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A collection of Jewish history and current Jewish events, in date format, updated daily in this Jewish history blog.

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    877: Charles the Bald, King of France, passed away.Regardless of whatever others may think of him, Charles the Bald, who was King of France, comes up on the plus side in Jewish history when compared to other monarchs since he resisted enforcing the anti-Semitic edicts of the Archbishop of Lyon. Charles motives were political and economic, not religious.

    1014: Samuil of Bulgaria passed away. He was the Emperor of the First Bulgarian Empire from 986 until his death in battle while fighting the Byzantines. Jews fleeing from the persecution of the Byzantine Empire had found refuge among the Bulgarians. Samuil was a member of the Comitopuli dynasty whose leaders had names like Samuel (Samuil), Moses and David,which “could indicate partial Jewish origin, most likely maternal, though this is disputed.”

    1254: Innocent IV who expelled the Jews from Venice in 1253 issued “Querentes In Agro” a papal bull recognizing the University Oxford which today is the home to the Oxford Centre for Hebrew and Jewish Studies which “was founded in 1972 by Dr. David Patterson.”

    1536: William Tyndale, whose “English translation for Pentateuch in 1530 which was the first-ever English translation from the Hebrew would provide the fabric for the King James Bible and inject a Hebraic quality into the syntax and phraseology of English literary and religious usage without parallel in any European culture” was strangled and then burned at the stake today in Belgium.

    1552: Birthdate of Matteo Ricci, the Jesuit missionary to China whose manuscripts indicate there were only approximately ten or twelve Jewish families in Kaifeng in the late 16th and early 17th century, that they had reportedly resided there for five or six hundred years, that there was a greater number of Jews in Hangzhou which could be taken to suggest that loyal Jews fled south along with the soon-to-be crowned Emperor Gaozong to Hangzhou.”

    1755(1st of Cheshvan, 5516): Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan

    1755(1st of Cheshvan, 5516): A.M. Rothschild’s father died of small pox.

    1759(15th of Tishrei, 5520): Sukkoth

    1776(23rd of 5537): Simchat Torah is celebrated for the first since the signing of the Declaration of Independence.

    1780: Thomas Dobson the printer who was “the first in the United States to publish a complete Hebrew Bible and his way gave birth to their second child Alison.

    1783(10th of Tishrei, 5544): As the American Revolution reaches its final conclusion with a treaty between Great Britain and her former colonies Jews on both sides of the Atlantic observe Yom Kippur in peace.

    1795(23rd of Tishrei, 5556): Simchat Torah

    1795: Rachel Sapnier, “the daughter of Nathan Spanier, the head of the Ravensberg Jewish community” and her husband author and bookseller Saul Ascher gave birth to their “only child, a daughter named Wihelmine.”

    1805(13th of Tishrei, 5566): Twenty-four year old Rachel Aasron passed away today in London.

    1806: The Assembly of Jewish notables is required to answer 12 questions intended to inform the authorities about the nature of Judaism and to test the knowledge of French among the Jews.

    1808(15th of Tishrei, 5569): Sukkoth

    1817: Birthdate of “Dutch physician and medical author Levi Ali Cohen” “who was one of the organizers of the new medical laws for the Netherlands” and who was “a member of the committee on Jewish affairs in Holland for twenty years.”

    1820: “At Charles-Valentin's piano audition which was held oday when he was nearly seven (and where he is named as "Alkan (Morhange) Valentin"), the examiners comment "This child has amazing abilities."

    1821(10th of Tishrei, 5582): Yom Kippur

    1824(14th of Tishrei, 5585) Erev Sukkoth

    1824: In Alsace, Alexandre Aron and Charlotte Aron, the daughter of Asser Lion and Gitlé Loëw gave birth to Rose Rosalie Bloch the wife of Marx dit Marc Bloch

    1837(7th of Tishrei, 5598): Twenty-nine year old Moses Loeb Mack the “son of Löb Moses Mack and Henriette Samuel Mack” passed away today in his native Bavaria.

    1843: In Courland, Russia, Mortiz Rosenthal and Pauline Birkhann gave birth to Herman Rosenthal the husband of Anna Rosenthal who, after arriving in the United States in 1881, “organized agricultural for Russian Jews in Louisiana, South Dakota and New Jersey, “started the Russian daily Zarya in 1890, published and edited the Hebrew Monthly Intelligencer in New York” and served as the secretary of the German American Reform Union.

    1844(23rd of Tishrei, 5605): Simchat Torah

    1846: In India, Jessie Sarah and Henry Edward Goldsmid gave birth to Albert Edward Goldsmid.  A graduate of Sandhurst, the famed military school, he held a series of progressively more important positions in the British army until he was “selected by Baron de Hirsch to supervise” the colonies being established in Argentina for Jewish refugees from Eastern Europe.  He went to serve with distinction during the Boer War.

    1847: Michael Isaacs married Elizabeth Cohen at the Great Synagogue today.

    1849: The victorious Austrian general orders the execution of 13 rebel Hungarian generals in Arad.  These men are known as the 13 Martyrs of Arad.  Their execution marked an end to the revolt by Kossuth against the repressive Austrian regime.  Kossuth had supported emancipation for the Jews of Hungary and the Jews had supported the revolt.  The Jews of Hungary suffered cruelly at the hands of the victorious Austrians as well as the local Slavic population that had viewed the uprising as a Magyar dominated event.  The defeat of the liberal forces in Hungary led to immigration of Hungarians – Jews as well as non-Jews – to the United States just as a similar defeat for German liberals led to their migration to the United States

    1850: In Baltimore, MD, Moses Keyser and Betty Preiss gave birth to sculptor Ephraim Keyser whose works included “busts of Sidney Lanier, Cardinal Gibbons, Dr. Daniel Gilman, and Henry Harland” and a “statute of Major-General Baron De Kalb” for the United States Government which was “erected at Annapolis, MD.

    1851: “The Hungarians,” published today reported that the U.S.S. Mississippi, “commanded by Captain Levy” had arrived in Constantinople for the purpose of providing Louis Kossuth, the exiled Hungarian political leader, with safe passage to France.  The Mississippi was one of the first ocean-going steam vessels belonging to the U.S. Navy and would be part of the fleet that entered Tokyo Bay with Commodore Perry.  Captain Levy would not be part of that voyage.

    1851(10th of Tishrei, 5612): Yom Kippur

    1851: The first recorded Jewish religious observance in Southern California was held at the home of Lewis Abraham Franklin in San Diego on Yom Kippur. Franklin had held what may have been the first High Holiday Services in the history of the state.  In 1849, he held Rosh Hashanah services in his "store" (a tent) in San Francisco. He later moved to San Diego. The first synagogue, Adath Jeshurun, was founded 10 years later by Louis Rose.  Rose was a less than successful land speculator in San Diego.

    1852(23rd of Tishrei, 5613): Simchat Torah

    1853:The Foreign Items column published today reported that Alexander Weill, a Jew who converted to Catholicism attributes the diseases attacking crops in parts of Europe "to the non-observance to the precepts of Moses who ordained that the soil should be left fallow during every seventh year, as God rested on the seventh day.

    1854:In recognition of Abraham Alexander Wolff’s “services in the organization of the Royal Library of Copenhagen he was created a knight of the Order of Dannebrog today and was also awarded the title of professor.”

    1856:An article entitled Pleasant Prospect for Foreign Voters reported that, “Some ‘Jew’ having interrupted Governor Floyd, when he was avowing his readiness to vote for Fillmore, with the pertinent inquiry, ‘how about the foreign vote?’ the Governor replied, that they should be treated as the Greeks proposed to do with Hector, feed him on one day and disembowel him the next. Fillmore is Millard Fillmore former President of the United States who had been a member of the Whig Party. When the Whigs collapsed, Fillmore joined the American Party, the political party of the anti-immigrant, anti-Catholic Know-Nothing Movement. John Floyd was a prominent member of the Democrat Party who had served as Governor of Virginia. Considering the surge in Jewish immigration to the United States during the 1850’s Fillmore and the Know-Nothings were a great concern to all Jews. 

    1857: Birthdate of physiologist Joseph Paneth, the native of Vienna who was the father of chemist Friedrich Paneth and “a good friend of Sigmund Freud.”

    1858: Emanuel Vandervelde married Caroline Van Goor at the Great Synagogue today.

    1863(10th of Tishrei, 5764): Yom Kippur

    1863: During the U.S. Civil War, Union authorities began the process of mustering the 15th Kentucky Cavalry (a unit formed by Lt. Col. Gabriel Netter) out of active service.  There is a note of irony that this process affecting a unit formed by a Jewish soldier, should begin on the Day of Atonement.

    1864: In Náchod, Czech Republic, Isaac and Julie Judith Josephine Mautner gave birth to Adelheid Mauter who became Adelhied Goldschmid when she married Otto Goldschmid.

    1865: In Frankfurt Selig Meier Goldschmidt, and his wife Clementine Fuld gave birth to Meier Selig Goldschmidt the husband of Selma Cramer and the son-in-law of Salomon Cramer and Therese (Röschen) Oppenheimer

    1870: “Loss of Life in War” published today described what is considered to be “the shocking slaughter” taking place on 19thcentury battlefields.  In making comparison, the article reports that when Titus took Jerusalem, “more than a million Jews are believed to have perished.”

    1871(21st of Tishrei, 5632): Hoshanah Rabah

    1872(4th of Tishrei, 5633): Fast of Gedaliah is observed since the 3rd of Tishrei fell on Shabbat

    1873(15th of Tishrei, 5634): Sukkoth

    1873: According to published reports today’s “Jewish festival of ‘Succoth’ or the Feast of Tabernacles…is the harvest feast of the Jews and is a season for rejoicing and thanksgiving…The observance of this festival is not general, being confined almost entirely to the orthodox portion of the Jewish community.

    1873: At meeting of leading Christians held at Steinway Hall in New York City a person from Cincinnati claimed “the Jews in that section of the country asserted that America was their promised land, and they no longer believed the ideas taught by their forefathers.” [Cincinnati was the stronghold of the Reform Movement.]

    1874: Jacques Lang married There Cowvan today.

    1877: In New York City, the Young Men’s Hebrew Association sponsored a program at the Lyric Hall that was attended by “the elite of Jewish society.  Mr. I.S. Isaacs presided over the event. He was joined on the platform by Dr. De Sola Mendez and Rabbi Henry S. Jacobs. General Stewart L. Woodford, who had served with distinction in the Civil War and was active in the New York State Republican Party delivered an address entitled “Toleration.”  Professor J.L. Rice played a piano solo and Miss Gertrude Emanuel sang a ballad.  The evening ended with a recitation of “Phil Blood’s Leap by Joseph Michaels.

    1878(9th of Tishrei, 5639): Erev Yom Kippur

    1878: Seventy-eight year old Maria Michael who passed away yesterday was interred at the Bath Jewish Burial Ground today.

    1878: “The Hebraic Day of Atonement” published today reported that “the Jewish fast of Yom Kippur, or the Day of Atonement, commences at sundown this evening.  This fast is more generally observed than any other o the numerous fasts and feasts in the Hebraic calendar…This is particularly the case among the orthodox Jews who keep a strict fast for 24 hours…The Reformed Jews, while they have discarded the fast, still regard the day as one of solemn import…”

    1879: On the Gregorian calendar, birthdate of Russian born Yiddish author Nohum Shtif who wrote under the pseudonym of Baal Dimon (Master of Imagination)

    1880: In Los Angeles, founding of the University of Southern California whose original benefactors were a “Protestant nurseryman, Ozro Childs, an Irish Catholic former-Governor, John Gately Downey, and a German Jewish banker, Isaias W. Hellman”

    1880: Just 3 weeks before his 49th birthday, Philadelphia born Colonel Myer Asch was “transferred to the Commandery of New York of the Loyal Legion of the United States.

    1880: Godfrey Isaacs married Amelia Aarons at the Hambro Synagogue.

    1882(23rd of Tishrei, 5643): Simchat Torah

    1883: In New York City, the Young Men’s Hebrew Association hosted a meeting of Jewish immigrants from Germany and Russia at the Five Points House of Industry.  The YMHA shared its plans to start classes in English and American social customs.

    1884: Gabriel Richter, a Hebrew teacher, who had been arrested on charges of setting fire to his apartment at 219 Division Street was released today following a hearing at the Tombs Police court during which he said he was innocent because he was not at home and the police officer “could not swear” that the defendant “was the man whom had seen descending the stoop after the alarm was given.

    1884: It was reported today that three alleged accomplices of Gabriel Richter who have conspired to set the three fires in the last 15 months set one at 203 East Broadway, “a three story tenement, occupied by” three Jewish families from Poland.

    1884: Birthdate of Felix Weltsch, a German-speaking Jewish librarian, philosopher, author, editor, publisher and journalist who was a close friend of Max Brod and Franz Kafka, he was one of the most important Zionists in Bohemia.

    1887: In Chicago, Samuel and Sarah (Fernberg) Ehrlich gave birth to Elma Ehrlich who became Elma Ehrlich Levinger, when she married Rabbi Lee J. Leving, the name she used as the author of over thirty children’s books. (As reported by Joan Moelis Rappaport)

    1887: “Dr.M’Glynn and the Jews” published today briefly described the views of Edward McGlynn about religious doctrine stating that the difference between Judaism and Christianity was that the former placed a premium on universal justice while the latter placed a premium on “blind faith.”  (McGlynn was a Roman Catholic priest who had been excommunicated earlier in the year because of his political positions including the support of Henry George.)

    1889: Attorney Alexander Rosenthal, representing Joseph Linkowitz, the President of the synagogue at 91 Delaney has charged Officer Gebhard of entering the institution as the second day of Rosh Hashanah was ending and Shabbat was beginning and turning out the lights thus forcing the worshippers out into the street.

    1889: Birthdate of Miguel Mariano Gómez, the President of Cuba who Representative William I. Sirovich met with in July of 1936 in an attempt to get “Cuba to open her doors for at least 100,000 persecuted German Jews.”

    1889: “Talk of the Day Abroad” published today described the latest act of anti-Semitism in Leipzig as transcending “the ordinary in sheer stupidity.”  In response to the thousands who visit the home of Mendelssohn, the citizenry raised money for a stained-glass window at the church of St. Thomas, to honor the composer of “Elijah.”  However, the project came to a grinding halt when “somebody started an outcry that the Mendelssohns were Jews.

    1890(22nd of Tishrei, 5651): Shmini Atzeret

    1890: During today’s meeting of the Trustees of Columbia University, it was a reported that Jesse Seligman had donated another $1,000 for the Seligman Fellowships.

    1892(15th of Tishrei, 5653): Sukkoth

    1892: Birthdate of U.S. diplomat Laurence Steinhardt

    1893: Birthdate of Milton Ager the Chicago native and song writer who served in the US Army’s Morale Division in Fort Greenleaf, Georgia and cranked out a slew of hits, including the “anthem of the Democratic Party, “Happy Days are Here Again.

    1894: Mrs. Elke Rubenstein, the widow of convicted murderer Pesach N. Rubenstein and her sister Basche Ragleski were sent back to Jerusalem today after having been denied entrance to the United States because they “had only $50 and government authorities are not permitted to land anyone who may become a public charge.

    1894: Those in charge of the Bureau of Elections are concerned that they will have completed their list of polling places in time for the first day of voter registration which begins on October 9 and continues on October 10.  Several the locations used in the past are owned by Jews and they do not want to sign a lease that will have their property being used Erev Yom Kippur and Yom Kippur.

    1894(6th of Tishrei, 5655): Shabbat Shuvah

    1894(6th of Tishrei, 5655): Seventy year old German botanist Nathanael Pringsheim who ranks as the founder of our scientific knowledge of the algae” passed away today.

    1895: “Prof. Haupt’s Literary Treasures” published today described the return of “Professor Paul Haput of the Oriental department of Johns Hopkins University” to Baltimore from Europe, where among other things he met with Professor Howard Furness who is working on a the new translation of “The Hebrew Bible” of which Professor Haupt is the editor in Chief.

    1895: Professor Cyrus Adler explained how the United States National Museum acquired two Persepolitan cast one of which he says resembles “a frieze of enameled bricks found at Susa which is now in the Louvre.

    1896: The list of gifts received by Columbia University published today provided by the Secretary of the Board included $5,000 from Jacob F. Schiff to aid needy students get through college.”

    1896(28th of Tishrei, 5657): Dr. Moriz Schiff, the native of Frankfort-on-the-Main whose services as a surgeon in the rebel army during the Baden Revolution of 1849 led to him being labeled a “dangerous student” which forced him to pursue his medical career in Switzerland where he passed away today at Geneva.

    1897(10th of Tishrei, 5658): Yom Kippur

    1897: In Camden, NJ, Yom Kippur services “were held in Newton and Furey Halls.

    1897: “Jew’s Greatest Fast Day” published today included a description of the preparation for Yom Kippur by “the orthodox Jew” who has for the past nine days been preparing himself for this day by doing “penance” which has entailed rising early “every morning since the New Year’s festival and repairing to the Beth Hamiderash (house of learning)” where he recited psalms and prayers for forgiveness and seeking “out his enemies” and making “peace with them” while discharging “all his worldly obligations.

    1897: Dr. Gustav Gottheil led the services at Temple Emanu-El

    1897: “There was a general suspension of business among the” Jewish merchants in Camden, NJ, because they were attending Yom Kippur Services.

    1897: At Temple Elohim in Brooklyn Rabbi Taubernhaus delivered a sermon based on the Sayings of the Father that begin “Bear in mind three things and thou shalt escape sinning.

    1897: At Temple B’nai Jeshurun, Rabbi Stephen S. Wise delivered a sermon entitled “Moses and Aaron.

    1897: At Temple Rodoph Sholom, Dr. Rudolph Grossman delivered a sermon entitled “Home, Religion and Reconciliation.”

    1897: At Temple Beth-El, Dr. Kauffman Kohler delivered a sermon on the “Dove of Peace.”

    1897(10th of Tishrei, 5658): Fifty-three year old Lewis Stark, successful clothing merchant, passed away today at the home of his sister today from the effects of Bright’s disease.

    1898: In London, Sime Zamremba and Avroam Kohen, a tailor from Lodz gave birth to Jacob Edward Kohen who gained fame as Jack Cohen, the founder of Tesco Supermarket Chain – an accomplishment that led to him being Sir John Edward Cohen.

    1898:Herzl arrives in Berlin for another conversation with Graf Eulenberg.

    1901(23rd of Tishrei, 5662): Simchat Torah

    1902(5th of Tishrei, 5663): Eighty-three year old Austrian Rabbi Jacob Jacques Heinrich Hirschfeld, the son “Marie and Emanuel Isak Hirschfeld” and the husband of Pauline Hirschfeld passed away today in Vienna.

    1903(15th of Tishrei, 5664): Sukkoth

    1903: In Wiesbaden, Dr. Georg Honigmann and his wife gave birth to journalist Georg Honigmann.

    1903: The High Court of Australia sits for the first time.  In the early 1930’s Sir Isaac Alfred Isaacs would be the first Jew to serve as Chief Justice of Australia. 

    1904: In New York, Felix Mortiz Warburg and Frieda Fanny Warburg, the daughter of Jacob and Theres Schiff, gave birth to Paul Felix Solomon Warburg.

    1907: Birthdate of Salome Gluecksohn-Waelsch, a German-born geneticist and co-founder of developmental genetics who fled Hitler’s German to pursue her career in the United States. Winner of the Thomas Hunt Morgan Medal in 1993 and the National Medal of Science in 1996, she passed away in November of 2007, a month after celebrating her 100th birthday.

    1909(21st of Tishrei, 5670): Hoshanah Rabah

    1909: In Philadelphia, Irving Kohn and Rebekah Kohn, the daughter of Simon and Florence Liveright gave birth to Florence Kohn who became Florence Abrahams after she married Robert David Abrahams.

    1909: The funeral for Rabbi Falk Vidaver who passed away yesterday at the age of 65, is scheduled to be held today at his home in New York City. Burial will take place in the cemetery belonging to the Temple at 72ndand Lexington Avenue where Falk served as rabbi for twelve years.

    1909:Miss Clara L. Clemens, daughter of Samuel L. Clemens, (Mark Twain,) was married at noon to-day to Ossip Gabrilowitsch, the Russian pianist. The wedding took place in the drawing room at Stormfield, Mr. Clemens's country home, with the Rev. Dr. Joseph H. Twitchell of Hartford, a close friend of Mr. Clemens, as officiating clergyman. The groom was Jewish.  The bride was not.

    1910(3rd of Tishrei, 5671): Tzom Gedaliah

    1912(25th of Tishrei, 5673): Sixty-six year old philanthropist Simon Newman passed away today in San Francisco.

    1914(16th of Tishrei, 5675): Second Day of Sukkoth

    1914: The battleship U.S.S. North Carolina brought $50,000 from the Jews of the United States to the Jewish community in Palestine. 

    1914: It was reported today that U.S. government officials in the United States have not decided how to deal with reports of that a large part of the population of Jerusalem is facing starvation.

    1914: Gilbert Frankau, the London born Jew who was baptized at the age of 13 and whose father Arthur converted to Roman Catholicism “a few months before his death” “was first commissioned in the 9th Battalion of the East Surrey Regiment” today.

    1914: It was reported today that Henry Morgenthau, the U.S. Ambassador at Constantinople “has appealed to the State Department for additional funds for the relief of American in the Ottoman Empire.”


    1915: In Woodmere, NY, attorney Edward Drucker and his wife gave birth to Carolyn Elizabeth Drucker who became Carolyn Goodman after marrying civil engineer Robert W. Goodman which was the name she was known as when she gained gamed fame as the Manhattan clinical psychologist and mother of murdered civil rights worker Andrew Goodman. (As reported by Margalit Fox)

    1916(9th of Tishrei, 5677): Erev Yom Kippur and Erev Shabbat

    1916: Appeals for funds are being made this evening in all Jewish houses of worship on “behalf of the Russian and Polish Jews in the war zones of Europe.”

    1916: At Congregation Pincus Eliza on 95th Street General Sessions Judge Rosalsky “made an appeal for contributions to the fund for the aid of Jewish men, women and children affected by the war” which produced pledges of approximately $10,000.

    1916: “Simon Samuel Frug, Yiddish Poet” published today reported the recent death of the Jewish poet from the Ukraine who following pogroms “circulated a poetic appeal asking for bread for the living and shrouds for the dead.”

    1917(20th of Tishrei, 5678) Sixth day of Sukkoth and Shabbat

    1917: As politicians sought to appeal to the Jewish vote on the Lower East Side William Hard, a supporter of New York Mayor John Mitchell wrote in today’s New Republic that Socialist Morris Hillquist who was Jewish had “a very considerable skill in the management of practical negotiations and an excellent command of quotations from standard authorities of his intellectual club and a manifest dislike for new and painful ideas.

    1917: Today, during World War I, the 65th U.S. Congress passed an act that allowed for the creation of an additional twenty chaplains to serve in the United States Army.  These positions were for representatives of "religious sects" not usually represented in these positions.  The language of the act was convoluted but what Congress was really doing was creating positions to be filled by Jewish and Unitarian chaplains - religious sects that had hitherto been under-represented or unrepresented in chaplaincy.

    1918: In Philadelphia, Manuel and Blanche (née Bergman) Korn gave birth to the Reform Rabbi Bertram Wallace Korn whose service as a chaplain began with the U.S. Navy in WW II and led to him reaching the rank of Rear Admiral in 1975.

    1918: Birthdate of Abraham Robinson the German born, Israeli trained mathematician who earned his first degree from Hebrew University after he made Aliyah in 1933.

    1918: While serving “on liaison duty with a battalion of the 308thInfantry which was surrounded by the enemy north of the Forest de la Buironne in the Argonne forest” and “after patrols had been repeatedly shot down while attempting to carry back word of the battalion’s position and condition” Abraham Krotoshinsky “volunteered for the mission and successfully accomplished it” in such a manner that he was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross.

    1918: On the Lower East Side of Manhattan the former Jennifer Garlick and her first husband gave birth to Joseph Nathaniel Glassman who gained fame as Joseph Frank author of the five volume life of Fydor Dostoevsky which is viewed as one of the greatest literary biographies of the 20thcentury. (As reported by Bruce Weber)

    1920: Theresa Bruckner, the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Max Bruckner is scheduled to marry Stanley Lee Weil this evening at the St. Regis in New York City.

    1920: The High Commissioner for South Africa and Mrs. Blankenberg  are scheduled to attend a dinner for Dr. Hertz, the Chief Rabbi of England and Albert M. Woolf today.

    1921: In Tel Aviv, Samuel Lewin-Epstein, the “son of Judith and Eliyahu Ze’ev Lewin Epstein” and his wife “Madeline Lewin-Epstein” gave birth to “Noah Lewin-Epstein”

    1921: Great Britain, the mandatory power governing Palestine, announced that Haifa will become a free port and that a new harbor will be constructed by a British company with a loan from the Palestine Mandatory Government of 10,000,000 English pounds. As part of a tariff agreement reached with the French, the mandatory power governing Syria, goods entering Haifa bound for Syria will be treated as duty free.  This should be a boon to trade with those living in Mesopotamia as well.

    1921: Birthdate of Soviet mathematician Yvgeny Landis who is known for his work on partial differential equations.  (I do not have clue as to what that means)

    1923: In Oshkosh, Wisconsin,  scrap metal dealer Isadore Block and his wife gave birth to Allan Forrest Block  “a leather craftsman and fiddler who made sandals and music in his Greenwich Village shop — which became a bubbling hub of folk music during the 1950s and ’60s.”  (As reported by Bruce Weber)

    1925(17th of Tishrei, 5686): Chol Hamoed Sukkoth

    1925(17th of Tishrei, 5686): “The noted Jewish scholar, Dr. Israel Abrahams, reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic literature at Cambridge University passed away today in Cambridge” (UK) at the age of 66. Dr. Abrahams came from a family of scholars.  “His father, Barnett Abrahams, was the Dayan of the Spanish & Portuguese Congregation in London.”  Two of his brothers are rabbis including Dr. Joseph Abrahams, the Chief Rabbi of Melbourne, Australia. Dr. Abrahams has been at Cambridge for the last twenty three years.  He was the first President of the Union of Jewish Literary Societies and held several leadership positions with the Jewish Historical Society of England. Dr. Abrahams was a prolific author whose best known work maybe “Jewish Life in the Middle Ages” which was published in 1896.  In his later years he identified with the more liberal wing of Judaism.  Abrahams’ first speaking tour in the United States was in 1912. He returned again in 1924. [Abrahams comment that anti-Semitism is on the wane in Germany made in 1912 stands in stark contrast to the reality of the post war years.]

    1925: In Manhattan, on his 32ndbirthday, “Milton Ager, a successful composer whose tunes included ‘Happy Days Are Here Again’” and his wife “Cecilia, a film critic gave birth to Shana Ager who gained famed as journalist Shana Alexander between known as the liberal part of the Point/Counterpoint segment on “Sixty Minutes” with conservative columnist James Kirkpatrick. (As reported by Margalit Fox)

    1926(28th of Tishrei, 5687): Fifty-four year old Horki native Israel Joseph Zevin who gained fame as “a humorist and pioneer of the Yiddish press in America” using the pseudonym “Tashrak” passed away today.

    1926(28th of Tishrei, 5687): Eighty year old Simon Bamberger the fourth governor of Utah who was the first non-Mormon to hold the post and the third Jew to be elected to a state chief executive position passed away today

     1927(10thof Tishrei, 5688): Yom Kippur

    1927: The era of talking pictures arrived with the opening of ''The Jazz Singer,'' starring Al Jolson.

    1927: Jewish editor Herman Bernstein post a $15,000 bond so that Mordechai Golinkin, conductor of the Palestine Opera and former director of the Petrograd Opera, his wife Lea and a fellow traveler can be released from their three day detention on Ellis Island.  Authorities detained the party because Golinkin had no contracts to perform in the United States which meant he did not meet the legal requirement of being able to demonstrate that he had a means of support.

    1928: In the aftermath of the Massena (NY) Blood Libel that Assemblyman Julius Berg said that the apology by Mayor Gilbert Hawes “showed conclusively that he had been guility of a serious injustice against the Jews of Messina. Berg said no apology could make up for the wrong done and that unless the mayor resigned he would go to court to have him removed from office. When a four year child had been reported missing on the eve of Yom Kippur, the mayor had suggested that the disappearance might be due to a ritual murder.  This resulted in Rabbi Brennglass being summoned to the police station for questioning.

    1928:The Wedding March” an “American silent romantic drama film written and directed by and starring Erich von Stroheim which was produced by Adolph Zukor and Jesse Laskey  and edited by Josef von Sternberg was released in the United States today by Paramount Pictures.

    1933: Birthdate of Ludwik Begleiter, the native of Stryj, Poland who survived the Holocaust ,graduated from Harvard Law School and who as Louis Begley became a successfully and author whose first book Wartime Lies was published in 1991.

    1934: Birthdate of Philadelphia born, Ivy League educated philosopher and author Jacob Needelman.

    1934(27th of Tishrei, 5695): Parashat Bereshit – The Cycle beings again

    1934(27th of Tishrei, 5695): Max Yuditzky, who joined the Jewish Legion in 1918 and served in Palestine with the 38thRoyal Fusiliers passed away today in Winnipeg, Canada, where his passing is mourned by “his wife Katee and four son” Dave, Harold, Joseph and Bernard.”

    1935(9th of Tishrei, 5696): Erev Yom Kippur

    1935(9th of Tishrei, 5696): Eighty-three year old composer and conductor Sir Frederic Hymen Cowen passed away.

    1935:Daniel Persky, editor of the Hebrew-language newspaper Hadoar and its sister publication for youth, Doar L’Noar wrote to Aliza Dworkin that ““In my opinion, Sara Kucikowicz’s future will be that of a great Hebrew poet,” who wrote “The Cruel Winter” and “The Vicious Spring.”

    1936(20thof Tishrei, 5697): Sixth Day of Sukkoth

    1936: Birthdate of Budapest native John Bienenstock, “one of the fathers of mucosal immunology” whose parents escaped to England where he received his medical education before eventually settling in Canada

    1936:Sir Oswald Mosley planned a provocative meeting of his British Union of Fascists in the East End for today. The inhabitants of the area determined that ''They shall not pass!'' and congregated at Gardner's Corner. When in response Mosley and his Black Shirts, with a fair degree of police support, changed direction, the protesters dashed along the Commercial Road, surged down Christian Street and turned right into Cable Street. At the junction with Royal Mint Street, now marked by a plaque, the Fascists indeed ''did not pass.'' They were later ordered to disperse, and Mosley thundered: ''The government surrenders to Red violence and Jewish corruption. We never surrender.'' In fact, Fascism in Britain, at least as an organized political movement, was soon a dead letter.

    1936: Rabbi Samuel H. Goldenson led the funeral services for Jesse Isidor Straus this morning at Temple Emanuel which were attended by an array of dignitaries from several walks of life including Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt who represented the President, Governor and Mrs. Lehman, Mayor La Guardia and Andre de Laboulaye, the French Ambassador which served as a reminder of the close links that Straus had forged with that country while serving as the U.S. Ambassador in Paris.

    1936: The New York City Public School system announced today that it is beginning a series of radio broadcasts as part of its educational efforts. Among the broadcasts will be a series aimed at language students including those studying Hebrew who will hear programs about Jerusalem, Tel Aviv, and the Waves of Galilee.

    1936: In Geneva, at a meeting of the League of Nations, the Polish representative said that it was becoming increasingly necessary to find outlets other than Palestine for the “immense reservoir of the Jewish population in Central and Eastern Europe” and that includes Poland where “overpopulation creates a need for new immigration outlets for the Jewish masses whose economic structure makes it difficult to integrate them in Poland’s contemporary social evolution.”

    1936: It was reported that Judge Bleakly, the Republican running against Herbert Lehmann for Governor of New York and who had “described David Dubinsky” the Jewish labor leader “as a renegade Socialist who sent money to the Reds in Spain” was making an erroneous charges since “the funds raised by the president of the of International Ladies Garment Workers went not to the Reds but to the Red Cross

    1937:  The Palestine Post reported from Berlin that German Jews might soon be ordered to wear yellow badges. Jews were ordered to report to local police stations where they were forced to stand for hours, facing the wall, until they collapsed and were ready to give up their property for nothing.

    1937: The Palestine Post reported that he Arab Defense Party, which had broken away from the Husseini-run Arab Higher Committee, was allowed to meet in Jerusalem, under the chairmanship of Ragheb Bey Nashashibi.

    1938: “Fast and Furious, a mystery comedy” written by Harry Kurnitz was released in the United States today by MGMm

    1938: The last casualty of the International Brigades, Haskel Honigstern, was given a state funeral in Barcelona. The Spanish poet Jose Herrera wrote of him: "Haskel Honigstern, Polish worker of the Jewish race, son of an obscure land, killed in the light of my homeland." Coincidentally, the first casualty of the International Brigades was Leon Baum, a Jew from Paris

    1939: In an address to the Reichstag,Hitler offers peace to England and France, but only if Germany's former colonies are returned, Germany is allowed to join world trade, and Britain and France allow Germany to solve the "Jewish problem."

    1939: In Bucharest, “the Zionist organization announced today that Jewish refugees from Poland between the ages of 14 and 17 are being allowed to enter Palestine and that negotiations to obtain entrance permits for the remained of the Polish Jewish refugees hare are proceeding.”


    1939: “Ninotchoka” a romantic comedy that was thinly veiled satire of the Soviet Union “based on a screen story by Melichor Lengyel, produced and directed by Ernst Lubitsch with a script by Billy Wilder, co-starring Melvyn Douglas and featuring Alexander Granach was released in the United States by MGM.

    1940(4th of Tishrei, 5701): Tzom Gedaliah

    1940: Birthdate of music manager Gerald Eugene “Jerry” Heller, the Cleveland, Ohio native who was a driving force behind rap and “gangsta rap.”

    1940: “The United Jewish Appeal for Refugees and Overseas Needs” is scheduled to “present a high holiday broadcast” today “at 2:35 p.m. over the WABC-Columbia network.

    1940(4th of Tishrei, 5701): Illinois Governor Henry Horner passed away today at the age of 62.  Horner was a distinguished jurist before entering state politics as a reformer. Henry Levy was the son of Solomon Levy and Dilah Horner.  When his parents divorced, his mother resumed using her maiden name and young Levy became Horner.

    1941(15th of Tishrei, 5702): First Day of Sukkoth

    1941(15th of Tishrei, 5702): Over the next 48 hours, the majority of Jews in Dvinsk, Latvia, are murdered.

    1941(15th of Tishrei, 5702): Phillip Manson, a one-time Rochester newspaper boy and advisor to Presidents Wilson and Harding, who “started the first regular steamship service between New York and Bermuda and who was the husband of Isabelle Manson passed away today.

    1941(15th of Tishrei, 5702): In Kovno, 1,500 Jews without work passes were taken away to be shot. The Kovno hospital was sealed shut and burned to the ground with everyone still in it.

    1941: It was reported today that Dr. Benjamin Harrow, author of “Jews who Have Received the Nobel Prize” and Chemistry Professor Dr. Harry Wagreich have received a grant from the medical fund of the Ella Sachs Plotz Foundation.

    1943: Helen Manaster a Jew posing as a Catholic, was called out of the delivery room in the Kraków, Poland, hospital while in the throes  labor pains to face two Gestapo agents. She keeps her calm and the Gestapo agents tell her to go back to bed.

    1943: “In the Posen town hall” Heinrich Himmler delivers a speech in which he openly admits to the extermination of the Jews assuring this listeners that “The Jewish question in the countries that we occupy will be solved by the end of this year. Only remainders of odd Jews that managed to find hiding places will be left over."

    1943: This is “The Day the Rabbis Marched on Washington.” Dr. Rafael Medoff‘s article describes one attempt to save the Jews of Europe.  That they did not succeed is beside the point in terms of the historic record; they made the attempt.  Each time we read of these “small” efforts, we cannot help but wonder what a concerted effort might have brought.  The Jews of Europe Save or the Jews of America condemned as putting their own parochial interests ahead of the war effort?

    1944(19th of Tishrei, 5705): During Sukkoth Chol Hamoed, a two day uprising begins at Auschwitz. SonderkommandoJews from Poland, Hungary, and Greece, who are forced to transport gassed corpses to crematoria at Auschwitz, attack SS guards with hammers, stones, picks, crowbars, and axes. They also blow up one of the four crematoria with explosives smuggled into the camp from a nearby munitions factory. Russian POWs throw an SS man alive into a crematorium furnace. The SS fights back with machine guns, hand grenades, and dogs. 250 Jews are shot outside the camp wire. An additional 12 who escape will later be found and executed.

    1946: Eleven kibbutz settlements were established in a single night.

    1946: Urim, a kibbutz located in the Negev, was established today.

    1946: Kibbutz Beeri which “which was named after Berl Katznelson” was established today “near Wadi Nahabir, a few kilometers south of Be’erot Yitzhak” by “members of the HaNoar HaOved VeHaLomed movement.”

    1946: Kibbutz Kedma, in south-central Israel, was founded today.

    1946: Dan Zur was amont those who founded Kibbutz Nirim, “which named after the Nir brigade of the Hashomer Hatzair” today in the Negev.

    1946: Kibbutz Neavtim, which would hold out against the Egyptian Army despite being completely surrounded during the War of Independence, was founded today “by immigrants from Hungary in the northern Negev.

    1946: Kibbutz “Hatzerim” which is “located 8 kilometers west of Beersheba in the Negev desert in Israel” was founded today.

    1946:Mishmar HaNegev was established today by members of Borochovi Youth, a youth group affiliated with Poalei Zion,

    1946: Establishment of Kfar Darom, not far from Gaza. Two years later, attacking Egyptian forces would capture the Kibbutz after a prolonged siege.

    1946: Tkuma, a moshav located in the Negev whose original settlers were Holocaust surviors, was established today.

    1946: Kibbutz Gal-On (Monument of Strength)  “which stands on a hill approximately twenty kilometers from the Mediterranean Sea” was founded today by members from Poland some of whom had survived the wartime ghettos or had fought as partisans against the Germans.  The name was a memorial to those who had died in the Ghetto revolts.

    1946: Shoval, named for a nearby ancient biblical town, was established by South African Jews sixteen miles north of Beersheba.  To deal with the harsh climate the kibbutzim used contour plowing and built a modern reservoir.  While cultivating the land, they also cultivated good relations with the Bedouin who passed through the area.

    1946: “Bill Steiner, representing the Maccabiah club of New York, captured the U.S. national title in the 30 kilometer run today” with a time of 1 hour, 38 minutes and 2 seconds. Steiner’s win was no fluke.  He had won the AAU 20 mile run in Philadelphia in 1932 and won the Maccabiah marathon championship in Tel Aviv in 1935.

    1947(22nd of Tishrei, 5708): Shmini Atzeret

    1947(22nd of Tishrei, 5708): Just two days before his 57th birthday composer and screenwriter Samuel “Sam” Hoffenstein whose most famous work was “The Wizard of Oz” passed away today.

    1947: After having opened at the National Theatre in 1946 and moved to the Majestic Theatre in July of 1947, Call Me Mister,” a revue with words and music by Harold Rome and a cast that included Jules Munshin continued its Broadway run at the Plymouth Theatre.

    1948: Frederick Sylvester, a former employee of the Jerusalem Electric Corporation was found guilty of espionage in connection the Ben Yehuda Street Bombing and was sentenced to seven years in prison.

    1949(13th of Tishrei, 5710): Sixty-two year old major league outfielder Guy Zinn who played from 1911 through 1915 and who scored the first run at Fenway Park, home of the Red Sox, passed away today.

    1949: “The Heiress,” the film version of the 1947 play, directed and produced by William Wyler was released today in the United States.

    1949: In New York City, “Josephine (Schleifer) Moonves, a nurse, and Herman Moonves gave birth to Leslie Roy “Les Moonves who in 2018 “stepped down as President and CEO of CBS after being named in multiple, credible claims of sexual harassment.

    1950: Birthdate of science fiction author David Brin.

    1951(6th of Tishrei, 5712): Shabbat Shuva

    1951(6th of Tishrei, 5712):Otto Fritz Meyerhof, German born American physician and biochemist passed away.  Mayerhof shared the 1922 Nobel Prize in Medicine with Archibald Vivian Hill.  Meyerhof left Germany in 1938, settling in Philadelphia in 1941 where he joined the faculty of the University of Pennsylvania.

    1952:  The Jerusalem Post reported that Prof. Nelson Glueck was invited by the Israel Exploration Society to head a projected 10-year archeological survey of Israel. Nelson Glueck was one of the great names among the archeologists working in Israel.  Born in 1900, Glueck graduated from the University of Cincinnati and earned his PhD from the University of Jena (Germany) in 1926.  During his career he uncovered over 1,000 sites in the Middle East including the copper mines of King Solomon and the Red Sea port of Ezion Geber.  Glueck's discoveries provided archeological verification for information found in the Bible.  In 1947, Glueck was named President of Hebrew Union College.  One of his most famous and popular books was Rivers in the Desert: A History of the Negev, published in 1959. Glueck's fame was such that he appeared on the cover of Time magazine in December, 1963, under the title "The Search for Man's Past."  Glueck passed away in 1971.

    1953(27th of Tishrei, 5714): Seventy-nine year old Moshe Smilansky, the Ukrainian native who became part of the first Aliyah when he moved to Palestine in 1890, who served with the Jewish Legion during WW I and “who considered himself a disciple of Ahad Ha’aim passed ways today.

    1953(27th of Tishrei, 5714):Doctor Rahel Hirsch the German born doctor who became the first woman in the Kingdom of Prussia to be appointed as a professor in medicine passed away. Born in 1870 in Frankfurt am Main, she was one of eleven children of Mendel Hirsch, the director of the girls’ school of the Jewish religious community in Frankfurt am Main. From 1885 to 1889, she took a degree in education in Wiesbaden. She then worked until 1898 as a teacher. After her doctorate she was assistant to Friedrich Kraus at Charité. Since she was Jewish, the takeover by the Nazis meant she could not practice medicine. In October of 1938 she moved to London, where one of her sisters lived. Since her degree was not recognized by the British, she worked as a laboratory assistant and later as a translator. The last years she spent plagued by depression, delusions and persecutory fears. She was in a mental hospital on the outskirts of London, where she died on October 6, 1953 at 83 years old.

    1955(20th of Tishrei, 5714): Chol HaMoed Sukkoth

    1955(20th of Tishrei, 5714): Sixty year old English poet John Rodker, one of the “Whitechapel Boys” passed away today.

    1956: Prime Minister David Ben Gurion rejects Moshe Dayan’s demand for a reprisal raid, assuring his chief of staff that plans were in the works for a major operation against the Egyptians.

    1957: Funeral services are scheduled to be held today at Malinow & Silverman Mortuary on Venice Blvd. for Arthur (Artie) Auerbach best known for his comedic role of “Mr. Kitzel who was survived by his widow Mrs. Doris Auerbach.

    1959: NBC broadcast “The Wonderful World of Entertainment” the first episode of “Startime” with a script by Larry Gelbart and starring Polly Bergin.

    1960(15th of Tishrei, 5721): Sukkoth

    1961: Vic Morrow “appeared in an episode of the ABC drama series “Target: The Corruputers.

    1962: After 677 performances at the Brooks Atkinson the curtain came down on the original Broadway production of Neil Simon’s first play “Come Blow Your Horn.”

    1963:Barbra Streisand appears on "The Judy Garland Show"

    1963:  Sandy Koufax leads the LA Dodgers to a four game sweep of the Yanks in the 60th World Series.  Koufax pitched victories against Yankee ace Whitey Ford in games one and four.

    1964(30th of Tishrei, 5725): Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan

    1964(30th of Tishrei, 5725): Fifty-six year old who reached the rank of staff sergeant in WW II where his work of preparing paratroopers’ equipment included using his tailor skills to work on parachutes died of a heart attack today which led to his family memorializing his life fifty years later by donating a Torah written in his honor the USS Gerald R. Ford, “the U.S. Navy’s newest aircraft carrier.” (As reported by Rich Tenorio)

    1965(10th of Tishrei, 5726): Yom Kippur

    1965: It was reported today from “Jerusalem, Israeli Sector” that “that the 25 hours of fasting and worship will last until this evening.” (Editor’s Note – The use of the term “Israeli Sector” when used in terms of Jerusalem may sound strange to some. But this report was filed during those 19 years when Jordan illegally occupied the Old City in violation of UN resolutions passed in 1947 – violations which brought no condemnation from the World Community nor any accompanying demand to turn the city over to the local Arab population.)

    1965: Sandy Koufax refuses to pitch in the first game of the World Series because it is Yom Kippur. “In October 1965, the Los Angeles Dodgers were playing the Minnesota Twins in the World Series. The opening game was on Yom Kippur and Sandy Koufax, who had won 26 games that season and struck out 382 batters to set a major league record, did not pitch for his team. Koufax was not treated with respect by the local press in St. Paul. He did pitch the second game and lost, but won the fifth and seventh games (both complete game shutouts), and the Dodgers won the World Series. Koufax won the Cy Young Award three times, as well as being voted the National League's Most Valuable Player in 1963. In 1965 he pitched a perfect game against the Chicago Cubs, the fourth no-hitter of his career. Koufax is considered by many to be one of the greatest pitchers of all time.”

    1968: Eighty-nine year old Maurice Arnold de Forest passed. He was the adopted son of the millionaire Baroness Clara de Hirsch, née Bischoffsheim, wife of Jewish banker and philanthropist Baron Maurice de Hirsch de Gereuth and/or the illegitimate son of Juliette Arnold de Forest fathered by the Baron.  Regardless, the motor car race, aviator and British politician converted to Catholicism

    1969: NBC broadcast episode for of “My World…and Welcome to it” created by Melville Shavelson, co-starring Harold J. Stone.

    1969: Israeli officials reported today that three Egyptian MIGs (Soviet built warplane) had been shot down in a battle over the Suez Canal.

    1973(10th of Tishrei, 5734):  Normal life grinds to a halt in Israel on Yom Kippur which also happens to fall on Shabbat.

    1973: At in the morning, Israeli intelligence had hard proof that war would break out before sundown on October 6.  The information had come from the head of Mossad.  Moshe Dyan, the Defense Minister, refused the request of the IFD Chief of Staff General Elazar to mobilize and launch a pre-emptive strike against Syria.  The Nixon Administration had warned the Israelis not to strike first or to take any action which the Arabs could claim was provocative. Elazar appealed to Prime Minister Golda Meir.  Meir strikes a compromise.  She will allow a mobilization, but it is only to be partial one. 

    1973: Prime Minister Golda Meir convened an emergency meeting in Tel Aviv with senior defense officials at 8:05 this morning.  Six hours before the outbreak of the war, Israeli preparations for a general offensive by Arab armies finally began. The warnings of the intelligence source were being taken seriously, as was the fact that the Russians were pulling families out of Egypt and Syria, a sign of approaching war. But U.S. intelligence was not predicting war. Minister Yisrael Galili said a source had suggested the war could be prevented by leaking information that would reach the Egyptians and Syrians, so they would knew their plans for attack had been discovered. The Israeli officials at the meeting were concerned about Jordan because it wasn't clear if the kingdom would join in the assault on Israel. Initially, Mrs. Meir deliberated between Chief of Staff Elazar's call for a full mobilization of the reserves and Moshe Dayan's request for a limited call-up. "If you approve a major mobilization of the reserves, I won't resign," Dayan said. But with an eye to international reaction, he added, "A full mobilization before even one shot is fired - they will say right away that we are the aggressors." At 9:20 A.M., a full mobilization was approved.

    1973: War erupted in the Middle East as Egypt and Syria attacked Israel during the Yom Kippur holiday. The two Arab states attacked with hundreds of planes and more than a thousand tanks. By the end of the day, the Egyptians have established three bridgeheads across the Suez, Syrian artillery is shelling Israeli settlements and Israelis were being told to black out their windows in case of an air raid.  By the end of the day 200,000 Israeli soldiers, most of whom were mobilizing reservists faced 300,000 Syrians and 850,000 Egyptians.

    1973: According to ousted Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak he personally started the Yom Kippur War today “by attacking an Israeli communications base in his fighter jet six minutes before the rest of the Arab Armies’ surprise attack on the Jewish state began.” (As reported by Naama Barak)

    1973:On the first night of the Yom Kippur War  five boats led by flotilla commander Michael Barkai sailed north to engage in the first-ever missile battle at sea off the main Syrian port of Latakia. The feisty Barkai told his captains that their objective was to draw the Syrian missile boats out of harbor. "If they don't come out, I mean to sail in and get them with guns." Two Syrian picket boats were encountered well off the Syrian coast. The first, a torpedo boat, was sunk with gunfire. The second, a minesweeper, was hit with missiles, the Gabriel's first blood. Three Syrian missile boats already at sea turned to meet the intruders. With their 25-kilometer advantage, the Syrians got in the first salvo. The Israeli boats raised their electronic umbrella and charged. In naval headquarters, officers monitoring Barkai's radio net heard him report the Syrian launch. His voice was level but taut. Herut Tzemah braced. The lives of 200 men as well as the fate of the missile boat program hung now on whether he had assessed the Styx's parameters correctly. The radio remained silent for the two minutes it took for the Syrian missiles to complete their flight. Then Barkai's voice. "They missed." The three Syrian boats ran for harbor, but one, the only one with missiles remaining, turned on the closest Israeli pursuer. As the two boats raced at each other, the Syrian fired first. The Israeli vessel again put up its electronic and chaff umbrella and at maximum Gabriel range launched two missiles. The Styx and Gabriel missiles passed each other, the former hitting the sea, the latter exploding on the deck of the Syrian vessel. A second Syrian boat was sunk a few moments later. The Soviet-built vessels had no countermeasures and were doomed once the Israelis reached Gabriel range. The captain of the third Syrian boat, realizing the situation, ran his vessel onto the shore to escape.

    1973: Shmuel Gonen who had “inherited the IDF Southern Command from Arik Sharon” on July 15, faced an Egyptian force of five infantry divisions, three mechanized divisions and two armored divisions that included 1,400 tanks with one division at the front that included 294 tanks.(As reported by Mitch Ginsburg)

    1973: The 162ndDivision under the command of Major General Avraham Adan began the first three days of desperate attempts to drive the Egyptians back across the Suez Canal.

    1973(10th of Tishrei, 5734):  Yadin Tannenbaum, a young flautist was killed in 1973 while fighting in the Yom Kippur war. The 1981 Halil, Leonard Bernstein’s nocturne for flute, percussion, and strings, it is dedicated “to the spirit of Yadin and to His Fallen Brothers.”


    1973: For action today simply described as delaying enemy armor, Captain Zvika Greengold earned Israel’s Medal of Valor. The events that earned him Israel’s highest commendation are as follows.

    Twenty-one-year-old Lieutenant Greengold was home on leave when Egypt and Syria launched a coordinated surprise attack on two fronts. He was not attached to any unit as he was about to take a course for company commanders. Once he realized war had broken out, he hitchhiked to Nafekh, a command center and important crossroads in the Golan Heights, where he initially helped with the wounded, as no tanks were available. When two damaged Centurion tanks were repaired, Greengold was put in charge of them and sent with hastily-assembled scratch crews down the Tapline Road.

    Greengold's "Koah Zvika" (Zvika Force) spotted Syrian tanks belonging to the 51st Independent Tank Brigade of the Syrian Army which had broken through the line and were advancing unopposed northwest along the road to Nafekh. Greengold's two tanks engaged the opposing T-55s at 2100 hours, with Greengold destroying six. Later, he had lost contact with his other tank when he spotted the advancing 452nd Tank Battalion. He engaged the enemy, taking advantage of the darkness and moving constantly to fool the Syrians into thinking the opposition was stronger than it was. Greengold destroyed or damaged ten enemy armored vehicles before the confused Syrians withdrew, believing they were facing a sizable force. Even Greengold's superiors were deceived; as the fighting wore on, he did not dare report how weak he actually was over the radio for fear it would be intercepted; at best he could only hint "the situation isn't good". At a time when Force Zvika was only one tank, Colonel Yitzhak Ben-Shoham, the brigade commander, assumed it to be "of at least company strength". For the next 20 hours, he fought, sometimes alone, sometimes in conjunction with other tanks, displaying an uncanny knack for showing up again and again at the critical moment to tip the scales of a skirmish. He had to change vehicles "half a dozen times" as his tanks were knocked out. He soldiered on, even after he was wounded and burned. When Nafekh itself came under attack from a fresh force of T-62s, he rushed over to bolster the defense. In a lull in the fighting, an exhausted Greengold got out of his latest tank and dropped to the ground, murmuring, "I can't anymore." Afterward, he claimed 20 enemy tanks destroyed; other estimates place his tally at 40 or more.

    1973:“The Syrian 7th Infantry Division attacked the Israeli 7th Armored Brigade in the area between Mount Hermon and a southern ridge known as "Booster" in Israel” in what was the first day of the Battle for the Valley of Tears.

    1973: “Rabbis throughout” New York City interrupted…Yom Kippur service…to tell their congregations about the outbreak of war in the Middle East and to offer special prayers for Israel.

    1974: Rose Kushner’s “first major article on the topic of breast cancer was published in The Washington Post” today.

    1974: Soviet authorities allowed 90 Jews “to hold picnic in the woods outside Moscow in celebration of the festival of Succoth”

    1978: “Goin’ Coconuts” “a musical comedy directed by Howard “Howie” Morris was released in Hawaii today.

    1979(15th of Tishrei, 5740): Sukkoth and Shabbat.

    1980: “Refuseniks Yacov Ariev and Haim Solovey from Riga, and Isai Minkin from Moscow, began a hunger in protest against the authorities’ refusal to grant them exit visas.”

    1981: Anwar Sadat was assassinated by Moslem fanatics angered by the peace treaty with Israel. Sadat was murdered on the 14th anniversary of the Yom Kippur War.

    1981:Israel, using the United States as a go between to gain Saudi cooperation, rescued a grounded Israeli missile ship from a sandbar off the coast of Saudi Arabia, Israeli military sources said today.

    1983: During the Israel bank stock crisis, “Black Thursday.”

    1984(10th of Tishrei, 5745): Yom Kippur

    1985(21st of Tishrei, 5746): Hoshanah Rabah

    1985(21st of Tishrei, 5746): Seventy-nine year old Czech engineer Vilém Klíma passed away today.

    1986: CBS broadcast the first episode of “My Sister Sam” co-starring Rebecca Schaeffer

    1986: NBC broadcasts the first episode of the 6thSeason of the “Cosby Show,” a sit-com created by Ed Weinberger.

    1990: “American Dream” a documentary directed by Barbara Kopple who produced the film along with Arthur Cohn premiered today at the New York Film Festival.

    1991: Elizabeth Taylor who had converted to Judaism in 1959 a year after her husband Michael Todd had died in a plane wreck, married her seventh husband today.

    1991: During the confirmation hearings for Supreme Court Nominee Clarence Thomas, Nina Totenberg filed a report on NPR outlining claims by Anita Hill that she had been the victim of sexual harassment by the nominee.  (Totenberg was Jewish; the other two were note)

    1993: “Marilyn” an opera by Ezra Laderman premiered at City Opera.

    1994: Tova Blitz wrote a letter today historian Martin Gilbert today in which she described “a whimsical moment in the maternity ward of a Toronto hospital” on VE Day when she “Tova Blitz gave birth to her son while a Mrs. Berlin gave birth to her son

    1995: Two days after premiering at the New York Film Festival, “Kicking and Screaming” directed by Noah Baumbach and co-starring Eliot Gould was released in the United States today.

    1995: “Assassins” produced and directed by Richard Donner was released in the United States today.

    1995: Melissa Gilbert gave birth to a son whom she named Michael, in honor of Michael Landon, her “father” Little House on the Prairie a slice of Americana in which Jews played a key creative role.

    1996(23rd of Tishrei, 5757): Simchat Torah

    1996: The New York Times features Meyer Levin’s review of The Diaryof a Young Girl by Anne Frank

    1997(5th of Tishrei, 5758): Eighty year old Yevgeny Khaldei the Soviet combat photographer best known for the iconic picture of a Russian soldier raising a flag over the Reichstag at the end of the Battle of Berlin.

    (This means that three of the iconic photos of WWII were taken by Jews, the others being Joe Rosenthal and Robert Capa)

    1998(16th of Tishrei, 5759): Second Day of Sukkoth

    1998(16th of Tishrei, 5759): Eighty-five year old Pulitzer Prize winning playwright and author Jerome Weidman passed away today. (As reported by Mel Gussow)

    1999:A 75-year-old American woman sued the Hungarian Government today for the return of art masterpieces looted by Nazis from the Jews and now held by Budapest museums, lawyers said. Martha Nierenberg, granddaughter of Baron Maurice Herzog, who once owned a Budapest mansion filled with art valued today at $10 million to $20 million, filed the suit in Budapest City Court, the lawyers said. She lives in Armonk, N.Y. The suit seeks the return of parts of the 2,500-piece collection, which the suit says was looted by Adolf Eichmann as he oversaw the deportation of Hungarian Jews in 1944. The collection includes works by El Greco, Cranach and van Dyck, some of which have wound up in the Museum of Fine Arts and the National Gallery, both in Budapest. Eichmann, whose SS killed or deported some 600,000 of Hungary's prewar Jewish population of 800,000, shipped the best pieces of the Herzog collection to Germany. Many works recovered by the Americans after the war were shipped back to Hungary in the late 1940's but were placed in museums instead of being returned to their owners. Efforts to recover them revived only after Communism collapsed in 1989, the lawyers said. Peter Szakonyi, a public relations agent in Budapest working with the lawyers and the American public relations firm representing Mrs. Nierenberg, said negotiations between Mrs. Nierenberg and the Hungarian Government to reach an amicable settlement had been going on for four years, without result. A spokesman for the Hungarian Prime Minister said the Government had not yet gotten official notice of the suit and therefore could not comment.

    2000: CBS broadcast the first episode of the original CSI  (later known as CSI Las Vegas) a long-running cerebral crime series created by Antony E. Zuker and brought to the small screen by executive producers Jerry Bruckheimer and Carol Mendelsohn

    2000: U.S. premiere of “Meet the Parents” directed by Jay Roach with a score by Randy Newman and a script co-authored by Jim Hamburg.

    2000(7th of Tishrei, 5761): Fifty-four year old Bachor Jann was killed by stone-throwing Palestinians on the Coastal Highway near Jisr az-Zarqa

    2002: Today, Ruth Gruber, who had worked to bring European Jews to a safe haven in Oswego, NY, helped to “dedicate the Safe Haven Museum” which houses of library named in her honor.

    2002: The New York Timesfeatured a review of Mr. Strangelove, Ed Sikov’s biography of Peter Sellers the son of a Jewish motherand a descendant of famed Anglo-Jewish prize fighter Daniel Mendoza.

    2003(10th of Tishrei, 5674): Yom Kippur

    2003: Aviel Barclay has become the first certified Soferet, or female Torah scribe. She is currently writing a Sefer Torah, the first ever known to be written completely by a woman's hand. The Women's Torah project of Seattle's Kadima Congregation has hired Barclay to write the Sefer Torah and has sponsored her studies to become a certified Soferet. Writing a Sefer Torah is a full-time project that will take Barclay at least 12 months to complete. Once the Sefer is completed in the Spring of 2005 and is dedicated in Seattle, it will travel to Jewish communities around the world. (As reported by Jewish Women’s Archive)

    2004(21stof Tishrei, 5765): Hoshana Raba

    2005: The High Court of Justice established the absolute illegality of using Palestinian civilians in a military operation, whether in the "neighbor procedure" or the related "early warning procedure."

    2005:  The Jerusalem Post reported that two Israelis have undergone successful transplants over Rosh Hashana, in Israel and in Europe. Efrat Rinot-Koren, the 30-year-old mother whose liver failed from acute hepatitis a month after having a baby, had undergone a liver transplant in Belgium. Meanwhile, a 20-year-old man was the first Israeli to undergo a heart and kidney transplant at the same time. The patient, operated on successfully at the Rabin Medical Center-Beilinson Campus, was in critical condition and with only a few days to live when the organs became available. He was in stable condition on Wednesday night. So far, only a handful of such double transplants have been performed around the world.

    2005: In the Jewish Journal, Jonathan Kellerman who along with his wife Faye, are writers of murder mysteries, publishes “Boy Do We Need Teshuvah Now!”

    2006(14th of Tishrei, 5767): Erev Sukkoth and Erev Shabbat

    2006: “Little Children” co-starring Gregg Edelman and featuring Rebeca Schull was released in the United States today by New Line Cinema.

    2006: Robert Adler's latest patent application was filed on today for his work on touch-screen technology

    2007(24th of Tishrei, 5768): Parshat Bereshit – the cycle begins again.

    2007: In an article entitled “D.M. synagogue’s all-female leaders a rare feat,” the AP reports that Tifereth Israel Synagogue in Des Moines is unique among Conservative Congregations because it boasts  both a female rabbi and a female cantor.  Rabbi Beryl Pador and Cantor Deborah Bletstein make up this dynamic duo.  Rabbi Pador had been leading the congregation for several years when the decision was made to hire Cantor Bletstein in time for the 2007 High Holiday season.  In the Mid-Continent Region of the United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism which is composed of 48 congregations only one other has a female lead rabbi and only two others have female cantors.

    2007: “A Priest Methodically Reveals Ukrainian Jews’ Fate” published today, Elaine Sciolino describes the efforts of a French Roman Catholic Priest named Patrick Desbois to discover and document the fate of the Ukrainian Jews.

    2007: The New York Times featured a review of Francisco Goldman’s The Art of Political Murder: Who Killed the Bishop?

    2008(7th of Tishrei, 5769): Ninety-four year old anti-Zionist Alfred Lilienthal passed away today.

    2008:  At Rutgers University in New Jersey, Arie Nesher, architect, city planner and professor at Tel Aviv University delivers an address entitled “Politics of the Environment in Israel and the Regionas part of the Ruth Ellen Steinman Bloustein and Edward J. Bloustein Memorial Lecture series.

    2008: Sports Illustrated Magazine includes a review of Boys Will Be Boys by Jeff Pearlman and an article about Joe Maddon, “Tampa Bay’s progressive contrarian skipper” who “was hired by” Matt Silverman, the Jewish President of the team whose primary owner is Jewish financier Stuart Sternberg.”

    2009(18th of Tishrei, 5770):Raymond Federman, the French born American author who wrote Double or Nothing, passed away today.

    2009: Mark A. Grey, Michele Devlin and Aaron Goldsmith are scheduled to discuss their new book “Postville, U.S.A.” at Prairie Lights Books in Iowa City, IA.

    2009:MK Yossi Beilin, former head of the Meretz Party, announced tonight that he is quitting politics to enter business.

    2009(18th of Tishrei, 5770:Ruth L. Kirschstein, a National Institutes of Health pathologist, passed away today.



    2010: A program styled Defiant Requiem: Verdi at Terezín, “We Will Sing to the Nazis What We Cannot Say to Them” is scheduled to be performed at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington, DC. “Defiant Requiem: Verdi at Terezín tells the story of courageous Jewish prisoners in the Theresienstadt Concentration Camp during World War II who learned Verdi’s Requiem Mass by rote and then performed this compelling work 16 times as a statement of defiance and resistance, answering the worst of mankind with the best of mankind. The concert/drama will feature a full performance of The Requiem with actors, video testimony with surviving members of the choir, and original Nazi propaganda film footage

    2010:The New York Public Library (NYPL) has named Anthony W. Marx as the new president. Marx calls New York City his native hometown, and currently serves as president of Amherst College

    2011: Publication of “My Favorite Things: Calvin Trillin.”

     2011: Sage “Rosenfels signed a one-year deal for $970,000 with the Miami Dolphins

    2011: The Jewish Museum is scheduled to offer the last of its High Holiday Themed docent tours of the permanent exhibition, “Culture and Continuity.”

    2011: Timothy Shriver is scheduled to moderate a program based on “War of the Worldviews” by Deepak Chopra and Leonard Llodinow, whose father led the Jewish resistance against the Nazis in Częstochowa, Poland and survived imprisonment at Buchenwald.

    2011:Police arrested a suspect from northern Israel several days ago in connection with the torching of a mosque in the village of Tuba Zanghariya overnight Sunday in an apparent "Price Tag" attack.

    2011:Thirty-eight years after the Yom Kippur War broke out, the IDF held a surprise drill today for two reservist divisions in an effort to prepare the Reserve Corps for possible emergency call-up orders.

    2012: Arnon Goldfinger’s “The Flat” is scheduled for a second and final screening at the Hampltons International Film Festival.

    2012: Director Erez Laufer’s “One Day After Peace” is scheduled for a second and final screening at the Hampltons International Film Festival.

    2012: In Washington, DC the annual Cleveland Park Sukkah walk is scheduled to take place after Kiddush.

    2012: The Alexandria Kleztet is scheduled to perform at the “Art on the Avenue” festival in Alexandria, VA.

    2012: In Grand Forks, ND, Cantor Alane Katzew is scheduled to lead services at B’nai Israel Synagogue that will encompass the themes of Sukkoth, Shemini Atzeret and Simchat Torah.

    2012: In Cedar Rapids, Iowa, the traditional Saturday morning includes a special memorial to mark 39thanniversary of the start of the Yom Kippur which began on October 6, 1973.

    2012:Police carried out raids across France today after DNA on a grenade that exploded last month at a kosher grocery store led them to a suspected jihadist cell of young Frenchmen recently converted to Islam.

    2012: The IDF shot down a foreign drone that had penetrated deep into Israeli airspace this afternoon, flying for half an hour before it was intercepted.

    2012: Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu and Defense Minister Ehud Barak seemed to turn the page on their recent public bickering during a one-and-a-half-hour meeting tonight, saying that they had agreed to continue working together to overcome Israel's security threats.

    2013: In New York the Center for Jewish History is scheduled to host “Hidden from History: The Pinkas of the Metz Rabbinic Court, 1771-1789,” “a conference that explores French and German rabbinic courts of the late 1700s.”

    2013: Threshold to the Sacred: The Ark Door of Cairo’s Ben Ezra Synagogue” is scheduled to open at Yeshiva University Museum.

    2013: The Tulane University Jewish Studies Department is scheduled to sponsor a lecture by Jack Kulgelmas of the University of Florida, "Sifting the Ruins: Jewish Journalists Return to Poland, 1945-1947"

    2013: E.L. Doctorow is scheduled to give an exclusive preview of his newest book, Andrew's Brain: A Novel at the opening of The Hyman S. & Freda Bernstein Jewish Literary Festival in Washington, DC.

    2013: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Hotel Francforts by David Leavitt and “Unzipped,” an essay by Erica Jong “about storytelling – why certain stories stick with us and others don’t.”

    2013: The formal ceremony installing Rabbi Asher Lopatin as the new president of Yeshivat Chovevi Torah is scheduled to take place today.

    2013: The Jewish Endowment Foundation (JEF) of Louisiana is scheduled to honor several Jewish community leaders “who have exemplified giving and charity.”

    2013: “Israel Prize winner David Kazhdan, 67, was severely injured when he was hit by a truck while riding his bike in Jerusalem.” (As reported by Spencer Ho)

    2013: Eli Zeira and Zvi Zamir, former heads of the IDF Military Intelligence Directorate and the Mossad respectively, bitter rivals who stood at the center of the drama leading up to the surprise Arab attack on Israel that launched the 1973 Yom Kippur War, shared their sharply divergent narratives about the outbreak of the fighting today. (As reported by Mitch Ginsburg)

    2013: “Hundreds of Labor party activists, volunteers and supporters gathered in Tel Aviv tonight for the formal launch of MK Shelly Yachimovich’s campaign for reelection as party leader.” (As reported by Haviv Rettig Gur)

    2013: Rabbi March Schneier, the graduate of Yeshiva University and founder of the Hampton Synagogue and The Foundation of Ethnic Understanding married his fifth wife who would later be replaced by his sixth wife “Simi Teitelbaum.”

    2013: Two of the three winners of the Nobel Prize for Medicine winners were Jews – James Rothaman of Yale and Randy Schekman of the University of California. Two of the candidates who did not win were Israelis – Professors Howard Cedar and Aharon Razin from Hebrew University.

    2013(3rd of Cheshvan, 5774): Ninety three year old Rabbi Ovad Yosef, the spiritual leader of the Sephardi community passed away today.

    2014: Roman Rabinoivich who “made his Israel Philharmonic debut…before his 11th birthday is scheduled to perform with the Jupiter Symphony Chamber Players.

    2014: “A spokesman for the Bureau of Prisons was unable Monday to explain the change on the bureau’s “inmate locator,” which changed Jonathan Pollard’s release date on its website from “Nov. 15 2015” to “Life.” (As reported by JTA)

    2014(12th of Tishrei, 5775): Eighty-six year old actress Marian Seldes the niece of journalist Gilbert Seldes passed away today.

    2014: In Washington, DC, the Lillian & Albert Small Jewish Museum is scheduled to host a panel discussion “From Church to Condo: D.C.'s Urban Evolution.”

    2014: Sweden’s Ambassador is scheduled to come to the Foreign Ministry in Jerusalem “for a reprimand meeting” following that country’s announcement that it intends to recognize Palestine. (As reported by Itamar Eichner)

    2014: “The White House hit back today at Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu's accusation that US criticism of Israeli settlement construction was "against American values."

    2014: “Welfare and Social Services Minister Meir Cohen announced today a budget increase of NIS 1.7 billion was approved for the implementation of the recommendations of the Elalouf Committee to Reduce Poverty in Israel.” (As reported by Omri Efraim)

    2015(23rd of Tishrei, 5776): Simchat Torah

    2015: “Vera Rubin, a US astronomer who has described herself as a religious Jew,” and who had “emerged as the pundits’ choice for the Nobel Prize Physics…failed to win the prestigious award” today. (As reported by Stuart Winer)

    2015: After Simchat Torah Services the Oxford University Jewish Society is scheduled to host a Pita Luncheon!

    2016: In London, the UKJF is scheduled to host a screening of “Little Men.”

    2016: “AKA Nadia” is scheduled to be shown at SERET DC, “a celebration of contemporary Israeli cinema.

    2016: Shimon Dotan’s “The Settlers” is scheduled to be shown at the 54th New York Film Festival.

    2016: “A mortar shell fired from the Gaza Strip landed in an open area in southern Israel today” making this “the second such attack in as many days.”

    2016: The Israeli Supreme Court Project at Cardozo Law School in collaboration with Yeshiva University Museum are scheduled to a panel discussion on “Women at the Wall on the Bus, and in Front of the Court: Religious Women as Agents of Change through the Israeli Supreme Court."
    2017(16th of Tishrei, 5778): Second Day of Sukkoth;
    2017: On the secular calendar, 44thanniversary of the start of the Yom Kippur when a handful of brave men held the line on the Suez Canal and the Golan fighting desperately to avoid what could have been a Holocaust in the truest sense of the word – a Holocaust that was brought on in part by the hubris of leaders who refused to believe the intelligence reports they received warning of the attacks.  Of these men we can repeat the words of Churchill – never have so many owed so much to so few.

    2017: The Bloomfield Science Museum in Jerusalem is scheduled to host special Chol Hamo’ed “special activities all about sugar…sponsored by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development.”

    2017: The evening, the University of Iowa Hillel is scheduled to host “Sushi Shabbat.”

    2017: Two days “after his body was found covered in stab wounds” and one day after he was supposed to have celebrated his 70th birthday, Reuven Schmerling was laid to rest at a funeral attended by “over a thousand people” (As reported by Jacob Magid)

    2018: On the secular calendar, 45th anniversary of the start of the Yom Kippur War.  (Editor’s Note: Adjusting Sights a novel by IDF veteran Sabato, does an amazing job of capturing the desperation and bravery of the fighting on the Golan)

    2018: The Oxford University Jewish Society is scheduled to a host a luncheon after Shabbat services and Seudah Shlishit following Mincah.

    2018: In another example of the vitality of “small community Judaism,” Ari Collins is scheduled to be called to the Torah as a Bar Mitzvah at Agudas Achim in Coralville, IA.

    2018(27thof Tishrei, 5779):  Parashat Bereshit; the cycle begins again.  For more see



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    3761 BCE: According to some Jewish traditionalists, this corresponds to the date on which God created the World.  This marks the start of the epoch of the Modern Hebrew calendar.  The attached article should provide an explanation of this entry.  For those who have been studying in Cedar Rapids, please note the role of the Babylonian exile in the development of the calendar, which, as we have seen has been one of the most important vehicles for Jewish survival. I have included this rather lengthy article since so many people ask about the Jewish calendar and I know so little about. 

    "The Hebrew calendar, also known as the Jewish calendar, is the annual calendar used in Judaism. It is based upon both lunar months and a solar cycle (which defines its years) and so is a lunisolar calendar. This is in contrast to the Gregorian calendar, which is based solely upon a solar cycle, or the Islamic calendar, which is purely lunar. Jews use this calendar to determine when the new Hebrew months start; this calendar determines the Jewish holidays, which Torah portions to read, and which set of Psalms should be read each day. Jews have been using a lunisolar calendar since Biblical times, but originally referred to the months by number rather than name. During the Babylonian exile, they adopted Babylonian names for the months. Some sects, such as the Essenes, used a solar calendar. The epoch of the modern Hebrew calendar is Monday, October 7, 3761 BCE, being the tabular date (same daylight period) in the proleptic Julian calendar corresponding to 1 Tishri AM 1 (AM = Anno Mundi = in the year of the world). This date is about one year before the traditional Jewish date of Creation on 25 Elul AM 1! A minority place Creation on 25 Adar AM 1, about six months after the modern epoch. Thus adding 3761 to a Gregorian year number will yield the Hebrew year number beginning in autumn (add 3760 for that ending in autumn). This holds until the Gregorian year 1 BCE. After that (due to the lack of year 0), adding 3760 to the Gregorian year yields the Hebrew year beginning in autumn (3759 for that ending in autumn). Because the Hebrew year drifts relative to the Gregorian year, this actually only works until the year 22,203, but it's a fairly good rule of thumb. The Hebrew month is tied to an estimate of the average time taken by the Moon to cycle from lunar conjunction to lunar conjunction. Twelve lunar months are about 354 days while the solar year is about 365 days so an extra lunar month is added every two or three years in accordance with a 19-year cycle of 235 lunar months (12 regular months every year plus 7 extra or embolismic months every 19 years). The average Hebrew year length is about 365.2468 days, about 7 minutes longer than the average tropical solar year which is about 365.2422 days. Approximately every 216 years, those minutes add up so that the Hebrew year is "slower" than the average solar year by a full day. Because the average Gregorian year is 365.2425 days, the average Hebrew year is slower by a day every 231 Gregorian years. There are exactly 14 different patterns that Hebrew calendar years may take. Each of these patterns is called a "keviyah" (Hebrew for "species"), and is distinguished by the day of the week for Rosh Hashanah of that particular year and by that particular year's length.

    • A chaserah year (Hebrew for "deficient" or "incomplete") is 353 or 383 days long because a day is taken away from the month of Kislev. The Hebrew letter ח"het", and the letter for the weekday denotes this pattern.

    • A kesidrah year ("regular" or "in-order") is 354 or 384 days long. The Hebrew letter כ"kaf", and the letter for the week-day denotes this pattern.

    • A shlemah year ("abundant" or "complete") is 355 or 385 days long because a day is added to the month of Heshvan. The Hebrew letter ש"shin", and the letter for the week-day denotes this pattern.

    A variant of this pattern naming includes another letter which specifies the day of the week for the first day of Pesach (Passover) in the year. Every hour is divided into 1080 parts. A part (31/3seconds or 1/18 minute) equals a small Babylonian time period called a barleycorn, itself equal to 1/72of a Babylonian time degree (1° of celestial rotation). The weekdays start with Sunday (day 1) and proceed to Saturday (day 7). Since some calculations use division, a remainder of 0 signifies Saturday. The calendar is based on mean lunar conjunctions called "molads" spaced precisely 29 days, 12 hours, and 793 parts apart. Actual conjunctions vary from the molads by up to 13 hours in each direction due to the nonuniform velocity of the moon. This value for the interval between molads (the mean synodic month) was known to the Babylonians by about 250 BCE and was later used by the Greek astronomer Hipparchus and the Alexandrian astronomer Ptolemy. Its remarkable accuracy was achieved using records of lunar eclipses over several centuries. Measured using an absolute scale, such as an atomic clock, the mean synodic month is becoming gradually longer, but since the rotation of the earth is slowing even more the mean synodic month is becoming gradually shorter in terms of the day-night cycle. The value 29-12-793 was almost exactly correct in 1 CE and is now about 0.6 s per month too great. The 19 year cycle has 12 non-leap and 7 leap years. There are 235 lunar months in each cycle. This gives a total of 6939 days, 16 hours and 595 parts for each cycle. Due to the vagaries of the Hebrew calendar, 19 Hebrew years can be either 6939, 6940, 6941, or 6942 days each. To start on the same day of the week, the days in the cycle must be divisible by 7, but none of these values can be so divided. This keeps the Hebrew calendar from repeating itself too often. The calendar almost repeats every 247 years, except for an excess of 50 minutes (905 parts). So the calendar actually repeats every 36,288 cycles (every 689,472 Hebrew years). The leap years of 13 months are the 3rd, 6th, 8th, 11th, 14th, 17th, and the 19th years. Dividing the Hebrew year number by 19, and looking at the remainder will tell you if the year is a leap year (for the 19th year, the remainder is zero). A Hebrew leap year is one that has 13 months in it, a non-leap year has 12 months. A mnemonic word in Hebrew is GUCHADZaT (the Hebrew letters gimel-vav-het aleph-dalet-zayin-tet, i.e. 3, 6, 8, 1, 4, 7, 9. See Hebrew numerals). Another mnemonic is that the intervals of the major scale follow the same pattern as do Hebrew leap years: a whole step in the scale corresponds to two non-leap years between consecutive leap years, and a half step to one non-leap between two leap years. A Hebrew non leap-year will only have 353, 354, or 355 days. A leap year will have 383, 384, or 385 days. Although simple math would calculate 21 patterns for the calendar years, there are other limitations which means that Rosh Hashanah may only occur on Mondays, Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays, according to the following table:


    Day of Week

    Number of Days





















    Basically, the Hebrew months alternate between a short month and a long month, for example: Tishri (30 days), Cheshvan (also spelled Heshvan) (29 or 30 days), Kislev (30 or 29 days), Tevet (29 days), Shevat (30 days), Adar (29 days), Nisan (30 days), Iyar (29 days), Sivan (30 days), Tammuz (29 days), Av (30 days), Elul (29 days). For leap years, a 30 day month of Adar 1 is added immediately after the month of Shevat, and the 29 day Adar is called Adar 2. This is to ensure that the months remain at the same season rather than continuing to drift earlier by about 11 days per year. The 265 days from the first day of the 29 day month of Adar (the last one of the year) and ending with the 29th day of Heshvan forms a fixed length period that has all of the festivals specified in the Bible, such as Pesach (Nisan 15), Shavuot (Sivan 6), Rosh Hashannah (Tishri 1), Yom Kippur (Tishri 10), Sukkot (Tishri 15), and Shemini Atzeret (Tishri 22). The festival period from Pesach up to and including Shemini Atzeret is exactly 185 days long. The time from the traditional day of the vernal equinox up to and including the traditional day of the autumnal equinox is also exactly 185 days long. This has caused some unfounded speculation that Pesach should be March 21st, and Shemini Atzeret should be September 21, which are the traditional days for the equinoxes. Just as the Hebrew day starts at sunset, the Hebrew year starts in the Autumn (Rosh Hashanah), although the mismatch of solar and lunar years will eventually move it to another season (but not in your lifetime). Karaites use the lunar month and the solar year, but determine when to add a leap month by observing barley, rather than a fixed calendar. This occasionally puts them a month out of sync with the rest of the Jews"

    1272: Pope Gregory X condemned the ritual murder libels aimed at the Jewish people. In addition, since Jews could not bear witness against Christians, he refused to accept testimony by a Christian against a Jew unless it was confirmed by another Jew.

    1349: The Jewish population of Krems, Germany, was massacred in the Black Death riots.(As reported by Aish)

    1555: Hundreds of Jews in Cracow were killed during the Hakafot, the ritual trouping of the Torah connected with Simchat Torah.

    1571: The Holy League (Spain and Italy) destroyed the Turkish fleet at The Battle of Lepanto. This was part of a centuries-long battle before European Christians and the forces of Islam, in this case the Ottoman Empire.  Often the fighting was more about commercial gain than it was about religion.  The battle was significant because it was the first naval defeat the Ottomans had suffered in more than a century. While the Jews were not directly involved, the fighting had an impact on them.  At the time of the defeat, Selim II was the Sultan.  He opened his kingdom to the Jews settling a colony of them on the Island of Cyprus. The Ottomans accepted the defeat as the will of God, and unlike some Europeans, did not use the Jews as scapegoats for their loss.

    1665(28th of Tishrei, 5426): Chaim Auberach who served as the “assessor of the rabbinate” in Vienna and who was the brother of Menachem Mendel Auerbach and Benjamin Wolf Auerbach passed away today

    1716(21st of Tishrei, 5477): Moses Mayer Schiff, the son of Meir and Chava Schiff passed away today.

    1753(9th of Tishrei, 5514): Erev Yom Kippur; Kol Nidre

    1763: George III of Great Britain issues British Royal Proclamation of 1763, closing aboriginal lands in North America north and west of Alleghenies to white settlements. This attempt to control the growth of Colonial America was one of the causes of the American Revolution, with all that that would mean for the Jewish people. More immediately, the closure had a negative impact on the fortunes of Moses Franks, Jacob Franks, Barnard Gratz, Michael Gratz, David Franks, Moses Franks, Jr., Joseph Simon, and Levy Andrew Levy each of whom dabbled in “western” land speculation.

    1772(10th of Tishrei, 5533): Yom Kippur

    1777:Under the date of John Adams wrote his wife that he was in York, PA, where "I am lodged in the house of General Roberdeau, an Israelite, indeed, I believe, who with his sisters and children and servants does everything to make us happy. We are highly favored. No other delegates are so well off."  Fearing capture by the British, the Continental Congress had moved to York where it could meet in comparative safety. [Editor’s Note – Adams may have been in error since according there was a General Roberdeau whose father’s name is Isaac Roberdeau and they were Huegenots.]

    1777: During the Revolutionary War, The Americans defeated the British in the Second Battle of Saratoga, also known as the Battle of Bemis Heights. This defeat led France to recognize the new United States of America and, more importantly, sign a treaty which brought the Americans much needed supplies, money and the support of the French fleet.  It was the turning point in the war that would create the home of the most significant Jewish community outside of Eretz Israel. Col. David Salisbury Franks, the highest ranking Jewish officer serving with the Continental Army served with valor during the Battle.  Franks would later be serving as an aide to Benedict Arnold when the general turned traitor.  He was cleared of all charges and continued to serve with during the war. He is not to be confused with his uncle David Franks who was a Loyalist.

    1786(15th of Tishrei, 5547): Sukkoth

    1791(9th of Tishrei, 5552): Erev Yom Kippur

    1803(2st of Tishrei, 5564): Hoshana Raba

    1803(21st of Tishrei, 5564): Dob Bär ben Judah Treves the Hungarian rabbi who served as rabbinical judge in Wilvan from 1760 to 1790 who wrote “a commentary on the Pentateuch, in which, through cabalistic explanations, he endeavored to establish a connection between the written and the oral law” passed away today.  (Some sources show the day of his death on the secular calendar as October 17 but then he could not have passed away on the 21st of Tishrei)

    1805(14th of Tishrei, 5566): Erev Shavuot

    1805(14th of Tishrei, 5566): Twenty-four year old Rachel Aaron was buried today at the Lauriston Road Jewish Cemetery.

    1812: In Charleston, SC, Jacob Lazarus married Mary Hart, the daughter of the late Daniel Hart.

    1814(23rd of Tishrei, 5575): Simchat Torah

    1814: Yaakov Yitzchak of Lublin fell from a window today and suffered injuries that would lead to his death on Tisha B'Av, 5575 (August 15, 1815)

    1824(15th of Tishrei, 5585): Sukkoth

    1840: Willem II became the King of the Netherlands. He was the son of Willem I the first Dutch monarch who ruled after the defeat of the French. Unlike his Germanic counterparts, Willem did not rescind the rights the Jews had enjoyed and this policy of acceptance was followed by his son who did nothing to abrogate the rights of the Jews.

    1842: Birthdate of Sir Phillip Magnus, the Reform Rabbi turned educational reformer and political leader who was the husband of Katie Magnus and the father of publisher Laurie Magnus.

    1848(10th of Tishrei, 5609): As revolutions erupt throughout Europe, the Jews observe Yom Kippur

    1845(6th of Tishrei, 5606): Author and linguist Samson Bloch who was an ardent supporter of the Haskalah movement passed away today.

    1851:  In New York, a Hungarian Jew named Nathan Levins who has been in the United States for only two weeks filed a complaint at the Sixth Precinct claiming that Israel Steinhardt, another Hungarian Jew had robbed him of 940 pounds in Bank of England notes.  The police went to the house on Pell Street where Steinhardt was living, placed him under arrest and took him back to the precinct house where he was to be held until he could be brought before a magistrate. 

    1852: In Nachod, Bohemia, Nathan and Julie Judith Josephine Mautner gave birth to Isidor Mautner.

    1853: The ceremony of laying the corner-stone of a Jewish Educational Institute, in Greene-street, adjoining the Synagogue Bnai Jesharun, took place today. The Institute is intended as the beginning of a Hebrew College to be hereafter erected in this City. The religious services on the laying of the Corner-Stone were conducted by Rabbi Raphall.

    1854(15thof Tishrei, 5615): Sukkoth

    1854: William Wilkins gave a speech to a large gathering of Democrats in Pittsburgh, PA where he denounced the Know Nothing Party which is known for its opposition to foreigners and Catholics.  “He argued that if the Know Nothings succeeded, no religious sect would safe – that next after the Catholic the Hebrew would be proscribed.”  Jews feared the Know Nothings because of its views on non-Protestant religions and its animosity towards immigrants since many of the Jews were recent immigrants.

    1858: In Bielitz, Austria, Anna and Isaac Leonard Zeisler gave birth to Dr. Joseph Zeisler and husband of “Theresa Feuchtman” who was recognized an expert in the fields “of skin and venereal diseases.”

    1860: According to a letter written by the President, Congregation Emanu-El in San Francisco has had a net gain of 49 members in the past year raising its numbers to a total of 227.  In the past year one adult and eighteen Jewish children passed away in the last year. Monthly expenses have risen from $750 to $800.  The sale of seats has grown by $2,000 and total over $5,000 this year. Dr. Elkan Cohn continues to serve as the Rabbi of the congregation that is growing so fast it will need a new sanctuary.  In addition to which, the congregation needs to appropriate money for a school for the youngsters, including salaries for the teachers. 

    1863: A newspaper published in Petersberg, VA, reported that our readers have already been apprised of the recent extensive sales of gold, paid for in drafts as valueless as the paper on which they were written. The premium "paid" for this gold was $12. Since the withdrawal of this heavy customer the demand for the precious metals has measurably subsided, and, as the Jews are now keeping one of their protracted annual holidays, the transactions for several days past have been very light. The commission brokers are now asking $11 50 for gold. No silver in the market.” The “protracted annual holidays” referred to the Sukkoth cycle with Simchat Torah having ended the day before the article was written. 

    1864: Birthdate of Louis Ferdinand Gottschalk, the son of a Missouri governor who gained fame as a conductor and composer for musicals and movies.

    1864: Joshua Pickering a member of the Cameron Dragoons, “a largely Jewish regiment” commanded by Colonel Max Friednman was killed today at Darbytown Road, Virginia during the Civil War.

    1867: In Prescott, AZ, the 4th Territorial Legislature, which was attended by Phillip Drachman who had traveled 200 miles “by buckboard, stage and horseback” from Tucson adjourned today after it had voted to move “the capital from Prescott to Tucson” in 1868.

    1868: Founding of Cornell University at Ithaca, New York. Today at Cornell, there are approximately 3,500 Jewish undergrads among the 13,500 undergraduate population and another 500 Jewish students among its 5,000 Jewish graduate students. In other words, Jews account for about 25% of the school’s population. The school offers a major and minor in Jewish Studies as well as a full panoply of social and cultural on campus designed to meet the needs of Jewish students.

    1870: During the Franco-Prussian War, Leon Gambetta escaped from Paris by balloon. This was the only way that Gambetta could reach Tours where he was active in organizing further military opposition to the Prussians.  Gambetta was instrumental in the formation of the French Third Republic.  His father was Jewish.  His mother was not.

    1871(22nd of Tishrei, 5632): Shemini Atzeret

    1871: Congregation Bethel was organized today shortly after the Great Chicago Fire.

    1871: In Germany, Nathan Baruch Rothschild, the son of Baruch and Esther Rothschild and his wife Sophie Rothschild, both of whom settled in Columbus, GA  gave birth to Gerson Rothschild

    1871: It was reported today that “the Hebrew Feast of Tabernacles closes this morning…Offerings of branches of the palm tree, the myrtle, willow and the citron were made” yesterday during services held in the synagogues of New York.

    1874: Moses Phillips married Julia Defries tdaoy.

    1874: It was reported today the government of Romania is upset by an article published in a Jewish paper that portrays Benjamin Peixoto, the U.S. Consul in Bucharest as “the only protector of the persecuted Jews” of that country.  The Romanians claim they have done everything possible to protect the Jews.  The government claims that the increase in the number of Jews entering the country from Russia and Austria and the cessation of the exodus of Jews from Romania serves as proof of their contention.

    1878(10th of Tishrei, 5639): Yom Kippur

    1878: According to reports published today, a new group of people has been discovered in India who are supposed to be descendants of Jews sent there by King Solomon to capture elephants and work in the gold mines.  Instead of calling themselves Jews, they refer to themselves as Sons Of Israel. They have prayer-books and Bibles written in Hebrew.  They observe Shabbat but show no knowledge of Yom Kippur or Pesach. [Editor’s Note – While the connection with Solomon might be hard to prove, referring to themselves as Sons of Israel and not Jews would argue for their antiquity considering how much later the latter term came to be used to describe The Chosen People.]

    1878: With the end of Yom Kippur this evening Morris Bloom a peddler living on Orchard Street and Sarah Greenberg of Hester Street can be married in a synagogue. The families of the couple had opposed the marriage and the youngsters had a Judge of the Court of General Sessions perform a civil ceremony.  Once the families saw that the two were committed to each other, they relented which is the reason for the religious ceremony.

    1879: Germany and Austria-Hungary sign the "Twofold Covenant" and create the Dual Alliance. This alliance had amazing durability.  It was this alliance which helped trigger World War I and all the suffering for Jews and non-Jews that has flowed from this seminal event.

    1879: Birthdate of Leon Trotsky.  Born Lev Davidovich Bronstein to wealthy Jewish farmers in the Ukraine, Bronstein became a revolutionary committed to the overthrown of the Czar.  After spending time in Siberia, he joined forces with Lenin.  After the Bolshevik Revolution created the Red Army which defeated both the foreign armies that invaded the Soviet Union and the White Forces during the bloody civil war that followed.  Trotsky would lose out to Stalin in the power struggle that followed Lenin’s death.  Trotsky would be hacked to death by one of Stalin’s agents in 1940 while living in Mexico.  Anti-Semites would use Trotsky’s Jewish origins as one source of proof that Communism was part of a Jewish conspiracy to take over the world. The joke among Jews was the Trostkys make the revolutions and the Bronsteins suffer the consequences.

    1880: In Chicago, Julia and Bernhard Daniels gave birth to Julius Daniels, the brother of Max, Minnie, Samuel and Hattie Daniels

     1881(14th of Tishrei, 5642): Erev Sukkoth

    1881(14th of Tishrei, 5642): Seventy-one year old Lewis Jacob Marcus lawyer and political activist who moved to England after his retirement passed away in Manchester, UK.

    1881: “Current Foreign Topics” published today described the trial of the chief editors and a reporter for two of Germany’s leading newspapers who had been charged with “insulting a police commissioner” by reporting on his attendance at an “anti-Jewish meeting” last year. The journalists accused him of “neglecting his duty” for not intervening when “a section of the audience attacked the Jews.” The reporter was acquitted but the editors were fined 50 marks.

    1883: It was reported today that the Young Men’s Hebrew Association plans to offer a series of lectures every Saturday between now and November that will help with the Americanization of immigrants who have come from Germany, Russia and other parts of Eastern Europe.  Starting in November, the YMHA will offer classes four nights a week in reading, writing and spelling. Among those leading the effort are M.A. Kuresheedt, M.W. Platzek and Rabbi Aaron Wise.

    1884: In Bavaria,”the famous mathematician Max Noether and his wife Ida Amalia Kaufmann” gave birth mathematician Fritz Noether, the third of their four children who moved to the Soviet Union because the Nazis would not him pursue his career but ended up being executed in 1941 after the Russians decided the Jew was really a spy.

    1884: “City and Suburban News” published today included a note that Hebrew teacher Gadalic Richter has been released from the Tombs after charges of arson against could not be proven.

    1885: In Copenhagen,Christian Bohr,a professor of physiology at the University of Copenhagen, and Ellen Adler Bohr, who came from a wealthy Danish Jewish family prominent in banking and parliamentary circles” gave birth to Neils Bohr the physicist who is the Father of Quantum Theory and winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1922.

    1886(8th of Tishrei, 5647):Solomon Goldberg, a 34 year Jew from Poland who had been confined to The Tombs on charges of not supporting his wife, took his own life this afternoon.

    1886: Joseph Rosenberg, who had passed away at the age of 102, was buried today in New Orleans, LA.

                1888: “New Settlers Destitute” published today while many of the homesteaders living in the Dakota territories are suffering due to crop failure, the greatest suffering is found among the 300 Russian Jews who settled there two years ago.  Some of the families are without food and the rest will need outside financial assistance if they are to survive. (My grandfather and his brother homesteaded in the Dakotas in the 1890’s and experienced hardship.  After a winter of living on crackers, as soon as the roads were passable, my grandfather went back to Chicago to seek “fame and fortune.”)

    1888: “Old World News By Cable” published today described the many contradictory stories going around Europe about the German scheme to rescue Emin Pasha.  Those opposed to the plans point out that he really is a Jew named Isaac Schnitzler. (Emin Pasha had in fact been born a Jew but he converted and became a romantic Muslim leader).

    1888: Birthdate of movie director Robert Z. Leonard.

    1889: Driven by the effective and fervent lobbying efforts of activist Annie Nathan Meyer, Barnard College opened its doors. Although a number of northern elite women's colleges had opened during the 1870s, numerous cities, including New York, had little to offer young women of scholarly inclinations. At age 18, Meyer, who was largely self-educated, organized a reading circle and enrolled in the newly established extension program for women at Columbia College. Meyer married shortly before her 20th birthday in 1887 and soon began working to establish an affiliate women's college to Columbia. Meyer published a powerful letter to the Nation magazine and circulated a petition throughout the city to win the college's trustees over to her effort. Meyer achieved funding and support from the trustees on April 1 1889, leased quarters for the school, and began accepting applicants. Barnard became the first women's college in New York to offer the rigorous course work equivalent to that of male liberal arts colleges. Annie Nathan Meyer continued her work with Barnard throughout her life, becoming a member of the first board of trustees and remaining active in trustee affairs for the ensuing six decades. (Jewish Women’s Archives)

    1889: In Berlin, the former Martha Behrendt and her husband, bank director and newspaper published Richard Jacob gave birth to author and journalist Heinrich Eduard Jacob “who also wrote under the pen names Henry E. Jacob and Eric Jens Petersen.”

    1890(23rd of Tishrei, 5651): Simchat Torah.

    1890: “A Great City University” published today described the meeting of the Trustees of Columbia University where a list of gifts to the school was presented including $1,000 from Jesse Seligman which is to be allocated to the Seligman Fellowships.

    1891: In Berlin, “historian and socialist Ignaz Jastrow” gave birth to archeologist Elisabeth Jastrow who settled in the United States in the 1930’s who along with her sister “Lotte Beate Jastrow Hahn” successful rescued her mother Anna Seligman Jastrow from Nazi Germany


    1891: A brief summary of the annual report of the United Hebrew Charities showed that the organization had spent $167,811.85 in the last year, $62,121.60 of which came from the Baron de Hirsch Committee.

    1891: “Jews  And The Russian Loan” published today described the concern among American Jews that two “Jewish” banking houses – Mendelssohn & Co. and Warschauer & Co. --- are willing to extend credit to a government that treats its Jewish subjects so poorly.

    1891(5thof Tishrei, 5652): Seventy-two year old Jakob Eduard Poak, the Austrian trained physician who played a key role in bringing modern medical practices to Iran and served as the personal doctor to the Shah from 1855 to 1860 passed away today in Vienna.

    1894: Rabbi Wintner officiated at the wedding ceremony of Ida E. Korne and John Bernstein, the son Nathan Bernstein, the wealthy Brooklyn merchant who is near death and insisted that he marriage take place so he could witness it before he passed away.

    1896: Birthdate of Minsk native Shmuel-Ber Leykin.

    1897: “Over In Camden” published today included a description of the observance of Yom Kippur in that New Jersey city just outside of Philadelphia, PA.

    1897: The Bund (Jewish Workers Party) held its first conference in Russia. It was the first Jewish Socialist party in Eastern Europe. At first decidedly anti-Zionist and pro-Yiddishist, it was organized as a union of Russian Jewish socialist groups. The bund exerted a great influence on Jews in Europe and America. Interestingly enough, the Bund held its first meeting during the same year in which the Zionists held their first Congress.

    1897: Professor Francis William Newman, the author of A History of the Hebrew Monarchy (1847) and Hebrew Theism (1874) who was the brother of the late Cardinal Newman passed away.

    1897: It was reported today that the late Lewis Stark, a New York businessman who “was a member of a number Hebrew charitable organizations” will be buried in Baltimore, MD

    1898(21st of Tishrei, 5659): Hoshanah Rabah

    1898:  Birthdate of Alfred Wallenstein, principle cellist for the Chicago Symphony from 1922 to 1929.

    1899: It was reported today the Jewish poet and author Salomon Mandelkern has come from his home in Leipzig to visit his son Israel who is living on East Broadway in Manhattan.

    1899: Abraham Cahan was described today as “the ‘Yiddish’ author” who “lives near the up-town ‘Ghetto’ and edits a Hebrew scientific periodical, besides teaching and writing interesting newspaper articles about the east side and its peculiar peoples.”

    1900: Birthdate of Russian-born American muralist and painter Louis Goodman who came to the United States in 1910, studied at The School of the Art Institute of Chicago and who did everything from creating “a comic strip called ‘The Kids on Our Block’” to painted “murals at the RCA Building” at the time of the 1939 World’s Fair.

    1901: Birthdate of Ralph Reichenthal who gained fame as composer and pianist Ralph Rainger.

    1903(16th of Tishrei, 5664): Second Day of Sukkoth

    1903(16th of Tishrei, 5664): German Born mathematician Rudolph Otto Sigismund Lispchitz passed away.  Born in 1832, Lispschitz was a professor at the University of Bonn for almost forty years and the man who developed the mathematical paradigm known as the Lipschitz Continuity.

    1903: In San Francisco, a contract was entered into to begin building the new sanctuary for Congregation Sherith Israel

    1906:The Sinai Temple congregation resolved to have Dr. Leon Messing, a native of Alabama, who was serving a congregation in Bloomington, commute to Champagne-Urbana every Sunday and on the high holidays.

    1906: During his quest to get Cuban approval for the creation of a Jewish cemetery Manuel Hadida, Chairman of the United Hebrew Congregation (UHC) of Cuba, met with Rabbi Haim (Henry) Pereira Méndez, the spiritual leader of the Spanish-Portuguese synagogue, Shearith Israel, in New York.  Hadida was looking to the United States to use its influence with the newly independent Cuba to move this project forward.

    1909(22nd of Tishrei, 5670): Shemini Atzeret

    1910: Louis-Norbert Carrière “the government commissioner who successfully pled at Rennes for Dreyfus's second conviction” returned to civilian life ending a career that had begun when joined the 38thInfantry Regiment in 1855 after graduating from St. Cyr.

    1911(15th of Tishrei, 5672): Sukkoth

    1911(15th of Tishrei, 5672): Nineteen year old Jankel Nissen Schattenstein, the son of Dov Schattenstein passed away today.

    1912(26th of Tishrei, 5673): Thirty four year old Dobe Chatzkelsohn, the daughter of Josef Chatzkelsohn passed away today.

    1912: Lionel de Rothschild M.P. married Mlle. Marie Louise Beer in Paris this afternoon.  Mlle. Beer is the daughter of French banker Edmond Beer and her sister married Baron Robert de Rothschild.

    1912: Opening day of the “Becker-Rosenthal Murder Trial.”  Herman Rosenthal was a Jewish gambler in New York who was allegedly gunned down by Harry Horowitz’s Lenox Avenue Gang. Becker was Charles Becker, a crooked cop, whom the District Attorney believed had ordered the murder.

    1913: On New York’s Lower East side a Russian immigrant tailor and his wife gave birth to Arthur “Archie” Kameros “a four year starting center for LIU-Brooklyn in the mid-1930s, graduate of Columbia University of Dentistry and Bronze Star winning WW II veteran.

    1914(17th of Tishrei, 5675): Third day of Sukkoth

    1914: Today “a morning journal reported the discovery of a shekel of gold, bronze and platinum, struck by the Jews of 3400 B.C., marked with Hebrew character signifying things that were never marked on shekels and with a representation of ‘the Start of Bethlehem’” and the article continues “there is a duplicate of the coin in the British Museum.”

    1914: “Rabbi Levi Answers Ross” published today described the response of Rabbi Charles S Levi to an article written by Professor Edward A. Ross of the University in which attacks Jews, especially  those from eastern Europe. (This is not is not Ross’s first brush with ethnic slurs. He was fired from Stanford for his attacks on Chinese and Japanese immigrants).

    1914: Birthdate of Bernard Phillips, one of the UK’s leading insolvency practitioners whose expertise led to him being elected chairman and then president of the Insolvency Practitioners Association.

    1915: In New York City, Harry Scherman and Bernardine Kielty Scherman gave birth to Swarthmore graduate Katharine Scherman an editor at “Book-of-the-Month Club and author  who became Katherine Scherman Rosin when she married Axel Rosin  with who she had two daughters.

    1915: A letter written to the New York Times today notes that “the accounts that come to us and to the million or more Russian Jews in this country from their fathers, mothers and sisters in Russian Poland and Galicia unfold a chapter of horrors in the lurid light of which the past tragedies of that martyred race pale in their intensity and in their extent, affect no less than three million souls.”

    1916(10th of Tishrei, 5677): Yom Kippur

    1916: In “Rosalsky Pleads for Jews” Otto A. Rosalsky, a judge of the court of General Sessions in New York said that while Jews in American “are enjoying civil, religious and political freedom in the largest measure ever accorded to those who live in a land of liberty” “calamity has befallen our Jewish brethren” in Europe, where “over a million Jewish soldiers are on the battlefields fighting for the cause of countries that not only denied them civil, religious and political freedom but have subjected them to every form of brutal oppression.”

    1916: At the Kessler Theatre, where Rabbi Herman Kiminester was conducting services, 2,500 people found their prayers interrupted when fire engines arrived in response to what turned out to be a false alarm.

    1916: At Temple Israel, in Harlem, Rabbi M.H. Harris spoke on the origins of the term scapegoat, telling of how the Jews had filled that role in Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales, in the actions of the “unspeakable Tom Watson of Georgia, and to Germany where “the anti-Semitic movement was ‘a cunning political move to diver the attention of the public from the autocratic powers and abuses of the Government by persuading the people that all of their social troubles were due to the Jews.’”

    1916: At Temple Emanu-El Rabbi Joseph Silverman delivered a sermon on “The New Judasim” which included an appeal to his congregants “to do all in their power to aid Jewish sufferers in the war zone abroad.”

    1916: Birthdate of economist Walt Whitman Rostow who along with his brother Gene was an architect of American foreign policy under the Kennedy and Johnson administrations.

    1917(21st of Tishrei, 5678): Hoshanah Rabah

    1917: It was announced today that the Executive Committee for the American Jewish Congress whose members include Nathan Straus, Adolph Lewisohn, Colonel Harry Cutler, Louis Marshall, Louis Kirstein and Dr. Stephen S. Wise would meet in special session” next week to select a date when the full Congress will meet.

    1917: “In making public plans for an anti-pacifist campaign in New York this week, the American Alliance for Labor announced” today “that the Jewish Socialist League would lead the fight on the East Side.”

    1917: Birthdate of Jerome Pitkow, the native of Philadelphia and 1941 graduate of NYU Law School who became an executive with Supermarkets General Corporation and a leading New York Jewish philanthropist.

    1917: In Vienna, Alfred Guttman and his wife gave birth to actor Helmut Dantine who was arrested after the Anschluss because of his anti-Nazi activities. 

    1917: Rabbi Abraham Cronbach, the Indiana born son of Marcus and Hannah (Itzig) Cronbach married “Rose Hentel, a teacher at the Free Synagogue in New York” who would adopt a daughter Marion, the future wife of Rabbi Maurice Davis.

    1918:“A call for a final military effort on the battle field was published in the Vossiche Zeitung.  Written by the Jewish industrialist Walther Rathenau, its aim was to give Germany the strongest possible position from which to negotiate a peace of equality rather than of defeat. ‘It is peace we want, not war --- but not a peace of surrender.’”

    1918: In New York City. Arthur and Frances Landau Jaffa gave birth to Harry Victor Jaffa one of Leo Strauss’ first graduate students.

    1918: Birthdate of Marcus Klingberg the native of Poland who took refuge from the Nazis in the Soviet Union where he graduated from Medical School.  After serving doctor with the Red Army during World War II, he moved to Israel in 1948.  Eventually he would rise to a ranking position at the Israel Institute for Biological Research.  In 1983 he was unmasked as leading agent for the Soviet Union.

    1919: Birthdate of Sir Zelman Cowen 19thGovernor-General of Australia and active leader of the Melbourne Jewish Community.

    1919: It was announced today that Sir Philip Albert Gustave David Sassoon, 3rd Baronet, had been awarded the French Croix de Guerre for his service during World War I.

    1920: Mrs. Eva Epstein and her son Edward who have spent the summer in Paris, London and Scotland are scheduled to return to New York today aboard the S.S. Olympic

    1920: “Jewish representatives from all parts of Palestine” are scheduled to gather today for the first Jewish Assembly where they will elect “an independent executive composed of Palestine Jews to replace the present Zionist Commission.”

    1922(15th of Tishrei, 5683): Sukkoth is observed for the last time during the Presidency of Warren G. Harding.

    1923: In a major league career that lasted one week, Outfielder Mose Solomon played his last game for the New York Giants.

    1923: Arnold and Ralph Horween “both scored in the same game as” Arnold “kicked two extra points and” Ralaph “ran for a touchdown as the Chicago Cardinals beat the Rochester Jefferson.”

    1924(9th of Tishrei, 5685): Erev Yom Kippur

    1925: First game of the 1925 World Series which saw Buddy Myer playing 2nd base for the Washington Senators.

    1926: In Germany, Aaron and Rose Lubrani gave birth to Israeli diplomat and government official Uri Lubrani who began his career serving as the political secretary to Prime Minister Ben-Gurion and who has held several other positions the most rewarding of which may have been as the coordinator for Operation Solomon in 1990.

    1932: Thirty-six year old Benny Leonard’s “career ended today when he was TKO’ed in 6 rounds.

    1934(28th of Tishrei, 5695): Dutch painter Isaac Lazarus Israëls passed away.  Painting must have been in his blood since he was the son of Jozef Israëls.  For examples of his work see

    1935:  A memorial service for Jacob H. Schiff, Jewish philanthropist, was held today in the original building of Congregation Ohab Zedek at 18 West 116th Street in Manhattan. In 1906, Mr. Schiff had laid the cornerstone for this structure. A tribute by Morris Engelman, chairman of the congregation, included a plea for the establishment of a Schiff Memorial Fund that would aid Jewish social, educational and religious institutions throughout the world.

    1936(21stof Tishrei, 5697): Hoshanah Rabah

    1936: At Geneva, “Christian Lange of Norway expressed ‘great astonishment’ that Britain had not yet ended the Palestine disorders” and “criticized Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden for refusing the mandates commission’s request that Britain report to it on Palestine in November.”

    1936: In London, the Home Secretary “invited his critics to pass a new law against ‘provocative’ demonstrations if they wished to prevent a repetition of the recent riots caused by the Fascists under Oswald Mosely taking to the streets in the Jewish section of the East End.

    1937:The Jerusalem Post reported that Bronislaw Huberman, the famous Jewish violinist and the founder of the Palestine Symphony Orchestra, was passenger on the Royal Dutch (KLM) plane which crashed in Sumatra. He escaped without serious injury.

    1937: The Jerusalem Postreported that French troops stopped clashes between Arabs and Turks at Antioch.

    1938: In London, UK, premiere of “The Lady Vanishes” co-starring Paul Lukas with music by Louis Levy.

    1938: The Fascist Grand Council in Rome issues a set of new antisemitic laws designed for the "defense of the Italian race" and to suppress "world Hebrewism." Most of the laws target Jews,

    1938: Germany decreed that passports of Jews were to be marked with a J.

    1938: Judy Garland (who was not Jewish) made her first recording of "Over the Rainbow" is a ballad, with music by Harold Arlen and lyrics by Yip Harburg, a ballad written for “The Wizard of Oz.”

    1939: Hitler appointed Himmler head of the R.K.F.D.V., an organization responsible for the deportation of Poles and Jews from Polish provinces.

    1939: “Stop Me If You’ve Heard This One, a comedy radio series hosted by Milton Berle aired for the first time tonight.

    1939: As of today, it was reported that Rumania has a population of 20,000,000, a fourth of which are “classified as minorities” which include 770,000 Jews.

    1939: “Speaking at the first Fall luncheon meeting of the Foreign Policy Association at the Hotel Astor” “Anne O’Hare McCormick of the editorial staff of the New York Times declared that “Hitler’s peace proposals as advanced in his Reichstag speech, constitute an ‘imperious demand’ that Great Britain and France accept the ‘new order he and Stalin intend to set up in Eastern Europe’ and leave the Allies with no alternative but to reject them flatly.”

    1939: In England Edith and Heinz Krotoschiner gave birth to Harold Krotoschiner who gained fame as chemist Sir Harold Kroto, who co-discovered fullerene and shared in the 1996 Nobel Prize for Chemistry.

    1939: Today’s occupation of Zamosc, Poland by the Nazis is preceded by Polish mobs attacking the town’s Jews.

    1939: George and Isabel Schwartz Shenker gave birth to Joseph Shenker, who at the age of 29,  became the youngest president of a college in the City University of New York system and one of the youngest in the nation, when he was appointed interim president of Kingsborough Community College in Brooklyn in 1969.

    1939: “U-Boat 29” produced by Alexander Korda , with a script by Emeric Pressburger, which had been related as “The Spy in Black” was released in the United States today, two days after its New York premiere.

    1939: Penn St. led by its captain Sidney “Spike Alter defeated Bucknell in its season opening football game.

     1940: German troops move into Romania bringing with them the horrors of the Holocaust.  As can be seen from negotiations surrounding the 19th century Treaty of Berlin, anti-Semitism was an established part of the Romanian landscape. The Romanians, led by the infamous Iron Cross killed tens of thousands of their Jewish neighbors.  Estimates as to the actual number killed range from 280,000 to 380,000.

    1940: The Vichy Government “swept away the Cremieux Decree of 1870; a law that granted French citizenship to the Jews of Algeria.  This act of anti-Semitism would echo in the world of 21st American politics when Virginia Republican Senator George Allen found out for the first time that his was an Algerian Jew; a refugee from the Holocaust who had never told her son of his Jewish ancestry for fear that someday the United States would turn on its Jewish citizens in the same that France had during World War II.

    1941: At Rowne, Volhunia, the SS and local militia took over 17,000 Jews taken from their homes, marched them to open pits, and slaughtered them.

    1943(7th of Tishrei, 5704): Sixty-four year old Lithuanian native Ephraim Caplan, the “religious editor of the Jewish Morning Journal,” long-time director of the Jewish National Fund of America and President of the Council for Orthodox Jewish Education who was the husband of Eva Caplan with whom he had one daughter, Martha and “three sons, Dr. Leon Caplan, Dr. Joseph Caplan” and Saul Caplan who served with the U.S. Army in WW II, passed away today in Brooklyn.”

    1943: German convoys deported Jews from Morocco to the concentration camps of Europe.

    1943: “Lassie Come Home,” produced by Samuel Marx and Dore Schary was released today in the United States.

    1943: Jewish partisans fighting in Lithuania destroyed fifty telegraph poles.

    1943: Paul Steinberg, Phillipe Hagenauer and “former world boxing champion Victor ‘Young’ Perez were deported from Drancy to Auschwitz together.

    1943: One thousand Jews are deported from Paris to their deaths at Auschwitz.

    1943: In an official report, the German chief of police in Poland recommends that Poles who aid Jews should be dealt with without benefit of trial.

    1943: In a Yom Kippur radio message to Jewish service men, Vice President Henry A. Wallace said that "the names of those who have served in this war will be honored whether they belong to the so-called blue-bloods from Boston or Negroes from South Carolina…' We are not Jews or Gentiles, Whites or Blacks,' but people of the United States.”

    1944(20thof Tishrei, 5705): Dutch banker Jacobus Henricus Kann who was a partner in Lissa & Kann and a co-founder of the Jewish Colonial Trust died today at Theresienstadt

    1944: While the furnaces belched forth Jewish ashes, a group of Jewish members of the Auschwitz Sonderkommando revolted. They killed a number of their masters, destroyed one gas chamber/crematorium complex, damaged another, and - more than any other nation - stopped the slaughter of innocent Jews. One of the key participants in this little-known revolt was Rosa Robota, a young Jewish prisoner, who arranged to obtain the explosives, stored them, and turned them over to the Underground. Young Rosa and three other women prisoners were hanged for their complicity in this revolt a few days before the Germans abandoned the camp. She received the highest award from the Polish government, and is honored with a sculpture in Yad VaShem.

    1944(20th of Tishrei, 5705): Today, the Sonderkommandos at Birkenau chose to revolt instead of being selected to be "sent away." Chaim Neuhof was the first to strike an SS guard. Then the rest of the Crematorium IV men surged forward with pick and axes against their guards despite the arrival of multiple machine gun units. After setting fire to the Crematorium, the SS machine-gunned all the men. Despite this Crematorium II Sonderkommandos and Russian prisoners followed their lead and joined in the fight.  Many men from Crematorium III and V broke out through the fences. Almost all were caught and executed. [Editor’s note- this took place on the 6th of Sukkoth.  You have to wonder why this event has not been memorialized in the festival liturgy.]

    1945: During a press conference in Rome two Republican Senators, Karl E. Mundt of South Dakota and Frances P. Bolton of Ohio expressed their opposition to a reported request from President Truman to the British government 100,000 Jews into Palestine be allowed to move to Palestine immediately.

    1946: Ben Hecht’s “A Flag Is Born” opened at the Adelphi Theatre.

    1946: In the UK, “social worker and former communist Miriam Abramsky and Professor Chimen Abramsky the son of Rabbi Yehezkel Abramsky gave birth to Dame Jennifer Gita "Jenny" Abramsky, DBE the chairman of the UK's National Heritage Memorial Fund

    1946: “The Jewish National Fund made a world-wide appeal today to Jews to contribute $20,000,000” during the upcoming Jewish year.  Dr. Abraham Granowsky, chairman of the Board of Directors of the JNF said that funds contributed during the past year had made it possible for new settlements to be built in areas that extended the reach of the Yishuv.

    1947(23rd of Tishrei, 5708): Simchat Torah

    1947: British trade unionist Manny Shinwell begins serving as Secretary of State for War under Prime Minister Clement Attlee making him part of the civilian leadership controlling the British Army that was battling with the Jews of pre-state Israel.

    1948:Just months after the state of Israel triumphantly declared its independence the town of Waltham, Mass. welcomed the nation's first non-sectarian, Jewish-sponsored University. Spanning a total of 100 acres, the original campus replaced the former Middlesex College. Prominent members of the American Jewish community, including Albert Einstein, founded the University in tribute to Louis D. Brandeis, who served on the U.S. Supreme Court from 1916 to 1939. The University initially comprised the School of General Studies, the School of Social Studies, the School of Humanities and the School of Science. First-years were to enroll in the School of General Studies and then choose a field of specialty. Heralded by its first president, Abram Sachar, the school’s first president said that the institution would follow those ideals of "academic integrity" and service, exemplified by its namesake.

    1948: The Neutral Zone around Government House in Jerusalem was transferred to United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) protection.

    1948: “Love Life” “a musical written by Kurt Weill and Alan Jay Lerner who provided the books and lyrics opened on Broadway at the 46thStreet Theatre.

    1949: In response to the formation of the Federal Republic of Germany which was made up of the French, British and U.S. occupation zones, the Soviet Union for the German Democratic Republic known as Eastern Germany – the one part of Nazi Germany that never underwent de-Nazification or paid reparations to the Jewish victims of the Holoaust.

    1951: In Baltimore, MD, Morton and Bettie Brenner gave birth to Barbara Ann Breener, who “became Breast Cancer Action’s first executive director in 1995, two years after undergoing treatment for the disease and a year before it recurred.” (As reported by Denise Grady)

    1951: Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion presented his new government to the Knesset.  The long drawn out process convinces Ben-Gurion that Israel needs to move from the multi-party system to a two-party system like the British use.  But even Ben-Gurion cannot bring about this change.  To this day, Israeli politics continue to chaotic due to its multiplicity of parties and shifting political alliances.

    1952:The Jerusalem Post reported that Dov Shilansky tried to sabotage the reparations agreement with Germany by an attempt to bomb one of the Foreign Ministry buildings in Jerusalem's Hakirya. Emotions on this topic ran high on this topic.  Many Jews felt that accepting money would somehow be a sign of forgiving the Germans.  Others felt that it was “blood money” and it was tainted.  Ultimately, a realistic view would prevail and Israel would use the money in a variety of ways designed to help the infant state survive.

    1953(28th of Tishrei, 5714): Forty-five year old Dr. Elias “Ely” Abrahams, the son “Max and Fannie Abrahams,” “the husband of the former Violet Dreishpoon” with whom he had one child Paul and dentist who practiced in New York but lived in Brooklyn passed away today after which he was buried at Baron Hirsch Cemetery.

    1954(10th of Tishrei, 5715): Yom Kippur

    1955: Beat poet Allen Ginsberg read his poem "Howl" for the first time at a poetry reading in San Francisco

    1956: The Israeli Cabinet expresses support for Ben Gurion’s decision to exercise restraint and not mount reprisal raids against Arab terrorists.

    1956: “The Bespoke Overcoats” the Oscar winning British film “based on a 1953 play of the same name by Wolf Mankowitz” which co-stars Alfie Bass and David Kosoff was released in the United Kingdom today by Warner Brothers.

    1957(12th of Tishrei, 5718): Sixty-eight year old Jekuthiel Ginsburg, the native of Poland and husband of the former Anna Bodsky, who came to the United States in 1912, earned his degrees in Mathematics at Columbia and founded the Institute of Mathematics at Yeshiva University passed away today.

    1958:”The Old Man and the Sea,” a movie version of the novel with a screenplay by Peter Viertel and music by Dimitri Tiomkin premiered in the United States today.

    1959: U.S. premiere of “Pillow Talk,” a comedy co-produced by Martin Melcher, with a script co-authored by Stanley Shapiro and co-starring Tony Randall.

    1959: In the United Kingdom, Eric Selig Phillip Cowell a music executive who came from a family of Polish Jews and his non-Jewish wife Julie gave birth to American Idol Judge Simon Cowell.

    1960: ABC broadcast the first episode of “The Law and Mr. Jones” created and produced by Sy Gomberg which had included guest star appearances by Sam Jaffe and Martin Landau

    1961: After 607 performances the curtain came down on the original Broadway production of “Bye Bye Birdie” with music by Charles Strouse

    1964: “Fail Safe” a film version of the novel by the same name directed by Sidney Lumet, produced by Sidney Lumet and Max Youngstein, with a script co-authored by Walter Bernstein and co-starring Walter Matthau was released in the United States today.

    1964(1st of Cheshvan, 5725): Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan

    1964(1st of Cheshvan, 5725): Seventy-six year old Abraham Joseph Alper, the son of Isaac and Lotta Alper and the husband of Lena Zion Alper, passed away today after which he was buried at B’Nai Zion Cemetery in Chattanooga, TN.

    1964: “See How They Run” “the first made for television movie” with music by Lalo Schifrin was aired today by NBC.

    1966(23rd of Tishrei, 5727): Simchat Torah

    1969: “Battle of Neretva” a film based on the Axis attempt to wipe out the Yugoslav partisans in 1943 produced by Harry Weinstein and Steven Previn with music by Bernard Hermann was released today.

    1968(15th of Tishrei, 5729): Sukkoth

    1971: “Bedknobs and Broomsticks” a Disney musical with songs by Richard and Robert Sherman and a score by Irwin Kostal was released in the United Kingdom today.

    1972: Birthdate of American screenwriter and film director Ben Younger who is responsible for a marvelous little film called “Boiler Room.”

    1973: Today “Israel’s defense minister Moshe Dayan told prime minister Golda Meir to consider making preparations for the use of nuclear weapons, according to an interview with a ministerial aide now being published for the first time.” (As reported by Mitch Ginsburg)

    1973: On the second day of the Yom Kippur War, 100 tanks arrived on Israel’s border with Syria.  General Hofi, the Israeli commander on the Northern Front had requested the tanks before the fighting started. This meant that General Hofi had 170 tanks to use against 1,400 Syrian tanks.  To understand the immensity of the threat faced by the Israelis, consider the following, in World War II the Nazis used 1400 tanks to invade the Soviet Union along a 1,000 mile front.  The Syrians had 1,400 tanks to use along a forty mile front.

    1973: On the second day of the war the IAF lost six F-4 Phantoms over Syria during Model 5 a mission designed to knock the Syrian SAM batteries on the Gloan front – a mission that failed miserably.

    1973: Caught by surprise and badly outnumbered, Israeli troops cling to front in the Sinai.  In twenty four hours the Israeli force of 290 tanks had been reduced by two thirds.  Dayan visited the Sinai front and called for a withdrawal to the Sinai passes, which he thought would be a better line of defense.  General Sharon arrived with a reinforcing division and wanted to advance to the east bank of the Canal.  As the generals debated, the soldiers on the ground were fighting a series of bloody holding actions.  Egyptian hand held missiles were negating the edge that the Air Force and armored units had previously given the IDF.  

    1973: A discussion took place at the Prime Minister's Office that centered on how to enlist American support at the United Nations and head off a cease-fire that would hurt Israel. Mrs. Meir suggested putting together a list of requests.  Mrs. Meir rejected a suggesting that the Israelis should present U.S. secretary of state Henry Kissinger with a partial, distorted picture exaggerating Israel's poor situation to win the Nixon administration's support. Meir rejected the suggestion out of hand. "We should telegraph him the details; he should get the real picture," she said. "We can't play hide and seek with him." Minister Yisrael Galili asked in response, "Do we sell him the fact that we've moved out of the populated areas?"  Mrs. Meir replied, "I don't object to us saying, there's also risk to populated areas ... I want to give him the real picture. I'm not under the impression the situation is doomed ... We should tell it to him convincingly. Tonight was a bad night."

    1973:Word of the stunning success of the Israeli missile boats brought crowds down to the Haifa breakwater this morning to welcome the returning squadron. Barkai, the commanding officer, had decided that there would be no brooms tied to masts, the traditional symbol of a naval victory. Any flaunting of the victory over the Syrians, he said, "wouldn't be respectful to them or to ourselves."

    1973: Gad Smooch landed safely after the Syrians had fired a SAM at his F-4E

    1973: Despite suffering “severe losses” the 162ndDivision under the command of Avraham Adan continued to attempt to throw the Egyptians back across the Suez Canal.

    1973: “On the second day of the war, Maj. Gen. Shmuel “Gorodish” Gonen, a learned disciplinarian shouted at a recalcitrant General Sharon ‘I will dismiss you right now!’ when Sharon told him his attack orders were mistaken and would be ‘a disastrous mistake.’” (As reported by Mitch Ginsburg)

    1973: Avikam Lif, Ami Elkelei, Shuki Wolfson, Avi Barber, and Zvi Afik were all taken prisoner when the F-4E Phantom Jets they were flying were shot down by Syrian Surface to Air Missiles (SAM)

    1973: On the second day of the Battle for the Valley of Tears, “Syrians forces suffered heavy losses as the outnumbered Israeli tanks and infantry fought desperately to buy time for reserves forces to reach the front lines.”

    1975: The “USSR Supreme Soviet Presidium” ratified an agreement providing for economic and technical cooperation with Syria that could only be seen as threatening to Israeli planners.

    1977: “Black Martin Baby” a movie version of the novel produced by Milton Sperling and featuring Tom Bosley was released today.

    1979(16th of Tishrei, 5740): Sukkoth II

    1979(16th of Tishrei, 5740): Eight-four year old “Irving Maidman, a major owner of properties around Times Square, the dean of West Side Development,” “a founder of the Albert Einstein Medical School” and husband of “the former Edith Shvitiz with whom he had four children – Robert, Mathew, Rebecca and Ellen – passed away today in Upper Nyack where he was “a direct of Congregation Sons of Israel Temple.

    1980(27th of Tishrei, 5741): Seventy-eight year hold hotel owner Hyman B. Cantor, the husband of the “former Gertrude Levinson” and philanthropist passed away today.

    1981(9th of Tishrei, 5742): Erev Yom Kippur

    1981: As the Jews of Cedar Rapids chant Kol Nidre, Abbie Silber, daughter of Laurie and Dr. Robert Silber arrives in the world.  It is an appropriate and auspicious choice of birthdates for a young woman who has gone to become a “Sweet Singer in Israel” and whose parents are pillars of the Jewish Community.

    1981(9th of Tishrei, 5742): Novelist Albert Cohen passed away.  Cohen is a study in the multi-nationalism of Jewish identity.  Born in Greece in 1895, Cohen wrote his novels in French, and became a Swiss Citizen in 1919.

    1981: Egypt's parliament named Vice President Hosni Mubarak to succeed the assassinated Anwar Sadat.  Much to the consternation of those who plotted Sadat’s murder, Mubarak continued to honor the peace agreement with Israel.

    1983: “Never Say Never,” one of the films in the James Bond series, directed by Irvin Kershner and produced by Jack Schwartzman was released in the United States by Warner Brothers.

    1985(22nd of Tishrei, 5746): Shemini Atzeret

    1985: Palestinian gunmen hijacked the Italian cruise ship Achille Lauro in the Mediterranean with more than 400 people aboard. “Four men representing the Palestine Liberation Front (PLF) took control of the liner off Egypt while she was sailing from Alexandria to Port Said within Egypt. The hijackers had been surprised by a crew member and acted prematurely. Holding the passengers and crew hostage, they directed the vessel to sail to Tartus, Syria, and demanded the release of 50 Palestinians then in Israeli prisons. When refused permission to dock at Tartus, the hijackers shot one wheelchair-bound passenger – an American named Leon Klinghoffer – because he was Jewish, and threw his body overboard. The ship headed back towards Port Said, and after two days of negotiations the hijackers agreed to abandon the liner for safe conduct and were flown towards Tunisia aboard an Egyptian commercial airliner.

    1987: “Baby Boom” a comedy produced by Nancy Meyers and co-starring Harold Ramis was released in the United States by United Artists.

    1988:Health Ministry officials began vaccinating all people under the age of 40 in Israel and the occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip. The vaccination was in response to concerns about a possible outbreak of polio.

    1989: “Forever Your Girl,” the debut album from singer Paula Abdul “hit number for the first time” today.

    1990: Israel begins handing out gas masks to its citizens as Sadam Hussein threatens to fire Scuds armed with chemical weapons on the Jewish state.  In the Gulf War, Hussein will fire Scuds, but none of them will contain chemical weapons.  At the request of the Bush Administration, the Israelis refrained from retaliating against the Iraqis.  This is the first time that an Israeli government has entrusted security to another nation.

    1990:By Way of Deception: The Making and Unmaking of a Mossad Officer, “a nonfiction book by a former katsa (case officer) in the Israeli Mossad, Victor Ostrovsky and Canadian journalist and author Claire Hoy” reached number 1 on the New York Times bestseller list.

    1991(29th of Tishrei, 5752): Eighty-three year old Italian author Natalia Ginzburg, the daughter of histologist Giuseppe Levi, the wife of Leone Ginzburg and the mother of historian Carlo Ginzburg passed away today.

    1992(10th of Tishrei, 5753): As Bill Clinton seeks to unseat George Bush, Jews observe Yom Kippur

    1992(10th of Tishrei, 5753): Sixty-two year old Allan Bloom passed away today. (As reported by Keith Botsford)

    1996: In a speech in the Knesset, Shimon Peres appealed to Benjamin Netanyahu to sign the Hebron agreement.

    1999: In “Hanging In” published today Yehuda Lev described what it is like to be a 72 year old in a classroom full of Gen Xer’s at Brandies

    2000(8th of Tishrei, 5761): Shabbat Shuva

    2000: PBS broadcast a revival production of “The Man Who Came To Dinner,” a three-act comedy by George S. Kaufman and Moss Hart.

    2001: Hamas claimed credit for today’s attack at the Erez Crossing.

    2001(20th of Tishrei, 5672): Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility for today’s bombing at Shluhot, a kibbutz located “in the Beit She'an Valley in northern Israel.”

    2001(20th of Tishrei, 5762): Famed cartoonist Herblock passed away. [Words do not justice to this brilliant political artist and satirist. The following is just one of the many websites where you can see his work

    2001: The New York TimesreviewedMisconceptions: Truth, Lies, and the Unexpected on the Journey to Motherhood by Naomi Wolf.

    2003(11th of Tishrei, 5764):Seventy-one year old Israel Harold "Izzy" Asper, Canadian tax-lawyer, media magnate and leader of the Canadian Jewish community passed away.

    2003: In “Keeping His Foot In a Creaking Door; Radio Pioneer Clings to Imagination,” Joseph Berger chronicles the professional life of Himan Brown, the creator and producer of “such popular radio programs as ‘The Adventures of the Thin Man,’ ‘Dick Tracy,’ ‘Grand Central Station’ and ‘Inner Sanctum’.”

    2003(11th of Tishrei, 5764): Ninety- one year old composer Arthur Berger passed away. (As reported by Alan Kozinin)

    2005: U.S. premiere of “good night, and good luck,” a must see movie produced by Grant Heslov with a script co-authored by Grant Heslov.

    2005(4thof Tishrei, 5766): Ninety-two scriptwriter Devery Freeman passed away today.

    2005: Sarah Levy-Tanai, founder of the Inbal dance troupe and one of the country's most important choreographers was laid to rest.  She had passed away at the age of 95.

    2005: The legendary Israeli basketball guard Doron Sheffer announced his retirement.  The Israeli native had played on championship teams at the University of Connecticut. He was the first Israeli to be chosen in the N.B.A. draft.  Sheffer passed up a chance to play with the Los Angeles Clippers and returned to Israel where he played for Maccabi Tel Aviv and Hapoel Jerusalem.  He led Hapoel Jerusalem to its first European title when it defeated Real Madrid in the ULEB Cup final. 

    2006: Opening of the International Haifa Film Festival

    2007(25th of Tishrei, 5768): Ninety-eight year old General Paul Alfred Cullen the WW II Australian war hero who served in several theatres most notably in New Guinea where he played a key role in the nasty fighting aimed at re-capturing Kokoda. (For more on the military of Jews in the “land down under,” see the newly published Jewish Anzacs by Mark Dapin.)

    2007: The Jewish Museum of Florida presents an exhibition styled “The Art Of Rabbi Shoni Labowitz.” The artworks are inspired by the beauty and details of life, nature, women, spirituality and ritual.  After a distinguished career as a rabbi, publisher and author, Shoni Labowitz is return to her lifelong dream of being an artist.  The exhibit is an extension of her spirituality, evident in her style and subject matter.  She says: “Whether it is feeling the bristles of the brush against the canvas, stroking color into shapes or feeling the clay beneath her hands, it is all a form of connecting with the spirituality in all things.

    2007: Leonard “Slatkin announced he had reached agreement on a three-year contract, followed by a two-year option, to become the new music director of the Detroit Symphony Orchestra, beginning with the 2008-2009 subscription season.”

    2007:The Sunday Washington Post book section included reviews of The Israel Lobby And U.S.Foreign Policyby John J. Mearsheimer and Stephen M. Walt and The Deadliest Lies The Israel Lobby and the Myth of Jewish ControlbyAbraham H. Foxman.

    2007: The Sunday New York Times book section featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or on topics related to Judaism including  Exit Ghost by Phillip Roth, The Immortalists: Charles Lindbergh, Dr. Alexis Carrel, and Their Daring Quest to Live Forever  in which David M. Friedman examines the Lone Eagle’s love affair with eugenics that help explain some of his views about Hitler, the Jews and World II, You Can Lead a Politician to Water but You Can’t Make Him Think:Ten Commandments for Texas Politics by Kinky Friedman and The Journal Of Joyce Carol Oates: 1973-1982, Edited by Greg Johnson.Oates “discovered late in life her own family's Jewish history: Her grandmother, who immigrated to the United States in the 1890s, kept her religion hidden for fear of persecution. So the question arises: Is Oates Jewish and can Oates' writing be characterized as distinctively Jewish?”

    2008:Israeli Chief Ashkenazi Rabbi Yona Metzger has issued a prayer for the safe return of captive soldier Gilad Schalit which he plans to distribute today, to be read in synagogues throughout Israel on Yom Kippur and weekly on Shabbat after the Torah reading.

    2008(8th of Tishrei, 5769): Ninety-five year old Rabbi Leslie Hardman, “the first Jewish British Army Chaplain to enter Bergen-Belsen” when it was liberated in April of 1945 passed away today.

    2008:A woman who admitted fabricating a best-selling memoir about surviving the Holocaust as a child by living with wolves has won a court battle with her former publisher. Misha Defonseca's 1997 book, Misha: A Memoire of the Holocaust Years was translated into 18 languages, made into a feature film in France, and drew interest from the Walt Disney Co. and Oprah Winfrey. After Defonseca admitted earlier this year that she had made up the story, her former publisher, Jane Daniel, sued to try to overturn a $32.4 million court judgment Defonseca and her ghost writer, Vera Lee, won against her in an earlier fight over profits. Daniel argued that because the story was false, Defonseca perpetrated a hoax on the trial judge and the jury. But this week, Middlesex Superior Court Judge Timothy Feeley threw out Daniel's lawsuit because she did not file it within a one-year statute of limitations. The judge said that the truth of the memoire was not an issue in the earlier court battle between Defonseca and Daniel. Instead, the case was about claims of violations of the contract between the authors and the publisher, Feeley said. Defonseca's fraud, misrepresentations, and misconduct did not go to the heart of the case, he said in his written ruling, filed today. Daniel said the jury at the 2001 trial would not have issued a verdict against her if they had known that Defonseca made up the story.

    2009(19th of Tishrei, 5770): Chol Hamoed Sukkoth

    2009(19th of Tishrei, 5770): Photographer Irving Penn passed away at the age of 92. (As reported by Andy Grundberg)


     2009: In the nation’s capital, The DCJCC presents “An Evening With Betty Buckley.”

    2009:At Yale University in New Haven, a screening of "The Case for Israel: Democracy's Outpost," a feature-length documentary film followed by a discussion led by Professor Dershowitz.

    2010: An exhibition of the paintings of Tel Aviv artist Tamar Rosen is scheduled to open at the Agora Gallery in New York.

    2010:Former State Comptroller Alan G. Hevesi, once considered a leading voice on corporate governance and ethics, stood before a judge today and calmly explained how he took part in a sprawling corruption scheme involving New York State’s $125 billion pension fund while serving as its sole trustee. 

     2011(9th of Tishrei, 5772): Erev Yom Kippur

    2011: In University City, MO, the family of the late Edward Stix, Jr. whose family owned the Rice-Stix, Inc. received friends today at The Gatesworth.

    2011(9th of Tishrei): Abbie Silber celebrates her first birthday as the wife of Rabbi Feival Strauss.  This birthday is unique because it falls on the same dates on both the religious and secular calendars as it did the year when Mrs. Strauss was born.  Abbie is the daughter of Laurie and Dr. Robert Silber, pillars of the Jewish community and two of the finest people you would ever want to meet. 

     2011(9th of Tishrei, 5772): Seventieth Anniversary of the end of the two day Nazi massacre of over 33,000 Jews at Babi Yar, at a ravine outside of Kiev, the Ukrainian city that was part of the Soviet Union.

    2011: The European Union said today that the Middle East Quartet will meet on October 9 in Brussels as part of a wider effort to restart the moribund Israeli-Palestinian peace process. EU spokesman Michael Mann said today the focus would be to maintain momentum in encouraging the parties to return to negotiations.

    2011: The IDF announced that the security presence in Jerusalem were beefed up today in preparation for Yom Kippur

    2011:Silence fell over Israel at around 5 P.M. today, as the Yom Kippur fast began. Air traffic to and from Israel halted from 1 P.M. and is not scheduled to begin again until 9:30 P.M. tomorrw, while the border crossings to Jordan and Gaza have been closed down. The weather forecast bodes well for fasters, with comfortable temperatures. Tomorrow will be slightly warmer than today but not more humid, so the heat stress will not rise - good news for fasters.

    2011:Over 1000 people attended a Kol Nidre Yom Kippur service organized by Daniel Sieradski at the Occupy Wall Street demonstration that had begun in September.

    2012(21st of Tishrei, 5773): Hoshana Rabbah

    2012: “A vandal scrawled graffiti on a mural by modern Jewish American master Mark Rothko at London’s Tate Modern today.”

    2012(21st of Tishrei, 5773): In keeping with the minchag of Reform Judaism, Temple Judah is scheduled to host a Pizza Simchat Torah celebration in Cedar Rapids.

    2012: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Revenge of Geography:What the Map Tells Us About Coming Conflicts and the Battle Against Fate by Robert D. Kaplan, Subversives:The FBI’s War on Student Radicals, and Reagan’s Rise to Power by Seth Rosenfeld and All We Know: Three Lives by Lisa Cohen 

    2012: In Iowa City, Agudas Achim is scheduled to sponsor its second annual Sukkah Crawl

    2012:Lorraine Lotzof Abramson, author, "My Race: A Jewish Girl Growing Up under Apartheid in South Africa is scheduled to appear on Channel 75

    2012: In Venezuela, voters are scheduled to go to the polls and vote for either Hugo Chavez or Henrique Capriles, the grandson of Holocaust survivors as the next president of this major South American nation.

    2012: French President Francois Hollande today promised the Jewish community a major increase in security after blank bullets were fired near a Parisian synagogue in the most recent incident in a wave of anti-Semitic attacks in France.

    2012: After a month, curtain came down on The Kansas City Repertory Theatre’s revival production of Stephen Schwartz’s Tony Award-winning musical “Pippin.”

    2013: Ben “Shapiro co-founded TruthRevolt, a U.S. media watchdog and activism website, in association with the David Horowitz Freedom Center”

    2013: In Washington, DC, the Hyman S and Freda Bernstein Jewish Literary Festival is schedule to present an evening with mystery writer Walter Mosely.

    2013: “In association with the David Horowitz Freedom Center, Ben Shapiro launched the website for media watchdog group TruthRevolt in response to the left-leaning Media Matters for America

    2013: Jason Isaacs was chosen to play one of the “tankers” in the WW II movie “Fury.”

    2013: Rabbi Moshe Arye Bamberger, the Head of the Bet Din of the Jewish community of Metz, France is scheduled to present a seminar on a new publication, Torat Chachmei Metz, or The Torah of the Scholars of Metz, which is based on an original manuscript in the YIVO Archives.

    2013: From Cedar Rapids to Columbus, Ohio and points beyond friends and family of Abbie Strauss, the daughter of Dr. Bob and Laurie Silber and the wife of Rabbi Feivel Strauss celebrate the birthday of this accomplished musician,  supportive helpmate and mother par excellence.

    2013: Five more people are scheduled to on trial in federal court in New York in connection with Bernie Madoff’s massive stock fraud and con.

    2014: The Jewish Community Center of Northern Virginia is scheduled to host two seminars on “Iranian-Jewish Culture and History” presented by Isaac Yomtovian author of My Iran: Memories, Mysteries and Myths.

    2014: The Center for Jewish History is scheduled to host a lecture by Gennady Estraikh entitled “Farewell to Communism: Howard Fast and Soviet Yiddish Writers.”

    2014(24th of Tishrei, 5776): One hundred year old Ralph Goldman who played a key role in the creation of the state of Israel passed away today.

    2014: “Two Israeli soldiers were wounded in an explosion next to a tank near the border with Lebanon this afternoon, setting off the second border clash in the area in three days.”  Hezbollah took credit for the explosion.

    2014: “The Israeli Arab Knesset member Hanin Zoabi petitioned the High Court of Justice on Tuesday against a Knesset Ethics Committee decision to ban her for six months from parliament debates because she declared that the Palestinian kidnappers of three Israeli teenagers were not terrorists.” (As reported by Stuart Winer)

    2014: In Dallas, TX, the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum is scheduled to host Do Words Kill? Hate Speech, Propaganda, and Incitement to Genocide.

    2015: The Illinois Holocaust Museum & Education Center and the ADL presented a program marking the 50th commemoration of The Second Vatican Council of 1965.

    2015: The Center for Jewish History is scheduled to host a “book talk” featuring Sasha Abramsky, the author of The House of Twenty Thousand Books.

    2015: JCC Manhattan is scheduled to “Home Alone,” “Renewal,” “Glove Story” and “Reflections” – “short films relating to Israel’s celebrated modern dance scene.”

    2015: A the latest wave of terrorist attacks continues that have left for Israelis dead from stabbings in Jerusalem, “an 18 year old Palestinian woman” “was shot and wounded by police” after she stabbed an Israeli man “in an alleyway near the Western Wall.”

    2015: “A team of engineers from the Israeli nonprofit Group SpaceIL is the first to advance in an international competition sponsored by Google to send a privately-funded space craft to the moon, contests organizers announced” today.

    2016(5th of Tishrei, 5777): One hundred four year old Austrian-born photographer and cinematographer Wolfgang Suschitzky passed away today.

    2016: Amiram Levin, “a former senior IDF officer who played a role in Israel’s daring 1976 rescue of hostages at Entebbe airport slammed former president Shimon Peres, who passed away last week, as a “crook” and “liar” who inflated his role in the operation.”


    2016: Shimon Dotan’s “The Settlers” is scheduled to be shown at the 54th New York Film Festival.

    2016: In the UK, JW3 is scheduled to host a screening of “Things to Come.”

    2016: “Latin American Jews living in Israel added their voices to the chorus of congratulations sent to Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos on winning the Nobel Peace Prize” today.

    2016: In Weimar, the Onion Festival, which will featuring a new offering – “Kosher Thurngian bratwurst” – is scheduled to open today giving observant Jews their first chance to sample what has been a “traif delicacy.”

    2017(17th of Tishrei, 5778): Shabbat and Sukkoth Chol Ha’moed; for more see

    2017: The Oxford University Jewish Society is scheduled to host Shabbat morning services followed by lunch

    2017: The Bloomfield Science Museum in Jerusalem is scheduled to host special Sukkoth family activities during Sukkoth Chol Hamoed.

    2017: This evening, the University of Iowa Hillel is scheduled to host Havdalah and cookies in the Sukkah.

    2018: Friends and family prepare to celebrate the birthday of Abbie Strauss, the sweet singer of song at Temple Israel in Memphis, TN, who along with her husband Rabbi Feivel Strauss provides one-two punch of Yiddishkite

    2018: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including a graphic novel for children, The Faithful Spy: Dietrich Bonhoeffer and the Plot to Kill Hitler and the recently released paperback editions of The Ruined House by Ruby Namader and Vivian Maier: A Photographer’s Life and Afterlife by Pamela Bannos.

    2018: “Blue Badge Guide Rachel Kolsky is scheduled to lead a walking tour that “commerates the centenary of the end of WW I” “that highlights the Jewish East End associations with the Great War including a remembrance of “poet and artist Isaac Rosenberg,

    2018: Due to flooding at “The Center for Jewish History, the 20th Anniversary Celebration of the Strauss Historical Society” scheduled for today has been cancelled.

    2018: “The internationally-renowned National Yiddish Theatre Folksbiene is scheduled perform Mama’s Loshn Kugel” at an “event that will honor Atlanta’s Holocaust survivors” with proceeds going “to support restoration and preservation of the Memorial to the Six Million at Greenwood Cemetery, scholarships for Holocaust education to teachers and students, and programs to pass on survivors' collective experiences to succeeding generations

    2018: Adam Maalouf and Lara Bello are scheduled to perform at the American Sephardi Music Festival.




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    314: In his quest to consolidate his power, Constantine I, the man who will become the first Christian Roman Emperor defeats his rival Licinius at the Battle of Cibalae. Constantine will officially transform the Roman Empire into an anti-Semitic entity. 

    705: “The reign of the Umayyad Caliph Abd al-Malik” during Abi Isa “a self-proclaimed Jewish prophet” preached his message in Persia, came to an end today.

    1075:  Dmitar Zvonimir is crowned King of Croatia. At this point Roman Catholicism was the dominant religion of Croatia.  But the King did have Jewish subjects. Some of them might have been able to trace their ancestry to the 3rdcentury when Jews first arrived in the Balkan principality.  Others may have part of the legendary Khazars who lived in the region in the 10th century.

    1408: The city of Jassy (Hungarian) or Yas (Yiddish) is mentioned in business correspondence between Prince Alexander the Good (Alexandru cel Bun) and merchants from Lviv then a part of Poland. The Romanian city of Yas would become a center of Jewish settlement as well as the site of the largest massacre of Jews in Romania in World War II.

    1573: In what would prove to a turning point in the Eighty Years War, the Dutch score their first victory when the Spanish siege of the Dutch city of Alkmaar comes to an end.  The war would last until 1648.  When it was over, the independence of the Netherlands would be a reality.  The Dutch Republic would provide a haven for European Jews, especially those fleeing Spain and its inquisition. 

    1576: The Sultan ordered 1,000 wealthy Jews to move from Safed to Cyprus. The Jews would be requested to take with them their possessions and riches. The firman ordering the moved utilized wording which warned the Turks that they would  be severely punished if they accepted bribes from the Jews to have their names removed from the list.  A year later another 500 Jewish families would be forced to move from Safed to Cyprus.  Population movements like this were not unusual in the Ottoman Empire.  It was the Sultan’s way of encouraging economic development throughout the empire.

    1600: San Marino, a small patch of land on the Italian peninsula that “claims to be the oldest surviving sovereign state and constitutional republic in the world” adopted a written constitution. According to surviving documents, Jews have lived there since 14th century and Jews were living there when the constitution was adopted since “measures and resolutions regarding the Jews and their trades were repeatedly passed by the government in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.”

    1713: Birthdate of Yechezkel ben Yehuda Landau who would gain fame as an expert on Halachah, Jewish ritual law and who was the father of Samuel Landau, the “chief dayyan of Prague.”

    1753(10th of Tishrei, 5514): Yom Kippur

    1762: Mordecai Sheftal married Frances Hart in Charleston, SC today.

    1763: Birthdate of Michael Josephs (Myer Königsberg) the native of Konigsberg who met Moses Mendelssohn which studying Talmud in Berlin after which he moved to London where he pursued a business career while writing articles for "Hebrew Review," the "Voice of Jacob," and the "Jewish Chronicle."

    1780(9th of Tishrei, 5541): A week after Major John Andre is hung as a spy marking the end to Benedict Arnold’s treason, an event that unfairly implicated his Jewish aide-de-camp, Colonel Franks, Jews heard Kol Nidre.

    1781: Birthdate of Abraham David, the brother of Jonas Daniel Meijer, the first Jewish lawyer in the Netherlands.

    1784(23rd of Tishrei, 5545): Simchat Torah

    1791(10th of Tishrei, 5552): For the first time in history, Jews in France observe Yom Kippur as equal citizens having been “emancipated” on September 28 of this year.

    1799(9th of Tishrei, 5560): Erev Yom Kippur; Kol Nidre is chanted for the last time in the 18th century.

    1803(22nd of Tishrei, 5564): Shabbat and Shmini Atzeret

    1805(15th of Tishrei, 5566): Sukkoth

    1810(10th of Tishrei, 5571): Yom Kippur

    1821: In Rawicz, Germany, Jewish cloth merchant Heimann Strassman and Judith Guhrauer gave birth to Dr. Wolfgang Strassman

    1821: Abraham Isaacs married Elizabeth Benjamin at the Great Synagogue today.

    1826: At “Klingen, near Landua, Rhenish Palatine, Samuel Weis and Agatha Levy gave birth to Julius Weis the husband of Carrie Mayer who moved to New Orleans where he was “director of the Jewish Widows’ and Orphans’ Home” and “president of the Hebrew Educational Society, Touro Infirmary and Benevolent Association and Temple Sinai.

    1828: George Solomons married Rosetta Solomon at the Hambro Synagogue today.

    1835(15th of Tishrei, 5596): As Mexican forces move to put down the rebellion in Texas, Jews celebrate Sukkoth

    1836: Birthdate of John Phillips, the native of Birmingham, England, the husband of Leah Mosely and son-in-law of Lewin Mosley, who represented Ladywood Ward in the City Council and served as President of the Birmingham Hebrew Congregation.

    1837(9th of Tishrei, 5598): For the first time during the Presidency of Martin Van Buren, Kol Nidre is chanted.

    1838: In Great Britain, Frederick Goldsmid and his wife Caroline Samuel gave birth to barrister Sir Julian Goldsmid, MP, Vice-Chancellor of London University and husband of Virginia Philipson with whom he had five children – Violet, Edith, Margherita, Beatrice and Mau.

    1841(23rd of Tishrei, 5602): Simchat Torah

    1845: The Sephardic Synagogue of Kingston, Jamaica celebrated taking possession of a new Sefer Torah." The service was conducted by the Isaac Lopes, who served as rabbi for the congregation.

    1848: On the day after Yom Kippur Joseph Wile, Samuel Marks, Joseph Katz, Gabriel Wile, Meyer Rothschild, Henry Levi, Jacob Altman, Joseph Altman, A. Adler, Elias Wolff, Abram Weinberg, and Jacob Gans met in Rochester, NY and formed Congregation Berith Kodesh. 

    1851: “Europe” published today told the story of Jewish con artist working in the British Isles. “An old Jew” had advertised in an English country town,” that among other wondrous things he would get into a quart bottle. At the appointed time his room was filled with eager spectators. He came on the stage, and after a deal of preparation, did nothing he had promised. ‘A swindle! A swindle !’ cried one of the cheated company, who had paid his shilling to the door-keeper” who by then had disappeared.  “Amid the noise, the Jew came forward, and with imperturbable gravity said, ‘Ladies and Gentlemen; it is a svindle and vat then?’”

    1857: In the Recorders Office, Nathan Levins testifies against Israel Steinhardt in a case brought by Levins claiming that Steinhard robbed him of 940 pounds in English Sterling notes. Steinhard then has a chance to rebut Levins’ claims.  The story is a tale that takes the court across Europe and involves a variety of convoluted transactions.  The story is even harder to understand because neither party speaks English nor testimony has to be translated.  Apparently the 20 Jews attending the hearing were not affected by the language barrier since, like the plaintiff and defendant they came from Germany or Hungary.  The case was continued until tomorrow.

    1861: Louis Bach completed his service with Company D of the 27th Regiment.

    1862(14th of Tishrei, 5623): Erev Sukkoth

    1862: During the Civil War, in Kentucky, Union forces defeat the Confederates at the Battle of Perryville which means the family of future Supreme Court Justice Louis D. Brandeis who supported Abraham Lincoln’s candidacy will continue to live under the Stars and Stripes.

    1862: Brooklyn Backs the President" published today described the support being given Mr. Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation. The speech by James S. Wadsworth demonstrates how deeply the story of the Exodus from Egypt inspired the Abolitionist Movement showing once again the important role that Jewish ideals and idioms have played in man’s march towards freedom. General Wadsworth told the crowd that “In ancient times, when the Hebrews, escaping out of the house of bondage, stood upon the shores of the Red Sea, with the hosts of Pharaoh hovering on their rear, conservatism shrunk back and feared to wet its sandals in the angry waves. But the Book of Books tells us that the Lord said unto Moses, "Speak unto the children of Israel that they go forward!" They obeyed, and Pharaoh and his hosts sank like lead in the waters. The age of miracles is past. In our country, vox populi, vox Dei. Our great cause confronts a sea of difficulties, before which timid souls stand appalled. But, the Proclamation reveals to us the land of promise, the Canaan beyond the floods. Let the people, the vox Dei, say unto the President, ‘Abraham, speak unto the armies of the Union that they go forward!’”

    1865(18th of Tishrei, 5626): Chol Ha Moed Sukkoth

    1865(18th of Tishrei, 5626): Fifty-three year old Moravian born violinist and composer Heinrich Wilhelm Ernst passed away in Nice.

    1867(9th of Tishrei, 5628): Erev Yom Kippur

    1868: Oswald Hönigsmann who “represented the city of Brody in the Galician Diet delivered a speech today in behalf of the emancipation of the Jews” which helped bring a victory for Franz Smolka’s effort to gain full civil rights for the Jews.

    1869:  President Franklin Pierce passed away.  Pierce was one of those forgettable mediocrities who served in the White House in the decade before the Civil War. His record of dealing with Jews is limited and mixed.  Franklin Pierce was the first and maybe the only President whose name appears on the charter of a synagogue. Pierce signed the Act of Congress in 1857 that amended the laws of the District of Columbia to enable the incorporation of the city's first synagogue, the Washington Hebrew Congregation.  Washington Hebrew Congregation is one of the oldest and largest Reform Congregations in the Washington Metropolitan Area.  But two years before, in November of 1855, Pierce signed a treaty with Switzerland that had been ratified by the Senate.  The treaty allowed the Swiss government to discriminated again American citizens who were Jews so that the treatment of American Jews would be consistent with the treatment of Swiss Jews by their government.

    1871(23rd of Tishrei, 5632): Simchat Torah

    1871:  The Great Chicago Fire made its impact felt the area settled by Jews of German origins.  It was referred to by some as The Golden Ghetto.  This was in contrast to the area where eastern European and Russian Jews settled which was known as just The Ghetto.  This area suffered a fair amount of damage in the less famous Fire of 1874.

    1873: It was reported today that the Jews of Cleveland, Ohio have raised $800 which they have sent to Shreveport, LA and Memphis, TN to help those suffering from the current Yellow Fever Epidemic.

    1875(9th of Tishrei 5636): Erev Yom Kippur

    1877: It was reported today that Dr. De Sola Mendez is scheduled to give a lecture on “Young America” at an upcoming meeting of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association.

    1878: In Philadelphia, Morris Moses Pflazer, the German born son of “Karoline and Marx Mordechai Pfaelzer and his wife “Sophie Pfalzer” gave birth to “Henrietta (Hettie) Pfaelzer” who became Henrietta Stern when she married Horace Stern, the University of Pennsylvania Law School graduate and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Pennsyvania.

    1879(21st of Tishrei, 5640): Hoshana Raba

    1881(15th of Tishrei, 5642): Sukkoth

    1882: It was reported today that sometime in the first two weeks of November, Edward Harrigan’s new play, “Mordecai Lyons” will premiere at the Theatre Comique.  The play tells the story of a Jewish father who forces her to marry a man not of her choosing.  The play is “both humorous and dramatic” and portrays a father who loves a daughter who has been touched by misfortune.

    1882: “Romance of the Jews” published today provides a detailed review of The Jews of Barnow, a collection of stories by Karl Emil Franzos.

    1882: “Songs of a Semite” published today provides a detailed review of Songs of a Semite: The Dance to Death and Other Poems by Emma Lazarus.

    1883: Birthdate of Nobel Prize winner, Otto Heinrich Warburg, the son of Emil Warburg who was related to the famous family of Jewish financier.  However, Warburg’s father had converted to Christianity as a result of an undisclosed family dispute.

    1886: It was reported today that Kaiser Wilhelm has sent the Sultan of Morocco a gift – 12 volumes of the Talmud in Hebrew. (I have no idea why the German Emperor would send the Muslim monarch such a gift.)

    1886(9th of Tishrei, 5647): Erev Yom Kippur

    1886: “Yom Kippur” published today opens with the following “From sunset this evening until tomorrow at sunset there will be observed by some seven or eight million Israelites scatter all over the globe the…solemn festival of Yom Kippur or Day of Atonement.” In describing the history and customs of the day, J.S. Moore contends that “there is no other religion…that has a similar festival.  The great object is…that one a year one day out of the 365 shall be set apart for no other purposed than to commune with God, confess the errors of life and perchance resolve to amend them.”

    1886: “Veteran Rosenberg’s Death” published today described the life and death of Joseph Rosenberg, the 102 year old Jewish citizen of New Orleans who was buried yesterday.  A native of Baden, Germany, he served with Napoleon’s French Army when he captured Moscow.  He came to the Crescent City in 1852 where he raised a family that included 3 daughters.

    1886: “A Suicide in the Tombs” published today described how Solomon Goldberg, a Polish Jew, being held in the jail was able to hide a knife from authorities which he then used to kill himself.

    1886: It was reported today that Emperor of Germany has sent the Sultan of Morocco 12 volumes of the Talmud, in Hebrew, as a gift. (I cannot find a reason for this)

    1886: Theatre receipts were considerably less tonight than normal because the Jewish patrons were observing “the Jewish fast of Yom Kippur.”

    1887: In New York City Josephine Morgenthau and Henry Morgenthau, Sr. gave birth to Alma Morgenthau.

    1888: “Eating The Old Mare” published today described a dinner hosted by Dr. Rush S. Huidekeper, Chief of the Veterinary School of the University of Pennsylvania during which he told his guests that “the only beef that is properly inspected is that eaten by the” Jews, “which is killed according to their rules.”

    1889: Members of Ahavath Chesed met tonight “and voted to all they could” to help raise money for the establishment of a “Jewish Cooper Union.”  At the same meeting, “a delegation from the Young Men Hebrew’s Association” pledged their support for this endeavor.

     1889: In Cortland, NY, Abraham H. Jachles of Binghamton, NY marred Emily J. Klein of Walterboro, SC.

    1890: “An Impossible Shekel” published today described the discovery of coin which the owner claims to be a shekel from the time of Simon the Macabee which is impossible because it has markings including a Star of Bethlehem, that were never used on the genuine coins which made of silver and copper while this one is make of gold, bronze and platinum.

    1890: Birthdate of Lithuanian native Samuel Goodman “Sam” Hoffenstein, an American newspaperman and husband of Edith Morgan who moved to Los Angeles where pursued a successful career as a screenwriter.

    1890: At today’s annual meeting of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society Orphan Asylum Mrs. Philip J. Joachimsen was elected President.

    1891: August Belmont received a telegram today in Louisville, KY telling him that the home he and his family were renting in New York had burned down to which he replied “that he would come to New York at once.”

    1891: “A dispatch from the St. Petersburg to the New York Daily News says that the United States Immigration Commissioners who have been visiting Russia” were impressed the conditions of suffering under which the Jews of Russia were living.

    1891: At Rochester (NY) University, President Hill addressed the Query Club, “a literary club composed largely of young people from Temple Bortih Kodesh” on the subject of “Higher Education.”

    1891(6thof Tishrei, 5652): Seventy-two year old Dr. Jacob Eduard Polak “the pioneer of modern medicine in Iran” who served as personal physician to the Shah passed away today.

    1892: A fire that started in the rooms of Moritz Feinman, spread to the rest of the tenement at 100 Suffolk Street which drove the nearly 100 residents all of whom were Jewish out into the street.

    1892: In New York, Jewish Americans begin the observance of Columbus Day which marks the 400th anniversary of the discovery of the New World.

    1892: At Park East Synagogue Rabbi Bernard Drachman delivered a sermon entitled “Israel’s Debt of Gratitude to Columbus and America.

    1893: In the elections for the Reichstag, “the Anti-Semites” are running against the Conservatives and National Liberals in seven districts of which they “may capture four.”

    1893: Birthdate of Ada Fishman who made aliyah in 1912, played an active role in the development of pre-State Palestine and as Ada Maimon was a member of the first Knesset.

    1894: “The east side Hebrew Anarchists have completed preparations to burlesque the fast of Yom Kippur” which begins tomorrow evening, with an evening that will include dancing, singing and a speech by anarchist Emma Goldman at the Clarendon Hall.

    1894: “Dental surgeon and businessman Dr. Hugo Ascher and Minna Luise Ascher gave birth to Charlotte Hedwig the younger sister of painter Fritz Ascher a protégé of Max Liebermann

    1895: German born American-Jewish inventor/businessman, Emil Berliner founded the Berliner Gramophone Company which was to produce “flat gramophone records” or what would be called phonograph records.  He designed the disc model which replaced Edison’s cylinders.

    1895: Birthdate of future Laborite MP and death penalty foe, Sydney Silverman.

    1895: The Executive Committee of the Central Conference of American Rabbis is scheduled to meet this morning in Cincinnati, Ohio.

    1896: In Oregon, Joseph Simon was elected to the U.S. Senate, making him the first Jew to represent the Beaver State in the Upper Chamber of Congress. 

    1896: It is reported today that the Sultan is demanding a payment of $220,000 from the Grand Rabbi following rioting in Hasskeuy.

    1897: Birthdate of Kovno native Oscar Straus Caplan, a “Judge in Chicago’s Municipal Courts for more than a quarter of century and after retirement “a part-time instructor at the University of Miami Law School who was the husband of Sarah Caplan and the father of Mitchell Caplan.

    1897: “Care of Russian Jews” published today includes a denial by prominent Jewish leaders including Oscar S. Strauss and Jacob Schiff that “the Baroness de Hirsch has given directions” to end the financing of schemes to send Russian Jews to Argentina and “has ordered that the balance of the funds…be devoted to the establishment of technical and industrial schools in Russia.”

    1898(22ndof Tishrei, 5669): Shemini Atzeret

    1898: Forty-seven year old German born, Portland, Oregon attorney Joseph Simon began serving as the United States Senator from Oregon today.

    1898: In response to the announcement by Ismail Bey, the Civil Governor of Crete that Turkish troops are being withdrawn from the island as demanded by Great Britain, Russia, France and Italy, Jews, Christians and Moslems are crowding aboard steamers leaving Crete.

    1898: “Gladstone” published today provided a review of The Story of Gladstone’s Life by Justin McCarthy includes chapters on “the long with duel with Disraeli in the House of Common” and his “advocacy of the admissions of Jews to Parliament.”

    1900(15thof Tishrei, 5661): Sukkoth

    1900: Birthdate of Serge Ivan Chermayeff, “a Russian born, British architect, industrial designer, writer, and co-founder of several architectural societies, including the American Society of Planners and Architects.”

    1900:Herzl met with the Austro-Hungarian Prime Minister, Ernest von Koerber.

    1902: Two days after he had passed away, eighty-three year old Austrian Rabbi Jacob Jacques Heinrich Hirschfeld, the son “Marie and Emanuel Isak Hirschfeld” and the husband of Pauline Hirschfeld was buried today in Vienna.

    1903(17thof Tishrei, 5664): Chol Hamoed Sukkoth

    1903: In San Francisco, having gained approval for the building of a new sanctuary the rabbi and officers of Congregation Sherith Israel gathered this morning for a groundbreaking ceremony.

    1904: Edmonton, Alberta was incorporated as a city today. Jews had been living there for more than a decade. The first Jews, Abraham and Rebecca Cristall - came to what was then an unincorporated community in 1893.  George and Rose Cristall were the first Jews born in the town. By the time of incorporation there were 17 Jews living in what would become Alberta’s capital city. 

    1904: Prince Albert, Saskatchewan was incorporated as a city. By this time two colonies had been established by Baron Hirsch’s Jewish Colonization Society – the second of which was called Hirsch, Saskatchewan founded in 1892. Among the Jews who had come to Saskatchewan and left before the incorporation of Prince Albert were Ekiel and Mindel Bronfman of Seagram’s Whiskey fame. Two years after the incorporation, Jewish immigrants from Lithuania would establish The Edinbridge Hebrew Colony, another of the settlements created by the Jewish Colonization Society

    1902: Birthdate of Arthur Harold Babitsky, the native of Omaha, Nebraska who gained fame as award winning Disney animator Art Babbit who worked on such classics as “Snow White and the Seven Dwarts” and “Fantasia.

    1905: Founding of the Society for domestic art and industry in Palestine.

    1907: The Tennessee Volunteers coached by Izzy Levene defeated the football team from the Tennessee Military Institute in the school’s first game of the season

    1907: Today King Edward VII’s private secretary wrote to Nathaniel Mayer, known as “Natty” the first Lord Rothschild who was an Executor of Benjamin Disraeli’s estate concerning “letters of a very confidential and family nature that may been written by the late Queen Victoria to Lord Beaconsfield between 1874 and 1880.”

    1908: Mr. and Mr. William E. Dodd gave birth to Martha Dodd. Martha accompanied her father to his posting as FDR’s first ambassador to Hitler’s Germany.  A romantic figure, she finally became aware of the danger presented by the Nazi regime

    1909(23rdof Tishrei, 5670): Simchat Torah

    1909: After having been taken to the hospital two weeks, fifty-two year Galicia born poet, author  and Zionist Naphtali Herz Imber  who had first visited Palestine at the age of 16 and is best known “as the author ‘Hatikvah,’ the Zionist National hymn” passed away today in New York.

    1911: Birthdate of Czech jazz musician Karel Vlach who had “a day job as a traveling salesman for Jewish notions firm until the German occupation made it untenable” and who played with several Jewish musicians including Fritz Weiss before the war when Weiss was ultimately shipped to his death at Auschwitz.

    1912(27th of Tishrei, 5673): Dr. Morris Loeb, Professor of Chemistry and Columbia, a noted scientist and philanthropist and the husband of Eda K. Loeb passed away today in New York City.

    1912: In Elmira, NY, founding of the Hebrew Institute.

    1912: The First Balkan War began today which when it ended find the 60,000 Jews living in Salonika going from Ottoman rule to Greek rule – a reality that caused concern among the Jews which would lead to the Greek government, in 1917 becoming one of the first supporters of the Balfour Declaration.

    1913(7th of Tishrei, 5674): Seventeen year old Schore Feitelsohn passed away today.

    1915: It was announced today that “Catholics, Protestants and Jews have joined at Columbia University’s Teacher College in a co-operative union to be known as the Students’ Religious Organization.”

    1915: It was reported today that “Djemal Pasha is especially annoyed because of the Zion Mule Corps which consists of volunteers from among the Jewish refugees from Palestine who are engaged in transport work at Gallipoli.

    1915: It was reported today that “Djemal Pasha has announced he will extirpate Zionism root and branch and that not a single Jew will be allowed to re-enter Palestine.”

    1915: It was reported today “about five hundred Jewish women are confined at the Bella Vista Hotel at Jaffa” where they are suffering “much privation.”

    1916(11th of Tishrei, 5677): In New York, retired realtor Samuel Hirsch, the husband of Eugenia Hirsch, whose estate was appraised at $774, 928 passed away today.

    1916: It was reported today that an exhaustive report “purports to show that the (Russian) military censor was in definite alliance with the anti-Semitic press and took every” opportunity “to fan the flames of racial antagonism and hatred by having the Jew proclaimed as an enemy of Russia, more to be feared even than the German invader…so that every attempt to reveal the truth about the Jewish solider, his bravery, his fortitude, his unselfishness, the suffering of his helpless wife and children was systematically suppressed.”

    1917(22nd of Tishrei, 5678): Shemini Atzeret

    1917: In Frankfurt an der Oder, Siegfried and Frieda Nuemann gave birth to Gerhard Neumann, who served with the fabled “Flying Tigers” during WW II, became a leading aviation designer and General Electric executive and earned the Daniel Guggenheim Medal in 1979

    1917: It was reported today that there are more than 50,000 Jewish soldiers serving in the U.S. Army, “a percentage far in excess of the ratio of Jews to the general population.

    1918: Birthdate of Arthur Mendelowitz, the native of Sighetu Marmației who survived Auschwitz, joined Mosad and gained fame as Amos Manor the Director of Shin Bet.

    1918: During World War I, in France, on the Western Front U.S. Army Corporal Samuel Sampler charged an enemy bunker that was inflicting severe causalities and using hand-grenades neutralized the enemy position allowing the unit to continue his advance.  He was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for his action.

    1920: Today’s Issue of the American Hebrew is scheduled to be devoted to the “various phases of” the late Jacob “Schiff’s life and activities.”

    1920: Harry H. Schlact was “appointed special assistant commissioner of immigration” today.

    1920: Rabbi Wise and Judge Elkus are scheduled to speak at the exercises marking the installation of Hebrew Union College graduate Maxwell Silver as the Rabbi of the Flushing Division of the Free Synagogue.

    1924(10th of Tishrei, 5685): Yom Kippur

    1924: While speaking in the lower house of the Hungarian Parliament, Dr. Bela Fabian, a Jewish deputy described the power of the anti-Semitic Association of Awakening Magyars, some of whose members had just been acquitted in case where they had been charged “in the bombing a charity of a charity ball organized by the Jewish Women of Csongrad in which several people were killed.”

    1925: At Forbes Field, The Washington Senators, with Buddy Myer at 2nd base lost the second game of the World Series to the Pirates.

    1925: Birthdate of NYU basketball star Sidney Tanenbaum who “won the 1947 Bar Kochba Award, which honored him as the best Jewish American athlete.”

    1926: It was reported today that Jews in Palestine have called upon the British government not to let Arabs be the ones to repair Rachel’s Tomb.

    1927:With Jewish editor Herman Bermstein acting as interpreterMordachai Golinkin, conductor of the Palestine Opera and former director of the Petrograd Opera, told reporters at the Ansonia Hotel how he, his wife, Lea, lyric soprano, and G. Giorini, dramatic tenor, had been detained on Ellis Island for three days. Golinkin had nothing but praise for the way in which he was treated during the internment and expressed a desire to return to the Island to give a concert.  Golinkin is in this country to raise $200,000 to build an opera house in Palestine.  Nathan Struas and Herman Bernstein “were greatly impressed by the artistic merits” of Golinikin’s productions in Israel which have included performances of Fause and Aida in Hebrew.

    1927(12thof Tishrei, 5688): Judith Solis-Cohen passed away.

    1927: In Bahía Blanca, Argentina, were Máxima (Vapniarsky) and Lázaro Milstein, a Jewish Ukrainian immigrant gave birth to biochemist César Milstein who “shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1984”

    1927: In Omaha, Nebraska, Jacob Lipsey, a Jewish immigrant from Russia who “own a wholesaled poultry and meat market” and “the former Molly Brick” gave birth to Stanford Lipsey, thePulitzer Prize winning publisher and friend of Warren Buffet.

    1928:  Joseph Szigeti, the Jewish Hungarian violinist, gives the first performance of Alfredo Casella's Violin Concerto.

    1928(24th of Tishrei, 5689): Silent screen comedian Larry Semon reportedly passed away. Semon directed, wrote and starred in the silent screen version the Wizard of Oz. There are those who contend that this is not the date of Semon’s death. According to them, Semon was in financial trouble and he faked his death to get away from his creditors.  However, they have not been able to come up with alternative date for his death.

    1928: Hungarian born Joseph Szigeti performed in the début of Alfredo Casella's Violin Concerto. Szigeti is one more in a long line of Jewish virtuoso violinists.

    1928: Several people were injured today and three were arrested in “a clash between Hebraist and partisans of the Yiddish language” at Tel Aviv.  “The occasion for the clash was a celebration by the Poale Zion Club commemorating the 20th anniversary of the Czernowitz Conference, where Yiddish was proclaimed as ‘a national language’ of the Jewish people.” G’dud Magginei Ha’saf-fah “a youth organization ‘for the protection of the Hebrew language’ was responsible for the attack.  Among the injured was M. Wescher, a Poale Zion leader and member of the Tel Aviv Municipal Council.

    1930: In Pittsfield, MA, Harry and Ruth Klein Kaufman gave birth to Donald Kaufman, the Vice President of KB Toys who was responsible for creating “one of the largest and most valuable collections of antique toy cars and trucks in the world.”

    1929 Birthdate of Bronx High School of Science, Arthur Bernard Bisguier who became an International Grandmaster in 1957, the same year in which he played Bobby Fischer at the U.S. Open in Cleveland

    1931:Berlin Alexanderplatz: die Geschichte Franz Biberkopfs(Berlin Alexanderplatz: the story of Franz Biberkopfs) with a script co-authored by Bruno Alfred Döblin premiered today.

     1931: The Habima Theater opened in Tel Aviv. Founded by Nahum Zemach in 1917 in Moscow, Habima (Hebrew word meaning “the stage”) was one of the first Hebrew language theatre groups.  The group left the Soviet Union in 1926 and went on tour before finally settling in Tel Aviv.  Habima was designated as the national theatre in 1958.

    1931(27th of Tishrei, 5692):General Sir John Monash, who was the highest ranking Jewish officer to serve in the Australian Army during  the World War I and who served with distinction at Gallipoli and on the Western Front passed away.

    1932(8thof Tishrei, 5693): Shabbat Shuva

    1932: In Brooklyn, electrical engineer Irwin Appel and the former Lillian Sender gave birth to Kenneth Ira Appel, a “mathematician who harnessed computer” (As reported by Dennis Overbye)

    1935(22ndof Tishrei, 5697): Shemini Atzeret

    1936: Birthdate of Rona Burstein, who gained fame as Hollywood gossip columnist Rona Barrett

    1936: Abraham Kaiser, a Jew living in Duisburg, Germany was sentenced by a National Socialist tribunal to one and a half years imprisonment “for writing to a friend in America a letter that contained uncomplimentary remarks about Chancellor Hitler and the National Socialist party.”

    1936: It was reported today that “a nationwide unofficial army was being formed by a WPA group to ‘fight reds’ and quoted” “Wilbert Eldred, a middle-aged employee in the Procurement Division of the Unite States Treasury Department” “as saying that the ‘growing influence of Reds and Jews was menacing the country.’”

    1937:The Palestine Post reported that the Franco-Luxembourg-German borders were closed to Jews. All trains arriving at the border were searched and Jews were turned back. Jews seeking to return to Germany were also turned back. In Germany Jews were called to police stations and asked point-blank when they were going to emigrate, or they would face serious consequences.

    1937: “Lance Spy” directed by Gregory Ratoff, co-starring Peter Lorre and featuring Luther Adler, Fritz Feld, Joseph Schildkraut and Maurice Moscovith was released in the United States today.

    1938: The Slovak Peoples' Party establishes Hlinkova Garda (Hlinka Guard), an anti-Semitic militia that will collaborate with the Germans.

    1938:Jewish composer David Rose marries Martha Raye

    1939: A new Nazi–Soviet agreement was reached by an exchange of letters between Vyacheslav Molotov and the German Ambassador

    1939: Birthdate of Harvey Pekar, the son of Jewish immigrants from Poland, whose autobiographical comic book “American Splendor” would “a cult following for its unvarnished stories of a depressed, aggrieved Everyman negotiating daily life in Cleveland” and would become “ the basis for a critically acclaimed 2003 film.”

    1939: The Nazis ordered to the establishment of a Ghetto in Piotrkow, Poland. This was the first of a series of ghettos and camps planned by Heydrich.

    1939: “The reported plan of Chancellor Hitler to establish a Jewish State in Polish territory was condemned” today “by the annual conference of the Order of the Sons of Zion.”

    1939: The Nazis orchestrated a pogrom against the Jews of Lodz.

    1939: “Writer Sees Nazis Leaving No Choice” provided a summary of the views of Anne O’Hare McCormick of the editorial staff of The New York Times on Hitler’s peace proposals most of which she dismissed except for his proposal of “setting up some sort of a Jewish state in Poland – a Hitler homeland for the Jews” which she said “is at least interesting.

    1939: Hitler declared that Będzin would be among the Polish territories annexed by Germany which marked the start of the resettlement of 30,000 Jews from other communities in the Polish city.

    1939: Germany annexed Western Poland marking the next level of the downward spiral that would come to be known as the Final Solution.

    1939: At the annual conference of the Order of the Sons Of Zion a resolution was adopting terming Hitler’s reported plan to establish a Jewish State in Polish territory “a hypocritical scheme fraught with the gravest of dangers to European Jewry.”

    1939: Pastor John Hayes Holmes of the Community Church delivered a sermon giving reasons for the United States to remain neutral based in part on the unworthiness of the government of Poland “a place where Jews were a little more miserable than in Germany.”

    1940: Dr. Louis L. Mann, the rabbi of Temple Sinai, is scheduled to officiate at the funeral of Henry Horner, the Governor of Illinois. Follow the funeral, the Governor will be interred at Mount Mayriv Cemetery in a grave next to his mother.

    1941(17th of Tishrei, 5702: Third Day of Sukkoth

    1941(17thof Tishrei, 5702): Fifty-four year old Koblenz born, Chicago raised Gustav Gerson Kahn, known as “Gus Kahn” the lyricist for such “standards” as “Yes Sir, That’s My Baby,” “It Had to Be You” and “Dream a Little Dream of Me” who went on to create musicals in Hollywood while being married to Grace Kahn with whom he had one son, Donald, passed away today.

    1941: “The Auschwitz II extermination camp, better known as Auschwitz-Birkenau” was founded today.

    1941(17thof Tishrei, 5702): Fifty-four year old lyricist Gus Kahn who wrote an untold number of hit songs during the 1920’s and 1930’s and was the father of songwriter Donald Kahn passed away today.

    1941(17th of Tishrei, 5702: The Vitebsk (Belorussia) Ghetto is liquidated; more than 16,000 Jews are killed.

    1941: “The prosecutor, Gaston Cassagneau, handed Leon Blum an “additional indictment” that included a lengthy critique of the Popular Front and ended with these words: “Because the unjustifiable weakness of M. Léon Blum’s government compromised both production in the short run and the moral state of the producers, he betrayed the duties of his office.”

    1941: “49th Parallel,” a British war movie based on an original story by Emeric Pressburger who wrote the screenplay and starring Leslie Howard premiered in London today.

    1942: The USS Drum, the ship on which Maruice Rindskopf spent all of World War II, contacted a convoy of four freighters, and defying the air cover guarding the ships, sank one of the cargo ships before bombs forced her deep.

    1943(9th of Tishrei, 5704):Erev Yom Kippur

    1943: This morning, one day after he had passed funeral services are scheduled to be held for sixty-four year old Lithuanian native Ephraim Caplan, the “religious editor of the Jewish Morning Journal,” long-time director of the Jewish National Fund of America and President of the Council for Orthodox Jewish Education who was the husband of Eva Caplan with whom he had one daughter, Martha and “three sons, Dr. Leon Caplan, Dr. Joseph Caplan” and Saul Caplan who served with the U.S. Army in WW II, followed by burial in Mount Judah Cemetery.

    1943(9th of Tishrei, 5704):: Three thousand Italian prisoners of war are murdered by the SS and Ukrainian guards at La Risiera di San Sabba, Italy, south of Trieste. Of 1,920 Jews in Trieste, 620 are murdered by the SS.

    1943(9th of Tishrei, 5704): On the eve of the Jewish Day of Atonement, several thousand ill or weak Jewish men are gassed at Auschwitz.

    1943: Birthdate of R.L. Stine.  Born Robert Lewis Stine, the author is known for his science fiction works.

    1944(21st of Tishrei, 5705): Hoshana Rabbah

    1944: The Gestapo began arresting members of the anti-Nazi Ehrenfeld Group.

    1945(1st of Cheshvan, 5706): Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan

    1945(1st of Cheshvan, 5706): Seventy-six year old author, Felix Salten, born Siegmund Salzmann at Pest (what would be Budapest), best known as the creator of Bambi  who fled the Nazis which meant spent the last years of his life in Switzerland and who in 1901 married  Ottilie Metzl with whom he had two children – Paul and Anna -- passed away today.

    1945: As part of the protest against British treatment of the Jews in Palestine and those trying to reach Palestine Rabbis throughout Palestine are scheduled to add Psalm XX which beings “Let the King hear us when we call” to the daily prayer service.

    1945: As part of the protest against British policy in Palestine, 50,000 Jews attended a rally in Tel Aviv and tens of thousands more attended a rally at Edison Hall in Jerusalem where they demanded an end to the White Paper.

    1945: In an attempt to spare European Jewish refugees another winter in displaced person camps, Zionist leaders spent two and half hours with the new Colonial Secretary, Arthur Creech Jones, discussing ways to improve British-Jewish relations” in Palestine.

    1945: In a sign of Jewish frustration with the continued British enforcement of the White Paper, the Stern Gang reportedly resorted to a new wave of violence tonight with attacks that resulted in the death of two British soldiers and the wounding of scores of others.

    1945: “The Seventh Veil” a melodrama with a score by Benjamin Frankel was released today in the UK.

    1946(15th of Tishrei, 5710): Shabbat and Sukkoth

    1948: In Egypt, “the issuance of export and import licenses to Jewish merchants was forbidden,.”

    1948: A group of settlers from Hungary founded Kibbutz Ga’aton in the hill country east of Nahariya. According to some it is named for the Ga’aton River which flows nearby.  According to others, it is named for a town thought to have existed in the area before the Babylonian exile.  Regardless, the kibbutz fell under immediate attack from Arabs shooting from the surrounding hills.

    1949: The curtain came down temporarily on “Lend an Ear” a musical revue featuring sketches by Joseph Stein ending its run at the Broadhurst Theatre so it could move to the Schubert Theatre.

    1950: The Third Maccabiah, the first one to be held in the state of Israel, came to an end today.

    1951: “The third government of Israel was formed by David Ben-Gurion.

    1952(19th of Tishrei, 5713): Fifth Day of Sukkoth

    1952: “The Four Poster” the film version of the play produced by Stanley Kramer, directed by Irving Reis with music by Dimitri Tiomkin and co-starring Lili Palmer was released today in the United States.

    1952: In Chicago, Ruth Ellen (née Reich) and Allen Zwick gave birth to Harvard graduate and director/screenwriter/producer Edward Zwick who directed such gems as Glory and Legends of the Fall but shared in the Oscar for the fluffy “Shakespeare in Love.”

    1952: The Jerusalem Postreported that Dov Shilansky, Gavriel Lichtman, a taxi driver, and Ya'acov Lotan, a regular contributor to the Herut newspaper, were remanded by police in connection with the attempt to sabotage the Israel-German reparations agreement by bombing one of the Foreign Ministry buildings in Jerusalem's Hakirya.

    1953: ABC broadcast the first episode of “Where’s Raymond” a sitcom produced by Stanley Shapiro.

    1956: Today sports broadcaster Bob Wolff provided the radio play by play of Game 5 of the 1956 World Series in which Yankee Don Larsen pitched a perfect game against the Brooklyn Dodgers.

    1959: LA Dodgers beat Chicago White Sox, 4 games to 2 in 56th World Series.  The Dodgers team featured two Jewish players who were brothers – the pitcher Larry Sherry and the catcher Norm Sherry.  Larry Sherry was a rookie who appeared as a relief pitcher in all four of the Dodgers’ victories.

    1961: “Actors Joyce and Byrne Piven gave birth to movie director Shira Piven, the sister of actor Jeremey Piven.

    1962(10thof Tishrei, 5723): Yom Kippur

    1964(2ndof Cheshvan, 5725): Seventy-one year old Viennese born film producer Isadore Goldsmith who continued his career in Great Britain after the Nazis came to power and was the husband of novelist Vera Caspary passed away today in Putney, VT.

    1964: “Outrage,” a western film directed by Martin Ritt, with a script by Michael Kanin and starring Paul Newman, Laurence Harvey, Edward G. Robinson, William Shatner and Howard Da Silva (so many Jews) was released today in the United States by MGM.

    1966: Birthdate of Memphis native David Frank Kustoff, the University of Memphis alum and Republican political leader who served as a United States Attorney before taking office as “the member of the United States House of Representatives for Tennessee’s 8th congressional district” in 2017 and is the husband of fellow attorney Roberta Kustoff with whom he “has two children.

    1966(24thof Tishrei, 5727): One day after Simchat Torah, the cycle begins again – Parashat Bereshit

    1966(24thof Tishrei, 5727): Seventy-eight year old Ukrainian born cellist and composer Gdal Saleski passed away today in Los Angeles.

    1967: Joseph Brodsky, a victim of anti-Semitism who was expelled from the Soviet Union in 1972 and won the Nobel Prize for leadership and painter Marina Basmanova gave birth to their son Andrei whom Brodsky registered under Marina’s name to spare him attacks by the authorities.

    1969: “The Monitors” a sci-fi comedy starring Avery Schreiber and Larry Storch and featuring Adam Arkin, Alan Arkin and Stubby Kaye was released in the United States today.

    1973: During the Yom Kippur War, two Israeli attempts to reach the east bank of the Suez were beaten back by Egyptian soldiers equipped with Soviet supplied anti-tank weapons.  IDF forces facing Syria were more successful.  Although outnumbered, the IDF forces halted the advance of the Syrians into Israel and by the end of the day have driven them back to the 1967 Armistice Lines and beyond. 

    1973: During the Yom Kippur War, Gabi Amir's armored brigade attacks Egyptian occupied positions on the Israeli side of the Suez Canal, in hope of driving them away. The attack fails, and over 150 Israeli tanks are destroyed.

    1973: Buoyed by initial Egyptian and Syrian military success, numerous Moslem and Arab states offered aid and support to the aggressors.  The Algerians sent squadrons of planes.  The King of Morocco called on soldiers in his army to volunteer to fight with the Egyptians.  Idi Amin ordered all Ugandan officers in Egypt to join in the fight.  And the Prime Minister of Bangladesh sent telegrams stating the his 75 million countrymen supported the Egyptians and the Syrians “in your just cause” 

    1973: Israelis were alarmed by news from the front, which was fragmentary and not good.  Their fears were heightened when a civil defense spokesperson urged Israelis who did not have a shelter to start digging one and that those who had small shelter should enlarge them.  The only good news was Australian volunteers were arriving to perform the work of civilians who had been mobilized and that American Jews had already raised $100 million for the Israeli war effort. 

    1973: After touring both battle fronts, Maj. Gen. Haim Bar-Lev and Minister Yigal Allon reported to Prime Minister Meir this evening that the Israeli forces' situation is beginning to improve, while the enemy forces are beginning to suffer serious damage."What they achieved today as compared to yesterday is enormous," Allon said. "The front was breached yesterday. If the Syrians had been more daring, they'd have made significant gains."Bar-Lev explained the Egyptian and Syrian successes as being partly due to technological superiority. "Both have the new Soviet tank plus infrared," he said. "They have an advantage there. On the first night we were surprised; we only knew they had it in theory ... Today we know about it and take it into account."

    1973: The 17th Battalion of the Golani Brigade moved up the slopes of Mt. Hermon in the opening round of the Second Battle of Mount Hermon.

    1973:Tonight, the Israeli missile boats repeated their success of last night off the Egyptian coast, with three Egyptian missile boats sunk and no Israeli vessel hit. For the remainder of the war, neither the Syrian nor Egyptian fleets would venture out again, enabling more than 100 freighters carrying vital supplies to safely reach Israel, which was in the throes of a brutal, two-front ground war.

    1973: Kobi Hayun, Micahel Dvir, Shabtai Ben-Shua, Yoram Peled and Boaz Lerner all made it safely back to Israeli lines when their F-4E Phantom Jets were shot down Syrian SAM’s or Egyptian Anti- Aircraft fire.

    1973: Yoram Shachar was taken prisoner after his F-4E Phantom Jet was shot down by a Syrian Surface to Air Missile.

    1973: As the Vale of Tears Battle entered its third day the outmanned and outgunned 7thBrigade fought off attacks by the 7th Infantry Division, the 3rdArmored Division and the Assad Republican Guards which by the end of the day left the Israelis with at least fifty dead, untold more wounded and less than 45 working tanks but the IDF continued to blunt the Syrian advance.

    1974: NBC broadcast “Where Have All the People Gone?”  a sci-fi thriller written by Sandor Stern and co-starring Verna Bloom.

    1975: “Hearts of the West” a comedy directed by Howard Zieff and co-starring Alan Arkin was released in the United States today.

    1976: Paramount releases “Marathon Man,” the movie version of the book by William Goldman starring Dustin Hoffman.

    1977: White supremacist Joseph P. Franklin shot and killed three people outside of a suburban St. Louis synagogue including Gerald Gordon.

    1978(7thof Tishrei, 5739): Seventy-six year old Eliyahu Sasson, the native of Damascus who made Aliyah in 1927 who filled several ambassadorial positions, served as an MK and cabinet minister passed away today.

    1979: In a case of “poetic justice” “two Palestinian terrorists were injured attempting to plant a bomb near the Tomb of the Patriarchs.”

    1980(28thof Tishrei, 5741): Seventy-three year old David I. Arkin, an innocent victim of the McCarthy Red witch hunt and the father of actor Alan Arkin whose most famous musical effort was the song “Black and White” which celebrated the 1954 Supreme Court Decision that put an end to the legal prop for racially segregated schools passed away today.

    1981(10th of Tishrei, 5742): Yom Kippur

    1981(10th of Tishrei, 5742): Heinz Kohut an Austrian-born American psychoanalyst best known for his development of Self psychology, an influential school of thought within psychodynamic/psychoanalytic theory which helped transform the modern practice of analytic and dynamic treatment approaches passed away.

    1981 ABC broadcast the first episode of Taxi’s Fourth Season directed by James Burrows.

    1983: “My Favorite Year,” a comedy directed by Richard Benjamin, produced by Michael Gruskoff and featuring Bill Macy, Lainie Kazan, Selma Diamond, Adolph Green and Lou Jacobi was released in the United States today.

    1985(23rd of Tishrei, 5746): Simchat Torah

    1985: “An English-language production of Les Misérables” which was a product of a collaboration of Alain Boublil and Claude-Michel Schönberg premiered in London at The Royal Shakespeare Company’s Barbican Theatre.

    1985: The hijackers of the Achille Laurocruise liner surrendered after the ship arrived in Port Said, Egypt. Before surrendering, the hijackers threw Leon Klinghoffer, a wheel-chair bound passenger, over the side of the boat.

    1986: The Providence Journal "Navy Rabbi To Join Iceland Team: Russian immigrant's grandson picked to lead staff services,” a story about the role of Rabbi Arnold E. Resnicoff, the U.S. Navy Chaplain sent to Iceland to lead services during the meetings laying the groundwork for the Reagan-Gorbachev Summit.

    1987(15th of Tishrei, 5748): Sukkoth

    1988: “Jamie Sue Gangel, a network television correspondent for NBC News, and Daniel Silva, a writer and producer for CNN, both in Washington, were married today at the Mayflower Hotel.”

    1988: NBC broadcast the first episode of season four of Golden Girls, a sitcom starring Beatrice Arthur and Estelle Getty with theme music by Andrew Gold.

    1988: NBC broadcast the first episode of the sitcom created by “Empty Nest” created by Susan Harris (née Spivak).

    1990: Israelipolice kill 17 Palestinian rioters. The riots occurred at the Temple Mount and were part of the orchestrated violence against Israelis now known as the First Intifada.  For those of you who like symmetry or have a sense of irony, the Second version of this organized terror would begin in the same place at the same time of the year when Arafat rejected Barak’s peace offer. 

    1992:  Willy Brandt, former Chancellor of Germany, passed away.  The winner of the Nobel Peace Prize had opposed the Nazis when he was a youth living in Germany.  In 1970, Brandt made a highly emotional visit to Warsaw where he fell to his knees in front of the Memorial to the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. This silent act of contrition spoke volumes to the world about the new Germany and the willingness take responsibility for its past. In writing about the trip Brandt said, “An unusual burden accompanied me on my way to Warsaw. Nowhere else had a people suffered as in Poland.  The machine-like annihilation of Polish Jewry represented a heightening of bloodthirstiness that no one had held possible.  On my way to Warsaw [I carried with me] the memory of the fight to the death of the Warsaw ghetto. As moving as these words were then, they are even more so now as another generation of leaders has risen filled with inclination to minimize their personal pasts and the Jewish element that made the Holocaust unique.

    1993: Edward Rothstein gives a less than an enthusiastic review of Ezra Laderman’s “Marilyn” which was “a City Opera commission” that “opened a world-premiere festival in honor of the company’s 50th anniversary.”

    1993: Seventy-five year old Robert Constant Moses, a native of Phillip, SD, a graduate of Beloit High School who was a WW II veteran, a draftsman at Barber Coleman and the father of Nancy Margulis, who became a pillar of the Cedar Rapids Jewish community, was laid to rest today at the Mt. Tabor Cemetery.

    1993: “Mr. Jones,” a romantic drama written by Eric Roth was released in the United States today by TriStar Pictures.

    1993: “Gettysburg” a massive Civil War epic co-produced by Robert Katz, featuring John Rothman and with a memorable score by Randy Edelman was released today in the United States.

    1994: In a letter written today to Sir Martin Gilbert, fourteen and half year old Hirsch Dorbian wrote that he had been “among the thousands of prisoners liberated by the British in the camp at Neustadt earlier that month and that on VE Day, May 8, 1945, “was spent by him in a clean and white bed for the first time three years.

    1997(7th of Tishrei, 5758): American architect Bertrand Goldberg best known for the Marina City complex in Chicago, Illinois, the tallest residential concrete buildings in the world at the time of completion passed away.

    1999: “The Last Day” an Oscar winning documentary that ‘tell the story of five Hungarian Jews during the Holocaust” was released today in the United Kingdom.

    2000(9th of Tishrei, 5671): Erev Yom Kippur

    2000:The Sunday New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or on topics related to Judaism including Quarrel & Quandry: Essays by Cynthia Ozick,Einstein In Love: A Scientific Romance by Dennis Overbye, Dream Catcher: A Memoir by Margaret A. Salinger and The Second Coming of Steve Jobs by Alan Deutschman

    2000: In “Flash Point: Temple Mount is Holy Ground; Muslims Must Recognize Shrine’s Importance to Judaism” publishedtoday Aron U Raskas of the Baltimore Sun wrote “Ten days ago, former defense minister had the good fortune to be able to do that which Jews dispersed for centuries in the diaspora could only hope, dream and pray for: On the eve of Rosh Hashanah, the Jewish New Year - the liturgy of which is replete with recollections of [Abraham]'s selfless act on the Temple Mount and with prayers for a restoration of the divine presence to this site - Sharon dared to peacefully tread upon this hallowed Jewish ground. The second lesson is that, even after seven years of delusional thinking by Pollyannaish Israelis, the Palestinian people and their leaders are completely unwilling to recognize the Jewish legacy of the Temple Mount, the historic connection of Jews to that place and their inalienable right to worship on that holy ground.”

    2001: Forbes published an article entitled “Riklis Driving” that described how Meshulam Riklis drained assets from Dylex Limited, one of Canada’s largest retailers and funneled them into other companies he controlled.

    2004(23rd of Tishrei, 5765): Simchat Torah

    2004:  Haaretz reported that at least thirty-five people were killed and over 100 injured in three separate attacks on holiday resorts in the Sinai Desert that were packed with Israelis celebrating the holiday of Sukkoth. 

    2004: Fiamma Nirenstein was an official speaker at the Boston Conference of on 'Anti-Semitism, the Press and Europe'.

    2004: “Friday Night Lights” the movie version of  Friday Night Lights: A Town, a Team, and a Dream by H. G. Bissinger, ,directed by Peter Berg who wrote the screenplay along with David Aaron Cohen and produced by Brian Grazer was released in the United States today.

    2005(5th of Tishrei, 5766): Shabbat Shauvah is observed by Jews all over the world.

    2005: Award winning singer-songwriter, musician, poet, and novelist Leonard Cohen sued Kelley Lynch, alleging that she had misappropriated over US $5 million from Cohen's retirement fund leaving only $150,000.”

    2005: Hundreds of Jews lit candles and prayed near the Babi Yar ravine, where the Nazis killed tens of thousands of Ukrainian Jews during World War II, as Jewish leaders expressed concern over recent anti-Semitic acts in the former Soviet republic.

    2005: Jonathan Mandell of Chicago took a photograph of a Hebrew inscription in the Cathedral of Monreale which is a testimony to the 1400 years of Jewish settlements in Sicily.

    2005: Thanks to Katrina, Rita, OPEC, et al, Americans are confronted with paying record high prices of gasoline and natural gas.  Now, American Jews face an additional financial threat.  According to The Jerusalem Post, people will be paying record high prices for their lulavs this year. Following Egyptian moves to limit the export of Lulavs, one Israeli importer has “cornered the market” by surreptitiously importing 250,000 Lulavs.  Because of his almost complete control of the limited supply, Avi Belali is charging wholesalers five dollars for an item that usually costs one dollar.  Retailers claim they will have to charge as much as twenty dollars to break even and that does not include the cost of the Etrog.  Unbeknownst to most Americans, the lulav industry is “a pretty shady business” where various tricks are tried each year by dealers looking for a way to make a fast buck.  Some Israeli Rabbis are so concerned about profiteering that they have issued a special Halachahic dispensation allowing for the use of branches from the more numerous canary dates may be used for Lulavs.  Apparently, the sages don’t just know about the Law of Moses, they also know about the law of supply and demand.

    2006(16thof Tishrei, 5767): Second Day of Sukkoth

    2006: The Washington Post featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Primo Levi’s Auschwitz Report andDaniel Mendelsohn’s The Lost: A Search for Six of Six Million and an essay written by Elie Wiesel under the title “Why Memory?”

    2006: The Sunday New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or on topics related to Judaism including The Shakespeare Wars: Clashing Scholars, Public Fiascoes, Palace Coupsby Ron Rosenbaum and Five Germanys I Have Known by Fritz Stern.

    2006: The Israeli Interior Ministry ruled that Valery Dubinin, who had made Aliyah from the Ukraine seven and half years ago, is not a Jew.  This case is newsworthy because the Interior Ministry was overruling the Petah Tikva Rabbinical Court which had provided documents attesting to his Jewishness.

    2006(16th of Tishrei, 5767): Second Day Sukkoth; since the first of Sukkoth fell on Shabbat this is the first time, blessings are recited over the Lulav and Etrog.

    2006: Services will be held today at the Society for the Advancement of Judaism to honor the memory of Selma Judith Levy Toback.

    2007:Shelley Cohn, the former Executive Director of the Arizona Commission on the Arts, is the recipient of the Actor Equity Association’s 2007 Arizona Theatre Service Award. The award was presented to Ms. Cohn at the Union's membership meeting at the Phoenix Theatre

    2007: Time Magazine features an article about Jerry Seinfeld entitled “Jerry Seinfeld Goes Back to Work” and reviews of The Coldest Winter by David Halberstam and Exit Ghosts by Phillip Roth.

    2008(9th of Tishrei, 5769: Erev Yom Kippur; Kol Nidre is chanted.

    2008:A riot in Acre shattered the Yom Kippur calm on Wednesday night as hundreds of the city's Arab residents vandalized Jewish-owned property.

    2009: In New Haven, Yale University presents a double-header with an address byTzipi Livni, former Foreign Minister, Member of Knesset and head of the Kadima party, will speak as a Chubb Fellow and a talk by Brandon Friedman, Research Fellow at the Center for Iranian Studies at Tel Aviv University, entitled "Iran: Ideology and Foreign Policy"

    2009: In New Britain, CT,Ethan Bronner, the New York Times' Israel Bureau Chief delivers a talk entitled "Israel & Palestine: What Happens in 2009?" at Central Connecticut State University, during which he examines what has happened, and what to expect.

    2009:As tensions flare once again over a Jerusalem holy site claimed by Israel and Palestinians as their own, one of the most influential leaders of Israel's religious community told the president today that Jews should not make pilgrimages to the Temple Mount so as not to evoke global outrage.

    2009:Romania unveiled a monument in memory of 300,000 Jews and Gypsies killed during the Holocaust in the country, which at times in the past had denied that the extermination even occurred. 2009: In San Francisco, “Torah scribe Julie Seltzer began work on a Sefer Torah.”

    2010(30th of Tishrei, 5771): Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan

    2010(30th of Tishrei, 5771): Eighty-two Chicago born, Yale educated James Emanuel “Jim” Fuchs the winner of bronze medals in shot put at the 1948 and 1952 Summer Olympics passed away today in New York.


    2010:The 92Y Resource Center for Jewish Diversity and the Ethiopian Jewish community in New York are scheduled to co-host a festive and authentic Ethiopian Shabbat dinner. The scheduled feast will include traditional Ethiopian dishes such as Doro Wat (chicken stew), Injera (pancake bread) and much more.

    2010: The Telegraph (UK) reported that Professor Mary Beard of Cambridge University has condemned the appointment of historian and presenter Simon Schama as the Coalition Government's new history tsar. She described the announcement as an example of Michael Gove, the education secretary, "playing to the populist gallery".   She described Schama as “a celebrity.”  She did not mention the fact that he was Jewish.

    2011(10th of Tishrei, 5772): Yom Kippur

    2011(10th of Tishrei): In a tribute to diversity and inclusion, congregants at Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids will be able to attend either a Reform or Traditional Yom Kippur Service.  The Traditional Service is rooted in Beth Jacob - a synagogue founded 105 years ago.  Temple Judah is preparing to celebrate its 90th anniversary. When one considers the fate of Jewry in many of America’s small cities and towns, this is quite an accomplishment.

    2011: Kenny G. (Kenneth Bruce Gorelick) appeared tonight on “Saturday Night Live with his soprano sax.”

    2011(10th of Tishrei, 5772): Eighty-two year old Allen “Al” Davis who played a major role in re-shaping the National Football League as the owner and general manager of the Oakland Raiders and as the commissioner of the AFL passed away today.

    2011:Hours after far-right-wing graffiti was reported to police in Muslim and Christian cemeteries in Jaffa, a Molotov cocktail was thrown at a synagogue in the area today.

    2012(22nd of Tishrei, 5753): Shemini Atzeret

    2012(22nd of Tishrei, 5763): One hundred year old Eda Mirsky Mann, the mother of Erica Jong passed away today.

    2012: In the United States, observance of Columbus Day which means, for once, the Jewish and Gentile worlds will be celebrating holidays on the same day, even though they are of a completely different nature.

    2012: The Alexandria Kletztet is scheduled to play at the Simchat Torah service for Congregation Etz Hayim in Arlington, VA.

    2012:Palestinian terrorists in the Gaza Strip fired more than 30 rockets and mortars — with some Israeli media outlets reporting over 50 rockets — into southern Israel early this morning, causing damage to a residential building

    2013: The Charles E. Smith Life Communities which seeks “to fulfill Jewish values by providing a continuum of quality services for elders and their families” is scheduled to sponsor “An Evening with Tony Kornheiser” at Woodmont Country Club.

    2013: Under the leadership of Ed Miliband, Labor MP Luciana Berger began serving as “Shadow Minister for Public Health” today.

    2013: The Consulate General of Israel in New York co-hosts this evening’s scheduled screening of “Blues by the beach.”

    2013: A staged reading of the new play “Stealing Home: The Mystery of Moe Berg” is scheduled to be performed today by member of the Actors Studio in New York.

    2013: Howard Epstein completed his service as a member of the Nova Scotia House of Assembly “representing the provincial riding of Halifax Chedbucto.”

    2013: In Washington, DC, Mark Cohen, author of Overweight Sensation: The Life and Comedy of Allen Sherman is scheduled to speak at The Hyman S. & Freda Bernstein Jewish Literary Festival

    2013: Today, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences “announced the full list of nations that had submitted a movie for consideration for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film including “Yuval Adler’s “Bethlehem,” which explores a difficult relationship between a Shin Bet agent and a Palestinian teenager and “Transit,” a Philippine film about foreign workers in Israel. (As reported by Debra Kamin)

    2013: Eighty-year old Holocaust survivor François Englert, a Sackler Professor by Special Appointment in the School of Physics and Astronomy at Tel Aviv University won the 2013 Nobel Prize

    2014(14th of Tishrei, 5775): Erev Sukkoth

    2014: The Center for Judaic Studies and Contemporary Jewish Life at the University of Connecticut is scheduled to sponsor a noontime “Yiddish Tish”.

    2014: Friends and family celebrate the birthday of author Noam Friedlander the daughter of Evelyn Friedlander and Rabbi Albert Friedlander

    2014:SukkahPDX, an annual juried outdoor design competition held in Portland, OR, at the Oregon Jewish Museum and Center for Holocaust Education in partnership with Mittleman Jewish Community Center is scheduled to begin today.

    2014: The Lunar Eclipse featuring a Blood Moon will be visible throughout much of the United States today. (As reported by Edmond J. Rodman)

    2014:Argentinian anti-terror police today arrested a man suspected of planning to attack a Jewish community center.

    2015: The Jewish Museum of London is scheduled to host “Books at Lunchtime” where a Waterstones Camden bookseller “will share what's new, what's hot, and read extracts from recommended books and bestsellers.

    2015: The Oxford University Jewish Society is scheduled to host “Fresh Jews and Fresh Juice.”

    2015: JCC Manhattan is scheduled to host an evening with “Vertigo, Israel’s top dance company” where “choreographer Noa Wertheim will talk about her artistic process, including the creation of the group's eco art village outside of Jerusalem.”

    2015:  Eva Moskowitz will not be running for Mayor of New York saying today “that she wanted to redouble her focus on her charter school network…and the task of creating ‘transformation change’ in education.”

    2015: During an interview with Wolf Blitzer on CNN, “Republican presidential hopeful Ben Carson…said fewer people would have been killed by the Nazis had been armed” in an apparent attempt to blame “gun control for the extent of the Holocaust.”

    2015: “Junun” a film that “dcouments the making of the album of the same name by the Israeli composer Shye Ben” was released today at the New York Film Festival

    2015: The Center for Jewish History is scheduled to host “A Special Evening Commemorating the 30th Anniversary of the Murder of Leon Klinghoffer Aboard the Achille Lauro.” 

    2015(25thof Tishrei, 5776): Ninety year old Henry Krystal who survived the Holocaust to become a Professor of Psychiatry at Michigan State University passed away today.

    2016(6thof Tishrei, 5777): Shabbat Shuva

    2016(6thof Tishrei, 5777): Eighty-six year old “Emmy Award-winning documentarian” Morton Silverstein passed away today.

    2016(6thof Tishrei, 5777): Ninety-six year old Peter Allen, who introduced the Saturday afternoon broadcasts from the Met passed away today.

    2016(6thof Tishrei, 5777): Eight-four year old Professor Jacob Neusner, the prolific and ground-breaking Biblical scholar passed away today in Rhinebeck, NY.

    2016:  SERET DC. “a celebration of contemporary Israeli cinema is scheduled to host a screening of


    2016: Today’s session of “German Iowa and the Global Midwest” is scheduled to present: Tobias Brinkmann speaking on "Small Town Stopover: Jewish Immigrants from Central Europe in the Rural Midwest 1850-80"; Kit Belgum: speaking on “German and Jewish: Civic Connections in Nineteenth-Century Iowa" and Jeannette Gabriel speaking on "We Were German Too: Finding Jewish Women's Voices in Iowa's German Past"

    2016: “Exposed” a “six week contemporary dance and physical theatre featuring Israeli and local artists” is scheduled to open in the Metro Atlanta, GA Area today.

    2016: “Keeping Up with the Jones,” a spy-spoof featuring Gal Gadot premiered in Los Angeles today.

    2016: The 15th International Henryk Wieniawski Violin Competition, named in honor of Lublin born violinist and composer Henryk Wieniawski is scheduled to begin today.

    2016: As those living on the southeast coast of the United States deal with Hurricane Mathew “many synagogues are shuttering for Shabbat” including “Temple Emanuel located on the barrier islands of Palm Beach which has cancelled Shabbat morning services.”

    2017: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Rise and Fall of Adam and Eve by Stephen Greenblatt and the recently published paperback edition of The Gustav Sonata by Rose Tremain.

    2017(18th of Tishrei, 5778): Sukkoth Chol Ha’moed

    2017: Edith Schumer, a native of Stockstadt, Germany, who “was one of the “1,000 children,” a group of approximately 1,400 German Jewish children who were allowed to come unaccompanied to the United States via an organized rescue effort that occurred nine months prior to the start of World War II” is scheduled to speak at the Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center.

    2017: Author and architectural historian Clare Lise Kelly is scheduled conduct a tour that will explore the Montgomery County work of Cohen, Haft & Associates, a leading modernist architecture firm in the D.C. area whose projects have included several Jewish-owned buildings, such as B'nai Israel Congregation and the Charles E. Smith Life Communities campus

    2018: Yemen Blues and Lara Bello are scheduled to perform this evening at the American Sephardi Music Festival at the Center for Jewish History.

    2018: In Jerusalem, Mercaz Hatarbuyot is scheduled to host an evening Klezmer, Jazz and Classical Music featuring “virtuoso clarinetist Ira Goyfeld” and “concert pianist Eliah Zabaly,” the winner of the “1st Prize of the Paris National Conservatory of Music.”

    2018: Today is the deadline for submitting applications for a fellowship “at the Frankel Institute for Advanced Judaic Studies at the University of Michigan.”


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    768: Carloman I and Charlemagne are crowned Kings of The Franks. Charlemagne treated to his Jewish subjects well, even if it meant parting from the doctrine of the Church. For example, he extended the rights previously granted to the Jews of Narbonne by his father. Jews “mingled freely at the Frankish court in defiance of canon law…Disputes between Jews were resolved in Jewish courts.” The increased protection and freedom offered to the Jews by Charlemagne resulted in increased commercial and financial activity, especially trade with the Islamic world.

    1184: Judah ben Elijah Hadassi a Karaite Jewish scholar who lived in Constantinople began working on Eshkol ha-Kofter, “a treatise on the Ten Commandments.”

    1192: After having negotiated a treaty with Saladin following the Battle of Jaffa, that created a three year truce, Richard III left Acre for a planned return to England.

    1217: During the 5th Crusade, a force led by King Andrew II of Hungary landed on Cyprus “from where they sailed to Acre and joined John of Brienne, ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem” and others who were preparing to fight the Ayyubids of Syria.

    1238: In Spain, King James I of Aragon founded the Kingdom of Valencia. In 1263, James I presided over the disputation between Nachmanides and a convert to Christianity named Paul Christian.

    1261: Birthdate of Denis I who as King of Portugal resisted pressure by the clergy to “invoke the restrictions placed on the Jews by the Fourth Lateran Council.
    1264: The army of King Alfonso the Wise of Castile conquered the Spanish city of Jerez that had been held by the Moors since 711. The Jewish community of Jerez, complete with a separate Juderia or Jewish quarter had existed since the time of the Moors. At the time of the Spanish conquest, the city had two synagogues with Don Yucaff and his son Don Todros each living in one of the “houses of the rabbis” Among those Jews to whom the king gave houses and/or lands were “Don Yehuda Mosca who made translations from Arabic into Spanish for the king; the "almoxarife" Don Mayr, or rather Mür de Malhea, and his son Çag (Isaac); Çimha (Simḥah) Xtaruçi, whose father lost his life and the whole of his large fortune during the rebellion of the city; Don Vellocid (Vellecid), "ballestero del rey a caballo"; Solomon Ballestero; and Axucuri Ballestero—the last three being in the king's army.” [Editor’s Note – As can be seen from this entry, the image of the Spanish Jews flourishing under the Moors and suffering under the Christians is not an accurate one.]

     1334: Casmir the Great (Poland) renewed the Charter of Boleslav, granting Jews the freedom of residence in all areas of the kingdom. This document was instrumental in encouraging Jews to begin to flee Germany and move east. King Kazimierz showed how favorably disposed towards Jews he was when he confirmed the privileges granted to Jewish Poles in 1264 by Boleslaus V. Under penalty of death, he prohibited the kidnapping of Jewish children for the purpose of enforced Christian baptism. He inflicted heavy punishment for the desecration of Jewish cemeteries. He invited Jews who were being persecuted elsewhere to settle in Poland, protecting them as 'people of the king'

    1390: Henry III who appointed the Jewish convert to Christianity Paul of Burgos keeper of the royal seal and Lord Chancellor began his reign as King of Castile and Leon

    1526: Today, the Queen regent Maria, the widow of Louis II, continued her anti-Jewish policies first displayed when by expelling the Jews of Sopron by allowing the city of Pressburg, to expel its Jewish citizens.
    1547: Christening of the Don Miguel de Cervantes, the author of Don Quixote. According to some sources, Cervantes mother, Lenor de Cortinas was a descendant of Conversos, Jews who chose Christianity over death or despoliation of their wealth.

    1580: Immanuel Tremellius, the Italian Jewish convert to Catholicism who then became a Protestant and was the Regius professor of Hebrew at Cambridge before becoming the Professor of Old Testament at the University of Heidelberg passed away today.

     1635: Colonial American Separatist Roger Williams was banished from Massachusetts for preaching that civil government had no right to interfere in religious affairs. (Williams was seeking to establish freedom of worship through the separation of church and state.) Rhode Island would provide the model for the rest of the United States on this issue. In addition to which, William's policy would Rhode Island an attractive place for Jews to settle during the colonial and Revolutionary War periods.

     1666(10th of Tishrei, 5427): Yom Kippur

    1666(10th of Tishrei, 5427): In Hamburg, Germany, blessings were offered in honor of Sabbatia Zvi during Yom Kippur. The Hamburg community was unaware of the fact the self-proclaimed Messiah had converted to Islam in September of 1666.

    1691: English merchant Erasmus Smith whose philanthropy was recognized by Trinity College when it created the Erasmus Smith Chair of Hebrew in 1724 passed away today.

    1701: The Collegiate School of Connecticut (later renamed Yale University) is chartered in Old Saybrook, Connecticut. In 1805, Moses Simons became the first Jew to attend Yale. Seventeen years later, Judah P. Benjamin attended Yale Law School, making him the school’s second Jewish student. Benjamin left without graduating. According to recent records 1,200 of Yale’s 5,300 undergraduate students are Jewish while 200 of the 1,200 graduate students are Jewish. The school offers 45 Jewish courses and a minor in Jewish studies but no major. This is a vast improvement over the situation for Jews at Yale as late as the 1960’s when administrators, faculty and alumnae sought to limit Jewish enrollment at the Ivy League school through quotas and other forms of social pressure. You have to wonder if these people knew that Elihu Yale’s Jewish mistress, after whom the school was named, had born him a son. Would the Yalies have accepted Yale’s son?

    1766: Uriah and Eva Esther Hendricks gave birth to Jochabed Sarah Hendricks

    1771:  Count Jan Klemens Branicki, the Polish nobleman who proclaimed the Jews of Bialystok to be subject to bylaw and other local laws on an equal footing with the other townsmen, passed away

    1775(15thof Tishrei, 5536): Sukkoth

    1780(10th of Tishrei, 5541): Yom Kippur

    1784: Benjamin Nones, a native of Bordeaux, France who served with distinction during the American Revolution became a naturalized citizen of the United States today.

    1789: Birthdate of Meno Burg, “the first and for a long time the only Jew serving as a Prussian staff officer.”

    1794(15thof Tishrei, 5555): Sukkoth

    1797(19th of Tishrei, 5558): Chol Hamoed Sukkoth

    1797(19th of Tishrei, 5558): The Vilna Gaon passed away.  There is no way that we can do justice to this Giant of Judaism.  We urge you all to consult the numerous books, websites and other sources that can give you some sense of the importance of this sage who was such an expert in matters of Torah, Talmud and Halachah that even the descendants of those to whom he stood in opposition recognize his merit.

    1798: In Bamberg, the chief rabbi and his wife gave birth to German jurist Karl Feust.

    1799(10thof Tishrei, 5560): Final Yom Kippur of the 18th century

    1803(23rdof Tishrei, 5564): Simchat Torah

    1803: Rabbi Meanchem Mendel Rubin of Linsk, “the first rebbe of the Rosphitz dynasty and the son-in-law of Rabbi Yizchak Halevi Horowitz passed away today.

    1809: Birthdate of Adolphe Franck the French philosopher whose work on the Kabbalah was popular with the public and was President of the Société des Etudes Juives

    1813(15thof Tishrei, 5574): Sukkoth

    1817: Johanna Benzinger and Secekel Loeb Wormser, “the Wonder Rabbi of Michel City” gave birth to Jaidel Wormser

    1817: Daniel Rees married Priscilla Davis at the Western Synagogue today.

    1818: Birthdate of Benedict Zuckerman, the native of Breslau who was a leading German mathematician who served on the faculty of the Breslau Seminary under the leadership of Zacharias Frankel.

    1823(4thof Cheshvan, 5584): Jacob I. Cohen, a native of Bavaria and the son of Joshua and Peslah Cohen, who fought in the Battle of Beaufort while serving under Captain Lushington and who in 1789 “took the lead in organizing the first synagogue in Virginia, passed away today in Philadelphia

    1823: Leon Benjamin, the son of Joel Benjamin and Frances Cohen was circumcised today in the United Kingdom

    1832(15thof Tishrei, 5593): Sukkoth

    1833: In Laupheim, Jewish merchant Viktor Steiner and his Sophie gave birth to German banker and industrialist Kilian von Steiner.

    1835: In Wurttemberg, Germany, Bernhard Frankfurter, the son of Mirjam and Moses Levi Frankfurter, and his wife Esther gave birth to “Mirjam Frankfureter.”

    1837(10thof Tishrei, 5598): As the economic crisis known as the Panic of 1837 grips the United States Jews observe Yom Kippur.

    1840: Birthdate of British painter Simeon Solomon. [There is no way to do justice to this complex man’s life and work in this small space. Among other sites, look at

    1843(15thof Tishrei, 5604): Sukkoth

    1845: The Sephardic Synagogue of Kingston, Jamaica celebrated taking possession of a new Sefer Torah." The service was conducted by the Isaac Lopes, who served as the congregation’s rabbi.

    1846: In New York City linguist and orientalist Elias Markens and his wife gave birth to author Isaac Markens.

    1848: In Lübeck, laws were adopted that “abolished all the disabilities” of the Jews thus making them true citizens of the city

    1850(3rdof Cheshvan, 5611): Fifty-four year old Israel Friedman of Ruzhyn the Chasidic rebbe known as Der Heiliger Ruzhiner("The holy one from Ruzhyn"), passed away today.

    1856: “A God-Send For The Express” published today reported that “the German organ of the Buchanneers in Philadelphia accuses Fremont of being a Hebrew by birth and having been educated in the Mosaic faith besides being born in Alsace. As the Express must by this time be tired of calling Col Freemont a Jesuit, it will be delighted of an opportunity to accuse him of being a descendant of Abraham.” Fremont is John C. Fremont, a native of Virginia, an Episcopalian, military hero and explorer known as the Great Pathfinder. He was also the Republican Party’s first Presidential nominee.
    1857: In New York, the Recorder heard a second day of testimony in the case where Nathan Levin, a recently arrived Jewish immigrant from Hungary, had accused Israel Steinhardt, a fellow Hungarian co-religionist of stealing 940 pounds in Bank of England notes. A witness named Francois Guilland testified that he and Steinhardt had sailed on the same ship in September and that he had seen Steinhardt holding several of the bank notes that Levins claim Steinhardt had stolen from him just two days ago in New York. Two other witnesses testified that Levins had not the bank notes in his possession when they met with him just before the theft. It would appear Levins’ accusation that his fellow Jew had violated the 7th commandment was false and that Levins was attempting a swindle. The Recorder is holding the case over until tomorrow at which time a decision will be made as to which Jew is trying to cheat which Jew.
    1858: An article entitled "Chronology of Comets" published today reported that "Josephus the historian includes the appearance of a comet among the miracles which announced the destruction of Jerusalem and the ruin of its temple." In 1208, "the Jews of the West" thought that a very bright comet that appeared for two weeks foretold the coming of the coming of the Messiah.

    1859: In Mulhouse, Alsace, Raphael and Jeannette Dreyfus (née Libmann) gave birth to the ninth child, Alfred who would enter history as Captain Alfred Dreyfus, the Jewish army officer at the center of scandal that rocked France for a decade and helped to produce the modern Zionist movement.

    1860: Birthdate of Count Walter Puckler-Muskau, the anti-Semitic agitator known as "Dreschgraf" (the thrashing count) for the calls for violent attack against the Jews that fill his speeches.

    1862(15thof Tishrei, 5623): Sukkoth

    1862: During the American Civil War, as the Jews on both sides observed Sukkoth, JEB Stuart’s Confederate Cavalry humiliated Union General George McClellan by riding around the Army of the Potomac completely unscathed.

    1864(9thof Tishrei, 5625): Yom Kippur

    1864: In New York City, “Raphael Levy Maduro Peixotto , a prosperous Ohioan involved in trade with the South, and Myrtillie Jessica Davis gave birth educator and writer Jessica Blanche Peixotto, the second woman to earn a Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkley, the “first women to become a full professor at Cal, Berkley and the university’s first woman department chair.

    1864: As Sherman’s victorious Union Army completed the occupation of Atlanta during the Civil War, one wonders if the Jewish soldiers serving under him joined the Jews of Atlanta in observing Yom Kippur.

    1866: The Law Reports column published today described in detail the breach of contract case brought by a young Jewess named Nanna Solomon against Jewish tailor named Bernard Brown. According to the evidence presented, there was no dispute over the fact that the two were engaged to married and that there had been ample public ceremonies to celebrate the event. There is no dispute that the marriage did not take place. Miss Solomon claimed that the Brown did not marry here because of interference from her mother. Brown implied that Miss Solomon had been seeing other men and was not the stellar character she had presented herself to be. In the end, the jury found for the plaintiff but awarded her only five hundred dollars in damages when she had sought $10,000.

    1867(10th of Tishrei, 5628): Yom Kippur

    1867(10th of Tishrei, 5628): Abraham Mapu “one of the first, and finest, of the novelists to write in Hebrew” passed away. “Heavily influenced by a wide range of sources--the Bible, the Romantic Novelists, and renewed pride in ancient Jewish history--his works recall the finest works of writers such as Flaubert and other great romantic novelists. His first novel, Ahavat Ziyyon (The Love of Zion), published in 1853, won immediate acclaim. Its sixteen editions attest to its continued popularity. (As reported by Toby Press)

    1873: Birthdate of violinist Carl Flesch whose pupils included Jewish violinists Szymon Goldberg, Ivry Gitlis, Ida Haendel, Yfrah Neaman, Eric Rosenblith, Max Rostal, Henryk Szeryng, Henri Temianka and Roman Totenberg

    1875(10thof Tishrei, 5636): Yom Kippur which the secular press described as “a solemn fast universally observed among the orthodox Jews by abstaining from food or drink of any nature whatever for twenty-four hours and spending the entire day in continuous attendance at their places of worship.”

    1875: In New York City, “Josephine (née Solomon) and Selmar Hess” gave birth to Columbia trained physician Alfred Fabian Hess, the husband of the former Sara Strauss, the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Isidor Strauss with whom he had four children and the developer of the Hess Test which came about while studying “the role of nutrition in scurvy and rickets.”

    1876(21stof Tishrei, 5637): Hoshana Rabah

    1867: Fanny Janauscheck the Austrian actress who would perform in “Zillah, The Hebrew Mother” made her American stage debut at the Academy of Music in New York.

    1876: The New York Times featured a review of “Daniel Deronda” by George Elliot which was the penname of Mary Anne Evans. This was her last novel and it featured a sympathetic portrayal of Jewish characters and was sympathetic to the concepts of Zionism.

    1877: Charles Stein, who is described the most dangerous confidence man of our times, was arrested in St. Louis, MO. [It can’t always be about Nobel Prize Winners]

    1878(12thof Tishrei, 5639): Seventy-eight year old Abraham Oppenheim who had begun his career as a partner in the banking house of his father Salomon Oppenheim passed away.

    1879(22ndof Tishrei, 5640): Shemini Atzeret

    1880(4thof Cheshvan, 5641): Sixty-four year old Joseph Mayer Montefiore, a nephew of Sir Moses Montefiore who was a member of the Board of Deputies and a director of the Alliance Insurance Company and the National Provincial Bank of Ireland, passed away today.

    1880: “Persecution of the Jews of Morocco” published today relies on information that originally appeared in the Petit Marseillais and the Pall Mall Gazette, to describe the brutal murder of a Jew named Bendahan's by the Moslem governor of Estifa.  Bendahan’s crime was that he had taken a Moslem women into his home during the recent famine and provided her with food and shelter.  When the governor heard of this he summoned the Jew and him beaten to death. Apparently, any relationship between a Moslem and a Jew was unacceptable even if was only intended to save a life.

    1881: Birthdate of Victor Klemperer, a businessman, journalist and eventually a Professor of Literature, specializing in the French Enlightenment at the Technische Universität Dresden. His diaries detailing his life, successively, in the German Empire, the Weimar Republic, Nazi Germany and in the German Democratic Republic were published in 1995. He passed away in 1960.

    1881: It was reported that the Minister of Justice in Hungary has introduced a bill in the lower house of the Diet that would legalize marriages between Jews and Christians.

    1881: It was reported today that the Russian government “intends to all Jews to acquire land in places where there is no fear of collision between them” and the non-Jewish locals.

    1881: “The Wander Jew in Hull, 1769” recounts the history of this anti-Semitic tale which reinforced the view of the Jew as an evil villain who has walked the earth since the days of the Crucifixion

    1881: “Old York,” published today provides a brief history of this ancient English castle and city, including the time when it was “the scene of a gruesome tragedy” when a group of “landless knights” and “broken men” penned up the Jews in the castle with the intent to “plunder” and “murder them.”  However, most of the Jews, their intended victims, “with desperate courage, forestalled them by burning their property and killing their families and themselves.

    1882: Three days after he had passed away, sixty year old “Samuel Gettenstein Salaman,” the husband of Rosa Salaman with whom he had two children was buried today at the “Balls Pond Road Jewish Cemetery.”

    1882: It was reported today that G.P. Putnam’s Sons will be publishing Fundamental Questions Relating to the Hebrew Scriptures, a liberal view of the subject by Edson L. Clarke.

    1886(10thof Tishrei, 5647): Yom Kippur

    1886: In “Yom Kippur” published today J.S. Moore, a non-Jew, provides a complete description of the observance of the holiday including the observations that “no other religion…has a similar festival” “ and that “ it may be safely predicted that nations, empires and peoples may and will pass and be only remembered in history while the ‘Yom Kippur’ will retain its hold upon a race which has already during the vicissitudes of thousands of years withstood annihilation and bids fair to hold fast to its religion as long as this globe is populated.”
    1886: The Uptown Gossip column published today attributed the low attendance rate at theatres in New York yesterday to the fact that the Jews were observing the “fast of Yom Kippur.”  “Jewish people are the most liberal patrons of the theaters, and any fast day which they observe makes a very marked difference in the receipts of theatre’s treasury.”

    1886: “Big Hebrew Fair” published today described efforts to host a fundraiser this December that provides funds for the establishment of a “Jewish Cooper Institute.”  The project has the support of the city’s temples and synagogues as well as the Young Men’s Hebrew Association.

    1887: “Levitcal Names” published today contends that there is strong evidence of an Egyptian connection between the Levites – the leading tribe of the Exodus – and those who enslaved them.  The names of Moses, Miriam and Pinhcas, Aaron’s grandson, have an Egyptian etymology . The mother of Pinchas was the daughter of Putiel, a name with an Egyptian rather than Hebrew etymology.   Finally, Aaron’s ability to address Pharaoh would indicate a knowledge of the Egyptian language that would be more consistent with an educated Egyptian than a wandering Semitic nomad.

    1887(21stof Tishrei, 5648): Sukkoth Chol HaMoed

    1887: The day after he had passed away, Nathan Samuel Raphael, the son of “Samuel Raphael and the former Charlotte Levy” who had left his native London for Austrailia in 1849 was buried today in “Orange, NSW, Australia.”

    1887(21stof Tishrei, 5648): Sixty-two year old Czech born American musician and impresario Maurice Strakosch, whose autobiography Souvenirs of an Impresariowas published in 1886 passed away today in Paris.

    1888: As the London police investigated the murder of Catharine Eddowes, The Evening News reported that Jacob Levy, the son of butcher from Aldgate, was “obstinate” when questioned, refusing “to give the slightest information “ leaving “one to inter that he knows something but…is afraid to be called” during the inquest.

    1889(14thof Tishrei, 5650): Erev Sukkoth

    1889(14thof Tishrei, 5650): Sir Benjamin Samuel Phillips, the son of Samuel Phillips, a London tailor, who founded the publishing house of Fauudel, Phillips & Sons, was a leader of the Anglo-Jewish community and the first  Jewish Lord Mayor of London, passed away today.

    1890: In Germany, Das Volk accuses the committee “engaged in gathering the municipal addresses” which are to be presented to Count Von Moltke on his 90thanniversary as being made up of “Jews….seeking pecuniary benefit from their connection with the movement to honor the Count.”

    1891: “A Fire on Fifth Avenue” published today described the fire that swept through the New York home of August Belmont.

    1891: Mrs. August Belmont and her children awoke at the old Belmont mansion at 109 Fifth Avenue where they had spent the night after their new home at 101 Fifth Avenue had been destroyed by fire.

    1891: In Wilkes-Barre, PA, Mendel S. and Rachel Naomi Salsburg gave birth to Philip Salsburg who was the Treasurer of Il Minatore Publishing Company in Scranton, PA.

    1891: Gustave S. Drachman of the law firm of Drachman & Nelson who has been retained by Charles Horwitz, a 23 year old Russian Jewish peddler “to look after his interest in an alleged estate in San Francisco valued at $30,000,000” said today that he has not been able to learn about “any man by the name of Horwitz” who “ever died in San Francisco leaving a large fortune.”

    1891: According to today’s American Hebrew, “the letter of Mr. Harold Frederic…continue to present the case of the Jews in Russia in vivid colors and convincing tones.”

    1892: In the wake of a decision by the Reform movement that circumcision is no longer a necessary part of the conversion process, a “conclave of rabbis” is scheduled to begin meeting today in New York.

    1892: “Phases of City Life” published today described eastside Jews as being “as careful with their money as any people in the world” who will “part with the dollars freely under two conditions –sickness or death in the family” as can be seen by the round the clock medical care being provided for a child who was scaled two weeks ago which has required all of the to “work harder than ever to get the money for it all.”

    1892: Construction began on a building that would be called the Frances Jacobs Hospital in Denver, Colorado. Frances Jacobs, known as Colorado's "Mother of Charity," devoted her life to community service. She is the only woman included among the sixteen Colorado pioneers depicted through stained glass portraits in the state's Capital Rotunda. Born in Kentucky and raised in Cincinnati, Jacobs moved with her husband to Colorado in 1863; they settled in Denver in 1870. Jacobs quickly became involved in Denver's Jewish and non-Jewish communities. Jewish issues were especially important to Jacobs. Soon after moving to Colorado with her husband in 1874, she became president of the Hebrew Benevolent Ladies Society (today known as Jewish Family Service of Colorado). By 1872, she was president of the Hebrew Ladies' Benevolent Society and in 1874 helped found the nonsectarian Denver Ladies' Relief Society. She pushed for the creation of Denver's first kindergarten and helped organize Denver's Charity Organization Society, a forerunner to the United Way, in 1877. Jacobs also pushed the Denver Jewish community to attend to the care of the many Jewish tuberculosis sufferers who came to Denver. At that time, the only known treatment for tuberculosis was clean air and sunshine; since Denver had both of these resources in abundance; it became a popular destination for infected immigrants from the industrial Northeast. When these immigrants arrived in Denver, they found no facilities available to treat or even shelter them, and the community ignored their plight. Jacobs did her best to help those who were ill on an individual basis, but worked to convince the Jewish community to help, leading to the construction of the hospital, whose motto became "None may enter who can pay, and none can pay who enter". Jacobs died, at the age of 49, weeks after the hospital's cornerstone had been laid. The hospital's trustees voted to name the hospital after her. Today the institution is known as the National Jewish Medical and Research Center, and is the only medical and research center in the United States devoted entirely to respiratory, allergic, and immune system diseases. Jacobs died, at the age of 49, weeks after the hospital's cornerstone had been laid. The hospital's trustees voted to name the hospital after her. Today the institution is known as the National Jewish Medical and Research Center, and is the only medical and research center in the United States devoted entirely to respiratory, allergic, and immune system diseases.

    1892: The 15 Jewish families living in the tenement at 100 Suffolk lost personal property in yesterday’s fire that was valued today at approximately $2,000.

    1892: In Boston, MA, “Jewish Lithuanian immigrants Joseph Weit and Sarah Magilewski gave birth to economist Harry Dexter White.

    1893: It was reported today that villages on the German borders with Austria and Russia are crowded with Jewish “families who have been expelled from Russia and are eager to come to United States but are so destitute that they “prostrate themselves before travelers and beg for bread or money.”

    1894: It was reported today that Mrs. Elke Rubenstein the widow of convicted murderer Pesach Rubenstein has been ordered to leave the country because she might become a public charge and without having been able to claim the $1,000 which her husband when police arrested him for the murder of Sara Alexander.

    1894: It was reported today that Brooklyn resident Nathan Bernstein must have died a happy man since he lived to see his son John married by a rabbi to Miss Ida Korne.

    1894(9thof Tishrei, 5655): Erev Yom Kippur

    1894(9thof Tishrei, 5655): Sixty year old Wolf Cohn “dropped dead while attending services at Adelphi Hall on 52nd Street and 7th Avenue.

    1894: John Most is scheduled to play the lead in “Die Weber” which is part of the anti-Yom Kippur revelry planned for tonight by the Hebrew Anarchists at the Clarendon Hall.

    1894: Voter registration is set to begin in New York City which will be a problem because the sites owned by the Jews will have to close well before the official 9 pm closing time due to the Jewish Holiday.

    1894: “Anti-Semitic Groups Combine” published today described the formation of the German Social Reform Party which was created by the delegates to a conference led by Jew baiters at Eisenach Germany

    1895: Abraham Stern, a wealthy real estate lawyer, filed a the will of his late aunt, Mrs. Babet Karl, for probate today and discounted reports that there was another will which had been prepared under the influence of Rabbi Aaron Wise and son Otto who is an attorney.

    1895: Tonight Tammany Hall nominated Joseph E Newburger, a graduate of Columbia Law School, a Judge on the City Court, a director of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum and the President of Rodolph Sholom to run for a position on the Court of General Sessions in New York.

    1896: As David Schwarz worked to develop a successful airship, a test failed today because the hydrogen used “was not of required purity” and was unable to provide the required life.

    1897(13thof Tishrei, 5658): On Shabbat, in Newark, NJ 45 year old Simon Davis “one of the best known” Jews in the city who has been a partner for the last twenty years in a catering service with his brother, passed away today.

    1897(13thof Tishrei, 5658): Kate Lintine, the sister of Mrs. Harry Stone of Johannesburg, SA, passed away today in Birmingham, UK.
    1898(23rd of Tishrei, 5659):Simchat Torah

    1898: Birthdate of Aaron Nissenson, who came to United States from his native Russia in 1911, earned “a degree in pharmacy from Fordham” which he did not use turning instead to a life as “a poet, essayist, novelist and journalist working for The Jewish Morning Journal while being married “the former Kate Heller” with whom he had “a son, Herschel.”

    1898: Herzl has another audience with Grossherzog Friedrich of Baden. On the same day Herzl is received by Foreign Minister Bernhard von Bülow and Reich’s Chancellor Hohenlohe.

    1898: “Sixty or seventy of the most prominent lawyers” in Chicago attended a banquet at the Union League Club in honor of the 70th birthday of Julius Rosenthal who began his career in 1854 as clerk at the banking of house of R.K. Swift before passing the bar.

    1901(26thof Tishrei, 5662): Seventy-year old Sigmund von Henle who represented the city of Munich in the Bavarian Diet from 1873 to 1881 and who served on the board of trustees “of several Jewish societies” passed away today.

    1901(26thof Tishrei, 5662): Seventy-five year old Kate(nee Reuben)Aaron the wife of Samuel Aaron  and the mother of Louisa, Rachel and Simeon Aaron passed away today after which she was interred at the Bath Jewish Burial Grounds.

    1901: Simon Lipkie married Emily Somers today.

    1904: “In the city of Kamenyets, Platon Artemovych Bazhan and his wife gave birth to Ukrainian poet Mykola Bazhan whose 1943 poem “Babi Yar” “explicitly depicted the infamous massacre in the ravine” but does not mention the fact that the victims were Jews.

    1905(10thof Tishrei, 5666): Yom Kippur

    1905(10thof Tishrei, 5666): Forty-two year old Isaac Levy, the husband of Lena Levy, passed away today after which he would be interred at the Jewish Cemetery in Natchitoches, LA.

    1907: Three days after he had passed away, Posen native Louis Braun, the husband of the former “Julia Joseph” with whom he had eight children was buried today at the Balls Pond Road Jewish Cemetery.”

    1909: The Sick Benevolent Society of Zialkamian, the hometown of Naphtali Herz Imber who passed away yesterday, asserted its right to take care of the burial of the poet superseding the claim of those who wanted to bury him “in a Rumanian Jewish cemetery at Bayside” where he reportedly owned a plot.

    1911: Birthdate of Joe Rosenthal. In 1945, at the age of 33, Rosenthal snapped the most famous of all World War II photos – The Raising of the American Flag on Iwo Jima.

    1911: Birthdate of Jacob L. Trobe, the son of an Orthodox rabbi, who as a representative of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee was among the first relief workers to enter the concentration camps.

    1914: It was reported today that at Columbia University, John Dyneley Prince will teach several foreign language courses including one in Hebrew.

    1915: It was announced today that Catholics, Protestants and Jews at the Columbia University’s Teacher College have joined together to create “a co-operative union to be known as the Students’ Religious Organization.”

    1916: Among the newly released books available to the public is Charles Frohman: Manager and Man, the “authorized biography of the great manager written by those who had access to all the papers, correspondence and records of Charles Frohman and the Empire Theater.”

    1917(23rdof Tishrei, 5678); Simchat Torah

    1917(23rdof Tishrei, 5678); After enduring days of torture at the hands of the Ottoman authorities Sarah Aaronsohn committed suicide rather than betray her comrades. Aaronsohn was a member of Nili, a Jewish spy ring working for the British in Palestine. Aaronsohn had been born in Palestine in 1890 and was motivated to work for the British when she the aftermath of the Armenian Genocide. She was buried in the cemetery in Zichron Yaakov. There are those who make an annual pilgrimage to her grave on the anniversary of her death so the memory of this brave young Jewess will always be part of the heritage of the Jewish people.

    1918: Today, ten months after the Parliament of Finland had promulgated an act making it possible “for Jews to become Finnish nationals” “Frederick Charles was elected King of Finland by that same Finnish Parliament.

    1919(15thof Tishrei, 5680): Sukkoth

    1919: The Cincinnati Reds defeat the Chicago White in the World Series that would become known as the Black Sox Scandal. According to many “experts” Arnold Rothstein, a Jewish born gambler of unsavory reputation, supplied the money to bribe selected members of the White Sox. Abe Attell, a former boxer known as “The Little Hebrew,” was Rothstein’s bagman. According to information left on this blog “Attell was Jewish, but he grew up in an Irish neighborhood. Because of that, he often found himself involved in fights, and according to him, he would get involved in as many as 10 bouts each day as a kid. Attell's father abandoned his family when Attell was 13, and Attell had to sell newspapers to support his family. He used to sell them on the streets and corners, and while selling newspapers, he got a chance to witness the fight between Solly Smith and George Dixon for the world's Featherweight championship. With that, Attell and two of his brothers were convinced that maybe they had a future in boxing.”

    1920: Dr. Enlow is scheduled to deliver a sermon “Lessons from the Life of Jacob H. Schiff” during Shabbat Services at Temple Emanu-El in New York.

    1920: Birthdate of Jason Wingreen, the native of Brooklyn and graduate of Brooklyn College whose decade’s long acting career known to many as the bartender on “All in the Family.”

    1921: Dr. Morris Murray Peshkin married Lillian Rapaport today.

    1921: In Berlin “historian George Herlitz, the founder of the Central Zionist Archives in Jerusalem” and his wife gave birth to MK and diplomat Esther Herlitz who became Israel’s first female ambassador when she served represented Israel in Denmark in 1966.

    1922: In Brownsville immigrant tailor Harry Finkel and his Mary gave birth to Philip “Fyvush” Finkel, the

    Veteran of the Yiddish Theatre, who won an Emmy for his role as a lawyer in the television hit “Picket Fences.”

    1922: Elinor Fatman Morgenthau and Henry Morgenthau, Jr. who would serve as FDR’s Secretary of the Treasury gave birth of Dr. Joan E. Morgenthau, the wife of Fred Hirschhorn, Jr.

    1923: Birthdate of Israeli, poet, novelist, journalist and filmmaker, Haim Gouri. A sabra. Gouri worked with Jewish refugees in Hungary after WW II and fought with the Palmach in the Negev during the War for Independence before pursuing his literary career. He has won the Bialik, Israel and Uri Zvi Grinberg awards.

    1924: Dutch diamond polisher and baseball player Hartog Hamburger, the father of psychiatrist and “Jewish resistance fighter Max Hamburger, “was hit in the head by a line drive” today in a freak accident that would lead to his death on the following day.

    1924: In Manhattan, “Dr. Sebastian Smigel and the former Bella Soloway” gave birth to Irwin Elliot Smigel, the dentist whose clients included numerous stars.” (As reported by Sam Roberts)

    1925(21stof Tishrei, 5686): Hoshana Rabah

    1925: In Sosnowiec, Poland, ‘chocolate salesman Issachar Feiner and Rivka Herzberg gave birth to Haim Feiner who immigrated to Palestine in 1936 and gained fame as songwriter, poet and author Chaim Hefer.

    1926: Max Derfiner, a pioneer silk manufacturer who arrived in New York from Tel Aviv last week continued to tout the possibilities for developing the silk industry in Palestine. Derfiner who already expressed his belief that in ten years Tel Aviv can become a “second Lyon” said today that one of his keys to success was his ability “to concentrate in one plant all the processes of silk manufacturing…which in France, Switzerland or America would be performed in separate establishments.” Derfiner also said that the Zionists had “developed the ‘Made in Palestine’ label into a commercial asset...” In Jewish homes through the world the name Palestine had a business value as well as a sentimental appeal.

    1929: “June Moon,” a play co-authored by George S. Kaufman premiered on Broadway at the Broadhurst Theatre.

    1930: As Dr. Drummond Shiels, British Under-Secretary for Dominions, left his hotel today an angry crowd shouted “Away with Parliament which does do justice to Jews,” “Shame to the British Government” and “Remember Hebron, Safed and Motza,” a reference to the 1929 sites of bloody Arab attacks on defenseless Jews. The crowd sang Hatikvah as Shiels sped away under the protection of the local police. “The demonstration was caused by a report from London that Shiels had promised an Arab delegation that a Parliament for Palestine” would be established. Creation of such an institution was part of a plan to circumvent the creation of a Jewish home in Palestine and guarantee that Jews would always be a minority in Eretz Israel.

    1930: “Sir John Monash” published one day after his death stated that “It is not an exaggeration to say that Sir John Monash…was one of the ablest soldiers that the British colonies sent to the World War.”  Monash was known for his ability to train troops as could be seen from his work with the Third Australian Division.  A brave soldier, he was an able tactician and strategist who played a key role in the great assault that broke the Hindenburg Line which forced the Germans to sue for peace. It was said of him “that he would command a division better than a brigade and corps better than a division.” [Nowhere in the article that traced Monash rise to prominence was it mentioned that he was Jewish.]

    1932(9thof Tishrei, 5693): Kol Nidre was chanted for the last time during the Presidency of Herbert Hoover.

    1933: “Wedding at Lake Wolfgang” a musical directed by Hans Behrendt who died at Auschwitz was released today in Germany.

    1933: Birthdate of Martin Gottfried “a drama critic and the author of several biographies of entertainers and playwrights as well as two influential studies of the Broadway musical.”  (As reported by Daniel Slotnik)

    1934: In New York, Minnie and David Alper gave birth to long term IBM employee Ralph Abraham Alper, the husband of the former “Linda Ann Propp.”

    1935: U.S. premiere of “A Midsummer Night’s Dream” directed by Max Reinhardt at the Warner Bros. Hollywood Theatre in New York City.

    1936(23rdof Tishrei, 5697): Simchat Torah

    1936: In Chicago, at a rally featuring Al Landon, the Republican candidate for President, Anna Smith told the throng that “It is necessary for Christians, Jews and Gentiles to join together to resist this sinister movement, communism” which ironically was part of what would become a decades long campaign to equate Democrats, liberals and Jews with the Communists and a conspiracy to take over the United States.

    1936: It was reported today that “the version of the story” surrounding the arrest and conviction of a Jew named Abraham Kaiser for writing a letter to a friend in America that was critical of Hitler and the Nazis “stated that the police discovered the letter in his flat” while at the same time claiming that Kaiser who lived in Duisburg had mailed the letter from Dusseldorf in order to conceal his identity. (Editor’s Note – accuracy is not necessary in the world of anti-Semitism)

    1936: “Libeled Lady” a comedy produced by Lawrence Weingarten was released in the United States today by MGM.

    1937: The Los Angeles Examiner reported today that when Vittorio Mussolini, the son of the Il Duce, came to Hollywood, the Hollywood Ant-Nazi League (HANL) “denounced the visit on behalf of all ‘artists and writers’ declaring that ‘Fascism means the suppression of all freedom of expression.’”

    1938: Thirteen year old future “Monuments Man” Harry Ettlinger, and his family arrived in New York having “escaped” from Germany in September.

    1939: In London, Bill Sedley and his wife gave birth to British jurist Sir Stephen Sedley.

    1939: Himmler declared that 550,000 Jews living in Polish provinces should be relocated

    1939: “Hitler’s Plan for Jews Scored” published today described the decision of the delegates attending the Order of the Sons of Zion Conference at the Hotel Astor to adopt a resolution condemning the Nazi plan “establish a Jewish State in Polish Territory” as “a hypocritical scheme, fraught with the gravest of dangers to European Jewry.”

    1940: Adina Gerstel and Rabbi Louis Wefel were married today.  Werfel would gain fame for his role as a chaplain during WW II who was known as the flying Rabbi.  Unfortunately, his would be cut short when he died when his aircraft crashed in 1943 while he was bring the joy of Chanukah to U.S. troops fighting in North Africa.

    1940: In Great Britain, the Committee of Privileges reported that the detention of the anti-Semitic MP Archibald Maule Ramsay under Regulation 18B that applies to people “suspected of disloyalty” “was not a breach of privilgege.” He would be released in 1944 and would return to the House of the House of Commons where he introduced a resolution calling for the banishment of the Jews as had been done by King Edward I.

    1941(18thof Tishrei, 5702): Chol Hamoed Sukkoth

    1941(18thof Tishrei, 5702): Forty-seven year old Dallas resident Herbert Mallinson, “the chairman of the Southwest region of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, the son of Samuel and Rose Mallinson and husband of Beatrice Mallinson, passed away today “while attending a meeting of the Dallas Jewish Federation for Social Service.”

    1941: The Nazis murdered 3,726 Jews including 717 children in the Poligon barracks near Swieciany, Lithuania.

    1941: A recruiting rally was held in Tel Aviv as part of a campaign to get another 5,000 Jews from Palestine to enlist in the British Army. Currently there are approximately 10,000 Jews from Palestine serving in the British Army and RAF throughout the Mediterranean and Middle East. The leading Jewish institutions sponsoring the campaign have adopted the slogan “Jews are fighting with the Allies for victory.”

    1941: Parades of Jewish veterans of World War I were greeted by cheering throngs in Haifa and Tel Aviv. The parades were the climax of week’s long effort to recruit more Jewish recruits for the British military. Jewish leaders encouraged every man who can be spared to “enroll under the Union Jack” to “help in the fight against Adolf Hitler.”

    1941: Hans Frank told the ministers of the General Government in Cracow; "As far as Jews are concerned . . . I want to tell you quite frankly that they must be done away with one way or another."

     1941: The Nazi-allied government led by Marshal Ion Antonescu began deporting Jews to camps located in Transnistria, an occupied area in the former Soviet Union.

    1941: J.D. Salinger who had been corresponding with Marjorie Sheard, “a Toronto woman about his age” wrote to her today asking that she send him a picture of herself.

    1941: Governor Lehman will not be attending “the dinner forum on ‘Europe Today’ scheduled to be held this evening which is co-chaired by Lillian Hellman and Ernest Hemingway because a number of the committees sponsoring the event “have long been connected with Communist activities.”  (Editor’s note – Hemingway was not Jewish.  The dinner demonstrated the problem that was to plague America for years: how to oppose fascism without ending up “in bed” with the Communists.)

    1941: Two months before the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor, President Roosevelt approved what became known as the Manhattan Project, America’s unprecedented effort to build an atomic bomb.  The number of Jews involved in this decision including Einstein is surpassed only by the number of Jewish scientist involved in the effort.

    1942: Eighty one year old Jesse Houghton Metcalf, the former Republican Senator from Rhode Island passed away.  In 1933, Metcalf was one of the Senators who spoke out against the German treatment of the Jews. While addressing the chamber declared, “We as a nation can only declare the existence of racial or religious prejudice to be untenable as a national ideal.

    1942: Anne Frank, who was hiding with her family in an Amsterdam warehouse, wrote in her diary: “The British radio speaks of their (the Jews) being gassed.”

    1942: In Brussels, Belgium, five of six leading members of the Belgian Jewish community are released from incarceration following the intervention of Cardinal Joseph-Ernst van Roey and Belgium's Queen Elizabeth.

    1942: The USS Drum, the submarine on which Maurice Rindskopf served throughout WW II survived a heavy depth charge attack from the vessels escorting the cargo ships she had sunk the day before.
    1942: Thousands of Jews from Miedzyrzec, Poland, are deported to the Treblinka death camp.

    1943(10th of Tishrei, 5704): Yom Kippur

    1943(10th of Tishrei, 5704): On Yom Kippur, over 1,000 men and women at Birkenau, deemed too sick to work, were gassed to death. At Plaszow, 50 Jews were murdered. Ironically, 600 Jews were permitted to pray in Sobibor

    1943(10th of Tishrei, 5704): Hundreds of Jews were deported from Trieste and shipped to Auschwitz.
    1943(10th of Tishrei, 5704): In Anconcia, a Catholic priest, Don Bernadino, warned the local Rabbi, Elio Toaff, of the impending deportation of the Jewish population. The Jews went into hiding, most of them being sheltered by Christian families. Only ten Jews would be caught and deported and one of them survived the war.

    1943: A unnamed Jewish pilot went to Yom Kippur Services in the Grande Synagogue in Tunis “and spent almost the entire day in prayer and please for life and safety and happiness.” (As reported by Rabbi Louis Werfel, the chaplain known as “The Flying Rabbi”)

    1944(22ndof Tishrei, 5705): Shemini Atzeret

    1944: At Birkenau, on Simchat Torah, 650 boys involved with the Birkenau revolt were locked in the barracks together. Most of them would be tortured and then killed on October 20.

    1944: Mordechai Adler (who became Mordechai Eldar) “celebrated his 15thbirthday at Auschwitz-Birkenau

    1944: Mordechai Eldar cheated death today.  Having been “selected” at Auschwitz and having already stripped naked, for some unknown reason German officers had Eldar and 49 others step outside, put on shoes and uniforms, and sent them to work in Canada, the facility where the Germans had prisoners sort and store all the possessions of those who arrived at the Death Camp.

     1944: The SS arrests three Jewish women at the Auschwitz munitions factory for complicity in the smuggling of explosives used in the uprising of October 6-7

    1945: Tonight, "security at the Atlit Detention Center near Haifa - a camp for 'illegal' Jewish immigrants in Mandatory Palestine - was breached; 200 detainees mainly Holocaust survivors and recent arrivals from Europe, were released in a daring operation launched by the Palmach."

    1945: After his trial in Paris, Pierre Laval, head of the Vichy Government is executed by firing squad. General Petain was the titular head of the Vichy Government. Laval really ran the show. Vichy was the name of the French collaborationist government that worked with the Nazis during World War II. Vichy’s supporters included France’s own, home-grown anti-Semites. The Vichy government was so eager to ingratiate itself with the New German Order, that it was rounding up Jews and turning them over to the Nazis before the Nazis asked them to do so.

    1945: Loy Henderson, the head of the Office of Near Eastern and African Affairs at the United States State Department who was an Arabist opposed to the creation of Jewish state in Palestine sent Secretary of State James Byrnes “a memo regarding what he called ‘urgent problems relating to the Palestine.’”
    1946(16th of Tishrei, 5710): Second Day of Sukkoth

    1946(16thof Tishrei, 57100” Ninety year old Lottie Miriam Jaffe, the mother of Louis Isaac Jaffe, the “Pulitzer Prize winning edtor of the Norfolk Virginian Pilot. 

    1946: An announcement was made today that “Israel Aron Friedman, a member of the board of directors of General Mercantile Corporation of Palestine, Ltd., has arrived in New York from Tel Aviv. “The corporation is concerned with the procurement of raw materials and machinery for the basic Jewish industries of Palestine.”

    1946: Birthdate of Gustin L. Reichbach, the Columbia University protest leader who went on to a career in the law and as a distinguished jurist. (As reported by Jim Dwyer)

    1947: “High Button Shoes, a musical with music by Jule Styne, lyrics by Sammy Cahn opened on Broadway at the New Century Theatre.

    1947: “The Jewish Agency…called upon…Jewish veterans of the North African and Italian campaigns” now living in Palestine “to form the nucleus of a Jewish army that would be ready for a ‘life or death showdown’ with Arab forces. Mrs. Gold Meyerson, head of the Agency’s political department told veterans assembled at Tel Aviv that salvation for Palestine Jews rested not at Lake Success but ‘right here. If the Arab leaders have their way, we must either give up the link between the Jews and Palestine or die in a last-ditch struggle…We are not looking for trouble, but we are ready for it.’”

    1947: President Truman learned that the Arab League Executive had requested its member nations to dispatch troops to the Palestine border as part of a plan to invade the Mandate Territory. Truman responded by instructing Secretary of State Marshall to support the planned partition of Palestine.
    1948: During the War for Independence, Egypt launched a major attack in the Negev. This
    attack constitutes a major violation of the UN brokered truce. This Egyptian offensive along with other violations will lead to a major Israeli military effort later in the month of October.

    1951(9thof Tishrei, 5712) Erev Yom Kippur

    1951: Birthdate of actor Robert Wuhl who played the title role in the HBO hit “Arli$$.”

    1952: The Jerusalem Postreported that since 1948, Youth Aliyah had absorbed more than 5,000 young people from Morocco. Their parents were given a choice of three types of educational institutions: Orthodox, traditional (keeping of Sabbath, festivals and Kashrut), and non-religious.

    1955(23 of Tishrei, 5716): Simchat Torah

    1955: A Double Simcha for Sid Gillman as his Los Angeles win their third straight of the season defeating the Detroit Lions 17 to 10.

    1956(4thof Cheshvan, 5717): Arab terrorists killed two workers in an orchard of the youth village, Neve Hadassah, in the Sharon region.

    1958:HMS Springer an S class submarine of the Royal Navy was sold to the Israeli navy today and renamed the Tanin

    1958: Pope Pius XII passed away 19 years after being elevated to the Papacy. The Pope’s role in the Holocaust has been too well documented to need to be covered here.

    1960:  Birthdate of actress and “voice” Madeleine Blaustein,

    1961: In Los Angeles Boris Sagal and his wife Sara Zwilling of blessed memory gave birth to twin daughters Jean and Liz Sagal who made it possible for them to star in the television series “Double Trouble.”

    1962: The film adaptation of “Long Day’s Journey into Night” “directed by Sidney Lumet, produced by Ely Landau with Joseph E. Levine and Jack J. Dreyfus, Jr. as executive producers with a score by Andre Previn and cinematography by Boris Kaufman” was released in the United States today by Embassy Pictures.

    1963: Birthdate of journalist Daniel Pearl who was brutally murdered by Moslem terrorists on February 21, 2002.
    1967(5th of Tishrei, 5728): French author Andre Maurois, born Emile Salomon Wilhelm Herzog, passed away at the age of 82.

    1968: Hugo Weisgall’s ‘Nine Rivers from Jordan” premiered today at the New York City Opera

    1968: Forty-seven Jews praying at the Tomb of the Patriarchs were wounded in a grenade attack by Arabs.

    1969: In Boston, a funeral service is scheduled to be held at Temple Israel for sixty-nine year old Russian born, Harvard educated Dr. William Dameshek, “a pioneer in the study of blood” and leader in the movement to “establish hematology as a specialty” who was married to Rose Dameshek with whom he had one child.

    1971: “The Incomparable Max” a play co-authored by Jerome Lawrence based on a short story by Max Beerbohm had its first “preview” performance today.

    1972: Birthdate of Etan Kalil Patz

    1973: On the third day of the Yom Kippur war a pessimistic Moshe Dayan addresses a group of journalist leading them to believe that Israeli forces are in such precarious shape that they will have to surrender most of the Sinai to the advancing Egyptians and make a stand in the eastern edge of the peninsula. Prime Minister Golda Meir is so alarmed by Dayan’s emotional about-face that she refuses to let him address the nation on television in the evening. Israeli news broadcasts reported for the first time that the Egyptian attack had driven Israeli forces from the east bank of the Suez Canal. While Syrian artillery was able to shell villages in the Jezreel Valley, Israeli planes had attacked installations in around Damascus. Inadvertently, one of the attacks had hit the Soviet Cultural Center in the Syrian capital. In a television later in the evening an Israeli general pointed out that the Soviets had been arms into the Arab states for the past six years creating a military imbalance of striking proportion. He also said that Israeli forces would not cease operation action until the Arab states learned that they could not violate a truce with impunity without paying a high price.

    1973: During a meeting of the war cabinet, Defense Minister Dayan voiced confidence in the Israeli forces' ability to overcome Syria and asked permission to bomb targets in Damascus. "There's an order: No retreat on the Golan," he said. "Fighting to the death and not moving ... What I'm suggesting and asking for approval of [is] bombings inside the city." Prime Minister Meir asked whether he meant within the city itself, and Dayan confirmed this. He said the IDF can't muster a column to march on Damascus even as a decoy, but bombing in and around the city could "break the Syrians" - though he conceded, "You can't say the population wouldn't be hurt."Why would it necessarily break them?" Meir asked. "Would a bombing here break us?” General Elazar replied: "A heavy bombing here, on Reading and Ramat Aviv, would seriously disrupt things."

    1973: Aharon Sagi, Harel Gilutz and Yosef Ye'ari made it back safely to Israeli lines after their F-4E Phantom Jets were shot down.

    1973: Lt. Col. Yossi Ben Hanan who had cut short his honeymoon in Nepal at the outbreak of the Yom Kippur War “took command of a scratch force of Israeli tanks that had been put together by Shmuel Askarov, one of the survivors of the decimated 188th Armored Brigade. Leading his command in a desperate battle against overwhelming numbers of Syrian T-62s, Ben Hanan restored the tactical situation but at the cost of most of his command and his own Centurion tank. Blown out of the turret when his tank was hit by a Sagger anti-tank missile, Ben Hanan lay wounded on the battlefield until he was rescued from behind enemy lines by Yonatan Netanyahu, a legendary member of the IDF's elite Sayeret Matkal.”  A Sabra, born in 1945, Hanan was a second generation military leader.  He father, Michael Ben Hanan had been a Haganah commander in Jerusalem.

    1973: As of today those parts of the Golan that were the responsibility of the Golani Brigade were back under Israeli control, and the Syrians had been pushed back over the Purple Line. The Purple Line was the name given to the cease fire line drawn between Israel and Syria after the 1967 war.

    1973: “Against orders, reserve Maj. Gen. Ariel Sharon launches a counterattack against Egyptian forces in the canal area which led to the loss of 20 tanks, most of which were left in enemy territory. Sharon’s actions lead to moves for his dismissal.”(As reported by JTA)

    1973: U.S. Jewish leader Max Fisher urges President Richard Nixon in a meeting at the White House to “please send the Israelis what they need.” That night, Nixon tells Israeli Prime Minister Golda Meir that “all your aircraft and tank losses will be replaced.” (As reported by JTA)

    1973: Lt. Colonel Avigdor Kahalani was awarded the Medal Valor for his leadership and valor shown starting today during the Yom Kippur War when “he commanded a hastily assembled group of tanks and crews from different armor units” that “repelled a vastly superior Syrian force which had overrun the Israeli positions  in the first days of the war.”  The scene of the fighting was so “littered with hundreds of burned tanks that it was renamed “Emek Ha-Bacha” (the Valley of Tears)

    1973: Birthdate of Erin Daniels. Born Erin Cohen the Vassar College grad is known for her career as a television actress.

    1974: Birthdate of Dina Aviv, the daughter of Aliza Avi, who gained fame as Israeli pop singer Din Din Aviv.

    1974: Oskar Schindler, the Schindler in “Schindler’s List” passed away.

    1974: “Shanks” an “American horror film” starring Marcel Marceau was released in the United States today by Paramount Pictures.

    1975: It was announced today that Andrei Sakharov, a leading Soviet dissident and champion of human rights whose wife’s mother was Jewish, had been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

    1975: In a move designed to strengthen their influence in the Arab world, the Soviets greeted President Assad of Syria on the first day of his visit to the Soviet Union.

    1976(15thof Tishrei, 5737): Sukkoth is celebrated for the last time during the Presidency of Gerald Ford.

    1977: In New Orleans, Arlene S. Wieder was married at the New Orleans Hilton in that hotels first such event.

    1979(18thof Tishrei, 5740): Chol Hamoed Sukkoth

    1979: Two days after he had passed away funeral services are scheduled to be held “at the Congregational Son of Israel Temple in Upper Nyack, NY for eighty-four year old “Irving Maidman, a major owner of properties around Times Square, the dean of West Side Development,” “a founder of the Albert Einstein Medical School” and husband of “the former Edith Shvitiz with whom he had four children – Robert, Mathew, Rebecca and Ellen – followed by burial “at Mount Hebron Cemetery in Flushing, Queens.”

    1980(29thof Tishrei, 5741): A bomb planted in a motorcycle saddlebag outside the Copernic Street synagogue in a wealthy eastern Paris neighborhood exploded on a Friday night, killing three Frenchmen and Aliza Shagrir, 42, and wounding 22 others. Shagrir, an Israeli cinematographer, was walking past the synagogue with her 15-year-old son, Haggai, who would eventual go to work at the Foreign Ministry. Aliza Shagrir was the wife of Micha Shagrir a well-known television, film and documentary producer who lives in Jerusalem and who established the Aliza Shagrir Fund prize for outstanding documentaries in her name. Eventually, Hassan Diab a Lebanese native living in Canada would be charged with crime.

    1980: The funeral for seventy-eight year old hotel owner and philanthropist Hyman B. Cantor who was survived by his wife Gertrude, his son David and his daughters Marcia Wasserman and Nancy Lynn, is scheduled to be held today at Temple Isaiah in Forest Hills, Queens

    1981: Los Angeles Superior Court Judge Thomas T. Johnson ruled in favor of Mel Mermelstein, finding that he had provided sufficient evidence to prove his claim that Jews were gassed in the gas chambers at Auschwitz. The Court issued a judgment requiring the Institute for Historical Review (IHR) to pay Mermelstein $50,000, plus $40,000 for personal suffering, and to write a public apology to Mermelstein.

    1981: “Tatoo, a thriller” produced by Richard P. Levine and Joseph E. Levine was released in the United States today by 20th Century Fox.

    1981: “Body and Soul” a remake of the 1947 classic produced by Yoram Globus and Menahem Golan was released today in the United States

    1982(22ndof Tishrei, 5743): Shabbat and Shmini Atzeret

    1982(22ndof Tishrei, 5743): “Stefano Gaj Tache, a 2-year-old Jewish boy was killed and another 37 were injured in an attack on the Great Synagogue of Rome carried out by Palestinian terrorists.” (As reported by Forward)

    1985: A day after having murdered Leon Klinghoffer, a wheel-chair bound Jewish American passenger and then throwing his body overboard, the Arab/Moslem terrorists who had high jacked the Achille Lauro negotiated with authorities as the ship steamed towards Port Said

    1986: Senator Claiborne Pell (D- R.I.) enter into the Congressional Record an article, "Navy Rabbi To Join Iceland Team: Russian immigrant's grandson picked to lead staff services," published in the Providence Journal that described the role played in by Rabbi Arnold Resnick, a U.S. Navy Chaplain in leading Yom Kippur services in Greenland during the planning meetings for the latest Soviet-American summit

    1987: Claire Boothe Luce passed away. Most people remember her as the wife of Henry Luce, the man who created the Time-Life publishing empire. Others remember her as a Republican Party political figure and ambassador. But Mrs. Luce considered herself first and foremost a playwright, a role that brought her great success before World War II. In 1939, she wrote Margin for Error, a comedy about a policeman assigned to protect the German consul in New York. The Consul is a Nazi. The police officer is an American Jew. The play was considered the first successful anti-Nazi play to reach Broadway.

    1988(28thof Tishrei, 5749): Eighty-four year old playwright Edward Chodorov, a friend of Moss Hart and S.J. Pereleman passed away today.

    1988: Today CBS released “Liberace: Behind the Music” a biopic “co-starring Victor Garber and Saul Rubinek” and featuring Shawn
    1988: Active polio viruses have been discovered in sewage and a water purification plant in four more Israeli cities, bringing the total number of infected areas to nine, Israel Radio said today. 1989(10th of Tishrei, 5750): Yom Kippur

    1980(10thof Tishrei, 5750): Nine-one year old Richard F. Ulhmann, the former head of Ulhmann Grain Company and former “president of the Chicago Board of Trade” who was the husband of Catherine Ulhmann with whom he had three children – Frederick, Janis and Audrey – passed away today in Highland Park, Il.

    1989: Penthouse Magazine'sHebrew edition hits the newsstands

    1990: Saddam Hussein threatens to hit Israel with a new missile.

    1991: “Homicide” a crime film “written and directed by David Mamet” and featuring Robin Spielberg was released in the United States today

    1992: Janet Rosenberg Jagan became the “First Lady of Guyana” today.

    1993(24thof Tishrei, 5754): On Shabbat, “Dror Forer and Aran Bachar were murdered by terrorists in Wadi Kelt in the Judean Desert. The Popular Front and the Islamic Jihad 'Al-Aqsa Squads' each publicly claimed responsibility.”

    1994: “Nowhere to Hide” a made for television film co-starring Max Pomeranc was broadcast for the first time on ABC.

    1994(4th of Cheshvan): Holocaust survivor, successful businessman and founder of the NYC Marathon, Fred Lebow, passed away. (As reported by Michael Janofsky)

    1994: Corey Pavin won the Tokai Classic.  The golf tournament was Japanese; the golfer was Jewish.

    1994: Alfred Doulton wrote to Sir Martin Gilbert describing the heavy casualties suffered by the 49th Infantry Division, including the murder of their brigadier on October 25, 1945, as the British sought to quell the uprising by the Indonesians who had declared their independence from the Netherlands.

    1995(15thof Tishrei, 5756): Sukkoth

    1996(26th of Tishrei, 5757): Ninety-year old Julius Raskin, the captain of CCNY basketball team known as “Little Tubby” because his older brother Morris was called “Big Tubby” who went on to career in education passed away today.

    2000(10thof Tishrei, 5761): Yom Kippur is observed for the first time in the 21stcentury.

    2003: The Israeli Gesher Theater starts its tour of Moscow. The Moscow critics have already called the tour the biggest event of the theater season. The Gesher Theater was founded in 1990 in Tel Aviv by Russian immigrants

    . 2004: The first National Day of Commemorating the Holocaust was held in Romania. October 9 was chosen as a date for this event because it marks the beginning of Romanian deportations of Jews to Transnistria, in 1942.

    2004: Final performance of the London production of Stephen Sondheim’s “Sweeny Todd.”

    2004: While play Georgia Tech today, University of Maryland punter Adam “Podlesh had a then-career high nine punts for a then-career high 448 net yards.

    2004(24th of Tishrei, 5765): On Shabbat Jews begin the cycle of Torah readings with Bereshit.

    2004(24thof Tishrei, 5765): Sixty-five year old economics professor Herschel Grossman passed away unexpectedly today.

    2004(24th of Tishrei, 5765: Philosopher Jacques Derrida passes away at the age of 74. (As reported by Jonathan Kandell)

    2005: The Romanian Minister for Foreign Affairs, Mihai Răzvan Ungureanu, participated in the laying of a wreath at the Holocaust Memorial in Iasi and the inauguration of The Centre for Hebrew Studies. During the inaugural National Day of Commemorating the Holocaust, the National Institute for Studying the Holocaust in Romania was also opened.

    2005: The Histadrut labor federation renews the strike against the Religious Councils. Funerals will be performed only at night and there will be no registration of marriages or Kashrut supervision in restaurants, hotels and catering halls.

    2005: Despite threats from suicide bombers and other terrorists, Israelis work to develop a fruitful society and create an air of normalcy. For example, Haaretz reported that Israel’s 2 – 1 victory over Faroe Islands in a World Cup soccer qualifier in the Ramat Gan stadium means Israel still has a chance of qualifying for the World Cup in Germany 2006. Israel will not know if it will qualify for the automatic birth or if it has to play a European team to get to the match in Germany until later in the week. The Israeli coach had said earlier that if the announcement if made on Thursday which is Yom Kippur, he will have to wait until Thursday night to find out the fate of his team.

     2005: Bishop Von Galen, the German bishop known as the "Lion of Muenster" for his courageous anti-Nazi sermons during World War II took a step on the road to sainthood when he was beatified in St. Peter’s Basilica. The Nazis deported 37 priests to concentration camps 10 of whom perished in von Galen's place as punishment for the homilies, according to a brief biography by Reinhard Lettmann. However von Galen was not arrested. The Nazis were worried that if von Galen were arrested and killed, Muenster's residents would be angered and "written off as lost during the duration of the war," Lettmann wrote. Von Galen helped a Protestant pastor to hide a Jewish boy in an institute belonging to the bishop's office and took responsibility for the youth, who after the war was reunited with his mother, according to testimony carried by Vatican Radio.

    2005(6th of Tishrei, 5766): Comedian Louis Nye passed away. (As reported by James Barron)

    2005: The New York Timesreviewed The Pagoda in the Garden: a Novel in Three Parts by Wendy Lesser.
    2005: The Times of Londonreviewed We Are at War: The Remarkable Diaries of Five Ordinary People in Extraordinary Times by Simon Garfield

    2006: A ceremony took place for setting the keystone of the National Holocaust Memorial in Bucharest. The ceremony was attended by the President, Foreign Minister Affairs Minister and Culture Minister, as well as representatives of the Romanian and international Jewish community. A commemoration march also took place through Bucharest in order to remember the Roma victims of the Holocaust and to demand greater recognition by the government of Roma Holocaust victims.

    2006: Haaretz reported that Holocaust survivor groups here have joined the recommendation of the Polish president, Lech Kaczynski, to award the Nobel Peace Prize to 96-year-old Irena Sandler who was a member of the Polish underground group Zegota that was dedicated to saving Jews and was recognized by the Yad Vashem Martyrs and Heroes Remembrance Authority in 1965 for smuggling numerous Jewish children out of the Warsaw Ghetto..
    2007: A special preview screening of The Counterfeiters takes place as part of the UK Jewish Film Festival. “The Counterfeiters is based on the true story of the largest counterfeiting operation in history, set up by the Nazis in 1936.

    2008(10th of Tishrei, 5769): Yom Kippur

    2008: At Adas Israel in Washington, D.C. during a late afternoon break between Musaf and Mincha, Washington Post columnist Marc Fisher and Emily Yoffe of Slate lead a learning session that opens with the study of a classic text on the use of speech in public followed by a discussion of the ethical dilemmas of reporting and the spiritual importance of truth-telling.

    2008: In Acre, both Jews and Arabs clashed with police in various parts of the ethnically divided city, leading to 10 arrests. In total, at least eight people were slightly injured in the successive nights of violence

    2008: CBS broadcast the first episode of season nine of the original CSI  (later known as CSI Las Vegas) a long-running cerebral crime series created by Antony E. Zuker and brought to the small screen by executive producers Jerry Bruckheimer and Carol Mendelsohn

    2009: Michael Chabon, author of The Mysteries of Pittsburgh, Wonder Boysand the Pulitzer Prize-winning The Adventures of Kavalier and Clay,discusses his first book of nonfiction, Manhood for Amateurs: The Pleasures and Regrets of a Husband, Father, and Son, at Lisner Auditorium, George Washington University, Washington,D.C.

    2009: Scott Turow, the bestselling author of the legal thrillers Presumed Innocentand The Burden of Proof, presents a lecture, "Confessions of a Death Penalty Agnostic," drawn from his book "Ultimate Punishment: A Lawyer's Reflections on Dealing with the Death Penalty," at the Fairfax County Government in Fairfax, Va..

    2009: Kol Shira will be performing at Java House in downtown Iowa City Kol Shira is an all women sextet known for its eclectic fusion performances of International Jewish music, including songs from Russia, Cuba, Eastern Europe, Iraq, Yemen, France, Spain, Middle East, Italy, Romania, Algeria and more. The group features vocals, flute, guitar, piano, bass, cello and hand-held percussion. Jim Musser, music reviewer for the Iowa City Press Citizen, described Kol Shira as “remarkable” and “exquisite.” At the end of 2004, Musser ranked their CD as one of the top six independent releases from the Eastern Iowa area.
    2009 (21 Tishrei, 5770): Hoshanah Rabbah
    2009: While Friday prayers ended without incident at the al-Aksa Mosque on the Temple Mount, Palestinian rioters clashed with police in the Jerusalem neighborhoods of Issawiya, Ras el-Amud and Sur Baher

    2009(21stof Tishrei, 5770): “Stuart M. Kaminsky, a film scholar-turned-detective novelist who was widely known for his prodigious output, complex characters, and rich evocations of time and place, including Hollywood in its Golden Age, died today at the age of 75.” (As reported by Margalit Fox)

    2009 (21st  Tishrei, 5770): Richard W. Sonnenfeldt, who fled Nazi Germany as a teenager, became the chief interpreter for American prosecutors at the Nuremberg war crimes trials and interrogated some of the most notorious Nazi leaders of World War II, died today  at his home in Port Washington, N.Y. at the age of 86.(As reported by A.G. Sulzberger)

    2009: Even on Hoshanah Rabah there is no rest from reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Anne Frank: The Book, The Life, The Afterlife by Francine Prose (Los Angeles Times) and Michael Bloomberg: Money, Power, Politics by Joyce Purnick (NY Times)
    2010: A special Ethiopian Shabbat luncheon is scheduled to take place at the 92nd St Y in Manhattan. This scheduled event is intended to provide “special opportunity for Ethiopian Jews and any interested Amharic speakers based in New York to get together as a community to celebrate Shabbat in their native tongue and to be in the presence of their revered Kessotch on a rare visit from Israel.”

    2010(1 Cheshvan, 5771): Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan

    2010: Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas has told Arab leaders he may seek U.S. recognition for a Palestinian state, which would include all of the West Bank, should peace talks with Israel break down, an aide said today.

    2010: In a case of Jew versus Jew, Andy Samberg played the part of Mark Zuckerberg  in Saturday Night Live’s lampoon of Facebook and its creator.

    2011: StrorahSteps is scheduled to present Norah’s Rainbow at the 14th Street Y in Manhattan.

    2011: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including “Lucky Bruce:A Literary Memoir” by Bruce Jay Friedman.


    2011: A top Israeli security official is visiting Cairo, the Egyptian newspaper Al-Ahram reported today, amid recent tensions between Israel and Egypt over security arrangements in the Sinai

    2011:The Yom Kippur War ceremony in Tel Aviv was almost canceled today after not a single government minister attended, causing uproar among the bereaved families.

    2012: A screening of Amos Gati’s “Field Diary” is scheduled to take place at the New York Film Festival at Lincoln Center.

    2012: “Fill the Voice,” “the first film about haredi life directed by an insider for a secular audience” is scheduled to have US premiere at the New York Film Festival

    2012(23 of Tishrei, 5773): Simchat Torah for Orthodox and Conservative Jews.

    2012: The funeral for Dr. Joan Morgenthau Hirschhorn is scheduled to take place Temple Emanu-El in New York City followed by a private burial.

    2012: Two Kassam rockets fired by terrorists from the Gaza Strip tonight landed near the southern Israeli town of Sderot, while three Grad rockets fell outside the nearby town of Netivot.

    2012: Serge Haroche, a French-Jewish physicist, has won the Nobel Prize in Physics jointly with David Wineland from the United States. (As reported by JTA)

    2013: Jerry Dauber, author of The Worlds of Sholem Aleichem: The Remarkable Life and Afterlife of the Man Who Created Tevye is scheduled to deliver The Bernard Wexler Lecture on Jewish History in Washington, DC

    2013: “Meditations on Equilibrium: Works in Glass and Paper” by Alex Hirsch is scheduled to open at the Oregon Jewish Museum

    2013: “Bat Mitzvah Comes of Age” is scheduled to open at the Oregon Jewish Museum.

    2013, Janet Yellen was officially nominated to replace Ben Bernanke as head of the Federal Reserve.

    2013: Prof. Arieh Warshel, who was born in Israel and now lives in California, and Prof. Michael Levitt, a South African native who made aliya and now splits his time between the US and Israel, Prof. Martin Karplus, an Austrian native who fled to the US before the Holocaust won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry today. Warshel and Levitt are Israel’s 11th and 12th Nobel Prize laureates. (As reported by Judy Siegel-Itzkovich)

    2013: Pope Francis told Knesset Speaker Yuli Edelstein (Likud) he would visit Israel, but did not specify a date.

    2013: Michael Applebaum, the first Jewish Mayor of Montreal, is scheduled to make his first court appearance after having been “arrested and indicted on 14 charges including fraud, conspiracy, breach of trust, and corruption in municipal affairs.”

    2013: Two IDF soldiers were hurt today after two mortar shells fired from Syrian territory landed near their position in the Golan Heights

     2013(5th of Cheshvan, 5774): Sixty-nine year old Roger Richman, the son of a rabbi who became a major “talent agent” passed away today. (As reported by William Yardley)

    2013(5thof Cheshvan, 5774): Ninety-seven year old movie critic Stanley Kaufman passed away today. (As reported by William Grimes)

    2014(15thof Tishrei, 5775): Sukkoth

    2014: In Romania observance of “National Day of Commemorating the Holocaust.”

    2014: “Hamas continued to signal its willingness today to engage in negotiations with Israel to exchange the bodies of two IDF soldiers killed in Gaza for the release of Palestinian security detainees.” (As reported Eilor Levy)

    2014: “Patrick Modiano of France, who has made a lifelong study of the Nazi occupation and its effects on his country, won the 2014 Nobel Prize in literature today for what one academic called “crystal clear and resonant” prose. (As reported by Karl Ritter and Malin Rising)

    2014: “Gett,”a stark divorce drama from brother-and-sister duo Ronit and Shlomi Alkabetz” is one of the films scheduled to be shown at the Hamptons International Film Festival which opens today.

    2015(26thof Tishrei. 5776): Seventy-five year old Larry Rosen, “a founder of the pop- jazz record label GRP” passed away today. (As reported by Ben Ratfliff)

    2015: A year after premiering at the Vienna International Film Festival, “99 Homes” starring Andrew Garfield was released in the United States today.

    2015: The Eden-Tamar Music Center is scheduled to host “Loving Bach” part of The Three Piano Series.

    2015: “Allied in the Fight: Jews, Blacks and the Struggle for Civil Rights,” “ a new exhibit” recounting “the efforts made by American Jews and African-Americans to fight for the fundamental American promise of equality before and during the Civil Rights era” is scheduled to go on display today at the Center for Jewish History.

    2016: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Richard Posner by William Domnarski and the recently paperback edition of Give Us The Ballot: The Modern Struggle for Voting Rights in America by Ari Berman

    2016: Today “Jewish actress Arianne Zucker, the subject of Donald Trump’s comments about women from a decade-old tape” in which he discussed “sexually assaulting women and trying to have sex with married  while he was married to his current wife” commented on the subject declaring that she is “a strong, independent, hard working mother, business woman and partner to a great man” and announcing her “to stand tall with self-respect” while decrying the facts that “there are too many people in power who abuse their position…and rewarded for it.”

    2016: “The first group of Ethiopian Jews to move to Israel after waiting for three years is scheduled to arrive at Ben Gurion International Airport this evening, almost a year after the government approved the immigration of 9,000 Jews still left in Ethiopia.” (As reported by Melanie Lidman

    2016: This afternoon, Temple Israel is scheduled to host a tour which will tell the story of the Memphis Jewish community “as it migrated from Main Street where the state’s first synagogue was established in in 1857 to present-day East Memphis.”

    2016: In Coralville, IA, Odeh Bisharat and Galit Dahan Carlibach are scheduled to speak at the “Morning with the International Writers Prgoram.”

    2016: Jews all over the world are scheduled to take part in the annual custom of “Kever Avot” – visiting the graves of our ancestors.

    2016: “A Palestinian gunman, known to Israeli police for violence and incitement on social media, killed two Israelis and wounded several others while shooting a rifle from his car in Jerusalem” today.

    2016: “A public concert schedule to be held in Tel Aviv’s Rabin square today” will not take place “because World Zionist Organization and Radio Lev Hamedina, two of the chief backers of the show, pulled out following a report, which revealed the event did not include any women among its lineup of seven performers because one of the financiers is opposed to women singing before a mixed audience on religious grounds.”

    2016: Rabbi Mendel Deitsch  “a Chabad rabbi who was severely beaten in a train station in the western Ukrainian city of Zhitomir was airlifted to Israel by emergency medical transport.”

    2016: On its closing night, SERET, DC, a celebration of contemporary Israeli cinema is scheduled to show “Sandstorm”

    2016: Today, on the anniversary of the birth of Alfred Dreyfus, “one of his grandsons unveiled a stute of him at a local park’ in his home town “Mulhouse.”

    2016: YIVO Institute for Jewish Research and Center for Jewish History are scheduled to present a conference on “The Blood Libel Then and Now: The Enduring Impact of an Imaginary Event” featuring Elissa Bemporad, Raphael Israeli, David Kertzer, Hillel Kieval, E.M. Rose, Magda Teter, and Barbara Weissberger.

    2016: A memorial service is scheduled to be held today for Miky Gershenson of blessed memory

    2017: In the United States; Columbus Day observed

    2017(19th of Tishrei, 5778): Sukkoth Chol Ha’moed;

    2017: Beit Avi Chai is scheduled to host a series of Sukkoth activities aimed children including a play about Saul including “struggles over kingship, desert chases and the magic of music.

    2017: “The second annual NoshFest,, Toronto’s Jewish food festival” organized by Andrea Segal and Michelle Gordon is scheduled to take place to at Artscape Wychwood Barnes featuring “Jewish delicacies, cooking demonstrations, cookbook signings and the Klezmer band, Jonno LIghtstone and the Rock the Shtetl.

    2017: Seventy-two year old Professor Richard Thaler “was award the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics today.”

    2018: This evening the Oxford University Jewish Society is scheduled to host a dinner during which attendees will discuss “New Beginnings in Jewish Thought: A Start-up Practice.”

    2018: The YIVO Institute for Jewish Research is scheduled to host the book launch of Historical Atlas of Hasidism by “Marcin Wodziński, a professor of Jewish studies at the University of Wrocław in Poland and David Biale, the Emanuel Ringelblum Distinguished Professor of Jewish History at the University of California, Davis.”

    2018: The Streicker Center is scheduled to host “An Evening with Simon Schama” the author of two weighty tomes entitled The Story of the Jews.

    2018(30th of Tishrei, 5779): First Day Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan; for more see



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    OCTOBER 10

    614: Today the fifth Council of Paris “prohibited the Jews from asking or from exercising civic or administrative rights.”

    680: At the Battle of Karbala, Shia Imam Husayn bin Ali, the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad, was decapitated by forces under Caliph Yazid I. This is commemorated by Shi'a Muslims as Aashurah. This is part of the split between the Shiites and the Sunnis that has led to so much violence and had an impact on the terrorist war against Israel and other nations of the world.

    732: At the Battle of Tours which was fought near Poitiers, France, the leader of the Franks (modern day French) Charles Martel and his men, defeat a large army of Moors, stopping the Muslims from spreading into Western Europe. This meant that the territory south of the Pyrenees – Spain – would remain in Islamic hands for the better part of the next seven centuries while the rest of Europe would remain in Christian hands for the time being. This demarcation would lead to the development of different variants of Judaism depending up whether the Jews lived in Moslem and Christian dominated parts of Europe.

    1384: A judicial inquiry was held in a castle at Châtel, by order of Prince Amadeus, Count of Savoy with purpose of confirming the charges by his Christian subjects that the Jews were guilty of poisoning the wells, springs “and other things which the Christians use.” Numerous Jews of both sexes have been imprisoned based on these charges. The case rested, in part, on the admission of Jew named Agimet from Geneva, who confessed after having been subject to only “a little” torture that he had engaged in such practices.

    1619(2nd Cheshvan, 5380): Rabbi Joseph Pardo passed away today in Amsterdam.

    1674(10thof Tishrei, 5435): David Cohen de Lara, the “Haham, lexicographer and writer on ethics” passed away today in Hamburg.

    1723: The party responsible for slandering a group of Jews was put to death in an auto-de-fe at Lisbon. The person had alleged groups of men were assembling to practice Jewish customs. The men were later arrested and jailed where many of them had died.

    1740(19thof Tishrei, 5501): Joseph Moses Schiff, the husband of Brendle Schiff, passed away after which he was buried in the Jewish Cemetery in Frankfurt Am Main today.

    1744: Sampson Gideon, “a banker in the city of London” and his wife Jane gave birth to Sampson Eardley, 1st Baron Eardley

    1755: In a 4 month period ending today, eight Jewish merchants were listed in the Custom House records of New Yo

    1777(9thof Tishrei, 5538): The sounds of Kol Nire might have clashed with the feelings of joy and relief over the recent American victory at Saratoga.

    1792: One day after she had passed away, “Breindla bat Joseph” was buried at the “Alderney Road (Globe Road) Jewish Cemetery” today.

    1792(24thof Tishrei, 5553): Seventy-nine year old Dutch born businessman, Talmudist and Hebrew language poet David Franco Mendes passed away after spending the last six months of his life as honorary secretary of the Spanish-Portuguese community at Amsterdam.

    1802: In Philadelphia, a group of German Jews formed a society that they called the “Hebrew German Society Rodef Shalom” which was one of the earliest German Jewish congregations in America. “The society was reorganized and chartered in 1812. Among the earliest rabbis were Wolf Benjamin, Jacob Lipman, Bernhard Illowy, Henry Vidaver, Moses Sulzbacher, and Moses Rau.”

    1810: Benjamin Gompertz married Abigail Montefiore at the Hambro Synagogue today.

    1818(10thof Tishrei, 5579): Yom Kippur

    1823: Birthdate of Russian scholar and philanthropist Joshua ben Aaron Zeitlin.

    1830(23rdof Tishrei, 5591): Simchat Torah

    1831: One day he had passed away, “Samuel Solomo” was buried at the “Brompton (Fulham Road) Jewish Cemetery.”

    1837:Löbl Strakosch and Julia Schwarz gave birth to their son Ferdinand, the younger brother of Maurice and Max Strakosch.

    1839: Francis Henry Goldsmid married Louisa Sophia Goldsmid at the Great Synagogue today.

    1842: Three days after she had passed away, “Golda Isaacs, the wife Isaac Isaacs” was buried today at the “Brady Street Jewish Cemetery”

    1845: Founding of the U.S. Naval Academy. Today there are approximately 140 Jewish Midshipman at the Naval Academy. The dedication of the multi-million dollar Uriah P. Levy Jewish Center and Chapel in 2005 marked a major milestone in the development of Jewish life at the Annapolis institution. For more about the history of the Jews at the U.S. Naval Academy see “The Judaic Experience at the U.S. Naval Academy” by Joel Ira Holwitt

    1847: In Hamburg, Germany, Julie and Samuel Lewishon gave birth to Leonard Lewisohn who gained fame and fortune in the United States as a businessman and philanthropist.

    1847: A constitution was adopted forming 'The Ladies Sewing Association, of the Congregation Shearith Israel, of New York.' The society consisted of an initial fifty members who would make garments for the needy.

    1848: Two days after he had passed away, 24 year old Benjamin Nathan, the son of Barnett Nathan and the former Julia Solomons was buried today at the “Canterbury Jewish Cemetery.

    1851: Communications pioneer Paul Julius Reuter “established a telegraph office at the I Royal Exchange Buildings, near the London stock exchange. From this location he transmitted stock market quotations between London and Paris, using the new Calais-Dover telegraph cable under the English Channel. Recognizing the need for a news service, Reuter would the next seven years working hard to build the agency and promote his services to newspapers.”

    1853: “Jewish Educational Institute” published today described the cornerstone laying ceremony for a Jewish Educational Institute to be built in New York next to B’nai Jeshraun Synagogue on Greene Street. Rabbi Morris Raphall’s address to the attendees included the statement that he was as proud of the establishment of this academy for Jewish study as he was of the role he had played in establishing a similar such institution in Birmingham, England. He stressed the importance of Jews receiving both a secular and religious education. He spoke of the unique benefits Jews enjoyed in the United States. And he predicted that a day would come when the United States would surpass the United Kingdom and when the Jews of the United States would have to assume a leadership role for Jews throughout the world.

    1854: The Jewish Theological Seminary, “the first rabbinical seminary in Central Europe, opened today in Breslau.

    1855: Isaac Hart married Louisa Levy at the Great Synagogue today.

    1856: Members of the “Philadelphia Battery,” a unit Max Einstein formed as the Philadelphia Flying Artillery Company, presented him with “a magnificent silver sword, encased in a scabbard of gold.”

    1860: In London, Mr. Joseph Isaacs and his wife gave birth to Rufus D. Isaacs the nephew of Sir Henry Isaacs and the husband of Alice Edith Cohen, the third daughter of Albert Cohen who “entered Middle Temple in 1887” and began serving as the Liberal MP from Reading in 1904

    1860: Joseph M. Montefiore, the President of the Board of Deputies and his wife gave birth to Sir Francis Abraham Montefiore “who became high sheriff of the country of Kent in 1894 and Sussex in 1895” while serving as “chairman of the executive committee of the English Zionist Federation” and “chairman of the Elders of the Spanish and Portuguese congregation.

    1860: Birthdate of “Schklov, Russia,” native Solomon Baroway who came to the United States in 1883 and went to Kansas with “25 other Jewish young men” to start an agricultural community at Lasker in Clark County before moving on eventually settling in Baltimore where he “was the Superintendent of the Hebrew Benevolent Society for twenty-five years.

    1862: In Crawley, West Sussex, England Joseph Montefiore, the president of the Board of Deputies and his wife gave birth to Sir Francis Abraham Montefiore who served as the high sheriff of Kent and Sussex as well as the “chairman of the executive committee of the English Zionist Federation.” (The Jewish Encyclopedia and The Palgrave Dictionary of Anglo –Jewish History show the date as October 10, 1860)

    1862: Philadelphian William Moss, the son of Joseph L. and Julia Moss completed his one year of service as the Surgeon for the 70th Regiment “which he helped to raise) today after  which “he became Surgeon of United States Volunteers.”

    1862: Zillah and Samuel Henry Beddington gave birth to Ada Beddington who married Ernest Leverson and as Ada Leverson became a noted British author and friend to the famous.

    1864(10th of Tishrei, 5625): Yom Kippur

    1864: Jews gathered at the home of a merchant in Salt Lake City to observe Yom Kippur. This was probably the first communal Jewish activity to take place in this Mormon dominated regioned.

    1864: The New York Timesreported that “To-day will be generally observed by our Jewish fellow-citizens as a rigid fast-day and period of strict religions observance. It is known as Your Kippur Day of Atonement. Every Israelite in every part of the world, who believes in the Law of Moses and the doctrine of a future world, keeps the day as a strict fast-day. From sunset yesterday till sunset to-day no food or drink is indulged in. Every Jew and Jewess, and children above thirteen, must observe the fast. According to Jewish tradition, on the first day of the New Year, the Israelites are summoned in judgment before their Creator, but sentence upon their misdeeds is reserved till the tenth day Your Kippur. If, during the ten intermediate days, called the Arsareth Yermi Tersluaro, ten day of repentance, penitence is made, and the "sinner turneth from the evil of his ways," the anger of the Lord is assuaged, and on the day of atonement forgiveness is accorded. When the Isralites worshipped in the Temple at Jerusalem, the service of this day was equally solemn and splendid. It was the only day throughout the year on which even the Cohen Hagodol (High priest,) presumed to enter the most holy sanctuary of the temple, or to pronounce the renevated and deladed name of the Deity which at any other time it was unlawful even for him to utter. The glories of this day are commemorated in the musaf or midday service of the synagogue. According to Jewish tradition, also the Your Kippur even before the giving of the law was a day of atonement and pardon. Adam did penance and was pardoned on this day. Abraham entered the covenant of the circumcision on this day. Moses, after he had broken the first tables, ascended the Mount again on the first day of Elul, so that the second forty days expired with the Your Kippur. The eve is allotted to solemn feasting, and at sunset the twenty-four hours fast and continued prayers commence. It is also customary in the evening for parents to bestow a solemn benediction on their children. Whosoever meet on that day, be they previously acquainted or complete strangers, salute each other with brotherly love and sincerity. If any dispute exists between the Jews, it is obligatory on them to become reconciled before either of them presumes to appear in the presence of his God. The law which ordains the observance of the day likewise commands the Jew "to afflict his soul." The affliction of the soul by means of the body, according to Jewish custom, consists in abstaining from five indulgences -- eating and drinking, bathing, perfuming, wearing shoes and sexual enjoyment. The observance of the festival is most strict by everyone who claims the name of Jew, and even those who make light of other observances throughout the year, pay due regard to this day. The exercises in the synagogue are of a striking and impressive character, the edifice is thronged with worshippers, the ministers and officials are draped in white shrouds while prayers of lamentation and penitence are heard on all sides. The services are divided into five parts the kol nidri, or eve service for last night; the sharcheris, or morning service; the musaf, or midday service, the mincha, or afternoon service; the nela, or conclusion. The synagogues open to-day at 6 A.M., and remain open till sunset.

    1864(10th of Tishrei, 5625): Jews of Tunis and Tripoli were massacred.

    1865: Joseph M. Montefiore, the President of the Board of Deputies and his wife gave birth to Sir Francis Abraham Montefiore who served as the High Sheriff of the counties of Kent and Sussex and as Chairman of the Executive Committee of the English Zionist Federation.

    1866: One day he had passed away, 65 year old Moses Emanuel, the husband of Elizabeth Moses, with whom he had five children – “Joshua, Joseph, Simeon, Abraham and Henry” – was buried today at the “Brompton (Fulham Road) Jewish Cemetery.”

    1869(5thof Cheshvan, 5630): Eighty-five year old Rabbi Abraham Sutro who was an ardent advocate for Jewish emancipation in Prussia passed away today.

    1870: In Vienna, “Anna Sara Hinda Halban and Philipp Halban gave Josef von Halban the pioneer obstetrician and gynecologist who was marred to “Austrian operatic soprano” Selma Kurz.

    1870: “Rabbi Gabriel of Shereshev and his wife Haya” gave birth to the first of their eleven children, Rabbi David Almond, the Polish trained Talmudist and graduate of London University and Jew’s College where he was ordained who was admitted to the bar after earning an LLD from John Marshal Law School in Chicago where “he served the North Shore Congregation B’nai Israel until its consolidation with the First Hungarian Congregation Agudas Achim in 1923, after which he led several congregations on Chicago’s South Side.”

    1871(25th of Tishrei, 5632): Sixty-seven year old Joseph Zedner passed away.  Born in Germany, he served as librairian of the Hebrew Department of the British Museum from 1845 until 1869 when he resigned and returned to Germany due to his failing health.

    1871: Birthdate of “German rabbi and folklorist” Max Grunwald.

    1871(25thof Tishrei, 5632): Sixty-seven year old Joseph Zender the German born librarian of the Hebrew department of the British Museum in London passed away today.

    1871: On the last day of the Great Chicago Fire it was noted that a void now existed in the city. The Hebrew Relief Association’s Hospital had been destroyed during the catastrophic conflagration.

    1872: Birthdate of Harold Phillips who would be buried in the Jewish cemetery at Natchitoches, LA when he passed away at the age of 13.

    1874: Ceremonies were held this evening in New York City marking the formal opening of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association. Lewis May, the president of the organization opened the event with a brief address followed by Dr. Mark Blumenthal’s speech provided a brief history of YMHA. Judge Philip J. Joachimsen and Rabbi Isaacs of the 19th Street Synagogue were among the dignitaries who attended the event.

    1875: Today, the officials of the Kane Street Synagogue, or Congregation Baith Israel Anshei Emes,in Brooklyn “set forth the rules for the congregation’s Sunday school” including “from the opening to closing of school children are not allowed to speak unless permission be given by the teacher,” to “scholars absenting themselves for four consecutive Sundays shall be discharge, unless good excuse be given” to a requesting that “scholars bring two cents each and every Sunday” which the teachers of the “different class are to collect.”

    1875: According to reports published today that while the Moslems have political control of Jerusalem, the Jews, who number 8,000 souls and even more during festivals, make up a majority of the city’s population.

    1875: In Grodno, Belarus, Aaron Bublic and his wife gave birth to Gedaliah Bublick who the writer and Zionist who drifted from Paris to Argentina to New York where he became editor-in-chief of the Yiddishe Tageblatt.

    1876(22nd of Tishrei, 5637): Shemini Atzeret

    1879(23rd of Tishrei, 5640): Simchat Torah

    1879: Daniel Edward Bandmann played Shylock in tonight’s opening performance of “The Merchant of Venice” at the Standard Theatre in New York City. His portrayal of Shakespeare’s Jew differs from that of Edwin Booth who creates an “over-tragic and impassioned” figure.

    1879: Birthdate of Eugen Täubler who wrote his dissertation on Josephus and lectured at the Higher Institute for Jewish Studies in Berlin.

    1883(9thof Tishrei, 5644): Erev Yom Kippur

    1883: Three hundred boys attended Kol Nidre services at the Hebrew Orphan Asylum that were led by Dr. Herman Baar, the Superintendent.

    1884(21st of Tishrei, 5645): Hoshanah Rabbah

    1884(21stof Tishrei, 5645): Seventy six year old Johanna Goldschmidt the wife of Moritz David Goldschmidt who was a philanthropist, author and an advocate for the right’s of women passed away today in Hamburg.

    1884(21st of Tishrei, 5645): Dr. Adolph Huebsch, “one of the most popular and influential…rabbis” in New York “died suddenly from heart disease from heart disease” from “heart disease” at 4:30 this morning. Born in Hungary in 1830, earned a doctorate at the University of Prague after which he took a pulpit in that Czech city.  In 1886, he came to the United States where began serving as rabbi at Ahaveth Chesed. In addition to leading his congregation through a period of growth that included the building of a new sanctuary, he was a noted scholar.

    1885: Birthdate of Dr. Ernst Eylenburg who was transported from Berlin to Terezin in 1943 and from Terezin  to Auschwitz in 1944 where he was murdered.

    1885: George S. Stinson, a special agent of the Internal Revenue Department discovered today that “crooked whiskey was being manufactured by four Hebrews at Bruynswick, NY.

    1886(11th of Tishrei, 5647): David Levy Yulee, the first Jewish United States Senator passed away. David Yulee (also spelled Yule) was known simply as David Levy for the first three and half decades of his life. He had been born on the West Indian island of St. Thomas and brought to Florida by his father Moses Levy. The younger Levy turned Yulee was a successful planter and lawyer, a perfect background for a further career in politics. When Florida became a state in 1845, Yulee was chosen to serve as one of her senators. Yulee was not active in Jewish communal life and married a non-Jew. However, his political opponents did not ignore this fact. When the Civil War broke out, Yulee joined the other Jewish senator, Judah P. Benjamin in secession. During the war he served in the Confederate Congress. After the war, he served a year in prison on for reasons not recorded. He had been arrested while on his way to Washington, D.C. in an effort to gain Florida’s re-entry into the Union. It is ironic that the only claim to fame of a Jew who sought to assimilate is tied to that very Jewishness.

    1886(11th of Tishrei, 5647): In St. Louis, Frank Sandmeyer, a Jew who was employed as a waiter at Esher’s Variety Theatre took his own life after killing his wife.

    1886: Birthdate of Kamila Adelová who was transported from Prague to Terezin in 1942 and from Terezin to Maly Trostine where she was murdered.

    1886: It was reported that an actor named “Curtis” will be appearing at the 14thStreet Theatre in New York.  His forte is his comic portrayal or “caricature” of “the superficial traits of the modern German” Jew.

    1887: Birthdate of Schenectady, NY, native Lester Louis Bauer, the Northwestern University Law School graduate, “publisher of the Jewish Standard” and the “President of the Federation of the Reformed and Conservative Temples.”

    1889(15thof Tishrei, 5650): Sukkoth

    1890: The Vossiesche Zeitung declared that the charges published in the Das Volkattacking the committee honoring Count von Moltke as being Jews seeking to make money from the event are “a calumny.”

    1890: The anti-Semitic May Laws were modified to allow Jews to rent, but not buy, lands within certain city limits that will be used for grazing purposes only.

    1890: It was reported today that “Mr. Charles Frohman’s newly-organized company will soon be appearing in a new play called ‘Men and Women’” featuring among its characters “a rich Hebrew, President of a national bank.”

    1890: “Plans were filed with the Building Bureau…for the erection of a five-story orphan asylum for the Hebrew Shelter and Guardian Society” in New York City.

    1891(8thof Tishrei, 5652): Shabbat Shuva

    1891: In Paris, author and humorist Tristan Bernard and his wife gave birth to director and screenwriter Raymond Bernard.

    1891(8thof Tishrei, 5652): Thirty-five year old Anna Hilkofsky who suffered from epilepsy died this evening when she died in a fire that started while she was cooking and fell into the stove.

    1891:”Alleged Great Expectations” published today described the action being taken by 23 year old Charles Horowitz, a Jewish peddler who came to the United States from Russia two years ago to obtain his share of his late uncle’s estate who reportedly died in San Francisco leaving his heirs $30,000,000.

    1893(30th of Tishrei, 5654): Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan

    1893(30th of Tishrei, 5654): Lipman Emanuel "Lip" Pike, the first professional Jewish baseball player passed away.

    1893: In Jersey City, NJ, the Moral Reform Society, an organization composed of representatives from various Protestant Churches met for the first time and decided to include Jews and Catholics in its membership.

    1894(10thof Tishrei, 5655): Yom Kippur

    1894: “Died at the Services” published today described the death of sixty year old Wolf Cohn who passed away during Kol Nidre services.

    1894: Due to the observance of the Day Atonement, the 1,000 Jewish registrars who would have served both the Republicans and Tammany Hall will not be able to serve.

    1894: “Business on the Stock Exchange…was restricted owing to the absence of many operators who were away observing the Hebrew fast of the Atonmenet.”

    1894: In New York, Temple Beth-El will use “the new order of services for Yom Kippur adopted at the Central Conference of American Rabbis at the meeting in Atlantic City.  In a more shocking move, German will no longer be used and all prayers will be in English or Hebrew.

    1895: “Two Wills In A Week” published today described a dispute over the estate of Mrs. Babet Karl involving Rabbi Aaron Wise of Congregation Rodoph Sholom and his son Otto Irving Wise on one side family members including her nephew Abraham Stern on the other side.

    1896: It was reported today that a rare copy of William Blake’s “Jerusalem” had been sold at action by Bangs & Co for $14.50.

    1896: The University of Wisconsin football team led by first year head coach Philip King, a Jewish native of Washington, DC defeated Lake Forest today in the season opening game.

    1897(14thof Tishrei, 5658): Erev Sukkoth

    1897: In Manchester Israel Cohen and the former Annie Eugenie Seligmann gave birth a baby girl.

    1897: Six days after he had passed away, 20 year old “Ernest Vivian Eskell Kennard, the second son of Eva and Alfred Kennard” was buried today at the “Balls Pond Road Jewish Cemetery.”

    1897: At Temple Israel on 125th Street and 5th Avenue Rabbi Maurice Harris officiated at services which included an address by Daniel P. Hays, President of the congregation.

    1897: Samuel D. Levy presided over the 18th annual meeting of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society

    1898(24thof Tishrei, 5659): Author and numismatist David Henriques de Castro passed away in Amsterdam the city where he was born in 1832.

    1898(24thof Tishrei, 5659): Seventy-three year old author and philosopher Fabius Mieses passed away today.

    1899: The New York Timesbegins publishing a supplemental section devoted to reviewing books. The New York Times Book Sectionhas provided numerous reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or special interest to Jewish readers for over a century. It has been an invaluable resource for this blog.

    1900: During the “Konitz Affair,” an episode of Jewish blood libel, “Jacob Jacoby of Tuchel, was sentenced to confinement for one year in the penitentiary for perjury.”

    1900: In Detroit, Congregation Beth El made the decision to build a new Temple which will be located at the corner of Woodward Avenue and Eliot Street.

    1902 (9th of Tishrei, 5663): Erev Yom Kippur

    1903: The Young Men’s Zionist Society of Newark, NJ, is scheduled to host a ball tonight.

    1906(21st of Tishrei, 5667): Hoshanah Rabah

    1907: Ernesto Nathan, a Jew, was elected Mayor of Rome.

    1908(15thof Tishrei, 5669): Sukkoth

    1908: Movie mogul Harry Warner and his wife, Rea Levinson gave birth to their first child, Lewis Warner.

    1909: The coffin “covered with the blue and white flag of Zion” carrying the body of Naphtali Herz Imber “the east side poet and author of ‘Hatikvah,’ the Zionist national hymn” who had died erev Shabbat “was followed from the Educational Alliance Building on East Broadway to the Mount Zion Cemetery by 10,000 sincere mourners including Rabbi J.L. Magnes.

    1910(7thof Tishrei, 5671): Mrs. Chawe Wolpe passed away today.

    1910: Birthdate of Photographer Julius Shulman. Born in Brooklyn, the son of Russian Jewish immigrants, his family moved to a farm in Connecticut, where Shulman first developed a love of nature that, he said, awakened him to light and shadow and influenced his life's course. When Julius was 10, his father moved the family to the Boyle Heights neighborhood of Los Angeles, which at that time was predominantly Jewish, and opened the New York Dry Goods Store. His father died of tuberculosis in 1923, leaving Julius' mother to run the business and raise five children.

    1910: Ten Jewish men founded Tau Episolon Phi (TEP) fraternity at Columbia University.

    1911(18thof Tishrei, 5671): Fourth Day of Sukkoth

    1911(18thof Tishrei 5671): Fifteen year old Miss Schlowe Stein passed away today.

    1912(29thof Tishrei, 5673): “Communal worker” Henry Jonas passed away in Butte, Montana/

    1912: Today, Dr. Joseph Silverman officiated at the funeral of Professor Morris Loeb. The funeral which was attended by more than 500 people representing most of the Jewish charitable and religious organizations of New York and many of its educational institutions was held at Temple Emanu-El Cemetery, Salem Fields, Cypress Hills. Dr. Samuel Schulmann of Temple Beth-El gave the closing prayer.

    1913(9thof Tishrei, 5674): Erev Yom Kippur – Kol Nidre is heard for the last time before the start of World War I when, as the British Foreign Minister said, the lights went out all over the world and we do not know if we shall ever see them turned again.”

    1913: Based on Judge Roan’s ruling on August 26, today was to be the day when Leo Frank was to be hung.

    1915(2ndof Cheshvan, 5676): Alfred Hyman Louis, the native of Birmingham and son of Hyman T. Louis, “a well-to-do merchant and his wife Maria” who “was called to the Bar in 1855 and who claimed to have been the inspiration “for the consumptive mystic Mordecai” in George Eliot’s Daniel Deronda passed away today after which he “was buried as a Jew” having renounced his previous conversion to Christianity.

    1915: Today, 29 year old Louis Lefkowitz, the brother of Aaron Lefkowitz and founder of “Louis Lefkowitz and Brother, manufacturers of leather belts” and other such items, “married Miss Sadie Leah Weiss” with whom he had one child, a daughter named Doris.

    1915: Today was designated as the deadline for various Jewish organizations to name those who will be attending the “general congress of American Jews” to be held next month under the auspices of the American-Jewish Committee.

    1915: It was reported today that “the Jews of Russian Poland, now in the hands of the Austrians and Germans, appear to have suffered, prior to the Russian retreat more than the normal amount of hardship imposed by war” which included “a rather promiscuous execution by the Russians of the Jews accused of espionage…and the plundering of Jewish shops and houses by the Russian soldiery.

    1915: The list of “Five Hundred Leading Books This Fall” published today included Forest Izard’s Sarah Bernhardt which provides “a brief sketch of her career and an appreciative criticism of her work and her genius, Israel Friedlander’s The History of the Jews In Russia And Poland in which “the author traces the restrictions placed, the oppressions exercised against and the accusation made respecting the Jews in Poland up to the time of the partition of that country in 1772 and thereafter the treatment of the Jews under Russian Role” and Morris Jastrow’s The Civilization of Babylonia and Assyria

    1915: “The Neighborhood’s Year” published today provided a preview of the attractions that will be offered this season by the little Neighborhood Playhouse on Grand Street which will include performances by the Yiddish Folksong Singers of Boston.

    1915: In the Ukraine, Elie Gottmann and Sonia-Fanny Ettinger gave birth to their only child French geographer Jean Gottman.

    1915: It was reported today that “there are 1,846 student in the Teacher’s College” at Columbia University “this year and since many of them are interested in settlement and church work” the school has proposed that Catholics, Jews and Protestants work together “in devising means for making religious instruction more efficient.”

    1915: The chairman of the Interchurch Committee on Religious Education which includes Jewish members said that its members are ready to help implement William Wirt’s “Gary Plan” for the schools in New York City.

    1917: “After traveling for six months by sea and leaving and encountering many hardships ninety-one Jewish refugees” including “ten old men, forty women and forty-one children” arrived today “at an Atlantic port from Palestine to join their relatives in his country

    1917:  In Brownsville, Pincus Schacter, “a seventh generation shochet” and his wife “the former Miriam Schimmelman” gave birth to Herschel Schacter the first US Army Chaplain to enter and participate in the liberation of the Buchenwald concentration camp and the chairman of the Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations.

    1918: During the final Allied offensive on the Western Front, the 165th Regiment, including Sergeant Abraham Blaustein hiked to Excamont where they found the Prussian Guards holding their strong points just beyond the town.

    1920: The Goldman Concert Band, “which recently concluded its most successful series of Summer concerts at Columbia University” is scheduled to “give its one and only concert at Carnegie Hall” this evening.

    1920: In Chicago, Illinois, Hugo M. Friend, the Judge who presided over trial of the so-called Chicago Black Sox (the players who threw the World Series)  was appointed judge of the Circuit Court today.

    1921: In Jersey City, David Gross, a haberdasher and his wife, the former Fay Kushner gave birth to Gerald Jeremiah Gross, a Jewish World War II veteran who was responsible for the publishing of Albert Speer’s memoirs. (As reported by Bruce Weber)

    1923: Birthdate of major league pitcher, Saul Rogovin.

    1924(12thof Tishrei, 5685): After being “hit on the head by a line drive” yesterday, thirty-seven year old “Dutch diamond polisher and baseball player” Hartog Hamburger, an infielder for OVVO in Amsterdam and the father of psychiatrist and future resistance fighter Max Hambruger, died today making him the one of the few, if not the only European to die from an injury sustained while playing the American national pastime.

    1925(22nd of Tishrei, 5686): Shemini Atzeret

    1925: Birthdate of Mark Shulman the husband of Margaret A. Shulman

    1926: In the Bronx, Edward Marshall and “the former Ethel Tilzer” gave birth to Joan Evelyn Marshall who gained famed as “Joan Helpern, the creative half of the husband-and-wife team that combined comfort and class as the eponymous owners of the Joan & David line of shoes.” (As reported by Sam Roberts)

    1926: The weeklong campaign of the Jewish Welfare Board to raise $150,000 is scheduled to come to an end today.

    1927: “A Harp in Rock,” a melodrama starring Rudolph Schildkraut as “Isaac Abrams” was released in the United States today.

    1927: “Did You Mean It?” a revue with music by Jean Schwartz and lyrics by Sid Silvers transferred from the 44th Street Theatre to the Winter Garden Theatre today.

    1927: The original Broadway production of “The Five O’Clock Girl” with music by Harry Ruby and lyrics by Bert Kalmar opened at the 44th Street Theatre today.

    1929: Die gelbe Jacke (The Yellow Jacket) an operetta with a libretto co-authored by Fritz Lohner-Beda was performed, at the Metropol Theatre, Berlin for the first time today.

    1930: In Hackney, east London "Jack" Pinter ,a ladies' tailor and his wife, Frances (née Moskowitz) gave birth to English playwright and Nobel Prize Winner, Harold Pinter.

    1931: Sid Gillman was among the Buckeyes who were miserable following Vanderbilt’s victory over Ohio State in the second game of the college football season.

    1932: The Supreme Court, whose members included Louis Brandeis and Benjamin Cardozo heard arguments in Powell v. Alabama, a case in which Walter H. Pollack represented the petitioners who were known as “the Scottsboro Boys.”

    1933(20th of Tishrei, 5694): Sixth day of Sukkoth

    1933(20th of Tishrei, 5694): The Nazis killed Dr. Theo Katz at Dachau. According to Martin Gilbert, Katz had worked in the camp hospital before his murder.

    1934: Ella Driori  and Amnon Drori  gave birth to Alexander (Alex) Drori

    1935: In New York, Norman and Betty Hirschfield gave birth to studio executive Alan James Hirschfield.

    1935: George Gershwin's "Porgy & Bess" opened on Broadway. The Jewish music master used his talents to bring the life of African-Americans to mainstream entertainment.

    1936(24thof Tishrei, 5697): Parashat Bereshit – on Shabbat begin the Torah reading cycle again

    1936: At Temple Emanu-El Rabbi Nathan Perlman is scheduled to deliver a sermon entitled “Ways of Pleasantness and Paths of Peace.”

    1936: At the West End Synagogue, Rabbi Nathan Stern is scheduled to deliver a sermon on “Driven From Paris.”

    1936: In New York, many rabbis are scheduled to deliver sermons describing “the work of the New York section of the National Council of Jewish Women” including “the religious work done on Welfare Island under the chairmanship of Mrs. A. H. Goodman” and “the very important classes for deaf children.”

    1936: In the Bronx, religious classes and services are being held at the Council House under the chairmanship of Mrs. Julius Wolff.

    1936: At Temple Rodeph Sholom, Rabbi Louis Newman is scheduled to deliver a sermon on “Where Do We Stand Together?”

    1936: In Philadelphia, a tailor named Joseph Cohen and his wife the former Gertrude Schwab gave birth to David Pesach Cohen whose work “in the public interest” included serving as President of Common Cause. (As reported by Sam Roberts)

    1937: The Palestine Postreported that the Mandatory Administration assured the British government that no question of security would interfere with the plans to send a new commission to Palestine. This new commission will be well protected and will be well able to consider how to implement the country's partition, as requested by the Mandatory Commission of the League of Nations at their General Assembly meetings in Geneva.

    1937: The Post reported that a tax collector's van was robbed by armed Arabs on the Nablus-Jenin road.

    1938: Sh'chita (Jewish ritual slaughter) is banned in Italy.

    1938: In accord with the terms of the Munich Agreement signed in September, German troops took control of the Sudetenland and gained de facto control over the rest of Czechoslovakia. The agreement gave the Nazis direct control over another portion of Europe’s Jewish population. More importantly, it was one more bloodless victory for Hitler. It helped drive the Soviets to sign a non-aggression pact with Hitler’s Germany which led to the invasion of Poland which led to…well you know the rest.

    1938: In statement issued today, U.S. Representative Emanujel Celler of New York urged President Roosevelt “to remind Prime Minister Neville Chamerlain of Great Britain’s solemn pledge in the Balfour Declaration for a Jewish national homeland in Palestine and to declare that the United States ‘views with great conern and alarm a departure by Great Britain from its obligations under that pact.’” Celler went on to express concern that the promise of the Balfour Declaration was about to be “scrapped.”

    1939: “A memorial to Felix Warburg will be started today when foundations are laid for seventy farms at Kfar Felix Warburg in southern Palestine.

    1939: The period of forced labor for Jewish men in Slovakia is scheduled to come to an end today.

    1939: The Germans create a Generalgouvernement in Poland. It is an administrative area not incorporated into Greater Germany. The Germans will locate their death camps in the Generalgouvernement.

    1939: A one-hour adaption of “Lilom” which had been translated into English by Benjamin Glazer for a production starring Joseph Schildkraut, was broadcast by the CBS Campbell Playhouse Program.

    1941(19th of Tishrei, 5702): Fifth Day of Sukkoth

    1941: Marshal Walther von Reichenau instructed his troops that, "The soldier must fully understand the need for severe but just atonement of the Jewish sub-humans." Contrary to one of the myths surrounding the Holocaust, the German army was a willing accomplice in the slaughter of the Jews. The use of gas vans by the roaming Eisengruppen would not put an end to the involvement of German soldiers in the destruction of European Jewry.

    1941(19th of Tishrei, 5702): Eliaho Hayeem Victor Cohen, a Lieutenant with the 9th Jat Regiment of the British Indian Army was killed in an accident today during World War II. Although he is buried in the Penang Jewish Cemetery which is believed to be the oldest Jewish cemetery in Malaysia, his grave is maintained by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission.

    1941: Thousands of Slovak Jews are sent to labor camps at Sered, Vyhne, and Nováky.

    1941: Slovak, Bohemian, and Moravian Jews are forced from their homes and into ghettos.

    1941: “Great Guns” a comedy produced by Sol M. Wurtzel and featuring Ludwig Stössel, one of the many Jewish artists forced to flee Europe after the Nazis came to power, was released today by 20th Century Fox.

    1941: The Philip Morris Playhouse broadcast an adaptation of Lillian Hellman’s “The Little Foxes.”

    1942: “Eva-Marie Buch, a book seller who was part of the Schutze-Boysen-Harnack Resistance Group, also known as  The Red Orchestra was arrested today for passing messages to French slave laborers working in factories.”

    1942: Dr. Tamarath Knigin Yolles, the 1939 NYU Medical School graduate and “daughter of Max H. and Bessie (Krokoff) Knigin” married Stanley Fausst Yolles with whom she had two children – Jennifer and Melanie.

    1942: The SS issued a decree to “cleanse all concentration camps of Jews.”

    1943(11thof Tishrei, 5704): Twenty-six year old German-Jewish artist Charlotte Salomon died today at Auschwitz.

    1943: A non-Jewish Latvian named Yanis Lipke rescues three Jews in Riga by offering ghetto guards two packs of cigarettes for "some Yids to work in my kitchen garden"

    1943: At the Sobibór death camp, a revolt is planned by Jewish laborers and Jewish Red Army POWs.

    1943(11thof Tishrei,5704): On the day after Yom Kippur, a pilot who had spent -the Day of Atonement praying at the Grande Synagogue in Tunis “flew on a mission and never returned.”  (As reported by Louis Werfel, “the flying chaplain”)

    1944(23rd of Tishrei, 5705): Simchat Torah

    1944: Fourteen men from the Sonderkommando who escaped during the revolt of October 7 are found. They are tortured along with many other picked up during the prior two days. But none gave away the locations of the hiding survivors. None of the men would survive the interrogation.

    1944: Four additional women involved in smuggling explosives used in the October 6-7 uprising at Auschwitz are arrested, including an inmate named Roza Robota. Fourteen men from the camp's Sonderkommando unit also are arrested. The sole surviving conspirator, a Greek Jew named Isaac Venezia, will later die of starvation after Auschwitz inmates are evacuated by their captors to Ebensee, Austria.

    1945: According to reports from Jerusalem, Dr. Chaim Weizmann will resign as President of the World Zionist Organization if the British government reaches decisions that are “unfavorable to the Jewish cause in Palestine.” David Ben Gurion, who is expected to return from London next week, is mentioned as his most likely successor.

    1945: The Palmach freed two hundred “illegal” Jewish immigrants who had been rounded up by British troops and were being held at a detention facility near Haifa.

    1945: Joseph Darnard who had served under Pierre Laval as the commander of the Vichy militia was executed by a firing squad today.

    1946: Birthdate of Arnold E. Resnicoff the Washington D.C. native who became a Conservative Rabbi and served as a chaplain in the U.S. Navy for a quarter of a century.

    1945: Birthdate of Chicago native Bruce Karatz, the Boston University undergrad and USC Law School grad turned businessman – Chairman and CEO of KB Home – and philanthropist who contributed funds to rebuild New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina.

    1946: Release of “The Jolson Story,” a biopic that gives the Hollywood treatment to the life of Al Jolson.

    1947: “Deputy Mayor John H. Bennett spoke at the presentation of a piece of fire apparatus to the volunteer fire brigade of Tel Aviv” which a gift from the New York City Fire Department.

    1948: “The intensity of the Egyptian shelling on the southern suburbs (of Jerusalem) was such that the United Nations observers believed that a full-scale Egyptian assault on the city was imminent.

    1949: U.S. premiere of “Thieves’ Highway” directed by Jules Dassin, co-starring Lee J. Cobb (Leo Jacob) as “Mike Figlia” with music by Alfred Newman.

    1949: Two days after closing at the Schubert Theatre, “Lend An Ear”  a musical revue with sketches by Joseph Stein opened at the Schubert Theatre.

    1951(10thof Tishrei, 5712): Yom Kippur

    1951: Birthdate of Avichai Rontzki “the former Chief Military Rabbi of the IDF” who “served in the position from 2006 to 2010 with a rank of Brigadier General” – a service marked by several controversies.

    1951: Twentieth Century Fox released “Love Next,” an American comedy-drama directed by Joseph Newman and written by I.A.L. Diamond

    1951: Mrs. Alfred F. Hess read a statement at today's meeting of the Board of Trustees of Barnard College expressing their sorrow at the recent death of Mrs. Annie Nathan Meyer, one of the founders of and original trustees of Barnard.

    1952: The Jerusalem Postreported that the Palestine Conciliation Commission had announced that Israel agreed to release one million in sterling. These funds belonged to Palestinian Arabs who had fled Israel during the fighting when the Arabs tried to destroy the state of Israel at the moment of its birth. The commission commented that the Israeli move was "an important step towards the settlement of the differences existing between Israel and her neighbors." The Israelis hoped that this act of good will would help lead to a peace agreement and that the Arab states would now give the Jews who had fled such places as Iraq would now have access to the funds they had been forced to leave behind. As has happened so many times, the hope proved illusory.

    1956: At the urging of Moshe Dayan, the cabinet agreed to an attack aimed at destroying the Kalkilya police fort in response to murders at Even Yehuda. The attack would be led by Mordechai Gur who would later be IDF Chief of Staff. The attack was costly in terms of Israeli casualties and brought an end to the period of night-time tit-for-tat reprisal raids.

    1956: In response to a terrorist attack launched from Jordan on October 4 that claimed the lives of four civilians,“the Israeli military conducted a counter attack codenamed Operation Samaria in which the IDF attacked the Qalqilya police station at the Tegart fort. After a fierce battle the fort was blown up. 18 IDF soldiers died in the operation and 68 were injured. About 88 Jordanians were killed and 15 were wounded.”

    1957(15thof Tishrei, 5718): Sukkoth

    1961: Seven months after having premiered in Germany “Town Without Pity” starring Kirk Douglas and with music by Dimitri Tiomkin was released in the United States today.

    1961: U.S. premiere of “Splendor in the Grass,” with music by David Amram and filmed by Boris Kaufman.

    1961: Milk and Honey opened on Broadway in the Martin Beck Theatre and ran for 543 performances. “Milk and Honey is a musical…music and lyrics by Jerry Herman. The story centers on a busload of lonely American widows hoping to catch husbands while touring Israel and is set against the background of the country's fight for recognition as an independent nation.”

    1962: “Charmaine” a song written by Lew Pollack for “What Price Glory?” was recorded today.

    1963(22ndof Tishrei, 5724): Shmini Atzeret

    1963: In Princeton, NJ, Ruth and Judea Pearl gave birth to journalist Daniel Pearl whowas kidnapped by Pakistani terrorists and later murdered by Al-Qaeda member Khalid Sheikh Mohammed in Pakistan.

    1964: The Summer Olympics in which Volleyball player Georgy Mondzolevski represented the Soviet Union opened today.

    1964(4th of Cheshvan, 5725): Eddie Cantor passed away. The comedian with the “banjo eyes” enjoyed a career that ran from vaudeville to the crazy days of live television variety shows. One of Cantor’s famous running gags centered around the fact that he had five children – all girls. He passed away at the age of 72.

    1965: In Cambridge, MA, Carl R. Pidgeon, a visiting professor at MIT and his wife Elaine, a yoga teacher gave birth to singer-songwriter Rebecca Pidgeon the wife of David Mamet.

    1966: Seventy-one year old Abraham Wolf Binder who served as music director of the Stephen Wise Free Synagogue for forty years and was a lead in the Reform Movement passed away today.

    1968: “Barbarella” a science fiction film co-starring Marcel Marceau was released today.

    1970(10th of Tishrei, 5731): Yom Kippur

    1971(21stof Tishrei, 5732): Hoshana Raba

    1971: Birthdate of child piano prodigy Evgeny Kissin

    1972: Jews in Moscow held a press conference expressing their support of the Senator Henry Jackson’s legislation granting trade benefits to the East Bloc nations in turn for liberalization of their immigration policies (which would make it possible for Jews to leave the Soviet Union and go to Israel)

    1973: 14th of Tishrei, 5734): Economist Ludwig von Mises passes away at the age of 92.

    1973: 14th of Tishrei, 5734): Erev Sukkoth; as Jews around the world prepare to celebrate Sukkoth, all thoughts are turned to Israel’s fight for survival that had begun on Yom Kippur.

    1973: Fighting continued during the Yom Kippur War. A morning counter-attack launched against the Syrians drove their tanks back to line from which they had launched their sneak attack four days ago. General Elazar wanted to push on, but Defense Minister Dayan wanted to stop lest penetration towards Damascus upset the Soviets. Golda Meir sided with Elazar who made plans to attack across the old cease fire line. In the evening, Mrs. Meir addressed the nation describing Israel’s perilous position. The Soviets had armed the Arabs with all matter of modern weaponry and were re-supplying them even as Mrs. Meir spoke. She urged King Hussein not to repeat his mistake of 1967 when he joined the Egyptians and the Syrians. She said that Jews could not allow themselves “the luxury of despair.” She had but one prayer in her heart, “that this will be the last war.

    1973: In an effort to relieve Israeli pressure on the Syrian front, where the IDF has gained back the southern Golan, Egyptian forces move further into the Sinai, beyond the range of their SAM umbrella which creates an opportunity for the IAF to go on the offensive.

    1973: “Aminister in government and former chief of the IDF General Staff, Chaim Bar-Lev, was effectively put in control of the southern front instead of Shmuel Gonen.” (As reported by Mitch Ginsburg)

    1973: 14th of Tishrei, 5734): Israeli political leader and former MK Ada Maimon passed away at the age of 80 today.

    1974(24thof Tishrei, 5735): Just two months shy of his 64th birthday, historian and Holocaust survivor Joseph Wulf passed away.

    1974: Birthdate of Asi Cohen, the native of Ashdod who gained fame as a comedian and actor.

    1975: Parliamentarians from 12 Western European countries formed a committee in support of Soviet Jewish emigration.

    1975: As the Soviets sought to strengthen their position in the Middle East and the Syrians look for aid in destroying Israel, President Assad completed his visit to the USSR.

    1975: “Shivers” a science fiction produced by Ivan Reitman and directed by David Cronenberg who also wrote the script was released today in Canada.

    1975: “Lisztomania” a biopic about Franz Liszt co-starring Sara Kestelman and filmed by cinematographer Peter Suschitzky was released in the United Kingdom today.

    1976(16thof Tishrei, 5737): As Carter and Ford face off in the last month of the Presidential campaign, observance of the second day of Sukkoth

    1978(9thof Tishrei, 5739): Erev Yom Kippur

    1979(19thof Tishrei, 5740): Fifth Day of Sukkoth

    1979(19thof Tishrei, 5740): Seventy-nine year old composer and Cantor David Josef Puttennan passed away today.

    1980: Private Benjamin, a comedy directed by Howard Zeiff and produced by Nancy Meyers who helped to write the script and produced by Goldie Hawn who also starred in the title role was released in theaters across the United States.

    1982: The New York Timesbook section included a review An Orphan in History: Retrieving a Jewish Legacy by Paul Cowan describing the “beautiful and moving account of his search for his religious and cultural roots.”

    1983: Ruby Myers, who was the Indian actress known as Sulochana passed away today.

    1983: Israel's Knesset voted 60-53 to endorse Yitzhak Shamir as Prime Minister. Shamir was part of the Right Wing Likud and a successor to Menachem Begin.

    1983: Mordechai Tzipori completed his service as Deputy Minister of Defense.

    1983: Haim Meir Drukman “broke away from the NRP and attempted to form a Knesset faction by the name of Zionist Religious Camp, but was refused permission to do so by the House Committee.”

    1983: As Israel changed governments, David Levy retained his position as Deputy Prime Minister.

    1984: In the U.K. premiere of “1984” Michael Radford’s cinematic treatment of George Orwell’s novel by the same name.

    1984: Birthdate of New York City native Matthew “Matt” Shear the St. John’s College graduate and actor best known for his role as “Detective Lucius Isaacson” on TNT’s hit series “The Alienist.”

    1985: U.S. fighter jets forced an Egyptian plane carrying the hijackers of the Italian cruise ship Achille Lauro to land in Italy, where the gunmen were taken into custody. This was part of a farce that resulted in the hijackers getting off without punishment for their murderous act of piracy.

    1986: Israel Prime Minister Shimon Peres resigned. Peres was and is a leader of what was the original Labor Zionist movement that dominated the governments of Israel for the first two decades of its existence.

    1986: Jumpin' Jack Flash, a comedy featuring Jon Lovitz was released in the United States today by 20th Century Fox.

    1987: Birthdate of Danny Rosenbaum who played for Xavier University and was drafted by the Washington Nationals.

    1990(21stof Tishrei, 5751): Hoshana Rabah

    1990(21stof Tishrei, 5751): Eighty-three year old Broadway producer Irene Mayer Selznick passed at today at the Pierre Hotel in NYC.  (As reported by Eric Pace)

    1993: “Witchboard 2: The Devil's Doorway” a horror film starring Laraine Newman and featuring Marvin Kaplan was released today by Blue Rider Pictures.

    1994(5th of Cheshvan, 5755): Tzvi Gal-chen, the father of author Rivka Galchen, and a scientist known for his work on wind and thermodynamic variables passed away today.

    1995(16thof Tishrei, 5756): Second day of Sukkoth

    1995(16thof Tishrei, 5756): Ninety year old Sigmund Jeselsohn, the German born son of Samuel and Malchen Jeselsohn and husband of Karolina Jeselsohn passed away today in New York.

    1995: As part of Israel’s agreement with the PLO, two members of the PLO’s former Jerusalem Committee crossed into Israel from Jordan as a prelude to becoming Governors of Ramallah and Nablus. Twenty years earlier these same to men had masterminded the bombing in Zion Square which killed fourteen civilians, including three Arabs.

    1995: As Israel turned over control of 460 West Bank villages to the Palestinian Authority, a banner flew over the village of Salfit declaring “Today Salfit, tomorrow Jerusalem.”

    1996: Yad Vashem decided to recognize Baron Friedrich von Oppenheim as Righteous Among the Nations

    1996(27thof Tishrei, 5757): Ninety-two year Harry Rosen the founder of Junior’s Restaurant, home to what some claim is the best cheesecake in the world passed away today. (As reported by Eric Asimov)

    1997(9thof Tishrei, 5758): Erev Yom Kippur

    1999: Bruce Fleischer won The Transamerica golf tournament.

    1999: The Sunday New York Timesfeatured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or on topics related to Judaism including We Can Report Them by Michael Brodsky, When Pride Still Mattered: A Life of Vince Lombardi by David Maraniss and The Magic of Dialogue: Transforming Conflict Into Cooperation by Daniel Yankelovich.

    2001(23rdof Tishrei, 5762): Simchat Torah

    2001: “Jon Lovitz sang a duet of the song “Well, Did You Evah” at the Royal Albert Hall.

    2001: First broadcast of season four of “Felicity” a drama star created by J.J. Abrams and co-starring Greg Grunberg.

    2001: “A Man of Good Fortune” published today tells the story of the Moussaieff family.

    2002: Hamas took credit for today bombing at the Bar-Illan interchange on the Geha Road.

    2002: Richard Blumenthal was awarded the Raymond E. Baldwin Award for Public Service by the Quinnipiac University School of Law.

    2002: Representative Shelley Berkley of Nevada was among the 81 House Democrats who voted in favor of authorizing the invasion of Iraq.

    2003(14thof Tishrei, 5764): Erev Sukkoth

    2003(14thof Tishrei, 5764): Sixty-year old Atara Chana Beile Marmor the daughter of David Feuerwerker and Taube Rachel Feuerwerker passed away today.

    2003(14thof Tishrei 5764): Eighty-five year old Max Rayne the British businessman and philanthropist who was knighted and later made a life peer so that he was known as Baron Rayne passed away.

    2004: The Sunday New York Timesfeatured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or on topics related to Judaism including Harold Blum’s Where Shall Wisdom Be Found?

    2004: In an article designed to encourage gardeners to follow proper transplanting procedures, the Times of London writes approvingly of the practices of “the great rhododendron enthusiast Lionel de Rothschild who used to move fully mature rhododendrons around his garden at his estate.”

    2005: Sociology professor Majd el-Haj was named Haifa University's next dean of research, making him the first Arab faculty member to serve at the vice presidential level of an Israeli university.

    2005: With a sigh of great relief the feared Lulav Shortage has been avoided. Thanks to aggressive action by the Ministry of Agriculture, the sound of shaking frond will be heard at Sukkah time after all. As part of a long range solution, the Agriculture ministry will work to encourage domestic production of this religious necessity. Hopefully, the Israeli will develop a lulav that will not lose its leaves and an etrog with a stem that UPS cannot break

    2006: H.B.O presents the premiere of The Journalist and the Jihadi: the Murder of Daniel Pearl.

    2006(18thof Tishrei, 5767): Sixty-eight year old “writer, director and producer” Jerry Belson passed away today.

    2007: In Australia, Richard Pratt was formally accused of price fixing in what would be that nation’s largest case of its kind.

    2007: The third and final performance of “Idan Raichel Songs for Peace: The Acoustic Series” takes place at the Museum of Jewish Heritage-A Living Memorial to the Holocaust in New York City.

    2007: Johtje Vos, a modest Dutch woman who saved three dozen Jews during World War II passed away in Saugerties, NY at the age of 97.

    2007: Nearly 200 Israeli sailors who served in the British Royal Navy during World War II gathered at the home of the British ambassador to Israel who, together with Deputy Defense Minister Matan Vilnai, awarded them the Veterans Badge to commemorate the victory over the Nazis. The ceremony was held at the Ramat Gan home of Ambassador Tom Phillips. As the former sailors trickled into the house, they were greeted by the embassy's naval and air attache, Wing Commander Mike Rafferty, and Zvi Avidror, himself a former Royal Navy pilot and the main force behind the reunion. For Rafferty, who this weekend returns to London to prepare for his next assignment in Kabul, the event was a kind of ending. "It's very exciting to see the looks on the faces of the veterans getting the medals," Rafferty said. "It was worth having the event just for that." The gathering began with a small advertisement placed by Avidror and a few friends in Yedioth Ahronoth in May that called on Royal Navy veterans to contact him. There were a few responses, but after Haaretz took up the story nearly 170 veterans heeded the call to action. Popular tunes from the 1940s played in the ambassador's yard as old comrades reconnected. Alfred Wasch, 93, was a maintenance officer at the Royal Navy base in Bat Galim, which was one of the largest in the Mediterranean. Much of his service was spent taking care of seven intelligence ships kept by the Royal Navy in the region. "How're you doing, do you remember me?" fellow veteran Israel Gruber asked him. "You were my commanding officer. You look great." If there is one song that is identified more than all others with the Royal Navy, it is "It's a Long Way to Tipperary." When the pianist began to play it, the veterans joined in enthusiastically. On the other side of the yard sat Tova Goldin, holding a black-and-white photograph of what looks like dozens of sailors, including her husband, Yosef. Next to her sat David Rosenberg, who is also in the photo. When Phillips approached to shake their hands, they explained that their respective children married each other, unaware that their fathers had served in the same unit during World War II. "My father stopped sleeping, he was so excited about this gathering," Rosenberg's daughter, Idit, said. "Me, excited?" Rosenberg said in response. "I didn't even think about it." Annie Geddes-Riks, another veteran, was born in England and immigrated to Israel in 1948, unlike most of her fellow sailors. She served in various positions in the navy. "I insisted on doing non-office work. I remember fixing aircraft engines to ready them for D-Day," she said.

    2007: Attendees at a conference in Jerusalem hope to revive Ladino.

    2007 The New York Times reported that the Israelis had shared the dossier showing proof of their strike on the Syrian nuclear reactor in the Deir –ez Zor region with Turkey.

    2008: While in Paris for the, inaugural meeting of the European Council on Tolerance and Reconciliation - a forum established by European Jewish Congress head Moshe Kantor and former politicians from 10 European countries whose stated goal is to further initiatives that promote dialogue and coexistence Aleksander Kwasniewski, the former president of Poland sat down with The Jerusalem Post to talk about his own vision of tolerance and the special connection Poland has with the Jewish people.

    2008: USA network broadcast the first episode of “The Starter Wife” starring Debra Messing

    2009 (22 Tishrei, 5770): Shemini Atzertz

    2009: Drew University hosts lunch and discussion with graphic artist and author David Stromberg who is also the book review editor for Zeek.

    2010(2ndof Cheshvan, 5771): Ninety two year old Shlomo Eidelberg, the Polish born son of Rabbi Mordechai Dov Eidelberg , WW II resistance fighter and at the time of his death Professor Emertius of Jewish History at Yeshiva University in New York passed away today.

    2010: As part of Sigid, the Ethiopian Jewish Festival and Dance Performance is scheduled to take place at the 92nd Street Y.

    2010: The New York Timesfeatured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Nemesis by Phillip Roth, Final Verdict: What Really Happened in the Rosenberg Case by Walter Schneir and The Invisible Harry Gold: The Man Who Gave the Soviets the Atom Bomb by Allen M. Hornblum

    2010: The Los Angeles Timesfeatured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Great House by Nicole Krauss

    2010: Earth: A Visitors Guide to the Human Race by Jon Stewart, the fake newsman who was the subject of an anti-Semitic diatribe earlier in the week tops the October 10 LA Times Best Seller List.

    2010: Cabinet ministers today approved by a majority vote a controversial amendment which would require every non-Jew wishing to become a citizen of Israel to pledge loyalty to "the State of Israel as a Jewish and democratic state."

    2010: Israeli artists, writers and intellectuals held a demonstration today against the cabinet's approval of a controversial amendment to the citizenship bill, requiring non-Jews seeking citizenship to pledge allegiance to Israel as a Jewish and democratic state.

    2010: During today’s radio show, Glen “Beck described how GeorgeSoros, who was born in Hungary to Orthodox Jewish parents, ‘used to go around with this anti-Semite and deliver papers to the Jews and confiscate their property and then ship them off. And George Soros was part of it. He would help confiscate the stuff. It was frightening. Here’s a Jewish boy helping send the Jews to the death camps.’” [This statement would draw a response from ADL national director Abe Foxman who released a statement slamming the Fox News commentator's criticism of Soros.]

    2011: Aluf Ram Rothberg assumed command of the Israeli Navy.

    2011: The Lo Tishkach Foundation is scheduled to sponsor memorial services in the Ukrainian town of Tarascha in honor of the Jews who were slaughtered there in 1941 during World War II.

    2011: Center for Jewish History and Center for Traditional Music and Dance are scheduled to present The Hidden Musical Treasures of Romania –A Fulbright Scholar’s Quest a program that explores “the deep roots that connect Romanian music and klezmer music.”

    2012: A reception sponsored by the Hebrew Union is scheduled for tonight to mark the opening of “The Sexuality Spectrum,” “a groundbreaking exploration of sexual orientation through the creativity of over fifty international contemporary artists.”

    2012:The Jewish Community Relations Council of Greater Washington and The Israel Project is scheduled to present “A Presidential Candidate Surrogate Debate featuring Congressman Robert Wexler, representing the Democrats and Under Secretary Dov Zakheim representing the Republicans.

    2012:Robert Lefkowitz, a Jewish physician and biochemist, won the Nobel Prize in chemistry with Brian Kobilka, a Stanford University researcher. Lefkowitz, 61, and Kobilka, 57, won for “groundbreaking discoveries that reveal the inner workings of an important family ... of receptors: G-protein-coupled receptors,” a posting on the website of the Nobel Prize Understanding how these receptors function helped further explain how cells could sense their environment, according to the text. They will share a $1.2 million grant from the Nobel Prize Committee.

    2012: French police found an explosives lab that they say was used by a "jihadist cell" in the bombing of a kosher store near Paris. Francois Molins of the Paris prosecutor’s office said at a news conference today that the firearms and “all the elements necessary to produce explosive devices” were discovered the previous day at a parking lot in the eastern Paris suburb of Torcy

    2012:The exhibition, “Zionism 2000 Collection, 1920-1960,” which has been on displayed at Shenkar College of Engineering and Design in Ramat Gan, is scheduled to come to an end.

    2012: The National Book Award finalists announced today included Iron Curtain: The Crushing of Eastern Europe by Anne Applebaum and The Passage of Power: The Years of Lyndon Johnson by Joseph Caro

    2013: In the best sense of Tikun Olam, Agudas Achim is scheduled to host “Interfaith Gathering for Prayer and Sharing co-sponsored by the National Alliance on Mental Illness of Johnson County and the Consultation of Religious Communities of Johnson County.

    2013: Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids is scheduled to host the first in a series of lectures “Engaging Israel, Foundations for a New Relationships”

    2013: The JCC of Northern Virginia is scheduled to sponsor the Middle East Forum on “Iran – The Nuclear Threat and Implications for the Greater Middle East.”

    2013: Arkadi Zaides, an independent choreographer born in the Soviet Union in 1979, who immigrated to Israel in 1990, is scheduled to perform his interpretation of “Dig Deep” in New York City.

    2013: “In a display of muscle-flexing to Tehran ahead of nuclear talks between Iran and world powers, Israel made a rare announcement today that its air force had conducted a series of drills in which fighteraircraft practiced midair refueling and a simulated strike on a distant target.” (As reported by Gavriel Fiske)

    2013(6th of Cheshvan, 5774): Colonel (Res.) Seraiah Ofer was killed in an attack outside his home in the Jordan Valley settlement of Brosh Habika at 10 P.M. tonight and his  wife Monique was moderately wounded, but managed to escape and contact police. (As reported by Chaim Levinson, Gili Cohen and Eli Ashkenazi)

    2013:The clandestine World War II work of champion cyclist Gino Bartali was recognized today when a ceremony was held in Jerusalem to mark his help in rescuing Jews in his native Italy. (As reported by Andrew Dampf)

    2014(16thof Tishrei, 5775): Second day of Sukkoth

    2014: Moishe House, OJMCHE and MJCC are scheduled to bring you a party under the sukkah canopies in NW Portland, with live music, beer and great vegetarian food as part of Shabbat in the Sukkah.

    2014: Professor Robert Cargill is scheduled to deliver a lecture on the Book of Ecclesiastes at Agudas Achim in Coralville, Iowa.

    2014: “A Jewish girl is among some 100 girls and young women from France who have left to join jihad fighters in Syria in recent months, a French intelligence official said today.”

    2014: “Israel beat Cyprus in Nicosia 2-1 to successfully open its UEFA European Championship qualifying campaign today.”

    2014: In Israel, Channel 2 reported today “the United Nations last month secured the release of 45 Fijian peacekeeping soldiers, kidnapped on the Syrian side of Golan Heights by the Nusra Front, through the payment of a $25 million ransom by Qatar.”  (As reported by Ilan Ben Zion)

    2015: Today, shortly before 11 a.m., a 16-yearold Arab stabbed two Jewish men in their 60s some 150 meters from Damascus Gate, leaving them moderately and lightly wounded followed by a second attack at approximately 3 p.m when a 19-year-old Palestinian stabbed two officers from the police’s Special Patrol Unit near Damascus Gate.

    2015: The Eden-Tamir Music Center is scheduled to host “The Best of Chamber Music” featuring the Elysee String Quartet from France.

    2015: The Jewish Museum of Maryland is scheduled to host a “members only” opening of “Paul Simon, Words & Music, featuring The Guthrie Brothers.”

    2015: The Jewish Federation of Greater New Orleans is scheduled to sponsor a screening of “Rosenwald”

    2015: The Vertigo Dance Company is scheduled to appear at The Performing Arts Center in NYC.

    2016: In London, JWE and UKJF are scheduled to host a screening of “Anthropoid” a cinema version about the mission to assassinate Nazi General Reynhard Heydrich. 

    2016: ‘In the predawn hours, Israeli troops conduct a raid at Azzun as part of their campaign to “rid the West Bank of arms used by terrorists including “the Carlo” a crude but effective “handmade submachine gun.”

    2016: At the London Jewish Cultural CentreSir Ralph Kohn is scheduled to “discuss his new book, Recital of a Lifetime with Jewish historian Trudy Gold.

    2016: “The Accountant” a crime thriller with a twist co-starring Jeffrey Tambor premiered at Grauman’s Chinese Theatre in Los Angeles.

    2016(8th of Tishrei, 5777):  Oliver Hart, a member of the distinguished Montagu family, was one of two economist awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Science today for “insights into how best to write contracts, the deal deals that bind together employers and their workers, or companies and their customers.”

    2017(20th of Tishrei, 5778): Sukkoth Chol Ha’moed;

    2017: Today, “The State Department announced a $7 million reward for information about Talal Hamiyah, who runs Hezbollah's External Security Organization, and $5 million for information about Fu'ad Shukr, a senior operative who helped plan the 1983 bombing of the U.S. Marine barracks in Beirut, Lebanon.” (As reported by Jeff Seldin)

    2017:.The three Solomon’s Pools near Bethlehem which were built by Herod that “provided water to Jerusalem and the Second Temple” are to be restored in a $750,000 project funded by the United States, officials said today.”

    2017:Today, “Ehud Barak, the former Israeli leader known for his hawkish views on Iran, said it would be a “mistake” for President Trump to decertify the Iran nuclear deal, both because it would play to Iran’s advantage and because it would scuttle any hope of a negotiation with North Korea.” (As reported by Mark Landler.

    2017: Today Tens of thousands of participants from 80 different countries took part in the annual march in Jerusalem marking the 50th anniversary of the city's unification.

    2017: The Chaplains at Oxford are scheduled to host “Pizza in the Hut” for Sukkoth

    2017: In London, JW3 is scheduled to host a screening of “In Between” a film about “three young Arab-Israeli women” sharing “a flat in Tel Aviv.

    2017: “Beyond Chicken Soup: Jews and Medicine in America” which “was created by the Jewish usuem of Maryland in Baltimore and includes more than 200 artifacts and phots and documents” opened at the Maltz Museum of Jewish Heritage in Beachwood, Ohio.

    2018(15th of Tishrei): On the secular calendar, Yarhrzeit of William “Bill” Schueller, beloved husband of Eleanor Schueller, father of Deb Levin, father-in-law of Mitchell Levin and dairy farmer “par excellence.” 2018: As part of the “Who We Are” film series, the Streicker Center is scheduled to host a screening of a film about “the private side of playwright Arthur Miller” followed by a discussion with is daughter Rebeca Miller and the film’s producers.

    2018: The YIVO Institute for Jewish Research is scheduled to host “On Radical Jewish Female Voices In Eastern Europe, a lecture by Professor Elissa Bemporad and Professor Natalia Aleksium that “will examine the dynamics of Jewish women’s entry into politics in modern Eastern Europe.”

    2018(1st of Cheshan, 5779):  Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan; for more see




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    OCTOBER 11

    1138: Massive earthquake strikes Aleppo, Syria.  According to tradition, the Jewish community traces its origins back to the time of King David.  This is based on the description of the conquest of the city by Joab found in the Book of Samuel.  The Great Synagogue, the most famous Jewish edifice in the city was originally built in the fifth century of the Common Era. The real importance of the community can be traced to the Aleppo Codex,the earliest known manuscript containing the entire text of the Bible. Tradition states that Maimonides consulted the Aleppo Codex when he set down the exact rules for writing Torah scrolls.”The Codex was copied by the scribe Shlomo Ben-Buya'a over 1,000 years ago. It was deposited with the Aleppo community at the end of the 14th Century and kept in a small vault in the Cave of Elijah under the Joab Ben Zeruiah Synagogue of Aleppo. The community guarded it for over 600 years." Whatever loss the community suffered during the earthquake, we know it survived and thrived since it was visited by Rabbi Petachya of Regensburg (Germany) starting in 1170 and Benjamin of Tudela in 1173.  Benjamin’s visit was part of his “round the world tour” which he described in his literary work entitled the Travels of Benjamin.

    1285: Following a false charge that the Jews had purchased a Christian child from an old woman and then killed, a mob in Munich attacked the Jews community.  Those who escaped the mob took refuge in the synagogue which the mob then burned killing 180 Jews.

    1347: Emperor Louis IV, the German ruler who had given Gottfried von Eppstein permission to settle Jews in Eppstein, Homburg and Steinheim in 1335, passed away.

    1394: Ordination of Benedict XIII, one of the Avignon Popes whom the Catholic Church classifies as an Anti-Pope.  In an attempt to gain acceptance of his Papacy, Benedict attacked the Jews.  Not content to adopt oppressive laws at aimed Children Of Israel, he initiated the Disputation of Tortosa in 1413 one of those one-sided debates that the Church loved.  As a result of this one, the works of Maimonides were burned and copies of the Talmud were to be confiscated so that they could be censored.

    1531: Forty-seven year old Huldrych Zwingli, the leader of the Reformation in Switzerland who at a minimum “studied and admired the Hebrew language, used it to some advantage” in his work and “took over some Hebraic teachings while evincing little concern for contemporary Jews” passed away today.

    1727: George II and Caroline of Ansbach are crowned King and Queen of Great Britain. King George II was the monarch who gave “the royal assent” to the Jewish Naturalization Act of 1753.  Unfortunately, the act was repealed a year later.

    1727: “Zadok the Priest,” an anthem composed by George Frederic Handel based on First Kings 1:38-40 which describes the coronation of King Solomon was performed today during the coronation of King George II.

    1741: George Fredrick Handel completed the second of “Samson,” his oratorio based on the figure from the Book of Judges.

    1777(10thof Tishrei, 5538): Four days after the Americans completed their game-changing victory at the Battle of Saratoga, Jews observe Yom Kippur

    1783(15thof Tishrei, 5544): Sukkoth

    1787: In Georgia Philip Mosses Russell and Esther Mordecai Russell gave birth to Isaac Russell, their first son and third child who would have two younger siblings.

    1789(21stof Tishrei, 5550): Hoshanah Rabah

    1792(25thof Tishrei, 5553): Seventy-nine year old Hebrew poet and businessman David Franco Mendes passed away today in his home town of Amsterdam.

    1796(9thof Tishrei, 5557): Erev Yom Kippur; Kol Nidre is chanted for the last time during the Presidency of George Washington.

    1796: While sailing to the United States aboard the sloop Simionhoff, Israel Baer Kursheedt used the English bible of the ship’s captain to explain to him the significance of Yom Kippur which he was about to begin observing.

    1797(21stif Tishrei, 5558): Hoshanah Rabah

    1821(15thof Tishrei, 5582): Sukkoth

    1826(10thof Tishrei, 5587): Yom Kippur

    1838(22ndof Tishrei, 5599): Shmini Atzeret

    1838(22ndof Tishrei, 5599): Sixty-nine year old Silesia native Adolf Martin Schlesinger, the Berlin music publisher whose “ongoing lobbying on the issue of musical copyright (prompted by copyright infringement of his publication of Weber's Der Freischütz), was a major factor in the introduction of the influential Prussian copyright law of 1830” passed away leaving a business that was so successful that his widow had no financial problems and his sons were able to expand the business to include a Paris branch.

    1842: In New York City Moses and Esther Lazarus gave birth to Sarah Lazarus, a sister of Emma Lazarus.

    1845(10thof Tishrei, 5606): The day after the United States opened the Naval Academy in Annapolis whose most famous Jewish graduated was Admiral Hyman Rickover, Jews observe Yom Kippur

    1845(10thof Tishrei, 5606): A minyan led by Mayer Klein and Philip Newberg held services in Chicago, Ill, marking the first time that his occurred in “The Windy City”

    1846: Birthdate of Carlos Enrique José Pellegrini, the Argentine President who was sympathetic to attempts to settle Jewish refugees in his country.

    1850: In Albany, NY founding of Congregation Anshe Emeth which would consolidate a year later with Congregation Beth Emeth to for Congregation Beth Emeth.

    1850: The University of Sydney, Australia’s oldest university, opened its doors. Percy Marks, described as “Jewish Renaissance Man” was one of its earliest and most famous Jewish graduates. The Australian Union of Jewish Students or AUJS is an on campus organization whose aim is to promote Jewish continuity.  Today the University has a Department of Hebrew, Biblical and Jewish studies whose website asks and answers the following:  “Why enroll in Jewish Studies at the University of Sydney?? * Challenging: Where else would you find such a stimulating fusion of diverse ethnic and religious groups studying together? Learn about religion and politics in an open and fun environment.

    * Educational: Further your knowledge and insights into Jewish Studies. Learn about the issues around assimilation and Jewish civilization and master classical or Modern Hebrew or Yiddish.
    * Practical: For undergraduate students, taking one of these courses will count towards qualifications in General Studies or part of your Arts, Arts/Law or Education degrees. It will also enable budding teachers to pursue a career in Modern Hebrew, Jewish Studies and Tanach.
    * Unique: Delve into Jewish philosophy, history and politics, delivered by expert lecturers in their fields.
    There is a Jewish club called AUJS (Australian Union of Jewish Students) which has many purposes, one of which is to promote Jewish continuity!


    1851(15th of Tishrei, 5612): Sukkoth

    1852: Famed German mathematician Ferdinand Eisenstein passed away at the age of thirty.  Eisenstein’s fate was typical of many Germans.  His parents were Jewish, but they converted to a Protestant denomination before their son’s birth to gain full entrée into German society.

    1853(9thof Tishrei, 5614): Erev Yom Kippur; Kol Nidre is recited for the first time during the Crimean War which had just begun earlier this montn

    1855: Johann Ludwig Schneller, a German Lutheran missionary “bought from the people of Lifta, a parcel of land outside LIfta, approximately 3 kilmotres (1.9 miles) northwest of Jaffa Gate.

    1860: In London, Isaac Mozes Pereira Mendoza and Sara Isaac Monis gave birth to Esther Mendoza today.

    1862: During the Civil War Joseph Bear who would be wounded on the first day of the Battle of Gettysburg and who would reach the rank of Sergeant began his service with Company of the 153rd Regiment.

    1863(15thof Tishrei, 5764): Sukkoth

    1863: Sixty-eight year old Jane (Raphael) Salaman, the wife of Isaac S. Salaman was buried today at the Brompton Jewish Cemetery.

    1863: “The House of Rothschild” published today based on information from the London Globe provided a fascinatingly detailed contemporary look at this most prominent of Jewish dynasties.

    “A few days ago, our Paris correspondent told us that a congress of the members of the illustrious house of Rothschild has been sitting at Paris. The purport of the meeting was nothing less than to rearrange the dominions of the great banking dynasty. In one word, the great object of the Rothschild congress was to reduce the five branches of the house who now rule Europe to four, and following the example of Garibaldi, to strike another sovereign of Naples from the list of reigning monarchs. Henceforth there are to be but four kings of the house of Rothschild, with secure thrones at London, Paris, Vienna, and Frankfort. It is now exactly a hundred years since a poor Jew, called Mayer Anselm, made his appearance at the City of Hanover; barefooted, with a sack, oa his shoulders, and a bundle of rags on his back. Successful in trade, like most of his co-religionists, he returned to Frankfort at the end of a few years, and set up a small shop in the "Jew-lane," over which hung the signboard of a red shield, called in German roth-schild. As a dealer in old and rare coins, he made the acquaintance of the Serene Elector of Hesse Cassel, who, happening to be in want of a confidential agent for various open and secret purposes, appointed the shrewd-looking Mayer Anselm to the post. The Serene Elector being compelled soon after to fly his country. Mayer Anselm took charge of his cash, amounting to several millions of florins. With the instinct of his race, Anselm did not forget to put the money out on good interest, so that, before Napoleon was gone to Elba, and the illustrious Elector had returned to Cassel, the capital had more than doubled. The ruler of Hesse Casse thought it almost a marvel to get his money safely returned from the Jew-lane of Frankfort, and at the Congress of Vienna was never tired of singing the praise of his Hebrew agent to all the Princes of Europe. The dwellers under the sign of the Red Shield laughed in their sleeves; keeping carefully to themselves the great fact that the electoral two million florins had brought them four millions of their own. Never was honesty a better policy.  Mayer Anselm died in 1812, without having the supreme satisfaction of hearing his honesty extolled by kings and princes. He left five sons who succeeded him in the banking and money-lending business, and who, conscious of their social value, dropped the name of Anselm, and adopted the higher sounding one of Rothschild, taken, from the sign board over the paternal house. On his deathbed their father had taken a solemn oath from all of them, to hold his four millions well together, and they have faithfully kept the Injunction. But the old City of Frankfort clearly was too; narrow a realm for the fruitful sowing of four millions; and, in consequence, the five were determined after a while to extend their sphere of operations by establishing branch banks at the chief cities of Europe. The eldest son, Anselm, born 1773, remained at Frankfort; the second, Salomon, born in 1774, settled at Vienna; the third, Nathan, born in 1777, went to London; the fourth, Charles, the infant terrible of the family, established himself in the soft climate of Naples, and the fifth and youngest, James, born 1792, took up his residence at Paris. Strictly united, the wealth and power of the five Rothschilds S was vested in the eldest born; nevertheless, the shrewdest of the sons of Mayer Anselm, and the heir of his genius, Nathan, the third son, soon took the reins of government into the own hands. By his faith in Wellington and the flesh and muscle of British soldiers, he nearly doubled the fortune of the family, gaining more than a million sterling by the sole battle of Waterloo, the news of which he carried to England two days earlier than the mail. The weight of the solid millions gradually transferred the ascendancy in the family from Germany to England, making London the metropolis of the reigning dynasty of Rothschild. Like the royal families of Europe, the members of the house of Rothschild only intermarry with each other. James Rothschild married the daughter of his brother Salomon: his son Edmond heir apparent of the French line, was united to his first cousin, the daughter of Lionel, and granddaughter of Nathan Rothschild; and Lionel again-M.P. for London -- gave his hand in 1836 to his first cousin Charlotte the daughter of Charles Rothschild, of Naples. It is unnecessary to say that, though these matrimonial alliances have kept the millions wonderfully together, they have not improved the race of old Mayer Anselm, of the Red Shield. Already signs of physical weakness are becoming visible in the great family. So, at least, hint the French papers in their meager notices about the Rothschild congress at Paris. From all that can be gathered out of a wilderness of canards, thin faces and thick fiction, it appears that the sovereigns of the Stock Exchange met in conference for the double purpose of centralizing their money power and widening their matrimonial realm. In other words, the five reigning kings; descendants, according to the law of primogeniture, of the five sons Mayer Anselm, came to the decision to reduce their number to four by cutting off the Neapolitan branch of Charles Rothschild; while it was likewise decided that permission should be given to the younger members of the family to marry, for the benefit of the race, beyond the range of first cousinship. What has led to the exclusion of the Neapolitan line of Rothschild seems to have been the constant exercise of a highly blameable liberality, unheard of in the annals of the family. Charles, the prodigal son of Mayer Anselm, actually presented, in the year 1846, 10,000 ducats to the orphan asylum of St. Carlo, at Naples, and the son and heir of Charles (Gustavus) has given repeated signs of his inclination to follow in the footsteps of his father. Such conduct, utterly unbecoming of the policy of the house of Rothschild, could not be allowed to pass unnoticed, and, accordingly -- we quote the rumor of Paris journalism -- the decheance of the Neapolitan line has been pronounced. However, Baron Gustavus De Rothschild is not to retire into private life, like famous Charles V., with only a cassock on his shoulders and a prayer-book in his hand, but is allowed to take with him a small fortune of 150,000,000 francs, or about six millions sterling -- a mere crumb from the table of the descendants of poor Mayer Anselm, who wandered shoeless through the electorate of good King George III. It is certain that no romance of Royalty is equal to the romance of the house of Rothschild

    1864: Campina Grande was elevated to the status of city in Brazil.  Campina Grande is in northeast Brazil.  Based on a recent documentary many Catholics in that region follow various Jewish customs without being aware of their origin, In all likelihood, the region was originally settled by Marranos or Conversos.  Their descendants continued practicing rituals such as not eating pork, circumcising new born males, reciting special prayers on the first day of the month and a variety of customs relating to dealing with the dead without being aware of their origins. 

    1864 The General News column today reported that “In consequence of a Jewish feast occurring yesterday, there were fewer buyers at the yards, and the gentiles had the business of buying and selling to themselves, -- this gave less animation to the sale yards. It is thought that the Jews will bring in some stock to-morrow, and that there will be considerable business transacted.”

    1867: Birthdate of Abraham L. Saltzstein, who in 1884 came from his native Poland to the United States, finally settling in Milwaukee where he became a “general agent for the New Mutual Life Insurance Company of Wisconsin.”

    1872(9th of Tishrei, 5633): Erev Yom Kippur

    1874(30th of Tishrei, 5635): Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan

    1874: During today’s opening session of the Supreme Lodge of the Order of Kesher Shel Barzel, in the Bowery. J.P. Solomon of New York was chosen as Supreme Rosh. Other officers elected were, Deputy Rosh, L.H. Cohen of Ohio and Supreme Sopher, A.T. Jones of Pennsylvania.

    1876(23rd of Tishrei, 5637): Simchat Torah

    1878(14th of Tishrei, 5639): Erev of Sukkoth

    1878: A fire broke out tonight in New York City “in the temporary building erected in the yard at #67 Hester Street for the celebration of…Sukkoth.”  The fire took place during services which created panic among the worshippers all of whom escaped without injury

    1878: It was reported today that dispatches sent from Berlin by The Pall Mall Gazette (a British publication) say the European Powers are still refusing to recognize the independence of Romania until the government at Bucharest fulfills its treaty obligations granting full rights to its Jewish citizens.  The Romanian government has been using a series of legal gimmicks to avoid granting the Jews the civil rights that had been promised during negotiations in Berlin.

    1879: Citizens of Bolivar County, Mississippi, meeting at Bolivar Landing passed a resolution denouncing Edward Storm, the Republican nominee for Supervisor as “a dishonest Jew, the servile tool of the slave owner before the war and convenient and abandoned ally of the corrupt carpet-bagger” since the end of the Civil War. (This maybe a reference to Edward Storm, a native of Berlin, Germany who served in the Confederate Army from 1861 until 1865 and is buried in Greenville, MS

    1879: It was reported today that there are between six and seven million Hebrews in the world which is about the same number that were alive in the days of King David. This includes 5 million Jews in Russia, 200,000 in Asia, 80,000 in Africa and a million to a million and a half in America. Russia has the largest European Jewish population followed by Austria. There are only about 500,000 Jews living in Germany 45,000 of whom reside in Berlin.  Most of the African Jews live in Algeria and Ethiopia.  The 13,500 Jews living in Jerusalem constitute over half of that city’s total population.

    1881: In Prague, Adolf Kelsen and Auguste Löwy gave birth to jurist and philosopher and Hans Kelsen.

    1881(18th of Tishrei, 5642): Chol Ha Moed Sukkoth

    1881(18th of Tishrei, 5642: Sixteen year old Bath Hyman, a native of Prussia, passed away today in Louisiana.

    1883(10th of Tishrei, 5644): Yom Kippur

    1883: Rabbi Kaufman will deliver today’s sermon in German at Temple Beth-El in New York City.

    1884(22nd of Tishrei, 5645): Shemini Atzeret

    1884: It was reported today that the funeral of Dr. Adolphus Huebsch, the rabbi who has led Ahavet Chesed since 1866 and passed away suddenly last night will be held on the day after Simchat Torah. 1884: Birthdate of Eleanor Roosevelt.  Contrary to what the anti-Semites said, neither FDR nor his wife was Jewish.  However, Mrs. Roosevelt certainly had numerous Jewish friends.  As a champion of the downtrodden including Jews seeking to escape Hitler’s Europe and those seeking to create a Jewish homeland, she certainly enjoyed a certain kind of celebrity and popularity with Jews living during the middle of the twentieth century.

    1884: “Hebrew Charity For Children” published today presented a summary of the annual report of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society.  Since its opening in September of 1879, this New York Institution has received applications for admission from more than 600 boys and girls.  In addition to maintaining sex segregated facilities for those needing residential assistance, the society provided 7,983 free meals to “poor people and children” not living in one of these facilities.  Mrs. P.J. Joachimsen will continue to serve as President for another year.

    1884: It was reported today that two Jews named “Ritter and Strochlenski” have been found guilty and sentenced to death in Poland for having “murdered a Christian girl.”

    1885: According to reports published today, there are 100,000 people living in Bagdad, 30,000 of whom are Jews struggling “for a bare subsistence.”

    1885: It was reported today that officials had destroyed an illegal still near Newburg, NY, that was reputed to be owned by four Jews who escaped apprehension.

    1886: In St. Louis, MO, an inquest was scheduled to be held today to determine the facts concerning death of Josie Martel who was supposed to have been killed by her husband Frank Sandmeyer, a Jewish waiter who took his own life after taking hers.

    1887(23rd of Tishrei, 5648): Simchat Torah

    1888: Rabbi Kaufmann Kohler’s address at tonight’s meeting of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association was followed by musical program that was conducted by Frederick Brandies.

    1890: Novosti expresses the opinion that “the expulsion of the Jews from the districts not specifically assigned to them is one of the main causes of the present critical condition of commerce.”

    1890: A list published today of the newly elected officers of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society Orphan Asylum included: President – Mrs. Phillip J. Joachimsen; Vice President – Mrs. Teller; Treasurer –Mrs. Barnett; Secretary – Mrs. Meyer.

    1891: Unless friends or relations claim the body, “the Hebrew Charities Organization” will bury Anna HIlkofsky, the thirty-six year old epileptic who died tragically yesterday in a fire.

    1891(9th of Tishrei, 5652): Erev Yom Kippur.

    1891: “The Fast of Yom Kippur Published today described the differences in observance between the Orthodox and Reformed Jews while acknowledging that the holiday is so “popular” that “temporary places of worship have been established in a number of public halls, particularly on the east side of the city to accommodate those who are not regular members of any congregation.”

    1891: “University of Rochester” published today included a summary of a speech delivered by David Jayne Hill the school’s president to the Query Club on “Higher Education” in which he “referred to the achievements of many of the Jews” whom “he said…were among the leaders of advanced thought and in literature, art, music and other departments they had brought honor upon the race. A people without a country, they have made the world their home.”

    1892: In New York, today’s Columbus Day Parade included a group of “very little boys from the Hebrew Orphan Asylum, some of them scarcely five years old” marking behind “their tiny Drum Major;” a scene that drew “many cheers” from the onlookers.

    1892(20th of Tishrei, 5653): Chol Ha Moed Sukkoth

    1892(20th of Tishrei, 5653): Four year old Willie Lewis Kranson passed away today after which he was buried at the Jewish Cemetery in Natchitoches, LA.

    1892: One of the Columbus Day Parades had a total of 24, 620 participants, 128 of whom were from the Hebrew Orphan Asylum.

    1893(1st of Cheshvan, 5654): Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan

    1893: Robert Stone, A. Druger, Issac Schachat, Arbram Levin and Harris Baskin are the five pupils of the Bardon de Hirsh Trade School o