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A collection of Jewish history and current Jewish events, in date format, updated daily in this Jewish history blog.

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    August 27

    410: The sacking of Rome by the Visigoths ends after three days. Some view the Visigoths as just one more group of barbarians that helped to bring an end to the Roman Empire.  But that is only part of the story. The Visigoths were Arians and they supplanted the anti-Jewish Catholic hierarchy, when they took control of parts of what is now Spain later in the 5th Century. For the Visigoths, the Catholics were synonymous with their Roman enemy but they had no animosity for the Jews.  They took advantage of their unique skills and the Jews repaid them by taking a leading role in defending the passes of the Pyrenees against invasion from the Catholic Franks and Burundians.   All this would come to an end in the last half of the sixth century when the Visigoth kings converted to Catholicism and adopted the anti-Jewish policies espoused by the Church.

    1097(16th of Elul): Samuel ben Shealtiel ha-Nasi passed away.

    1255: The day on which Hugh of Lincoln reportedly died. Discovery of his body two days later touched off one of the first, if not the first, Blood Libel.

    1490: The Grand Inquisitor, Tomas de Torquemada issued an indictment ordering the transfer of the prisoners from Segovia to Ávila to await trial on charges of having murdered an alleged victim of Jewish ritual murder who came to be known as The Holy Child of La Guardia.

    1523: Cardinal Domenico Grimani who when asked by the German scholar Johann Reuchlin for a tutor on Hebrew Literature, recommended Rabbi Obadiah ben Jacob Sforno, passed away today.

    1556: The reign of Charles, the King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor who dealt with the rise of the Protestant faith in the Netherlands in several ways including issue edicts “against Jews who had not been baptized” on several different occasions came to end when he had to abdicate due to declining health.

    1590: Papacy of Sixtus V came to end. There seem to be competing view on how he treated the Jews.  According to one source “the condition of the Jews was somewhat improved. He repealed many of the regulations established by his predecessors, permitted Jews to reside in all parts of his realm, and gave Jewish physicians freedom to practice their profession.” While another contends that “he revoked Pope Gregory’s policies allowing Jews to reside in the Papal States and to print the Talmud.”

     1698:(18 Elul): Birthdate of Rabbi Yisroel (Israel) ben Eliezer (רבי ישראל בן אליעזר often called Baal Shem Tov or Besht.  There is no way to even begin writing about his effect on Judaism. 

    1770:  Birthdate of German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. In his article “Sublimity and Resentment: Hegel, Nietzsche, and the Jews,” Yirmiyahu Yovel offers the following comment about Hegel and the Jews.  ‘According to the Hegelian dialectic, every cultural form makes some true, genuine contribution to world history (and the world Spirit), after which it is sublated (aufgehoben) and disappears from the historical scene. Yet the Jews continued to survive long after their raison d'tre had disappeared--indeed, after they no longer had a genuine history in Hegel's sense but merely existed as the dead corpse of their extinguished essence. With the French Revolution, the Jews were entering the modern world and claiming their rights and place within it. Hegel, despite his anti-Jewish bias, was perfectly disposed to grant these rights, but he did not know what to do with the Jews in modernity as Jews, nor could he explain their survival in terms of his system.”

    1743: Henry Pelham, the Prime Minister who would pass the Jew of Act of 1753 assumed office today.

    1776: The British defeated American forces under the command of George Washington at the Battle of Brooklyn Heights in the first of a series of military actions that will lead to the British taking control of the city of New York for the duration of the war.  While most of New York’s Jewish population favored independence, the community was split between Rebels and Tories; a splitt which was even felt at Shearith Israel.

    1779: In Charleston, SC, Gershon Cohen married Rebecca Sazrzedas, the daughter of the late Abraham Sarzedas from Georgia.

    1782: While in Philadelphia, James Madison wrote to Edmund Randolph, I cannot in any way make you more sensible of the importance of your kind attention to pecuniary remittances for me than by informing you that I have for some time been a pensioner on the favor of Haym Salomon, a Jew Broker.”

    1793(19th of Elul, 5553): Abraham Aaron (Abraham ben Uri HaCohen of Hichburg) passed away today in London.

    1794:Simon Magruder Levy distinguished himself at the Battle of Fallen Timbers while serving as an Orderly Sergeant under General "Mad Anthony" Wayne.

    1801: Birthdate of Ludwig Hirzel who taught Hebrew at the Carolinum in Zurich and whose included a Commentary on the Book of Job that was so popular it went through three editions after having first appeared in 1839.

    1813: Birthdate of Moses Polydore Millaud, a native of Bordeaux who gained fame as the found of Le Petit Journal

    1816: Birthdate of Polish born Jewish journalist Aleksander Zederbaum who in 1860 founded Ha-Meliz, the first Hebrew language periodical published in Russia.

    1825(13th of Elul, 5585) Parashat Ki Teitzei

    1825(13th of Elul, 5585): Seventy-three year old Flora Aarons (Bluma bat Eleazer), the widow of Aaron Aarons passed away today in England.

    1828: Jacob Montefiore married Justina Lydia Gompertz today.

    1834: In New Orleans, LA Clarice Allain and George Eustis gave birth to James B. Eustis who was the U.S. Ambassador to France during the Dreyfus Affair.

    1840: Sixty-year old Herman Wedel Jarlsberg, the Norwegian count who opposed the ban Jews settling in his country passed away today.

    1845: Isaac ben Eliezer HaLevi married Rebekah bat Moshe at the Great Synagogue today.

    1846: Charles V. Lewis married Eliza Isaacs today.

    1854: Birthdate of Marx Warley Platzek, a native of North Carolina, member of the 1894 New York Constitutional Convention tand he New York Supreme Court Judge who was President of the YMHA and a “benefactor of the American Jewish Historical Society.”

    1857: Birthdate of Max Szabolcsi, author and newspaper editor who wrote numerous articles about the blood libel known as the Tisza-Eszlár affair

    1858: Sixteen year old Nathan Cohen arrived in Tamworth, Australia so he could go to work in his Uncle William Cohen’s store on Ebsworth Street

    1861: Birthdate of Edward Aaron who was buried in The Jewish Cemetery in Natchitoches, LA when he passed away in 1913 at the age of 51.


    1861: Philadelphian Samuel Alexander enlisted in the 44thRegiment where he served as an Assistant Surgeon until he was killed during the fighting at Dranesville, VA in November.

    1862: Henry Berg began serving as a Private in Company E of the 107th Regiment – service which would lead to his being wounded in fighting near Richmond in October of 1863?

    1863: Two days after he had passed away, 63 year old businessman and author Israel Albu, the husband of the former Johana Cohen with whom he had five children was buried today at the Lauriston Road Jewish Cemetery.

    1864: The New York Times published a letter in which the author complained about the difficulty in getting a naval substitute.  He ties his complaints about the process to involvement of the Jews.  He claimed that all of the locations where one goes to complete the forms are “all located either above or alongside of Jew clothing stores,” that the naval substitutes are coerced into buying their outfits at these Jewish clothing stores and that Jews attempt to extort cash from the participants that they then split with government officials.  [Ed. Note – The author is a draft dodger.  Under the law, a draftee could buy a substitute to serve in his place.  This reinforced the concept that it was rich man’s war and poor man’s fight.  The system was amazingly corrupt and led to the infamous Draft Riots of 1863 in New York City.

    1867: In Tamworth, Australia, Esther and Nathan Cohen gave birth to Ida Cohen who married her first cousin Victor Cohen in 1901 with whom she had three sons: George, Nathan and Alan

    1867: In Memphis, TN, Netherlands native Jacob Joseph Peres and Eve Chute Peres gave birth to Yale trained lawyer Israel Hyman Perex who served on the School Board and was a member of the YMHA.

    1867: Following his trip to Romania, Sir Moses Montifore wrote a letter to Prince Charles concerning the treatment of the Jews of Romania.  Prince Charles will eventually be crowned as King Carlos I.

    1868: Six days after he had passed away, Hamburg native Joseph Baum, “the son of Peter Frederick Baum” and the former “Hannah Behrens” was buried today at the West Ham Jewish Cemetery.

    1869(20th of Elul, 5629); Rebecca Gratz passed away.  Born in 1781 to a prominent Jewish family in Pennsylvania, Gratz spent most of her adult life in Philadelphia where she was the patron of many philanthropic and social organization aimed at benefiting the Jewish community. She is best known as the founder of the Jewish Sunday School.  “In 1838 Gratz and the women of the congregation of Mikveh Israel established the first Hebrew Sunday School in the United States, which served as the model for all others that followed.”  Gratz, who was quite lovely and never married, was reputed to be the model for Rebecca, the heroine in Sir Walter Scott’s novel, Ivanhoe. [Ed. Note – a Jewish connection: When Hollywood turned Ivanhoe into a big screen delight during the 1950’s, Elizabeth Taylor played the part of the Jewess Rebecca.  Taylor would convert to Judaism when she married Mike Todd.]

    1871: It was reported today that the editor of the Jewish Times supports “American Jewish Seminary” for the training of rabbis in America. The editor contends that the Hebrew Orphan Asylum would provide a platform for creating such an institution since it would have a ready-made group of candidates and the additional training could be added on to the courses already offered by the Asylum.

    1875: Birthdate of Albert M. Hyamson who was honored with the OBE for his work as the immigration officer in Palestine and who was the husband of Marie Rose Lavey with whom he had two sons Captain Theodore Hyamson and Corporal Philipp Hyamson both of whom were killed during WW II.

    1877: Outfielder Jay Pike made his major league debut with the Hartford Dark Blues


    1877: Jacob Emanuel “Jay” Pike played in his first and last major league baseball game today when he took the field for the Brooklyn Hartfords of the National League.  Pike went 1 for 4 giving him a batting average of .250. He was charged with 1 error but there is no record of his fielding average. Pike may have been part of the first Jewish Family entry in major league baseball.  His brother was Lipman Emanuel Pike whose career spanned sixteen seasons.  Pike “batted and threw left-handed. He is credited as the first ballplayer named Jay to appear in a major league game…Pike also played the outfield for the Lowell, Massachusetts team that won the 1875 state championship and claimed the New England title. That same year, he also served as an umpire in the National Association.”

    1878: In Vladislavov, Duvvid Schubart and Katrina Helwitz gave birth to their second son and fifth child theatrical producer Samuel S. “Sam” Schubert who along with his brothers built one of the most powerful “theatre empires” of the early twentieth century.

    1880: In Leadville, Colorado, Eva Schloss and Lottie Beaumont performed with the Pinafore Company at the Windsor Hotel.

    1882:  According to some, birthdate of movie mogul Sam Goldwyn. The confusion about his natal day was created by Sam himself.  He is the ‘G’ in MGM. As has been noted in previous items, Goldwyn was one of many Jewish immigrants who created Hollywood and the American Entertainment Industry. He passed away in 1974.

    1882: “The Jews of York” published today described the conditions under which “the persecuted race” lived in this English city during the 12th century.  During the reign of Henry II and his son Richard the Lionhearted, they enjoyed royal protection and prospered as could be seen by the “splendid houses” on Jubbergate.  All of that change when Richard left for the crusades and the citizens of York massacred the Jews.  While Richard expressed his displeasure, “no serous punishment was inflicted on the murderous people of York for their fiendish cruelty.”  Ironically, the city’s long term punishment came in the loss of commerce and prosperity.  Without the Jews to lend money, business went elsewhere.

    1882: It was reported that Professor Robertson Smith has written the article on “Lamentations” the new published edition of The Encyclopedia Britannica.  According to Smith, Jeremiah is traditionally viewed as the author of the text.  He sees a shift in the stance of the author as the book unfolds going from “an isolated figure among unsympathetic countrymen” to “a representative of Israel among the heathen.”

    1882: It was reported today that little Jacob Greenhaldt a Hungarian Jewish immigrant “who was badly injured by a street car about a month ago” is out of the hospital and back at work on the streets of Cleveland.  The boys are said to be “imbued with the spirit of trade” so characteristic of his race.  They may make hard bargains but they are never beggars.

    1882: “Facts About Street Gamins” published today described changing conditions on the streets of Cleveland, Ohio.  Immigrant Jewish boys from Hungary have replaced the Irish.  The Hungarians begin as shoe shine boys.  But as soon as they learn enough English, they begin work selling newspapers.

    1883: It was reported today that Nathan Gottgetren, a 35 year old Jew who uses the alias Nicholas Gilbert, will be appearing before the District Attorney in New York to faces multiple charges of forgery.

    1884(6th of Elul, 5644): Schaje Tripock an octogenarian Polish Jew living with his son in an apartment on Essex Street apparently took his own life today.  He was reported to “suffering from senile insanity.”

    1885: Birthdate of Natchez, Mississippi native and American architect Samuel Abraham Marx, the husband of Florence May and the son-in-law of David May, the founder of May Department Stores.

    1886: The Pope approved of the Hungarian Diet’s vote to reject a bill that would legalize marriages between Jews and Gentiles.

    1887: It was reported today that The Board of Managers of the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children has received a total of $3,238.95 in contributions.

    1887: Birthdate of  Pittsburgh native Rachel Vixman, the wife of Avrom H. Vixman and “a certified parliamentarian and authority on parliamentary procedure, who founded the Pittsburgh Chapter of Hadassah, served as national vice president of the organization in the United States and as associate director of the Canadian Chapter.”

    1889(30th of Av, 5649): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1890: Birthdate of Emmanuel Radnitzky, the native of Philadelphia who gained fame as “American modernist artist” Man Ray.

    1890: The 10thfree excursion sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children will set sail on the East River at 9 a.m. this morning.

    1891: “In Putzig, West Prussia, Germany, Herman and Jenny (Eisack) Eisenstadt”gave birth Dr. Joseph Herman Isenstead, a holder of the Iron Cross for his four years of service in the Medical Corps of the German Army in WW II who, along with his wife the former Elly Neuman, in 1936 came to the United States where he practiced “medicine specializing in the treatment of liver disease.”

    1891: In today’s editorial, the New York Times expresses its sympathy with the plight of the Russian Jews on board the SS Marsala who were barred from entering the United States but insists that under the law Superintendent O’Beirne had no choice in the matter. “The whole subject matter is a complicated one and it is like that the law will have to be amended in some particulars….”  (Sounds as if this could have been written in 2014 just as easily as 1891)

    1892: As cholera threatens to spread across Europe, “Hamburg is plague stricken today because it humanely too on itself the brunt of the burn of the” exodus of Jews from Russia.

    1892: A representative of “the Hebrew branch of the Federation of Labor” investigated conditions at Ziontown, NJ, where Jewish settlers who have been on strike for six weeks face “actual starvation.”

    1892: Four year old Ida Samyan the daughter of Russian Jews arrived today in London on a ship that came from Hamburg, Germany.

    1892: In New York, the Board of Health said that it does not know anything about a group of Jews from Odessa who were supposed to come to this city but instead went to Havre where they were to go to Boston.  (These reports are all given against the background of a cholera epidemic that is breaking out in Europe)

    1892: It was reported today that near Mariapol, Russia a mob ten thousand “terrorized the village killing several Jews” as they expressed their resentment over governmental measures to control cholera.1892: The first passenger train belonging to the Jaffa-Jerusalem Railway arrived in Jerusalem today. Reactions were mixed, with some local inhabitants declaring it to be the work of the devil. However, the Jewish Chronicle wrote: "The year 5653, which is about to burst upon us, will witness one of the grandest sights that have been known in many centuries. May it prove an unmixed blessing."  The Jaffa-Jerusalem Railway was the first modern railway line to open in the Middle East. The railway was built in response to the increasing demand of all the pilgrims who began visiting the Holy Land and specifically Jerusalem starting in the middle of the 19thcentury. In writing about the history of the railroad Anthony S. Travis notes that “building the railway was a tremendously ambitious undertaking, considering the local conditions. Hundreds of tons of rails were brought from Belgium, coal from Britain and rolling stock from France. The unloading of all this in Jaffa's primitive harbor presented an immense challenge. A report in Railway Magazine said it was "a wonder that all the materials for the railway were safely and without loss conveyed to their destination... Bulky but light articles, such as boiler barrels or water tanks, were thrown into the sea and tugged ashore..." The weather also presented difficulties, as heavy rains washed away the jetty, and in some places along the track bridges were destroyed. Despite other problems related to construction crews leaving to tend their crops, and outbreaks of disease in the work camps, work progressed fairly rapidly, and by December 4, 1891, the line had reached Deir Aban (today's Beit Shemesh). From there, construction was much more difficult, owing to the mountainous terrain. While the first train did reach Jerusalem in August, the official opening would not take place until September of 1892. Theodor Herzl, who took the train in 1898 on his way to meet Kaiser Wilhelm II, was not very impressed, calling the line a "miserable little railway." It was in stark contrast to the earlier part of his journey, in the luxurious Orient Express, with dining cars and sleeping accommodation. The Jaffa-Jerusalem railway coaches did not have ashtrays or toilet facilities, and according to Herzl, not even drinking water. He said the heat was "frightful... sitting in the cramped, crowded, scorching compartment was torture." As if that were not enough, when Herzl and his party arrived at the hotel for which they had reservations, it turned out there were no rooms available, as they had been appropriated by Turkish officials and members of the Kaiser's entourage.” As an avid fan of science and technology, Herzl expressed his belief in the future of rail travel when in Altneuland he predicted that by the 1920s there would be high-speed electric railways throughout the country. Unfortunately even now, more than a century later, Israel has not yet reached that stage, although railway development has certainly come a long way in the last 20 years.         

    1893: “B’nai B’rith’s Jubilee” published today described the plans that are being for the celebration of “the well-known Hebrew benevolent organization’s” golden anniversary which will take place this October.

    1893: “The Correspondence of 3,500 Years Ago” published today described new information that described the role of clay tablets in ancient Palestine. In the past such evident has been ignored “by those who regard the early Hebrews a savages and who think that, though place in the very center of the ancient civilized world between the the Egyptians and Assyrians they were unacquainted with arts” or culture. This evidence shows that “the art of writing was known in the time of Moses” and that the inhabitants of Palestine wrote on thin clay tablets in the same way we write on a sheet of notepaper.

    1893: Among the dead bodies taken to Henry Skelton’s undertaking establishment in Newton, LI following the collision in Berlin 38 year old Max Stein who was employed by Abram Stein & Co, Mrs. Bertha Weinstein and her young son Sidney Weinstein who was identified by a medal of merit given to him Temple Rudolph Sholom.

    1893: In Camden, NJ the Jewish shopkeepers and merchants are scheduled to meet tonight to organize themselves to provide protection from the thieves and marauders who have been attacking them.

    1894: Rabbi Bernhardt Hailperin was chosen chief rabbi by the Orthodox Jews of Newark.

    1894: In Rixdorf, Germany, the police broke up a meeting of anarchist because the chairman “urged those present to use guns and dynamite to exterminate the Jews.”

    1895: A coroner’s jury exonerated Solomon Pulka of charges that he had caused the death of nine year old Benjamin Pincus by kicking him in such a manner that it caused peritonitis.

    1895:  “Over on the East Side” published today described the changes in the district bounded by Catharine  Street, the Bowery, Houston Street and the East River where can now be found “the children of Israel in their new exodus out of the Russian Egypt and house of bondage into the Canaan of the West.”  More for 2015

    1896: Abraham Gruver, Myer S. Isaacs, Julius Lowenthal and Edward Lauterbach were among those who listened to Benjamin Harrison’s speech last night at Carnegie Hall.

    1897(29th of Av, 5657) Forty-eight year old David J. Seligman, the husband of Addie Walter Seligman, the eldest son of Babette and the late Joseph Seligman passed away today at Hollywood, NJ.

    1897: The funeral of the late Albert Tobias who had been a member of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association and Chevra B’nai Israel will take place at his home this morning.

    1897: A list of the bequests by the late David Blumenthal published today included two hundred dollars each to the Hebrew Orphan Asylum, the Montefiore Home and the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society.  Mt. Sinai Hospital will receive either two hundred or five hundred dollars.

    1898: Based on information that first appeared in The Jewish Messenger, it was reported that Colonel Teddy Roosevelt intends to recommend four men in his command be promoted for gallantry including one Catholic, one Jew, one Protestant and one whose religion is not known.  The Messenger sees this an example of American brotherhood and unique cooperation of those of all creeds.

    1898: “Zangwill’s Visit” published today described the anticipation with which New Yorkers are filled now that that Israel Zangwill, the author of Without Prejudice and The Children of the Ghetto is about to arrive in the Big Apple.

    1898: A review of Alexander Harkavy’s Yiddish Dictionary was published today.

    1898: “Books and Authors” published today described “an extensive collection of 2,500 Hebrew and Arabic manuscripts that has recently been acquired by the British Museum.”  The collection which “includes a number of Arabic deed, written both in Hebrew and Arabic characters” has items that date fro the 9th through the 14thcenturies.

    1899: In Chicago, trade unionist and newspaper man Benjamin "Ben" Schlesinger married Rae Schenhause with whom he had three children – two sons and one daughter.

    1899: “Answers To Correspondents” published includes a reply to J.F. which tells him that there are between 350,000 and 400,000 Jews living in New York

    1899: “Meyerbeer’s Posthumous Works” described yet another delay in the posthumous publication of Giacomo Meyerbeer’s compositions which according to his will should have been published in 1894.   One of his daughters Cornelie Meyerbeer who was married to Gustav Richter refuses to allow the publication to take place.

    1898: In Sheboygan, Wisconsin Congregation Adath Israel dedicated its new synaoguge.

    1899: Fernand-Gustave-Gaston Labori the French attorney who defended Zola and Drefyus was featured on the cover of “Le Petit Journal.”

    1901: In Newark, NJ, haberdasher Max Joachim and his wife Pauline gave birth to Albert Joachim who gained fame as Al Ritz, one of the Ritz Brothers.

    1902: Herzl wrote to the Polish writer Pauline Korvin-Piatrovska asking her to obtain an audience with the Czar.

    1903: After today’s session of the Zionist Congress where delegates “remodeled the National Fund” delegates continued to talk about establishing a Jewish colony in East Africa even after the meetings came to an end.

    1904: Today’s Philadelphia Inquirer described upcoming plans for the re-dedication of a synagogue in Camden, NJ.

    1904: Rogers Adolphe Pinner, a senior partner of the Mutual Electric Company, was shot by his `former girlfriend', one Mrs. Augustina Hermann, a pretty hat-maker/designer of French extraction, who was a two-time widow.”

    1908: Birthdate of Lyndon B. Johnson, the 36th president of the United States. Unbeknownst to most people, Johnson played an active role in rescuing Jews from Hitler’s Europe.  According to Ladybird LBJ wept when he visited Auschwitz in 1945. . Lyndon Johnson was a staunch supporter of Israel.  He helped the Israelis exhaust all diplomatic possibilities to avoid the Six Day War in June, 1967.  The real test for Johnson came on June 10 when the Soviets threatened Israel unless the Jewish state would immediately surrender the gains it had made against the Syrians and Egyptians, which were their client-states.  Unlike President Eisenhower in 1956, Johnson responded firmly by sending the Sixth Fleet towards Syria to thwart any Soviet moves.  He also began supplying arms to Israel since DeGaulle had betrayed Israel by cutting if its supply of weapons.  As Israel’s Ambassador to the United States wrote, “When it came to the crunch of 1967, the United States (thanks to Johnson) was firmly on Israel’s side, logistically and politically.” He passed away in 1973. 

    1908: Samuel Gompers to-day announced that he would take to the stump in a personal effort to drive Speaker Cannon from the House. The President of the American Federation of Labor will open the campaign, which he intends to make a general fight for the Democratic ticket, at the Labor Day exercises at Danville, Ill., the home of "Uncle Joe."

    1911: In Cleveland, Ohio found of Anshe S’fard.

    1911: “The sale of seats to those not members of K.A.M. for the upcoming High Holiday is scheduled to take place for two hours this morning “at the Vestry Rooms of the Temple.

    1915: “Meir Steinbrink, one of the Republican delegates” to the Constitutional Convention “from Brooklyn” explained his vote in favor of “requiring a literacy test as a voting qualification” saying that Louis Marshall had exaggerated the negative reaction that the state’s Jewish population would have to adding this provision to the New York State Constitution.

    1915: “Councilors For Warsaw” published today described the new system of government set up for the Polish city by its German conquerors which includes the appointment of councilors based on proportion of population which means there are twelve Germans, twelve Poles and six Jews holding these posts.

    1915: As of today, it is reported that there are more than 50,000 black Jews or Falsha “inhabiting the mountains of Abyssinia” for whom the American Jewish Committee has raised $5,000.

    1916: It was reported today that The Central Committee for the Relief of Jews Suffering Through the War has received a $25,000 contribution from its Chicago Committee.

    1916: Birthdate of Oregon State University “forestry professor,” Alan Berg, the husband of Helen Berg who became “the first woman to serve as mayor of Corvallis, Oregon.”

    1916: The Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society announced today it has received more than 100,000 letters in the past two weeks “from families in the provinces occupied by the German Army in Russia and Poland” “in accordance with arrangements made with the German Government by Isidore Hershfiled who had recently visited Germany.

    1916: Clarence Butler and William Hoffman, two instructors at the American College who returned to New York today after making a circuitous trip home that included a stop in Jerusalem said “There were no pilgrims in Jerusalem and no Jews…as the majority had been driven out Palestine shortly after Turkey entered the war “and those who remained were forced to convert to Islam so they could retain their lands and other property.”

    1917: “Municipal Court Justice Leonard A. Snitkin today the District Attorney “to investigate the remarks alleged to have been made by Russell Dunne at an open-air meeting in Madison Square Park” in which he “had assailed the Jews as slackers and had called Joseph Friedlander, a Jewish soldier in uniform, vile names when the latter resented the defamation of his race.

    1917: Simon Frank, the President of Temple Emanu-El in Brooklyn wrote a letter today inviting members of the United States Army and Navy to attend High Holiday services at the Temple without being charged for their seats.

    1918: During WWI, today while serving with Company E of the 306th Infantry, USA, Isaac Hirsch “showed great heroism, determination, determination and courage” when while serving voluntarily as a stretcher bearer, carried wounded “in an area which was being swept by” fire from artillery, machine guns and rifles.

    1918: “At Chateau Diable, near Fismes,” Sergeant Julius Goldstein, a Philadelphian” serving with Company E of the 307th Infantry “displayed unusual coolness and great bravery in the face of terrific enemy machine gun fire” when “he took out a patrol of four men and led it through the enemy’s lines” and rescued a group of soldiers from Company E who “had become lost in the woods.”

    1919(1st of Elul, 5679): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1919: During the Russian Civil War, forces of the White Army occupied Boguslav a Ukrainian city, “pillaged all the houses” and “massacred” approximately forty Jews.  [This was the war between the Reds (Bolsheviks) and the Whites (supporters of the former Czarist regime).  The Jews were often caught in the middle and slaughtered by both sides]

    1920: On Friday night, “Dr. William Rosenau of Baltimore, MD, conducted the last in a series of seven services sponsored by Department of Synagogue and School Extension of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations at Oden, Michigan.

    1920: “The American Bible Society” announced “the immediate publication of the Revised Mandarin Bible,” “a translation of the Bible into Chinese…which Chinese and foreign scholars have been” working “for more than a quarter of a century.

    1920: It was reported today that “the I.L. Peretz Writers’ Organization has donated the first $1,000” to a Jewish Writers’ Fund that is being created by the Jewish Writers of America to help fledgling authors.

    1920: Mr. Albert Rosenblatt announced that the Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society of America has received a contribution of $10000 to the Building Fund from the Arbeiter Ring or Workmen’s Circle.

    1921: The New York Times published a letter from Samuel Gompers in which he corrects the Times report of his speech to the Kiwanis Club of Atlantic City.  Gompers contends that the “misquote” of his remarks changes them so that they read like support for business instead of support for the workers of America.

    1921: In Lawrence, MA, Jewish immigrants Elizabeth (née Melincoff) and Maurice Daniel Penn gave birth to WW II veteran, actor and director Leo Z. Penn, the father of Michael, Sean and Chris Penn.

    1922: "The League of Nations is a Jewish idea, and Jerusalem someday will become the capital of the world's peace," declared Dr. Nahum Sokolow, Chairman of the Zionist Executive Committee, at a special meeting of the Zionist Conference today. Dr. Sokolow “said the Jews of the world will back the League and that Jerusalem will be the International Peace Capital.”

    1923: Birthdate of Danzig native Yitzhak "Ike" Aronowicz the captain of the famous SS Exodus.

    1925: Birthdate of Herman Cohen, the producer of horror film who helped launch the career of Michael Landon when he featured him in “cult classic, ‘I Was a Teenage Werewolf.’”

    1926: Featherweight Harry Blitman fought and won his second bout today.

    1926: In Vlagtwedde, Vlagtwedde, Groningen, The Netherlands, Sophie Josephine Franks, the daughter of Louis and Emma Sachs and Siegfried Frank gave birth to Emma Frank

    1926: “The White Horse Inn,” a film version of the play by Oskar Blumentahl and Gustaf Kadelburg directed and produced by Richard Oswald was released in Germany today.

    1927: Birthdate of Harlem native Morris “Mo” Levy, “owner of Roulette Records and the Birdland jazz club who passed away  before he could begin serving a prison sentence after having been convicted of “conspiring to extort” in connection with an investigation into mob involvement in the record industry.

    1927: Samuel Greenwald declined to accept the Republican nomination for the Judgeship in the Second District Court of the Municipal Court in New York.

    1927: Two years after opening on Broadway, George S. Kaufman’s “The Butter and Egg Man” opented today at the Garrick Theatre in London.

    1928: The Kellogg-Briand Pact, which failed in its anti-war making goal but provided part of the legal justification for the Nuremberg War Crime trials was signed today by “Germany, France and the United States.”

    1929:  Birthdate of Ira Levin, author of many popular novels including Rosemary's Baby

    1929: While Moslem leaders in Jerusalem have issued an appeal to Arab raiders to return to work and cease their attacks, widespread disorders occurred in Palestine. Marauding band of Arabs have left hundreds of victims, dead and wounded, from Dan to Beersheba while British troops have been unable to stop the violence.

    1929: “Black Magic” a silent film featuring Fritz Feld as “James Fraser” was released in the United States today.

    1930: “Monte Carlo” a musical directed and produced by Ernst Lubitsch was released today in the United States.

    1931: Birthdate of “actress, singer and AIDS activist” Marilyn Lovell Matz, the wife of composer Peter Matz

    1932: In Milwaukee, Wisconsin, attorney Morris Fromkin “and the former Selma Strelsin, the sister of Albert A. Strelsin, the industrialist and arts patron” gave birth to historian David Fromkin, the author of A Peace to End All Peace, a must read book by anybody who wants to talk intelligently about events in the Middle East and beyond. (As reported by Sam Roberts)

    1933:  Birthdate of magazine editor, author and Presidential speech writer, Ben Wattenberg.

    1933: Birthdate of Leonard Irving Weinglass  who was according to some “the nation’s pre-eminent progressive defense lawyer, who represented political renegades, government opponents and notorious criminal defendants in a half century of controversial cases, including the Chicago Seven, the Pentagon Papers and the Hearst kidnapping.” (As reported by Bruce Weber)

    1933: In Prague, The economic development of Palestine is outlined in a report of the Zionist Executive to the Congress, which reveals the following: During the past two years £3,252,000 has been invested in Palestine, of which £1,350,000 or 42% went into agriculture, mainly citrus planting, £1,400,000 or 43% went into building, and the remainder into industry and handicraft. A survey of 213 immigrants of the capitalist class shows that 54% of their total capital of £697,000 was invested in agriculture. During this period 21,767 immigrants came into the country; 11,384 workers on labor schedule, 3,122 capitalists, 2,697 certificates went to relatives of residents and 4,168 people came under unspecified classifications.

    1933: Testimony given in the magistrate's court at Jaffa, on August 25th,alleging that Revisionist extremists had contemplated recourse to murder over shadowed all other issues here as the eighteenth World Zionist Congress entered its second week of deliberations today.

    1934(16thof Elul, 5694): Four days before his 41st birthday, Yale educated engineer Alexander Cahn passed away today in Branford, CT.

    1934: “The original Broadway production of ‘Life Begins at 8:40’ a musical revue with music by Harold Arlen, lyrics by Ira Gershwin and E.Y. Harburg and sketches by David Freedman opened at the Winter Garden Theatre.”

    1934: In Iraq many Jews were dismissed from public service and quotas were set up in colleges and universities

    1935: In Switzerland, Rabbi Dov Yehuda and Sarach Schochet gave birth to Rabbi Dov Yehuda Schochet.

    1935: In Chicago, “Sam Patinkin, a scrap dealer and the form Eva Brezinsky” gave birth to Sheldon Patinkin, a writer, director and teacher who helped shape the theatrical life of Chicago over half a century.” (As reported by Bruce Weber)

    1935: The Federal Theatre Project is established. Elmer Rice, the Manhattan born son of Jacob and Fanny Lion Reizenstein, was the first director of the New York office of the Federal Theatre Project, but resigned in 1936 to protest government censorship of the FTP's "Living Newspaper" Ethiopia, about Mussolini's invasion of that country. The FTP included a Yiddish Unit.

    1935: In New York, Morris Yablans, a cab driver and his wife Annette gave birth to producer and studio executive Frank Yablans, the younger brother of producer Irwin Yablans.

    1936: In Brooklyn, “Rose (Farber) Kovel” and Louis Kovel, “an accountant and the namesake of the Kovel Rule, a legal doctrine that extended the lawyer-client confidentiality privilege to other professionals and experts” gave birth to psychiatrist and “eco-socialist” Joel Kovel.

    1936: “Leaders of the Arab Youth party began collecting signatures for a memorandum demanding an Arab boycott of the Royal Commission” coming to Palestine to investigate the causes of the violence begun by the Arabs in April, 1936.  The Arabs are demanding that Jewish immigration and land sales must be stopped before there will be any negotiations.

    1936: It was reported today that Senator William H. King cabled Max Rhoade, the Washington representative of the Zionist Organization of America from San Juan that “As president of the American Palestine Committee, I have followed with much anxiety and concern the serious disorders for the last few months in Palestine” and have refrained from any public expression with regard to Great Britain’s policy in Palestine because he thinks we can rely “on the good faith of the British to carry out their pledge to Jews and to the League of Nations for the establishment of the Jewish National Home in Palestine.

    1936: “Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, president of the Zionist Organization of America said today on his return from Europe that the great task facing the Zionist movement in this country and of all Jews throughout the world who are concerned with the rebuilding of the Jewish national homeland in Palestine was firm resistance to the threatened suspension of Jewish immigration in Palestine.”

    1937(22nd of Elul, 5697): Lionel Walter Rothschild passed away. The 2nd Baron Rothschild was a British zoologist who became a great collector and founded the Rothschild Natural History Museum in London. The museum was opened to the public in 1892. As the eldest son of Nathan Mayer Rothschild, 1st Baron Rothschild, he was somewhat of a disappointment to his father as his life was devoted to natural history and not banking. His interest in natural history began when he was a child, collecting butterflies. Numerous species and sub-species of animals were named after him. He issued Novitates Zoologicae from Tring, his country estate and published scores of scientific papers. He received his titles on the death of his father in 1915. The Walter Rothschild Zoological Museum became part of the Natural History Museum.

    1937: Birthdate of Philip Arthur Shulman, the native of Glasgow, Scotland who gained game as Phil Shulman, “a member of the progressive rock group Gentle Giant.”

    1938(30th of Av, 5698): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1938: As British forces sought to bring an end to the latest wave of Arab terror two Arab youths were wounded, one fatally, when troops today opened fire on a group that refused to disperse when caught setting fire to a closed wine shop at Jaffa. Meanwhile “armed Arab completed the evacuation of the Jewish settlement of Jamam in the Beersheba district and set fire to every building there.”

    1939: In France, “the Communist deputies” were excluded from the Assembly “after the Nazi-Soviet pact was signed.”

    1939: “After two days of packing, truck convoys” filled with art from the Louvre including the collection of engravings, drawings and illustrated books that had belonged to Baron Edmond de Rothschild which had been donated in 1935 “began to leave Paris” as it became obvious that war was about to break out in Europe.

    1940(23rd of Av, 5700): One of first to reprisals against the Germans, Israel Karp was shot by Germany military authority in France.

    1940(23rd of Av, 5700): Sixty-seven year Alice Lillie Seligsberg “a social worker and Zionist who helped to found Hadassah:” passed away today. (As reported by Marilyn J. Sladowsky)

    1940: The Vichy French government rescinded the law forbidding racial hatred.  This made hating Jews legal.

    1941(4th of Elul, 5701): First group of 11,000 Jews from Kamenets are taken out of town to a pit and gunned down in bomb craters.

    1941: Isidore Newman who was being trained as a Wireless Oifficer with SOE “went for a long walk today saying he was suffering from nostalgia.

    1941(4th of Elul, 5701): The Nazis massacred the Jewish community of Posvol, Lithuania

    1941(4th of Elul, 5701): “Detachments of the Einsatzgruppen in Kamenets-Podolsk and troops under the command of the Higher SS and Police Leader for the southern region, SS General Friedrich Jeckeln, began to carry out mass killings of the Jewish deportees as well as the local Jewish population.

    1942: Thirty-six year old Mohammad Essad Bey, who was Lev Nussimbaum before converting to Islam passed away today.

    1942(14th of Elul, 5702):  Eight thousand Jews from Wieliczka, Poland, are killed at the Belzec death camp.

    1942(14th of Elul, 5702):  When a transport train carrying 6000 Jews from Miedzyrzec, Poland, arrives at the Treblinka extermination camp, guards discover that all 6000 have died of suffocation during the 75-mile journey.

    1942(14th of Elul, 5702):  Several thousand Jews from Chortkov, Poland, are assembled in the town square and forced to witness the murders of the community's children

    1943(26th of Av, 5703): All the Jews working at a cement factory at Drogobych, Ukraine, near the Janówska labor camp, are murdered. One of the victims is Dr. Mojzesz Bay, a 36-year-old graduate of the Sorbonne.

    1943: “Hitler’s Madman,” a “film about the assassination of Nazi Reinhard Heydrich and the Lidice massacre revenge taken by the Germans” based on a story by Albrecht Joseph and Emil Ludwig with a screenplay by Peretz Hirschbein, Melvin Levy and Edgar G. Ulmer was released in the United States today.

    1944: Bruce Sundlin the U.S. bomber pilot who had been working the Marquis (French Resistance) and serving with OSS was among those who took part in the battle at Marseilles today during which most of the city was liberated from German control.

    1944: As of today Victor Cavendish Bentinck, assistant under-secretary in the British Foreign Office still doubted the existence of gas chambers when he said, 'I think we weaken our case against the Germans by publicly giving credence to atrocity stories for which we have no evidence.'These mass executions in gas chambers remind me of the story of the employment of human corpses during the last (1914-18) war for the manufacture of fat, which was a grotesque lie and led to the true stories of German enormities being brushed aside as being mere propaganda.'

    1945: Premiere of “True Glory”  -- “a  documentary account of the allied invasion of Europe during World War II compiled from the footage shot by nearly 1400 cameramen” – directed by Garson Kanin with a script created by Paddy Chayefsky and Eric Maschwitz among others.

    1945: Today Hermann Göring became the first Nuremberg defendant to be interrogated intensively by the Allies.

    1946(30th of Av, 5706): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1947: “Golden Earrings” a spy film with a script by Helen Deutsch and Abraham Polonsky and music by Victor Young was released in the United States today by Paramount Pictures.

    1947: In Queens, NY, Jewish police officer Howard I. Golbach and his wife Marjorie who was not Jewish gave birth to Barbara Goldbach who gained fame as actress Barbara Bach the future wife of Beatle Ringo Starr.

    1948: Birthdate of Los Angeles native Elliot Miles Goodman the Antioch graduate and composer who was the cousin of Johnny Mandel.

    1951: Rabbi Israel Goldstein was re-elected today president of the World Confederation of General Zionists, and Mrs. Rose Halprin and Dr. Emanuel Neumann vice presidents. They are all from New York.

    1952: In Peekskill, NY, Judy and Milton Rubenfeld gave birth to Paul Reubenfeld who gained games as Pee-Wee Herman.

     1952: The Knesset endorsed by an overwhelming vote the agreement with the US for the purchase of arms and for the negotiations in Washington for military aid, within the framework of the Mutual Security Act. The vote came in the form of a vote of no confidence in the government, introduced by Mapam and supported by the Communists, which was defeated by 69 votes to 13.

    1952: Reparation negotiations between West Germany and Israel end in Luxembourg; West Germany to pay 3 billion Deutschmarks.

    1953: Birthdate of Jonathan David Simons, the native of Glasgow whose “first novel The Credit Draper…is set primarily with the Glasgow Jewish community in the early part of the 20th century.”

    1954: “Shield for Murder” directed by Howard W. Koch was released today in the United States by United Artists.

    1955(9th of Elul, 5715): Parashat Ki Teitzei

    1955: Sandy “Koufax threw a two-hit, 7–0 complete game shutout against the Cincinnati Reds for his first major league win.”

    1955(9th of Elul, 5715): Sophie Ratner, the wife of Benjamin Ratner and the mother of director, producer and actor Gregory Ratoff known for playing suave, sophisticates, passed away today.

    1957(30th of Av, 5717): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1960: In Cleveland, Ohio, Victor and Ellen Cohn gave birth to Goldman Sachs millionaire Donald Cohn the husband of Lisa A. Pevaroff who was named Director of the National Economic Council by President Donald Trump whom he continued to serve despite publicly expressing his displeasure with the President’s response to Nazi Torchlight Marchers in Charlottesville, VA.

    1964: The Democratic National Convention comes to an end having nominated two pro-Israel candidates – Lyndon Johnson for President and Hubert Humphrey for Vice President. Johnson had helped Jewish refugees enter the United States through Mexico in the 1930’s, passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and would stand up to Russians on behalf of Israel in 1967 in stark contrast to the craven behavior of the Eisenhower administration during the Suez Crisis of 1956)

    1964: “Mary Poppins” with an Oscar winning score by Richard and Robert Sherman and featuring Ed Wynn as “Uncle Albert” premiered at Grauman’s Chinese Theatre in Los Angeles.

    1964: Sixty-two year old comedian Gracie Allen, the wife and partner of George Burns, passed away today.

    1967: Brian Epstein, manager of The Beatles, passed away.  Yes, the lads from Liverpool were managed by an English Jew.

    1968(21st of Av, 5727): Movie Director Robert Z. Leonard passed away

    1969(13th of Elul, 5729): Sixty-three year old Erika Mann, the actress and writer who was the “eldest daughter of Thomas Mann and Katia Mann and who had been baptized as a Protestant passed away today.

    1969: “Medium Cool” a directed, written and filmed by Harold Wexler and starring Verna Bloom was released in the United States today.

    1971(6th of Elul, 5731):  Bennett Cerf, founder of Random House and panel member on the television hit What’s My Line, passed away at the age of 73

    1971: Sixty-seven year old Margaret Bourke-White, one of the great photographers of the 20thcentury, if not of all times whose father was from an Orthodox Jewish family and whose mother was Irish passed away today. (For those who grew up in a world of hand-held video cams, satellite communications and cable network news, it is hard to appreciate the important role played photographers and photo-journalists like Bourke-White.  Her photos filled the pages of such publications as Life Magazine, which brought the world of natural disasters, war and high fashion to Middle America. If you know anything about Jews and photography you will see why this was a must post item and a reason for supporting Patrilinealism)   

    1973: “The Recipes of Chairman Mao" by Marshall Brickman's appeared in The New Yorker. (Brickman was Jewish; Mao was not)

    1976: It was reported today that the “release of Briton Robert G. Clegg” who had been charged with spying for the Israelis during the raid on Entebbe by Idi Amin came as a surprise since the Uganda government had previously said “it had no record of him ever being in the country.”

    1977: The US State Department confirmed that a member of the Palestine Liberation Organization had applied for a visa to the US in order to be allowed to open a PLO Information Center there. But the PLO¹s rejection, at a special meeting held in Damascus, of both UN Resolution 242 and Israel¹s right to exist was seen here as a serious setback to President Carter¹s Middle East peace efforts. He was reported to be in a rather pessimistic mood.

    1977: In Bucharest Prime Minister Menachem Begin described his Sabbath visit to the Bucharest synagogue as the most moving day in my life since the day Israel announced its independence. Begin sought to comfort Romanian Jews and praised President Ceausescu for his policy of tolerance toward religious practice. Ceausescu would lose much of his luster and ultimately be killed during a anti-Communist revolt.

    1979: Funeral services for Joseph H. Blass, a member of Young Israel of Flatbush and the husband of Edythe Blass, the “Honorary Sisterhood President” are scheduled to take place this morning in Brooklyn

    1979: After Lord Mountbatten was murdered by a terrorist bomb he was buried in Romsey Abbey which
    was celebrated for its collection of Hebrew books.

    1980(15th of Elul, 5740): Sam Levenson passed away at the age of 68. Levenson was a Brooklyn school teacher who became a television star in the 1950’s. The Sam Levenson Show was quite popular in its day.  This was quite since surprising considering the source of Levenson’s humor.  He was the son of Jewish immigrants who had worked as a school teacher in Brooklyn. These experiences were the basic material for his witty stories and quips.

    1983: Barry Manilow (Barry Alan Pincus) “performed a landmark open-air concert at Blenheim Palace in Britain, an event that he told the audience was "one of the most exciting nights" in his life being the first such event ever held at that venue and was attended by a conservative estimate of 40,000 people.”

    1986: ''We Were So Beloved,'' Manfred Kirchheimer's documentary about Jews who escaped Germany before the Holocaust opened today Film Forum 1 in New York City. (As reported by Vincent Canby)

    1988: “A Friendship in Vienna,” a film set in Vienna at the time of the Anschluss starring Stephen Mach and Edward Asner premiered today on the Disney Channel.

    1988(14th of Elul, 5748): Seventy-nine year old Dr. Max Black passed way today in Ithaca, NY.

    1988: A single was recorded today with Carole Bayer Sager’s “A Groovy Kind of Love” on the “A-side.”

    1989(26th of Av, 5749): Fifty-eight year old Melvin “Mel” Seeman , the Lincoln High graduate and star forward and center for NYU passed away.

    1992: FOX broadcast the first episode of “The Heights” produced by Aaron Spelling.

    1993: “Estate Fee To Wachtler Is $800,000” published today

    1994: After 320 performances the curtain came down on the original Broadway production of Neil Simon’s “Laughter on the 23rd Floor”

    1995(1st of Elul, 5755): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1996(12th of Elul, 5756): Fifty tow year old Tel Aviv native Yair Rosenblum the composer who was musical director of the IDF passed away today.

    1997(24th of Av, 5757):  Forty-eight year old television whiz-kid executive Brandon Tartikoff passed away.

    1998: Eric Edelman began serving as U.S. Ambassador to Finland.

    1999: “The Muse” a comedy directed, written by and starring Albert Brooks and featuring Mark Feuerstein was released in the United States today by October Films

    2000: The New York Times book section featured reviews of Left Back: A Century of Failed School Reforms by Jewish born education reformer Diane Ravitch.The Secret Parts of Fortune
    Three Decades of Intense Investigations and Edgy Enthusiasms
    by Ron Rosenbaum andThe Presidential Difference: Leadership Style From FDR to Clintonby Fred Irwin Greenstein

    2000(26th of Av, 5760): Sixty-five year old Gilbert de Botton, the financial manager who was a descendant of the rabbinical scholar Abraham de Botton passed away. (As reported by Paul Lewis)

    2002: Thirty-eight year old Meir Lixenberg was shot today by terrorists.

    2001: Israeli helicopters fired a pair of rockets through office windows and killed Mustafa Zibri, Secretary General of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP). He was also known as Abu Ali Mustafa. “The PFLP is designated a terrorist organization by Israel and many western states. Israel held Mustafa personally responsible for 10 different car-bomb attacks undertaken by the PFLP during his time as general secretary.”  He had been allowed to return to the West Bank in a deal worked out between Arafat and Barak.  But apparently killing Israelis was more attractive than following the path of peace.

    2002: Moshe "Bogie" Ya'alon told Haaretz; "The Palestinian threat harbors cancer-like attributes that have to be severed. There are all kinds of solutions to cancer. Some say it's necessary to amputate organs but at the moment I am applying chemotherapy."

    2003(29th of Av, 5763): Ninety-one year old Austrian born American architect and designer Henry P. Glass who survived Dachau and Buchenwald passed away today.

    2004(10th of Elul, 5764): Sixty-four year old actress Susan Peretz passed away today from Breast Cancer.

    2004: “Adam & Paul” a movie about drug addicts directed by Lenny Abrahamson was released in Ireland today by Element Pictures.

    2004: “The Brothers” a Danish film directed by Susan Bier was released today by Nordisk Film.

    2005: Under the leadership of President Scott Cowen, “Tulane began to publicly respond to the arrival of Hurricane Katrina today with an initial plan to close the university until September 1.”

    2005:  The Jerusalem Post reported on the Red Sea Jazz Festival at Eilat, Israel’s southern seaport.  This marked the 19thyear for this annual event and the response of the crowd indicated that Jazz is a live, well and thriving in Israel.  Apparently the rocket attack in Jordan which resulted in an errant warhead hitting Eilat by mistake did not dampen the spirit of the attendees who ranged in age from teens to grandmothers swaying in the aisles.

    2006: In “Green's Chase Revives Greenberg's Name and Fame,” published today, Murray Chass notes that “Shawn Green, with 314 career home runs, is only 17 from matching Hank Greenberg's standard as the career leader among Jewish players?   '’I would say the chances are outstanding; he'll probably do it as a New York Met next year,'’ said Steve Greenberg, Hank's son and the former deputy baseball commissioner. Green's passing his father would not bother him, Greenberg added. ''Why would it bother me?'' he said. ''Ed Kranepool broke my dad's record at James Monroe High School.''''I'm fine with it,'' he added. ''I think it's great. I'm fine with anything that keeps my dad's name in the news. The last 10 years have been incredible. I think my dad is better known among sports fans who never saw him play than he was 20 years ago with a generation that never saw him play.'' Hank Greenberg, who played from 1933 through 1947, missing nearly four seasons during World War II, nearly matched Babe Ruth's single-season record in 1938 when he hit 58 home runs. But, his son said, Hank didn't care much about home runs. ''Runs batted in is what he lived for,'' Greenberg said. ''If you had asked him what accomplishments he was proudest of, it would be R.B.I. for a single season and career. That's why I grew up not thinking about home runs as his legacy.'' Hank Greenberg led the American League in runs batted in four times, driving in 170 and 183 sandwiched around a season in which injuries limited him to 12 games. In 1935, he had 103 R.B.I. by the All-Star Game. Greenberg, an investment banker, is engaged in selling naming rights for the Mets' new park. He said his father was once asked about being known as the greatest Jewish slugger ever. '''I don't think of myself that way,''' he quoted his father as saying. '''I think of myself in terms of Gehrig, DiMaggio and Williams.''' If Green does pass Greenberg for career home runs, the name of the standard-bearer won't change all that much. In fact, Green's grandfather shortened the family name from Greenberg.

    2006: The Sunday New York Times book section included a review of Selected Letters of Martha Gellhorn(St. Louis born Jewish novelist, travel writer and journalist), edited by Caroline Moorehead.

    2006: “New Torah scroll presented to the Beth Israel Synagogue in New Orleans”

    2006: As those who study history know, history is determined, in no small part, by the person writing the history.  With that in mind, please excuse  this shameless orgy of self-adulation in publishing the following letter as it appeared in The New York Times Sunday Book Review.


    A Man in Cedar Rapids

    To the Editor:

    After a lifetime of reading about Jewish lawyers, doctors, brilliant writers and Nobel Prize winners, I cannot tell you how excited I was to read about A Woman In Jerusalem by A. B. Yehoshua (Aug. 13). I am totally blown away — a novel where the leading character is a Jewish human resources manager. I am a longtime Jewish human resources director and I never thought I would make it as a character in a novel, let alone the main character. Of course, I do this in Cedar Rapids, which is not exactly Jerusalem. But if you ever want to know what it is like to be Jewish in the heartland, hey, that’s a book I could write.

    Mitchell A. Levin

    Cedar Rapids, Iowa

    2007: An article published today entitled “The Kibbutz Sheds Socialism and Gains Popularity,” described the changing face of kibbutz movement in Israel.

    2007: As Phil Spector stood trial for the murder of Lana Clarkson, Bruce Clarkson, his second defense lawyer withdrew and was replaced with Linda Kenney Baden.

    2007:  In Cedar Rapids, Harold Becker, a pillar of the Jewish community and Guaranty Bank & Trust was honored for donating $75,000 to The Arc of East Central Rapids.  This is just one more example of Mr. Becker’s philanthropic efforts on behalf of both the Jewish Community and the people of Cedar Rapids and its environs.

    2007: The New Republic featured a review of Davide Ferrairo’s film, “Primo Levi’s Journey,” which follow, figuratively, Levi’s footsteps as made his way from Auschwitz back to his home in Turin.

    2007(13th of Elul, 5767): Seventy-two year old, Gad Yaacobi passed away. A native of Kfar Vitkin he was an MK and held several ministerial positions.

    2008(26th of Av, 5768): Eighty one year old Abie Nathan the Israeli air force trained pilot and self-declared peace activist who flew a plan from Israel to Egypt a decade before Sadat flew to Jerusalem passed away today.

    2008: Yale University announced that Peter Salovey will succeed Andrew Hamilton as Provost, making him the fourth provost appointed by President Richard Levin

    2008: Second night of the inaugural Gilboa Coexistence Festival taking place throughout the Gilboa region featuring David Broza with Yair Dalal and Ibrahim Eid.

    2008 Florida Congressman Robert Wexler addressed the Democratic National Convention for the first time on the subject of national security and foreign policy.  Wexler represents Florida’s 19thdistrict, one of the most heavily Jewish congressional districts in the United States and I considered a strong advocate for Israel in Washington.

    2008: The Washington Postfeatured a review of The End of the Jews, the new novel by Adam Mansbach.

    2009: Opening of the Ceremonies commemorating the 65thAnniversary of the Liquidation of the Litzmannstadt Ghetto in Lodz by German authorities.

    2009: Six days after he passed away, funerals services are scheduled to be held for 93 year old Robert Bendheim, the “former president and chairman of M. Lowenstein Corporation, member of the Board of Trustees of Mt. Sinai Hospital who had graduated from Princeton and served in the Navy during WW II.

    2009:The Israeli unemployment rate rose to 8 percent in the second quarter despite encouraging economic indicators pointing to a recovery, the Central Bureau of Statistics reported today.

    2009:Sketched on yellowing parchment, the 29 blueprints presented to Israel’s prime minister today lay out the Nazi death camp at Auschwitz in chilling detail, with gas chambers, crematoria, delousing facilities and watch towers drawn to scale. 

    2009: Eighty-two year old Alex Grass the creator of Rite Aid Corporation passed away today. (As reported by Charles Duhigg)

    2009:The publicly funded Multicultural Center's (Werkstatt der Kulturen) decision to remove educational panels of the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Hajj Muhammad Amin al-Husseini, who was an ally of Adolf Hitler, from a planned exhibit, sparked outrage today among a district mayor, the curator of the exhibit, and the Berlin Jewish community.

    2010: In Cedar Rapids, IA, Temple Judah celebrates the start of the fourth season of “Musical Shabbat.”

    2010: In “Black and Jewish, and Seeing No Contradiction,” published today Trymaine Lee describes the life of African-Americans who are Orthodox Jews.

    2011:Hutzot Hayotzer, the popular international arts and crafts fair that has become a Jerusalemite ritual, is scheduled to come to a close today.

    2011: In the United Kingdom the curtain comes down on “Nine Suitcase” “a solo piece performed by British actor David Prince” of a this theatrical adaptation of Béla Zsolt’s novel of the same name which recounts the experiences of the author during the Holocaust.

    2011:Tens of thousands of Israelis took to the streets tonight to participate in demonstrations protesting the high cost of living in Israel.

    2011:Saeb Erekat repeated his claim that meeting thatConsul-General Daniel Rubenstein had threatened that the US would cut off aid to the Palestinians if they insisted on going to the UN adding that the Americans have threatened to veto the PA statehood bid and cut off financial aid to the Palestinians.

    2011: Norfolk’s Beth El Synagogue did not hold service today as Hurricane Irene barreled its way up the East Coast. 

    2011(27th of Av, 5771): Eighty-three year Ezat Delijani, Iran born businessman and philanthropist passed away today. (As reported by Dennis McLellan)

    2012: Christian Dawid is scheduled to appear tonight at The Montreal Jewish Music Festival.

    2012: “Hutzot Hayotzer, the popular international arts and crafts fair that has become a Jerusalemite ritual” is scheduled to come to an end.

    2012(9th of Elul, 5772): Seventy-one year old Duke Basketball start Art Heyman passed away today. (As reported by William Yardley)

    2012(9th of Elul, 5772): Ninety-five year old WW II Australian RAAF war hero Sir Richard Kingsland who had changed his name from Julius Cohen “to avoid anti-Semitism” passed  away today.

    2012:President Shimon Peres said today that he could not understand the stupidity of the ongoing rocket campaign being waged by Palestinian terrorists, which has escalated in the lead in to Israel's 2012-2013 school year.   

    2012:An IDF soldier was critically injured during a joint exercise involving infantry units and armored corps in the Golan Heights this morning, according to the IDF Spokesman's Office. The soldier, from the IDF's Golani Brigade, received first aid treatment on the scene before being evacuated to Rambam Medical Center in Haifa.

    2013: Tango Apassionata in Yiddish – A Night with Sharon Brauner is scheduled to take place at the Budapest Music Center.

    2013: The Muzsikás Ensemble is scheduled to perform tonight as part of the Jewish Summer Festival in Budapest.

    2013: With the US poised for military action in Syria and amid uncertainty as to how Damascus will react, Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu and Defense Minister Moshe Ya'alon made clear today that while Israel will not get involved, it will respond severely if attacked. (As reported by Herb Keinon)

    2013: “The 5774 (2013-2014) school year formally opened today with over 2.13 million schoolchildren arriving in more than 4,500 schools nationwide for their first day of classes.” (As reported by Haviv Rettig Gur)

    2014(1st of Elul, 5774): Rosh Chodesh Elul – the shofar is blown for the first time

    2014: Dr. Eric Goldman is scheduled to present the final session of “Hollywood Zion: Israel Through the Lens of American Film Makers.”

    2014: Noa Meir, Director of Israel Action Center & International Affairs for Jewish Community Relations is scheduled to speak at Shaare Tefila in Olney, MD on “Current Events and How to Advocate for Israel.”

    2014: “An Israeli officer in the Golan Heights was moderately injured by apparent stray fire from fighting in Syria this morning, as an al-Qaeda linked rebel group took control of the only crossing between Israel and Syria.” (As reported by Spencer Ho)

    2014: While Prime Minister Netanyahu’s supporters praised the most recent ceasefire, others including the Foreign Minister and residents of southern Israel questioned its value or condemned it as a failure because Hamas remained in power.

    2014: Aaron Sofer, a New Jersey yeshiva student who disappeared while hiking in the Jerusalem Forest has not been found despite the offer of 100,000 shekel reward by his parents.

    2015: “Prosecutors in Kansas rested their case today “in the murder trial of white supremacist” 74 year old Klu Klux Klan member Frazier Glenn Cross” “after playing a recorded call in which he expressed surprise the three people fatally shot outside two Jewish centers in suburban Kansas City, MO,last year were not Jewish.” (As reported by Kevin Murphy)

    2015:  Miri Ben-Ari, a Grammy Award-Winning sabra violinist/producer/humanitarian, “UN Goodwill Ambassador of Music to the United Nations Associations of Brazil”, and Global Brand Ambassador for Harman Kardon is scheduled to perform at the Highline Ballroom

    2015: The historic Georgia Railroad Freight Depot is scheduled to host “Kosher Food & Wine Atlanta” during which Sandra Bank of A Kosher Touch Catering will be honored for her twenty years of service to the community.

    2015: Friends and family of Murray Wolfe, led by his loving wife Charlene, prepare to say one last good bye as he his laid to rest in California.

    2016: The International Al Jolson Society is scheduled to host “The 20thAnnual Long Island Jolson Festival” featuring a “A Tribute to Al Jolson.”

    2016: At Temple Israel in Memphis, TN Michael Hirsch, son of Marci and Geoffrey Hirsch, will become bar mitzvah.,

    2016: Agudas Achim Congregation which is now located in Coralville, IA, is scheduled to host its Centennial Celebration Dinner in Iowa City.

    2016(23rdof Av, 5776): Shabbat Ekev;

    2016(23rdof Av, 5776): Seventy-nine year old Jamie Davidovich who “helped create the Artists’ Television Network, which broadcast “The Live! Show” passed away today. (As reported by William Grimes)

    2017(5thof Elul, 5777): Eighty-five year old Syd Silverman who had followed in the footsteps of Sime Silverman to become the editor of Variety passed away today.

    2017: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Campus Confidential: How College Works, or Doesn’t for Professors, Parents and Students by Jacques Berlinerblau ,Galaxy Love: Poems by Gerald Stern, This Is Just A Test by Madelyn Rosenberg and Wendy Wan-Long Shang and Ruth Bader Ginsburg: The Case of R.B.G. vs. Inequalityby Jonah Winter.

    2017(5thof Elul, 5777): One hundred and four year old  ”Maj. Gen. (res.) Yitzhak Pundak, a career military officer, civil servant and diplomat” passed away today

    2017: As Hurricane Harvey ravaged Houston this weekend, The JCC of Houston which collected relief supplies would remain closed today and based on reports from the Texas Jewish Herald-Voice homes in heavily Jewish populated Houston subdivisions, including Meyerland, were reporting flooding this morning, for the third time in as many years.

    2017: The Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education a “special presentation with Romani Scholar Dr. Ian Hancock” styled “Romani Life: Then and Now.”

    2017: The Federation of Greater Washington is scheduled to host “Grand Slam Sunday – Jewish Community Day Nationals Park.”

    2017: “Our Great Tchaikovsky,” Hershey Felder’s latest one man show which challenged the actor’s ability to deal with the composer’s alleged anti-Semitism is scheduled to come to an end a the Hartford State in Hartford, CT

    2017: The Red Sea Jazz Festival is scheduled to open at Eilat.

    2017: The Kansas City Jewish Community is scheduled to host “Day of Discovery – Explore the Joy of Jewish Learning” in Overland Park, Kansas.

    2017: As part of its centenary celebration Montreal’s Federation CJA to host “a big birthday party…that promises family fun.”

    2017: “An exhibit at the Morgan Library and Museum called ‘Noah’s Beasts: Sculpted Animals from Ancient Mesopotamia” is scheduled to come to a close today.

    2018: In Jerusalem, Mercaz Hatarbuyot is scheduled to host a “Tribute to Chopin” featuring award winning concert pianist Eliah Zabaly this evening.

    2018: The American Sephardi Federation is scheduled to host a series of concerts starting at 3 p.m. featuring Sara Aroeste, Gerard Edery, Nashaz, Adam Maalouf and the Future of the Tribe and Steven Cehera at the Center for Jewish History.


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    August 28

    388: Magnus Maximus, an Hispanic usurper to the throne of the western Roman Empire passed away. During his disputed reign Maximus issued an edict of which censured Christians at Rome for burning down a Jewish synagogue which was condemned by Bishop Ambrose who said people exclaimed: ‘the emperor has become a Jew’.

    430: St. Augustine of Hippo passed away. Augustine believed that Jews should be allowed to survive in a Christian world to provide credence to roots of Christianity. But Jews should live at best as “second class” citizens in that Christian world to serve as a reminder of their fall from God’s favor for rejecting Jesus as the Son of God and as proof that God had made the Christians the new Chosen People.

    1189: The Crusaders begin the Siege of Acre under Guy of Lusignan. This two year long siege was part of the Third Crusade which is known as a confrontation between England’s King Richard I and Saladin. The siege followed the Crusader defeat at the Battle of the Horns of Hittin but was followed by Crusader victories near Jaffa. In the end, the Moslems kept Jerusalem, the Jews of England suffered under the rule of Prince John in the absence of the Crusading Richard and the Jewish population of Eretz Israel suffered further depredations and despoliation.

    1349: Six thousand Jews are killed in Mainz after having been accused of being the cause of the plague.

    1378: Having been promised the payment of 20,000 gulden in “voluntary taxes” in 1377 by the Jewish community, the city of Worms “was granted the right of extending protection to the Jews.”

    1453: Zbigniev Olesnicki, Bishiop of Cracow and a heretic hunter named Capistrano, began a six month long campaign turn Poland’s King Casimir against the Hussite heretics and the Jews of Cracow.

    1481: John II of Portugal who chose Abraham Zacuto to serve as Royal Astronomer, began his reign as King of Portugal.

    1511: The Portuguese conquer Malacca. “Malacca, Malaysia was in the 16th century a Jewish hub not only for Portuguese Jews but also for Jews from around the Red Sea and the Malabar. With its synagogues and rabbis, Jewish Culture in Malacca was alive and well. Visible Jewish presence existed in Malacca right up to the 18th century. Due to the Portuguese inquisition a lot of the Jews of Malacca assimilated into the Malacca Portuguese (Eurasian) community. They are a creole community often referred to as Kristang; and their Portuguese dialect Papia Kristang.”

    1521: The Ottoman Turks occupy Belgrade. “The first written records of the presence of Jews in Belgrade date back to the 16th century when the city came under Ottoman control. “At that time Belgrade boasted a strong Jewish Ladino-speaking Sephardic community mostly settled in the central Belgrade neighborhood called Dorćol. The city's Ashkenazi Jews, many of them from Central Europe and nearby Austria-Hungary, mostly lived near the Sava River in the area where the current active synagogue stands.” Even with the official “second class” status accorded to Jews under the laws of Islam, the Ottoman Empire offered a haven for Jews who had been expelled from Spain and/or were fleeing the clutches of the Inquisition.

    1565: St. Augustine, the oldest European settlement in what is now the United States, is established on the coast of Florida. According to Marcia Zerivitz, Founding Executive Director and Chief Curator of the Jewish Museum of Florida, "It is possible that Jews were living in St. Augustine as conversos or secret Jews when Ponce de Leon first discovered Florida. There are Sephardic names among those who lived there in the 1500s. This is nearly 100 years prior to the first settlement of Jews in New York in 1654. Documented Jewish history in Florida began in 1763 when the Treaty of Paris was signed at the conclusion of the French and Indian War. In that treaty, Florida was taken from the Spanish and given to the British. Until that time, Jews had been prohibited from living in Florida."

    1619: Ferdinand II is elected emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. The Jesuit trained monarch was an arch foe of the Protestants who ruled during the first 18 years of the Thirty Years War. His treatment of the Jews was uneven to say the least. It was influenced by his hatred of the Protestants, the needs to finance the war and his Jesuit training. He protected the right of Jews to live in Worms and Frankfort because the Protestants had tried to drive them out of the city. He warned his generals not treat the Jews harshly since they were a source of funds for their fight. This protection came at a high price as can be seen by the 40,000 florins that the Jews of Bohemia were forced to contribute annually to support the war effort. He did play a role in the unfortunate affair surrounding Lipmann Heller, but the original cause of the affair was one of jealousy in the Prague Jewish community. Once the emperor was involved no good could come of the matter. He did order the Rabbi brought to court in chains and even though he was found innocent of the charges, his Jewish opponents would not stop their attacks which resulted in the Emperor removing him as the Chief Rabbi in the Bohemian city. Now that the Jews had brought themselves to the Catholic monarch’s attention, he issued a decree in February, 1630, compelling the Jews to listen to conversation sermons every Saturday morning between eight and nine. Two hundred Jews of both sexes had to be in attendance and at least forty of them had to be between 15 and twenty years of age. The Jesuit trained monarch hoped these measures would lead to mass conversion of Jews. Unfortunately for him, but fortunately for the Jews, the Jesuits to whom he entrusted this task were more concerned with fighting Protestants than converting Jews.

    1655: Peter Stuyvesant barred Jews from military service. Asher Levy led the fight for Jews to able to serve as part of the local guard force. He rejected the notion of paying a special tax in lieu of military service. Service in the militia was the sign of first class citizenship. In a resolution of the New Amsterdam Council, Stuyvesant writes, "Whether the Jewish people who reside in this city, should also train and mount guard with the citizen's bands, this was taken into consideration, and deliberated upon…" The result was that the Dutch members of the citizen guard had a "disinclination" and "unwillingness" to be on guard with Jews in the same guardhouse. They also pointed out that Jews were "not counted among the citizens…"

    1703 The Aleinu prayer was prohibited in Brandenberg, Germany. Aleinu,( עָלֵינוּ) composed by Rav (one of the great Talmudist (d. 247)) had been part of the ritual prayer for almost 1500 years. It served as a focal point for anti-Jewish attacks. Although the wording "For they bow down to emptiness and vanity and to a God that cannot save" which was taken from Isaiah (45:20) referred to idol-worshipers, some Christian leaders claimed it was an attack on Christianity. The part of the prayer was eventually eradicated from the Ashkenazic siddur (prayerbook) entirely and only reprinted recently.

    1730: King Frederick William I, gave permission to Moses ben Aaron to serve as the rabbi of Frankfort-on-the Oder.

    1766: Birthdate of Simon Edler von Lamel the native of Bohemia who became a leading Austrian merchant while working to improve the conditions of his fellow Jews as could be seen by his efforts to reduce their taxes. (Something that was not intended to benefit him)

    1765: Benjamin Ze’ev ben Menachem Mendel married Sarah bat Eliezer today.

    1782: After the death of Philadelphia merchant Moses Mordecai, a signatory of the 1765 Non-Importation Resolutions, in 1781, his twenty-one year old widow Elizabeth also known as Esther today married Jacob I Cohen who helped to found the “Virginia’s first synagogue – Kahal Kadosh Beth Shalom in Richard.”

    1789: In France, adoption of the declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.

    1793: Abraham Aaron who had passed away yesterday was buried today at the Alderney Road (Globe Road) Jewish Cemetery where his tombstone contains a Hebrew inscription saying “Here lies an upright and proper man, Abraham ben Uri HaCohen of Hichburg.”

    1793: Jonas and Sarah Levy were wed today at the Great Synagogue.

    1797: Four months after the entry of the French army into Padua Italy, the provisional government decreed that "Jews are able to live in every part of the city." Jews enlisted in the National Guard and the main street in the ghetto was changed to Via Libera. Unfortunately as in most parts of Italy, the newly won freedom only lasted until the arrival of Austrian troops 8 months later.

    1799: Birthdate of Immanuel Wolf who gained fame as German Jewish educator Immanuel Wohlwill the director of the Jacobson School in Seesen.

    1819: As conditions for the Jews of Hamburg continued to deteriorate Martin Steinthal today told how he had been forced to leave the Schweitzer Pavillion where he was told that “as a Jews there was no place for him this coffeehouse or in the larger society.”

    1827: Two days after he had passed away, “Moses Isaacs of Cox’s Square, Bell Lane” was buried today at the Lauriston Road Jewish Cemetery.”

    1828: Birthdate of Count Leo Tolstoy. As one commentator has said, Tolstoy did not like Jews, but he did not hate them which made him a cut above other Russian authors such as Dostoyevsky. In 1881 he reluctantly signed a private letter to the Czar protesting a pogrom and publicly protested the infamous pogrom at Kishinev. On the other hand, he held Jews responsible, in part, for loss of the war with Japan. In the twilight of his career he expressed a desire to write how the teachings of Jesus, “who was not a Jew” were replaced by the teachings of Paul, who was a Jew.

    1833: One day after he had passed away, “58 year old Meir bar Yehuda” was buried today at the “Brady Jewish Cemetery” today.

    1833: The British enact the Slavery Abolition Act 1833 which put abolished slavery throughout the British Empire. One of the driving forces behind this was William Wilberforce who also was a leader of London’s Jews Society, a missionary Christian group who advocated the return of the Jewish people to Palestine.

    1839: Birthdate of Hungarian-born “Austrian actor and theatre manager” Maximilian Steiner, the father of theatre managers Franz and Gabor Steiner and the grandfather of composer Max Steiner.

    1840: During the Damascus Affair, Mehemet Ali’s personal physician, who was Jewish, removed a boil from the royal buttock. During the procedure, the doctor is reported to have told the Khedive that he would soon need all of his strength including the support of six million Jewish voices raised in his support.

    1840: In attempt to avoid appearing to be caving into pressure from the European powers, Mehmet Ali dispatched an order to Damascus order that the Jewish prisoners should be set free much to the joy of Montefiore, Cremiuex and the Jews of Egypt, where he three synagogues in Alexandria “resounded with prayers of thanksgiving and blessing for Mehment Al…” The joy of the Jewish leaders would be dampened when they read the text of the document which “implied that the Jews were guilty” and that they were being released as an act of mercy.

    1845: French banker Jules Isaac Mires sued his brother Alphonse, a wine merchants and his brother Edward in the Court of Assizes.

    1846: In Natchez, Mississippi, Jessie and James Newlands gave birth to Francis Newlands, the Senator from Nevada who was the only Democrat to vote against the confirmation of Louis Brandeis as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court.

    1848: Birthdate of Lautenburg, Germany native David Davidson, the Breslau educated Rabbi who came to the United States in 1880 where he served on the “faculty of Hebrew Union College” and led several congregations including Temple B’nai Jeshurun in Des Moines from 1881 to 1885.

    1849: One day after he had passed away, “47 year old Benjamin Levy” the wife of Eve Levy with whom he had four children – “Jane, Henry, Edward and Hannah” – was buried today at “Brompton (Fulham Road) Jewish Cemetery.

    1853: Henry David Thoreau’s journal entry described what would become “the ancestral vine to all of Lower East Side sugary sweet kosher wine.”  “I detect my neighbor’s ripening grapes by the scent twenty rods off, though they are concealed behind his house. Every passer knows of them. Perhaps he takes me to his back door a week afterward and shows me with an air of mystery his clusters concealed under the leaves, which he thinks will be ripe in a day or two—as if it were a secret. He little thinks that I smelled them before he did.” (As reported by Laurie Gwen Shapiro)

    1855: “In Ponevezh, Kovno region of Lithuania,” “a prominent mashkil” and his wife gave birth David Apotheker the Yiddish poet who came to United States in 1888 where he combined the role of “insurance broker” with “membership in the nihilistic movement.

    1858: In New York City, Semel Sobel and the former Cecilia King gave birth to Isador Sobel to Erie, PA attorney and Republican political leader who served as President of Anshei Chesed and was the husband of Emma Auerhaim

    1860: A column entitled General City News published today reported that “a new Jewish Congregation has been organized in this City, which for now is worshiping in Cooper Institute, Room No. 24 in the Cooper Institute, under the guidance of Rabbi Bondi, “whose learning and popularity will no doubt tend to advance this organization to the foremost rank among the Israelitish Congregations in this City.”

    1861: Sergeant-Major Washington Cromelien completed his 3 month enlistment in the 27thRegiment which made it possible for him “accept a commission as a Lieutenant in the 65th Regiment

    1862: Alfred A. Rinehard who would rise in rank from Sergeant to Captain began his service with Company D of the 148th Regiment.

    1864: Ferdinand Johann Gottlieb Lassalle was mortally wounded when he fought duel with Count von Racowitza, the brother of Helene von Dönniges. The two had fallen in love, but her family opposed the marriage. 

    1867: In Vilna, Israel David Lascoff and Anna R. Lascoff gave birth to Russian trained pharmacist Dr. J. Leon Lascoff , the husband of Clara Joacimson Lascoff who in 1882 came to Newy Ork where founded J. Leon Lascoff and Son, served as “president of the American Pharmaceutical Association and earned the Remington Honor Medal.

    1869: Twelve year old Gottlieb Schumacher, the son of Jacob Schumach, arrived in Haifa from Buffalo today.

    1870: In San Francisco, “at a meeting held in the synagogue,” members of Congregation Sherith Israel “subscribed the sum of $48,500 towards expunging the indebtedness of the synagogue and received in return ownership of the selected seats in the synagogue.”

    1871: In New York, the B’nai Brith held their annual meeting at the Masonic Hall during which they elected officers for the coming year and heard the Treasurer reported that the balance on hand was $46,378.29.

    1872:  Isaac Levitt, the son of Solomon Levitt and the former Ann Isaacs, was buried today at the “West Ham Jewish Cemtery.”

    1873: A man named Irving who was in a San Francisco jail confessed to being the killer of New York businessman and Jewish community leader, Benjamin Nathan.

    1874: Based on information that first appeared in the London Echo, that Edgardo Mortara is now Father Pius Mortara, an Augustine friary in the Monastery of Notre Dame de Beacuhene. At the age of six, Mortara was secretly baptized by a servant girl and then “kidnapped: by agents of the Papacy who raised him as a Catholic.

    1874: In New York Fabian and Theresa Saxe gave birth to Martin Saxe, the New York State Senator who introduced a bill that would have banned public announcements such as were used by numerous establishments stating that "Jewish patronage is not solicited." The bill was inspired by an episode involving Bertha Rayner Frank in which she was refused a room at a hotel in Atlantic City.

    1878: As Louisiana continued to grapple with the latest Yellow Fever Epidemic, it was reported today that Messrs. Levy, Loeb, Scheuer and Co. of New York has received and forwarded to Turo Infirmary and the Hebrew Benevolent Association of New Orleans the sum of $65.00

    1878: The Hebrew Ladies’ Benevolent Society of Montgomery, Alabama, sent $100 to those suffering during the Yellow Fever Epidemic.

    1880: At Frankfurt am Main Rabbi Isaac Seckel Bamberger and Julie Judith Bamberger (Klein)  gave birth to their daughter Rachel  who married Mortiz Hellmann making her Rachel Hellman the name under which she would meet death at Sobibor in 1943.

    1880: Leopold de Rothschild was present at the cricket match played at Ascot House which lead to the family taking a leading role “in the formation of the Buckinghamshire County Cricket Club.”

    1880: “Jews in Germany” published today cites information from the Pall Mall Gazette that “the silly season in Germany promises again to be enlivened by a crusade again the Jews.”

    1881: It was reported today that Richard Andree, a German ethnographist who has been studying the world’s Jewish population for the last 11 years says there are 6,080,000 Jews in the world.  This includes 403,000 in Africa, 183,000 in Asia, 308,000 in American and 20,000 Australia.  His figures do include the Falashas or “pseudo-Jews.”

    1882: The New York Times reviewed The Prophets of Israel and Their Place in History by W. Robertson Smith.

    1882: It was reported that there 2,525 students enrolled in the various Sunday Schools hosted by New York’s Temples and Synagogues.  (This is a misleading number for anybody who knows how Jews educate their children)

    1883: “Affairs In Foreign Lands” published today described riots against the Jews in Hungary and Russia where recent attacks on the Jews at Ekaterinoslav destroyed 346 houses and caused damage valued at 611,000 rubles and attacks on the Jews of Berchadi destroyed 80 houses leaving the inhabitants “without shelter and suffering great privations.

    1883(25thof Av, 5643): Eighty-six year old Solomon Plessner whose controversial views forced him to leave Berlin and settle at Posen in 1843 where he served as a rabbi until he passed away today.

    1883: As violence aimed at Jews worsened it was reported today that “the Russian government has made a serious effort “to suppress the outbreaks against the Jews” while “there are many indications that the authorities at Vienna and Budapest are not seriously trying to protect the Jews.”  (In other words, for once the Czar is trying to do something to protect his Jews, while Emperor Franz Josef is not)

    1883: Following their meeting last month at the British Museum where they discussed the antiquity of a scroll of Deuteronomy recently discovered by Moses Shapira, Shapira wrote to Edward A. Bond from Amsterdam asking him to reconsider his evaluation of the scroll contending that “the sin of believing in a false document is much greater than disbelieving the truth.  The tendency of showing great scholarship by detecting forgery is rather great in our age.”

    1884: It was reported today that Adolph Meyer, a wealthy Jewish cotton merchants, is challenging Representative Carlton Hunt for the 1st Congressional District in Louisiana.  Meyer is a Democrat while Hunt is a Republican supported by the sugar cane and rice planters.  (Meyer would have to wait until 1901 before he would win a seat in Congress)

    1884: Three days after she had passed away, “Louisa Isaac, the daughter of Alexander Isaac” and the former “Sophie Levy” was buried today at the “Balls Pond Road Jewish Cemetery.”

    1884(7thof Elul, 5644): Seventy-three year old Philadelphia native Henry Myer Phillips, the first Jewish member of the House of Representative from Pennsylvania passed away today after which he was interred in Mount Sinai Cemetery.

    1885: Four days after she had passed away, Caroline Samuel, the daughter of “Philip Moses Samuel” and the former “Julia Goldsmid” was buried today at the “Balls Pond Road Jewish Cemetery.”

    1887: Lizzie Kauffman, the young German-Jewess whose body had been found floating in the river at Philadelphia is scheduled to be buried today by the Hebrew Association.

    1888: The body of Jacob Noisotz, the Moldavian born banker and businessman who had passed away two days ago was taken to “Temple Beth Jacob” where after a service he was buried at the Jewish Cemetery in a service conducted by Rabbi Samuel David Tauber.

    1888: It was reported today that Dr. John T. Nagle, the Deputy Register of Records at the Sanitary Headquarters has complained to Commissioner John Griffin that a Polish Jew was buried at Cypress Hills surrounded by “a few boards” rather than in a coffin.  He considered this burial, which is common among Polish Jews to be “unsanitary.”

    1889(1stof Elul, 5649): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1890: As of today, it was reported that the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children has received donations totaling $8,000.17 including $309.70 from Isaac Stern, $306 from Benjamin Stern and $5 from Herman Mendel.

    1890: In New York, “Harris and Jennie (Yarzumbek) Nowak gave birth Abraham Nowak, the holder of degrees from CCNY, Columbia University and JTS and WW I Army Chaplain who organized two congregations in Cleveland before moving to Beth El in New Rochelle and was the husband of Ann Segal with whom he had two sons – Wellville and Peter.

    1890: Adolph Eisner who has been Superintendent of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum in Brooklyn for the last six years left the asylum today “telling his wife that he was going to Coney Island.”

    1891: Jewish immigrants from Russia, most of whom are penniless and do not speak English have begun arriving in Detroit, Michigan.

    1891: American chemist Julius Stieglitz, the twin brother of Leopold Stieglitz and the younger brother of photographer Alfred Stieglitz married Anna Stieffel today.

    1891: A Jewish agricultural colony was established in New Jersey. This was one of several attempts at Jewish settlement in the Americas. The failure of most of these projects confirmed the view that Jews needed a historical and religious link to the soil upon which they would work in order for them to succeed.

    1892: Today is the last day for the accused murders of Jake Marks to appeal for a writ of habeas corpus and avoid extradition from Canada to the United States.  The victim and the accused (Blank and Rosenweig) are all Jewish.

    1892: Four year old Ida Samyan, the daughter of Russian Jewish couple who had just arrived in London from Hamburg was admitted to the London “suffering with the symptoms of Asiatic Cholera.

    1892: “The Prophets of Israel” published today provides a detailed review of Prophètes d'Israel par James Darmesteter published by Calmann-Levy.

    1892: In Deadwood, South Dakota, the Hebrew Cemetery Association purchased a section in the new cemetery for Jewish burials for the sum of $200. Hebrew Hill, as the Jewish area was called locally, is located at the top right-hand side of the cemetery and is accessible via a pathway marked "Jerusalem," which is most likely a Masonic, rather than a Jewish, reference. While there are more than 80 Jews buried up on Hebrew Hill, or Mount Zion as it was known among the community, Deadwood's most famous Jewish citizen, Sol Star, is not among them. In accordance with the wishes of his family, Star lies in the Mount Sinai Cemetery in St. Louis, Missouri. Two hundred and fifty meters up from the Jewish section lies the grave of Deadwood's first sheriff and Star's long-time friend and business partner, Seth Bullock. Among the Jews who are interred on Hebrew Hill is Harris Franklin, né Finkelstein. Franklin was said to have been Deadwood's wealthiest man, having made his fortune - estimated at $5 million - from the liquor business and the mining industry. Given his status and wealth, it is unsurprising that the Franklin headstone is the largest in the cemetery. His name is perpetuated in Deadwood through the Franklin Hotel in which he was the largest investor. The Franklin name is also prominent in the city's annals owing to Harris's son, Nathan, who became the second Jewish mayor of Deadwood in 1914, running on an anti-Prohibition platform. Also buried in the cemetery is the Colman family, who arrived in Deadwood from Germany in the spring of 1877. In 1878, Nathan Colman (born Kugelmann) was appointed justice of the peace, an office he held until his death in 1906. Colman was also the lay religious leader for the Jewish community and officiated at the first Jewish wedding in the Black Hills, when Rebecca Reubens married David Holzman

    1894: It was reported today that there are 5,000 Orthodox Jews in Newark, NJ who worship at seven different synagogues.

    1894: As the leaders of the Central Labor Federation and the Central Labor Union compete for power and membership, Abraham Cahan, the leader of the Jewish Socialists has expressed his dissatisfaction with the leadership of the Central Labor Federation and wants his supporters to join the Central Labor Union.

    1895: The Board of Health has been told to improve the safety of the bathhouse at 26 Ridge Street following the accidental drowning of 4 year old Sarah Rubin who had fallen into the tank that had no railing around it.

    1897: At two o’clock this morning nephew of Charles Fleischmann” went to Bellevue Hospital and asked that a doctor come out to his yacht, the Hiawatha and examine his uncle who seemed to be quite ill.  After examining him, the doctor “intimated that his condition was serious.”

    1898: In New Jersey, found of the Paterson Hebrew Ladies’ Relief Society which meets every two weeks and whose members included Ida Kushner, Ester Limskey, Fannie With, Freda Finkelstein and Emma Urdanz.

    1898: “Many Themes Stir Paris” published today described the happenings in the French capital including Jules Guerin’s decision to start a new anti-Semitic paper L’Antijuif

    1898: The Second Zionist Congress convenes in Basel and hears an address from Dr. Max Nordeau. Herzl's father is among the delegates.

    1898: Private Henry Behren, Company E, 31st Michigan Volunteer Infantry was discharged today due to a “physical disability.”

    1898: Private M.A. Hahn of Mobile, Alabama transferred from Company I of the 1stLouisiana Volunteer Infantry to the Hospital Corps of the United States Army.

    1898: Abram Herschberger “installed as the rabbi at the North Side Temple on Goethe Street in Chicago, Illinois.

    1899: “Light From A Russian General On The Dreyfus Case” published today provided information about the soon to be published memoirs of the late General Annenkoff which “include certain evidence tending to prove that Henry and Esterhazy delivered War Office documents to the agents of several foreign powers.”

    1900: Birthdate of Alexander Zeitlin who was a leading figure in the Air Force’s Heavy Press Program which “enhanced the US defense industry's capacity to forge large complex components out of light alloys such as magnesium and aluminum.”

    1902: Birthdate of Leo Hollander, the native of Hungary who married Goldie Gertrude Finegold Hollander and eventually settled in Indianapolis, Indiana.

    1903: Birthdate of famed psychiatrist Bruno Bettelheim. Born in Austria in 1903, Bettelheim survived the death camps. He is “best known for his pioneering work with emotionally disturbed and autistic children. Bettelheim’s views on the Jewish response to the Holocaust were controversial to say the least. On one point he does seem to track with “Man’s Search for Meaning” when he writes that those who survived the death camps were able to do so because they believed in some cultural or religious ideal that helped them transcend themselves. He passed away under tragic circumstances in 1990.

    1903: An abridged version of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion begins to appear in a St. Petersburg daily newspaper. (As reported by Austin Cline)

    1903: The Sixth Zionist Congress came to a close after five days during which Herzl proposed using territory offered by Britain, specifically Uganda, as a temporary shelter for Jews fleeing Eastern Europe and Russia. The Russian delegates, after a riotous debate, walked out and refused to return for the next congress unless the plan was stopped. Herzl had been concerned about the immediate physical well-being of Russian Jews who were faced with a series of Pogroms. The Russian Jews were telling Herzl and the world, that there was only one place for a Jewish homeland and that was Eretz Israel.


    1904: “Woman Shoots Merchant” published on the front page of the New York Times described the shooting of prominent New Jersey businessman Rogers Pinner. (The Times misspelled his name as Piner.)

    1904: “Several prominent rabbis from Philadelphia and Camden, NJ, Mayor Joseph E. Nowrey are among those scheduled to speak at ceremonies this afternoon marking “the reopening of the synagogue of the Congregation of the Sons of Israel” which will be attending by the “Knights of Joseph, the Young Hebrew Zionists and the Hebrew Educational Society.”

    1905: Birthdate of Kiev native Semyon Fridlyand, the photographer who lived his adult life in Moscow.

    1905: Birthdate of Russian born actor Sholom Levene who gained fame as stage and film actor Sam Levene who created the role of “Nathan Detroit” in the musical hit “Guys and Dolls.”,7505194&hl=en

    1905: “The Catch of the Season” a musical produced by Charles Frohman opened today at Daly’s Theatre in New York City.

    1906: Birthdate of Ukrainian born American composer David Tamkin who along with his brother Alex created an operatic version of The Dybbuk by S. Anksy (Shloyme Zanvl Rappoport)

    1908(1stof Elul, 5668): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1908(1stof Elul, 5668): Twenty seven year old Jack Annenberg who had “served for the last 10 years in the London Rifle Brigade before transferring to the New Territorial Force  drowned today while swimming at Plemont Jersey.

    1908: In Vienna, “left-wing bookshop owner” Wilhelm Suschitzky and the former Adele Bauer gave birth to Edith Suschitzky who gained fame as photographer and communist sympathizer Edith Tudor-Hart

    1909: After visiting ailing financial giant Edward Harriman, Jacob H. Schiff, the Jewish New York financier said that Harriman would “avoid the knife” and rely on medical as opposed to surgical solutions. Schiff’s statement had a calming effect on the markets and the world of high finance. (Schiff was Jewish; Harriman was not)

    1912: In Toronto, “Samuel and Rebecca Rosen,” two Russian Jewish immigrants from Minks gave birth to Goodwin George “Goody” Rosen who played centerfield for two National League Teams that no longer exist – the Brooklyn Dodgers and the New York Giants.

    1913: Birthdate of American cantor and operatic tenor Richard Tucker. Born Reuben Ticker, gained fame as a Chazzan in Brooklyn before pursuing his operatic career. He debuted at the Met in 1945. He made his European debut in 1947 where he joined Maria Callas in La Gioconda. Tucker’s operatic career was such that when passed away unexpectedly in 1975 he enjoyed the singular honor of being the only person to have his funeral take place on the stage of the Metropolitan Opera House. Tucker never lost his love of Jewish music or serving as a chazzan. He was the brother-in-law of another famous American tenor and cantor, Jan Peerce. Can you imagine a Seder at their house?

    1914: As the conflict in Europe turns into a Great War that will effect Jews serving as combatants in forces on both sides of the fight, The Royal Navy defeated the Kaiser’s fleet at the First Battle of Heligoland Bight on the same day that Austro-Hungary declared war on Belgium.

    1915: In today’s Jewish Chronicle, Israel Zangwill described Lieutenant-Colonel John Henry Patterson, DSO, the commander of the Zion Mule Corps “as the soul of chivalry and gentleness.”

    1915: Dr. Jacques Faitlovitch, an Ashekanzi Jew from Lodz “who studied Ethiopian languages at the Sorbonne and traveled to Ethiopia for the first time in 1904” set sail for Italy today having “completed a successful mission in the United States to raise fund for the education of the black Jews in Abyssinia who are known as Falashas.”

    1916: Italy declares war on Germany and Germany declares war on Romania. By the time Italy joined in the fighting, the Jews of the country were so will integrated into the national fabric that a Jew had served as prime minister and another Jew had served as Mayor of Rome for six years. Prior to World War I, Romania was notorious for its mistreatment of its Jewish population – the nation was a haven for anti-Semitism and one of its major exports was Jews fleeing the country. Ironically, during the war, hundreds of Jews served in the Romanian Army and were decorated for valor. The additions of these two combatants did nothing to shorten the war but it did add to the misery suffered by the peoples of Romania and Italy.

    1916: In Chicago, the center of the grain trading market  “The abrupt widening of the European war zone sent wheat values tumbling as if the market had no bottom” while the value of the ruble which tumbled from 51 cents to 30 cents actually moved up in value by two cents.

    1916: Today, “The plan for an American Jewish Congress, agreed to by representatives of the Jewish Congress Organization and the Conference of National Jewish Organizations in the movement to demand equal rights for Jews in lands discriminating against them was submitted to a referendum of the delegates who had given shape to the congress campaign at a preliminary conference held at Philadelphia more than a year ago.”

    1917: Russell Dunne who “has been for some time making inflammatory speeches in which he has tried to stir up religious prejudice” was sentenced to one month in the workhouse in Men’s Night Court for a speech he made in Madison Square where he disparaged Jews and called them slackers – statements that brought a an angry response from Joseph Friedlander a Jewish soldier in uniform who was in the park at the time.

    1917: Justice Leonard A. Snitkin was beaten up by two supporters of Russell Dunne as he left the courthouse today.

    1917: Birthdate of Benjamin Saget, the supermarket executive who was the father of comedian Robert Lane “Bob” Saget.

    1917: Birthdate of Jacob Kurtzberg, the son of Austrian immigrants who gained famed as Jack Kirby, one of the most influential, recognizable, and prolific artists in American comic books, and the co-creator of such enduring characters and popular culture icons such as the Fantastic Four, the X-Men, the Hulk, Captain America, and hundreds of others stretching back to the earliest days of the medium. He was also a comic book writer and editor. His most common nickname is "The King."

    1918: American diplomats Henry King and Charles Crane presented their report to the Paris Peace Conference. They recommended the joining of Palestine to Syria, an end to the establishment of a Jewish National Home in Palestine and an international and interdenominational committee to supervise the Holy Places. Their report proved to be meaningless when the U.S. Senate rejected the Versailles Treaty. What may come as a surprise to some is that this betrayal of Zionist principles was prepared on the initiative of Woodrow Wilson.

    1918: Samuel Gompers arrived in London as the head of a labor delegation. He expressed the delegation’s solidarity with workers in Europe and declared its support for all measures designed to win the war against the Germans.

    1918: Samuel S. Koenig, Chairman of the New York Republican Committee was sent a letter tonight “tell him that forgeries had been committed by workers in the Sixth Assembly District” of which he is the leader.

    1919: Birthdate of German born Rabbi Walter H. Plaut, the graduate of Franklin and Marshall College and Hebrew Union College who served as the spiritual leader of Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, Iowa.

    1919: The recommendations of the King-Crane Commission with regard to Syria-Palestine and Iraq were presented today.

    1920(14thof Elul, 5680): Parashat Ki Teitzei

    1920: Rabbi I. Mortimer Bloom is scheduled to deliver a sermon this morning on “The Seats of the Lowly” at the Hebrew Tabernacle on Broadway.

    1920(14thof Elul, 5680): Forty-six year old Colonel Harry Cutler, the chairman Jewish Welfare Board of United States, passed away today in London.

    1920: “Mr. and Mrs. Nathaniel Leipziger of Philadelphia” who have been entertaining Mrs. Nathan Sommer and Evelyn Sommer from Memphis, are scheduled to set sail for England today where they will meet Nathaniel Leipziger’s sister Pauline.

    1920: Henry Ford’s Dearborn Independent published another in a series of “major” anti-Semitic articles.

    1920: At the insistence of advertising maven turned campaign manager Albert Lasker, Warren Harding, the Republican candidate for President delivered an address opposing entrance into the League of Nations where he said, (in Lasker’s words) there would be “no more wiggling and wobbling” on foreign policy as there had been under President Wilson.

    1923: Three Jewish mobsters -Samuel “Sammy” Weiss, Jacob “Little Augie” Orgen and Samuel Gipson - were arrested by police outside of the Essex Market Courthouse. When the police found that they were each carrying pistols, they were charged with violation of New York’s Sullivan Law.

    1923(16th of Elul, 5683): "Kid Dropper" Nathan Kaplan was gunned down today by Louis Cohen, a member of Jacob “Little Augie” Orgen’s gaing.. Born in 1891, he was “also known as Jack the Dropper. Kaplan was an American gangster controlling labor racketeering and extortion in New York City during the post-World War I period into the early years of Prohibition in the early 1920s.”

    1924: In Georgia, opponents of the Communist regime staged the August Uprising against the Soviet Union. Following the fall of the Czar’s Empire, Georgia declared its independence in 1917. Following their seizure of power, the Communists sought to re-constitute the Russian Empire as the Soviet Union. When the Soviets invaded Georgia, approximately 2,000 Jews left the country. Following the August Uprrising, the Soviets cracked down on the remaining Jews, enacting laws that bankrupted their businesses and putting an end to all Zionist activities. Charges of blood libels would increase during the rest of the decade and things would get even worse in the 1930’s

    1924: Birthdate of Rabbi Zalman Meshullam Schachter-Shalomi, the native of Zhovkva who survived the detention camps of Vichy to settle in the United States where he eventually became a leader in what is called the “Jewish Renewal Movement.”

    1924: Birthdate of American sculptor Stanley Bleifeld.

    1925: “The Elegant Bunch” a silent film written by Adolf Lantz and featuring Hermann Picha was released today in Germany.

    1926: Birthdate of Ursula Stern who the Sobibor surivior who fought with the Parczew Partisans.

    1927: In New York City, the Secretary of the Socialist Party confirmed reports that Jacob Panken, the Socialist candidate for Municipal Court Justice, who described himself as “a Socialist” who “can only be a candidate of the party which represents the workers” has rejected the endorsement of the Republican Party.

    1928: George Engles, the manager of Jascha Heifetz, announced that his employer had married film star Florence Vidor, the ex-wife of King Vidor. He was Jewish.  She was not. (The marriage would end in divorce in 1945)

    1929: Birthdate of Hungarian conductor Istvan Kertesz.

    1929: As Arab violence engulfs Palestine French troops are patrolling the Jewish quarter of Beirut in case there are further attacks by Arabs in this Lebanese city. So far, Arab militants have contented themselves with demonstrations and clashes with local police, but the French authorities are alarmed enough to have taken these extra measures.

    1930: Premiere of “A Student’s Song of Heidelberg” a German musical written by Billy Wilder along with Hans Wilhelm and Ernst Neubach, the latter two who were fled from the Nazis even though they were not Jewish.

    1933: It was reported today that Herman Bernstein, the United States Minister to Albania has announced his resignation and said that he plans to return to New York the end of September. Bernstein had served in the post for 3 years during which he enjoyed a positive relationship with the ruler, King Zog.

    1933: Laurence Adolph Steinhardt began serving as United States Ambassador to Sweden.

    1933: In Johannesburg, South Africans, Jews and non-Jews, led by Tielman Roos, a leading statesman, express resentment against the attitude of Premier Hertzog towards boycott of German goods.

    1933: The Deutsche Landhandelsbund, the Nazi department for agrarian trade and industry, informs the Jewish Telegraphic Agency that an agreement has practically been concluded between Germany and the Palestine Government whereby the Reich will import oranges to the value of eight million to ten million marks for which it will pay with exports of its goods to Palestine valued at twice that amount plus transportation in German ships. The Palestine Government, the British Colonial Office and the World Zionist Organization issue denials of the German report.

    1933: In Warsaw, The Central Organization for the German Boycott wires protest to Zionist Congress against the reported trade agreement between Germany and Palestine.

    1933: In Davenport, IA, “Richard Emanuel and Bernice (Klemperer) Petersburg gave birth to Harvard educated Washington lawyer and U.S. Air Force veteran, the husband of the former Helen Blackham with whom he had two children – Clare and Wilfrid

    1934: Funeral services are scheduled to be held today for Marcus W. Marks, the former President of the Borough of Manhattan who passed away two days and who is survived by his widow Esther Friedman Marks; two sons, Erich H. and Warren L. Marks and two daughters, Mrs. Bernice M. Stearns and Mrs. Doris M. Dreyfus. (As reported by JTA)

    1934(17thof Elul, 5694): Fifty-three year old Elias Harry Pofcher, the native of Odessa who earned an MD from Tufts and an LLB from Boston University and was a Zionist passed away today.

    1934(17thof Elul, 5694): After having “suffered a collapse while working near Asheville, NC, 52 year old photographer Doris Ulmann passed away today in New York.

    1935: In Lucerne, Black flags flew at half-staff today on buildings housing the nineteenth World Zionist Congress, a symbol of Jewry's protest against Nazi "persecution" of their race.

    1935: Most baseball writers are reported to believe that Detroit’s slugging first baseman Hank Greenberg will win this year’s MVP award for the American League.

    1936(10th of Elul, 5696): David Nishri, a19 year old student was killed today “when Arabs ambushed a bus traveling between Kiriat Anavim and Jerusalem” making him the seventy-eighth Jew to be killed during the 18 months of Arab riots and violence.

    1936: In response to the violence in Palestine and the pressure being brought on the British government to stop Jewish immigration, the Association of Chief Rabbis of Holland has ordered a special evening prayer to be recited in all of the country’s synagogues.

    1936: Four “children were injured when three bombs exploded in Tiberius” and two more people were injured when Arabs attacked on bus traveling to Jerusalem.

    1936: “The authorities’ determination to stamp out ‘Jew-baiting’ in Great Britain was emphasized in the Old Street Police today when the Magistrate ordered John Penfold to pay a fine and “to be on good behavior for 12 months” after being found guilty of using “insulting words” in an open-air meeting in the East End which included his statement that “he would turn all Jews out Britain headed by Leslie Hore-Belisha, the Minister of Transport, Sir Philip Sassoon, the Under-Secretary for Air” and the sculptor Jacob Epstein who “would be there with is grotesque monstrosities to keep the birds away from the Wailing Wall.”

    1936: “A denial that Father Coughlin was prompted by anti-Semitic motives in his attacks on ‘money changer’ coupled with a statement he will continue to assail Jewish international bankers” is scheduled to be carried today “in his publication Social Justice.”

    1937(21stof Elul, 5697): Parashat Ki Tavo; Leil Selichot

    1937(21stof Elul, 5697): Eighty year old  comic strip pioneer Frederick Burr Opper who created the Happy Hooligan comic strip passed away today.

    1937: In London, it was announced that Lord Lionel Walter Rothschild, the English Jew to whom the late Lord Balfour addressed the famous Declaration promising Jews a National Home in Palestine had passed away on August 27. The Balfour Declaration was actually a letter dated November 2, 1917 written by the Foreign Minister, Arthur Balfour, which began “Dear Lord Rothschild” and was delivered to Rothschild’s home. This should give one an excellent idea of how well-connected the English branch of the House of Rothschild. Lord Lionel was well known for his philanthropies, but like all of the Rothschilds, power and money never separated them from the House of Israel.

    1937: In Berlin, Henrietta Szold addressed a meeting of parents of 100 Youth Aliya children leaving for Palestine. She told them how during her recent visit to Eretz Israel she was impressed by the Jewish German youth working on the land, unhindered and conscious of their task. Youth Aliyah, the Hadassah sponsored program to rescue Jewish children from the Nazis, saved the lives of approximately 22,000 Jewish-German youngsters.

    1938(1st of Elul, 5698): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1939: Fifteen year old Heinz Bernard’s mother sent him from Germany to England as part of a plan for the two to eventually join family members in the United States.

    1940: Chiune Sugihara, the Vice Counsul for the Empire of Japan in Lithuania continued to defy his government and issued visas on his own initiative to thousands of Jews fleeing from certain death in Poland and Lithuania.

    1940:The National Encampment of the Jewish War Veterans of the United States is scheduled to begin today in Boston.

    1940: After seven weeks of traveling by train across Eastern Europe and Asia, and then by ship across the Pacific Ocean to escape the terror of Nazi Germany, Eva Schott Berek and her parents arrived at the Angel Island Immigration Station one week before Eva’s 19th birthday

    1941: Chicago Bears’ quarterback Sid Luckman led the Monsters of the Midway to a 37 to 13 victory over the College All-Stars in what had become an annual event at Soldier Field

    1941: Second day of two day Aktion under the command of Obergruppenfuehrer Friedrich Jeckeln at to Kolomija near Kamenets-Podolsk during which a total of 23,600 Jews were murdered. Of the total between 14,000 and 18,000 of them were Hungarian Jews. The Germans were assisted by the Hungarians during the two days of slaughter. A complete description of the event can be found in Jeckeln’s report (Operational Report USSR No. 80).

    1941: The Gestapo murdered more than 23,000 Hungarian Jews in the occupied Ukraine.

    1941: Isidore Newman, who was training to serve as a Wireless Officer with SOE was described by one of his trainers as seeming to be “depressed” while adding that his “colloquial French” is not good even though his French vocabulary is improving but that his proficiency in Morse Code is such that “he does excellent work in instructing other students.

    1941(5th of Elul, 5701): A Jewish butcher, one of 2000 Jews forced into a ditch at Kédainiai, Lithuania, resists by inflicting a fatal bite upon the throat of one of the Einsatzkommando soldiers. The butcher and the other Jews are immediately shot.

    1941(5th of Elul, 5701): Lithuanian Nazi collaborators murdered Rochel Leah and sons Hillel, Shimon and Avraham in Panevezys.

    1941: Thousands of Jews are murdered at Czyzewo-Szlachecki, Poland.

    1942: Joseph C. Hyman executive chairman of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee announced tonight that it was sending   $25,000 to the OSE to provide for 1,200 Jewish children trapped in occupied France.

    1942: It was revealed today that President Rafael L. Trujillo has offered to allow 3,500 Jewish children between the ages of 3 and 14 living in Vichy France to settle in the Dominican Republic.

    1942: Forty-one year old Bension Gotlob and 43 year old Regina Gotlop were among those who left Drancy today in Convoy 25 which was headed for Auschwitz.  Among the 285 children heading for the death camp were seven year old Salomon Gottlob and his two year old sister Tama,

    1942: Fourteen thousand Jews are killed at Sarny, Ukraine.

    1942: Fleischer Studios, Inc which was found in 1921 as Inkwell Studies by Max and Dave Fleisher and had been acquired by Paramount Studios went “defunct” today

    1942: Seventy-seven General Antoine Louis Targe (Retired) who played a key role in proving the innocent of Captain Dreyfus passed away today.

    1942: World Jewish Congress (WJC) President Stephen S. Wise receives a cable from Swiss WJC representative Gerhart Riegner regarding the "Final Solution." Wise elects to suppress the information until it can be verified;

    1942: Ten thousand Jews are murdered at Miedzyrzec, Poland.

    1942: Jews of Chortkov, Ukraine, are put into freight cars and transported to the death camp at Belzec.

    1942: German authorities order the arrests of Parisian priests who have sheltered Jews.

    1942: The Antwerp police roundup 1,243 Belgian Jews and ship them to the death camps.

    1943(27thof Av, 5703): Parashat Re’eh

    1943(27thof Av, 5703): Sixty-two year old Ukrainian born historian Elias Tcherikower who eventually came to the United States to work with the U.S branch of YIVO with his wife, the former “Riva or Rebecca Teplisky” in 1940 passed away today.

    1943: The Danes began a general strike against the Nazi occupation.

    1943: Two days after returning from Berlin, King Boris dies under mysterious circumstances in Sofia, Bulgaria. According to some sources, the Nazis had poisoned the king as punishment for protecting the Jews of his kingdom. Thanks in part to the monarch who was a “reluctant hero,: most of Bulgaria’s fifty thousand Jews avoid the deadly consequences of the final solution.

    1944(9th of Elul, 5704): Jewish Sonderkommando Auschwitz inmates beat to death sixty-seven year old Chaim Mordechai Rumkowski

    1945: Final entry in the third of the three marriage registers the Artillery Lane Synagogue which was “incorporated into the Ezras Chaim Synagogue.

    1945: Birthdate of producer Robert Greenwald.

    1945: Birthdate of Benny Lévy the native of Cairo, Egypt who served as personal secretary to Jean-Paul Sartre from 1974 to 1980.

    1945: The British Mandate Government published the Fitzgerald Plan for governing Jerusalem. The system of dividing the city into boroughs had some merit, but it was predicated on the notion that the British Mandate would continue. The plan, like so many before and after it, was “dead on arrival.”

    1946(1stof Elul, 5706): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1947: “The Song of the Thin Man” the last of the “Thin Man films” produced by Nat Perrin who also co-authored the screenplay was released in the United States today by MGM.

    1948: In Egypt, “Jews were forbidden to engage in banking or foreign currency transactions. (In the following month Egyptian Jews would be ”dismissed from the railways, the post office, the telegraph department and the Finance Ministry on the” unfounded  “ground that they were suspected of ‘sabotage and treason’”]

    1952: The reparations talks between Israelis and West Germans ended in The Hague. West Germany was to pay Israel 3 billion marks (about $714m.) in the form of goods. She was also bound to deliver to Israel goods worth 450m Marks (about $106m.), to cover the claims of world Jewry. This was part of very painful process especially for those Israelis who had survived the Holocaust or who had lost family and friends at the hands of the Germans. Many, including Menachem Begin, did not want to accept anything from the Germans. For some acceptance of the money was part of a forgiveness process in which they were unwilling to participate. [The East Germans - the Communist half of Germany did not take part in the talk. Unlike West Germany, East Germany never conducted any de-Nazification program or made any attempt to make amends for Germany's slaughter of the Jewish people.]

    1952: The first, undated letter written by Mordechai Oren, the Mapam leader imprisoned in Czechoslovakia, was received by his family.

    1952: In an address to the Knesset, Prime Minister Ben-Gurion reported that Arab infiltrators killed 62 Israelis, injured 110 and abducted 29 during 1951. These on-going attacks would have several impacts on Israeli society. One was that the military developed an aggressive stance in fighting these terrorists. Another was the Suez War of 1956. Part of the Israeli goal was to destroy the bases of Egyptian sponsored terrorists in Gaza.

    1953: In the evening, Unit 101, under the command of Ariel Sharon, conducted its first mission.

    1954: Mortimer May, president of the Zionist Organization of America, said tonight that the State Department's proposed policy of arming the Arab states would not thwart the advance of communism.

    1955: Funeral services are scheduled to held today in Far Rockaway, Long Island, for Rebecca Cohen, the widow of Michael Cohen and mother of Harry and Charles Cohen.

    1957(1stof Elul, 5717): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1957: “Perri,” the Walt Disney filme based on Perri: The Youth of A Squirrel by Felix Salten, the Hungarian born grandson of an Orthodox Rabbi, was released in the United States today.

    1957: Birthdate of actor Daniel Stern a graduate of Bethesda-Chevy Chase in suburban Washington who made his debut as the off-beat “Cyril” in “Breaking Away” but who may be best known for his appearance in the comedy “City Slickers” and whose brother is television writer David M. Stern.

    1959: The Pan American Games in which Eugene Selznick would coach the United States Volleyball Team opened today in Chicago.

    1959(24th of Av, 5719): Fifty nine year old Raphael Lemkin, the Polish-Jewish attorney who created the word “genocide” passed away today.

    1961: Milk and Honey, the musical featuring the music and lyrics of Jerry Herman, began its pre-Broadway tryout run at the Shubert Theatre in New Haven. “The story centers on a busload of lonely American widows hoping to catch husbands while touring Israel and is set against the background of the

    country's fight for recognition as an independent nation. It was Herman's first Broadway book musical.”

    1964: Al Aronowitz brought Bob Dylan to the Delmonico Hotel in New York City where he introduced them to the Beatles.

    1963: Isaac Franck, executive director of the Jewish Community Council, Hyman Bookbinder and the Washington Board of Rabbis were among the 250,000 people who attended the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom made famous by Martin Luther King, Jr.’s “I Have A Dream” speech. (As reported by the Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington)

    1969: In Washington, DC, Adele and Joel Sandberg gave birth to Sheryl Kara Sandberg the Harvard grad who became COO of Facebook.

    1969: In Santa Monica, CA, Judith and Thomas Black gave birth to actor Joe Black

    1970: Birthdate of Richard Samuel “Rick” Recht, the Jewish troubadour known, among other things for his Shabbat Alive programs.

    1972: Mark Spitz wins the first of his seven gold medals at the Summer Olympics in Munich. He earned the medal by setting a new world’s record for the 200 meter butterfly.

    1973: “Gone with the Wind” a musical adaption of the novel by the same name with lyrics and music by Harold Rome opened today at the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in Los Angeles.

    1973: Former U.S. Senator Kenneth B. Keating presented his credentials as U.S. Ambassador to Israel.

    1977: Amos Horev, president of the Haifa Technion, announced that Israel was on the threshold of a major breakthrough in water desalination. He claimed that Prof. Abraham Kogan had completed work on a revolutionary invention on desalination, ready for industrial exploitation. Negotiations were advancing for a full-scale million-cubic-meter a year desalination plant. Water has always been a major issue in Israel and continues to be to this day. Desalination projects such as this were critical for those seeking to irrigate the Negev, among other things.

    1979: Funeral services are scheduled to be held this morning in New York City for Hylve Blomberg, the widow of Philip Blomberg and the mother of Norman and Richard Blomberg.

    1981: “Body Heat” a thriller directed by Lawrence Kasdan who also wrote the script was released in the United States by Warner Bros.

    1981(28thof Av, 5741): Eighty-two year old “Hungarian footballer and coach” Bela Guttman passed away in Vienna.

    1982: Jack Weinstein was promoted to the rank of 2nd Lt. in the U.S. Air Force.

    1983(27thof Av, 5703): Parashat Re’eh

    1983(27thof Av, 5703): Seventy-seven year old Texas native Marguerite Wallenstein “Peggy” Feldheym, the wife of Norman Frank Feldheym, the longtime Rabbi of Temple Emanu-El in San Bernardino who served as an Army chaplain in WW II and Korea, passed away today, marking the end of thei 49 year marriage.

    1983: Israeli PM Menachem Begin announced his resignation.

    1984(30thof Av, 5744): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1984: Second Lt. Jack Weinstein was promoted to the rank of 1st Lt. in the U.S.A.F.

    1986: First Lt. Jack Weinstein was promoted to the rank of Captain in the U.S.A.F.

    1986: Birthdate of Galid Shalit, the Israeli soldier kidnapped by Hamas in June, 2006

    1986: Premiere of “A King and His Movie” an Argentine comedy written by Jorge Goldenberg the native of Buenos Aires whose other works include “Los Gauchos judíos,” a 1975 film about Russian Jews settling in Argentina in an effort to escape from the Pogroms in their native land.

    1986: “Danny Arnold sold his production company Four D Productions, Inc. to Coca-Cola's Columbia Pictures Television Group for $50 million after Arnold dropped the federal and state lawsuits against Columbia Pictures Television accusing them of antitrust violations, fraud, and breach of fiduciary duty.”

    1987: “Matawan” a cinematic treatment of the 1920 coal strike for which Haskell Wexler was nominated for an Oscar for Best Cinematography and featuring Josh Mostel, the son of Zero Mostel, was released in the United States today.

    1988: Leonard Bernstein’s three day long 70th birthday celebration comes to an end.

    1991: Ukraine declares its independence from the Soviet Union. Approximately 80% of Ukraine's half million Jews left the country. At the dawn of the 21st century there was a rejuvenation of Jewish life in Ukraine. Unfortunately, the anti-Semitism that has been endemic to Ukraine continues to rear its ugly head.

    1996: “The Portrait of a Lady,” the cinematic version of the novel of the same name starring Nicole Kidman, Barbara Hershey and Shelley Winters premiered at the Venice Film Festival.

    1997 Boston's Jewish Advocate ran a story entitled "Jewish Women's Archive (JWA) set for launch into cyberspace," which outlined JWA's origin, mission, and work, and announced a new chapter in the organization's history. JWA was a young organization, just two years old, when the launch of its "virtual archive" was announced in the Advocate article. The goal of the virtual archive is to identify and link existing materials and archives around the country. JWA's founding director Gail Twersky Reimer explained that although Jewish women's letters, diaries, personal papers, and more exist, "most material is not readily identifiable and needs to be resurfaced." She envisioned the virtual archive as a gateway for scholars and the public to gain access to otherwise-hidden resources. As Reimer told the Advocate, documenting existing collections is only part of JWA's mission. JWA was also working to create new materials, primarily by conducting oral history interviews with elderly women from the congregation of Temple Israel in Boston. This project, called "Women Whose Lives Span the Century," led to an art exhibit of works based on the interviews; the exhibit took place at the Jewish Community Center in Newton, MA. Reimer also told the Advocate that JWA was engaged in long-term planning to assemble the resources to fulfill its mission. The article reported that that mission had been recently refined to focus on archival and educational work. In the eleven years since the launch of the Virtual Archive, JWA has been at the forefront of collecting and disseminating that information. Through Women of Valor web exhibits and posters; curriculum materials; oral history projects in Baltimore and Seattle; Women Who Dared events honoring local Jewish activists; an exhibit on Jewish Women and the Feminist Revolution; Katrina's Jewish Voices; the Jewesses with Attitude blog; and the This Week in History feature which you are reading now, JWA has led the way in putting Jewish

    1997: “"Jewish Women's Archive (JWA) set for launch into cyberspace"

    1998: Congregation member Daniel Z. Nelson was celebrating his 43rd wedding anniversary with his family at his home in Amagansett, New York, when he learned that Manhattan's Central Synagogue was in flames.

    1998: “Indiscreet” a made for television “thriller” starring Gloria Reuben whose father was Jewish and featuring Lisa Edelstein as “Beth Sussman” was broadcast for the first time today.

    1998: Central Synagogue in Manhattan burned today. The Central Synagogue, believed to be the oldest continuously used Jewish house of worship in New York, was built between 1870 and 1872. Its cornerstone was laid by the founder of Reform Judaism in the United States, Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise. Built as a fifth synagogue for the Ahawath Chesed congregation, which was formed in 1846 by Bohemian Jews, the building was designed by Henry Fernbach, one of the first Jews to make a name for himself in American architecture. According to Cissy Grossman, a member of the congregation and the author of a 1989 book about the synagogue called The Jewish Family's Book of Days, at the time it was built, American Jews were casting about for a style that could represent both their sense of modernism and their desire to root themselves in a rich past. The search expressed itself in a revival of Spanish, Moorish and Egyptian style and, in the Central Synagogue, in a profusion of arches and lacy arabesque designs carved into the woodwork. Ms. Grossman continued, ''It was the whole idea of finding a stylistic thing that has the feeling of being Jewish and also refers to the fact that Jews lived in the Islamic world for so long and had a peaceful existence.'' Rabbi Alexander Schindler, president emeritus of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations, the umbrella organization of Reform temples, said: ''I come from Nazi Germany, so I don't tie myself to a building. But this one hit me that way. The architecture was awe-inspiring. It's a place that made the spirit soar.'' Over the years, the congregation undertook several major renovations. Yet another repair project was under way to restore the original painted designs on the interior walls, some of which had been painted over. That dedication to maintaining the glory of the synagogue and uncovering its original splendors apparently has saved many of its treasures. Ms. Goldman, who oversees the synagogue's extensive collection of Judaica, said most of the precious historical objects, many Torah scrolls and even the original architectural plans from the 19th century had already been moved to warehouses over the last few months. So had much of the congregation's archive of wedding and birth records, letters, cemetery maps and other documents. Despite the fire, records of what the synagogue looked like and how it was built survive. ''There are many restorers in New York who know that building very well,'' Ms. Goldman said. ''Every aspect of it has been photographed and many people have worked on it.'' The fate of two of the synagogue's most beloved treasures, vestiges of the lost Jewry of Eastern Europe, was still unknown. One is a grand bronze Hanukkah lamp from the 18th century that was donated by some of the original members of the congregation. The other is a recovered and restored fragment of a Torah scroll that had been confiscated by the Nazis from one of the countless synagogues destroyed, along with their members, in World War II. ''If they are not able to rescue it,'' Rabbi Schindler said, ''it will burn twice.'' In 1970, at a ceremony marking the 100th anniversary of the dedication of the Central Synagogue, Rabbi Schindler recalled the simple people -- the shopkeepers and tailors of the lower East Side -- who pooled their money to buy the land at 55th Street and Lexington Avenue where they would eventually build their temple. ''We can imagine the trepidation that filled their hearts as they stood here that morning,'' Rabbi Schindler said then. ''We can imagine the doubts they knew and the fears they had. But they conquered these fears and doubts and gave strength to their children and their children's children and to us.'' But as the Central Synagogue burned today, Ronald Goldberger recalled the small personal moments he had shared there with his family: the naming of his children, their bar mitzvahs, the service when his wife blew the shofar, or ram's horn, to signal the arrival of the Jewish New Year. And then Mr. Goldberger, who said he has been a member for more than 20 years, wept. ''That's my synagogue that's burning up,'' he said hoarsely, as a friend embraced him in the pall of smoke.

    2001: An editorial in today’s Washington Post urged Secretary of State Colin Powell to support the proposal to support the proposal for a postage stamp honoring U.S. diplomat Hiram Bingham IV who risked his career to save thousands from the Nazis.

    2003(30th of Av, 5763): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    2005: the IDF began dismantling Gush Katif's 48-grave cemetery. All of the bodies were removed by special teams of soldiers supervised by the Military Rabbinate and reburied in locations of their families' choosing. In accordance with Jewish law, all soil touching the remains was also transferred, and the dead were given second funerals, with the families observing a one-day mourning period. All coffins were draped in the Israeli flag on the way to reburial. The

    2005: Rabbi David M. Gordis and Rabbi Barry Freundel officiated at the wedding of Fern Schad and Alfred Moses a senior partner with Covington & Burling who served as U.S. Ambassador to Romania.

    2005: The University of California published Beyond Chutzpah: On the Misuse of Anti-Semitism and the Abuse of History, Norman Finkelstein’s attack on Alan Dershowitz and his latest work, The Case for Israel

    2005: Matan Vilnai began serving as Minister of Science and Technology.

    2005: “Israeli author Amos Oz received the German city of Frankfurt's Goethe Prize for 2005 at the city's St Paul's Church. The prize, which is awarded every three years, went to the 66- year-old Oz for his "thematic diversity" and "stylistic virtuosity", the awards judges said. "Through his literary works Amos Oz transmits to readers in all parts of the world a deep profound all-surpassing feeling of humanity, moral values and cooperation," the judges said. The highest honor bestowed by the central German city of Frankfurt, the Goethe Prize has been in existence since 1927.Previous recipients included Sigmund Freund (1930), Ingmar Bergman (1976) and Siegfried Lenz (1999).”

    2005: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Indecision by Benjamin Kunkel, The Amorous Busboy of Decatur: A Child of the Fifties Looks Back by Robert Klein and 100 People Who Are Screwing Up America(And Al Franken Is #37) by Bernard Goldberg.

    2006: Sportscaster Max Kellerman lost out in the competition to serve as host on the 7 pm timeslot at WEPN also known as 1050 ESPN Radio in New York City.

    2006: Family and friends of Corporal Gilad Shalit came to Kerem Shalom, where he was abducted, to mark his 20th birthday.

    2006(4th of Elul, 5766): Melvin Schwartz, who shared in the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1988, passed away.

    2006: Prime Minister Ehud Olmert appointed Nahum Admoni “to be chairman of an investigation committee, charged with investigating the actions of the government during the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict.”

    2006: Today Jackie Mason who described himself as Jewish as a Matzah ball or kosher salami “filed a lawsuit against the group Jews for Jesus for using his likeness in a pamphlet in which his image was used next to the tag line "Jackie Mason...a Jew for Jesus!?" 

    2008: Zehava Ben along with Sarit Hadad and Israeli Arab singers Lubna Salame and Riham Hamadi join forces at the third and final night of the inaugural Gilboa Coexistence Festival taking place throughout the Gilboa region. The singers will be accompanied at the Ein Harod Amphitheater on the 28th by the Ra'anana Symphonette Orchestra and the Nazareth Orchestra.

    2008: Rabbi David Saperstein, director of the Religious Action Center of Reform Judaism, will be making history today as he opens the Democratic convention’s last day, in front of an expected crowd of 70,000 in the audience and millions more watching from afar.

    2008: The Democratic National Convention which Ayelet Waldman, a law school classmate and supporter of Barak Obama attended as a delegate came to an end.

    2009(8th of Elul, 5769: Thirty-eight year old DJ AM (Adam Michael Goldstein was found dead in his apartment today.

    2009: Premiere of “Taking Woodstock,” a comedy co-starring Henry Goodman, Liev Schreiber, Eugene Levy and Emile Hirsch.

    2009: Today “the Vancouver Canucks signed Mathieu Schneider to a one-year, $1.55 million contract.”

    2009: At Temple Judah Friday night services are a ‘family affair in the best sense of the word. Dr. Bob and Laurie Silber, pillars of the Jewish community, lead the Tefillah, while their daughter Abby leads the singing bringing her own special brand of musical excitement and joy to the celebration of Shabbat.

    2010: The Gilead Barkin Trio is scheduled to perform at the Indium Jazz Club in New York City.

    2010: Palestinian Authority Chief Negotiator Saeb Erekat rejected Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu's calls for fortnightly face-to-face meetings with PA President Mahmoud Abbas during upcoming peace negotiations between Israel and the Palestinians, Israel Radio reported today, citing an interview Erekat conducted with the BBC in Arabic. In the interview, Erekat added that it is too soon to establish who exactly will meet for negotiations, how often they will do so, and where the meetings will take place.

    2011: Kol Shira is scheduled to perform at the Agudas Achim end of summer picnic in Iowa City.

    2011: The British Jewish community is marking Gilad Schalit’s 25th birthday today by launching a new awareness campaign and calling on the government and Red Cross to press for his release.

    2011: Israeli jazz clarinetist, saxophonist and bandleader Anat Cohen is scheduled to perform at the Charlie Parker Jazz Festival in New York City.

    2011(28thof Av, 5771): “David Reichenberg, a 50-year-old Orthodox Jewish father of four from Spring Valley, N.Y. died saving a father and his 6-year-old son from a downed power line when Reichenberg came into contact with the live wire and was electrocuted.” (As reported by JTA)

    2011: The body of eighty-two year old Rozalia Gluck, one of two Jews reported to have died during Hurricane Irene was recovered this evening. (As reported by JTA)

    2011: Today, “as part of its 75th anniversary, the CBC is showing an hour of old Wayne and Shuster comedy material.”

    2011(28thof Av, 5771): Eighty-one year old CBS culture critic Leonard Harris passed away today.  (As reported by Daniel Slotnik)

     2012: “Two of the Upper West Side of Manhattan’s most renowned Cantors – Rebecca Garfein, Senior Cantor of Congregation Rodeph Sholom, and Dan Singer, Cantor at Stephen Wise Free Synagogue – are scheduled to perform at the Enrico Caruso Room at Grotta Azzurra Ristorante in Little Italy” this evening. 2012: Magillah, Montreal’s Yiddish/Klezmer Band directed by Henri Oppenheim is scheduled to perform at the Montreal Jewish Music Festival.

    2012: Congregation Shir Hadash is scheduled to offer “Taste of Judaism,” an interactive class designed to provide an introduction to Jewish perspectives on ethics and values, study, community, holidays, and spirituality

    2012: The Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington is scheduled to host a tour of the special exhibition To Bigotry No Sanction: George Washington & Religious Freedom at the National Museum of American Jewish History in Philadelphia 

    2012(10th of Elul, 5772): Sixty-seven year old Shulamith Fireston, author of The Dialectic of Sex passed away today (As reported by Margalit Fox)

    2012: “Two of the Upper West Side of Manhattan's most renowned Cantors – Rebecca Garfein, Senior Cantor of Congregation Rodeph Sholom, and Dan Singer, Cantor at Stephen Wise Free Synagogue – performed at the Enrico Caruso Room at Grotta Azzurra Ristorante in Little Italy.”

    2012(10th of Elul, 5772): Eighty year old Eva Figes, a leading feminist, author and refugee from the Holocaust passed away today. (As reported by Leslie Kaufman)

    2012: Police indicted the nine suspects connected with the near-deadly beating of an Arab teenager two weeks ago in downtown Jerusalem today in the Jerusalem District Court. The suspects were indicted on charges of assault and battery, racial incitement and inciting violence.

    2012: An Israeli judge ruled today that the state bore no responsibility for the death of Rachel Corrie, the young American woman who was run over by a military bulldozer in 2003 as she protested the demolition of Palestinian homes in the Gaza Strip.

    2012: Two rockets and a mortar were fired from Gaza into the Eshkol Region in the Western Negev this evening.

    2013: Tel Aviv Woodwind Quintet - Roi Amotz , Danny Erdman, Yigal Kaminka , Nadav Cohen , Itamar Leshem – is scheduled to perform Kleine Kammermusik, op. 24/2 by Hindemith in Jerusalem.

    2013: Stúdió11 Band is scheduled to perform “Evergreen – selection from Barbra Streisand’s songs” at the Dohany Street Synagogue in Budapest

    2013(22nd of Elul): Yarhrzeit Joseph B. Levin, husband of Deborah Levin z”tzl, father of Judy z”tzl, Mitchell and David without whom literally, this blog would never exist.

    2013(22nd of Elul, 5773): Ninety-one year old Murray Gershenz who ran a used record store in Los Angeles for fifty years passed away today. (As reported by William Yardley)

    2013: “The Security Cabinet approved a limited call-up of reserve soldiers as preparations for a possible US strike on Syria and retaliation against Israel intensified this afternoon. The call-up, already under way today, was mainly for personnel from Home Front Command and the IAF’s Active Defense wing, charged with defending the country from rocket-fire and aerial incursions.” (As reported by Gavriel Fiske and Mitch Ginsburg)

    2013: “Thousands of Israelis failed in their attempts to obtain gas masks today as growing numbers of citizens flooded post offices and IDF Home Front Command distribution centers ahead of an expected US strike on Syria.” (As reported by Haviv Gettig Gur)

    2013: Ethiopian-Israelis are planning a protest outside of Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu’s office at the same time that a plane representing the official end of Ethiopian aliya is scheduled to land at Ben-Gurion Airport today. (As reported by Sam Sokol)

    2014: Roey Gilad, the Consul General of the State of Israel is scheduled to speak at the ceremonies marking the 70th anniversary of the liquidation of the Lodz Ghetto and Hazan Alberto Mizrahi of Anshe Emet Congregation is scheduled to provide the cantorial music for the event at Chicago’s Union Club.

    2014: “The body of missing US student Aaron Sofer, 23, of Lakewood, New Jersey, was found near the capital’s Ein Kerem neighborhood, Hatzalah said in a statement today” (As reported by Marissa Newman and Adiv Sterman)

    2014: As tensions rose on the border with Syria, rebels who have taken control of the area and fired into Israel abducted 40 members of the UN Peacekeeping force.

    2015: Dor Zweigenbom’s “Why I Killed My Mother” is scheduled to be performed at Under St. Marks in New York City.

    2015: A Study Mission to New Orleans sponsored by the American Jewish Archives as part of its Travels in American Jewish History is scheduled to continue for a third day.

    2015: “Adam J. Szubin, the top Treasury Department official who helped negotiate the accord between Iran and six world powers” is scheduled to arrive in Israel today to defend the nuclear containment deal with Iran and try to reassure a government and public deeply opposed to the accord that the United States is still prepared to inflict severe financial penalties on Tehran for its sponsorship of terrorism and support for military proxies.”

    2015: “Avid Life Media, the parent company of Ashley Madison, announced that its chief executive, Noel Biderman, stepped down today, more than a month after hackers broke into the company’s computer systems and released data and emails that suggested it engaged in questionable business practices.”

    2016: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Mamaleh Knows Best: What Jewish Mothers Do to Raise Successful, Creative, Empathetic, Independent Children by Marjorie Ingall  ADHD Nation: Children, Doctors, Big Pharma, and the Making of an American Epidemic by Alan Schwarz,  The Gardner and the Carpenter What the New Science of Child Development Tells Us About the Relationship Between Parents and Children by Alison Gopnik,  The Shipwrecked Mind: On Political Reaction by Mark Lilla, Against Everything: Essay by Mark Greif andThe Hatred of Poetry by Ben Lerner.

    2016: “Weiner” the winner of the 2016 Sundance Grand Jury Prize for U.S. Documentary that examines the behavior Anthony Weiner, the husband of one of Hillary Clinton’s closest advisors is scheduled to open at JW3 Cinema.

    2016: The Jewish Federation of Greater Washington is scheduled to pay tribute to “the national pastime” by sponsoring Grand Slam Sunday Jewish Community at the home of the Washington Nationals baseball team.

    2016: Congregation Mikveh Israel of Philadelphia and the American Sephardi Federation are scheduled to host a screening of “Disobedience: The Sousa Mendes Story” a film that describes the exploits of “Aristides de Sousa Mendes, the Portuguese Consul-General in Bordeaux, France, who courageously rescued thousands of refugees, many of them Jews, in the spring of 1940 by issuing visas contrary to the strict orders of his government.”

    2016: The YIVO Institute for Jewish Research is scheduled to host “Nusakh Vilne Memorial” – a commemoration of the Jewish community in Vilna” featuring a presentation by Executive Director Jonathan Brent.

    2016: In Los Angeles YIDDISHKAYT is scheduled to commemorate the start of Stalin’s Great Terror “which led to the devastation of Yiddish culture” in the Soviet Union “at the Southern California Arbeter Ring | Workmen's Circle”

    2016: The Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center is scheduled to host the U.S. premiere of “Heaven in Auschwitz” “a documentary film that tells the incredible story of 13 Jewish children during World War II, whose lives were changed forever by the legendary Fredy Hirsch, a German-Jew who worked to provide arts, culture and sports to improve the lives of children in the Terezin Ghetto.”

    2016(24thof Av, 5776): Eight year old Iraqi born Israeli leader Binyamin Ben-Eliezer passed away today.

    2016: UKJF is scheduled to sponsor a screening of “Mr. Gaga” directed by Tomer Heymann

    2017: The Catherine Russell Quartet and the Josh Evans Quintet are scheduled to perform at the Red Sea Jazz Festival.

    2017: Gilad Katz, “Israel’s consul general in Houston said today that people were living like “cavemen” in the city as a result of the flooding brought on by the heavy rains from Harvey, saying many residents of America’s fourth-largest city were stuck without food, water and electricity.”

    2017: For a second day, “the Foreign Ministry” is scheduled to open “its doors to the diplomatic compound” so the public can see “just how diplomacy is done.”

    2017: The City Contemporary Dance Company of Hong Kong is scheduled to perform at the dance festival in Tel Aviv.

    2017(6thof Elul, 5777): Seventy-six year old mechanical engineer and son of Jewish immigrants from Poland, Maurice Bluestein, the “maven of the wind chill index” pass away today. (As reported by Amisha Padnani)

    2017: Maj. Gen. (res.) Yitzhak Pundak, whose contributions to the birth of Israel included creation of 53rd battalion of the Givati Brigade during Israel’s 1948 War of Independence, founding of the IDF’s Nahal unit while serving as its first commander, and leading the IDF Armored Corps in the 1950s.who passed away yesterday is scheduled to be buried this afternoon at Kibbutz Nitzanim next to his wife.

    2018: The American Sephardi Federation is scheduled to host concerts featuring Itamar Borochow and David Serero this evening at the Center for Jewish History.

    2018: “The new Tree House musical show…together with an original screen art work which incorporates still photography and animation, created by Daniel Zini and Yair Moss are scheduled to be shown in Jerusalem as part of the “End of Summer Festival..”

    2018: “Hebrew folk country band Jane Bordeaux which is considered one of the most intriguing and surprising musical phenomena of recent times” is scheduled to perform tonight in Jerusalem.

    2018: Following yesterday’s outbreak of fire in Be’eri and Shokeda forests and in Sa’ad Junction which were started by incendiary balloon, it appears that those elusive peace talks have not put an end to the violence from Gaza.




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    August 29

    1255: The body of little boy who had disappeared was found in a well at Lincoln.  The boy would become known as Little Saint Hugh of Lincoln (England) was the subject of an infamous ritual murder libel. It was alleged that Jews enticed the boy and while starving him, invited Jews of Lincoln to murder him ritually. (Jews did come to Lincoln at that time to attend a wedding.) His body was cast into a well and a month later, "miracles" followed the discovery of his corpse. On the basis of the alleged "confession" by Jopin (Jacob), the secular authorities (for the first time) and the Church sent 91 Jews to the Tower of London. Eighteen were executed before Richard and the friars stopped the killings. This incident provided Chaucer with the idea for his Prioress Tale and the hero of the popular ballad, "Little Sir Hugh."

    1261: Urban IV, who reaffirmed Sicut Judaeis the papal bull first issued by Calixtus II which “was intended to protect the Jews” during the Crusade, began his papacy today.

    1263: King Jaime of Spain gave the Jews three weeks to remove all blasphemy from their books (Talmud).

    1288: Pope Nicholas IV “wrote to Emperor Rudolph “requesting the release of Meir b. Baruch of Rothenburg from prison.

    1338: Pope Clement VI directed “that an investigation be made into the miracles connected “with a host in Pulka” the desecration of which was used as “as a pretext” for attacking and robbing the Jews.

    1435: Paul of Burgos the Spanish Jew who converted to Christianity, and became an archbishop, Lord Chancellor, and exegete passed away today. He was also known as Pablo de Santa Maria or Paul de Santa Maria. His original name was Solomon ha-Levi. Like many converts of his time he took a leading role in the persecution of his former co-religionists.

    1477: T'hilimwith Kimchi's commentary was published for the first time in Bologna, Italy by Hayyim Mordecai and Hezekiah de Ventura.  T’hilim is the Book of Psalms.  Kimchi is David Kimchi also known as RaDAK.  He was the third in a line of grammarians, lexicographers and Biblical commentators.  RaDAK’s more accurate renderings of the ancient texts helped to fuel the Protestant Reformation.

    1484:  Pope Innocent VIII, a staunch supporter of the Spanish Inquisition, was elected Pope.  The significance to Jewish history of this event is self-evident.

    1526: An Ottoman army defeated the Hungarians at the Battle of Mohács following which the Turks pillaged the city. The Christians nobles and the handful of wealthy Jews fled in fear of the Ottomans.  While Jews had lived in Hungary since the third century C.E., many of them had fallen on hard times during the 15th and 16th centuries as they dealt with accusations’ of Blood Libels and decrees designed to avoid repayment of just debts.  The Ottomans left but returned to stay in 1541 when much of central Hungary became part of the Ottoman Empire and a refuge for Sephardic Jews moving eastward to avoid the clutches of the Inquisition.

    1541: The Ottoman Turks capture Buda, the capital of the Hungarian Kingdom. On the anniversary of the battle of Mohács, Sultan Suleiman I again took Buda by a ruse. This event marks the beginning of Turkish rule in many parts of Hungary, which lasted down to the end of the 17th century. The Jews living in these parts were treated far better than those living under the Habsburgs. During this period, beginning with the second half of the sixteenth century, the community of Ofen (Buda) flourished more than at any time before or after. While the Turks held sway in Hungary, the Jews of Transylvania (at that time an independent principality) also fared well. At the instance of Abraham Sassa, a Jewish physician of Constantinople, Prince Gabriel Bethlen of Transylvania granted a letter of privileges (June 18, 1623) to the Spanish Jews from Turkey.

    1596: Coronation of Christian IV, the King of Denmark and Norway who lifted the restrictions that had been placed on Sephardic Jews when he took control of the town of Altona.

    1632: Birthdate of English philosopher John Locke. Locke influenced the Founding Fathers of the United States.  In 1689 he wrote his “Letter Concerning Toleration” in which he stated “Neither Pagan, nor Jew, ought to be excluded from the civil rights of the commonwealth because of his religion.”  Locke was asked to right a constitution for the new colony of South Carolina.  At the time, Christian merchants were complaining about the active involvement of Jews in the trade between South Carolina and the English Colony of Barbados.  Locke saw the problem as bigotry, not “swarming Jewish merchants.”  He inserted a line in the colonial charter that called for the protection of “Jews, heathens and other dissenters.”

    1643: The oldest existing ketubbah written in the Western Hemisphere was executed in Surinam at the marriage of Yehudit to Hakaham Yizhak Meatob. The Jewish community in Surinam began with the arrival of a party Sephardic Jews in 1630. By the second half of the 17th century, there were at least Sephardic Jewish communities in the colony, numbering several hundred families.  As you can see from the attached, this item has been challenged

    1655: Warsaw falls without resistance to a small force under the command of Charles X Gustav of Sweden during The Deluge. The Deluge is a general expression for a series of misfortunes that befell the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth starting with the uprising of the Cossacks and including an invasion by the Swedes. When it was all over, Poland was a much diminished entity and much less tolerant of its Jewish population.  This defeat was part of the long road that would lead to the partition of Poland in the late 18thcentury, which, among other things, would give Russia its large and unwanted Jewish population. 

    1703: Following the death of Samuel Oppenheimer Emperor Leopold I named Samson Wertheimer to serve as his successor as “court factor” while extending “for twenty years his privileges of free religious worship, denizenship, and immunity from taxation

    1756: Frederick the Great attacks Saxony, beginning the Seven Years' War. The Seven Years War was one of what seems to be a long list of interminable wars in Europe.  Americans know the Seven Years War as the French-Indian War; a fight that led directly to the American Revolution and the creation of the United States, and all that that means for the Jews of the world.  Frederick’s mistreatment of his Jewish subjects is too big a subject for this brief entry.  After visiting Frederick’s Berlin, the French statesman Mirabeau described the Prussian monarch’s decrees concerning Jews as “worthy of a cannibal.” Frederick characterized Jews “usurious vermin;”  “wretches who “multiply infamously.”  Saxony was the site of Martin Luther’s famous fight with the Roman Catholic Church.  He had the Jews expelled from Saxony in 1537. It would be centuries before they were readmitted and they would not gain full rights of citizenship until the second half of the 19th century.

    1766: “An enlarged building, designed by George Dance the Elder” which served as the home of The Great Synagogue was consecrated today in London.

    1770: At the age of 25, A.M. Rothschild married Guttle Schanpper, age 17.

    1776(14thof Elul, 5536): Jose Pereira supplied a flotilla which General Washington used to move his army across the East River and escape destruction at the hand of the British.  Unfortunately the young Sephard lost his life as helped to provide covering fire for the army as it crossed to temporary safety.

    1799: Papacy of Pius VI, who issued the anti-Semitic “Editto sopra gli ebrei” came to an end today.

    1813: Samuel Abrahams married Rachel Joseph at the Great Synagogue today.

    1822: In London Morocco native Solomon Ben Masud Ben Abraham Sebag (Solomon Sebag and his wife Sarah, “the eldest sister of Sir Moses Montefiore gave birth to Sir Joseph Sebag-Montefiore, the stock broker who held several positions including Justice of the Peace of Kent and President of the Board of Deputies.

    1825: Seventy-three year old Flora Aarons, the widow of Aaron Aarons, who passed away two days ago was buried today at the Brady Street in Jewish Cemetery in London.

    1826: Birthdate of French portrait painter Emile Levy who passed away in 1890.

    1827: Jacob Lyons married Pessa Elizabeth at the New Synagogue today.

    1829(30thof Av, 5589): Parashat Re’eh and Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1832: Samuel Moses married Elizabeth Davis today.

    1834: In Bavaria, Jacob and Jeanette Bettmann gave birth to Bernhard Bettman who would become a successful businessman and leader of the Cincinnati, Ohio, Jewish community.

    1842: Jews began arriving in Hong Kong after it was ceded to Great Britain by China today. The first synagogue would not come into use until 1870 when a house on Hollywood Street was rented for that purpose.

    1843(3rdof Elul, 5603): Sixty year old Ludwig Lewin Jacobson the Danish surgeon who developed several surgical instruments including “the lithoclast for the crushing of stones in the bladder.”

    1843: Birthdate of David B. Hill, the Governor of New York who was supported by Samuel Gompers and opposed the American Protective Association (A.P.A.) the anti-immigrant organization that was hostile to Jews.

    1848: Birthdate of Henry Schneeberger, the "first American-born, ordained rabbi who was the spiritual leader of Chizuk Amuno in Baltimore, MD.

    1851: The U.S.S. Mississippi, under the command of Captain Uriah P. Levy, the highest ranking Jewish officer in the U.S. Navy, arrived today in Constantinople.  The American warship had been sent to the Ottoman capital for the purpose of providing Louis Kossuth, the exiled Hungarian political leader, with safe passage to France. 

    1853: Two days after having fallen victim to cholera, Major Meno Berg, the fist Jewish Prussian staff officer was buried with full military honors in the Jewish cemetery in the Schönhauser Allee in a ceremony that police estimated was attended 60,000 people.

    1853:  Birthdate of Solomon Bibo. Born in Prussia, Bibo would come to the United States where, in the 1880’s he became the first non-Indian governor of the pueblo of Acamo in New Mexico Territory.

    1854: Birthdate of Joseph Jacobs an Australian literary and Jewish historian, who was a writer for the Jewish Encyclopedia.

    1855(15th of Elul, 5615):Isaac Samuel Reggio passed away at the age of 71. Born in 1784 at Goriza, he was an Austro-Italian scholar and rabbi born at Gorizia. Reggio studied Hebrew and Talmud with his father, Abraham Vita, the Rabbi at Gorizia. At the same time he attended the gymnasium where he acquired knowledge of secular science and languages. Reggio's father, one of the liberal rabbis who supported Hartwig Wessely, paid special attention to the religious instruction of his son, who displayed unusual aptitude in Hebrew, and at the age of fourteen wrote a metrical dirge on the death of Moses Ḥefeẓ, who has served as the Rabbi of Gorizia.

    1855:The New York Timesreported that  "a child of Mr. Louis Levinson of Providence, and of scriptural age, 'eight days old' was circumcised according to the ancient Jewish method at the house of his father...The ceremony was performed by Mr. Wolf of this city."

    1858: Birthdate of French archaeologist Salomon Reinach whose “first published work was a translation of Arthur Schopenhauer’s “Essay on Free Will.”

    1858:Dr. Joseph Bondi was installed as Rabbi of Anshi Chesed, the synagogue on Norfolk Street between Stanton and Houston Streets.

    1859: The Tory (NY) Times reported that there was a quarrel taking place in the Jewish community over the ownership of a Bible. The Hebrew Bible which mysteriously disappeared, and was found only after a search warrant had been issued by a member of the local judiciary.

    1862: During the reign of Napoleon III modifications were made today in the decree promulgated by Napoleon I in the method of choosing delegates to the Jewish Consistory.

    1863:The five deserters in the Fifth corps, reprieved on Wednesday, will positively be shot to-day, at 3 o'clock, in presence of the corps. Two of them are Catholics, two Protestants, and one a Jew. Spiritual advisers have been with them to-day, a Jewish Rabbi having come expressly at the request of the one of that persuasion. The unfortunate men have finally made up their minds that they must die, though they have made several efforts to have their sentences commuted to hard labor for life. But the President, to his credit be it said, telegraphed yesterday that he could not interfere with the sentence, and the men will die. Their death is necessary to save hundreds of other lives, and to put a stop to the desertion of this class of men. Thirty more are on trial for the same offence in the first corps, and they will probably meet with a like fate.

    1864: Democrats nominated Union General George B. McClellan to run against Abraham Lincoln who enjoyed a significant amount of support among the Jewish community in the upcoming Presidential campaign.

    1865: Corporal Isaac Myers completed his service with Company G, 74thRegiment of the Union Army.

    1865: Philadelphian Samuel Rothschild who rose from the rank of private to Commanding Sergeant of Company I of the 74th Regiment completed his term of service in the Union Army.

    1865: In Pomerania, Hedwig and Isaak Lachmann gave birth to poet and translator Hedwig Lachmann. (As reported by Hanna Delf von Wolzogen)

    1865:The New York Timesreported from Washington D.C. that the court-martial an Army Paymaster named Webb has come to an end.  Webb was accused of playing a key role in swindling hundreds of soldiers out a total $400,000.  According to the report “a Jew who was dismissed the service for defrauding the government at the beginning of the war” played a key role in the swindle.  This unnamed Jew testified against Webb during the trial confessing his own role in the scheme. [Editor’ note – the religion of no other person involved in the scheme was mentioned in the article.]

    1865(7th of Elul, 5625): Dr. Robert Remak, Polish born German physician, neurologist and embryologist passed away at the age of fifty. While in medical practice, he researched unpaid at university. As a Jew, he was barred from teaching. In 1847 he became the first Jew to officially teach a university and was later promoted to the position of assistant professor. He discovered the fibers of Remak, nonmedullated nerve fibers and named the three germ layers he discovered of the early embryo: the ectoderm, the mesoderm, and the endoderm. In 1844 he discovered the nerve cells in the heart now called Remak's ganglia and provided the first illustration of the 6-layered cortex. He was a pioneer in the use of electrotherapy for the treatment of nervous diseases.

    1867: One day after she had passed, 56 year old Brina (Joseph) Morris, “the wife of Henry Morris” with whom she had four children – “Cordelia, George, Deborah and Roas” – was buried today at the “Plymouth Hoe Burial Ground.”

    1870(2ndof Elu, 5630): Forty-one year old Lazarus Geiger, the brother of Rabbi Abraham Geiger and the nephew of Rabbi Abraham Geiger, who was “intrigued” by the psychology of color passed away today.

    1871: “Sketch of the Prison Rosenzweig, Alias Archer” published today described the activities of a German or Russian Jew named Rosenzweig who has been jailed for posing as medical doctor named Archer – a position for which he lacks both training and credentials.

    1872: Among the 400 passengers arriving in New York on board the Packet-ship Charles H. Marshall was a German Jew named Meyer Velt

    1873: This morning’s New York newspapers published a copy of a telegram from San Francisco that contains the confession of John T. Irving who claims to have murdered wealthy businessman Benjamin Nathan.

    1873: “The Nathan Murder” published today described the confession of John T. Irving to the murder of Benjamin Nathan which included a claim that his son Washington Nathan was the mastermind of the crime.

    1875: As the Shooting Season opens in France, Baron Hirsch entertains several of the “leading shots” on the land he leases in the forests around Saint-Germaine.

    1878: After being attacked by a political opponent because of his religion, Raphael J. Moses, a prominent resident of Columbus, GA, responded in the local newspaper by asserting his Jewish pride in an article that was reprinted around the country: “I feel it an honor to be of a race whom persecution cannot crush, whom prejudice has in vain endeavored to subdue.” When he ran for congress, Moses explained, “I wanted to go to congress as a Jew and because I would have liked in a public position to confront and do my part towards breaking down the prejudice.”

    1878(30th of Av, 5638): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1878: It was reported today that there are four Jews serving on the newly created 18 man Communal Council at Sarajevo.

    1878: It was reported today that a Communal Council has been formed in Sarajevo. The Council, which represents a cross section of Sarajevo’s religious communities, includes four Jews, five Muslims, three Catholics and six Orthodox (Greek or Russian, not Jewish).

    1882: Seventy two year old Friedrich Adolf Philippi the son a Jewish bank and family friend of the Mendelssohn who converted to Christianity in 1829 and became a Lutheran minister passed away today.

    1882: Eliot Arthur De Pass married Beatrice “Trixie” De Mercado in Jamaica today.

    1886: A party of forty Russian Jews landed at Castle Garden today and was detained by authorities.

    1886(28thof Av, 5646): Gretchen Kauffmann Born, the first wife of Gustav Jacob Born and the mother of Nobel Prize winner Max Born, passed away.

    1887: Birthdate of Clarence Yale Palitz, the native of Lavia who came to the United States in 1900 where he became a lawyer, alderman and active member of the Jewish community holding leadership positions with the Jewish Ladies Day Nursery and the Jewish Social Service Association while raising three children – Lillian, Bernard and Clarence, Jr. – with his wife Ruth Krumnas Palitz.

    1888: Today marks the tenth free excursion of this season sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children. As of this date, the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children the ten excursions have provided relief from the summer heat for 6,127 babies, 3,812 children and 3,678 mothers.

    1888: “Bloody Days In Morocco” published today described the violence in the North African country that has included Arab leaders calling for a Holy War. This has prompted at least one newspaper in Tangiers to call for the European powers to send ships to protect the Christians and the Jews.

    1889(2ndof Elul, 5649): Eighty-one year old Gustav Weil who switched from studying to be a rabbi to become a leading Orientalist and whose Mohammed der Prophet served as resource for Washington Irving when he wrote the Life of Mohammed passed away today.

    1891: “Russian Jewish Refugees” published today described the “considerable complaints” being made by people in Detroit because “the Canadian authorities send all the penniless Jews who get into that country” here to be taken care of.

    1891: Recorder Albert Hessberg of Albany was among those who greeted Senator Jacob A. Cantor of the Tenth Senatorial District and his wife when they returned from Europe today aboard the Hamburg steamer Columbia today.

    1891: Birthdate of Cincinnati native Raphael Isaacs the University of Cincinnati educated physician and Associate Professor of Internal Medicine at the University of Michigan who served as the Assistant Director of the Simpson Memorial Institute and the “Editor of the section of ‘Pathology of the Blood’ in Biological Abstracts while also being “a member of the Editorial Board of the medical journal Harefuah Haivri.

    1892: “No Way To Stop Immigration” published today discussed the challenges of protecting the United States from the European cholera outbreak including the comment that once the danger from cholera is out of the way, “it is plain that the United States would be better off if ignorant Russian Jews…were denied a refuge here.”

    1892: Birthdate of Alexandre Koyré, the Russian born French philosopher who served with the French Foreign Legion in WW I and spent WW II teaching at the New School for Social Research in New York City.

    1892: Birthdate of Chicago native Alvin Robert Cahn, the holder of a “BS from Cornell” and “PhD from the University of Illinois where he served  on the faculty  who was stationed at Dutch Harbor for three years during WW II.

    1897: The First Zionist Congress (Basle, Switzerland) was convened by Theodore Herzl. It was represented by one hundred and ninety-seven delegates. This was one of the most important yet unexpected convocation in modern Jewish History.  Against all odds, Herzl had Jews from twenty-four different states as varied Palestine, the United States and an array from across Europe.  The Congress adopted a document known as the Basile Program that declared, "The task of Zionism is to secure for the Jewish people in a Palestine in a publicly recognized legally secure homeland."  The Congress also announced that it would dedicate itself to strengthening Jewish consciousness and national feeling."  Writing in his diary on September 3 of the same year Herzl stated,” At Basle I founded the Jewish state.  If I said this out loud today, I would be answered by universal laughter.  Perhaps in five years, and certainly in fifty, everyone will know it."  In 1947, just a few months beyond those fifty years, the UN approved the partition of Palestine that gave birth to the Jewish state.

    1897: In Jersey City, NJ, Rabbi Jacob Boer led members of the Society of Teferith Israel in the ceremonies which converted a structure that had housed the German Evangelical Church into a synagogue. Rabbi Moses Wechsler, Rabbi Jacob Goodman and the Mayor of Jersey City were among the dignitaries who addressed the congregation.

    1897: “The Snake in the Bible” published today described two appearances of the serpent in the Torah – the first in the Garden of Eden and the second when God calls on Moses to go before Pharaoh – each of which shows a different aspect of Biblical philosophy.

    1898: The Zionist Conference chaired by Dr. Herzl continues for a second day in Basel, Switzerland.

    1898: It was reported today that at age 22, Abram Herschberger is youngest Rabbi to lead a congregation in Chicago, Illinois and he may be the youngest clergy of any denomination serving in the Windy City.

    1899: When the court martial of Captain Dreyfus resumed today Colonel Cordier, the Deputy Chief of the Intelligence Department was the first witness to take the stand and he testified based on his examination of the documents in question “he was now convinced Dreyfus was innocent.”

    1899: Nouri Bey receives 10,000 Francs to arrange an audience for Herzl with the Sultan.

    1900(4th of Elul, 5660): Seventy-nine year old Sir Saul Samuel, 1st Baronet, the Australian merchant, government official and leader of the Jewish community passed away today.


    1903: Die Welt publishes the declaration of the British Government on the allocation of a "Jewish territory" in East Africa. Die Welt was the name of publication started by Herzl in 1897 to further the Zionist cause.  It should not be confused with the modern German publication of the same name.

    1904: Joseph E. Nowrey, the Mayor of Camden, NJ, was reported today to have compared the conditions of Jews in the United States and in Russia when he said, “What a great sensation it would be if a Russian official, presiding over a city, should appear on a platform and speak words of encouragement at the dedication of a Jewish synagogue.  But thing are different in the broad land of ours.”

    1910(24th of Av, 5670): Sixty-eight year old San Francisco attorney and Democratic politician Joseph Naphthaly, the Prussian born son of Samuel and Julia Naphthaly who married the former Sarah Schmitt, the daughter of Blaize L. and Pauline Schmitt with whom he had two children, Samuel and Leon, passed away today.

    1911: In Great Britain the Tredegar District Council adopted a resolution protesting against “disgraceful rioting and looting” attacks against Jews in New South Wales.  The riots, which had begun on August 19 following the end of strike, were the worst outbreak of anti-Semitic violence in the British Isles in modern times.

    1912: Birthdate of Wolfgang Suschitzky, the “the photographer and cinematographer” who was the brother of Edith Tudor-Hart.

    1912(16th of Elul, 5672): Eighty year old Brno born philosopher and author Theodor Gomperz passed away today.

    1913(26th of Av, 5673): David Shubert, the Lithuanian born husband of Gittel Helvich Shubert whose children – Lee, Fannie, Samuel, Sarah, Jacob and Dora – the male members of which were the famous producers and theatrical entrepreneurs passed away today in Manhattan.

    1913: Birthdate of Sylvia Fine, the Brooklyn native who was an “American lyricist, composer, producer and the wife of the comedian Danny Kaye.”

    1914: Solomon Standwood Menken, a Memphis born New York lawyer who had converted to Christianity “returned to the United States today” from Great Britain where “he helped form the National Security League, a nonprofit, nonpartisan organization dedicated to higher military budgets, universal conscription and tight regulation of the economy” after having seen how poorly prepared the United Kingdom had been prepared to go to war against the Central Powers.

    1914: Much to the delight of the Jews serving with the Kaiser and to the disappointment of Jews serving under the Tricolor, the Germans thwarted an attack at Guise which would lead to further retreat by the French.

    1915: In Atlantic City, NJ, 500 people attended a meeting at the Garden Pier sponsored by the Central Committee for the Relief of Jews suffering through the war where arrangements were completed “for raising a fund throughout the country for the relief of Jews in Poland and Palestine.”

    1915: “The dedication of the home for the convalescents established by the Federation of Rumanian Jews of America did not take place this afternoon as planned due to inclement weather.”

    1915: According to reports published today, Dr. Jacques Faitlovich is planning on starting “a school for the Abyssinian black Jews in the Italian colony of Eretria” with the help of two young men he had brought to Italy for an education and which is supported “by Jewish organizations in America.”

    1915: James Huneker provides an insight into the works of Russian author Mikhail Artsybashev including “The Doctor” which provides “a view of pogrom in a tiny Russian province town” that provides details “of the wretched Jews shot down ripped open, maltreated and driven into the wilderness” which makes the reader “shudder.

    1915: In Richmond, VA, founding of Beth Israel Synagouge.

    1915: In Baltimore founding of Ahavas Sholom.

    1915: In Newark, NJ, founding of Aahavath Zion Synagogue.

    1915: In Los Angeles dedication of the Home for the Aged.

    1916: During World War I, Paul von Hindenburg became Chief of the German General Staff. Hindenburg’s supposed brilliance was really the work of his loyal lieutenant Erich Ludendorff. Among other things, Hindenburg helped provide ammunition for the myth that that German Army was stabbed in the back (by the Jews) and actually brought Hitler to power as Chancellor.

    1916: Jacob de Hass, the Secretary of the Provisional Committee for General Zionists wrote a letter today in which he took exception to a report by three teachers from American colleges in Turkey who said “that on their visit to Palestine they learned that all the Jews had been deported from Jerusalem with the exception of a few who had accepted the Moslem faith.”

    1916: “Austrian Threats to Jews” published today described two orders by the military commander of the Chelm District which The Day, a Jewish newspaper published in New York described as “an open provocation, the purpose of which is to make the Jews of invaded Poland the scapegoat for all Austrian misfortunes.”

    1917: Today, in Moscow, at the closing session the third sitting of the national conference, “the representative of the Jews said that they loved their country, notwithstanding their unprecedented persecution under the old regime and had contributed greatly to the emancipation of the people and the defense against the enemy.”

    1918: In Manhattan Thomas Rockwell Shepard Sr. and the former Marie Maze Dickinson gave birth to Thomas Rockwell Shepard Jr. the last publisher of Look magazine “which helped to launch the photography career of Stanley Kurbrick” and which published Thomas Morgan’s ““The Vanishing American Jew: Leaders fear threat to Jewish survival in today’s ‘crisis of freedom.'”

    1918: Samuel Gompers, President of the American Federation of Labor, who arrived in Great Britain yesterday from the United States at the head of a labor delegation, visited his birthplace in Spitalfields.

    1918: “Bennett Charges Forgery” published described complaints of voting irregularities that had been lodged by Ex-Senator William Bennett who was seeking the Republican nomination for Lt. Gov. of New York with Samuel S. Koenig, the chairman of the county Republican Committee – charges which the Jewish political leader dismissed as being groundless.

    1919: Sendel and Riva Grynszpan gave birth to Mordechai Grynszpan, the brother of Herschel Grynszpan the man who assassinated Ernst vom Rath which was the excuse for Kristallnacht

    1920: At Surprise Lake Camp, Cold Spring on the Hudson, Herman Lehman presided over the dedication of the Marx Building where the 75 attendees heard a speech by Judge Samuel Greenbaum and “a talk by Eddie Cantor who traced the beginning of his theatrical career to the summer, 18 years ago, when he was first sent to Surprise Lake Camp by the Education Alliance” and found himself providing entertainment for his 450 fellow campers.

    1920: “The first issue of Di Tsayt,” a Yiddish daily newspaper that would survive for two year “was published today in New York.

    1921: In Budapest, the United States and Hungary signed a peace treaty because the Senate had rejected the Versailles Treaty – a rejection that many believe was a step on the road to WW II and all that that came to mean.

    1922: Comintern agent Mikhail Borodin was arrested today in Glasgow, “ostensibly for breaking immigration regulations” but more likely because the authorities in the UK knew about his role as a spy and agent for the Soviet government.

    1923: Jewish gangsters Samuel "Sammy" Weiss, Jacob "Little Augie" Orgen and Samuel Gepson were arraigned at Essex Market Courthouse today on charges of having violated New York’s Sullivan Law.

    1924: Birthdate of Warsaw born filmmaker and actor Jakub Goldberg whose most famous collaboration with Roman Polanski.

    1924: Birthdate Victor Parsonnet, the WW II Navy veteran and NYU Med School graduate “who became a thoracic and cardiac surgeon in Newark, New Jersey and is affiliated with Newark Beth Israel Medical Center” and served as Chairman of the New Jersey Symphony Orchestra.

    1927: In Worms, birthdate of furniture designer Vladimir Kagan who was brought to the United States in 1937 by his mother Hildegard to escape the Nazis.

    1928: Birthdate of Perry K. Peskin, the Western Reserve University educated high school and U.S. Army veteran who was best known for his hobby as a “Bird Watcher”

    1929: The day began with an Arab attempt to massacre the Jewish population of Safed, one of the sacred cities of Palestine and the center of study of the Kaballah. Initially nine Jews were killed and thirty wounded. As day turned into night the attack continued with the Arabs killing twenty-two Jews, wounding scores more and burning the whole town except the government buildings. Fighting proceeded for eight hours before British troops arrived from Tiberias.  At least one American was found among the wounded.  According to reports circulating in the ancient Jewish settlement 3,000 have been left homeless and some of the wounded were tortured by the Arab raiders.

    1929: After six days of Arab attacks, 133 Jews had been killed throughout Palestine.  The casualties would have been higher if had not been for the work of the Haganah.  Established nine years earlier, members of the Haganah worked to defend settlements through Palestine.  At Hulda, twenty-three Haganah members held off more than 1,000 Arab attackers.  The success came at a cost - Ephraim Chizik, commander of the unit and one of the earliest members of the Jewish defense force was killed during the action.

    1929: After a week of Arab riots that started on August 23, as of today, 113 Jews had been killed and 339 wounded. As a result of the riots, Sir Walter Shaw headed a commission which urged the banning of Jewish immigration and absolved the Arabs and the Mufti of guilt. Another commission led by Sir John Simpson declared that the entire Zionist operation was unsound and undesirable. Both of these commissions were under the auspices of Lord Passfield, the British Colonial Secretary.

    1929: In a letter to The Times of London, British Zionist Harry Sacher refuted Arab claims that the Wailing Wall was part of the Mosque of Omar and that the Jews had no right to be there.  The Mufti had claimed that the Arab Riots were provoked by Jews marching to the Wailing Wall and violating the law by hosting a Zionist flag. (Please note the similarity of this claim to the one that would be made at the end of the century to justify the violence known as the Second Intifada.)

    1931: Robert Szold said in a statement issued on behalf of the administration of the Zionist Organization of America that the great majority of the American delegation to the recent World Zionist Congress at Basle applied itself to averting continued internal dissension in the organization and accomplished that goal.

    1933(7th of Elul, 5693): Ninety- year old Sir Philip Magnus, the rabbi who gave up the pulpit to pursue a career furthering technical education and the husband of Katie Magnus with whom he had two children biographer Philip Magnus and published Laurie Magnus.

    1933: In the Bronx, the former Rachel Gutman, a nutritionist and Judah Wattenberg, a real estate lawyer who gave birth to Joseph Ben Zion Wattenberg who gained famed as Democratic Party activist, author and social commentator Ben Wattenberg.

    1933: “Dinner at Eight” the film version of the play by George S. Kaufman and Edna Ferber, directed by George Cukor, produced by David O. Selznick with a script by Herman Mankiewicz was released in the United States by MGM.

    1933: “The New York Times runs a story about the existence of 65 concentration camps in Germany where at least 45,000 people are being held in inhuman conditions. Most of the prisoners in these camps are political: communists, socialists, and liberals of various sorts.”(As reported by Austin Cline)

    1933: In Canada, A spokesman of the Immigration Department publicly announces that the Government does not intend to amend the present restrictive immigration policy, thus responding to the objections of anti-Jewish groups and a section of the press to the proposed admission of German-Jewish refugees.

    1933: The conflict within the World Zionist Congress, caused by the presentation during the week-end of charges that the Palestine labor leader, Dr. Chaim Arlosoroff, had been murdered by Zionist Revisionists, overshadowed today’s discussions when the congress met today.

    1933:  Dr. Chaim Weizmann definitely declines to accept the presidency of the World Zionist Organization, though he agrees to head the campaign for funds to settle German Jews in Palestine.

    1935: The delegates to the World Zionist Congress were saddened by the death of Queen Astrid of the Belgians. This was reflected by the decision of the delegates to limit their activities today the holding a series of quiet sectional conferences.

    1935: The Los Angeles Times reported that “a Los Angeles based anti-Nazi League” had been operating in that city at least since February of 1934.

    1935: In Chicago, Louis Friedkin, “a semi-professional softball player, merchant seaman, and men's clothing salesman” and Rachael (née Green) Friedkin, “an operating room registered nurse gave birth to Oscar winning director whose works included the “French Connection” and “The Exorcist.”

    1935: New York premiere of “Top Hat” a musical produced by Pandro S. Berman with a score by Irving Berlin and Max Steiner.

    1936: Pravda, the official newspaper of the Soviet Union, “warns that Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party are planning a massive war that will lead to slaughter across Europe.”

    1936: It was announced today that “The American Committee Appeal for the Relief of Jews in Poland” which is seeking to raise one million dollars “has asked Jewish congregations throughout the United States to raise funds during the coming Jewish holidays for the relief of destitute co-religionists in Poland.”

    1936: Two British soldiers were killed tonight and three more were wounded when Arabs attacked a patrol near Mount Tabors.

    1936: Arabs attacked Jewish settlement in the Sharon Valley in southern Judea and in the Jordan Valley tonight.

    1936: In light of the violence in Palestine and the pressure being brought on the British government to stop Jewish immigration, a special evening prayer is scheduled to be recited in all Dutch synagogues in response to an order from the Association of Chief Rabbis of Holland.


    1936: “Unless unforeseen circumstances arise between tonight and tomorrow morning, an Arab High Committee meeting then will accept the intervention of General Nuri Pasha as-Said, the Iraqi Foreign Minister, for a settlement of the present deadlock between the Palestine Arabs and the Palestine (British Mandate) Government.

    1937(22nd of Elul, 5697): In the ongoing violent uprising against the Jews and in an attempt to silence Arab opposition, Abraham Berkowsky, aged 45, a Tel Aviv tailor, was killed on an Egged bus by a terrorist firing from an ambush just above Motza.

    1937: At Oxford, Prof. Dr. Herbert Danby, who translated the Mishna into English, severely criticized Alfred Rosenberg, the Nazi scholar and the head of the German Foreign Affairs section, who had just published his book The Immorality of the Talmud. Danby said that the book, published by Friends of Europe, was full of malice and misquotations

    1937: New York’s WNEW radio station broadcast a memorial show honoring cartoonist Frederick Burr Opper who had passed away on August 28.

    1938: In New York City, Sylvia (née Seiderman) and Alexander Rubin gave birth to Robert Rubin, the United States Secretary of the Treasury under President Clinton.

    1938: In Brooklyn, the former Lucille Raver and Bernard Goldstein gave birth to Elliott Goldstein who gained fame as Elliot Gould one of the most prominent American film actors in the early '70s, best known for playing Trapper John in the satirical 1970 film M*A*S*H. Time magazine put him on its cover in 1970, when he was at the brief height of his long career, calling him a "star for an uptight age

    1938: According to the London Daily Mail, a group of Arabs attacked Jerusalem tonight.  The same report included a description of an attack on Mothea, a kibbutz known for its dairy, during which the barns were burned and “a number of the pedigreed cattle” were deliberately burned alive.

    1939: On the eve of World War II, Chaim Weizmann informed the prime minister of England that the Jews of Eretz Israel would stand by Great Britain and fight on the side of the democracies.

    1939:  Birthdate of director William Friedkin.  He is best known for his work with The Exorcist and the French Connection for which he won an Oscar.

    1939:  Birthdate of movie director Joel Schumacher the son of Marian (née Kantor) Schumacher, whose “mother was a Swedish Jew.”

    1940: The National Encampment of the Jewish War Veterans of the United States continued to a second day in Boston.

    1941: The remainder of 11,000 displaced Hungarian Jews (forced laborers), now living in Kamenets Podolsk and whom Hungary did not want to take back were taken out of town to a pit and machine gunned down.

    194(16th of Elul, 5702): Rabbi Simcha Oberbaum, Aleksanderer Chassid; a central figure in the Lodz Jewish community; born in Warsaw in 1852, died in the Lodz ghetto.

    1942: As can be seen from the attached photograph, more Jews were deported today from Wiesbaden Germany to Auschwitz.

    1942: It was reported today that Dominican President Rafael L. Trujillo’s offer to provide a haven for 3,500 Jewish refugee children living in Vichy was been forward, Marshal Petain, the head of the French government. A few years earlier, Trujillo had provided land at Sousa for a Jewish refugee colony.

    1942: Twelve Jewish American women were included among the first graduating class of WAAC officers at Fort Des Moines, Iowa. They were Ruth Ginns, Beatrice Berg, Carolyne Casper and Jean Korn from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Kathryne Goldfluss, Rose Ross and Joan Strongin from New York, New York; Bee Rosenberg and Ruth Spivak from Chicago, Illinois; Rita Fink and Isabel Bayley of Buffalo, New York; and Elizabeth Morgenstern of Seattle, Washington.a

    1942: The Jewish community from Olesko, Ukraine, is deported to the Belzec death camp

    1942: Occupation officials in the East inform Berlin that the "Jewish problem" has been "totally solved" in Serbia. Since German occupation, 14,500 of Serbia's 16,000 Jews have been murdered.

    1943: The American Jewish Conference “opened at the Waldorf-Astoria hotel in New York City.  More than five hundred delegates were present representing sixty-five different national organizations.”  Rabbi Abba Hillel Silver gave an “electrifying speech” in which he “convinced his audience to support the Biltmore Declaration.”

    1943: After almost 8 years, the New Deal agency known as The Federal Art Project (FAP) whose artists included Leon Bibel, Adolph Gottlieb, Harry Gottlieb, Isaac Soyer, Moses Soyer. Raphael Soyer and Lee Krasner came to an end

    1943: Six hundred prisoners were sent from Larissa to Athens so they could be held Haidari, a concentration camp that was really a stopping point for the ultimate trip to Auschwitz. 

    1943: In Denmark, the official chief rabbi, Dr. Max Friediger is detained as a "hostage" of along with some 100 prominent Danes, including a dozen Jews, in a camp near Copenhagen.

    1944: More than 800 Jews earmarked for forced labor are transported from Auschwitz to the labor camp at Sachsenhausen, Germany, for assignment to nearby factories. Elsewhere in Germany, about 72 ill or pregnant Jews are taken from a labor camp near Leipzig and transported to gas chambers at Auschwitz.

    1944: The last transport left the Lodz Ghetto after two months of final liquidation of the Jewish population. Only 600 Jews remained from 76,000 who were still alive there on June 15, 1944.

    1944: Father Giuseppe Girotti was arrested today when he was “caught in the middle of transferring a wounded Jewish partisan” to a safe house –a deed that earned him a one-way ticket to Dachau where he was murdered on Easter Day. (As reported by JTA)

    1945: Lt. Colonel Judah Nadich entered the Feldafing D.P. camp.  Nadich was a rabbi serving as the senior Jewish chaplain in Europe.  Nadich was repelled by the barbaric conditions under which the Jews were living; especially by the fact that they were confined behind barbed wire just as had been the case in the Concentration Camps while “The conquered Germans had complete freedom.”

    1945: Lt. Col. Louis Geffen, who had served as a judge advocate in the US Army since January 1941, set sail from Oakland, CA for Japan.

    1951: In Chicago, Edward H. Levi the former President of the University of Chicago and Attorney General and his wife gave birth to David F. Levi who served a federal judge before becoming Dean of the Duke University School of Law.

    1952: Birthdate of Baltimore native Karen S. Hesse winner of the Newbery Medal for Out of the Dust and  the Koret Jewish Book Award in 2005 for The Cats in Krasinski Square.

    1954: WNBC is scheduled to broadcast “first radio performance of Maria del Carmen (Granados) and Concerto for Trombone and Orchestra by Nathaniel Shilkret.”

    1955: Birthdate of Jacob “Jack” Lew, whom President Obama chose to serve as the 25thWhite House Chief of Staff.

    1957: Premiere of The Pajama Game featuring a score by Richard Adler and Jerry Ross, two more of the Jews who created and nurtured the “Broadway Musical,” one of America’s unique contributions to the world of entertainment.

    1958: United States Air Force Academy opens in Colorado Springs, Colorado. According to the latest figures available, there are approximately fifty Jewish cadets attending the Academy. 

    1959(25th of Av, 5719): Parashat Re’eh

    1958(25th of Av, 5719): Sixty-two year old Denver born Zionist leader David Tannenbaum passed away today in Tel Aviv.

    1960(6th of Elul, 5720): Fifty-two year old Hedwig “Vicki” Baum whose 1929 novel Menschen im Hotel would be made into the Academy Award winning “Grand Hotel” passed away today.

    1961: “Bear Meat,” a short story by Primo Levi, was published for the first time in Il Mondo.

    1964(21st of Elul, 5724): Leil Sleichot

    1964: After 964 performances, the curtain came down on the original Broadway production of “A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum” the Stephen Sondheim Tony award winning musical comedy starring Zero Mostel and Jack Gilford (both of whom had been blacklisted) featuring Karen Black

    1968: In Chicago, the National Democratic Convention which has been held against a backdrop of demonstrations led in part by Lee Weiner, Abbie Hoffman and Jerry Rubin, comes to an end.

    1963: At the New York Shakespeare Festival, final performance of “Electra” featuring David Hurst in the role of “Paedagogus”

    1969: A deranged Australian tourist who was a Christian fundamentalist set fire to the Al Aksa Mosque claiming that it was “Satan’s Temple.”

    1969: Two Palestinians hijacked a TWA plane after it had left Los Angeles and forced it to land at Damascus where 6 Israeli passengers were detained.

    1970: Plans for Israel's forthcoming appeal to the world's Jews for $1-billion next year for nondefense needs of the country were outlined at a meeting of the newly reorganized Jewish Agency

    1972(19th of Elul, 5732):René Leibowitz, Polish born French composer, conductor, music theorist and teacher passed away.

    1974: Just days before his 65th birthday, Biblical scholar and archeologist George Ernest Wright who directed the Drew-McCormick Archaeological Expedition to Shechem and the Hebrew Union College Biblical and Archaeological School Expedition at Tell Gezer passed away today.

    1975: Colonels Lev Ovsischer and Yefim Davidovich and other Zionist activists protested the imminent screening in Minsk of new anti-Zionist documentary film, “The Secret and the Obvious”.

    1976: John Darnton described the volatile conditions in sub-Saharan African including “the recent dispute between Kenya and Uganda stemming from President Idi Amin’s charge of Kenyan complicity in the Entebbe raid.”

    1976:  The first Conference on Alternatives in Jewish Education began at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island.

    1977(15th of Elul, 5737): Seventy-nine year old Aharon Menachem Shapira, the son of Avraham and Liba Rochel Shapira passed away today at Petah Tikva.

    1977: Prime Minister Menachem Begin and Romanian President Nicolae Ceausescu cruised peacefully on Lake Snagov, discussing peace prospects and bilateral relations. They reaffirmed Israeli-Rumanian friendship, but haggled over the wording of the final joint announcement.

    1977: In Jerusalem Mayor Teddy Kollek asked whether the ³equalized services² promised for the West Bank and Gaza by the new Likud government would be extended to east Jerusalem, as well as to the new Jewish neighborhoods, deprived so far of adequate religious, educational and communal facilities.

    1979(6th of Elul, 5739): Eighty-four year old newspaper mogul Samuel I. Newhouse passed away today.

    1979: Birthdate of Ehud “Udi” Tenenbaum the native of Ramat HaSharon who was arrested for hacking into a wide variety of computer systems including those at NASA, MIT and the Knesset.

    1982: Dr. Sari Lynn Kramer, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Julian S. Kramer of South Orange, N.J., was married to Samuel L. Margulies, son of Mrs. Emmanuel Margulies of New York and the late Mr. Margulies. Rabbi Barry Greene of Livingston, N.J., performed the ceremony at the home of the bride's parents. The bride, who will retain her name, is a psychologist at the Veterans Administration Hospital in East Orange, N.J. She was graduated magna cum laude from Barnard College, where she was elected to Phi Beta Kappa, and received a master's degree in education from Harvard University and a master's degree and a doctorate in clinical psychology from New York University. Her father is chief executive officer of the Suburban Foods Corporation in Clifton, N.J. Mr. Margulies, a lawyer in Montclair, N.J., is chairman of the New Jersey Council on Divorce Mediation in Upper Montclair, N.J. He was graduated from New York University, where he also received a master's degree in international relations. He has a doctorate in political science from the University of Oregon and a law degree from the Rutgers University Law School. His previous marriage ended in divorce. His father was president of the Community Bank in Linden, N.J.

    1982(10th of Elul, 5742): Eight-seven year old Zionist leader Nahum Goldmann, the founder of the World Jewish Congress passed away today.

    1983: “Strange Brew” directed and written by Rick Moranis who also starred in the comedy was released in Canada today by MGM.

    1984(1st of Elul, 5744): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1985: One person was injured during a stabbing attack by a terrorist in Jerusalem.

    1986: “In an essay entitled "Encumbered Remembrance: The Controversy about the Incomparability of National-Socialist Mass Crimes" first published in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung today, Joachim Clemens Fest claimed that Ernst Nolte's argument that Nazi crimes were not "singular" was correct.”

    1986: Birthdate of Canadian actress, Lauren Collins.

    1994: Solomon “Sol” Wachtler, the Republican Chief Judge of the New York of Appeals who had been convicted and sentenced to prison for “acts stemming from threats he made against a former lover and her daughter” was scheduled to be released to a half-way house today.

    1994(22nd of Elul, 5754): Ninety-five year old Walter Gilbert Peiser, the Brooklyn born son of William and Jennie Peiser and the husband of Frances Henrietta Peiser who was a graduate of the University of Cincinnati and the Hebrew Union College and who served as a rabbi in Cleveland, OH, Austin, TX and Baton Rouge, LA where he also served on the faculty of LSU passed away today.

    1996: The Democratic National Convention comes to an end having nominated Bill Clinton for President comes to an end.  His second administration will include Monica Lewinsky, a failed attempt to force a peace agreement at Camp David and the pardon of Marc Rich.

    1997(26th of Av, 5757): Seventy-three year old Ilya Gazarkh, a resident of Pisgat Ze’ev who had survived the combat of WW II, died of the wounds he sustained during a terrorist bombing at the Mahane Yehuda Market in July.

    1999: David Berger completed his service as Canada’s Ambassador to Israel.

    1999: “The Chicago Jewish Historical Society – in cooperation with the Dawn Schuman Institute – is scheduled to lead a tour of southwest Michigan led by Leah Axelrod where participants will “learn about early Jewish farmers” and the development of the resorts at South Haven and Benton Harbor.

    1999: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Urban Exodus: Why the Jews Left Boston and the Catholics Stayedby Gerald Gamm, The Sextants of Beijing: Global Currents in Chinese Historyby Joanna Waley-Cohen daughter of Sir Bernard Nathaniel Waley-Cohen, the Jewish businessman who became Lord Mayor of London, Kosovo Crossing by David Fromkin and The Birth of Shylock and the Death of Zero Mostelby Arnold Wesker.

    1999: The 7th World Championships in Athletics in which Aleksandr Valeryevich Averbukh placed third in the Pole Vault representing Israel came to a close today in Seville, Spain.

    2000(28th of Av, 5760): Ninety-seven year old Gertrude H. Schaefler, the widow of the late Leon Schaefler passed away today.

    2001(10th of Elul, 5761): Thirty-five year old Oleg Sotnikov was shot by terrorists today.

    2003(1st of Elul, 5763): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    2003(1st of Elul, 5763): The Fatah al-Aqsa Brigades “claimed responsibility for the murder of 25 year old Shalom Har-Melekh and the wounding of his “wife Limor who was seven months pregnant” and subsequently “gave birth to a baby girl by Caesarean section.” (Jewish Virtual Library)

    2003: Eric Edelman began serving as United States Ambassador to Turkey.

    2003: Pulitzer-Prize Winning Poet Louise Glück (pronounced “Glick”) was named poet laureate of the United States.

    2004: In “In New York Try and Find A Genuine New York Bagel,” published today Molly O’Neill decried the downward spiral of the genuine bagel while providing a list of places where the aficionado can find this unique hunk of boiled dough.

    Beware the billowy bagel. It bears no resemblance to its small, gnarly forebears. The traditional bagel was as tough as New Yorkers imagine themselves to be. It was a workout: the carb count of a handmade bagel was net zero once the chewing was done. This bagel was one of the reasons that the typical New Yorker found it difficult to wake up elsewhere and one reason people came here. Today the typical New York City bagel is no different from the ones served in malls nationwide. The traditional bagel, born of Eastern European shtetls, was made of yeast, malt, flour, water and salt. It was rolled by hand, first boiled and then baked. Today's version is made from yeast and sugar, flour, water and salt, extruded through machines and baked. The result is a big, fat, soft pillow suitable only for naps. Had we not been focused on other issues in recent years, New Yorkers would have taken swift and certain action against the airy and flaccid interlopers that dare to call themselves bagels. Rather than a daily entitlement, the authentic bagel has become a special event. We generally find them behind well-steamed windows -- the secret is in the malt, the baker and the boiling -- in places like these:

    BAGEL HOLE -- 400 Seventh Avenue, Brooklyn, (718) 646-2210

    BAGEL OASIS -- 183-12 Horace Harding Expressway, Queens, (718) 359-9245

    BAGELWORKS INC. -- 1229 First Avenue, (212) 744-6444.

    ESS-A-BAGEL -- 359 First Avenue, (212) 260-2252; 831 Third Avenue, (212) 980-1010.

    MURRAY'S BAGELS -- 242 Eighth Avenue at 23rd Street; (646) 638-1335

     NEPTUNE BAGELS -- 371 Neptune Avenue, Brooklyn; (718) 462-2830

    ROCCO'S PASTRY SHOP AND ESPRESSO CAFE -- 243 Bleecker Street between Avenue of the Americas and Seventh Avenue, (212) 242-6031

    2004: The Sunday New York Times book section includes a review of Blackbird House by Jewish novelist Alice Hoffman.

    2004: The New York Mets held their annual “Jewish Heritage Day” game by playing the Los Angeles Dodgers who roster includes Shawn Green, the 21st century version of Sandy Koufax.

    2005(24th of Av, 5765): Seventy-eight year old Rabbi Balfour Brickner whose accomplishments included the founding to Temple Sinai in Washington, DC passed away today.

    2005: Hurricane Katrina strikes New Orleans causing untold suffering among the Jewish community as well as the secular community. In the coming days, the world will be treated to Tzizth wearing rabbis rescuing Torah Scrolls from flooded buildings as the Crescent City suffers one of the worst disasters in American history.

    2005: The issue of Sports Illustrated Magazine of this date contained an article entitled “Stars Of David” about the two Arab Israelis named Abbas Suan and Walid Badir.  They are stars on Israel’s World Cup soccer team.  They each scored a critical goal in two games that have left Israel undefeated in seven qualifying games and on the verge of reaching its first World Cup in 36 years.

    2005: In Little Rock, AR, Rabbi Pinchas Ciment and his wife Estie Ciment announce the arrival of their new son.

    2006: In San Francisco a SUV struck two people in front of the Jewish Community Center of San Francisco on California Street, a few blocks from where the hit and run rampage ended. Blood covered the sidewalk in front of the center’s gift store entrance, and 50 feet farther down the sidewalk lay a mangled bicycle. Security cameras in front of the center captured images of the incident, which happened at 1:12 p.m., according to Aaron Rosenthal, spokesman for the community center

    2007: In Eilat, second night of the Red Sea Jazz Festival.

    2007:In response to the Larry Craig scandal Al Goldstein declared in his blog that he was bisexual, and said he'll be "the first presidential candidate to admit to sucking cock and the first to turn fully gay mid-campaign."

    2007: Boaz Mauda won Kochav Nolad 2007 with 50% of the votes.

    2008:  “Lifetimes To Go in Old Mexico” published today provides a of “My Mexican Shiva” based on  "Morirse está en hebreo," a short story by Ilan Stavans “about Jewish life in Mexico at the time of the 2000 presidential election.”

    2008: The Red Sea Jazz Festival comes to an end.

    2008: TheAvishai Cohen Trio performs at the Blue Note in New York City.Acclaimed bassist Avishai Cohen, whose most recent recording, “Gently Disturbed,” continues to earn rave reviews, visits NYC for three days of performances where he is joined by the same trio – Shai Maestro on piano and Mark Guiliana on drums – who perform with him on Gently Disturbed, which Jazz Timesrecently lauded as “scintillating”, Downbeatpraised as “simultaneously delicate and fierce,” and which the Washington City Paper called “unpredictable” and “deeply compelling.”

    2009: Ceremonies commemorating the 65th Anniversary of the Liquidation of the Litzmannstadt Ghetto by German authorities comes to an end.

    2009:Palestinian militants fired a Qassam rocket into the western Negev early Saturday. The rocket fired by Palestinian militants hit an open area in the Sdot Negev regional council. The Qassam, fired at around 6 A.M., was one of several military incidents along Israel's boarder with Gaza, coming after months of relative calm.

    2009:In the evening, The Cedar Rapids Jewish community gathers for the first Shiva minyan honoring Peggy McHugh beloved mother of Sabrina Thalblum and the mother-in-law of Rabbi Todd Thalblum.

    2010:Annual dinner to support Magan David Adom in Israel is scheduled to take place at Adat Shalom Synagogue in Farmington Hills, Michigan 

    2010: The Stern Senior Art Show is scheduled to come to an end at Yeshiva University Museum.

    2010: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Freedomby Jonathan Franzen

    2010: With Mideast peace talks due to restart in Washington this week, Defense Minister Ehud Barak met with Jordan' King Abdallah today to offer assurances that Israel is committed to a lasting peace with the Palestinians. "Peace is a strategic objective for Israel," Barak told the king. "We expect the Palestinians to come to the peace talks with openness."

    2010: It was reported from Jerusalem today that “recent discoveries of large natural gas reserves off Israel's coast have set in motion a battle between investors and the government over how to divide up the profits.

    2011: “Ushpizin” is scheduled to be the movie shown at Movies Under the Stars at the Chabad Community Campus in Fairfax, VA.

    2011:Seven people were injured in south Tel Aviv early this morning, when a terrorist from the West Bank carjacked a taxi and rammed it into a police road block protecting a Tel Aviv nightclub, before going on a stabbing spree.

    2011:Top Israeli singer and TV personality Margalit "Margol" Tzan'ani and convicted criminal Michael Hazan were indicted this morning on charges of extortion, and conspiracy to commit a crime.

    2012: “Advanced Kashrut Seminar for Women” is scheduled to take place at the OU Headquarters in New York City.

    2012: In “Boys Own Adventures in Wartime and Sterling Public Service” published today John Farquharson described the exemplary life of Sir Richard Kingsland who had been born Julius Cohen, but changed his name “to avoid anti-Semitism.”

    2012: A 25 person Israeli team is set to compete at the Paralympic Games which are scheduled to open today in London (As reported by Aaron Kalman)

    2012: One hundred fifteenth anniversary of the opening of the First Zionist Congress in Basle.

    2012:A New York City hardware store clerk who pleaded guilty to kidnapping, killing and dismembering a lost little boy was sentenced today to 40 years to life in prison

    2012:The office of Rabbi Yitshak Ehrenberg, who has been serving the Berlin Jewish community since 1997, confirmed today in an email that criminal charges had been filed against him. Ehrenberg has received a letter from the prosecutor’s office because of comments he made on a nationwide broadcast television show, an aide confirmed. At this point it is not known who filed the complaint and what exactly the letter states.

    2012: In “Peeking through the highrises: famed Jerusalem street's old architectural glories” published today Moshe Gilad provides cultural history of the Jewish state disguised as a tour of Jerusalem's Hanevi'im (Prophets) Street

    2013: The Sydney Jewish Writers’ Festival presents “In Conversation with Laurent Binet” whose award winning first novel HHhh “recounts the assassination of Nazi leader Reinhard Heydrich in 1942.”

    2013: Denis Kozhutkin is scheduled to play Hindemith’s Piano Sonata no.3 in B flat major at The Jerusalem International Chamber Music Festival.

    2013: Nicholas and Jacobina, the children of Judith (Perlman) Martin “began sharing the credit for the Miss Manners columns today.

    2013: Félix Lajkó and his band are scheduled to perform at the Dohany Street Synagogue in Budapest.

    2013: "Praying for peace is not enough when God’s children are being gassed,” a leading British rabbi, Dr Jonathan Romain, said in an expression of support for military intervention in Syria, British media reported today.”

     2013: “Thousands of Israelis lined up outside gas mask distribution centers today, despite efforts by authorities to calm fears of being on the receiving end of a threatened Syrian retaliation should the US take military action against the Assad regime.” (As reported by Rettig Gurg and Stuart Winer)

    2014: Valerie Sassyfras is scheduled to perform “a vocal set of original songs” at the Banks Street Bar in New Orleans.

    2014: The Tel Aviv International Synagogue is scheduled to host a Carelbach Kabbalat Shabbat Service followed by a Champagne Kiddush.

    2014: At Friday night services in Cedar Rapids, IA, Temple Judah celebrates the 10thanniversary of Kathe Goldstein’s serving as Cantorial Soloist.

    2014: Twenty-three year olf Aaron Sofer, a US yeishiva student from Lakewood, NH whose body had been found in Ein Kerem, “was laid to rest in Beit Shemesh.” (As reported by Marissa Newman and Advi Sterman)

    2014( 3rd of Elul, 5774); Twenty-two year old Sgt. Natanel Maman  died this morning at the Beilinson Hospital in Petah Tikva  as a result of shrapnel wounds suffered last week when a rocket  exploded next to Gan Yavneh in the Ashdod region. (“In life he was loved and admired; he was swifter than eagles and stronger than lions.”)

    2015: As the Israel Museum celebrates its 50thanniversary “6 Artists / 6 Projects” an exhibition featuring contemporary Israeli artists is scheduled to come to a close today.

    2015: This year’s Jacob’s Pillow Dance Festival which has featured the work of Israeli choreographers:  Hofesh Shechter, Saar Harari, Roy Assaf,Sharon Eyal and Gai Behar is scheduled to have its finale tonight.

    2016(25th of Av, 5776): Eighty-three year old comedic actor Gene Wilder passed away today. (As reported by Daniel Lewis)

    2016: Only months after having signed him a one year contract, the Detroit Lions released thirty year old Offensive Guard Geoff Schwartz today.

    2016: “The Kind Words,” a comedy about three Jewish Israeli siblings at The Hampton Synagogue Film Series which is now in its 14thyear.

    2016: Classes are scheduled to begin at Missouri State University the academic home of Marc Cooper, a professor emeritus of history who was stabbed to death last week. (As reported by Ari Feldman)

    2016: “A free public reception is scheduled to take place at 402 College Street, the home of Makom, a space dedicated to ‘creative downtown Judaism’ which is also the location for Mandel’s Dreamery, an art installation at the Fenster Gallery in Toronto.

    2016: In Chicago, the Institute of Cervantes is schedule to host a screening of “Heaven in Auschwitz,”  “a documentary film that tells the incredible story of 13 Jewish children during World War II, whose lives were changed forever by the legendary Fredy Hirsch, a German-Jew who worked to provide arts, culture and sports to improve the lives of children in the Terezin Ghetto.”

    2017: In Israel, the Foreign Ministry is scheduled to host the third and final of its two-hour tours of its Jerusalem offices complete with short lectures designed to provide families with a sense of “what it is like to be a diplomat.”

    2017: The Rothbard Trio featuring Wayne Escoffery is scheduled to appear at the Red Sea Jazz Festival today.

    2017: “The Invisible Museum: History and Memory of Morocco” is scheduled to open today.

    2017: “Sketching "Fiddler": Set Designs by Mentor Huebner” is scheduled to open today.

    2017: “The Power of Attention: Magic & Meditation in Hebrew "shiviti" Manuscript Art” is scheduled to re-open today.

    2018: “Operation Finale,” a cinema depiction of the capture of Adolf Eichmann is scheduled to open today in the United States.

    2018: In Jerusalem, Hashaa Theatre is scheduled to host a performance of “The Dolphin,” “musical fantasy for children.”

    2018: “Map Story – an experiential activity for children who like stories and for those willing to set out on adventures and discoveries between the words” is scheduled to come to an end today at the National Library of Israel.

    2018: At part of the “Home: Lens on Israel” series, the Temple Emanuel Streicker Center is scheduled to open the photographic exhibition “The Storied Druze Village of Yanuh-Jat.”

    2018: In Sandy Springs, GA, Israeli pianist Asrtith Baltsan is scheduled to perform at the Sandy Springs Performing Arts Center.






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    August 30

    70: According to Josephus, the day one which the Second Temple was set aflame

    500: Having conquered Italy, Ostrogoth King Theodoric gave the Jews freedom to worship.

    526 Death of Theodoric the Great, king of the Ostrogoths (the eastern Goths) who controlled the Italian Peninsula and area adjacent to it. Theodoric had a reputation for religious toleration which he extended to the Jewish people.  He encouraged them to settle in his kingdom reportedly because he saw them as a source of economic benefit.  

    1179: As the Crusaders and the Moslems jockey for control over Palestine, soldiers under the command of Saladin had sacked the castle at Jacob’s Ford, the critical passage way across the Jordan River.  The crossing takes its name from the Biblical patriarch and would be a seen of fighting in 1948 and 1967.

    1181: The papacy of Alexander III comes to an end. He was “the author of the oldest extant version of the bull “Sicut Judaeis” (As the Jews) first promulgated in 1120 by Calixtus II.

    1334: Birthdate of King Peter who reigned over Castile and Leon from 1350 to 1369. “Peter's rival Henry of Trastámara continuously depicted Peter as "King of the Jews", and had some success in taking advantage of popular Castilian resentment towards the Jews. Henry of Trastámara instigated pogroms beginning a period of anti-Jewish riots and forced conversions in Castile that lasted approximately from 1370 to 1390. Peter took forceful measures against this, including the execution of at least five anti-Jewish leaders of a riot.”

    1465: Johannes Hinderbach, who blamed the Jews for the death of Simon of Trent which was his justification for murdering “several of them” and working to canonize the boy in what was one of many of the blood libels, was elected Prince-Bishop of Trent today.

    1563: The Jewish community of Neutitschlin, Moravia was expelled.

    1793(22nd of Elul, 5553): In his 37th year, Judah Levy passed away erev Shabbat after which he was buried in the Alderney Road Jewish Cemetery.

    1803: Twenty-two year old Leo Wolf and Johanna Wolf gave birth to Dr. Moritz (Morris) Wolf

    1808: The Magistrate of Frankfurt (a puppet of the French Government) summoned Rothschild to give an account of his business dealings with the Landgrave.

    1809: Benjamin Lewin married Sarah Elkin at the Great Synagogue today.

    1810: Philip Wilks married Hannah Levy at the Great Synagogue today.

    1812: Phillip Solomon married Jane Aaron at the Great Synagogue today

    1813: Following today’s attack “on white settlers and allied Creeks at Fort Mims” Abraham “Mordecai aided the federal troops in tracking down the members of the Red Stick faction” responsible for this action that took place during the Creek War.

    1815: This evening Henry Nathans of London married Hester Levy in Charleston, SC.

    1818: Lewis Barnett married Elizabeth Levi at the Great Synagogue today.

    1821:Mr. Myer Ellis of Charleston, SC married Francis Polack the daughter of New Yorker Jacob Abrahams.

    1824: Simon Drukker married Mary Emanuel at the Great Synagogue today.

    1826: In Paris, Moise Mayer Fichel and Lili Abigail Sasias gave birth to French painter Benjamin Eugène Fichel.

    1829(1st of Elul, 5589): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1829:1829: Two days after he had passed away, 22 year old Samuel Solomon, son of “Michael and Hannah Solomon” was buried today at the “Brompton (Fulham Road) Jewish Cemetery

    1835: Founding of Melbourne, Australia.  The first synagogue opened in Melbourne in 1847. Melbourne provided the first native born Australian to serve as Governor-General – a lawyer named Isaac Isaacs. King George V was reportedly reluctant to appoint Isaacs to the post because he was Jewish. Prime Minister James Scullin assured the reluctant monarch that Australians took a more liberal view than most Englishmen did in such matters.  They were not bothered by the matter of religion and therefore, the appointment was made without further complications

    1836: The city of Houston is founded by Augustus Chapman Allen and John Kirby Allen. Within twenty years after the founding of the city there were enough Jews living in Houston to form a burial society. In 1859, Congregation Beth Israel, the first chartered Jewish congregation in Texas was founded as an Orthodox Synagogue but switched to the Reform movement fifteen years later. In 1906, Houston saw the publication of The Jewish Herald Voice, the first journal of its kind to appear in the state. A list of early Houston Hebrew businessmen would include Joseph Weingarten, Simon Sakowitz and Tobias Sakowitz. Houston established its Jewish Community Council in 1936 under the presidency of Max Nathan and enhanced its Jewish Family Service under Ruth Fred.

    1836: Hart Levy married Julia Woolf at the Great Synagogue today.

    1843: Mary and Philip William Flower gave birth to Cyril Flower, the 1st Baron of Battersea who married Sir Anthony de Rothschild’s daughter Constance in 1877.  The couple were the last of their line since they had not children.

    1843: Lewis Levy married Catherine Elias at the Great Synagogue today.

    1848(1st of Elul, 5608): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1851: Birthdate of Abram S. Isaacs, the New York native who served as the Rabbi for Barnett Memorial Temple in Paterson, NJ and served as the first Professor of Hebrew at New York University.

    1855: James Finn, the British Counsel in Jerusalem reported to the British Ambassador in Constantinople that Sir Moses Montefiore had been given permission by the Ottoman government to purchase land in Jerusalem on which he would be allowed to build a hospital and where he could employ poor Jews in gardening.  Montefiore was only the second European who had been allowed to purchase land.  Finn had been the first.

    1860: Birthdate of Isaac Levitan, famed Russian landscape painter.whose works included Autumn day. Sokolniki and Issac Levitan. Selfportrait.

    1862(4th of Elul, 5622): As the Union Army suffers a crushing blow thanks to the stupidity of General Pope, thirty-three year old Captain Jacob A. Cohen, Company A, 10thLouisiana, was killed today fighting for the Confederacy.

    1863: Birthdate of Russian photographer Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky, who provided a photographic record, in color of Jews living in far-flung parts of the empire.

    1865: On Broadway, Mr. Edmund Kean is scheduled to play "the Jew" in tonight's performance of the Merchant of Venice.

    1865: Judah P. Benjamin arrived at Southampton, Britain marking the final stop on his flight from America when the Confederacy was finally defeated.

    1867: The Washington Avenue Synagogue, also known as Temple Beth El, was dedicated today in Detroit, Michigan.

    1867: Prince Charles, the future King Charles (a.k.a. King Carlos I) wrote a letter to Sir Moses Montifore, expressing his pleasure at the Anglo-Jewish leader’s recent visit to Romania and his support for better treatment of the Jews living in Romania.

    1868: Three days after he had passed away, 72 year old Ralph Isaacs, the father of nine children – Caroline, Julia, Isabella, Esther, Rosina, Frances, Emma, Ameilia and Ralph – was buried to at the “Balls Pond Road Jewish Cemetery.

    1871: Birthdate of Vilna native Nathan Weinstein, the “officer of the Zionist Organization of America” who settled in Portland, Oregon.

    1872: In Philadelphia, Abraham and Barbara Wilder Salus gave birth to University of Pennsylvania trained lawyer Samuel W. Salus, the member of both houses of the state legislature and Republican Party leader who was the husband of Ada R. Salus, the father of Arthurs S. Salus and the grandfather of Samuel W. Salus II.

    1872: It was reported today that Sir Moses Montefiore has completed his trip to St. Petersburg, Russia and returned to his home at Ramsgate.  Sir Moses had gone to Russia at the behest of the Board of Deputies to intercede with the Czar’s government on behalf of the Jews of Russia.

    1869(23rd of Elul, 5629): Jacob Romm, one of the three sons of printer and published Joseph Reuben Romm, passed away today in Vilna.

    1873(7TH of Elul, 5633): Parashat Shoftim

    1873(7th of Elul, 5633): Eighty-seven year old “economist and journalist Jacob Newton Cardozo” the Savannah born son of Sephardic merchant David N. Cardozo passed away today.

    1873: In the United Kingdom, Sir George Jessel begins serving as the Keeper or Master of the Rolls and Records of the Chancery of England, known as the Master of the Rolls. For the two years prior to accepting this position, he had served as Solicitor General.

    1875: The New York Times published an account of Sir Moses Montefiore’s trip to Palestine including his visit to Jerusalem.

    1875: It was reported today that Abraham H. Guedalla has provided The Jewish World with some of the correspondence between him and Sir Moses Montefiore that provided details of his visit to Palestine during July of 1875.

    1876: Henry Schneeberger was sent a letter inviting him to become the first rabbi of Chizuk Amuno in Baltimore, MD.

    1877: While “on special service at the European Station, U.S. Navy Lt. and future Rear Admiral Edward D. Taussig and his wife Ellen Kneffler gave birth to Joseph K. Taussig, the U.S. Naval Academy quarterback who served in every conflict from the Spanish American War to WW II and rose to the rank of Vice Admiral.

    1878(1st of Elul, 5638): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1878: In New York, Judge Van Rant, granted a writ of habeas corpus directing Thomas F. Fallon to bring Caroline Cohen to court.  Caroline was the 15 year old daughter of Loewenthal Cohen, a Jewish clothing dealer.  Fallon was a Roman Catholic who allegedly had eloped with young Caroline. The judge had granted the write in response to Cohen’s petition claiming that his daughter was being held against her will having been enticed away from her home “under the pretext that he wanted to marry her.”

    1879: In New York, 12 year old Henry O’Brien decided to find out if it was true that Jews did not eat pork. He thrust a piece of pork down the throat of Harris Goldstein, a Polish Jew.  Goldstein chased after O’Brien who hit Goldstein with a shovel when the Jewish boy caught up to him. O’Brien hit him in the face and broke his nose.  At the end of the melee, both of the boys were arrested by Officer McCarthy of the Tenth Precinct.

    1880: David Belasco’s version the drama “True to the Core” was performed today at the Baldwin Theatre.

    1880: Kaspar von Preysing and his wife, Hedwig von Walterskirchen gave birth to anti-Nazi Cardinal Konrad von Preysing who as Bishop of Berlin “had vainly appealed to the Pope to protest specific Nazi actions, including those directed at the Jews.”

    1881: It was reported today that authorities have denied “Jew-baiter” Ernst Henrici the right to address a public meeting in Hamburg, Germany. [His speeches had been connected to riots in Berlin and the burning of the synagogue in Neustettin.]

    1882: In Williamsburg, VA, “William and Lena (Engelberger) Teiser” give birth to University of Virginia trained attorney Sidney Teister who lived and worked, for a time, in Portland, Oregon and who was the husband of the former Betty Kline with whom he had two children – William and Ruth.

    1883: It was reported today that martial law has been declared at Eglerszeg, Hungary after an outbreak of anti-Jewish riots.  All of the shops remain closed and many of the Jewish families have fled from the city.

    1885: Rabbis Mendes and Morais are scheduled to speak at the service being held at the 19thStreet Synagogue in memory of the late Sir Moses Montefiore.

    1885: “New Antiquities” published today described the career of Moses Shapira, “the converted Jew” whose discovery of a “so-called Moabitish manuscript of Deuteronomy…and a Moabitish dictionary” which he offered to sell to the British Museum for $5,000,000 has been declared to be “a clumsy forgergy” by experts from Germany.  This, and other forgeries tied to Mr. Shapira, is attributed to the fact that he left the faith of his birth.

    1886: Thirty-one of the forty Russian Jewish immigrants who arrived in the U.S. yesterday left Castle Garden with friends who had promised to provide support for them. 

    1890: The boy’s band from the Hebrew Orphan Asylum will perform at the Summernight’s festival sponsored by District No. 1 of the Independent Order of B’nai B’rith which is being held at Sulzer’s Harlem River Park.

    1891: The tenth free excursion sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children will begin with a boat ride up the East River starting at 9 a.m.

    1891: “Famine Face in Russia” published today described how the government’s anti-Jewish laws have exacerbated the situation since, in the past, Jewish money lenders have provided funds for the peasants when their crops have failed.  Such is not the case which makes the agricultural crisis all the worst and the government refuses to alter the laws.

    1891: State Senator Jacob A. Cantor is preparing for the upcoming election following his return from Europe yesterday.

    1892(7th of Elul, 5652): Four year old Ida Samyan, the daughter of a Russian Jewish couple who had just arrived from Hamburg passed away today.  Much to the relief of authorities “a post-mortem examination showed that her death was not due to cholera.”

    1892: Max Strassburger, a representative of the United Hebrew Society arrived at Ziontown, NJ to investigate the claims that the Jewish settlers had been brought their under false pretenses and were now facing the prospect of starvation. 

    1892: In Elizabeth, NJ, the city Board of Health met this evening and adopted measures to deal with the threat of cholera including measures to improve the sanitary conditions in the First War which is home to “a large number of Russian and Polish Jews.”

    1895(10th of Elul, 5655): Mrs. Rebecca Kastor who left legacies of $100 each to several Jewish institutions including Mount Sinai Hospital and the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society, passed away today.

    1896: Herzl received a "Shana Tova" from Jerusalem signed by Ephraim Cohn, director of the Lämel School, David Yellin, Eliezer ben Yehuda and Wilhelm Gross.

    1897: The funeral for David J. Seligman who passed away in his 48th year and was the son of the late Joseph Seligman is scheduled to take place at his home on East 55thStreet in Manhattan.

    1897: In Michigan, the Montefiore Pleasure Club which meets every Thursday evening and “aids the Hebrew Charities of Detroit” was founded today.

    1897 In Amsterdam, art dealer Eduard Goudstikker and his wife gave birth to Jacques Goudstikker whose “extensive and significant art collection” was stolen by the Nazis” and then became the subject of decade’s long litigation in the post-War years.

    1897: At today’s session of the Zionist Congress being held in Basel, Switzerland, “the delegates…unanimously adopted, with great enthusiasm, the program for re-establishing” the Jews “in Palestine, with publicly recognized rights.”  “A dispatch was sent to the Sultan of Turkey thanking his Majesty for the privileges enjoyed by “the Jews “in his empire.”

    1898: Godefroy Cavaignac, the Minister of War, stated that the document “which definitely incriminated Captain Alfred Dreyfus” “had been discovered to be a forgery by Hubert-Joseph Henry” “but he refused to concur with his colleagues in a revision of the Dreyfus prosecution” opting instead to resign and join with the nationalists and anti-Semites in the Chamber of Deputies.

    1898: During the Dreyfus Affair, Major Henry, one of those who had helped to frame the French officer, was arrested. Following his arrest, Henry confessed to his role in the matter.

    1898(12th of Elul, 5658): In Chicago Sixty-four year old Rabbi Louis Rosenbloom was kicked to death by seventeen year old John Schlechta when he tried to the teenager from attacking various members of the Levi family.

    1898: The second annual Zionist Congress at Basel Switzerland, where the American delegation was led by Dr. Richard J.H. Gottheil, Professor of Rabbinical Literature and Semitic Languages at Columbia University was scheduled to come to and today.

    1899: On this date Herzl wrote in his diary “While riding out to Währing today on a jolting bus the title for my Zion novel occurred to me: Alt-Neuland [Old-Newland].”

    1899: Three handwriting experts, including Paul Meyer, Director of the of the School of Ancient Manuscripts all testified today at the court martial of Captain Dreyfus that Estherhazy and not Dreyfus had written the bordereau that was at the heart of the claim that Dreyfus had betrayed France to the Germans.

    1900: Four days after he had passed away, 74 year old Charles Cleve, the husband of the former Adeline Stiebel, was buried today at the “Balls Pond Road Jewish Cemetery.”

    1902: Birthdate of Paul Massing the German sociologist who wrote “Rehearsal for Destruction: A Study Of Political Anti-Semitism in Imperial Germany.”

    1902: Birthdate of Gisela Kohn Dollinger the native of Baden-be-Wien, a Vienna suburb, who survived the Holocaust and lived to be 111. (As resulted by Julie Wiener)

    1903: In Scranton, PA, a meeting is scheduled to be held today at Keneseth Israel Synagogue on Linden Street “for the purposed of organizing a council” made up “of the following societies – Chovevi Zion, Daughters of Zions, Sons of Zion all in Scranton; Chovevi Zion of Wilkes-Barre; Machsi Zion of Pittson and Tifereth Zion of Olyphant, PA.

    1904: Birthdate of Saul Pollock, the Newark native who earned a PhD in Mathematics and was a consultant for the Hall of Science at the Century of Progress Exposition in Chicago.

    1904(19th of Elul, 5664): Sixty-three year old Baden native, Lippmann Mayer the German trained Reform Rabbi who led Congregation Rodef Shalom in Allegheny City, PA and served as the Chaplain for the petitionary and “as a director of home for the aged in Pittsburgh” passed away today.

    1906: Native Muslim soldiers attack the Hara (Jewish Quarter) of Tunis.  

    1906(9th of Elul, 5666): Edward Rosewater passed away. Born in Bohemia in 1841, he came to the United States in 1854. He became the publisher and editor of the Omaha (Neb) Bee. “Rosewater had a reputation for always being ‘aggressive and controversial’, and was influential in Nebraska politics as one of the leaders of the state Republican Party.”

    1908: First Conference for the Yiddish Language opened in Czernowitz

    1909 (13th of Elul, 5669 ):Yosef Chaim (a leading Hakham (Sephardic Rabbi), authority on Jewish law (Halakha) and Master Kabbalist passed away two days before his 71stbirthday. He is best known as author of the work on Halakha Ben Ish Chai ("Son of Man (who) Lives"), by which title he is also known.

    1909(13th of Elul, 5669): Chaim Jossel Eidelsohn passed away today.

    1909(13th of Elul, 5669): A young girl named Scheitel Lewin passed away today.

    1912: Founding of Temple Israel in Gary, Indiana.

    1912: In Wellington, NZ, Ella Wake (née Rosieur) and Charles August Wake gave birth to SOE agent Nancy Wake known as the White Mouse.

    1913: The Manchester Guardian and the New York Times, report that Max Nordeau will not be giving the opening address at the upcoming Eleventh Zionist Congress.  This is first time Nordeau will not have given the opening address since the Zionists began their meetings.  It is further evidence of a shift to the program of the practical Zionists as opposed to those Zionists who had looked to a combination of European nations acting in concert to create a Jewish Homeland.

    1914: During World War I, the Battle of Tannenberg came to an end with the Germans defeating the Russians.. At the urging of the French, the Russian Army had begun advancing before it was fully mobilized and ready for battle.  The Russian Army advanced into East Prussia which caused panic in Berlin.  The Germans transferred troops from the Western Front to meet the Russian advance.  This shift of troops weakened the German forcing attacking the French, undermined the German grand strategic design and enabled the French to finally halt the advance. This would lead to the four year stalemate known as World War I.  The strengthened German forces in Prussia blocked the Russians and hurled them back.  The fighting in the East would be a see-saw affair that would bleed Russia until the Revolutions of 1917 and 1918.  The Jews living in the Pale of Settlement which was in the path of this clash between the Kaiser and the Czar suffered great privations.  The irony was that the Germans could probably have won the battle without the additional troops and World War I might have been a rather brief affair where the troops were home by Christmas and Europe (including the Jews) would not have experienced the upheavals that led to World War II and the Holocaust.

    1915: “Storm Delays Dedication of Home” published today described plans for the dedication of the home for convalescents established by the Federation of Rumanian Jews of America” which will take place next week because inclement weather had forced a postponement of the ceremony.

    1915: Birthdate of composer Robert Strassburg whose works would span both the secular and religious worlds as can be seen by his work on such Broadway shows as “The Rose Tattoo” and such compositions as “Torah Sonata” and the opera “Chelm.”

    1915: Birthdate of Shifra Lerer, “who was discovered at age 5 in Argentina by the great Yiddish actor Boris Thomashefsky and went on to become a winsome and wide-ranging trouper of the Yiddish theater for the next 90 years.”

    1915: It was reported today that Rabbi Henry M. Fisher of New York “will conduct a campaign among” visitors to, and permanent residents of, New York City to raise money “for the relief of the Jews in Poland and Palestine” who are suffering from the effects of the World War.

    1915: It was reported today that the supporters of Eleftherios Venizelos “have cast suspicions of treason and sedition upon the Jews because they voted for candidates” supporting Dimitrios Gounaris in the recent Greek parliamentary elections.

    1916: In “America and Russia” published today Louis Marshall refuted the arguments of Montgomery Schulyer that the economic interests of the United States were being subverted by the Jews who were blocking trade agreements with the Russians by insisting that U.S. citizens who were Jewish would be treated in the same ways as all other Americans and not subject to the anti-Jewish laws of the Czar. (Editor’s note – While serving as an officer with the U.S. Army in Russia during WW I, Schulyer would create a volume of correspondence equating Bolshevism with Judaism)

    1917: “Says Turks Pay The Jews” published today provided the description of Djemal Pasha, Commander of the Turkish forces in Syria of the treatment of the 5,000 Jews living in Jaffa which he described as a “small Jewish settlement about which so much fuss is made which is administered by a self-elected commission and maintained by the Ottoman Government which spends 7,000 pounds Turkish (about $30,000) on it monthly.”

    1917: Crystal Eastman, the sister of Max Eastman and Jacob Panken were among the delegation of 150 pacifists gather at the Weehawken Station of the West Short Railroad this afternoon but absent from the group were Morris Hillquit and Rabbi J.L. Magnes

    1918: Samuel Gompers and the American Labor Mission were entertained by the British Government today at a luncheon, where the visitors were welcomed by Lloyd George, G.H. Roberts and Lord Reading. The British Prime Minister lauded Gompers saying that “no man has done more to convince civilization must fight to victory.

    1918: It was reported today that “the Irving Place Theater” which was “abandoned by the Germans” has been taken over by a Yiddish theatrical company head by the well-known actor, Morris Schwartz.”

    1918: It is reported today that the Jewish Welfare Board has established headquarters at 41 Boulevard Haussman in Paris to enable it to work with members of the American Expeditionary Force

    1918: “An East End Tailors’ Strike” published today described a strike by 3,000 London tailors most of whom are Jewish where the participants are not asking for more money but better working conditions.

    1918: The Jews of Salonica who were originally Ottoman subjects are exempted from alien restrictions, under which they had previously lived. 

    1918: Fanya Kaplan a disillusioned revolutionary shoots and seriously injures Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin. This, along with the assassination of Bolshevik senior official Moisei Uritsky days earlier, prompts the decree for what is known as the Red Terror.

    1918: This evening, “Australians of the Second Division” under the command of Sir John Monash, “crossed to the north bank of the Somme River” in the first move of what would become the Battle of Mont Saint-Quentin.

    1919: The Emergency National Convention of Socialist America at which New York State Secretary Julius Gerber and Jacob Panken played crucial roles opened today in Chicago.

    1919: Samuel Gompers announces support for the Versailles Treaty and denounces Republican leaders for opposing a document, which among other things, contains provisions beneficial to labor and workers.

    1919: The Jewish Commissariat Yevsektsiya of Russia proclaimed Hebrew a "reactionary language." As such the teaching of Hebrew was prohibited in all educational institutions and books in Hebrew removed from libraries.

    1920: “The Devil’s Pass Key” a “silent film directed by Erich von Stroheim was released in the United States today by the Universal Film Manufacturing Company.

    1920: The reign of Mohammed Alim Kahn, the last Emir of Bukhara whom Levi Babakhan served as court vocalist came to an end. Babakhanov was part of dynasty of Jewish musicians that included his son Moshe and grandson Ari.

    1922: Birthdate of famed mezzo-soprano Regina Resnik.

    1923:Today the United Jewish People's Bank, Ltd., was registered in London by the cirectorium of the United Jewish Emigration Committee. The bank which, according to its articles of incorporation, will seek to promote the development of handicraft industries and agriculture among Jews starts with a capital of £500,000. It will aim to foster in particular all kinds of cooperative undertakings and assist in the emigration and immigration of Jews throughout the world. While its ultimate objects are of a social nature the institution is authorized to conduct a regular banking business. Among the subscribers are Latzki-Bertholdi, Advocate Sliosberg, Leo Motzkin, Dr. L. Branson, Vladimir Tiomkin, Rabbi Jochelman, and Dr. Brutzkus. The directors of the bank have not yet been appointed. (As reported by JTA)

    1924(30thof Av, 5684): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1927:The Fifteenth Zionist Congress, the legislative body of the International Zionist movement, went into session at Basel, Switzerland, today with 280 delegates representing Zionist societies from all parts of the world present. Forty of the delegates are from the United States and chooses Sokolow at President 1927: According to reports published today, the Palestine Economic Corporation which had been organized in February, 1925, has increased its investments in Palestine by $575,000 during its first year of operation.  The corporation was organized by the Non-Partisan Palestine Conference under the Chairmanship of Louis Marshall, with investments of $620,000. Substantial funding has gone to support the citrus growing industry.

    1928: Birthdate of Barbara Zimmerman who became Barbara Epstein after marrying Jason Epstein and gained fame as “the editor at Doubleday of Anne Frank’s Diary of a Young Girl.”

    1929: “A telegram from Reuter’s news agency was sent to all its subscribers: ‘Jerusalem has now been a city of death for eight days during which work has ceased and people are starving.  Hundreds are receiving bread rations.  Everywhere it is deadly quiet, and everyone is very nervous.’”

    1929:With relative quiet restored to central Palestine today, people and officials looked anxiously to the north, where a force of Syrian Arabs has crossed the border to march on Jerusalem. British planes are searching for them. The incursion of large forces of Arabs over the Syrian frontier is causing considerable uneasiness in London tonight.

    1930: Leila (née Stahl) and Congressman Howard Buffett gave birth to their only son, Warren Buffet the investor who became close friends with Dorothy and Myer S. Kripke, the Omaha rabbi whose investment of $70,000 turned into $25 million which they donated to a variety of philanthropic causes.

    1931: In Hamburg, Temple Israel dedicated its third house of worship which had been built as a result of the relocation of many congregants from “the old city center.”

    1933(8th of Elul, 5693): Seventy year old British author Ada Esther Leverson, the daughter of Zillah and Samuel Henry Beddington and wife of Ernest Leverson who was a close friend with her contemporary, the better known Oscar Wilde.

    1933: “Sensation Hunters” directed by Charles Vidor and with music by Bernie Grossman was released today in the United States by Monogram Pictures.

    1933: In a bid for the support of the Laborite faction in the forthcoming election of the administration of the World Zionist Organization, Nahum Sokolow, 72-year-old president of the organization, addressing the World Zionist Congress tonight, defined his views on the position of labor in the building of a Jewish national home in Palestine.

    1933: William Dodd began serving as U.S. Ambassador to Germany.  He was the first Roosevelt appointee to deal with the Hitler government.  Unfortunately, the professionals in the State Department would not listen to the warnings offered by this American college professor.

    1933: The Hessische Volkswacht publishes a list of 30 concerns in Hessen that have been represented by Jews in court actions.

    1933: In a published declaration the Union of German National Jews protests against the resolution adopted by the Zionist Congress against Nazi Germany, and blames Zionism for the present situation of German Jewry.

    1933: In Worms, the police announce that "a large number of Jews" have been arrested and taken to a concentration camp because of their provocative attitude and degrading remarks against the Nazi regime.

    1934(19th of Elul, 5694): Sixty-two year old anthropologist Dr. Maurice Fishberg passed away today.

    1935: “Catherine the Last,” “a romantic comedy directed by Henry Koster, produced by Jose Pasternak and starring Otto Walberg who was murdered at Auschwitz was released in Austria today by Universal Pictures.

    1935: Sixty-two year old French anti-fascist author and friend of Albert Einstein and Egon Kisch passed away today in Moscow.

    1936: “Catherine the Last” a comedy directed by Henry Koster, produced by Joe Pasternak and starring Otto Walberg was released today in Austria.

    1936: Charles Edward Russell, the President of the Pro-Palestine Federation of America announced plans to “launch a nationwide effort to mobilize and encourage Christian interest in the right of the Jews to establish a national home in Palestine.

    1936: Morris Rothenberg announced today “a gift of $20,000 to the meet the emergency situation in Palestine has been made to the United Palestine Appeal of which he is the co-chairman by Mr. and Mrs. Felix M. Warburg.

    1937: In what was described as “a new political murder against Jews in Palestine” heats up.  “A bomb was thrown in a Tel Aviv thoroughfare severely wounding at least one Jew while two Jewish workers – Daniel Swanitsky and Isar Pankus – were murdered early this morning. 

    1937: The Arab Higher Committee decided that the Arab General Strike, begun on April 19, would continue. The problem of Jewish refugees from Jaffa and the surrounding area had been finally solved after every family was furnished with a home, comprising a large room with a balcony, kitchen, lavatory and a shower at the cost of 90 pounds, paid back in form of rent at the rate of half a pound a month over a period of 15 years. One British soldier was severely wounded at Lydda and more British troops arrived from Malta

    1938: Several cases of Arab arson attacks are reported to authorities throughout Palestine and Haifa police shot and killed a fleeing Arab terrorist.

    1938: “As part of the tower and stockade settlement campaign” “immigrants from Austria, Czechoslovakia and Germany” established Ma’ayan Tzvi a kibbutz “named after Henry Zvi Frank, a Zionist activist and head of the Jewish Colonization Association, which had acquired the land on which the kibbutz was built.” Boy Meets Girl a 1982 Israeli drama directed by Michal Bat-Adam was filmed on location at Kibbutz Ma'ayan Tzvi.

    1938: Birthdate of Owen Jacob Laster, the son of immigrants from the Ukraine and Russia, who became one of the most powerful literary agents of his generation, running William Morris’s worldwide literary operations that had a long list of best-selling writers including James A. Michener and Gore Vidal (As reported by William Grimes)

    1938(3rd of Elul, 5698):  Max Factor, Sr. passed away. Born Max Firestein, this Russian Jewish immigrant had reportedly been a makeup artist for Russian nobility.  He made his debut as Max Factor, Sr. at the 1904 St. Louis World’s Fair to launch what would become a cosmetics empire with a special relationship with the stars of the Hollywood film industry.

    1940: Registration of all Jewish property became mandatory in Slovakia.

    1940: Much to the initial pleasure of the Jews, the Nazis returned Kolozsvar to Hungarian control. The Jews did not realize how much influence the Nazis had over the Hungarians or the depth of anti-Semitism that existed among some of their non-Jewish neighbors. Kolozsvar was the home of Rudolf Kastner who at this time was thirty-six years old and writing for the Jewish newspaper Új Kelet

    1941: The SS at Chelmo work camp ordered fifty Jewish workers to dig trenches. Five were shot at a time, as five would dig a new trench, until all but the last five were killed.

    1941: A second round of daily shootings which last until December began today at the Latvian city of Liepāja

    1942(17th of Elul, 5702): Fifty-two year old Nissim Joseph Ovadia, the Turkish born chief rabbi of Vienna and Paris who came to the United States after the French surrendered to the Nazis passed away today.

    1942: Members of the Jewish community at Rabka, Poland, were murdered today.

    1942: French Bishop Pierre-Marie Théas reminds his parishes that all human beings are created by the same God, Christians and Jews alike, and that "all men regardless of race or religion deserve respect from individuals and governments."

    1943: The Army Show, starring Jewish comedians Frank Shuster and Johnny Wayne opened at the Forum in Halifax, Canada.

    1943: A statement by the American Council for Judaism stating its opposition to “the creation of a Jewish national state” was made public today in Philadelphia.

    1943: The American Council for Judaism, Inc “appealed to the United Nations for the earliest possible repatriation or resettlement under the best possible conditions of all peoples uprooted from their homes by the Axis Powers” while expressing its “hope for the ultimate establishment of a democratic autonomous government in Palestine where Jews, Moslems and Christians shall be justly represented.”

    1943: The Jews of Denmark began their first day of living without the protection of the Danish government which had resigned meaning the country was now under the direct control of the Nazis.

    1944: In Warsaw, Władysław Szpilman, whose story of survival was chronicled in The Pianistmoved back into his old building, which by this time had entirely burnt out but where the larders and bathtubs provided the bread and rainwater, which kept him alive.

    1944: The SS St. Louis, which had been the centerpiece of the famous 1939 voyage “was heavily damaged” today during an Allied bombing attack at Kiel.

    1944: As of today, “about 70,000 Jews from Lodz had been sent to Auschwitz.”

    1944:  After visiting Majdanek and seeing firsthand what the Germans had done, W.H. Lawrence wrote in the New York Times, “I am now prepared to believe any story of German atrocities no matter how savage, cruel and depraved.”

    1944: Sir Harold Alfred MacMichael completes his term as British High Commissioner of Palestine.

    1945: Major Ronald Edmond Balfour, the lecturer at King’s College, Cambridge who had been serving with the British Army since 1940 and had joined the Monuments Men (the unit that was so helpful in rescuing Jewish owned art and valuables stolen by the Nazis and their collaborators) in 1944 was unable to take up his position today ,as scheduled, “as Monuments Officer for the First Canadian Army due to crowded roads, poor transport  and destroyed bridges” all products of the Allied drive across France.

    1946: “The Killers” a cinema treatment of Hemingway’s short story directed by Robert Siodmak, produced by Mark Hellinger and co-starring Sam Levene was released in the United States by Universal Pictures.

    1948:  In Silver Spring, MD, Jeannette and Sam Black gave birth to comedian and social commentator Lewis Black.

    1948(25th of Av, 5708):  “A Jewish worker was shot dead by sniper fire from the Old City walls while crossing a street on the Israeli side of the city.”  This threat of death would only finally end when the Israelis reunited the city in 1967.

    1948: Alice Salomon passed away in New York City.  She was a pioneer German social worker who fled the Nazis after being arrested and interrogated.  She was not Jewish, but her Jewish origins put her at risk given the Nazi racial laws.

    1951: The twenty-third World Zionist Congress, which closed early this morning, unanimously adopted a resolution asking the Israeli Government to give the world Zionist organization legal status.

    1954: This evening, start of Operation Binyamin 2 under the command of Ariel Sharon.

    1954: Birthdate of Shlomi Shabat, the native of Yehud who has become a popular singer and musician.

    1955(12th of Elul, 5715): Seventy-two year old NYU trained labor lawyer David Drechsler, the former “president and chairman of the board of Sons of Israel in Brooklyn and the husband of Fannie Drechsler with whom he had one child – Selma – passed away today.

    1956: In Israel, the eight day nation-wide bus strike ended today.  The strikers were from the Egged Bus Company which serves Haifa and provided interurban services and the Dan Company that serves the Tel Aviv metropolitan area.  These companies are owner-operator co-ops.

    1968: Birthdate of Scottish author and broadcaster Muriel Gray who creating a documentary entitle “The Wandering Jew” in 1996 which traced the Jewish roots of her mother’s which stretched back to Moldova.

    1962(30th of Av, 5722): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1963: Today, in Rockville, MD, Washington, DC, native William Peyser “Bill” Jacobson, the son of Aaron Jacobson and Victoria Peyser married Barbara Johnson with whom he had two children Michael and Stay Ann Jacobson.

    1964: Five hundred Orthodox rabbis issued a proclamation calling on religious Jews to join the Religious Zionists of America

    1965: The album ''Highway 61 Revisited'' by Bob Dylan was released.

    1966: The first Knesset building was dedicated in Jerusalem. This was one of several artistic ventures that marked 1966.  Two others were the opening of the America-Culture House in New York which displayed Israeli arts and crafts while providing scholarships for Israeli artists to study in the United States and the naming of Israeli author Shai Agnon as the winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature

    1970: Sarah Jacobs the Polish born daughter of Abraham Simcha (Simon) Flashtiq and Rebekah Flashtiq and the wife of Abraham Goodman Jacobs passed away today in London.

    1976: An Israeli patrol killed two terrorists who infiltrated through a security fence from Lebanon.

    1976: London's Spectator weekly claimed that the PLO was making millions out of terror and had some £50 million invested in Britain. For those of you who think terror began on September 11, think again.  .

    1976: Pravda, the Soviet Communist Party's major newspaper, described the US proposal to send American monitoring personnel to Sinai as a "questionable development." This should serve as a reminder that the conflict in the Middle East was fueled, in part, by the needs of Soviet imperialism.

    1976(4th of Elul, 5736): Dr. Paul Lazarsfeld, a Columbia University sociologist whose studies of American voting patterns and the influences of the printed and electronic press on society are classics in his field, died of cancer at New York Hospital today at the age of 75.

    1981(30th of Av, 5741): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1981: Terrorist bombing at a market in Nablus.

    1981: At Temple Emunah in Lexington, Massachusetts, “Rabbi Moses Mescheloff of Chicago” officiated at the wedding of his nephew Dr. Jonathan Furth Schoneld, “a theoretical physicist” and grandson of Rabbi Lazar Schonfeld, the former chief rabbi of Nagy Karoly, Hungary to “Jonina Tessa Gorenstein, the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Gorenstein, of Medford.”

    1983: “A tired and depressed Prime Minister Meachem Begin turned to his colleagues and said with a sigh, ‘I cannot go on any longer.’”  [Begin would leave office a few days and return to his Jerusalem apartment at 1 Semach Street where he would lead a life of almost total isolation.]

    1983: In what would prove to be the first act in what some describe as a tragedy and others describe as murder, “23-year-old Alice Ephraimson-Abt, the daughter of a Holocaust survivor, boarded KAL Flight 007 at John F. Kennedy International Airport.”

    1984(2nd of Elul, 5744): Sixty eight year old Oscar nominated composer Emil Newman who was the brother of two other composers – Alfred and Lionel Newman – the father of composers Maria, David and Thomas Newman and the uncle of songwriter Randy Newman passed away today.

    1984(2nd of Elul, 5744): Forty-nine year old “poet, critic and chairman of the department of comparative literature at Queen College, Paul Zweig, and the author of Walt Whitman: The Making of a Poet passed away today.

    1984: Judith Resnik began her first space flight aboard the Discov ery which was making its maiden voyage.

    1985: After premiering at the Seattle International Film Festival, “Flesh and Blood” co-starring Jason Leigh was released in the United States today by Orion Pictures.

    1987: Author Jean Hanff Korelitz got married today.

    1987(5th of Elul, 5747): Ninety-four year old Abraham Bernard “Abe” Levy, the native of Hull who moved to the United States to “pursue a career in design” after having served in World War I and then returned to England in the 1930’s where he wrote “articles on what remained of Jewish life in the East End and on the occupation patterns of Anglo-Jewry” which formed the basis for East End Storypassed away today.

    1989: A federal jury in New York found ''hotel queen'' Leona Helmsley guilty of income tax evasion but acquitted her of extortion.

    1989(29th of Av, 5749): Dorothy Schiff owner and publisher of the New York Postfor nearly 40 years passed away. She was a granddaughter of German born Jewish financier Jacob H. Schiff and the daughter of Mortimer Schiff and Adele Neustadt Schiff.

    1989(29th of Av, 5749): Author, essayist and editor Seymour Krim passed away. According to at least one critic, “some of the Jewish themes that obsessed him were post-Holocaust anger, the lack of a nourishing Jewish culture, assimilation and emasculation, and the ugliness of self-hatred.”

    1992(1st of Elul, 5752): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1998: The New York Times book section features reviews of two works by Jewish authors: Theatre on the Edge by Mel Gussow and Capital Dilemma by Michael Z. Wise.

    1998: In “First, the People Moved East. Now, So Are the Cemeteries,” published today John Rather describes the changes in the New York cemetery scene including four Jewish cemeteries on Cemetery Row including Mount Ararat, New Montefiore, Beth Moses and Wellwood .  The Jewish community faces its own unique set of challenges.''Very often what Jews do is arrange for family plots, which means there may be people who pass away in Florida who want to return to New York to be buried,'' said Rabbi Bruce Ginsburg, president of the Long Island Board of Rabbis. Some Long Island funeral homes have affiliates in Florida to speed the return home.

    2000(29th of Av, 5670): Ninety-three year old movie and television director Joseph H. Lewis passed away today. (As reported by Lawrence Van Gelder)

    2001(11th of Elul, 5761): Sixty year old Amos Tanjouri was “shot at point blank range” by Palestinian terrorists.

    2005(25th of Av, 5765): Eighty-five year old James H. Scheuer who served 13 terms in the U.S. House of Representatives passed away today. (As reported by Jennifer Lee)

    2005: “A Scrappy Congressman, Ready for His Next Risk” published today examined the career of Congressman Anthony D. Weiner and his chances to become Mayor of New York City. (The more things change, the more they stay the same)

    2005: Today, Tulane University which was being led by President Scott Cowan reported that due to Hurricane Katrina “physical damage to Tulane’s campuses was extensive” with several feet of standing water on the campus north of Feret Street which included most of the dorms and eating facilities but fortunately “no serious flooding on the portion of the campus between Feret Street and St. Charles Avenue which encompassed the original academic quad of the school.

    2005:  The Bedouin guard who subdued a suicide bomber in Beersheba was hailed as a hero of the state of Israel in headlines of the Jerusalem Post.

    2006:America gets ready for new Jewish-themed cable network. “First there was the Kinky Friedman documentary Shalom Y'All,and now there's Rabbi Mark S. Golub's Shalom TV. Golub is launching America's first national television channel dedicated to celebrating Jewish life and culture. The channel will initially be available as an on-demand network costing subscribers $7.99 monthly and will present 50 hours of programming weekly only to those living in southeastern Pennsylvania and northern Delaware. The aim, however, is eventually to expand to the entire continental US, Golub says.

    2006: The Bank Leumi announced that leak concerning the stock transactions of Lt. Gen. Dan Haulutz that took place before fighting broke out Hezbollah did not come from anybody working that institution. 2007: An exhibit at the Land of Israel Museum in Tel Aviv featuring hundreds of works by cartoonist Kariel Gardosh, who became famous under his pen name “Dosh” comes to an end. Dosh was the first Israeli cartoonist to have his work published in a daily newspaper.

    2007: “Faith and Civic Pride Clash Over Parade on Yom Kippur” published today describes the conflict between Yom Kippur and a civic celebration in Herkimer, NY.

     2007: Ant-Zionists Max Blumenthal and Norton Mezvinksy, were joined by Tehran Professor Kaveh Afrasiabi on WBEZ”s “Worldview” which features discussions on the conflict between Israel and the Palestinians.

    2007: A national tour of Stephen Sondheim’s “Sweeny Todd” which would last until November, 2007 began today.

    2007: The Red Sea Jazz Festival comes to an end at Eilat.

    2008: The Eleventh Jerusalem International Chamber Music Festival opens today.

    2008: Today, Democratic Congressman Robert Wexler of Florida lashed out at John McCain's choice of Alaska Governor Sarah Palin as his running mate, accusing her of supporting "Nazi sympathizer" Pat Buchanan, and branding the move an "affront to all Jewish Americans.""John McCain's decision to select a vice presidential running mate that endorsed Pat Buchanan for president in 2000 is a direct affront to all Jewish Americans," said a statement by Wexler. "Pat Buchanan is a Nazi sympathizer with a uniquely atrocious record on Israel, even going as far as to denounce bringing former Nazi soldiers to justice and praising Adolf Hitler for his 'great courage'".Wexler went on to accuse McCain of having "failed his first test of leadership."
    "At a time when standing up for Israel's right to self-defense has never been more critical, John McCain has failed his first test of leadership and judgment by selecting a running mate who has aligned herself with a leading anti-Israel voice in American politics. It is frightening that John McCain would select someone one heartbeat away from the presidency who supported a man who embodies vitriolic anti-Israel sentiments." The National Jewish Democratic Council also issued a statement saying that McCain's judgment appears "lacking" in choosing Palin. "Prior to today's selection, Palin apparently has never spoken publicly about Israel," said a statement by the group's Executive Director Ira N. Forman. "Moreover, on a broad range of issues - most strikingly on the issue of women's reproductive freedom - she is totally out of step with Jewish public opinion. The Republican Jewish Coalition, however, welcomed Palin's nomination. "As governor of Alaska, Palin has enjoyed a strong working relationship with Alaska's Jewish community. She has demonstrated sensitivity to the concerns of the community and has been accessible and responsive," said coalition Executive Director Matt Brooks.

    2009: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including A Village Life by Louise Glück and I’m So Happy For You by Lucinda Rosenfeld.

    2009: Today’s announcement by Africa Israel Investments which is owned by Lev Leviev “that it could not repay billions of dollars in debt…caused shares to drop 25.5 percent on the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange.” (As reported by JTA)

    2009: The Washington Post features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Too Good To Be True: The Rise and Fall of Bernie Madoff by Erin Arvedlund, Betrayal: The Life and Lies of Bernie Madoff by Andrew Kirtzman, Madoff With The Money by Jerry Oppenheimer, Israel is Real by Rich Cohen and The Secret Life of Marilyn Monroe by J. Randy Taraborrelli

    2009: The Los Angeles Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Homer & Langley by E.L. Doctorow and A Village Life: Poems by Louise Gluck

    2009:Israel Air Force planes struck a tunnel in the northern Gaza Strip early today in response to a Qassam rocket fired by Palestinian militants into the western Negev early yesterday, which was Shabbat.. 2009: In Little Rock, the Jewish community gathers at the Chabad House to celebrate the completion of the first sefer torah to ever be written for the Jewish community of Arkansas. The project is one more example of the great works done by Rabbi Pinchas Ciment, a mensch in the truest sense of the word who is the epitome of the Rebbe’s concept of “the Lamplighter.

    2009:Former Prime Minister Ehud Olmert was indicted today in three corruption affairs, concluding months of investigations into cases allegedly conducted during his tenure as Jerusalem mayor and trade minister.

    2009 Israeli singer Roni Dalumi was the final of Kochav Nolad 7.

    2010: Seth Rudetsky co-starred “in a one-night-only concert performance of “They’re Playing Our Song,” “a musical with a book by Neil Simon, lyrics by Carole Bayer Sager, and music by Marvin Hamlisch.”

    2010: Release of “Box of Secrets,” featuring “Let Me Back,” “Box of Secrets” and “Over which was the debut album of Zarif Davidson, better known as Zarif the daughter of an Iranian Jewish mother.

    2010:Bernice K. Weiss, author of Converting to Judaism - Choosing to be Chosen: Personal Stories  is scheduled to lead a course entitled “Basic Judaism for Jews and Non-Jews Alike” that provides an overview of the Bible, Shabbat ritual and observances, how to observe kashrut and the Jewish laws of death and mourning.

    2010(20 Elul): Yahrzeit of Dr. Jacob  Levin, of blessed memory, beloved husband of Betty, loving father of Michael (Gigi Cohen) Levin, Stephen (Dian Garton) Levin, Sharon (Philip) Wein and Lawrence (Sandra Morrison) Levin and proud Zaide to a whole tribe of grandchildren.   To his brother Joe, he was the incomparable “Yaenkel” and to me his was my wonderful Uncle Jack – living proof that good guys finish first.

    2010:Israeli archeologists unveiled a 2,000 year old semi-precious cameo bearing the image of Cupid today, which the Israel Antiquities Authorities (IAA) said was among several items located in the City of David archeological area in Jerusalem's Old City in the last 12 months. The cameo, which will be displayed at the 11th Annual City of David Archaeology Conference scheduled to take place later this week, is 1 cm in length and 0.7 mm in width, and was discovered in the Givati Parking Lot Excavation, a part of the Jerusalem Walls National Park. The excavation, according to an IAA statement, has been conducted by the organization under the direction of Dr. Doron Ben Ami and Yana Tchekhanovets and funded by the Ir David Foundation.Dr. Doron Ben Ami, of the IAA, said that the cameo was "made from two layers of semi-precious onyx stone. The upper layer, into which the image of cupid is engraved is a striking blue color which contrasts with the dark brown background color of the lower layer.""The brown layer is the side of the cameo which would have been inserted into the round metal setting of a piece of jewelry, apparently an earring," Ben Ami said, adding that the "cupid’s left hand is resting on an upside-down torch which symbolizes the cessation of life." According to Dr. Ben Ami, the "discovery, together with other important finds that we uncovered from this unusual large Roman structure at the City of David, contribute significantly to our understanding of the nature of Jerusalem’s Roman Period.”" The IAA statement added that the inlaid stone was of the "Eros in mourning" type, one of a group of visual motifs linked with the imagery of mourning practices.

    2011: An exhibition of charcoal drawings by artist Jean Barry that interpret the Book of Job is scheduled to come to a close at the Charles Sumner School Museum and Archives in Washington, DC.

    2011(30thof Av, 5771): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    2011:Israel has been warned that a terrorist cell linked to the Islamic Jihad and based in the Sinai Peninsula may try to carry out a series of attacks over the coming days, Home Front Minister Matan Vilnai said today.

    2011:  Iran is planning to send its 15th fleet, comprised of a submarine and a warship, to the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea, semi-official news agency Press TV quoted Iranian naval commander Admiral Habibollah Sayyari as saying today The announcement came after the IDF modified the operational doctrine of the Navy Command Center in Eilat which is responsible for protecting southern Israel from threats originating in the Red Sea. Yesterday, two large Navy corvettes were seen docked in Eilat, likely for anti-terror and smuggling operations in the Red Sea

    2011:Labor Party leadership candidate Erel Margalit demanded today that the upcoming primary be delayed, because the list of party members eligible to vote has yet to be published. If the Labor Party’s administration does

    2011(29th of Av, 5771): Ninety-nine year old Ayala Zacks Abramov, the Israeli-born art collectior passed away today.

    2012: Yemen Blues is scheduled to appear at The Montreal Jewish Music Festival

    2012: In Berkeley, Urban Adamah and Wilderness are scheduled to sponsor “Mother-Daughter Full Moon of Elul Circle,” an event that will “include harvesting wheat, grinding it into flour with a new grain mill and then baking it into pita over an open fire.”

    2012:Without naming Iran, United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon denounced his hosts in Tehran today for threatening to destroy Israel and for denying the Holocaust.

    2012: The Egyptian army began withdrawing tanks from the Sinai Peninsula today, pan-Arab daily newspaper Asharq Al-Awsat reported. The report comes just a day after Egypt's army said it would broaden its offensive against militants in the Sinai Peninsula, a campaign that has raised concerns in Israel about the movement of heavy armor into the area near its border.

    2013: “Fill The Void” is scheduled to open at the Ridgeway Quarter in Memphis, TN

    2013: Rabbi Shira Stutman is scheduled to lead Shabbat eve services which will be a celebration of “Labor on the Bimah,” an initiative of Jews United for Justice that “weaves together labor issues, social justice and Judaism, in an effort to bring meaning and reflection back into Labor Day.”

    2013: Michael Barenboim and Alexander Melnikov are scheduled to perform Mozart’s Sonata for Piano and Violin in D Major at the Jerusalem International Chamber Music Festival.

    2013: “IDF Chief of Staff Lt.-Gen. Benny Gantz visited Artillery Corps units stationed on the Golan Heights this morning, and received a briefing by commanders on the state of readiness of the military forces on the northern border.”  (As reported by Yaakov Lappin)

    2013: “US President Barack Obama said today the chemical weapons attack in Syria threatened US allies Israel and Jordan and said his preference would have been for the international community to move forward on a response.” (As reported by Michael Wilner)

    2013: As his legal woes mounted, San Diego Mayor Bob Filner “signed a letter of resignation that became effective at 5 pm PDT.”

    2014: Chani Nachmias and Friends are scheduled to sing in Tel Aviv as part of the Performing Arts Center August Concert Series.

    2014: Ashkelon’s annual pop music festival Briza is scheduled to come to an end today. (As reported by Simone Somekh)

    2014: Turkey’s president-elect Recep Tayip Edrogan who had served as Prime Minister for the past 11 years shook hands with Yosef Levi Sfari, the charge d’affaires of Israel’s embassy in Ankara marking the first time the Turkish leader had done this in six years.

    2014: Seventy-five UN peacekeepers stationed on the Golan Heights “fled Syrian territory for Israel today “after their positions were attacked by rebels who are affiliated with al-Qaida. (As reported by Times of Israel)

    2014: Eighty-four year old Joseph E. Perisco author of Nuremberg: Infamy on Trialwhich “tells the story of the Nuremberg Trials” passed away today.

    2014: As fighting raged between rebels and government forces in Syria, two mortar shells, thought to be strays, exploded inside Israel near the Golan Heights border.

    2015: The Jewish Federation of Greater Washington is scheduled to host Grand Slam Sunday Jewish Community at Nationals Park.

    2015(15thof Elul, 5775): Ninety-five year old Maryland political leader and former governor Marvin Mandel passed away today.

    2015: In Coralville, Iowa the House of David Softball Team is scheduled to sponsor its annual car wash while Agudas Achim is scheduled to host its End of the Summer Picnic.

    2015: Slovakia native Tomas Kovar is scheduled to describe surviving the Holocaust at the Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust.

    2015: A Study Mission to New Orleans sponsored by the American Jewish Archives as part of its Travels in American Jewish History is scheduled to come to an end.

    2015(15thof Elul, 5775): Seventy-nine year old novelist Rhoda Lerman passed away today. (As reported by Bruce Weber)

    2015(15thof Elul, 5775): Eighty-two year old neurologist and author Oliver Sacks passed away today.

    2015: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Best Boy by Eli Gottlieb, Give Us The Ballot: The Modern Struggle for Voting Rights in America by Ari Berman and The End of Tsarist Russia: The March to World War I and Revolution by Dominic Lieven which given the large number of Jews who lived in Russia or left it for the West and Palestine qualifies it for this list.

    2016: “Hundreds of people turned out in Holon today for the funeral of former MK, minister and IDF general Binyamin (Fuad) Ben-Eliezer, who died Sunday at the age of 80.”

    2016: “Roseanne Barr, the Jewish actress with an outsized Twitter personality who called Hillary Clinton an anti-Semite and her aide Huma Abedin a “filthy nazi whore,” lectured tonight in a prominent San Francisco synagogue about Judaism, Israel and the critics who have been calling her a racist.”

    2016: In “Israel Quietly Legalizes Outposts in the West Bank” published today Isabel Kershner provided one view of the “unauthorized settlements.”

    2016: “Israeli society is heading for civil war and the country must take steps to counter it, former Mossad chief Tamir Pardo warned today in his first public remarks since stepping down as the spy agency director in January.

    2016: “Florida Rep. Debbie Wasserman Schultz will keep her seat in the US House after defeating Tim Canova today in a bruising primary that featured traded barbs over Israel.”

    2016: “Three Balconies and a Door,” a new exhibition of the works of Jerusalem born artist Michal Nachmnay is scheduled to open at the Manny Cantor Center.

    2017: JW3 is scheduled to host a screening of “Dough,” the “film adaptation of Hans Fallada’s bestselling novel.”

    2017: Despite bomb threats earlier in the week, classes are scheduled to begin for the fall term today at Brandeis University.

    2017: The City Contemporary Dance Company of Hong Kong is scheduled to perform at the Tel Aviv Dance Festival for the last time this evening.

    2017: In Australia, the Sydney Jewish Museum is scheduled to host “Harvesting hidden treasures in the community: Advancing the science of proactive collecting” with Roslyn Sugarman.

    2017: The Noam David Trio is scheduled to perform on the final night of the Red Sea Jazz Festival.

    2018: The National Geographic Channel is scheduled to broadcast “Titanic: 20 Years Later” in which James Cameron, to whom the Straus Historical Society provided “information and photographs” about Isidor and Ida Straus asks and hopefully answers the question “Did we get it right?”

    2018: The Jerusalem Centre for the Performing Arts is scheduled to host “From Folk to Flamenco - An Intimate Journey through Landscapes, Boundaries, Stories and Cultures” featuring Haifa born guitarist David Broza.

    2018: In the wake of yesterday’s recommendation by the CDC that “consumers avoid kosher chicken and the Empire Kosher brand for now” following an outbreak of salmonella that has killed one and sickened at least 17” Jews who pay a premium for fowl with a Hechsher may be wondering if the companies cannot maintain basic cleanliness, how do they know they are really observing the ritual laws concerning the slaughtering of animals.





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    August 31

    12 CE: Birthdate of Gaius Caligula, Roman Emperor.  Caligula was crowned in 37 and murdered in 41.  Life for Jews during his reign was part of the downward spiral that would result in three rebellions by the Jews over the next one hundred years.  Caligula was crazy.  Unfortunately his insanity had additional negative impact on the Jews.  Caligula thought he was divine and insisted on his statue being placed in the Temple at Jerusalem.  His efforts were twice thwarted and his untimely death prevented him from taking vengeance against his Jewish subjects.

    38 CE: Riots broke out in Alexandria, Egypt after the Jews spurned an order by the Roman Prefect Flaccus to place a statue of Emperor Caligula in the local synagogue. This was an outgrowth of antagonism between the Jews of Alexandria and some of their pagan neighbors.  The pagans were angered by the Jews celebrating Caligula’s decision to restore Agrippa, a descendant of the Hasmoneans to the Jewish kingship in Palestine.  They knew that the Jews could not worship a statue so by forcing a statue of Caligula into the synagogue, Apion, the pagan leader knew he was asking for trouble. The violence ended and Flaccus was recalled to Rome.  But this was not the end of the trouble much of which was rooted in the fact that some pagans begrudged the Jews their commercial success and wished to do away with them as competitors.  This would not be the last time that those who sought to oust the Jews from commercial ventures did so under the guise of religion.

    161; Birthdate of Commodus, the Roman Emperor who reigned while Judah ha-Nasi was compiling and editing the Mishna

    1056: Byzantine Empress Theodora becomes ill, dying suddenly a few days later, without children to succeed the throne ending the Macedonian dynasty. This was a period of relative calm for the Jews of the Byzantine Empire.  The last official persecution had taken place at the end of the 10th century.  Conditions would not seriously deteriorate until the arrival of the waves of Crusaders that began at the end of the 11th century.

    1481: Coronation of John II, the Portuguese monarch who employed Abraham Zacuto whose accomplishment included the development of a new type of astrolabe as Royal Astronomer and Historian.

    1506: The first printed edition of Lashon Limudim, a Hebrew grammar by David ben Yahya was published today in Constantinople.

    1694:A difference between the Jewish and Christian relations with the slave population in the Antilles is evidenced in an act passed today by the Dutch Leeward Council and Assembly. “The act was specifically directed at the Jews and states that it is: 'An Act against Jews ingrossing Commodities imported in the Leeward Islands, and trading with the slaves belonging to the inhabitants of the same.’”

    1774: “Austrian general, Gabriel Freiherr von Spleny entered Czernowitz at the head of his troops” following which he administered the city in such a way that “the situation of the Jews basically remained unchanged.”

    1793(23rd of Elul, 5553): Parshat Nitzavim-Vayeilech and Leil Selichot

    1801: Birthdate of Pierre Soulé, a United States politician and diplomat from Louisiana during the mid-19th century. He is best known for his role in writing the Ostend Manifesto, which was written in 1854 as part of an attempt to annex Cuba to the United States. The Manifesto was roundly denounced, especially by anti-slavery elements, and Soulé himself came under severe attack.  According to an article published in the New York Times, Soule was Jewish.

    1834: Birthdate of Simon Kayserling, a German educator and writer; who was the principal teacher and inspector of the M. M. David'sche Freischule from 1861, and taught for several years in the Jewish teachers' seminary in Hanover.

    1836: Isaac Kalischer married Rose Marks at the Great Synagogue today.

    1836: Henry Worms married Rebecca Nathan at the Great Synagogue today.

    1837: In Amsterdam, Salomon Bernard Sichel and Fanny Sichel gave birth to their daughter Henrietta who became Henrietta Montefiore when she married Joseph Mayer Montefiore.

    1839: Birthdate of Julien Sée the Paris born librarian who made the first translation in French of Joseph ha-Kohen's "'Emeḳ ha-Baka," a history of the sufferings of the Jewish people from the time of their dispersion to the present day.”

    1842: Birthdate of Adolf Pinner, the German chemist who began his schooling at the Jewish Theological Seminary at Breslau before attending the University of Berlin where he earned a doctorate in Chemistry in 1867.

    1842: In London, George Palmer Putnam and Victorine Haven Palmer gave birth to Mary Corinna who became Mary Corinna Jacobi when, in 1873, she married Dr. Abraham Jacobi, the Jewish physician known as the “father of American pediatrics”

    1852: One day after he passed away, “Simcha bar Meir” (Simon Marks) was buried today at the Brady Street Jewish Cemetery.

    1853: Birthdate of Aleksei Brusilov, the Russian General who as Chief of Staff in 1917 approved the appointment of Jewish Chaplains to serve alongside Orthodox Priests.

    1857: In New York, James and Rosa Seligman gave birth to Eugene Seligman.

    1857: In Safed Yaakov Mordechai Hirsch who had come to Palestine from Pinsk in 1848 and his wife gave birth to Chaim Hirsch the future “Chief Rabbi of Hoboken, NJ.”

    1861: Philadelphian, Corporal Jacob Ullman began serving a four year hit with Company E of the 75th Regiment.

    1862:This afternoon the Congregation Baith Israel dedicated their new synagogue to public worship. The synagogue, which is a very handsome brick structure, stands upon the lot at the corner of State and Boerum streets, Brooklyn, and cost in the neighborhood of $10,000. Rabbis Raphael and Isaacs entered the sanctuary which was packed with congregants leading a procession that carried the synagogues “sacred scrolls.”  They were greeted by Baith Israel’s spritiual leader, Rabbi Joel Alexander who said or rather intoned the sacred welcome "Boruch habo" -- when the choir, which was composed of several beautiful black-eyed Hebrew maidens led by Felix Sanger, and accompanied by Sanger's brass band, sang with strange effect one of their quaint and sacred songs. The procession then marched around the room seven times, the Rabbis successively chanting an appropriate song to which the choir responded with the proper chorus. The eternal fire was lighted, the sacred rolls were deposited behind the altar, the Synagogue was irrevocably dedicated to the worship of God, the Father; and after other songs were given, Rabbi Raphael delivered the consecration sermon. [Editor’s Note - Baith Israel was also known as Baith Israel Anshei Emes and is now known as the Kane Street Synagogue,, the oldest continually running synagogue in Brooklyn. Among the congregations Bar Mitzvah “boys” was Aaron Copland.]

    1864:The New York Times reviews a new translation of the Book of Job by J.M. Rodwell, “an eminent Oriental scholar who has lately published the first readable English version of The Koran, in which the chapters are chronologically arranged, and the poetical portions rendered metrically.” His translation of the Book of Job, “the most sublime of the Hebrews scriptures” follows the same pattern. Instead of following the normal pattern of chapters and verses, Rodwell’s translation “divides the book according to the stages of the narrative, arranging the text in couplets of measured prose that represent the simple energy of the original.”

    1864(29th of Av, 5624): Thirty nine year old Ferdinand Lassalle died of wounds he sustained while fighting a duel two days ago that had been precipitated by a star-crossed love affair.

    1864: The Union Army under General William T. Sherman began the final assault on Atlanta. Among those leading the way was Frederick Knefler, an immigrant from Hungary who rose to the rank of Major General in the Army of the Cumberland.

    1865: In San Francisco, Leopold Seligmann, the son of Fanny and David Isaac Seligman and his wife Julia Levi gave birth to Florence Meyer, the wife of Albert H. Mayer..

    1865: A writer who simply signs his letter to the editor of the New York Times“A Subscriber” took issue with Max Maretzee’s description of his dispute with the New York Herald. In defending The Tribune, the unnamed letter writer accuses Max of using “all the cunning of his Jewish origin.”  Max Maretzee probably refers to the German born composer and impresario Max Maretzek

    1867: The Detroit Free Presspublished a description Temple Beth El at Washington Avenue and Clifford Street.

    1868: In Pilsen, Elise Herz, neé Edle von Lämmel, contributed 40,000 florins to establish a foundation that would help “respectable craftsman” to set up their own business regardless of their religious affiliation – a caveat that should not come as a surprise since the benefactor came from a prominent Jewish family.

    1875: The New York Timespublished a detailed description of Sir Moses Montefiore’s visit to Jerusalem in the last weeks of July, 1875.

    1875: Birthdate of New Haven, CT native Alexander Cahn, the Yale educated engineer who served as “member of the Board of Education in New Haven.”

    1876:After only three months on the throne, Ottoman sultan Murat V is deposed and succeeded by his brother Abd-ul-Hamid II. During his reign, the Jews celebrate the four hundredth anniversary of their arrival from Spain.  Abd-ul-Hamid II is the first Sultan to meet with Herzl. Unfortunately, this meeting does not result in approval for Herzl’s plan to create a Jewish homeland in Palestine as part of the Ottoman Empire.

    1877: Birthdate of St. Louis, MO, native and Washington University  and Cornell University educated engineer Alexander S Langsdorf, the Dean of the School of Engineering and Architecture “who worked tirelessly for the advancement of new curricula, expansion of scholarship and loan funds and the development of engineering graduate programs” at his alma mater for thirty years..

    1877: The recently re-built synagogue of Washington Hebrew Congregation was dedicated this evening.  President Rutherford B. Hayes who was supposed to attend the service sent a message expressing his regret that official business kept him from fulfilling his obligation.  Rabbi Benjamin Szold of Baltimore’s Temple Oheb Shalom preached the sermon at the service. [Rabbi Szold was the father of Henrietta Szold.]

    1877: “The Life of Midhat Pasha” published today described the rise to power of the leader of “Young Turkey,” the party of reform in the Ottoman Empire.  Pasha, who was born in 1822, is the son of a Bulgarian Jew “who embraced Islam in order to make his fortune.” (Sounds almost like a Turkish Disraeli)

    1878: In New York, Judge Van Brunt rejected Lowenthal Cohen’s attempt to use a writ of Habeas Corpus to regain “possession” of his daughter Rebecca who had married Thomas F. Fallon.  The young couple had eloped and the Judge found the marriage to be perfectly legal.  Cohen’s real objection to the marriage may have stemmed from the fact that Fallon was not Jewish.

    1878: As the Yellow Fever Epidemic continues in the Deep South, The Young Men’s Hebrew Association of New York City has received an appeal for aid from those living in New Orleans   Contributions can be sent to the offices on West 42nd Street.

    1878:  It was reported today that the world’s population includes 8 million Jews.  Other reports have placed this number anywhere from 3,500,000 to 15,000,000.  The claim that there are only 73,000 Jews living in the United is thought to be low since it commonly assumed that the U.S. Jewish population is approximately 150,000.  The European portion of the Russian Empire has the largest Jewish population (2,610,179) followed by Austria with 1,600,000.  Surprisingly, Asia, not counting Turkey is reported to have a total Jewish population in excess of 2,000,000 while Canada has one of the smallest number of Jews ranging anywhere between 1,500 and 7,000.  Spain and Scotland are reported to have the fewest number of Jews of all the places surveyed.

    1878: Albert Chapsky who died of Yellow Fever in St. Bernard Parish was buried today in the Hebrew Cemetery in New Orleans, LA. [In Louisiana, the term Parish as used here refers to a county and is not a religious designation.]

    1879:  Birthdate of Alma Mahler. She passed away in 1969.

    1879: William Price died in a freak accident while driving a wagon filled with the bodies of three children who were to be interred in the Hebrew Cemetery at Cypress Hills.

    1879: It was reported today that Mme. Caroline Bertrand, the daughter of Samson Bertrand has written a placed called “Le Noveau Juif Errant” or in English, “The New Wandering Jew.”

    1879: In New York, Judge Van Brunt was satisfied that Rebecca Cohen, a 15 year Jewish girl, was legally married to Thomas Fallon, a Roman Catholic and vacated the writ of habeas corpus that he had previously issued.  The writ had been granted when the girl’s father, Lowenthal Cohen, came before the court and claimed that his daughter had been taken against her will or had been deceived into going off with Fallon.

    1879: At the Essex Market Police Court, Justice Smith decided that Henry O’Brien was justified in hitting Harris Goldstein in the face with a shovel and breaking his nose. O’Brien had tricked Goldstein into eating a piece of pork and then tried to escape from him by taking refuge in his apartment.  The judge felt Goldstein had earned his punishment for letting his temper get the better of him and for breaking into O’Brien’s apartment.  The judge sent both of the boys on their way.

    1882: Three days after she had passed away, “Evelina Mocatta the widow of Abraham Mocatta” was buried at the Balls Pond Road Jewish Cemetery.

    1883: In a letter to the Times, Herman Strack, a Christian theologian who was an expert on rabbinic literature and a supporter of the Jews against the rising tide of anti-Semitism in Germany, provided his evaluation of the recently discovered scroll of the book of Deuteronomy which he feels is a forgery.

    1883: Jacobi Bornstein, the son of Aron and Sara Bornstein and Thelka Bornstein gave birth to Alexander Bornstein

    1884(10th of Elul, 5644): Daniel Weinberger, a German Jewish peddler was found dead in his room on South Halsted Street in Chicago, Illinois.

    1885: A fight took place today in Montreal, Canada during the annual meeting at the German and Polish Synagogue.

    1885: Today, the U.S. Secretary of State wrote to the U.S. charge d’affairs in Vienna expressing his disgust with the government of Austria-Hungary’s refusal to accept Anthony M Keiley as the American minister “on the ground of his wife being a Jewess.”

    1886(30th of Av, 5646): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1886: It was reported today that the 9 Russian Jews who arrived in the United States two days ago and have not found sponsors will probably be sent back to Europe.

    1886: An earthquake kills 100 in Charleston, South Carolina. The earthquake occurred in the same year that members of Sheartih Israel reunited with members of Congregation Beth Elohim, Charleston’s (and the nations) oldest continually functioning Reform Temple.

    1887: The expenses for today’s excursion under the auspices of the Board of Managers of the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children will be defrayed by the widow and children of the late Edward J. King are doing this to honor his memory.

    1887: In Vienna physiologist Joseph Paneth and his wife, both of whom were Jewish, gave birth to British scientist Friedrich Adolf Paneth who life his three brothers was raised as a Protestant. Knowing what he did of Hitler’s racial rules and being opposed to his politics, Paneth did not return from a speaking tour during the 1930’s and remained in Britain where he studied and worked.

    1888(24th of Elul, 5648): In New Jersey, two Jewish men from New York were killed when they were struck by Pennsylvania Railroad express train.  Louis Greenburg suffered internal injuries and Israel Cohen was killed instantly.

    1883: It was reported today anti-Jewish riots are continuing at Egerszeg, Hungary despite the declaration of martial law.  After having burned the homes of Jews and destroyed their crops, the peasants are now threatening to attack their gentile landlords.

    1890: Rabbi Taubenhaus is scheduled to deliver his inaugural sermon at Mount Sinai Temple on East 72nd Street.

    1892: It was reported from The Hague today that the man who was identified as a cholera victim last night was a Jew from Vilna who had arrived here from Hamburg.

    1893: Birthdate of Lily Aimée Laskine, the Parisian who became one of the leading harpist of the twentieth century

    1894(29th of Av, 5654): In his 62nd year, Jacob F. Bamburger the husband of Pauline Bamburger passed away today at his home on West 56th Street.

    1895: During a meeting at the Hebrew Institute, the Street Cleaning League adopted a resolution dealing with the “pushcart nuisance.

    1896: Birthdate of Ukraine native, Sophie Udin, the feminist and Zionist who married Pinhas Ginguld with whom she had two children – Yehuda and Marcia.

    1897(3rd of Elul, 5657): Eight-two year old Bavarian native Lazarus Morgenthau the son of Moses and Brunhilda Morgenthau and the husband of Seline Babette Morgethau who was a major cigar manufacturer and the founder of the Orphan Dowry Fund passed away in New York City.

    1897: Three days after he had passed away, 43 year old Solomon Rosenthal was buried at the Plashet Jewish Cemetery in London.

    1897: A meeting of the Old Fifth Street School Association will take place today in the office of Maurice B. Blumenthal who is the secretary of the organization.

    1897: In Basel, “Dr. Theodor Herzl…presided at the morning” session of The Zionist Congress. The delegates discussed” a plan “to centralize the Zionist Movement” with the formation of Central Committee that would be headquartered in Vienna.”  The committee would “consist of twenty-three members representing” all of the major Jewish “natural groups” who would be expected to contribute to a central operating fund.

    1898: Major Hubert- Joseph Henry, one of those who was arrested yesterday on charges of having forged the evidence used against Alfred Dreyfus was found dead in his cell.  The assumption was that he had committed suicide.

    1898:”Boy Kills A Rabbi” published today described the murder of Rabbi Rosenbloom who was kicked to death by a mob of a half a dozen “young men” led by seventeen year old John Schlechta  who had been terrorizing the Levi family.

    1899: “It was learned” today “that as soon as the State Board of Charities” approves “the plans of incorporation for the Emanuel Hospital and Dispensary of New York, Dr. Maurice J. Burstein will select a site” and begin erect a building.

    1899: As a result of his role in creating forgeries during the Dreyfus Case, the Minister of War struck Major Esterhazy from the army lists.

    1899: “The Degenerates” which premiered in London tonight includes a series of “well drawn characters” including “the rich Jew who sneers at his own race.”

    1899: Today’s session of the court martial of Captain Dreyfus “opened behind closed doors” so that General Deloye and Majors Hartmann and Ducros could testify about the secret artillery information contained in the documents that had been given to the Germans.

    1900(6th of Elul, 5660): Eighty-year old Ferdinand Falkson, the German physician and doctor possibly best known for his three battle to have his marriage recognized passed away today.

    1903: Herzl's last meeting with German nobleman Grossherzog Friedrich of Baden on the island of Mainau. Herzl presents his difficult dilemma between East Africa and Palestine. "We would be glad to renounce the good land of East Africa for the poor land of Palestine. I in particular would see an honorable rescue for our poor Jews if this exchange could be made."

    1902: Mrs. Adoph Landenburg introduces the split skirt for riding horseback.

    1905(30th of Av, 5665): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1905:  Birthdate of Dore Schary, American screenwriter, playwright, producer and director. The son of immigrant Russian parents, Schary’s first name came from shortening the original which was Isadore.  Shary provided the Oscar winning script for the film “Boys Town.”  He also produced another all-American film, “Lassie come Home.”  Shary was part of that gaggle of first generation American Jews who created the cinematic version of the American Myth.   Shary’s greatest success came late in his career when he wrote the script for “Sunrise At Campobello” the popular play and film that focused on FDR’s fight with polio.  Shary was active in numerous Jewish organization including the Anti- Defamation League.  He passed away in 1980.

    1905: In Brooklyn, the former Bertha Knoepfler and furrier Hermann Meisner gave birth to Sanford Meisner, American actor, teacher and creator of the Meisner Technique.

    1906(10th of Elul, 5666): Edward Rosewater, the founder of the Omaha Bee and unsuccessful candidate for the U.S. Senate from Nebraska passed away.  His son Victor took over leadership of the paper

    1907: In Chicago, Illinois, Benjamin T. and Anna (née Bransky) Chon gave birth to William Shawn the editor of The New Yorker magazine.

    1909(14th of Elul, 5669): Joseph Goldberg passed away.

    1909: Nobel laureate Paul Ehrlich began the first chemotherapy when with his assistant Sahachiro Hato, a rabbit infected with syphilis was injected with "Preparation 606." This number marked the 606th chemical devised and tested by Ehrlich's team at his Frankfort laboratory. The compound was so successful that the sores on the rabbit promptly healed. The term "chemotherapy" was coined by Erhlich.

    1912(18th of Elul, 5672): Parashat Ki Tavo

    1912(18th of Elul, 5672): Sixty-eight year old “communal worker” Samuel Hirsch passed away at Niagara Falls, NY.

    1913: Birthdate of Helen Levitt, the Brooklyn native “noted for her street photography around New York City.

    1914: In Berlin, Kurt W. Rosenthal, a flour merchant, and Elsa Rosenthal (née Kirschstein) gave birth to their second son Franz Rosenthal who the Louis M. Rabinowitz professor of Semitic Language at Yale and then the Sterling Professor Emeritus of Arabic at the same institution.

    1914: In response to an appeal by the Yishuv’s leaders and his own knowledge of the desperate condition of the thousands of Jews living in Palestine Henry Morgenthau, Sr., the U.S. Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire sent a cable to Jacob Schiff that read, in part, “PALESTINIAN JEWS FACING TERRIBLE CRISIS … BELLIGERENT COUNTRIES STOPPING THEIR ASSISTANCE … SERIOUS DESTRUCTION THREATENS THRIVING COLONIES … FIFTY THOUSAND DOLLARS NEEDED.” Within a month the appeal produced $50, 000 (the equivalent of 1 million dollars in the 21stcentury)

    1915: “The Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society of America of which ex-Judge Leon Sanders is President announced today that it had established at its offices, 229 East Broadway, a bureau through which dependent Jews in the war zones may be more readily located by their immigrant relatives in this country seeking to render them assistance.”

    1915: At Beth Hamidrash Hagadol a synagogue on Norfolk Street, “Rabbi Israel Rosenberg of Paterson presided over a service attended by 25 rabbis and 1,000” congregants which he opened the ark and the attendees began singing Avienu Malkenu.

    1915: “Resolutions calling for an American-Jewish congress to formulate plans for the unification of the 3,000,000 Jews in the United States were adopted at a meeting” in Chicago, “tonight of the Lawyers’ Jewish Congress Committee.”

    1915: George Breitman, a native of the Ukraine who was working as a laborer in Australia enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force (AIF).

    1916: In the Bronx, “Russian Jewish immigrants, Tillie Godiner and Gedaliah Tchornemoretz gave birth to broadcast journalist Daniel Schorr.  To the current generation, Schorr is the wild old political voice on NPR.  To an earlier generation, he is one of the journalists who made Richard Nixon’s infamous “Enemies List.”  To an even older generation, Schorr was the voice of CBS news from Moscow during the coldest days of the Cold War in the 1950’s.  The Soviets finally go disgusted with Schorr that they expelled.  This gave Schorr the singular distinction of antagonizing the Communist Russians and the ant-Communist Nixon.

    1917: Birthdate of communist politician György Aczél/

    1917: In Berlin, premiere of “Hilde Warren Und der Tod” directed and produced by Joseph Otto Mandel who would be known as Joe May with a screenplay by Fritz Lange and featuring Hermann Picha.

    1917: “A deputation of prominent English Jews head by Lord Swaything visited the Secretary of War…and urged the abandonment of the title ‘Jewish Regiment’ which had been adopted for the new regiment recently organized” because “the 40,000 Jews now serving in the army were fighting not as Jews but as British subjects…”

    1917: “It was announced tonight that Rabbi Samuel Greenfield and Reverend Einer Larsen had reached an agreement that would allow the Jews of the Isaiah Temple to temporarily use the quarters of the Swedish Baptist Church for worship services until they can build a sanctuary of their own.

    1917: “An Invitation to Soldiers” published today described an announcement by Simon Franks that Temple Emanu-El in Brooklyn will have “free seats” for any members of the United States Army and Navy who attend Rosh Hashana or Yom Kippur Services at this congregation.

    1918: Following petition of leading Jews, the Polish Council of State abolished existing restrictions respecting the purchase of land by Jews.

    1918: For the past 7 months, ending today, Lt. Hugo Gutman, a Jewish officer serving with Kaiser’s army commanded Adolph Hitler who received the Iron Cross First Class thanks to Gutman’s efforts.

    1918: The Polish Council of State adopted a resolution giving authorities power to open in existing schools separate classes for Jewish children which shall be closed on Saturday if a sufficient number of parents apply for such a privilege and recognizing as private schools all Talmud Torahs and hedarim in which the teaching of Polish is to be obligatory and in which instruction in all elementary secular subjects is to be given in Polish.

    1918: In Nizhni-Novgorod, authorities arrested seven ringleaders for their role in “anti-Jewish riots.”

    1918: In Chovol, a Council of Workmen and Soldiers put an end to efforts to start a Pogrom.

    1918:The Australian Corps under the command of Sir John Monash broke the German lines at the Battle of Mont St. Quentin and the Battle of Péronne.

    1918: Birthdate of Alan Jay Lerner, American librettist and lyricist for stage and screen.  Lerner was yet another of a myriad of Jews who created and refined that most original American art form – the Broadway musical.  One of his most famous contributions was “My Fair Lady.” He passed away in 1986

    1919: Thirty five members of the Jewish Defense Organization were disarmed and shot after the Ukrainian National Army recaptured Kiev from the Bolsheviks. As an organized unit, the Jews had played an important role in the defense of Kiev. This was part of massacre of the Jews at Kiev.

    1919(5th of Elul, 5679): Sixty-year old Austrian born Dr. Joseph Zeisler, the son of Anna and Isaac Leonard Ziesler and husband of “Theresa Freuchtmean”  who was recognized as an expert in the fields “of skin and venereal diseases passed away today

    1920: In Boston, three thousand children are scheduled “to gather in Franklin Field” today “for a grand outing and pageant” sponsored by the Recreational Bureau of the Federated Jewish Charities with the assistance of the Associated Boston Hebrew Schools,  the Bureau of Jewish Religious Schools, the Council of Jewish Juniors, the Home for Jewish Children and the Jewish Welfare Centers.”

    1921: Birthdate of Madeline Rochelle Barotz who as Madeline Rochelle Amgott was a pioneer in the early days of broadcast television news – a role made all the more difficult because was the first and only member of her sex to do this in the 50’s and early 60’s.

    1921: “Ilona” a silent film produced by Joe May, with a script co-authored by Adolf Lantz was released today in Germany.

    1924(1st of Elul, 5684): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1924:  Birthdate of actor and comedian Buddy Hackett.

    1926: Robert and Lillian Mulwitz gave birth to their daughter Ruth at Port Chester New York.  The family changed their name to Roberts and it was as Ruth Roberts that she gained fame as the “songwriter best known for her cheerful and durable baseball anthem ‘Meet the Mets.’”

    1927:Dr. Leon Motzkin presided over today's session of the Fifteenth Zionist Congress in Basel.

    1928:The Threepenny Opera” with music by Kurt Weill was first performed at the Theater am Schiffbauerdamm in Berlin today.

    1929: Bedouins attacked nearly a dozen Jewish settlements in the northern Galilee pillaging the houses and burning the crops.”  According to at least one report, at least 22 Jews were wounded in the attacks.  “In Jerusalem, houses of Georgian Jews located near the Damascus Gat which were reportedly left open by police during their unsuccessful search for weapons were looted by Arab marauders.

    1929:A party of thirty-seven Jewish settlers left for Palestine today on the steamer Carnaro bound for Jaffa. Dr. A. Kligler of the Hebrew University on Mount Scopus, Professor Roth, the Palestine labor leader Ben Gurion, Dr. Benzion Mossensohn, director of the Hebrew High School at Tel Aviv, and other Palestinian Jewish leaders sailed on the same steamer

    1932(29th of Av, 5692): Seventy-two year old Sir Sassoon Eskell, the first Finance Minister of Iraq passed away today.

    1932(29th of Av, 5692):Moyshe-Leyb Halperndied of a heart attack in New York City.  Born in 1886, he was a Yiddish-language modernist poet raised in a traditional Jewish household in Zlotshev, Galicia and brought to Vienna at the age of 12 in 1898 to study commercial art. Halpern began writing modernist poetry n German while living in Vienna. Upon returning to his hometown in 1907, he switched to writing in Yiddish. In 1908, Halpern emigrated to New York City in order to avoid the military draft. There he became associated with a group of Yiddish poets called Di Yunge (The Young Ones). He published his first book of poetry in 1919, In nyu york (In New York). That same year, he married. He had a son in 1923. His second book, Di goldene pave (The GoldenPeacock), was published in 1924. Halpern also wrote for satirical magazines and Frayhayt (Freedom), a communist Yiddish newspaper.

    1933: Rabbi Joseph Zvi Dushinsky becomes the Chief Rabbi of the Agudath Israel in Jerusalem.

    1933:  The Jiidische Rundschau is permitted to reappear.  The popular Jewish weekly, which had been published since 1902, had been forced to suspend publication for producing editorials that had challenged Nazi charges against the Zionists. The magazine would be forced to close in 1938

    1933: The eighteenth World Zionist Congress adopted a resolution providing for sending a commission to Palestine to investigate charges of terrorism in connection with the murder of Dr. Chaim Arlosoroff, the Zionist leader who had been killed in Tel Aviv.

    1933: Professor Selig Brodetsky told members of the World Zionist Congress that Zionist organization has inaugurated conversations with Arab leaders of Syria and other neighboring lands for the extension of Jewish colonization.

    1933: The Council of the Warsaw Jewish Community sends a protest to the Zionist Congress against agreements for exchange of goods between Nazi Germany and Palestine.

    1933(9th of Elul, 5693): Nazi agents murdered Theodore Lessing in Marienbad, Czechoslovakia. Lessing was an anti-Nazi Jewish philosopher and Zionist who had taught at Hanover Technical High School.  He had moved to Czechoslovakia because he feared for his safety. 1935(2nd of Elul, 5695): Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook known as Rav Kook passed away. Rabbi Kook was the first Chief Rabbi Ashkenazic of Palestine, serving from 1921 until his death in 1935.  Born in Russia in 1865, Kook was a child prodigy and star student at the famed yeshiva in Volozhin He served as a Rabbi in several communities in Europe before moving to Eretz Israel in 1904 where he served as a rabbi in Jaffa as well as for the new Zionist settlements.  "Kook was the outstanding leader and thinker of the religious Zionist movement at a time when the great majority opposed of Orthodox Jewry Zionism. He endeared himself to the nonreligious elements in Israel by sympathy and support for the secular sector, particularly in the agricultural settlements."  He regarded all who made Alyiah, "regardless of their beliefs to be inspired by holy sparks "since they were laying the foundation for the ultimate messianic redemption."

    1935(2nd of Elul, 5695):Herman Bernstein an American journalist, writer, translator, and diplomat, passed away. Herman Bernstein was born in 1876, at Vladislavov which was on the Russo-German border to David and Marie Bernstein. In 1893, he emigrated to the United States, where he completed his education and married Sophie Friedman on December 31, 1901. “His first stories were published in 1900. He contributed to the New York Evening Post, The Nation, The Independent, and Ainslee's Magazine. He was the founder and editor of The New London Day and an editor of the Jewish Tribuneand of the Jewish Daily Bulletin. As a correspondent of the New York Times, Bernstein regularly travelled to Europe. In 1915, he went to Europe to document the situation of Jews in the war zones. He documented the Russian Revolution in 1917 for the New York Herald, which led him to both Siberia and Japan with the American Expeditionary Forces. He also covered the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 for the same newspaper. In 1921 Bernstein published a book History of a Lie, an account of the notorious forgery The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. According to GPU agent Pavlovsky (Yakshin), arrested in Germany in 1929, Bernstein worked for both GPU and Comintern, arranging pro-Soviet coverage in American press. One of his main goals was to describe White army and White emigres as anti-Semitic instigators of pogroms and suppress coverage of pogroms by units of the Red Army and other forces allied to Bolsheviks during the Russian civil war. GPU supplied Bernstein with forged documents for publication. In 1921 Bernstein received 17 000 gold rubles for his services.

    1936: “Fear that the future of Jews in Palestine was imperiled by British ‘inaction’ was voiced today in a declaration issued at the close of an extraordinary session of the general council of the World Zionist Organization” that was held in Zurich.

    1936: “The problem of uniting the religions of the United States, not under one banner of dogma or doctrine, but a united front to deal with civic, social and welfare problems of the nation was discussed” at a meeting in Appleton, Wisconsin, tonight by three clergymen of the Protestant, Catholic and Jewish faiths” the latter of which was Rabbi L.L. Mann of Sinai Temple in Chicago.

    1936: Dr. Alexander Rosenfeld, vice president of the Tel Aviv Sports Organization received a cable today saying that the Maccabees Palestine Soccer team is scheduled to arrive in New York on September 14.

    1937: In Brooklyn Frieda (née Shapkin) and Elias Berlinger, a building contractor gave birth to actor Warren Berlinger whose career included everything from appearing in the original Broadway production of “Annie Get Your Gun” to the ever-popular kids’ show “Howdy Doody.”

    1937: The violence orchestrated by Arab leaders that was designed to end Jewish immigration and land purchases continued with seven Arab attacks on Jews in Jerusalem, Tel Aviv and Karkur. Three Jews and four Arabs were killed and there were many wounded. Moshe Goldenberg, the mukhtar (village elder) of Beit Alfa, had a narrow escape when shot at in Beit Shean.   (Yes, this is the same Beit Shean where the bodies of Saul and his sons were taken as described in the Book of Samuel.)  Jewish and Arab leaders were summoned by district commissioners who appealed for the restoration of law and order.

    1938: Moslem terrorists sought to extend their power by killing other Arabs.  “Tewfik Shantin an Arab broker was shot dead in the waiting room of an Arab doctor in Jaffa” while an unnamed Arab village chieftain was shot to death while walking with a friend in the Old City of Jerusalem.

    1938(4th of Elul, 5698): Mordecai Leznick, a Jewish policeman riding on an Arab owned bus traveling between Lydda and Jaffa was shot to death by an Arab passenger.

    1938(4th of Elul, 5698): In Tel Aviv Schmuel Weiner died from wounds sustained when he was stoned last Friday while riding through Ramleh.

    1939: The last day of peace in Europe before the outbreak of World War II.  Every one waited to see if the Poles would cave into German demands.  Every one waited to see if the British would betray the Poles as they had the Czechs in 1938.  What the world did not know was that Hitler issued Directive no.1, 1939 ordering the attack on Poland to begin at dawn the following day. Already, 1,500,000 German troops were poised to enact Case White, the invasion of Poland,  The plan to create a fake attack by Polish troops on a German transmitter was about to be enacted.  By the next “Polish casualties” (actually the corpses of concentration camp inmates) would provide Hitler’s proof of Polish perfidy and the Blitz of Poland would be on its way.

    1939: Nazi Germany mounts a staged attack on Gleiwitz radio station giving them an excuse to attack Poland the following day, starting World War II.

    1940: From July 9 through today, Chiune Sugihara, the Vice Counsel for the Empire of Japan in Lithuania issued over 2,000 visas to Polish Jews so that they could escape from the Nazis.  This does not count the three to five thousand visas issued to Lithuanian Jews without his government’s approval that enabled them to escape as well.

    1940: The National Encampment of the Jewish War Veterans of the United States continued for a third day.

    1941: Churchill received 17 reports of the shooting of Jews and Russians in numbers ranging between 61 and 4,200.  These reports covered the two month period beginning with June, 1941 when the Nazis invaded the Soviet Union and the special Killing Squads began their work.

    1941: In response to a Jewish reprisal raid on a German patrol, all Jews were confined to their homes. That evening the "action" commenced. The entire Jewish section of Vilna was raided.  As a result 2,019 women, 864 men, and 817 children were taken away to pits in Ponar forests and all shot dead. This event is notable for two reasons. First it is unusual because it includes the report of Jewish resistance. Second it is unusual because the Nazis supplied a specific reason for killing Jews other than their usual anti-Semitic drivel.

    1941: As the month came to a close, “the Vichy Government of France had enacted laws that discriminated against Moroccan Jews” by setting quotas on the number of Jewish doctors and lawyers, which forced many Jews living in the European quarters to move to the mellahs.

    1942: One day after he had passed away funeral services are scheduled to be held this afternoon at the Park West Memorial Chapel for fifty-two year old Nissim Joseph Ovadia, the Turkish born chief rabbi of Vienna and Paris who came to the United States after the French surrendered to the Nazis

    1942: A story headlined "Jewish Children Interned by Vichy" appeared in today’s Chicago Sun.

    1942: By the end of August SS officer Kurt Gerstein has failed in his attempt to publicize his knowledge of the mass gassings of Jews. He is rebuffed in his approach to the German papal nuncio, Cesare Orsenigo

    1942: In Ternopil, western Ukraine, at 4.30 am, German SS organize the first deportation of Jews from Ternopil ghetto to death camp in Belzec, about 5,000 Jews were deported to face death in Belzec. When the Germans captured Ternopil, about 18,000 Jews lived in the city.

    1943(30thof Av, 5703): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1943: The Swedish ambassador in Copenhagen was given clearance by the Chief Legal Officer Gösta Engzell to issue Swedish passports in order to "rescue Danish Jews and bringing them here".

    1943: The USS Drum, an American submarine, with Maurice Rindskopf serving as Executive Officer sank a Japanese cargo ship while patrolling off New Georgia

    1943: During its meeting at the Waldorf-Astoria the “American Jewish Conference adopted a resolution accusing the American Council for Judaism of an ‘attempt to sabotage the collective Jewish will to achieve a unified program’ by its statement made public” yesterday “in Philadelphia opposing the creation of a Jewish state.”

    1943: By the end of August, 47 Jewish women and 50 Jewish men are executed after being discovered in the "Aryan" section of Warsaw.

    1943: “Vice Chancellor John O. Bigelow ordered an audit of the first accounting of the estate of Abraham Wolff of Morristown, NJ who was a partner in Kuhn, Loeb & Co.

    1943: In Toronto, the Group on Racial Relations presented a report today in which “Christians were called up to accept Jews a members of the community on a basis of complete equality and to take drastic action in opposing discrimination” in both the personal and social interactions.

    1943: “Zionists in England have exceeded the £250,000 goal set for this year’s Palestine Foundation Fund campaign, Mrs. Archibald Silverman reported today at a luncheon in her honor held at the Belmont Plaza Hotel by the Palestine Fund and the Jewish National Fund.”

    1943: In Halifax the Army Show which had first been seen by “an all service audience” staring the comedy team of Frank Shuster and Johnny Wayne who came to be known simply as Wayne & Shuster was seen by a civilian audience for the first time tonight.

    1944(12th of Elul, 5704): Fifty-three year old Yiddish actor Ludwig Satz passed away today.

    1944: Jews liberated from the Novaki labor camp joined the battle for Banska Bystrica. Four weeks later Eichmann exacted revenge for the Slovak Uprising by deporting 8,975 Slovak Jews to Birkenau where most met their deaths.

    1944: Over the next four days Jews formerly interned at the Nováky labor camp fight in a Slovakian uprising against the Germans. In all, more than 1500 Jews join 16,000 Slovak soldiers and partisans. One partisan battalion commander, a Jewish woman named Edita Katz, covers the retreat of her men with a machine gun and hand grenades until she is killed by Germans and the Hlinka Guard. Another Jewish partisan, Tibor Cifea, is shot by Germans and left hanging for three days.

    1944: A photograph was taken of a small group of survivors from the Kovno, a town in Lithuania that had been liberated on August 1.  At the start of the war there were approximately 40,000 Jews living there. There were only 2,000 still alive at when the Soviets liberated the city.

    1945: The Liberal Party of Australia is founded by Robert Menzies. During the Parliamentary elections in August, 2010, The Liberal Party sought the support of the Jewish community by picturing itself as being a better friend of Israel than the Labor Party.

    1945: President Truman endorsed a proposal for 100,000 Jews to be immediately admitted to Palestine and so informed the British Prime Minister.  Mr. Atlee was, to say the least, not pleased.

    1945: Birthdate of Itzhak Perlman. Born in Tel Aviv, Perlman was stricken with polio. He triumphed over the adversity to become one of the world’s greatest violinists.

    1945: Lt. Col. Louis Geffen, a judge advocate in the US Army who was sailing across the Pacific to his new duty station was allowed to use an area on the bow of the ship for Kabbalat Shabbat services.

    1947: UNSCOP, the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine, published its report.  Under the plan, Palestine was to be partitioned into two states, one Jewish and one Arab.  Jerusalem was to be a demilitarized, neutral city governed as an international trusteeship under the United Nations.

    1948: In New York City, Jean (née Farber) and Irving Ganz, an arts supply executive gave birth to screenwriter Lowell Ganz

    1948: Birthdate of Steve Soboroff, successful businessman, Republican political leader and executive for the Los Angeles Dodgers.

    1950: Birthdate of David Bedein, a journalist who established the Israel Resource News Agency and “serves as Director of the Center for Near East Policy Research.”

    1950: “Summer Stock,” a corny musical produced by Joe Pasternak, based on a story by Sy Gomberg for which he won an Oscar and with songs by Harold Arlen was released today in the United States.

    1950: Business leaders, Cabinets members and leading representatives from the Knesset held an all-day session to discuss Israel’s worsening economic conditions.  “The economic troubles stem mainly from the fact that the expansion of production is unable to keep up with the growth of the population, which increased in 27 months from 655,000 to 1,125,000.” 

    1951(29thof Av, 5711): Ninety-one year old Abraham Cahan the socialist newspaper editor whose name is synonymous with the Jewish Daily Forward passed away today.

    1952: In Monmouth County, Sidney Goldman, Justice of the Superior Court of New Jersey was the principle speaker at the cornerstone laying for Temple Beth Miriam’s new facility.

    1952: The final draft of the Reparations Agreement signed at The Hague was sent to Bonn. It was still waiting for the West German government's formal approval. The UN submitted to Bonn for special consideration a list of more than 380 survivors of the Nazi scientific experiments conducted in concentration camps. More than 200 such victims were still living in Germany.

    1954: Operation Binyamin 2 led by Ariel Sharon and Meir Har-Zion came to an end with the capture of 3 Jordanian soldiers.

    1955:In response to repeated attacks from Fedayeen (the term for terrorists at this time) forces under the command of Mordechai “Motta” Gur and Rafael “Raful” Eitan led an attack which destroyed the military installations at Khan Yunis in what was known as Operation Elkayanm.

    1959: Premiere of “Middle of the Night” a drama featuring a May to December romance deftly told in a script by Paddy Chayefsky which features “future Oscar winners Martin Balsam and Lee Grant.

    1961: Those “sons of Moses,” the Sherry brothers, combined their efforts to give the Dodgers a 5 to 2 victory over the Cubs. Norm Sherry hit a two-run homer for the Los Angeles Dodgers today and Larry Sherry pitched well enough in relief to get credit for the “save.”

    1962(1st of Elul, 5722): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1962: Seventy year old Henrikas Rabinavicius, “the only Jew to have served in the Lithuanian diplomatic corps” after it gained its independence following World War I, and the husband of the former “Ethel Edna Kabat, passed away today in New York.

    1962: In Egypt Alaa al-Zayat “a prominent doctor and professor of medicine” and his wife gave birth to Ahmed Zayat who gained fame as Ephraim David Zayet  the American businessman who owns 2015 Triple Crown Winner “American Pharoah.”

    1962:  Trinidad and Tobago become independent. The Jewish community dates back to the 18th century.  At the time of independence there were approximately 700 Jews living in the two islands.

    1967(25th of Av, 5727): Ilya Ehrenberg, Soviet author, journalist, apologist and political survivor par excellence, passed away.

    1968: Birthdate of Yossef (Joseph) Cedar the native of New York who “grew up in the Bayit VeGan neighborhood in Jerusalem” and became an award winning director and screenwriter best known for the 2011 tale of clash between academics and fathers and sons – “Footnote.”

    1972: Paul Stanley and Gene Simmons, both of whom were Jewish “answered the advertisement of Peter Criss in Rolling Stone that would lead to the formation of KISS.

    1972(21st of Elul, 5732): Seventy-six year old David Abraham Jessurun Cardozo, the Dutch born, English educated Sephardic rabbi who was the assistant rabbi at New York’s prestigious Spanish and Protuguese Synagogue and the first Rabbi to led Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur services in Spain since the 1492 Expulsion passed away today.

    1977: “You Light Up My Life” a romantic comedy written, directed and produced by Joseph Brooks who also composed the score and starring Didi Conn was released in the United States today by Columbia Pictures.

    1977: US Undersecretary of State Philip Habib assured Israeli Ambassador Simcha Dinitz that the US would block any Arab attempt to change UN Security Council Resolution 242.  This UN Resolution included a guaranteed of the right of Israel to exist and was part of the diplomatic efforts surrounding the Six Day War.  Various Arab leaders have erroneously claimed that this resolution required Israel to return to the truce lines that existed in June, 1967. 

    1979: “Time After Time” a sci-fi film directed by Nicholas Meyer who also wrote the screenplay was released today in the United States.

    1981(1st of Elul, 5741): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1981(1st of Elul, 5741):Prof. Elias J. Bickerman, a historian and authority on the influence of the Greeks in the Middle East at the time of Jesus and before, died today in Tel Aviv, where he was on vacation. He was 85 years old and lived in Manhattan.

    1981(1st of Elul, 5741): Eighty-two year old businessman and philanthropist Joseph Hirschhorn whose name became famous because of the art museum of which he was “the founder and benefactor” passed away today. (As reported by John Russell)

    1983: Flight 007, among whose passengers were 23-year-old Alice Ephraimson-Abt, the daughter of Hans Ephraimson-Abt completed “a refueling stop in Alaska” and “took off for Seoul.”

    1987: “On the occasion of a meeting in Rome today of representatives of the Holy See's Commission for Religious Relations with the Jews and of the International Jewish Committee on Interreligious Consultations, the then President of the Holy See's Commission for Religious Relations with the Jews, Cardinal Johannes Willebrands, announced the intention of the Commission to prepare an official Catholic document on the Shoah.”

    1988(18th of Elul, 5748): Seventy-five year old Lin Jaldati, the Dutch born Holocaust who brought Yiddish music Communist controlled countries in Asia passed away today.

    1989(30th of Av, 5749): Eighty-nine Morris Barney Dalitz, the gangster known as Moe Dalitz passed away today.

    1990: Rabbi Bonnie Koppell, the first female Jewish chaplain in the U.S. military, was profiled in the Omaha "Jewish Press"

    1994(24th of Elul, 5754): Harry Rosenblatt, one of the last survivors of the Jewish Legion of World War I, which fought with the British against the Turks in Palestine, passed away.  He was 101 years old. A native of Rovno, Ukraine, he came to New York at the age of 17.  He joined the British Army after hearing a speech in Union Square by Vladimir Jabotinsky in 1916 in which the Zionist leader called for volunteers to join in the fight to help the British wrest control of the Palestine from the Ottoman Empire.  “Mr. Rosenblatt was among the troops entering the city, and his picture and biography are on display in the Museum of the Israeli Defense Forces.”  After the war, “he returned to New York, became a U.S. citizen and opened a tailor shop which he kept open until he turned 90.”

    1995: Ninety-four year old Gertrude Luckner, a Christian social worker who resisted the Nazis and provided food and assistance to Jews during the Shoah passed for which was named as a righteous among the nations by Yad Vashem passed away today.

    1997: The New York Times featured a review ofPrivate Matters: In Defense of the Personal Life by Janna Malamud Smith the daughter of Bernard Malamud.

    2000(30th of Av, 5760): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    2000: Graveside services for Gertrude Schaefler, the widow of the late Leon Schaefler were held today.

    2000: “In the Penal Colony,” an opera composed by Philip Glass, based on a story by Franz Kafka, premiered today in Seattle, Washington.

    2001: Adel Mughrabi purchased the MV Karine A sothat the Palestinian Authority could use it to smuggle a large shipment of arms to terrorists

    2001: Stanley “Stan” Fischer completed his term as First Deputy Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund.

    2001: “Children of a Vanish World” an exhibition of photographs by Roman Vishniac is scheduled to come to a close at the Spertus Museum in Chicago.

    2001(12th of Elul, 5761): Seventy-five year old Lord Hamlyn, the son of refugees from Hitler’s Germany and became a publishing mogul passed away today.

    2001(12thof Elul, 5761: Seventy-nine year old child prodigy violinist Jacob Morris Kramalnick, who served as concert master with several orchestras passed away today.

    2001: An exhibition entitled “Moritz Daniel Oppenheim: Jewish Identity in 19th-Century Art” comes to a close at Yeshiva University Museum in Manhattan.  Oppenheim was one of the first Jewish artists to become successful in the 19th century.  His “chief claim to fame was as a portraitist to the Rothschild family.  He was called ‘the painter of the Rothschilds, and the Rothschild of painters.’”

    2002: The Israeli Defense Minister, Binyamin Ben-Eliezer, issued a statement expressing "regret" over "harming" civilians in Tubas when an Israeli helicopter fire four missiles at a car in which the local leader of the al-Aqsa brigade was thought to be riding but which actually contained five civilians and one teenager accused of being part of the terrorist organization

    2003: Luis Sandoval and two unidentified co-conspirators went to Cafe Bazel, a chic restaurant popular with expatriate Israeli artists in the Encino area, and fatally shot a man suspected of stealing 76 kilograms of Ecstasy tablets from Moshe Malul and Itzhik Abergil. This hit appears to have been the high point of the Israelis' collaboration with the Vineland crew.

    2003: The Sunday New York Times book section includes a review of Off With Their Heads:
    Traitors, Crooks and Obstructionists in American Politics, Media and Business
    by Jewish political consultant Dick Morris.

    2004(14th of Elul, 5764): Hamas suicide bombers blew up two buses in Beersheba, Israel, killing 16 passengers and wounding 100’s more.  The dead included Shoshana Amos, 64; Aviel Atash, 3; Vitaly Brodsky, 52; Tamara Dibrashvilli, 70; Raisa Forer, 55; Larisa Gomanenko, 48; Denise Hadad, 50; Tatiana Kortchenko, 49; Rosita Lehman, 45;  Karine Malka, 23;  Nargiz Ostrovsky, 54;  Maria Sokolov, 57; Roman Sokolovsky, 53; Tiroayent Takala, 33; Eliyahu Uzan, 58 and Emmanuel Yosef (Yosefov), 28 all from Beersheba.

    2004: The Philadelphia Inquirer featured a review of a biography of Jewish born violinist Efrem Zimbalist entitled Efrem Zimbalist: A Life by Roy Malan.

    2005(26th of Av, 5765):  Sir Joseph Rotblat passed away at the age of 96.  The physicist was the only scientist who quit working on the development of the atomic bomb for “moral reasons.”  The Polish born scientist awarded the Nobel Peace Prize to him and the Pugwash conferences in 1995 for their work in trying to limit and ultimately eliminate nuclear weapons.

    2005: “The Constant Gardner” a movie version of the novel by the same name starring Rachel Weisz was released today in the United States.

    2005: Mikhail Khodorkovsky, Russian born Jewish oligarch and businessman, announced that he would run for parliament.

    2006: A mass rally calling for the release of the three kidnapped IDF soldiers, Gilad Shalit, Eldad Regev and Ehud Goldwasser attracted thousands to Tel Aviv Rabin's Square.

    2006(7th of Elul, 5766): Bernard J. Wohl passed away at the age of 76. An advocate for New York’s poor and homeless; he served as Executive Director of the Goddard Riverside Community Center for 26 years.

    2006(7thof Elul, 5766): Sixty-two year old Tikva Frymer-Kensky, Ph.D. the Professor at the University of Chicago Divinity School and award winning author whose works included Reading the Women of the Bible passed away today.

    2007: In Jerusalem, clarinetist Karl-Heinz Steffens joins members of the Jazz Faculty of the Israel Conservatory of Music for a Jazz Concert.

    2007: The ZF conference entitled “Israel at 60” opens in London.

    2007: In an address given at the annual meeting of the Islamic Society of North America Rabbi Eric Yoffee, president of the Union for Reform Judaism “pleaded with American Muslims to transcend the differences that have their people for decades and Join Jews to confront the extremist factions and prejudice that plague both religious traditions.”

    2007: Today,Rabbi Israel Rubin took his students on an unusual field trip. They went to Barn 70 on the backside of Saratoga Race Course on Friday morning to see a trainer about a horse. The trainer was Bob Baffert, and the horse, Maimonides, was a fast one, who just may capture the Kentucky Derby next May. Maimonides cost $4.6 million at last year’s Keeneland September Sale, and last month he appeared as if he was worth every penny when he won his debut by 11 ½ lengths. He is one of the favorites Monday to win the Grade I $250,000 Hopeful Stakes, a seven-furlong sprint for 2-year-olds. None of that, however, interested Rubin or his charges. He does not attend horse races or gamble. In fact, upon hearing about the colt, Rubin thought long and hard before arranging to take his students here. “Some may think this is sacrilegious,” he said. Ultimately, however, the rabbi and his students were drawn here from the Maimonides Hebrew Day School in Albany for what is in a name. The school and the colt are named for Moses Maimonides, who lived more than 800 years ago and is considered among the greatest Jewish philosophers. He was the chief rabbi of Cairo and the physician to the sultan of Egypt.  “He blended religious study and intellect with worldly manners to heal the sick and guide the healthy,” Rubin said.  “He was respected and honored by both Jews and Arabs. This is especially relevant now in our life and times.” Maimonides is owned and was named by Ahmed Zayat, an Egyptian now living in New Jersey. He did not know about Rubin’s visit, and, indeed, was flying back from San Diego and Del Mar on Friday morning. When told of the smiles of the youngsters petting the nose of his expensive colt, however, Zayat was beyond gratified. He is a Muslim who grew up in a suburb of Cairo and had put much time and effort into bestowing the name Maimonides on his prize purchase.“ He was a very special man who was highly regarded by all people, regardless of faith,” Zayat said of Maimonides. “What has happened with Sept. 11, Iraq, and what’s going on in the region is contrary to the way I grew up. If this horse was going to be a superstar, I wanted an appropriate name. I wanted to say something with the tool I had, which was a horse. I wanted it to be pro-peace, and about loving your neighbor.” When Zayat tried to register the name Maimonides with the Jockey Club, however, he discovered that it had been reserved for more than nine years by Earle I. Mack, a New York real estate investor and a former ambassador to Finland. In 1997, Mack, then the chairman of the board for the Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law at Yeshiva University, was instrumental in bringing King Juan Carlos I of Spain to New York to accept the school’s Democracy Award. Mack had been moved by the king’s remarks about how much Spain’s culture had lost when the country expelled its Jews in 1492 as part of the Inquisition. The king mentioned Maimonides, who was born in Córdoba, Spain, in 1135, and who, with his family, was forced out of the country while Spain was ruled by Muslims. “I was just waiting for a horse good enough to deserve the name,” Mack said. He has owned and bred horses for more than 40 years, and knew that Zayat’s colt, a son of Vindication, was bred to be special. Each also understood the other’s good intentions. Zayat donated $100,000 to Cardozo to commemorate the king’s visit there, and to promote tolerance. Mack released his claim to the name Maimonides. “He had the right horse, and the right motives,” Mack said. “We are all after the same thing: to touch people across cultures.” Zayat and Mack know that horse racing is an unpredictable business, and a thoughtfully named horse hardly guarantees future fame and fortune. When Eli O’Brien, 14, patted Maimonides between the ears and promised to say some prayers for him, Baffert nodded enthusiastically. “We’ll take anything you can give us,” Baffert said.

    2008: The Sunday New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including g Still Alive! A Temporary Condition: A Memoirby Herbert Gold and two books by Adam Krisch; Invasions and The Modern Element: Essays on Contemporary Poetry.

    2008: The Washington Post featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Man in the Dark by Paul Auster, Dough: A Memoir by Mort Zachter, issued in paperbackand Norman Mailer's Miami and the Siege of Chicago, now reissued for the 40th anniversary of those groundbreaking 1968 presidential conventions.

    2008: At Yeshiva University Museum, an exhibition entitled “The Six Day War Series: Painting by Ira Moskowitz” comes to an end. “Eight oil paintings gifted to the Museum Collection by the family of Ira and Ann Moskowitz in celebration of the 40th anniversary of the reunification of Jerusalem. This series depicts emotionally powerful scenes after the Six-Day War in June 1967. Artist Ira Moskowitz (1912-2001) employs vivid color and expressive brushwork to convey the euphoria of this victorious moment in Israel's history. Born in Poland and educated in Prague, Moskowitz studied at the Art Students League and spent extended periods in Israel.”

    2008: Dr. Andrew G. Bostom, author of The Legacy of Islamic Antisemitism: From Sacred Texts to Solemn History a book that describes what it was like living as Jew under Moslem rule, was interviewed on Israel National Radio's Tamar Yonah Show. During the interview he “shared the dramatic account of a young Moroccan Jewess in her teens who lived in the 1800's, named Sol Hachuel.  Falsely accused on charges of "apostasy" from Islam, she was offered riches and special rights if she embraced Islam - or prison, torture and death if she did not.  Sol Hachuel chose to be imprisoned, starved, tortured and then decapitated in the town square rather than give up her Judaism.  "I was born a Jew, and I shall die a Jew," she boldly stated to the Islamic court, according to Bostom's accounts.  On the show, Bostom read her historic speech that inspired the Fez Jewish community to remain committed to their Judaism despite the hardships of constant false charges, unfair heavy taxes, violence and murder.”

    2009(11THof Elul, 5769): Fifty-five year old documentary film maker Elliot Berlin who made “Paperclips” one of the best Holocaust related movies ever passed away today.

    2009: Opening night of the Jerusalem International Chamber Music Festival.

    2009 The Education Ministry announced this evening that an agreement to enroll Ethiopian students initially banned from some of the city's schools had been reached following a meeting between Petah Tikva Mayor Yitzhak Ohayon, Education Minister Gideon Sa'ar (Likud) and other Education Ministry officials.

    2009: The stock of Africa Israel investments, a real estate firm owned by Lev Leviev “fell another 13.7 percent today as the firm floated the idea of renegotiating the terms of its debts with bond holders and banks.” (As reported by Marcy Oster)

    2010: An exhibition, The Works of Mordechai Rosenstein, on display at the Fine Family Art Gallery and the Katz Family Mainstreet Gallery of the MJCCA is scheduled to come a close today in Atlanta, GA.

    2010: Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu and his negotiating team took off for Washington this morning, ahead of the relaunch of peace talks with the Palestinians.

    2010(21stof Elul, 5770): Sixty-five year old Gail Koff a partner in Jacoby & Meyers, passed away. (As reported by Dennis Hevesi)

    2010(21stof Elul, 5770): Four Israelis were shot dead in their car today near the West Bank settlement of Kiryat Arba less than a day before Israeli and Palestinian leaders meet in Washington for a summit to announce the resumption of direct peace talks. The attack, for which Hamas has claimed responsibility, shattered years of relative calm in the West Bank. The victims are a couple from the settlement of Beit Hagai and two residents of Kiryat Arba. One of the dead was a woman believed to have been pregnant. The Beit Hagai couple has been identified as Yitzhak and Tali Ames, 45 and 47. They are survived by six children, the oldest 24 and the youngest 5. Just six months ago, the Ames couple celebrated the birth of their first granddaughter. Tali worked as an account manager in various offices in the area and Yitzhak was a tour guide who accompanied groups to the Temple Mount area every Wednesday. Beit Hagai, a tiny settlement in the South Hebron Hills, is home to 100 families. A spokesman for Hamas' military wing, the Iz al-Din al-Qassam Brigades, announced Tuesday that members of the organization carried out the shootings. A Hamas spokesman in Gaza, Sami Abu Zuhri, said the Islamist group praises the attack and considers it a natural response to "the crimes of occupation." Another Hamas spokesman, Fawzi Barhoum, said the attack was meant to highlight the failure of the security cooperation between the Palestinian Authority and Israel. A senior PA official who is in Washington for today's official launch of direct peace talks with Israel expressed outrage over the attack and accused Hamas of attempting to thwart the negotiations. The Fatah-dominated Palestinian security forces in the West Bank launched their own investigation into the incident in an effort to track down the gunmen. The South Hebron Hills, where the attack took place, is considered an area in which Hamas cells have heightened their presence. The commander of the West Bank division, Brig. Gen. Nitzan Alon, said the authorities believe that Hamas is telling the truth in claiming the attack. After the incident, Israeli troops and police were stationed at major checkpoints and junctions along West Bank roads in an effort to track down the gunmen. In addition, the police's operations branch has issued instructions to officers throughout the country to stay alert. The Israel Defense Forces said it had located the gunmen's car. IDF sources said there had been no indications that an attack was imminent. Defense officials now believe that Palestinian terrorist organizations may seek to sabotage the peace negotiations. The authorities are also worried that far-right settlers may try to provoke unrest as well. At around 7:30 P.M. this evening, gunshots were heard near the Bnei Naim junction just south of Kiryat Arba. A preliminary investigation revealed that the gunmen drove alongside the car and opened fire. Authorities believe it is possible that after the driver was shot and the car was forced off the highway, the gunmen approached the vehicle to ensure that all the car's passengers had been killed. Guy Gonen, a Magen David Adom paramedic who arrived at the scene, told Channel 2 that his crew saw "a car that was pierced with dozens of bullets and inside there were four bodies. There was absolutely no chance of helping." Defense Minister Ehud Barak was briefed on the attack by IDF chief of staff Gabi Ashkenazi and Shin Bet chief Yuval Diskin. Barak conferred by telephone with Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, who was on his way to Washington. He also spoke with Vice Prime Minister Silvan Shalom, who is serving as acting prime minister while Netanyahu is abroad. "Unfortunately we are once again witness to the fact that while we are working to find ways to co-exist and create a reality of peace, there are those who continue to take the path of terror and are busy killing innocents," said Shalom. "Today it is clearer more than ever that the real obstacle to peace is terrorism and the extremists who will do anything to send the entire region up in flames. It is incumbent on the Palestinian Authority to fulfill its obligations in the territories that are under its purview," Shalom said. "We are giving full backing to the prime minister during the talks in the United States." According to Barak, "This apparently is an attempt by depraved terrorists to harm efforts to move the diplomatic process forward and to try to harm the chances of peace talks that are beginning in Washington." The attack prompted sharp reactions from West Bank settler leaders, who were quick to draw a link between the killings and the peace talks that are set to get underway. "It's about time that the leaders of Israel wake up from their delusions of an imaginary peace," said Zvi Bar Hai, the head of the South Hebron Hills regional council.

    2011(1stof Elul, 5771): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    2011: Rami Feinstein, “a widely popular Israeli artist who has developed a diverse and devoted following over the last seven years” is scheduled to perform at the Bitter End in New York City

    2011: Today, the head of the government-appointed committee on socioeconomic change in Israel, Prof. Manuel Trajtenberg, defended the recent criticism cast upon the leaders of the social protest, and explained they were simply "inexperienced." Today marked the committee's last meeting with representatives from the public, which included the participation of 17 representatives from tent encampments from across the country.

    2011: Summer rainfall took Israelis by surprise today when slight showers were felt in Hadera, Netanya, and even Tel Aviv.

    2011: Over 20,000 are expected to attend the 7th Annual Jerusalem Beer Festival tonight and tomorrow night at the Old Train Station in Jerusalem.

    2012: Israel responded bitterly today to comments by the chairman of the US Joint Chiefs of Staff, Gen. Martin Dempsey, who said yesterday that he did not want “to be complicit” if Israel were to strike at Iran’s nuclear facilities. Dempsey’s comments were “strange” and characterized the failure of the United States to take a determined position against Iran’s nuclear drive, a source in Jerusalem was quoted as saying

    2012: The White House today dismissed statements made by Republican presidential candidate Mitt Romney yesterday that the Obama administration had “thrown allies like Israel under the bus” regarding Iran’s nuclear weapons program. “Cooperation with Israel between our military and intelligence communities has never been closer” under the Obama administration, White House Press Secretary Jay Carney told reporters.

    2012: The Fifteenth Jerusalem Chamber Music Festival is scheduled to open today.

    2012: After premiering at the Sundance Film Festiva.  “For a Good Time, Call” a comedy starring Ari Graynor and Lauren Miller, who co-authored the screenplay was released today in the United States.

    2012:  In Leesburg, VA, Congregation Sha'are Shalom is scheduled to greet the Sabbath Queen with a Musical Shabbat and Ice Cream Social

    2012: “Labor on the Bimah” is scheduled to begin Erev Shabbat.

    2012(13thof Elul, 5772): Seventy-nine year old British composer whose family was murdered at Auschwitz and “a world authority on the Dreyfus Affair” who cred the Dreyfus Centenary in 1994 passed away today.

    2013: At the Rose and Crown Theatre the curtain came down on a London production “Little Me,” a Neil Simon musical

    2013: Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg officiated at the wedding of Michael Kaiser and John Roberts “in what was the first-ever instance of a U.S. Supreme Court Justice performing a same-sex marriage.”

    2013: An exhibit celebrating the 100th anniversary of the Columbus (Ohio) Jewish Center which was developed by the Columbus Jewish Historical Society is scheduled to come to an end today.

    2013: The Tel Aviv Woodwind Quintet is scheduled to play Ligeti’s “6 Bagatelles For Wind Quintet” at the Jerusalem International Chamber Music Festival.

    2013: In Cedar Rapids, Iowa Temple Judah marks Selichot a study session, services and the Changing of the Torah Covers ceremony.

    2013: “Ivri Lider, one of the most successful Israeli musicians of his generation” is scheduled to perform at the Budapest Music Center.

    2013: Israeli communications company Spacecom has successfully launched a state of the art satellite to space tonight from the Zenit launching pad in Baikonur, Kazakhstan.

    2013: Labor MK Omer Bar-Lev today criticized Knesset Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee chairman Avigdor Liberman for refusing to call a meeting of the committee to discuss a possible US strike on Syria and its implications on Israel.

    2014: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Suspicious Minds: How Culture Shapes Madness by Joel Gold and Ian Gold and a Q & A with Rick Pearlstein whose most recent work is The Invisible Bridge: The Fall Nixon and the Rise of Reagan.

    2014: Dr. Judith Rosenbaum is scheduled to succeed Dr. Gail Reimer as Executive Director of the Jewish Women’s Archives.

    2014(5th of Elul, 5774): Twenty year old Paratrooper Shahar Shalev passed way today as a result of wounds suffered from an IED explosion four and a half weeks ago that took place while he was working to locate and destroy the Hamas terror tunnels during Operation Protective Edge. (“In life he was loved and admired; he was swifter than eagles and stronger than lions.”)

    2014: “The Israeli Air Force downed an unmanned drone (UAV) over the Golan Heights as it attempted to enter Israeli airspace from Syria.” At this time, the IDF does not know who launched the drone or if it was weaponized. (As reported by Uzi Baruch)

    2014: Tenth anniversary of the Beersheba Bus Bombings.

    2015: A Classical Trio Concert featuring Gabriel Chouraki - violinist and Eyal Heiman - cellist is scheduled to take place at Migdalei haYam haTichon in Jerusalem.

    2015: In Coralville, Iowa, Hebrew School is scheduled to begin today.

    2015: The Toronto Blue Jays announced that Mark Shapiro would become their new president and chief executive officer (CEO) at the end of the 2015 season

    2015: After a weeklong trial, jurors deliberated for about two hours before convicting Frazier Glenn Miller Jr., 74, a former Ku Klux Klan leader with a history of racist and anti-Semitic actions in the shooting deaths of three people a year ago at a Jewish community center and an assisted living facility in suburban Kansas City.

    2015: The Jewish Historical Society of Great Washington is scheduled to co-sponsor screening “Rosenwald” “the documentary by Aviva Kempner” that “tells the incredible story of how businessman and philanthropist Julius Rosenwald (who made his fortune at the helm of Sears, Roebuck and Co) joined with Booker T. Washington and African-American communities in the South to build schools during the early part of the 20th century.”

    2016: “The improbable story of the man who won history’s ‘biggest murder trial’ at Nuremberg” published today tells the tale of Ben Ferencz, “the last surviving prosecutor from the Nuremberg trials.”

    2016: Today, “a U.S. appeals court threw out a $655.5 million verdict against the Palestinian Authority and the Palestine Liberation Organization for damages suffered by American families from terrorist attacks in Israel.”

    2016(27thof Av, 5776): Eight-six year old photographer Nathan Lyons passed away today.

    2016: In Memphis, TN, The Temple Israel Chazak Campaign is scheduled to come to a close.

    2017: Esther Hugenholtz, the Congregation Agudas Achim’s new rabbi is scheduled to arrive this evening at the Eastern Iowa Airport.

    2017: “Energy Department official William Bradford who is Jewish and was appointed by President Trump to lead the Office of Indian Energy and who made disparaging remarks about President Barack Obama’s Kenyan ancestry and called Facebook founder Marc Zuckerberg a “self-hating Jew” resigned today. (CJN)

    2017: The Diver Festival, three weekends of modern dance in and around Jaffa and Tel Aviv is scheduled to begin today.

    2017: JW3 is scheduled to host the two final screenings in London of “Alone in Berlin,” a haunting tale about a German husband and wife who were guillotined for mounting an anti-Hitler postcard campaign.

    2018: “As a Blue Star Museum, the Illinois Holocaust Museum” is scheduled to begin offering “free admission to active-duty military personnel and up to five of their family members” today which will continue through Labor Day Monday.

    2018: Starting at 6 pm the Ayalon Highway Company was scheduled to close the Ayalon Highway for twenty-four hours in the first of six weekend closures so the “construction of a pedestrian and cycling bridge” could be completed until Transportation Minister Yisrael Katz order a halt in response to threats from “Haredi parties.” (As reported by Roi Rubinstein, Moran Azulay)

    2018: The Jerusalem Centre for the Performing Arts is scheduled to host screenings of “Her Love Boils Bathwater” and “Transit.”

    2018(20 Elul): Yahrzeit of Dr. Jacob  Levin, of blessed memory, beloved husband of Betty, loving father of Michael (Gigi Cohen) Levin, Stephen (Dian Garton) Levin, Sharon (Philip) Wein and Lawrence (Sandra Morrison) Levin and proud Zaide to a whole tribe of grandchildren.   To his brother Joe, he was the incomparable “Yaenkel” and to me his was my wonderful Uncle Jack – living proof that good guys finish first.



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    September 1

    September is an auspicious month in terms of Jewish History.  Like most things in the world of Jews, it is a mixed bag-- a combination of the bitter and the sweet. 
    Today we mark the anniversaryof the start of World War II.  By the end of the war, the world of European Jewry would lie in ruins.  After two thousand years of growth and contribution, that civilization would cease to exist as we had known it.
    September also marks the anniversary of the beginning of the Jewish community in the United States.  From twenty-three stormed tossed refugees has come one of the most dynamic civilizations in Jewish history. 
    1312 BCE (10th of Tishrei): According to the Bible, the day on which Moses came down from Mt. Sinai with the second set of Tablets on which the Ten Commandments were inscribed.
    992: In Limoges, France, A Jewish apostate named Sechog ben Ester planted a wax figure in the ark of the local synagogue and then accused the local Jews of using it to curse the local Lord by devil magic. Although they succeeded in deflecting the accusation, the idea that Jews were devil worshippers was gaining more acceptance in the Christian world. A brief account...
    1181: Lucius III, who issued Ad Abolendam – a Papal Bull condemning heresy which created the Inquisition – was elected Pope today/
    1199(8th of Tishri): Maimonides wrote to Samuel Ibn-Tibbon, who as translating the "Guide to the Perplexed from Arabic into Hebrew.  The letter included advice on how to do this as well as plea that Ibn-Tibbon not undertake his planned trip from France to Egypt to visit him.  The distance was too great and he would be too busy since to see him for more than an hour since each day except Shabbat he must travel from Fostat to Cairo where he spends half a day ministering to the Sultan and his court.  Then he travels back to Fostat where he is besieged by Jews, Moslems, et al all seeking his medical skill and advice.
    1267:  Ramban (Moses Nachmanides or Moses ben Nachman) arrived in Jerusalem. Born in 1194, Nachmanides was a famed commentator on the Torah and Talmud and a major communal leader in Spain.  He also was the court physician to King James of Aragon (a part of Spain).  King James forced him to defend Judaism in a public debate with Pablo Christiani, a Jew who had converted to Catholicism.  To make a long story short, Nachmanides vigorous defense angered the Dominican friars and Nahcmanides was forced to flee.  He gave life to a Jewish community in Jerusalem that had fallen on such hard times that it had trouble gathering a minyan.  Among other things he built a synagogue in Jerusalem that was the sole such building for several centuries to come.  Nachmanides moved to Acre in 1268 where he led that community until 1270.
    1271: Gregory X, the pontiff who will issue “Sicut Judaeis” in 1272 which absolved the Jews of “using Christian blood for ritual purposes” begins his papacy.

    1566: Birthdate ofEdward Alleyn “a major figure of the Elizabethan theatre” known for his portrayal of Barabbas in “The Jew of Malta.”

    1577: Pope Gregory XIII, reconfirming the Bull off Pope Nicholas III, decreed that one hundred and fifty Jews must hear conversion sermons in Rome every week. He reissued a similar Bull a few years later in 1584.
    1584: Gregory XIII issued Sancta Mater Ecclesia, a Papal Bull concerning the obligatory preaching of Christian sermons to Jews.  The Bull required that 100 men and 50 women be sent every Saturday to listen to conversion sermons delivered in a church near the ghetto.
    1592: Archbishop Salikowski ordered the Jews to build a church in Lvov Poland marking a period of increasing persecution.

    1614: Vincent Fettmich expelled the Jews from Frankfurt-on-Main, Germany.

    1749: The delegates of the Hungarian Jews, except those from Szatmar County, assembled at Pressburg and met a royal commission, which informed them that they would be expelled from the country if they did not pay this tax. The frightened Jews at once agreed to do so; and the commission then demanded a yearly tax of 50,000 gulden. This sum being excessive, the delegates protested; and although the queen had fixed 30,000 gulden as the minimum tax, they were finally able to compromise on the payment of 20,000 gulden a year for a period of eight years. The delegates were to apportion this amount among the districts; the districts, their respective sums among the communities; and the communities, theirs among the individual members. The queen confirmed this agreement of the commission, except the eight-year clause, changing the period to three years, which she subsequently made five.

    1715: King Louis XIV of France dies after a reign of 72 years.  The Sun King’s record in dealing with the Jewish people was never good, but it got really awful just before his death.  Seized with the deathbed religious fervor the debauched, he came fully to accept the position of the Church and the Jesuits when he banned all Jews from Marseilles Toulon and the rest of Provence in 1710. “The Jews were ordered, in his words, ‘to leave the kingdom without any belongs’ and local officials were told to take any and all means to expel the Jews ‘because that is our wish.’”

    1749: “The delegates of the Hungarian Jews, except those from Szatmár County, assembled at Pressburg and met a royal commission, which informed them that they would be expelled from the country if they did not pay the ‘toleration-tax’ that had been imposed on them during the reign of Queen Maria Theresa the daughter of Charles III  The commission wanted 50,000 gulden; the queen wanted 30,000 gulden and the Jews ended up paying 20,000 gulden a year for an agreement that allowed them to stay in their homes for five years (Ant-Semitism is a money maker)

    1752: The Liberty Bell arrived in Philadelphia. The Bell is inscribed with words from the 25th chapter of Leviticus, "Proclaim liberty throughout all the land unto all the inhabitants thereof. It is but one of many examples of how Jewish culture and values had an impact on Western civilization in general and, in this case, early American culture specifically. 

    1761: Birthdate of German theologian Heinrcih Paulus, author of the “The Jewish National Separation: Its Origin, Consequences and the Means of its Correction” a pamphlet in which he “argued that "Jews were a nation apart, and would remain so as long as they were committed to their religion, whose basic intent and purpose were to preserve them in that condition. In a country that was not their own, therefore, Jews could not claim more than the bare protection of their lives and possessions. They might certainly not claim political equality."

    1763: Catherine II of Russia endorses Ivan Betskoy’s plans for a Foundling Home in Moscow. Betskoy was an educational reformer and accepting his plan was in keeping with Catherine’s self-image of being “a child of the Enlightenment.” This happened a year after Catherine came to the throne in a period when her hold on the office was still shaky due to the way she had gained her crown.  At this time, Catherine was also gingerly working her way around the anti-Jewish laws of her late mother-in-law “quietly” allowing “useful” Jews such as doctors, contractors and businessman to work in St. Petersburg. Catherine’s accepting view of her Jewish subjects would change during the last years of her reign, when the limitations she place on them began the creation of what would become the Pale of Settlement.

    1795: Birthdate of James Gordon Bennett, Sr., the found of the New York Herald. When he died in 1872, he would be memorialized as “an honest supporter and true friend” of the Jewish people whose newspaper “always gave firm and true support to” the Jewish people.

    1800: Lyon Nathan married Hannah Benjamin at the Great Synagogue today.

    1805:During the dispute sparked by the publication of ‘Emeḳ ha-Shaweh (Vale of the Plain), Rabbi Moses Münz summoned two rabbis to come to Óbuda to form with him a tribunal before which would hear the case against the author, Rabbi Aron Chorin.

    1819(11thof Elul, 5579): Seventy-six year old Abigail Seixas, the daughter of Isaac Menes Siexas and Rachel Franks Levy passed away today in Richmond, VA.

    1820: Former President Thomas Jefferson wrote to Dr. Jacob De La Motta of Savannah, GA.  Jefferson repeated his belief in religious freedom and his happiness at “restoration of the Jews” especially as regards “their social rights.”  He looks forward to the day when they will take “their seats on the benches of science” as preparation to “their doing the same at the board of government.”  (As reported by the Jewish Virtual Library)

    1822: Brazil declared its independence from Portugal. Soon after this declaration of independence many Spanish Jews from Morocco migrated to the area. By 1879 Sephardim had settled all the way down to the Amazon rain forest area.

    1827: Löbl Strakosch and Julia Schwarz gave birth to their sixth child Samuel.

    1830: Barnet Emanuel married Amelia Isaacs at the Great Synagogue today.

    1835: Birthdate of Yosef Chaim, the Baghdad native who is also known as Ben Ish Chai which is the name of his seminal work on halachah.  Ben Ish Chai is Hebrew for “son of man who lives,” a term that harkens back to Ezekiel and the Valley of the Dry Bones (Son of Man, can these bones live?).

    1836 Reconstruction begins on the “Synagogue of Rabbi Judah Hasid” in Jerusalem.

    1841: John Jacobs married Frances Samson in Liverpool, UK.

    1841: Based on the advice given to him by the Duke of Sussex that travel would improve his work, Solomon Alexander Hart left England on his way to Italy “where he made many architectural and other drawings, originally intended for publication as a series of engravings but which were ultimately used as studies for his pictures of Italian history and scenery.”

    1844: Birthdate of “Dutch philologist Herman Josef Polak” the native of Leyden who “in 1894 was appointed professor of Greek at Gröningen University.”

    1848: In Suvalki, Poland, Abraham Feinberg and his wife gave birth to Moses Feinberg who came to the United States in 1868 where he served as a cantor for Congregations New Beth Israel, Poale Zedek and Adath Yeshurun.

    1853: The New York Times reported that civil unrest continues to rock Venezuela.  “At Barcelona, the government of General Monagas has published a ‘warning”” aimed at foreigners in general and Jews in particular accusing them of being the instigators of the unrest.  After a delegation of Jews and other foreigners sought help from the Dutch Consul at Caracas, a Dutch man-of-war sailed to Barcelona where it could offer protection to those who have been threatened.

    1854: Thirty year old James (Jacob) Seligman and Rosa Seligman gave birth to Samuel Jefferson Seligman.

    1855:Mademoiselle Rachel, the great French Tragedienne, is scheduled to make her New York debut today. Mademoiselle Rachel is Elizabeth Rachel Felix, the daughter of a German-Swiss Jew named Felix and his wife Esther Haya.

    1857: Banker Henri Louis Bischoffsheim and his wife gave birth to Ellen Odette Cuffe, Countess of Desart, née Bischoffsheim, the wife of William Cuffe, the 4th Earl of Desart “who has been called ‘the most important Jewish woman in Irish history.’”

    1857:It was reported today that a decision has been made to carry the question of admitting Jews to Parliament has been carried over to the next session much to the relief of Lord Russell.

    1857: In Philadelphia, PA the Judith Simha Solis and Myer David Cohen gave birth Dr. Solomon Solis Cohen, an 1883 Jefferson Medical School graduate who taught at Dartmouth College.

    1858: The New York Timespublished a report today that Pierre Soule has arrived in Washington.  Mr. Soule was described as “a man of power” who “possesses undoubted influence over public affairs.” The article also reported that if Soule decided to run for the Senate he could defeat John Slidell. Furthermore, the article reported that like Judah P. Benjamin, the Senator from Louisiana, “Mr. Soule is a Jew, and the Hebrew element is a rising one in the aggregate intellect of the country.”  [Editor’s note – If Soule were in fact Jewish, the author is saying that Louisiana would be the first state in the Union to be represented in the U.S. by two Jews.]

    1861: Thomas Jordan General Beauregard’s Assistant Adjutant-General sent a letter on behalf of the Confederate Commander to Rabbi M.I. Mechelbacker of Richmond denying his request to grant furloughs to Jewish Soldiers starting on September 2nd and lasting through September 15th so that might attend services for Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur.  The Confederate generals are sure that Jews in and out of the army will understand given the military situation which finds Southern forces “bivouacked in full view of the capitol of the late United States.”  Jordan assured the Rabbi that the God who “released your people from Egypt bondage” will understand.  (Like many Southerners, Jordan did not see the irony of the side that was fighting to preserve slavery invoking the liberation from Egyptian bondage.)

    1861: Philadelphian Emil Meyer began serving as a Second Lieutenant in Company G of the 174th Regiment.

    1861 Paul Weinberger “transferred to the 29th Regiment of the New York Volunteers” today.

    1862: Jacob Rosentell who would rise to the rank of Sergeant and was wounded in the Battle of Wilderness, began serving in company F of the 139th Regiment.

    1863: “Abraham Dusch” who had been serving with Company C of the 27th Regiment transferred today to the “Veteran Reserve Corps.”

    1864: Private Henry Arnold, who would rise to the rank of Corporal before his discharge, began serving in Battery of I of the 204th Regiment of the Fifth Artillery.

    1867(1st of Elul, 5627): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1868: In Egeln, German, Selig Bumenthal, the son Salomon and Lea Blumentahl and his wife Juliane Blumenthal gave birth to Max Meyer Blumenthal, M.D.

    1868: Twenty-seven year old Isaias Wolf Hellman co-founded Hellman, Temple and Co., the second official bank in the city of Los Angeles which would be followed by Hellman co-founding Farmers and Merchants Bank of Los Angeles in 1871 which proved to be the city “first successful bank.”

    1869: In Brooklyn, Jacob Baiz, the Venezuelan born son of Abraham and Sarah Miriam Baiz, and his wife Emily Mendes Baiz gave birth to Anita Baiz

    1873: A Jewish peddler named Samuel Bendtersar was arrested this morning in Flushing on charges of having assaulted Johanna Fatsner.

    1874: Birthdate of Ismar Elbogen the German born rabbi and historian whose work included Jewish Liturgy: A Comprehensive History published in 1913 and translated into English by Raymond P. Scheindlin in 1993

    1876:Sir Julius Vogel completed his services as Prime Minister of New Zealand.  Vogel was the first Jew to hold this position.

    1876: Hyman B. Isaacson and his wife, daughter of Russian cigar maker Reuben Pupkin, gave birth to their only son Nachum Isaacson who started a boy’s clothing manufacturing company in New York where he worked until he passed away at the age of 38.

    1877: “Notes from the Capital” published today described the recent dedication of Washington Hebrew Congregation during which Rabbi Szold of Baltimore delivered the sermon.  President Rutherford B. Hayes, who had promised to attend, “sent a message expressing his regret at being unable to fulfill his promise.”

    1877: In Boston, Massachusetts, Fishel Currick and his wife gave birth to Max C. Currick the graduate of University of Cincinnati a Hebrew Union College who served as a rabbi at Fort Smith in western Arkansas before assuming the leadership of Anshe Chesed at Erie, PA in 1901.

    1878: It was reported today that 200 delegates attended the opening session of the Pan-Jewish Conference in Paris.  Adolph Cremieux presided over the meeting at which it was reported that the organization had 24,000 members and had collected 111,000 francs in the past year.  The delegates sought ways to improve the moral, intellectual and political conditions of the Jews living in various parts of the world. 

    1878: It was reported today that there were those in England who claimed Disraeli would play the ultimate joke when he died by renouncing his youthful conversion to Christianity and being buried next to his Jewish father.  Others claimed that Disraeli would do no such thing, choosing to be buried next to his wife.

    1878: It was reported today that among the donations made to help those suffering from the Yellow Fever Epidemic in the Deep South was $100 from the Hebrews of the St. Joseph Mission earmarked for the Howard Association in Memphis, Tenn.

    1879: “Henry O’Brien’s Experiment” published today described the 12 year old Irish boy’s attempt to find out how a Jew, in this case Harris Goldstein, would react when tricked into eating pork. (It must have been a slow news day in New York)


    1882: In Fifth District Civil Court in New York City, Civil Justice Alfred Steckler heard Freund versus Selig in which the plaintiff sought to force the defendant Louis Selig to repay what he claimed was a ten dollar loan.  Selig, a well-known Jewish police officer claimed that the ten dollars in questions was not a loan but a gift made on his behalf as a political contribution.

    1882: It was reported today that large numbers of unemployed Jewish refugees “continue to besiege” the Hebrew Aid Society on State Street in search of financial assistance.

    1882: Theobold Michael, President of the Synagogue and Talmud Torah at 622 Fifth Street, appeared at the Essex Market Police Court where he filed a complaint against Charles A. Leopold claiming that the defendant “annoyed the congregation” during services “by swearing at them, using insulting language” and throwing mud into the synagogue.  Leopold denied the allegations and claimed that the Jewish prayers disturbed his invalid wife.  The Judge let Leopold go after telling him that he not “disturb the congregation.”

    1883: The military fired on a mob of two thousand peasants today who “had invaded” the town of “Krapina…for the purposed of attacking the Jews.

    1883: It was reported today that Herr von Tisza, the President of the Hungarian Council has instituted news measures to protect Jews from any more attacks.  From now on, any rioter who attacks a Jew and is condemned to death under a decree of martial law will be put to death within three hours after being sentencing.

    1884: In Paterson, NJ, founding of B’nai Israel which holds services daily, owns a cemetery in Bergen, NJ and whose members include “Louis Urdond, Harris Jacob, Harris Rome, Nathan Elkind, David Etkin, Bernot Grazinsky and Lipman Simon.”

    1884: Birthdate of May H. Friedman Fleisher the wife of Philadelphian Willis Fleisher.

    1884: Birthdate of Charles Ezekiel Polowetski, the Russian born American painter.

    1884: It was reported today that fifty-five year old Daniel Weinberger whose body was discovered yesterday in his room on South Halstead Street left a note for his landlord Winter Meyer asking that his remains “be taken in a Jewish hearse to a Jewish burying ground” where he would be buried by a Jewish burial society. 

    1885: Anthony M. Keiley, former mayor of Richmond who had been designated as the U.S. Minister to Austria-Hungary and who had a Jewish wife wrote to Secretary of State Thomas Francis Bayard, President Cleveland’s Secretary of State that “no American citizen…who commits the crime, “in Austria’s eyes of marrying a Hebrew wife, shall be received in diplomatic circles in Vienna, or permitted to represent the interests of the United Sates at the Austrian court” which means that “Austria claims the right to prescribe a religious test for office in the United States and to determine what creed shall constitute the disqualifications.”

    1885: “A Fight In A Synagogue” published today described a dispute between Sol Goldstone and Abraham Jacobs that turned violent during the annual meeting of a Jewish congregation in Montreal, Canada.

    1886: Coroner Levy, the President of the Jewish Immigrants’ Protective Association sought an interview with Immigration Superintendent Jackson to protest the treatment of Mr. and Mrs. Manheim and their 5 year old child who were being denied entrance to the United States.

    1887: The San Diego Union noted that congregants at Beth Israel were talking of building a synagogue estimated to cost $20,000.

    1888: Sixty immigrants, most of whom were Russian Jews, were detained at Castle Garden before being sent to Blackwell’s Island.  They were treated in this manner because they had been identified as “paupers.”

    1889: The formal dedication of the new Sephardic synagogue to be used by the Moses Montefiore Congregation was scheduled to take place today.

    1889: It was reported today that the only hotel in Tétouan, Morocco is “kept by a native Jew” which is unusual in area dominated by Berbers and Arabs.

    1889: “The History of the Jews” published today provided a review of History of the People of Israel from the Reign of David up to the Capture of Samaria by Ernest Renan.

    1890: In the Essex Market Police Court Justice Hogan Jacob Rohnewitch accuses Israel Simovitch of stealing $90 worth of jewelry from him on August 8. Simovitch denied the charge and claimed that the charges were trumped up so that he would pay out the $40 he had saved to “bring his wife from Russia.”

    1890: The Central Labor Federation had its own Labor Day Parade today in New York which included large number of “Hebrew” workers including members of “the shirt and cloak makers who have recently made themselves to the public by their strikes.

    1890: During today’s Labor Day Parade, the “United Cloak and Suit Makers” stopped at cottage serving an informal reviewing stand where Coroner Ferdinand Levy presented them with a silk flag.”

    1890: In Scranton, “the extensive alterations” at the synagogue are scheduled to be completed today which means the congregation will can stop holding services in the local Y.M.H.A.

    1891: In Borispol Golda and Joseph Ya’acvo gave birth to Joseph Zaritsky, Israeli painter who was one of the founders of “Ofakim Hadshim” (New Horizons) art movement

    1891: It was reported today that “the Argentine Republic frowns upon the wholesale immigration of the” Jews expelled from Russia.

    1892: Leo M. Franklin began serving as the Rabbi for Temple Israel in Omaha, Nebraska.

    1892: In Elizabeth, NJ, the city Board of Health plans on asking the City Council “for an appropriation of at least $20,000 to help deal with the sanitation problems including the installation of sewers in the First Ward which is inhabited primarily by Russian and Polish Jews

    1893: “The Reverend Dr. Christian Adolf Stoecker, ex-Chaplain of the Court of Berlin…who is one of the founders of Christian Socialism and a vigorous anti-Semite” arrived in New York aboard the SS Augusta Victoria.

    1893: Max Feldman of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum was among the ten boys listed today as winners of the scholarships “offered by Joseph Pulitzer to boys desirous of preparing for an taking a college course.”

    1894(30th of Av, 5654): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1894: In Duluth, MN 43 Jewesses formed Council No. 10 of the National Council of Jewish Women

    1894: Eight hundred “finishers of clothing” who are Jewish are going on strike today to demand a increase in wages.

    1894: Harry White and Meyer Schoenfeld will address a mass meeting of cloakmakers at New Irving Hall where they will discuss the “advisability of going out on strike.”

    1895: As New York Police enforce the Sunday Saloon Closing laws an unidentified Russian Jewish who operates a saloon on Clinton Street told authorities that one of his neighbors was “selling openly” and offered to take the police to correct address.

    1896: In “Kuznica, Russia, Wolf and Odessa Tarlowski” gave birth Salomon Tarlowski who “emigrated to the United States in 1914 where as Solomon “Sol” Tarlow he worked as a tailor in the dry goods store of his brother-in-law Sam Stolaroff in Roswell, NM where he and his wife Audra had three children – “Mildred, Edith and Sherrill.”

    1896: The attorney for the jewelry firm of Julius M. Lyon went to police headquarters tonight to meet with Julius Stein to find out when Stein stole the thousands of diamonds from Lyon and the value of the stolen jewels.  The self-confessed thief refused to make any comment.

    1897: In Omaha, Nebraska, founding of Bait Hamidrash Hagadol (formerly B’nai Israel).

    1897: It was reported today that  at the concluding session of the Zionist Congress delegates heard reports “that the colonies in Palestine were flourishing,” appointed a commission to report on the feasibility of creating a university at Jerusalem and voted to hold the 1898 meeting in Jerusalem.

    1898: On the Lower East Side, “an immigrant tailor” and his wife “who operated a candy store gave birth to Pulitzer Prize winning columnist Meyer “Mike” Berger.

    1898: The first meeting of the International Congress of History began today in The Hague.

    1898: As part of the on-going cover-up to protect the French General Staff and keep Captain Dreyfus in prison Major Ferdinand Esterhazy who had already been put on pension shaved off his mustache and fled to England where he lived for another 25 years contenting himself with writing anti-Semitic articles.

    1899: All the newspaper comment published today in London, Berlin, Vienna and other cities “regards” the reversal of Dreyfus conviction as “inevitable.”

    1899: Bennett Cassal, the husband of the former Dinah Nathan and the father of Solomon Cassell was buried today in the “Plashet Jewish Cemetery” in London.

    1899: “Cardinal Richard, Archbishop of Paris paid a visit to Premier Waldeck-Rousseau on behalf of Jules Guerin, the anti-Semite agitator and his companions now besieged in the headquarters of the Anti-Semite League on the Rue de Chabrol.”

    1899: Rabbi Emil G. Hirsch of Sinai Congregation, who returned to Chicago today from Europe, said “Capt. Dreyfus will again be convicted of treason” because “the French people are bound to have Dreyfus found guilty” and “the whole of Paris echoes and re-echoes… with the ravings of the anti-Semitic forces…”

    1899: The Biblical World published “The Return of the Jews from Exile” by William Rainey Harper”

    1899: “Emanuel Hospital Plans” published today described plans for the new facility “which will be used principally as a lying-in asylum” and will receive support from the United Hebrew Charities Society.

    1899: Israel Zangwill addressed fears that the dramatization of his novel The Children of the Ghetto “will present the Jews from a standpoint undesirable to them” by saying that “it will found that Jew has actually received his first and truthful and considerate attention when my play is produced.”

    1900: Mose Levi the Hahambashi of Turkey presented an address to Sultan Abdul Hamid on the occasion of his 25th anniversary of his accession to the throne. The term Hahambashi means Head of Rabbis and is the appellation for the Grand Rabbi of Turkey.  The Hebrew term for "wise man"Chacham has been adopted in Turkish to mean "Rabbi." This is to avoid the use of the word "Rabbi" since in Arabic the word "Rab" is one of the names of God and may not be applied to a human.

    1901: In Vienna, Dr. Armand Ahron Noach Kaminka, the son of Wolf and Sura Beile Kaminka and his wife Klara Kaminka  gave birth to Ephraim Felix David Kaminka

    1903(9th of Elul, 5663): Thirty eight year old author and Jewish activists Bernard Lazare (Lazare Marcus Manasse Bernard) who was an early vocal supporter of Dreyfus and who attended the First Zionist Congress passed away today.

    1903: It was reported today, that “a movement is afoot to establish a Jewish hospital in Fall River, Massachusetts.

    1904: In England, “Samuel and Bronwyn (Pachman) Gerstenfeld” gave birth Dr. Norman Gerstenfeld the long time rabbi of Washington Hebrew Congregation, the oldest Jewish congregation in the District of Columbia.

    1905: Alberta became the eighth province of Canada. Two brothers, Jacob and William Diamond were among the first Jewish people to settle in Alberta, in 1888 and 1892, respectively. They made the long journey from their home in Lithuania. The Diamond brothers went on to be successful merchants in Alberta, and, perhaps, more notable, they organized for a High Holy Day service attended by other Jewish Albertans who had arrived. Unlike the Diamond brothers, early Jewish immigrants came to Alberta to establish farm colonies, settling in central and southern Alberta, near places such as Pine Lake, Trochu, Medicine Hat and Lethbridge. This first attempt at farming was not overly successful. Many of those who came were city-dwellers who had grown up in the cities of Europe. A Jewish relief agency in London England raised $400 to distribute the destitute Jewish pioneers. Because of the difficult conditions in Alberta and the Jewish people’s inexperience in farming, many of the immigrants left Alberta soon after, some going to the United States. By 1906, the community had largely reestablished itself in Calgary.

    1905: Saskatchewan became the ninth province of Canada. Six Jewish farming communities were formed in Saskatchewan between 1886 and 1906. The first of these colonies was a novelty and evoked considerable curiosity in the district. Locals dubbed the colony "The New Jerusalem." Due to inadequate winter shelter against sub-zero temperatures, wind, driving snow, drought, etc., this settlement lasted only six years. Another colony, Hirsch, Saskatchewan was founded in 1892. Landau enlisted the assistance of the French financier-philanthropist Baron Maurice de Hirsch. Hirsch regarded the creation of a Jewish state as a fantasy; however, he took a great interest in Jewish agricultural colonization. Baron de Hirsch established the Jewish Colonization Association to facilitate mass emigration of Jews from Russia and the establishment of agricultural colonies in North and South America. Hirsch was the only Jewish farm colony in Canada that was directly organized and funded by the Jewish Colonization Association. Hirsch favored colonization of Argentina rather than Canada. Edenbridge was founded in 1906. It no longer exists, but some of the members of the founding families live in the area. The Beth Israel Synagogue, built by the settlers in 1908, still stands today. It is a wooden structure similar to many Russian churches of that period. The synagogue served as a place of worship until 1964. Today it is a Saskatchewan historic site. The Saskatchewan Wildlife Association maintains the synagogue building, the adjacent cemetery, and the 40 - 100 acres of wooded lands.

    The settlers of Edenbridge were Lithuanian Jewish refugees who had temporarily settled in South Africa. They were lured to Canada by a federal government promise of 160 acres of farmland for only $10. Charles Vickar, whose father settled Edenbridge in 1906, stated that owning land was everything to the Lithuanian Jews. When the refugees were assured that they could freely practice their religion they jumped at the opportunity. They had no knowledge of farming. They did not know how to use a plough or an axe. They were Talmudic students and petty tradesman.

    These Lithuanian Jews took the Canadian Railroad as far west as it went at the time. When they arrived at the end of the line, the Jewish pioneers opted to go north where they heard there was more wood and water. The farther north you go in Saskatchewan the more woods there are. Instead of joining some of the established farming communities in the level open country, they picked a spot by the Carrot River. The name, Edenbridge, means Jew's bridge. The settlers devised the town name in 1907, when a bridge was constructed over the Carrot River.

    The Jewish farm population in Canada reached a peak of 2,568 by 1921. Sixty-nine percent of Jewish farmers lived in Western Canada with the majority residing in Saskatchewan. By 1939, it was estimated that one out of every 16 Jews who were working on the Canadian prairies made his livelihood on the farm. Most of the Jewish farming colonies lasted to the mid-point of this century. Jewish farm colonies disappeared as a result of the great drought and depression.

    1908: First Conference for the Yiddish Language which had been convened by Nathan Birnbaum continued for a third day in Czernowitz

    1909: Classical school and for Iowa State University professor Berthold Louis Ullman married Mary Louis Bates who were the parents of noted geographer Edward Ullman

    1909: In Vienna, “Egon and Edith Lucy Amalia Hedwig (Weissel) von Grunebaum” gave birth to European trained Orientalist and Arabist Gustave Edmund von Grunebaum and husband of Giselle Steuerman who after the Anschluss in 1938 came to the United States which he made his personal and professional home until his death in 1972.

    1911: The headquarters of the Zionist Movement was transferred from Cologne to Berlin

    1911: At Bucharest, the Premier of Romania receive “a deputation who requested relief from political disfranchisement of several hundreds of Jews in Dobrudscha.”

    1911: Herr Wolfsthal was appointed Attorney-General at Frankenthal, making him the first Jew to hold such a position in Bavaria.

    1911: As part of the celebration of its 500thAnniversary, the University of St. Andrews conferred an honorary degree on Dr. Georg Brandes, the Danish born Jew who served as Professor of Literature at the University of Copenhagen and Professor Raphael Meldola, the British chemist and entomologist.

    1912: In Everett, MA, founding of Tifereth Israel synagogue.

    1912: In New York, at Greenpoint, founding of the Hebrew Educational Alliance.

    1912: In Hancock, Michigan, founding the Congregation of Israel Synagogue.

    1913: Max Drob who had resigned “from the pulpit of Congregation of Adath Yeshuron in Syracuse” is scheduled to begin serving today as the Rabbi at Temple Bethel in Buffalo, NY which “is the largest orthodox congregation outside of New York City.”

    1914: Birthdate of Ralph Goldman, the native of Lehovitz who was a WW II veteran, close confidant of David Ben-Gurion and a “leader of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee.”

    1914: Birthdate of Ben L. Salomon, the Wisconsin born graduate of the USC Dental School who was one of only three dental officers to receive the Congressional Medal of Honor – in his case for a display of uncommon valor during the Battle of Saipan.

    1915: Birthdate of Sholom (Seymour) Jacob Pomrenze, the World War II veteran who “was the first director of the Offenbach Archival Depot” making him one of those who really were Monuments Men.

    1915: It was reported that arrangements have been made “to issue each synagogue in the United States subscription blanks for the relief of Jews” in war-torn Europe and Palestine which “are numbered” as part of an attempt “to obtain an approximate census of the Jews in the” United States.

    1915: It was reported today that the Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society of America has made arrangements with similar national organizations in Russia, Austria, Germany, England and France so that communication may be re-established between relatives” who have been separated because of the World War.

    1915: Birthdate of New York native Bernard “Bernie” Opper who took the unusual step for his time of going south and playing basked at the University of Kentucky where he as an All-American Guard and the mowed on to the pros where he played for three teams including the Philadelphia Sphas, the ABL team with Jewish roots.

    1915: In New York, a new law went into effect requiring that meat sold as kosher must “bear the imprint of the supervising rabbi at the slaughter house.”

    1916: Today “The Jewish Chronicle welcomed the entry of Rumania into the war on the ground that it ‘completes the circle of Jewish questions which have troubled the world and which must now come up for settlement” including those of Russia, Palestine and Rumania.

    1917(14th of Elul, 5677):Parashat Ki Teitzei

    1917: Henry H. Rosenfelt, the assistant to the executive director of the American Jewish Relief Committee announced today a campaign to raise $1,000,000 toward the $10,000,000 Jewish War Relief Fund will be conducted during the upcoming Jewish holidays starting with Rosh Hashanah on September 17 and ending with Yom Kippur on September 26.

    1917: “After making more than a thousand pictures, the Lubin Film Company, founded by optometrist Siegmund Lubin “went out of business” today because it had lost its European market due to the outbreak of WW I, forcing the founder to return to his earlier career.

    1917: In Paris, “the Minister of Foreign Affairs bestowed the decoration of the Legion of Honor upon Mrs. Henry Morgenthau, the wife of the former American Ambassador to Turkey, in recognition of the work she did at the French Hospital in the early part of the War.

    1918: The Supplement, a monthly publication, tied to “the interests of the Eight Avenue Temple” was established today in Brooklyn.

    1918: During the Battle of Mont-Saint Quentin, Australian troops under the command of Sir John Monash “broke into Péronne and took most of the town.”

    1918: “Ferdinand Lassalle” a film based on the life of the 19thcentury German Jew directed and produced by Rudolf Meinert was released today in Germany.

    1918: In Columbus, OH, the Temple News, the Temple Israel fortnightly, was established.

    1918: It was reported today that “the British Foreign Office has decided that the Ottoman subjects of Jewish Nationality resideing in the British Empire shall be exempt from the restrictions applicable to enemy and that the Greek government has adopted a similar policy regarding the Jews of Salonika

    1919: Rabbi Abraham I. Kook arrived in Palestine today to assume his role as Chief Rabbi.

    1919: Charles J. Freund completed his service as the Rabbi for Temple Emanuel in Grand Rapids, Michigan.

    1920: In Germany, premiere of “Sumurun” (One Arabian Night) a silent film directed by Ernst Lubtsch who also played “Yeggar, the Hunchback Beggar.”

    1921:With delegates and visitors from every part of the world in attendance, the International Zionist Congress opened its sessions in the ancient drill hall at Carlsbad, Czechoslovakia.

    1923(20th of Elul, 5683): Parashat Ki Tavo and Leil Selichot

    1923: The Great Earthquake struck Honshu the main island of Japan. Forty Jewish families living at Yokohama cabled the Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society pleading for aid.  “Help us or we perish.” Two thousand dollars was sent by the Joint Distribution Committee. (As reported by JTA)

    1924: “Sinners in Silk” a silent film with a script by Benjamin Glazer was released in the United States today.

    1926: In Atlanta, GA, “Fannie (Segal) Goldstein, a gifted pianist” and Irving Goldstein gave birth Stanley Goldstein who, before enrolling at the University of California, Berkley, changed his name to David Cavell, the name he would during a career that led to a professorship at Harvard.


    1926: In the Bronx, “Harold Colan, an insurance salesman, and Winifred Levy Colan, an antique dealer” gave birth to Eugene Jules Colan “a towering figure among comic-book artists, whose depictions of some of the best-known characters in the genre were lauded for their realism, expressiveness and painterly qualities.”  According to Margalit Fox, the family’s name had been Cohen before changing it to Colan.

    1927:The Weizmann Administration, the Palestine Government and the British Government as the mandatory power were severely criticized on the second day of the Fifteenth Zionist Congress which is in session here. Criticism came from several sources including Isaac Greenbaum, a member of the Polish Parliament and Dr. Stephen S. Wise, leader of the American Zionists.

    1928: In Brooklyn Michael and Eiga Charmatz gave birth to Rita Charmatz, the wife of David Sternheimer Davidson, the Yale law school graduate who as Rita Charmatz Davidson “the first woman to serve on the Maryland Court of Appeals

    1929: Amir el-Hussein, Grand Mufti and President of the Supreme Moslem Council warned of “a grave national revolt” by 60 million Muslims if Great Britain persists in enforcing the Balfour Declaration.

    1929: A crowd numbering more than 15,000 attending a meeting at London’s Albert Hall protested against Arab violence and urged the British government to restore order, punish the guilty while making reparations for the loss of Jewish life and property.

    1929:  The British High Commissioner said that he would enforce the Jewish right of access to the Western Wall despite violent Arab opposition.

    1931: In Voivodeship, Poland, Dr. Israel Abraham Rabin and Dr. Else Rabin gave birth to Professor Michael Oser Rabin, “Israeli computer scientist and a recipient of the Turing Award.”

    1931: Birthdate of Frank Magid.Frank Newton Magid was born in Chicago and served in the Army during the Korean War. He graduated from the University of Iowa and received a master's degree there in 1956 in the fields of social psychology and statistics. After teaching at Iowa's Coe College and the University of Iowa, Mr. Magid launched his company in 1956. His first client was a bank; his fourth was WMT-TV, now KGAN-TV, in Cedar Rapids. By creating careful surveys and polling random samples of a population, Mr. Magid and his employees were able to provide highly accurate data that gave television its first serious consumer research. The work paid off for the Iowa station, and the station's manager recommended Mr. Magid for a job at Time-Life's newly acquired KOGO-TV in San Diego. That, too, was successful, and it led to a contract for all the Time-Life stations. "And that really was our launching pad because they were very kind to us and began to do some considerable amount of advertising to the trades, talking about how they were listening to the public through this rather new, and at that time quite unique, kind of research,'' Mr. Magid told Electronic Media. His firm, from which he retired in 2002, also advised AM radio stations to get into the FM field, and urged broadcasters to invest in cable TV. He helped identify viability of direct broadcast satellite television and did the first research that determined the viability of digital video recorders. Now based in Minneapolis, the privately-held company has about 200 employees and advises all kinds of media, including The Washington Post, through its MORI Research division.

    1931: As the fight for control of Cutters Union 4 of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America came to a head, Sydney Hillman addressed a meeting of 1,000 workers at Webster Hall where he denounced the ousted officers Philip Orlofsky and Isidor Machlin

    1931: In Los Angeles, 125  members of Tifereth Israel attended groundbreaking ceremonies for the new Temple being built on Santa Barbara Avenue.

    1931: Birthdate of Michael Oser Rabin “an Israeli computer scientist and a recipient of the Turning Award.”

    1933: Birthdate of Professor Leonard Cole, the native of Paterson, NJ, an expert on terrorism who “was national chairman of the Jewish Council for Public Affairs” and the author of Terror: How Israel Has Cope and What America Can Learn.

    1933: The Reichsvertretung der deutschen Juden, the central representative body of German Jews emphasizing education, is established; it is led by Otto Hirsch and Rabbi Leo Baeck. It is the only organization officially allowed to represent German Jews.

    1934: “Gift of Gab” a comedy directed by Karl Freund, produced by Carl Laemmle, Jr., and with a script co-authored by Philip G. Epstein.

    1934: In Denmark, a collaborationist SS organization, National Socialistike Ungdom (National Socialist Youth), is established.

    1935(3rd of Elul, 5695): Rabbi Avraham Yitzchak HaCohen Kook passed away today at the age of 69. His distinguished career was capped off by his appointment as Chief Rabbi of Palestine in 1919.

    1935:The problem of who is to be president of the World Zionist Organization was dramatically settled in Lucerne, Switzerland, early today when Dr. Chaim Weizmann, noted scientist and internationally famous Zionist leader, announced his readiness to assume the full leadership of the Zionist movement.

    1935: “A world conference of Jewish doctors opened in Lucerne tonight to discuss Jewish health problems and to consider the advisability of convoking a world Jewish medical conference in Tel Aviv.”

    1935: Currently Jerusalem, Jaffa and Tel Aviv have ordinances in effect similar to those in several European cities that limit and/or ban the honking of horns in the late night hours.  Police in Palestine have adopted the slogan of “Don’t use your horn.  Use your brains.”

    1936: It was reported today that in discussing the challenges facing the three major religious groups in the United States, Rabbi L.L. Mann of Sinai Temple in Chicago said that religions faced a common foe, the recrudescence of paganism, irreligion and totalitarianism”  and that “religions must united against poverty, human exploitation, unemployment, crime, corruption and war.”

    1936: It was reported today the actions committee of World Zionist Organization which has been meeting in Zurich “endorsed a world emergency campaign for $1,500,000 to aid the Jews in Palestine” who have been  suffering during the violence of the Arab Revolt.

    1936: “Tudor Rose” a dramatization of English period with music by Louis Levy and filmed by cinematographer Mutz Greenbaum was released today in the U.K.

    1936: Polish born Republican political leader Nathan Pearlman completed his term in office as a New York City Magistrate today.

    1936(14th of Elul, 5696): Dr. Isaac Max Rubinow passed away.  Rubinow really had two careers.  He was a medical doctor, who among other things played a key role in developing health services in Palestine immediately after World War I. He went back to school and earned a Ph.D. in Economics which provided him with a platform to deal with the issues of health care and its finances.  He was a co-founder and the first president of the organization now known as Casualty Actuarial Society. In 1934, he published the Quest for Security which pre-dated and greatly influence the creation of the New Deal social net including Social Security.

    1937: Birthdate of Allen Weinstein, the son of Jewish delicatessen owners in New York who became a leading academic, author and archivists.

    1937: “A special tax on eligible males who fail to serve in the military forces” which “will fall heaviest on the Jews who are by law disqualified from service” is scheduled to go into effect today in Germany.

    1937: Four Arab villagers were shot and killed by unknown persons, apparently Jews, near Hadera. The authorities suspected that Jewish extremists were involved and carried out many arrests. The National Committee for Palestine Jewry (Val'ad Leumi) issued an appeal for national discipline.

    1938: In New Orleans, the Fountain Lounge opened at the Roosevelt Hotel which is now controlled by Seymour Weiss

    1938: On the Island of Rhodes, newspapers carried the announcement of anti-Jewish laws.  Ritual slaughter was banned and all Jews who had come to Rhodes after 1919 were told they had to leave.

    1938: A concentration camp is established at Neuengamme, Germany.

    1938 Premier of “You Can't Take It With You,” the screen adaptation of the Pulitzer Prize-winning play of the same name by George S. Kaufman and Moss Hart, two of the Jewish giants of Broadway with a screenplay by Robert Riskin and music by Dimitri Tiomkin.

    1938: In Williamsburg, Brooklyn Claire (née Ringel) and Harry Dershowitz the co-owner of Merit Sales Company and “a founder of the Young Israel Synagogue” gave birth to Harvard Law Professor and outspoken commentator on Jewish affairs Alan Dershowitz.

    1938: Mussolini canceled civil rights of Italian Jews and expelled all foreign-born Jews.

    1939: Leading Jewish-German jurist Gerhard Leibholz, stripped of his position at the University of Göttingen in 1936, escapes to Switzerland with his wife and two daughters

    1939: This date marked the beginning of World War II with the German attack on Poland. German forces overrun western Poland, instigating World War II. Three thousand Jewish civilians die in the bombing of Warsaw. German troops enter Danzig, trapping more than 5000 Jews. Throughout Germany and Austria, Jews may not be outside after in the winter and in the summer Out of the 3,351,000 Jews in Poland, 2,042,000 came under Nazi rule while 1,309,000 came under Soviet rule. Remember, the Soviets invaded Poland from the west after the Nazis had begun their blitz from the West.  Within two days the British and French declared war on Germany. During the war a million and a half Jews fought on the side of allied forces: 555,000 for the USA; 500,000 for the Soviet Union; 116,000 for Great Britain (26,000 from Palestine and 90,000 from the British Commonwealth); and another 243,000 for other European nations.

    1939: “Heinrich Himmler issues a decree forbidding Jews from going outside after 8PM.”

    1939: With the outbreak of World War II and the closure of German borders the “Leica Freedom Train” came to an end.

    1939: Mrs. Max Lowenstein, the widow of Nuremberg chazzan Max Lowenstein and the adopted mother of Heinz Bernard planned to leave Germany today to join her son whom she had sent on ahead to England which was to be “a way-station” on their trip to the United States.  Her plans were thwarted by today’s invasion of Poland.

    1939: As of this date, there were “185,000 Jews in ‘integral’ German, together with 70,000 in Austria and 190,000 in Czechoslovakia.”

    1939: Arnold Bernstein who had served in the German Army in World War and who had survived German prisons arrived in New York having been stripped of his shipping company and all other possessions by the Nazis who knew that anti-Semitism was a good business.

    1939: From September 1 to October 25, 1939 Operation Tannenberg, carried out by SS Einsatzgruppen (mobile kill squads), leads to the murders of Polish Jews and Catholic intellectuals and to the burnings of synagogues in Poland.

    1939: “Hitler Appoints Karl Brandt & Philipp Bouhler to Lead Nazi T-4 Euthanasia Program.”

    1939: With the outbreak of WW II today, the headquarters of the WJC was moved from Paris to Geneva where it was thought that Switzerland’s neutrality would “facilities communications with Jewish communities throughout Europe.

    1939: General George C. Marshall is named Chief of Staff of the United States Army.  Marshall is the unsung hero of World War II.  He was a critical force in convincing a reluctant Congress to accept peace time conscription in 1940 so that America was not completely unprepared for war when it came to America at Pearl Harbor.  He was the architect who managed a war that raged across the entire globe in day before the e-mail, the internet and computers.  He won the Nobel Prize for Peace for the Marshall Plan.  It is most unusual for a top military leader to have this award.  The only chink in Marshall’s armor was his opposition to the creation of the state of Israel.  He feared that American support of the Jewish state would destroy American stature among the Arabs and open the way to Soviet domination of the Middle East.  He also did not believe that the Israelis could defeat the Arabs and feared the slaughter that would follow.  There is no record of how his views may have changed once the Israelis proved they could survive without the need of American military support. 

    1939: Today, “while at Oxford University Chaim Michael Dov Weissmandl who would be “the first to demand that the Allies bomb Auschwitz” volunteered to return to Slovakia as an agent of World Agudath Israel.

    1939: Premiere of “The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes” with a script by Edwin H. Blum

    1939: Because of the outbreak of WW II, the last of the eight “Winton Trains” did not leave because “all borders controlled by Germany were closed” and the 250 children on board “were never seen again” leading to the assumption that all “perished in concentration camps.”

    1939: “The Women” a comedy directed by George Cukor, starring Norma Sheater and filmed by cinematographer Joseph Ruttenberg was released in the United States by MGM.

    1940: The National Encampment of the Jewish War Veterans of the United States is scheduled to come to an end today in Boston.

    1940(28th of Av, 5700): Seventy-three year old Lillian D. Wald the Cincinnati born graduate of New York Hospital’s School of Nursing whose contributions to society included the founding of the Henry Street Settlement House and play a role in the founding of the N.A.A.C.P. passed away today.

    1940: Polish underground officer Witold Pilecki penetrates the main camp at Auschwitz with the intention of organizing secret resistance groups inside the camp.

    1940: Soviet authorities order Japanese Consul Sempo Sugihara to leave Kovno, Lithuania, where he has issued 3500 exit visas to Jews

    1940: “The official newspaper of the diocese of Freiburg, where Conrad Gröber is archbishop, describes the victories of German soldiers as proof that God guides history.”

    1941: Birthdate of Tzvi Gal-Chen a sabra who would gain fame for his work in retrieval of wind and thermodynamic variables from a single Doppler radar.

    1941: In Hungary, Einsatzkommandos, with the help of some Hungarian militia, murdered 11,000 Jews. In August, Hungary had pushed 17,000 stateless Jews across the border to Kamenets-Podolski in the Ukraine. The German army protested that the large number of refugees interfered with the war effort and Hungary took a few thousand back as slave laborers, leaving the rest in the hands of the Germans. There were no survivors.

    1941: Wearing the yellow star became obligatory for all Jews in the Reich. 

    1941: The Ukrainian newspaper Volhyncarried the following - "The element that settled our cities (Jews). . . must disappear completely from our cities. The Jewish problem is already in the process of being solved.”

    1941: “Lady Be Good” a musical produced by Arthur Freed with a score by Jerome Kern, Oscar Hammerstein and George and Ira Gershwin and co-starring Phil Silvers was released today in the United States by MGM>

    1941: Birthdate of Tzvi Gal-Chen father of author Rikva Galchen. Tzvi grew up as an Israeli Sabra on a collective farm. He served in the Israeli Army. He earned a B. Sc. and M. Sc. in 1967 and 1970, both from Tel Aviv University, with specialization in applied math and physics which he used in his studies of wind and thermodynamic variables.

    1942: As Daniel Schwarzwald jumped from the window in the Lvov Ghetto he was shot by the Germans.

    1942: Moshe Skoczylas and Michael Majtek formed Jewish partisan units at Dzialoszyce, Poland.

     1942: Fourteen thousand Jews are taken to gravel pits at Piatydni, Ukraine, and machine-gunned.

    1942: German troops reach the Caucasus and begin exterminations of indigenous Jews.

    1942: SS chief Heinrich Himmler suggests that camp inmates be put to work in on-site arms factories. Armaments chief Albert Speer objects, offering a compromise accepted by Hitler: Himmler's inmates will be made available to Speer for labor in conventional arms factories.

    1942: New York Congressman Emanuel Celler submits legislation to allow French Jews about to be deported to their deaths in Eastern Europe to immigrate to the United States. The bill is killed by the House Committee on Immigration.

    1942: As Jews are being deported from France to their deaths in the Third Reich, the Vichy Ministry of Information urges the press to remember "the true teaching of Saint Thomas and the Popes...the general and traditional teaching of the Catholic Church about the Jewish problem."

    1942(19th of Elul, 5702): An SS guard on a deportation train headed for the Belzec death camp shoots and kills Jadzia Beer, a Polish girl from Jaworów, after her skirt becomes caught in a railcar window and she dangles helplessly from the window.

    1942: Thousands of Jews from Stry, Ukraine, are murdered at the Belzec death camp.

    1942: A German shepherd that licks the face of a Jewish baby at the Treblinka extermination camp is savagely beaten by its SS master before the guard tramples the baby to death

    1942: Security forces raid five hospitals in the Lódz (Poland) Ghetto, evacuating and slaughtering patients. Babies are thrown out of an upper-story windows, some bayoneted before they hit the ground.

    1942:  In the town Wlodzimierz Wolynski, the Germans asked the Jewish Council to gather 7,000 Jews for transport. Jocob Kogen a member of the council committed suicide because he did not want to bear the responsibility of sending people to their death. Wlodzimierz Wolynski was in eastern Poland at the start of World War II.  This was the part of Poland that Hitler had ceded to Stalin as part of the price for their infamous Non-Aggression Pact.  In 1941, the Germans seized the town as they moved forward with the plan to conquer the Soviet Union.  Some Poles rationalized the slaughter of the Jews by claiming that they had collaborated with the Soviets during their occupation of the town. These same sources also said the Jews had earned their death because they had lived so much better than the Poles before the war.  To understand the success of the Holocaust, one must understand the pervasiveness of anti-Semitism in European society.

    1943(1st of Elul, 5703): Rosh Chodesh Elul

    1943(1st of Elul, 5703): Eighty-eight year old retired banker Edward S. Rothschild passed away tonight at the City Hospital “an hour after” being struck “by taxicab at Fifth Avenue and 47th Street.”

    1943(1st of Elul, 5703): Sixty-nine year old Albert Klein the founder and President of the American Food Company until his retirement twelve years ago passed away today in Newark, NJ.  A native of Czechoslovakia, he moved to Newark at the age of 17.  He is survived by his widow Kamilla Cohn Klein.

    1943: The Belgian news agency reported “that armed Belgian patriots had intercept a train on which 1,500 Jews were being taken from Malines, Belgium to Poland.” The Belgians “fought a gun battle with the German guards and relased part of the captives from the cattle cars in which they were being transported.”

    (For more on this see The Twentieth Train by Marion Schreiber

    1943: Germans send a Polish labor battalion into the ruins of the Warsaw Ghetto to flatten any walls and other structures still standing following the German assault of the previous spring. Most survivors of the April-May "liquidation" die during this demolition.

    1943: The American Council for Judaism declares that Jewishness exists in a religious sense only, and that attempts to establish a Jewish homeland would be disloyal to the homeland nations of individual Jews.

    1943: “Palestine Goal Passed” published today described a fundraising luncheon where the attendees heard from Dr. Israel Goldstein, president of the JNF and Bernard A. Rosenblatt, president of the Palestine Foundation Fund.

    1943: Jews at the Sobibór death camp attack SS guards with stones and bottles. All attackers are killed.

    1943: Jewish women and children, as well as the elderly and the sick, left on the island of Rab after deportation from Dalmatia, Serbia, are transferred to a concentration camp at Zemun, Yugoslavia, and killed. Others remain on the island and are protected by partisans.

    1943: Hundreds of Jews escape from Vilna, Lithuania, and head east toward the Soviet front line.

    1943: Vilna-based partisan Vitka Kempner blows up an electrical transformer located in the city. A day later, she enters the labor camp at Keilis, near Vilna, and smuggles several dozen prisoners to safety. Still later, she travels with five other partisans to Olkiniki, Poland, where she helps torch a turpentine factory.

    1943: In Paris, three Jewish partisans ambush and assassinate Karl Ritter, aide to Nazi slave-labor Chief Fritz Sauckel.

    1943: After refusing for months, the Hungarian government accedes to German demands for Jews to be used as slave labor at copper mines at Bor, Yugoslavia.

    1943: There was an uprising in Vilna, Lithuania. After the disaster of July and the death of Yitzhak Wittenberg, many of those in the underground decided to flee the city. The German entry into the ghetto was a surprise and there was no time to organize. Forty fighters led by Yechiel Scheinbaum fought until they were all killed. Approximately 200 more left the ghetto and joined the partisans. A second Aktion on September 23 marked the end of the ghetto

    1943: “Jewish Conferees Assail Rival Plan” published today

    1943: The Army Show, a musical comedy review featuring Frank Shuster and Johnny Wayne was performed for a final time before a civilian audience in Halifax, Canada.

    1944: In Los Angeles, Felix Slatkin, “the violinist, conductor and founder of the Hollywood String Quartet” and cellist Eleanor Aller gave birth to orchestra conductor Leonard Slatkin whose brother Frederick is a cellist.

    1944(13th of Elul, 5704): Barbara (née Drapczyńska) Baczyński, the pregnant wife of poet Krzysztof Kamil Baczyński who was killed by a German sniper on August 4, 1944, the fourth day of the Warsaw Uprising, passed away today after having been “mortally wounded when a shard of glass pierced her skull.”

    1944: Five thousand women and 500 men are evacuated from Auschwitz north to Stutthof, Germany. Three thousand interned women are evacuated from Auschwitz northwest to Neuengamme, Germany.

    1944: Following American bomber hits on factories at Auschwitz, the SS gives wounded inmates excellent medical attention as well as flowers and chocolate--a propaganda ploy for the benefit of German media. Once recovered, the inmates are exterminated. 44: The Gestapo and SS men in Przemysl, Poland, execute eight members of a non-Jewish Polish family and a little Jewish girl after discovering the group playing together in a courtyard.

    1944: Despite the objections of Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden, Prime Winston Churchill finally ordered the creation of a Jewish Brigade of Palestinian Jews in the British Army. Churchill had long supported the creation of such a unit.

    1944: Birthdate of Margaret H. Marshall the 24th Chief Just of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court and the wife Jewish columnist Anthony Lewis.

    1944: Aufbau,“a journal targeted at German-speaking Jews” begun by members of the German-Jewish Club of New York began printing lists of Jewish Holocuast survivors as well as lists of the victims.

    1944: “In a note written in Yiddish” today, “Hirsch Brik wrote from Kovno, Lithuania, to friends in Palestine:

    I’m alive and I’m free. After three torturous years, I am back to being a man like all other men. The German bastards have murdered my entire family. … There isn’t a long enough paper to list all the names of our common friends who have been savagely murdered.”

    1945: As his ship sailed west across the Pacific Lt. Col. Louis Geffen, a judge advocate in the US Army who was trying to organize Rosh Hashanah found ”his Baal Koreh. This gentleman had no Torah to read from but he would use the Humash - Hebrew five books of Moses.”

     1945: Ichud (Unity), a Jewish political organization, is established by the leadership of the Landsberg displaced-persons (DP) camp. It initially acts as an intermediary between DPs and the United States Army in negotiations for DP immigration to Palestine.

    1945(23rd of Elul, 5705): Yaakov Waldman, a survivor of a 1942 death march, is murdered by Poles in Turek

    1946: Birthdate of Adrienne Cooper, an American-born singer, teacher and curator of Yiddish music.

    1946: Birthdate of Shalom Hanoch, the native of Kibbutz Mishmarot and rock star who founded two bands – The Churchills and Tamouz

    1946: Birthdate of Adrienne Cooper, the singer who played a major role in reviving Yiddish culture and music with a special emphasis on Klezmer.

    1946: “A tentative agreement was reached between the Rabbinical Association of the American Zone in Germany and the JDC religious department creating a pool of religious supplies and agreeing in principle to cooperate in their distribution.”

    1947: Date on which UNSCOP is scheduled to provide its findings to the U.N. General Assembly.

    1947: After premiering in Chicago a month ago in August, “The Secret Life of Walter Mitty” a movie based on the short story character of the same name produced by Samuel Goldwyn, starring Danny Kaye and featuring songs by Sylvia Fine and a score by David Raskin, was released in the United States today.

    1947: “The Bachelor and the Bobby-Soxer” a comedy directed by Irving Reis, produced by Dore Schary and a script by Sidney Sheldon premiered today in New York City.

    1948(27th of Av, 5708): Sixty-one year old Leon Friedman who served as Louisiana State Representative from Natchitoches Parish from 1932 to 1940 following in the footsteps of an older brother J. Isaac Friedman  who had served in both house of the state legislature.

    1948: “Sorry, Wrong Number,” a “film noir” direct and produced by Anatole Litvak with music by Franz Waxman was released in the United States today.

    1949: Birthdate of Leslie Feinberg, author of Stone Butch Blues.

    1948: “Long is the Road” “the first German-made film to accurately portray the Holocaust” was released today.

    1950: Today, Israel charged Jordan with “’full and absolute responsibility for continual acts of aggression’.  A government spokesman said Jordon condoned murder and sabotage by allowing infiltrators and criminals to cross the border into Israel and by taking no action to discourage or punish these criminals.

    1951: Birthdate of singer-songwriter Steven D. Grossman.

    1951: The Yugoslav representative in the U.N. Security Council voted in favor of a resolution guaranteeing all nations the right to use the Suez Canal.  The resolution was considered a victory since it was designed to overcome the Arab closure of the international waterway to ships that had docked in Israel or that sailed under an Israeli flag.  The issue of canal usage would be part of the reasons for going to war in 1956.

    1951:The Union of American Hebrew Congregations, parent body of Reform Judaism in the United States and Canada, moved into its new $1,000,000 headquarters at Fifth Avenue and Sixty-Fifth Street

    1952: The Israeli government announced that extra rations for meat and poultry would be available for the High Holy Days.  Those people who only know of then comparatively affluent society of present day Israel should remember that life during the early years of the Jewish state were quite grim.  Between the austerity of the land, the in-gathering of the exiles and the attacks from surrounding Arab states, life in Israel was more akin to living on the American frontier than a modern Western state.

    1952: During the fiscal year which begins today MGM is scheduled to make 38 pictures as opposed to the 40 made during the previous fiscal year according to a previous announcement by Nicholas M. Schnenck, the President of Loew’s and Dore Schary who is in charge of production

    1952: Zev Zahavy was appointed to serve as rabbi of East Park Synagogue.

    1953: "Human Ornithosis in Israel" by Dr. Aaron Valero appeared in today’s issue of, Harefuah, a medical journal published by the Israel Medical Association. Dr. Aaron Valero was a an Israeli physician born in 1913 “who helped establish hospitals and medical schools, authored medical publications and contributed greatly to the advancement of medical education in Israel in the latter half of the 20th century.” He passed away in 2000.

    1954: “Romeo and Juliet” a movie version of Shakespeare’s drama starring Laurence Harvey as “Romeo” was released in the U.K. today.

    1954: In Perth Amboy, NJ, Robert N. Wilentz and Jacqueline Malino Wilentz gave birth to award winning author, journalist and professor of English Amy Wilentz who is married to Nicholas Goldberg of the Los Angeles Times.

    1955: Birthdate of Efraim Gur, the native of Georgia SSR who made Aliyah in 1972 and eventually became an MIK and cabinet minister

    1955(14th of Elul, 5715): Actor Philip Loeb passed away. Loeb played the role of Jake in the early television sitcom “The Goldbergs.”  The show starred actress Molly Goldberg and revolved around the life of an obviously Jewish family living in Brooklyn.  Loeb was 61 at the time of his death.

    1957: “Slaughter on 10thAvenue” a crime-buster biopic featuring Walter Matthau and Sam Levene was released in the United States today by Universal-International.

    1968: In “Henry James and the Jews: A Critical Study” published today Leo B. Levy examines the great author’s depictions and views of the “chosen people.”

    1964:Rabbi Martin Riesenburger delivered the sermon and Canotrs Werner Sander, Estrongo Nachama and Leo Roth provided the music during today celebration of the 30h anniversary of the Rykestrasse Synagogue in Berlin.

    1965: Outfielder Richie Scheinblum made his major league début with the Cleveland Indians.

    1962:Jack Benny’s latest contract with CBS takes effect. Benny is 68 and the contract is for two years which means the famedtightwad will have a source of income until he is 70.

    1967: British poet and author Siegfried Sassoon passed away.  His father was Alfred Sassoon, a member of the wealth and distinguished Indian –Jewish Sassoon family.  His mother was an Anglo Catholic.  The family disinherited the elder Sassoon when he married her and Sassoon was not raised as a Jew. 

    1967: Sixty year old Ilse Koch, the wife of the commandant of Buchenwald and Majdenek, hung herself at Aichach, Germany where she was serving a life sentence for a string of crimes that led her to be dubbed “the concentration camp murderess.

    1969: Pitcher Lloyd Allen made his major league début with the California Angels.

    1969: Twenty-seven year old Muammar Qaddafi staged a successful coup and replaced King Idris as head of Libya. By the time that Qaddafi came to power the Libyan Jewish community which was 2,500 years old had been reduced to a couple of hundred souls. He exacerbated their plight, as well as that of the Jewish exiles, by confiscating all property owned by Jews and by canceling all debts owed to those Libyan Jews whose property had already been seized or destroyed. He also attempted to make himself a leader in the fight to destroy Israel by giving untold millions to the PLO.

    1970: Shimon Peres begins serving as Communications Minister of Israel.

    1970: Yosef Burg replaced Golda Meir Minister of the Interior

    1970: Palestinian terrorists attack King Hussein of Jordan’s motorcade in a failed attempt to assassinate him and bring an end to the Hashemite Kingdom.  Hussein was a complex figure whose whole kingship was influenced by the assassination of his grandfather by fanatics who thought he was going to make peace with Israel.  In the end, Hussein’s vision overcame his fears and he signed a peace treaty with Israel.

    1971(11th of Elul, 5731):Mordechai Ofer passed away at the age of 47.  An Israeli politician, he served as a member of the Knesset for the Alignment and Labor Party from 1965 until his death. Born in Kraków in Poland in 1924, Ofer made aliyah to Mandate Palestine the following year. He joined the Mandate-era Jewish Police force, and served in the IDF during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. After being demobilized in 1950 with the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, he began working for Egged. He became a member of the co-operative's board, and from 1961 until his death, served as director of its Finances department. In 1965 he was elected to the Knesset on the Alignment list. He was re-elected in 1969, but died in office while still in office.

    1971: Moshe Shahal took his seat in the Knesset as a replacement for the deceased Mordechai Ofer.

    1974: Eighty “leading Soviet Jewish activists from Moscow, Kiev, Leningrad and other cities issued statement advising caution in negotiations on the Jackson-Vanik Amendment.”

    1974:Yuri Vudka, of Ryazan, wass released from labor camp after serving seven year sentence for “anti-Soviet activities”.

    1976(6th of Elul, 5736): MK Zvi Guershoni who had made Aliyah in 1936 passed away today.

    1976:As part of a mass demonstration, Uri Geller’s photograph appeared on the cover of the magazine ESP with the caption "On Sept. 1, 1976 at 11pm E.D.T. THIS COVER CAN BEND YOUR KEYS."

    1977: The Prime Minister Menachem Begin won a flat “No” on the subject of the recognition of what he described as ‘the murder organization called the PLO.’ The Knesset vote was 92 to four.

    1977: Birthdate of actress Shoshana Elise Bean.

    1978: In Los Angeles, mystery novelists Faye Kellerman and Jonathan Kellerman gave birth to American author Jesse Oren Kellerman.

    1979(9th of Elul, 5739): Sixty-seven year old All American football player and movie producer Aaron Rosenberg passed away today.

    1981: Seventy-six year old Albert Speer, Hitler’s architect, confidant and convicted war criminal who beat the hangman’s rope died a free man to today in London.

    1982:  Washington announces the “Reagan Plan” that included the principle of self-government for the Palestinians of Gaza and the West Banks in association with Jordan.  The Americans saw it as the next step after the Camp David Accords.  The Begin government would reject the plan because it was not prepared to give up control of what it called Judaea and Samaria.