheboygan, Wisconsin



    1904: Birthdate of Baltimore native Bernard J. Bamberger, the great-grandson Bavarian born Abraham Bamberger, the Johns Hopkins graduate and husband of Ethel “Pat” Kraus who served as the rabbi of New York’s Reform Congregation Shaaray Tefila whose many literary works included a Commentary on the Book of Leviticus that was part of the Reform movement’s modern translation of the Torah.



    http://snaccooperative.org/ark:/99166/w6qv67zp



    1904: Birthdate of Meyer Parodneck, the Polish born American lawyer who developed programs to get milk to poor children during the Great Depression. (As reported by Richard D. Lyons)



    http://www.nytimes.com/1994/05/22/obituaries/meyer-parodneck-89-advocate-for-the-poor-of-new-york-dies.html



    1906(6th of Sivan, 5666): First Day of Shavuot



    1907: “A rate collector appointed by the council of the metropolitan borough of Islington made a complaint to Joseph H. Polak Esquire, one of the justices of the peace for the county of London.



    1908: Birthdate of Mel Blanc.  The San Francisco native was the voice for a several cartoon characters including Bugs Bunny, Elmer Fudd and Porky Pig.



    1908: Birthdate of Dr.Abraham Stone Freedberg, a Harvard cardiologist who developed an early treatment for angina and whose pioneering work in identifying the bacteria that cause stomach ulcers was initially all but ignored.  However, he was vindicated when two Australian physicians won a Nobel Prize for work based on his discovery.



    1910:  Birthdate of German actress Inge Meysel.  Meysel’s mother was Danish and her father was Jewish.  According to one source, she was banned from acting during the Nazi period.  She resumed her career in the German city of Hamburg and continued working until her death in 2004.



    1909: Reuben Siegel laid the cornerstone for the first home in Tel-Aviv



    1909: Birthdate of Benny Goodman.  Born in Chicago, Goodman gained fame as a clarinetist and bandleader.  During the Big Band Era, he was known as the King of Swing



    1910: Birthdate of Harry Louis Bernstein, author of The Invisible Wall: A Love Story That Broke Barriers, his “painfully eloquent memoir about growing up Jewish and poor in a northern English mill town earned him belated literary fame on its publication in 2007, when he was 96…” (As reported by William Grimes)



    http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/07/books/harry-bernstein-writer-who-gained-fame-at-96-dies-at-101.html



    1910: Julius Meysel, and his Danish wife Anna Hansen gave birth to actress Inge Meysel who was banned from performing during the Nazi era because her father was Jewish.



    http://articles.latimes.com/2004/jul/14/local/me-passings14



    1912: In New York, Polish-Jewish immigrants Charles and Emma (Rosenblum) Stein gave birth to CCNY and Columbia University alum and playwright Joseph Stein whose most famous effort was Fiddler on the Roof



    1912:  Birthdate of American biochemist Julius Axelrod who won the Nobel Prize Physiology or Medicine in 1970.



    1913: In New Jersey, official dedication of the Mountain Ridge Country Club.



    1913: Birthdate of Moe Goldman, who played center for CCNY before going on to play pro ball in the American Basketball League.



    http://www.nytimes.com/1989/05/09/obituaries/moe-goldman-ex-basketball-player-75.html



    1913: The Balkan war, which had started in October, 1912 officially came to an end with the signing of the Treaty of London. As a result of this Albania became an independent state. Jews had lived in Albania since Roman times.  The false messiah, Shabbetai Zevi spent his final years in Albania and died there.  At the time that Albania gained its independence from Turkey, there were probably only a couple of hundred Jews living in the country.



    1914(5th of Sivan, 5674): Parashat Bamidbar; erev Shavuot



    1914(5th of Sivan, 5674): Forty-seven year old Baltimore native Lewis Putzel, an 1888 graduate of the University of Maryland Law School and partner in the firm of Steiner and Putzel and husband of Birdie Putzel who served as Baltimore City Attorney and a member of both houses of the Maryland State Legislature passed away today in his home town.



    http://msa.maryland.gov/megafile/msa/speccol/sc3500/sc3520/014700/014777/html/14777images.html



    1915: Because of a question raised by Albert Lucas, the question of “whether the Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America should declare in favor of a Hebrew national congress for the purpose of looking after the interests of persons of the Jewish faith in the European war zone was discussed at the eighth convention of the union which opened” today at the Harlem Hebrew Institute Building.



    1915: In Ottawa, Canada, Leon and Beckie Petegorsky gave birth to their only son David W. Petegorsky, the ordained rabbi who received a Ph.D. from London School of Economics and was the Executive Director of the American Jewish Congress.



    1915: It was reported today that “the total of Illinois petitioners” calling on the Governor of Georgia to commute the sentence of Leo Frank “will exceed 1,000,000” by the time the case is heard tomorrow and this does not count those received “from the big towns in Indiana.”



    1915: “In an editorial addressed to the Prison Commission, the Atlanta Journal” made a final please for Leo Frank which began “Frank’s sentence ought to be commuted to life imprisonment because of the deep-seated and overshadowing doubt of his guilt.  The state cannot afford to sacrifice human life on uncertainties.”



    1915: The three commissioners – Chairman R. E. Davison, Judge T.E. Patterson and E.L. Rainey – who make up the State Prison Commission which will hear the plea for commuting Leo Frank’s sentence arrived in Atlanta, GA tonight.



    1915: “An Atlanta Appeal For Frank” published today provided a complete reprint of the text of James Gray’s editorial originally printed a week ago.



    1915: In Park Slope, Brooklyn drug store owner Abraham “Gus” Manulis and his wife Anna gave birth to producer Martin Ellyot Manulis whose work included everything from the sitcom “The Many Loves of Dobie Gillis” to the very dramatic “Days of Wine and Roses.”



    1916(27th of Iyar, 5676): Eighty-two year old Adolph Frank, a German chemist and businessman best known for his work in potash and the winner of the John Scott Medal of the Franklin Institute in 1893 passed away today.



    1917: During the “First Conference on Democracy and Terms of Peace” which was “being held in New York’s Garden Theatre, delegates adopted a resolution presented by Morris Hilliquist, the Jewish Socialist, demanding “that the Government agree to a peace in which neither territory nor indemnities for any of the belligerents shall figure.”



    1917: According to information received in London, “an order of expulsion is hanging over the heads of the Jewish residents of Jerusalem” despite the fact that the order of eviction from the Turks has been suspended twice due to intervention by the German government which is concerned about the effect such a move would have on “the world’s public opinion.”



    1918: Birthdate of Bernard Wessler, the graduate of Baruch College who gained fame as television writer Bernie West whose credits include “All in the Family,” “The Jeffersons” and “Three’s Company.”



    1918 During the Battle of Cantigny, Frederick Hahn, a second lieutenant serving with United States Army Field Artillery, “went into heavy shell fire to supervise the repairs of telephone lines and to act as a runner when the further maintenance of the wires became impossible.



    1918: In accordance with a proclamation sent out by President Wilson on May 13, “Orthodox Congregations in the United States” are scheduled to “open all the synagogues for prayer and that members” would fast “as if it were a holy day” while uttering special prayers calling “for the speedy success of American arms” which would lead to “a just peace.”



    1919: A national Jewish association is founded in Constantinople under the auspices of the Jewish association Amicale, and with cooperation of the B'nai Brith Lodge. Among its many goals, are the establishment of an autonomous Jewish homeland in Palestine, and support for the communal administration of Jewish philanthropic groups in Turkey.



    1919: As the National Conference of Jewish Charities continued its week-long meeting in Atlantic City, NJ, Maurice B. Hexter is scheduled to lead a discussion on Convalescent Care and Lt. Maxwell Heller is scheduled to deliver a talk on “Care of Wounded Soldiers” after Friday evening services at Beth Israel Synagouge.



    1919: Bernard and Mildred Asch gave birth to Sidney Howard Asch, “a New York judge with a Ph.D. in sociology who wrote scholarly works about civil liberties and made notable decisions about landlord-tenant law, employment of gay people and a man’s right to get his hair cut in a women’s beauty salon…” (As reported by Paul Vitello)



    1920: Memorial Day in the United States



    1920: “Major General Clarence R. Edwards, commander of the Yankee Division in France” delivered the main address during Memorial Services at the Free Synagogue in Carnegie Hall where the attendees included “the Jewish Veterans of the Wars of the Republic and their commander Maurice Simmons.”



    1920: The East Boston Y.M.H.A. held Memorial Day exercise this afternoon at Ohel Jacob Synagogue where “a memorial tablet was unveiled and dedicated to the Jewish men of East Boston who served in the World War.”



    1920: Rabbi Israel Goldstein and Rabbi Jacob Schwartz officiated at Congregation B’nai Jeshurun’s Memorial Day service which included a special memorial “to the late Herman Levy” who had served as the president from 1912 until 1920.



    1920: Birthdate of Carmen G. De Sapio’s press agent Sydney Stuart Baron, the “son of a Brooklyn shoemaker,” “an ‘A’ English student at New Utrecht High School” and husband of high school sweetheart Sylvia Schreibman whose public relations clients included Anheuser-Busch, Iona College and Beth Jacob Schools.



    https://timesmachine.nytimes.com/timesmachine/1961/02/13/97657964.pdf



    1920: “The 21st conference of the English Zionist Federation of London passed a resolution ‘expressing gratitude to the Supreme Council for incorporating the Balfour declaration in the treaty with Turkey and for granting the mandate for Palestine to Great Britain.’”



    1920: Ninety-one year Joseph Eduard Konrad Bischoff whose 19th century novella Judas Makkabaeus demonstrated a renewed interest in the non-Jewish world in the Jewish warrior passed away today.



    1922 Birthdate of Rosel Lerner, the native of Worms and one of the children sent to Britain on the Kinderstransport trains, who gained fame as Rose Evanksky, the inventor of “blow-dry hair styling.” (As reported by William Grimes)



    https://www.nytimes.com/2016/12/16/world/europe/rose-evansky-blow-drying-dies.html?hpw&rref=obituaries&action=click&pgtype=Homepage&module=well-region&region=bottom-well&WT.nav=bottom-well&_r=1



    1924: “Tragedy in the House of Habsburg,” a historical drama about the suicide at Mayerling directed and produced by Alexander Korda and starring Maria Corda was released in Germany today.



    1925(7th of Sivan, 5685): Second Day of Shavuot



    1925(7th of Sivan, 5685): Seventy-five year old Dr. of Jurisprudence Albert Mosse, the husband of Caroline Mosse and the son of Ulrike Mosse and Marcus Mosse, M.D. passed away today.



    1925: Birthdate of John Henry Marks, the London born physician who served as Chariman of the British Medical Associate from 1984 to 1990.



    1925: In Memphis, TN, Edward Bihari a Jewish immigrant from Hungary who worked in sales and later ran a grain and seed business in Tulsa, OK and his wife gave birth to Joseph Bihari, the youngest of 8 siblings who had a major impact on the popularization of “R&B” as can be seen by his being the first to record the music of B.B. King. (As reported by William Yardley)



    1926: A rodeo featuring a troop of 120 Don Cossacks who recently arrived in the United States from Russia is scheduled to take place tonight at Madison Garden.  The proceeds of the event will go the United Jewish Campaign of New York.



    1927: Rabbi Arthur S. Montaz is scheduled to deliver the invocation and Mrs. Leo Freidenrich is scheduled to deliver “the address of welcome” at the opening session of the Fourth Western Interstate Conference at Temple Emanuel in Spokane, Washington.



    1928: Today, on Memorial Day, in North Carolina the Wilmington airport was named Bluethenthal Field, in honor of Arthur Bluethenthal, who transferred from the Lafayette Escadrille to the air arm of the United States Navy and was “the first North Carolinian killed in action during World War I.”



    1929: On the West Side of Chicago, “Monroe Harriman Loeb,” the owner of a wrecking and salvage company” and “the former Henrietta Benjamin, a milliner and teacher” gave birth to Marshall Robert Loeb, the “business journalist” who made Money magazine and Fortunemagazine into major publications. (As reported by Robert D. Hershey, Jr.)



    https://www.nytimes.com/2017/12/11/obituaries/marshall-loeb-editor-who-shaped-money-and-fortune-magazines-dies-at-88.html?hpw&rref=obituaries&action=click&pgtype=Homepage&module=well-region&region=bottom-well&WT.nav=bottom-well&_r=0



    1929: Leonard Jacques Stein stood as the Liberal candidate for Bermondsey West in today’s General election where he finished second in a three way race.



    1930: At a meeting in Tel Aviv, the Vaad Leumi, the Jewish National Council called for a national strike to begin next week to protest the British government’s order suspending Jewish immigration pending an inquiry into land and immigration problems by Sir John Simpson.



    1930: In Manhattan, Harold and Judith Heyman gave birth to their only child Ira Michael Heyman the Chancellor of the University of California, Berkley and Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.



    http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/28/us/michael-heyman-smithsonian-leader-dies-at-81.html



     1931: It was reported today that Isaac Landman who has agreed to return as the rabbi of Congregation Beth Elhoim in Brooklyn will still serve as the editor of The American Hebrew and editor-in-chief of The Standard Jewish Encyclopedia,



    1932: As the Weimar Republic descended into the chaos that would bring Hitler to power Chancellor Brüning announced his cabinet's resignation after President Hindenburg and his fellow Junkers “opposed his policies of distributing land to unemployed workers.”



    1932: Birthdate of Baltimore native Solomon Wolf Golomb, the son of a rabbi and linguist who gained fame as an electrical engineer and mathematician.



    http://coding.yonsei.ac.kr/kart-berlekamp.pdf



    https://news.usc.edu/100264/in-memoriam-solomon-golomb-communications-technology-pioneer-83/



    1933(5th of Sivan, 5693): Erev Shavuot



    1933: The Bishops saw a draft of the Concordat as they assembled for a meeting of the Fulda bishops conference led by Breslau’s Cardinal Bertram



    1933: The League of Nations held the first of two days of debate about the persecution of the Jews in Germany.



    1936: “It was learned today that the Palestine Government was considering the mobilization of 1,000 Jews into a special until to help government forces cope with the Arab revolt.”



    1936: William Cohen, the president of the National Association of Jewish Center Executives addressed the organization’s annual meeting at the Hotel Chelsea in Atlantic City where George L. Hyman, executive director of the Central Jewish Institute of New York “praised the Maccabiah games as a means of bringing all elements of the Jewish community as spectators and participants.”



    1936:The Palestine (British) Government today warned all mukhtars (chieftains) that their villages would be subject to collective punitive measures unless the cutting of telephone wires, bomb explosions, attempts to demolish railway lines and other acts of brigandage ceased.



    1936: “It was learned today that the Palestine Government was considering the mobilization of 1,000 Jews into a special unit to help government forces cope with the Arab revolt.”



    1938: The Palestine Post published the full text of the letter, written by Dr. Chaim Weizmann, addressed to the High Commissioner for Palestine. The letter was accompanied by the Annual Jewish Agency's memorandum prepared for the League of Nations Mandates Commission. The Agency accused the Palestine Government that 1937 was a year of an artificially limited immigration and a "chequered development". The Jewish economic structure had shown strength and resilience in the face of the Arab terror. Exports increased, but there was insufficient Government aid for industry and control of imports.



    1940: French driver Rene Dreyfus finished 10th today in the Indianapolis 500.



    1941:  Germany seizes the Greek island of Crete.  The Germans would leave the Jews of Crete alone until 1944.  In 1944, the Germans loaded the Jews of Crete on to a ship called the Tanais along with a mixed bag of Greek and Italian prisoners.  The ship was sunk as it headed for the mainland.  It is unclear whether a German U-boat or a British submarine sank the Tanais.



    1941:  At ten o'clock in morning, Yunis al-Sabawi, the newly self-appointed pro-Nazi Military Governor of Baghdad "summoned the Chief Rabbi, Sasson Hedouri to his office and ordered him to instruct the Jews to go to their homes and stay there until noon.  He was also supposed to tell them to pack a suitcase for each family member because they were being taken to detention camps 'for their own safety."  In the meantime, Sabwai  "instructed the broadcasting station to issue a call to the Baghdad public to massacre the Jews."  The broadcast was to be made at noon. (In Ishmael's House by Martin Gilbert.


    1941: At meeting with the Mayor of Baghdad, Arshad al-Umari, The Chief Rabbi, Sasson Khedouri asked him to thwart the plans of Yunis Al-Sabawi for the destruction of the city's Jewish population.



    1941: Yunis Al-Sabawi, the pro-Nazi governor of Baghdad, took refuge in Persia when the Mayor of Baghdad, Arshad al-Umari, took control of the city and ended the threatened massacre of the Jewish population. 



     


    1942: After 467, “Lady in the Dark” closed at the Alvin Theatre in New York City. It could be called “a Jewish musical” since Kurt Weill wrote the music, Ira Gershwin did the lyrics and Moss Hart supplied the book and the direction.


    1942: Members of the Wehrmacht deported the remaining 75 Jews from Hanau, Germany.



     1943: U.S. premiere of “DuBarry Was a Lady” a musical comedy produced by Arthur Freed photographed by cinematographer Karl Freund and featuring Zero Mostel as “Rami the Swami.”


    1944: Bernhard Bästlein, a genuine leader of the anti-Nazi resistance was rearrested by after having escaped from Plötzensee Prison during an Allied bombing raid and taken tothe Reichssicherheitshauptamt for the first of several days of torture.


    1944: Rudolf Breslauer “a German-Jewish inmate of Westerbork camp in Holland” filmed one of only two cinematic works known to have been produced inside a functioning concentration camp for Jews.” (As reported by Cnaan Liphshiz)


    1945: In Paris, “several thousand repatriated prisoners” marched down the Avenue de l’Opera “demanding clothes” and then “marched down the Boulevard Sebastopol crying ‘Down with the Jews.’”


     1946: In a play that anticipates a scene in The Naturalby Brooklyn-native Bernard Malamud, the Braves' Bama Rowell smashes a double in the 7-run 2nd inning of the second game of a doubleheader at Ebbets Field. The ball shatters the Bulova clock high atop the right-field scoreboard at 4:25 P.M., showering glass down on the Dodgers' Right Fielder Dixie Walker. An hour later the clock stops.


    1947(10thof Sivan, 5707): Seventy-three year old journalist Meir (Myer Jack) Landa who had worked for the Daily Gazette in Birmingham, passed away today in London.


    1948: At dawn this morning forces of the Irgun captures Ras el Ein near Petah Tikva the source of Jerusalem’s water supply.  By nightfall, the Jewish troops had to give up their hard won victory because of counterattacks from a larger force of Iraqi soldiers. 


    1948: Milton “Milt” Rubenfeld, that native of Peekskill, NY who had flown for the RAF and the U.S.A.A.F. flew his first mission for the infant Israeli Air Force taking off at 0530 as the wingman for Ezer Weizman with whom he was supposed to attack positions around Tulkarm.


    1948: In the skies above Israel, Arab aircraft were on the attack striking at Jewish forces in several locations including Zirin, a village near Jenin, Kinereth near Timeria, Rebovoth, near Ramleh, Merchavia and Afula which was the target for incendiary bombs.  The newly-minted Israeli air force struck at Tel el Kasser on the Trans Jordan border and at an area near Isdud where Egyptian forces were assembling to move on Jaffa.  The Israelis lost one plane in the attack.


    1948: “Israel’s last remaining dissident organization, the Stern Group, announced tonight that it had been incorporated into the regular Israeli army.”  (Ed. Note: This was part of Ben Gurion’s determined effort to create a modern state with only military.  This was not a popular effort and it meant with resistance from a wide spectrum of political opinion.  If Ben Gurion had not pushed forward with his plan the Jewish community of the day would have looked Gaza in the 21st century.)


    1949: Birthdate of Charles Samuel Shapiro “an American diplomat and a former U.S. ambassador to Venezuela. He went on to become Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary at the State Department from 2007 to 2009, and now heads its free trade agreement task force. Some supporters of president Hugo Chavez accuse Shapiro of having supported the 2002 coup d'état, including a meeting with interim president Pedro Carmona Estanga one day after the coup.  Shapiro and other US sources have denied this and claim that he urged Carmona to reinstitute the dissolved national assembly.  Shapiro has degrees from the University of Pennsylvania and Georgia State University, and served in the United States Coast Guard.


    1949: In “Fine Singing Heard At Jewish Festival” published today Hugh Thomson provided a review the annual Jewish music festival held in celebration of the Sabbath of Song which opened Jewish Music Month in Toronto.


    1951: “Goodbye, My Fancy” a romantic-comedy directed by Vincent Sherman based on a play by Fay Kanin was released in the United States today.


    1951:  Birthdate of Dallas native Stephen Tobolowsky, character actor whose most famous role might be that of Ned Reyerson, the obnoxious insurance salesman in Groundhog Day.


    1951: Austrian born author Hermann Broch passed away. Broch was imprisoned in a concentration camp after the Anschluss.  During his imprisonment he began writing the most important of his three major works, The Death of Virgil. Broch’s influential friends including James Joyce obtained his release and got him into the United States.  He converted to Roman Catholicism prior to his death in 1951.


    1952(6thof Sivan, 5712): Shavuot


    1952: In Charleston, West Virginia, “Harold Marks, who operated a linen supply business, and the former Beverly Rosenthal, a painter on Judaic themes” gave birth to Gilbert Stanley Marks “a culinary historian who wrote widely on the relationship between Jewish food and Jewish culture in a manner that was both scholarly and friendly.” (As reported by Bruce Weber)



    1952: Birthdate of Giles Uriel Bernheim, the native of Aix-les-Bains, Savoie who was elected chief rabbi of France in 2008.


    1952(6thof Sivan, 5712): Seventy-two year old Albert Lasker, the Lord and Thomas Advertising Agency executive who introduced the campaigns for such products as Kleenex Tissues and Lucky Strike cigarettes passed away. He used his millions to establish the Lasker Foundation and to endow the Albert Lasker Awards, given annually “for outstanding contributions to clinical and basic medical research.


    1953: After 263 performances, the curtain comes down at the Empire Theatre on “The Time of the Cukoo” a play by Arthur Laurents directed Harold Cluman


    1954: In New York City, Hermann Merkin, who owned 37 percent of Overseas Shipping Group and helped to found the Fifth Avenue Synagogue and his wife Ulla gave birth author and journalist Daphne Miriam Merkin.



    1958(11thof Sivan, 5718): In front of a live audience of several thousand people and an untold number of radio listeners sixty-eight year old “Maximillian Pilzer struck his head on a strip of concrete” and suffered “fatal concussion to the brain when he “ collapsed while conducting the Naumburg Symphony on the Mall in Central Park”




    1958: Sarah Churchill wrote to her father describing the ceremony opening the Churchill Auditoriums at the Technion. “They love you very much and the auditorium was designed to honor your achievements…”


    1959: U.S. premiere of “The Young Philadelphians” starring Paul Newman with music by Ernest Gold who came to the United States after the Anschluss because his paternal grandfather was Jewish.”


    1959: “Sunrise at Campobello” the gripping drama about FDR’s fight with Polio written Dore Schary closed today after running for 556 performances at the Cort Theatre.


    1960(4th of Sivan, 5720): Boris Pasternak, author of Dr. Zhivago passed away


    1961: Birthdate of Tehran native Bob Yari, the graduate of U.C., Santa Barbara and American movie producer.


    1961: Prime Minister David Ben Gurion met with President John F. Kennedy in the Presidential suite at the Waldorf Astoria Hotel in New York City. The meeting lasted for an hour and a half.  The two leaders discussed the sale of HAWK missiles to Israel, the reactor at Dimona and need to make some sort of conciliatory gesture concerning the Palestinian refugees.


    1961(15th of Sivan, 5721): Binyamin Mintz an Israeli politician who served as Minister of Postal Services from July 1960 until his death today. Born in Łódź in the Russian Empire (today in Poland), Mintz studied in a Hasidic Ger school and was a member of Young Agudat Israel. He made aliyah to Mandate Palestine in 1925, and worked in construction and as a printer. In 1933 he joined Agudat Israel Workers, and was later a member of the Provisional State Council. In 1949 he was elected to the first Knesset on the list of the United Religious Front (an alliance of the four main religious parties). Re-elected in 1951, 1955 and 1959, he was appointed Minister of Postal Services by David Ben-Gurion in 1960. The village of Yad Binyamin, established in 1962, was named in his honor.


    1963(7thof Sivan, 5723): Second Day of Shavuot observed for the last time during the Presidency of JFK


    1964(19th of Sivan, 5724): Famed nuclear physicist Leo Szilard passed away.  Born in Hungry, Szilard sounded the early warning about Nazi plans to build an atomic bomb and the need for the Western Powers to do it first.  His efforts led to the famous letter from Einstein, the Manhattan Project and the successful building of the Atomic Bomb Hungarians/US nuclear physicist



    1965: Moshe Carmel began serving as Minister of of Transport, National Infrastructure and Road Safety


    1966: Birthdate of Stephen Malkmus indie-rock musician who played with a band called Silver Jews.


    1967: King Hussein of Jordan visited Cairo. “At the meeting Nasser produced a file containing the Syrian-Egyptian defense pact” King Hussein was, in his own words “so anxious to reach agreement” that told Nasser to give him another copy of the agreement, “replace the word Syrian with the word Jordan” so that he could join the alliance without delay. Apparently, Hussein was not the reluctant participant he would later claim to have been. This was part of Arab efforts to create a united military front in what would become the Six Day War which would begin a week later.  When the war broke out, the Israelis sent word to the Jordanians asking them to stay out of the fight.  The Israelis assured the Jordanians that they had no intention of attacking them.  The Jordanian response was to starting shelling Israel.  It was this action by the Jordanians which led the Israelis to the Green Line and drive the Jordanians out of east Jerusalem.


    1967: As “the Arab noose” seems to be tightening around the Israeli neck, Meir Amit was sent to Washington to check the American response if Israel launched pre-emptive strikes at Egypt. He told the defense secretary Robert MacNamara: "All we want is three things: One, that you refill our arsenal after the war. Two, that you will help us in the UN. Three, that you will isolate the Russians from the arena." MacNamara said to Amit: "I read you loud and clear."


    1968: Martin Noth, German Old Testament scholar, passed away. Noth was the first authority to note that First and Second Kings contained virtually no mention of the classic prophets: Isaiah, Jeremiah, Amos and Hosea.


    1969: Palestinian terrorists blew up the oil pipeline which passes through the Golan Heights. Thousands of tons of crude oil polluted the river-beds, but were blocked before they could reach Lake Kinneret.


    1970 "Minnie's Boys" a play about the Marx Brothers closed at Imperial Theater in New York City closed after 80 performances.


    1970: “The Ballad of Cable Hogue,” an off-beat Western with music by Jerry Goldsmith and co-starring David Warner who “was raised by his Russian Jewish father and his stepmother.”


    1971(6thof Sivan, 5731): Shavuot


    1971: In the borough of Queens Helene and Stuart Mentzel gave birth to singer/songwriter Idina Menzel who “originated the role ‘Maureen Johnson’ in the Broadway hit ‘Rent’ and its cinematic adaption.


    1972: Final exams are scheduled to be held today at The Bernard M. Baruch College of the City University of New York. The exams had originally been scheduled to given on May 19 which coincided with the celebration of Shavuot.  The date of the exams was changed following protests led by Hillel, the Anti-Defamation League and individual students.


    1972: In Tel Aviv, members of the Japanese Red Army carry out the Lod Airport Massacre, killing 24 people and injuring 78 others. 


    1973(28th of Iyar, 5733): Yom Yerushalayim


    1975: Larry Blyden began what would be his last vacation in Morocco.


    1976: Birthdate of child star Omri Katz


    1977: In Port-au-Prince, Haiti, 27 year old Nina Bushkin daughter of jazz pianist Joey Bushkin married 58 year old Alan Jay Lerner, the man who wrote the lyrics for such  Broadway hits as “My Fair Lady” and “Camelot.”


    1978: The Jerusalem Post reported that in his inaugural Knesset address the new, fifth President of Israel, Yitzhak Navon, called upon Egypt to renew peace negotiations and urged other Arab leaders to follow suit. Knesset members were so pleased with Navon's appearance that they broke a cardinal rule and spontaneously burst into applause. The Prime Minister, Menachem Begin, looking pale after several days of fever, turned up despite reports that his health might preclude his appearance.


    1978: The Jerusalem Post reported that Tadiran gave a sneak preview of its miniature, remotely-controlled pilotless reconnaissance aircraft, the Mastiff.


    1978: The Jerusalem Post reported that according to Yigal Hurwitz, the Minister of Commerce and Industry, only huge budget cuts of some four to five billion pounds, accompanied by a drastic reduction of manpower in the service sector, could save Israel from the fast growing inflation.


    1983: As part of the American Jewish Choral Festival workshops were scheduled to take place today “on the tradition of Jewish choral music, on the choral music of Israel and on the significance of texts in Jewish choral music, led by Hugo Weisgall, Joshua Jacobson and the director of the festival, Matthew Lazar.”


    1984(28thof Iyar, 5744): Yom Yerushalayim


    1984: A revival of “Little Me” a musical written by Neil Simon, with music by Cy Coleman and lyrics by Carolyn Leigh opened on the West End at the Prince of Wales Theatre.


    1990(6th of Sivan, 5750): Shavuot


    1990:Good luck as much as any other factor helped foil a potentially disastrous attack by heavily armed seaborne terrorists on Israeli civilians today. Air, ground and naval forces engaged the intruders, killing four and capturing 12 before they could cause casualties or damage.


    1991: Christopher Lehmann-Haupt reviewed On the Third Day by Piers Paul Read that begins with a discovery by an Israeli counterintelligence unit that leads to the conclusion that Jesus did not survive the crucifixion and that he did not rise on the third day


    1992: CBS broadcast the final episode of “The Trials of Rosie O’Neill” produced by Barney Rosenzweig and featuring Ron Rifkin and Ed Asner.


    1997: Richard Danizg, a Clinton appointee, completed his term as Under Secretary of the Navy.  He was the 26th person to fill this position since it was resurrected by Franklin Roosevelt in 1940.  In another era, both Teddy Roosevelt and FDR had held this same postion.


    1997(23rdof Iyar, 5757): Thirty-one year old Jonathan M. Levin, a son of the Chairman of Time Warner was killed by a former student Corey Arthur. “Five years later, the New York City Education Department opened Jonathan Levin High School for Media and Communications in the same South Bronx building where he had taught, declaring it “a living tribute” to the English teacher’s “spirit, values, commitment and impassioned belief” that every child has a right to a quality education.” (As reported by Al Baker)


    1998(5th of Sivan, 5758): Sam Aaronvitch,British economist, academic, working class intellectual and senior member of the Communist Party of Great Britain, passed away


    1998: Tonight, Erev of Shavuot, Jonathan Eisenthal and as many as 150 other members of Mt. Zion Hebrew Congregation will be studying Exodus 19, the biblical passage in which God first approaches the Israelites to become partners in a divine covenant, and, through Moses, gives them the Torah. Traditionally observant Jews stay up the whole first night of Shavuot studying texts related to revelation, the giving of the Torah and the Book of Ruth. But among Reform Jews like Eisenthal, staying up the whole night, or even part of it, to study is a relatively new practice. Eisenthal is doing just what the head of the Reform movement, Rabbi Eric Yoffie, hopes to inspire among more of his constituents.


    Last November, in his first speech as president of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations, the umbrella organization for Reform synagogues, Yoffie declared that "Torah is at the center" of his movement. Hebrew literacy, and a knowledge of core Jewish texts, was, he said, to be the focus of a new campaign.


    2000:Yitzhak Mordechai completed his term as Minister of Transport, National Infrastructure and Road Safety


    2001:President Bush welcomes Israeli President Moshe Katsav to the White House for a working dinner with Jewish leaders and senior Administration officials.


    2001:A car bomb explodes outside a school in Netanya injuring 8 people for which Palestinian Islamic Jihad took credit.


    2001: CTV broadcast the last episode of the mystery drama series “Twice in a Lifetime” starring Al Waxman and featuring Polly Bergen.


    2003: (28th of Iyar, 5763) Yom Yerushalayim – Jerusalem Reunification Day


    2003: “Finding Nemo,” an Academy Award winnin animated comedy starring the voices of Albert Brooks and Alexander Gould was released in the United States today.


    2005:Sephardi Chief Rabbi Shlomo Amar decides to recognize the members of India's Bnei Menashe community as descendants of the ancient Israelites. Amar also decides to dispatch a team of rabbinical judges to India to convert the community members to Orthodox Jews. Such a conversion will enable their immigration to Israel under the Law of Return, without requiring the Interior Ministry's authorization.


    2005:President Moshe Katsav arrives in Germany to mark 40 years of diplomatic relations during a three-day visit in which he is to address the German parliament.


    2005(21st of Iyar, 5765): Thirty-eight year old Yona Peter Malina who had been “severely injured” during a Hamas bombing on a city bus in Ramat Eshkol, Jerusalem, and had been on a respirator finally passed away today.


    2006: “A commemorative stamp portraying Hiram Bingham IV” who served as U.S. Vice Counsel in Marseille and helped over 2,500 escape the Nazis


    2007: Elias Chacour - Archbishop of Galilee, “an Arab Christian” who advocates for the Palestinian cause” was a interviews by Jerome McDonnell on Worldview on Chicago Public Radio station WBEZ.


    2007: An exhibition, ''Sisters by Color'' comes to a close at the Hebrew University. The exhibition, featuring works of art by sisters Rachel Ziv and Gila Elyashar Stolisky, opened on April, 12, 2007, in the presence of the Lithuanian Ambassador to Israel Asta Skaisgiryte Liauskiene.


    2007: As the missile attacks continue, a Qassam rocket hit a high-voltage electricity pole and landed on a building in the western Negev city of Sderot this evening. The house sustained some damage, but the residents of the home had been secured inside a protected room and remained unharmed.


    2008: On Friday night, Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, Iowa celebrates the third and final Special Musical Sabbaths for this year.


    2008: In Patterson, NJ, the Barnet Hospital named for Jewish philanthropist and political leader Nathan Barnet officially closed its doors today after 99 years of service.


    2008(25th of Iyar, 5768): Lee Henkel, the former general counsel to the IRS who ran Neiderhoffer Henkel the investment bank founded by hedge fund manager Victor Niederhoffer passed away today.


    2008: Outfielder Brian Horwitz appeared in his first major league baseball game as a member of the San Francisco Giants.


    2008: In “A Class For All Traditions,” published today the Chicago Tribune reports on The Chicago Jewish Day School on its fifth anniversary.



    2009(7th of Sivan, 5769: Second Day Shavuot Yizkor


    2009:Stephan M. Silverman, a clinical and school psychologist and Jacqueline S. Iseman, a clinical psychologist specializing in children and adolescents lead a discussion of “School Success for Kids With ADHD” at Borders Books in Rockville, MD.


    2010: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish of authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Invisible Bridge by Julie Orringer and Necessary Secrets:National Security, the Media, and the Rule of Lawby Gabriel Schoenfeld.


    2010(17thof Sivan, 5770): Eighty-eight year old Israeli political leader and Knesset Member Aryeh “Lova” Eliav passed away.


    2011: Limmud Colorado’s Fourth Annual Conference is scheduled to come to an end.


    2011:Israeli Homeland Security Minister Matan Vilna'i and his Russian counterpart Emergencies Minister Sergei Shoigu are scheduled to sign an agreement to increase Israeli-Russian cooperation in emergency situations during a ceremony at the Knesset today.


    2011(26thof Iyar, 5771): Yahrzeit Moshe Chaim Luzzatto. Born in 1707 he “was a prominent Italian Jewish rabbi, kabbalist, and philosopher.” Known by the Hebrew acronym RaMCHaL (or RaMHaL, רמח"ל), he passed in 1746


    2011:A group of squatters forcefully entered a building that houses a synagogue, in a move that anti-government observers say was religiously motivated.  The squatters were peacefully dislodged this morning after negotiations with the police and community leaders.


    2011:The head of the Canadian Jewish Congress, Bernie Farber, announced he is running for public office. Farber, who worked for the CJC for 27 years and has been its CEO since 2005, announced he is taking a leave of absence to run as a Liberal candidate in October's provincial elections in Ontario.


    2011: According to some of the findings in Identity a la Carte, a landmark study of post-Communist Jewish identity, affiliation and participation released today, “a generation after the fall of communism, Jews in Central Europe feel comfortable where they live but are concerned about anti-Semitism. They like to visit Israel but don't want to move there. And they feel that they don't have to be religious to be a "good Jew."


    2011: Funeral services will be held today in Toronto for Milton Avruskin with internment at Interment at Pardes Shalom Cemetery, Temple Har Zion section.


    2011(26thof Iyar, 5771): Eighty-nine year old Rosalyn S. Yalow, the first woman to earn a Nobel Prize in Medicine, passed away today. (‘As reported by Denise Gellene)



    2012: Judaism and the American Legal Tradition taught by Dr. Daniel Rynhold is scheduled to hold its final course of the semester.


    2012: Funeral services were held today for “Award-winning author, teacher, mentor and fierce fighter for social justice, Ellen Levine” who had passed away on May 26.



    2012: Center for Jewish History and Leo Baeck Institute are scheduled to present a concert featuring Vassa Shevel and Inessa Zaretsky of the Phoenix Chamber Ensemble and guest pianist, Ellen Braslavsky


    2012: Defense Minister Ehud Barak said today that Israel should consider imposing the borders of a future Palestinian state, becoming the most senior government official to suggest bypassing a stagnant peace process.


    2012: For the second time in three years, Howard Michael Epstein “was shut out from joining the Cabinet” when a new government was formed in Canada.


    2012: The European Jewish Community Center (EJCC),holds an event at the European parliament commemorating Israel’s establishment of control over the eastern part of Jerusalem in 1967, a week after the national holiday was held in Israel. (As reported by Gil Shefler)


    2012: Shin Bet (Israel Security Agency) chief Yoram Cohen told the Knesset Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee today that terrorists funded by Iran have increased attempts to attack Jewish targets around the world in the past year.


    2013: The award ceremony at which Francesca Segal will receive the 2013 Sami Rohr Prize for Jewish Literature in recognition of her debut novel, The Innocents


    2013:The 4th International Conference of the Global Forum for CombatingAntisemitism is scheduled to come to a close.


    2013(21stof Sivan, 5773): Seventy-nine year old actress Helen Haft passed away today.  (As reported by Paul Vitello)



    2013: The Wiener Library is scheduled to host a book signing for Rabbi Jonathan Wittenberg whose latest work is Walking with the Light.


    2013:Leonard Saxe, Klutznick Professor of Contemporary Jewish Studies and Director of the Cohen Center for Modern Jewish Studies as well as Director at the Steinhardt Social Research Institute at Brandeis University, is scheduled to speak at Northern Virginia Hebrew Congregation on The Future of Liberal Judaism in America: What We Can Learn from the Birthright Israel Generation.


    2013: The Religious Services Ministry has said that it is moving toward a system in which the serving rabbi of any congregation, whether Orthodox or non-Orthodox, will be financially supported by the ministry. The statement was made today in response to a High Court petition filed in January against the ministry by the Reform Movement in Israel and the Conservative Movement, arguing that it is illegal discrimination that the 157 state-employed neighborhood rabbis are all Orthodox.(As reported by Jeremy Sharon)


    2013:Nigerian authorities said today they had arrested three Lebanese in northern Nigeria on suspicion of being members of Hezbollah and that a raid on one of their residences had revealed a stash of heavy weapons."The arms and ammunition were targeted at facilities of Israel and Western interest in Nigeria," according to Captain Ikedichic Iweha, the military’s spokesman.


    2013:Chaim Weizman “was posthumously honored by Governor Mike Pence as a Sagamore of the Wabash today at CANDLES Holocaust Museum and Education Center, in Terre Haute, Indiana.”


     


     


    2013: President Bashar al-Assad of Syria displayed a new defiance in a television interview broadcast today, warning Israel and suggesting that he had secured plenty of weapons from Russia as his opponents falter politically and Hezbollah fighters infuse force into his military campaign.


     


     


     


     


     


     


     


     


     


     


     


    2014(1stof Sivan, 5774): Rosh Chodesh Sivan


    According to the 17th century sage Isaiah Horovitz “the eve of the first day of the Hebrew month of Sivan is the most auspicious time to pray for the physical and spiritual welfare of one's children and grandchildren, since Sivan was the month that the Torah was given to the Jewish people.


    2014:“Monologues from the Kishke,” “a Yiddishpiel Theater musical celebrating Eastern European food and culture” is scheduled to be performed at the Janco-Dada Museum in Ein Hod.” (As reported by Natan Skop)


    2014: Professor Manfred Gailus, Technische Universität Berlin; Dr François Guesnet, University College London; Dr Hugo Service, University of Oxford are scheduled to speak about “Pogroms: Contemporary Reactions to Antisemitic Violence in Europe c. 1815-1950” at the Weiner Library in Russell Square in London, UK


    2014: “Public Security Minister Yitzhak Aharonovitch, whose ministry oversees the Border Police, praised Border Policemen who prevented a suicide bombing attack when they stopped a man from Nablus who had a 12 pipe bombs and a electric detonator under the overcoat he was wearing in the 95 degree farenheit heat. (Times of Israel)


    2014: David Saltiel, the head of the Jewish community in Thessaloniki said today that vandals broke into the Jewish cemetery and “desecrated several headstones.”


    2014: In Silver Spring, MD, Congregation Har Tzeon-Agudath Achim is scheduled to host a “Friday Night Tish” – “a modern taken on an old Chassidic tradition.”


    2014(1stof Sivan, 5774): Ninety year old Israeli actress Hanah Maron passed away.



    2015: For the second and final time Niv Sheinfeld and Oren Laor are scheduled to perform “Ship of Fools” at Abrons Arts Theatre.


    2015: Cellist Inbal Segev is scheduled to perform at Pioneer Works Center for Art and Innovation in Brooklyn.


    2015: Lewis Black is scheduled to perform for the second and last time at the Event Center in Riverside, Iowa.


    2015: The Israel Wind Soloists are scheduled to perform at the Eden-Tamir Music Center.


    2016: In Jerusalem, Migdalei haYam haTichon is scheduled to host the Claude Bolling Quartet Concert "AT THE BORDER OF JAZZ & CLASSICAL"


    2016: At Temple Beth Zion in Buffalo, NY, “Saving a Legacy: Jewish Cultural Reconstruction,”  “an exhibit about Holocaust Ceremonial Objects that came to Buffalo in the 1950s is scheduled to come to a close.


    2016: In honor of Memorial Day, the Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center offers free admission for military personnel on the same day when Holocaust survivor Agnes Schwartz is scheduled to talk about how she survived the Nazi occupation of Budapest thanks to “the family maid.”


    2016: On a day when Memorial Day is observed on Memorial Days, Americans remember those who made the supreme sacrifice for the United States and her citizens.






    2017(5thof Sivan, 5777): Erev Shavuot


    2017: “With one day before the deadline, US President Donald Trump has not yet decided whether he will sign a waiver that would delay moving the US embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem for six months, the White House announced today.” (As reported by Eric Cortellessa)


    2017: “According to a press release issued” today “UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres told officials from the Simon Wiesenthal Center that “denial of Israel’s right to exist is anti-Semitism.”


    2017: MJE East and the Fifth Avenue Synagogue are scheduled to co-host a “festive dairy dinner” followed by a study session all through the night complete with cheesecake and ice cream and Rabbi Jonathan Feldman speaking about “Kabbalah & Relationships: A Mystical Take on Shavuot.”


    2017: MJE West is scheduled to host “a beginners service and catered dairy dinner followed by Rabbi Mark Wildes speaking on “1967: Six Days that Changed Jewish Spiritual Life Forever” and midnight mimosas and a lecture “with Betty Ehrenberg, Executive Director of the World Jewish Congress.”


    2017: In Pepper Pike, Ohio, Park Synagogue is scheduled to host its “annual erev Shavuot study session “Musing, 50 Years of Thoughts” led by Rabbi Joshua Hoffer.


    2017: In the UK, the Oxford Jewish Chaplaincy is scheduled to host “Tikkun Leil Shavuot.”


    2018: In Cedar Rapids, funeral services are scheduled to take place for Deborah Ekeland, the mother of Rachel Levine followed by burial at Eben Israel Cemetery.


    2018: JW3 is scheduled to host a screening of “Entebbe” this evening in London.


    2018: At Beit Avi Chai, Daniel Zamir is scheduled to “host Shlomo Gronich and Ravid Kachlani in a unique, one-of-a-kind, and moving rendition of Israeli music through the years.”


    2018: “The Hollywood Reporter TV Talks and the 92nd St Y” are scheduled to host “Fauda Screening and Conversation” with Avi Issacharoff and Lior Raz


    2018: In Cedar Rapids, the Hadassah Book Club is scheduled to discuss A Life A La Carte by Ina Loewenberg


    2018: As part of the “First Person 2018 Series,” the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum is scheduled to present a talk by Holocaust survivor Bob Behr.


     


     


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    May 31



    1279 BCE: Ramses II (The Great) (19th dynasty) becomes pharaoh of Ancient Egypt. If you accept the contention that Moses lived from 1391–1271 BCE, Ramses would be the Pharaoh who came to power after the Exodus. During his reign he reasserted Egyptian power over the area that would have included Canaan during the period of the Judges. However, the Bible talks about the Canaanite tribes and Philistines as being the Israelites’ enemies and not the Egyptians.



    70 C.E.: The Jewish defenders of Jerusalem surrendered the first wall of the city to the Romans.



    942 (26 Iyar 4702): Sa'adia ben Joseph (Rav Saadia Gaon) passed away. Born in Egypt in 882, he moved to Babylon in 928 to head the Academy at Sura. He revived the waning influence of the Academy and wrote on many subjects including grammar, Halachah and philosophy. As one of the foremost opponents of Karaism, he wrote the exposition "Emunot Vedeot", which became very popular. A grave conflict arose between Sa'adia and the Exilarch, David ben Zaccai when he refused to endorse a judgment of the Exilarch's court in which Ben Zaccai was an interested party. The issue was not settled for many years and demonstrated S'aadia's unyielding defense of his principles. He was subsequently expelled and moved to Baghdad. On Purim 937, the opponents were reconciled, and a few years later Sa'adia adopted Ben Zaccai's orphan grandchildren.



    1422: Sigismund of Luxemburg, who “drained the Jews of their wealth whenever he could, he protected them from some of the worst excesses,” was crowned Holy Emperor today. (History of the Jewish People)



    1469: Birthdate of Manuel I of Portugal who gave up his positive relationship with his Jewish subjects when agreed to expel them as the price of Infanta Isabella of Aragon, the daughter those implacable anti-Semites Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain.



    1492: “Isaac Abrabanel…left Spain for Naples after his unsuccessful intervention with King Ferdinand to revoke the decree of expulsion of the Jews.”http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/Abravanel.html



    1593: The Jews were barred from living in Riga and Livonia.



    1630: The Puritan leader William Prynne, who would oppose the return of Jews to the British Isles obtained a license to print a book expressing opposition to stage plays, one of the many “pleasures opposed” by his sect.



    1665: Sabbeti Zevi proclaimed himself Messiah. The most famous of all the False Messiahs, Sabbeti Zevi enthralled tens of thousands of Jews. His message was accepted across all social and economic classes. His followers were to be found throughout Jewish communities in Europe and the Orient. Turkish authorities became alarmed at his growing popularity and had him arrested. The Sultan gave him the choice of proving his claims or suffering the death penalty. The would-be Messiah gave up the game, accepted a minor governmental position in Turkey and converted to Islam. The whole episode might be written off as a farce if it were not for the fact that so many had believed in him and were disillusioned by the outcome. In addition, charges of being a secret supporter of his beliefs would tear at the fabric of Jewish society for decades to come.



    1666: One of the dates given for the death of Jacob Lumbrozo, the Portuguese born physician who became the first Jewish resident of Maryland when he moved there in 1656.



    1689: Following today’s invasion of the city of Worms by French forces under Comte de Melac, the synagogue was burned including “the so-called Rashi Chapel” and the ruins were used for a stable and a storehouse.



    1740: Frederick William I who was served by Veitel-Heine Ephraim as Jeweler and Mint Master passed away today. As a result of his death, recently passed legislation that would have led to the end of the Jewish community in Berlin were not enforced.



    1747 (26 Iyar 5507): Moses Hayyim Luzzatto passed away. Born in 1707 at Paua, Italy, this great poet and mystic became an unfortunate victim of the reaction to Shabbetaianism. His writings were burned and he tragically died soon after his arrival to Eretz-Israel. His most lasting achievements were his use of Hebrew in secular poetry and his ethical work, Mesilat Yesharim (Path of Righteous). Luzzatto also wrote two Hebrew dramas, Migdal Oz (tower of Strength) and La-Yisharim (Praise to the Righteous).



    1750: Birthdate of Karl August von Hardenberg the Prussian statesman and reformer who supported full emancipation for the Jews of Germany.



    1776(13th of Sivan, 5536): At a wedding celebration on an upper floor of a building in the Jewish Ghetto of Venice, 65 people, including the bride, were killed when the building collapsed under the strain of the celebration.



    1776(13th of Sivan, 5536): Two weddings were held today in the same building in Mantua, Italy. During the celebration, the building collapsed killing 28 women, including one of the brides, and 3 men. The Jews of Mantua were not allowed to expand their housing beyond the ghetto walls. This forced them to build vertically, resulting in unstable buildings which led to deaths like these.



    1781(7thof Sivan, 5541): As Jews observe the Second Day of Shavuot during the climactic months of the American Revolution, a Council of War was held on a French man-of-war where the question of having the French Fleet remain at Rhode Island was debated among General Washing, Comte de Rochambeau and Comte Barras



    1789(6thof Sivan, 5549): Shavuot is observed for the first time during the Presidency of George Washington.



    1800(7th of Sivan, 5560): Second Day of Shavuot and Yizkor are observed for the last time during the Presidency of John Adams.



    1822: Baron Rothschild conferred with Prussian diplomat Friedrich von Gentz  “at breakfast regarding the Frankfort Jewish matter.”



    1836(15thof Sivan, 5596): Joel Myers, the husband of Frances Lazarus with whom he had eight children, passed away today in the United Kingdom.



    1838(7thof Sivan, 5598): Second Day of Shavuot



    1846(6thof Sivan, 5606): Shavuot



    1846: In Greenwich, Kent, Samuel Levy Bensusan and the former Esther Bernal gave birth to Jacob Bensusan.



    1847: Birthdate of Leopoldo Franchetti the native of Livonro, Italy whose family had come from Tunisia in the 18th century and who became an Italian reformer and political leader who served in the Chamber of Deputies before becoming a Senator.



    http://www.comunecittadicastello.it/en/art/leopoldo_franchetti.asp



     



    1855: Sixty-three year old Austrian ophthalmologist Anton Von Rosas who was also the author of Anti-Semitic literature that decried Jews “taking over and “jewifying” Austrian culture. (As described by David Aberbach



    1861: Philadelphian Henry Rosengarten began serving as a Corporal in Company of the 27th Regiment.



    1861: Philadelphians Sampson Goldberg and Jacob Luescher began serving as Sergeants in Company A of the 27th Regiment.



    1861: Julius Heimberg began a three year enlistment with the 27th Regiment during which he rose from the rank of Corporal to the rank of First Lieutenant.



    1861: Max Heller began service as an Assistant Surgeon with the 27th Regiment.



    1861: Henry Heller began serving a “90 day enlistment” was a Surgeon with the 27thRegiment



    1861: Sergeant-Major Washington Cromelien, who would later “accept a commission as a Lieutenant in the 65th Regiment” began serving in the 27thRegiment today.



    1861: Philadelphia Solomon Roedelsheimer, who would serve only three months due to ill health, began serving today as Captain in Company A of the 27thof Regiment.



    1862: In today's issue of The Israelite, Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise responded to criticism by Reverend Moncure D. Conway that the Israelite had not spoken out on the importance of preserving the Union. Wise said that "he never preached on politics." He said that this would be "a misapplication of the Sabbath and the pulpit" and that there were plenty of other opportunities for patriotic speeches.



    1865(6th of Sivan, 5625): Jews celebrate the first Shavuot since the end of the Civil War.



    1872: “Turkey” published today described the bloody anti-Jewish riots that have been taking place in Smyrna. The riots began after reports that a Greek child was lying in the morgue, having been killed by Jews who need its blood for their annual Passover sacrifice.



    1870: John Motley, the U.S. Minister to the Court of St. James had dinner with former Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli.



    1873: An article published today included an appeal for money to be sent to the “Children’s Fund” which would be used to provide summer time excursions for poor Jewish youngsters living in New York City.



    1874: According to reports published today a Jew from Chicago named Henry Greenbaum donated five hundred dollars to a Chicago church whose pastor is Professor Swing, the controversial Presbyterian minister who has been labeled as a heretic by his co-religionists



    1879(9thof Sivan, 5639): J.I. De Lissa Cohen the founder “of the Mercantile Record and Commercial Gazette of Mauritius” passed away today at Curepipe.



    1880: It was reported today that in the last six months, the Board of Relief of the United Hebrew Charities has provided 1,235 pairs of shoes, 407 dresses, 425 pairs of stockings, 252 skirts, 123 coats and almost one thousand, five hundred tons of goals to those in need. In the past year, assistance has been provided to 1,481 families which is a decrease of 162 for the year ending with May, 1879. However, there was increase in the number needing assistance in April which may indicate that there will be an increase in demand.



    1882: In Paris, Victor Hugo presided over a rally held to protest Russian persecution of the Jews.



    1884(7th of Sivan, 5644): Second Day of Shavuot



    1884(7thof Sivan, 5644): Sixty year old “Jewish industrialist and German railway entrepreneur” passe away today.



    http://www.docutren.com/archivos/semmering/pdf/05.pdf



    1885: The 20thanniversary of the Hebrew Free School Association was celebrated this morning at the Lexington Avenue Opera House in New York City. The event was attended by 2,000 students and 500 adults including the association’s president, M.S. Isaacs and secretary, Henry S. May, and Rabbis, Jacobs, Kohut and Wise.



    1886: Birthdate of Grete Seligmann who as Grete Adelsheimer was shipped from Stuttgart, to Terezin to Auschwitz where she was murdered.



    1889(1stof Sivan, 5649): Rosh Chodesh Sivan



    1890: A group of Polish Jews are scheduled to present their claim that a banker William S. Wolf defrauded them out of money that they had given him with a promise that it would be sent back to Europe to the New York District Attorney.  Wolf has disappeared.



    1891: Birthdate of Erich Walter Sternberg the Berlin-born Israeli composer who was one of the founders of Israeli art music, Sternberg had a profound impact on the musical life of Palestine and Israel during the 1930s and 1940s. He passed away in 1974.



    1891: Breaking with tradition, the Metropolitan Museum of Art opened today despite opposition from those who viewed Sunday as the Sabbath.



    1892: In response to misleading claims by German anti-Semites, “the Prussian Minister of War says that the rifles furnished to the army by Ludwig Loewe & Co are perfectly satisfactory.”  Ludwig Loewe the late founder of the company was Jewish as was his brother Isidor who followed him as President.



    1892: “Baron Hirsch Very Ill” published today described the deteriorating health of the Jewish philanthropist who “is suffering from an attack of influenza and congestion of the lungs.”



    1892: At today’s meeting of the Yale Corporation F.K. Saunders, the instructor in Hebrew at Yale Theological Seminary was named Assistant Professor of Biblical Literature.



    1892: “Mercy For Russian Jews” published today immunities that the Czar’s government has decided to grant to Jews who wish to emigrate including not having to serve in the army.



    1892: It was reported today that of the 390 children enrolled in the Baron de Hirsch Fund School, 107 had been admitted since May 1st.  The first of the students had arrived in February. All of the children were fluent enough in English to take part in the recent Memorial Day celebrations.



    1892(5thof Sivan, 5652) Erev Shavuot



    1892: One of two possible birthdates give for Russian born American historian Solomon Zeitlin author of The Rise and Fall of the Judean State.



    1892: “The Festival of Shebnoth” published today described the importance of the Jewish holiday of Pentecost or Feast of Weeks which begins this evening.



    1893: This morning, “agent Louis Steen of the Gerry Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children arrested Herman Engel of the Ladies’ Deborah Nursery” following what he was charged at the Essex Street Police Court of “having brutally assaulted” thirteen year old Israel Schwartz who has been living at the institution for nine years.



    1894: “At 23 Clanricarde Gardens, in the Notting Hill district of the Borough of Kensington, London,”
    George Solomon Joseph, a solicitor in the family firm” and his wife, Henrietta Franklin, gave birth to their fourth child to pianist and composer Jane Marian Joseph



    1894: “In Memory of Jesse Seligman” published today described the memorial services that were held for the late Jesse Seligman which were held at the Hebrew Orphan Asylum and addressed by several prominent officials including Oscar S. Straus, General Carl Schurz and Charles Fleischer, “ a graduate of the asylum and rabbi-elect of a prominent congregation in Boston.”



    1896: In New York, the highlight of the annual reception of B’nai Jeshurun was “the presentation of a handsome silk flag” by Miss Sophie Arnheim “and a “facsimile of the Liberty Bell to the pupils of the religious school attached to the congregation.”



    1896: An excerpt from an article in a British publication, The Quarterly Review,which compared the accomplishments of Disraeli and Gladstone in the field of foreign affairs published today shows the author is cautiously optimistic when describing Disraeli’s policy designed to thwart Russian attempts to expand at the expense of the Ottoman Empire. He gives Disraeli high marks for his performance during the conference held at Berlin and for his purchase of the shares in the Suez Canal. In the end, regardless of how things play out, “this much is certain…Disraeli upheld the traditions of his …country at a time when a foreign critic of our policy uttered the well-known sneer that the only persons left who cared for the honor of England were an old woman and a Jew.” The old woman is Queen Victoria. The Jew is Disraeli proving that the nature of his birth out-weighed the impact of his forced youthful trip to the baptismal font.



    1897: Arthur Strauss, an MP for Camborne is among the members of the British team playing a trans-Atlantic chess match with their American counterparts, using the telegraph which was “the real-time of that era.



    1898: The Brooklyn Eagle reported that Oscar S. Straus has been named to succeed James B. Angell as United States Minister to Turkey. Among his most ardent supporters are “the boards of all the denominations that have missionaries in Turkey” because when he served in this position under President Cleveland, he “did more to get just treatment for missionaries and all other American citizens than any other man had done before him.”



    1898: Albert Lasker arrived for his first day of work at Lord and Thomas today having been locked out yesterday due to the Memorial Day Holiday.



    1901: Herzl travels to Paris to begin the raising of the money, which is to be the first step toward the obtaining of the Charter. The negotiations in Paris are fruitless.



    1901: Bella Weretnikow, who became the first Jewish woman lawyer in Washington State, graduated from the University of Washington Law School.



    1903(5thof Sivan, 5663): Erev Shavuot



    1903: As Jews mark the 49th day of the Omer,  the Pittsburg Pirates, owned by Barney Dreyfuss beat the Cincinnati Reds today.



    1906(7th of Sivan, 5666): Second Day of Shavuot



    1907: Sixty-one year old Moritz Litten the Berlin born physician who was the son-in-law of pathologist Ludwig Traube, the son of a Jewish wine merchant.



    1911:Birthdate of multi-talented Ruth Hagy Brod.Born in New York and raised in Chicago, Ruth Hagy Brod had a varied career that took her from the newsroom to Latin America and from the mainstream press to offbeat publishing. As a child, Brod excelled in music, giving public recitals at age six and earning a bachelor's degree in music at age 18. She soon left music behind, however, and turned to journalism, going first to Hollywood, where she worked as an editor for movie and radio magazines. Moving to Philadelphiain 1938, she wrote features for the Philadelphia Ledger. Later, she would write for newspapers in Chicagoand New York Cityas well. During the 1930s, she also worked as a radio reporter and documentary filmmaker. A decade later, she became women's editor of the Philadelphia Bulletin; while at the Bulletin she developed a program that became the "College News Conference," a weekly show where college students questioned prominent political figures. In the 1960s, she began to travel widely, producing a Peace Corps documentary on Colombia and a television series on Asian women. She worked as a newspaper correspondent in Southeast Asia and a Far East correspondent for NBC Radio, at a time when it was unusual for women to hold such roles. While making the Peace Corps documentary, she also served as an educational television advisor to the Colombian government. Brod first entered public service during World War II, when she served as publicity director for the United War Chest campaigns and as a member of the women's advisory board executive committee for the U.S. Savings Bond division of the U.S. Treasury. Upon returning to New Yorkfrom her overseas travels, she became involved in New York City politics. In the mid-1960s, she was appointed as director of public information for JOIN (Job Orientation in Neighborhoods), which worked with the U.S. Department of Labor to provide job training and placement services to young high school drop-outs. Later that decade, Brod served as a special assistant to Mayor Robert Wagner, and in 1967 she was the founder-director of the Mayor's Coordinating Council under Mayor John Lindsay. The Council functioned as a central volunteer coordinator for the city, recruiting some 6,000 volunteers in its first year. In the 1970s, Brod embarked on yet another career, turning to publishing. She published two books of her own (both co-authored), Ena Twigg, Medium (1972) and The Edgar Cayce Handbook of Health Through Drugless Therapy (1975). She also worked as a literary agent, with clients that included Allard Lowenstein, a civil rights activist who was later assassinated, and James Hoffa, the Teamsters Union leader. Brod died of cancer in 1980.



    1912: Birthdate of Senator Henry M "Scoop" Jackson. Jacksonwas not Jewish, but he was a man of character of principle, a liberal in the best sense of the term. A Democrat from the state of Washington, Jackson supported legislation intended to force the Soviets to improve the treatment of their Jewish citizens and to allow them to leave the country if they so desired.



    1912: “Thirty-six Jews were arrested at the Kiev Science and Art Club” and then “expelled from the city.



    1912: With the aid of the police, “anti-Jewish agitators in the provinces of Podolia and Volhynia” incited the “peasants to demand the expulsion of the Jews.



    1912: In Russia, “300 Jewish families” were expelled in the province of Taurida, joining the hundreds of other families who were ordered to “leave villages in the provinces of Volhynia and Kherson.



    1913(24thof Iyar, 5673): Eighty-two year old Samuel A. Lewis, the New York School Commissioner who abolished corporal punishment and Chairman of the Board of Alderman who was a founder of the Mount Sinai Hospital passed away today in Greenwich, CT.



    1913(24thof Iyar, 5673): Eighty three year old Mrs. Bashe Sarasohn passed away today in New YorkCity.



    1913: It was reported today that the presiding officers of the Bar Association, the Medical faculty and City Club of Baltimore – Moses R. Walter, Esq., Dr. Harry Friedenwald and Eli Frank, Esq. -- are all Jews.



    1913: It was reported today that “Rabbi Louis Jacob Hass, formerly of Utica, NY, has been appointed as Resident Rabbi at the Baron de Hirsch Agricultural School at Woodbine, NJ.



    1914(6thof Sivan, 5674): Shavuot



    1914(6thof Sivan, 5674): Forty-six year old attorney and Maryland State Senator Lewis J. Putzel, the son of Sophia and Selig Gerson Putzel and the husband of Bertha “Birdie” Putzel with whom he had two children – Edward and Margaret – passed away today in his home town of Baltimore, MD.



    1915: In Ottawa, Canada, Leon and Beckie Petegorsky gave birth to their only son Orthodox Rabbi David W. Petegorsky, the LSE Ph.D. “the Executive Director of the American Jewish Congress and World Jewish Congress” and husband of Carol Coan with whom he had “twin sons- Stephen and Dan” who was also a noted author.



    1915: Rabbi J. Leonard Levy, Victor Rosewater, the editor of the Omaha Bee, Jacob Schiff, Isaac N. Seligman, Rabbi Stephen S. Wise and Rabbi Emil G. Hirsch were among those who received invitations today “urging their attendance at the conference to held in Independence Hall to consider the adoption of proposals for a League of Peace and to decide upon steps to be taken for obtaining the support of public opinion…”



    1915: It was reported today that the eighth convention of the Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America has adopted “a message of loyalty” which will be sent to President Wilson “warmly commending him” for being an “advocate for peace.”



    1915: Former Governor Eugene N. Foss will lead the Massachusetts delegation that is scheduled to appear before the Georgia Prison Commission in Atlanta “to argue for the commutation for Leo M. Frank and present clemency petitions bearing the signatures of 20,000 persons.”



    1915: “A strong delegation from Savannah” which “will be headed by Samuel B. Adams, ex-Justice of the State Supreme Court, A.A. Lawrence, State Senator-elect and T. Mayhew Cunningham, a prominent jurist” is scheduled to appeal to the Prison Board today on behalf of clemency for Leo Frank.



    1915: Leo Frank, who had been sentenced to hang, appealed to the Georgia State Prison Commission that his sentence be commuted to life imprisonment.



    1915: “The seventh annual convention of the Federation of Russian Polish Hebrews of America” “which represent 30,000 Russian Polish Jews in the United States, passed a resolution favoring the sending of a petition to the State Prison Commission at Atlanta, GA asking that the sentence of Leo M. Frank be commuted.”



    1915: “President Wilson received a telegram today from the Independent Order of Sons of Israel telling him that ex-Governor Foss of Massachusetts and a delegation had left for Atlanta, GA to ask the Governor to commute the sentence of Leo M. Frank” and asking him “to intercede in the case.”



    1915: The American Jewish, Central and Peoples' Relief Committees gave $190,282 to Jews living in Palestine, $4,000 to Jews living in Alexandria and $59,500 to Jews living in Greece and Turkey.



    1915: “The hearing on the petition of Leo M. Franks for a commutation of sentence from death to life imprisonment was begun before the State Prison Commission this morning at 10 o’clock and was concluded this afternoon shortly before 5.  The Commission took the case under advisement.  Frank, who was represent by former Congressman W. M Howard did not appear at the hearing.



    1916: Hearings being conducting by the State Adjutant General into charges of anti-Semitism in the selection process for members of certain units including Battery D of the Second Field Artillery are scheduled to begin again today.



    1916: In Stoke Newington, London, “Harry Lewis and the former Levy gave birth to Bernard Lewis, the Jew who specialized in “the history of Islam” when such a study was not in vogue and pursued a career at Princeton and the Institute for Advanced Study to which this blog can do not begin to do justice. (Editor’s Note:  I have read his works and all that I can say is that I need to read them again and American history would have been far different if those in the Bush administration had read them after 9/11.)



    http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703712504576234601480205330.html



    http://www.npr.org/2012/05/15/152764539/at-96-historian-lewis-reflects-on-a-century



    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/What_Went_Wrong%3F



    https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/obituaries/bernard-lewis-eminent-historian-of-the-middle-east-dies-at-101/2018/05/19/4f0db6b8-5bad-11e8-8836-a4a123c359ab_story.html?utm_term=.d6afaa6f030b



    1917: Birthdate of Morris Albert Adelman, “an energy economist who marshaled free-market principles and hard data in arguing that the world’s oil supply was not running out.” (As reported by Douglas Martin)



    http://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/09/business/morris-a-adelman-dies-at-96-saw-oil-as-inexhaustible.html?hpw&rref=obituaries&_r=0



    1917: Abram I. Elkus, the U.S. Ambassador to Turkey who was suffering from Typhus when the U.S. declared war on Germany and therefore unable to leave the country as ordered by the government at Constantinople was finally able to leave for Switzerland, a way station on his eventual destination – the United States.



    1918: Commander Jacob H. Klein, Jr., the skipper of the U.S.S. Smith which during World War protected the “vitally important convoys of troop and cargo ships’ as they made their way through submarine infested waters was responsible for “rescuing the crew of the U.S.S. President Lincoln” today “after that ship had been torpedoed.”



    1918: The meeting of the Chicago Branch of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America is scheduled to be held this evening at the Hotel La Salle.



    1918: As violent attacks continue against Jews in Poland, in Cracow the authorities permitted “distribution of proclamations accusing Jews if murdering a Christian girl who had, in fact, been killed by the police during a pogrom.”



    1918: In Cracow, the Premier and Minister of Interior met with a group of Jewish leaders and “promised to takes measures against future outbreaks of violence.”



    1918: After two days of debate a proposal of Herr Heins to “disenfranchise the Jews in Prussia” was withdrawn today.



    1919(2ndof Sivan, 5679): Parashat Bamibar



    1919: Services were held today at Beth Israel Synagogue during the National Conference of Jewish Charities at Atlantic City.



    1919: It was reported today that Michael Aaaronsoh, and Jacob Marcus who was appointed sergeant-major were among the first students at Hebrew Union College to have enlisted in the Army and that Marcus, who was promoted to the rank of 2ndLieutenant when her arrived in France is expected to return home soon while Aaronsohn who was promoted to the rank of Sergeant-Major was blinded while “trying to rescue a wounded comrade during fighting in the Argonne Forest.”



    1919: The partly decomposed corpse of Rosa Luxemburg was found in one of the locks of Berlin’s Landwehr Canal.



    1919: After two day of debate, the proposal of Herr Heins to disenfranchise the Jews in Prussia which he called for as a requirement for his support of an “Equality of Suffrage Bill” was withdrawn today.



    1921: Churchill explains to the members of the Cabinet that he “had decided to suspend the development of representative institutions in Palestine ‘owing to the fact that any elected body would undoubtedly prohibit further immigration of the Jews.’”



    1925(8thof Sivan, 5685): Seventy-eight year old Albert Mosse, the German jurist who advised the Japanese during the creation of the Meiji Constitution passed away today in Berlin.



    1925: In Washington Heights, Mabel Lucille (née Blum), a teacher, and Irving Beck, a businessman gave birth to “American actor, director, poet, and painter” Julian Beck



    1926: The Sesqui-Centennial International Exposition which Victor Rosewater helped to plan and for which Louis Kahn, who would became a world famous architect, served “as the senior draftsman for the design of the exposition buildings,” opened today in Philadelphia, PA



    1926: In Kittery, Maine, a war memorial sculpted by Bashka Peff was dedicated today.



    http://jwa.org/thisweek/may/31/1926/bashka-paeff



    1926: In Brooklyn Eliah and Sarah Schulman gave birth to Seymour Jerome Schulman a civil engineer who pursued a career in public planning for which he was known as “a straight guy who did things based on their merits” and who served four years as Mayor of White Plains. (As reported by Leslie Kaufman)



    1926: The entire Jewish Sejm delegation voted for Josef Pilsudski for President of Poland.



    1927: At today’s session of the Fourth Western Interstate Conference in Spokane, Washington, Senator C.C. Dill is scheduled to deliver a speech on Peace at Temple Emanuel.



    1928: Official birthdate of Jacob Lateiner, “a Cuban/US pianist. He was actually born on March 31, 1928, but his father did not get around to registering his birth until May 31 the same year. He is the brother of violinist Isidor Lateiner.”



    1929: Birthdate of Menham Globus, the native of Tiberias and veteran of the Israeli War of Independence who gained fame as filmmaker Menahem Golan. (As reported by Anita Gates)



    http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/11/arts/menahem-golan-passionate-auteur-of-the-b-movie-is-dead-at-85.html?hpw&action=click&pgtype=Homepage&version=HpHedThumbWell&module=well-region&region=bottom-well&WT.nav=bottom-well



    http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4556652,00.html



    1930: In Mishnietz, Poland, Zvi Dov Laska and Levia Zehava Laska gave birth to Haim Yehuda Giladi.



    1930: The body of Judge Hugo Pam who succumbed to the effects of heart disease while visiting New York will be leaving today on train bound for Chicago where the funeral will be taking place.



    1933(6th of Sivan, 5693): First Day of Shavuot



    1933: Golo Mann, the son of Thomas Mann and the former Katia Pringsheim, the only daughter of German Jewish mathematician and artist Alfred Pringsheim left Germany for “the French town of Bandol” where after a summer of pleasure he began lecturing at the École Normale Supérieure at Saint-Cloud near Paris for two years.



    1935 Jews are banned from the German Armed Forces.



    1935: “Chinatown Squad” an action film with a script written by Dore Schary was released in the United States today.



    1935: In Eishyshok, Lithuania, “Moshe Sonenson, a leather tannery owner” and “his wife Zipporah” gave birth to Yaffa Sonenson who gained fame as Yaffa Eliach, the Holocaust survivor who created a massive photographic record of the Shoah. (As reported by Joseph Berger)



    https://www.nytimes.com/2016/11/10/nyregion/yaffa-eliach-died-holocaust-memorial-museum.html?hpw&rref=obituaries&action=click&pgtype=Homepage&module=well-region&region=bottom-well&WT.nav=bottom-well&_r=0



    1936: “A revival of historical studies bring with it a new understanding between peoples was forecast” today “by Dr. William Foxwell Albright, Professor of Semitic Languages at Johns Hopkins Unversity in  an address at the eleventh annual commencement exercises of the Jewish Institute of Religion” which was founded by its current president Dr. Stephen S. Wise.



    1936: On the same day when French guards on the Syrian border captured 1,000 rifles that we being smuggled into Palestine, in Jerusalem, “the police said they had unearthed a collection of posters in hand-printed Italian declaring all Jews were ‘Communists and enemies of Europe and Christianity.’”



    1936: “Leaders of the British forces in Palestine including Admiral Sir Dudley Pound, commander of the British Mediterranean fleet “met today to discuss steps to halt the continuing disorders” in Palestine.



    1936: It was reported today that the proceeds of the upcoming annual “Give or Get Luncheon” sponsored by the Mizrachi Women’s Organization will be used to provide for the needs of young girls in Palestine, including both the native-born and refugees from Europe.



    1936(10thof Sivan, 5696): “Today marks the end of the sixth week of rioting, murder and acts of brigandage by Arabs in Palestine.”



    1936(10thof Sivan, 5696): Fifty year old Franz Borschard, a German Jewish refugee “was fatally shot near Givat Shaoul, a suburb of Jerusalem” “by an Arab who jumped from concealment behind a wall.”



    1938: Michael Strauss “Mike” Jacobs, the manager of Heavyweight Champion Joe Louis was photographed today the Madison Square Garden Bowl with his fighter and trainer.



    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mike_Jacobs_(boxing)#/media/File:Louis-chappie-jacobs-1938.jpg



    1938: German legislation outlaws "decadent art." All decadent artists weren’t Jewish but all Jewish artists were decadent.



    1938: Birthdate of Peter Yarrow, “The Peter” in Peter, Paul and Mary



    1939: As violence aimed at Arabs in response to the White Paper, increased, British authorities in Palestine began arresting Revisionists including Dr. Bukshpan, chairman of the Revisionist Palestine Executive Committee. At the same, at least one Jewish newspaper in Palestine published a report from Warsaw, Poland “that Dr. Vladimir Jabotinsky, head of the Revisionist party was openly opposed to any Jewish rebellion on the ground that in the present state of international affairs the Jews must and cannot fight against Britain when all democracies are grouping themselves” for a fight with Nazi Germany.



    1939: Even though it placed strict limitations on Jewish immigration, Arab leaders rejected the White Paper today because it allowed for Jewish immigration and for the possibility of a Jewish home in Palestine. The Arab High Committee rejected any role for Jews in Palestine and asserted that the creation of an Arab state is the solution to the problem.



    1942: AuschwitzIII opened up. It was a massive labor camp for the construction of synthetic oil and rubber.



    1942: In the Warsaw Ghetto, 3,650 Jews had died of starvation since the first of May. The Germans opened a new death camp on the outskirts of Minsk, in the village of Maly Trostenets. Spring brought on soft ground which meant it was easy to dig massive graves again.



    1943: Infielder Eddie Turchin played his 11th and final major league game with the Cleveland Indians today.



    1943: At a Meeting of the General Government ministers in Cracow, Lieutenant General Kruger noted that "on the Fuhrer's orders it is necessary for the (slaughter of the Jews) from the standpoint of European interests."



    1943: Lydia Litvyak succeeded in the difficult task of shooting down a German artillery observation balloon which was protected by a ring of anti-aircraft guns.



    1943 A Nazi prison administrator in Minsk, Byelorussia, reports that 516 German and Russian Jews have been killed in late May, their gold crowns and fillings taken from their mouths before their deaths.



    1943(26th of Iyar, 5703): Today, the Nazis murdered Berta and Munio Kremnitzer, the parents of Rama Reis-Kremnitzer and the grandparents of Brig. Gen. Itai Reis, the commander of Palmahim air force.



    1943(26thof Iyar, 5703): Michael Henry Cornell, a Sgt. Navigator serving with the Royal Canadian Air Forced was killed today while “on active service.”



    1944: In Budapest, German representative, SS General Edmund Veesnmayer reported that 60,000 more Hungarian Jews had been deported in the last six days. The total for the past 16 days stood at 204,312. This day 42 dead bodies were removed from the Berkenau bound trains.



    1944 (9th of Sivan, 5704): The Jewish community of Khonia, Crete,which traced its history back toRoman times, came to an end when the ship Danai, into which all the Jews had been herded, was towed out to sea and sunk



    1944: A Hungarian deportation train stops near the German border so 42 corpses could be removed.



    1944: At the Auschwitz rail junction, German soldiers who encounter a sealed deportation train carrying Hungarian Jews to the Birkenau death camp defy threats of SS guards and give water and food to pleading prisoners. (Could this be a reference to scene in the film “Schinlder’s List” where Schindler provides water for a group of Jews trapped in box cars?)



    1944: An SS man and a Jewish girl with whom he has fallen in love are executed. The German has hidden the girl for months, keeping her from the gas chambers.



    1944: Having not heard a response from the telegram he had sent on May 27, Joel Brand sent another telegram to his wife telling her the he intended to leave for Budapest on June 4.  Unbeknownst to him, his wife was being held by the Arrow Cross.



    1944: The Bielski brothers continued their fight against the Nazis while providing safe haven to over a thousand Jews.



    http://www.yadvashem.org/yv/en/exhibitions/this_month/may/11.asp



    1945(19thof Sivan, 5705): Russian born impressionist painter Leonid Pasternak passed away today at Oxford where he had gone to live to escape the Nazis and the Soviets.  He was the father of Boris Pasternak



    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pasternakuoknaosen.jpg



    1945: Today, on the closing day of a conference “sponsored by the American Federation for Polish Jews at the Hotel Roosevelt” plans were announced for the formation of “a new World Federation of Polish Jewry” led by Dr. Joseph Tenenbaum.



    1945: In London, Lord Wright told those attending the opening session of the United Nations War Commission, the organization “is seeking special methods of dealing with the mass criminality emanating from a master criminal and his entourage characteristic of Nazi atrocities” but that “how to handle the question of crimes against Jews generally and particularly against German Jews was still being examined.



    1946(1stof Sivan, 5706): Rosh Chodesh Sivan



    1946: During an English language broadcast on Radio Moscow, “commentator Mikhail Mikahilov said that United Nations participation would be need to settle the…problem of Palestine” and that “negotiations between Britain and America cannot settle this serious problem.”



    1947: “Speaking in the name of Christian representative leaders from seventy-six communities in twenty-seven states, the American Christian Palestine Committee ended a three-day national seminar in near-by Highland Park tonight with a plea to President Truman to implement the established American policy with regard to Palestine.”



    1948: Birthdate of Rhea Perlman. The Brooklyn born actress, created the character of Carla on Cheers and Zena in the television comedy “Taxi. “



    1948: Representatives of the Protestant and Catholic faiths joined more than 500 Reform Jewish leaders from a score of States at a testimonial dinner at the Netherlands Plaza Hotel in honor or Dr. Julian Morgenstern, who is retiring as president of Hebrew Union College.



    1948: “In further moves to relieve pressures on the coastal strip and to ward off disaster two columns of Israeli armored cars were advancing to on Jenin.” One column was advancing from Afula while the other was coming from Megiddo which was the scene of a counter-attack by Trans-Jordan’s Arab Legion. In the south, the Arab Legion was reported to have massed two hundred armored vehicles at Rameleh which will be used in the fight to keep the road from Jerusalem to the Coast Plain from being opened to Jewish convoys. At the same time the Egyptians have amassed 500 armored vehicles twenty miles south of Jaffa as part of what appears to be another move against Tel Aviv.



    1948: Moti Alon took off in the only undamaged S-199 this “morning to escort a Tel Aviv Squadron Dragon Rapide to support the Seventh Brigade at Latrun. He flew several sorties and by the time he called it a day, one mechanic said, "His machine was so full of holes, we didn't know how he kept it flying."



    1948: An Order of the Day, signed by David Ben Gurion, which included the following statement, was issued.“On the establishment of the State of Israel, the Haganah has emerged from the underground and has become a regular army…Without the Haganah’s experience, plan, skill in operation and command, its devotion and valor, the Yishuv could not have held it ground on the dreadful trial of arms it had to face during these six months and we would not have attained the State of Israel.”



    1949: Birthdate of Methodist minister Wallace S. Wade who became Asher Wade when he converted to Judaism and pursued a career as an Orthodox Rabbi and psychotherapist.



    http://www.gazette.net/gazette_archive/2003/200345/frederickcty/county/186594-1.html



    1949: Today, the Mayor of New York “proclaimed June as ‘UJA Month’ on behalf of the United Jewish Appeal of Greater of New York” and called upon all New Yorkers “to support the lifesaving humanitarian work” of the organization.



    1951: The address of “The Hildesheimer Rabbinical Seminary” was renamed and renumbered as Tucholskystraße 40” today.



    1952(7thof Sivan, 5712): Second Day of Shavuot is observed for the last time during the Presidency of Harry Truman, “the godfather of Israeli independence.



    1952: Birthdate of Marina Gershman who made Aliyah in 1991 where as Marina Solodkin she fashioned a successful political career including serving in the Knesset.



    http://www.timesofisrael.com/former-mk-marina-solodkin-dies-of-stroke-in-latvia/



    1955: The final episode of Danger an American anthology series on CBS which included performances by Walter Matthau and shows produced by Sidney Lumet was broadcast today by CBS



    1955: A revival of Frank Loesser’s “Guys Dolls” opened today at the New York City Center starring Walter Matthau as Nathan Detroit.



    1955: In New York City, Dr. Leonard Essman and his wife Zora who “taught Russian at Sarah Lawrence” gave birth to comedian, actress and producer Susan “Susie” Essman



    1957: Playwright Arthur Miller is convicted of contempt of Congress for refusing to denounce writers with alleged Communist views to the House Un-American Activities Committee



    1957: Anshe Chesed’s new facility known as Fairmount Temple was dedicated today in Beachwood, Ohio, a suburb of Cleveland. The building was designed by Percival Goodman and cemented the reform congregation’s move to suburbia.



    1959: Funeral services were held today for Des Moines, Iowa native Elliot E. Cohen, the founding editor of Commentary magazine.



    1962: Adolf Eichmann, head of the Jewish department of the Gestapo, the first Nazi to be condemned by the Jewish state, was hanged.



    1963: Birthdate of Canadian comedian Jeremy Hotz.



    1964: Birthdate of Canadian lawyer and media magnate, Leonard Asper, Brandeis U. alum and son of the late Isadore Asper.



    1965: Jordanian Legionnaires fired on the neighborhood of Musrara in Jerusalem, killing two civilians and wounding four.



    1967: With the announcement of the alliance between Egyptand Jordan,Israelwas faced with the possibility of having to fight a war on three fronts – the Sinai, the Golan and the West Bank – Egypt, Syria and Jordan



    1967: Contingents of the Iraqi Army arrived in Egypt with plans to join in the upcoming war with Israel.



    1967: The government of Egypt declared that Eilat, Israel’s southern port, had been illegally occupied by Israel. With Egyptian troops stationed a few miles away at Taba, the Israel felt even more threatened.



    1967: At Nasser’s insistence, Ahmed Shukeiry, head of the PLO, flew back to Jordan with King Hussein. He then went to Jordanian occupied portion of Jerusalem where he promises the Jews of Israel that after the war they will either have not survived or will be ‘repatriated.’



    1969: After 45 previews and 132 performances at the Mark Hellinger Theatre the curtain comes down “Dear World,” a Broadway musical with a “book” co-authored by Jerome Lawrence with lyrics and music by Jerry Herman.



    1969: "Suzanne,"  “a song written by Canadian poet and musician Leonard Cohen” reached 4th place today on the Dutch Top 40 List.


    1970: Kermit the Frog (who was not Jewish) performed Anthony Newly’s “What Kind of Fool Am I?” on the Ed Sullivan Show today.



    1971(7thof Sivan, 5731): Second Day of Shavuot



    1971(7thof Sivan, 5731): Seventy-five year old Jim Novy, the Austin, TX businessman and leader of the Jewish community who worked to save Jews from the Holocaust and was close friend of Lyndon Johnson passed away today.



    http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-news-and-politics/153013/lyndon-johnson-november-1963



     



    1974: Harry Meyer Archibald Primrose, 6th Earl of Rosebery the son of Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery and Hannah Primrose, Countess of Rosebery the only child of Baron Mayer de Rothschild who served as General Allenby’s Military Secretary in Palestine, passed away today.



    1974: The involvement of the Golani forces in the war of attrition against Syria came to an end with the signing of the disengagement agreement.



    1974: After Henry Kissinger conducted a feverish round of shuttle diplomacy between Damascus and Jerusalem, the separation of forces agreement between Israel and Syria was signed in Geneva. This marked the formal end the hostilities known as the Yom Kippur War.



    1975: While driving to Tan-Tan, Morocco, Larry Blyden’s was knocked unconscious and hospitalized after his car went off the road and overturned.



    1976(2ndof Sivan, 5736): Seventy-two year old Rokhl Auerbach who “was one of the three surviving members of the covert Oyneg Shabes group led by Emanuel Ringelblum that chronicled daily life in the Warsaw Ghetto, and who initiated the excavation of the group's buried manuscripts after the war” passed away.  (Editor’s Note: For more on this see Who Will Write Our History)



    https://jwa.org/encyclopedia/article/auerbakh-rokhl



    1976: “1600: Anatomy of a Turkey” published today probed the question of a how a musical created by Leonard Bernstein and Alan Jay Lerner could turn out to be such a flop.



    http://content.time.com/time/subscriber/printout/0,8816,947691,00.html#



    1979(5thof Sivan, 5739): Erev Shavuot



    1979: In the UK, premier of “The Muppet Movie” co-produced by Lew Grade with Frank Oz as the voices of Miss Piggy, Fozzie Bear, Animal, Sam Eagle, Marvin Suggs.



    1980: After 170 performances, the curtain came down on the original Broadway production of Harold Pinter’s “Betrayal.



    1983: In “200 Singers in Jewish Festival” Edward Rothstein provides a summary of the recently completed American Jewish Choral Festival.



    1985: Samuel Lewis completed his service as U.S. Ambassador to Israel



    1990(7th of Sivan, 5750): Second Day of Shavuot



    1991(18thof Sivan, 5751): Sixty-two year old Bernard Chaus, founder and CEO of his own women’s fashion company passed away today. (As reported by Isadore Barmash)



    http://www.nytimes.com/1991/06/01/obituaries/bernard-chaus-62-innovator-in-selling-women-s-sportwear.html



    1992: In the opening months of the Croatian War of Independence,” the siege of Dubrovnik during which two thirds of the old city was in some way damaged, including the” including the Sephardic synagogue which is the second oldest such edifice in Europe, “where shells and grenades hit the adjacent buildings shattering the windows of the sanctuary and Jewish Community Headquarters” came to an end.


     



    1993: Marshall Brickman's "Who's Who in the Cast," a parody of a Playbill cast list, which was published in the July 26, 1976, issue of The New Yorker, drew so much attention that it was republished in today’s special theatre issue.



    1994(21st of Sivan, 5754): Trumpeter Emmanuel "Manny" Klein passed away.



    1998: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Commissioners: Baseball's Midlife Crisisby Jerome Holtzman and Two Lucky People: Memoirsby Milton Friedman and Rose D. Friedman



    1998(6th of Sivan, 5758): First Day of Shavuot



    2000: U.S. President Bill Clinton and Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak met at Clinton's Lisbon hotel in the latest effort to jump-start the Israeli-Palestinian peace process.



    2001: Prime Minister Ariel Sharon comes under increasing pressure to end a unilateral cease-fire with the Palestinians, as violence continues in the Middle East.



    2002: Israeli troops enter the West Bank city of Nablus, while the Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat is reported to have signed a law reform package which is a framework for a Palestinian constitution.



    2003: While visiting Auschwitz today, President Bush said, ““This site is a sobering reminder that when we find anti-Semitism, whether it be in Europe or anywhere else, mankind must come together to fight such dark impulses. And this site is also a strong reminder that the civilized world must never forget what took place on this site. May God bless the victims and the families of the victims, and may we always remember.”



    2004: In “Laugh Fist, Think Later,” published today Marc Abrahams described his improbably successful career.



    http://www.theguardian.com/education/2004/jun/01/highereducation.research



    2004: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Sontag& amp; Kael by Craig Seligman,Teammates by David Halberstam and Amerika (The Man Who Disappeared), by Franz Kafka; translated by Michael Hofmann, a new translation of Kafka's novel about a young man's humiliations after being banished for his part in a scandal strives to stay close to the author's rough drafts.



    2005: Jean-François Copé began serving as the Minister of the Budget in France.



    2005: Israeli TV Channel 2 starts broadcasting "Yoman Masa" - "Diary of a Journey" ("Land of the Settlers") filmed by Channel 1 news anchorman Chaim Yavin.



    2005: Mikhail Khodorkovsky was found guilty of fraud and sentenced to nine years in prison. The sentence was later reduced to 8 years.



    2005: Six days after her death, the funeral was held for Ruth Laredo who was buried in the Kensico Cemetery in Valhalla, NY, near the grave of Sergei Rachmaninoff.



    2006: In Jerusalem, closing session of Biomed 2006.



    2007: The JCC of Manhattan presents “Tizmoret’s Spring Sing.”Tizmoret is the Queens College Hillel chapter’s Professional A Cappella Choir.



    2007: Andrew Speaker, an individual suspected to have XDR-TB under federal quarantine, was moved to the National Jewish Health for treatment today where the Mycobacteriology Laboratory determined that Speaker did not have the Extensive Drug resistant form of TB (XDR-TB), but rather the Multi-Drug Resistant form of TB (MDR-TB).



    2007: David M. Rubenstein, co-founder and co-chief executive officer of The Carlyle Group, was elected to the Board of Trustees of the University of Chicago.



    2008 (5768): Begin Book of Numbers.



    2009: In New York City, the annual Salute to Israel Parade swings down famed 5thAvenue. The main theme of this year's parade is "Past, Present, Future – Tel Aviv Celebrates 100 Years."http://salutetoisrael.com/parade/



    2009: Ben Stiller received the MTV Generation Award, at the 2009 MTV Movie Awards



    2009: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Bottom of the Ninth: Branch Rickey, Casey Stengel, and the Daring Scheme to Save Baseball From Itselfby Michael Shapiro and the recently released paperback edition of Dictation by Cynthia Ozick.



    2009: The Washington Post featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Alger Hiss and the Battle For Historyby Susan Jacoby



    2009: A five-day civil defense exercise, simulating an attack on the country, started today. Named Turning Point 3, the drills will be the most extensive ever held and practice new measures to safeguard civilians.



    2009(8thof Sivan, 5769): Eighty-three year old Samuel M. Ehrenhalt, the “grand old man”of labor statistics passed away. (As reported by Margalit Fox)



    http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/03/nyregion/03ehrenhalt.html?_r=1



    2010: Israeli Shayetet 13 naval commandos boarded six ships trying to end the blockade of Gaza from speedboats and helicopters in order to force the ships to the Israeli port of Ashdod



    2010: An exhibition entitled “One Foot in America: The Jewish Emigrants of the Red Star Line and Eugeen Van Mieghem” at the YIVO Institute is scheduled to come to a close. This exhibit tells the story of the Red Star shipping line, focusing on the lives of emigrants--the reasons they fled, their arrival in Antwerp and their experience with the city's Jewish community, their living conditions onboard the ships, and their hopes and dreams. The exhibit also features the Flemish artist and Antwerp native Eugeen Van Mieghem (1875-1930), whose work depicts the emigrants and the life of the port.



    2011: Final day of Jewish American heritage Month



    2011: At a time when some are calling for an artistic boycott of Israel, Marty Friedman, who played guitar with Megadeth is scheduled to perform in Tel Aviv today



    2011: The 2011 award ceremony for the Sami Rohr Prize in fiction for Jewish Literature is scheduled to be held in New York City today.



    2011: World Policy Journal Editor David A. Andelman is scheduled to moderate a town-meeting style conversation entitled “Beyond the Stage: On Henry Kissinger” at the 92ndStreet Y in New York City.



    2011: The Israel Defense Forces will ask the state to increase its defense budget significantly to contend with the growing terror threats in the region, Chief of Staff Benny Gantz said today. "The spectrum of threats in light of the changes in the Middle East is growing," Gantz told the Knesset Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee. "These threats range from knife to nuclear – from the knife used in a single terror attack to a nuclear Iran.""The threats of the past are still in force, but new threats are developing that require the ability to operate in a number of different theaters with strength and determination," Gantz said, adding that this "new spectrum of threats requires a new and broader budget framework for the defense establishment."



    2011: The Finance and Health ministries petitioned the Tel Aviv Labor Court today asking for injunctions to be issued against the Israel Medical Association, demanding the end to the doctors' strike which has been ongoing for over two months. The petition, handed to the court by the State Prosecution and attorney Doron Yeffet, from the Tel Aviv district prosecution, asked the court to order the Israel Medical Association to put an immediate stop to the ongoing strike, and to halt any future obstructions planned. The Association, whose 17,000 doctors began launching sanctions over two months ago, is demanding a 50 percent raise per hour. Yeffet is handling the petition which offers the doctors two alternatives to the current situation: entering intensive daily negotiations, or turning to an arbitration process acceptable on both sides or as instructed by the court. The appeal stated that "thousands of patients are being held hostage by the association," adding that "as it is a force that harms both the population at large and the population of patients who need medical care that is not of a life-saving nature." The Israel Medical Association was surprised to hear about the appeal, despite the Finance Ministry's announcement yesterday that it intended to appeal to court to put an end to the strike. Negotiations between the doctors and the treasury remain deadlocked since the strikes began.



    2011: The Jewish Book Council is scheduled to host its annual award ceremony today in NYC.



    2011: Former Prime Minister Ehud Olmert began testifying today at the Jerusalem District Court, opening the defense phase of the ongoing corruption trial against him.



    2011(27thof Iyar, 5771): Eighty-nine year old Broadway producer Philip Rose whose works included “A Raisin in the Sun” passed away today. (As produced by Bruce Weber)



    http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/02/theater/philip-rose-broadway-producer-dies-at-89.html



    2011(27thof Iyar, 5771): Dutch holocaust survivor, author and psychoanalyst Hans Keilson passed away today at the age of 101. (As reported by the Eulogizer/JTA and William Grimes)



    http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/02/books/hans-keilson-novelist-of-life-in-nazi-run-europe-dies-at-101.html?pagewanted=all



    http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/obituaries/culture-obituaries/books-obituaries/8723373/Hans-Keilson.html



    2012:“City Sounds,” an exhibit of Jewish musicians and Jewish venues in Columbus Ohio, is scheduled to come to an end at the Bexley Public Library in Bexley, Ohio.



    2012: Dr. Nir Cohen is scheduled to lecture on “Love and Surveillance: Politicised Romance in Peter Kosminsky’s The Promise” at the Weiner Library in London.



    2012:“The Jewish Woman In America: 1654-2012” a course covering the vital contributions that Jewish women have made to American Jewish life, from the time of the first Sephardic arrivals to New Amsterdam in 1654, down to the present sponsored by the Board of Jewish Education of Atlantic and Cape May (NJ) Counties is scheduled to come to an end.



    2012: Entertainment Weekly announced todt that Lauren Weisberger is working on a sequel to The Devil Wears Pradaentitled Revenge Wears Prada: The Devil Returns



    2012: International Ladino singer Sarah Aroeste and music collaborator and producer Shai Bachar are scheduled to come to Joe’s Pub to celebrate the release of Aroeste’s third album, Gracia.



    2013: “Hyam Plutzik: American Poet,” an exhibit of letters, manuscripts, images and objects about the life and career of this three-time Pulitzer Prize finalist at Trinity College Watkinson Library in Hartford, CT is scheduled to come to an end.



    2013: The South Cobb Regional Library in Mableton, GA, is scheduled to a special program in celebration of Jewish American Heritage Month.



    2013: Deadline for apply for College Aid through the Jewish Children’s Regional Service, an outstanding organization located in New Orleans, LA.




    2013: Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids is scheduled to host the final musical Shabbat Friday Evening Services of this season


    2013: Tomer Lev, Berenika Glixman, Daniel Borovitzky, Raviv Leibzirer – Two Pianos, Four Pianists, Twenty to Forty Fingers – are scheduled to perform at two boutique concerts in Jerusalem.


    2013: “No Place On Earth” is scheduled to open in Santa Rosa, CA and Wilmington, DE.


    2013: Marty Goldberg is scheduled to determine whether or not there will be a new print version of the Canadian Jewish News.


    2013: R&B singer Alicia Keys said today that she will go ahead with her planned July performance in Israel, despite calls from other artists and the Boycott, Sanctions and Divestment (BDS) movement for her to cancel the event.


    2013: Staff at the Dormition Abbey in Jerusalem reported the spraying of offensive graffiti in Hebrew and the destruction of the church property in a suspected attack by radical Jewish settler sympathizers today


    Perpetrators spray-painted “the Christians are apes” and “the Christians are slaves” on two cars parked outside the abbey


    2014(2ndof Sivan, 5774): Eighty-eight year old television critic Steven H. Scheuer, the brother of Congressman James H. Scheuer and the husband of social critic Alida Brill, passed away today. (As reported by William Yardley)



    2014(2ndof Sivan, 5774): Seventy year old “Lewis Katz, co-owner of the Philadelphia Inquirer and a philanthropist, died in a plane crash in Massachusetts.” (As reported by JTA and Rachel Abrams)




    2014(2ndof Sivan, 5774): Eighty-nine year old Edward S. Finkelstein who led Macy’s in good times and bad passed away today. (As reported by Douglas Martin)



    2014: The Tel Aviv International Student Film Festival is scheduled to begin today.(As reported by Debra Kamin)


    2014: Considering the role of Jews in the world of the Broadway musical, the 92ndStreet Y is scheduled to present “Panning for Gold: Great Songs from Flop Shows.


    2014: American Jewish Heritage Month comes to an end.


    2014: “Senior Gaza official and deputy Hamas leader Moussa Abu Marzouk said” “Hamas will not agree to the continuation of Palestinian security cooperation with Israel once it teams up with the Fatah movement led by Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas to form a unity government.”


    2014: “Today, top Hamas official Muhammad Nazal was quoted by the organization’s official organ as saying that Hamas would not abandon the path of “resistance,” or violence against Israel — a path the Islamist group shares with the Lebanese Shi’ite terrorist organization Hezbollah.” (As reported by Yifa Yaakov)


    2014: Today Strategic Affairs and Intelligence Minister Yuval Steinitz (Likud) harshly berated the defense establishment for using “undemocratic” means and “manipulating” the public to try to pressure the government into allotting it a larger budget. (As reported by Yifa Yaakov)


    2015: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including They Told Me Not To Take That Job: Tumult, Betrayal, Heroics, and the Transformation of Lincoln Center by Reynold Levy, Keepers by Richard Schickel and Orson Welles’s Last Movie: The Making of “The Other Side of the Wind” by Josh Karp.


    2015: After two months, “Joy of Life: Paintings by Dolorosa Margulis” whose family survived the war “by hiding in a village near Eindhoven is scheduled to come to an end at the Oregon Jewish Museum and Center for Holocaust Education.


    2015: Final performance of The Call is scheduled to take place as part of Theater J sponsored by the Washington DC JCC.


    2015: “For Richer For Poorer: Weddings Unveiled” which showcase “a rich and evocativecollection of material related to weddings within the immigrant Jewish community from the 1880’s to the mid-20th century” is scheduled to come to an at the Jewish Museum in London.


    2015: In Chicago, Congregation Emmanuel is scheduled to host the “The Schaalman Centenary Celebration” marking the 100th birthday of Herman Schaalman who was the rabbi at Temple Judah from 1941 to 1949.



    2015: The Center for Jewish History is scheduled to host “Music in Our Time: 2015.”



    2015: The IAC is scheduled to host Israel Festival ’15” in New York City.


    2015: “Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu of Israel said today that his country faced “an international campaign to blacken its name” based not on his policies toward the Palestinians but “connected to our very existence,” likening the mounting boycott movement to anti-Semitic “libels” of previous eras.”


    2015: In Boston, Julian Edelman is scheduled to appear at “Celebrate Israel”


    2015: The Jewish Community Center of Northern Virginia is scheduled to host “Israel Fest: Israel@67.”


    2015: “Mak’hela,” a Jewish choral group founded in 2003 is scheduled to perform at the Yiddish Book Center in Amherst, MA.


    2015: Kehila Kedosha Janina Synagogue and Museum is scheduled to present the First Greek Jewish Festival on the Lower East Side.


    2015(13thof Sivan, 5775): Forty-two year old “Rochelle Shoretz, whose own breast cancer diagnosis at age 28 led her to found the national cancer organization Sharsheret” passed away today.


    2016: Jewish American Heritage Month is scheduled to come to an end today.


    2016: The Israel National Football Team is scheduled to play a “friendly” match against Serbia in Novi Sad, Serbia.


    2016: Mexican diplomat Andrés Roemer Slomianski completed his service as General Consul of Mexico in San Francisco, CA.


    2016: Dr. Gary P. Zola, “a distinguished scholar of the American Jewish experience and an ordained rabbi,” is scheduled to deliver a “lecture on his latest book, We Called Him Abraham: Lincoln and American Jewry” at the National Archives’ William G. McGowan Theatre.


    2016: Dr. Bernard Lewis reaches the century mark. (Editor’s note: If you have not read Lewis then you have no business making policy in the lands of what were once the Ottoman Empire and a little more!)




    2017(6thof Sivan, 5777): Shavuot


    2017: The Oxford University Jewish Society is scheduled to host a “Shavuot Lunch and Story Telling” facilitated by professional storyteller who “will tell the story of the Book of Ruth from her perspective, weaving in rabbinic midrash to create fuller characters and a deeper understanding of the narrative.”


    2017: At “4:45 AM” MJE West is scheduled to hold “Sunrise Services…with Soulful Singing followed by Hot Buffet Breakfast.”


    2018: “Our History is Your History” Treasures from the American Jewish Historical Society,” “a rotating exhibit of the AJHS Permanent Collection” is scheduled to come to an end today.


    2018: the Jewish Women’s Archive and the Center for Jewish History are scheduled to host a book launch of Jewish Radical Feminism: Voices from the Women's Liberation Movement with a panel featuring author Joyce Antler, Judith Rosenbaum (Executive Director of the Jewish Women's Archive), Nona Willis Aronowitz (Splinter), and Dahlia Lithwick (Newsweek, Slate)


    2018: The Temple Emanu-El Streicker Center is scheduled to host “Inside/Outside: Alternate Perspectives on Israel with Gillian Laub and Yael Reinharz” and moderated by Andrea Meislin


    2018: Roey Victoria Heifetz is scheduled to present “her ongoing project The Third Body which is a video and drawing installation of confessions / conversations/ with women, friends and acquaintances from the transgender communities in Berlin and Israel interviewed by the artist, as well as her own.”


    2018: Israelis begin the day waiting to see if the so-called cease fire proclaimed by the terrorists in Gaza which means they will end their rocket barrage begun this week will hold.


     


    0 0


    June 1


    987: Hugh Capet was elected King of France making him the first of the Capetians.  During this period, power lay with the nobles and the leaders of the Church.  Among other things this meant that the kings were unable to do anything to protect the Jews against the anti-Semitic teachings of the clergy and the resulting hostile actions of the ordinary people against the Jews.  To make matters worse, when Hugh Capet was stricken with a mystery malady a Jewish physician was summoned to treat him.  Unfortunately, the King died and the Jews were accused of killing him.



    1204: King Philip Augustus of France conquered Rouen, the historic capital of Normandy which had been operating under a charter that allowed for self-government.  Considering how poorly the French king treated his Jewish subjects, his seizure of Rouen could not have been good news for the city’s Jewish population which numbered 6,000 and was strong enough to support its own Yeshiva.During the second half of the twelfth century, when Rouen was governed under the terms of a charter that allowed for self-government, the town was home to 6,000 Jews (approximately 20% of the population) and was the site of yeshiva.  The site of a yeshiva. At that time, about 6,000 Jews lived in the town, comprising about 20% of the population. In addition, there were a large number of Jews scattered about another 100 communities in Normandy. The well-preserved remains of the yeshiva were discovered in the 1970s under the Rouen Law Courts and the community has begun a project to restore them. In 1215, Rouen would be the site of the Fourth Lateran Council which adopted a panoply of ant-Semitic measures.



    1252: Alfonso X is elected King of Castile and León. Known as El Sabio (The Learned One) the well-educated Christian monarch  set out to “to create a Christian culture in the north of Spain that as equal in glory to Moorish culture in the South…He ordered both the Koran and the Talmud to be translated into Latin.”  One of the most prominent scientists in his realm was the Jewish astronomer, Yehuda ben Moses Cohen.



    1424: Benedict XIII the “antipope” who was zealous in his drive to force Jews to convert in an effort to gain legitimacy passed away today.



    1434: King Wladislaus II of Poland passed away. During his reign, persecution of the Jews intensified and Wladislaus did nothing to protect them or reinforce the rights that had been granted to them by his predecessors Instead he actually took steps to limit their business activities by issuing an edict limiting their right to lend money. 



    1571: As a result of a command by the Duke of Alba, the Spanish governor, “a commission at Antwerp compiled the first Index Expurgatorius, a list of passages in Hebrew books which were to be expurgated because they were considered heretical by the church.”



    1581 Gregory XII issued Antiqua Judaeorum Improbitas, the Papal Bull that gave the Inquisition full jurisdiction over the Jews of Rome in all matters including heresy, possession of forbidden books and the employment of Christian servants or nurses.



    1582: The Municipal Council of Pressburg “decreed that no one should harbor Jews, or even transact business with them.”



    1635: Today the widow of William Leake, the publisher who reissued the “Merchant of Venice” – an act that “did no Jews no good turn” “transferred her late husband’s copyrights to William Leake II also known as “William Leake, the younger.”



    1656: The Jews of New Amsterdam are allowed to practice their religion, after reminding the Dutch West India Company that Jews "in quietness" were allowed to practice in Holland and other Dutch colonies.



    1764:  The Sejm abolished the Council of the Four Lands.  Supposedly this was not an act aimed to harm the Jews.  Rather it was part of a plan to re-organize the tax system.



    1778(6thof Sivan, 5538): Shavuot



    1775: Abraham Solomon “enlisted in Col. John Glover’s Regiment, known as the Marbleheaders, to take part in the glorious Battle of Bunker Hill. Later he was shifted with his company to Cambridge. When the soldiers received their pay, they had to sign for it on the company’s muster roll. Solomon’s fellow soldiers, many of whom could not write, were allowed to make their Xs. But Solomon could write — just not in English — so he was allowed to sign his name in Hebrew. It is believed that this is the only Revolutionary War muster roll to be signed in Hebrew.”



    1786: In Lemberg, Aharon Chaim Rapoport and his wife gave birth to “Galician rabbi and Jewish scholar” Solomon Judah Loeb Rapoport, the husband of Franziska Freide Heller and son-in-law of Areyh Leib Heller, who switched from a career in business to serving as a rabbi in Tarnopol and Prague.



    1789(7thof Sivan, 5549): 2nd day of Shavuot



    1790: Birthdate of Rabbi Solomon Judah Löb Rapoport, the native of Lemberg who was one of the founders of the  Wissenschaft des Judentums movement and author of several biographies including one Saadia Gaon.



    1792:  Kentucky admitted as the 15th state of the United States. Benjamin Gratz, one of the son’s of the famous Michael Gratz family of Philadelphia, who was a lawyer and veteran of the American Revolution was one of the earliest Jewish settlers of Kentucky,  Louisville, Kentucky would become home to the state’s first congregation, Adath Israel which was incorporated in 1842.  While serving as a delegate from Kentucky at the Republican Convention, Louis Naphtali Dembitz was one three who placed Lincoln’s name in nomination.  He was the uncle of Kentucky’s most famous Jew, Supreme Court Justice Louis Dembitz Brandeis.



    1796: Tennessee admitted as the 16th state of the United States. The first Jews settled in upper East Tennessee in the 1770s and to Middle Tennessee by the 1820s. The Nashville Jewish community dates from the 1790’s with enough Jews living there to hold services in the 1840’s and establish a burial society in the decade before the Civil War.



    1798(6thof Sivan): Fourteen month old Joseph Defflis, the son of Solomon Defflis passed away today in the United Kingdom.



    1803: Nathan Hyams married Rebecca Barnet at the Great Synagogue in London.



    1808(6thof Sivan, 5568): Shavuot



    1817: In Denmark Hartvig Philip Rée and Thamar (Terese) Rée gave birth to Julius Rée>



    1817: In Safed, Rabbi Eliezer Yeruham Elyashar, who was also a shochet and his wife gave birth to Yaakov Shaul Elyashar who backed the Chief Sephardi Rabbi in Palestine in 1893.



    1819:ViolinistJoseph Böhm was appointed to serve as a professor at the Vienna Conservatory.



    1828(19th of Sivan, 5588): Raphael Meldola passed away. Born in Leghorn in 1754, he was one of the most prominent members of the Meldola family. He received a thorough university training, both in theological and in secular branches, and displayed such remarkable talents that when only fifteen years old he was permitted to take his seat in the rabbinical college. He was preacher in Leghorn for some years, and in 1803 he obtained the title of rabbi. In 1805 Meldola was elected haham of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews of Great Britain, and proved a worthy successor of Sasportas and Nieto. His name will ever be indissolubly associated with that of Bevis Marks Synagogue. Possessed of a remarkably virile mind, he was a dominant factor in the British Jewry of his generation. He was the author of Korban Minhah, Kuppat Hatanim (1796), and Derekh Emunah, published by his son after his death. He left several other works in manuscript. His scholarship attracted around him a circle in which were many of the most distinguished men of his day, including Benjamin Disraeli and Isaac Disraeli and it is noteworthy that he opposed the policy which produced the famous rupture between the latter and the mahamad. He maintained a literary correspondence with many of the most prominent Christian clergymen and scholars of his time; and his acquaintance with the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Canon of Windsor led to his being received by King George III. Meldola married Stella Bolaffi (Abulafia), by whom he had four sons and four daughters.



    1833: The “Jews’ Law” enacted today “conferred citizenship on the wealthy and educated classes” Jews of Posen.



    1835: Nineteen year old Giuseppe / Joseph Baron von Morpurgo married Elisa Parente.



    1836:  Henry Lyons married Rachel Hart at the Hambro Synagogue in London.



    1843: In Amsterdam, Johannes Jonas Wertheim and Maria Rosenik gave birth to Karel Abraham Wertheim



    1845: Birthdate of Caroline von Gomperz-Bettelheim “a Hungarian-Austrian court singer and member of the Royal Opera, Vienna” who was the older sister of Anton Bettelheim.



    1846(7thof Sivan, 5606): Second Day of Shavuot, Yizkor



    1847: At St. Helier, Maurice S. Mawson of Pernambuco married Rose Phillips, the second daughter of Michael Phillips of Jersey (As reported by the Jewish Chronicle.



    1853: A description of an attack by Greeks on the Jews of Smyrna during Easter which may have been started by Russian agents and which was put down by the Turks was published today.



    1853: It wasreported today that the issue of Jewish Disabilities continues to be a problem in Parliament. In response to a question from Mr. Milner Gibson on this topic, Lord Russell responded that he did not think a measure that dealt only with this and that he would be submitting a measure that would dealt with the general question of Oaths to be taken by Members of Parliament.


    1854: Fourteen year old Louis Barnett, a “Welsh-born English Jew” “became a student-teacher at the Jews’ Free School” after which he “entered the University of London” where he earned a bachelor’s of arts degree nine years later.


    1857: Isaac Jackson who was either 17 or 18 years old was shot and killed today by Charles Jones.  Jackson is one of four Jewish brothers who own a stored in Westfield, MA.  Young Jackson was driving a wagon of merchandize on the road between Westfield and Russell when he was attacked.


    1861: Philadelphian Nathan Rosenfelt who would die of wounds suffered at Gettysburg, began serving as a Sergeant in Company D of the 26th Regiment.


    1861: Philadelphian Maurice Rosenberg who would be wounded at Lookout Mountain and Leon Moser each began serving as Sergeants in Company C of the 27th Regiment today.


    1861: Philadelphian Daniel Epstein began serving as a Second Lieutenant in Company D of the 27th Regiment on the same day that John Ulman began serving as a Sergeant in the same unit


    1865(7th of Sivan, 5625): President Andrew Johnson designated today, the second day of Shavuot when Jews recite Yizkor, as a national day for memorial services to be held in honor of Abraham Lincoln.


    1865: In Kalvaria, Poland (then part of the Russian Empire), Phillip and Sarah Rachel Phillipson gave birth to Bryant and Stratton Business College graduate and husband of Rachel Burton Samuel Phillipson, the father of Emmanuel, Sidney, Libbie and Silvian Phillipson and the owner of Samuel Phillipson and Company, the Chicago wholesale and general merchandise company who was also the director of the Chicago Hebrew Institute and the Jewish Home for the Aged.



    1865: Rabbi Sabato Morais delivered a special sermon at Mikve Israel in Philadelphia on “the day appoint appointed for fasting, humiliation and prayer for the untimely death of the late lamented President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln” in which he said :


    If the essence of religion is what the great Hillel taught us, then I unhesitatingly say that the breast of our lamented President was ever kindled with that divine spark. "To forbear doing unto others what would displease us" . . . is the maxim he illustrated in the immortal document of emancipation that bears his honorable signature. It is that which he exemplified by his numerous acts of clemency ...We must bear his name with a blessing upon our lips. (As reported by the Jewish Virtual Library)


    1869:Isidore Loebwas appointed secretary of the Alliance Israélite Universelle, a position he held until his death.”


    1870: As a sign of his improving health, Prime Minister Disraeli was able to visit the Foreign Ministry today.


    1873(6th of Sivan, 5633): Shavuot


    1873: Dr. Aaron J. Messing, who had been serving as Rabbi of Sherith Israel since 1870 retired today and “was succeeded by Dr. Henry Vdaver.


    1873: In “Whitsuntide: A Hebrew and a Christian Festival - Curious Customs and Interesting Ceremonies” published today the author compares the Jewish festival of Pentecost with the Christian Whitsuntide. Pentecost, signifying the fiftieth, is the second of the great festivals of the Hebrews, held fifty days after the Passover, or feast of the unleavened bread. The time of the festival is calculated from the second day of the Passover, the 16th of Nisan.


    1875: Four days after she passed away, Emma Jacobs was buried today at the “Brompton (Fulham Road) Jewish Cemetery.


    1876:Francis Mary Paul Libermann, who was known as Jacob Liberman before he converted to Catholicism “was declared venerable in the Roman Catholic Church” today “by Pope Pious IX.”


    1879: “Can’t You Wait?” published today reminds the reader of two famous examples of” hasty identification” that turned out be erroneous. First was the case of a papyrus that surfaced at Leyden which contained a “report of a scribe” sent to his superior serving King Ramses II that said “he had ‘distributed the rations among the soldiers and likewise among the Apuirui, or Aperiu, who carry the stones to the great city of King Ramses.’” While most Egyptologists thought this referred to “the Hebrews who built…the City of Ramses” Dr. Heinrich Brugsh, showed “clearly that these Aperiu were not Hebrews but an “Erythraean people…mentioned long before in an inscription of Thutmes III as cavalry in the Kings Service.” The second example took place when a picture found in one of the tombs at Beni-Hassan (an ancient Egyptian cemetery) was first identified as being representional “of the arrival of the children of Israel” until the same Dr. Brugsh set the record straight. [Were these really errors or was this an example of a German Egyptologist who had difficulty acknowledging the antiquity of the Jewish people?]


    1881: It was reported today that according to a recent study conducted by the Opthamological Society in Great Britain, “Jew are more color-blid than any other nationality, and their defects are usually of the most pronounced kind.”  Oddly, the Quakers also show the same propensity for this malady.


    1881: In “Birthday of Old Rome” published today it was reported that  no Jewish will pass under the Arch of Titus with its depiction of the seven-branched candle labrum being carried in triumph by those who have sacked the Temple because it is a monument of shame.


    1882: Birthdate of Jacob Billikopf the native of Vilna who gained fame in the United States for his career in social work, “Jewish philanthropy and labor arbitration.”


    1883: It was reported today that an anti-Semitic riot that had begun in Rostov has been quelled. Violence broke out when Jew was accused of killing a Russian.  Fifteen rioters were arrested after they had destroyed 130 homes belonging to the Jews of the town.


     1884(8thof Sivan, 5644): Aaron Moses (A.M.) Pollak, the Austrian philanthropist who made his fortune manufacturing matches in Prague London, New York and Sydney who was ennobled by the emperor in 1869 which allowed him to be called Ritter Von Rudin passed away today.


    1885: It was reported to today that a Hebrew manuscript that appears to be quite old has been found in the Sutro Library in San Francisco CA.  Copies are being sent to scholars in the United States and Europe to ascertain its importance.


    1885: Anti-Semitic riots have broken out again in Vienna.  At least forty Jews have been injured in the attacks which have led to the destruction of several Jewish businesses.  The riots appear to have been brought on by the current elections which have seen the defeat of Leopoldstadt Schnieder the anti-Semitic candidate who lost by six thousand votes.


    1885: It was reported that Benjamin Hirschberg delivered the opening address at yesterday’s celebration of the 20thanniversary of the Hebrew Free School Association.  Other youthful speakers included Michael Schaap, Annie Nathelson and “ten year old Simon Noot” who “referred to General Grant as the ‘Winner off battles and the savior of civilization.’”


    1886: Deadline for Jewish troops who had served in Finland to leave the Grand Duchy, by order of the Czar.


    1899: Today marks the end of the 23 year tenure of Dr. Herman Baar as superintendent of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum.  Dr. Baar had tendered his resignation which was due to “old age” at the May meeting of the officers but had stayed on until the first of June so that a suitable replacement might be found.


    1889: It was reported today that the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children has just issued its 11th annual report.  The primary mission of the organization has been to provide summer-time excursions for Jewish children and their parents.  Last year the organization hosted ten outings that served a total of almost seven thousand babies and children as well as over 3,600 mothers.  The society is seeking contributions for the purchase of a barge that will allow it to provide daily trips.


    1890: In “Meytshet (Molchad), Slonim district, Byelorussia” Noyekh Meytsheter, a cantor known as “Reb Noyekh Lider and his wife gave birth to Elias Zaludkowski held posts as Hazzan in Warsaw, Vilna, and Liverpool, England, and in 1926 went to the U.S. where he officiated as Hazzan in New York and Detroit.”




     1890: Rabbi Kaufmann Kohler will officiate at the confirmation exercises for the students of the Hebrew Free Schools which will be held this afternoon at Temple Beth El.


    1890: The Ladies of the Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum Society host their second “annual reception” the first one having been held on Decoration Day.


    1890: Rabbi Henry S. Jacobs, Morris S. Wise, Joseph Jacobs, and Julius Lipman were among the dignitaries who attended today’s annual reception for the Religious School of Congregation B’nai Jeshurun.


    1890: Rabbi Gustav Gottheil presided over today’s closing exercises of the Temple Emanu-El Sabbath School for Religious Instruction


    1890: The two Jewish congregations at Rondout, NY, will hold meetings today for the purpose of rasing money to bring to justice the murders of Samuel Hotz, a Jewish peddler whose body was found on the first day of Shavuot in an old mining shaft at Wurtsborough, NY


    1891: It was reported today that the in Russia, “the government is about to subject Hebrew elementary and religious schools to more stringent control.”


    1891: “Jewish Exodus From Russia” published today described the movement of Jewish immigrants from Russia through Germany to Paris, London and/or the United States.  According to the Jewish Relief Committee in Berlin, about 600 Jews pass through Charlottenburg Station every day.  The Russian Jews are not permitted to enter Berlin and must spend the night in the station before taking the trains to the West.


    1891: The Viedmosti reported today that the Jewish Emigration Society has hired four Baltic steamers for the sole purposed of providing transportation for Russian Jews who have been forced to leave the country.  The 60,000 immigrants are primarily Lithuanian and Polish Jews.


    1892: “The Festival of ‘Shebnoth’” published today described the celebration of the “festival…also known as Pentecost and the Feast of Weeks, the latter designation having its origin in the fact that the festival is celebrated just seven weeks after the first of the Passover feast.”


    1892(6th of Sivan, 5652): Shavuot, “which is also the season chosen for the confirmation of the pupils attending the religious schools attach to the” synagogues and temples of the Jews.


    1892: In Clinton, NY, students at Hamilton College will compete for the Clark Prize for original oratory including Gregory Rosenblum from Novgorod, Russia whose topic is “The Jews of Russia.”


    1892: A duel was fought today between Monsieur Drumont, the editor of La Libre Parol and Captain Cremieuz Foa, a Jewish officer in the French Army.


    1893: Birthdate of Czech architect Otto Eisler who survived both Auschwitz and the “death march to Buchenwald” in 1945.


    1893: The U.S. Senate Committee which is investigating the immigrant station on Ellis Island, which seems to be showing a special interest in the arrival of Jewish immigrants from Russia is scheduled to resume its meetings today.


    1893: In Superior Court Judge McAdam heard the case of Schwab v Schwab in which the wife of Moritz Schwab, “a prosperous butcher” sought to force her husband who may have been a bigamist but who apparently had wanted to keep his marriage a secret from his family since he was Jewish and she was not, to provide financial for her and their two sons – William and Joseph.


    1893: “Mr. Engel Must Explain” published today described charges of excessive force being used to discipline children at the Ladies’ Deborah Nursery.”


    1893: “Jews Driven From Poland” published today provides confirmation of reports that the Russian persecution of the Jews has been extended to Poland.  In the Ronda-Gonzowski district 480 families have been expelled in a manner where they were forced to abandon all of their real estate and businesses.


    1894: In Rochester, NY, Congregation Berith Kodesh dedicated its new house of worship. The building which cost $130,000 “was designed by Leon Stern, a member of the congregation and was built on the corner of Gibbs and Grove streets


    1894: Starting today, Moritz Schwab is scheduled to begin paying the mother of his children $25  a month – payments that will last for four years.


    1896: A number of Hebrew manuscripts were presented to Columbia at today’s meeting of the college trustees “which, with those already in its possession makes Columbia’s collection the largest in the country.”


    1897(1st of Sivan, 5657): Rosh Chodesh Sivan


    1897: Between now and October 1 the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children of the City of New York will provide 35 excursions for underprivileged Jewish children and their mothers at no charge.1898: In New York City, Polish born Louis Picon and his wife gave birth to Molly Picon, two of whose more famous roles were in “Milk & Honey” and “Fiddler on the Roof.”



    1899: Birthdate of Mary Phagan whose murder in 1913 would lead to the lynching of Leo Frank.


    1899: Mr. Karl Blind wrote from Hempstead, UK, today that “In the appreciative biographical notice concerning Eduard Simson, the fact of his Jewish origin has not been mentioned.  The days of his political activity were, fortunately, days when no man of any intellectual value would have disgrace himself by taking part in an ‘anti-Semitic’ movement.


    1899: Today is scheduled to Dr. Hermann Barr’s last day as Superintendent of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum, a position he has held for 23 years and is vacating due to his concerns about his health.1899: Just weeks before his 78thbirthday, French poet and political leader who was a founder of Alliance Israelite Universelle passed away today.


    1901(14thof Sivan, 5661):



    1903(6th of Sivan, 5663): First Day of Shavuot



    1903(6th of Sivan, 5663): Montifore Isaacs, “one of the best known and most popular bachelors in New York Society” and the nephew of Sir Moses Montefiore passed away.



    1904: Three French Army Officers are arrested in connection with the Dreyfus Affair.  However, the verdict would not be overturned for two more years when Dreyfus would finally be released from prison.



    1905: Carl Jung discharged Sabina Spielrein, who had been his first patient, today.



    1905(27th of Iyar): Isaac Hirsch Weiss, author of Dor Dor Ve-Dorshav passed away 



    1906: In Trier, Italy, after the Jews were attacked by a mob and threatened with death, Bishop Egelbert offered to save those who were willing to be baptized. Most chose to drown themselves instead.



    1906: A pogrom broke out in Bialystok, Russia.



    1906: The Jewish Herald reported today that “in Sydney, Australia, rabbis are not permitted to receive proselytes on the board of congregation passes on them.”



    1907(19thof Sivan, 5667): Sixty-seven year old Jacob Freudenthal, the Professor of Philosophy at the University of Breslau who was sent to England in 1888 where he developed an expertise on the philosophy of Spinoza passed away today.



    1907: IN the Yorkville section of NYC, building contractor “Joseph Hecht and Rose (née Loewy) Hecht” gave birth to Oscar award winning producer Harold Hecht.



    https://www.nytimes.com/1985/05/28/movies/harold-hecht-film-producer-and-a-burt-lancaster-partner.html



    1908(2ndof Sivan, 5668): Sixty-year old Auguste Seligman, the wife of Theobald Epstein and the mother of German mathematician Paul Epstein passed away today.



    1908: The Cantors’ Association of America, the “successor to the Society of American Cantors” was organized today.



    1909: Birthdate of Polish-American violinist and conductor Szymon Goldberg.



    1909:Dorothy Montefiore (Micholls) and Walter Samuel, 2nd Viscount Bearsted gave birth to Army Major Marcus Richard Samuel, 3rd Viscount Bearsted, the Oxford graduate and wounded veteran of WW II who served as a director of several companies and corporations including Lloyds Bank.



    1909: Birthdate of Yechezkel Kutscher, the native of Slovaki who made Aliyah in 1931 where he became a philologist and linguist.



    1910: During a debate Turkish Minister of Interior Talaat Bey stated, "Some deputies have spoken on behalf of Muslim, Greek and Armenian hospitals, but I note with regret no one has a word for the Jewish hospital, which renders great services. It admits all persons sent to it by the police without distinction of race and religion."



    1911: Birthdate of Bernard Rothman better known as Benny Rothman a UK political activist, most famous for his leading role in the Mass trespass of Kinder Scout in 1932 who passed away in 2002.



    1913: Sylvia Annenberg, Beatrice Brown and Ruth Cohen are among those scheduled to be confirmed this morning at Temple Sholom in Chicago.



    1913: Leopold Kessler opened the English Zionist Federation’s conference today.



    1914(7thof Sivan, 5674): 2nd day of Shavuot



    1915: As of today, President Wilson has not responded to a telegram from the Independent Order of Sons of Israel asking him to intercede on behalf of Leo Frank and his appeal for clemency.



    1915: Today, “at the final session of the meeting of the United States Grand Lodge of the Independent Order of B’rith Sholom…a resolution was unanimously adopted advising Governor John M. Slaton of George that 50,000 members of the society join with other bodies in asking him to commute the sentence of Leo M. Frank to imprisonment, so that if his innocence is later established the fair name of Georgia may remain unstained.”



    1915: Today, the United States Grand Lodge of the Order of B’rith Sholom adopted a resolution presented by Judge Aaron J. Levy of New York” that “provides for the establishment of a Jewish National Congress to which all Jewish societies shall send delegates for the discussion and improvement of conditions affect the Jews in this country?



    1915: Although the George Prison Commission had announced yesterday afternoon that the hearing concerning the sentencing of Leo M. Frank was closed, it “decided today to reopen” the case “to hear opponents of commutation.”



    1915: Today, Herbert Clay of Marietta, GA, Solicitor General of Blue Ridge Circuit head a party of fifty of his fellow-townsmen” that included ex-Governor Joseph M. Brown and Elmer Phagan the uncle of Mary Phagan “who filed into the audience chamber of the Georgia Prison and asked that the death sentence again Leo M. Frank be carried out.



    1915:  It was reported today  that Jim “Conley, who was sentenced to twelve months as accessory to the murder of Mary Phagan” is scheduled to “go free tomorrow getting two months off for good conduct.”


     


    1915: Leo Frank and Jim Conley are scheduled to meet tomorrow afternoon at a hearing “to be held in the jail in the case of Mrs. Coleman, mother of Mary Phagan against the National Pencil Factory” which she is suing for $10,000 in damages for the death of her daughter.”


    1915: As of today the new officers of the Federation of Polish Hebrews of American published today including President Jacob Carlinger, Secretary David Troutman and Treasurer Morris Kaufman.



    1915: The resolutions adopted by the Federation of Polish Hebrews of America published today included an expression of opposition “to laws further restricting immigration” and a call for “the holding of an American Jewish congress as soon as possible to help the Jews in war-ridden Europe and protesting against mistreatment of such Jews.”



    1916:The nomination of Louis D. Brandeis of Boston to be an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States was confirmed by the Senate in executive session this afternoon by a vote of 47 to 22 with only one Democrat voting against confirmation.



    1917: Henri Bergson who would later become a member of the Clemenceau Cabinet was “elected vice president of the France-Norway Committee” today.



    1917: Herbert Merton Jessel, who would receive the Order of St. Michael and St. George in January of 1918, was created a baronet today in the United Kingdom.



    1917: Sir Philip Magnus was created a baronet today in the United Kingdom.



    1917: Princeton University All-American football player, Arthur “Bluey” Bluenthal who had joined the French Foreign Legion in 1916 and “served at the Battle of Verdun with the French 129th Infantry Division” with such distinction that he was award the Croix de Guerre with Star joined “the Escadrille Breguet 227 of the Lafayette Flying Corps” today.



    1917: Charles Rosenthal and Philp Sassoon received the Order of St. Michael and St. George today.



    1917: Premiere of “The Princess of Neutralia” a German silent comedy filmed by cinematographer Karl Freund featuring Julius Falkenstein.



    1917: According to Henry Morgenthau of the American Jewish Relief Committee “$10,000,000 must be raised in the United States” by today “if the millions of Jews in the eastern war zone” are “to be saved from starvation.”



    1917: It was reported today that reform Jews had agreed “that Orthodox dietary laws” would be observed “in all Jewish charitable institutions and hospitals” as part of the agreement that has led to “the unifications of all Jewish charities” in Brooklyn.



    1917: The campaign by the American Jewish Relief Committee to raise $10,000,000 “for the benefits of Jews suffering from the war” to which Julius Rosenwald, President of Sears, Roebuck & Co. has promised to contribute $100,000 for each $1,000,000 collected, is scheduled to come to an end today.



    1917: A memorandum is published describing the distress of the Jews in Belgrade. According to the document, “communities are destroyed, thousands are ruined and compelled to leave their homes.”



    1918(21stof Sivan, 5678): Parashat Beha’aloctcha



    1918(21stof Sivan, 5678): Teacher and author Arye-Kahyim Godldin the son of a Latvian shochet and mohel passed away today in Lodz.



    http://yleksikon.blogspot.com/2015/05/arye-khayim-goldin.html



    1918: The Ninth annual convention of the Kehillah opens at Carnegie Hall in Manhattan.



    1919: The National Conference of Jewish Charities ended today with a business meeting at the Hotel Breakers in Atlantic City, NJ.



    1919: In Queens, NY, “Nellie (Baron) Graham, a schoolteacher, and Leon Graham, a stockbroker” gave birth to “Judith Graham Pool, a physiologist whose scientific discoveries revolutionized the treatment of hemophilia.”



    http://biography.yourdictionary.com/judith-graham-pool



    https://jwa.org/encyclopedia/article/pool-judith-graham



    1920: Birthdate of David Samuilovich Kaufman, “one of the most important Russian poets of the post-World War II era.”



    1926:Benny Leonard is the chairman of a committee sponsoring tonight’s scheduled testimonial dinner being given in honor of the Hakoah Soccer team at the Pennsylvania Hotel, on the eve of the team's departure from the United States. (As reported by JTA)



    1926:Bernard Flexner, President of the Palestine Economic Corporation, announced that the organization’s primary activity will be to help provide financing for the hydroelectric station on the Jordan River and the necessary transmission lines to connect the existing Diesel engine power stations at Tel-Aviv, Haifa and Tiberias. The Palestine Economic Corporation was organized in February, 1925.



    1926: Bertha Solomon “was admitted to the Johannesburg Bar, becoming one of the first practicing women advocates in South Africa and the first woman to plead a case before the Appellate Division of the Supreme Court in Bloemfontein.”



    1926: In Portsmouth, UK,  Morry and Becky Morris gave birth to Aubrey Jack Steinberg who gained fame as actor Aubrey Morris.



    https://www.theguardian.com/film/2015/jul/16/aubrey-morris?utm_medium=twitter&utm_source=dlvr.it



    1926: Birthdate of Norma Jean Baker, who gained fame as Marilyn Monroe, the actress who converted to Judaism before she married playwright Arthur Miller.



    1926(19thof Sivan, 5686):Hungarian political leader and government official Vilmos Vázsonyi died today after being assaulted “notorious anti-Semite Laszlo Vannay.”



    1927: Hugo and Mathilde Gutmann gave birth to Helen Eakley



    1927: Winifred “Winnie” Mark and Victory Aubrey Lownes, Jr, the “parents of Playboy executive Victor Lownes III” were married today.



    1927: Rabbi Arthur S. Montaz gave the invocation this evening before dinner at this evening’s  session of the Fourth Western Interstate Conference in Spokane, Washington.



    1928: Birthdate of Lazarus “Larry” Ziedel the Montreal native who played hockey for the 1952 Stanley Cup winning Detroit Red Wings, the Chicago Black Hawks and the Philadelphia Flyers.



    1928: Attorney General Albert Ottinger’s investigation of complaints by the Hebrew Religious Protective Association against certain cemeteries was resumed today when Assistant Attorney General Robert S. Conklin questioned Philip Gresner, Superintendent of the Baron Hirsch Cemetery at Port Richmond, Staten Island, about complaints by plot owners that charges were increased without warning and that even “funeral processions had been halted to demand payment in arrears.



    1929: Twenty-five year old Baltimore native Bernard Jacob Bamberger received his Doctor of Divinity degree from Hebrew Union College today.



    1929(22ndof Iyar, 5689): Seventy-three year old New York political leader and former U.S. Congressman Henry Mayer Goldfogle passed away.



    http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=G000260



    1930(5thof Sivan, 5690): Erev Shavuot



    1930: The funeral Judge Hugo Pam of the Superior Court in Chicago who is survived by his sisters Miss Carrie Pam and Mrs. Walter Blumenthal is scheduled to take place today followed by burial in Rose Hill Cemetery



    1930: Birthdate of Jo Amar.Jo Amar, a Moroccan-born Jewish singer whose melding of Andalusian and Israeli musical influences would make him a star in Israel and a popular performer in Jewish communities around the world.  He passed away in 2009 at the age of 79.



    1931: Birthdate of Ira Pastan, the husband of poet Linda Pastan who “was awarded the International Antonio Feltrinelli Prize for Medicine.”



    1933(7th of Sivan, 5693): Second Day of Shavuot



    1933: The League of Nations approves The Bernheim petition which is a protest aimed at Nazi anti-Jewish legislation in German Upper Silesia.



    1933: Martin Riesenburger began serving ‘the Jewish Community in Berlin” where he served as the rabbi “in the Jewish old people's home in Grosse Hamburger Strasse and in the Jewish Hospital.”



    1933:Germany introduces the Law for Reduction of Unemployment, which provides for marriage loans and other incentives to genetically “fit” Germans. (Jewish Virtual Library)


    1933:American modernist writer Gertrude Stein published her autobiography, ironically titled The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas,



    1936(11th of Sivan, 5696): As Arab attacks continue, snipers fired on two buses near Jerusalem, killing one Jewish rider and wounding two others.  In the evening, a Jewish constable in Givat Shaoul was shot at by unknown assailants.  This is the same district of Jerusalem where another Jews was killed yesterday.



    1936: Leaders of the current Arab uprising reportedly have sent letters to wealthy Arabs “threatening their lives and homes unless they” provide economic support for the uprising.  In response, the targets of the demands are “fleeing to Egypt, Lebanon and Europe.



    1936: “A 50 year old Jewish merchant Moszek Laufer, his wife and three other customers were wounded this morning when a bomb exploded in a baker at Milsona” which is near Warsaw and “has long be a center of the anti-Semitic National Radicals.”



    1936: “H.H. Trusted, speaking for the mandatory power assured the League of Nations permanent mandates commission this afternoon” that “the British Government regards the establishment of order in Palestine as of first importance and will not be deflected from its policy by riots or threats.”



    1936: Alexander Kowalskis was sentenced to “two months in prison for singing anti-Semitic songs in Warsaw’s streets and courtyards” which were intended to stir up racial hatreds.



    1936: Arab snipers fired on Jewish motor vehicles in Palestine including two buses outside of Jerusalem which one Jew dead and two more wounded.



    1936: At the conclusion of its conference today, “the Zionist Federation of Great Britain and Ireland…expressed the opinion that no useful purpose would be “served by the appointment of a royal commission to investigate the grievance of Arabs and Jews in Palestine” and that the cause of peace would be better served by the government taking “steps to make possible greatly accelerated immigration of Jews in Palestine and Trans-Jordan.



    1937: Birthdate of Muhammed Wattad, “an Israeli Arab politician who served as an MK between 1981 and 1988.



    1937: Birthdate of Yisrael Meir Lau, the Polish born rabbi whose father died at Treblinka, who became the Chairman of Yad Vashem and Chief Rabbi of Tel Aviv.


    1938: Superman created by American writer Jerry Siegel and Canadian artist Joe Shuster made his first appearance in D.C. Comics’ Action Comics Series issue #1 which sold for 10 cents.



    1940: It was reported today that the Jewish Institute of Religion plans on conferring an honorary degree of Doctor Hebrew Letters on Rabbi Moses Schorr who is currently being held in a Soviet prison



    1941(6th of Sivan, 5701): Shavuot



    1941: German mathematician Kurt Hensel, the grandson of Fanny Mendelssohn and therefore a descendant of Moses Mendelssohn passed away.



    1941: In Baghdad, Pro Axis Rashid Ali, began his revolution against the British by attacking the Jewish community. Approximately 150 Jews were murdered and 800 injured during two day of rioting. British troops stationed outside the city did not intervene. The pogrom is known as the Farhood.



    http://www.israelhayom.com/site/newsletter_opinion.php?id=16275



    1941: The Battle of Crete comes to an end with German victory.  There were fewer than four hundred Jews living in Crete at this time. “It was not until June of 1944, and almost as an afterthought, that the Jews of Crete were arrested and sent to Herakleion, where they were put on the ship Tanais, together with some 600 Greek and Italian prisoners. For some years the details of the last hours of the Tanais and the fate of its crew and human cargo was not clear. What was known is that the ship had been sunk and that all had perished. Evidence has now appeared through the Foreign Office in London that in fact the Tanais had been sighted by a British U-Boat and was given two torpedo broadsides and sank within 15 minutes.”



    1941: The deportation of Bosnian Jews to regional concentration camps begins.  By November, 14,000 Jews will have been deported to these camps.



    1941: Birthdate of Dr. Stanley I. Greenspan, a psychiatrist who invented an influential approach to teaching children with autism and other developmental problems. (As reported by David Corcoran)



    1942: The story of a young Jew, Emanuel Ringelblum, (who escaped from the Chelmno death camp after being forced to bury bodies as they were thrown out of the gas vans), was published in the underground Polish Socialist newspaper Liberty Brigade. The West now knew the "bloodcurdling news ... about the slaughter of Jews," and it had a name-Chelmno.



    1942: The World Jewish Congress, based in New York, announces at a press conference that Eastern Europe is being turned into "a vast slaughterhouse for Jews."  As with the Sudan and Dafur sixty years later, the world “does not hear.”


    1942: Between June 1 and June 30 more than 23,000 Jews are gassed at the Belzec and Sobibór death camps


    1942: During June, Auschwitz is ravaged by an epidemic of typhus.


    1942(16th of Sivan, 5702): Germans invade Jewish hospitals in Sosnowiec, Poland, murdering newborns and tearing patients from operating tables. Ambulatory patients are sent to Auschwitz and gassed.


    1942: A young Sosnowiec Jew named Harry Blumenfrucht is captured and endures two weeks of Nazi torture.  He refuses to name his co-conspirators in a scheme to steal weapons. His suffering ends when he is hanged.


    1942 (16th of Sivan, 5702 Jews from Dabrowa Tarnowska, Poland, led by Rabbi Isaac and gathered in a Jewish cemetery, defy their Nazi captors when they hold hands, dance, and drink "to life." The enraged Germans shoot and disembowel the entire group.


    1942: At Lutsk, Ukraine, Jewish resistance is led by Joel Szczerbat


    1942: Starting in the first week of June, three thousand Jews at Pilica, Poland, are deported to Belzec, but several hundred manage to escape before the journey is complete


    1942: In Norway, Jews are given identity cards stamped with the letter "J."


    1942(16th of Sivan, 5702): Mordecai Gebirtig, a Kraków carpenter whose songs of freedom are sung throughout Poland, is executed at Belzec.


    1942: During the first week in June, Polish Jews are deported from Hrubieszów to the Sobibór death camp. Another 500 will be deported the following week


    1942: Starting in June, Warsaw's underground newspaper, Liberty Barricade, published by the Polish Socialist Party, reveals Nazi gassing activity at the Chelmno death camp


    1942: I.G. Farben's Buna-Monowitz synthetic-rubber and oil works opens near Auschwitz


    1942(16th of Sivan, 5702): Between today and the 7thof June seven thousand Jews from Kraków, Poland, are murdered at the Belzec extermination camp.1942: First mention ever in the press, in this case the underground Warsaw newspaper "Liberty", of the ‘bloodcurdling news coming out of Chelmno.' Seven Thousand Jews were sent from Cracow to Belzec. On this day tracks began to be built connecting to a new death camp, Treblinka. Treblinka had been prepared for the Jews of central Poland.


    1943(27th of Iyyar, 5703):  Jews of Dalmatia, Serbia, are transferred to the island of Rab, which is off the coast of Croatia.


    1943(27th of Iyar, 5703):  Starting today and lasting throughout the first two weeks in June 10,000 Jews from Lvov lose their lives in a combination of street assaults and killings at Janówska, Ukraine,


    1943(27th of Iyar, 5703):  During liquidation of the ghetto at Sosnowiec, Poland, which began on June 1 and ended on June 6, a spirited resistance is led by Zvi Dunski. Ill-armed Jews fight back as deportations proceed


    1943(27th of Iyar, 5703):  The liquidation of the Jewish ghetto at Buczacz, Ukraine begins. It will end on June 6.  Some Jews resist and escape


    1943(27th of Iyar, 5703):  Actor Leslie Howard dies when the civilian plane he is flying on from Lisbon to England is shot down by German fighters.  The reason for the attack remains shrouded in the cloak and dagger world of W.W.II.  Born Leslie Howard Stainer in 1893, Howard’s parents were Hungarian Jews.  He served in WW I and gained fame in both English and American films.  He is best remembered for his portrayal of Ashley Wilkes, the classic cavalier in “Gone With the Wind.”


    1943(27th of Iyar: Just five weeks short of his 44th birthday, Wilfrid B. Israel, a Berlin born businessman who worked to rescue children from the Nazis, died aboard BOAC Flight 777, the same plane that was carrying Leslie Howard.


    1944: An American public opinion poll indicates that 57 percent of Americans anticipate "a widespread campaign in this country" against Jews.


    1944: From today through June 30, 13,500 Jews are deported from Miskolc, Hungary, to Auschwitz.


    1944:  With 55,000 unused United States quota slots from Occupied Europe, President Franklin Roosevelt agrees to allow only 1000 Jewish refugees into the United States. They will be housed at Fort Ontario in Oswego, New York


    1944: After having been arrested on May 27, Mrs. Joel Brand and Rudolf Kastner are released by the Arrow Cross.


    1945: Birthdate of Rabbi Menachem Froman, the sabra who as paratrooper helped reunify Jerusalem in 1967 and then went on to help found Gush Emunim after which he worked to develop a peace accord with Hamas “known as the Froman-Amayreh Agreement.”



    1945: In Switzerland David Frankfurter was granted a pardon for having assassinated the “Swiss branch leader of the German NSDAP Wilhelm Gustloff in 1936 in Davos, Switzerland.


    1945: Displaced Jews at Buchenwald, Germany establish Kibbutz Buchenwald, an agricultural training center designed to help young Jews succeed at kibbutz (communal) life


    1945: Public-opinion polls taken during June indicate that Americans consider Jews a far greater threat to America than they consider German or Japanese Americans.


    1945(20thof Sivan, 5705): Seventy-three year old Eduard Bloch who treated Adolf Hitler and hismother Klara before WW I passed away today.



    1945: Kibbutz Nili is established on the former estate of Nazi big-wig Julius Streicher, near Pleikershof, Germany, to train Jewish displaced persons in agriculture and provide schooling for Jewish boys and girls.


    1946: “Somewhere in the Night” directed by Joseph L. Mankiewicz who also co-authored the script was released in the United States today.


    1946: Following the murder of two Jews in Biala Podlaska, Poland, the town's remaining Jews began leaving the country during June.


    1946: Ion Antonescu, the anti-Semitic former dictator of Romania, is executed after being convicted of war crimes.


    1947: “James G. McDonald, former member of the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry for Palestine who returned last week from a visit to that country, said tonight that its arid southern area the Negeve could be restored to cultivation by irrigation and take care of tens of thousands of Jewish families now in camps in Europe.


    1948: The Arab states and Israel agreed to a cease-fire. After two weeks of fighting, the Arabs realized that pushing the Jews into the sea would not be such an easy matter after all. 


    1948: According to today’s Scotsman, 'After the Jewish surrender over 1000 non-combatant residents were evacuated to Katamon, south-west of Jerusalem.”


    1949: Today marks the start of “UJA Month” a major fundraising event for the United Jewish Appeal.


    1951: “Sirocco” a film based on Coup de Grace written by Joseph Kessel, directed by Curtis Bernhardt and co-starring Lee J. Cobb was released in the United Kingdom today.


    1951: In Boulogne-Billancourt, Hauts-de-Seine, Nicole (née Raffel) and Serge Dassault gave birth to French political leader Olivier Dassault, the grandson on Marcel Dassault.


    1953(18th of Sivan, 5713):Rabbi Shmuel Yitzchak Hillman, a native of Kovno who served as Dayan of the London Beth Din for 20 years, passed away today in Jerusalem.


    1958: “The Lineup” a police movie directed by Don Siegel and starring Eli Wallach was released today in the United States.


    1960(6thof Sivan, 5720): As JFK tries to nail down enough delegates to win the Democratic Party nomination for President, Jews observe Shavuot.


    1961: In San Francisco, Doris Feigenbaum Fisher and Don Fisher, the co-founders of Gap, Inc. gave birth to John J. Fisher who owns several athletic teams including the Oakland Athletics baseball team.


    1962: Leo Frederick Rayfiel, who has served on the federal bench for the last 15 years, appeared as witness today in the trial of State Supreme court Justice J. Vincent Keogh and former assistant U.S. attorney Elliot Kahaner who are charged with having attempted to fix a case being heard by Judge Rayfiel.


    1963: Birthdate of Belarus native Arkadi Duchin who made Aliyah at the age of 15 where he a popular “singer-song writer, musical producer and the husband of Sima Duchin.


    1964: U.S. release date of “Kapò” an award winning Italian moved about the Holocuast co-starring Susan Strasberg, the American Jewish actress who created the role of Anne Frank on Broadwa.


    1964: Estelle Sommers got her start in the dance world when she transformed her first husband's Cincinnati piece-goods retail store into a dancewear specialty shop.


    1965: Militants attack a house in Kibbutz Yiftah.


    1967: Having seen its plans to organize an international flotilla to break the blockade of the Straits of Tiran come to naught, the United States government shifts its policy.  Previously, President Johnson cautioned Israel not to fire the first shot in even of war.  On this day, when Secretary of State Rusk was asked if the U.S. would restrain Israel from taking precipitate actions, he replied, “ I do not think it is our business to restrain anybody.”  On this same date, Abba Eban realized that diplomacy would not work and that war looked like the only viable option.  However, the months of diplomatic negotiation had earned Israel the support of the U.S. government, support it would need in the coming weeks when the Soviet Union sought to reverse Israel’s military successes.


    1967:  In response to the mounting tensions and popular demand, Prime Minister Levi Eshkol forms a government of national unity with membership from the total spectrum of Israeli political.  Moshe Dyan is named Defense Minister and meets with Chief of Staff Rabin who outlines the military’s plans.  Dyan approves that which had already been prepared.


    1968:  Simon & Garfunkel's "Mrs. Robinson", theme for the hit movie “The Graduate,” was number one on the charts.


    1971: The Broadway production of “You’re a Good Man, Charlie Brown,” a musical based on the popular cartoon co-starring Bob Balaban as the blanket-hold Linus opened today at the John Golden Theatre.


    1972: U.S. premiere of “The War Between Men and Women” directed by Melville Shavelson, produced by Danny Arnold with music by Marvin Hamlisch and featuring Herb Edelman as “Howard Mann.”


    1974: Soviet authorities thwarted plans for an international symposium “on the basis of scientific seminar of physics of scientist-refusenik Professor Alexander Voronel.


    1974: Seventeen Jewish activists, including Joseph Beilin, Anatoly Novikov and Lev Gendin staged a demonstration outside of the Moscow Intourist Hotel today.


    1975: Refusenik Sender Levinson of Bendery, Moldavis was sentenced to six years in a labor camp for ‘speculation.’”


    1978: Broadway premier of “Tribute” directed by Arthur Storch and produced by Morton Gottleb.


    1979(6th of Sivan, 5739): First Day of Shavuot


    1979: A week after being released in the United States, “The Brood” a sci-fi thriller directed and written by David Cronenberg and music by Howard Shore was released today in Canada.


    1980: Actress and singer Barbra Streisand appeared at an ACLU Benefit in California


    1981(28thof Iyar, 5741): As Israelis celebrate Yom Yerushalayim they contemplate what kind of friend the newly inaugurated Ronal Regan will make for Israel.


    1981(28thof Iyar, 5741): Ninety year old “Tamar de Sola Pool, an author and educator and a former president of Hadassah, the women's Zionist organization, died today at Lenox Hill Hospital.” (As reported by Walter H. Waggoner)




    1981: Filming of “The King of Comedy” co-starring Jerry Lewis, Tony Randall and Sandra Bernhard began today.


    1981: Naim Khader, the PLO representative in Belgium, was assassinated in Brussels.


    1983(20thof Sivan, 5743): Eighty-two year old novelist Anna Seghers who told the tales of the victims of Nazi Germany in such novels as The Seventh Cross and Transit passed away today in Berlin.



    1983: After six years, Wilem Polak completed his service as mayor of Amsterdam.


    1984: A week after premiering at the Cannes Film Festival, “Once Upon a Time America” a film that “chronicles the lives of Jewish ghetto youths who rise to prominence in New York City's world of organized crime” based on The Hoodsby Harry Grey was released today in the United States.


    1984: “Streets of Fire” co-produced by Joel Silver and co-starring Rick Moranis was released in the United States today.


    1984: Susan Weidman Schneider published Jewish and Female: Choices and Changes in Our Lives Today


    1986(23rd of Iyar, 5746): Eighty-seven year old Rudolf Sonneborn  an American businessman whose support of the Zionist cause dates back to 1919 when as a 20 year old he visited Palestine for the first time.(As reported by Wolfgang Saxon)



    1987: Meir Rosenne ends his term as Israeli Ambassador to Washington.


    1994: Premiere of “The Patriots’ a French film that provides a fictionalized account of Mossad operations starring Yvan Attal as “Ariel Brenner.”


    1994: Today marked the final performance of the first West End rival of Stephen Sondheim’s “Sweeny Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street.”


    1997: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Rothschild Gardens by Miriam Rothschild, Kate Garton and Lionel de Rothschild, and the recently released paperback edition of Hitler’s Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust by Daniel Jonah Goldhagen.


    1997: For the second time Jack Lang began representing Loir-et-Cher in the French National Assembly.


    1998(7thof Sivan, 5758): Second Day of Shavuot


    1999:  Brooksly E. Born, the wife of Jack Landau resigned as chairperson of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission.


    2001: Rapper Shyne, whose legal name is Moses Michael Levi, was sentenced to ten years in prison after having been “convicted of, attempted murder, assault, and reckless endangerment.”


    2001(10thof Sivan, 5761): Twenty-one Israelis were killed and another 132 were injured, most of whom were high school students when a suicide bomber blew himself up in Tel Aviv at the Dolphinarium.


    Maria Tagiltsiva (14), Raisa Nimrovsky (15), Ana Kazachkova (15), Katherine Kastaniyada-Talkir (15), Irena Nepomnyashchi (16), Mariana Medvedenko (16), Yulia Nelimov (16), Liana Saakyan (16), Marina Berkovizki (17), Simona Rodin (18), Aleksei Lupalu (16), Yelena Nelimov (18), Irena Usdachi (18), Ilya Gutman (19), Roman Dezanshvili (21), Diez Normanov (21), Ori Shahar (32), Yael-Yulia Sklianik (15), Sergei Panchenko (20), Jan Bloom (25), Yevgeniya Dorfman (15


    2001: Authors Ayelet Waldman and Michael Chabon to their third child Ida-Rose or “Rosie.”2004(12th of Sivan, 5764): Seventy-four year old ophthalmologist Charles Kelman passed away today. (As reported by Eric Nagourney)



    2005: "Celebrated Piano Instructor Kaplinsky Counts Student as Cliburn Finalist".




    2005: United States premier of the Israeli film “Or” (my treasure starring Dana Igvy.


    2005: U.S. premiere of “The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants” with a script by Delia Ephron.


    2005: Moshe "Bogie" Ya'alon completed his term as Chief of Staff of the IDF.


    2005:Dan Halutz “was officially appointed the eighteenth Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces and was awarded the rank of Rav-Aluf (Lieutenant General). It is the second time in the history of the Israel Defense Forces that a former IAF commander became the head of the entire military.”


    2005:The Jewish Family Service (JFS) of Los Angeles holds its annual gala. The honorees are CAA agent Rick Kurtzman; his brother, Fox business affairs executive Howard Kurtzman; and their brother-in-law, William Morris Agent David Lonner (married to their sister Janet).


    2005: In “Sarah Aaronsohn's Heroic Silence” published today, Seth Lipsky provides a review of A Strange Death by Hillel Halkin which provides a look at this little known piece of Jewish history from WW I.



    2005: “After 39 previews, the Manhattan Theatre Club production” of “After the Night and the Music” a one-act play in three parts, written by Elaine May opened today at the Biltmore Theatre where it “ran for only 38 performances.


    2006: The Minnesota Twins drafted Danny Valencia.


    2006: The Kennedy Center production “Mame,” a musical with a book by Jerome Lawrence and lyrics and music by Jerry Herman opened today.


    2006:At a commencement address he delivered at Queens College today, Alan “Hevesi told his audience that Senator Charles Schumer was so tough he would "put a bullet between the President's eyes if he could get away with it." Several hours after his remarks, Hevesi apologized for his comments, calling them "beyond dumb,""remarkably stupid," and "incredibly moronic\.”


    2006: Archaeologists Ofer Bar-Yosef of Harvard University and Mordechai E. Kislev and Anat Hartmann of Bar-Ilan University report that they have found evidence that ancient people grew fig trees some 11,400 years ago, making the fruit the earliest domesticated crop.Remains of the ancient fruits were found at Gilgal I, a village site in the Jordan Valley north of ancient Jericho,. Gilgal was abandoned more than 11,000 years ago. Figs that are edible do not produce seeds and are propagated by planting shoots.Bar-Yosef said that ''In this intentional act of planting a specific variant of fig tree, we can see the beginnings of agriculture. This edible fig would not have survived if not for human intervention.''


    2006: The International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation, in conjunction with the Instituto Cervantes and the Spanish Consulate in New York paid tribute to Diplomat and Savior of the Holocaust, Eduardo Propper de Callejón at the Instituto Cervantes in New York City. The event had a tremendous turnout with approximately 180 people in attendance. Propper's son, Felipe Propper de Callejón, spoke about how his father used his diplomatic office to administer special visas that would enable Jews and other persecuted people to escape the Nazi regime under the protection of the Spanish flag. Despite his father's heroism, he was stripped of his title and transferred to Consulate of Larache in the Spanish protectorate in Morocco and was never able to regain his title or attain recognition for his heroic acts before his death. Ana Salomon, the Special Ambassador for Relations with Jewish Organizations of the Foreign Ministry of Spain, and Abigail Tenembaum, the Vice President of the International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation also spoke at the event. The tribute featured an exhibition of photos, legal documents, and Propper's own notes and correspondences written while serving as First Secretary.  This was the IRWF's second tribute to Spanish diplomat saviors. The first honored eight saviors in Argentina in 2004. The International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation is a non-profit organization that seeks to promote solidarity and civic courage, which are ethical cornerstones of the saviors of the Holocaust


    2007: The Metropoline Company joined the Egged Bus Cooperative in providing bus service to Arad.


    2007:Hadassah national president June Walker’s appointment to head the Conference of Presidents of Major Jewish Organizations goes into effect. The Presidents' Conference is the umbrella group that represents 50 American Jewish organizations on issues of national and international concern.


    2007:Michel Graber, the magistrate who has been overseeing the investigation into the fire that damaged Geneva’s largest synagogue on May 24 said that it was a criminal act which he described as arson. But he said there had been no indication that it was set by extremists. The May 24 blaze raised fears among Geneva's Jewish community that the fire might have been an anti-Semitic attack.


    2007: On the same day when three more Kassam rockets struck Israel, the IAF killed a member of an Islamic Jihad Kassam cell in an air strike.


    2007: “Knocked Up” a comedy directed, produced and written by Judd Aptow, starring Seth Rogen and Paul Rudd and featuring Jason Segal, Iris Apatow, Maude Apatow, Harold Ramis and James Franco was released in the United States today.


    2007: British historian Geoffrey Alderman “joined the University of Buckingham” today.



    2007: “Flyboys” a film about WW I allied pilots starring James Franco and David Ellison, the son of Oracle CTO Larry Ellison, and with music by Trevor Rabin was released in the United Kingdom today.


    2008: Washington, D.C, Manhattan, NYC and Boston all host celebrations honoring Israel at Sixty.


    2008: Mrs. Jacob (Betty) Levin gathers with her family and friends for the unveiling of the Matzevah of Dr. Jacob Levin (of blessed memory).  Of course, his real Matzevah is impact he made on the lives of his loving family and devoted friends.


    2008: “Israeli President Shimon Peres honored David Littman for his role in Operation Mural which was designed to save the Jewish children of Morocco, at a Presidential residence special commemorative event with his wife and family and former key Mossad agents in attendance.”


    2008: In Chicago, the Spertus sponsors a book signing for “Louis Zukofsky The Modernist Poet as Jew” by Dr. Mark Scroggins.  As the unbelieving child of immigrants, Louis Zukofsky (1904 – 1978) sought to study his way out of his father’s Lower East Side sweatshop and to write his way into Western literary history. He did so by placing himself among the "high modernist" poets, whose conception of culture was often covertly or explicitly anti-Semitic. Dr. Mark Scroggins’ new book explores Zukofsky’s growth into one of his century’s most fascinating and complex poets, growth paralleled by his navigation of poetry and Jewishness, and his discovery of Jewish-inflected modernist poetics, which continue to influence and inspire contemporary poets. Mark Scroggins holds an MFA and PhD from Cornell University and teaches literature and creative writing at Florida Atlantic University. A widely published author of poetry, essays and reviews, he has written on a broad range of writers, including extensive writing on poet Louis Zukofsky.


    2008: The Chicago Sun Times features a review of “The Dream” by ninety-eight year old Harry Bernstein.  The Dream”follows “The Invisible Wall” as the second in a trilogy that traces the life of the immigrant son of Yankel and Ada Bernstein.


    2008: The Washington Post features a review of “1948: A History of the First Arab-Israeli War” by Benny Morris as well as listings for “Defending Identity: Its Indispensable Role in Protecting Democracy”, by Natan Sharansky, “Golda” by Elinor Burkett,” A History of Palestine: From the Ottoman Conquest to the Founding of the State of Israel by Gudrun Krämer,  Jerusalem: City of Longing” by Simon Goldhill and The Story of Israel: From Theodor Herzl to the Roadmap for Peaceby Martin Gilbert.


    2008(27th of Iyar, 5768):Yosef (Tommy) Lapid passed away at the age of 76.  Born in Yugoslavia in 1931, Lapid and his mother (his father died in the Holocaust) made Aliyah in 1948 where he became a successful journalist and political leader.


    2008(27th of Iyar, 5768):In Cedar Rapids, Iowa, Penny Binger a student of Chasidic Judaism and devote of Shlomo Carlbach passed away.


    2008: In front page article entitled “Baghdad Jews Have Become a Fearful Few” The New York Times describes the plight of one of the world’s oldest Jewish communities.



    2009: Final showing of Sol LeWitt’s “Wall Drawing #260(1975)” at New York’s Museum of Modern Art.


    2009: Sports Illustrated magazine features a review of Bill Russell’s “Red and Me” which focuses on the close, unique relationship between the all-star center and coach and Red Auerbach, Russell’s coach and mentor. Between the two of them, they changed the game and made a unique social statement. “Russell writes that they were drawn together by a mutual hardheadedness, united y the ‘tribulation of our tribes’: Russell was an African American who grew up in the Jim Crow South and the Oakland projects, Auerbach a street-savvy urban Jews.” While everybody knows about the alliance between African-Americans and Jews that helped to make the Civil Rights Revolution, fewer people are aware of this unique Black-Jewish Alliance which created its own revolution.


    2009: The Washington Nationals drafted Danny Rosenbaum.


    2009: During “Turning Point 3” the government’s emergency headquarters will discuss coordination measures


    2009:Security forces uprooted the outpost of Nahalat Yosef today and arrested several activists who protested the destruction. Among those arrested was MK Michael Ben-Ari. Following those events, security forces converged on Ramat Gilad, where residents are concerned at the prospect of a confrontation but say they will resist any attempts to evict them from the area.


    2009:Israeli Defense Minister Ehud Barak began a round of meetings with top U.S. officials today in a bid to head off an increasingly sharp dispute between the United States and Israel over the expansion of Jewish settlements in Palestinian territory.


    2009: The Saul Steinberg: Illuminations travelling exhibition, which displays original Steinberg works comes to a close in Hamburg, Germany.  


    2010: Mothers Circle, an education and support group for non-Jewish women raising Jewish children is scheduled to have its first meeting for the summer at the Historic Sixth & I Street Synagogue.


    2010: Peter Stansky review of The Spanish Right and the Jews, 1898-1945: Anti-Semitism and Opportunism by Isabelle Rohr was published today.



    2010: In the wake of naval action off the coast of Gaza, Prime Minister Netanyahu does not meet with President Obama as originally scheduled.


    2010:An Islamic militant group in the Gaza Strip said three of its members had been killed in an Israeli airstrike in northern Gaza. The Iranian-backed Islamic Jihad group said its fighters were killed shortly after firing two rockets into southern Israel. Israeli authorities said the rockets landed in open areas and caused no injuries.


    2011: The Masada, Dead Sea and Jerusalem Opera Festival is scheduled to begin.


    2011: Final session of Hebrew Literacy: Aleph, Bet, and Beyond is scheduled to take place today at the Historic Sixth & Synagogue in Washington, DC


    2011: In Washington, DC, Adas Israel is scheduled to hold its Annual Meeting and honor the 2011 Yad Kakavod recipient, David Bickart.


    2011(28th of Iyar, 5771):  Yom Yerushalayim – Jerusalem Reunification Day


    2011:President Shimon Peres said today that peace could be achieved in Jerusalem in "our time", declaring that Israel has replaced the divisions that once wracked the holy city by offering freedom to all faiths and creeds.


    2011: The American Jewish Committee lauded the Obama administration today for its decision not to take part in the upcoming United Nations’ Commemoration of the Durban World Conference Against Racism, set to take place in September in New York.


    2011: In Helsinki, Ben Zyskowicz, a member of the National Coalition Party who was recently appointed speaker of the Finnish parliament, was attacked by a middle-aged man shouting a racial epithet against Jews.


    2011:Attorneys for Howard Ackerman, an Orthodox Jewish prisoner in Carson City, Nev., filed a lawsuit against the state. The suit claimed that the state's corrections department intended to stop serving kosher meals to inmates within a week, thus violating their client’s freedom to practice his religion. Attorneys representing the state prison system filed court papers saying new menus are being considered, but that there are no plans to discontinue the kosher meal program.


    2012: Cellist Yoed Nir is scheduled to perform tonight at Town Hall in New York


    2012: Larry and Mindy Fogel are scheduled to perform a musical salute to the Carpenters in Kfar Vradim.


    2012: The Kühn Choir of Prague is scheduled to give an a-capella concert at the Henry Crown Concert Hall as part of the Israel Festival being held in Jerusalem.


    2012: Jennifer Herren is scheduled to begin her Bat Mitzvah weekend in Cedar Rapids, Iowa by helping to lead Shabbat Eve services which will include a special appearance by singers and musicians of Shir Yehuda.


    2012: Early this morning members of the 12thBattalion of the famed Golani Brigade thwarted a border crossing which appears to have been the prelude to a major terrorist infiltration.  Planes from the IAF followed up with targeted attacks on Gaza.


    2012(11th of Sivan, 5772): Eighty-one year Marion Sandler, the wife of Herbert Sandler, passed away today. (As reported by Michael J. De La Merced



    2012: Andy Samberg’s spokesperson announced that he had left SNL


    2012(11th of Sivan, 5772): Twenty-one year old Golani Staff-Sergeant Netanel Moshiashvil, from Ashkelon, was killed today while stopping a terrorist infiltrator attempting to cross into Israel from Gaza.


    2013: A children’s adaption of “As You Like It “ is scheduled to be performed as part of the Israel Festival in Jerusalem.


    2013: Professor Krzysztof Jasiewicz , a Polish Historian, is scheduled to lose his position as head of the Department of Analysis of Eastern Issues following an interview in which he partly blamed the Jews for the Holocaust. (As reported by JTA and Times of Israel)


    2013:For its first pavilion at the prestigious Venice Biennale international art festival which is scheduled to open today, the Vatican is presenting an exhibit inspired by the first book of the Torah, rather than by a New Testament theme. Called “Creation, Un-Creation, Re-Creation,” the three-part show in the Vatican’s pavilion will draw on the first 11 chapters of Genesis, Cardinal Gianfranco Ravasi, president of the Pontifical Council for Culture, told reporters Tuesday at a news conference presenting the concept.”


     (As reported by JTA)


    2013: Eilat residents were slightly unsettled this afternoon as a mild earthquake shook the southern city’s streets and buildings. There were no reports of injury or serious damage (As reported by Adiv Sterman)


    2013: Today a French judge put under formal investigation a 31-year-old man suspected of helping an al-Qaida-inspired gunman prepare a shooting spree in the southern France city of Toulouse last year, a judicial source said.


    2014: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Delicious by Ruth Reichl and Here Comes the Night The Dark Soul of Bert Berns and the Dirty Business of Rhythm & Blues by Joel Selvin.


    2014:”The Sturgeon Queens” is scheduled to be shown at the Allentown Jewish Film Festival


    2014: A revival of “Driving Miss Daisy” is scheduled to be performed at The Bayou Playhouse in Lockport, LA.


    2014: “The 10th Annual Matzohball 5K and 1 Mile Fun Run!” sponsored by Temple Isaiah in Fulton, MD, is scheduled to take place at Centennial Park in Howard County.


    2014: “Palestinians in Gaza fired a rocket early this morning at the Eshkol region in southern Israel.” (Times of Israel)


    2014:Maj. Gen. Yoav Mordechai, head of COGAT, the IDF’s civil administration in the West Bank, personally denied travel permission to Ramallah for three Palestinian leaders from Gaza slated to be appointed ministers in the expected Fatah-Hamas unity government.” (Times of Israel)


    2014: Today, “European Jewish leaders on Sunday praised the arrest of a suspect in the Brussels Jewish Museum attack and called for preemptive measures to protect Europe’s Jewish communities from additional attacks.” (As reported by Marissa Newman)


    2014: Samuel L. Jackson, who has appeared in over 100 films, was a joyful participant in today’s annual Celebrate Israel parade in New York City. (As reported by Lazar Berman)

     
    2014: The cabinet approved the “Joint Initiative of the Government of Israel and World Jewry” which “aims to enhance the connection between the Jewish people and the State of Israel” today. (As reported by Sigal Samuel)



    2014: With Lewis Katz's sudden death yesterdat, his son, Drew, is expected to assume a large role in the ownership and management of the Philadelphia Inquirer and other organizations owned or influenced by his father.



    2014: “Ahead of Time: The Extraordinary Journey of Ruth Gruber is scheduled to come to an end at the Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center.



    2015: Today “Israel accused the United Nations of granting "UN non-governmental organization status" to an association linked to militant Palestinian group Hamas that it said promotes "anti-Israel propaganda in Europe."


    2015: Judge John J. McConnell, Jr. will preside over the bench trial scheduled to begin today which will decide the ownership of “a set of silver Torah bells known as rimonim, thought to be worth more than $7 million.” (As reported by Paul Berger)



    2015: The funeral and interment of Rochelle Shoretz whose own breast cancer diagnosis “led to her founding of Sharsheret” was scheduled to take place today.


    2015: Daniel Kahneman “was awarded an honorary doctorate from the Faculty of Arts at McGill University in Montreal”


    2016: Dr. Gary Zola is scheduled to “share insights about his work as Executive Director of the Jacob Radar Marcus Center of the American Jewish Archives” which houses “over ten million pages of documentation and 8,000 linear feet of archives, manuscripts, nearprint materials, photographs, audio and video tape, microfilm, and genealogical materials” at luncheon at the Lillian & Albert Small Jewish Museum in Washington, DC.


    2016(24th of Iyar, 5776): Ninety-seven year old cartoonist Anatol Kovarsky passed away today, (As reported by William Grimes)



    2016: In Portland, Oregon, Barnes & Noble is scheduled to host barbeque maven Steven Raichlen who will discuss his new book Project Smoke.


    2016: “The landmark compromise over the future of the Western Wall remains unresolved following a tense meeting today between Reform and Conservative leaders and Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu.”


    2017(7th of Sivan, 5777): Second Day of Shavuot;


    2017:  Today, “the State Prosecutor’s Office won the postponement of hearing scheduled for the following week into shortening the sentence of Ehud Olmert.” (As reported by Raoul Wootliff)


    2017: “The Israel Festival, an annual three-week Jerusalem-based celebration of local and international music, dance, theater and performance art” is scheduled to begin today.


    2017: The Oxford University Jewish Society is scheduled to host Shavuot services, followed by lunch and dinner.


    2017: “Two men tied to Hezbollah” – Samuel El Debek and Ali Kourani – “who had been plotting attacks against Americans and Israelis in the US and Panama were arrested today.”


    2018: In Jerusalem those craving the “real thing” can find it at Joseph Burger and Diner Bar from 11 a.m. until the start of Shabbat.


    2018: At 12 noon, JW3 is scheduled to host a screening of Entebbe in London.


    2018: As Israelis prepare for Shabbat, they “digest” the statement by Tamir Pardo, who served as head of Mossad from 2011 to 2016 that Prime Minister Netanyahu had given “the order in 2011 for the military to prepare to attack Iran within 15 days.”


     


     


     


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    June 2


    876 BCE (28 Iyar 2884): This is the traditional date of death of Samuel, prophet and priest (born 2832).


    455:  The Vandals entered Rome and plundered the city.  Among the treasures they took with them were the spoils of the Second Temple that had been brought to Rome by Titus.


    1098: During the First Crusade, the first Siege of Antioch ends as Crusader forces take the city marking one more step on their rode to Jerusalem that would mean more death and destruction for the Jewish people


    1128:Pier Leoni, “the son of the Jewish convert Leo de Benedicto and founder of the great and important medieval Roman family of the Pierleoni” who was said to be “the greatest man in Rome in his time” passed away today.



    1430: “Moses Arragel, a Hebrew Scholar in Castile, presented his translation of the “Old Testament” into the Castilian language to Don Luis de Guzman, grand master of the Order of Catalrava”


    1446: William III of Luxembourg, “who mined a silver groschen known as the Judenkopf Groschen” – a coin that “shows a man with a pointed beard waring a Jewish hat” married Anne of Luxembourg today.



    1453: In Breslau, John of Capistrano led a mock trial of alleged desecrations of the host. The Rabbi of the community hanged himself and urged other Jews to commit suicide. Forty-one Jews were burned, their property confiscated, and all children under seven were forcibly baptized.


    1476: Printing of the first edition of Tur Orah Cahim in Mantua, Italy


     1485: The Jews of Toledo plan an attack designed to kill the Inquisitors and then lock the city gates. The plan did not come to fruition after it was betrayed. The Jews of the city suffered later the following winter at the hands of the Inquisitors.


    1495: In Leiria, Abraham d’Ortas completed the printing of Jacob ben Asher’s Tur Or Hayyim.


    1727: Elias Levy and Judith Hart were married today in the United Kingdom


    1780: Rachel Pinto who, like most members of the Jewish community had left New York when the British occupied the city returned to the city today.


    1780: Seven years before his conversion to Judaism, Lord George Gordon “headed a crowd of around 50,000 people that marches on Parliament marking the start of the “Gordon Riots.”


    1786(6th of Sivan, 5546): Shavuot


    1790: Raphael Raphael married Julia Asher at the New Synagogue in the United Kingdom.


    1807: In what is now the Czech Republic Leopold Lobl and his wife gave birth to Marcus Lobl.


    1807: Zalma Rehine, a native of Germany became a citizen of the United States today.


    1808(7th of Sivan, 5568): Second Day of Shavuot


    1812: Birthdate of Wilhelm Stahl, the native of Munich who became an economist and who converted to Christianity after living with his older brother Friedrich Julius Stahl.


    1813: In Great Yarmouth, Edward Emanuel Micholls and Rosetta Micholls gave birth to Samson Micholls.


    1816: Birthdate of Grace Aguilar, the British author whose Portuguese Marrano forbearers found a safe home in 18th century England.



    1821: Birthdate of Frederick A. Johnson the first Jewish child born in Cincinnati. He was the son of David Israel and Eliza Johnson.


    1830: Rabbi Isaac Lesser delivered his first sermon in English at Congregation Mikveh Israel in Philadelphia.


    1835: Max and Sarah Oppenheimer gave birth to Nathan Hirsch Oppenheimer.


    1835: Birthdate Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto who as Pope Pius X granted an audience to Theodore Herzl who failed in his attempt to enlist the Pope’s support for a Jewish homeland in Palestine. The Pope was polite but firm in his rejection.


    1837: In Philadelphia, PA, Judah Lazarus Hackenburg and Maria Allen gave birth to William Hackenburg, the husband of Adeline Schoneman,  “manufacturer of sewing and machine silks” and Chairman of the Silk Association of America whose many leadership roles in the Jewish community including co-founding the United Hebrew Charities in 1869, the Hebrew Charity Ball Association in 1859 and the committee “to aid Russian refugees” as well as serving as President of the Jewish Hospital and Home for Aged and Infirm Israelites, Treasurer of Congregation Beth El Emeth and Vice President of the Board of Delegates of the American Israelites.


    1840: Three days after he passed away, Abraham Quixano Henriques was buried today at the Nuevo Jewish Cemetery in London.


    1840: As the furor over the Damascus Affair increases, French Prime Minister Adolphe Thiers defended the behavior of Benoit Laurent-Francois, Count de Ratti-Merion, the French Consul in Damascus during a debate in the Chamber of Deputies.  Thiers attributed the uproar to the Jews whom he described as being “more powerful in the world than they have pretensions to be.”


    1840: Birthdate of Thomas Hardy. The rest of the world the world may remember him as a British author, but for Jews he was a supporter of a homeland in Palestine as can be seen by the fact that in February of 1919, “he signed a declaration of sympathy with the Jews in support of a movement for ‘the reconstitution of Palestine as a National Home for the Jewish People.’”


    1841: Abraham Emanuel and Clara Joseph were married today at the Great Synagogue in London.


    1841:Henry Lazarus and Frances Barnett were married today at the Great Synagogue in London.


    1846: Birthdate of Hubert-Joseph Henry, the French officer who killed himself after being arrested for forging the evidence that helped to convict Alfred Dreyfus.


    1846: Birthdate of Dr. Emil Bessels, the native of Heidelberg, Germany, who was both a physician and Arctic explorer who worked for the Smithsonian Institution.


    1854(6th of Sivan, 5614): Shavuot


    1857: Joseph Hyams and Julie Joel were married at the Great Synagogue in London.


    1857: The body of Isaac Jackson was discovered on a farm near Westfield, MA and Charles Jones was arrested on charges of having murdered him. Jackson was Jewish.  Jones wasn’t.


    1860: Birthdate of Sarah Beck, the native of Brandenburg, Germany, who became Sarah Hexter when she married Max Hexter with whom she raised a family in Cincinnati, Ohio.


    1863: During the Civil War, Jacob C. Cohen who was serving with the 27th Ohio wrote home describing military life in and around Memphis, TN. The 27th arrived at there after having served at Corinth, MS and fought several skirmishes in northern Alabama.  By being at Memphis, Cohen and his comrades were being spared the hardship of that part of Grant’s army trying to take Vicksburg.  But they would see plenty of action when Sherman began his campaign to take Atlanta.


    1863: Establishment of Congregation Emanu-El a synagogue in Victoria, British Columbia, on Vancouver Island


    1864: Moroccan Jews and Jews from Gibraltar residing in Haifa requested a written ruling from the British Consul for permission to pray. "The Turkish authorities here made no objection to our thus assembling for prayer till quite lately; when they declared that we cannot meet together without being possessed of a firman from Constantinople."


    1867: Simon Bennett was buried today at the “Brompton (Fulham Road) Jewish Cemetery.


    1870: “Religious Bigotry in Turkey – Massacre of Jews by Christians” published today described “a horrible massacre of Jews by Christians in the Turkish province of Romania.” On Sunday, May 29, the Christians attacked the Jews living in all of the “principle towns” butchering “without mercy” thousands of Jews without regard to age or sex.


    1870: “Mr. Disraeli’s Health”, published today, reported that the British Prime Minister’s health had improved the extent that he could visit the Foreign Ministry and dine with two American diplomats.


    1870: Based on dispatches received today in Washington, the Jews of Louisville, KY have sent telegrams to their co-religionists in cities throughout the West urging them to contact their Congressmen with a request that they do all they can to prevent further attacks on the Jews of Romania which have been described as a massacre.


    1870: As American Jews respond to the worsening conditions of their co-religionists in Romania, in Washington, D.C., Simon Wolf receives the following telegram from M.S. Isaacs, Secretary of the Jewish Board of Delegates of the United States “Ask the President to instruct the Minister at Constantinople to help the Jews of Romania.”


     1870: As American Jews respond to the worsening conditions of their co-religionists in Romania, in Washington, D.C., Simon Wolf receives the following telegram from  Henry Greenbaum, a leading Chicago banker “Please ask my personal friends in Congress to cooperate with you in representations to the President or otherwise, that the persecution and butchery of our brethren in Romania be stopped.”


    1870: A New York Times writer marvels at the fact that those who have most recently escaped from the effects of religious persecution are the most likely to persecute others for their religious beliefs.  The case in point is the persecution of the Jews by the Christians of Romania, who have so recently been “released from the fear of oppression” by the Moslems. The atrocities are reminiscent of the Spanish Inquisition and are a reminder that the “problems of the darkest ages” are still found in the 19th century.


    1873(7thof Sivan, 5633): Second Day of Shavuot


    1877: Samuel Morais Hyneman was admitted to the bar in Philadelphia, PA.  Hyneman played an active role in Jewish communal affairs serving as the President of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association of Philadelphia and serving on the board of trustees of both the Jewish Theological Seminary and Gratz College.


    1878: Eliza Miller and Ralph Cohen were the recipients of this year’s “Betty Bruhl Prizes” which were presented during “a gala event” that was held this evening at Hebrew Orphan Asylum. The event also marked the third anniversary of the distribution of the “Betty Bruhl Prizes.”  Four years ago, Moses Bruhl presented the asylum with $2,500.00 with the stipulation that the interest on the amount was to be presented annually to tow orphans – one boy and one girl – not older than 15 years of age.  The money (which now totals $50 per award) is to be invested with the principle and interest being given to the winner when the leave the asylum. The award is named after Mr. Bruhl’s late wife who “was a parton of the…asylum.” 


    1879: In a review of "The Historical Poetry of the Ancient Hebrews" translated and critically acclaimed by Michael Heilprin published today, the reviewer attributed the content and style of the book to the possibility that Heilprin might be Jewish.  In fact Michael Heilprin was a Jewish supporter of Kossuth who came to the United States after the revolt failed. His father Phineas Mendel Heilprin was a noted Jewish scholar who had also supported Kossuth and had moved to the United States.  The younger Heilprin supported the Union and was opposed to slavery.  He was a Jewish scholar and supporter of Jewish causes.


    1879: As a result of Russian mistreatment of Jewish American businessmen, the U.S. House of Representatives requested the President to have all international treaties which impair the rights of American citizens because of religion amended to secure equal rights.


    1882: The Hebrew Children’s Sanitarium is appealing to the public to send funds which will be used to finance its annual summer excursions which are scheduled to start later this month.  Donations can be sent to the office of the Jewish Messenger on Grand Street.


    1883: Bernard Abraham, who had been commanding the Seventeenth Infantry was promoted from Colonel to the rank of Brigadier General in the French Army


    1884: Birthdate of Viennese native Hermine Pfleger who gained fame as actress Mia May, the wife of director Joe May and actress Eva May.


    1886: Rabbis in Philadelphia met today to discuss the refusal of the principal at Central High School to excuse the Jewish students from having to take final exams scheduled for Shavuot.  Principal Taylor was aware of the conflict when preparing the exam schedule and refused to make an allowance for alternative test dates. The Rabbis agreed to deliver a letter to Taylor requesting that he re-consider his decision. 


    1888: “Endowed In Heilprin’s Honor” published today described the plans to create a fund in memory of the late biblical scholar Michael Heilprin. These include a challenge by Jacob Schiff in which he said he will contribute $5,000 to the fund if an additional $50,000 can be raised by others during the year.


    1888: It was reported today that Empress of Victoria has spoken out against anti-Semitic agitation and told listeners that she is expressing the views held by Emperor Frederick.  The Emperor’s defense of his Jewish subjects has met with strong outburst by some including the posting of placards in English reading “The Jew Emperor, Frederick Cohen.”


    1889: As the Jewish population in Florence, SC continued to grow, “the foundation of a Sunday was laid” today to which A.A. Cohen invited “all children of Israelite parents” to attend.


    1889: It was reported today that the Semitic Department at Harvard will be offering three new courses for the upcoming academic year including on covering the history of Israel and one covering the history of the Hebrew religion.  The professors teaching the new classes were not Jewish.


    1889: It was reported today that Isaac Benseken has hosted a tea party arranged by the American Consul at Tangiers. Two of the ladies at the party were dressed “in the traditional gala dress of the Hebrew women of Morocco…” Refreshments included green tea garnished with sprigs of mint in the Moroccan manner and “Moorish sweetmeats consisting of a thin shell of sugar filled with sweet almost paste…”


    1890: As census takers fanned out across New York City, Jewish women responded with fear when they were asked questions about “whether their husbands and sons had done military service” because of their experience with destructive nature of Jewish service in the Czar’s Army.


    1890: Based on information that first appeared in Pall Mall Gazette, it was reported today that “a syndicate of Jews has offered $200,000 for the Vatican’s copy of the Hebrew Bible.” The Vatican has possessed the Bible at least since 1512 when Pope Julius II who needed funding to continue his fight with Louis XII negotiated with a group of Italian Jews to sell them the Bible.  For reasons that are still unknown, the Pope changed his mind and kept the book. (Editor’s Note – This is the Pope who “paid for the paint” that covered the Sistine Chapel.


    1892(7thof Sivan, 5652) Second Day of Shavuot


    1892: This morning, at Hamilton College, the Clark Prize for speaking was awarded to Gregory Rosenblum, a young Russian immigrant who spoke on “The Jews in Russia.”


    1892: “A Woman’s Revenge” published today described a beating that former prize fighter inflicted on Chicago merchant Joseph Fish.  According to Fish, the beating “was prompted by a young attractive-looking widow” whom he was no longer seeing since his engagement to the daughter of a prominent Jewish Chicago citizen.


    1893: Three days after he passed away, Frederick Barnet Mozley was buried today in the Balls Pond Road Jewish Cemetery.


    1893: An out of court settlement was reached in Schwab v Schwab which kept the Judge from having to make a decision that would either render the defendant as a bigamist or the plaintiff’s children as being “illegitimate.”


    1893: Myer S. Isaacs, President of the Baron Hirsch Fund testified before the Senate Committee on Immigration at the New Netherland Hotel.  In response to questions, he said that the fund did not provide financing to bring immigrants to the United States.  Rather it worked with immigrants who were already in the United States to help them gaining an education and developing the skills that would allow them to get a job.


    1895: Birthdate of Saul Edward “Sol” Weinberg, the Case Western Reserve College alum who played “two games at tackle” in 1923 for the NFL Cleveland Indians (not to be confused with the American League baseball team with the same name)



    1895: French railroad tycoon and philanthropist Baron Moritz de Hirsch meets Theodore Herzl in Paris.  Herzl hopes to convince Hirsch to take the money he had been spending to settle Jews in agricultural communities in places like Argentina and spend it instead on the creation of a Jewish homeland in Eretz Israel.


    1895: Eighty-two year old German jurist Heinrich von Friedberg who became a Protestant early in his career passed away today.


    1895: The list of the trustees of the newly incorporated Independent Young Pleasure Club, a “landsmanshaftn” published today included Abraham Cohen, Kate Jacobs, Jacob Levine, Meyer Libsohn, Samuel Gussoff, Davis Schroeder and Max Scharlin.


    1895: “Hands and Mind Drilled” published today traced the history of the Hebrew Technical Institute, a vocational educational school begun over ten years ago to meet the needs of newly arriving Jewish immigrants from eastern Europe who lacked suitable job skills.


    1896: The Neue Freie Presse mentions Herzl's Der Judenstaat for the first time.


    1897(2nd of Sivan, 5657): Abraham Cohn, “an American Civil War Union Army Sergeant Major and recipient to the highest military decoration for valor in combat — the Medal of Honor — for having distinguished himself at the Battle of the Wilderness, Virginia passed away in New York.


    1899: In Hong Kong, Sir Elly Kadoorie and his wife gave birth to Baron Lawrence Kadoorie, the noted businessman and philanthropist who was part of a clan of Misrahi Jews who had made their way from Baghdad, to Bombay to China.


    1899: “A Noble German Jew” published today recounted an 1850 encounter between Bismarck and Dr. Eduard Simson when the latter was serving as President of the Parliament and called the Chancellor to order.  When Bismarck said that members of the “old nobility knew how to conduct themselves” countered the Chancellor invocation of his bloodline with the retort “you say that to me a descendant in the direct line from the high-priest Aaron.  To which Bismarck replied, “Pardon me Mr. Speaker, but I had never looked upon the matter from that point of view.”


    1899: “The Situation in France” published today described the view of the anti-Dreyfusites who “are not convinced by the declaration of Monsieur Ballot de Beaupre that Esterhazy is the traitor” and the belief that “the people are so tired of the affair that by the time Dreyfus has returned to France angry passions will probably have subsided.” (Those opposed to Dreyfus never accepted the confession and the passions really never cooled until all involved had died.)


    1899: A case of diphtheria was discovered today “in the grammar depart of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society at 151st Street and Broadway just two hours after a quarantine had been lifted on the infant department of the same institution.


    1901: Birthdate of producer Michael Todd producer who gained fame for the cinematic system called Todd A-O and for such film hits as Around the World in 80 Days.


    1901: Commencement exercises were held today at the Hebrew Orphan Asylum on Amsterdam Avenue.  Prizes consisting of engraved certificates and $50 in cash were awarded to the outstanding boy and girl at the institution.  The prizes were created by the late Moses Bruhl as a way to honor the memory of his wife, Bettie Bruhl.


    1901: Sixty-two year old James A. Hearne who staged Israel Zangwill’s “The Children of the Ghetto” in 1899 passed away today.


    1903(7th of Sivan, 5663): Second Day of Shavuot


    1903: Birthdate of Max Aub, the Parisian born author whose shifting citizenship from French, to Spanish to Mexican mirrored his changing literary and political fortunes.


    1904: “Camden Hebrews’ New Synagogue” published today described the decision of the Board of Trustees of Adas Israel “to erect a $25,000 synagogue at the southeast corner of Fifth and Spruces Streets in Camden, NJ.


    1908: In Vienna, actors Fritz Spira and Lotte Spira gave birth to actress Steffie Spira who survived the Holocaust and settled in East (Communist) Germany after the war.


    1909: Alfred Deakin became Prime Minister of Australia for the third time. At one time, Deakin had been a political ally of the Jewish Australian politician Isaac Isaacs who he appointed to the position of Attorney General in 1906.


    1909: Birthdate of Benzion Netanyahu an Israeli historian and Zionist activist who is also known for being secretary to the father of the Revisionist Zionism movement Ze'ev Jabotinsky as well as the father of Yonatan Netanyahu, former commander of Sayeret Matkal, who was killed in Operation Entebbe and Israeli politician Benjamin Netanyahu


    1911(6thof Sivan, 5671): Shavuot


    1911: The Sultan of Turkey conferred the Order of Medjidie, Fourth Class, on Isaac Jessua Bey of Salonica. He was the secretary to the Inspector General of the Gendarmerie of the vilayet.


    1912: The Jews of Bialystok were alarmed “because of ritual murder accusations.”


    1915: “Jim Conley, on whose testimony Leo M. Frank was convicted of the murder of Mary Phagan and sentenced to death and who himself was sentenced to twelve months imprisonment as an accessory reached Atlanta today having be released from the convict camp” because he got “two months off for good conduct.


    1915: “The meeting between Leo Frank and Jim Conley to give evidence in the suit of Mary Phagan’s mother against the National Pencil Company to recover $10,000 for the death of her daughter” scheduled for today “did not occur” because it “was rendered unnecessary when attorneys agreed to accept evidence give at Frank’s trial in regard to the girl’s death.”


    1915: Brooklyn attorney Joseph Goldstein sent “a petition signed by 6,000 Brooklyn residents urging executive clemency in the case of Leo M. Frank, to Governor Slaton of Georgia.”


    1915: The American Jewish Relief Committee issued a special appeal on behalf of the Jews of Poland where “three million are starving” even though $800,000 has already been sent to meet their needs.


    1915: The members of the American Jewish Relief Committee whose names were published today included Felix Warburg, Cyrus Adler, Louis D. Brandies, Julian W. Mack, Dr. J.L. Magnes, Louis Marshall, Jacob Schiff, Nathan Straus, Oscar S. Straus, August Sulzberger and Mayer Sulzberger.


    1916: “The Austrian Supreme Court has decided that the law prohibiting marriages between Christians and non-Christians applies to marriages contracted outside of Austria” but did nothing to change the Austrian law that allows “non-Christians to marry Jews” while prohibiting them from marrying Catholics or Protestants.


     


    1916: “District Attorney Harry E. Lewis of Kings county, State Senator Charles C. Lockwood, Joseph Barondess of the Board of Education, Rabbi Max Raisin of Brooklyn” were among the prominent persons who “appeared before a special committee of the State Board of Charities” today “to urge the grant of a charter to the Beth Moses Hospital, a ‘kosher’ institution proposed for the Williamsburg district.”


    1917: “The story of how the Jews of Jaffa were deported by the Turkish Government ostensibly as a measure of ‘military precaution’ was received” today “from the State Department by the American Jewish Relief Committee.”


    1917: “The first band concert and dance to be given by the Chicago Hebrew Institute Band” is scheduled to “take place” this evening in the Assembly Hall of the Administration Building at 8 o’clock.


    1917: This evening, the Jewish Educational Alliance Dramatic Club which has been “making a study of what is best in Jewish Drama” hosted an evening devoted Sholom Aleichem “in memory of the first anniversary of the great master of Jewish literature.”


    1917: “Dr. Jacob S. Minkin of Hamilton, Ontario preached the baccalaureate sermon” this “morning at the Jewish Theological Seminary” during which “he paid a tribute to the late Dr. Solomon Schechter and touched on the present day needs of Judaism.


    1918: It was reported today that 83 members of the Independent Order of Brith Sholom and 3,924 sons of the members are serving with the armed forces of the United States and that its members “have subscribed” to over a million dollars “to the Liberty Loans” and purchased $34, 842.75 worth of War Savings Stamps.


    1919: Birthdate of American painter Nat Mayer Shapiro


    1920: Birthdate of Marcel Reich-Ranicki, Polish-born German critic.


    1920: “According to word received” in New York today, Julius J. Lyons a Director and legal counsel to State Bank who was he son Rabbi Jacques J. Lyons and the father of San Diego, CA, rancher Edwin Lyons had passed away on May 26 in San Diego.


    1921: Birthdate of Sir Sigmund Sternberg, the Hungarian native who came to the UK in 1939 where he went on to become a “philanthropist, businessman and Labour Party donor.”


    1922(6thof Sivan, 5682): Shavuot


    1922: New Yorker Bernard A. Rosenblatt who is a member of the Zionists Executive left New York to arrange for the underwriting of the first Jewish municipal bond issue in history.


    1922: Today, at the Naval Academy in Annapolis, MD, Hyman “graduated 107thout of 540 midshipmen and was commissioned as an ensign.”


    1922:  In Camden, NJ, Congregation Beth-El held Confirmation Services which were led by Cantor Jacob Mickelman.


    1923 Birthdate of mathematician and economist Lloyd Shapely who joined his “Jewish-American colleague Alvin Roth in winning the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Science for their work on market design and matching theory.”



    1924: Grigori Yakovlevich Sokolnikov began serving as a “candidate member of the 13thPolitburo.”


    1926: In Vienna, Michael Hilberg and his wife gave birth to Dr. “ Raul Hilberg, a Jewish émigré from Nazi-occupied Europe who helped begin the field of Holocaust studies with his long and minutely detailed 1961 study of the massacre of European Jews: (As reported by Douglas Martin)


    1926: Birthdate of physicists Arthur Rosenfeld, the Birmingham native who “received the Energy Department’s Enrico Fermi Award in 2006 and the National Medal of Technology and Innovation…” (As reported by Harrison Smith)



    1928: After 280 performances the curtain came down on the original Broadway production of the Harry Ruby and Bert Kalmar music “The Five O’clock Girl


    1930(6thof Sivan, 5690): Jews celebrate Shavuot for the first time during what will become known as The Great Depression.


    1930: In Camden, NJ, Ruth Barroway delivered the “opening prayer” during Confirmation Services at Congregation Beth-El which is led by Rabbi Nachman S. Arnoff and President Jacob Leventon.


    1932: Ruth Barroway, Miriam Morris, Sidney Kantor, Leona Pinksy, Robert Kaplan and Edward Gallob were confirmed today at Congregation Beth-El in Camden, NJ.


    1932: U.S. premiere of “What Price Hollywood?” directed by George Cukor, produced by Pandro S. Berman and David O. Selznick with music by Max Steiner.


    1932(27th of Iyar, 5692): Simcha Gutman a Hebrew poet and novelist who wrote under the pen name Ben Zion passed away at the age of 62


    1936: The Tarbut School in Moletai, Lithuania, held its eleventh graduation.



    1936: During the Arab Riots, the Irgun defied the Jewish Agency’s call for restraint by killing nine Arabs with an explosion at the Jerusalem’s Jaffa Gate.


    1936: As “the Jews of Przytyk prayed all day in the synagogue for the acquittal of fourteen Jews who were brought to trial today with forty-two Christians” another day of anti-Semitic rioting took place in the town with “nationalist parading in the streets and smashing windows in the homes of the Jews.”


    1936: “Continued sniping by Arab terrorists and burning of Jewish-owned crops were reported to be continuing tonight” at the same time that rail service between Jerusalem and Jaffa was suspended due to the derailing of the train running between the two cities.


    1936: Forty-three Polish and fourteen Jewish defendants went on trial today in the aftermath of the Przytyk Pogrom during which “hundreds of Jews were beaten and their homes and shops were demolished.”1937: The Palestine Post reported that the Arab Higher Committee denounced the anticipated Royal (Peel) Commission's proposal for the partition of Palestine.


    1937: The Palestine Postreported that the new Central Railway Station opened in Haifa.


    1937: The Palestine Postreported that the an Arab who for £10 attempted to smuggle a Baghdadi Jew, Maji Shlomo Jarjana, from Syria to Palestine was sentenced to 10 months imprisonment. Jarjana got a two weeks jail sentence and deportation.


    1937: The Palestine Postreported that the in the Polish town of Bransk Jews were beaten and injured, their stalls demolished, windows were smashed in their homes and at the synagogue.


    1937: Information published from Venezuela indicated there is an Ashkenazi community of 100 members, most from Romania, and an indigenous Sephardic community between 700 and 800 members, who have "no relations" whatsoever with the Ashkenazim.


    1939: The Christian Science Church attacks Jewish refugees as causing their own troubles, a position reportedly taken by many important Protestant journals of the time.


    1940: The concentration camp at Neuengamme, Germany, is upgraded to primary-camp status


    1940: The Jewish Institute of Religion held its 15th annual commencement this afternoon. Rabbi Stephen S Wise ordained 8 candidates for the rabbinate. Two men were honored with honorary degrees as Doctors of Hebrew Letters. One went to Salmann Schocken, the publisher and businessman who had fled from Germany to Palestine when the Nazis came to power.  The other was awarded in absentia to Rabbi Moses Schorr, “the former chief rabbi of Warsaw, who is now languishing in one of Stalin’s prisons. (Editor’s note – This is at a time when the non-aggression pact between the two dictators is in effect and the Soviets have conquered their half of Poland)


    1941(7thof Sivan, 5701): Second Day of Shavuot


    1941: Second and final day of the Farhud Pogrom during which approximately 200 Jews were murdered in Baghdad and more than 2,000 were injured.  Property damage exceeded 3 million dollars.


    1941: French law called for ‘administrative arrest' for all Jews.


    1942: Four hundred volunteers from the Jewish Brigade under the command of Major Liiebmann fought at the Battle of Bir-el Harmat in Libya which began today and lasted until June 11.


    1942: Three thousand, four hundred Jews from Hurbieszow were sent to Sobibor, where eventually all but 12 were gassed.


    1942: Fred Traum’s parents, Elias Israel Traum and Gitel Sara Traum left Vienna by train and reportedly were murdered by the Nazis three to five days later when the train reached Minsk.
    1942: When Viennese Jews were deported to the Minsk (Byelorussia) Ghetto today Elsa Speigel, decided to leave her 5 and 1/2-month-old son, Jona, behind. The baby will eventually be sent to the camp/ghetto at Theresienstadt, Czechoslovakia, where he will survive the war.


    1942: The BBC reports that 700,000 Jews have been exterminated. Its information comes from a report smuggled out of Poland by the Jewish Bund in Warsaw.


    1942(17th of Sivan, 5702): Leo Katzenberger was guillotined at Stadelheim Prison in Munich after having been convicted, in a totally bogus trial, of “race pollution” because he allegedly had sexual relations with his non-Jewish girlfriend.


    1944: Itzhak Gruenbaum, the chairman of the Rescue Committee of the Jewish Agency, requests the bombing of rail lines that lead to Auschwitz.


    1944: The Allies begin a bombing operation (Operation Frantic) in the Balkans, the goal of which is to distract the Germans from upcoming Allied landings in France. Bombing routes overfly the railway lines leading from Hungary to Auschwitz. The operation lasts for four months, during the deportation of tens of thousands of Hungarian Jews to Auschwitz. The railway lines carrying the Jews are never targeted


    1944: In the Bronx, Max Hamlisch and his wife gave birth to Marvin Frederick Hamlish “the Pulitzer Prize-winning composer who imbued his movie and Broadway scores with pizazz and panache and often found his songs in the upper reaches of the pop charts.” (As reported by Rob Hoerburger)





    1946(3rd of Sivan, 5706): Sixty-one year old Yiddish author and journalist Joseph Chaikin, “the former managing editor of The Day passed away today.



    1946: Birthdate of Tel Aviv native Gidon Remez the prize winning Israeli author who along with Isabella Ginor is responsible for the innovative history Foxbats Over Dimona and The Soviet-Israeli War, 1967-1973





    1947:Bernard M. Baruch, former United States member of the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission, said today that it would be "sheer suicide and sheer madness if we didn't adopt the compulsory military training plan just recommended by the Advisory Commission on Universal Training."


    1947: Meir (Myer Jack) Landa who passed away on May 30 was buried today at Willesden Cemetery in London.


    1947: In Germany, Rachel and Moshe gave birth to Hairm Bar-Zeev(Reichberger) who immigrated to Israel a year later and was lost when the Submarine Dakar went down with all hands in 1968


    1947: The United Nations Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP) elected its Chairman, Emil Sandstrom, a Swedish Supreme Court Judge and set sail for Palestine.


    1948: Viktor Brack, who was Hitler's supervisor of the installation of gas chambers in Poland, was executed.


    1948: An Israeli attack on Egyptian positions at Ashdod marked the turning point in the war between Israel and Egypt.


    1948: The Golani and Carmeli brigades attacked Jenin today


    1948: Birthdate of Roni Bar-On, the Tel Aviv native who served as a Lieutenant Colonel in the IDF before pursuing a political career that included service as an MK and cabinet minister.


    1949: The Kingdom of Transjordan was renamed The Kingdome of Jordan.  The kingdom had been named Transjordan because it was across (trans) the Jordan river.  In 1948, Jordan's army crossed the Jordan River and seized the eastern portion of Jerusalem and the territory now called the West Bank.  Since the country was now on both sides of the Jordan River, it was no called Jordan.  This name change proved that the government of Jordan planned to remain permanently on the west bank of the Jordan River and there was no intention to create a Palestinian State.


    1949(5th of Sivan, 5709): Erev Shavuot


    1949(5th of Sivan, 5709): Fifty-three year old Hungarian author Béla Zsolt author of Nine Suitcases, “one of the earliest Holocaust memoirs” passed away today.


     1949: “Studio One,” a CBS television anthology series broadcast an adaptation of “June Moon,” the 1920’s drama co-authored by George S. Kaufman.


    1949: In Washington, DC, Helen and Frank Hart Rich gave birth to Frank Hart Rich, Jr. who would gain fame and fortune as Frank Rich, one of the finest and wittiest writers to write for the New York Times


    1950: Plans to build a village in Israel bearing the name of President Truman to be called Kfar Truman were announced at the White House.


    1950: Violinist Jascha Heifetz, who is on a concert tour in Israel, said today that he founded Israeli audiences to be “a little too sophisticated but quite wonderful.” In the 12 performances to date, he has enjoyed enthusiastic audience response.


    1951: After 30 weeks and 235 performances the curtain came down on the “Country Girl” written and directed by Clifford Odets, starring Steven Hill as “Bernie Dodd” with sets designed by Boris Aronson who won a Tony for his work.


    1952: Birthdate of Elan Steinberg, the native of Rishon LeZion, “who brought what he called a new, “American style” assertiveness to the World Jewish Congress as its top executive, winning more than $1 billion from Swiss banks for Holocaust victims and challenging Kurt Waldheim, the former United Nations secretary general, over his Nazi past…” (As reported by Douglas Martin)


    1952: Birthdate of Gary Bruce Bettman, the commissioner of the National Hockey League.


    1952: The Jerusalem Postreported that according to Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion, and contrary to persistent rumors, no definite reparation offer had yet been received from Western Germany.


    1952: The Jerusalem Postreported that an Israeli mother, who drowned her sick and handicapped five-year-old child in the sea, received a one year prison sentence. The judge pointed out that there was a waiting list of more than 300 handicapped children waiting for proper treatment.


    1952: The Jerusalem Postreported that prospective emigrants were ordered to give up their ration books before leaving Israel.


    1955: Twenty-four year old Brooklyn born right-handed pitcher Hyman Cohen played in his final major league game as a member of the Chicago Cubs.


    1956: In Paterson, NJ, Irving Polansky and his wife Edith gave birth Purdue graduate, Air Force officer and NASA Astronaut Mark Lewis “Roman” Polansky who “took a teddy bear from the US Holocaust Memorial Museum” on STS-116.


    1956: Birthdate of Efi Oshaya, the Israeli political leader who served as an MK for Labor and One Israel.


    1959: Allen Ginsberg wrote his poem "Lysergic Acid," in San Francisco.


    1960(7th of Sivan, 5720): For the last time during the Presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower, Jews observe the second day of Shavuot


    1961(18th of Sivan, 5721):  Famed playwright George S. Kaufman passed away.



    1961: Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion, “accompanied by his Private Secretary, Yitzhak Navon (later President of Israel) and the Israeli Ambassador to London, Aruthur Lourie” meet with Winston Churchill in London.  During their conversation, Ben-Gurion outlines his views on the situation in Iraq, the stability of the Jordanian monarchy and the threat posed by Egypt which now possessed twenty or more MIG-19 air craft which were better than anything the Israelis possessed.


    1961: The World Wrestling Championship in which Boris Gurevich would win a Silver Medal opened today in Japan.


    1962: On Shabbat, during his sermon today, Rabbi Bernard J. Bamberger told congregants at Shaaray Tefila in New York, “that the current discussion of medical care for the aged had been confused by warnings of ‘the danger of socialized medicine.’”


    1962: Dr. Kurt Klappholz, the Rabbi at Congregation and Talmud Torah Tifereth Israel, an Orthodox synagogue in Brooklyn delivered a sermon today in which he was highly critical of the Central Conference of American Rabbis for urging the government of Israel to spare Eichmann’s life four hours before he was to be hung.  The Klappholz family was wiped out by the Nazis.


    1965: London property developer and philanthropist Baron Max Rayne married his second wife Lady Jane Vane-Tempest-Stewart.


    1965:The United Synagogue which was established for charitable purposes by the Jewish United Synagogues Act of 1870 was formally registered as a charity today in the United Kingdom.


    1968(6th of Sivan, 5728): As the United States is being torn apart by divisions caused by race and the Viet Nam War, the Jewish people observe Shavuot


    1969(14th of Iyar, 5729): Pesach Sheni


    1969(14th of Iyar, 5729): Fifty-one year old actor Leo Bernard Gorcy best known for being the loud-mouth leader of “The Bowery Boys” passed away today.




    1971(9th of Sivan, 5731): Sixty-three year old Ephraim Epstein, who served as the rabbi for Congregation Shaare Zedek in St. Louis, MO from 1934 to 1969 passed away today.


    1973: Birthdate of David Bezmozgis, Latvian born Canadian author


    1974: Abba Eban completes his service Foreign Minister.


    1976(4th of Sivan, 5736): Eighty-five year old “Dr. Alexander M. Dushkin, professor emeritus at the John Dewey School of Education that he helped organize in 1950 at Hebrew University in Jerusalem” passed away today.



    1977: The Jerusalem Postreported from Washington that the US and Israel fundamentally disagreed over the Arab willingness to live in peace with a secure Israel. US officials believed that Arabs were ready to accept Israel within the pre-1967 borders, but Israeli leaders doubted Arab moderation.


    1977: The Jerusalem Postreported that Kennan Moss, a new immigrant from South Africa, was held for allegedly crossing into Jordan where he betrayed important Israeli security secrets.


    1977: The Jerusalem Postreported that the Shippers’ Council sued the Marine Officers Union for losses caused by the recent, prolonged marine strike.


    1978: Release of “Darkness on the Edge of Town, the studio album that featured Max Weinberg on the drums.


    1978: Six months after being released in Japan, “Capricorn One” a space conspiracy movie directed by Peter Hyams who wrote the script, starring Elliott Gould and with music by Jerry Goldsmith was released in the United States today.


    1978: The R.H. Macy building at Herald Square on 34thStreet which had been built by Isidor and Nathan Straus in 1902 was added to the National Register of Historic Places and designated as a National Historic Landmark.


    1979(7th of Sivan, 5739): Second Day of Shavuot


    1982: Yad Vashem recognized Jan Karski as Righteous Among the Nations. A tree bearing a memorial plaque in his name was planted at Yad Vashem's Avenue of the Righteous Among the Nations in Jerusalem


    1987: President Ronal Reagan nominated Alan Greenspan to serve as Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve.


    1988: The New York Review of Books publishes the letter signed from Natan Zach and Nissim Calderon in which they resign as members of the advisory committee of the International Poetry Festival due to take place in Israel as part of the country’s 40th anniversary celebration.


    1989(28th of Iyar, 5749: Yom Yerushalayim


    1989: Israeli journalist Eric Silver wrote an article in the London Jewish Chronicle describing life in Jerusalem for Arabs and Jews; a life marred by violence and suspicion.  Responding to Arab claims that “Jews are afraid’ Silver writes, “The Jews say it is not so much fear as prudence. Why risk a knife in the back, a rock through the windscreen? Who needs it?”


    1991: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Chutzpah by Alan Dershowitz.


    1993: A revival of Stephen Sondheim’s “Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street” opened in the Wes End at the Royal National Theatre.


    1995: “Fluke” a movie based on the novel of the same name co-starring Max Pomeranc and Ron Perlman was released in the United States today.


    1996(15th of Sivan, 5756): Amos Tversky, Israeli psychologist passed away.


    1998(8th of Sivan, 5758): Seventy-six year old Beverly Levin, the wife of Dr. Jules Levin and sister of actress of Charlotte Rae best known for her roles in “The Facts of Life” and “Diff’rent Strokes.”


    1998: Jacob A. Stein and Plato Cacheris replaced William H. Ginsburg, the attorney who had been representing Monica Lewinsky from the time the scandal first broke.


    2000(28th of Iyar, 5760): A month before President Clinton issued the formal invitation to Ehud Barak and Yasar Arafat to come to peace talks at Camp David, Jews observe Yom Yerushalyim


    2001(11 of Sivan, 5761): Fifteen year old Yael-Yulia Sklianik of Holon and 20 year old Sergei Panchenko from the Ukraine died today of the wounds sustained when a suicide bomber attacked the Dolphinarium.


    2001: “Talmud Display Honors Holocaust Survivors” published today described plans for a volume of this special edition of the Jewish which is currently “on display at the Chrysler Museum of Art” to “go on a national tour.”


    2002: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Sunday Jews': Proudly Half and Half by Emily Barton and Firehouse by David Halberstam.


    2002: HBO broadcast the first episode of “The Wire” a creation of David Simon which painted a gritty, dark picture of Baltimore, MD.


    2002(22nd of Sivan, 5762): Seventy-nine year old journalist Flora Lewis, best known for her role as foreign affairs columnist at the New York Times passed away today.



    2003:The National Foundation for Jewish Culture, the leading advocate for Jewish cultural creativity and preservation in America, hosts a gala ceremony at the Plaza Hotel in New York where it presents today the honorees for the fourteenth annual Jewish Cultural Achievement Awards. The event is chaired by Morris W. Offit and Merryl H. Tisch, and hosted by Tony Award-winning actor Ron Leibman. The awards seek to recognize artists or cultural institutions who demonstrate a significant body of work or consistent achievement, excellence on the highest standards of the discipline as well as significant contributions to Jewish life and culture in America. This year, the awards are distributed in five categories: Patron of the Arts, Media Arts, Performing Arts, Literary Arts and Visual Arts.  The honorees include:- Lynn Korda Kroll, philanthropist and chairman of the board of the NFJC (Patron of the Arts); David Isay, radio producer (Media Arts); Leonard Nimoy, actor, author and photographer (Performing Arts); Adrienne Rich, author, poet and educator (Literary Arts) and Mierle Laderman Ukeles, conceptual and installation artist (Visual Arts).


    2005: Award winning Israeli singer and actress Miri Mesika married the musically record producer Ori Zakh today.


    2005:  The San Diego Jewish Times, published the following article by Donald H. Harrison entitled “Yossi Harel tells Exodus Story From the Commander's Perspective.”



    2006(6th of Sivan, 5766): First day of Shavuot


    2006(6th of Sivan, 5766): Sol W. Cantor, an early proponent of discount retailing featuring warehouse style stores passed away at the age of 95.  He was a major philanthropist who supported the UJA, ADL and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University.


    2006: Pittsburgh's Malacandra Productions staged a nine-character play adapted by John Regis from the classic William Tenn (Philip Klass) science fiction short story, "Winthrop Was Stubborn".


    2007: In Cedar Rapids, Melanie Abzug becomes a Bat Mitzvah at Temple Judah.


    2007: The Cedar Rapids Gazette features an article entitled “Mitzvahs Swell in Summer” by Molly Rossiter describing the Bar and Bat Mitzvah Ceremonies and the way they are practiced at Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids and Agudas Achim in Iowa City.


    2007(16th of Sivan, 5767): Martin Meyerson, former president of the University of Pennsylvania who briefly led the University of California at Berkley during the tumultuous 1960’s passed away at the age of 84. “He was the first Jewish head of a major research university, and he and John Kemeny of Dartmouth College were the first Jewish presidents in the Ivy League. A reporter once called Mr. Meyerson ‘the Jackie Robinson of Jewish academia.’”


    2008: AIPAC Policy Conference opens in Washington, D.C.


    2008 (28th of Iyar, 5768): Yom Yerushalayim – Jerusalem Reunification Day.  This marks the celebration of the 41st anniversary of the re-establishment of Jewish control over the entire “City of David.”


    2008(28th of Iyar, 5768): Eighty year old Paul Sills, “the original director of Chicago’s The Second City” passed away today. (As reported by Campbell Roberston)



    2008: Punter Adam Podlesh “was elected to the Rochester Jewish Sports Hall of Fame” today.


    2008: At the Spertus in Chicago, the fourth and final session of “A Short History of Anti-Semitism.”


    2008: Brian “Horwitz hit his first major league home run today, off New York Mets starting pitcher Óliver Pérez.”


    2008: In “Holocaust survivors passing memories to young people,” published today, The Chicago Tribunedescribes the “Generation to Generation” program sponsored by the Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center in Skokie which is designed to enable Holocaust survivors to tell their story with a young recipient to ensure that the personal memories are not lost.


    2009:The National Capital Mikvah offered a class on "The Fourth Trimester: Childbirth and Beyond." During an interactive lecture Rebbetzin Sharon Freundel led a discussion on childbirth and post-childbirth issues for Orthodox women including niddah after childbirth and when to return to the mikvah, how to schedule a brit for both term and pre-term boys, and other laws and customs.


    2009(10th of Sivan, 5769):A gunman killed one person, seriously wounded a second and said he tried to hit a third in an apparent shooting spree in central Jerusalem early this morning, police said. Yoel Almog Dazhinishvilli shot and killed Amjad Abu Hadar, 33, and seriously wounded a Jewish yeshiva student who passed by moments later. Police say Danishvilli also tried to wound a third man, but failed. Police spokesman Micky Rosenfeld said investigators thought Dazhinishvilli had psychological problems and did not think his attacks had a political motivation. Rosenfeld said he did not know if Dazhinishvilli had a history of psychological problems. Both men were shot at close range. Danishvilli, 48, had a permit to carry the weapon for his job as a security guard. He was arrested shortly after a man was found with bullet wounds to the chest on Hanevi'im Street in central Jerusalem at around 3 A.M. Rosenfeld said the gunman told police he had been meditating in the square at around 3:30 A.M. when the Arab man approached him. The gunman told police that he had opened fire when he felt threatened, and had shot the second man he asked him for a cigarette.


    2009:A rising and falling siren sounded this morning at 11 A.M. for a minute and a half as part of this year's Home Front Command national exercise, with all citizens encouraged to practice entering their protected rooms.


    2010: The YIVO is scheduled to present a lecture entitled “Empire of Charity: American Jews and the Rebuilding of Polish Lithuania, 1919-1939” which “focuses on the role Jewish émigrés and their philanthropy played in reshaping political, social, and economic life in Brisk and Vilna, the two historic intellectual centers of Lithuanian Jewry.”


    2010: Funeral services were held today in Los Angeles for 88 year old Holocaust survivor Sophi Lazar, the widow of Max Lazar with whom she had two children Mordechai and Chana.


    2010: In “An Assault, Cloaked in Peace” published today Michael B. Oren explains why those on Turkish ship Mavi Marmara were not promoters of peace, in the usually understood meaning of that term.


    2010: Today, “the New York Post reported that Jeff Zucker would be paid between $30 million and $40 million to leave NBC Universal shortly after Comcast completes its 51% acquisition in the company.”


    2010: In “A Viennese District Is Reborn” published today Kimberly Bradley described the rebirth of the Karmeliterviertel, or Carmelite Quarter as a center for Jewish culture. “Over the last decade or so the area has become one of the few places in the world outside of Brooklyn and Tel Aviv where bohemians stroll alongside groups of Orthodox Jews — the former buying chutney from Slow Food Vienna’s booth at the market, the latter munching on matzo and hummus from Kosherland.”


    2011: The Masada Opera Festival is scheduled to “kick off with a celebratory opera evening featuring works by Verdi, Puccini and Rossini performed by Svetla Vasileva and the orchestra of Arena di Verona”.


    2011: The 92nd Street Y is scheduled to present “Israeli Wines: Talk and Tasting”  a program offering a virtual tour of several vineyards as well as a look at the unique Israeli wine-making process facilitated by Udi Kadim, CEO of Yarden, one of the nation's leading importers of quality wines.


    2011:  Israel has deployed an Iron Dome rocket interceptor outside Sderot, a Gaza border town that has borne the brunt of Palestinian shelling attacks, posing a new test for the fledgling system underwritten by Washington.


    2011:Five people were arrested this afternoon in connection with an incident earlier in the day, in which a Molotov cocktail was thrown at the Binyamin Police commander's car, setting it ablaze. Also, this afternoon, Border Police and Civil Administration authorities demolished the Ga'on Yarden settlement outpost in the Binyamin region of the West Bank, in which several buildings were illegally built. It was the second demolition carried out in one day.


    2011: After premiering at the Cannes Film Festival last month “Footnote” was released in Israel today.


    2011: It was announced today that Jill “that Abramson would become the executive editor of the Times in September 2011…”


    2012: In Atlanta, The Temple is scheduled to sponsor a concert featuring The Return which will be both a fundraiser and celebration of the birthday of Rabbi Alvin Sugarman


    2012: In Cedar Rapids, IA, Jessica Heeren is scheduled to be called to the Torah as a Bat Mitzvah


    2012:Seven historic synagogues in Krakow that are closed for most of the year are scheduled to be open tonight as part of the second annual 7@nite-Synagogues By Night, an evening of exhibitions, music concerts and fashion shows by young artists from Poland and around the world. The free event is sponsored by the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, JCC Krakow and the Krakow Jewish community. (As reported by the JTA)


    2012: “Thousands demonstrated for social justice tonight in Israel’s three largest cities in an effort to rejuvenate the movement that swept the country last summer with tent cities and weekly demonstration. Many of the protesters, especially in Tel Aviv and Haifa, were from the Meretz and Hadash parties, as well as from leftist youth movements.” (As reported by Haaretz)


    2012: Dianna Agron hosted the GLAAD Media Award in San Francisco.


    2013: A grand ceremony to dedicate British Columbia’s first synagogue will be reenacted today exactly 150 years to the day following the establishment of Congregation Emanu-El in downtown Victoria, the picturesque capital of Canada’s western-most province. (As reported by Arthur Wolak)


    2013: The American Society for Jewish Music and the American Jewish Historical Society are scheduled to present “Music in Our Time: 2013” an annual concert that features music with Jewish content.


    2013: The Israeli National Soccer Team is scheduled to play the Honduran National Team at Citi Field in what will the Israeli team’s first New York appearance in 35 years.


    2013: A conference on “Holy War and Sacred Struggle in Judaism, Christianity and Islam” is scheduled to open at Tel Aviv University


    2013: A farewell dinner is scheduled to be held in New Orleans for Rabbi Uri Topolosky of Congregation Beth Israel and his wife Dahlia. (For more about the New Orleans Jewish Community see the Crescent City Jewish News edited by Alan Samson)


    2013 American model Lisa S. (born as Lisa Selesner) and actor Daniel Wu gave birth to their daughter Raven.


    2013: “Beyond Swastika and Jim Crow: Jewish Refugee Scholars at Black Colleges” is scheduled to have its final showing at the National Museum of American Jewish Museum. (Special thanks to Rabbi Fred Davidow, an “authentic Southern Jew” and a real mensch for making us aware of this)




    2013: The New York Timespublished reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Super Boys: The Amazing Adventures of Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster – the Creators of Superman by Brad Ricaa, No Joke: Making Jewish Humor by Ruth Wisse and Lady At The O.K. Corral: The True Story of Josephine Marcus Earp by Anna Kirschner.


    2013: The Bayit Yehudi party has officially endorsed Rabbi David Stav as its candidate for the position of Ashkenazi Chief Rabbi in a vote that took place during a faction meeting this afternoon.


    2014: The JCC in Manhattan is scheduled to host a screening of “An Honest Liar.”


    2014: “Israel fired artillery shells at a target in Syria early this morning after a mortar shell from the war-torn country hit Mount Hermon, opening a second front hours after returning fire into Gaza.” (As reported by Lazar Berman)


    2014: “Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas swore in the ministers of a new unity government” which he hailed as ending the split with Hamas which is part of this reconciliation government, a fact denied by the United States which says that it can negotiatie with the PA because members of Hamas are not ministers in the new cabinet.


    2014(4thof Sivan, 5774): Eighty-eighty year old chemist Alexander Shulgin passed away today. (As reported by Bruce Weber)



    2014: The Center for Jewish History is scheduled to host “Rethinking Jabotinsky,” a book talk with Hillel Halkin in conversation with New York Times cultural critic, Edward Rothstein, Columbia University historian Rebecca Kobrin, and moderator Abe Socher, editor of The Jewish Review of Books.


    2015: The National Museum of American Jewish History is scheduled to sponsor a trip to Philadelphia’s Walnut Street Theatre to experience “Irving Berlin’s I Love a Piano” a musical that follows the journey of a piano as it moves in and out of American lives from the turn of the century to the present.


    2015: “The Pennsylvania Senate voted 49-0 today to confirm Dr. Rachel Levine as the state's physician general -- making her the highest ranked out transgender person ever to serve in Pennsylvania government.


    2015: Christopher Bandini reviewed Contemporary Psychoanalysis and the Third Reichby Emily Kurlioff.


    2015(15thof Sivan, 5775): “Just a few days shot of his 102nd birthday, former JHSGW president Henry Brylawski passed away today.



    2015: “Channel 2’s Moshe Nussbaum reported” today that Israel did not attack Lebanese territory earlier in the day meaning that reported by “Lebanese media outlets” that IAF had struck near the city of Brital” and inflicted casualties were false.


    2015(15thof Sivan, 5775): Eight-eight year old Nobel Prize winning chemist Irwin Rose passed away today.



    2015: President Obama posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor to Sergeant William Shemin, who served in the Army during WW I.


    2015: Elsie Shemin-Roth is scheduled to receive the Medal Honor today on behalf of her late father Sgt. William Shemin, “nearly a century after he pulled wounded comrades to safety” during World War I. (As reported by Salter


    2015: Israeli pop star Kobi Peretz is scheduled to perform at the Highline Ballroom.


    2016: The 4th Annual Israel Film Center Festival is scheduled to open tonight with a screening of the winner of the 2015 Israeli Academy Awards, “Baba Joon.”


    2016: In Israel, “the Energy Ministry confirmed that the Leviathan offshore field has 20 per cent less gas than previously reported saying that there were 500 billion cubic meters of gas in the reserve and not 620 billion cubic meters.


    2016: In Cedar Rapids, Iowa, at Temple Judah funeral services are scheduled to be held for Harold Becker, a successful businessman, World War II veteran, generous philanthropist and pillar of the Jewish community



    2016: Sara “Hurwitz delivered the "A Message from the Dean" at Yeshivat Maharat’s  Semikha Ceremony, hosted at Ramaz Lower School in which she applauded "the loud voices of those who hired our graduates as spiritual leaders, who support our graduates in fulfilling their dreams of serving the Jewish people as Orthodox clergy" and expressed her belief that the graduates: Hadas (Dasi) Fruchter, Ramie Smith, and Alissa Thomas-Newborn, "embody the ethic of optimism.”


    2017: “The Women’s Balcony,” the “#1 Film of the Year in Israel” is scheduled to open in Scottsdale, AZ.


    2017: “Committee Elections for next terms are scheduled to be held this evening following the Friday Night Dinner” hosted by the Oxford University Jewish Society.


    2017: “Letters from Baghdad” is scheduled to premiere at Lincoln Plaza Cinema and Agelika Film Center.


    2018(19th of Sivan, 5778): Parashat Behalotecha; for more see http://downhomedavartorah.blogspot.com/


    2018: 'Keynote' a Site Specific Installation by Tirtzah Bassel, “an Israeli artist based in New York,” is scheduled to open today.


    2018: Participants in the Silent Auction sponsored by the Straus Historical Society scheduled to take place on June 4 begin previewing the items today.


    2018: “A new event celebrating 50 years of educational partnership with Hebrew University that was scheduled to take placed today at the UCLA Hillel” will not take place as alumni express their outrage at violence “on the Gaza border” – an outrage that apparently did not carry over to this week’s rocket barrage from terrorists in Gaza launched against Israel.”


     


     


     


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    June 3


    350:  Roman usurper Nepotianus, of the Constantinian dynasty, proclaims himself Roman Emperor, entering Rome at the head of a group of gladiators. The Constantinian Dynasty took its name from its most famous member, Constantine I, the Emperor who turned the Roman Empire into a Christian entity; a policy followed by his successors much to the dismay of the Jewish people.


    1098: During the First Crusade, Antioch falls to the crusaders after an eight-month siege. This would open the road to Jerusalem, where, after another siege, the Christians would capture the City of David and slaughter its Jewish inhabitants.


    1140: French scholar Peter Abelard is found guilty of heresy.  Abelard may have been a heretic in the eyes of the Catholic Church, but when it came to the Jews, his views were classically Christian.  He believed that the Jews were wicked and that God’s grace had passed from them to the Gentiles who had accepted Christ. The grace of God would return to the Jews in the end of time when the Jews will be converted to Jesus.  Christ is spoken of as about to be crowned or about to be crucified it is said that He “went forth”; to signify that the Jews, who were guilty of so great wickedness against Him, were given over to reprobation, and that His grace would now pass to the vast extent of the Gentiles, where the salvation of the Cross and His own exaltation by the gain of many peoples, in the place of the one nation of the Jews, has extended itself. Whence, also, to-day we rightly go forth to adore the Cross in the open plain, showing mystically that both glory and salvation had departed from the Jews and had spread themselves among the Gentiles. But in that we afterward returned [in procession] to the place whence we had set forth, we signify that in the end of the world the grace of God will return to the Jews; namely, when, by the preaching of Enoch and Elijah, they shall be converted to Him. Abelard may have been a heretic in the eyes of the Catholic Church, but when it came to the Jews, his views are classically Christian. 


    1361: In Spain orders are given for the construction of a Juderia (Jewish Quarter) in Tarazona. The Jewish Quarter is to be separated by walls from the Christian community. The Christians living where the Juderia is to be built were given property of the same value and relocated.


    1425: Pope Martin V issued “Sedes apostolica,” a Papal Bull that commanded Jews to wear “a distinctive badge.” [Editor’s note – this may have more to do with Pope Martin’s fight against slavery.  The badge was intended as a way of deterring the sale of Christians as slaves.  For a Pope, his views on the Jews was on the positive side of the scale as  can be seen from his “Declaration on the Protection of the Jews” issued in 1419.}]


    1455: Pope Calixtus III canonized Vincent Ferrer, the Dominican friar who converted thousands of Jews to Christianity with threats of violence and the actual incitement of mobs in a variety of places including Toledo and Valencia.


    1621: The Dutch West India Company receives a charter for New Netherlands, which would come to include New Amsterdam. A Jewish merchant named Joseph d’Acosta was one of the company’s shareholders.  The fact that the Dutch West India Company had Jewish shareholders would prove to be of critical importance when Peter Stuyvesant would try to expel the Jews from New Amsterdam which was part of New Netherlands.


    1658: Pope Alexander VII appointed François de Laval vicar apostolic in New France. Alexander was the pope who seemed to have a great deal of concern about the rights of tenancy in the ghetto since he issued two bulls – Verbi Aeterni and Ad Ea Per Quae- on the subject.


    1658: Today the Court of Burgomasters, apparently on its own initiative, declined to permit judgment in civil actions to be taken against Jacob Barsimson, a Jew, holding that "though defendant is absent, yet no default is entered against him, as he was summonedon his Sabbath": an instance of religious toleration and just dealing foreshadowing a New York statute of two centuries later that made it a misdemeanor maliciously to serve any one with process on his Sabbath, or with process returnable on that day ("New York Penal Code,"§ 271). Similarly, the municipal authorities licensed Asser Levy and Moses Lucena, Oct., 1660, as sworn butchers, providing on their application that they might take the oath at the hands of the officer "agreeably to the oath of the Jews," and with the reservation that they should not be bound to kill any hogs.


    1678(13thof Sivan): Rabbi Ephraim ben Jacob Katz, author of Sha’ar Ephraim, passed away


    1752: During the quarrel between Rabbi Jacob Emden and Rabbi Jonathan Eybeschutz a secular Danish court ruled in favor of Emden, severely censuring the three communities of Altona, Hamburg and Wansbeck and ordering them pay a fine of one hundred thalers. This enabled Emden to return to Altona where he regained possession of his synagogue and his printing press.


    1753(1st of Sivan, 5513): Rosh Chodesh Sivan


    1768: King William V, the Dutch ruler, visited both the German and Portuguese synagogues today which along with his attendance at the weddings of Jewish subjects was an acknowledgement by the Prince of Orange of the loyalty Jewish community.


    1782(21stof Sivan, 5542): Aaron F. Goldsmid, the London merchant who was founder the famous British Goldsmid family passed.  A native of Amsterdam, he “was the son of Benedict Goldsmid, a Hamburg merchant. In 1765 he left Holland with his family to settle in London, where he founded the firm of Aaron Goldsmid & Son, subsequently Goldsmid & Eliason. The firm of Aaron Goldsmid & Son experienced serious reverses through the failure of Clifford & Sayer, one of the principal houses in Holland. Hence only George, the eldest son, entered into partnership with his father. The other sons founded new businesses for themselves in which they amassed large fortunes. Goldsmid left four sons and four daughters. The second son, Asher, was one of the founders of the firm Mocatta & Goldsmid, bullion-brokers to the Bank of England. Benjamin and Abraham were famous as financiers and philanthropists.” (As reported by the Jewish Encyclopedia)


    1803: Birthdate of Talmudist Gabriel Jacob Polak whose works included “Dibre Kodesh,” a Dutch-Hebrew dictionary and “Halikot Kedem,”  a collection of Hebrew poems.


    1805(6thof Sivan, 5565): Shavuot


    1812: In Copenhagen, Salomon Monies and his wife gave birth to Danish portrait painter David Monies.


    1815: “Naples was restored to Ferdinand of Sicily” – a kingdom which had expelled its Jews at the end of the 15th century.


    1835(6thof Sivan, 5595): Shavuot


    1846: Abraham Edward Alexander married Hannah Symons on the United Kingdom.


    1848: In Pennsylvania Isaac and Henrietta Yetta Kohn gave birth to Berth Kohn who became Bertha Tim when she married Louis Tim


    1849: In Montgomery, Alabama, the Chevra Mevaker Cholim, with the approval of 30 members, became Congregation Kahl Montgomery which is now known as Temple Beth Or. The congregation built its first sanctuary in 1862.


    1850: The traditional founding date of Kansas City, Missouri. Temple B’nai Jehudah, the first Jewish congregation in Kansas City would be formed twenty years later in 1870. The congregation built a temple in 1908. In 1909, United Jewish Social Services opened the Alfred Benjamin Dispensary at 17th and Locust to provide medical treatment to Jewish Immigrants.  This institution evolved into Menorah Hospital by 1931.


    1853: In Kent (UK), Anne and Will Petrie gave birth to William Mathew Flinders Petrie, the Egyptologist who discovered the Merneptah Stele and identified the word Israel in the writing.  This became an important non-biblical proof of the existence of the ancient kingdom of Israel.


    1853: “The Last Hartford Convention” published today described the activities of a convention that began yesterday to discuss the Bible.  In mocking tones the author assumes that by now “the very existence of the Hebrew law-giver has been pronounced a myth; the Creation a counterfeit; the Deluge a fable; the Exodus a forgery.”  The author wonders what “stores of rabbinical learning” including “Talmud, Targums and Commentators” as well as contemporary historians who have corroborated the stories of the Israelites will be discredited by these contemporary philosophers whom he compares to the infidels going back to Roman times who have tried and failed to discredit “the first five books.”


    1857: Henry Hart married Rosa Nathan at the Great Synagogue in London


    1857: Barend Hyman married Rachel Minden at the Great Synagogue in London.


    1863: Birthdate of William H. King, the Senator from Utah who in 1927 “declared…that he favored the United States severing diplomatic relations with any country which failed because of anti-Semitism to protect its Jewish nationals” and “expressed the belief that eventually Palestine would be able to support a population of a million Jews.”


    1867: Four days after his death, Simon Lazarus Oppenheim, a native of Frankfurt am Main, was buried today at the Balls Pond Road Jewish Cemetery.


    1870: The London Standard denounced the review of Benjamin Disraeli’s Lothair published in Blackwood. The Standard did not take issue with Blackwood’s right to make negative comments about the book.  The complaint was that Blackwood made the review “the vehicle for a coarse, violent and outrageously personal attack” on Mr. Disraeli.  “The critic has used the book as opportunity for indulging his spleen against its distinguished author.”


    1870: “A petition by Jews living in Indianapolis, Indiana urging the President of the United States to Intervene on behalf of Romanian Jews was referred the Senate’s Committee on Foreign Relations.”



    1870: The United States Senate spent an hour this morning discussing the recent massacre of Jews in Romania during which Senator Morton of Indiana presented a request that the President intervene to “save the Jews of” Romania “from further persecutions.”   The Senate passed a motion offered by Senator Sumner of Massachusetts asking the President to provide the Senate with any information in the possession of the State Department concerning the violence.  “Mr. Sumner said that the interests of humanity demanded that the fullest information should be had by the Senate on this subject.”  According to Sumner, “the massacre was a most terrible affair, the whole enormity of which was not yet made public.”  Senator Sprague of Rhode Island said that Jews owned most of the land in Romania and controlled all of the trade in the Principality “while a vast population of Christians” were deprived of the means of support” and that this was the cause of the violence.  He said that these facts “furnished food for profound reflection…to affairs here in our country, where the tendency” is rapidly moving “in the same direction.  Senator Stewart of Nevada “said he hoped Mr. Sprauge did not mean to imply that when a man gets rich he ought…to be killed.”  Senator Sprague “smiled faintly” but made no further reply.  [Editor’s note – The concern for the Jews of Romania was the first expression of support for the plight of foreign Jews in the post-Civil War United States.  Senator Sumner had been a leading Abolitionist and was a major political power in the dominant Republican Party. The President who would show support for the Jews was U.S. Grant.  By the same token the views of Senator Sprague, the son-in-law of Salmon P. Chase, another prominent Republican who served as Sec. of Treasury and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, were the an example of the genteel anti-Semitism which would manifest itself in everything from exclusion at fancy hotels to quotas at the leading ivy league universities.]


    1871: “Rome: The Press in the Eternal City” published today reported in the newly united Italy, Jews and Free-thinkers dominate the world of literary opinion.  Among the Jews are: Giacomo Dina ‘the patriarch of Italian journalism” and the editor of Florence Opinione;” Carlo Levi, editor of the Nuova Roma; Edward Arib, “the ablest representative of the liberal press” and editor of Liberta; Alessandro D’Acona of Pisa and Luigi Camerini of Milan, “accomplished critics of belles lettres.  At the same time, the clerical press which is an inferior journalistic product is filled with anti-Semitic comments. For example, Buon Senso referred to Edward Arib as a “shameless Jew…’following the example of the Jews in the days of Nero who were the real instigators of the Roman Emperor’s persecution of the Christians.” [Editor’s Note – Italy, after the reunification, was one of the best places for Jews to live in Europe. At the same time, there was an undercurrent of anti-Semitism tied to the Papal parties that would flower when Mussolini would become Hitler’s partner.]


    1873: Birthdate of German born and educated American pharmacologist Otto Loewi recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.  He passed away in 1961.


    1877: “The Return of the Jews” published today reported that the long dreamed of “rehabilitation of Judea” by the Jews might be realized in the not too distant future.  While there are only a small number of Jews living in Jerusalem thanks to the advances in modern transportation there has been increasing stream of Jews coming to visit from Poland, Morocco and Russia.  Captain Charles Warren, who is best known for the maps he has made of Jerusalem, thinks that that the Jews of Morocco would be the best candidates for restoring Judea to its former glory.  They are the only significant Jewish population with agricultural skills. Unlike the Jews of Jerusalem whom Warren described as being “incompetent to revive the glories of the past” because of long years of “indolence and degeneracy” the Jews of Morocco  are  “patient…and less fanatical than many of their brethren” as well as having a proven track record of being able to use irrigation to raise crops. [The vision of Captain Warren “the agent of the English exploration fund in Pale tine pre-dates Herzl by thirty years.]


    1877: It was reported today that there are 152 synagogues in the United States with 33 in New York, 23 in Maine, 14 in Pennsylvania, 9 in Illinois and 7 each in California, Ohio and Vermont.



    1877: The Board of Jewish Delegates reported that 174 out of 341 congregations and 99 other organization have responded to its questionnaire.   According these responses there are 189,576 Jews in the United States.  Based on this admittedly incomplete response, the board estimated that there are 250,000 Jews living in the United States with 60,000 living in New York City.


    1878: In Alexandria, VA, founding of Congregation Beth El on North Washington Street


    1878: While serving as regent during Kaiser Wilhelm’s recuperation from an assassination attempt, Frederick appointed Dr. Friedberg, who was both Jewish and a Liberal “to the highest judicial post in the kingdom” – a move that greatly displeased the Kaiser who refused to honor Friedberg with the Order of the Black Eagle when he returned to power. (Editor’s note – “Dr. Friedberg” is Heinrich von Friedberg who had converted to Christianity – a conversion that apparently did not satisfy the first Kaiser and showed how the idea of “Jewish blood” had taken hold in 19th century Europe.)


    1879(12th of Sivan, 5639): Lionel Nathan de Rothschild the son of Nathan Mayer Rothschild and Hanna Barent Cohen passed away. Lionel’s was the first Jew to serve as an MP in the House of Commons.  First elected in 1847, he was not able to assume his seat until 1858 following a decade long fight to change the rules about the oath of office.  Queen Victoria refused to appoint him to the House of Lords.  She would later recant and elevate Lionel’s son to the Lords.


    1879: In Yalta, “Yakov Abramovich Leventon, a pharmacist, and Sofia (Sara) Lvovna Horowitz: gave birth to Marem-Ides Leventon who gained fame as actress Alla Nazimova.


    1880: As unrest continues to grow in Russia, it was reported that several Jews have been arrested near St. Petersburg on charges that they are connected with the Nihilst (an all-purpose term used by the authorities for revolutionaries seeking to over-thrown the Czar)


    1880: Birthdate of Pennsylvanian Benjamin Rosenbloom the University of West Virginia tackle who “during several games away from home heard he cry of ‘Kill the Jew’” and who went on to a career in law and politics which took him to U.S. House of Representatives




    1881(6thof Sivan, 5641): Shavuot


    1882: In Tilsit, East Prussia “merchant and Rabbi Isidor Urdang and his wife Emma Marrie” gave birth Georg Urdang, the University of Wisconsin professor of pharmacy and founder of “the American Insitute of the History of Pharmacy.”



    1882: As conditions worsen for Jews in the Ukraine, it was reported that Russian Jews who lack passports are being denied the right to immigrate.


    1885 (OS May 22): Birthdate of Yakov Mikhaylovich Sverdlov, a leader of the Bolsheviks who also was a leader of the infant Soviet Union.  He passed away in 1919, before the Revolution turned sour and anti-Semitism reared its ugly head.


    1885: The Board of Directors of the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children appealed for contributions to support its upcoming summer program of excursions.  Donations should be sent to Nathan Lewis, President of the Board, John J. Davis or any of the other directors. [Editor’s Note – This was the Jewish version of the popular movement to provide trips to the country for children living in the tenements of major cities.]


    1885: It was reported today that in Vienna, the Liberals had elected 8 candidates, the Democrats had elected three candidates and the anti-Semites had elected one candidate.  It was their poor showing at the polls that caused the anti-Semites to begin rioting in the Austrian capital.


    1887: Witnesses continued to testify in the trial of Adolph Reich who has been charged with murdering his wife last April. A former landlady testified that Reich had hit his wife and pulled her hair out while another testified that Reich thought his wife was having an affair with him.  The witnesses denied the accusations saying he visited her to pick up the coats which made for his shop. Proceedings were delayed because a Hebrew Bible had to be brought to the courtroom for use by some of the witness.


    1888: A convention was held today in Philadelphia that incorporated the American Jewish Publication Society.  In a telegram sent to the meeting from Berlin by Jacob H. Schiff, the prominent businessman and philanthropist offered to donate five thousand dollars to an endowment named in honor of Michael Heilprin if the society can raise an additional fifty thousand dollars in the next year.The purpose of JPS was and is to publish in English books of Jewish interest. Among its hundreds of publications are Graetz's, Dubnov's and Baron's History's of the Jews, and Ginsburg's Legends of the Jews. Other important authors included Israel Zangwill, Leo Baeck, Cecil Roth, Jacob R. Marcus, and Louis Finkelstein. Starting in 1899, the JPS has published the American Jewish Yearbook.


    1892(8th of Sivan, 5652):Isidore Loeb, a French-Jewish scholar passed away.  Born at Sulzmatt (Soultzmatt), Upper Alsace in 1839, he was “the son of Rabbi Seligmann Loeb of Sulzmatt” and “was educated in Bible and Talmud by his father. After having followed the usual course in the public school of his native town, Loeb studied at the college of Rufach and at the lycée of Colmar, in which city he at the same time attended classes in Hebrew and Talmud at the preparatory rabbinical school founded by Chief Rabbi Solomon Klein. In 1856 he entered the Central Rabbinical School (Ecole Centrale Rabbinique) at Metz, where he soon ranked high through his knowledge of Hebrew, his literary ability, and his proficiency in mathematics. In 1862 he was graduated, and received his rabbinical diploma from the Séminaire Israélite de France at Paris, which had replaced (1859) the Metz Ecole Centrale Rabbinique. Loeb did not immediately enter upon a rabbinical career, but tutored for some years, first at Bayonne, France and then at Paris. In 1865 he was called to the rabbinate of St. Etienne (Loire). His installation sermon, on the duties of the smaller congregations (Les Devoirs des Petites Communautés), is one of the best examples of French pulpit rhetoric. Soon, however, he felt a desire to extend the field of his activity. He went to Paris, where he was appointed secretary of the Alliance Israélite Universelle, which position he held until his death. It was largely due to Loeb's labors that this association became an important factor in the progress of Oriental Judaism; and he created the library of the Alliance, which is one of the most valuable Jewish libraries in existence. Meanwhile he continued his historical and philological researches, and developed an extensive literary activity. The chair of Jewish history in the Rabbinical Seminary of Paris having become vacant through the death of Albert Cohn (1877), Loeb was appointed his successor. He held this position for 12 years. His main activity, however, was devoted to the Société des Etudes Juives, which was organized in Paris in 1880. Beginning with the first number, he successfully edited the Revue des Études Juives, the organ of that society, and was, moreover, a voluminous and brilliant contributor thereto.


    1889: Forty-six year old Bernhard Förster a leading German anti-Semite who described Jews as “a parasite on the German body” and who was married to the Elisabeth Nietzsche, the sister of philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche committed suicide today in San Bernardino, Paraguay.


    1890: The Reverend Dr. Madison Clinton Peters, the author of Justice to the Jew, The Wit and Wisdom of the Talmud and The Jew as a Patriotmarried Miss Sarah H. Hart in Philadelphia, PA, today.


    1890: “Catechising The People” published today described the challenges census takers faced among New York’s immigrant population.  Once the Jews understood “the purpose of the questions they became quite cheerful and communicative.”


    1891: It was reported today that New York’s 25th police precinct under the command of Captain John Gunner is home to many prominent public buildings and institutions including several synagogues and the Mount Sinai Hospital


    1892(8th of Sivan, 5652): Fifty-two year old Isidore Loeb the editor of the Revue Des Etudes Jives, a quarterly created by the Société des Etudes Juives passed away today.


    1892: Comptroller Myers said today “that the discrepancies he had discovered in the accounts of two public institution,” one of which the Ladies’ Deborah Nursery and Child’s Protectory, “arose from a lack of conformity between the commitment papers of the children made out by the police magistrate’s clers and the papers made out by the officials of the homes.”


    1892: “Hamilton College Clark Prize” published today described the outcome of the school’s public speaking competition which was won by Gregory Rosenblum who spoke on “The Jews of Russia,”


    1893(19th of Sivan, 5653): Sixty-one year old Joshua Hendricks passed away this evening at his home on Fifth Avenue in New York City. Mr. Hendricks was a fourth generation owner of Hendricks Brothers, a firm specializing in metals (specifically copper) which was founded in 1764.


    1893: Forty-six year old Member of Parliament “Arthur Strauss married 29-year-old Minna Cohen on 3 June 1893 at the Register Office in the District of St. George's Square, Pimlico, London.”


    1893: “Senator Hill Backed Down” published today described a verbal altercation that took place when Senator Hill, a member of the Senate Committee on Immigration asked Colonel John Weber, the former Commissioner of Immigration at the Port of New York (Ellis Island) if he gotten his position as a general agent for the Baron Hirsch Fund “because of the special favors show to Jews on Ellis Island.” Weber, a veteran of the Civil War and a former member of the House of Representatives who had used his experience as an agriculturalist to help the Hirsch Colony at Woodbine, NJ “flushed angrily” at the accusation and told Senator Hill, “You had better put that question again.  I hardly understand it.”  Hill chose not to repeat the question which was indicative of his anti-Jewish bias when it to immigration.


     


    1893: Six years after the Anglo-Jewish Historical Exhibition was held in 1887, a meeting was held under the leadership of Lucien Wolf at the club of the Maccabaeans in London where the Jewish Historical Society of London was founded for the purpose of "conducting researches into the history of the Jews of the British empire, transcribing and publishing documents, forming a library and museum, and organizing a course of lectures on general Jewish history."


    1894: Approximately 2,000 people attended the annual reception at the Montefiore Home for Incurables which was held this afternoon.


    1894: “New Publications” published today included a review of Roger Williams: The Pioneer of Religious Liberty by Oscar S. Strauss.


    1895: Isaac Stern, Dr. Alfred Meyer and Professor Felix Adler were among those who spoke at the graduation exercise of the 1895 class of the Mount Sinai Training School for Nurses where sixteen graduates four of whom were Jewish were honored today.


    1895: Birthdate of Hungarian born American movie maker Zoltan Korda, who was the ‘middle brother” of two other filmmakers – Alexander Korda and Vincent Korda.


    1896: General James R. O’Beirne and Rabbi Rudolph Grossman of Temple Beth-El were among those who gave addresses at exercises held today in the auditorium of the Educational Alliance Building where students enrolled in the Baron de Hirsch English day classes demonstrated the progress they had made since Memorial Day.


    1898: Four days after his death, 38 year old Myer Franks was buried today at the Plashet Jewish Cemetery in London.


    1899: “The Court of Cassation” revised “the Dreyfus case and” ordered “a new trial before the court-martial at Rennes.


    1900(6th of Sivan, 5660): First Shavuot of the 20thcentury


    1900: The International Ladies’ Garment Workers Union (ILGW) is founded.  In its early days, the union was dominated by Jews who made up a disproportionate number of the workers in an industry known for its sweatshop conditions.  At the close of the 20th century, the Union gained renewed famed for its jingle “Look for the Union label in the clothes you are wearing.”


    1903: A mass meeting to protest the atrocities inflicted by the Russians on the Jews is scheduled to be held tonight at the Academy of Music in Philadelphia.


    1904: Herzl leaves for Edlach, Austria accompanied by his wife and his fellow Zionist Yona Kremenetzky.


    1904: Birthdate Jacob Pincus Perelmuth who gained fame as Jan Peerce, the Cantor and a tenor performing at the New York Metropolitan Opera.


    1906: In Louisville, Adath Israel Temple dedicated its third congregational home. The building was designed by architects Kenneth McDonald and J.F. Sheblessy and was commonly known as the “Third Street Synagogue.” Following it merger with Brith Sholom in 1976, the congregation took the name Congregation Adath Israel Brith Sholom


    1910: In New York, Joseph Russell Levy, “the son of a prosperous Jewish cigar manufacturer from Salt Lake City” and Alta Mae Goddard, an Episcopalian gave birth to Marion Goddard Levy who gained fame as actress of Paulette Goddard.


    1911(7th of Sivan, 5671): Second Day of Shavuot


    1911(7th of Sivan, 5671): Mildred G. Calisch the only daughter Edward Nathan Calisch, the graduate of HUC and rabbi of Congregation Beth Ahabah in Richmond, VA, was killed today in an automobile accident.


    1911: Birthdate of Marion Levy who gained fame as the actress Paulette Goddard known for playing opposite Charlie Chaplin in "The Great Dictator."


    1912: The 16th annual convention of the National Association of Clothiers opened at the Royal Palace Hotel in Atlantic City where for the first time the organization was not led by Marcus W. Marks who, after eleven years had resigned his Presidency in Januuary.


    1912: Aviation pioneer and Adas Israel congregant, Arthur Welsh prepares for a two-hour test of the Wright military planes.


    1913: Birthdate of Yitzhak Berman the native of Berdychiv who made Aliyah in 1920 and following military service pursued a successful legal career before entering politics where he rose to Speaker of the Knesset.


    1913: In Manhattan, Abraham and Ida Krim gave birth to Norman Bernard Krim “an electronics visionary who played a pivotal role in the industry’s transition from the bulky electron vacuum tube, which once lined the innards of radios and televisions, to the tiny, far more powerful transistor…He , did not invent the transistor…but he saw the device’s potential and persuaded his company to begin manufacturing it on a mass scale…” (As reported by Dennis Hevesi)


    1915: It was reported today that Rush Rhees, the President of the University of Rochester is scheduled to speak at the upcoming meeting called to protest the execution of Leo M. Frank.


    1915: At a mass meeting, the Cincinnati (Ohio) Businessman Men’s Club “passed a resolution asking for the Governor of Georgia to commute the sentence” of Leo Frank “to life imprisonment.


    1915: At Columbus, Ohio, the Directors of the Chamber of Commerce voted to ask for clemency for Leo Frank.


    1915: Following his release from prison for his role in the death of Mary Phagan, Jim Conley was reported today to “show no remorse” and declared that Frank “ought to be hanged.”


    1915: Among those who signed the petition sent from Brooklyn to the Governor of Georgia asking for clemency for Leo Frank were Brooklyn Borough President Lewis H. Pounds, Supreme Court Justice Stephen Callaghan, Dr. S. Edward Young, the pastor of the Bedford Presbyterian Church, Congressman Rueben Haskell and United States District Attorney Melville J. France.


    1916: The British and French declare a state of siege in Salonica and remove all Greeks from official posts due to the possibility they were pro-German.


    1916: It was reported today that “under Austrian law non-Christians may marry Jews but not Catholics nor Protestants.”


    1916: It was reported today that the State Board of Charities had heard conflicting information at the hearing on granting a charter for the Beth Moses Hospital in Williamsburg with Justice Jacob St. Strahl representing the Hebrew Ladies’ Dispensary and Dr. J.M. Goldberg asserting that the charter should not be granted and Rabbi Raisin telling the board that “Williamsburg had 200,000 Jews…and that it could well afford to maintain two ‘kosher’ hospitals.’


    1917: “The thirteenth annual meeting of the Jewish Consumptives’ Relief Society” is scheduled to “be held at the Auditorium of the Irene Kaufmann Settlement” in Pittsburgh at two o’clock this afternoon.


    1917: In Chicago, the meeting of the Young Women’s Auxiliary of the Jewish Consumptive’s Relief Society is scheduled to take place today at the Sinai Center.


     1917: Following reports of a German bombing raid conducted for the first time by bombers instead of Zeppelins that killed 95 and injured 192, “Albert Einstein wrote a friend in Holland, ‘The ancient Jehovah is still abroad.  Alas he slays the innocent along with the guilty, whom he strikes so fearsomely blind that they can feel no sense of guilt.’”


    1917: In Chicago, the closing exercises of the K.A.M. Sabbath School are scheduled to take places this morning in vestry rooms of the Temple.


    1917: Joseph Feinberg, N.M. Barnett, Leo H. Hoffman and N.D. Kaplan are among those who are scheduled to address this afternoon’s mass meeting at Congregation Beth Hamedrosh Hagodel as preparations are made for electing delegates to the American Jewish Congress.


    1917: Ruby Davis will play patriotic airs and Major Abel Davis will speak on “Jewish Patriotism” at the annual meeting and supper of the Isaiah Alumni Association will is scheduled to start at 6:30 this evening.


    1917: The Young Men's and Young Women's Hebrew Association of Camden, New Jersey purchased 572 and 574 Walnut Street from Smith C. Moore and his wife Elizabeth, for the sum of $4,000 as recorded in Camden County's real estate records, Book 418, pages 296 and 297. On the same the Young Men's and Young Women's Hebrew Association of Camden, New Jersey purchased 570 Walnut Street from Joseph F. and Mary C. Mack for $2100, as recorded in Camden County's real estate records, Book 418, pages 297 and 298.


    1917: In New York City, 16 year old Josephine (née Condon) and 31 year old Bernard Gorcey, both of whom were vaudeville actors gave birth to Leo Bernard Gorcey best known for his roles with The Bowery Boys and the Dead End Kids.


    1917: During WW I, anti-Jewish riots broke out Leeds, UK.


    1917: U.S. premiere of “The Slave,” a silent five reel move filmed by cinematographer Joseph Ruttenberg.


    1918: “The provisional Zionist Committee” in New York City “received a cable from Lemberg, Galicia,” today that described the arrival there of Daniel Auster “a teacher at the Jewish High School in Haifa” who was one of the 1,500 Jews deported by the Turks and sent to Damascus.


    1918(23rd of Sivan, 5678): Seventy-eight year old Louis Barnett Abrahams, the son of Hannah and Cantor Barnett Abrahams, the husband of Fannie Rosetta Mosely and the nephew of Sofer and Dayan Rabbi Aaron Levy, who became the headmaster of Jews’ Free School in London and founder of the Jewish Record passed away today.




    1919(5th of Sivan, 5679): Erev Shavuot; Jews prepare to observe the holiday for the first time since the end of the World War


    1920: Rabbi Jacques J. Lyons son Julius J. Lyons the lawyer and banker who had left his home in New Jersey a year ago to live with his son Edwin in San Diego and who passed away last month was remembered in print today for his charitable and civic activities including service on the boards of the Mount Sinai Hospital, the Hebrew Technical Institute and the Montefiore Home


    1921: On the King’s Birthday, Sir Herbert Samuel, the High Commissioner for Palestine made the first official interpretation of the Balfour Declaration, assuring the Arabs that immigration would be controlled according to the "economic absorptive capacity" of the country - and in fact suspended immigration, though only temporarily.  In describing the impact of the speech to Winston Churchill at the end of the month, Samuel said the Jewish population viewed the speech as a “severe set-back” to their aspirations and that it made them feel “very nervous and apprehensive.


    1921(26th of Iyar, 5681): German born New York physician Simon Baruch, father of Bernard Baruch, passed away


    1922(7th of Sivan, 5682): Second Day of Shavuot


    1922: Birthdate of English actress Joy Shelton, the wife of actor Sydney Tafler, the son of “Eva (née Kosky) and Mark Tafler.



    1924(1st of Sivan, 5684):  Rosh Chodesh Sivan


    1924(1st of Sivan, 5684):  Franz Kafka, author of The Trial and Metamorphosis, passed away at the age of 40.


    1924: In his first year as a professional 18 year old Sidney “Sid” Terris won “a ten round decision on points at the Henderson Bowl in Brooklyn.”


    1925: In the Bronx, Helen (née Klein) and Emanuel Schwartz gave birth do Bernard Shwartz, who gained fame as actor Tony Curtis and may be best known for his performance  in the film "Some Like It Hot," where he co-starred with Marilyn Monroe and Jack Lemon.



    1926: Birthdate Newark, NJ Irwin Allen Ginsberg who gained fame as poet and beatnik, Allen Ginsberg.



     


    1928 (14th of Sivan): Samuel Chaim Landau founder of Torah va-Avo-dah, the religious Zionist movement, passed away 


    1929: In Philadelphia, “Edith (née Cohen) and Nathaniel Barris, a dentist” gave birth Charles Hirsch Barris who as Chuck Barris gained fame for creating numerous TV game shows including the Newlywed Game and the Gong Show.




    1930(7th of Sivan, 5690): Second Day of Shavuot


    1931: “The Band Wagon,”  “a musical revue with book by George S. Kaufman and Howard Dietz, lyrics by Howard Dietz and music by Arthur Schwartz” “opened on Broadway at the New Amsterdam Theatre.”


    1932: Birthdate of Fischel Lebowitz the native of Transylvania, Romania, who survived the Holocaust, and as Fred Lebow became a successful American businessman, an avid distance runner and the founder of the New York City Marathon.


    1933: As the Catholic Church sought to establish positive relations with the new Nazi regime, “a joint pastoral letter appeared from the German Bishops' Conference” that “contained a statement that if the State would only respect certain rights and requirements of the Church, the Church would gratefully and happily support the new situation.”


    1936(13th of Sivan, 5696): Abraham Adelberg who came to the United States in 1888 where he was a successful “clothing merchant” and trustee of the village of Cedarhurst, NY which he served as Mayor from 1926 to 1932 passed away today.


    1936: Professor Georg Bernhard, the German journalist, statesman and economist” who had said “in an interviews that his mission is to work to unseat Hitler in Germany” arrived in New York today aboard the liner Paris “as the guest of the American Jewish Congress.”


    1936: “Assurance that Great Britain would halt Arab uprisings and safeguard the rights of Jews in Palestine was given” today “by Major Henry Adam Procter, Conservative Member of the House of Commons, at a luncheon tendered him by the Zionist Organization of America at the Hotel Astor.”


    1936: “The Mandates Commission of the League of Nations decided today after a two-day discussion to deal with the present unrest in Palestine at this session, in connection with the 1935 report of Great Britain as the mandatory, in so far as is now possible and not to defer discussion of the report to its Autumn session.”


    1936: As the Arab uprising continues, David Vardi, a 27 year old owner of an orange packing house near… Rishon Litzion and Israel Arger, a 31 year old workman, were seriously wounded today when two Arabs who were old friends of theirs shot them in the packing house. Both were shot in the head and there is little hope for their recovery. In Haifa, a bomb was thrown at a Jewish owned bus, wounding three riders. 


    1937: The Palestine Post reported that the Polish General Consul in Jerusalem told the Va’ad Leumi (The National Council of Palestine Jews) that he was deeply distressed at the recent anti-Jewish disturbances in Poland. He promised to forward, without delay, the Va’ad protest to his government. The Palestine government agreed to compensate, to a certain extent, the victims of the 1936 Arab disturbances, or their dependents


    1938: “Josette,” a comedy co-starring Simone Simon and with music by Walter Scharf was released today in the United States.


    1939(16th of Sivan, 5699): Fifty year old Sir Philip Sassoon, a member of the distinguished Sassoon family passed away today.




    1940: It was reported today that during his commencement address at the Jewish Institute of Religion, Dr. James G. Heller, vice president of the Central Conference of American Rabbis said “When the world is faced with terror, go back to the past of Israel and believe in your people and in yourself.” (He said this as the Jews of Poland feel under the heel of Nazi and Soviet tyranny)


    1941: Author Irving Wallace married writer Sylvia Kahn.


    1941: Eighty-two year old Kaiser Wilhelm II died in exile today.




    1942: The German military commander of occupied France ordered all Jews to wear a yellow Star of David with the inscription "Juif" on it.


    1942(18th of Sivan, 5702): In Warsaw, 110 Jews were shot in the prison on Gesia Street. Ten Jewish policemen are among the victims.


    1942: Jews revolt in Breslau, Germany.


    1943(29th of Iyar, 5703): German troops in the Warsaw Ghetto destroy a bunker on Walowa Street that conceals 150 Jews.  It was one of the last remaining bunkers in the ghetto. By September, all that were remaining would be flushed out and destroyed.


    1943: Near Michalowice, Poland, Germans kill two Polish farmers who have rescued and hidden three Jewish escapees in a barn.


    1943: Max Sievers, a non-Jewish opponent of the Nazis who had immigrated to the United States in 1939 but was forced to leave because he could not get a visa was arrested by the Gestapo today.


    1944: In response to Rudolf Kastner's plea to let some of the Hungarian Jews remain in Budapest, Eichmann said, "I have to clean up the provincial towns of the Jewish garbage. I must take this Jewish muck out of the provinces. I cannot play the role of the savior of the Jews.”


    1944: A train from Lyon arrived in Birkenau. One survivor, Freda Silberberg, stated how it was the French that arrested her, not the Germans. Dr. Mengele selected Freda for his experiment pool.


    1947: “Ernest Papanek, executive director of American Youth for World Youth, today told the national conference of Jewish Social Welfare” at their meeting in Baltimore that “Jewish youth in Europe, particularly in the displaced persons camps, constitute a new pschological species of shock cases, as a result of "an utterly abnormal life.”


    1948: Four Egyptian aircraft flew over Tel Aviv on what would be the 16th bombing raid over the Jewish city. Numerous civilian casualties had been sustained in the previous attacks and the residents expected more of the same.


    1948: In a modern version of David versus Goliath, Modi Alon flew Israel’s one serviceable fighter aircraft across the Tel Aviv skies and attacked four Egyptian aircraft that were set to bomb the city.  Alon shot down the two bombers and forced their fighter escorts to flee.  These were the first aerial combat victories scored by the IAF.  In one of those strange moments of the war, the people of Tel Aviv actually watched the performance of a combat air arm that they had not known even existed.


    1948(25th of Iyar, 5708):Avraham Mordechai Alter passed away. He was also known as the Imrei Emes after the works he authored, was the third Rebbe of the Hasidic dynasty of Ger a position he held from 1905 until his death in 1948. He was one of the founders of the Agudas Israel in Poland and was influential in establishing a network of Jewish schools there. It is claimed that at one stage he led over 200,000 Hasidim.


    1948: Having survived the Holocaust and the “Communist takeover of Czechoslovakia” wine make Eugen Herzog, his wife Sidonia and their children arrived in New York City clinging to the earthen potato pot on which they had prepared their meals while hiding in Europe. (As reported by Laurie Gwen Shapiro)


    1949: “Du Guesclin” a film about a 14th century general featuring Gérard Oury as “Charles V of France” was released in France today.


    1949: In Baltimore, MD, Elizabeth D. (née Davidson) and Donald N. Rothman, a lawyer and the brother of film executive Tom Rothman, gave birth to actor John Mahr Rothman.


    1949: NBC and DuMont broadcast the final episode of the “Admiral Broadway Revue” a variety show created by Max Liebman with scripts by Mel Brooks and Mel Tolken starring Sid Caesar.


    1953: Professor Otto Loewi, winner in 1936 of the Noble in medicine for the discovery of the chemical transmission of nervous impulses who is now the Research Professor of Pharmacology in the New York University College of Medicine celebrated his 80th birthday today.


    1956: NBC broadcast the last episode of “The Bachelors” with music by David Rose today.


    1957: Howard Cosell's television show appeared for the first time.


    1960: Four newly deciphered letters of Bar Kochba describing organizational challenges faced by the leader of the revolt against the Roman Empire (132-135 CE) were presented in a lecture given today by Professor Yigal Yadin today at Hebrew University. The letters revealed that the supply route for Bar Kochba’s soldiers was via Ein Gedi and Tekoa.  This is the same Tekoa which was home to the prophet Amos.  Yigal Yadin was head of the Israeli military during the War for Independence.  His work helped to establish for those who had doubts, the legitimacy of Jewish history.


    1961: The final curtain came down on “Wildcat,” with music by Cy Coleman and lyrics by Carolyn Leigh


    1963(11th of Sivan, 5723): Eighty-eight year old American Orientalist William Popper, the husband of Tess Magnes, and brother-in-law of Dr. Judah Magnes, who wrote his doctorial decision at Columbia under Dr. Richard Gottheil passed away today.



    1963:  Pope John XXIII passed away. Born Angelo Roncalli, in 1935 he was made Apostolic Delegate to Turkey and Greece. Roncalli used this office to help the Jewish underground in saving thousands of refugees in Europe, leading some to consider him to be a Righteous Gentile


    1964: Israel played South Korea in the finals of the 1964 AFC Asian Cup football tournament at Ramat Gan Stadium.


    1964: After a week of matches, Israel won the 1964 AFC Asian Cup.


    1965: U.S. premiere of “The Sandpiper” with a script co-authored by Dalton Trumbo and music by Johnny Mandel.


    1967: Shabbat was not a day of rest as the Arab vise squeezed around the state Israel.  The people were beginning to feel the psychological pain of being surrounded.  The Israeli economy was unraveling under the pressure of continuous mobilization.  Dyan continued to review the plans of the General Staff.  Israel’s Ambassador to the United States, Avraham Harman landed in Israel and reported to Eshkol, Eban, and the senior military officers that the West would not come to Israel’s assistance.  If the blockade were to be broken, Israel must do it herself.  As the various leaders left that evening the plan was clear.  Israel would take action against Egypt, and only Egypt.  Jordan would not be attacked if Jordan stayed out of the fight.  Contrary to revisionist historians, there was no grand military plan to seize the Sinai, the Golan, the West Bank and Jerusalem.  The fact that Israel ended up with these at the end of the war was a result of shifting tactical situations as well as the fear on the part of the Arab states that if they did not fight they would miss out on the spoils that went with the destruction of the Jewish state


    1968(7th of Sivan, 5728): As Gene McCarthy and Bobby Kennedy battle out it in California during the Democratic Presidential Primaries, Jews observe the second day of Shavuot, the last Jewish holiday Kennedy will be alive for.


    1969(17th of Sivan, 5729): Seventy-two year old James Warburg, the son of Paul Warburg and nephew of Jacob Schiff whose colorful life including serving as a Navy pilot in WW I, financial advisor to FDR, a stint with Wild Bill Donovan during WW II and advocacy for international cooperation as a way of preventing WW III passed away today.


    1970(28th of Iyar, 5730) Yom Yerushalyim


    1971(10th of Sivan, 5731): Sixty-eight year old civic leader Barbara Ochs Adler, the widow of General Julius Ochs Adler passed away today.



    1971: German born mathematician Heinz Hopf passed away.  His father was Jewish but his mother was not.  For the Nazis, this made him Jewish and he sought refuge in Swiss citizenship during the Hitler period.


    1972: In Cincinnati, Ohio, Sally J. Priesand, 25, became the first woman in Reform Judaism to be ordained as a Rabbi.


    1974: Albert Isakovich Koltunov, lottery worker from Chernovtsy was sentenced to five years strict regime prison on trumped-up charge of bribery after he had applied for exit visa to Israel mid-February 1974 and was arrested on March 14th.


    1974: Aharon Uzan completed his term as Communications Minister. 


    1974: Yitzhak Rabin, the first native-born Israeli (Sabra) to become prime minister of Israel, assumed office.


    1974: Avraham Ofer replaced Yehoshua Rabinovitz as Minister of Housing and Construction.


    1974: Yosef Burg completed his term as Interior Minister


    1974: Shlomo Hillel replaced Yosef Berg as Interior Minister


    1974: Yigal Allon began his term as Foreign Minister


    1974: Avraham Ofer, replaced Yehoshua Rabinovitz as Communications Minster


    1974: Gad Yaacobi replaced Aharon Yariv as Transportation Minister


    1974: Hairm Yosef Zadok replaced Yitzhak Rafael as Minister of Religious Services.


    1975: “Chicago,” a musical with lyrics by Fred Ebb, who co-authored “the book” and co-starring Jerry Orbach openeded today at the 46thStreet Theatre.


    1976(5th of Sivan, 5736): Erev Shavuot


    1976: Composer Randy Edelman, the son of a New Jersey Jewish family, married singer Jackie DeShannon.


    1976: “President Gerald M. Ford signs into law a bill creating a U.S. Commission on Security and       Cooperation in Europe (the “Helsinki Commission”) to monitor adherence to the Helsinki process.  The Commission has the active support of the Soviet Jewry Movement and human rights groups.”


    1977: The Jerusalem Post reported that Israel would not take any steps against Syria until more was known about the extent and purpose of their incursion into Lebanon. Meanwhile, Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin reported that Syrian soldiers were clashing with and killing terrorists.


    1977: The Jerusalem Post reported that Yigael Yadin, the leader of the new political party, the Democratic Movement for Change, which won 13 seats in the Knesset elections, was offered the deputy premiership in the Menachem Begin's new Likud cabinet.


    1977: The Jerusalem Post reported that the Israeli Kfir multi-mission combat aircraft was one of the leading stars at the Le Bourget aircraft mart in Paris.


    1977: The Jerusalem Post reported that an annual prize in the field of the coverage of Israel's foreign relations was established in memory of Ted Lurie, the second editor of the Post.


    1979: Three people were injured when a bomb went off at a bookstore in Jerusalem.


    1982: Moscow refusenik and Hebrew teacher Pavel Abramovich was summoned to the KGB for the third time in the course of a month.


    1982: The Israeli ambassador to Britain, Shlomo Argov, was shot on a London street. The failed assassination attempt was under the command of Fatah leader Abu Nidal. Argov survived but was permanently paralyzed.


    1982: Israeli planes attack Palestinian camps in Lebanon after Fatah attempted to murder Ambassador Argov in London.


    1983: “The Man With Two Brains” a comedy directed by Carl Reiner who also co-wrote the script was released in the United States today.


    1983: A month after premiering at the Cannes Film Festival, “WarGames” produced by Leonard Goldberg and featuring Maury Chaykin was released in the United States today.


    1983: “The Last American Virgin” directed by Boaz Davidson who also wrote the script, produced by Yoram Globus and Menahem Golan and filmed by cinematographer Adam Greenberg was released in Sweden today.


    1983(22nd of Sivan, 5743): Harry Lieberman, a primitive-style painter who began his career as an artist in his 70's, died today in North Shore University Hospital in Manhasset, L.I., after suffering a cardiac arrest. Mr. Lieberman was 106 years old and lived in Great Neck, L.I. Throughout his 26 years as a painter, Mr. Lieberman completed hundreds of pieces and his work was shown in museums and galleries in Great Neck, in New York and in the Hirshhorn Museum in Washington. His work has also been on display in Houston, Seattle, Los Angeles, La Jolla, Calif., and Rotterdam, Holland. It was the boredom of his retirement after selling his confectioner business at the age of 74 that prompted Mr. Lieberman to try his hand at sketching at an art class at the Great Neck Golden Age Club. Mr. Lieberman soon moved on to watercolors and oil painting, using the two-dimensional primitive style. As a young man Mr. Lieberman studied the Talmud, and stories from that religious work as well as the Bible served as the subject matter for most of his paintings. He once told an interviewer that a man of his age - he was 100 at the time - needed a reason to get out of bed in the morning and that the older he got the better that reason needed to be. Mr. Lieberman was born Naftulo Hertzke Liebhaber in Gnieveshev, Poland, in November 1876. In 1906 at the age of 29 he emigrated to the United States, sending for his wife two years later. The Liebermans, who worked first as cloth cutters, bought a candy store that soon prospered into a wholesale confectioner business.


    1983(22nd of Sivan, 5743): Eight-six year old labor leader Charles S. Zimmerman passed away today (As reported by Joseph B. Treaster)



    1987(6th of Sivan, 5747): Shavuot


    1987(6th of Sivan, 5747): Seventy-nine year old Jackie Fields (born Jacob Finkelstein) who won a Gold Medal in the featherweight division during the 1924 Summer Olympics and as a professional won the Welterweight Title passed away today in Los Angeles.


    1988: “Big,” a comedy produced by James L. Brooks, with a script co-authored by Anne Spielberg, featuring Jon Lovitz, with music by Howard Shore and filmed by cinematographer Barry Sonnenfeld was released in the United States today.


    1988(18th of Sivan, 5748): Eighty-two year old Edith Mayer Goetz the wife of the late movie producer William Goetz and daughter of the late film mogul Louis B. Mayer, passed today at her home in Los Angeles after a lengthy illness.



    1990(10th of Sivan, 5750): Eighty-five year old Nathaniel “Nate” Weinstock who “played tackle at Western Maryland College in the 1920’s” and who was good enough to play for the East team in the East-West Shrine All-Star Football Game passed away today.


    1992: Ron Castan and Briean Keon-Cohen represented Eddie Mabo before the High Court in Australia which ruled in the claimant’s favor thus establishing the “concept of native title.”


    1995(5th of Sivan, 5755): Erev Shavuot


    1995(5th of Sivan, 5755): Seventy-two year old “Arthur K. Shapiro, a psychiatrist whose work at Mount Sinai Medical School advanced the knowledge and treatment of Tourette's Syndrome” passed away today. (As reported by Wolfgang Saxon)



    1996:"Theme from Mission: Impossible” the theme tune of the TV series Mission: Impossible The theme which was written and composed by Lalo Schifrin was released on CD and vinyl today.


    2001: Mel Brook's won a record 12 Tony Awards for the musical comedy "The Producers."


    2001: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Heinz Kohut:The Making of a Psychoanalystby Charles B. Strozier and the recently released paperback editions of Ravelsteinby Saul Bellow,I Will Bear Witness: A Diary of the Nazi Years, 1942-1945 by Victor Klemperer, The Human Stainby Philip Roth and Bee Season by Myla Goldberg.


    2001(12th of Sivan, 5761): Twenty-five year old Jan Bloom from Ramat Gan succumbed to the wounds she sustained when a suicide bomber exploded a bomb two days earlier at the Dolphinarim.


    2001(12 of Sivan, 5761): Seventy-seven year old “Harry Zohn, an educator, writer and translator of important works of German literature” passed away today. (As reported by Wolfgang Saxon)



    2001: Yitzhak Vaknin began another term as Deputy Minister of Labor and Social Welfare.


    2002(23rd of Sivan, 5762): Eighty-nine year old businessman Lew Wasserman who was Chairman and CEO of MCA from 1946 until 1995 passed away today.



    2002: Ariel Sharon completes his term as Interior Minister.


    2002:Eli Yishai begins his term as Minister of Internal Affairs.


    2002: David Azulai becomes Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs.


    2005: The funeral of Israel Epstein, which was attended by numerous Chinese dignitaries, took place this morning at the Babaoshan Cemetery for Revolutionaries, in Shijingshan District, Beijing


    2005(25th of Iyar, 5765):Leon Askin passed away today in Vienna at the age of 97.  Born in 1907 as Leo Aschkenasy into a Jewish family in Vienna, Askin already wanted to be an actor as a child. His dream came true, and in the 1930s he worked as a cabaret artist and director at the "ABC Theatre" in Vienna: in this position he also helped the career of the writer Jura Soyfer get off the ground in 1935. Persecuted by the Nazis, Askin escaped to the United States via France, arriving in New York in 1940 with no money and less than a basic knowledge of English. When the U.S. entered the Second World War Askin joined the U.S. Army. While serving in the military he learned that his parents had been killed at Treblinka extermination camp. After the war, Askin went to Hollywood, invariably portraying foreign characters who speak English with a strong accent. He gained wide popularity by appearing as Gen. Albert Burkhalter in the sitcom Hogan's Heroes in the late 1960s.As opposed to other exiled Austrians, Askin never refused to work again in his home country. In 1994 he permanently took up residence in Vienna, where he remained active until his death in cabaret, as well as the Volksoper and Festwochen. He was awarded Vienna's Gold Medal of Honor.


    2005: Release date for “Lords of Dogtown” co-starring Emile Hirsh


    2005: In “Ghosts from the Ghetto” published today Sarah Ozacky-Lazar reviews Return to the Warsaw Ghetto by Marian Apfelbaum.



    2005: Irish editor David Marcus, author of Oughtobiography – Leaves from the diary of a hyphenated Jew“was awarded an honorary Degree of Doctor of Literature by the National University of Ireland, University College, Cork”


    2006(7th of Sivan, 5766): Second Day of Shavuot


    2006: A group of neo-Nazis assaulted Croatia's Chief Rabbi Eliezer Aloni on a Zagreb street in front of his synagogue on Shabbat.


    2007: In London, the ZF presents Portraits of Israel “a photographic journey through the history of Israel as seen through the lens of Rudi Weissenstein.  He dedicated his life to documenting Israel’s growth from 1936 until his death in 1992.  He was the official photographer at the signing of the Declaration of Independence in 1948.


    2007: The Sunday New York Times book section features reviews of two tomes about Jewish comedians,  It’s Good to be the King: The Seriously Funny Life of Mel Brooks by James Parish and Rickles’ Bookby Don Rickles with David Ritz; The Big Question by Jewish game show host Chuck Barris, Summer Reading by Hilma Wolitzer, A Day at the Beach by Helen Schulman, From A Cause to a Style:Modernist Architecture’s Encounter With the American City  by Nathan Glazer,The Ministry of Special Cases by Nathan Englander, Opening Day: The Story of Jackie Robinson’s First Season by Jonathan Eig and Jewish author Joseph Finder’s review of April in Paris by Michael Wallner.


    2007: The Sunday Washington Post book section features a review of The Gravediggers Daughter, a novel about a Jewish immigrant who struggles to blot out her past, by Joyce Carol Oates, who discovered late in life her own family's Jewish history. Her grandmother, who immigrated to the United States in the 1890s, kept her religion hidden for fear of persecution


    2007: In an article entitled “Lower East Side Is Under a Groove,” the New York Times reports on the role played by Sion Misrahi, the son of Jewish immigrant from Greece, in the rejuvenation of New York’s Lower East Side.


    2008: In Cedar Rapids, at Temple Judah, funeral services are held for Abbott Lipsky followed by the internment at Eben Israel Cemetery. Those who knew Abbott B. Lipsky remembered him t as the kind of person you wanted to befriend. Lipsky, well-known in Cedar Rapids for his work in the community, was described as a role model who had a wry sense of humor and a keen and inquiring mind. Lipsky passed away on Wednesday, May 28 at the age of 94. Lipsky's roles in the community included serving as the first chairman of the Cedar Rapids Civil Rights Commission, and founding the Citizen's Committee for the Cedar Rapids Public Schools and the Downtown Cedar Rapids Association. He moved to Cedar Rapids in 1945 to join his wife's family business, Smulekoff's Furniture Co., where he has served in management, later rising to president.


    2008: As the race of Grand Rabbi of France heats up with weeks of sniping from both sides, the two main Jewish communal organizations in France — the CRIF and the Unified Jewish Social Fund, or FSJU — issued an unusual joint statement urging both sides to calm down.“It appears that a series of verbal, written and visual slips is hurting the dignity of the campaign and risks giving a negative image of our community as a whole. This is why CRIF and FSJU believe it is their duty to exhort the friends and supporters of the candidates to show restraint and keep in mind that beyond the democratic battle, the general interest of the community should prevail over any other considerations.”


    2008: the Ville-Marie council unanimously voted to demolish the building that had been home to Bens De Luxe Delicatessen on condition that the developer must commemorate the deli in the new building.


    2008: “Waiting for the Barbarians” an opera in two acts composed by Philip Glass, was performed today at the Barbican Centre in London.


    2008: A recording of Philip Glass’ “Waiting for the Barbarians” “was released today on the Orange Mountain Music Label.”


    2009: The Brooklyn International Film Festival, which will feature two Israeli movies, hosts a Kick-Off Party at Delancy restaurant.


    2010: A series of programs Jewish including “Identity through Music” in which percussionists and composer David Freeman demonstrates how contemporary musicians incorporate and reinterpret traditional Jewish texts and “A One-Pot Seminar” in which Gabe Goldstein, Associate Director for Exhibitions and Programs at the Yeshiva University Museum discusses what we can learn about an individual's identity and community from a cholent pot are scheduled to be presented at Yeshiva University Museum as part of Limmud NY


    2010: Danny Valencia “went 1 for 3” in his “Major League debut with the Minnesota Twins” today.


    2010(21stof Sivan, 5770): Steve Averbach, the former Monmouth County resident who was paralyzed in an attempt to thwart a suicide bomber in Jerusalem in 2003, died suddenly today at his home in Tel Aviv




    2011(1stof Sivan, 5771): Rosh Chodesh Sivan


    2011(1stof Sivan, 5771): One hundred one  year old “Harry Bernstein, whose painfully eloquent memoir about growing up Jewish and poor in a northern English mill town earned him belated literary fame on its publication in 2007, when he was 96” passed away today. (As reported by William Grimes)



    2011(1stof Sivan, 5771): Eighty-nine year old Israeli businessman Sammy Ofer passed away this morning in Tel Aviv (As reported by Isabel Kershner)



    2011(1stof Sivan, 5771): Fifty-nine year old pop music icon Andrew Gold passed away today. (As reported by Paul Vitello)



    2011(1stof Sivan, 5771): Gus Tyler, who had been associated with the Forwards since 1932 passed away today.



    2011: The final Musical Shabbat of the year is scheduled to take place at Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, IA.  This marks the fourth year that the community has participated in this most popular way of experiencing the Joy of Shabbat.


    2011: The Historic 6th& I Synagogue plans on meeting a variety of spiritual needs as it hosts two Shabbat services – the laid back, lay led 6thStreet Minyan and Friday Night Shabbat Services with MesorahDC followed by a traditional Shabbat dinner.


    2011: Labapalooza is scheduled to present “Planet Egg” by Zvi Saharis, an Israeli who studied directing at the University of Haifa, at St. Ann’s Warehouse in Brooklyn, NY.


    2012:  JCCNV is scheduled to sponsor the Israel Street Festival in Fairfax, VA


    2012: Sally Priesand, Sandy Eisenbeg Sasso, Amy Eilberg, and Sara Hurwitz met again, this time at Monmouth Reform Temple at a celebration honoring the four first women rabbis to be ordained in their respective denominations, and the 40th anniversary of Sally Priesand's ordination as the first Reform female rabbi.


    2012: Temple Emanuel in Kensington, MD is scheduled to host “Tango Comes to the Land of Milk & Honey, Kolot Halev’s annual concert with Hazzan Ayelet Piatigorsky and featuring Emmanuel Trifilio on the original tango folk instrument, the bandoneón performing selections that range from Sephardic ballads to Yiddish songs to Moroccan and Mexican melodies.


    2012: The National Museum of American Jewish Military is scheduled to host “Family Stories: Sons, Fathers and Zaydes,”  an afternoon long event that will enable participants “to create a lasting tribute to that special male relative or friend through a skit, a scrapbook, a video, a song and dance routine, or whatever the imagination conjures.”


    2012: “The Steins Collect: Matisse, Picasso, and the Parisan Avant-Garde,” an exhibit of works collect by Gertrude, Leo, Michael and Sarah Stein is scheduled to come an end at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.


    2012: “Celebrate Israel,” complete with an 8 o’clock fun run through Central Park and a five hour parade is scheduled to take place today in the Big Apple.


    2012: Early this morning, IAF jets attacked three weapons manufacturing facilities in the central Gaza Strip and two tunnels that the Israel Defense Forces say are used to commit terrorist acts against Israeli military patrols in the area. The IAF flights were in response to an attack on June 1 near the security fence with Gaza in which one Israeli soldier was killed. The sites targeted by the Air Force belong to the Hamas and the Palestinian Islamic Jihad terror organizations, Israeli military sources said


    2013: Justice Minister Tzipi Livni is scheduled to address the American Jewish Committee’s Global Forum today.


    2013: Marlene Trestman, the author of a book on Bessie Margolin, was honored at this evening Supreme Court’s Historical Society Gala Dinner “where she was also presented with a piece of marble from the Supreme Court edifice.” (As reported by Crescent City Jewish News)


    2013: Just a month before the 150th anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg, The American Jewish Historical Society and Yeshiva University Museum are scheduled to present “Jewish Soldiers in the Civil War: Jews and the Battle of Gettysburg.”


    2013: Syria will not get S-300 missiles from Russia until 2014, Defense Minister Moshe Ya’alon told the Knesset Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee today.


    2013: Chief Rabbis Shlomo Amar and Yona Metzger received letters today threatening violence if the Women of the Wall activist group is not allowed to pray according to its practices at the Western Wall in its upcoming prayer service.


    2013(25thof Sivan, 5773): Ninety year old Arnold Eidus who gave up a successful advertising career to become a concert violinist passed away today. (As reported by Margalit Fox)



    2013(25thof Sivan, 5773): Eighty-nine year old New Jersey Senator Frank Lautenberg passed away today.




    2014(5thof Sivan, 5774): Erev Shavuot – Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, Iowa is scheduled to host Confirmation Services led by Alyssa Roach and Lincoln Ginsberg.


    2014(5thof Sivan, 5774): Eighty four year old New York Republican leader Roy Goodman passed away today. (As reported by Richard Perez-Pena)



    2014: The Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington is scheduled to host “Shavuot After Dark” where members will lead an interactive session, “Exploring Jewish Washington: Another Kind of Jewish Geography.”


    2014: A group of Palestinians clashed this morning with security forces and threw rocks at Israeli cars near the Tapuah Junction resulting in at least 2 Israeli civilians being injured by their rocks.


    2014: In Jerusalem, the First Station Complex will feature street theatre, a puppet show and “kid’s activities” as part of the Shavuot celebration


    2014: Midburn Israel, “an experiment in community, art, self-expression and self-reliance” is scheduled to start in Ramat Hanegev.


    2014: Israel's Teva is being sued by the city of Chicago together with other major pharmaceutical manufacturers for excessively promoting painkillers, effectively getting people hooked and costing the city untold amounts of money, Bloomberg reported today. (As reported by Ynetnews)


    2015: Gilad Hekselman and his trio are scheduled to appear at Smalls where they play “Gilad's original music as well as some jazz standards and Israeli songs.”


    2015: “The first anniversary of the deaths of Naftali Fraenkel, Gil-ad Shaer and Eyal Yifrach, the Israeli teenagers kidnapped and killed by Palestinian terrorists last summer, was marked today with a Unity Day.”


    2015: “When a School Board Victimizes Kids” published today described the conflict surrounding education in East Rampo, the school district in Rockland County.



    2015: “The Tale of the Allergist’s Wife” opened at Theatre J in Washington, DC


    2015: As the Red Alert siren was sounded in places that included the Ashkelon and Netivot areas, two rockets from Gaza exploded in the Sdot Negev region. There were no physical injuries or damages.


    2016: In Cedar Rapids, IA, Temple Judah is scheduled to host its final Musical Shabbat of the year featuring Shir Yehudah.


    2016: As part of the Israel Film Center Festival the JCC Manhattan is scheduled to host a Kabballat Shabbat Concert featuring Israeli Idan Raichel.


    2016: The Cedar Rapids Gazette published “Morley Raised Writing to an Art Form.”



    2017(9thof Sivan, 5777): Parashat Naso;


    2017(9thof Sivan, 5777): Ninety-eight year old political activist Sara Ehrman passed away today. (As reported by Amy Chozick)



    2017: Today, “Israeli security forces stood guard during a protest of Ultra Orthodox Jews protesting against businesses that operate on Saturdays and recruitment of the ultra-Orthodox to the army, outside the Mea Shearim neighborhood in Jerusalem.” (As reported by Sue Surkes)


    2017:  In Jerusalem, The Israel Festival is scheduled to host performances by “flamenco dancer Israel Galván” and the “intensive pop performance of “Crazy Girls Save the World,” from the Japanese Miss Revolutionary Idol Berserker.”


    2017: Twenty-seven year old right-hander Brad Goldberg “faced five batters in one-third of an inning, allowing four runs on a walk and three hits, including a solo home run to Tigers outfielder Justin Upton” “when he made his Major League Baseball debut for the Chicago White Sox” today. (As reported by Ed Carroll)


    2018: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Flash:The Making of Weegee the Famous by Christopher Bonanos, Pops: Fatherhood in Pieces by Michael Chabon, Robin by Dave Itzkoff and Asking for a Friend: Three Centuries of Advice on Life, Love, Money and Other Burning Questions From a Nation Obsessed by Jessica Weisberg


    2018: “Famed Israeli singer Shiri Maimon is scheduled to perform in Times Square this evening as of an event celebrating Israel’s 70th Anniversary.


    2018: The Breman Museum in Atlanta is scheduled to host “The Way We Were: A Journey Into the Music of Alan and Marilyn Bergman.”


    2018: “The Yemenite Conference: Shared Cultural Values of Jews & Muslims in Yemen” is scheduled to begin tonight at The Center for Jewish History


    2018: The Jewish Federation of Greater Washington is scheduled to host a musical celebration marking Israeli’s 70th anniversary at Tysons Corner Center in Virginia.


    2018: “Hero Among Us,” a film funded by The Tahler Holocaust Memorial Fund, “providing an account of Army combat medic Sgt. John Gualtier’s liberation of the Gunskirchen Lager concentration camp in Austria” is scheduled to be shown in Iowa City.


    2018: As Israeli’s face a new week, they contemplate the damage to a nature preserve burned by Gaza terrorists and look to the sky for a more rockets from Gaza.


     


     


     


     


     


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    JUNE 4


    1039 Conrad II passed away.  Born in 990, he served Holy Roman Emperor from 1027 until his death. His reign was part of positive period for the Jews of the Rhineland. The first synagogue was built in Worms in 1034 and Rabbi Gershom ben Judah taught at his famous academy in Mainz until his death in 1028.


    1391: A riotous mob led by the Queen Mother's confessor, killed many Jews in Seville, Spain.


    The massive riots were part of Ferran Martinez’s plan to eradicate the Jews. Historian Netanyahu stated the assault upon the Jewish community "resulted in a bloodbath of massive proportions that all but annihilated the Sevillian Juderia."


    1632: Jacob Bassewi (Bassevi) and Leon Bassewi, his cousin and business partner, “received a privilege from the Duke governing Prague that gave them “the right to do business without any hindrance in all the town, markets and areas of the dukedoms of Friedland, Sagan and Glogau”


    1632: Albrecht Wallenstein, the Count of Friedland, granted Jacob Bassewi and his cousin Leon Bassewi in order to improve his possibilities for business and living, the exceptional freedom to build a house in our town of Reichenberg at the best location for him and in order to speed up the process we order, you our chief officer, to support him with material and payments to the citizen builders. In the event that he should find a house that is already built, we give you the powers to allow him to buy it and allow him to have his friends or children, Jewish or gentile, to live there and to direct his business from there. We further order that, if the Bassewi people need protection anywhere in our Dukedom or in all of the Kingdom of Bohemia, they shall enjoy our highest official protection. Nobody shall dare to act against this our will without punishment. We seal this letter with our great seal.”


    1672(9th of Sivan): Rabbi Moses Rikves, author of Be’er ha-Golah passed away


    1697: Birthdate Rabbi Jacob Israel Emden, the Altona born Talmudic scholar most famous for his fight against those whom he considered to be Sabbateans.  His most famous dispute was the one with Rabbi Jonathan Eybeschutz.


    1738: Birthdate of King George III, the British monarch best remembered as the ruler during the American Revolution. During his reign conditions of his Jewish subjects would improve on several fronts as can be seem from the establishment of the London Board of Shechita, establishment of the Jews’ Free School and Jewish Blind Society.


    1767(7thof Sivan, 5527): Bezaleel, the son of Moses Brandeis ha-Levi, who like his father “was the district rabbi of Bunzlau (Bohemia) passed away today.


    1751(11th of Sivan): Rabbi Abraham Geron of Adrianople, author of Tikkun Soferimpassed away


    1775(6thof Sivan, 5535): Thirteen days before the Battle of Bunker Hill, while American forces are besieging the British at Boston, observance of Shavuot.


    1783: Annibale Francesco Clemente Melchiore Girolamo Nicola Sermattei della Genga, the future Pope Leo XII who would put the Gate back on the Ghetto and pursue other policies inimical to the Jews, was ordained as a priest.


    1789: “The Captivity of Judah” by William Crotch was played at Trinity Hall, Cambridge (UK).  Crotch was not Jewish but his pupil Charles Kensington Salaman, the British pianist and composer was.  Crotch’s “most successful composition was the oratorio “Palestine”


    1811: Jacob Reuben married Leah Lyons today in the United Kingdom


    1813(6thof Sivan, 5573): As the War of 1812 goes into its second year, observance of Shavuot.


    1828: Lawrence Hyam married Caroline Elias at the Great Synagogue in London.


    1829(3rdof Sivan, 5589): Hannah de Pass, the native of Kingston, Jamaica who was the daughter of Ralph de Pass and the wife of Benjamin Milhado whom she had married at Charleston in 1796 passed away today.


    1832(6thof Sivan, 5592): As Andrew Jackson prepares to seek re-election, celebration of Shavuot.


    1835(7thof Sivan, 5595): Second day of Shavuot


    1835(7thof Sivan, 5595): Seventy year old Seckel Isaac Fränkel who in 1818 was the rabbi for the new Reform Jewish Temple of Hamburg for which he wrote a new prayer book passed away today.


    1837: Joseph Baum married Esther Harris today in the United Kingdom.


    1840: During the Damascus Affair, Adolphe Cremieux, vice president of the Central Consistoire of French Israelites, dispatched an appeal to Sir Moses Montefiore, President of the Board of Deputies of British Jews, to join with him and a delegation from the French Jewish community in a visitation to Mehemet Ali in Alexandria, Egypt. 


    1841: At a time when Jews in Prague “had been prohibited from spending the summer in the suburbs” an edict was issued that allowed the Jews to own rural real estate provided that they “worked the land themselves.”


    1843(6thof Sivan, 5603): Shavuot


    1848: French banker and opponent of Napoleon III’s imperial designs Michel Goudchaux was elected to the Assembly today in a by-election “In the department of the Seine.”


    1851: In Voyska, Bohemia Simon Steinbach and Rosalie Weisskopf gave birth to Lewis W. Steinbach the husband of Johanna Rosenbaum who earned his medical degree at Jefferson Medical College who became a leading surgeon in Philadelphia, PA.


    1852: Beth Hamedrash Hagadol “a congregation for Russian Jews was formed with the help of former German Jewish immigrants. This traditional congregation opened a school and soon became the center of Orthodoxy in the U.S. Abraham Joseph Ash, an halachic authority, was elected as its rabbi in 1860 and held the position until his death in 1888. So as not to be dependent on a community salary, he also tried his hand in business without much success.” While some like to emphasize the cleavages between the different elements of the New York Jewish community, this synagogue formed for Russian Jews, with support from German Jews, received financial assistance from a Sephardic Jew, a member of Shearith Israel, who provided funds that helped with the congregation’s purchase of its first building.


    1856: Harry Gluckstein married Rose Lazarus at the Great Synagogue in London.


    1857: The Springfield Republican reported that Isaac Jackson a Jewish boy who was either 17 or 18 years old had been robbed and shot to death by Charles Jones while he was driving a wagon on the road between Westfield and Russell, MA in a case of what the paper described as “a dreadful murder.”  Jackson was one of four brothers who owned a store at Westfield and delivered merchandize to the surrounding towns.  The murder appeared to have taken place on the first of June.  The missing wagon and the corpse were discovered on the second of June.  Charles Jones, a violent man with a criminal record has been taken into custody.


    1873: According to a report published today, the following New York City institutions received these payments from the Excise Fund New York:


    Hebrew Free Schools:  1871 - $3899.00   1872 - $1806.00


    Polomes Talmud Torah School: 1871- $420.00


    1874: Publication of the first edition of The Morecambe Visitor and General Advertiser, (later just called The Visitor) which came under the sway of Arthur Caunt starting in 1898 who would be sued for libel when “he penned a diatribe against British Jews for not doing more to prevent Zionist killing of British troops in Palestine, describing ‘Jews as a plague on Britain.’


    1877: U.S. Secretary of State Seward received a letter from Meyer S. Isaacs, President of the Board of Delegates of American Israelites which requests that American diplomats help to protect Jews of Russian birth living in and around Jerusalem.  The ruling Ottomans were hostile to the Jews because they were Russian and because they were Jews.


    1878: The Ottoman Empire ceded control of Cyprus to the British Empire. Ironically, Benjamin Disraeli was the Prime Minister when this happened.  After all for Jews, British control of the island has a negative connotation. They turned the island into a giant prison for Jewish refugees trying to get into Eretz Israel during after World War II.


    1878: Sarah, “the beloved wife of M.J. Henriques” was buried today at the Balls Pond Jewish Cemetery three days after her death.


    1880: Sarah Bernhardt signed a contract today for a series of 60 performances to be given this winter at Booth’s Theatre.


    1881(7th of Sivan, 5641) Second Day of Shavuot


    1882: A conference of delegates representing Jewish organizations from across the United States and Europe opened this morning at the Hebrew Orphan Asylum to discuss how to cope with the increasing stream of Jewish immigrants from Russia.  The Executive Committee of the Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society had issued the call for the meeting and H.S. Henry, the Society’s President, presided over the opening session. Henry said that since its founding in December of 1881, HIAS has collected over $75,000, all but $7,000 of which it has spent on helping over 3,000 immigrants.  The leaders discussed the seemingly overwhelming task of helping their suffering co-religionists but affirmed their commitment to do so.  One of the practical programs discussed was the settling of refugees in the open tracts of land in Minnesota and the Dakotas. According to figures presented to the conference it would take over a thousand dollars to provide a single agricultural settler with everything from provisions, fuel, seed, livestock, 80 acres of land, materials to build a house, furnishings and provisions until the first harvest is sold.


    1882: “A general conference of delegates from the various Jewish societies in the United States” which had been convened to discuss the challenges related to the continuous arrival of refugees from Russia opened this morning in New York at the Hebrew Orphan Asylum. “The meeting was called to order by H.S. Henry, President of the Hebrew Emigrant Aid Society of the United States.


    1882: It was reported today that appeal is being circulated in Paris to secure funds to help Jews leave Russia.  Famed author Victor Hugo’s name is at the top of the list of those who signed the appeal.


    1882: It was reported today that President Chester A. Arthur and former President U.S. Grant are among the leaders who will be attending the upcoming fundraiser designed to provide aid for Jewish refugees from Russia.


    1882: It was reported today that European Jews are debating the direction Russian immigrants should take – west to the United States or east to Palestine.  An un-named Anglo Jewish citizen contends that the United States is the better of the two destinations. The movement to settle Palestine “is a mere hobby of Protestant Christians.”  The Ottoman government would not support the settlement and the Jews would be moving to a country less civilized than the one they are leaving.  Among the advantages offered by the United States are a high state of civilization, large unsettled areas and the 400,000 Jews already living there who would help the newcomers.


    1883: In London Benjamin Leopold Farjeon, the son of Orthodox Jews and Maggie (Jefferson) Farjeon gave birth to British author Joseph Jefferson Farjeon


    1883: In Altona, Germany, Emilie (née Fischel) and Otto Ehrenberg gave birth to Hans Phillip Ehrenberg a convert who co-founded the Confessing Church but who was forced to flee to England because of Jewish ancestry when the Nazis came to power.


    1884: The Indian Agent at the Acoma Reservation wrote to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs complaining the Solomon Bibo had violated “his Trader’s License” when he entered into a business arrangement with members of that tribe.


    1886(1stof Sivan, 5645): Rosh Chodesh Sivan


    1890: In South Carolina, David L. Hart married Laura L. Levy today.


    1892: Mrs. Davis the long time matron of the Ladies’ Deborah Nursery and Child’s Protectory offered an explanation for the discrepancy between their records and those of the police magistrate’s clerks.  According to Mrs. Davis, the Jewish agency does a more detailed check and often finds that the children are younger than originally reported which leads to a longer a stay at the facility which in turn results in additional charges to the government.


    1893: The Shirt Contractors’ Association posted a notice which the Jewish shirtmakers “regard as the beginning of a fight by the Contractors’ Association against the union.”  As if to reinforce their fears, 4 of the contractors lock out their shirtmakers today.


    1894: It was reported today that Frederick Nathan was one of the members of the Finance Committee of the Mutual Employment Society which was founded last winter to help applicants find jobs at no cost to employers.


    1894(29thof Iyar, 5654): Eighty-eight year old philologist and lexicographer Wilhelm Freund, author of Wörterbuch der Lateinischen Sprache passed away today at Breslau,


    1894:”Reception at Montefiore Home” published today described the event which is usually held on Decoration Day but was postponed because of memorial services being held for the late Jesse Seligman.


    1895: “Samuell Casten, alias ‘Jew Sam’ was indicted by the Grand Jury” in response to charges of grand larceny brought by Mrs. Helen Maillard/


    1895: Henry Lipkie married Jessie Mayer today in the United Kingdom.


    1896: In Bellaire, Ohio, the “Ladies’ Auxiliary Society of the Congregation Sons of Israel” whose members included Mrs. Max Herzberg and Mrs. Harry Herzberg was organized today.


    1896: Judge Myer S. Isaacs was among the members of Council of the University sitting on the dignitaries’ platform at the New York University commencement exercises being held in Carnegie Hall


    1897: In Prague, Leopold and Valerie Pick gave birth to Holocaust victim Franziska Pick who became Franziska Bondy when she married Pavel Bondy.


    1897: The first issue of "Die Welt" appears. The English Hovevei Zion officially dissociates itself from the Zionist Congress.


    1897: Sixty-four year old Leah Michaels, “the widow of Nathan Michaels” was buried today at the Plashet Jewish Cemetery in London.


    1897: Sixty five year old Louis Blum was sentenced to ten days in prison for violating  the bottling law when broke off the heads of empty siphons and used as them as hooks for a chupah that was building at the synagogue where he was the sexton.


    1898(14thof Sivan, 5658): Parashat Naso


    1898: The Human Rights League (Ligue des droits de l'homme or LDH) was founded today by Ludovic Trarieux to defend Captain Alfred Dreyfus who was falsely convicted on charges of treason.


    1899: It was reported today that The Hebrew Citizens League of Jersey, whose objectives “will be to induce Hebrews are not naturalized to become citizens at once” and “to protect their legal rights” has filed articles of incorporation with County Clerk John G. Fisher.


    1899: It was reported today that “the Dreyfus affair has been instrumental in weakening the bonds of friendship between Russia and France and in destroying the faith with which Russian military men had in the discipline of the French Army” which appears to be leading to a “rapprochement between Russia and Austria-Hungary.”


    1899: A riot broke out at the Auteuil race course where the mob expressed its hostility for President Loubet with a variety of verbal assaults including the call of “Down with Traitors, Jews and Dreyfusites.!”


    1899: The officers of the newly incorporated Hebrew Citizens’ League of Jersey City are: President – Louis Strang; Vice President – Samuel Lastage; Treasurer – Harris Steirman; Financial Secretary – Henry Weisberg; Counsul – Peter James; Sergeant at Arms – William Steirman.


    1899: “Harsh Treatment of the Jews” published today described the “latest outrage against the Russian Jews” which took place at Nikolaev where an anti-Semitic movement started by religious fanatics who “pillaged” every shop owned by the Jews and left over 200 of them wounded, “many of them fatally.”


    1899: “The Library of Princeton University” published today described the history of the institution and some of its prized tomes including “Jonathan Edward’s Hebrew Bible, a large folio with the celebrated theologian’s autograph.”


    1899: “Science and Industry,” a compilation of activities in Europe published today described the opening of a Spinoza museum “in the house where the famous Hebrew philosopher lived and polished lenses for his bread at Rhynsburg, near Leyden” which “has been restored to its 17th century style.”


    1899: The Neue Freie Presse publishes Herzl's editorial about the return of Colonel Dreyfus.


    1900: Birthdate of Nelson Glueck, American Jewish archaeologist. Director of the American School of Oriental Research in Jerusalem between 1932 and 1947, he explored and dated over 1,000 ancient sites in Palestine and the Near East. One of his popular works was Rivers in the Desert.


    1902:While inParis, Herzl receives the invitation to appear before the Royal Commission for Alien Immigration in London. The meeting is scheduled to last two days.


    1903: Herzl renews his efforts to gain support Great Britain and again submits plans to Constantinople for a Charter for Mesopotamia.


    1907: Max Margolis wrote to the Central Conference of American recommending the adoption of the report prepared by the Committee on the Uniform Pronunciation of Hebrew under the chairmanship of Dr. Henry Malter.


    1907(22nd of Sivan, 5667): Young Barney Aaron, the English born American bare knuckle boxer who ws the U.S. Lightweight Champion and the son of English boxer Barney Aaron who was called “The Star of the East” passed away today on Long Island, NY.


    1908: Alfred Dreyfus was wounded by a disgruntled journalist while “attending the ceremony” during which the ashes of Emile Zola were interred in the Pantheon.  Zola was the French journalist and author who led the fight to free Dreyfus during which he exposed the anti-Semitic and corrupt nature of the French officer corps.


    1909: The President of the Turkish Chamber of Deputies speaks in favor of Jewish immigrants being admitted to the Ottoman Empire. He sees it a as a necessity for the growth of the country.


    1910: “The Girl in the Train”, the English language of Die geschiedene Frau (The Divorcée), an operetta in three acts by Leo Fall was performed for the first time today at the Vaudeville Theatre in London.
    1911: The Hahambashi receives several telegrams from Arabia and Syria describing attacks on Jews. Details of the attacks were given to the authorities who could then intervene.


    1911: Ground was broken today for the new building to be occupied by the Marks Nathan Jewish Orphan Home.


    1912: Massachusetts became the first state to pass a minimum wage law. Boston attorney Louis Brandeis, the future Supreme Court Justice, was an ardent advocate for minimum wage laws.


    1913(28thof Iyar, 5673): Rabbi Abraham Samuel Neumark passed away today in New York City.


    1913(28thof Iyar, 5673): Journalist Lewis Godlove passed away today in St. Louis at the age of 55.


    1915: As of today, “Warsaw newspapers which have been smuggled through the lines say that the number of homeless Jews on the Russian side is increasing steadily.”


    1915: In Rochester, NY, Mayor Hiram H. Edgerton presided over a “mass meeting…in Convention Hall to protest against the scheduled execution of Leo Frank” which was condemned by the featured speaker by James. G. Cutler, the former Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Chamber of Commerce of the United States.


    1915: According to the remarks of Ohio Judge Rufus R. Smith published today, “The execution of (Leo) Frank or even his imprisonment for any length of time would constitute an indictment of the administration of criminal law in this country which would be shameful and humiliating.”


    1915: Irving Berlin and Jerome Siegel were chosen to serve as Governors at the annual election of officers today at the Friar’s Club on West 45th Street.


    1915: In New York, The Appellate Division reversed a judgment that had been rendered in favor Daniel Guggenhiem’s Guggenheim Exploration Company and decdied that a mining engineer who had worked as assistant manager and consulting engineer for the company was entitled to stock in the Yukon Gold Company valued at more than $100,000.”


    1915: “Fearing that a mass meeting which to be held on the State Capitol grounds” in Atlanta “tomorrow night for the purpose of protesting again the commutation of the death sentence of Leo M. Frank, may result in a riot, Mayor James G. Woodward this afternoon wrote Governor John M. Slaton urging that the latter have the military on hand at the meeting.”


    1916: Herman Bernstein, editor of The American Hebrew received a cable from Lord Reading, Chief Justice of England, expressing his approval of Louis Brandeis taking his seat on the Supreme Court.  “Membership in the Supreme Court of the United States,” the English jurist wrote, “is one of the greatest distinctions known to the legal world and I heartily congratulate the new Associate Justice.”


    1916: “The Central Committee of the United Krakauer War Relief Fund held its first meeting tonight at the Temple Israel at 120th Street and Lenox Avenue” where it began efforts to raise $50,000 to provide “relief for the destitute Jews of Cracow.”


    1916: The National Farm School, “a Jewish institution in Bucks County” held its 19thannual Spring exercise marking the consecration of festive and memorial trees and the installation of the 52 students of the freshman class” was addressed by former U.S. President William Howard Taft.


    1916: “Jacob H. Schiff informed the Kehillah at it its seventh annual convention today “that he had been hurt by recent attacks made upon him in connection with his efforts to help to solve the problems of his co-religionists and that hereafter Zionism, national, the Congress movement and Jewish politics in what form they may come up would be a sealed book to him.”


    1917(13thof Sivan, 5677): While serving with His Majesty’s forces, 19 year old Second Lieutenant Vivian Sylvester Moses was killed today.


    1917:  In Cleveland, Ohio, Anna (née Klafter) and Charles I. Metzenbaum gave birth to Howard Metzenbaumn, a Democrat and a liberal, who served in the U.S. Senate representing the state of Ohio.




    1917: On the second day of anti-Jewish rioting at Leeds during which the Jewish quarter was looted, “Victor LIghtman…called upon the chief constable who assured them that immediate states would be taken to restore order.”


    1917: In Pittsburgh, PA, the National Association of Jewish Social Workers Annual Convention went into its second day with presentations by Edwin Goldwasser, Morris D. Waldman and Solomon Lowensein.


    1917: According to a dispatch from Paris, the “Spanish government has instructed its representatives in Berlin, Vienna and Constantinople to present an urgent note demanding the cessation of the persecution, deportations, and looting practiced against the Jews in Palestine.”


    1917:  The Pulitzer Prizes for journalism, literature and music are awarded for the first time.  America’s premier honor for arts and literature was created under the terms of the will of publisher Joseph Pulitzer, an immigrant from Hungary whose father was Jewish and whose mother was Roman Catholic.


    1917: In Argentina, President Iriogyen replied “favorably to a Jewish delegation which appealed for the intervention of the Government to bring about the cessation of massacres in Palestine.”


    1917: During World War I Jules Cambon, Director-General of the French Foreign Ministry wrote to Nahum Sokolow offering vague words of support for Zionist efforts in Palestine. Much to the chagrin of the French, these vague assurances helped pave the way for the issuance of the Balfour Declaration.


    1917: In Argentina, “President Irigoyen replied favorably to a Jewish delegation which appealed for the intervention of the government to bring about the cessation of the massacres in Palestine.


    1917: The Ladies’ Auxiliary of Temple Shalom are scheduled to host the first meeting of a Red Cross unit being formed by Jewish women “on the North Side and North Shore suburban towns” this afternoon at 1 p.m.


    1917: In the Williamsburg section of Brooklyn Abraham Miller, a tailor whose original last name was Milstein and his wife Lillian Blaban gave birth to Moishe (Morris) Miller who the world would know as Robert Merrill, the Baritone who gained fame singing for NBC and the Metropolitan Opera.


    1918: Birthdate of Brooklyn native Herbert M. Mandell, a CPA and partner in the public accounting firm of Clarence Rainess and Company who was the deputy may of the Village of Hewlett Harbor, NY and the husband of Lenore Mandell with whom he had three children --- Marjory, Richard and James.


    1918: Catcher Bob Berman made his major league debut with the Washington Senators.


    1918: Birthdate of Pennsylvanian Paul Friedlander, the Carnegie Tech quarterback who led his 6th ranked team to play No. 1 Texas Christian University in the fifth annual Sugar Bowl.


    1918: Encouraged by the British, “Dr. Chaim Weizmann met the Emir Feisal, the leader of the Arab Revolt, near the port of Akaba, and worked out with him what seemed to be a satisfactory Arab support for a Jewish National Home in Palestine.”


    1918: It was reported today that an epidemic of typhus is “raging at Safed where there at present over 500 Jewish orphans.”


    1919(6thof Sivan, 5679): Shavuot


    1919:  Birthdate of Robert Merrill. Born Morris (Moishe) Miller in Brooklyn, New York, Merrill was the son of two Jewish immigrants from Warsaw named Milstein who Americanized their name to Miller.  Robert Merrill became one of the greatest operatic baritones of the 20thcentury.  Lest anyone question his Jewishness please note that when Merrill died in 2004 he was buried in the Sharon Gardens Cemetery, the Jewish section of the Kenisco Cemetery.


    1919: By a vote of 56 to 25 the United States passed the 19th Amendment which had the support of many Jews including the National Council of Jewish Women.


    1920: It was reported today that Rabbi William Fineshriber will lecture at Tulane University on “The Hebrew Prophet as Mystic,” “Jewish Devotional Literature” and “Hebraic and Jewish Genius” as part of The Jewish Chautauqua Summer Courses.


    1920: Alfred N. Bergman and Henry J.D. Meyer were promoted to the rank of Lieutenant while serving with the Field Artillery of the United States Army.


    1920: Willard S. Isaacs was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant while serving with the Infantry of the United States Army.


    1920: Herman H. Meyer, an officer serving in the Infantry was promoted to the rank of Captain in the U.S. Arymy.


    1920: Cavalry trooper Sol M. Lipman was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant in the United States Army.


    1924: Birthdate of British immunologist Maurice Hart Lessof, the husband of Leila Liebster and President of the British Society for Allergy who said food allergies are common illness “that should be taken seriously” and that “many people have been forced to lead miserable lives because narrow-mined doctors are unwell to accept food allergy as a major cause of illness!”


    1926: Dr. Nathan Ratnoff, Chairman of a Joint Hospital Committee representing Hadassah, the Women’s Zionist Organization of America and the American Physicians’ Committee, announced plans to establish a college of medicine at Hebrew University and to upgrade hospital facilities at the Mt. Scopus institution as part of a program to improve health conditions for those living in Palestine.  The committee plans on raising at least one million dollars to make the plans a reality.


    1926 Ignacy Mościcki who would appoint Biblical scholar, historian and Jewish community leader Moses Schorr to serve in the Senate despite growing anti-Semitism, began serving as President of the Republic of Poland today who in 1935 as President of Poland and despite the growing anti-Semitism in the country appointed Biblical scholar, historian and Jewish community leader Moses Schorr to serve in the Senate.


    1926: In Kiel, Germany, Rosel (née Zamora) and Rabbi Max Malina gave birth to Judith Malina “an American theater and film actress, writer, and director, who was one of the founders of The Living Theatre.” (As reported by Bruce Weber)




    1927: Two weeks after Charles Lindbergh landed in Paris, Charles Levine’s plane Columbia took off from New York for what was supposed to be the first flight to Berlin.  Clarence Chamberlin was the pilot, but Levine was planning to lay claim to being the first trans-Atlantic passenger.  The flight ended at Eisleben, 100 miles short of Berlin but was longer than the Lone Eagle’s flight.


    1927: Birthdate of Richard Allen Silberman, the native of Kansas City, MO who gained gamed as movie producer Richard “Dick” Shepard.




    1928:  Birthdate of Dr. Ruth Westheimer, self-described sex therapist and author.


    1929: In accordance with the terms of his seventy-one year old Nathan Lamport, who had passed away at Dobbs Ferry, in 1928 was buried in Jerusalem along with his late wife Sarah next to the grave of his father on the Mouth Olives in a service attended by his eldest son Samuel, his daughter-in-law Miriam, his brother Solomon and Samuel L. Sar, the “registrar of Yeshiva College of which Mr. Lamport was President.


    1931: It was reported today that Miss Dorothy Duveen, the only daughter of Jewish art dealer Sir Joseph Duveen is engaged to marry the son and heir of Sir William Garthwaite, William F.C. Garthwaite.


    1931(19th of Sivan, 5691):Mortimer L. Schiff “an American banker and notable early Boy Scouts of America (BSA) leader” passed away.  “Mortimer Leo Schiff was the only son of the German-Jewish American banker and philanthropist Jacob Schiff and his wife Therese. While he worked as a partner in the financial firm of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. from 1900 until his death in 1931, he also devoted much of his time to the development of scouting in America. He was a member of the World Scout Committee of the World Organization of the Scout Movement and the Theodore Roosevelt Council Executive Board. After a long tenure as vice-president of the BSA beginning in 1910, during which he also appeared on the cover of Time magazine on February 14, 1927, he was elected president of the organization in 1931. However, his untimely death came only one month later. He had also been serving as the BSA's International Commissioner for several years. The property for the Mortimer L. Schiff Scout Reservation was subsequently purchased by his mother, named in his honor, and donated to the BSA for their national training center. His son John Mortimer Schiff was also involved with the BSA.” Schiff was awarded the Bronze Wolf, the only distinction of the World Organization of the Scout Movement, granted by the World Scout Committee for exceptional services to world Scouting. Both Mortimer and his son, John M. Schiff, received Silver Buffalo Awards from the BSA.”


    1931: Birthdate of Sir Gustav Victor Joseph Nossal, AC, CBE, FRS, FAA, an Australian research biologist.


    1932: As Germany spirals into political chaos In Germany, President Paul von Hindenburg dissolves the Reichstag and sets new elections for next month which are likely to be won by Hitler and his Nazis.


    1933: CBS radio broadcast the last episode of the first season of “Lazy Dan, the Minstrel Man” starring Irving Kaufman today.


    1936: In Poland, the Prime Minister, F. Slawoj-Skladkowski, declared his support for the "economic war" against the Jews.


    1936: Professor Georg Bernhard the “German journalist, statesman and economist who had given up his position as Chair of Economics at the University of Commercial Studies in Berlin as part of his protest against Hitler and is in the United States to raise fund for the German Jewish refugees in France is scheduled to “be the guest this afternoon of the Administrative Committee of the American Jewish Congress at a luncheon at the Hotel Biltmore.”


    1936: Leon Blum became the first Jew to be elected premier of France. Blum, a socialist, instituted the 40-hour work week and many important social reforms. His government fell over lack of parliamentary support for his financial program, lasting only one year.


    1936: In France, Georges Mandel completed his term as Minister of Post during which he “oversaw the first official television transmission in French.”


    1936: “In Gaza, where eight of the twelve municipal councilors had refused to join the Arab strike, a bomb was thrown in the yard of the municipal offices” in an apparent attempt to intimidate them.


    1937(25th of Sivan, 5697): Helmut Hirsch, a German Jew who was executed by decapitation, for his part in a bombing plot intended to destabilize the German Reich. There had been several efforts to intervene to save his life including a 11thhour appeal to Hitler who turned down the request. While details about the actual plan may be sketchy, there is no reason to doubt his courage. 


    1937: The Palestine Post reported from London that the Colonial Secretary, Mr. Ormsby-Gore, told the House of Commons that in view of the changed financial and security situation in Palestine, and the uncertainty regarding the country's future, pending the awaited recommendations of the Royal (Peel) Commission, he could not encourage the initiation of any schemes for immediate development in Palestine. He was leaving, however, open options for urgent development projects approved by the Palestine High Commissioner, Sir Arthur Wauchope.


    1937: The Palestine Post reported that Kemal Bey, the well-known Arab terrorist who led the attack against Tel Yosef in 1921, was killed in his village in the Huleh area, as a result of a family dispute.


    1937: In London, Henri Armand Hugh Selbourne, and Sulamith (Amiel) Selbourne – “a descendant of generations of Jewish thinkers and rabbinical scholars and, in a cognate line, sharing an ancestry with Karl Marx” gave birth to David Selbourne “a British political philosopher, social commentator and historian of ideas.”


    1938: Sigmund Freud, his wife Martha, his daughter Anna, left Vienna on the Orient Express bound for Paris, the way station on their final destination – London.


    1939: The SS St. Louis, a German passenger liner carrying 900 Jewish refugees was denied permission to dock at any ports in Florida.  The ship steamed off the coast of the United States where the passengers could see the lights of Miami.  The Coast Guard had orders to keep the St. Louis and its Jewish passengers from reaching the United States.  The ship and its wretched cargo returned to the Europe where many perished in the Holocaust.  This episode became the basis for the film “Voyage of the Damned.”


    1940: Under orders from Benito Mussolini, the Italians began building Ferramonti, the largest of 15 concentration camps constructed just before Italy entered World War II.


    1941: Eighty-two year old Wilhelm II, the last Kaiser died in exile in the Netherlands. While thousands of German Jews fought and died for the Kaiser, he was an anti-Semite who blamed his defeat and abdication on “the tribe of Judah.”


    1941: The republic of Croatia issued an order depriving all Jews of their property and compelling them to wear a yellow badge with the letter Z.


    1942(19th of Sivan, 5702): Mordechai Gebirtig, Yiddish poet and songwriter was murdered by the Nazis in the Krakow Ghetto on what was known as “Bloody Thursday.”



    1942: Reinhard Heydrich, chief of the Reich Security Police and SD, dies of blood poisoning caused by injuries suffered in the May 27 attack by Czech partisans.  Heydrich chaired the conference in January of 1942 when the plans for the last phase of the final solution were set in motion.  The Czechs who killed him were working for the British and his killing really had nothing to do with his virulent anti-Semitic attitudes or plans.


    1942:  The Battle of Midway begins and will last until June 6, 1942.  The American victory over Japan marked a major turning point on the road to victory for the Allies.  The victory was an audacious gamble pulled off by a comparatively small number of U.S. naval vessels against a major Japanese armada.  If the U.S. had lost, the Pacific coast would have been open to invasion.  The American victory was made possible, in part, by the ability of the Americans to read the Japanese code.  The team that cracked the code was led by Colonel William Friedman.  Friedman was the son of Russian immigrant Jews.  He and his wife were two of the top cryptologists of the 20thcentury.  This was no mean fete in the days before computers were available.


    1943(1st of Sivan, 5703): Rosh Chodesh Sivan


    1943(1stof Sivan, 5703):  Fifty-two year old Dutch native Sabiena Cohen, the wife of Levie Van Praage and mother of Jacques Van Praage was murdered today at Sobibor.


    1943(1stof Sivan, 5703):  Fifty-five year old Dutch native Levie Van Praage, the husband of Sabiena Cohen and father of Jacques Van Praage was murdered today at Sobibor.


    1943(1stof Sivan, 5703: Hannah Karminski, who assumed more of a leadership role of the Jüdischer Frauenbund, JFB (League of Jewish Women)  after Bertha Pappenheim passed away in 1936, was murdered today at Aushwitz-Birkenau.


    1944: Thirty five year old Polish Olympic skier and artist Bronislaw Czech was murdered by the Germans today at Auschwitz. (Editor’s note – He was not Jewish but we have an obligation to remember all who were the victims of evil; Zachor: Remember lest you forget)


    1945: Lyndon Johnson visited Dachau. According to Lady Bird, when her husband returned home, "he was still shaken, stunned, terrorized and bursting with an overpowering revulsion and incredulous horror at what he had seen."


    1945:  Soldiers of the Jewish Brigade had their first contact with Jews from central or Eastern Europe when four young men who had traveled from Poland, Rumania, Hungary and Czechoslovakia arrived at their camp at Tarvisio, Italy.


    1947: “The Jewish Agency for Palestine appealed today to the United Nations committee of inquiry into Palestine to recommend the establishment of a Zionist state” while also asking that General Assembly remove “British restrictions on Jewish immigration and land settlement immediately.”


    1948: “Mr. Blandings Builds His Dream House,” a most charming comedy produced by Dore Schary and Melvin Frank, who co-wrote the script and co-starring Melvyn Douglas was released today in the United States after premiering in New York three months earlier.


    1948(26th of Iyar, 5708); Samuel Krauss passed away today in Cambridge.  Born in 1866, he served as professor at the Jewish Teacher’s Seminary in Budapest from 1894 to 1906 and then moved on to the Jewish Theological Seminary in Vienna where he stayed until the Anschluss forced to take refuge in England in 1938.  He was the author of the pioneering work on archaeology, Talmudische Archäologie


    1948: The infant IAF began moving its units away from the front line toward a more secure base at Herzliya.


    1949: Golda Myerson, the Israeli Minister of Labor, Social Insurance and Housing arrived in New York today “where she emphasized the critical housing shortage in Israel” and “asserted that 160,000 housing units were needed immediately to take care of the heavy influx of immigrants.”


    1949: In New York, Florence and David Cohen, a Philadelphia City Councilman, gave birth to their first child Mark B. Cohen who served in the Pennsylvania House of Representatives for over forty years.


    1950: In “Trouble-Shooter Diplomat,” published today Gertrude Samuels provides a detailed portrait of Israeli Diplomat Eliahu Elath who represented Israel at the San Francisco Conference in 1945, served as Israel’s first Ambassador to the United States and was about to assume a similar position at the Court of St. James.


    1950(19thof Sivan, 5710): Sixty-five year Pinchus Kahanovich who wrote under the pseudonym “Der Nister” died today in the Gulag after having been arrested during Stalin’s purge that was designed to wipe out Jewish authors and the culture that had produced them.



    1951(29th of Iyar, 5711): Russian born American symphony conductor Dr. Sergei Aleksandrovich Koussevitzky passed away.  Born in 1874, Serge, as he was known, was music director of the Boston Symphony for a quarter of a century.


    1952: The Jerusalem Postreported from London that West Germany had tentatively offered to negotiate with Israel a reparations offer, totaling approximately $585 million, on the basis of 10 annual payments. The Times warned Germany not to make this restitution offer entirely at the expense of its other contractual creditors, and thus shirk its responsibility for the wrongs done to Jews by Hitler's Germany.


    1952: The Jerusalem Postreported that The Knesset approved amendments to the Patents and Designs Ordinances, aimed at fulfilling the requirements of the International Charter of 1934.


    1952: The Jerusalem Postreported that restrictions were announced on a gradual reduction of interurban and urban bus services, ordered by the government in order to save fuel and foreign currency. Plans were made, however, for a complete end to the rationing of all textiles.


    1953: In the United States, release date for MGM’s “Julius Caesar” directed by Joseph L. Mankiewicz and filmed by Joseph Ruttenberg.


    1956: New York Mayor Robert Wagner and Israeli Air Force General Shlomo Shamir addressed the annual donor luncheon of the Mizrachi Women’s Organization of America at the Waldorf-Astoria. Mayor Wagner told the 1,200 attendees that “the children in the State of Israel must receive every opportunity to grow up to become leaders and defenders of their country.”


    1959(27thof Iyar, 5719): Fifty-eight year old Hungarian born American movie director Charles Vidor who passed away while filming his last movie “Song Without End” passed away today.



    1964:  Dodger pitcher Sandy Koufax threw his third no-hitter beating the Phillies, 3-0.


    1967: Meir Amit reported to the cabinet meeting that U.S. Secretary Robert McNamara had said "I read you loud and clear." in response to Amit’s request “All we want is three things: One, that you refill our arsenal after the war. Two, that you will help us in the UN. Three, that you will isolate the Russians from the arena." Amit told the cabinet this was a green light from the United States if Israel launched a pre-emptive strike against its Arab enemies.


    1967: As war clouds gathered over Israel, General Mordechai “Mottie” Hod “briefed his wing commanders.


    1967:  For seven hours Israel’s National Unity Cabinet, chaired by Prime Minister Levi Eshkol met to hear a review of the military options presented by Moshe Dayan as well as an update by intelligence sources on the situation in the Egyptian military command.  Egyptian generals were pressuring Nasser to let them strike the first blow.  The “Arab streets” were demanding action.  Delay was Israel’s enemy.  Each day the Arab forces grew stronger, while Israel’s forces were at their “optimum level.”  The Cabinet agreed that the military option was all that was left.  The Cabinet voted unanimously to let Eshkol and Dayan choose the time and place of attack.  After the Cabinet adjourned, the two Israeli leaders agreed that H-hour was 7:45, Monday, June 5. The report delivered by General Meir Amit was considered critical to the decision. Amit had just returned from Washington where he met with Defense Secretary MacNamara who assured the Israeli General of America’s willingness to re-supply Israel after the war, help the Jewish state at the UN and to keep the Soviets out of the area.


    1970(29th of Iyar, 5730): Seventy eight year old comedian Menasha Skulnik, known as Menasha the Magnificent, passed away today.



    1971(29thof Iyar, 5730): Sixty-nine year old comedian Joe E. Lewis best known for having been mutilated and left for dead after turning down a contract with Al Capone passed away today.




    1971(11thof Sivan, 5731): Eighty-six year old Marxist philosopher György Lukács passed away in Budapest.



    1972: After being released in the UK in May, “A Day in the Death of Joe Egg” directed by Peter Medak an co-starring Janet Suzman was released today in the United States.


    1972: Joseph Brodsky, Russian born Jewish poet and essayist who would go on to win the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1987 and would serve as Poet Laureate of the United States in 1991 and 1992, was expelled from the Soviet Union.


    1976(6thof Sivan): As Regan and Ford contest for the Republican nomination for President, observance of Shavuot


    1981: It was reported today that George Balanchine, choreographer and artistic director of the New York City Ballet, has received the Jewish National Fund's first Tarbut Award, given to the choreographer in honor of his ''great achievements in expanding the scope and dimension of dance in America and throughout the world.''


    1981: Begin and Sadat held a summit meeting at Sharm El Sheikh two days before the scheduled of the Iraqi nuclear reactor – a fact known to Begin but not Sadat.


    1982:  In attempt to dislodge the PLO from its bases, Israel attacked targets in south Lebanon.


    1982: “Hank Panky” a comedy starring Gene Wilder and Gilda Radner was released today in the United States.


    1985: In the seemingly endless attempt by some to breach the wall between church and state the U.S. Supreme Court rules in Wallace v Jaffree that an Alabama law mandating a minute of silent mediation or voluntary prayer at the start of the school day is unconstitutional.


    1985: At Hod HaSharon, Rafi Fefaeli and former fashion model Tzipi Levine gave birth to actress and model Bar Refaeli.



    1986: Jonathan Pollard, spy for Israel, pled guilty in US court


    1987: The IPO music director, Zubin Mehta, conducts with soloists Itzhak Perlman and Gerry Mulligan in a classical-jazz concert.


    1989: Wendy Wasserstein became the first woman to win a Tony Award for Best Play, for The Heidi Chronicles.



    1990(11th of Sivan, 5750):  Jack Gilford passed away at the age of 82, a victim of stomach cancer. He gained fame as comedic actor whose "rubber face" was an acting trademark gained additional fame playing a piece of fruit in the Fruit of the Loom commercials.  


     


    1993: “Life with Mikey” produced by Scott Rudin, co-starring David Krumholtz and featuring music by Alan Menken was released today in the United States.


    1993: "Reemergence: Jewish Life in Eastern Europe," a film series featuring “five recent movies and one short about the Jewish experience in Europe” is scheduled to open in Washington, D.C.


    1994(25thof Sivan, 5754): Eighty-four year old Roberto Burle Marx “one of the most influential landscape architects of the twentieth century” whose works are on display at the Jewish Museum until September, passed away today



    1995(6thof Sivan, 5755): Shavuot


    1995(6thof Sivan, 5755): Seventy-six year old Leo Cantor who played fullback in the same UCLA backfield as Jackie Robinson and went on to a career in pro-football passed away today.




    1995: Outfielder Brian Kowitz made his major league debut with the Atlanta Braves.


    1997(28thof Iyar, 5757): Thirty years after the Six Day, Jews observe Yom Yerushalayim


    1998: The Republican controlled U.S. House of Representatives passes “a School Prayer Amendment that would overturn the Supreme Court decision banning state-written and state-mandated Christians in public schools.:  While the Bill passed by a simple majority it failed to gain the two-thirds majority necessary to move forward the amending process.


    2000:The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including the recently released paperback edition of The Lexus and the Olive Treeby Thomas L. Friedman.


    2002: The BBC broadcast “Victoria and Her Sisters” the 13th episode of “A History of Britain a documentary series written and presented by Simon Schama” which began its second season tonight.


    2004: “Shul Life, Circa 1850” published today, Adam Dickter provides a portrait of the “early days of Brooklyn’s Kane Street synagogue.



    2006: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including the recently released paperback editions of Perfectly Reasonable Deviations From the Beaten Track: The Letters of Richard P. Feynman,Edited by Michelle Feynman, What We Owe Iraq: War and the Ethics of Nation Building by Noah Feldman and Wilt, 1962: The Night of 100 Points and the Dawn of a New Era by Gary Pomerantz.


    2006:  In a show of the changing face of Jewish involvement in all facets of life Haaretz reported that Israeli tennis player Shahar Peer advanced to the last sixteen of the French Open, after a resounding 6-4, 7-5 defeat of sixth-seeded Russian Elena Dementieva. Peer, ranked 26 in the world, has won three out of three tournaments this year - Pattaya, Prague and Istanbul - but this is her first win against a top ten player who has also competed in two Grand Slam finals.


    2007: In the “Verbatim” section Time magazine featured the following quote by Rutka Laskier, “'If only I could say, It's over, you only die once ... but I can't, because despite all these atrocities, I want to live, and wait for the following day.'” Rutka Laskier has been described as the Polish Anne Frank. Like Frank, she wrote a Holocaust-era diary, at the age of 14. Like Frank, Laskier perished during the Holocaust. Apparently, the Nazis killed her at Auschwitz.


    2007: An article about Scholar and Rabbi Jacob Neusner entitled “The Pope’s Favorite Rabbi” appears in Time Magazine. The brief article briefly describes Neusner’s view of Christianity and their impact on Pope Benedict XVI.  The Pope devotes 20 pages of his new book to A Rabbi Talks with Jesus, a 161-page tome published in 1993. In that volume, the professor (now at Bard College in Annandale-on-Hudson, N.Y.) and non-congregational rabbi projected himself back into the Gospel of Matthew to quiz Jesus on the Jewish law. He found the Nazarene's interpretation irredeemably faulty. In his 14-years-delayed response, Benedict not only compliments Neusner as a "great Jewish scholar" but also recapitulates the thesis of A Rabbi Talks and spends a third of one of his 10 chapters answering it.


    2008: In Washington, D.C., the AIPAC Policy Conference comes to an end.


    2008(1st of Sivan, 5768): Rosh Chodesh Sivan


    2008: Today, the Great Synagogue of Brussels which had been designed in 1875 and built in 1875 was dedicated as the "Great Synagogue of Europe" today by President José Manuel Barroso and two of Europe's leading rabbis who signed a document of dedication.



    2008: A judge declared a mistrial in the case of Navee Haq, the man who stormed into a Jewish center two years ago and shot six women, killing one, as he ranted against Israel and the Iraq war.  The jurors appeared to be hopelessly deadlocked over whether or not he was guilty by reason of insanity. 


    2008: The Historical Society of Jews from Egypt asked the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) to intervene on its behalf with government in Cairo sincethe Egyptians have refused to release archives connected to the Jewish community.


    2009: Elinor Lipman, author of the bestselling novels The Inn at Lake Devineand Isabel's Bed, reads from her new novel, The Family Man, at Sixth and I Historic Synagogue (formerly Adas Israel) in Washington, D.C.


    2009: The Israeli government praised U.S. President Barack Obama's speech to the Muslim world today, saying it shared his hopes for Middle East peace, but stressed that Israel's security interests remained paramount. "We share President Obama's hope that the American effort heralds the opening of a new era that will bring an end to the conflict and to general Arab recognition of Israel as the nation of the Jewish people that lives in security and peace in the Middle East," an official statement said after Obama's address in Cairo.


    2010: The “Waiting Room,” the first New York solo exhibition of Be’er Sheva native Maya Bloch is scheduled to open at Thierry Goldberg Projects.


    2010: At Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, IA, Friday night services feature the baby-naming ceremony for Nicole Charley Hurwitz, the second granddaughter of Ivy and Bill Hurwitz.


    2010: The Baltimore Zionist District is scheduled to sponsor “A Rally to Stand in Solidarity with Israel” at the corner of Pratt and Light Street in Baltimore, MD.


    2010(22ndof Sivan, 5770): Ninety-nine year old Himan Brown who created a series of classic radio dramas including “The Adventures of the Thin Man”, “Dick Tracy,” and “Inner Sanctum” passed away today. (As reported by Joseph Berger)




    2011(2ndof Sivan, 5771): Eighty three year old Felix Zandman, the Holocaust survivor who “founded Vishay Intertechnology Inc., a $2 billion electronics firm traded on Wall Street that supplies the computer, aerospace and other industries” passed away today.



    2011(2ndof Sivan, 5771): Ninety-one year old Leo Greenland, advertising man par excellence, passed away. (As reported by Maraglit Fox)



    2011: The great New Zealand soprano Kiri Te Kanawa is scheduled to give a rare recital tonight at the Jerusalem International Convention Center (Binyanei Hauma)


    2011(2ndof Sivan, 5771): Thirty-six year old Buffalo Grove High and University of Illinois alum Lindsey Durlacher, the Greco-Roman wrestler who won Gold Medals in four Maccabiah Games passed away today as a result of the injuries he suffered in a snowmobile accident.



    2011: “Sundaes on Saturday” will be the theme of this month’s traditional Shabbat Minyan at Temple Judah featuring a Kiddush where attendees will make their own ice cream concoctions as everybody gets in the Shavuot Mood.


    2011: Thousands visited Krakow's seven historic synagogues in an unprecedented event aimed to foster Jewish identity among Krakow's small Jewish community.


     2012: Melting away “the first feature film in the history of Israeli cinema dealing with the parents' perspective on having a transgender child” is scheduled to be shown in Washington, DC.


    2012: The 92nd Street Y is scheduled to offer “It’s Magic: Nine Decades of Songs from Warner Brothers” which celebrates the role of music at the studio owned by four Jewish brother starting with “The Jazz Singer.”


    2012: In Jerusalem, the Israel Festival is scheduled to host “Theatre ad Infinitum” at the Khan Theatre 


    2012(14thof Sivan, 5772): Seventy-four year old Steve Ben Israel passed away.




    2013: The Alexandria Kleztet is scheduled to perform at Bethesda Blues and Jazz Supper Club in Bethesda, MD.


    2013: Finerman's Rules: Secrets I'd Only Tell My Daughters About Business and Lifeby Karen Lisa Finerman was published today by Hachette Book Group's Business Plus


    2013: Revenge Wears Prada by Lauren Weisberger, a sequel to The Devil Wars Prada was released today and “debuted at No. 3 on the New York Times bestseller list.


    2013: At Tel Aviv University the conference entitled “Holy War and Sacred Struggle in Judaism, Christianity and Islam” is scheduled to come to an end.


    2013: Revenge Wears Prada: The Devil Returns by Lauren Weisberger was published today.


    2013: The U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum and The Center for Jewish History are scheduled to present a panel discussion entitled “Hungary and the Holocaust: Assessing the Past; Preparing for the Future.”


    2013: Relations between coalition parties Hatnua and the Bayit Yehudi continued to deteriorate today, with Religious Services Minister Naftali Bennett effectively blocking a bill by MK Elazar Stern (Hatnua) to change the panel that chooses the chief rabbis.(As reportedy Lahav Harkov & Jeremy Sharon)


    2013: IDF Chief of Staff Lt.-Gen. Benny Gantz has ordered a major reduction in the employment of external advisers, and cancelled all non-operational trips of IDF delegations to militaries abroad today. Speaking at the site of an Infantry Corps drill, Gantz said he believes the IDF is up to the "difficult task" of making defense budget cuts. (As reported Yakkov Lapin)


    2014 (6th of Sivan, 5774): Shavuot


    2014: Starting at 12:30 A.M. the JCC in Manhattan is scheduled to show “Tikkun Leil Shavuot: Supermensch” a film at about Shep Gordon.


    2014: As part of the Shavuot celebration Jews in Little Rock are scheduled to gather at the Chabad House under the leadership of Rabbi Pinchas Ciment for a reading of the Ten Commandments followed by a delicious dairy Kiddush complete with cheesecake and ice cream.


    2014: At least 46,000 tickets have been sold for the Rolling Stones first ever concert in Israel which is scheduled to take place tonight at Tel Aviv’s Yarkon Park. (Time of Israel)


    2014: The Shalom Hartman Institute is scheduled to hold English language study sessions as part of the Shavuot observances led by Suzanne Last Stone, Gil Tory, Menachem Fisch and Menachem Loberbaum.


    2014: The Iron Dome system fired interceptors as at least two mortars were fired from Syria into the Golan Heights.


    2014: As Israelis celebrate Shavuot they are experience a heat wave resulting in record or near record temperatures at Beersheba, Kfar Saba, Haifa and Tel Aviv. (As reported by Noam (Dabul) Dvir)


    2015: In Washington, DC, Theatre J is scheduled to celebrate “30 years of Charles Busch” with a performance of “The Tale of the Allergist’s Wife.”


    2015: The Israel Film Center Festival is scheduled to open the JCC Manhattan.


    2015: “The US Senate unanimously approved a resolution condemning anti-Semitism in Europe” today.


    2015: The International Consortium for Research on Antisemitism and Racism; Center for Research on Antisemitism, Berlin and the Pears Institute for the study of Antisemitism are among the co-sponsors of “Gender, Memory and Genocide: An International Conference Marking 100 Years Since the Armenian Genocide” is scheduled to open today


    2015: The Cleveland Cavaliers, led by Coach David Blatt are scheduled to play the Golden State Warriors in the first game of the NBA Championship series.


    2016(27thof Iyar, 5776):  Completion of Vayikra (Leviticus)


    Bechukotai (In my statutes);


    2016: “Tatram,” “an eclectic instrumental power trio for in Israel in 2011 is scheduled to perform this evening at Iridium.


    2016: “Facts on the Ground,” a solo exhibition of the works Shimon Attie at the Jack Sahinman Gallery is scheduled to end today.


    2016: The 17th annual Washington Music Festival is scheduled to open tonight with a performance by “Yemen Blues.”


    2016: A solo exhibition featuring the works of Tal Eshed is scheduled to end at Tanja Grunert Gallery.


    2016: The Northern Virginia Hebrew Congregation is scheduled to host its Casino Royale fundraising event.


    2017: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Testimony by Scott Turow, Grown-Up Anger: The Connected Mysteries of Bob Dylan, Woody Guthrie, and the Calumet Massacre of 1913 by Daniel Wolff, Light Come Shining: The Transformations of Bob Dylan by Andrew McCarron and Bob Dylan: The Lyrics by Bob Dylan.


    2017: As part of the Israel Festival “The Incubator Theater is scheduled to bring its treatment of “Job,” starring veteran actor Sasson Gabbay in the role of the tormented emissary, supported by Keren Hadar as Job’s wife to the Henry Crown Hall, Jerusalem Theater.”


    2017: “Shavuot Park Day” is scheduled to take place this afternoon at Hudson Springs Park in Cleveland, Ohio.


    2017: Author Marty Brounstein is scheduled to “share a remarkable true story of courage during the Holocaust, when Frans and Mien Wijnakker, a Catholic couple in a small town, saved the lives of over two dozen Jews in southern Holland during World War II at The Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center is scheduled to host


    2017: “Attorney Nitsana Darshan-Leitner who “has spent the past decade filing lawsuits for the victims of terror attacks against the governments, banks and corporations that enabled or financed the violence” is scheduled to “speak about her work in a live interview in Jerusalem” today.


    2017: The Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington is scheduled to host the “H Street, NE Stroller Tour” where attendees will visit a neighborhood once home to “75 Jewish-owned businesses.”


    2017: The Oxford University Jewish Society is scheduled to host an afternoon of “Punting and Picnics.”


    2017: In Stony Brook, New York, an exhibit entitled, “Brilliant Partners: Judith Leiber’s Handbags & The Art of Gerson Leiber” that “features nearly 200 examples of “his and her” art: 130 of her handbags and 50 of his pieces” is scheduled to come to an end today.


    2018: Marc Jacobs, who won the Council of Fashion Designers of America’s Lifetime Achievement Award in 2011 is scheduled to attend the organization’s award ceremony tonight at the Brooklyn Museum where he is one of the nominees for “the group’s top award, women’s wear designer of the year.”


    2018: The Temple Emanu-El Streicker Center is scheduled to host an evening with former Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and Secretary State of Collin Powell, the only Yiddish speaker to hold both of these positions.


    2018: The Straus Historical Society is scheduled to host its Silent Auction this evening.


    2018: The Oxford University Jewish Society is scheduled to host an evening with Rabbi Ram Winograd, the graduate of Hebrew University and Oxford who “resides as Judge at the Jerusalem District Court.”


    2018: In Los Angeles, Rabbi Mendel is scheduled to present the final session “Kabala of Communication – It’s Art and Soul.”


     


     


     


     


     


     


     


     


     


    0 0


    JUNE 5


    70: Titus and his Roman legions breach the middle wall of Jerusalem.


    1191 After conquering Cyprus, Richard the Lionheart and his Crusaders set sail for “the Holy Land.” This crusading left England in the control of Prince John who, amongst other things, exploited the Jewish subjects in a way that the King would not have approved of.


    1257:  Kraków, Poland receives city rights. Jews were probably among the earliest settlers of Krakow which was settled by traders from Germany.  Jews had been moving to Poland from Germany since the days of the Crusades.  Certainly there was a Jewish population in the town by the middle of the 14th century since the oldest synagogue in the town dates from a visit from Casimir the Great.


    1305: Raymond Bertrand de Got is elected Pope under the name Clement V who according to Elizabeth D. Malissa, “is the first pope to threaten Jews with an economic boycott in an attempt to force them to stop charging Christians interest on loans.”


    1316: The reign of Louis X who reluctantly permitted the Jews to France after he found out that their confiscated property had less value than the taxes that they were paying and that the Christians who had replaced the Jews were charging higher rates of interest when lending money, came to an end today.


    1443: Ten years before the Jews were expelled from Wroclaw in 1453, the capital city of the province of Lower Silesian in Poland was struck by an earthquake that registered 6 on the Richter Scale. 


    1507: In Pilsen, today marked the fourth and final in a series of fires that burned down all of the homes belonging to the Jews “burned down.”


    1632: Albrecth Wallenstein bought the estate at Reichenberg and then looked to Jews, particularly Jacob Bassewi, the “former Prague banker and merchant” to help “develop the economy of his territory.”


    1705(13th of Sivan): Manuel (Isaac Hayyim) Teixeira de Sampaio, passed away   202


    1772: In London, the Board denied the petition of Asher del Banco that would have allowed him to marry a “Tudesca.”


    1740(10th of Sivan)” Rabbi Eliezer Rokeah of Amsterdam, author Maaseh Rokeah passed away


    1788: As the newly formed United States groped for a form of government that would be an improvement over the Articles of Confederation, former Harvard President and leading clergyman “Samuel Langdon addressed the New Hampshire state legislature on the subject of “The Republic of the Israelites an Example to the American States.”  Langdon was one of those who saw the ancient Israelite society as providing the prototype for an American republic.  For example, he saw the Seventy Elders selected by Moses as a “Senate” and proof that the Israelites had a voice in the government, something he desired for the emerging United States of America.


    1791:Baruch (Barrak) Hays and his first wife Prudence gave birth to Jacob Hays.


    1793: Joel Emanuel and Julia Lazarus were married today at the Great Synagogue in London.


    1793: Henry Jacobs and Kitty Moses were married today at the Great Synagogue in London.


    1803(15th of Sivan, 5563): Dr. Abraham Kisch, the native of Prague who tutored Moses Mendelsohn in Latin and was director of the Meisel Hospital passed away today.


    1805: Lisa & Kahn one of the oldest banking houses in the Netherlands was founded today by two Polish Jews – Hirschel Eliazer Kahn and Moses Calmus Lissa.


    1806: Louis Napoléon Bonaparte, the brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, began his reign as King of Holland.Louis was supportive of his Jewish subjects and sought to make them full-fledged citizens of his Dutch kingdom. He “changed the market-day in some cities (Utrecht and Rotterdam) from Saturday to Monday” and abolished the use of the "Oath More Judaico" Henceforth, Jews and Christians would swear to the same oath when testifying. in the courts of justice, and administered the same formula to both Christians and Jews. In an attempt to improve their skills in the art of war, ‘’he formed two battalions of 803 men and 60 officers, all Jews.” Prior to his reign, the Jews had been until then excluded from military service. [Editor’s Note – It may seem strange to westerners living in the 21st century, but at that time, serving in the military was considered a sign of full-citizenship. If you will remember the story of Asser Levy and his fight to serve in the militia in New Amsterdam you will understand the importance of what Louis did.]


    1807: In New Haven, CT, Isaac Pinto, the son of Jacob and Abigail Pinto and his wife Maria PInto gave birth to Henry Marshall Pinto


    1818: “Loeb Baruch went to Rödelheim and was baptized by Pastor Bertuch as a convert to the Lutheran Church; assuming the name of "Karl Ludwig Börne.”


    1819: In London, Solomon Ben Masud Ben Abraham Sebag and Sarah Goldsmid gave birth to Jemima Sebag-Montefiore the sister of Sir Joseph Sebag-Montefiore.


    1822: Abraham Davis and Catherine Harris were married today at the Great Synagogue in London.


    1828: Rabbi Nathan Marcus Adler “received a doctorate from the University of Erlangen for a dissertation on a philosophical subject.”


    1828: In Durbach, Germany, Emanuel and Johanna Bodenheimer gave birth to Jakob Bodenheimer.


    1829: Birthdate of Marcus Jastrow, the Polish born Talmudist who would become the Rabbi at Rodeph Shalom in Philadelphia, PA.



    1832: Thanks to the work of the late Ezekiel Hart who had been denied his seat in the legislature in 1809 and his son Samuel Hart, the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada, passed the 1832 Emancipation Act that ultimately guaranteed full rights to people practicing the Jewish faith.  Canada was a trend setter since it would be 27 years before such a measure was passed any place in the British Empire.


    1835(8thof Sivan, 5595): Rabbi Mattathias di Moses Zacuto and 47 other people including Rabbi Raphael Amar died today when a building collapsed during a wedding celebration in Alessandra, Italy.


    1837: Houston, Texas is incorporated by the Republic of Texas. By 1854, there were enough Jews living in Houston for the establishment of cemetery and by 1859 the Jewish community was large enough to get a charter for what was the first congregation in Texas in 1859. The Congregation, Beth Israel, began as an Orthodox synagogue, but became a Reform congregation some fifteen years later.


    1838: Jacob Kann married Amalie de Jonge.


    1843(7thof Sivan, 5603): Second Day of Shavuot


    1847: In Baltimore, MD, “Helena and William Saks” gave birth to Andrew Saks who with his brother Isadore opened Saks and Company which came to be known as Sakes Fifth Avenue.



    1848: In Breslau, Silesia, Rabbi Abraham Geiger and his wife gave birth to author and historian Ludwig Geiger.


    1849: In Denmark, article 84 of the new constitution negated discrimination of "any person on the basis of religious grounds." This removed the last restriction on the Jews making them full citizens.


    1850: Hyman Davis and Isabella Davis were married today at the Great Synagogue in London.


    1854: In Marisfeld, Germany, Abraham Friedman and his wife gave birth to Meyer Friedman, the husband of Carrie Fist who was a director of the Daniels Bank, United States National Bank and Denver Credit Men’s Association as well as the national trustee and vice-chairman of the Local Board of Managers of the National Jewish Hospital for Consumptives in Denver, Colorado.


    1855: In New York City, “The Jews’ Hospital” opened for patients today.  While the hospital may have been intended to serve destitute and newly arrived Jews, its mission soon changed.  During the Civil War it treated untold number of Union casualties beginning with those who were wounded during McClellan’s Peninsular Campaign. It was originally located on West 28th Street in Manhattan. It changed its name to Mt. Sinai Hospital in 1866.


    1860:Emily Jane Mires, the daughter of Franco-Jewish financier Jules Mires, married Prince Alphonse de Polignac the second son of President of the Council of Ministers. In 1861 the couple had a daughter named Jeanne


    1861: During the American Civil War,Frederick Knefler was promoted from the rank of lieutenant to captain in the 11th Indiana Infantry.  Knefler would eventually work his way up to the chain of command to become a Brigadier General.  His commanding officer in the 11thIndiana was Lew Wallace, author of Ben Hur, the 19th century classic set in Judea with a Jewish hero.  Wallace and Knefler were friends before the war.


    1867: Today in London, Middlesex native Rebecca Henriques Valentine married David Moss  with whom she had six children.


    1870: Today's "Foreign Items" column reported that Warsaw, Poland, has a population of 254,561 of which 67,584 are Jews.


    1870: Birthdate of German born oncologist Ferdinand Blumenthal.


    1870(6th of Sivan, 5630): First Day of Shavuot


    1870: During Shavuot Services, seven young ladies and four young men took part in Temple Israel’s first ever Confirmation Ceremony.  Services were led by Rabbi Raphael D.C Lewis of Brooklyn, NY. The service began at ten in the morning with the hymn Adon Olom which was sung to the accompaniment of organist Morris Abrahams.


    1870: Members of the Temple Israel confirmation class and their parents visited the home of Rabbi D.C. Lewin this evening where they presented him with a pair of engraved silver goblets as a token of their appreciation for his work with them.


    1870: According to reports published today, Temple Emanuel located on New York’s Fifth Avenue had a total income of $97, 627.70 this past fiscal year with expenses of $38,179.52 that included such items as salary for the staff (21,500); choir and organ (5,425.76); school (1,708.44) and insurance (2,301.39).  The income included payments for pews in the amount of 34,425.92 and 17,344.70 from “the charity collection for the year.  As to membership, the Temple “has 3059 pew owners and 61 seat holders.”


    1870:The New Persecution of the Jews” published today described the persecution of Jews at the hand of Romanian Christians as being “so savage and so causeless, the civilized world can be one sentiment – that of immeasurable indignation.” After providing a succinct, sympathetic picture of Jewish history while drawing a picture of Jewish suffering at the hands of Christians the article describes the positive nature of the American Jew.   “Not one of all the multitude of nationalities which we have received among us can boast of so large a proportion of peaceful and law-abiding members.  A Jew in prison is a thing almost unheard of; a Jew soliciting public charity has yet to be found; a Jew who boast of his caste, grows noisy over his religion or reviles that of his neighbors, if he exist at all, has become known to the general community…It is only bigotry which represents a Jew as an object of hatred or aversion.  To that race we owe much of our civilizations, and all the religion we possess.  It has endured persecution through generation after generation and has never evinced any disposition to retaliate….It is to be hoped that the United States Government will do all in its power to check the hideous massacre lately begun in Rumania.”


    1876: “A Moor stabbed eleven Jews” today at Alcassar, a Moroccan city in the Province of Fez.  Among the wounded are Moses Abecasis.


    1877: Reports reaching Bucharest that American Jews have petitioned Secretary of State W.M. Evarts on behalf of their co-religionists in Romania and Turkey “has created considerable “amount of “astonishment” among Jews and non-Jews alike.


    1877: Jacob and Therese Schiff gave birth to Mortimer Leo Schiff, banker, philanthropist and early supporter of the Boy Scouts of America.


    1878: Today “Johan A, Kasson, the U.S. Minister to Austria” became “the first diplomatic representative to officially recommend action at the Congress of Berlin on the subject of the removal of Jewish disabilities.”


    1881: A group of Polish Jews fought back today on Hester Street when two members of the “border gang” –John Reilly and Thomas Sinclair – began torment them.  Reilly responded to the Jewish resistance by drawing his revolver and shooting indiscriminately at the Jews. Louis Wolf was wounded by one of the shots which was heard by two 7th Precinct Detectives who chased down the fleeing thugs and arrested them.


    1881: In “An Eastern Story,” a reviewer examines the recently published Rabbi Jeshua, a book that is described as “peculiar” because of the “parallelism which exists between the history of Rabbi Jeshua and the founder of Christianity.


    1882: It was reported today that an Austrian physician had seen more than 125 “mutilated Jews” at a hospital in Odessa.  He described the wounds as being “of a very dangerous character.”  The attackers showed a spirit of cruelty by pouring spirits and petroleum into the wounds. One woman had her breast cut off while her one year old child had its eyes put out with a red hot iron.  At this time there are 3,000 homeless orphans wondering the area. (Editor’s note – You can draw a straight line from these reports to the meetings being held in the United States on how to cope with the rising tide of Jews fleeing Russia)


    1882: It was reported today that “a colonization society” with a capitalization of a million dollar is to be formed to implement plans to settle Russian Jews in homesteads and other agricultural settlements in the American West.


    1882 (18th of Sivan, 5642): Fifty six year old Alexander Abraham de Sola passed away. Born in 1825, he was a Canadian Rabbi, author, Orientalist, and scientist. Originating from a large renowned family of Rabbis and scholars, De Sola was recognized there as one of the most powerful leaders of Orthodox Judaism in the United States during the latter half of the nineteenth century. Born in London, England, the sixth child of David Aaron de Sola and Rebecca Meldola, his maternal grandfather was Haham Raphael Meldola, a prominent English Rabbi. His sister Eliza, married Rabbi Abraham Pereira Mendes, and was the mother of Dr. Frederick de Sola Mendes.In 1873, by invitation of President Ulysses S. Grant's administration, De Sola opened the United States Congress with prayer. This invitation might have had a double significance at the time.  By asking a rabbi to provide the opening prayer, Grant was once against providing evidence that he was not an anti-Semite.  By asking a British rabbi to provide an opening prayer, the administration might have been signaling its desire to improve relations with Great Britain.


    1882: The Musée Grévin, opened today in Paris. Arthur Meyer was the co-founder of what has become a very popular waxwork museum.  The grandson of a Rabbi, he was born in Le Harve in 1844 and became a major publisher in the French newspaper business.  His role as “press baron” reminds one of that played by Jews in other countries.  Like other Jewish moguls of journalism, he converted, in his case to Catholicism and he was a member of the anti-Dreyfus forces.


    1883: In Paris Béatrice de Rothschild married Maurice Ephrussi in what some might have considered more of banking merger than a love-match.


    1883: Birthdate of English economist John Maynard Keynes, whom most people know as the father of Keynesian Economics but do not know as “a venomous anti-Semite who could have given Richard Wagner a run for his money” who said the Jews “have in them deep-rooted instincts that are antagonistic and therefore repulsive to the European, and their presence among us is a living example of the insurmountable difficulties that exist in merging race characteristics, in making cats love dogs ...It is not agreeable to see civilization so under the ugly thumbs of its impure Jews who have all the money and the power and brains.”


    1885: Birthdate of French journalist and political leader Geroges Mandel who served in the Chamber of Deputies where he warned of the danger presented by the Nazis and Fascists.  He joined the Resistance and was cruelly murdered by the Vichy paramilitary forces.


    1885(22nd of Sivan, 5645): Eighty-year old Sir Julius Benedict the German born composer and conductor who “conducted Felix Mendelssohn's Elijah at Exeter Hall, for the first appearance of Jenny Lind in oratorio” and “wrote a march for the wedding of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales and Alexandra of Denmark in 1863” passed away today.


    1886: On Shabbat most of the Rabbis in Philadelphia spoke to their congregations about the unwillingness of the school superintendent to allow the Jewish students to make-up the final exams which are scheduled to be given on Shavuot.  The superintendent has refused to make any accommodation and failure to take the exams could result in failing for the school year.  The Rabbis “cautioned the young of their congregations against attending school on the upcoming festival.”


    1886:William Eugene Blackstone, the author of the Blackstone Memorial, married Sarah Lee Smith.  The Blackstone Memorial was a petition signed by many prominent Americans calling for the return of the Jews to Palestine which was sent to President Benjamin Harrison.


    1887: It was reported today that rumors are circulating concerning a proposal to make Pope Leo XIII King of Palestine under a protection of all the Catholic powers.  Some see this is a way to compensate the Pope for having lost his temporal powers in Italy at the time of the reunification.  The proposal does not take into consideration the fact that the Russians, who are Orthodox, feel they have a special role to play in the Holy Land as do the Anglican British. The report concedes that nobody has taken into consideration how the Jews and Moslems would feel about governance under a Papal monarch.


    1889(6th of Sivan, 5649): Shavuot


    1889: In Vienna, Hugo Thimig and his wife gave birth to actress Helen Thimig who was married to Max Reinhardt from 1935 until his death in 1943 who “went into exile in the United States during the Nazi era.”


    1892: Founding of the Jewish community of Oslo, Norway.


    1892: Professor Edward North of Hamilton College is scheduled to deliver a lecture “The Inter-Correspondences of Hebrew and Greek.”


    1892: Congregation B’nai Jeshurun hosted its annual reception for its religious school this afternoon.


    1893: The Jewish shirtmakers expect that five hundred of them will be “locked out” by the Shirt Contractors’ Association today as the association moves to “break” the union.


    1895: Samuel Castin is being held by authorities on charges that he sold $4,500 worth of jewelry that did not belong to him and kept the money for himself.  Castin is known as “Jew Sam.” (Everybody was not a Talmud student)


    1897: “Books on Many Themes” published today provides a series of brief reviews including one on The Prophets of Israel by Professor C. H. Cornhill who “having studied the history of Assyria, Babylon and Egypt shows the true origins of the religion.”


    1897: Publication of a review of The Myths of Israel by Amos K. Fikse which is a sequel to his previous work, The Jewish Scriptures.


    1898: Approximately “sixty young girls arrayed in white and a quarter of as many boys” from the Hebrew Free Schools took part in the Confirmation ceremonies at the Educational Alliance Building


    1898: “Society Notes” published today described plans for an upcoming “patriotic tea in commemoration of Alexander Hamilton” sponsored by St. Luke’s Church which include a performance by the Hebrew Orphan Asylum Band. (Ed. Note – You have to wonder if the people at St. Luke’s Church appreciated the irony of a band made up of Jewish orphans playing in honor of Alexander Hamilton)


    1899(27th of Sivan, 5659): German printer, publisher and bookseller, Hirsch Fishl passed away in Berlin. Sometime after 1860, while living in Halberstadt, Hirsch developed a specialty of buying and selling Hebrew books and manuscripts.  Hirsch provided Joseph Zender with many of the incunabula and rare books that were part of the first collection of Hebrew Books created for the British Museum.  He also provided assistance for The Bodleian Library and the Rosenthal Library at Amsterdam when they sought to acquire Jewish and Hebrew Books.  (As reported by Singer and Van Straalen)


    1899: In New York City, the Health Board “established a quarantine in the grammar department of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society” following the discovery of three cases of diphtheria.


    1899: Today Alfred Dreyfus was “notified of the decision of the Supreme Court” that would lead to his being shipped back from Devil’s Island where his case would be reheard.


    1899: “A meeting of the members of the Educational Alliance and the Hebrew Free School Association of the City of New York was held” tonight at Temple Emanu-El “to ratify the agreement for the consolidation of the two institutions as provided for by a recent act of the Legislature.”


    1900: Birthdate of Victor Kluger who worked with Miep Gies and others to hide eight people including Anne Frank for two years.


    1904: Max Meyerhardt and Dora Meyerhardt gave birth to Julius Max Meyerhardt.


    1908(6thof Sivan, 5668) Shavuot


    1908: In White Plains, NY, Felix and Frieda Warburg give birth to their fifth and youngest child Edward Mortimer Morris Warburg


    1909: Birthdate of actor and director Henry Levin.


    1912: Birthdate of Arnold Forster, an American Jewish leader, lawyer and writer who became a longtime executive of the Anti-Defamation League of B’nai B’rith.


    1914: Birthdate of Estelle Lebost, the native of the Bronx who gained fame as Estelle Reiner, the wife of  multi-talented Carl Reiner and mother of Rob Reiner, “Meathead” on “All In the Family.”



    1915: It was a reported today estimated that there were “about 100,000 homeless people” in the region around Lodz with about 22,000 living at Lomza.


    1915: It was reported today that at a recent conference of the Jewish Aid Society in Moscow “it was decided to appeal to Jews throughout Russia for aid” for the homeless “and a plan was discussing for taxing wealthy Jews for the benefit” of those suffering the privations of the World War.


    1915: As of today, copies of the resolution adopted by the citizens of Rochester, NY calling for the commutation of Leo Frank’s sentence are on their way to the Georgia Prison Commission and the Governor of Georgia.


    1915: According to reports published today “the more than 3,000 Galician Jews living in Jerusalem “are on the verge of destitution” because of they no longer received support from the Jews of Galicia due to the World War.


    1915: It was reported today that Dr. A.S. Blumenthal, a rabbi from Palestine, has arrived in New York bearing “letters of introduced to Nathan Straus” asking for his help in raising money for the Jews of Palestine who have been impoverished by the war – an effort that has been endorsed by Austro-Hungarian Consuls in both New York and Jerusalem.


    1915: “Russian distrust of the Jews is shown by an alleged secret order issued by the General of the Russian Army and distributed to the commanding officers in Poland and Galicia” published in New York today which claims that Jews provide food and shelter for the German Army while serving as spies.  “To remedy this alleged condition it is ordered that when the Russians enter a town…the leaders of the Jewish community be taken and held as hostages” and that “at the same time a warning should be given to all Jews that if any one of them should in any way help the enemy even after we have left the town, these Jewish leaders will killed.”


    1915: Atlanta Mayor James G. Woodward is awaiting reinforcements from the Governor because he is afraid that the police force will not be able to control the demonstrators gathering in the city to express their support for the execution of Leo Frank.


    1915: The Colonization Committee of Petrograd sent a cable today to the American Jewish Relief Committee describing the “acute and indescribable distress” the Jews are suffering and stating that “sums collected” for their relief have been “completely exhausted.”


    1915: In Atlanta, over 4,000 people attended a mass meeting held tonight on the grounds of the State Capitol where “resolutions protesting against the commutation of the death sentence imposed upon Leo M. Fran for the murder of Mary Phagan were adopted.


    1915: “Hollins N. Randolph, one of the leading lawyers of Atlanta and the counsel for the Federal Reserve Board…sent a letter to the Prison Commission expressing his doubts about the guilt of Leo Frank and urging clemency.


    1916: “Former Judge Leon Sanders, President of the Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society said” tonight “that C.L. Marcus a financial agent of the society had gone to Europe about two weeks ago in order to see that the persons to whom relief funds had been sent go their money.”


    1916: President Wilson responded positively to a request by Representative London of New York that he “take every opportunity to assist the Jews in Russia to obtain relief from oppressive conditions.”


    1916: Rabbi de Sola Mendes is scheduled to officiate at the marriage of Dorothy H. Bronner, “ daughter of Mrs. William H. Bronner and Arthur M. Levy, a son of former Tax Commissioner Ferdinand Levy and Mrs. Levy” which will be followed by a wedding breakfast at the St. Regis Hotel.


    1916: Sixty-five year old Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, simply known as Lord Kitchener, the Secretary of State for War (the top military post in the UK) died today when the HMS Hampshire which was taking him to Russia was sunk by a German U-boat. The first major event in his storied career was his participation at the age of 24 in came to known as the Survey of Western Palestine a major mapping expedition that covered what is today Israel, Gaza and Judea/Samaria. The survey had provided the basis for many later archaeological and geographic expeditions and even provided the coordinates that would set the modern border between Lebanon and Israel.


    1916: After a bruising confirmation process laced with anti-Semitism that lasted for more than four Louis Brandeis became the first Jewish Justice of the United States Supreme Court when he took the oath of office in the courtroom of the United States Supreme Court.  The chamber was filled to capacity with family members, well-wishers and government officials including Secretary of War Baker, Attorney General Gregory, Senator Nelson of Colorado and Senator Martin of Virginia. “The oath was administered to Mr. Brandeis today by virtue of the action of the Senate in waiving its three-day notification rule providing that a person confirmed by the Senate shall not assume office until three days after he is notified of his appointment.”


    1917: During World War I, in the United States registration began under the Selective Draft Act covering all men between the ages of twenty one and thirty.  According to historian Martin Gilbert, the New York Times declared that this act gave “’gave a long and sorely needed means of disciplining a certain insolent foreign element in this nation.’ The reference was to America’s Jews, whose pacifist elements were no greater, by proportion than those of other Americans.  Universal military service, one American rabbi insisted, was an institution deriving from the time of Moses.  In support of this pro-war view there was also a verse in the Psalms which British Jews had cited two years earlier as a religious justification for to war: ‘Blessed be the Lord, my Rock, Who teaches my hands to war and my fingers to fight.’ Within two months of the passage of the Selective Draft Act, Jews made up 6 per cent of the American armed forces, though they were only 2 per cent of the population.”  The most of those Jews in uniform would be Irving Berlin.


    1917: This afternoon, the Women’s Club of the Jewish Educational Alliance is scheduled to give a whist party to raise money for a children’s playground in Chicago.


    1917: In Pittsburg, PA, Dr. Lee L. Frankel of New York City presided over the evening session of the annual convention of the National Association of Jewish Social Workers.


    1918(25th of Sivan, 5678): Twenty-six year All American Center and Princeton graduate who had been a member of the French Lafayette Escadrille since 1917 was shot down “in aerial combat with four German planes while directing artillery fire today near Maignelay, France, 50 miles north of Paris.


    1919(7th of Sivan 5679) Second Day of Shavuot


    1920: The “monster fair and bazaar” sponsored by Temple Emanu-el at Boro Park is scheduled to open today at the Y.M.H.A. building in Brooklyn.


    1921: Funeral services are scheduled to be held today for Dr. Simon Baruch, father of Bernard Baruch, at the West End Synagogue in New York City.


    1921: Graduation exercise for students attending the Jewish Theological Seminary and the Teachers’ Institute are scheduled to begin at three o’clock this afternoon in Aeolian Hall.


    1923: Sam and Annie Stein Lazarus gave birth to Ralph Lazarus, the fourth of their five children.


    1924: In Wiener Nestadt, Austria, Max and Ida Zimmer, both of whom died in “concentration camps during the Holocaust” gave birth to Margarete Zimmer who came to United States at the age of 15 and gained fame as Greta Zimmer Friedman, the girl who was photographed being kissed by a stranger—a Navy sailor—on V-J Day 1945 by Life photographer Alfred Eisenstaedt.”



    1926: In Budapest, “Tivadar Schwartz, a well-connected Jewish lawyer, publisher, investor and former officer in the Austro-Hungarian Army, and the former Erzebet Szucz, the daughter of a well-to-do fabric store owner” gave birth to Paul Schwartz who gained fame as Paul Soros. (As reported by Robert D. Hershey, Jr.)


    1930:Birthdate of Jerome Howard Abrams who, as Jerry Ames, became a major force in the field of American Tap Dance. The 2006 recipient of the Flo Bert Award for his lifetime contribution to tap dance changed his name, like many other performers of his era, because his “Jewishness” could hinder his career. 


    1930 Manny Shinwell completed his service as Financial Secretary to the War Office and began serving in the Cabinet as the Secretary for Mines.


    1931: Eighty-one year old John Lawson Stoddard, the American author whose support for “the restoration of the Jews in Israel” was encapsulated in his statement “You are a people without a country; there is a country without a people. Be united. Fulfill the dreams of your old poets and patriarchs. Go back, go back to the land of Abraham.”


    1932: Dr. Cyrus Adler announced that Dr. Morris D. Levine has been appointed to a full professorship at the Jewish Theological Seminary of America.


    1932: Dr. Cyrus Adler was honored today during the commencement exercises at the Jewish Theological Seminary for his thirty years of service to this flagship institution of the Jewish community.


    1932: Ten new rabbis will be ordained today at the 7th annual commencement exercises of the Jewish Institute of Religion. The chairman of the board of Trustees, Judge Julian W. Mack will preside at the event being held at Carnegie Hall and Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, President of the Institute will confer the degrees on the newly minted clergyman.


    1933: “Irving Wexler, better known as Waxey Gordon, wealthy beer distributer and racketeer who has pleaded not guilty to charge of income tax evasion is scheduled to appear in court today when the judge will set a trial date.


    1933: Arturo Toscaninii boycotts a German music festival to protest Nazi repression of what the regime classified as “degenerate artists.”


    1934: “The Most Precious Thing in Life” a romantic drama with a script co-authored by Dore Schary was released today in the United States.


    1934: Tensions began to rise today in Eastern Thrace that would lead to full blown violence during June and July known as the Thrace Pogroms which was the name given to a series of violent attacks on the Jews by Moslem Turks in the “cities of Tekirdağ, Edirne, Kırklareli, and Çanakkale.” The violence began with boycotts of Jewish shops and products which “was followed by vandalizing of Jewish houses and shops.”  There is a dispute as to who caused the violence.  Some attribute it to leaders who were pro-Nazi while others attribute it to members of Atatürk's Republican People's Party.  Who started the violence may be a matter of dispute but the effects are a matter of record. “Over 15,000 Jews had to flee from the region.”


    1935: The Metropolitan League of Jewish Community Associations honored The American Jewish Olympic team which recently competed in the Maccabiah games held in Tel Aviv at a reception held at the 92nd Street Y.M.H.A. The three hundred attendees included E.J. Londow, the chairman, Judge Jonah Goldstein and Rabbi Louis I. Newman. Among the honorees were Jance Lifson, Dores Kelm, William Steiner and Martin Weintraub.


    1935(4th of Sivan, 5695): Sixty-nine year old Menshevik and supporter of the Communist International Aleksandr Martynov, the native of Pinks, passed away today in Moscow.


    1936: It was reported today that 77 year old Miss Bertha Pappenheim the “writer, Jewish feminist leaders, crusader against white slave traffic” whose literary works including a translation from Yiddish to German the memoirs of Gluckel von Hameln, the noted Jewish writer from whom she was descended” has passed away in New Isenberg.


    1936: “Private Number,” a drama co-starring Joe E. Lewis was released in the United States today.


    1937: Birthdate of Benjamin Jerry Cohen the native of  Ossining, New York who I”s the Louis G. Lancaster Professor of International Political Economy at the University of California, Santa Barbara.… where he has been a member of the faculty since 1991” and “teaches undergraduate and graduate courses on international political economy.”


    1937: In Oran, Algeria, Eve (nee Klein) and George Cixous gave birth to Hélène Cixous “a professor, French feminist writer, poet, playwright, philosopher, literary critic and rhetorician.”


    1937: It was reported today that “all Jews except those who renounced Judaism are excluded from” The Camp of National Unity which “is designed to be the organization of the Polish nation” and “intends to dominate the policy of the government” in much the same way that the Nazi Party dominates the policy of the German government.


    1938(6thof Sivan, 5698) Shavuot


    1938: Sigmund Freud, his wife Martha and daughter Anna arrived in Paris from Vienna on their way to seek refuge in London.


    1939: Governor Lehman delivered the commencement address today at Russell Sage College where he said that “the three most important principles of democracy are tolerance, loyalty and service.


    1940: “With the ever-increasing threat of war in the Eastern Mediterranean” the New York Times described preparations being made to defend Palestine from attacks by Axis forces.  Palestine is an attractive target because Haifa is the terminus of the oil pipeline from Iraq and has become one of the busiest ports in this part of the world. Additionally, Palestine has become “one of the largest manufacturing centers in the Near East” thanks in large part to the influx of Jewish settlers from Germany and other parts of Europe over the last seven years. The Jews of Palestine are committed to the defense of area and are determined to stay put and deal with any invasion.


    1940: Birthdate of David Brudnoy, Boston talk radio host


    1940: “Deputy Chief Gertrude D.T. Schimmel, the second highest ranking woman ever in the New York City Police Department began her career as a policewoman” today.